WorldWideScience

Sample records for amazonian forest culture

  1. Disease concepts and treatment by tribal healers of an Amazonian forest culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plotkin Mark J

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The extensive medicinal plant knowledge of Amazonian tribal peoples is widely recognized in the scientific literature and celebrated in popular lore. Despite this broad interest, the ethnomedical systems and knowledge of disease which guide indigenous utilization of botanical diversity for healing remain poorly characterized and understood. No study, to our knowledge, has attempted to directly examine patterns of actual disease recognition and treatment by healers of an Amazonian indigenous culture. Methods The establishment of traditional medicine clinics, operated and directed by elder tribal shamans in two remote Trio villages of the Suriname rainforest, presented a unique investigational opportunity. Quantitative analysis of clinic records from both villages permitted examination of diseases treated over a continuous period of four years. Cross-cultural comparative translations were articulated of recorded disease conditions through ethnographic interviews of elder Trio shamans and a comprehensive atlas of indigenous anatomical nomenclature was developed. Results 20,337 patient visits within the period 2000 to 2004 were analyzed. 75 disease conditions and 127 anatomical terms are presented. Trio concepts of disease and medical practices are broadly examined within the present and historical state of their culture. Conclusion The findings of this investigation support the presence of a comprehensive and highly formalized ethnomedical institution within Trio culture with attendant health policy and conservation implications.

  2. Hyperdominance in Amazonian forest carbon cycling

    OpenAIRE

    Fauset, Sophie; Johnson, Michelle O.; Gloor, Manuel; Baker, Timothy R.; Monteagudo M., Abel; Brienen, Roel J.W.; Feldpausch, Ted R.; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela; Malhi, Yadvinder; Ter Steege, Hans; Pitman, Nigel C. A.; Baraloto, Christopher; Engel,Julien; Petronelli, Pascal; Andrade, Ana

    2015-01-01

    While Amazonian forests are extraordinarily diverse, the abundance of trees is skewed strongly towards relatively few â € hyperdominantâ €™ species. In addition to their diversity, Amazonian trees are a key component of the global carbon cycle, assimilating and storing more carbon than any other ecosystem on Earth. Here we ask, using a unique data set of 530 forest plots, if the functions of storing and producing woody carbon are concentrated in a small number of tree species, whether the mos...

  3. Hyperdominance in Amazonian forest carbon cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauset, Sophie; Johnson, Michelle O.; Gloor, Manuel; Baker, Timothy R.; Monteagudo M., Abel; Brienen, Roel J.W.; Feldpausch, Ted R.; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela; Malhi, Yadvinder; ter Steege, Hans; Pitman, Nigel C.A.; Baraloto, Christopher; Engel, Julien; Pétronelli, Pascal; Andrade, Ana; Camargo, José Luís C.; Laurance, Susan G.W.; Laurance, William F.; Chave, Jerôme; Allie, Elodie; Vargas, Percy Núñez; Terborgh, John W.; Ruokolainen, Kalle; Silveira, Marcos; Aymard C., Gerardo A.; Arroyo, Luzmila; Bonal, Damien; Ramirez-Angulo, Hirma; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro; Neill, David; Hérault, Bruno; Dourdain, Aurélie; Torres-Lezama, Armando; Marimon, Beatriz S.; Salomão, Rafael P.; Comiskey, James A.; Réjou-Méchain, Maxime; Toledo, Marisol; Licona, Juan Carlos; Alarcón, Alfredo; Prieto, Adriana; Rudas, Agustín; van der Meer, Peter J.; Killeen, Timothy J.; Marimon Junior, Ben-Hur; Poorter, Lourens; Boot, Rene G.A.; Stergios, Basil; Torre, Emilio Vilanova; Costa, Flávia R.C.; Levis, Carolina; Schietti, Juliana; Souza, Priscila; Groot, Nikée; Arets, Eric; Moscoso, Victor Chama; Castro, Wendeson; Coronado, Euridice N. Honorio; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Stahl, Clement; Barroso, Jorcely; Talbot, Joey; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; van der Heijden, Geertje; Thomas, Raquel; Vos, Vincent A.; Almeida, Everton C.; Davila, Esteban Álvarez; Aragão, Luiz E.O.C.; Erwin, Terry L.; Morandi, Paulo S.; de Oliveira, Edmar Almeida; Valadão, Marco B.X.; Zagt, Roderick J.; van der Hout, Peter; Loayza, Patricia Alvarez; Pipoly, John J.; Wang, Ophelia; Alexiades, Miguel; Cerón, Carlos E.; Huamantupa-Chuquimaco, Isau; Di Fiore, Anthony; Peacock, Julie; Camacho, Nadir C. Pallqui; Umetsu, Ricardo K.; de Camargo, Plínio Barbosa; Burnham, Robyn J.; Herrera, Rafael; Quesada, Carlos A.; Stropp, Juliana; Vieira, Simone A.; Steininger, Marc; Rodríguez, Carlos Reynel; Restrepo, Zorayda; Muelbert, Adriane Esquivel; Lewis, Simon L.; Pickavance, Georgia C.; Phillips, Oliver L.

    2015-01-01

    While Amazonian forests are extraordinarily diverse, the abundance of trees is skewed strongly towards relatively few ‘hyperdominant' species. In addition to their diversity, Amazonian trees are a key component of the global carbon cycle, assimilating and storing more carbon than any other ecosystem on Earth. Here we ask, using a unique data set of 530 forest plots, if the functions of storing and producing woody carbon are concentrated in a small number of tree species, whether the most abundant species also dominate carbon cycling, and whether dominant species are characterized by specific functional traits. We find that dominance of forest function is even more concentrated in a few species than is dominance of tree abundance, with only ≈1% of Amazon tree species responsible for 50% of carbon storage and productivity. Although those species that contribute most to biomass and productivity are often abundant, species maximum size is also influential, while the identity and ranking of dominant species varies by function and by region. PMID:25919449

  4. Forest structure and carbon dynamics in Amazonian tropical rain forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Simone; de Camargo, Plinio Barbosa; Selhorst, Diogo; da Silva, Roseana; Hutyra, Lucy; Chambers, Jeffrey Q; Brown, I Foster; Higuchi, Niro; dos Santos, Joaquim; Wofsy, Steven C; Trumbore, Susan E; Martinelli, Luiz Antonio

    2004-08-01

    Living trees constitute one of the major stocks of carbon in tropical forests. A better understanding of variations in the dynamics and structure of tropical forests is necessary for predicting the potential for these ecosystems to lose or store carbon, and for understanding how they recover from disturbance. Amazonian tropical forests occur over a vast area that encompasses differences in topography, climate, and geologic substrate. We observed large differences in forest structure, biomass, and tree growth rates in permanent plots situated in the eastern (near Santarém, Pará), central (near Manaus, Amazonas) and southwestern (near Rio Branco, Acre) Amazon, which differed in dry season length, as well as other factors. Forests at the two sites experiencing longer dry seasons, near Rio Branco and Santarém, had lower stem frequencies (460 and 466 ha(-1) respectively), less biodiversity (Shannon-Wiener diversity index), and smaller aboveground C stocks (140.6 and 122.1 Mg C ha(-1)) than the Manaus site (626 trees ha(-1), 180.1 Mg C ha(-1)), which had less seasonal variation in rainfall. The forests experiencing longer dry seasons also stored a greater proportion of the total biomass in trees with >50 cm diameter (41-45 vs 30% in Manaus). Rates of annual addition of C to living trees calculated from monthly dendrometer band measurements were 1.9 (Manaus), 2.8 (Santarém), and 2.6 (Rio Branco) Mg C ha(-1) year(-1). At all sites, trees in the 10-30 cm diameter class accounted for the highest proportion of annual growth (38, 55 and 56% in Manaus, Rio Branco and Santarém, respectively). Growth showed marked seasonality, with largest stem diameter increment in the wet season and smallest in the dry season, though this may be confounded by seasonal variation in wood water content. Year-to-year variations in C allocated to stem growth ranged from nearly zero in Rio Branco, to 0.8 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1) in Manaus (40% of annual mean) and 0.9 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1) (33% of

  5. Environmental change and the carbon balance of Amazonian forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragão, Luiz E O C; Poulter, Benjamin; Barlow, Jos B; Anderson, Liana O; Malhi, Yadvinder; Saatchi, Sassan; Phillips, Oliver L; Gloor, Emanuel

    2014-11-01

    Extreme climatic events and land-use change are known to influence strongly the current carbon cycle of Amazonia, and have the potential to cause significant global climate impacts. This review intends to evaluate the effects of both climate and anthropogenic perturbations on the carbon balance of the Brazilian Amazon and to understand how they interact with each other. By analysing the outputs of the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) Assessment Report 4 (AR4) model ensemble, we demonstrate that Amazonian temperatures and water stress are both likely to increase over the 21st Century. Curbing deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon by 62% in 2010 relative to the 1990s mean decreased the Brazilian Amazon's deforestation contribution to global land use carbon emissions from 17% in the 1990s and early 2000s to 9% by 2010. Carbon sources in Amazonia are likely to be dominated by climatic impacts allied with forest fires (48.3% relative contribution) during extreme droughts. The current net carbon sink (net biome productivity, NBP) of +0.16 (ranging from +0.11 to +0.21) Pg C year(-1) in the Brazilian Amazon, equivalent to 13.3% of global carbon emissions from land-use change for 2008, can be negated or reversed during drought years [NBP = -0.06 (-0.31 to +0.01) Pg C year(-1) ]. Therefore, reducing forest fires, in addition to reducing deforestation, would be an important measure for minimizing future emissions. Conversely, doubling the current area of secondary forests and avoiding additional removal of primary forests would help the Amazonian gross forest sink to offset approximately 42% of global land-use change emissions. We conclude that a few strategic environmental policy measures are likely to strengthen the Amazonian net carbon sink with global implications. Moreover, these actions could increase the resilience of the net carbon sink to future increases in drought frequency. PMID:25324039

  6. Fish complementarity is associated to forests in Amazonian streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Rodrigues Bordignon

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The functional structure of communities is commonly measured by the variability in functional traits, which may demonstrate complementarity or redundancy patterns. In this study, we tested the influence of environmental variables on the functional structure of fish assemblages in Amazonian streams within a deforestation gradient. We calculated six ecomorphological traits related to habitat use from each fish species, and used them to calculate the net relatedness index (NRI and the nearest taxon index (NTI. The set of species that used the habitat differently (complementary or overdispersed assemblages occurred in sites with a greater proportion of forests. The set of species that used the habitat in a similar way (redundant or clustered assemblages occurred in sites with a greater proportion of grasses in the stream banks. Therefore, the deforestation of entire watersheds, which has occurred in many Amazonian regions, may be a central factor for the functional homogenization of fish fauna.

  7. Model gives a 3-month warning of Amazonian forest fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2011-08-01

    The widespread drought suffered by the Amazon rain forest in the summer of 2005 was heralded at the time as the drought of the century. Because of the dehydrated conditions, supplemented by slash and burn agricultural practices, the drought led to widespread forest fires throughout the western Amazon, a portion of the rain forest usually too lush to support spreading wildfires. Only 5 years later, the 2005 season was outdone by even more widespread drought, with fires decimating more than 3000 square kilometers of western Amazonian rain forest. Blame for the wildfires has been consistently laid on deforestation and agricultural practices, but a convincing climatological explanation exists as well. (Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2011GL047392, 2011)

  8. Fire-mediated dieback and compositional cascade in an Amazonian forest

    OpenAIRE

    Barlow, Jos; Peres, Carlos A.

    2008-01-01

    The only fully coupled land–atmosphere global climate model predicts a widespread dieback of Amazonian forest cover through reduced precipitation. Although these predictions are controversial, the structural and compositional resilience of Amazonian forests may also have been overestimated, as current vegetation models fail to consider the potential role of fire in the degradation of forest ecosystems. We examine forest structure and composition in the Arapiuns River basin in the central Braz...

  9. Dynamics of carbon, biomass, and structure in two Amazonian forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, Elizabeth Hammond; Santoni, Gregory W.; Nascimento, Henrique E. M.; Hutyra, Lucy R.; Vieira, Simone; Curran, Daniel J.; van Haren, Joost; Saleska, Scott R.; Chow, V. Y.; Carmago, Plinio B.; Laurance, William F.; Wofsy, Steven C.

    2008-11-01

    Amazon forests are potentially globally significant sources or sinks for atmospheric carbon dioxide. In this study, we characterize the spatial trends in carbon storage and fluxes in both live and dead biomass (necromass) in two Amazonian forests, the Biological Dynamic of Forest Fragments Project (BDFFP), near Manaus, Amazonas, and the Tapajós National Forest (TNF) near Santarém, Pará. We assessed coarse woody debris (CWD) stocks, tree growth, mortality, and recruitment in ground-based plots distributed across the terra firme forest at both sites. Carbon dynamics were similar within each site, but differed significantly between the sites. The BDFFP and the TNF held comparable live biomass (167 +/- 7.6 MgC.ha-1 versus 149 +/- 6.0 MgC.ha-1, respectively), but stocks of CWD were 2.5 times larger at TNF (16.2 +/- 1.5 MgC.ha-1 at BDFFP, versus 40.1 +/- 3.9 MgC.ha-1 at TNF). A model of current forest dynamics suggests that the BDFFP was close to carbon balance, and its size class structure approximated a steady state. The TNF, by contrast, showed rapid carbon accrual to live biomass (3.24 +/- 0.22 MgC.ha-1.a-1 in TNF, 2.59 +/- 0.16 MgC.ha-1.a-1 in BDFFP), which was more than offset by losses from large stocks of CWD, as well as ongoing shifts of biomass among size classes. This pattern in the TNF suggests recovery from a significant disturbance. The net loss of carbon from the TNF will likely last 10-15 years after the initial disturbance (controlled by the rate of decay of coarse woody debris), followed by uptake of carbon as the forest size class structure and composition continue to shift. The frequency and longevity of forests showing such disequilibruim dynamics within the larger matrix of the Amazon remains an essential question to understanding Amazonian carbon balance.

  10. Geological control of floristic composition in Amazonian forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Mark A; Ruokolainen, Kalle; Tuomisto, Hanna; Llerena, Nelly; Cardenas, Glenda; Phillips, Oliver L; Vásquez, Rodolfo; Räsänen, Matti

    2011-01-01

    Aim Conservation and land-use planning require accurate maps of patterns in species composition and an understanding of the factors that control them. Substantial doubt exists, however, about the existence and determinants of large-area floristic divisions in Amazonia. Here we ask whether Amazonian forests are partitioned into broad-scale floristic units on the basis of geological formations and their edaphic properties. Location Western and central Amazonia. Methods We used Landsat imagery and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation data to identify a possible floristic and geological discontinuity of over 300 km in northern Peru. We then used plant inventories and soil sampling to document changes in species composition and soil properties across this boundary. Data were obtained from 138 sites distributed along more than 450 km of road and river. On the basis of our findings, we used broad-scale Landsat and SRTM mosaics to identify similar patterns across western and central Amazonia. Results The discontinuity identified in Landsat and SRTM data corresponded to a 15-fold change in soil cation concentrations and an almost total change in plant species composition. This discontinuity appears to be caused by the widespread removal of cation-poor surface sediments by river incision to expose cation-rich sediments beneath. Examination of broad-scale Landsat and SRTM mosaics indicated that equivalent processes have generated a north–south discontinuity of over 1500 km in western Brazil. Due to similarities with our study area, we suggest that this discontinuity represents a chemical and ecological limit between western and central Amazonia. Main conclusions Our findings suggest that Amazonian forests are partitioned into large-area units on the basis of geological formations and their edaphic properties. The evolution of these units through geological time may provide a general mechanism for biotic diversification in Amazonia. These compositional

  11. Diversity and physiological characterization of D-xylose-fermenting yeasts isolated from the Brazilian Amazonian Forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel M Cadete

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study is the first to investigate the Brazilian Amazonian Forest to identify new D-xylose-fermenting yeasts that might potentially be used in the production of ethanol from sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysates. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 224 yeast strains were isolated from rotting wood samples collected in two Amazonian forest reserve sites. These samples were cultured in yeast nitrogen base (YNB-D-xylose or YNB-xylan media. Candida tropicalis, Asterotremella humicola, Candida boidinii and Debaryomyces hansenii were the most frequently isolated yeasts. Among D-xylose-fermenting yeasts, six strains of Spathaspora passalidarum, two of Scheffersomyces stipitis, and representatives of five new species were identified. The new species included Candida amazonensis of the Scheffersomyces clade and Spathaspora sp. 1, Spathaspora sp. 2, Spathaspora sp. 3, and Candida sp. 1 of the Spathaspora clade. In fermentation assays using D-xylose (50 g/L culture medium, S. passalidarum strains showed the highest ethanol yields (0.31 g/g to 0.37 g/g and productivities (0.62 g/L · h to 0.75 g/L · h. Candida amazonensis exhibited a virtually complete D-xylose consumption and the highest xylitol yields (0.55 g/g to 0.59 g/g, with concentrations up to 25.2 g/L. The new Spathaspora species produced ethanol and/or xylitol in different concentrations as the main fermentation products. In sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic fermentation assays, S. stipitis UFMG-XMD-15.2 generated the highest ethanol yield (0.34 g/g and productivity (0.2 g/L · h, while the new species Spathaspora sp. 1 UFMG-XMD-16.2 and Spathaspora sp. 2 UFMG-XMD-23.2 were very good xylitol producers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrates the promise of using new D-xylose-fermenting yeast strains from the Brazilian Amazonian Forest for ethanol or xylitol production from sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysates.

  12. Changes in Amazonian forest biomass, dynamics, and composition, 1980-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Oliver L.; Higuchi, Niro; Vieira, Simone; Baker, Timothy R.; Chao, Kuo-Jung; Lewis, Simon L.

    Long-term, on-the-ground monitoring of forest plots distributed across Amazonia provides a powerful means to quantify stocks and fluxes of biomass and biodiversity. Here we examine the evidence for concerted changes in the structure, dynamics, and functional composition of old-growth Amazonian forests over recent decades. Mature forests have, as a whole, gained biomass and undergone accelerated growth and dynamics, but questions remain as to the long-term persistence of these changes. Because forest growth on average exceeds mortality, intact Amazonian forests have been functioning as a carbon sink. We estimate a net biomass increase in trees ≥10 cm diameter of 0.62 ± 0.23 t C ha-1 a-1 through the late twentieth century. If representative of the wider forest landscape, this translates into a sink in South American old-growth forest of at least 0.49 ± 0.18 Pg C a-1. If other biomass and necromass components also increased proportionally, the estimated South American old-growth forest sink is 0.79 ± 0.29 Pg C a-1, before allowing for possible gains in soil carbon. If tropical forests elsewhere are behaving similarly, the old-growth biomass forest sink would be 1.60 ± 0.58 Pg C a-1. This bottom-up estimate of the carbon balance of tropical forests is preliminary, pending syntheses of detailed biometric studies across the other tropical continents. There is also some evidence for recent changes in the functional composition (biodiversity) of Amazonian forest, but the evidence is less comprehensive than that for changes in structure and dynamics. The most likely driver(s) of changes are recent increases in the supply of resources such as atmospheric carbon dioxide, which would increase net primary productivity, increasing tree growth and recruitment, and, in turn, mortality. In the future the growth response of remaining undisturbed Amazonian forests is likely to saturate, and there is a risk of these ecosystems transitioning from sink to source driven by higher

  13. Evidence for strong seasonality in the carbon storage and carbon use efficiency of an Amazonian forest

    OpenAIRE

    Rowland, Lucy; Hill, Timothy Charles; Stahl, Clement; Siebicke, Lukas; Burban, Benoît; Zaragoza-Castells, Joana; Ponton, Stéphane; Bonal, Damien; Meir, Patrick; Williams, Mathew

    2014-01-01

    The relative contribution of gross primary production and ecosystem respiration to seasonal changes in the net carbon flux of tropical forests remains poorly quantified by both modelling and field studies. We use data assimilation to combine nine ecological time series from an eastern Amazonian forest, with mass balance constraints from an ecosystem carbon cycle model. The resulting analysis quantifies, with uncertainty estimates, the seasonal changes in the net carbon flux of a tropical rain...

  14. Legacies of Amazonian dark earths on forest composition, structure and dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Quintero Vallejo, E.M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Amazonian forest is seen as the archetype of pristine forests, untouched by humans, but this romantic view is far from reality. In recent years, there is increasing evidence of long and extensive landscape modification by humans. Processes of permanent inhabitation, expansion and retreat of human populations have not always been obvious in those ecosystems, leaving sometimes weak and overlooked imprints in the landscape. An example of one of these inconspicuous alterations are the mod...

  15. Scalar turbulent behavior in the roughness sublayer of an Amazonian forest

    OpenAIRE

    Zahn, Einara; Dias, Nelson L.; Araújo, Alessandro; Sá, Leonardo; Söergel, Matthias; Trebs, Ivonne; Wolff, Stefan; Manzi, Antônio

    2016-01-01

    An important current problem in micrometeorology is the characterization of turbulence in the roughness sublayer (RSL), where most of the measurements above tall forests are made. There, scalar turbulent fluctuations display significant departures from the predictions of Monin–Obukhov similarity theory (MOST). In this work, we analyze turbulence data of virtual temperature, carbon dioxide and water vapor in the RSL above an Amazonian Forest (with a canopy height of 40 m), measured at 39.4 ...

  16. Do soil fertilization and forest canopy foliage affect the growth and photosynthesis of Amazonian saplings?

    OpenAIRE

    Nilvanda dos Santos Magalhães; Ricardo Antonio Marenco; Miguel Angelo Branco Camargo

    2014-01-01

    Most Amazonian soils are highly weathered and poor in nutrients. Therefore, photosynthesis and plant growth should positively respond to the addition of mineral nutrients. Surprisingly, no study has been carried out in situ in the central Amazon to address this issue for juvenile trees. The objective of this study was to determine how photosynthetic rates and growth of tree saplings respond to the addition of mineral nutrients, to the variation in leaf area index of the forest canopy, and to ...

  17. Fire-mediated dieback and compositional cascade in an Amazonian forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Jos; Peres, Carlos A

    2008-05-27

    The only fully coupled land-atmosphere global climate model predicts a widespread dieback of Amazonian forest cover through reduced precipitation. Although these predictions are controversial, the structural and compositional resilience of Amazonian forests may also have been overestimated, as current vegetation models fail to consider the potential role of fire in the degradation of forest ecosystems. We examine forest structure and composition in the Arapiuns River basin in the central Brazilian Amazon, evaluating post-fire forest recovery and the consequences of recurrent fires for the patterns of dominance of tree species. We surveyed tree plots in unburned and once-burned forests examined 1, 3 and 9 years after an unprecedented fire event, in twice-burned forests examined 3 and 9 years after fire and in thrice-burned forests examined 5 years after the most recent fire event. The number of trees recorded in unburned primary forest control plots was stable over time. However, in both once- and twice-burned forest plots, there was a marked recruitment into the 10-20cm diameter at breast height tree size classes between 3 and 9 years post-fire. Considering tree assemblage composition 9 years after the first fire contact, we observed (i) a clear pattern of community turnover among small trees and the most abundant shrubs and saplings, and (ii) that species that were common in any of the four burn treatments (unburned, once-, twice- and thrice-burned) were often rare or entirely absent in other burn treatments. We conclude that episodic wildfires can lead to drastic changes in forest structure and composition, with cascading shifts in forest composition following each additional fire event. Finally, we use these results to evaluate the validity of the savannization paradigm. PMID:18267911

  18. Modeling Forest Understory Fires in an Eastern Amazonian Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, A. A. C.; Solorzano, L. A.; Nepstad, D. C.

    2004-01-01

    Forest understory fires are an increasingly important cause of forest impoverishment in Ammonia, but little is known of the landscape characteristics and climatic phenomena that determine their occurrence. We developed empirical functions relating the occurrence of understory fires to landscape features near Paragominas, a 35- yr-old ranching and logging center in eastern Ammonia. An historical sequence of maps of forest understory fire was created based on field interviews With local farmers and Landsat TM images. Several landscape features that might explain spatial variations in the occurrence of understory fires were also mapped and co-registered for each of the sample dates, including: forest fragment size and shape, forest impoverishment through logging and understory fires, source of ignition (settlements and charcoal pits), roads, forest edges, and others. The spatial relationship between forest understory fire and each landscape characteristic was tested by regression analyses. Fire probability models were then developed for various combinations of landscape characteristics. The analyses were conducted separately for years of the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), which are associated with severe drought in eastern Amazonia, and non-ENS0 years. Most (91 %) of the forest area that burned during the 10-yr sequence caught fire during ENSO years, when severe drought may have increased both forest flammability and the escape of agricultural management fires. Forest understory fires were associated with forest edges, as reported in previous studies from Ammonia. But the strongest predictor of forest fire was the percentage of the forest fragment that had been previously logged or burned. Forest fragment size, distance to charcoal pits, distance to agricultural settlement, proximity to forest edge, and distance to roads were also correlated with forest understory fire. Logistic regression models using information on fragment degradation and distance to ignition

  19. Above- and below-ground net primary productivity across ten Amazonian forests on contrasting soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragão, L. E. O. C.; Malhi, Y.; Metcalfe, D. B.; Silva-Espejo, J. E.; Jiménez, E.; Navarrete, D.; Almeida, S.; Costa, A. C. L.; Salinas, N.; Phillips, O. L.; Anderson, L. O.; Alvarez, E.; Baker, T. R.; Goncalvez, P. H.; Huamán-Ovalle, J.; Mamani-Solórzano, M.; Meir, P.; Monteagudo, A.; Patiño, S.; Peñuela, M. C.; Prieto, A.; Quesada, C. A.; Rozas-Dávila, A.; Rudas, A.; Silva, J. A., Jr.; Vásquez, R.

    2009-12-01

    The net primary productivity (NPP) of tropical forests is one of the most important and least quantified components of the global carbon cycle. Most relevant studies have focused particularly on the quantification of the above-ground coarse wood productivity, and little is known about the carbon fluxes involved in other elements of the NPP, the partitioning of total NPP between its above- and below-ground components and the main environmental drivers of these patterns. In this study we quantify the above- and below-ground NPP of ten Amazonian forests to address two questions: (1) How do Amazonian forests allocate productivity among its above- and below-ground components? (2) How do soil and leaf nutrient status and soil texture affect the productivity of Amazonian forests? Using a standardized methodology to measure the major elements of productivity, we show that NPP varies between 9.3±1.3 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 (mean±standard error), at a white sand plot, and 17.0±1.4 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 at a very fertile Terra Preta site, with an overall average of 12.8±0.9 Mg C ha-1 yr-1. The studied forests allocate on average 64±3% and 36±3% of the total NPP to the above- and below-ground components, respectively. The ratio of above-ground and below-ground NPP is almost invariant with total NPP. Litterfall and fine root production both increase with total NPP, while stem production shows no overall trend. Total NPP tends to increase with soil phosphorus and leaf nitrogen status. However, allocation of NPP to below-ground shows no relationship to soil fertility, but appears to decrease with the increase of soil clay content.

  20. Spatial and temporal changes in bird assemblages in forest fragments in an eastern Amazonian savannah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintra, Renato; Magnusson, William E; Albernaz, Ana

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the effects of forest fragmentation on bird assemblages in an Amazonian savannah landscape with forest fragments that have been isolated for more than 100 years. The study was conducted in areas surrounding the village of Alter do Chão (2°31'S, 55°00'W), Santarém, Brazil. Bird surveys and measurements of tree density were undertaken in 25 areas, with 19 plots in forest fragments of different sizes and six in an area of continuous forest. Data on forest-fragment size, perimeter, and isolation were obtained from a georeferenced satellite image. Variation in number of bird species recorded per plot was not related to vegetation structure (tree density). The number of bird species recorded per plot increased significantly only with fragment area, but was not influenced by fragment shape or degree of isolation, even when considering species from the savannah matrix in the analysis. Fragments had fewer rare species. Multivariate ordination analyses (multiple dimensional scaling, [MDS]) indicated that bird species composition changed along a gradient from small to large forest fragments and continuous-forest areas. In the Amazonian savannah landscapes of Alter do Chão, the organization and composition of bird assemblages in forest fragments are affected by local long-term forest-fragmentation processes. Differences in the number of bird species recorded per plot and assemblage composition between forest fragments and continuous forest were not influenced by forest structure, suggesting that the observed patterns in species composition result from the effects of fragmentation per se rather than from preexisting differences in vegetation structure between sites. Nevertheless, despite their long history of isolation, the forest fragments still preserve a large proportion (on average 80%) of the avifauna found in continuous-forest areas. The fragments at Alter do Chão are surrounded by natural (rather than planted) grassland, with many trees in the

  1. Soil charcoal as long-term pyrogenic carbon storage in Amazonian seasonal forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcios, Maryory M; Jaramillo, Margarita M A; do Vale, José F; Fearnside, Philip M; Barbosa, Reinaldo Imbrozio

    2016-01-01

    Forest fires (paleo + modern) have caused charcoal particles to accumulate in the soil vertical profile in Amazonia. This forest compartment is a long-term carbon reservoir with an important role in global carbon balance. Estimates of stocks remain uncertain in forests that have not been altered by deforestation but that have been impacted by understory fires and selective logging. We estimated the stock of pyrogenic carbon derived from charcoal accumulated in the soil profile of seasonal forest fragments impacted by fire and selective logging in the northern portion of Brazilian Amazonia. Sixty-nine soil cores to 1-m depth were collected in 12 forest fragments of different sizes. Charcoal stocks averaged 3.45 ± 2.17 Mg ha(-1) (2.24 ± 1.41 Mg C ha(-1) ). Pyrogenic carbon was not directly related to the size of the forest fragments. This carbon is equivalent to 1.40% (0.25% to 4.04%) of the carbon stocked in aboveground live tree biomass in these fragments. The vertical distribution of pyrogenic carbon indicates an exponential model, where the 0-30 cm depth range has 60% of the total stored. The total area of Brazil's Amazonian seasonal forests and ecotones not altered by deforestation implies 65-286 Tg of pyrogenic carbon accumulated along the soil vertical profile. This is 1.2-2.3 times the total amount of residual pyrogenic carbon formed by biomass burning worldwide in 1 year. Our analysis suggests that the accumulated charcoal in the soil vertical profile in Amazonian forests is a substantial pyrogenic carbon pool that needs to be considered in global carbon models. PMID:26207816

  2. Arthropod responses to the experimental isolation of Amazonian forest fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heraldo L. Vasconcelos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Arthropods are the most diverse and abundant group of animals found in tropical lowland forests, and in light of ongoing global change phenomena, it is essential to better understand their responses to anthropogenic disturbances. Here we present a review of arthropod responses to forest deforestation and fragmentation based on studies conducted at the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project (BDFFP, located in central Amazonia. These studies involved a wide range of arthropod groups. All but one of the studies evaluated changes in total species number or species density in relation to fragment size, (i.e. area effects, and one-third also evaluated edge effects. Our review indicates that almost every arthropod group studied showed some kind of response to reduction in forest area, including altered abundances, species richness or composition in comparisons of different-sized fragments, fragmented and non-fragmented areas, or comparisons of forest edges and forest interiors. These responses tended to be idiosyncratic, with some groups showing predicted declines in abundance or diversity in the fragments while others show no response or even increases. However, some of the observed effects on arthropods, or on the ecological processes in which they are involved, were transient. The most likely explanation for this was the rapid development of secondary growth around fragments, which greatly increased the connectivity between fragments and the remaining forest. Although the BDFFP has provided many insights regarding the effects of forest fragmentation on arthropod assemblages, many diverse groups, such as canopy arthropods, have received scant attention. For those that have been studied, much remains to be learned regarding the long-term dynamics of these assemblages and how landscape context influences local biodiversity. The BDFFP remains an exceptional site in which to investigate how the ecological interactions in which arthropods are

  3. Idiosyncratic responses of Amazonian birds to primary forest disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Nárgila G; Lees, Alexander C; Aleixo, Alexandre; Barlow, Jos; Berenguer, Erika; Ferreira, Joice; Mac Nally, Ralph; Thomson, James R; Gardner, Toby A

    2016-03-01

    As humans continue to alter tropical landscapes across the world, it is important to understand what environmental factors help determine the persistence of biodiversity in modified ecosystems. Studies on well-known taxonomic groups can offer critical insights as to the fate of biodiversity in these modified systems. Here we investigated species-specific responses of 44 forest-associated bird species with different behavioural traits to forest disturbance in 171 transects distributed across 31 landscapes in two regions of the eastern Brazilian Amazon. We investigated patterns of species occurrence in primary forests varyingly disturbed by selective-logging and fire and examined the relative importance of local, landscape and historical environmental variables in determining species occurrences. Within undisturbed and disturbed primary forest transects, we found that distance to forest edge and the biomass of large trees were the most important predictors driving the occurrence of individual species. However, we also found considerable variation in species responses to different environmental variables as well as inter-regional variation in the responses of the same species to the same environmental variables. We advocate the utility of using species-level analyses to complement community-wide responses in order to uncover highly variable and species-specific responses to environmental change that remain so poorly understood. PMID:26566810

  4. Do soil fertilization and forest canopy foliage affect the growth and photosynthesis of Amazonian saplings?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilvanda dos Santos Magalhães

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Most Amazonian soils are highly weathered and poor in nutrients. Therefore, photosynthesis and plant growth should positively respond to the addition of mineral nutrients. Surprisingly, no study has been carried out in situ in the central Amazon to address this issue for juvenile trees. The objective of this study was to determine how photosynthetic rates and growth of tree saplings respond to the addition of mineral nutrients, to the variation in leaf area index of the forest canopy, and to changes in soil water content associated with rainfall seasonality. We assessed the effect of adding a slow-release fertilizer. We determined plant growth from 2010 to 2012 and gas exchange in the wet and dry season of 2012. Rainfall seasonality led to variations in soil water content, but it did not affect sapling growth or leaf gas exchange parameters. Although soil amendment increased phosphorus content by 60 %, neither plant growth nor the photosynthetic parameters were influenced by the addition of mineral nutrients. However, photosynthetic rates and growth of saplings decreased as the forest canopy became denser. Even when Amazonian soils are poor in nutrients, photosynthesis and sapling growth are more responsive to slight variations in light availability in the forest understory than to the availability of nutrients. Therefore, the response of saplings to future increases in atmospheric [CO2] will not be limited by the availability of mineral nutrients in the soil.

  5. Contrasting Colonist and Indigenous Impacts on Amazonian Forests

    OpenAIRE

    LU, FLORA; Gray, Clark; Bilsborrow, Richard E.; Mena, Carlos F.; ERLIEN, CHRISTINE M.; BREMNER, JASON; BARBIERI, ALISSON; Walsh, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    To examine differences in land use and environmental impacts between colonist and indigenous populations in the northern Ecuadorian Amazon, we combined data from household surveys and remotely sensed imagery that was collected from 778 colonist households in 64 colonization sectors, and 499 households from five indigenous groups in 36 communities. Overall, measures of deforestation and forest fragmentation were significantly greater for colonists than indigenous peoples. On average, colonist ...

  6. Understanding the radar backscattering from flooded and nonflooded Amazonian forests: results from canopy backscatter modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To understand the potential of using multiwavelength imaging radars to detect flooding in Amazonian floodplain forests, we simulated the radar backscatter from a floodplain forest with a flooded or nonflooded ground condition at C-, L-, and P-bands. Field measurements of forest structure in the Anavilhanas archipelago of the Negro River, Brazil, were used as inputs to the model. Given the same wavelength or incidence angle, the ratio of backscatter from the flooded forest to that from the nonflooded forest was higher at HH polarization than at VV polarization. Given the same wavelength or polarization, the ratio was larger at small incidence angles than at large incidence angles. Given the same polarization or incidence angle, the ratio was larger at a long wavelength than at a short wavelength. As the surface soil moisture underneath the nonflooded forest increased from 10% to 50% of volumetric moisture, the flooded/nonflooded backscatter ratio decreased; the decreases were small at C- and L-band but large at P-band. When the leaf size was comparable to or larger than the wavelength of C-band, the leaf area index (LAI) had a large effect on the simulated C-band (not L-band or P-band) backscatter from the flooded and nonflooded forests. (author)

  7. Contrasting colonist and indigenous impacts on amazonian forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Flora; Gray, Clark; Bilsborrow, Richard E; Mena, Carlos F; Erlien, Christine M; Bremner, Jason; Barbieri, Alisson; Walsh, Stephen J

    2010-06-01

    To examine differences in land use and environmental impacts between colonist and indigenous populations in the northern Ecuadorian Amazon, we combined data from household surveys and remotely sensed imagery that was collected from 778 colonist households in 64 colonization sectors, and 499 households from five indigenous groups in 36 communities. Overall, measures of deforestation and forest fragmentation were significantly greater for colonists than indigenous peoples. On average, colonist households had approximately double the area in agriculture and cash crops and 5.5 times the area in pasture as indigenous households. Nevertheless, substantial variation in land-use patterns existed among the five indigenous groups in measures such as cattle ownership and use of hired agricultural labor. These findings support the potential conservation value of indigenous lands while cautioning against uniform policies that homogenize indigenous ethnic groups. PMID:20337669

  8. Pipes's distribution by helicopter in Amazonian forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Gilberto R.; Machado, Otto L.M.; Gomes, Antonio E. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    The innumerable logistical problems encountered during the implementation of the gas pipeline Urucu - Coari - Manaus, located in the Amazon forest, connecting the Base Operations Geologist Pedro de Moura in Urucu to the refinery Isaac Sabba - Reman, in the city of Manaus, contributed considerably for PETROBRAS to seek non conventional solutions in the construction and assembly of pipelines in our country. Among these solutions, there is the technique of distributing pipes through cargo helicopters. The need for the usage of this technique, innovative in Brazil, comes from the lack and/or insufficiency of land access from Solimoes River to the gas pipeline main route, and the large quantities of flooded areas and/or flood plain, and also the type of soil, that together with the high index of rainfall in the region, makes the soil fully inappropriate to the traffic of heavy equipment. (author)

  9. Rates of species loss from Amazonian forest fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Goncalo; Russell, Gareth J; Stouffer, Philip C; Bierregaard, Richard O; Pimm, Stuart L; Lovejoy, Thomas E

    2003-11-25

    In the face of worldwide habitat fragmentation, managers need to devise a time frame for action. We ask how fast do understory bird species disappear from experimentally isolated plots in the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project, central Amazon, Brazil. Our data consist of mist-net records obtained over a period of 13 years in 11 sites of 1, 10, and 100 hectares. The numbers of captures per species per unit time, analyzed under different simplifying assumptions, reveal a set of species-loss curves. From those declining numbers, we derive a scaling rule for the time it takes to lose half the species in a fragment as a function of its area. A 10-fold decrease in the rate of species loss requires a 1,000-fold increase in area. Fragments of 100 hectares lose one half of their species in <15 years, too short a time for implementing conservation measures. PMID:14614134

  10. Vertical stratification of bat assemblages in flooded and unflooded Amazonian forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria João Ramos PEREIRA, João Tiago MARQUES, Jorge M. PALMEIRIM

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Tropical rainforests usually have multiple strata that results in a vertical stratification of ecological opportunities for animals. We investigated if this stratification influences the way bats use the vertical space in flooded and unflooded forests of the Central Amazon. Using mist-nets set in the canopy (17 to 35 m high and in the understorey (0 to 3 m high we sampled four sites in upland unflooded forests (terra firme, three in forests seasonally flooded by nutrient-rich water (várzea, and three in forests seasonally flooded by nutrient-poor water (igapó. Using rarefaction curves we found that species richness in the understorey and canopy were very similar. An ordination analysis clearly separated the bat assemblages of the canopy from those of the understorey in both flooded and unflooded habitats. Gleaning carnivores were clearly associated with the understorey, whereas frugivores were abundant in both strata. Of the frugivores, Carollinae and some Stenodermatinae were understorey specialists, but several Stenodermatinae mostly used the canopy. The first group mainly includes species that, in general, feed on fruits of understorey shrubs, whereas the second group feed on figs and other canopy fruits. We conclude that vertical stratification in bat communities occurs even within forests with lower canopy heights, such as Amazonian seasonally flooded forests, and that the vertical distribution of bat species is closely related to their diet and foraging behaviour [Current Zoology 56 (4: 469–478, 2010].

  11. Above- and below-ground net primary productivity across ten Amazonian forests on contrasting soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. O. C. Aragão

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The net primary productivity (NPP of tropical forests is one of the most important and least quantified components of the global carbon cycle. Most relevant studies have focused particularly on the quantification of the above-ground coarse wood productivity, and little is known about the carbon fluxes involved in other elements of the NPP, the partitioning of total NPP between its above- and below-ground components and the main environmental drivers of these patterns. In this study we quantify the above- and below-ground NPP of ten Amazonian forests to address two questions: (1 How do Amazonian forests allocate productivity among its above- and below-ground components? (2 How do soil and leaf nutrient status and soil texture affect the productivity of Amazonian forests? Using a standardized methodology to measure the major elements of productivity, we show that NPP varies between 9.3±1.3 Mg C ha−1 yr−1 (mean±standard error, at a white sand plot, and 17.0±1.4 Mg C ha−1 yr−1 at a very fertile Terra Preta site, with an overall average of 12.8±0.9 Mg C ha−1 yr−1. The studied forests allocate on average 64±3% and 36±3% of the total NPP to the above- and below-ground components, respectively. The ratio of above-ground and below-ground NPP is almost invariant with total NPP. Litterfall and fine root production both increase with total NPP, while stem production shows no overall trend. Total NPP tends to increase with soil phosphorus and leaf nitrogen status. However, allocation of NPP to below-ground shows no relationship to soil fertility, but appears to decrease with the increase of soil clay content.

  12. Above- and below-ground net primary productivity across ten Amazonian forests on contrasting soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. O. C. Aragão

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The net primary productivity (NPP of tropical forests is one of the most important and least quantified components of the global carbon cycle. Most relevant studies have focused particularly on the quantification of the above-ground coarse wood productivity, and little is known about the carbon fluxes involved in other elements of the NPP, the partitioning of total NPP between its above- and below-ground components and the main environmental drivers of these patterns. In this study we quantify the above- and below-ground NPP of ten Amazonian forests to address two questions: (1 How do Amazonian forests allocate productivity among its above- and below-ground components? (2 How do soil and leaf nutrient status and soil texture affect the productivity of Amazonian forests? Using a standardized methodology to measure the major elements of productivity, we show that NPP varies between 9.3±1.3 Mg C ha−1 yr−1 (mean±standard error, at a white sand plot, and 17.0±1.4 Mg C ha−1 yr−1 at a very fertile Terra Preta site, with an overall average of 12.8±0.9 Mg C ha−1 yr−1. The studied forests allocate on average 64±3% and 36±3% of the total NPP to the above- and below-ground components, respectively. The ratio of above-ground and below-ground NPP is almost invariant with total NPP. Litterfall and fine root production both increase with total NPP, while stem production shows no overall trend. Total NPP tends to increase with soil phosphorus and leaf nitrogen status. However, allocation of NPP to below-ground shows no relationship to soil fertility, but appears to decrease with the increase of soil clay content.

  13. Forest response to increased disturbance in the Central Amazon and comparison to Western Amazonian forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Holm

    2014-05-01

    Amazonian regions. This suggests that: (1 the variability between regions cannot be entirely explained by the variability in disturbance regime, but rather potentially sensitive to intrinsic environmental factors; or (2 the models are not accurately simulating all forest characteristics in response to increased disturbances. Last, to help quantify the impacts of increased disturbances on climate and the earth system, we evaluated the fidelity of tree mortality and disturbance in a global land surface model: CLM. For a 100% increase in annual mortality rate, both ZELIG-TROP and CLM were in close agreement with each other and predicted a net carbon loss of 41.9 and 49.9%, respectively, with an insignificant effect on aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP. Likewise, a 20% increase in mortality every 50 years (i.e. periodic disturbance treatment resulted in a reciprocal biomass loss of 18.3 and 18.7% in ZELIG-TROP and CLM, respectively.

  14. Observations of climate, albedo, and surface radiation over cleared and undisturbed Amazonian forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements from the first comparative study of climate over Amazonian tropical forest and an embedded deforested clearing are presented. Observations comprise a continuous 60-day run of data from mid-October to mid-December 1990, covering the end of the dry season and the beginning of the wet season. Mean hourly observations are calculated for the whole period; and for two 10-day periods, one in the dry season and one at the start of the wet season. Much greater variation in weather variables was observed at the clearing compared with over the forest. While the mean values of temperature and specific humidity deficit differed by less than 1°C and 1 g kg−1 respectively, their daily ranges at the clearing were twice those at the forest. Mean daily albedo of the forest was 13.1 per cent, agreeing well with other tropical forest measurements, and of the clearing was 16.3 per cent, somewhat lower than the values currently being used in GCMs. The surface energy balance was investigated and mean available energy calculated for each site. The significant difference in the daily pattern of net radiation between the sites was found to be at least as much due to differences in the longwave radiation balance as to differences in albedo. The diurnal pattern of net radiation therefore changed between dry and wet periods as the higher plant water stress experienced by clearing vegetation altered the daily temperature cycle

  15. PLOT SIZE AND APPROPRIATE SAMPLE SIZE TO STUDY NATURAL REGENERATION IN AMAZONIAN FLOODPLAIN FOREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ricardo Vasconcellos Gama

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the optimum plot size as well as the appropriate sample size in order to provide an accurate sampling of natural regeneration surveys in high floodplain forests, low floodplain forests and in floodplain forests without stratification in the Amazonian estuary. Data were obtained at Exportadora de Madeira do Pará Ltda. – EMAPA forestlands, located in Afuá County, State of Pará. Based on the results, the following plot sizes were recommended: 70m2 - SC1 (0,3m ≤ h < 1,5m, 80m2 - SC2 (h ≥ 1,50m to DAP < 5,0cm, 90m2 - SC3 (5,0cm ≤ DAP < 15,0 cm and 70m2 – ASP (h ≥ 0,3m to DAP < 15,0cm. Considering these optimumplot sizes, it is possible to obtain a representative sampling of the floristic composition when using 19sub-plots in high floodplain, 14 sub-plots in low floodplain, and 19 sub-plots in the forest without stratification to survey the species of SC1 and the species of all sampled population (ASP, while 39 sub-plots are needed for sampling the natural regeneration species in SC2 and SC3.

  16. Analysing Amazonian forest productivity using a new individual and trait-based model (TFS v.1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Fyllas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Repeated long-term censuses have revealed large-scale spatial patterns in Amazon Basin forest structure and dynamism, with some forests in the west of the Basin having up to a twice as high rate of aboveground biomass production and tree recruitment as forests in the east. Possible causes for this variation could be the climatic and edaphic gradients across the Basin and/or the spatial distribution of tree species composition. To help understand causes of this variation a new individual-based model of tropical forest growth designed to take full advantage of the forest census data available from the Amazonian Forest Inventory Network (RAINFOR has been developed. The model incorporates variations in tree size distribution, functional traits and soil physical properties and runs at the stand level with four functional traits, leaf dry mass per area (Ma, leaf nitrogen (NL and phosphorus (PL content and wood density (DW used to represent a continuum of plant strategies found in tropical forests. We first applied the model to validate canopy-level water fluxes at three Amazon eddy flux sites. For all three sites the canopy-level water fluxes were adequately simulated. We then applied the model at seven plots, where intensive measurements of carbon allocation are available. Tree-by-tree multi-annual growth rates generally agreed well with observations for small trees, but with deviations identified for large trees. At the stand-level, simulations at 40 plots were used to explore the influence of climate and soil fertility on the gross (ΠG and net (ΠN primary production rates as well as the carbon use efficiency (CU. Simulated ΠG, ΠN and CU were not associated with temperature. However all three measures of stand level productivity were positively related to annual precipitation and soil fertility.

  17. Biogeography and evolution of Amazonian triatomines (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: implications for Chagas disease surveillance in humid forest ecoregions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Abad-Franch

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available An ecological-evolutionary classification of Amazonian triatomines is proposed based on a revision of their main contemporary biogeographical patterns. Truly Amazonian triatomines include the Rhodniini, the Cavernicolini, and perhaps Eratyrus and some Bolboderini. The tribe Rhodniini comprises two major lineages (pictipes and robustus. The former gave rise to trans-Andean (pallescens and Amazonian (pictipes species groups, while the latter diversified within Amazonia (robustus group and radiated to neighbouring ecoregions (Orinoco, Cerrado-Caatinga-Chaco, and Atlantic Forest. Three widely distributed Panstrongylus species probably occupied Amazonia secondarily, while a few Triatoma species include Amazonian populations that occur only in the fringes of the region. T. maculata probably represents a vicariant subset isolated from its parental lineage in the Caatinga-Cerrado system when moist forests closed a dry trans-Amazonian corridor. These diverse Amazonian triatomines display different degrees of synanthropism, defining a behavioural gradient from household invasion by adult triatomines to the stable colonisation of artificial structures. Anthropogenic ecological disturbance (driven by deforestation is probably crucial in the onset of the process, but the fact that only a small fraction of species effectively colonises artificial environments suggests a role for evolution at the end of the gradient. Domestic infestation foci are restricted to drier subregions within Amazonia; thus, populations adapted to extremely humid rainforest microclimates may have limited chances of successfully colonising the slightly drier artificial microenvironments. These observations suggest several research avenues, from the use of climate data to map risk areas to the assessment of the synanthropic potential of individual vector species.

  18. Wood Polymer Composites Technology Supporting the Recovery and Protection of Tropical Forests: The Amazonian Phoenix Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio D. Nobre

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon Rain Forest has attracted worldwide attention due its large scale services to climate and also due to the green house gas emissions arising from deforestation. Contributing to the later and detrimental to the former, timber logging in the region has very low efficiency (only 16% in the production chain. Such timber extraction, often referred to as selective logging, has been claimed as a sustainable extractive industry, because the forest is said to restore itself through regenerative growth. But forest regeneration in the Amazon occurs naturally only in a very limited scale, resulting that large scale, low efficiency logging poses a big treat to the functional integrity of the biome, supplying to the market only a fraction of what it could if done differently. So, instead of extracting big centennial logs from the forests, the Amazonian Phoenix project proposes that large expanses of degraded lands be reforested using pioneer plants species from the forest itself. These plants have the capacity to heal gaps in the canopy, being able to grow and produce woody biomass in very extreme conditions. The idea is to mimic the regenerative dynamics of the natural ecosystem in short cycle agrosilvicultural production areas, utilizing a variety of technologies to transform raw fibers from these fast growth native plants into a variety of materials with high aggregated value. This communication presents the research on natural fibers by the Polymeric Composites Group within the Amazonian Phoenix Project. Sustainable technologies employing materials with good and responsible ecological footprints are important and necessary stimulus for a change in the destructive economical activities present in the Amazon frontiers. The relatively well established wood polymer composites technology, for example, is a good candidate solution. Two research and development fields are proposed: the first one considers production systems with simple and cheap

  19. Integrating regional and continental scale comparisons of tree composition in Amazonian terra firme forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honorio Coronado, E. N.; Baker, T. R.; Phillips, O. L.; Pitman, N. C. A.; Pennington, R. T.; Vásquez Martínez, R.; Monteagudo, A.; Mogollón, H.; Dávila Cardozo, N.; Ríos, M.; García-Villacorta, R.; Valderrama, E.; Ahuite, M.; Huamantupa, I.; Neill, D. A.; Laurance, W. F.; Nascimento, H. E. M.; Soares de Almeida, S.; Killeen, T. J.; Arroyo, L.; Núñez, P.; Freitas Alvarado, L.

    2009-01-01

    We contrast regional and continental-scale comparisons of the floristic composition of terra firme forest in South Amazonia, using 55 plots across Amazonia and a subset of 30 plots from northern Peru and Ecuador. Firstly, we examine the floristic patterns using both genus- or species-level data and find that the species-level analysis more clearly distinguishes different plot clusters. Secondly, we compare the patterns and causes of floristic differences at regional and continental scales. At a continental scale, ordination analysis shows that species of Lecythidaceae and Sapotaceae are gradually replaced by species of Arecaceae and Myristicaceae from eastern to western Amazonia. These floristic gradients are correlated with gradients in soil fertility and to dry season length, similar to previous studies. At a regional scale, similar patterns are found within north-western Amazonia, where differences in soil fertility distinguish plots where species of Lecythidaceae, characteristic of poor soils, are gradually replaced by species of Myristicaceae on richer soils. The main coordinate of this regional-scale ordination correlates mainly with concentrations of available calcium and magnesium. Thirdly, we ask at a regional scale within north-western Amazonia, whether soil fertility or other distance dependent processes are more important for determining variation in floristic composition. A Mantel test indicates that both soils and geographical distance have a similar and significant role in determining floristic similarity across this region. Overall, these results suggest that regional-scale variation in floristic composition can rival continental scale differences within Amazonian terra firme forests, and that variation in floristic composition at both scales is dependent on a range of processes that include both habitat specialisation related to edaphic conditions and other distance-dependent processes. To fully account for regional scale variation in continental

  20. Integrating regional and continental scale comparisons of tree composition in Amazonian terra firme forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Honorio Coronado

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We contrast regional and continental-scale comparisons of the floristic composition of terra firme forest in South Amazonia, using 55 plots across Amazonia and a subset of 30 plots from northern Peru and Ecuador. Firstly, we examine the floristic patterns using both genus- or species-level data and find that the species-level analysis more clearly distinguishes different plot clusters. Secondly, we compare the patterns and causes of floristic differences at regional and continental scales. At a continental scale, ordination analysis shows that species of Lecythidaceae and Sapotaceae are gradually replaced by species of Arecaceae and Myristicaceae from eastern to western Amazonia. These floristic gradients are correlated with gradients in soil fertility and to dry season length, similar to previous studies. At a regional scale, similar patterns are found within north-western Amazonia, where differences in soil fertility distinguish plots where species of Lecythidaceae, characteristic of poor soils, are gradually replaced by species of Myristicaceae on richer soils. The main coordinate of this regional-scale ordination correlates mainly with concentrations of available calcium and magnesium. Thirdly, we ask at a regional scale within north-western Amazonia, whether soil fertility or other distance dependent processes are more important for determining variation in floristic composition. A Mantel test indicates that both soils and geographical distance have a similar and significant role in determining floristic similarity across this region. Overall, these results suggest that regional-scale variation in floristic composition can rival continental scale differences within Amazonian terra firme forests, and that variation in floristic composition at both scales is dependent on a range of processes that include both habitat specialisation related to edaphic conditions and other distance-dependent processes. To fully account for regional scale

  1. Proof of the Post-drought Effect of Amazonian Forests from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Saatchi, S. S.; Xu, L.; Yu, Y.; Myneni, R. B.; Knyazikhin, Y.; CHOI, S.

    2015-12-01

    In 2005, the tropical forests in Amazonia went through a severe drought event across the entire basin. There have been conflict reports on the drought impact on vegetation and the issue was never settled due to limited ground truth. Remote sensing data have been used but often questioned for signal saturation, data quality, or atmosphere contamination. The quantification of carbon changes in this vast terrestrial carbon pool, especially the post-drought effect, is difficult but essential. Lidar measurements, which are regarded as the accurate retrieval of canopy vertical structure, give us the opportunity to quantify the carbon changes for this severe event. Here, we use the lidar waveforms measured from the GLAS sensor from 2004 to 2007 to calculate the vertical profiles of Amazonian forests and their associated carbon stock. After careful quality-filtering, removal of seasonal effect, as well as uncertainty reduction through spatial averaging and random sampling, we find that the mean canopy height in Amazon has much higher reduction from 2006 to 2007 compared to either the drought year from 2004 to 2005, or the immediate post-drought change from 2005 to 2006, demonstrating a lagged effect of drought. Our estimation of carbon loss from model calculation also show that 2005 drought had an significant impact on the carbon exchange, and emissions from post drought disturbance may match the emissions of annual deforestation from Amazonia.

  2. Responses of squirrel monkeys to seasonal changes in food availability in an eastern Amazonian forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Anita I

    2007-02-01

    Tropical forests are characterized by marked temporal and spatial variation in productivity, and many primates face foraging problems associated with seasonal shifts in fruit availability. In this study, I examined seasonal changes in diet and foraging behaviors of two groups of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus), studied for 12 months in Eastern Brazilian Amazonia, an area characterized by seasonal rainfall. Squirrel monkeys were primarily insectivorous (79% of feeding and foraging time), with fruit consumption highest during the rainy season. Although monkeys fed from 68 plant species, fruit of Attalea maripa palms accounted for 28% of annual fruit-feeding records. Dietary shifts in the dry season were correlated with a decline in ripe A. maripa fruits. Despite pronounced seasonal variation in rainfall and fruit abundance, foraging efficiency, travel time, and distance traveled remained stable between seasons. Instead, squirrel monkeys at this Eastern Amazonian site primarily dealt with the seasonal decline in fruit by showing dietary flexibility. Consumption of insects, flowers, and exudates increased during the dry season. In particular, their foraging behavior at this time strongly resembled that of tamarins (Saguinus sp.) and consisted of heavy use of seed-pod exudates and specialized foraging on large-bodied orthopterans near the forest floor. Comparisons with squirrel monkeys at other locations indicate that, across their geographic range, Saimiri use a variety of behavioral tactics during reduced periods of fruit availability. PMID:17154390

  3. Analysing Amazonian forest productivity using a new individual and trait-based model (TFS v.1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyllas, N. M.; Gloor, E.; Mercado, L. M.; Sitch, S.; Quesada, C. A.; Domingues, T. F.; Galbraith, D. R.; Torre-Lezama, A.; Vilanova, E.; Ramírez-Angulo, H.; Higuchi, N.; Neill, D. A.; Silveira, M.; Ferreira, L.; Aymard C., G. A.; Malhi, Y.; Phillips, O. L.; Lloyd, J.

    2014-07-01

    Repeated long-term censuses have revealed large-scale spatial patterns in Amazon basin forest structure and dynamism, with some forests in the west of the basin having up to a twice as high rate of aboveground biomass production and tree recruitment as forests in the east. Possible causes for this variation could be the climatic and edaphic gradients across the basin and/or the spatial distribution of tree species composition. To help understand causes of this variation a new individual-based model of tropical forest growth, designed to take full advantage of the forest census data available from the Amazonian Forest Inventory Network (RAINFOR), has been developed. The model allows for within-stand variations in tree size distribution and key functional traits and between-stand differences in climate and soil physical and chemical properties. It runs at the stand level with four functional traits - leaf dry mass per area (Ma), leaf nitrogen (NL) and phosphorus (PL) content and wood density (DW) varying from tree to tree - in a way that replicates the observed continua found within each stand. We first applied the model to validate canopy-level water fluxes at three eddy covariance flux measurement sites. For all three sites the canopy-level water fluxes were adequately simulated. We then applied the model at seven plots, where intensive measurements of carbon allocation are available. Tree-by-tree multi-annual growth rates generally agreed well with observations for small trees, but with deviations identified for larger trees. At the stand level, simulations at 40 plots were used to explore the influence of climate and soil nutrient availability on the gross (ΠG) and net (ΠN) primary production rates as well as the carbon use efficiency (CU). Simulated ΠG, ΠN and CU were not associated with temperature. On the other hand, all three measures of stand level productivity were positively related to both mean annual precipitation and soil nutrient status

  4. Culturing the forest [Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plieninger, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Reviw of: The Social Lives of Forests Past, Present, and Future of Woodland Resurgence Susanna B. Hecht, Kathleen D. Morrison, and Christine Padoch, Eds. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 2014. 507 pp. $50, £35. ISBN 9780226322667.......Reviw of: The Social Lives of Forests Past, Present, and Future of Woodland Resurgence Susanna B. Hecht, Kathleen D. Morrison, and Christine Padoch, Eds. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 2014. 507 pp. $50, £35. ISBN 9780226322667....

  5. Monitoring needs to transform Amazonian forest maintenance into a global warming-mitigation option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fearnside, P.M. [National Institute for Research in the Amazon, Manaus (Brazil)

    1997-10-01

    Two approaches are frequently mentioned in proposals to use tropical forest maintenance as a carbon offset. One is to set up specific reserves, funding the establishment, demarcation, and guarding of these units. Monitoring, in this case, consists of the relatively straightforward process of confirming that the forest stands in question continue to exist. In Amazonia, where large expanses of tropical forests still exist, the reserve approach has the logical weakness of being completely open to `leakage`: with the implantation of any given reserve, the people who would have been deforesting in the reserve area will probably continue to clear the same amount of forest somewhere else in the region. The second approach is through policy changes aimed at reducing the rate of clearing, but not limited to specific reserves or areas of forest. This second approach addresses more fundamental aspects of the tropical deforestation problem, but has the disadvantages of not assuring the permanence of forest and of not resulting in a visible product that can be convincingly credited to the existence of the project. In order for credit to be assigned to policy change projects, functioning models of the deforestation process must be developed that are capable of producing scenarios with and without different policy changes. This requires understanding the process of deforestation, which depends on monitoring in order to have information as a time series. Information is needed both from satellite imagery and from on-the-ground observations on who occupies the land and why the observed changes occur. Monitoring must be done by individual property if causal factors are to be identified reliably; this is best achieved using a database in Geographical Information System (GIS) that includes property boundaries. Once policy changes are made in practice, not only deforestation but also the policies themselves must be monitored. Decrees and laws are not the same as changes in practice; the

  6. Frugivory in Canopy Plants in a Western Amazonian Forest: Dispersal Systems, Phylogenetic Ensembles and Keystone Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo R Stevenson

    Full Text Available Frugivory is a widespread mutualistic interaction in which frugivores obtain nutritional resources while favoring plant recruitment through their seed dispersal services. Nonetheless, how these complex interactions are organized in diverse communities, such as tropical forests, is not fully understood. In this study we evaluated the existence of plant-frugivore sub-assemblages and their phylogenetic organization in an undisturbed western Amazonian forest in Colombia. We also explored for potential keystone plants, based on network analyses and an estimate of the amount of fruit going from plants to frugivores. We carried out diurnal observations on 73 canopy plant species during a period of two years. During focal tree sampling, we recorded frugivore identity, the duration of each individual visit, and feeding rates. We did not find support for the existence of sub assemblages, such as specialized vs. generalized dispersal systems. Visitation rates on the vast majority of canopy species were associated with the relative abundance of frugivores, in which ateline monkeys (i.e. Lagothrix and Ateles played the most important roles. All fruiting plants were visited by a variety of frugivores and the phylogenetic assemblage was random in more than 67% of the cases. In cases of aggregation, the plant species were consumed by only primates or only birds, and filters were associated with fruit protection and likely chemical content. Plants suggested as keystone species based on the amount of pulp going from plants to frugivores differ from those suggested based on network approaches. Our results suggest that in tropical forests most tree-frugivore interactions are generalized, and abundance should be taken into account when assessing the most important plants for frugivores.

  7. Automated crown detection algorithm: an analysis of two tropical Amazonian forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palace, M.; Keller, M.; Asner, G.; Hagen, S.; Braswell, B.

    2002-12-01

    Spatial analysis of crowns in high-resolution images can improve the estimate of carbon stocks on regional and local scales, aid in demographic studies on the stand level, begin to analyze tree structural properties at the landscape level, and aid in forestry efforts. Radiative inverse transfer models, gap models, and cohort models may be parameterized with the spatial analysis of crowns and subsequently derived forest structural characteristics. We developed an algorithm to automatically detect tree crowns in two tropical Amazonian forests. IKONOS panchromatic images were used from two Amazonian forests in Para, Brazil: the Tapajos National Forest, (3.08° S, 54.94° W) and the Fazenda Cauaxi, (3.75° S, 48.37° W). Analysis was conducted on undisturbed forests from both sites. Our method combines local maximum filtering and local minima value finding methods with analysis of extracted transect data from the local maxima. We use a derivative threshold that ends the transect. Once all pixels of a given brightness value are analyzed, an iterative step examines the next lower brightness value. Pixels where crowns have been delineated are taken out of further analysis. Our method allows for overlap of crowns, gaps between crowns, and complex and noisy canopies to be analyzed. A sensitivity analysis was run on the derivative threshold and the minimum local maximum value to seed the transect analysis. Least-squares goodness of fit is conducted to examine parameterization from the sensitivity analysis. The best fit for the derivative threshold is found set at -8. The sensitivity analysis finds that the minimum local maxima is related to the difference between the maximum brightness value and brightness value with the highest frequency. Mean, minimum and maximum crown widths for field data are (mean 9.0 m +/- 1.6 S.D., min 1.0 m, max 40.7 m) and automated estimation are (mean 11.9 m +/- 5.0 S.D., min 2.0 m, max 34.0 m). The Kolmogorov-Smirov test for difference between

  8. Spatial distribution and functional significance of leaf lamina shape in Amazonian forest trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. M. Malhado

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Leaves in tropical forests come in an enormous variety of sizes and shapes, each of which can be ultimately viewed as an adaptation to the complex problem of optimising the capture of light for photosynthesis. However, the fact that many different shape "strategies" coexist within a habitat demonstrate that there are many other intrinsic and extrinsic factors involved, such as the differential investment in support tissues required for different leaf lamina shapes. Here, we take a macrogeographic approach to understanding the function of different lamina shape categories. Specifically, we use 106 permanent plots spread across the Amazon rainforest basin to: (1 describe the geographic distribution of some simple metrics of lamina shape in plots from across Amazonia, and; (2 identify and quantify relationships between key environmental parameters and lamina shape in tropical forests. Because the plots are not randomly distributed across the study area, achieving this latter objective requires the use of statistics that can account for spatial auto-correlation. We found that between 60–70% of the 2791 species and 83 908 individual trees in the dataset could be classified as elliptic (=the widest part of a leaf is on an axis in the middle fifth of the long axis of the leaf. Furthermore, the average Amazonian tree leaf is 2.5 times longer than it is wide and has an entire margin. Contrary to theoretical expectations we found little support for the hypothesis that narrow leaves are an adaptation to dry conditions and low nutrient soils. However, we did find strong regional patterns in leaf lamina length-width ratios and several significant correlations with precipitation variables suggesting that water availability may be exerting an as yet unrecognised selective pressure on leaf shape of rainforest trees. Furthermore, we found a strong correlation between the proportion of trees with non-entire laminas (dissected, toothed, etc. and mean annual

  9. Heterogeneous movement of insectivorous Amazonian birds through primary and secondary forest: A case study using multistate models with radiotelemetry data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, James; Powell, Luke L.; Wolfe, Jared D.; Johnson, Erik l.; Nichols, James D.; Stouffer, Phillip C.

    2015-01-01

    Given rates of deforestation, disturbance, and secondary forest accumulation in tropical rainforests, there is a great need to quantify habitat use and movement among different habitats. This need is particularly pronounced for animals most sensitive to disturbance, such as insectivorous understory birds. Here we use multistate capture–recapture models with radiotelemetry data to determine the successional stage at which within-day movement probabilities of Amazonian birds in secondary forest are similar to those in primary forest. We radio-tracked three common understory insectivore species in primary and secondary forest at the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments project near Manaus, Brazil: two woodcreepers, Glyphorynchus spirurus (n = 19) andXiphorhynchus pardalotus (n = 18), and the terrestrial antthrush Formicarius colma(n = 19). Forest age was a strong predictor of fidelity to a given habitat. All three species showed greater fidelity to primary forest than to 8–14-year-old secondary forest, indicating the latter’s relatively poor quality. The two woodcreeper species used 12–18-year-old secondary forest in a manner comparable to continuous forest, but F. colmaavoided moving even to 27–31-year-old secondary forest—the oldest at our site. Our results suggest that managers concerned with less sensitive species can assume that forest reserves connected by 12–18-year-old secondary forest corridors are effectively connected. On the other hand, >30 years are required after land abandonment before secondary forest serves as a primary forest-like conduit for movement by F. colma; more sensitive terrestrial insectivores may take longer still.

  10. Dissolved Organic and Inorganic Carbon Flow Paths in an Amazonian Transitional Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania eNeu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As a raindrop falls from the atmosphere, over vegetation and forest canopies, and enters soils and streams it experiences a dynamic exchange of carbon constituents with the surrounding environment. Understanding the magnitude and dynamics of carbon export in above and below ground flow paths is critical for constraining the influence of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems on global carbon cycling. Here we examine the concentration and flux of dissolved organic and inorganic carbon (DOC and DIC in rainfall, throughfall, stemflow, overland flow, soil solution, groundwater, and stream water in an Amazonian transitional forest located near the arc of deforestation. Rainfall was enriched in DOC by interactions with atmospheric particles derived from both biogenic and anthropogenic emissions, resulting in a flux of 82.3 kg C ha-1 yr-1, which was the largest flux from each respective flow path. Forest throughfall, stemflow, and direct overland flow mobilized DOC from products of terrestrial primary production and decomposition. Net throughfall represented the second largest DOC flux (68.4 kg C ha-1 yr-1, whereas stemflow and overland flow only had a flux of 1.5 and 3.9 kg C ha-1 yr-1, respectively. Much of the DOC in above ground flow paths was removed from solution as the rain percolated through soil layers due to both biological decomposition and sorption/desorption to mineral surfaces, resulting in low concentrations in stream and groundwater (2.6 ± 2.4 mg L-1 and 1.45 ± 0.3 mg L-1, respectively relative to throughfall (43.9 ± 5.2 mg L-1 and stemflow (30.6 ± 2.7 mg L-1. The flux of DIC in each respective flow path was generally lower than for DOC, and likely driven by atmospheric gas exchange and inputs from respiration and decomposition. DOC concentrations in above ground flow paths were highest during the first rainfall after a dry period, whereas DIC concentrations generally increased throughout the rainy season as soil moisture increased.

  11. Ground-Vegetation Clutter Affects Phyllostomid Bat Assemblage Structure in Lowland Amazonian Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciente, Rodrigo; Bobrowiec, Paulo Estefano D; Magnusson, William E

    2015-01-01

    Vegetation clutter is a limiting factor for bats that forage near ground level, and may determine the distribution of species and guilds. However, many studies that evaluated the effects of vegetation clutter on bats have used qualitative descriptions rather than direct measurements of vegetation density. Moreover, few studies have evaluated the effect of vegetation clutter on a regional scale. Here, we evaluate the influence of the physical obstruction of vegetation on phyllostomid-bat assemblages along a 520 km transect in continuous Amazonian forest. We sampled bats using mist nets in eight localities during 80 nights (3840 net-hours) and estimated the ground-vegetation density with digital photographs. The total number of species, number of animalivorous species, total number of frugivorous species, number of understory frugivorous species, and abundance of canopy frugivorous bats were negatively associated with vegetation clutter. The bat assemblages showed a nested structure in relation to degree of clutter, with animalivorous and understory frugivorous bats distributed throughout the vegetation-clutter gradient, while canopy frugivores were restricted to sites with more open vegetation. The species distribution along the gradient of vegetation clutter was not closely associated with wing morphology, but aspect ratio and wing load differed between frugivores and animalivores. Vegetation structure plays an important role in structuring assemblages of the bats at the regional scale by increasing beta diversity between sites. Differences in foraging strategy and diet of the guilds seem to have contributed more to the spatial distribution of bats than the wing characteristics of the species alone. PMID:26066654

  12. Ground-Vegetation Clutter Affects Phyllostomid Bat Assemblage Structure in Lowland Amazonian Forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Marciente

    Full Text Available Vegetation clutter is a limiting factor for bats that forage near ground level, and may determine the distribution of species and guilds. However, many studies that evaluated the effects of vegetation clutter on bats have used qualitative descriptions rather than direct measurements of vegetation density. Moreover, few studies have evaluated the effect of vegetation clutter on a regional scale. Here, we evaluate the influence of the physical obstruction of vegetation on phyllostomid-bat assemblages along a 520 km transect in continuous Amazonian forest. We sampled bats using mist nets in eight localities during 80 nights (3840 net-hours and estimated the ground-vegetation density with digital photographs. The total number of species, number of animalivorous species, total number of frugivorous species, number of understory frugivorous species, and abundance of canopy frugivorous bats were negatively associated with vegetation clutter. The bat assemblages showed a nested structure in relation to degree of clutter, with animalivorous and understory frugivorous bats distributed throughout the vegetation-clutter gradient, while canopy frugivores were restricted to sites with more open vegetation. The species distribution along the gradient of vegetation clutter was not closely associated with wing morphology, but aspect ratio and wing load differed between frugivores and animalivores. Vegetation structure plays an important role in structuring assemblages of the bats at the regional scale by increasing beta diversity between sites. Differences in foraging strategy and diet of the guilds seem to have contributed more to the spatial distribution of bats than the wing characteristics of the species alone.

  13. Spatial distribution and functional significance of leaf lamina shape in Amazonian forest trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. M. Malhado

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Leaves in tropical forests come in an enormous variety of sizes and shapes, each of which can be ultimately viewed as an adaptation to the complex problem of optimising the capture of light for photosynthesis. However, the fact that many different shape "strategies" coexist within a habitat demonstrate that there are many other intrinsic and extrinsic factors involved, such as the differential investment in support tissues required for different leaf lamina shapes. Here, we take a macrogeographic approach to understanding the function of different lamina shape categories. Specifically, we use 106 permanent plots spread across the Amazon rainforest basin to: 1 describe the geographic distribution of some simple metrics of lamina shape in plots from across Amazonia, and; 2 identify and quantify relationships between key environmental parameters and lamina shape in tropical forests. Because the plots are not randomly distributed across the study area, achieving this latter objective requires the use of statistics that can account for spatial auto-correlation. We found that between 60–70% of the 2791 species and 83 908 individual trees in the dataset could be classified as having elliptic leaves (= the widest part of the leaf is on an axis in the middle fifth of the long axis of the leaf. Furthermore, the average Amazonian tree leaf is 2.5 times longer than it is wide and has an entire margin. Contrary to theoretical expectations we found little support for the hypothesis that narrow leaves are an adaptation to dry conditions. However, we did find strong regional patterns in leaf lamina length-width ratios and several significant correlations with precipitation variables suggesting that water availability may be exerting an as yet unrecognised selective pressure on leaf shape of rainforest trees. Some support was found for the hypothesis that narrow leaves are an adaptation to low nutrient soils. Furthermore, we found a strong correlation between

  14. Culture phenomenon analysis on the forest tour activity of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Minjin

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes culture and forest culture, the intension of culture and forest culture, combines the understanding of the main cultural factor with the forest tour activity of China, analyzes the compatible phenomenon of Chinese forest culture and traditional culture, and explores culture of forest tourist site containing the meaning in forest tour. The author thinks the tour of forest culture which will be the important component of forest tour in forest culture,This paper puts forward simple questions existing in exploitation and advantage of forest tour culture, and proposes some countermeasures.

  15. Characterization of Amazonian forest fragments in the catchment of the Taxidermista I River in Alta Floresta, MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos José da Silva

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining the connectivity of the remaining forest in the state of Mato Grosso is critically important, and the preservation of riparian vegetation of streams contributes greatly to retaining the integrity of the mosaic of habitats found in this region. The aim of this study was to characterize the Amazonian forest fragments remaining in the catchment of the Taxidermista I River, in Alta Floresta, MT, in order to provide input for the implementation of recovery projects in degraded areas and the conservation of forest fragments. The forest fragments were vectorized and the size, perimeter, and distance of each fragment to the nearest watercourse were evaluated. The circularity index, or the edge/interior ratio, was also determined. In the watershed of the Taxidermista I River, 63 forest fragments ranging in size from 0.44 to 67.51 ha, with perimeters between 262.67 and 4756.26 m, were recorded. The distance from each forest fragment to the nearest watercourse ranges from 0 to 450 m; however, 71.4% of the fragments are connected to a watercourse. The majority of the fragments in this watershed are elongated and occupy a small area, but their perimeter/edge is large relative to their size, which makes them susceptible to edge effects, especially from nearby cattle farms.

  16. The influences of CO2 fertilization and land use change on the total aboveground biomass in Amazonian tropical forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanho, A. D.; Zhang, K.; Coe, M. T.; Costa, M. H.; Moorcroft, P. R.

    2012-12-01

    Field observations from undisturbed old-growth Amazonian forest plots have recently reported on the temporal variation of many of the physical and chemical characteristics such as: physiological properties of leaves, above ground live biomass, above ground productivity, mortality and turnover rates. However, although this variation has been measured, it is still not well understood what mechanisms control the observed temporal variability. The observed changes in time are believed to be a result of a combination of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration, climate variability, recovery from natural disturbance (drought, wind blow, flood), and increase of nutrient availability. The time and spatial variability of the fertilization effect of CO2 on above ground biomass will be explored in more detail in this work. A precise understanding of the CO2 effect on the vegetation is essential for an accurate prediction of the future response of the forest to climate change. To address this issue we simultaneously explore the effects of climate variability, historical CO2 and land-use change on total biomass and productivity using two different Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVM). We use the Integrated Biosphere Simulator (IBIS) and the Ecosystem Demography Model 2.1 (ED2.1). Using land use changes database from 1700 - 2008 we reconstruct the total carbon balance in the Amazonian forest in space and time and present how the models predict the forest as carbon sink or source and explore why the model and field data diverge from each other. From 1970 to 2005 the Amazonian forest has been exposed to an increase of approximately 50 ppm in the atmospheric CO2 concentration. Preliminary analyses with the IBIS and ED2.1 dynamic vegetation model shows the CO2 fertilization effect could account for an increase in above ground biomass of 0.03 and 0.04 kg-C/m2/yr on average for the Amazon basin, respectively. The annual biomass change varies temporally and spatially from about 0

  17. Influence of drainage status on soil and water chemistry, litter decomposition and soil respiration in central Amazonian forests on sandy soils

    OpenAIRE

    Berton Zanchi, F.; M. J. Waterloo; A. J. Dolman; Groenendijk, M; Kruijt, B.

    2011-01-01

    Central Amazonian rainforest landscape supports a mosaic of tall terra firme rainforest and ecotone campinarana, riparian and campina forests, reflecting topography-induced variations in soil, nutrient and drainage conditions. Spatial and temporal variations in litter decomposition, soil and groundwater chemistry and soil CO2 respiration were studied in forests on sandy soils, whereas drought sensitivity of poorly-drained valley soils was investigated in an artificial drainage experiment. Sli...

  18. Indifference to dissonance in native Amazonians reveals cultural variation in music perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Josh H; Schultz, Alan F; Undurraga, Eduardo A; Godoy, Ricardo A

    2016-07-28

    by biology remains debated. One widely discussed phenomenon is that some combinations of notes are perceived by Westerners as pleasant, or consonant, whereas others are perceived as unpleasant,or dissonant. The contrast between consonance and dissonance is central to Western music and its origins have fascinated scholars since the ancient Greeks. Aesthetic responses to consonance are commonly assumed by scientists to have biological roots, and thus to be universally present in humans. Ethnomusicologists and composers, in contrast, have argued that consonance is a creation of Western musical culture. The issue has remained unresolved, partly because little is known about the extent of cross-cultural variation in consonance preferences. Here we report experiments with the Tsimane'--a native Amazonian society with minimal exposure to Western culture--and comparison populations in Bolivia and the United States that varied in exposure to Western music. Participants rated the pleasantness of sounds. Despite exhibiting Western-like discrimination abilities and Western-like aesthetic responses to familiar sounds and acoustic roughness, the Tsimane' rated consonant and dissonant chords and vocal harmonies as equally pleasant. By contrast, Bolivian city- and town-dwellers exhibited significant preferences for consonance,albeit to a lesser degree than US residents. The results indicate that consonance preferences can be absent in cultures sufficiently isolated from Western music, and are thus unlikely to reflect innate biases or exposure to harmonic natural sounds. The observed variation in preferences is presumably determined by exposure to musical harmony, suggesting that culture has a dominant role in shaping aesthetic responses to music. PMID:27409816

  19. Joint simulation of carbon and tree diversity dynamics in an Amazonian forest succession using TROLL, an individual-based forest dynamics model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maréchaux, Isabelle; Chave, Jérôme

    2016-04-01

    Amazonian forests are critical for biogeochemical cycles and provide also key ecosystem services. One approach for modelling forest vegetation dynamics is to parameterize species using field-measured plant traits in individual-based forest growth simulators, a method that has been successfully implemented in temperate forests. Here we extend this approach to the tropics. We parameterized the forest dynamics simulator TROLL over a hundred species and simulated the first decades of an ecological succession with tree species encountered in the coastal zone of French Guiana. The model reproduced well the empirically measured values of gross and net primary productivities (GPP and NPP, obtained from eddy-flux measurements) as well as canopy structure (obtained from aerial LiDAR scanning). Modelled species trajectories compared well with empirically measured ones at a clear-cut site for the past four decades. Modelled carbon accumulation curves show that forests are not mature even after 100 years of regeneration. Finally, we discuss how plant hydrology and responses to drought can be integrated into this modelling scheme using data from leaf water potential at wilting point.

  20. Diversity and aspects of the ecology of social wasps (Vespidae, Polistinae in Central Amazonian "terra firme" forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Somavilla

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Diversity and aspects of the ecology of social wasps (Vespidae, Polistinae in Central Amazonian "terra firme" forest. The knowledge of social wasp richness and biology in the Amazonian region is considered insufficient. Although the Amazonas state is the largest in the region, until now only two brief surveys were conducted there. Considering that the systematic inventory of an area is the first step towards its conservation and wise use, this study presents faunal data on social wasp diversity in a 25 km² area of "terra firme" (upland forest at the Ducke Reserve, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Wasps were collected in the understory, following a protocol of three collectors walking along 60 trails 1,000 m in extension for 16 days between August and October 2010. Methods used were active search of individuals with entomological nets and nest collecting. Fifty-eight species of social wasps, allocated in 13 genera, were recorded; 67% of the collected species belong to Polybia, Agelaia and Mischocyttarus; other genera were represented by only four species or less. The most frequent species in active searches were Agelaia fulvofasciata (DeGeer, 1773, Agelaia testacea (Fabricius, 1804 and Angiopolybia pallens (Lepeletier, 1836. Twelve species were collected in nests. Prior to this study, 65 Polistinae species were deposited at the INPA Collection. Collecting in the study grid, an area not previously sampled for wasps, resulted in an increase of 25% species, and species richness was 86. According to the results, there is evidence that the diversity of social wasps at the Ducke Reserve is even higher, making it one of the richest areas in the Brazilian Amazonia.

  1. Implication of Forest-Savanna Dynamics on Biomass and Carbon Stock: Effectiveness of an Amazonian Ecological Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto-Santos, F. R.; Luizao, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    The forests-savanna advancement/retraction process seems to play an important role in the global carbon cycle and in the climate-vegetation balance maintenance in the Amazon. To contribute with long term carbon dynamics and assess effectiveness of a protected area in reduce carbon emissions in Brazilian Amazon transitional areas, variations in forest-savanna mosaics biomass and carbon stock within Maraca Ecological Station (MES), Roraima/Brazil, and its outskirts non-protected areas were compared. Composite surface soil samples and indirect methods based on regression models were used to estimate aboveground tree biomass accumulation and assess vegetation and soil carbon stock along eleven 0.6 ha transects perpendicular to the forest-savanna limits. Aboveground biomass and carbon accumulation were influenced by vegetation structure, showing higher values within protected area, with great contribution of trees above 40 cm in diameter. In the savanna environments of protected areas, a higher tree density and carbon stock up to 30 m from the border confirmed a forest encroachment. This pointed that MES acts as carbon sink, even under variations in soil fertility gradient, with a potential increase of the total carbon stock from 9 to 150 Mg C ha-1. Under 20 years of fire and disturbance management, the results indicated the effectiveness of this protected area to reduce carbon emissions and mitigate greenhouse and climate change effects in a forest-savanna transitional area in Brazilian Northern Amazon. The contribution of this study in understanding rates and reasons for biomass and carbon variation, under different management strategies, should be considered the first approximation to assist policies of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) from underresearched Amazonian ecotone; despite further efforts in this direction are still needed. FINANCIAL SUPPORT: Boticário Group Foundation (Fundação Grupo Boticário); National Council for

  2. Comparing CLM and CLM-ED as a basis for representing carbon cycling dynamics in a Central Amazonian forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, R. G.; Holm, J. A.; Koven, C. D.; Riley, W. J.; Chambers, J. Q.; Fisher, R.; Muszala, S.; Higuchi, N.

    2014-12-01

    Old-growth tropical forests are responsible for a potentially large portion of the terrestrial carbon sink, although the underlying control mechanisms of that sink, has large uncertainties. The quantification of the tropical forest carbon sink is a grand challenge of measurement scale. Therefore, there is a strong emphasis on incorporating improved vegetation structure and compositional representativeness in land-surface modeling. Vegetation demography, plant competition, mechanistic mortality, disturbance cycling, and plant functional traits strongly control carbon dynamics and energy budgets of the Earth's surface. Size and age structured scaling processes have not been represented in the widely used Community Land Model (CLM) until the recent inclusion of the Ecosystem Demography (ED) model into CLM 4.5, i.e., CLM-ED. The goal of this study was to compare how CLM-ED captured tropical carbon cycling dynamics compared to CLM and 16 years of field measurements from a central Amazonian forest. We evaluated critical carbon flux processes (Mg C ha-1 yr-1) such as net ecosystem exchange (NEE), net primary production (NPP), and autotrophic respiration (AR), and additional representations of growth and maintenance in CLM and CLM-ED. For a central Amazonian forest CLM estimated GPP from 2000-2012, with transient CO2 concentrations, to be 31.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 and was similar to field measurements, while initial evaluation of the newly developed CLM-ED estimated GPP to be substantially higher. The introduction of the size and age structure of ED to the CLM framework enables a finer granularity of state information in the canopy and new ways to represent canopy physics. Therefore alternative physics processes were compared, including those that are highly resolved at the cohort scale (i.e. plant groups) to those at the highly parameterized community scale (i.e. the plant canopy as a whole). CLM serves as the land-model component for nearly 40% of the Earth System Models

  3. Variation in stem mortality rates determines patterns of above-ground biomass in Amazonian forests: implications for dynamic global vegetation models

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Michelle; Galbraith, David; Gloor, Manuel; De Deaurwaerder, Hannes; Guimberteau, Mattieu; Rammig, Anja; Thonicke, Kristin; Verbeeck, Hans; von Randow, Celso; Monteagudo Mendoza, Abel; Phillips, Oliver L; Brienen, Roel; Feldpausch, Ted R.; Lopez Gonzales, Gabriela; Fauset, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the processes that determine above-ground biomass (AGB) in Amazonian forests is important for predicting the sensitivity of these ecosystems to environmental change and for designing and evaluating dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs). AGB is determined by inputs from woody productivity [woody net primary productivity (NPP)] and the rate at which carbon is lost through tree mortality. Here, we test whether two direct metrics of tree mortality (the absolute rate of woody biom...

  4. Root Niche Separation as Strategy of Avoidance of Seasonal Drought Stress in a Mature Amazonian Forest (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, V. Y.; Hutyra, L.; Wofsy, S. C.; Munger, J. W.; Saleska, S. R.; De Oliveira, R., Jr.; Camargo, P. B.; Fatichi, S.

    2013-12-01

    Large areas of Amazonian evergreen forests experience seasonal droughts extending for three or more months, and show maximum rates of photosynthesis and evapotranspiration during dry intervals. This apparent resilience is belied by disproportionate mortality of the large trees in manipulations that reduce wet season rainfall, occurring after 2-3 years of treatment. The goal of this study is to characterize the mechanisms that produce these contrasting ecosystem responses. A mechanistic vegetation-hydrology model is developed to test the roles of deep roots and the possibility of 'root niche separation,' in which roots of overstory trees extend to depth, where during the dry season they use water stored from wet season precipitation, while roots of understory trees are concentrated in shallow layers that access dry season precipitation directly. Observational data on canopy phenology, energy fluxes, soil moisture, and soil and root structure from the Tapajos National Forest, Brazil, provided comprehensive observational constraints on the model. Results strongly suggest that deep roots with root niche separation adaptations explain both the observed resilience during seasonal drought and the vulnerability of canopy-dominant trees to extended deficits of wet season rainfall. These mechanisms appear to provide an adaptive strategy that enhances productivity of the largest trees in the face of their disproportionate heat loads and water demand in the dry season. A sensitivity analysis exploring how wet season rainfall affects the stability of the rainforest system is presented.

  5. Structure and composition of altered riparian forests in an agricultural Amazonian landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, R Chelsea; Porder, Stephen; Neill, Christopher; Brando, Paulo; Quintino, Raimundo Mota; do Nascimento, Sebastiâo Aviz

    2015-09-01

    Deforestation and fragmentation influence the microclimate, vegetation structure, and composition of remaining patches of tropical forest. In the southern Amazon, at the frontier of cropland expansion, forests are converted and fragmented in a pattern that leaves standing riparian forests whose dimensions are mandated by the Brazilian National Forest Code. These altered riparian forests share many characteristics of well-studied upland forest fragments, but differ because they remain connected to larger areas of forest downstream, and because they may experience wetter soil conditions because reduction of forest cover in the surrounding watershed raises groundwater levels and increases stream runoff. We compared forest regeneration, structure, composition, and diversity in four areas of intact riparian forest and four areas each of narrow, medium, and wide altered riparian forests that have been surrounded by agriculture since the early 1980s. We found that seedling abundance was reduced by as much as 64% and sapling abundance was reduced by as much as 67% in altered compared to intact riparian forests. The most pronounced differences between altered and intact forest occurred near forest edges and within the narrowest sections of altered riparian forests. Woody plant species composition differed and diversity was reduced in altered forests compared to intact riparian forests. However, despite being fragmented for several decades, large woody plant biomass and carbon storage, the number of live or dead large woody plants, mortality rates, and the size distribution of woody plants did not differ significantly between altered and intact riparian forests. Thus, even in these relatively narrow forests with high edge: area ratios, we saw no evidence of the increases in mortality and declines in biomass that have been found in other tropical forest fragment studies. However, because of the changes in both species community and reduced regeneration, it is unclear how long

  6. Biogeography and evolution of Amazonian triatomines (Heteroptera: Reduviidae): implications for Chagas disease surveillance in humid forest ecoregions

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Abad-Franch; Fernando A Monteiro

    2007-01-01

    An ecological-evolutionary classification of Amazonian triatomines is proposed based on a revision of their main contemporary biogeographical patterns. Truly Amazonian triatomines include the Rhodniini, the Cavernicolini, and perhaps Eratyrus and some Bolboderini. The tribe Rhodniini comprises two major lineages (pictipes and robustus). The former gave rise to trans-Andean (pallescens) and Amazonian (pictipes) species groups, while the latter diversified within Amazonia (robustus group) and r...

  7. Diversity and composition of Amazonian moths in primary, secondary and plantation forests.

    OpenAIRE

    Hawes, Joseph; da Silva Motta, Catarina; Overal, William L.; Barlow, Jos; Gardner, Toby A.; Peres, Carlos A.

    2009-01-01

    The response of tropical fauna to landscape-level habitat change is poorly understood. Increased conversion of native primary forest to alternative land-uses, including secondary forest and exotic tree plantations, highlights the importance of assessing diversity patterns within these forest types. We sampled 1848 moths from 335 species of Arctiidae, Saturniidae and Sphingidae, over a total of 30 trap-nights. Sampling was conducted during the wet season 2005, using three light-traps at 15 sit...

  8. The importance of remnant native vegetation of Amazonian submontane forest for the conservation of lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, D J; Santos-Filho, M; Canale, G R

    2014-08-01

    Forest fragmentation affects animal population dynamics mainly by loss of habitat and disruption of animal movement. Lizard assemblages are affected by environmental changes, but, depending on their ecological needs, some species might be more vulnerable than others. The southern Amazon suffers accelerated anthropic actions replacing natural environments by farmland (crops and pasture). This region is considerably drier than most of the northern Amazon, with stational semi-deciduous forests fragmented and isolated by pasture, and crops to a lesser extent. Here we report data on lizard assemblages using semi-deciduous forests, forest edge and the surrounding pasture in the southern Amazon in Mato Grosso, Brazil. Lizards were collected in 21 forest fragments (41 to 7,035 ha) surrounded by pasture; using pitfall traps placed on a degradation gradient - from pasture inwards forest fragment (up to 200 m). We collected 242 individuals (14 species, seven families) in 6,300 trap-days. The pattern of species occurrence was largely nested and this nesting was associated with three habitat guilds (generalist, edge-tolerant, and forest species). Although there was no obvious fragmentation effect on lizards diversity community-wise, Hoplocercus spinosus, Bachia dorbignyi, Micrablepharus maximiliani and Kentropyx calcarta were more vulnerable to such effects than all other ten species collected. We verified that assemblages inhabiting pasture and forest edge are a nested subset of assemblages from the forest core. The remnant native vegetation is not distributed homogeneously and lizards species can persist in different parts of the landscape, therefore we recommend the protection of forest remnants as an important conservation action for lizards of the southern Amazon. PMID:25296198

  9. Dispersal limitation induces long-term biomass collapse in overhunted Amazonian forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Carlos A; Emilio, Thaise; Schietti, Juliana; Desmoulière, Sylvain J M; Levi, Taal

    2016-01-26

    Tropical forests are the global cornerstone of biological diversity, and store 55% of the forest carbon stock globally, yet sustained provisioning of these forest ecosystem services may be threatened by hunting-induced extinctions of plant-animal mutualisms that maintain long-term forest dynamics. Large-bodied Atelinae primates and tapirs in particular offer nonredundant seed-dispersal services for many large-seeded Neotropical tree species, which on average have higher wood density than smaller-seeded and wind-dispersed trees. We used field data and models to project the spatial impact of hunting on large primates by ∼ 1 million rural households throughout the Brazilian Amazon. We then used a unique baseline dataset on 2,345 1-ha tree plots arrayed across the Brazilian Amazon to model changes in aboveground forest biomass under different scenarios of hunting-induced large-bodied frugivore extirpation. We project that defaunation of the most harvest-sensitive species will lead to losses in aboveground biomass of between 2.5-5.8% on average, with some losses as high as 26.5-37.8%. These findings highlight an urgent need to manage the sustainability of game hunting in both protected and unprotected tropical forests, and place full biodiversity integrity, including populations of large frugivorous vertebrates, firmly in the agenda of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) programs. PMID:26811455

  10. Human impacts on soil carbon dynamics of deep-rooted Amazonian forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepstad, Daniel C.; Stone, Thomas A.; Davidson, Eric A.

    1994-01-01

    Deforestation and logging degrade more forest in eastern and southern Amazonia than in any other region of the world. This forest alteration affects regional hydrology and the global carbon cycle, but our current understanding of these effects is limited by incomplete knowledge of tropical forest ecosystems. It is widely agreed that roots are concentrated near the soil surface in moist tropical forests, but this generalization incorrectly implies that deep roots are unimportant in water and C budgets. Our results indicate that half of the closed-canopy forests of Brazilian Amazonic occur where rainfall is highly seasonal, and these forests rely on deeply penetrating roots to extract soil water. Pasture vegetation extracts less water from deep soil than the forest it replaces, thus increasing rates of drainage and decreasing rates of evapotranspiration. Deep roots are also a source of modern carbon deep in the soil. The soils of the eastern Amazon contain more carbon below 1 m depth than is present in above-ground biomass. As much as 25 percent of this deep soil C could have annual to decadal turnover times and may be lost to the atmosphere following deforestation. We compared the importance of deep roots in a mature, evergreen forest with an adjacent man-made pasture, the most common type of vegetation on deforested land in Amazonia. The study site is near the town of Paragominas, in the Brazilian state of Para, with a seasonal rainfall pattern and deeply-weathered, kaolinitic soils that are typical for large portions of Amazonia. Root distribution, soil water extraction, and soil carbon dynamics were studied using deep auger holes and shafts in each ecosystem, and the phenology and water status of the leaf canopies were measured. We estimated the geographical distribution of deeply-rooting forests using satellite imagery, rainfall data, and field measurements.

  11. Organic aerosols from biomass burning in Amazonian rain forest and their impact onto the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field campaign performed in Southern Brazilian Amazonia in 1993 has proved that this region is subjected to fallout of particulated exhausts released by fires of forestal biomass. In fact, organic content of aerosols collected at urban sites located on the border of pluvial forest, about 50 km from fires, was similar to that of biomass burning exhausts. Aerosol composition is indicative of dolous origin of fires. However, organic contents seems to be influenced by two additional sources, i. e. motor vehicle and high vegetation emission. Chemical pattern of organic aerosols released by biomass burning of forest seems to promote occurrence of photochemical smog episodes in that region

  12. Vertical stratification of bat assemblages in flooded and unflooded Amazonian forests

    OpenAIRE

    Maria João Ramos PEREIRA, João Tiago MARQUES, Jorge M. PALMEIRIM

    2010-01-01

    Tropical rainforests usually have multiple strata that results in a vertical stratification of ecological opportunities for animals. We investigated if this stratification influences the way bats use the vertical space in flooded and unflooded forests of the Central Amazon. Using mist-nets set in the canopy (17 to 35 m high) and in the understorey (0 to 3 m high) we sampled four sites in upland unflooded forests (terra firme), three in forests seasonally flooded by nutrient-rich water (várzea...

  13. Interpreting participatory Fuzzy Cognitive Maps as complex networks in the social-ecological systems of the Amazonian forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Consuelo; Tarquis, Ana M.; Blanco-Gutiérrez, Irene; Estebe, Paloma; Toledo, Marisol; Martorano, Lucieta

    2015-04-01

    Social-ecological systems are linked complex systems that represent interconnected human and biophysical processes evolving and adapting across temporal and spatial scales. In the real world, social-ecological systems pose substantial challenges for modeling. In this regard, Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCMs) have proven to be a useful method for capturing the functioning of this type of systems. FCMs are a semi-quantitative type of cognitive map that represent a system composed of relevant factors and weighted links showing the strength and direction of cause-effects relationships among factors. Therefore, FCMs can be interpreted as complex system structures or complex networks. In this sense, recent research has applied complex network concepts for the analysis of FCMs that represent social-ecological systems. Key to FCM the tool is its potential to allow feedback loops and to include stakeholder knowledge in the construction of the tool. Also, previous research has demonstrated their potential to represent system dynamics and simulate the effects of changes in the system, such as policy interventions. For illustrating this analysis, we have developed a series of participatory FCM for the study of the ecological and human systems related to biodiversity conservation in two case studies of the Amazonian region, the Bolivia lowlands of Guarayos and the Brazil Tapajos National forest. The research is carried out in the context of the EU project ROBIN1 and it is based on the development of a series of stakeholder workshops to analyze the current state of the socio-ecological environment in the Amazonian forest, reflecting conflicts and challenges for biodiversity conservation and human development. Stakeholders included all relevant actors in the local case studies, namely farmers, environmental groups, producer organizations, local and provincial authorities and scientists. In both case studies we illustrate the use of complex networks concepts, such as the adjacency

  14. Rainfall exclusion in an eastern Amazonian forest alters soil water movement and depth of water uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Saltos, Hugo; Sternberg, Leonel da S L; Moreira, Marcelo Z; Nepstad, Daniel C

    2005-03-01

    Deuterium-labeled water was used to study the effect of the Tapajós Throughfall Exclusion Experiment (TTEE) on soil moisture movement and on depth of water uptake by trees of Coussarea racemosa, Sclerolobium chrysophyllum, and Eschweilera pedicellata. The TTEE simulates an extended dry season in an eastern Amazonian rainforest, a plausible scenario if the El Niño phenomenon changes with climate change. The TTEE excludes 60% of the wet season throughfall from a 1-ha plot (treatment), while the control 1-ha plot receives precipitation year-round. Mean percolation rate of the label peak in the control plot was greater than in the treatment plot during the wet season (0.75 vs. 0.07 m/mo). The rate was similar for both plots during the dry season (ca. 0.15 m/mo), indicative that both plots have similar topsoil structure. Interestingly, the label peak in the control plot during the dry season migrated upward an average distance of 64 cm. We show that water probably moved upward through soil pores-i.e., it did not involve roots (hydraulic lift)-most likely because of a favorable gradient of total (matric + gravitational) potential coupled with sufficient unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. Water probably also moved upward in the treatment plot, but was not detectable; the label in this plot did not percolate below 1 m or beyond the depth of plant water uptake. During the dry season, trees in the rainfall exclusion plot, regardless of species, consistently absorbed water significantly deeper, but never below 1.5-2 m, than trees in the control plot, and therefore may represent expected root function of this understory/subcanopy tree community during extended dry periods. PMID:21652421

  15. The impact of forest exploitation on Amazonian stingless bees (Apidae, Meliponini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturieri, G C

    2009-01-01

    The protocols available to sustainably exploit natural forest resources are known as "sustainable forest management". This type of management generally does not take into account the effect of timber exploitation on pollinators. Stingless bees, which include many species that play an important role as pollinators and are quite diverse in the Amazon, preferentially make their perennial nests in the base of hollow trees. Normally, during sustainable exploitation of trees, hollow trees are not cut down; however, predatory exploitation of such trees could severely affect natural populations of this pollinator group. PMID:19554767

  16. 77 FR 11569 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: USDA Forest Service, Coconino National Forest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: USDA Forest Service, Coconino National Forest, Flagstaff, AZ AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The USDA Forest... believes itself to be culturally affiliated ] with the cultural items may contact the USDA Forest...

  17. Floristic composition and across-track reflectance gradient in Landsat images over Amazonian forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muro, Javier; doninck, Jasper Van; Tuomisto, Hanna; Higgins, Mark A.; Moulatlet, Gabriel M.; Ruokolainen, Kalle

    2016-09-01

    Remotely sensed image interpretation or classification of tropical forests can be severely hampered by the effects of the bidirectional reflection distribution function (BRDF). Even for narrow swath sensors like Landsat TM/ETM+, the influence of reflectance anisotropy can be sufficiently strong to introduce a cross-track reflectance gradient. If the BRDF could be assumed to be linear for the limited swath of Landsat, it would be possible to remove this gradient during image preprocessing using a simple empirical method. However, the existence of natural gradients in reflectance caused by spatial variation in floristic composition of the forest can restrict the applicability of such simple corrections. Here we use floristic information over Peruvian and Brazilian Amazonia acquired through field surveys, complemented with information from geological maps, to investigate the interaction of real floristic gradients and the effect of reflectance anisotropy on the observed reflectances in Landsat data. In addition, we test the assumption of linearity of the BRDF for a limited swath width, and whether different primary non-inundated forest types are characterized by different magnitudes of the directional reflectance gradient. Our results show that a linear function is adequate to empirically correct for view angle effects, and that the magnitude of the across-track reflectance gradient is independent of floristic composition in the non-inundated forests we studied. This makes a routine correction of view angle effects possible. However, floristic variation complicates the issue, because different forest types have different mean reflectances. This must be taken into account when deriving the correction function in order to avoid eliminating natural gradients.

  18. A trans-Amazonian screening of mtDNA reveals deep intraspecific divergence in forest birds and suggests a vast underestimation of species diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borja Milá

    Full Text Available The Amazonian avifauna remains severely understudied relative to that of the temperate zone, and its species richness is thought to be underestimated by current taxonomy. Recent molecular systematic studies using mtDNA sequence reveal that traditionally accepted species-level taxa often conceal genetically divergent subspecific lineages found to represent new species upon close taxonomic scrutiny, suggesting that intraspecific mtDNA variation could be useful in species discovery. Surveys of mtDNA variation in Holarctic species have revealed patterns of variation that are largely congruent with species boundaries. However, little information exists on intraspecific divergence in most Amazonian species. Here we screen intraspecific mtDNA genetic variation in 41 Amazonian forest understory species belonging to 36 genera and 17 families in 6 orders, using 758 individual samples from Ecuador and French Guiana. For 13 of these species, we also analyzed trans-Andean populations from the Ecuadorian Chocó. A consistent pattern of deep intraspecific divergence among trans-Amazonian haplogroups was found for 33 of the 41 taxa, and genetic differentiation and genetic diversity among them was highly variable, suggesting a complex range of evolutionary histories. Mean sequence divergence within families was the same as that found in North American birds (13%, yet mean intraspecific divergence in Neotropical species was an order of magnitude larger (2.13% vs. 0.23%, with mean distance between intraspecific lineages reaching 3.56%. We found no clear relationship between genetic distances and differentiation in plumage color. Our results identify numerous genetically and phenotypically divergent lineages which may result in new species-level designations upon closer taxonomic scrutiny and thorough sampling, although lineages in the tropical region could be older than those in the temperate zone without necessarily representing separate species. In

  19. A trans-Amazonian screening of mtDNA reveals deep intraspecific divergence in forest birds and suggests a vast underestimation of species diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milá, Borja; Tavares, Erika S; Muñoz Saldaña, Alberto; Karubian, Jordan; Smith, Thomas B; Baker, Allan J

    2012-01-01

    The Amazonian avifauna remains severely understudied relative to that of the temperate zone, and its species richness is thought to be underestimated by current taxonomy. Recent molecular systematic studies using mtDNA sequence reveal that traditionally accepted species-level taxa often conceal genetically divergent subspecific lineages found to represent new species upon close taxonomic scrutiny, suggesting that intraspecific mtDNA variation could be useful in species discovery. Surveys of mtDNA variation in Holarctic species have revealed patterns of variation that are largely congruent with species boundaries. However, little information exists on intraspecific divergence in most Amazonian species. Here we screen intraspecific mtDNA genetic variation in 41 Amazonian forest understory species belonging to 36 genera and 17 families in 6 orders, using 758 individual samples from Ecuador and French Guiana. For 13 of these species, we also analyzed trans-Andean populations from the Ecuadorian Chocó. A consistent pattern of deep intraspecific divergence among trans-Amazonian haplogroups was found for 33 of the 41 taxa, and genetic differentiation and genetic diversity among them was highly variable, suggesting a complex range of evolutionary histories. Mean sequence divergence within families was the same as that found in North American birds (13%), yet mean intraspecific divergence in Neotropical species was an order of magnitude larger (2.13% vs. 0.23%), with mean distance between intraspecific lineages reaching 3.56%. We found no clear relationship between genetic distances and differentiation in plumage color. Our results identify numerous genetically and phenotypically divergent lineages which may result in new species-level designations upon closer taxonomic scrutiny and thorough sampling, although lineages in the tropical region could be older than those in the temperate zone without necessarily representing separate species. In-depth phylogeographic surveys

  20. Associations between primates and other mammals in a central Amazonian forest landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugaasen, Torbjørn; Peres, Carlos A

    2008-07-01

    Little information exists on mixed-species groups between primates and other mammals in Neotropical forests. In this paper, we describe three such associations observed during an extensive large-vertebrate survey in central Amazonia, Brazil. Mixed-species groups between a primate species and another mammal were observed on seven occasions between squirrel monkeys (Saimiri cf. ustus) and either South American coatis (Nasua nasua) or tayras (Eira barbara) and between brown capuchins (Cebus apella) and coatis. All associations were restricted to floodplain forest during its dry stage. We suggest that the associations involving the coatis are connected to foraging and vigilance but may be induced by a common alternative food resource at a time of food shortage. PMID:18306981

  1. Above- and below-ground net primary productivity across ten Amazonian forests on contrasting soils

    OpenAIRE

    L. E. O. C. Aragão; Malhi, Y.; Metcalfe, D.B; Silva-Espejo, J. E.; E. Jiménez; Navarrete, D.; Almeida, S.; Costa, A. C. L.; N. Salinas; O. L. Phillips; L. O. Anderson; Alvarez, E.; T. R. Baker; P. H. Goncalvez; J. Huamán-Ovalle

    2009-01-01

    The net primary productivity (NPP) of tropical forests is one of the most important and least quantified components of the global carbon cycle. Most relevant studies have focused particularly on the quantification of the above-ground coarse wood productivity, and little is known about the carbon fluxes involved in other elements of the NPP, the partitioning of total NPP between its above- and below-ground components and the main environmental drivers of these patterns. In this study we quanti...

  2. Slow Growth Rates of Amazonian Trees: Consequences for Carbon Sequestration and Forest Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, S. A.; Camargo, P. B.; Selhorst, D.; Chambers, J.; Higuchi, N.; Martinelli, L. A.; Trumbore, S.

    2004-12-01

    Growth rates for tropical forest trees estimated from radiocarbon ages and dendrometer measurements illustrate differences in forest age and structure among three sites located in the eastern, central and western Amazon basin. Although growth rates vary dramatically among individual trees overall the slowest growing trees (averaging \\sim0.1mm yr-1 as opposed to 0.3mm yr-1 diameter increment) are found in the central Amazon. Small individuals (DBH \\500 yr are encountered at all sites. Only \\sim2MgC ha-1 year-1, or \\SIM7% of annual photosynthesis, is allocated to growth of living wood at the eastern and central Amazon sites. Rates of C allocation to stem growth are similar across the three sites we studied because slowest growth occurs at the central Amazon site that has highest stem density and greatest biomass. Extrapolating our growth increment data to forest stand, we estimate the mean age of individual trees is \\SIM350 years in the central Amazon but \\SIM200\\-250 years in the other two areas. The mean age of C making up the trees has a smaller range of \\SIM250\\-310 years, because of the greater fraction of biomass in larger individuals in the eastern and western Amazon sites. These residence times for C are longer than those of 100\\-180 years obtained by simply dividing the total biomass C by the rate of C allocation to new wood for the same reason. We estimate that >20% of trees at all sites should have ages >300 years, and that maximum tree ages of >1000 years, though not common, are in accord with the growth rates we find. The fact that many Amazon trees attain ages greater than several centuries should be accounted for in management practices in these forests.

  3. Integrating regional and continental scale comparisons of tree composition in Amazonian terra firme forests

    OpenAIRE

    E. N. Honorio Coronado; Baker, T. R.; Phillips, O.L.; Pitman, N. C. A.; Pennington, R. T.; R. Vásquez Martínez; A. Monteagudo; H. Mogollón; N. Dávila Cardozo; M. Ríos; García-Villacorta, R.; Valderrama, E.; M. Ahuite; I. Huamantupa; Neill, D. A.

    2009-01-01

    We contrast regional and continental-scale comparisons of the floristic composition of terra firme forest in South Amazonia, using 55 plots across Amazonia and a subset of 30 plots from northern Peru and Ecuador. Firstly, we examine the floristic patterns using both genus- or species-level data and find that the species-level analysis more clearly distinguishes different plot clusters. Secondly, we compare the patterns and causes of floristic differences at regional and continental scales. At...

  4. A comparative study of the soil solution chemistry of two Amazonian forest soils (Central Amazonia, Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    CORNU, S.; Ambrosi, J.P.; Lucas, Y.; Fevrier, D.

    1997-01-01

    Analyses of the chemical composition of rapidly percolating soil water were used to study the genesis of a shallow podzol in a Campinarana forest and a clayey ferralsol from a typical rainforest located in North Manaus (Amazonia, Brazil). The samples were collected in lysimeters and analysed for Ca2+, Na+, K+, NH4+, SO42-, NO3-, Fe, Si, and Al. A large percentage of the nutrients was recycled in the upper 4...

  5. Human population and socioeconomic modulators of conservation performance in 788 Amazonian and Atlantic Forest reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Marques, Ana Alice B; Schneider, Mauricio; Peres, Carlos A

    2016-01-01

    Protected areas form a quintessential component of the global strategy to perpetuate tropical biodiversity within relatively undisturbed wildlands, but they are becoming increasingly isolated by rapid agricultural encroachment. Here we consider a network of 788 forest protected areas (PAs) in the world's largest tropical country to examine the degree to which they remain intact, and their responses to multiple biophysical and socioeconomic variables potentially affecting natural habitat loss under varying contexts of rural development. PAs within the complex Brazilian National System of Conservation Units (SNUC) are broken down into two main classes-strictly protected and sustainable use. Collectively, these account for 22.6% of the forest biomes within Brazil's national territory, primarily within the Amazon and the Atlantic Forest, but are widely variable in size, ecoregional representation, management strategy, and the degree to which they are threatened by human activities both within and outside reserve boundaries. In particular, we examine the variation in habitat conversion rates in both strictly protected and sustainable use reserves as a function of the internal and external human population density, and levels of land-use revenue in adjacent human-dominated landscapes. Our results show that PAs surrounded by heavily settled agro-pastoral landscapes face much greater challenges in retaining their natural vegetation, and that strictly protected areas are considerably less degraded than sustainable use reserves, which can rival levels of habitat degradation within adjacent 10-km buffer areas outside. PMID:27478703

  6. Pollen and seed flow patterns of Carapa guianensis Aublet. (Meliaceae in two types of Amazonian forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Martins

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Various factors affect spatial genetic structure in plant populations, including adult density and primary and secondary seed dispersal mechanisms. We evaluated pollen and seed dispersal distances and spatial genetic structure of Carapa guianensis Aublet. (Meliaceae in occasionally inundated and terra firme forest environments that differed in tree densities and secondary seed dispersal agents. We used parentage analysis to obtain contemporary gene flow estimates and assessed the spatial genetic structure of adults and juveniles. Despite the higher density of adults (diameter at breast height ; 25 cm and spatial aggregation in occasionally inundated forest, the average pollen dispersal distance was similar in both types of forest (195 ± 106min terra firme and 175 ± 87 m in occasionally inundated plots. Higher seed flow rates (36.7% of juveniles were from outside the plot and distances (155 ± 84 m were found in terra firme compared to the occasionally inundated plot (25.4% and 114 ± 69 m. There was a weak spatial genetic structure in juveniles and in terra firme adults. These results indicate that inundation may not have had a significant role in seed dispersal in the occasionally inundated plot, probably because of the higher levels of seedling mortality.

  7. Millennial-Scale ITCZ Variability in the Tropical Atlantic and Dynamics of Amazonian Rain Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Auler, A. S.; Edwards, R. L.; Cheng, H.; Shen, C.; Smart, P. L.; Richards, D. A.

    2003-12-01

    Precipitation in the Amazon Basin is largely related to the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) in the tropical Atlantic which undergoes a regular seasonal migration. We chose a site south of the present day rainforest in semiarid northeastern Brazil, in order to study the timing of pluvial periods when the southern extend of the ITCZ would have been much further south than today. Shifts in the ITCZ position may have influenced the dynamics of rain forest and species diversity. We collected speleothems from northern Bahia state, located southeast of Amazonia. Age determinations with U-series dating methods show that samples grew rapidly during relatively short intervals (several hundreds of years) of glacial periods in the last 210 kyr. In addition, paleopluvial phases delineated by speleothem growth intervals show millennial-scale variations. Pluvial phases coincide with the timing of weak East Asian summer monsoon intensities (Wang et al., 2001, Science 294: 2345-2348), which have been correlated to the timing of stadials in Greenland ice core records and Heinrich events (Bond and Lotti, 1995, Science 267: 1005-1010). Furthermore, these intervals correspond to the periods of light color reflectance of Cariaco Basin sediments from ODP Hole 1002C (Peterson et al., 2000, Science, 290: 1947-1951), which was suggested to be caused by a southward shift of the northernmost position of the ITCZ and decreased rainfall in this region. Abrupt precipitation changes in northeastern Brazil may be due to the southward displacement of the southernmost position of the ITCZ associated with atmosphere-ocean circulation changes caused by (1) an increase in northern high latitude-tropical temperature gradient (Chiang et al., 2003, Paleoceanography, in press), and/or (2) the bipolar seesaw mechanism (Broecker et al., 1998, Paleoceanography 13: 119-121) during these Heinrich events. Pluvial phases are also coincident with higher insolation at 10° S during austral autumn. This

  8. Measurements of soil respiration and simple models dependent on moisture and temperature for an Amazonian southwest tropical forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. B. Zanchi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil respiration plays a significant role in the carbon cycle of Amazonian tropical forests, although in situ measurements have only been poorly reported and the dependence of soil moisture and soil temperature also weakly understood. This work investigates the temporal variability of soil respiration using field measurements, which also included soil moisture, soil temperature and litterfall, from April 2003 to January 2004, in a southwest Brazilian tropical rainforest near Ji-Paraná, Rondônia. The experimental design deployed five automatic (static, semi-opened soil chambers connected to an infra-red CO2 gas analyzer. The mean half-hourly soil respiration showed a large scattering from 0.6 to 18.9 μmol CO2 m−2 s−1 and the average was 8.0±3.4 μmol CO2 m−2 s−1. Soil respiration varied seasonally, being lower in the dry season and higher in the wet season, which generally responded positively to the variation of soil moisture and temperature year round. The peak was reached in the dry-to-wet season transition (September, this coincided with increasing sunlight, evapotranspiration and ecosystem productivity. Litterfall processes contributed to meet very favorable conditions for biomass decomposition in early wet season, especially the fresh litter on the forest floor accumulated during the dry season. We attempted to fit three models with the data: the exponential Q10 model, the Reichstein model, and the log-soil moisture model. The models do not contradict the scattering of observations, but poorly explain the variance of the half-hourly data, which is improved when the lag-time days averaging is longer. The observations suggested an optimum range of soil moisture, between 0.115<θ≤0.25 m3 m−3, which maximize soil respiration in an approximated non-linear relationship. The Q10 coefficient was

  9. Measurements of soil respiration and simple models dependent on moisture and temperature for an Amazonian southwest tropical forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchi, F. B.; Da Rocha, H. R.; de Freitas, H. C.; Kruijt, B.; Waterloo, M. J.; Manzi, A. O.

    2009-06-01

    Soil respiration plays a significant role in the carbon cycle of Amazonian tropical forests, although in situ measurements have only been poorly reported and the dependence of soil moisture and soil temperature also weakly understood. This work investigates the temporal variability of soil respiration using field measurements, which also included soil moisture, soil temperature and litterfall, from April 2003 to January 2004, in a southwest Brazilian tropical rainforest near Ji-Paraná, Rondônia. The experimental design deployed five automatic (static, semi-opened) soil chambers connected to an infra-red CO2 gas analyzer. The mean half-hourly soil respiration showed a large scattering from 0.6 to 18.9 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1 and the average was 8.0±3.4 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1. Soil respiration varied seasonally, being lower in the dry season and higher in the wet season, which generally responded positively to the variation of soil moisture and temperature year round. The peak was reached in the dry-to-wet season transition (September), this coincided with increasing sunlight, evapotranspiration and ecosystem productivity. Litterfall processes contributed to meet very favorable conditions for biomass decomposition in early wet season, especially the fresh litter on the forest floor accumulated during the dry season. We attempted to fit three models with the data: the exponential Q10 model, the Reichstein model, and the log-soil moisture model. The models do not contradict the scattering of observations, but poorly explain the variance of the half-hourly data, which is improved when the lag-time days averaging is longer. The observations suggested an optimum range of soil moisture, between 0.115<θ≤0.25 m3 m-3, which maximize soil respiration in an approximated non-linear relationship. The Q10 coefficient was overestimated and may lead to erroneous calculation at warmer temperatures, which is of concern for global climate models deploying simple parameterizations under

  10. Diet and prey availability of terrestrial insectivorous birds prone to extinction in amazonian forest fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto Macedo Mestre

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study compared niche breath, prey size, and diet variability in two pairs of sympatric species of terrestrial insectivorous birds, each pair containing one species that can persist in small forest fragments and one that does not. The pairs were Myrmeciza ferruginea and Sclerurus rufigularis; and Formicarius colma and F. analis, respectively. The prey availability in forest fragments was also sampled and compared to the availability in continuous forests. Niche breath indices did not differ between pair members, but diet variability differed in the opposite direction from that hypothesized. Although the two bird species most vulnerable to fragmentation fed on larger prey than less vulnerable species, prey availability, including that based on prey size did not differ among fragmented versus continuous forest sites. Thus, diet per se appeared not to be an important cause of extinction-proneness in these species. The simplest explanation proposed, that vulnerability to fragmentation was directly related to territory size, requires testing. However, it was consistent with observations that the bird species feeding on larger prey also need larger territories.Dieta e disponibilidade de presas de aves insetívoras terrestres em fragmentos florestais amazônicos. As aves insetívoras terrestres são um dos grupos mais vulneráveis à fragmentação de florestas tropicais; no entanto algumas espécies desta guilda ainda sobrevivem em fragmentos florestais e em florestas secundárias. Se a sensibilidade destas aves à fragmentação de florestas estivesse associada à dieta, então espécies com a dieta relativamente flexível teriam maior propensão em persistir nos fragmentos florestais. Este estudo comparou sobreposição trófica, amplitude de nicho, tamanho de presas e variabilidade de dieta de dois pares de espécies de aves insetívoras terrestres, onde cada par foi composto por uma espécie que persiste nos fragmentos e outra que n

  11. Species composition and reproductive modes of anurans from a transitional Amazonian forest, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youszef O. C. Bitar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to describe the species composition and reproductive modes of an anuran community from a transition area between the Amazonia and Cerrado biomes. Data were collected in habitats exhibiting different degrees of anthropogenic degradation. The community (35 species identified during the present study presented a larger number of reproductive modes when compared with those from Cerrado communities, but smaller than those of other sites in the Amazon. While all nine modes were recorded in the gallery forests of local rivers and streams, anthropogenic habitats (rubber tree orchards and soybean fields were occupied only by species adapted to environments where humidity is low, typical of the Cerrado. Overall, the anuran fauna of the study area was characterized by species that depend on access to water bodies for their reproduction, with only a few specialized species able to reproduce in dry environments.

  12. Tree Diametric Increment and Litterfall Production in an Eastern Amazonian Forest: the Role of Functional Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, P. B. D.; Ferreira, M. L.; Oliveira Junior, R. C.; Saleska, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    Tree growth is a biotic variable of great importance in understanding the dynamics of tree communities and may be used as a tool in studies of biological or climate modeling. Some climate models predict more recurrent climate anomalies in this century, which may alter the functioning of tropical forests with serious structural and demographic implications. The present study aimed to evaluate the profile of tree growth and litterfall production in an eastern Amazon forest, which has suffered recent climatic disturbances. We contrasted different functional groups based on wood density (stem with 0.55; 0.56-0.7; >0.7 g cm-3), light availability (crown illumination index; high illuminated crown - IIC1 until shaded crown - IIC5), and, size class (trees 10-22.5; 22.6-35; 35.1-55; 55,1-90; >90 cm dbh). Tree diameter increment was monthly measured from November 2011 to September 2013 by using dendrometer bands installed on 850 individuals from different families. Litterfall was collected in 64 circular traps, oven dried and weighed, separated into leaves, twigs, reproductive parts and miscellaneous. During the rainy season the sampled trees had the highest rates of tree diametric increment. When analyzing the data by functional groups, large trees had faster growth, but when grouped by wood density, trees with wood density up to 0.55 and between 0.56 and 0.7 g cm-3 had the fastest rates of growth. When grouped by crown illumination index, trees exposed to higher levels of light grew more in comparison to partially shaded trees. Maximum daily air temperature and precipitation were the most important environmental variables in determining the diametric increment profile of the trees. Litterfall production was estimated to be 7.1 Mg ha-1.year-1 and showed a strong seasonal pattern, with dry season production being higher than in the rainy season. Leaves formed the largest fraction of the litterfall, followed by twigs, reproductive parts, and finally miscellaneous. These

  13. Tests of biogeographic hypotheses for diversification in the Amazonian forest frog, Physalaemus petersi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, W Chris; Caldwell, Janalee P; Peden, Colin E; Padial, José M; De la Riva, Ignacio; Cannatella, David C

    2007-08-01

    Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the biogeographic processes that generate the high species richness of the Amazon basin. We tested two of them in a terra firme (upland) forest frog species, Physalaemus petersi: (1) the riverine barrier hypothesis; and (2) the elevational gradient hypothesis. Mitochondrial DNA sequence data (2.4 kb) from the 12S, 16S, and intervening valine tRNA genes were obtained from 65 P. petersi individuals and 4 outgroup taxa and analyzed with a combination of phylogenetic and population genetic approaches. Moderate support for the riverine barrier hypothesis was found for one of the three rivers examined, but little evidence was found for the elevational gradient hypothesis. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that high levels of sequence divergence (an average of 4.57-4.79%) separate three well-supported clades from the northwestern, southwestern, and eastern Amazon. Strong evidence for recent population expansion in P. petersi in the southwestern region of the Amazon basin was also uncovered. PMID:17383904

  14. Cultural attitudes are stronger predictors of bushmeat consumption and preference than economic factors among urban Amazonians from Brazil and Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Morsello

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bushmeat consumption persists in urban areas in the Neotropics, yet knowledge of its scale and the relative importance of cultural and economic factors in determining consumption and preference remain elusive. Moreover, the roles of cultural beliefs, social norms, and attitudes in driving urban bushmeat consumption are rarely evaluated. Therefore, we explored in this article the factors that influence consumption and preference for bushmeat in Amazonian towns. Given the availability of other sources of animal protein and the cultural and social importance of bushmeat in the region, we hypothesized that cultural attributes should be better predictors than economic factors of bushmeat consumption and preference. Data analysis involved fitting two-level mixed-effects regressions (random intercepts to a structured sample of 227 individuals (99 households from four towns in the Brazilian (Tabatinga and Atalaia do Norte and Colombian (Leticia and Puerto Nariño Amazon. The results indicate that a third of the interviewees had consumed bushmeat in the past month, which had primarily been harvested by the family or received as a gift rather than obtained through trade. In general, both economic and cultural factors predicted bushmeat consumption and preference, but the objective proxy for culture, individual origin, was unimportant. Among the tested indicators, the strongest predictor was the importance of bushmeat to social relations. Moreover, informal social norms, such as the greater importance attributed to taboos, tended to decrease the average number of wild species that a person would eat, whereas attitudes toward the illegality of hunting were less important. The two economic indicators, increased income and wealth, tended to decrease preference for bushmeat and the likelihood of consumption. Our findings highlight the importance of human beliefs, attitudes, and social norms to the understanding of bushmeat consumption and preference and may

  15. Niche partitioning among frugivorous fishes in response to fluctuating resources in the Amazonian floodplain forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Sandra Bibiana; Winemiller, Kirk O

    2014-01-01

    In response to temporal changes in the quality and availability of food resources, consumers should adjust their foraging behavior in a manner that maximizes energy and nutrient intake and, when resources are limiting, minimizes dietary overlap with other consumers. Floodplains of the Amazon and its lowland tributaries are characterized by strong, yet predictable, hydrological seasonality, seasonal availability of fruits, seeds, and other food resources of terrestrial origin, and diverse assemblages of frugivorous fishes, including morphologically similar species of several characiform families. Here, we investigated how diets of frugivorous fishes in the Amazon change in response to fluctuations in food availability, and how this influences patterns of interspecific dietary overlap. We tested predictions from classical theories of foraging and resource competition by estimating changes in diet breadth and overlap across seasons. We monitored fruiting phenology to assess food availability, and surveyed local fish populations during three hydrological seasons in an oligotrophic river and an adjacent oxbow lake in the Colombian Amazon. We analyzed stomach contents and stable isotope data to evaluate temporal and interspecific relationships for dietary composition, breadth, and overlap. Diets of six species of characiform fishes representing three genera changed according to seasonal fluctuations in food availability, and patterns of diet breadth and interspecific overlap during the peak flood pulse were consistent with predictions of optimal foraging theory. During times of high fruit abundance, fishes consumed items to which their functional morphological traits seemed best adapted, potentially enhancing net energy and nutritional gains. As the annual flood pulse subsided and availability of forest food resources in aquatic habitats changed, there was not a consistent pattern of diet breadth expansion or compression. Nonetheless, shifts in both diet composition and

  16. Spatially-Explicit Testing of a General Aboveground Carbon Density Estimation Model in a Western Amazonian Forest Using Airborne LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Xavier Molina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mapping aboveground carbon density in tropical forests can support CO2 emission monitoring and provide benefits for national resource management. Although LiDAR technology has been shown to be useful for assessing carbon density patterns, the accuracy and generality of calibrations of LiDAR-based aboveground carbon density (ACD predictions with those obtained from field inventory techniques should be intensified in order to advance tropical forest carbon mapping. Here we present results from the application of a general ACD estimation model applied with small-footprint LiDAR data and field-based estimates of a 50-ha forest plot in Ecuador’s Yasuní National Park. Subplots used for calibration and validation of the general LiDAR equation were selected based on analysis of topographic position and spatial distribution of aboveground carbon stocks. The results showed that stratification of plot locations based on topography can improve the calibration and application of ACD estimation using airborne LiDAR (R2 = 0.94, RMSE = 5.81 Mg·C·ha−1, BIAS = 0.59. These results strongly suggest that a general LiDAR-based approach can be used for mapping aboveground carbon stocks in western lowland Amazonian forests.

  17. The effects of processing non-timber forest products and trade partnerships on people's well-being and forest conservation in Amazonian societies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Morsello

    Full Text Available This study evaluated whether processing non-timber forest products (NTFPs and establishing trade partnerships between forest communities and companies enhance the outcomes of NTFP commercialization. In particular, we evaluated whether product processing, partnerships, or their combination was associated with a number of outcomes related to the well-being of forest inhabitants and forest conservation. We based our analyses on ethnographic and quantitative data (i.e., survey and systematic observations gathered at seven communities from five societies of the Brazilian and Bolivian Amazon. Our results indicated that product processing and partnerships do not represent a silver bullet able to improve the results of NTFP commercialization in terms of well-being and conservation indicators. Compared with cases without interventions, households adopting partnerships but not product processing were most often associated with improved economic proxies of well-being (total income, NTFP income, food consumption and gender equality in income. In comparison, the combination of product processing and partnerships was associated with similar outcomes. Unexpectedly, product processing alone was associated with negative outcomes in the economic indicators of well-being. All of the investigated strategies were associated with less time spent in social and cultural activities. With respect to forest conservation, the strategies that included a partnership with or without processing produced similar results: while household deforestation tended to decrease, the hunting impact increased. Processing alone was also associated with higher levels of hunting, though it did not reduce deforestation. Our results indicate that establishing partnerships may enhance the outcomes of NTFP trade in terms of the financial outcomes of local communities, but practitioners need to use caution when adopting the processing strategy and they need to evaluate potential negative results

  18. Trends in the use of tissue culture in forest improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haissig, B.E.; Nelson, N.D.; Kidd, G.H.

    1987-01-01

    We have analyzed and described the problems and potentials of using tissue culture in micropropagation and biotechnologies related to forest improvement. Trends in forest management concepts, commerical micropropagation, and tissue culture biotechnologies are discussed. Our analysis suggests that tissue culture will contribute significantly to the improvement of forests through exploitation of existing genotypes and production of new, commercially valuble genotypes. Such changes may significantly influence worldwide management decisions in forestry. 97 references.

  19. Factors Affecting the Abundance of Leaf-Litter Arthropods in Unburned and Thrice-Burned Seasonally-Dry Amazonian Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Silveira, Juliana M.; Barlow, Jos; Louzada, Julio; Moutinho, Paulo

    2010-01-01

    Fire is frequently used as a land management tool for cattle ranching and annual crops in the Amazon. However, these maintenance fires often escape into surrounding forests, with potentially severe impacts for forest biodiversity. We examined the effect of experimental fires on leaf-litter arthropod abundance in a seasonally-dry forest in the Brazilian Amazon. The study plots (50 ha each) included a thrice-burned forest and an unburned control forest. Pitfall-trap samples were collected at 16...

  20. Activity and abundance of methane-oxidizing bacteria in secondary forest and manioc plantations of Amazonian Dark Earth and their adjacent soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda eBarbosa Lima

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The oxidation of atmospheric CH4 in upland soils is mostly mediated by uncultivated groups of microorganisms that have been identified solely by molecular markers, such as the sequence of the pmoA gene encoding the β-subunit of the particulate methane monooxygenase enzyme. The objective of this work was to compare the activity and diversity of methanotrophs in Amazonian Dark Earth soil (ADE, Hortic Anthrosol and their adjacent non-anthropic soil. Secondly, the effect of land use in the form of manioc cultivation was examined by comparing secondary forest and plantation soils. CH4 oxidation potentials were measured and the structure of the methanotroph communities assessed by qPCR and amplicon pyrosequencing of pmoA genes. The oxidation potentials at low CH4 concentrations (10 ppm of volume were relatively high in all the secondary forest sites of both ADE and adjacent soils. CH4 oxidation by the ADE soil only recently converted to a manioc plantation was also relatively high. In contrast, both the adjacent soils used for manioc cultivation and the ADE soil with a long history of agriculture displayed lower CH4 uptake rates. Amplicon pyrosequencing of pmoA genes indicated that USCα, Methylocystis and the tropical upland soil cluster (TUSC were the dominant groups depending on the site. By qPCR analysis it was found that USCα pmoA genes, which are believed to belong to atmospheric CH4 oxidizers, were more abundant in ADE than adjacent soil. USCα pmoA genes were abundant in both forested and cultivated ADE soil, but were below the qPCR detection limit in manioc plantations of adjacent soil. The results indicate that ADE soils can harbor high abundances of atmospheric CH4 oxidizers and are potential CH4 sinks, but as in other upland soils this activity can be inhibited by the conversion of forest to agricultural plantations.

  1. Root niche separation can explain avoidance of seasonal drought stress and vulnerability of overstory trees to extended drought in a mature Amazonian forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Valeriy Y.; Hutyra, Lucy R.; Wofsy, Steven C.; Munger, J. William; Saleska, Scott R.; de Oliveira, Raimundo C., Jr.; de Camargo, Plínio B.

    2012-12-01

    Large areas of Amazonian evergreen forest experience seasonal droughts extending for three or more months, yet show maximum rates of photosynthesis and evapotranspiration during dry intervals. This apparent resilience is belied by disproportionate mortality of the large trees in manipulations that reduce wet season rainfall, occurring after 2-3 years of treatment. The goal of this study is to characterize the mechanisms that produce these contrasting ecosystem responses. A mechanistic model is developed based on the ecohydrological framework of TIN (Triangulated Irregular Network)-based Real Time Integrated Basin Simulator + Vegetation Generator for Interactive Evolution (tRIBS+VEGGIE). The model is used to test the roles of deep roots and soil capillary flux to provide water to the forest during the dry season. Also examined is the importance of "root niche separation," in which roots of overstory trees extend to depth, where during the dry season they use water stored from wet season precipitation, while roots of understory trees are concentrated in shallow layers that access dry season precipitation directly. Observational data from the Tapajós National Forest, Brazil, were used as meteorological forcing and provided comprehensive observational constraints on the model. Results strongly suggest that deep roots with root niche separation adaptations explain both the observed resilience during seasonal drought and the vulnerability of canopy-dominant trees to extended deficits of wet season rainfall. These mechanisms appear to provide an adaptive strategy that enhances productivity of the largest trees in the face of their disproportionate heat loads and water demand in the dry season. A sensitivity analysis exploring how wet season rainfall affects the stability of the rainforest system is presented.

  2. Culture, worldviews, communication styles, and conflict in forest management

    OpenAIRE

    Morford, S.; Parker, D.; Rogers, H.; Salituro, C.; Waldichuk, T.

    2003-01-01

    This paper explores culture, worldviews, communication styles, and conflict among stakeholders in forest and natural resource management. It addresses the fact that forest managers and stakeholders often speak about forest resources very differently, and it makes suggestions for improving communication among them. It also reviews the history of the development of worldviews regarding the environment. The paper draws from studies of environmental perception, conflict, and communications. A cen...

  3. Challenges of Governing Second-Growth Forests: A Case Study from the Brazilian Amazonian State of Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ima Célia Guimarães Vieira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite the growing ecological and social importance of second-growth and regenerating forests across much of the world, significant inconsistencies remain in the legal framework governing these forests in many tropical countries and elsewhere. Such inconsistencies and uncertainties undermine attempts to improve both the transparency and sustainability of management regimes. Here, we present a case-study overview of some of the main challenges facing the governance of second-growth forests and the forest restoration process in the Brazilian Amazon, with a focus on the state of Pará, which is both the most populous state in the Amazon and the state with the highest rates of deforestation in recent years. First, we briefly review the history of environmental governance in Brazil that has led to the current system of legislation governing second-growth forests and the forest restoration process in Pará. Next, we draw on this review to examine the kinds of legislative and operational impediments that stand in the way of the development and implementation of a more effective governance system. In particular, we highlight problems created by significant ambiguities in legal terminology and inconsistencies in guidance given across different levels of government. We also outline some persistent problems with the implementation of legal guidance, including the need to understand local biophysical factors in order to guide an effective restoration program, as well as difficulties presented by access to technical assistance, institutional support and financial resources for the establishment and monitoring of both existing secondary forests and newly regenerating areas of forest. Whilst we focus here on a Brazilian case study, we suggest that these kinds of impediments to the good governance of second-growth forests are commonplace and require more concerted attention from researchers, managers and policy makers.

  4. The impact of smoke from forest fires on the spectral dispersion of cloud droplet size distributions in the Amazonian region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the main microphysical characteristics of clouds developing in polluted and clean conditions in the biomass-burning season of the Amazon region are examined, with special attention to the spectral dispersion of the cloud droplet size distribution and its potential impact on climate modeling applications. The dispersion effect has been shown to alter the climate cooling predicted by the so-called Twomey effect. In biomass-burning polluted conditions, high concentrations of low dispersed cloud droplets are found. Clean conditions revealed an opposite situation. The liquid water content (0.43 ± 0.19 g m-3) is shown to be uncorrelated with the cloud drop number concentration, while the effective radius is found to be very much correlated with the relative dispersion of the size distribution (R2 = 0.81). The results suggest that an increase in cloud condensation nuclei concentration from biomass-burning aerosols may lead to an additional effect caused by a decrease in relative dispersion. Since the dry season in the Amazonian region is vapor limiting, the dispersion effect of cloud droplet size distributions could be substantially larger than in other polluted regions.

  5. [Spatial distribution of Cordyceps spp. (Ascomycotina: Clavicipitaceae) and its impact on the ants in forests of Amazonian Colombian foothill].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjuán, T; Guillermo Henao, L; Amat, G

    2001-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi of the genus Cordyceps were sampled in the foothills of the Colombian Amazon region (450-600 msnm altitude. January and May, 1998, i.e. dry and wet seasons, respectively). Healthy and Cordyceps-parasitized ants from a nearly pristine, a naturally disturbed and a human-disturbed forests were collected on 100 quadrants (1 m2) per forest. Litter, shrubs and trunks were explored as substrates, and samples were gathered in vertical strata from 50 cm to 2 m high. Azteca was the predominant ant genus in near pristine forest whereas Camponotus, Pheidole and Crematogaster were dominant in disturbed forests. In the naturally disturbed forest we found 759 individuals of Cordyceps unilateralis and 69 of C. lloydii var. binata parasitizing Camponotus spp. (Formicidae: Formicinae), whereas C. kniphofioides var. ponerinarum and C. australis were found only in six cases infecting the ants Paraponera clavata and Pachycondila crassinoda (Formicidae: Ponerinae). In the human disturbed forest it were found 34 individuals of C. unilateralis on Camponotus. In the near pristine forest we did not find parasitized ants. The Camponotus spp. ants parasitized by C. unilateralis and C. lloydii var. binata were found predominantly in the substratum foliage up to 1 m. It was concluded that the incidence of Cordyceps-ant interactions is not influenced by the conservation status of the forest. Instead, relative humidity and presence/absence of host ants appear to be key factors. Also, the microspatial distribution of the interactions seems to follow a definite pattern. This work observations support the hypothesis on coevolution of dispersion mechanisms in Cordyceps and ant pheromonal codes. PMID:12189826

  6. Factors affecting the abundance of leaf-litter arthropods in unburned and thrice-burned seasonally-dry Amazonian forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana M Silveira

    Full Text Available Fire is frequently used as a land management tool for cattle ranching and annual crops in the Amazon. However, these maintenance fires often escape into surrounding forests, with potentially severe impacts for forest biodiversity. We examined the effect of experimental fires on leaf-litter arthropod abundance in a seasonally-dry forest in the Brazilian Amazon. The study plots (50 ha each included a thrice-burned forest and an unburned control forest. Pitfall-trap samples were collected at 160 randomly selected points in both plots, with sampling stratified across four intra-annual replicates across the dry and wet seasons, corresponding to 6, 8, 10 and 12 months after the most recent fire. Arthropods were identified to the level of order (separating Formicidae. In order to better understand the processes that determine arthropod abundance in thrice-burned forests, we measured canopy openness, understory density and litter depth. All arthropod taxa were significantly affected by fire and season. In addition, the interactions between burn treatment and season were highly significant for all taxa but Isoptera. The burned plot was characterized by a more open canopy, lower understory density and shallower litter depth. Hierarchical partitioning revealed that canopy openness was the most important factor explaining arthropod order abundances in the thrice-burned plot, whereas all three environmental variables were significant in the unburned control plot. These results reveal the marked impact of recurrent wildfires and seasonality on litter arthropods in this transitional forest, and demonstrate the overwhelming importance of canopy-openness in driving post-fire arthropod abundance.

  7. Factors affecting the abundance of leaf-litter arthropods in unburned and thrice-burned seasonally-dry Amazonian forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Juliana M; Barlow, Jos; Louzada, Julio; Moutinho, Paulo

    2010-01-01

    Fire is frequently used as a land management tool for cattle ranching and annual crops in the Amazon. However, these maintenance fires often escape into surrounding forests, with potentially severe impacts for forest biodiversity. We examined the effect of experimental fires on leaf-litter arthropod abundance in a seasonally-dry forest in the Brazilian Amazon. The study plots (50 ha each) included a thrice-burned forest and an unburned control forest. Pitfall-trap samples were collected at 160 randomly selected points in both plots, with sampling stratified across four intra-annual replicates across the dry and wet seasons, corresponding to 6, 8, 10 and 12 months after the most recent fire. Arthropods were identified to the level of order (separating Formicidae). In order to better understand the processes that determine arthropod abundance in thrice-burned forests, we measured canopy openness, understory density and litter depth. All arthropod taxa were significantly affected by fire and season. In addition, the interactions between burn treatment and season were highly significant for all taxa but Isoptera. The burned plot was characterized by a more open canopy, lower understory density and shallower litter depth. Hierarchical partitioning revealed that canopy openness was the most important factor explaining arthropod order abundances in the thrice-burned plot, whereas all three environmental variables were significant in the unburned control plot. These results reveal the marked impact of recurrent wildfires and seasonality on litter arthropods in this transitional forest, and demonstrate the overwhelming importance of canopy-openness in driving post-fire arthropod abundance. PMID:20877720

  8. Low-frequency modulation of the atmospheric surface layer over Amazonian rain forest and its implication for similarity relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randow, von C.; Kruijt, B.; Holtslag, A.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    The application of Monin-Obukhov similarity theory (MOS) is based on empirical relationships derived over uniform surfaces in flat terrain. It is not clear to what extent these relationships hold for complex surfaces such as tropical forest or hilly terrain. This study investigates the influence of

  9. Predicting biomass of hyperdiverse and structurally complex central Amazonian forests - a virtual approach using extensive field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnabosco Marra, Daniel; Higuchi, Niro; Trumbore, Susan E.; Ribeiro, Gabriel H. P. M.; dos Santos, Joaquim; Carneiro, Vilany M. C.; Lima, Adriano J. N.; Chambers, Jeffrey Q.; Negrón-Juárez, Robinson I.; Holzwarth, Frederic; Reu, Björn; Wirth, Christian

    2016-03-01

    Old-growth forests are subject to substantial changes in structure and species composition due to the intensification of human activities, gradual climate change and extreme weather events. Trees store ca. 90 % of the total aboveground biomass (AGB) in tropical forests and precise tree biomass estimation models are crucial for management and conservation. In the central Amazon, predicting AGB at large spatial scales is a challenging task due to the heterogeneity of successional stages, high tree species diversity and inherent variations in tree allometry and architecture. We parameterized generic AGB estimation models applicable across species and a wide range of structural and compositional variation related to species sorting into height layers as well as frequent natural disturbances. We used 727 trees (diameter at breast height ≥ 5 cm) from 101 genera and at least 135 species harvested in a contiguous forest near Manaus, Brazil. Sampling from this data set we assembled six scenarios designed to span existing gradients in floristic composition and size distribution in order to select models that best predict AGB at the landscape level across successional gradients. We found that good individual tree model fits do not necessarily translate into reliable predictions of AGB at the landscape level. When predicting AGB (dry mass) over scenarios using our different models and an available pantropical model, we observed systematic biases ranging from -31 % (pantropical) to +39 %, with root-mean-square error (RMSE) values of up to 130 Mg ha-1 (pantropical). Our first and second best models had both low mean biases (0.8 and 3.9 %, respectively) and RMSE (9.4 and 18.6 Mg ha-1) when applied over scenarios. Predicting biomass correctly at the landscape level in hyperdiverse and structurally complex tropical forests, especially allowing good performance at the margins of data availability for model construction/calibration, requires the inclusion of predictors that express

  10. Agricultural Systems Located in the Forest-Savanna Ecotone of the Venezuelan Amazonian. Are Organic Agroforestry Farms Sustainable?

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Yamila López-Contreras; Igor Netuzhilin; Carmen Leonor Hernández; Danilo López-Hernández

    2009-01-01

    The savannas located in the forest-savanna ecotone in the Venezuelan Amazon have unfertile sandy ultisols and entisols which show a very low crop production unless they are supplemented with large amounts of fertiliser. In spite of this restriction, local farmers have established long-term production systems by using low input doses of organic manure. The use of organic waste in unfertile ultisols and entisols typical of savannas have resulted in increases in organic matter content and biolog...

  11. The influence of soils on heterotrophic respiration exerts a strong control on net ecosystem productivity in seasonally dry Amazonian forests

    OpenAIRE

    J. R. Melton; Shrestha, R. K.; V. K. Arora

    2015-01-01

    Net ecosystem productivity of carbon (NEP) in seasonally dry forests of the Amazon varies greatly between sites with similar precipitation patterns. Correctly modeling the NEP seasonality with terrestrial ecosystem models has proven difficult. Previous modelling studies have mostly advocated for incorporating processes that act to reduce water stress on gross primary productivity (GPP) during the dry season, such as deep soils and roots, plant-mediated hydr...

  12. Single particle analysis of the accumulation mode aerosol over the northeast Amazonian tropical rain forest, Surinam, South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Krejci

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Single particle analysis of aerosols particles larger than 0.2 µm diameter was performed on 24 samples collected over Surinam tropical rain forest and in the adjacent marine boundary layer (MBL during the LBA-CLAIRE 98 campaign in March 1998. Elemental composition and morphology of 2308 particles was determined using SEM-EDX. The aerosol particles were divided into seven groups according to their chemical composition: organic particles, mineral dust, aged mineral dust, sea salt, aged sea salt, Ca-rich, and biogenic aerosol. Samples were further divided with respect to the distinct atmospheric layers present in the tropical troposphere including MBL, continental mixed layer, cloud convective layer, free troposphere and region of deep convection outflow. The organic and mineral dust particles are two major groups observed over the rainforest. In the MBL also sea salt particles represented a large fraction between 15 and 27%. The organic particles control much of the chemical characteristic of the aerosol in the continental tropical troposphere. Their abundance ranged from less than 20% in the MBL to more than 90% in the free troposphere between 4.5 and 12.6 km altitude. During the transport of the air masses from the MBL over the rain forest, fraction of organic aerosol particles more than doubled, reaching 40-60% in the continental boundary layer. This increase was attributed to direct emissions of biogenic aerosols from the tropical vegetation. The high fraction of the organic accumulation mode particles in the upper tropical troposphere could be a good indicator for the air masses originated over the tropical rain forest.

  13. Single particle analysis of the accumulation mode aerosol over the northeast Amazonian tropical rain forest, Surinam, South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Krejci

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Single particle analysis of aerosols particles larger than 0.2 μm diameter was performed on 24 samples collected over Surinam tropical rain forest and in the adjacent marine boundary layer (MBL during the LBA-CLAIRE 98 campaign in March 1998. Elemental composition and morphology of 2308 particles was determined using SEM-EDX. The aerosol particles were divided into seven groups according to their chemical composition: organic particles, mineral dust, aged mineral dust, sea salt, aged sea salt, Ca-rich, and biogenic aerosol. However the organic material in aerosol particles cannot be identified directly by SEM-EDX, we present indirect method of detection of organic material using this technique. Samples were further divided with respect to the distinct atmospheric layers present in the tropical troposphere including MBL, continental mixed layer, cloud convective layer, free troposphere and region of deep convection outflow. The organic and mineral dust particles are two major groups observed over the rainforest. In the MBL also sea salt particles represented a large fraction between 15 and 27%. The organic particles control much of the chemical characteristic of the aerosol in the continental tropical troposphere. Their abundance ranged from less than 20% in the MBL to more than 90% in the free troposphere between 4.5- and 12.6-km altitude. During the transport of the air masses from the MBL over the rain forest, fraction of organic aerosol particles more than doubled, reaching 40–60% in the continental boundary layer. This increase was attributed to direct emissions of biogenic aerosols from the tropical vegetation. The high fraction of the organic accumulation mode particles in the upper tropical troposphere could be a good indicator for the air masses originated over the tropical rain forest.

  14. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities along a pedo-hydrological gradient in a Central Amazonian terra firme forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Freitas, Rejane; Buscardo, Erika; Nagy, Laszlo; dos Santos Maciel, Alex Bruno; Carrenho, Rosilaine; Luizão, Regina C C

    2014-01-01

    Little attention has been paid to plant mutualistic interactions in the Amazon rainforest, and the general pattern of occurrence and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in these ecosystems is largely unknown. This study investigated AMF communities through their spores in soil in a 'terra firme forest' in Central Amazonia. The contribution played by abiotic factors and plant host species identity in regulating the composition, abundance and diversity of such communities along a topographic gradient with different soils and hydrology was also evaluated. Forty-one spore morphotypes were observed with species belonging to the genera Glomus and Acaulospora, representing 44 % of the total taxa. Soil texture and moisture, together with host identity, were predominant factors responsible for shaping AMF communities along the pedo-hydrological gradient. However, the variability within AMF communities was largely associated with shifts in the relative abundance of spores rather than changes in species composition, confirming that common AMF species are widely distributed in plant communities and all plants recruited into the forest are likely to be exposed to the dominant sporulating AMF species. PMID:23754540

  15. Anopheles darlingi bionomics and transmission of Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium malariae in Amerindian villages of the Upper-Maroni Amazonian forest, French Guiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Girod

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available French Guiana is one of the areas in South America most affected by malaria and where the disease has become a serious public health problem. In spite of this situation, little recent entomological data are available from the main localities where the disease occurs, even though they are crucial for development of an effective vector control strategy. A longitudinal entomological survey was carried out from March 2000-February 2002 in three Amerindian villages, namely Twenké, Taluène and Cayodé, located in the Amazonian forest of the Upper-Maroni area, to assess anopheline mosquitoes and malaria transmission dynamics. Anopheles darlingi (Diptera: Culicidae was the most abundant mosquito species caught during the study. This efficient American malaria vector was active the entire year, but showed an evident peak of abundance during the main rainfall season, from April-June, with an average human biting rate of 255.5 bites per person per night. Parity rates were homogeneous all year, indicating no significant seasonal variability in female survival rates. Estimated vectorial capacity indices were higher during the rainy season, even though the risk of transmission was present throughout the year (VCI > 1. A total of 14 An. darlingi were found infected with Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax or Plasmodium malariae. The annual circumsporozoite indices were 0.15, 0.14 and 0.05, and the entomological inoculation rates were 22.8, 27.4 and 14.4 infected bites per person per year in Twenké, Taluène and Cayodé, respectively. An. darlingiwas endo-exophagic and rather exophilic in these localities. The species was collected throughout the night but was more aggressive between 21:30-03:30 h and after 05:30 h. Parity rates were homogeneous during the entire night. Impregnated hammock and/or bed nets, coupled with the use of mosquito repellents, as well as the early treatment of malarial cases, appear to be the most suitable tools for fighting

  16. Impacts of continual and periodic disturbances on a Central Amazonian forest: lessons from a gap model for future model improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, J. A.; Chambers, J. Q.; Collins, W.

    2013-12-01

    Uncertainties surrounding vegetation and carbon responses to increased disturbance rates associated with climate change remains a major global change issue for Amazon forests. To help quantify the impacts of increased disturbances on climate and the earth system, the fidelity of tree mortality and disturbance algorithms in global land surface models (here the Community Land Model, CLM) warrant critical evaluation. In order to address this issue, we parameterized and calibrated ZELIG-TROP, a dynamic vegetation gap model, to simulate a complex Central Amazon forest toward improving disturbance-recovery processes in CLM. To evaluate the long-term consequences of increased disturbance rates in ZELIG-TROP and CLM for a Central Amazon rainforest, we 1) doubled background tree mortality rates (i.e., high disturbance treatment), and 2) applied a periodic disturbance treatment of removing 20% of stems every 50 years (i.e., periodic treatment) and compared model results. For the high disturbance treatment, ZELIG-TROP predicted that AGB and ANPP decreased by an average of 110 Mg ha-1 and 0.48 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 respectively (41.9% and 7.7%). The net carbon loss due to the periodic treatment, with four large-scale disturbances, was not as extreme as the loss from the high disturbance treatment, due to recovery dynamics. AGB only decreased by 15.9% (vs. 41.9%), however ANPP decreased by 19% (vs. 7.7%). For the high disturbance treatment in ZELIG-TROP, there were a higher proportion of smaller stems and a decrease in larger stems. This resulted in a decrease in coarse litter (trunks and large branches >10 cm in diameter) production rates (Mg C ha-1 yr-1) by 11.5%. For the periodic disturbance the average coarse litter production rates increased by 11.2% due to the four large-scale disturbance events. A comparison of the biomass response of ZELIG-TROP and CLM from simulated disturbance and recovery events displayed the same pattern between the two models, and for both disturbance

  17. The influence of soils on heterotrophic respiration exerts a strong control on net ecosystem productivity in seasonally dry Amazonian forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Melton

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Net ecosystem productivity of carbon (NEP in seasonally dry forests of the Amazon varies greatly between sites with similar precipitation patterns. Correctly modeling the NEP seasonality with terrestrial ecosystem models has proven difficult. Previous modelling studies have mostly advocated incorporating processes that act to reduce water stress on gross primary productivity (GPP during the dry season such as including deep soils and roots, plant-mediated hydraulic redistribution of soil moisture, and increased dry season leaf litter generation which reduces leaf age and thus increases photosynthetic capacity. Recent observations, however, indicate that seasonality in heterotrophic respiration also contributes to the observed seasonal cycle of NEP. Here, we use the dynamic vegetation model CLASS-CTEM – without deep soils or roots, hydraulic redistribution of soil moisture or increased dry season litter generation – at two Large-Scale Biosphere–Atmosphere Experiment (LBA sites (Tapajós km 83 and Jarú Reserve. These LBA sites exhibit opposite seasonal NEP cycles despite similar meteorological conditions. Our simulations are able to reproduce the observed NEP seasonality at both sites. Simulated GPP, heterotrophic respiration, latent and sensible heat fluxes, litter fall rate, soil moisture and temperature, and basic vegetation state are also compared with available observation-based estimates which provide confidence that the model overall behaves realistically at the two sites. Our results indicate that appropriately representing the influence of soil texture and depth, through soil moisture, on seasonal patterns of GPP and, especially, heterotrophic respiration is important to correctly simulating NEP seasonality.

  18. The Cultural Ecology Protection and Management of Urban Forests in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying; ZHANG; Weiming; SONG; Ke; CHEN; Chunjing; GOU

    2013-01-01

    Forests have economic,ecological,social and cultural functions.Forests Cultural ecology,the counterpart of forest ecology,is the integration of human spirit formed on the basis of natural forest and living systems.In recent years,China’s urbanization rate has increased from 28%in 1993 to 45.68%in 2008,and ecological protection of urban forest has made great progress,but insufficient attention was paid to the forest cultural ecology protection and the relevant regulatory was not well performed.In order to strengthen the protection of forest cultural ecology and the management,the study showed that the social economic development of China has become mature and entered the consumption phase,besides,cultural ecology protection of forest will be the essence of urban forestry development in the future,so more and more attention will be paid to the protection of urban forest cultural ecology,especially with the enhancement of urbanization in China.The study suggests that protection of urban forest cultural ecology should be included into the forest legislation and management.The development planning of urban forest development should be strengthened to highlight the organic combination of material wealth production and spiritual wealth production,and finally promote protection of urban forest culture and the development of green culture.

  19. Perception and attitudes of local people concerning ecosystem services of culturally protected forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, H.; Ouyang, Z.; Zheng, H.; Bluemling, B.

    2013-01-01

    Culturally protected forests (CPFs) can be defined as forest areas preserved and managed by local people on the basis of traditional cultural practices and beliefs, and these forests have been maintained for decades or even centuries without much disturbance or change. Most of them are natural growt

  20. Analysis of Factors Influencing Forest Farmers' Enthusiasm for Forest Culture and Management after the Completion of Reform of Collective Forest Right System

    OpenAIRE

    CHEN, Xingliang; Wu, Hailong; HU, Wangyin

    2014-01-01

    Taking Jiangshan City in Zhejiang Province for example, this article uses the binary logit choice model based on the field survey data, to study the factors influencing forest farmers' enthusiasm for forest culture and management after the completion of reform of collective forest right. Finally the following recommendations are put forth: further improving and implementing the forest ecological benefit compensation fund system; reforming the felling management mode and gradually establishing...

  1. Tissue culture and micropropagation for forest biomass production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, E.; Maine, F.W.

    1984-09-01

    An increase in forest production will be necessary in the future when wood becomes a major renewable source of energy and chemicals along with its traditional role of fibre source. This increase could eventually by achieved be proper selection and breeding of trees. Clonal forestry by vegetative propagation of cuttings is becoming a viable alternative to a seedling-based forestry with many advantages, and cutting could be used to quickly propagate large numbers of clones of control-pollinated seedlings. Most forest trees are propagated sexually and seed orchards were started in the US and Canada in the last 40-50 years for breeding purposes. Forests could ultimately be established with improved seedlings instead of from seed with unknown genetic potential, or by natural regeneration. Micropropagation is the term used to refer to the propagation of plants raised by tissue culture methods rather than from seeds or cuttings. Many clonal plantlets could be regenerated asexually in the laboratory and eventually transplanted to permanent sites. In addition the technology could be developed to produce new variants from somatic cells. Tissue culture is a technique which may be useful for plant propagation where conventional methods are inadequate or unsuitable. However, traditional studies of field planting observed over long periods of time would still be necessary. This document has the object of informing those who may wish to know more about these techniques in relation to practical application, and require a general overview rather than experimental details, which are given in an annotated bilbiography. 274 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Analysis of Factors Influencing Forest Farmers’ Enthusiasm for Forest Culture and Management after the Completion of Reform of Collective Forest Right System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xingliang; CHEN; Hailong; WU; Wangyin; HU

    2014-01-01

    Taking Jiangshan City in Zhejiang Province for example,this article uses the binary logit choice model based on the field survey data,to study the factors influencing forest farmers’enthusiasm for forest culture and management after the completion of reform of collective forest right.Finally the following recommendations are put forth:further improving and implementing the forest ecological benefit compensation fund system;reforming the felling management mode and gradually establishing the sustainable forest management system based on forest management plan;improving the technology,market and information services to strengthen the forestry science and technology support;developing the specialty industries such as the bamboo industry and oil-tea camellia industry;developing the under-forest economy and cultivating the underforest industries with characteristics based on the local circumstances.

  3. Spatially-Explicit Testing of a General Aboveground Carbon Density Estimation Model in aWestern Amazonian Forest Using Airborne LiDAR

    OpenAIRE

    Patricio Xavier Molina; Asner, Gregory P.; Mercedes Farjas Abadía; Juan Carlos Ojeda Manrique; Luis Alberto Sánchez Diez; Renato Valencia

    2016-01-01

    Mapping aboveground carbon density in tropical forests can support CO2 emissionmonitoring and provide benefits for national resource management. Although LiDAR technology has been shown to be useful for assessing carbon density patterns, the accuracy and generality of calibrations of LiDAR-based aboveground carbon density (ACD) predictions with those obtained from field inventory techniques should be intensified in order to advance tropical forest carbon mapping. Here we present results from...

  4. Roles of and Threats to Indigenous Cultural Beliefs in Protection of Sacred Forests in Southwest Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    FOLARANMI DAPO BABALOLA; IBRAHEEM LAWAL; EGBE EMMANUEL OPII; ABIODUN OLUSESI OSO

    2014-01-01

    Sacred forests play a central role in the cultural and livelihoods of indigenous people. Despite the vital roles of sacred forests, a decline in the areas of the forests have been reported. The consequence of this is that many of the people’s indigenous knowledge systems built over the years as well as the endemic forest diversity are at the risk of becoming extinct. The study therefore investigated the contributions of selected sacred forests to rural communities as well as the challenges fa...

  5. Roles of and Threats to Indigenous Cultural Beliefs in Protection of Sacred Forests in Southwest Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FOLARANMI DAPO BABALOLA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sacred forests play a central role in the cultural and livelihoods of indigenous people. Despite the vital roles of sacred forests, a decline in the areas of the forests have been reported. The consequence of this is that many of the people’s indigenous knowledge systems built over the years as well as the endemic forest diversity are at the risk of becoming extinct. The study therefore investigated the contributions of selected sacred forests to rural communities as well as the challenges facing the forests. Data was collected through field visit and questionnaire administration. The respondents include people living in two villages (Balogun and Ososun adjacent to Igbo Igunnko (meaning Igunnuko sacred forest and Igbo Oro (Oro sacred forest located in Ogun State, Southwest Nigeria. The forests form part of the history upon which the surrounding villages were established. Among the taboos supporting existence of the sacred forests, prohibition of fishing in Oso’ro River (that link the two sacred forests is the most effective. Increasing rate of firewood collection and killing of wild animals, and land demand for farming and building constitute great threat to existence of the sacred forests. Adoption of Christianity and Islam by the people is also contributing to the neglect of cultural beliefs that are in support of the sacred forests. To prevent further encroachment into the sacred forests, there is need for proper demarcation of the boundary for protection against pressing land uses and over exploitation. Also, the current traditional knowledge and beliefs in support of sacred forest should be properly strengthened to control unsustainable exploitation in the forests.

  6. Analysis on forest culture connotation%森林文化简论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋红星

    2016-01-01

    Forest culture system is a large system as same as forest ecology system and forest industry system. Based on the correlative references,the meaning and connotation of forest culture are analyzed. It is considered that forest culture inherits human civilization and opens ecological thought. Forest culture has eight culture types and four manifestations, and its formation has objective necessities. Then the basic approach to carry forward forest culture is presented.%森林文化体系与生态、产业体系并列为现代林业三大体系。在广泛涉猎相关文献的基础上,对森林文化的意义和内涵进行了系统分析,认为森林文化传承人类文明,开启生态思想,有8种文化形态和4种表现形式,其形成具有客观必然性,提出了弘扬森林文化的基本途径。

  7. Human impacts on soil carbon dynamics of deep-rooted Amazonian forests and effect of land use change on the carbon cycle in Amazon soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepstad, Daniel; Stone, Thomas; Davidson, Eric; Trumbore, Susan E.

    1992-01-01

    The main objective of these NASA-funded projects is to improve our understanding of land-use impacts on soil carbon dynamics in the Amazon Basin. Soil contains approximately one half of tropical forest carbon stocks, yet the fate of this carbon following forest impoverishment is poorly studied. Our mechanistics approach draws on numerous techniques for measuring soil carbon outputs, inputs, and turnover time in the soils of adjacent forest and pasture ecosystems at our research site in Paragominas, state of Para, Brazil. We are scaling up from this site-specific work by analyzing Basin-wide patterns in rooting depth and rainfall seasonality, the two factors that we believe should explain much of the variation in tropical soil carbons dynamics. In this report, we summarize ongoing measurements at our Paragominas study site, progress in employing new field data to understand soil C dynamics, and some surprising results from our regional, scale-up work.

  8. Stability of Trifluoromethane in Forest Soils and Methanotrophic Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Gary M.

    1997-01-01

    Trifluoromethane (TFM) has been reported as an endproduct of trifluoroacetate degradation under oxic conditions. Although other halomethanes, such as chloroform, methyl bromide, and methyl fluoride, inhibit methane oxidation or are degraded by methanotrophs, the fate of TFM is unknown. TFM had no affect on atmospheric methane consumption when added to forest soils at either 10 ppm or 10,000 ppm. No degradation of TFM was observed at either concentration for incubations of 6 days. Cultures of Methylobacter albus BG8 and Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b grown With and without added copper were also used to assay TFM degradation at 10 10000 ppm levels. TFM did not inhibit methane oxidation under any growth conditions, including those inducing expression of soluble methane monooxygenase, nor was it degraded at measurable rates. In contrast, parallel assays showed that both methyl fluoride and chloroform inhibited methane oxidation in M. trichosporium OB3b. Our results suggest that TFM may be relatively inert with respect to methanotrophic degradition. Although TFM has a negligible ozone depletion potential, it absorbs infrared radiation and has a relatively long atmospheric residence time. Thus, accumulation of TFM in the atmosphere as a consequence of the decomposition of hydrochlorofluorocarbons may have significant unpredicted climate impacts.

  9. Seed dispersal of a useful palm (Astrocaryum chambira Burret) in three amazonian forests with different human intervention used in ecological restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The young leaves of Astrocaryum chambira are used by the indigenous people in the Amazon as raw material for handicrafts. However, few studies have been made on the natural history of this palm and on the indirect impact caused by the decrease of its dispersal agents. Considering that the loss of animal dispersal vectors due to hunting and landscape modification can affect seed dispersal processes of tropical forest plants, the goal of this study was to compare seed dispersal of A. chambira in three terra firme forests of the Colombian Amazon, with different degrees of human intervention. We censused densities of dispersal agents of A. chambira, and characterized the seed shadow. We also marked seeds to estimate dispersal distances, and established density and distance-dependent experimental stations to assess their relevance on seed dispersal. The results showed that seed removal was proportional to dispersal agent densities and forest intervention levels. Insects were the main seed predators in all sites but their effect was less pronounced in the low intervened forest site. Seed density did not show any effect on removal, while a higher probability of survival at intermediate distances from the parent palm (10 m) was found. Future studies should focus on seedling establishment, recruitment rates and the effects of human intervention on subsequent life stages of the palm.

  10. 77 FR 52055 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest.... SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Forest Service, Coconino National Forest, in.... 3005, of the intent to repatriate cultural items in the possession of the Natural History Museum of...

  11. 77 FR 51562 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest.... SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Forest Service, Coconino National Forest, in.... 3005, of the intent to repatriate cultural items located at the Natural History Museum of Utah...

  12. Extremely long-distance seed dispersal by an overfished Amazonian frugivore

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Jill T.; Nuttle, Tim; Saldaña Rojas, Joe S.; Pendergast, Thomas H.; Flecker, Alexander S.

    2011-01-01

    Throughout Amazonia, overfishing has decimated populations of fruit-eating fishes, especially the large-bodied characid, Colossoma macropomum. During lengthy annual floods, frugivorous fishes enter vast Amazonian floodplains, consume massive quantities of fallen fruits and egest viable seeds. Many tree and liana species are clearly specialized for icthyochory, and seed dispersal by fish may be crucial for the maintenance of Amazonian wetland forests. Unlike frugivorous mammals and birds, litt...

  13. Ingestion of charcoal by the Amazonian earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus: a potential for tropical soil fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Ponge, Jean-François; Topoliantz, Stéphanie; Ballof, Sylvain; Rossi, Jean-Pierre; Lavelle, Patrick; Betsch, Jean-Marie; Gaucher, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    International audience It is now attested that a large part of the Amazonian rain forest has been cultivated during Pre-Colombian times, using charcoal as an amendment. The incorporation of charcoal to the soil is a starting point for the formation of fertile Amazonian Dark Earths, still selected by Indian people for shifting cultivation. We showed that finely separated charcoal was commonly incorporated in the topsoil by Pontoscolex corethrurus, a tropical earthworm which thrives after bu...

  14. Abelhas africanizadas Apis mellifera scutellata Lepeletier, 1836 (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Apinae exploram recursos na floresta amazônica? Do Africanized honeybees explore resources in the amazonian forest?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Luiz de Oliveira

    2005-09-01

    quickly and expand throughout nearly of the Americas. Moreover, to date there is much controversy about the probable impact of these bees, called Africanized honey bees, on native bees. In the Americas, Africanized honeybees are limited to regions of low altitude and cool winters, and in Brazil they occur principally in urban areas, and open or disturbed vegetation, not occurring in the interior of dense forest such as the Amazon Forest. We offered various kinds of bait in the interior of continuous forest, and in forest fragments to verify if Africanized honeybees would be capable of penetrate in it. No Africanized honeybee workers visited any baits in continuous forest or in forest fragments, but they did so in deforested/open areas. This result indicates that there is no possibility of source competition between Africanized and native bees within Amazon forest, and also indicates that large-scale beekeeping is unlikely to succeed in this region, because forest is not explored by Africanized bees.

  15. Local-scale spatial variation in diversity of social wasps in an Amazonian rain forest in Caxiuanã, Pará, Brazil (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Tobias Silveira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Polistine wasps are important in Neotropical ecosystems due to their ubiquity and diversity. Inventories have not adequately considered spatial attributes of collected specimens. Spatial data on biodiversity are important for study and mitigation of anthropogenic impacts over natural ecosystems and for protecting species. We described and analyzed local-scale spatial patterns of collecting records of wasp species, as well as spatial variation of diversity descriptors in a 2500-hectare area of an Amazon forest in Brazil. Rare species comprised the largest fraction of the fauna. Close range spatial effects were detected for most of the more common species, with clustering of presence-data at short distances. Larger spatial lag effects could also be identified in some species, constituting probably cases of exogenous autocorrelation and candidates for explanations based on environmental factors. In a few cases, significant or near significant correlations were found between five species (of Agelaia, Angiopolybia, and Mischocyttarus and three studied environmental variables: distance to nearest stream, terrain altitude, and the type of forest canopy. However, association between these factors and biodiversity variables were generally low. When used as predictors of polistine richness in a linear multiple regression, only the coefficient for the forest canopy variable resulted significant. Some level of prediction of wasp diversity variables can be attained based on environmental variables, especially vegetation structure. Large-scale landscape and regional studies should be scheduled to address this issue.

  16. Adoption of community engagement in the corporate culture of Australian forest plantation companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordon, M.; Lockwood, M.; Schirmer, Jacki; Vanclay, F.; Hanson, D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides practical insight into what can be done to improve the adoption of community engagement (CE) in the corporate culture of two Australian forest plantation companies. Previous research has identified that CE can be limited by corporate cultures that promote a narrow range of CE ben

  17. Calibrating the simple biosphere model for Amazonian tropical forest using field and remote sensing data. I - Average calibration with field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Piers J.; Shuttleworth, W. James; Dorman, Jeff L.; Dalcher, Amnon; Roberts, John M.

    1989-01-01

    Using meteorological and hydrological measurements taken in and above the central-Amazon-basin tropical forest, calibration of the Sellers et al. (1986) simple biosphere (SiB) model are described. The SiB model is a one-dimensional soil-vegetation-atmosphere model designed for use within GCMs models, representing the vegetation cover by analogy with processes operating within a single representative plant. The experimental systems and the procedures used to obtain field data are described, together with the specification of the physiological parameterization required to provide an average description of data. It was found that some of the existing literature on stomatal behavior for tropical species is inconsistent with the observed behavior of the complete canopy in Amazonia, and that the rainfall interception store of the canopy is considerably smaller than originally specified in the SiB model.

  18. Poor Prospects for Avian Biodiversity in Amazonian Oil Palm

    OpenAIRE

    Lees, Alexander C.; Moura, Nárgila G.; Arlete Silva de Almeida; Ima C G Vieira

    2015-01-01

    Expansion of oil palm plantations across the humid tropics has precipitated massive loss of tropical forest habitats and their associated speciose biotas. Oil palm plantation monocultures have been identified as an emerging threat to Amazonian biodiversity, but there are no quantitative studies exploring the impact of these plantations on the biome's biota. Understanding these impacts is extremely important given the rapid projected expansion of oil palm cultivation in the basin. Here we inve...

  19. Lack of dissemination of acquired resistance to β-lactams in small wild mammals around an isolated village in the Amazonian forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grall, Nathalie; Barraud, Olivier; Wieder, Ingrid; Hua, Anna; Perrier, Marion; Babosan, Ana; Gaschet, Margaux; Clermont, Olivier; Denamur, Erick; Catzeflis, François; Decré, Dominique; Ploy, Marie-Cécile; Andremont, Antoine

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we quantitatively evaluated the spread of resistance to β-lactams and of integrons in small rodents and marsupials living at various distances from a point of antibiotic's use. Rectal swabs from 114 animals were collected in Trois-Sauts, an isolated village in French Guiana, and along a 3 km transect heading through the non-anthropized primary forest. Prevalence of ticarcillin-resistant enterobacteria was 36% (41/114). Klebsiella spp., naturally resistant to ticarcillin, were found in 31.1% (23/73) of animals from the village and in an equal ratio of 31.7% (13/41) of animals trapped along the transect. By contrast Escherichia coli with acquired resistance to ticarcillin were found in 13.7% (10/73) of animals from the village and in only 2.4% (1/41) of those from the transect (600 m from the village). There was a huge diversity of E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae strains with very unique and infrequent sequence types. The overall prevalence of class 1 integrons carriage was 19.3% (22/114) homogenously distributed between animals from the village and the transect, which suggests a co-selection by a non-antibiotic environmental factor. Our results indicate that the anthropogenic acquired antibiotic resistance did not disseminate in the wild far from the point of selective pressure. PMID:25858231

  20. Detection of Amazonian Black Earth Sites using Hyperspectral Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braswell, B. H.; Palace, M.; Bush, M. B.; Neves, E.; Mcmichael, C.; Czarnecki, C.; Moraes, B.; Raczka, M.

    2012-12-01

    The pre-Columbian indigenous population estimates of the Amazon Basin lowlands are highly uncertain and the subject of considerable controversy. One of the archaeological sources used in reconstruction of Amazonian societies are Amazonian black earths (ABE) or terra preta soils. The immense size of Amazonia, remoteness of many areas, forest vegetation, and lack of archaeological field surveys, make remote sensing beneficial to archaeological studies in this region. Remote sensing allows for comparison and analysis of vegetation across vast areas. Previous research has shown that hyperspectral image data can detect vegetation canopy chemistry differences, associated with soil nutrients and chemistry anomalies at ABE locations. We conducted a preliminary analysis that indicates nine portions of the spectrum where three ABE sites are completely separable from the three non-ABE sites. A discriminant function analysis using stepwise variable selection indicated that five bands were adequate in distinguishing between ABE and non-ABE sites. These five bands ranged between the 2000-2400 nm, indicating that canopy moisture is useful in remotely sensing terra preta. The wealth of site locations we are compiling from numerous sources provides a unique opportunity to develop algorithms for the classification of ABE and non-ABE sites. Our current data holdings include over 1600 Hyperion images and a database of ABE/ non-ABE field observations at approximately 2900 sites. The distribution and number of ABE sites provides information useful for both archaeological research and has consequences for the interpretation of Amazonian forest ecology. Knowledge of the disturbance history of the Amazonian forest provides a context and framework for the placement of all environmental research in the region. This presentation reports results of statistical modeling using extracted spectra from about 400 sites that are within Hyperion scenes.

  1. Gurjun-Oil Tree: Buddhist Way and the Conservation and Revitalization of Gurjun-Oil Trees in Isan Cultural Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Chatchawan Kaewsaen; Katharat Hengtragoon; Terdchai Pantachi

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: This research aimed at investigating the background of gurjun-oil trees in Iran cultural forests, the present situation and difficulties of gurjun-oil tress and the Buddhist way concerning the conservation and revitalization of them in Iran cultural forests. Approach: A qualitative research was applied to find the data in 7 forest areas of the province of Yasothon, Roi ET, Sisaket, Ubonratchathani, Burirum, Mahasarakham and Kakasin. The sample of 147 people was selected by ...

  2. Fire patterns in the Amazonian biome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragao, Luiz E. O. C.; Shimabukuro, Yosio E.; Lima, Andre; Anderson, Liana O.; Barbier, Nicolas; Saatchi, Sassan

    2010-05-01

    This paper aims to provide an overview of our recent findings on the interplay between climate and land use dynamics in defining fire patterns in Amazonia. Understanding these relationships is currently a fundamental concern for assessing the vulnerability of Amazonia to climate change and its potential for mitigating current increases in atmospheric greenhouse gases. Reducing carbon emissions from tropical deforestation and forest degradation (REDD), for instance, could contribute to a cumulative emission reduction of 13-50 billion tons of carbon (GtC) by 2100. In Amazonia, though, forest fires can release similar quantities of carbon to the atmosphere (~0.2 GtC yr-1) as deforestation alone. Therefore, to achieve carbon savings through REDD mechanism there is an urgent need of understanding and subsequently restraining related Amazonian fire drivers. In this study, we analyze satellite-derived monthly and annual time-series of fires, rainfall and deforestation in Amazonia to: (1) quantify the seasonal patterns and relationships between these variables; (2) quantify fire and rainfall anomalies to evaluate the impact of recent drought on fire patterns; (3) quantify recent trends in fire and deforestation to understand how land use affects fire patterns in Amazonia. Our results demonstrate a marked seasonality of fires. The majority of fires occurs along the Arc of Deforestation, the expanding agricultural frontier in southern and eastern Amazonia, indicating humans are the major ignition sources determining fire seasonality, spatial distribution and long-term patterns. There is a marked seasonality of fires, which is highly correlated (pslash-and-burn of Amazonian vegetation for implementation of pastures and agricultural fields. The cumulative number of hot pixels is exponentially related to the monthly rainfall, which ultimately defines where and when fire can potentially strike. During the 2005 Amazonian drought, the number of hot pixels increased 33% in relation

  3. FOREST AMELIORATION OF SANDY SOILS OF TERSKO-KUMSKOYE INTERFLUVE PLAIN WITH PINE CULTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surkhayev I. G.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the regularities of the growth and development of the plantations of Crimean and Scotch pine on sandy soils of Tersko-Kumskoye interfluve plain, presents the classification of forest suitability, estimates the forest growing efficiency and prospects of the use of pine species when forest amelioration of soils, suggests the technologies for forestations arrangement. During the past century there had been grown over 60 hectares of pine cultures on sands of Tersko-Kumskoye interfluve plain under the strict conditions of transition zone dry steppe-semidesert. The Achikulakskaya NILOS VNIALMI (N. K. Lalymenko, V. I. Kabalaliyev, N. S. Zyuz managed to plant about 60 hectares of Crimean pine and over 5 hectares of Scotch pine cultures in the 70-80-th of the last century, about 50 % of them are still growing. The study of the said forestations led to the following conclusions. On the thick sands (6-8 m of Bazhigansky forest area the stable growth of Scotch pine continues up to 25-30 years, that of Crimean pine – up to 30-35 years. By the age of 40 the productivity of Crimean pine forestations (170-260 m3/ha exceeds visibly the accumulated reserve of Scotch pine forest stand (60-100 m3/ha. The increment in height decreases sharply starting at the age of 15-20 years for Scotch pine and at 25-30 for Crimean pine plantations. On the clay sands with the level of low-mineralized ground water of 2,5-3,0 m and despite high fall the stable growth of Crimean pine continues up to 35-40 years and more. On the monophase sands of Tersky forest area the Crimean pine grows relatively slowly during the first 10-15 years though more evenly year by year. The thick lamellar deposits and monophase sands with the depth of sweet ground water of 3-5 m provide the best conditions for forest growing. The longevity of Scotch pine plantations of 50-55 years and that of Crimean pine of 60-65 years can be achieved by current planting technologies and

  4. 77 FR 5838 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: USDA Forest Service, Coconino National Forest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR..., institution, or Federal agency that has control of the Native American cultural items. The National Park... projectile points, 4 bone whistles and 1 spindle whorl. Based on the ceramic collection, San Francisco...

  5. 广州森林文化发展研究%On Forest Culture Industry Development Research in Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林海云

    2012-01-01

    森林文化作为文化的重要组成部分,理应在文化事业发展中发挥基础性作用。文章从打造广州世界文化名城的高度出发,通过阐述森林文化所包含的内容,分析广州森林文化建设中存在的问题与不足,进而提出重点建设森林文化发展的物质载体、进行森林文化包装、创造森林文化产品等思路。同时提出了发展广州森林文化的保障机制:进一步提高全民参与水平;积极开展森林文化交流活动;加强森林文化人才队伍建设;加快林场管理体制改革;打造广州森林文化体系建设工程。%Forest culture,as an important part of culture,is supposed to play a fundamental role in the development of cultural undertakings.In order to construct Guangzhou as a famous cultural city in the world,this article elaborates the content of forest culture,analyzes the existing problems and shortcomings in the forest cultural construction of Guangzhou,points out that the focus of the construction of forest culture development material carrier,forest culture,forest culture product packaging.It also puts forward the development of Guangzhou forest culture safeguard mechanism: to further improve the level of participation;to actively carry out the forest cultural activities;to strengthen the forest culture talent team construction;to accelerate forest management system reform;to build the Guangzhou forest culture system construction.

  6. 75 FR 44280 - Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    .... Officials of the American Museum of Natural History and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service.... Officials of the American Museum of Natural History and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service... National Park Service Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: U.S. Department of Agriculture,...

  7. 78 FR 34131 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... cultural items listed in this notice meet the definition of unassociated funerary objects. Lineal.... ADDRESSES: Julie Coleman, Heritage Program Manager, San Juan National Forest, 15 Burnett Court, Durango, CO... National Forest, Durango, CO, that meet the definition of unassociated funerary objects under 25...

  8. Carbon storage in Amazonian podzols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Celia; Lucas, Yves; Pereira, Osvaldo; Merdy, Patricia; Santin, Roberta; Ishida, Débora; du Gardin, Beryl; Melfi, Adolpho

    2014-05-01

    It has recently been discovered that Amazonian podzols may store much larger quantities of carbon than previously thought, particularly in their deep Bh horizons (over 13.6 Pg for Brazilian Amazonia alone [1]). Similarly high carbon stocks are likely to exist in similar climate/soil areas, mainly in Africa and in Borneo. Such carbon stocks raise the problem of their stability in response to changes in land use or climate. Any significant changes in vegetation cover would significantly alter the soil water dynamics, which is likely to affect organic matter turnover in soils. The direction of the change, however, is not clear and is likely to depend on the specific conditions of carbon storage and properties of the soils. It is reasonable to assume that the drying of the Bh horizons of equatorial podzols, which are generally saturated, will lead to an increase in C mineralization, although the extent of this increase has not yet been determined. These unknowns resulted in research programs, granted by the Brazilian FAPESP and the French Région PACA-ARCUS and ANR, dedicated improving estimates of the Amazonian podzol carbon stocks and to an estimate of its mineralisability. Eight test areas were determined from the analysis of remote sensing data in the larger Amazonian podzol region located in the High Rio Negro catchment and studied in detail. Despite the extreme difficulties in carrying out the field work (difficulties in reaching the study sites and extracting the soils), more than a hundred points were sampled. In all podzols the presence of a thick deep Bh was confirmed, sometimes to depths greater than 12 m. The Bh carbon was quantified, indicating that carbon stocks in these podzols are even higher than estimated recently [1]. References 1- Montes, C.R.; Lucas, Y.; Pereira, O.J.R.; Achard, R.; Grimaldi, M.; Mefli, A.J. Deep plant?derived carbon storage in Amazonian podzols. Biogeosciences, 8, 113?120, 2011.

  9. Climatic and cultural changes in the west Congo Basin forests over the past 5000 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oslisly, Richard; White, Lee; Bentaleb, Ilham; Favier, Charly; Fontugne, Michel; Gillet, Jean-François; Sebag, David

    2013-01-01

    Central Africa includes the world's second largest rainforest block. The ecology of the region remains poorly understood, as does its vegetation and archaeological history. However, over the past 20 years, multidisciplinary scientific programmes have enhanced knowledge of old human presence and palaeoenvironments in the forestry block of Central Africa. This first regional synthesis documents significant cultural changes over the past five millennia and describes how they are linked to climate. It is now well documented that climatic conditions in the African tropics underwent significant changes throughout this period and here we demonstrate that corresponding shifts in human demography have had a strong influence on the forests. The most influential event was the decline of the strong African monsoon in the Late Holocene, resulting in serious disturbance of the forest block around 3500 BP. During the same period, populations from the north settled in the forest zone; they mastered new technologies such as pottery and fabrication of polished stone tools, and seem to have practised agriculture. The opening up of forests from 2500 BP favoured the arrival of metallurgist populations that impacted the forest. During this long period (2500-1400 BP), a remarkable increase of archaeological sites is an indication of a demographic explosion of metallurgist populations. Paradoxically, we have found evidence of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) cultivation in the forest around 2200 BP, implying a more arid context. While Early Iron Age sites (prior to 1400 BP) and recent pre-colonial sites (two to eight centuries BP) are abundant, the period between 1600 and 1000 BP is characterized by a sharp decrease in human settlements, with a population crash between 1300 and 1000 BP over a large part of Central Africa. It is only in the eleventh century that new populations of metallurgists settled into the forest block. In this paper, we analyse the spatial and temporal distribution

  10. Use of amazonian anthropogenic soils: Comparison between Caboclos communities and Tikunas indigenous group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In general terms, Amazonian soils are infertile and have several constraints for agricultural production. However, use by ancient human societies since pre-columbian times has driven landscape transformation of massive areas and development of anthropogenic soils called Terra Preta do Indio (TP) or Amazonian Dark Earths (ADE). ADE characterization, in terms of fertility and composition, has allowed the development of intensive agricultural activities over time. The current use of ADE for the Brazilian amazon peasants (Caboclos) is different from the indigenous communities in Colombia. The indigenous people in Colombia (Tikunas) no use this type of soils on behalf of cultural restrictions that avoid the use of ancient places. We are comparing the institutional conditions, migrations, social characterization and cultural factors that determine the use/no-use of these soils by the Amazonian societies.

  11. Forest restoration in a fog oasis: evidence indicates need for cultural awareness in constructing the reference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Balaguer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the Peruvian Coastal Desert, an archipelago of fog oases, locally called lomas, are centers of biodiversity and of past human activity. Fog interception by a tree canopy, dominated by the legume tree tara (Caesalpinia spinosa, enables the occurrence in the Atiquipa lomas (southern Peru of an environmental island with a diverse flora and high productivity. Although this forest provides essential services to the local population, it has suffered 90% anthropogenic reduction in area. Restoration efforts are now getting under way, including discussion as to the most appropriate reference ecosystem to use. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Genetic diversity of tara was studied in the Atiquipa population and over a wide geographical and ecological range. Neither exclusive plastid haplotypes to loma formations nor clear geographical structuring of the genetic diversity was found. Photosynthetic performance and growth of seedlings naturally recruited in remnant patches of loma forest were compared with those of seedlings recruited or planted in the adjacent deforested area. Despite the greater water and nitrogen availability under tree canopy, growth of forest seedlings did not differ from that of those recruited into the deforested area, and was lower than that of planted seedlings. Tara seedlings exhibited tight stomatal control of photosynthesis, and a structural photoprotection by leaflet closure. These drought-avoiding mechanisms did not optimize seedling performance under the conditions produced by forest interception of fog moisture. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Both weak geographic partitioning of genetic variation and lack of physiological specialization of seedlings to the forest water regime strongly suggest that tara was introduced to lomas by humans. Therefore, the most diverse fragment of lomas is the result of landscape management and resource use by pre-Columbian cultures. We argue that an appropriate reference ecosystem for

  12. Use and management of forest resources in the Colombian Amazon: cultural particularities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Landínez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the main cultural particularities: worldviews and ways of knowing that are associated with the use and management practices of forest resources in the Colombian Amazon. The theoretical cutting proposal contrasts, cultural level, the forms of appropriation of forest resources in indigenous and urban contexts in light of the importance that such activity involves the establishment of management strategies biodiversity in Colombia. Thus, offers an integrated perspective that will address environmental situations considering conflicting factors not only biological but cultural in various scenarios, to give substance to the decisions made and provide a reasonable treatment that enables the implementation of environmental regulatory mechanisms in strategic special biological areas as the Colombian Amazon. Finally, reflect on the importance of facilitating the functional analysis of the connections and interrelationships of ecosystem components, including human communities, to sketch involving both biological and social guidelines for sustainable use of biodiversity.

  13. Fire-free land use in pre-1492 Amazonian savannas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriarte, José; Power, Mitchell J; Rostain, Stéphen; Mayle, Francis E; Jones, Huw; Watling, Jennifer; Whitney, Bronwen S; McKey, Doyle B

    2012-04-24

    The nature and scale of pre-Columbian land use and the consequences of the 1492 "Columbian Encounter" (CE) on Amazonia are among the more debated topics in New World archaeology and paleoecology. However, pre-Columbian human impact in Amazonian savannas remains poorly understood. Most paleoecological studies have been conducted in neotropical forest contexts. Of studies done in Amazonian savannas, none has the temporal resolution needed to detect changes induced by either climate or humans before and after A.D. 1492, and only a few closely integrate paleoecological and archaeological data. We report a high-resolution 2,150-y paleoecological record from a French Guianan coastal savanna that forces reconsideration of how pre-Columbian savanna peoples practiced raised-field agriculture and how the CE impacted these societies and environments. Our combined pollen, phytolith, and charcoal analyses reveal unexpectedly low levels of biomass burning associated with pre-A.D. 1492 savanna raised-field agriculture and a sharp increase in fires following the arrival of Europeans. We show that pre-Columbian raised-field farmers limited burning to improve agricultural production, contrasting with extensive use of fire in pre-Columbian tropical forest and Central American savanna environments, as well as in present-day savannas. The charcoal record indicates that extensive fires in the seasonally flooded savannas of French Guiana are a post-Columbian phenomenon, postdating the collapse of indigenous populations. The discovery that pre-Columbian farmers practiced fire-free savanna management calls into question the widely held assumption that pre-Columbian Amazonian farmers pervasively used fire to manage and alter ecosystems and offers fresh perspectives on an emerging alternative approach to savanna land use and conservation that can help reduce carbon emissions. PMID:22493248

  14. Influence of Organizational Culture on Strategic Involvement of Middle Level Managers in Public Forest Sector in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Julius O. Olayo; George K. Mwangi; Alice N. Simuyu

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to explore the organizational culture and its impact on management in the context of Public Forest Sector institution in Kenya. It particularly considered the extent to which organizational culture influence strategic involvement of middle levels managers. The study was carried out using descriptive survey due to the levels of objectivity required and the ease to make comparisons between the effects of organizational culture on strategic involvement of middle level managers ...

  15. Poor prospects for avian biodiversity in Amazonian oil palm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander C Lees

    Full Text Available Expansion of oil palm plantations across the humid tropics has precipitated massive loss of tropical forest habitats and their associated speciose biotas. Oil palm plantation monocultures have been identified as an emerging threat to Amazonian biodiversity, but there are no quantitative studies exploring the impact of these plantations on the biome's biota. Understanding these impacts is extremely important given the rapid projected expansion of oil palm cultivation in the basin. Here we investigate the biodiversity value of oil palm plantations in comparison with other dominant regional land-uses in Eastern Amazonia. We carried out bird surveys in oil palm plantations of varying ages, primary and secondary forests, and cattle pastures. We found that oil palm plantations retained impoverished avian communities with a similar species composition to pastures and agrarian land-uses and did not offer habitat for most forest-associated species, including restricted range species and species of conservation concern. On the other hand, the forests that the oil palm companies are legally obliged to protect hosted a relatively species-rich community including several globally-threatened bird species. We consider oil palm to be no less detrimental to regional biodiversity than other agricultural land-uses and that political pressure exerted by large landowners to allow oil palm to count as a substitute for native forest vegetation in private landholdings with forest restoration deficits would have dire consequences for regional biodiversity.

  16. Forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The forest are subject to many direct and indirect influences, apart from atmospheric pollutants and the potential effects of climatic changes, timber production and hunting have a major impact in the Austrian forests. Ozone, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ammonia, inorganic fluoride, chloride compounds, heavy metals (cadmium and lead), organic pollutants (chlorinated hydrocarbons, trichloroacetic acid and nitrophenols), acidifying compounds and eutrophying compounds are the main forest pollutants. As forests cover nearly 50 % of the Austrian territory, changes affecting them constitute a potentially significant parameter in the national greenhouse gas balance. Carbon stocks and the annual carbon balance were calculated and a estimation of the potential impact of climate change by means of dynamic computer simulation and risk assesment were performed. The results are illustrated in a cartographic chart. Other topics discussed in this chapter are forest management, forest damage (game, cattle, abiotic and biotic influences), changes in land use, biodiversity, crown condition and long-term monitoring to determine the impact of environmental stress. Figs. 2, Table 1. (nevyjel)

  17. Drought sensitivity of Amazonian carbon balance revealed by atmospheric measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, L V; Gloor, M; Miller, J B; Doughty, C E; Malhi, Y; Domingues, L G; Basso, L S; Martinewski, A; Correia, C S C; Borges, V F; Freitas, S; Braz, R; Anderson, L O; Rocha, H; Grace, J; Phillips, O L; Lloyd, J

    2014-02-01

    Feedbacks between land carbon pools and climate provide one of the largest sources of uncertainty in our predictions of global climate. Estimates of the sensitivity of the terrestrial carbon budget to climate anomalies in the tropics and the identification of the mechanisms responsible for feedback effects remain uncertain. The Amazon basin stores a vast amount of carbon, and has experienced increasingly higher temperatures and more frequent floods and droughts over the past two decades. Here we report seasonal and annual carbon balances across the Amazon basin, based on carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide measurements for the anomalously dry and wet years 2010 and 2011, respectively. We find that the Amazon basin lost 0.48 ± 0.18 petagrams of carbon per year (Pg C yr(-1)) during the dry year but was carbon neutral (0.06 ± 0.1 Pg C yr(-1)) during the wet year. Taking into account carbon losses from fire by using carbon monoxide measurements, we derived the basin net biome exchange (that is, the carbon flux between the non-burned forest and the atmosphere) revealing that during the dry year, vegetation was carbon neutral. During the wet year, vegetation was a net carbon sink of 0.25 ± 0.14 Pg C yr(-1), which is roughly consistent with the mean long-term intact-forest biomass sink of 0.39 ± 0.10 Pg C yr(-1) previously estimated from forest censuses. Observations from Amazonian forest plots suggest the suppression of photosynthesis during drought as the primary cause for the 2010 sink neutralization. Overall, our results suggest that moisture has an important role in determining the Amazonian carbon balance. If the recent trend of increasing precipitation extremes persists, the Amazon may become an increasing carbon source as a result of both emissions from fires and the suppression of net biome exchange by drought. PMID:24499918

  18. Treetop shelter of a neotropical river otter cub (Lontra longicaudis - Carnivora: Mustelidae in an Amazonian flooded forest Abrigo em copa de árvore de filhote de lontra neotropical (Lontra longicaudis - Carnivora: Mustelidae em floresta inundável amazônica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Manuel Ribeiro Simões dos Santos

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The finding of a Neotropical river otter (Lontra longicaudis cub occupying a shelter in a hollowed treetop is reported. The observation was made in a seasonally flooded forest in Central Amazonia, during the high water peak of the annual inundation cycle. A literature review indicates that this is the first description of a shelter of the species, both in a hollowed tree and in Amazonia. This observation can indicate a strong relationship between the species' breeding cycle with the annual dynamics of Amazonian rivers. We discuss potential advantages and disadvantages of breeding when water level is high.É relatada a observação de um filhote de lontra (Lontra longicaudis ocupando um abrigo em uma cavidade na copa de uma árvore. A observação foi feita em uma floresta inundada na Amazônia Central, no pico de cheia do ciclo anual de inundação. A revisão da literatura revela que esta é a primeira descrição de um abrigo desta espécie em uma cavidade de árvore na natureza e na Amazônia. Tal observação pode indicar uma forte relação entre o ciclo reprodutivo da espécie e a dinâmica anual dos rios amazônicos. Discutimos vantagens e desvantagens potenciais da reprodução na época da cheia.

  19. Gurjun-Oil Tree: Buddhist Way and the Conservation and Revitalization of Gurjun-Oil Trees in Isan Cultural Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatchawan Kaewsaen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This research aimed at investigating the background of gurjun-oil trees in Iran cultural forests, the present situation and difficulties of gurjun-oil tress and the Buddhist way concerning the conservation and revitalization of them in Iran cultural forests. Approach: A qualitative research was applied to find the data in 7 forest areas of the province of Yasothon, Roi ET, Sisaket, Ubonratchathani, Burirum, Mahasarakham and Kakasin. The sample of 147 people was selected by means of a purposive sampling consisted of 42 key-informants, 70 people involved the conservation and revitalization of gurjun-oil trees and 35 general informants. The data were collected by survey, a participative observation, a non-participative observation, a structured in-depth interview, a non-structured in depth interview, a focus-group interview, a workshop and an evaluation of planting activity. Research data were analyzed according to research purposes and presented by means of a descriptive analysis. Results: The results revealed that gurjun-oil trees in Iran cultural forests (cultural forests in the north-east of Thailand were native trees which gave people a lot of useful thing; for example people used oil of gurjun-oil trees for tinder, torches and putty. The present situation is a sharp reduction in the number of trees, the forests deteriorated into denuded forests, the people degenerated into selfish persons and competed in using natural resources for living and commercial purposes. The Buddhist way concerning the conservation and revitalization of gurjun-oil trees was the participation of three sectors; they were community leaders, state leaders and monk leaders. Necessarily, all community members must do their right duties in order to conserve and revitalize gurjun-oil trees. Conclusion/Recommendations: In conclusion, the conservation and revitalization of Gurjun-oil trees must support by the participation of all social sectors then it will

  20. Sustainable development, social organization and environment in the Amazonian Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of the development on the environment and the culture in regions like the Amazonian are one of the most dramatic examples that can be in what refers to the physical disappearance of numerous cultures, as well as of their integration to the national society and their rising loss of cultural identity and the devastating consequences that have had the development politicians on the different Amazon ecosystems. The construction of a sustainable development for the region has to evaluate the different societies that have existed and they exist as for the use, handling and exploitation of the natural resources. This paper will be approached this problem in three Amazon societies: the cacique territory, the tribal societies and the societies in formation in the colonization regions. It will be done an analysis and a critic of the development concept and of the consequences that it has had their application so much in the indigenous towns as in the Amazon ecosystems, as well as their relationship with the current characterization of the Amazonian area

  1. Late Amazonian Glaciations in Utopia Planitia, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinski, G. R.; Capitan, R. D.; Kerrigan, M.; Barry, N.; Blain, S.

    2012-03-01

    We present evidence from western Utopia Planitia, including lineated valley fill and lobate debris aprons, for widespread glaciations over a large expanse of the northern plains and dichotomy boundary during Late Amazonian times.

  2. Antimicrobial activity of amazonian medicinal plants

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Amanda A; Segovia, Jorge FO; Sousa, Vespasiano YK; Mata, Elida CG; Gonçalves, Magda CA; Bezerra, Roberto M; Junior, Paulo OM; Kanzaki, Luís IB

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aqueous extracts of currently utilized Amazonian medicinal plants were assayed in vitro searching for antimicrobial activity against human and animal pathogenic microorganisms. Methods Medium resuspended lyophilized aqueous extracts of different organs of Amazonian medicinal plants were assayed by in vitro screening for antimicrobial activity. ATCC and standardized microorganisms obtained from Oswaldo Cruz Foundation/Brazil were individually and homogeneously grown in agar plat...

  3. Historical landscape explotation and its influence on a composition of herb layer in cultural forests in consider of ecotones

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Halas, Petr; Vlková, V.

    Brno: Masarykova univerzita, 2008, s. 104-107 ISBN 978-80-210-4600-9. [Geografické aspekty středoevropského prostoru. Brno (CZ), 13.09.2007-13.09.2007] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : ecotones * herb layer * forest plant species * cultural landscape Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  4. Mapping Amazonian Canopy Foliar Traits with Imaging Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asner, G. P.; Martin, R.; Anderson, C. B.; Knapp, D. E.

    2014-12-01

    Spatial and temporal information on plant functional traits is lacking in ecology, which limits our understanding of how plant communities and ecosystems are changing. This problem is acute in remote tropical regions such as in Andean and Amazonian forests, where information on plant functional traits is difficult to ascertain. We used Carnegie Airborne Observatory visible-to-shortwave infrared (VSWIR) imaging spectroscopy with light detection and ranging (LiDAR) to assess the chemical composition of tropical forests along a 3000 m elevation gradient from lowland Amazonia to the Andean treeline. We calibrated and validated the retrieval of 15 canopy foliar chemicals and leaf mass per area (LMA) in 81 one-hectare field plots using a new VSWIR-LiDAR fusion approach. Remotely sensed estimates of elevational changes in forest foliar pigments, nitrogen, phosphorus, water, soluble and total carbon, cellulose and LMA were similar to those derived via laborious field survey and laboratory analysis. This new airborne approach addresses the inherent limitations and sampling biases associated with field-based studies of forest functional traits, particularly in structurally and floristically complex tropical canopies.

  5. Thresholds of species loss in Amazonian deforestation frontier landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Quintero, Jose Manuel; Gardner, Toby A; Rosa, Isabel; Ferraz, Silvio Frosini de Barros; Sutherland, William J

    2015-04-01

    In the Brazilian Amazon, private land accounts for the majority of remaining native vegetation. Understanding how land-use change affects the composition and distribution of biodiversity in farmlands is critical for improving conservation strategies in the face of rapid agricultural expansion. Working across an area exceeding 3 million ha in the southwestern state of Rondônia, we assessed how the extent and configuration of remnant forest in replicate 10,000-ha landscapes has affected the occurrence of a suite of Amazonian mammals and birds. In each of 31 landscapes, we used field sampling and semistructured interviews with landowners to determine the presence of 28 large and medium sized mammals and birds, as well as a further 7 understory birds. We then combined results of field surveys and interviews with a probabilistic model of deforestation. We found strong evidence for a threshold response of sampled biodiversity to landscape level forest cover; landscapes with deforested landscapes many species are susceptible to extirpation following relatively small additional reductions in forest area. In the model of deforestation by 2030 the number of 10,000-ha landscapes under a conservative threshold of 43% forest cover almost doubled, such that only 22% of landscapes would likely to be able to sustain at least 75% of the 35 focal species we sampled. Brazilian law requires rural property owners in the Amazon to retain 80% forest cover, although this is rarely achieved. Prioritizing efforts to ensure that entire landscapes, rather than individual farms, retain at least 50% forest cover may help safeguard native biodiversity in private forest reserves in the Amazon. PMID:25580947

  6. Use of forest biomass to provide energy in a context of sustainable rural development - Three case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author includes topics like energy and global climatic change; sustainable development and study of cases (conservation and restoration of forests in the Atrato, pacific Colombian, forest handling, forest handling and forest systems in the Colombian Amazonian and conversion of subjected lands to cattle rising and itinerant agriculture to forest and other systems

  7. Public awareness of aesthetic and other forest values associated with sustainable forest management: a cross-cultural comparison among the public in four countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sang Seop; Innes, John L; Meitner, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Korea, China, Japan and Canada are all members of the Montreal Process (MP). However, there has been little comparative research on the public awareness of forest values within the framework of Sustainable Forest Management, not only between Asia and Canada, but also among these three Asian countries. This is true of aesthetic values, especially as the MP framework has no indicator for aesthetic values. We conducted surveys to identify similarities and differences in the perceptions of various forest values, including aesthetic values, between residents of the four countries: university student groups in Korea, China, Japan and Canada, as well as a more detailed assessment of the attitudes of Koreans by including two additional groups, Korean office workers, and Koreans living in Canada. A multivariate analysis of variance test across the four university student groups revealed significant differences in the rating of six forest functions out of 31. However the same test across the three Korean groups indicated no significant differences indicating higher confidence in the generalizability of our university student comparisons. For the forest aesthetic values, an analysis of variance test showed no significant differences across all groups. The forest aesthetic value was rated 6.95 to 7.98 (out of 10.0) depending on the group and rated relatively highly among ten social values across all the groups. Thurstone scale rankings and relative distances of six major forest values indicated that climate change control was ranked as the highest priority and scenic beauty was ranked the lowest by all the groups. Comparison tests of the frequencies of preferred major forest values revealed no significant differences across the groups with the exception of the Japanese group. These results suggest that public awareness of aesthetic and other forest values are not clearly correlated with the cultural backgrounds of the individuals, and the Korean university students' awareness

  8. Impacts of Landscape Context on Patterns of Wind Downfall Damage in a Fragmented Amazonian Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, N.; Uriarte, M.; DeFries, R. S.; Gutierrez-Velez, V. H.; Fernandes, K.; Pinedo-Vasquez, M.

    2015-12-01

    Wind is a major disturbance in the Amazon and has both short-term impacts and lasting legacies in tropical forests. Observed patterns of damage across landscapes result from differences in wind exposure and stand characteristics, such as tree stature, species traits, successional age, and fragmentation. Wind disturbance has important consequences for biomass dynamics in Amazonian forests, and understanding the spatial distribution and size of impacts is necessary to quantify the effects on carbon dynamics. In November 2013, a mesoscale convective system was observed over the study area in Ucayali, Peru, a highly human modified and fragmented forest landscape. We mapped downfall damage associated with the storm in order to ask: how does the severity of damage vary within forest patches, and across forest patches of different sizes and successional ages? We applied spectral mixture analysis to Landsat images from 2013 and 2014 to calculate the change in non-photosynthetic vegetation fraction after the storm, and combined it with C-band SAR data from the Sentinel-1 satellite to predict downfall damage measured in 30 field plots using random forest regression. We then applied this model to map damage in forests across the study area. Using a land cover classification developed in a previous study, we mapped secondary and mature forest, and compared the severity of damage in the two. We found that damage was on average higher in secondary forests, but patterns varied spatially. This study demonstrates the utility of using multiple sources of satellite data for mapping wind disturbance, and adds to our understanding of the sources of variation in wind-related damage. Ultimately, an improved ability to map wind impacts and a better understanding of their spatial patterns can contribute to better quantification of carbon dynamics in Amazonian landscapes.

  9. Conservation and the Colombian Amazonian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombia is a special country in terms of its biological wealth, for it has been classified it as one of the three countries of the world with more biodiversity after Brazil and Indonesia; in the number of species of organisms that they are inside the national limits and it surpasses to gigantic countries as Canada, the United States and Russia. Colombia, for its characteristic biotic, is in the entire world the first one in number of species of birds, of frogs and of orchids and probably second in the world (after Brazil) in the number of species of plants superiors (angiosperms) and species of palms; also, worldwide it is classified to the country among the first ones in the number of species of mammals, reptiles, fish of fresh water and insects. This article, it seeks to discuss the problem of the conservation in the Colombian Amazonian, evaluating the necessities for the future and pointing out some of the current problems that impede a healthy conservation

  10. Amazonian indigenous settlement and local development in Pastaza, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth I. Arias-Gutiérrez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In six Amazonian indigenous communities that call to their selves as membership of nación Kichwa, located in Pastaza province, in Ecuador, it is analyzed the process of inhabitation, population characteristics, how much the territory is enough for food requirements for the indigenous families, and their use of land, to determine important factors to improve strategies for local sustainable development. It is considered important because Ecuador has constitutional protection for plural ethnicity and it is looking for improving a new productivity matrix that let down extraction and contamination and raise another matrix based on knowledge and richness from natural renewable resources. Survey used statistics information, qualitative analysis around reality in process, participant research, documentary analysis, oral history and surveys to leadership and family`s chiefs. Results confirm that communities hold standing their identity and knowledge systems of the Amazonian environment, whose conservation they need. Those are factors to be included in local development strategies that let people become safe from effects of extractives activities that are dangerous for culture and environment, in the geographic and biological diversity of the high Ecuadorian Amazonia.

  11. Populações de aranhas errantes do gênero Ctenus em fragmentos florestais na Amazônia Central Populations of Ctenus wandering spiders in Amazonian forest fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto Macedo Mestre

    2008-01-01

    ções ambientais.Ctenus is a genus of wandering spiders abundant in Neotropical and African rainforests and is becoming a model organism to understand the biology of predators in the leaf litter fauna. We compared abundance, sex ratio, seasonality and size dimorphism in populations of four species of medium sized wandering spiders, Ctenus amphora, C. crulsi, C. manauara and C. villasboasi in primary forests, fragments with different areas, their borders and secondary forests near them. This study was conducted between February and July 1999, in a terra-firme (non-flooded tropical rain forest, in central Amazonia. The spiders were measured and counted in transects of 250x5 m or 500x5 m in three secondary forest sites, four fragments of primary forest of 1 ha, three of 10 ha, two of 100 ha and four reserves of continuous forest (larger than 10.000 ha. There was a significant predominance of females in two species (C. amphora- 74% and C. crulsi- 65%, sexual dimorphism significant in three species (C. amphora, C. crulsi, and C. manauara, and temporal variation of the abundance for the four species. These results corroborate and complement tendencies from previous studies. There were no statistical differences between spider abundance in interior, borders and between reserves of different areas. Effects of border and size of fragments on the Ctenus spider populations are smaller than the previously observed variations among different habitats in the forest interior. There was no difference in spider size captured in small reserves, large reserves, edges, and continuous forests sites. Comparing these results with other study in the same sites, we conclude that the effects of fragmentation in Ctenus spiders decrease with second grown regeneration, resulting in a rapid reply of these species to habitat modifications.

  12. Análise da estrutura de comunidades arbóreas de uma floresta amazônica de Terra Firme aplicada ao manejo florestal Analysis of the structure of tree communities of a amazonian forest applied to management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Zenaide Oliveira Alves

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve o objetivo de identificar e descrever a estrutura das comunidades arbóreas de uma floresta de terra firme sob regime de manejo na Amazônia Oriental, localizada no município de Almeirim, Pará, Brasil. O levantamento florístico foi realizado em 1.400,30 ha de uma Unidade de Produção Anual (UPA, do Plano de Manejo Florestal da empresa ORSA Florestal. Todos os indivíduos com DAP > 30 cm foram inventariados, registrando-se 77.834 árvores distribuídas em 57 famílias, 229 gêneros e 556 espécies. Oito comunidades foram identificadas por meio de uma analise de agrupamento, apresentando alta diversidade e equibilidade florística (H" médio = 4,25 e J" médio = 0,75. As comunidades apresentaram 138 espécies comuns, 119 espécies de ocorrência exclusiva e 377 espécies raras, representadas por apenas um indivíduo. As espécies que mais se destacaram foram: Dinizia excelsa, Vouacapoua americana, Goupia glabra, Mouriri brachyanthera, Parinari excelsa, Manilkara bidentada, Tachigalia mymecophyla e Licania micrantha. Algumas espécies de valor comercial apresentaram variações importantes na densidade, sugerindo risco de extinção em comunidades onde as espécies apresentam densidade muito baixa. Sugerimos que os planos de manejo considerem as várias comunidades ecológicas encontradas nas UPAs evitando assim variações significativas, causadas pela exploração e seus impactos, na composição florística e estrutura das comunidades existentes.To demonstrate the importance of the ecological concept for forest management, the object of this work was to identify and describe the structure of tree communities of a tropical forest under management in the Eastern Amazonia, located in Almeirim municipality, in the state of Pará, Brazil. The floristic survey was undertaken in a terra-firme tropical forest of 1,400.30 hectares. All individuals with DBH > 30 cm were inventoried, registering 77,834 trees distributed in 57

  13. Large-scale degradation of Amazonian freshwater ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castello, Leandro; Macedo, Marcia N

    2016-03-01

    Hydrological connectivity regulates the structure and function of Amazonian freshwater ecosystems and the provisioning of services that sustain local populations. This connectivity is increasingly being disrupted by the construction of dams, mining, land-cover changes, and global climate change. This review analyzes these drivers of degradation, evaluates their impacts on hydrological connectivity, and identifies policy deficiencies that hinder freshwater ecosystem protection. There are 154 large hydroelectric dams in operation today, and 21 dams under construction. The current trajectory of dam construction will leave only three free-flowing tributaries in the next few decades if all 277 planned dams are completed. Land-cover changes driven by mining, dam and road construction, agriculture and cattle ranching have already affected ~20% of the Basin and up to ~50% of riparian forests in some regions. Global climate change will likely exacerbate these impacts by creating warmer and dryer conditions, with less predictable rainfall and more extreme events (e.g., droughts and floods). The resulting hydrological alterations are rapidly degrading freshwater ecosystems, both independently and via complex feedbacks and synergistic interactions. The ecosystem impacts include biodiversity loss, warmer stream temperatures, stronger and more frequent floodplain fires, and changes to biogeochemical cycles, transport of organic and inorganic materials, and freshwater community structure and function. The impacts also include reductions in water quality, fish yields, and availability of water for navigation, power generation, and human use. This degradation of Amazonian freshwater ecosystems cannot be curbed presently because existing policies are inconsistent across the Basin, ignore cumulative effects, and overlook the hydrological connectivity of freshwater ecosystems. Maintaining the integrity of these freshwater ecosystems requires a basinwide research and policy framework

  14. Avatar in the Amazon - Narratives of Cultural Conversion and Environmental Salvation between Cultural Theory and Popular Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ødemark

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2010 the New York Times reported that '[t]ribes of Amazon Find an Ally Out of "Avatar"', James Cameron. The alliance was against the building of Belo Monte, a hydroelectricdam in the Xingu River in Brazil. Cameron made a documentary about Belo Monte, A Message from Pandora. Here he states that Avatar becomes real in the struggle against the dam. This appears to confirm U. K. Heise's observation that the 'Amazon rainforest has long functioned as a complex symbol of exotic natural abundance, global ecological connectedness, and environmental crisis'. This construal, however, downplays the 'symbols' cultural components. In this article I show that the image of an ecological 'rainforest Indian' and a particular kind of culture constitutes a crucial part of the Amazon as 'a complex' cross-disciplinary 'symbol'. Firstly, I examine how an Amazonian topology (closeness to nature, natural cultures is both a product of an interdisciplinary history, and a place to speak from for ethno-political activist. Next I analyze how Amazonian cultures have been turned into 'ethnological isolates' representing a set of grand theoretical problems in anthropology, not least concerning the nature/culture-distinction, and how environmentalism has deployed the same topology. Finally I examine how Avatar and one of its cinematic intertexts, John Boorman's The Emerald Forest, is used as a model to understand the struggle over the Belo Monte. In a paradoxical way the symbolic power of indigenous people in ecological matters here appears to be dependent upon a non-relation, and a reestablishment of clear cut cultural boundaries, where 'the tribal' is also associated with the human past. Disturbingly such symbolic exportation of solutions is consonant with current exportations of the solution of ecological problems to 'other places'.

  15. Dispersal of seeds of Hymenaea courbaril (Fabaceae in a logged rain forest in the Peruvian Amazonian Dispersão de sementes de Hymenaea courbaril (Fabaceae em uma floresta tropical úmida com exploração madeireira na Amazônia peruana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Gorchov

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed dispersal of Hymenaea courbaril was studied by following the fate of 585 seeds embedded with small magnets and set in displays in and near a logged strip in rain forest in the Peruvian Amazonian. Mammals took fruits from all displays, which were located in the forest, edge, and cleared strip. Overall removal rates were low - a median of 8.1 fruits / month from displays maintained with 8-10 fruits - but were higher in August than in earlier months. Most fruits were dropped near the display or had their seeds eaten, but > 13% were successfully dispersed. Most of the dispersed seeds were buried, which increases probability of germination. Maximum dispersal distance of live seeds was 12.1 m (median 3.1 m, but other magnets were transported up to 34 m, indicating seeds were dispersed further, but then eaten. Acouchies (most likely Myoprocta pratti and agoutis (Dasyprocta fuliginosa were apparently the main dispersal agents. Dispersal of seeds from the forest into the logged strip was rare, suggesting that although rodents disperse H. courbaril, they cannot be relied on for the reseeding this and similar species in recent clearings.Foi estudada a dispersão de sementes de Hymenaea courbaril, seguindo o destino de 585 sementes marcadas com imãs e expostas a potenciais dispersores, colocadas em agregados no interior e próximo de uma faixa de floresta cortada, na Amazónia peruana. Mamíferos retiraram frutos de todos os agregados, localizados no interior da floresta, na sua borda, e na clareira. As taxas de remoção foram baixas - mediana de 8.1 frutos/mês em agregados mantidos com 8-10 frutos - mas foram mais altas em agosto que nos primeiros meses do ano. A maior parte dos frutos foi abandonada próxima do agregado de origem ou as suas sementes foram consumidas, mas > 13% foram dispersos com sucesso. A maior parte das sementes dispersas foi enterrada, o que favorece a germinação. A distância máxima de dispersão de sementes vivas foi de

  16. Institutional, Individual, and Socio-Cultural Domains of Partnerships: A Typology of USDA Forest Service Recreation Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seekamp, Erin; Cerveny, Lee K.; McCreary, Allie

    2011-09-01

    Federal land management agencies, such as the USDA Forest Service, have expanded the role of recreation partners reflecting constrained growth in appropriations and broader societal trends towards civic environmental governance. Partnerships with individual volunteers, service groups, commercial outfitters, and other government agencies provide the USDA Forest Service with the resources necessary to complete projects and meet goals under fiscal constraints. Existing partnership typologies typically focus on collaborative or strategic alliances and highlight organizational dimensions (e.g., structure and process) defined by researchers. This paper presents a partner typology constructed from USDA Forest Service partnership practitioners' conceptualizations of 35 common partner types. Multidimensional scaling of data from unconstrained pile sorts identified 3 distinct cultural dimensions of recreation partners—specifically, partnership character, partner impact, and partner motivations—that represent institutional, individual, and socio-cultural cognitive domains. A hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis provides further insight into the various domains of agency personnel's conceptualizations. While three dimensions with high reliability (RSQ = 0.83) and corresponding hierarchical clusters illustrate commonality between agency personnel's partnership suppositions, this study also reveals variance in personnel's familiarity and affinity for specific partnership types. This real-world perspective on partner types highlights that agency practitioners not only make strategic choices when selecting and cultivating partnerships to accomplish critical task, but also elect to work with partners for the primary purpose of providing public service and fostering land stewardship.

  17. A new medicinal plant from Amazonian Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asdall, W

    1983-12-01

    Dalbergaria tessmanii, a shrub of the Gesneriaceae locally abundant in the tropical forests of Ecuador, is variously ethnomedicinally employed. For example, none of several Shuar (Jívaro) herbal healers know or use it, but the one Shuar Shaman consulted extols its importance in reducing vaginal bleeding. Although Mestizo native consultants from the provincial capital of Morona-Santiago report its use in alleviating heart problems, those from Pastaza Province employ it to reduce menstrual flow. The Lowland Quechua apparently use it for this purpose as well. This plant has apparently not yet been chemically examined. Its reported use in several different cultural context suggest that it should be phytochemically investigated. PMID:6677821

  18. Extremely long-distance seed dispersal by an overfished Amazonian frugivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jill T; Nuttle, Tim; Saldaña Rojas, Joe S; Pendergast, Thomas H; Flecker, Alexander S

    2011-11-22

    Throughout Amazonia, overfishing has decimated populations of fruit-eating fishes, especially the large-bodied characid, Colossoma macropomum. During lengthy annual floods, frugivorous fishes enter vast Amazonian floodplains, consume massive quantities of fallen fruits and egest viable seeds. Many tree and liana species are clearly specialized for icthyochory, and seed dispersal by fish may be crucial for the maintenance of Amazonian wetland forests. Unlike frugivorous mammals and birds, little is known about seed dispersal effectiveness of fishes. Extensive mobility of frugivorous fish could result in extremely effective, multi-directional, long-distance seed dispersal. Over three annual flood seasons, we tracked fine-scale movement patterns and habitat use of wild Colossoma, and seed retention in the digestive tracts of captive individuals. Our mechanistic model predicts that Colossoma disperses seeds extremely long distances to favourable habitats. Modelled mean dispersal distances of 337-552 m and maximum of 5495 m are among the longest ever reported. At least 5 per cent of seeds are predicted to disperse 1700-2110 m, farther than dispersal by almost all other frugivores reported in the literature. Additionally, seed dispersal distances increased with fish size, but overfishing has biased Colossoma populations to smaller individuals. Thus, overexploitation probably disrupts an ancient coevolutionary relationship between Colossoma and Amazonian plants. PMID:21429923

  19. Diel and seasonal changes of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds within and above an Amazonian rainforest site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Yañez-Serrano

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Amazonian rainforest is a large tropical ecosystem, and is one of the last pristine continental terrains. This ecosystem is ideally located for the study of diel and seasonal behaviour of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOC in the absence of local human interference. In this study, we report the first atmospheric BVOC measurements at the Amazonian Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO site, located in Central Amazonia. A quadrupole Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS with 7 ambient air inlets, positioned from near the ground to about 80 m (0.05, 0.5, 4, 24, 38, 53 and 79 m above the forest floor, was deployed for BVOC monitoring. We report diel and seasonal (February/March 2013 and September 2013 ambient mixing ratios for isoprene, monoterpenes, methyl vinyl ketone (MVK + methacrolein (MACR, acetaldehyde, acetone, methyl ethyl ketone (MEK, methanol and acetonitrile. Clear diel and seasonal patterns were observed for all compounds during the study. In general, lower mixing ratios were observed during night, while maximum mixing ratios were observed with the peak in solar irradiation at 12:00 LT during the wet season (February/March 2013, and with the peak in temperature at 16:00 LT during the dry season (September 2013. Isoprene mixing ratios were highest within the canopy with a median of 7.6 ppb and interquartile range (IQR of 6.1 ppb (dry season at 24 m, from 12:00–15:00. Monoterpene mixing ratios were higher than previously reported for any Amazonian rainforest ecosystem (median 1 ppb, IQR 0.38 ppb during the dry season at 24 m from 15:00–18:00. Oxygenated Volatile Organic Compound (OVOC patterns indicated a transition from dominating forest emissions during the wet season to a blend of biogenic emission, photochemical production, and advection during the dry season. This was inferred from the high mixing ratios found within the canopy, and those obtained above the canopy for the wet and dry season, respectively. Our

  20. Diel and seasonal changes of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds within and above an Amazonian rainforest site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yañez-Serrano, A. M.; Nölscher, A. C.; Williams, J.; Wolff, S.; Alves, E.; Martins, G. A.; Bourtsoukidis, E.; Brito, J.; Jardine, K.; Artaxo, P.; Kesselmeier, J.

    2014-11-01

    The Amazonian rainforest is a large tropical ecosystem, and is one of the last pristine continental terrains. This ecosystem is ideally located for the study of diel and seasonal behaviour of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOC) in the absence of local human interference. In this study, we report the first atmospheric BVOC measurements at the Amazonian Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO) site, located in Central Amazonia. A quadrupole Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS) with 7 ambient air inlets, positioned from near the ground to about 80 m (0.05, 0.5, 4, 24, 38, 53 and 79 m above the forest floor), was deployed for BVOC monitoring. We report diel and seasonal (February/March 2013 and September 2013) ambient mixing ratios for isoprene, monoterpenes, methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) + methacrolein (MACR), acetaldehyde, acetone, methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), methanol and acetonitrile. Clear diel and seasonal patterns were observed for all compounds during the study. In general, lower mixing ratios were observed during night, while maximum mixing ratios were observed with the peak in solar irradiation at 12:00 LT during the wet season (February/March 2013), and with the peak in temperature at 16:00 LT during the dry season (September 2013). Isoprene mixing ratios were highest within the canopy with a median of 7.6 ppb and interquartile range (IQR) of 6.1 ppb (dry season at 24 m, from 12:00-15:00). Monoterpene mixing ratios were higher than previously reported for any Amazonian rainforest ecosystem (median 1 ppb, IQR 0.38 ppb during the dry season at 24 m from 15:00-18:00). Oxygenated Volatile Organic Compound (OVOC) patterns indicated a transition from dominating forest emissions during the wet season to a blend of biogenic emission, photochemical production, and advection during the dry season. This was inferred from the high mixing ratios found within the canopy, and those obtained above the canopy for the wet and dry season, respectively. Our observations

  1. Leaf-litter amount as a factor in the structure of a ponerine ants community (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Ponerinae in an eastern Amazonian rainforest, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandro Herbert dos Santos Bastos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf-litter amount as a factor in the structure of a ponerine ants community (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Ponerinae in an eastern Amazonian rainforest, Brazil. Leaf-litter may be an important factor in structuring ponerine ant communities (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Ponerinae in tropical rainforests. We specifically examined how leaf-litter affects the structure of a ponerine ant community in primary Amazonian rainforest sites at the Ferreira Penna Scientific Station, Pará, Brazil. A total of 53 species belonging to eight genera of three ponerine tribes were collected with mini-Winkler extractors. The amount of leaf-litter positively affected the abundance and richness of the ponerine ant community, and also influenced species composition. Nearby samples often had low species similarity, especially when adjacent samples differed in the amount of leaf-litter. Leaf-litter availability in Amazonian primary forests is a key factor for distribution of ground-dwelling ponerine species, even at small scales.

  2. Sleep in an Amazonian manatee, Trichechus inunguis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhametov, L M; Lyamin, O I; Chetyrbok, I S; Vassilyev, A A; Diaz, R P

    1992-04-15

    For the first time, sleep was studied in a representative of the order of Sirenia. Slow wave sleep occupied 27%, and paradoxical sleep 1% of the total recording time in the Amazonian manatee. Trichechus inunguis. The circadian rhythmicity of sleep was pronounced. During the sleep period, the manatee woke up for a short time for each respiratory act. Interhemispheric asynchrony of the electrocortical slow wave activity was found. PMID:1582500

  3. Litter mercury deposition in the Amazonian rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fostier, Anne Hélène; Melendez-Perez, José Javier; Richter, Larissa

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this work was to assess the flux of atmospheric mercury transferred to the soil of the Amazonian rainforest by litterfall. Calculations were based on a large survey of published and unpublished data on litterfall and Hg concentrations in litterfall samples from the Amazonian region. Litterfall based on 65 sites located in the Amazon rainforest averaged 8.15 ± 2.25 Mg ha(-1) y(-1). Average Hg concentrations were calculated from nine datasets for fresh tree leaves and ten datasets for litter, and a median concentration of 60.5 ng Hg g(-1) was considered for Hg deposition in litterfall, which averaged 49 ± 14 μg m(-2) yr(-1). This value was used to estimate that in the Amazonian rainforest, litterfall would be responsible for the annual removing of 268 ± 77 Mg of Hg, approximately 8% of the total atmospheric Hg deposition to land. The impact of the Amazon deforestation on the Hg biogeochemical cycle is also discussed. PMID:26312742

  4. Extinction risks of Amazonian plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeley, Kenneth J; Silman, Miles R

    2009-07-28

    Estimates of the number, and preferably the identity, of species that will be threatened by land-use change and habitat loss are an invaluable tool for setting conservation priorities. Here, we use collections data and ecoregion maps to generate spatially explicit distributions for more than 40,000 vascular plant species from the Amazon basin (representing more than 80% of the estimated Amazonian plant diversity). Using the distribution maps, we then estimate the rates of habitat loss and associated extinction probabilities due to land-use changes as modeled under 2 disturbance scenarios. We predict that by 2050, human land-use practices will have reduced the habitat available to Amazonian plant species by approximately 12-24%, resulting in 5-9% of species becoming "committed to extinction," significantly fewer than other recent estimates. Contrary to previous studies, we find that the primary determinant of habitat loss and extinction risk is not the size of a species' range, but rather its location. The resulting extinction risk estimates are a valuable conservation tool because they indicate not only the total percentage of Amazonian plant species threatened with extinction but also the degree to which individual species and habitats will be affected by current and future land-use changes. PMID:19617552

  5. Private development-based forest conservation in Patagonia: comparing mental models and revealing cultural truths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Serenari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Private protected area (PPA conservation agents (CA engaging in development-based conservation in southern Chile have generated conflict with locals. Poor fit of dominant development-based conservation ideology in rural areas is commonly to blame. We developed and administered a cultural consensus survey near the Valdivian Coastal Reserve (RCV and Huilo Huilo Reserve (HH to examine fit of CA cultural truths with local residents. Cultural consensus analysis (CCA of 23 propositions reflecting CA cultural truths confirmed: (1 a single CA culture exists, and (2 RCV communities were more aligned with this culture than HH communities. Inadequate communication, inequitable decision making, divergent opinions about livelihood impacts and trajectories, and PPA purpose may explain differences between CAs and communities. Meanwhile, variability in response between and within communities may reflect differing environmental histories. Private protected area administrations might use CCA to confront cultural differences and thereby improve their community interactions.

  6. Challenges of Opportunity Cost Analysis in Planning REDD+: A Honduran Case Study of Social and Cultural Values Associated with Indigenous Forest Uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer T. Plumb

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The REDD Programme is predicated on the assumption that developed countries will provide sufficient funds to offset opportunity costs associated with avoiding deforestation. The role of non-market values in indigenous land management may challenge the efficacy of compensation schemes targeted at meeting opportunity costs as calculated in traditional opportunity cost analysis (OCA. Furthermore it is unclear how these economic incentives might affect social and cultural values linked to land-use norms, livelihoods, and local governance. This study explores the economic, social and cultural values of forest uses for a Miskito community in the Rio Plátano Biosphere Reserve in Honduras. Data were collected using household surveys, farm visits, and community workshops. OCA indicates potential for successful REDD+ payment schemes; however it is an inadequate method to account for subsistence and cultural opportunity costs associated with avoided deforestation. Compensation to change land-use practices may undermine governance institutions necessary to address deforestation in the region. Our results indicate that small-scale agriculture and other forest-based subsistence activities are important cultural practices for maintaining Miskito identity and forest management institutions. Recommendations are offered for using OCA to develop REDD+ projects that recognize the linkages between social and cultural values and forest management by focusing on approaches that consider a full range of economic, social and cultural opportunity costs.

  7. Voices of Contact: Politics of Language in Urban Amazonian Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroblewski, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is a study of diverse linguistic resources and contentious identity politics among indigenous Amazonian Kichwas in the city of Tena, Ecuador. Tena is a rapidly developing Amazonian provincial capital city with a long history of interethnic and interlinguistic contact. In recent decades, the course of indigenous Kichwa identity…

  8. Fish are central in the diet of Amazonian riparians: should we worry about their mercury concentrations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Amazon rain forest extends over an area of 7.8x106 km2 in nine countries. It harbors a diverse human population distributed in dense cities and isolated communities with extreme levels of infrastructure. Amazonian forest people, either autochthons or frontier riparians (ribeirinhos) living in isolated areas, share the same environment for survival and nutritional status. The peculiarities of the hydrological cycle determine disease patterns, agricultural conditions, and food availability. Feeding strategies depend heavily on cassava products and fish. These two foods carry toxic substances such as linamarin (naturally present in cassava) and monomethyl mercury (MMHg) (bioconcentrated in fish flesh) that cause neurotoxic diseases in other parts of the world but not in Amazonia, where neurotoxic cases of food origin are rare and not related to these staples. While cassava detoxification processes may partly explain its safe consumption, the Hg concentrations in Amazonian fish are within traditionally safe limits for this population and contribute to an important metabolic interaction with cassava. The gold rush of the 1970s and 1980s brought large-scale environmental disruption and physical destruction of ecosystems at impact points, along with a heavy discharge of metallic Hg. The discharged Hg has not yet impacted on MMHg concentrations in fish or in hair of fish consumers. Hair Hg concentration, used as a biomarker of fish consumption, indicates that the Amazonian riparians are acquiring an excellent source of protein carrying important nutrients, the lack of which could aggravate their existing health problems. Therefore, in a scenario of insufficient health services and an unhealthy environment, food habits based on fish consumption are part of a successful survival strategy and recommendations for changes are not yet justifiable

  9. Village Fengshui Forests of Southern China – Culture History and Conservation Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Coggins

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The post-reform revival of 'fengshui' and related indigenous spiritual practices in China has revitalized traditional village management of “'fengshui' forests” (“'fengshuilin'”.  This study examines the cosmological principles, landscape ecology, conservation status, and floristic diversity of forest patches that comprise important biological refugia in China’s subtropical broadleaved forest region. From 1949-1979, 'fengshui' was prohibited by the state, but many lineage villages continued to protect 'fengshuilin' through nontraditional means.  The restoration of 'fengshui' has enhanced 'fengshuilin' preservation traditions, but lack of state recognition has impeded systematic research and conservation planning. We assess the status of 'fengshui' practice, 'fengshuilin' management, enforcement of harvesting bans, and tree species selection in seventeen villages associated with over 40 forest patches.  There is little evidence of utilitarian criteria for tree species selection, thus 'fengshuilin' contain diverse taxonomic assemblages.  This suggests strong local institutional capacity for maintaining and enhancing forest diversity and unique traditions of indigenous landscape ecology. We would like to express our deep gratitude for the generosity of the Freeman Foundation and ASIANetwork for funding through the ASIANetwork Freeman Student-Faculty Fellows Program for Collaborative Research in Asia.  Without their support for field research in the summer of 2011, this project would not have been possible.

  10. Siliceous spicules enhance fracture-resistance and stiffness of pre-colonial Amazonian ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natalio, Filipe; Corrales, Tomas P.; Wanka, Stephanie; Zaslansky, Paul; Kappl, Michael; Lima, Helena Pinto; Butt, Hans-Jürgen; Tremel, Wolfgang

    2015-08-01

    Pottery was a traditional art and technology form in pre-colonial Amazonian civilizations, widely used for cultural expression objects, utensils and as cooking vessels. Abundance and workability of clay made it an excellent choice. However, inferior mechanical properties constrained their functionality and durability. The inclusion of reinforcement particles is a possible route to improve its resistance to mechanical and thermal damage. The Amazonian civilizations incorporated freshwater tree sponge spicules (cauixí) into the clay presumably to prevent shrinkage and crack propagation during drying, firing and cooking. Here we show that isolated siliceous spicules are almost defect-free glass fibres with exceptional mechanical stability. After firing, the spicule Young’s modulus increases (from 28 ± 5 GPa to 46 ± 8 GPa) inferring a toughness increment. Laboratory-fabricated ceramic models containing different inclusions (sand, glass-fibres, sponge spicules) show that mutually-oriented siliceous spicule inclusions prevent shrinkage and crack propagation leading to high stiffness clays (E = 836 ± 3 MPa). Pre-colonial amazonian potters were the first civilization known to employ biological materials to generate composite materials with enhanced fracture resistance and high stiffness in the history of mankind.

  11. Biotransformations of terpenes by fungi from Amazonian citrus plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Rueda, Maria Gabriela; Guerrini, Alessandra; Giovannini, Pier Paolo; Medici, Alessandro; Grandini, Alessandro; Sacchetti, Gianni; Pedrini, Paola

    2013-10-01

    The biotransformations of (RS)-linalool (1), (S)-citronellal (2), and sabinene (3) with fungi isolated from the epicarp of fruits of Citrus genus of the Amazonian forest (i.e., C. limon, C. aurantifolia, C. aurantium, and C. paradisiaca) are reported. The more active strains have been characterized, and they belong to the genus Penicillium and Fusarium. Different biotransformation products have been obtained depending on fungi and substrates. (RS)-Linalool (1) afforded the (E)- and (Z)-furanlinalool oxides (7 and 8, resp.; 39 and 37% yield, resp.) with Fusarium sp. (1D2), 6-methylhept-5-en-2-one (4; 49%) with F. fujikuroi, and 1-methyl-1-(4-methypentyl)oxiranemethanol (6; 42%) with F. concentricum. (S)-Citronellal (2) gave (S)-citronellol (12; 36-76%) and (S)-citronellic acid (11; 5-43%) with Fusarium species, while diastereoisomeric p-menthane-3,8-diols 13 and 14 (20 and 50% yield, resp.) were obtained as main products with Penicillium paxilli. Finally, both Fusarium species and P. paxilli biotransformed sabinene (3) to give mainly 4-terpineol (19; 23-56%), and (Z)- and (E)-sabinene hydrates (17 (3-21%) and 18 (11-17%), resp.). PMID:24130034

  12. Mosquitoes of eastern Amazonian Ecuador: biodiversity, bionomics and barcodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne-Marie Linton

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two snapshot surveys to establish the diversity and ecological preferences of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in the terra firme primary rain forest surrounding the Tiputini Biodiversity Station in the UNESCO Yasuní Biosphere Reserve of eastern Amazonian Ecuador were carried out in November 1998 and May 1999. The mosquito fauna of this region is poorly known; the focus of this study was to obtain high quality link-reared specimens that could be used to unequivocally confirm species level diversity through integrated systematic study of all life stages and DNA sequences. A total of 2,284 specimens were preserved; 1,671 specimens were link-reared with associated immature exuviae, all but 108 of which are slide mounted. This study identified 68 unique taxa belonging to 17 genera and 27 subgenera. Of these, 12 are new to science and 37 comprise new country records. DNA barcodes [658-bp of the mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase ( COI I gene] are presented for 58 individuals representing 20 species and nine genera. DNA barcoding proved useful in uncovering and confirming new species and we advocate an integrated systematics approach to biodiversity studies in future. Associated bionomics of all species collected are discussed. An updated systematic checklist of the mosquitoes of Ecuador (n = 179 is presented for the first time in 60 years.

  13. Estimating greenhouse gas emissions from future Amazonian hydroelectric reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Faria, Felipe A. M.; Jaramillo, Paulina; Sawakuchi, Henrique O.; Richey, Jeffrey E.; Barros, Nathan

    2015-12-01

    Brazil plans to meet the majority of its growing electricity demand with new hydropower plants located in the Amazon basin. However, large hydropower plants located in tropical forested regions may lead to significant carbon dioxide and methane emission. Currently, no predictive models exist to estimate the greenhouse gas emissions before the reservoir is built. This paper presents two different approaches to investigate the future carbon balance of eighteen new reservoirs in the Amazon. The first approach is based on a degradation model of flooded carbon stock, while the second approach is based on flux data measured in Amazonian rivers and reservoirs. The models rely on a Monte Carlo simulation framework to represent the balance of the greenhouse gases into the atmosphere that results when land and river are converted into a reservoir. Further, we investigate the role of the residence time/stratification in the carbon emissions estimate. Our results imply that two factors contribute to reducing overall emissions from these reservoirs: high energy densities reservoirs, i.e., the ratio between the installed capacity and flooded area, and vegetation clearing. While the models’ uncertainties are high, we show that a robust treatment of uncertainty can effectively indicate whether a reservoir in the Amazon will result in larger greenhouse gas emissions when compared to other electricity sources.

  14. Estimating greenhouse gas emissions from future Amazonian hydroelectric reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil plans to meet the majority of its growing electricity demand with new hydropower plants located in the Amazon basin. However, large hydropower plants located in tropical forested regions may lead to significant carbon dioxide and methane emission. Currently, no predictive models exist to estimate the greenhouse gas emissions before the reservoir is built. This paper presents two different approaches to investigate the future carbon balance of eighteen new reservoirs in the Amazon. The first approach is based on a degradation model of flooded carbon stock, while the second approach is based on flux data measured in Amazonian rivers and reservoirs. The models rely on a Monte Carlo simulation framework to represent the balance of the greenhouse gases into the atmosphere that results when land and river are converted into a reservoir. Further, we investigate the role of the residence time/stratification in the carbon emissions estimate. Our results imply that two factors contribute to reducing overall emissions from these reservoirs: high energy densities reservoirs, i.e., the ratio between the installed capacity and flooded area, and vegetation clearing. While the models’ uncertainties are high, we show that a robust treatment of uncertainty can effectively indicate whether a reservoir in the Amazon will result in larger greenhouse gas emissions when compared to other electricity sources. (letter)

  15. Root carbohydrate storage in young saplings of an Amazonian tidal várzea forest before the onset of the wet season Armazenamento de carboidratos antecedendo à estação chuvosa em raízes de plantas jovens em floresta de várzea de estuário amazônico

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio Rubio Scarano; José Henrique Cattânio; Robert M.M. Crawford

    1994-01-01

    Root starch and glucose content were measured for young saplings of 18 Amazonian tidal várzea tree species during a dry season. The pattern of carbohydrate storage depended on the type of plant involved and soil topography which is directly linked to flood regime. Most plants showed high root carbohydrate content at this point in the dry season, however, several typically flood-tolerant species (particularly palm trees) presented a low root carbohydrate content, suggesting a strategy of acqui...

  16. Tissue culture of forest trees - clonal propagation of mature trees of ecualyptus citriodora hook, by tissue culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, P.K.; Mascarenhas, A.F.; Jagannathan, V.

    1981-01-01

    Multiple shoots were obtained from terminal buds of 20-year-old trees of Eucalyptus citriodora Hook on Murashige and Skoog's medium supplemented with calcium pantothenate, biotin, benzylaminopurine and kinetin. Rooting could be induced by naphthalene-acetic acid in shoot cultures only after they had undergone three subcultures. Incubation at 15/sup 0/C with continuous illumination followed by growth in agitated liquid cultures was essential for inducing shoot development in the primary terminal buds. These treatments were not necessary in later subcultures or with explants from seedlings obtained from seeds. Fifteen subcultures have so far been carried out and healthy viable plantlets obtained in each subculture. It is estimated that over 100,000 plants can be obtained by this method in a year from a single bud of mature Eucalyptus citriodora trees.

  17. Diversity and genetic structure analysis of three Amazonian Amerindian populations from Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamid Braga

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available 14.00 Normal 0 21 false false false ES-CO X-NONE X-NONE Introduction: In the departments of the Vaupés and Guaviare, in southeastern Colombia, in a transitional area between Amazonia and the eastern plains, inhabit indigenous groups belonging to the Tukanoan (East and Guahiban linguistic families. Although some studies have dealt with the culture and the cosmology description of these groups, little research has been done on the biological diversity and genetic relationships of such groups. Objective: To estimate the diversity, the structure, and the genetic relationships of one Guahiban and two Tukanoan groups of the Colombian Amazonian region. Methods: Samples were collected (n = 106 from unrelated individuals belonging to the Vaupés native indigenous commu­nities. The DNA was extracted and nine autosomal microsatellites were typed. Several measures of diversity, FST, pairwise FST, and population differentiation between groups were calculated. Finally, it was estimated the genetic distances of the groups studied in relation with other Amazonian, Andean and Central American indigenous people. Results: 1. The genetic diversity found stands within the range of other Amazonian populations, whereas compared to the mestizo and afro-descendant Colombian populations, such diversity showed to be lower. 2. The structure and population differentiation tests showed two clusters; one consisting of the Vaupés Tukanoan and Guaviare Tukanoan groups, and a second one formed by the Guayabero. 3. Tukanoan groups are found to be closer related to the Brazilian Amazonian po­pulations than to the Guayabero. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that the Guayabero group from Guaviare, are genetically differentiated from those Tukanoan groups of the Vaupés and Guaviare

  18. Diversity and genetic structure analysis of three Amazonian Amerindian populations from Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamid Braga

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the departments of the Vaupés and Guaviare, in southeastern Colombia, in a transitional area between Amazonia and the eastern plains, inhabit indigenous groups belonging to the Tukanoan (East and Guahiban linguistic families. Although some studies have dealt with the culture and the cosmology description of these groups, little research has been done on the biological diversity and genetic relationships of such groups.Objective: To estimate the diversity, the structure, and the genetic relationships of one Guahiban and two Tukanoan groups of the Colombian Amazonian region.Methods: Samples were collected (n = 106 from unrelated individuals belonging to the Vaupés native indigenous communities. The DNA was extracted and nine autosomal microsatellites were typed. Several measures of diversity, FST, pairwise FST, and population differentiation between groups were calculated. Finally, it was estimated the genetic distances of the groups studied in relation with other Amazonian, Andean and Central American indigenous people.Results: 1. The genetic diversity found stands within the range of other Amazonian populations, whereas compared to the mestizo and afro-descendant Colombian populations, such diversity showed to be lower. 2. The structure and population differentiation tests showed two clusters; one consisting of the Vaupés Tukanoan and Guaviare Tukanoan groups, and a second one formed by the Guayabero. 3. Tukanoan groups are found to be closer related to the Brazilian Amazonian populations than to the Guayabero.Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that the Guayabero group from Guaviare, are genetically differentiated from those Tukanoan groups of the Vaupés and Guaviare.

  19. Produção e predação de frutos em Aniba rosaeodora Ducke var. amazonica Ducke (Lauraceae em sistema de plantio sob floresta de terra firme na Amazônia Central Harvesting and fruit predation of a Aniba rosaeodora Ducke var. amazonica Ducke (Lauraceae ex situ tree population in a central Amazonian upland forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Roberto Spironello

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O pau-rosa (Aniba rosaeodora vem sendo usado desde o século passado para extração de linalol, produto usado como fixador de perfumes. Por causa do extrativismo houve redução drástica em suas populações naturais. Somando a este fato, esta espécie possui padrão irregular de frutificação e, quando frutifica, os seus frutos são consumidos por animais. Estes aspectos foram estudados utilizando uma população de plantio sob sombra parcial de floresta primária. A produtividade das árvores variou de 40 a 1.600 frutos (n = 21 árvores. No geral, cerca de 42,5% foram removidos por frugívoros (6.770 frutos, n = 10 árvores. Dos frutos não removidos, 0,5% foram predados por vertebrados, 81,5% continham larvas de insetos, variando de 36-96% entre indivíduos. Uma espécie de Coleoptera ataca os frutos em estádio imaturo, enquanto outra (Heilipus sp. e uma espécie de Lepidoptera atacam os frutos em estádio final de desenvolvimento. Os resultados projetam perda de 59,5% dos frutos (54,5% por insetos passíveis de coleta. Considerando a importância econômica do pau-rosa faz-se necessário aumentar a disponibilidade de sementes para planos de manejo da espécie. Para se atingir tais objetivos são necessárias algumas medidas: 1 coleta prematura de frutos para maturação em laboratório; 2 utilização de métodos de controle de insetos adultos (em plantios e larvas (em frutos atacados; e 3 estudos de seleção genética para identificar plantas com maior resistência natural a pragas e doenças.The rosewood tree (Aniba rosaeodora has been exploited for linalol, a product used as a fixative by the perfume industry. As a result, its population has decreased to the point that it is at risk of extinction in some Amazonian areas. In addition, the species has an irregular phenological pattern and its fruits are a food source for animals. This study focused on the use an ex situ population planted under partial forest shade. The fruit set

  20. Atlantic forcing of Amazonian climates in the last ice age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, M. B.; Mosblech, N.; Valencia, B. G.; Hodell, D. A.; Gosling, W. D.; Van Calsteren, P. W.; Thomas, L. E.; Curtis, J. H.

    2011-12-01

    An absence of study sites means that the relative influence of orbitally driven presession cycles and millenial scale variability upon ice-age Amazonian precipitation is unknown. Here we present a continuous isotopic (δO18 and C13) record spanning the period from ~93-8 ka, from the aseasonal forests of Amazonian Ecuador. The variability in δO18 depletion is probably related to the relative strength of evapotranspired moisture (less depleted) and tropical Atlantic moisture carried across the basin by the South American Low Level Jet (more depleted). Times of strengthened South American Low Level Jet probably correspond to increased overall moisture availability and hence elevated precipitation. The occurrence of markedly depleted δO18 signatures during Heinrich events suggests a strong influence of the Atlantic Ocean on this system, and that these northern hemispheric stadials induced wet episodes in western Amazonia. Weakening of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) has been suggested to strengthen the South American Low Level Jet. The isotopic records reveal strong cohesion with previously published records from southern Brazil. A precessional influence amplifies the north Atlantic signal between c. 93 ka and 50 ka. However, after c. 50 ka the precessional signal weakens, perhaps sugesting that at a critical size the Laurentide ice mass exerted a strong influence on Neotropical climates suppressing the weaker forcing associated with precession. Contrary to long-standing expectation, the Last Glacial Maximum (21 ± 2 ka) does not stand out as time of aridity in this record. However, between c. 35 ka and 18 ka there is a drift toward less depleted rainfall. One hypothesis to account for this observation is that the climate was becoming more seasonal as the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) formed further south than its modern location. The resulting weakened influence of the South American Summer Monsoon (SASM) would probably reduce wet

  1. Diel and seasonal changes of biogenic volatile organic compounds within and above an Amazonian rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yáñez-Serrano, A. M.; Nölscher, A. C.; Williams, J.; Wolff, S.; Alves, E.; Martins, G. A.; Bourtsoukidis, E.; Brito, J.; Jardine, K.; Artaxo, P.; Kesselmeier, J.

    2015-03-01

    The Amazonian rainforest is a large tropical ecosystem, which is one of the last pristine continental terrains. This ecosystem is ideally located for the study of diel and seasonal behaviour of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in the absence of local human interference. In this study, we report the first atmospheric BVOC measurements at the Amazonian Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO) site, located in central Amazonia. A quadrupole proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS), with seven ambient air inlets, positioned from near ground to about 80 m (0.05, 0.5, 4, 24, 38, 53 and 79 m above the forest floor), was deployed for BVOC monitoring. We report diel and seasonal (February-March 2013 as wet season and September 2013 as dry season) ambient mixing ratios for isoprene, monoterpenes, isoprene oxidation products, acetaldehyde, acetone, methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), methanol and acetonitrile. Clear diel and seasonal patterns were observed for all compounds. In general, lower mixing ratios were observed during night, while maximum mixing ratios were observed during the wet season (February-March 2013), with the peak in solar irradiation at 12:00 LT (local time) and during the dry season (September 2013) with the peak in temperature at 16:00 LT. Isoprene and monoterpene mixing ratios were the highest within the canopy with a median of 7.6 and 1 ppb, respectively (interquartile range (IQR) of 6.1 and 0.38 ppb) during the dry season (at 24 m, from 12:00 to 15:00 LT). The increased contribution of oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) above the canopy indicated a transition from dominating forest emissions during the wet season (when mixing ratios were higher than within the canopy), to a blend of biogenic emission, photochemical production and advection during the dry season when mixing ratios were higher above the canopy. Our observations suggest strong seasonal interactions between environmental (insolation, temperature) and biological (phenology

  2. Molecular characterization of forest soil based Paenibacillus elgii and optimization of various culture conditions for its improved antimicrobial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dileep eKumar BS

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms have provided a bounty of bioactive secondary metabolites with very exciting biological activities such as antibacterial, antifungal antiviral, and anticancer, etc. The present study aims at the optimization of culture conditions for improved antimicrobial production of Paenibacillus elgii obtained from Wayanad forest of Western Ghats region of Kerala, India. A bacterial strain isolated from the Western Ghats forest soil of Wayanad, Kerala, India was identified as P. elgii by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. P. elgii recorded significant board spectrum activity against all human and plant pathogenic microorganism tested except Candida albicans. It has been well known that even minor variations in the fermentation medium may impact not only the quantity of desired bioactive metabolites but also the general metabolic profile of the producing microorganisms. Thus, further studies were carried out to assess the impact of medium components on the antimicrobial production of P. elgii and to optimize an ideal fermentation medium to maximize its antimicrobial production. Out of three media [nutrient broth (NA, Luria broth (LB and Trypticase soy broth (TSB] used for fermentation, TSB medium recorded significant activity. Glucose and meat peptone were identified as the best carbon and nitrogen sources, which significantly affected the antibiotic production when supplemented with TSB medium. Next the effect of various fermentation conditions such as temperature, pH and incubation time on the production of antimicrobial compounds was studied on TSB+glucose+meat peptone and an initial pH of 7 and a temperature of 30ºC for 3 days were found to be optimum for maximum antimicrobial production. The results indicate that medium composition in the fermentation media along with cultural parameters plays a vital role in the enhanced production of antimicrobial substances.

  3. Molecular characterization of forest soil based Paenibacillus elgii and optimization of various culture conditions for its improved antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S N; Jacob, Jubi; Reshma, U R; Rajesh, R O; Kumar, B S D

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms have provided a bounty of bioactive secondary metabolites with very exciting biological activities such as antibacterial, antifungal antiviral, and anticancer, etc. The present study aims at the optimization of culture conditions for improved antimicrobial production of Paenibacillus elgii obtained from Wayanad forest of Western Ghats region of Kerala, India. A bacterial strain isolated from the Western Ghats forest soil of Wayanad, Kerala, India was identified as P. elgii by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. P. elgii recorded significant board spectrum activity against all human and plant pathogenic microorganism tested except Candida albicans. It has been well known that even minor variations in the fermentation medium may impact not only the quantity of desired bioactive metabolites but also the general metabolic profile of the producing microorganisms. Thus, further studies were carried out to assess the impact of medium components on the antimicrobial production of P. elgii and to optimize an ideal fermentation medium to maximize its antimicrobial production. Out of three media [nutrient broth (NA), Luria broth (LB) and Trypticase soy broth (TSB)] used for fermentation, TSB medium recorded significant activity. Glucose and meat peptone were identified as the best carbon and nitrogen sources, which significantly affected the antibiotic production when supplemented with TSB medium. Next the effect of various fermentation conditions such as temperature, pH, and incubation time on the production of antimicrobial compounds was studied on TSB + glucose + meat peptone and an initial pH of 7 and a temperature of 30°C for 3 days were found to be optimum for maximum antimicrobial production. The results indicate that medium composition in the fermentation media along with cultural parameters plays a vital role in the enhanced production of antimicrobial substances. PMID:26539188

  4. The synergistic use of models and observations: understanding the mechanisms behind observed biomass dynamics at 14 Amazonian field sites and the implications for future biomass change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, N. M.; Galbraith, D.; Christoffersen, B. J.; Imbuzeiro, H. A.; Restrepo-Coupe, N.; Malhi, Y.; Saleska, S. R.; Costa, M. H.; Phillips, O.; Andrade, A.; Moorcroft, P. R.

    2011-12-01

    The Amazonian rainforests play a vital role in global water, energy and carbon cycling. The sensitivity of this system to natural and anthropogenic disturbances therefore has important implications for the global climate. Some global models have predicted large-scale forest dieback and the savannization of Amazonia over the next century [Meehl et al., 2007]. While several studies have demonstrated the sensitivity of dynamic global vegetation models to changes in temperature, precipitation, and dry season length [e.g. Galbraith et al., 2010; Good et al., 2011], the ability of these models to accurately reproduce ecosystem dynamics of present-day transitional or low biomass tropical forests has not been demonstrated. A model-data intercomparison was conducted with four state-of-the-art terrestrial ecosystem models to evaluate the ability of these models to accurately represent structure, function, and long-term biomass dynamics over a range of Amazonian ecosystems. Each modeling group conducted a series of simulations for 14 sites including mature forest, transitional forest, savannah, and agricultural/pasture sites. All models were run using standard physical parameters and the same initialization procedure. Model results were compared against forest inventory and dendrometer data in addition to flux tower measurements. While the models compared well against field observations for the mature forest sites, significant differences were observed between predicted and measured ecosystem structure and dynamics for the transitional forest and savannah sites. The length of the dry season and soil sand content were good predictors of model performance. In addition, for the big leaf models, model performance was highest for sites dominated by late successional trees and lowest for sites with predominantly early and mid-successional trees. This study provides insight into tropical forest function and sensitivity to environmental conditions that will aid in predictions of the

  5. Alluvial deposits and plant distribution in an Amazonian lowland megafan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zani, H.; Rossetti, D.; Cremon; Cohen, M.; Pessenda, L. C.

    2012-12-01

    A large volume of sandy alluvial deposits (> 1000 km2) characterizes a flat wetland in northern Amazonia. These have been recently described as the sedimentary record of a megafan system, which have a distinct triangular shape produced by highly migratory distributary rivers. The vegetation map suggests that this megafan is dominated by open vegetation in sharp contact with the surround rainforest. Understanding the relationship between geomorphological processes and vegetation distribution is crucial to decipher and conserve the biodiversity in this Amazonian ecosystem. In this study we interpret plant dynamics over time, and investigate its potential control by sedimentary processes during landscape evolution. The study area is located in the Viruá National Park. Two field campaigns were undertaken in the dry seasons of 2010 and 2011 and the sampling sites were selected by combining accessibility and representativeness. Vegetation contrasts were recorded along a transect in the medial section of the Viruá megafan. Due to the absence of outcrops, samples were extracted using a core device, which allowed sampling up to a depth of 7.5 m. All cores were opened and described in the field, with 5 cm3 samples collected at 20 cm intervals. The δ13C of organic matter was used as a proxy to distinguish between C3 and C4 plant communities. The chronology was established based on radiocarbon dating. The results suggest that the cores from forested areas show the most depleted values of δ13C, ranging from -32.16 to -27.28‰. The δ13C curve in these areas displays typical C3 land plant values for the entire record, which covers most of the Holocene. This finding indicates that either the vegetation remained stable over time or the sites were dominated by aquatic environments with freshwater plants before forest establishment. The cores from the open vegetation areas show a progressive upward enrichment in δ13C values, which range from -28.50 to -19.59‰. This trend is

  6. Temporal Decay in Timber Species Composition and Value in Amazonian Logging Concessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    Throughout human history, slow-renewal biological resource populations have been predictably overexploited, often to the point of economic extinction. We assess whether and how this has occurred with timber resources in the Brazilian Amazon. The asynchronous advance of industrial-scale logging frontiers has left regional-scale forest landscapes with varying histories of logging. Initial harvests in unlogged forests can be highly selective, targeting slow-growing, high-grade, shade-tolerant hardwood species, while later harvests tend to focus on fast-growing, light-wooded, long-lived pioneer trees. Brazil accounts for 85% of all native neotropical forest roundlog production, and the State of Pará for almost half of all timber production in Brazilian Amazonia, the largest old-growth tropical timber reserve controlled by any country. Yet the degree to which timber harvests beyond the first-cut can be financially profitable or demographically sustainable remains poorly understood. Here, we use data on legally planned logging of ~17.3 million cubic meters of timber across 314 species extracted from 824 authorized harvest areas in private and community-owned forests, 446 of which reported volumetric composition data by timber species. We document patterns of timber extraction by volume, species composition, and monetary value along aging eastern Amazonian logging frontiers, which are then explained on the basis of historical and environmental variables. Generalized linear models indicate that relatively recent logging operations farthest from heavy-traffic roads are the most selective, concentrating gross revenues on few high-value species. We find no evidence that the post-logging timber species composition and total value of forest stands recovers beyond the first-cut, suggesting that the commercially most valuable timber species become predictably rare or economically extinct in old logging frontiers. In avoiding even more destructive land-use patterns, managing

  7. Origin and Domestication of Native Amazonian Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doriane Picanço-Rodrigues

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular analyses are providing new elements to decipher the origin, domestication and dispersal of native Amazonian crops in an expanding archaeological context. Solid molecular data are available for manioc (Manihot esculenta, cacao (Theobroma cacao, pineapple (Ananas comosus, peach palm (Bactris gasipaes and guaraná (Paullinia cupana, while hot peppers (Capsicum spp., inga (Inga edulis, Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa and cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum are being studied. Emergent patterns include the relationships among domestication, antiquity (terminal Pleistocene to early Holocene, origin in the periphery, ample pre-Columbian dispersal and clear phylogeographic population structure for manioc, pineapple, peach palm and, perhaps, Capsicum peppers. Cacao represents the special case of an Amazonian species possibly brought into domestication in Mesoamerica, but close scrutiny of molecular data suggests that it may also have some incipiently domesticated populations in Amazonia. Another pattern includes the relationships among species with incipiently domesticated populations or very recently domesticated populations, rapid pre- or post-conquest dispersal and lack of phylogeographic population structure, e.g., Brazil nut, cupuassu and guaraná. These patterns contrast the peripheral origin of most species with domesticated populations with the subsequent concentration of their genetic resources in the center of the basin, along the major white water rivers where high pre-conquest population densities developed. Additional molecular genetic analyses on these and other species will allow better examination of these processes and will enable us to relate them to other historical ecological patterns in Amazonia.

  8. Anthropogenic Land-use Change and the Dynamics of Amazon Forest Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurance, William F.

    2004-01-01

    This project was focused on assessing the effects of prevailing land uses, such as habitat fragmentation, selective logging, and fire, on biomass and carbon storage in Amazonian forests, and on the dynamics of carbon sequestration in regenerating forests. Ancillary goals included developing GIs models to help predict the future condition of Amazonian forests, and assessing the effects of anthropogenic climate change and ENS0 droughts on intact and fragmented forests. Ground-based studies using networks of permanent plots were linked with remote-sensing data (including Landsat TM and AVHRR) at regional scales, and higher-resolution techniques (IKONOS imagery, videography, LIDAR, aerial photographs) at landscape and local scales. The project s specific goals were quite eclectic and included: Determining the effects of habitat fragmentation on forest dynamics, floristic composition, and the various components of above- and below-ground biomass. Assessing historical and physical factors that affect trajectories of forest regeneration and carbon sequestration on abandoned lands. Extrapolating results from local studies of biomass dynamics in fragmented and regenerating forests to landscape and regional scales in Amazonia, using remote sensing and GIS. Testing the hypothesis that intact Amazonian forests are functioning as a significant carbon sink. Examining destructive synergisms between forest fragmentation and fire. Assessing the short-term impacts of selective logging on aboveground biomass. Developing GIS models that integrate current spatial data on forest cover, deforestation, logging, mining, highway and roads, navigable rivers, vulnerability to wild fires, protected areas, and existing and planned infrastructure projects, in an effort to predict the future condition of Brazilian Amazonian forests over the next 20-25 years. Devising predictive spatial models to assess the influence of varied biophysical and anthropogenic predictors on Amazonian deforestation.

  9. Food Plants Eaten by Amazonian Manatees (Trichechus inunguis, Mammalia : Sirenia)

    OpenAIRE

    Colares Ioni G.; Colares Elton P.

    2002-01-01

    To determine the feeding habits of the Amazonian manatee Trichechus inunguis in some Central Amazonian rivers and lakes, we compared plant epidermis found in the stomach contents and/or faeces of animals with a reference collection of plants present in the studied areas. Twenty five samples from digestive tracts of animals found dead and 25 faeces samples found floating were analyzed. From these samples, 24 aquatic macrophytes were identified. The Gramineae family was identified in 96% of the...

  10. Isozyme characterization of Capsicum accessions from the Amazonian Colombian collection

    OpenAIRE

    Lorena Quintero Barrera; Marisol Cudris García; Martha Cecilia Giraldo; Luz Marina Melgarejo

    2007-01-01

    Two hundred and sixty-one accessions of the genus Capsicum were obtained from the Colombian Amazonian germplasm bank at Amazonian Institute of Scientific Research (Sinchi) and were evaluated with five polymorphic enzymatic systems, including esterase (EST), peroxidase (PRX), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGDH), aspartate amino transferase (GOT), and malic enzyme (ME). Using a cluster analysis (UPGMA) the genetic variability of these accessions were characterized. Grouping of the species...

  11. THE FIRST ‘CORDED’ CERAMICS ORNAMENTATION OF ENEOLITHIC STEPPE AND NEOLITHIC FOREST-STEPPE CULTURES

    OpenAIRE

    Kotova, Nadezhda S.

    2010-01-01

    The issues outlined in the above volume of Baltic-Pontic Studies (BPS) presented here, can be said to generate several important and complex questions among which, one relating to the topogenesis of ’corded’ ornamentation on the bio-cultural borderlands of east and west Europe, gave birth to an innovative research project. In this respect, specialist researchers of the Pontic-Baltic Eneolithic (from Middle and Late Neolithic contexts) chose 45 vessels (mostly fragments) originating from the D...

  12. Climatic and cultural changes in the west Congo Basin forests over the past 5000 years

    OpenAIRE

    Oslisly, Richard; White, Lee; Bentaleb, Ilham; Favier, Charly; Fontugne, Michel; Gillet, Jean-François; Sebag, David

    2013-01-01

    Central Africa includes the world's second largest rainforest block. The ecology of the region remains poorly understood, as does its vegetation and archaeological history. However, over the past 20 years, multidisciplinary scientific programmes have enhanced knowledge of old human presence and palaeoenvironments in the forestry block of Central Africa. This first regional synthesis documents significant cultural changes over the past five millennia and describes how they are linked to climat...

  13. Large-scale heterogeneity of Amazonian phenology revealed from 26-year long AVHRR/NDVI time-series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depiction of phenological cycles in tropical forests is critical for an understanding of seasonal patterns in carbon and water fluxes as well as the responses of vegetation to climate variations. However, the detection of clear spatially explicit phenological patterns across Amazonia has proven difficult using data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). In this work, we propose an alternative approach based on a 26-year time-series of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) to identify regions with homogeneous phenological cycles in Amazonia. Specifically, we aim to use a pattern recognition technique, based on temporal signal processing concepts, to map Amazonian phenoregions and to compare the identified patterns with field-derived information. Our automated method recognized 26 phenoregions with unique intra-annual seasonality. This result highlights the fact that known vegetation types in Amazonia are not only structurally different but also phenologically distinct. Flushing of new leaves observed in the field is, in most cases, associated to a continuous increase in NDVI. The peak in leaf production is normally observed from the beginning to the middle of the wet season in 66% of the field sites analyzed. The phenoregion map presented in this work gives a new perspective on the dynamics of Amazonian canopies. It is clear that the phenology across Amazonia is more variable than previously detected using remote sensing data. An understanding of the implications of this spatial heterogeneity on the seasonality of Amazonian forest processes is a crucial step towards accurately quantifying the role of tropical forests within global biogeochemical cycles. (letter)

  14. 北京妙峰山森林文化条件价值评估%Contingent Valuation of Forest Culture in Miaofeng Mountain in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱霖; 李智勇; 樊宝敏; 张德成; 苏立娟

    2015-01-01

    Objective]Valuation of forest culture in Miaofeng Mountain was intended to provide an example for valuation of forest culture in other areas of China,and to develop approaches to the quantitative assessment of the cultural value of China’s forest. [Method]In order to assess the cultural value of forest in Miaofeng Mountain,interviews were conducted to analyze the recognition of forest culture by using Contingent Valuation Method. Factors influencing the willingness to pay of the respondents were analyzed by using stepwise regression method. [Result]Ancient and famous trees,fables and allusions,and legends of sacred mountains are most popular cultural symbols for the respondents. The respondents comprehended forest culture through a variety of ways,and internet and books were the main approach. Fruit collection in forest was the mostly accepted way of participation in practices related to forest. More than 94% of the respondents agreed that the forest has cultural value. The highest recognition by the respondents was relief of depressed mood as the gained benefit ( 82 . 32%) ,followed by physical exercise ( 62 . 20%) and entertainment ( 45 . 12%) . The willingness to pay for the forest culture in Miaofeng Mountain was 100 RMB per capita,and the most important influencing factor was the annual income of individuals,followed by approbation to forest cultural value and educational background of the respondents. Worries about the transparency of the uses of paid fees was the most important reason for rejecting pay. Most respondents (53. 05%) expressed willingness to pay for producing arts associated with the Miaofeng forest culture, and donation was the most acceptable way of payment by respondents. [Conclusion]A variety of deviations in understanding,mental account,pattern of payment and starting point of bidding,may cause errors in the contingent valuation. Even as a preliminary estimate,the methods and conclusion in this study could be used to provide the basis for

  15. 村落文化林与非文化林多尺度物种多样性加性分配%Additive partition of species diversity across multiple spatial scales in community culturally protected forests and non-culturally protected forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高虹; 陈圣宾; 欧阳志云

    2012-01-01

    Culturally protected forests, which are preserved and managed by local people on the basis of traditional cultural practices and beliefs, have certain social and ecological functions, and also show significant role in biodiversity conservation. The research worldwide nowadays mainly focuses on qualitative description of culturally protected forests and therefore lack quantitative comparison of biodiversity and difference in species composition between culturally protected forests and non-culturally protected forests, particularly diversity from different spatial scales. The tree layer, shrub layer, herb layer and vine layer of three culturally protected forests and non-culturally protected forests were investigated, using additive partition measured by species abundance to analyze diversity of multi-scale in subtropical region of China. Partitioning of total species diversity can be described as Alpha diversity ( within grid diversity) + Beta diversity = Gamma diversity (total diversity at landscape) , among which Beta diversity could be divided into diversity between grids, diversity between plots, diversity between forest types. The results were: (1) Total 296 species belonging to 66 families and 163 genera were found in culturally protected forests, dominated by Castanopsis sclerophylla, Cinnamomum camphora and Castanopsis carlesii, while 189 species belonging to 67 families and 135 genera were found in non-culturally protected forests, dominated by Cunninghamia lanceolata, Pinus massoniana and Phyllostachys heterocycla cv. pubescens. Culturally protected forests had more species in tree layer and shrub layer although the differences of species composition were complex in herb and vine layer depending on human disturbance and locations, and most of species diversity was higher in culturally protected forests. (2) This model implied that Beta diversity was increasing at larger spatial scale, and which showed uniform results in different layers in both culturally

  16. Long-term landscape change and bird abundance in Amazonian rainforest fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stouffer, Philip C; Bierregaard, Richard O; Strong, Cheryl; Lovejoy, Thomas E

    2006-08-01

    The rainforests of the Amazon basin are being cut by humans at a rate >20,000 km2/year leading to smaller and more isolated patches of forest, with remaining fragments often in the range of 1-100 ha. We analyzed samples of understory birds collected over 20 years from a standardized mist-netting program in 1- to 100-ha rainforest fragments in a dynamic Amazonian landscape near Manaus, Brazil. Across bird guilds, the condition of second growth immediately surrounding fragments was often as important as fragment size or local forest cover in explaining variation in abundance. Some fragments surrounded by 100 m of open pasture showed reductions in insectivorous bird abundance of over 95%, even in landscapes dominated by continuous forest and old second growth. These extreme reductions may be typical throughout Amazonia in small (loss cannot be accurately described without explicit consideration of vegetation dynamics in matrix habitat. Any dichotomous classification of the landscape into 'forest" and "nonforest" misses essential information about the matrix. PMID:16922237

  17. The forest has a story: cultural ecosystem services in Kona, Hawai‘i

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachelle K. Gould

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding cultural dimensions of human/environment relationships is now widely seen as key to effective management, yet characterizing these dimensions remains a challenge. We report on an approach for considering the nonmaterial values associated with ecosystems, i.e., cultural ecosystem services. We applied the approach in Kona, Hawai‘i, using 30 semistructured interviews and 205 in-person surveys, striving to balance pragmatism and depth. We found spirituality, heritage, and identity-related values to be particularly salient, with expression of some of these values varying among respondents by ethnicity and duration of residence in Hawai‘i. Although people of various backgrounds reported strong spirituality and heritage-related values, Native Hawaiians rated heritage connections as deeper, and lifetime residents portrayed ecosystem-identity connections as more integral to their well-being than did people from other backgrounds. The approach also proved useful in identifying concerns not addressed in survey and interview prompts, including postcolonial issues, access to ecosystems, and relationships between people of different ethnic backgrounds. Although understanding these nonmaterial dimensions of human-ecosystem relationships can be complex, emerging techniques eliciting qualitative and quantitative data provide feasible ways of deepening that understanding.

  18. Influence of habitat, litter type, and soil invertebrates on leaf-litter decomposition in a fragmented Amazonian landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Heraldo L; Laurance, William F

    2005-07-01

    Amazonian forest fragments and second-growth forests often differ substantially from undisturbed forests in their microclimate, plant-species composition, and soil fauna. To determine if these changes could affect litter decomposition, we quantified the mass loss of two contrasting leaf-litter mixtures, in the presence or absence of soil macroinvertebrates, and in three forest habitats. Leaf-litter decomposition rates in second-growth forests (>10 years old) and in fragment edges (edge) did not differ from that in the forest interior (>250 m from the edges of primary forests). In all three habitats, experimental exclusion of soil invertebrates resulted in slower decomposition rates. Faunal-exclosure effects were stronger for litter of the primary forest, composed mostly of leaves of old-growth trees, than for litter of second-growth forests, which was dominated by leaves of successional species. The latter had a significantly lower initial concentration of N, higher C:N and lignin:N ratios, and decomposed at a slower rate than did litter from forest interiors. Our results indicate that land-cover changes in Amazonia affect decomposition mainly through changes in plant species composition, which in turn affect litter quality. Similar effects may occur on fragment edges, particularly on very disturbed edges, where successional trees become dominant. The drier microclimatic conditions in fragment edges and second-growth forests (>10 years old) did not appear to inhibit decomposition. Finally, although soil invertebrates play a key role in leaf-litter decomposition, we found no evidence that differences in the abundance, species richness, or species composition of invertebrates between disturbed and undisturbed forests significantly altered decomposition rates. PMID:15942762

  19. Human-Forest Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Eva; Dauksta, D.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between human beings and forests has been important for the development of society. It is based on various productive, ecological, social and cultural functions of forests. The cultural functions, including the spiritual and symbolic role of forests, are often not addressed with...... the same attention as the other functions. The aim of this paper is to put a stronger emphasis on the fact that the acknowledgement of cultural bonds is needed in the discussion of sustainable development. Forest should not only be considered as a technical means to solve environmental and economic...... problems. To achieve a deeper understanding of the dependency of society on forests, it is necessary to recognise the role of forests in our consciousness of being human. Giving a historical overview about the cultural bonds between people and forests, the first part of the paper puts focus on non...

  20. Balanço de nutrientes e da fitomassa em um Argissolo Amarelo sob floresta tropical amazônica após a queima e cultivo com arroz Nutrient and phytomass dynamics in a yellow Argissol under Amazonian tropical forest after burning and rice cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. R. Sampaio

    2003-12-01

    burned areas with cultivation of rice (cultivated. Furthermore, these areas were compared with an area of primary vegetation (forest used as reference. Burning consumed 36.3% of the initial biomass and produced 5.5 Mg ha-1 of ashes with significant amounts of nutrients, mainly Ca, Mg, and K. To clear areas by means of burning turned out to be a practice of low efficiency, because only a small percentage of the original biomass was converted into ashes and the greatest part remained in the form of residues. Even with the restitution of nutrients such as Ca, Mg, K by rain, there was a considerable removal of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S, on the one hand by direct action of the fire, on the other through the carrying off of the ashes by the wind, and/or the removal by the crop. Results indicated that nutrient loss in the burned uncultivated area was greater than in the burned cultivated one, demonstrating the importance of soil covering to keep the elements in the system. At the end of the culture cycle, the residual effect of the ashes was still noticeable in the system, clearly expressed by the P, K, Ca, and Mg values which were higher than those measured in the control area (forest.

  1. Geomorphic control of rain-forest floristic composition in French Guiana : more than a soil filtering effect ?

    OpenAIRE

    Guitet, S.; Freycon, V; Brunaux, O.; Pélissier, Raphaël; Sabatier, Daniel; Couteron, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The influence of geomorphological features on rain-forest diversity has been reported in different Amazonian regions. Soil filtering is often assumed to underlie the observed geomorphic control on the floristic composition but other hypotheses related to biogeography or long-term forest dynamics are also possible. We tested relationships between geomorphology, soil properties and forest composition in French Guiana rain forest using a recent geomorphological map and a large dataset comprising...

  2. Are Nontimber Forest Products the Antidote to Rainforest Degradation? Brazil Nut Extraction in Madre De Dios, Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escobal, J.A.; Aldana, U.

    2003-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between poverty and Amazonian forest management by Brazil nut harvesters in southeastern Peru. Although the poor rely more upon natural resource-based income than the rich, wealthier households use more forest wood and land than poorer ones. Contrary to the belie

  3. Stable Forest Cover under Increasing Populations of Swidden Cultivators in Central Laos: the Roles of Intrinsic Culture and Extrinsic Wildlife Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naa Odarkor-Lanquaye

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Swidden agriculture, or shifting cultivation, is variously viewed as a great environmental threat or a sustainable system of land use. In Laos, swidden has long been considered the primary driver of forest loss nationwide, but the assessment is based exclusively on studies from the north of country, where deforestation is most severe. National policies to control swidden have percolated down to management of one of the largest nature reserves in the region, Nakai-Nam Theun National Protected Area (NNT NPA in the Annamite Mountains of central Laos. In NNT NPA, swidden’s presumed unsustainability and deleterious impact on forest cover is an untested assumption. We tested it by methods of historical ecology, tracing the patterns of NNT’s forest cover and human settlement over the past several decades. Principal sources of data were topographical maps dating to 1943, and Landsat images from 1976, 1989, and 2001. The analysis shows that, although NNT has been inhabited by swidden cultivators for hundreds of years, it retained more than 95% forest cover until the 1960s–early 1970s. Subsequently, a post-Vietnam War release of human population, possibly coupled with government encouragement of agricultural expansion, precipitated a decline in forest of 0.5%/year until the 1980s. Curiously, this was followed by stability or an increase (ca. 0.3%/year in forest cover into the current century, even as NNT’s human population continued to grow and as forest declined in Laos overall at 1.7%/year, and in two protected areas near NNT at more than 3%/year. A combination of intrinsic and extrinsic factors probably account for the stability of NNT’s forest cover despite recent population growth. First are cultural propensities for sedentariness and livelihoods with relatively low environmental impact among the ethnic groups inhabiting NNT. Since at least the 1940s, there have been remarkably few changes in the number or location of villages in NNT (and

  4. Anthropometric measurements of adolescents from two Amazonian ecosystems: variations according to seasonality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Hilton P; Veiga, Gloria V; Kac, Gilberto; Pereira, Rosangela A

    2010-03-01

    This paper aims to describe the nutritional status of Caboclo adolescents living in two areas of the Amazon Basin. Two cross-sectional studies, the first in the dry and the second in the wet season, were carried out in two Amazonian ecosystems: the forest and black water ecosystem, and the floodplain and white water ecosystem. Measurements of weight, stature, arm circumference and triceps, subscapular and suprailiac skinfolds were performed on 247 adolescents (10-19 years of age). Nutritional status was classified using body mass index according to international criteria and the prevalence of underweight and overweight was estimated. Linear mixed effects models were used with the anthropometric measurements as dependent variables and time interval, place of residence, sex, age and stature variation as independent variables. During the wet season, the prevalence of overweight among girls was higher in the forest (42%) than in the floodplain (9%). Longitudinal linear regression models showed that the arm circumference measurement was influenced both by seasonality and location, revealing that the increment between dry and wet seasons was less pronounced in the floodplain. At the time of the study, overweight already constituted a major public health concern among girls living in the forest area. In order to develop adequate public health policies for this important segment of the Amazon population further studies are necessary to investigate the role of environment and seasonality on the growth and nutritional status of adolescents. PMID:19906320

  5. Antinociceptive activity of Amazonian Copaiba oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Niele Matos; Rezende, Claudia Moraes; Fontes, Silvia Paredes; Matheus, Maria Eline; Fernandes, Patricia Dias

    2007-02-12

    Copaiba oil resins are extensively commercialized in Brazil as capsules or crude oil and used as anti-inflammatory and anti-septic. Comparative pharmacological studies between different species of Copaiba oils are scarce. In the present work we compared the antinociceptive activity of two Amazonian Copaiba oils (Copaifera multijuga Hayne and Copaifera reticulata Ducke, Fabaceae) administered by oral route using peripheral (acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing and formalin), spinal (tail flick) and supra-spinal (hot plate) models. Results demonstrated that the Copaiba oils did not develop toxic effects. Doses ranging from 30 to 150 mg/kg were enough to significantly develop peripheral antinociceptive effect. All Copaiba oils demonstrate central activity but with less effect on supra-spinal regions of the brain. Administration of the opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone completely inhibited the antinociceptive effect induced by both Copaiba oils. Our results indicate that Copaiba oils demonstrate peripheral and central antinociceptive effect. This new comprobate effect may be useful in the treatment of algesic disorders. PMID:17029841

  6. Methane Dynamics in Large Amazonian Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawakuchi, H. O.; Bastviken, D.; Sawakuchi, A. O.; Borges, C. D.; Tsai, S. M.; Ward, N. D.; Richey, J. E.; Ballester, M. V.; Krusche, A. V.

    2014-12-01

    The emission of methane (CH4) from rivers is not always included in the greehouse gas budget for inland waters, mainly due to a lack of information available for these systems. Unraveling the dynamics that control fluvial CH4 sources and sinks is critical for understanding the contribution of CH4 to riverine and global carbon budgets. Here, we present estimates of CH4 sources and sinks in numerous large Amazonian rivers during periods of high and low discharge. Calculations based on CH4 flux measurements and isotopic data (δ13CH4) of dissolved CH4 and bubbles in riverbed sediments were performed to assess the sources and sinks of river water CH4. Molecular analysis (qPCR) in river water samples was used to determine methanotrophic bacterial density. Methane-oxidizing bacterial counts were compared to oxidation estimates in order to assess the relationship between methane sinks and in situ bacterial communities. In general, rivers that had an enriched δ13CH4 in the water also had a higher density of methanotrophic bacteria in the water column, illustrating an important control on CH4 availability and flux related to physicochemical factors that control the abundance and activity of methanotrophic bacteria. Further, we observed a distinct relationship between the type of river (e.g. clear, white, or black water) and the flux of methane from the water column.

  7. Phthalate pollution in an Amazonian rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir, Alain; Boulay, Raphaël; Dejean, Alain; Touchard, Axel; Cuvillier-Hot, Virginie

    2016-08-01

    Phthalates are ubiquitous contaminants and endocrine-disrupting chemicals that can become trapped in the cuticles of insects, including ants which were recognized as good bioindicators for such pollution. Because phthalates have been noted in developed countries and because they also have been found in the Arctic, a region isolated from direct anthropogenic influence, we hypothesized that they are widespread. So, we looked for their presence on the cuticle of ants gathered from isolated areas of the Amazonian rainforest and along an anthropogenic gradient of pollution (rainforest vs. road sides vs. cities in French Guiana). Phthalate pollution (mainly di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)) was higher on ants gathered in cities and along road sides than on those collected in the pristine rainforest, indicating that it follows a human-mediated gradient of disturbance related to the use of plastics and many other products that contain phthalates in urban zones. Their presence varied with the ant species; the cuticle of Solenopsis saevissima traps higher amount of phthalates than that of compared species. However, the presence of phthalates in isolated areas of pristine rainforests suggests that they are associated both with atmospheric particles and in gaseous form and are transported over long distances by wind, resulting in a worldwide diffusion. These findings suggest that there is no such thing as a "pristine" zone. PMID:27372101

  8. Geology, Soils and Basin-wide variations in Amazon Forest Structure and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada, Carlos Alberto; Phillips, Oliver; Lopes-Gonzales, Gabriela; Lloyd, Jon; Rainfor Team

    2015-04-01

    Forest productivity, tree turnover time and above ground biomass vary across the Amazon Basin in an east-west gradient in a pattern which coincides with variations in soil nutrient availability and geology. Forest productivity rates are higher on the most nutrient rich soils close to the Andes while is lower in the ancient, highly weathered soils of central Amazonia. On the other hand above ground biomass is lower in the most productive forests and higher on the least, this being a consequence of higher tree turnover rates in the forests over less weathered and nutrient rich soils. Major geological events have influenced Amazonian soil characteristics profoundly and play an important role in explaining Basin-wide variations in forest biomass, growth and stem turnover rates. Here we show how geology and soil development combine to shape the functioning of Amazonian forests and its carbon stocks and fluxes. To assess the importance of edaphic properties in affect forest structure and dynamics, soil samples were collected in a total of 154 different forest plots across nine different Amazonian countries. Samples were analyzed for exchangeable cations, C, N, pH with various P fractions and soil physical properties also determined. Overall, forest structure and dynamics were found to be strongly and quantitatively related to edaphic conditions.

  9. Carbon dynamics and ecosystem diversity of Amazonian peatlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laehteenoja, O.

    2011-07-01

    The overall aim was to initiate peatland research in Amazonia, which has been referred to as 'one of the large white spots on the global peatland map'. Specifically, the study was to clarify how common peat accumulation is on Amazonian floodplains, and how extensive and thick peat deposits can be encountered. Secondly, the intention was to study how rapidly Amazonian peatlands sequester carbon, and how much carbon they store and thirdly, to gain some understanding of the diversity of peatland ecosystem types and of the processes forming these ecosystems

  10. Amazonian and neotropical plant communities on glacial time-scales: The failure of the aridity and refuge hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colinvaux, P. A.; De Oliveira, P. E.; Bush, M. B.

    2000-01-01

    Plants respond to Pleistocene climatic change as species, not as associations or biomes. This has been demonstrated unequivocally by paleobotanical data for temperate latitudes. In the far richer vegetations of the tropics species populations also fluctuated independently in response to climatic forcing, from their longlasting glacial states to the patterns of brief interglacials like the present and back again. We use pollen data to reconstruct the vegetation of the Amazon basin in oxygen isotope stages 3 and 2 of the last glaciation in order to measure how the plant populations of the Amazon responded to the global warming at the onset of the Holocene. We find that plant communities of the neotropics vent copious pollen to lake sediments and that this pollen yields powerful signals for community composition. Three continuous sedimentary records reaching through oxygen isotope stage 2 are available from the Amazon lowlands, those from Carajas, Lake Pata and marine deposits off the mouth of the Amazon River. All three records yield pollen histories of remarkable constancy and stability. By comparing them with deposits of equal antiquity from the cerrado (savanna) of central Brazil, we show that most of the Amazon lowlands remained under forest throughout a glacial cycle. This forest was never fragmented by open vegetation as postulated by the refugia hypothesis. Instead the intact forest of glacial times included significant populations of plants that are now montane, suggesting that the global warming of the early Holocene resulted in the expulsion of heat intolerant plants from the lowland forest. Pollen data from the Amazonian flank of the Andes and from Pacific Panama provide evidence that populations of these heat intolerant plants survive the heat of interglacials in part by maintaining large populations at cooler montane altitudes. Our conclusion that the Amazon lowlands were forested in glacial times specifically refutes the hypothesis of Amazonian glacial

  11. Fungal community assembly in the Amazonian Dark Earth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucheta, A.R.; Souza Cannavan, F.S.; Roesch, L.; Tsai, S.M.; Kuramae, E.E.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we compare the fungal community composition and diversity in Amazonian Dark Earth (ADE) and the respective non-anthropogenic origin adjacent (ADJ) soils from four different sites in Brazilian Central Amazon using pyrosequencing of 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. Fungal community composition in

  12. Local late Amazonian boulder breakdown and denudation rate on Mars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, T.; Hauber, E.; Kleinhans, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Inactive fan surfaces become smoother and develop desert pavement over time by weathering and erosion. We use this mechanism to estimate late Amazonian boulder breakdown and surface denudation rates on a young (∼1.25 Ma) (Schon et al., 2009) fan on Mars. This is done by comparing boulder size and su

  13. A Molecular Survey of the Diversity of Microbial Communities in Different Amazonian Agricultural Model Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acácio A. Navarrete

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The processes of land conversion and agricultural intensification are a significant cause of biodiversity loss, with consequent negative effects both on the environment and the sustainability of food production.The anthrosols associated with pre-Colombian settlements in the Amazonian region are examples of how anthropogenic activities may sustain the native populations against harsh tropical environments for human establishment, even without a previous intentionality of anthropic soil formation. In a case study (Model I—“Slash-and-Burn” the community structures detected by automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA revealed that soil archaeal, bacterial and fungal communities are heterogeneous and each capable of responding differently to environmental characteristics. ARISA data evidenced considerable difference in structure existing between microbial communities in forest and agricultural soils. In a second study (Model II—“Anthropogenic Soil”, the bacterial community structures revealed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP differed among an Amazonian Dark Earth (ADE, black carbon (BC and its adjacent non-anthropogenic oxisoil. The bacterial 16S rRNA gene (OTU richness estimated by pyrosequencing was higher in ADE than BC. The most abundant bacterial phyla in ADE soils and BC were Proteobacteria—24% ADE, 15% BC; Acidobacteria—10% ADE, 21% BC; Actinobacteria—7% ADE, 12% BC; Verrucomicrobia, 8% ADE; 9% BC; Firmicutes—3% ADE, 8% BC. Overall, unclassified bacteria corresponded to 36% ADE, and 26% BC. Regardless of current land uses, our data suggest that soil microbial community structures may be strongly influenced by the historical soil management and that anthrosols in Amazonia, of anthropogenic origins, in addition to their capacity of enhancing crop yields, may also improve microbial diversity, with the support of the black carbon, which may sustain a particular and unique habitat for the

  14. Regional Hydro-Climatic Changes due to Three Decades of Amazonian Deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, J.; Medvigy, D.; Fueglistaler, S.; Walko, R. L.

    2015-12-01

    A gamut of studies exist which posit that small scale conversion of forests to urban, pasture or cropland can trigger an increase in regional cloudiness and rain. Several of these studies, pertaining to early stages of Amazonian deforestation, attribute this phenomenon to heightened thermal triggering resulting from small-scale (a few kilometers) patchy deforestation. But it is not clear if this phenomenon can be extrapolated to contemporary (tens of kilometers) or future scales of deforestation. Here, we have carried out the first long-time period study of the effects of changing scales of Amazonian deforestation on regional cloudiness and precipitation using satellite observations made by GOES and TRMM. We have analyzed observations made over the deforested areas in the Brazilian state of Rondonia. We find a shift in the regional hydroclimatic regime over the three decades of deforestation - from spatially uniform cloudiness to dominant cloudiness in the downwind half of the deforested domain. This result is not consistent with a thermal triggering mechanism because thermal triggering would only explain the uniform cloud cover observed during the early stages of deforestation. To further investigate the mechanism, we have also carried out numerical simulations. We found that surface roughness gradients caused by contemporary large scales of deforestation can explain this observed transition. This transition is climatologically important for this region because it affects the observed spatial distribution of precipitation, which has become dominant in the downwind half of the deforested domain in contemporary times. The new mechanism identified here should be accounted for in planning for future land-use change in the Amazon.

  15. The ICIF project: Assessment of pathways of innovative cultures in forest for biomass production. Final report on the implementation of the experimental arrangement in Ardennes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the context created by the objective to increase the production of biomass-based energy, the authors studied the possibilities of using various crops and species in forests (i.e. in more acid soils), but also the impacts of these cultures on soil fertility. In a first part, they present and describe the experimental installation: site selection and characterization, experiment scheme, ash supply (choice, packaging, origin of ashes), and realisation. Then, they report the study of plants growth after one year, report some measurements regarding initial soil conditions (physical and chemical properties), and observations about flora development. They also mention performed information and communication action, and discuss perspectives

  16. Effects of dam-induced landscape fragmentation on amazonian ant-plant mutualistic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emer, Carine; Venticinque, Eduardo Martins; Fonseca, Carlos Roberto

    2013-08-01

    Mutualistic networks are critical to biological diversity maintenance; however, their structures and functionality may be threatened by a swiftly changing world. In the Amazon, the increasing number of dams poses a large threat to biological diversity because they greatly alter and fragment the surrounding landscape. Tight coevolutionary interactions typical of tropical forests, such as the ant-myrmecophyte mutualism, where the myrmecophyte plants provide domatia nesting space to their symbiotic ants, may be jeopardized by the landscape changes caused by dams. We analyzed 31 ant-myrmecophyte mutualistic networks in undisturbed and disturbed sites surrounding Balbina, the largest Central Amazonian dam. We tested how ant-myrmecophyte networks differ among dam-induced islands, lake edges, and undisturbed forests in terms of species richness, composition, structure, and robustness (number of species remaining in the network after partner extinctions). We also tested how landscape configuration in terms of area, isolation, shape, and neighborhood alters the structure of the ant-myrmecophyte networks on islands. Ant-myrmecophytic networks were highly compartmentalized in undisturbed forests, and the compartments had few strongly connected mutualistic partners. In contrast, networks at lake edges and on islands were not compartmentalized and were negatively affected by island area and isolation in terms of species richness, density, and composition. Habitat loss and fragmentation led to coextinction cascades that contributed to the elimination of entire ant-plant compartments. Furthermore, many myrmecophytic plants in disturbed sites lost their mutualistic ant partners or were colonized by opportunistic, nonspecialized ants. Robustness of ant-myrmecophyte networks on islands was lower than robustness near lake edges and in undisturbed forest and was particularly susceptible to the extinction of plants. Beyond the immediate habitat loss caused by the building of large dams

  17. Multi-scaling of extreme values, intermittence detection using waves and evidences of determinative chaos in the wind dynamics in the Central Amazonian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different characteristics from the high temporary variability of turbulence in High Resolution (60 Hz) series of wind and temperature are studied. Data was obtained in the Amazonian forest by project LBA (large-scale atmosphere-biosphere experiment in Amazonian) on March 1999. The scaling properties of the extreme events distribution are studied, and analysis of the properties of scale for extreme values is performed, for both, fixed and different time scales. The relations of scaling between the tails of the probability density function are calculated, and upon these relations, predictions are done for the functions of density for a particular scale. The wavelet analysis is used in order to detect intermittency in the energy dissipation rates. Such a phenomenon, associated sometimes with processes of momentum and heat transfer, is responsible for the insufficiency of Kolmogorov's theory in some scales. It is used the method of the false neighbors and the Shannon mutual information to reconstruct the attractor of the wind dynamics, moreover, estimation of the Lyapunov exponents is made to detect low dimensionality chaos in the Amazonian turbulence

  18. Hair mercury levels in Amazonian populations: spatial distribution and trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbieri Flavia L

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mercury is present in the Amazonian aquatic environments from both natural and anthropogenic sources. As a consequence, many riverside populations are exposed to methylmercury, a highly toxic organic form of mercury, because of their intense fish consumption. Many studies have analysed this exposure from different approaches since the early nineties. This review aims to systematize the information in spatial distribution, comparing hair mercury levels by studied population and Amazonian river basin, looking for exposure trends. Methods The reviewed papers were selected from scientific databases and online libraries. We included studies with a direct measure of hair mercury concentrations in a sample size larger than 10 people, without considering the objectives, approach of the study or mercury speciation. The results are presented in tables and maps by river basin, displaying hair mercury levels and specifying the studied population and health impact, if any. Results The majority of the studies have been carried out in communities from the central Amazonian regions, particularly on the Tapajós River basin. The results seem quite variable; hair mercury means range from 1.1 to 34.2 μg/g. Most studies did not show any significant difference in hair mercury levels by gender or age. Overall, authors emphasized fish consumption frequency as the main risk factor of exposure. The most studied adverse health effect is by far the neurological performance, especially motricity. However, it is not possible to conclude on the relation between hair mercury levels and health impact in the Amazonian situation because of the relatively small number of studies. Conclusions Hair mercury levels in the Amazonian regions seem to be very heterogenic, depending on several factors. There is no obvious spatial trend and there are many areas that have never been studied. Taking into account the low mercury levels currently handled as acceptable, the

  19. Conservation, Community, and Culture? New Organizational Challenges of Community Forest Concessions in the Maya Biosphere Reserve of Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Peter Leigh

    2010-01-01

    Community-based forestry has received much recent attention as an effort to protect threatened Southern forests by linking conservation with sustainable livelihoods. Many researchers have emphasized the importance of effective organization for successful community-based forestry. While significant attention has been paid to community-level…

  20. Some aspects of the structure and the diversity of the arboreal vegetation of a forest of origin alluvial, not inundating of the Amazons River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the unaware observer, the Amazonian it is a great green and homogeneous mat, sometimes interrupted by serpentine currents of water that they break the continuity of the vegetable mantel. A detailed observation dispels that impression of homogeneity of the Amazon forest. On the contrary the Hylea is sprinkled of overflowed ambient, with numerous plants of thin shafts that conform a tangle, alternate of environments of plane topography, of soils well drainages, trees of thicker trunks, or set of hills of marked slopes, with narrow or wide summits and trees of diverse size and grosser. Equally the Amazonian region has environments that don't correspond to properly this forest, located on tables of gritty white of thin and low vegetation. The author treats topics as general aspects of the Amazonian area, characterization of landscape and forest structures

  1. Tropical Andean forest derives calcium and magnesium from Saharan dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boy, Jens; Wilcke, Wolfgang

    2008-03-01

    We quantified base metal deposition to Amazonian montane rain forest in Ecuador between May 1998 and April 2003 and assessed the response of the base metal budget of three forested microcatchments (8-13 ha). There was a strong interannual variation in deposition of Ca [4.4-29 kg ha-1 a-1], Mg [1.6-12], and K [9.8-30]). High deposition changed the Ca and Mg budgets of the catchments from loss to retention, suggesting that the additionally available Ca and Mg was used by the ecosystem. Increased base metal deposition was related to dust outbursts of the Sahara and an Amazonian precipitation pattern with trans-regional dry spells allowing for dust transport to the Andes. The increased base metal deposition coincided with a strong La Niña event in 1999/2000.

  2. The Contribution of Amazonian Evapotranspiration to Precipitation over South America: Assessing the Role of Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Agudelo, J. A.; Dominguez, F.; Miguez-Macho, G.

    2013-12-01

    The Amazon forest faces both continued deforestation and climate change in the future. For this reason, it is important to understand and quantify the role that the Amazonian forest plays in the climate of South America. In this work, we first delineate the geographical extent and spatiotemporal variability of precipitation that originates as Amazonian evapotranspiration (ET). To do this we use ERA-Interim reanalysis data as input for the Dynamic Recycling Model DRM for the period 1980-2012. We find that the northern Amazon contributes mostly to moisture over northern South America during the May-October period as mean vertically integrated water vapor transport north of 5°S becomes southerly during this time. Nearly 12% of the mean annual precipitation over northern South America originates in northern Amazon, with relatively large variations during the year. The southern Amazon region, on the other hand, contributes mostly to southern South America. Mean precipitation in La Plata Basin originating from southern Amazon ET is approximately 19%, reaching values of 27% during the dry season (in contrast, local recycling from La Plata during this season is approximately 20%). Contributions to atmospheric moisture from the Amazon to the rest of the continent are smaller than the corresponding oceanic contributions, but still significant in the hydrologic cycle. Interestingly, we find that variations in water vapor and precipitation originating from the Amazon have a stronger dependence on the atmospheric circulation than on ET production. In the second part of this study we evaluate the role of groundwater on surface ET and continental moisture transport. To do this we run simulations using the WRF-LEAF-Hydro-Flood model where groundwater and flooding dynamics are explicitly represented. These two components have been shown to affect ET patterns over South America, especially over the southern Amazon. We use ERA-Interim reanalysis as lateral boundary condition for

  3. Production of nitrous oxide and consumption of methane by forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, M.; Wofsy, S. C.; Kaplan, W. A.; Mcelroy, M. B.; Goreau, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    Soils in an Amazonian rainforest are observed to release N2O at a rate larger than the global mean by about a factor of 20. Emissions from a New England hardwood forest are approximately 30 times smaller then Brazilian values. Atmospheric methane is consumed by soils in both systems. Tropical forests would provide a major source of atmospheric N2O if the Brazilian results are representative.

  4. Isozyme characterization of Capsicum accessions from the Amazonian Colombian collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Quintero Barrera

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred and sixty-one accessions of the genus Capsicum were obtained from the Colombian Amazonian germplasm bank at Amazonian Institute of Scientific Research (Sinchi and were evaluated with five polymorphic enzymatic systems, including esterase (EST, peroxidase (PRX, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGDH, aspartate amino transferase (GOT, and malic enzyme (ME. Using a cluster analysis (UPGMA the genetic variability of these accessions were characterized. Grouping of the species C. baccatum and C. pubescens were observed, while the species C. annuum, C. chinense and C. frutescens did not group independently, a result that has been previously reported in isoenzyme analyses of this genus. Several accessions were deemed of particular interest for future ecological and evolutive studies. Key words: Colombia, Capsicum, germplasm bank, isoenzymes, peppers.

  5. Local late Amazonian boulder breakdown and denudation rate on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Tjalling; Hauber, Ernst; Kleinhans, Maarten G.

    2013-07-01

    Inactive fan surfaces become smoother and develop desert pavement over time by weathering and erosion. We use this mechanism to estimate late Amazonian boulder breakdown and surface denudation rates on a young (˜1.25 Ma) (Schon et al., 2009) fan on Mars. This is done by comparing boulder size and surface relief between lobes of different ages. The boulder breakdown rate is 3.5 m/Myr, surface smoothing (denudation) rate is approximated as 0.89 m/Myr. These rates exceed previous estimates for the Amazonian by orders of magnitude. We attribute this to locality, high initial smoothing rates after morphological activity and obliquity and eccentricity-driven variation in the availability of (metastable) liquid water, which acts as a catalyst for weathering during these periods. The results have major implications for process interpretation of Martian landforms, as they imply that typical small-scale morphology may be subdued within <1 Myr.

  6. Low plant density enhances gene dispersal in the Amazonian understory herb Heliconia acuminata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côrtes, Marina C; Uriarte, María; Lemes, Maristerra R; Gribel, Rogério; Kress, W John; Smouse, Peter E; Bruna, Emilio M

    2013-11-01

    In theory, conservation genetics predicts that forest fragmentation will reduce gene dispersal, but in practice, genetic and ecological processes are also dependent on other population characteristics. We used Bayesian genetic analyses to characterize parentage and propagule dispersal in Heliconia acuminata L. C. Richard (Heliconiaceae), a common Amazonian understory plant that is pollinated and dispersed by birds. We studied these processes in two continuous forest sites and three 1-ha fragments in Brazil's Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project. These sites showed variation in the density of H. acuminata. Ten microsatellite markers were used to genotype flowering adults and seedling recruits and to quantify realized pollen and seed dispersal distances, immigration of propagules from outside populations, and reproductive dominance among parents. We tested whether gene dispersal is more dependent on fragmentation or density of reproductive plants. Low plant densities were associated with elevated immigration rates and greater propagule dispersal distances. Reproductive dominance among inside-plot parents was higher for low-density than for high-density populations. Elevated local flower and fruit availability is probably leading to spatially more proximal bird foraging and propagule dispersal in areas with high density of reproductive plants. Nevertheless, genetic diversity, inbreeding coefficients and fine-scale spatial genetic structure were similar across populations, despite differences in gene dispersal. This result may indicate that the opposing processes of longer dispersal events in low-density populations vs. higher diversity of contributing parents in high-density populations balance the resulting genetic outcomes and prevent genetic erosion in small populations and fragments. PMID:24730040

  7. Hyperdominance in the Amazonian tree flora

    OpenAIRE

    H. ter Steege; Pitman, N.C.A.; Sabatier, D.; Baraloto, C.; Salomao, R. P.; Guevara, J. E.; Phillips, O. L; Castilho, C. V.; Magnusson, W.E.; Molino, J.-F.; A. Monteagudo; Nunez Vargas, P.; Montero, J. C.; Feldpausch, T. R.; Coronado, E. N. H.

    2013-01-01

    The vast extent of the Amazon Basin has historically restricted the study of its tree communities to the local and regional scales. Here, we provide empirical data on the commonness, rarity, and richness of lowland tree species across the entire Amazon Basin and Guiana Shield (Amazonia), collected in 1170 tree plots in all major forest types. Extrapolations suggest that Amazonia harbors roughly 16,000 tree species, of which just 227 (1.4%) account for half of all trees. Most of these are habi...

  8. Cross-system comparisons of soil nitrogen transformations and nitrous oxide flux in tropical forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Pamela A.; Vitousek, Peter M.

    1987-01-01

    Soil nitrogen transformations and nitrous oxide flux across the soil-air interface have been measured in a variety of tropical forest sites and correlated with patterns of nitrogen circulation. Nitrogen mineralizaton and nitrification potentials were found to be high in the relatively fertile Costa Rica sites and the Amazonian oxisol/ultisols, intermediate in Amazonian white sand soils, and low in the Hawaiian montane sites. Nitrous oxide fluxes ranged from 0 to 6.2 ng/sq cm per h, and the mean flux per site was shown to be highly correlated with mean nitrogen mineralization.

  9. ÉTUDE DE LA MACROFAUNE DU SOL DANS UNE ZONE DE DÉFORESTATION EN AMAZONIE DU SUD-EST, AU BRÉSIL,DANS LE CONTEXTE DE L'AGRICULTURE FAMILIALE

    OpenAIRE

    Mathieu, Jérôme

    2004-01-01

    As primary forest is cleared, pastures and secondary forest occupy an increasing space in the Amazonian landscape. We evaluated the effect of forest clearing on a soil macrofauna (invertebrate) community in a smallholder farming system of southeastern Amazonia. We sampled the soil macrofauna in 22 plots of forest, upland rice fields, pastures, and fallows of different ages. In total, we collected 10,728 invertebrates. In cleared plots the species richness per plot of the soil macrofauna fell ...

  10. Alluvial plain dynamics in the southern Amazonian foreland basin

    OpenAIRE

    Lombardo, U

    2015-01-01

    Alluvial plains are formed with sediments that rivers deposit on the adjacent flood-basin, mainly through crevasse splays and avulsions. These result from a combination of processes, some of which push the river towards the crevasse threshold, while others act as triggers. Based on the floodplain sedimentation patterns of large rivers in the southern Amazonian foreland basin, it has been suggested that alluvial plain sediment accumulation ...

  11. Fungal Community Assembly in the Amazonian Dark Earth

    OpenAIRE

    Lucheta, A.R.; Souza Cannavan, F.S.; Roesch, L.; Tsai, S.M.; Kuramae, E.E.

    2015-01-01

    Here, we compare the fungal community composition and diversity in Amazonian Dark Earth (ADE) and the respective non-anthropogenic origin adjacent (ADJ) soils from four different sites in Brazilian Central Amazon using pyrosequencing of 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. Fungal community composition in ADE soils were more similar to each other than their ADJ soils, except for only one site. Phosphorus and aluminum saturation were the main soil chemical factors contributing to ADE and ADJ fungal c...

  12. The impact of Amazonian deforestation on Amazon basin rainfall

    OpenAIRE

    Spracklen, DV; Garcia-Carreras, L.

    2015-01-01

    We completed a meta-analysis of regional and global climate model simulations (n=96) of the impact of Amazonian deforestation on Amazon basin rainfall. Across all simulations, mean (±1σ) change in annual mean Amazon basin rainfall was -12±11%. Variability in simulated rainfall was not explained by differences in model resolution or surface parameters. Across all simulations we find a negative linear relationship between rainfall and deforestation extent, although individual studies often simu...

  13. Joy within tranquility: Amazonian Urarina styles of happiness

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Harry

    2015-01-01

    Enjoyment in life among Amazonian Urarina is examined through the lens of two contrastive concepts of happiness. The first, “tranquility,” is a relatively long-term, relational condition implying emotional spontaneity and a flexible, freely chosen work routine that allows for a merging of action and awareness. It epitomizes a broader concern with the development of an individual “style of life,” where attitudes, manners, and actions come into alignment. The second concept, “joy...

  14. Nutrient limitations to secondary forest regrowth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Eric A.; Martinelli, Luiz A.

    The old, highly weathered soils of the lowland forest within the Amazon Basin generally exhibit conservative P cycles and leaky N cycles. This generalization applies to mature forests, but accelerating land use change is altering Amazonian landscapes. About 16% of the original forest area has been cleared, and about 160,000 km2 is in secondary forest cover. Secondary forests are common in agricultural regions, but few persist in one place for much more than 5 years. The nutrients within ephemeral forests are important for smallholder traditional slash-and-burn agriculture and in alternatives developed to conserve nutrients. Forest clearing causes an initial loss of nutrients through timber harvesting, fire, erosion, soil gaseous emissions, and hydrologic leaching, with N losses exceeding P losses. In contrast, the Ca, Mg, and K present in woody biomass are largely conserved as ash following fire, redistributing these nutrients to the soil. After the initial postclearing pulse of nutrient availability, rates of N cycling and loss consistently decline as cattle pastures age. Fertilization experiments have demonstrated that growth of young forests in abandoned agricultural land is nutrient limited. Several N cycling indicators in a secondary forest chronosequence study also demonstrated a conservative N cycle in young forests. Variable N limitation in young forests helps explain a negative relationship observed between the burn frequency during previous agricultural phases and the rate of forest regrowth. Recuperation of the N cycle gradually occurs during decades of secondary forest succession, such that mature lowland forests eventually recover abundant N relative to a conservative P cycle.

  15. Production of Alkaline Cellulase by Fungi Isolated from an Undisturbed Rain Forest of Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Vega

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline cellulase producing fungi were isolated from soils of an undisturbed rain forest of Peru. The soil dilution plate method was used for the enumeration and isolation of fast growing cellulolytic fungi on an enriched selective medium. Eleven out of 50 different morphological colonies were finally selected by using the plate clearing assay with CMC as substrate at different pH values. All 11 strains produced cellulases in liquid culture with activities at alkaline pH values without an apparent decrease of them indicating that they are true alkaline cellulase producers. Aspergillus sp. LM-HP32, Penicillium sp. LM-HP33, and Penicillium sp. LM-HP37 were the best producers of FP cellulase (>3 U mL−1 with higher specific productivities (>30 U g−1 h−1. Three strains have been found suitable for developing processes for alkaline cellulase production. Soils from Amazonian rain forests are good sources of industrial fungi with particular characteristics. The results of the present study are of commercial and biological interest. Alkaline cellulases may be used in the polishing and washing of denim processing of the textile industry.

  16. Food Plants Eaten by Amazonian Manatees (Trichechus inunguis, Mammalia : Sirenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colares Ioni G.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the feeding habits of the Amazonian manatee Trichechus inunguis in some Central Amazonian rivers and lakes, we compared plant epidermis found in the stomach contents and/or faeces of animals with a reference collection of plants present in the studied areas. Twenty five samples from digestive tracts of animals found dead and 25 faeces samples found floating were analyzed. From these samples, 24 aquatic macrophytes were identified. The Gramineae family was identified in 96% of the samples, Paspalum repens and Echinochloa polystachya being the most abundant in the samples. The second most frequent family was the Pontederiaceae primarily Eichhornia crassipes. During the high water period, the animals showed a more selective diet (eight identified species. In the low water period, when food was more scarce, the animals showed a larger diversity of species in their diet (21 species of plants. Differences in the diet among the two studied areas reflected the physiographics characteristics of the region. Amazonian manatees fed mostly on emergent plants.

  17. Social organization influences the exchange and species richness of medicinal plants in Amazonian homegardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Díaz-Reviriego

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants provide indigenous and peasant communities worldwide with means to meet their healthcare needs. Homegardens often act as medicine cabinets, providing easily accessible medicinal plants for household needs. Social structure and social exchanges have been proposed as factors influencing the species diversity that people maintain in their homegardens. Here, we assess the association between the exchange of medicinal knowledge and plant material and medicinal plant richness in homegardens. Using Tsimane' Amazonian homegardens as a case study, we explore whether social organization shapes exchanges of medicinal plant knowledge and medicinal plant material. We also use network centrality measures to evaluate people's location and performance in medicinal plant knowledge and plant material exchange networks. Our results suggest that social organization, specifically kinship and gender relations, influences medicinal plant exchange patterns significantly. Homegardens total and medicinal plant species richness are related to gardeners' centrality in the networks, whereby people with greater centrality maintain greater plant richness. Thus, together with agroecological conditions, social relations among gardeners and the culturally specific social structure seem to be important determinants of plant richness in homegardens. Understanding which factors pattern general species diversity in tropical homegardens, and medicinal plant diversity in particular, can help policy makers, health providers, and local communities to understand better how to promote and preserve medicinal plants in situ. Biocultural approaches that are also gender sensitive offer a culturally appropriate means to reduce the global and local loss of both biological and cultural diversity.

  18. Reduction of Genetic Diversity of the Harpy Eagle in Brazilian Tropical Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Habitat loss and fragmentation intensify the effects of genetic drift and endogamy, reducing genetic variability of populations with serious consequences for wildlife conservation. The Harpy Eagle (Harpia harpyja) is a forest dwelling species that is considered near threatened and suffers from habitat loss in the forests of the Neotropical region. In this study, 72 historical and current samples were assessed using eight autosomal microsatellite markers to investigate the distribution of genetic diversity of the Harpy Eagle of the Amazonian and Atlantic forests in Brazil. The results showed that the genetic diversity of Harpy Eagle decreased in the regions where deforestation is intense in the southern Amazon and Atlantic Forest. PMID:26871719

  19. Reduction of Genetic Diversity of the Harpy Eagle in Brazilian Tropical Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banhos, Aureo; Hrbek, Tomas; Sanaiotti, Tânia M; Farias, Izeni Pires

    2016-01-01

    Habitat loss and fragmentation intensify the effects of genetic drift and endogamy, reducing genetic variability of populations with serious consequences for wildlife conservation. The Harpy Eagle (Harpia harpyja) is a forest dwelling species that is considered near threatened and suffers from habitat loss in the forests of the Neotropical region. In this study, 72 historical and current samples were assessed using eight autosomal microsatellite markers to investigate the distribution of genetic diversity of the Harpy Eagle of the Amazonian and Atlantic forests in Brazil. The results showed that the genetic diversity of Harpy Eagle decreased in the regions where deforestation is intense in the southern Amazon and Atlantic Forest. PMID:26871719

  20. Reduction of Genetic Diversity of the Harpy Eagle in Brazilian Tropical Forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureo Banhos

    Full Text Available Habitat loss and fragmentation intensify the effects of genetic drift and endogamy, reducing genetic variability of populations with serious consequences for wildlife conservation. The Harpy Eagle (Harpia harpyja is a forest dwelling species that is considered near threatened and suffers from habitat loss in the forests of the Neotropical region. In this study, 72 historical and current samples were assessed using eight autosomal microsatellite markers to investigate the distribution of genetic diversity of the Harpy Eagle of the Amazonian and Atlantic forests in Brazil. The results showed that the genetic diversity of Harpy Eagle decreased in the regions where deforestation is intense in the southern Amazon and Atlantic Forest.

  1. Estimating the global conservation status of more than 15,000 Amazonian tree species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ter Steege, Hans; Pitman, Nigel C. A.; Killeen, Timothy J.;

    2015-01-01

    Estimates of extinction risk for Amazonian plant and animal species are rare and not often incorporated into land-use policy and conservation planning. We overlay spatial distribution models with historical and projected deforestation to show that at least 36% and up to 57% of all Amazonian tree...

  2. Hyperdominance in the Amazonian tree flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Steege, Hans; Pitman, Nigel C A; Sabatier, Daniel; Baraloto, Christopher; Salomão, Rafael P; Guevara, Juan Ernesto; Phillips, Oliver L; Castilho, Carolina V; Magnusson, William E; Molino, Jean-François; Monteagudo, Abel; Núñez Vargas, Percy; Montero, Juan Carlos; Feldpausch, Ted R; Coronado, Eurídice N Honorio; Killeen, Tim J; Mostacedo, Bonifacio; Vasquez, Rodolfo; Assis, Rafael L; Terborgh, John; Wittmann, Florian; Andrade, Ana; Laurance, William F; Laurance, Susan G W; Marimon, Beatriz S; Marimon, Ben-Hur; Guimarães Vieira, Ima Célia; Amaral, Iêda Leão; Brienen, Roel; Castellanos, Hernán; Cárdenas López, Dairon; Duivenvoorden, Joost F; Mogollón, Hugo F; Matos, Francisca Dionízia de Almeida; Dávila, Nállarett; García-Villacorta, Roosevelt; Stevenson Diaz, Pablo Roberto; Costa, Flávia; Emilio, Thaise; Levis, Carolina; Schietti, Juliana; Souza, Priscila; Alonso, Alfonso; Dallmeier, Francisco; Montoya, Alvaro Javier Duque; Fernandez Piedade, Maria Teresa; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro; Arroyo, Luzmila; Gribel, Rogerio; Fine, Paul V A; Peres, Carlos A; Toledo, Marisol; Aymard C, Gerardo A; Baker, Tim R; Cerón, Carlos; Engel, Julien; Henkel, Terry W; Maas, Paul; Petronelli, Pascal; Stropp, Juliana; Zartman, Charles Eugene; Daly, Doug; Neill, David; Silveira, Marcos; Paredes, Marcos Ríos; Chave, Jerome; Lima Filho, Diógenes de Andrade; Jørgensen, Peter Møller; Fuentes, Alfredo; Schöngart, Jochen; Cornejo Valverde, Fernando; Di Fiore, Anthony; Jimenez, Eliana M; Peñuela Mora, Maria Cristina; Phillips, Juan Fernando; Rivas, Gonzalo; van Andel, Tinde R; von Hildebrand, Patricio; Hoffman, Bruce; Zent, Eglée L; Malhi, Yadvinder; Prieto, Adriana; Rudas, Agustín; Ruschell, Ademir R; Silva, Natalino; Vos, Vincent; Zent, Stanford; Oliveira, Alexandre A; Schutz, Angela Cano; Gonzales, Therany; Trindade Nascimento, Marcelo; Ramirez-Angulo, Hirma; Sierra, Rodrigo; Tirado, Milton; Umaña Medina, María Natalia; van der Heijden, Geertje; Vela, César I A; Vilanova Torre, Emilio; Vriesendorp, Corine; Wang, Ophelia; Young, Kenneth R; Baider, Claudia; Balslev, Henrik; Ferreira, Cid; Mesones, Italo; Torres-Lezama, Armando; Urrego Giraldo, Ligia Estela; Zagt, Roderick; Alexiades, Miguel N; Hernandez, Lionel; Huamantupa-Chuquimaco, Isau; Milliken, William; Palacios Cuenca, Walter; Pauletto, Daniela; Valderrama Sandoval, Elvis; Valenzuela Gamarra, Luis; Dexter, Kyle G; Feeley, Ken; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela; Silman, Miles R

    2013-10-18

    The vast extent of the Amazon Basin has historically restricted the study of its tree communities to the local and regional scales. Here, we provide empirical data on the commonness, rarity, and richness of lowland tree species across the entire Amazon Basin and Guiana Shield (Amazonia), collected in 1170 tree plots in all major forest types. Extrapolations suggest that Amazonia harbors roughly 16,000 tree species, of which just 227 (1.4%) account for half of all trees. Most of these are habitat specialists and only dominant in one or two regions of the basin. We discuss some implications of the finding that a small group of species--less diverse than the North American tree flora--accounts for half of the world's most diverse tree community. PMID:24136971

  3. ECOLOGICAL WATER & THE FOREST-GARDEN UNIRRIGATED CULTURE%生态水与林园无灌溉栽培

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王炳章

    2001-01-01

    Ecological water concealed under the earth. First, avert huge waste of water, every year every mevaporate 3m water in the midsea region. Second, unirrigated forest-garden, Which do not have construct ditch, and cultivate cost of production dropped annually.%地表下的生态水,避免了塔克拉玛干沙漠每年每m蒸发3m水的巨额浪费;无灌溉林园,不修渠、不耕耘、生产成本逐年下降。

  4. Sustainable Forest Management and Cadastre in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Güler Yalcin

    2012-01-01

    In Turkey the forest is one of the most important natural resources. It both affects the rural development processes and is affected from these. Nevertheless “deforestation” is the main forest problem in Turkey. Sustainable forest management is required for the forests meet the social, economic, ecological, cultural and spiritual needs of the next generation. “To protect and to secure the forest areas” is the initial studies to be done for sustainable forest management. To prevent deforestati...

  5. cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Kreutz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Es un estudio cualitativo que adoptó como referencial teorico-motodológico la antropología y la etnografía. Presenta las experiencias vivenciadas por mujeres de una comunidad en el proceso salud-enfermedad, con el objetivo de comprender los determinantes sócio-culturales e históricos de las prácticas de prevención y tratamiento adoptados por el grupo cultural por medio de la entrevista semi-estructurada. Los temas que emergieron fueron: la relación entre la alimentación y lo proceso salud-enfermedad, las relaciones con el sistema de salud oficial y el proceso salud-enfermedad y lo sobrenatural. Los dados revelaron que los moradores de la comunidad investigada tienen un modo particular de explicar sus procedimientos terapéuticos. Consideramos que es papel de los profesionales de la salud en sus prácticas, la adopción de abordajes o enfoques que consideren al individuo en su dimensión sócio-cultural e histórica, considerando la enorme diversidad cultural en nuestro país.

  6. Amazonian dark Earth and plant species from the Amazon region contribute to shape rhizosphere bacterial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa Lima, Amanda; Cannavan, Fabiana Souza; Navarrete, Acacio Aparecido; Teixeira, Wenceslau Geraldes; Kuramae, Eiko Eurya; Tsai, Siu Mui

    2015-05-01

    Amazonian Dark Earths (ADE) or Terra Preta de Índio formed in the past by pre-Columbian populations are highly sustained fertile soils supported by microbial communities that differ from those extant in adjacent soils. These soils are found in the Amazon region and are considered as a model soil when compared to the surrounding and background soils. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of ADE and its surrounding soil on the rhizosphere bacterial communities of two leguminous plant species that frequently occur in the Amazon region in forest sites (Mimosa debilis) and open areas (Senna alata). Bacterial community structure was evaluated using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and bacterial community composition by V4 16S rRNA gene region pyrosequencing. T-RFLP analysis showed effect of soil types and plant species on rhizosphere bacterial community structure. Differential abundance of bacterial phyla, such as Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and Firmicutes, revealed that soil type contributes to shape the bacterial communities. Furthermore, bacterial phyla such as Firmicutes and Nitrospira were mostly influenced by plant species. Plant roots influenced several soil chemical properties, especially when plants were grown in ADE. These results showed that differences observed in rhizosphere bacterial community structure and composition can be influenced by plant species and soil fertility due to variation in soil attributes. PMID:25103911

  7. Projected strengthening of Amazonian dry season by constrained climate model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisier, Juan P.; Ciais, Philippe; Ducharne, Agnès; Guimberteau, Matthieu

    2015-07-01

    The vulnerability of Amazonian rainforest, and the ecological services it provides, depends on an adequate supply of dry-season water, either as precipitation or stored soil moisture. How the rain-bearing South American monsoon will evolve across the twenty-first century is thus a question of major interest. Extensive savanization, with its loss of forest carbon stock and uptake capacity, is an extreme although very uncertain scenario. We show that the contrasting rainfall projections simulated for Amazonia by 36 global climate models (GCMs) can be reproduced with empirical precipitation models, calibrated with historical GCM data as functions of the large-scale circulation. A set of these simple models was therefore calibrated with observations and used to constrain the GCM simulations. In agreement with the current hydrologic trends, the resulting projection towards the end of the twenty-first century is for a strengthening of the monsoon seasonal cycle, and a dry-season lengthening in southern Amazonia. With this approach, the increase in the area subjected to lengthy--savannah-prone--dry seasons is substantially larger than the GCM-simulated one. Our results confirm the dominant picture shown by the state-of-the-art GCMs, but suggest that the `model democracy' view of these impacts can be significantly underestimated.

  8. Comunidades de morcegos em hábitats de uma Mata Amazônica remanescente na Ilha de São Luís, Maranhão Bat communities of an Amazonian remnant forest of São Luís Island, Maranhão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Dominici Cruz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudos com comunidades de morcegos são escassos no Brasil, não sendo encontrado nenhum no Maranhão. Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar a composição de espécies da comunidade de morcegos do Parque Estadual do Bacanga (PEB, São Luís - MA, além de contribuir para o levantamento da fauna de morcegos do estado. Os morcegos foram capturados com três redes neblina de maio a agosto de 2004 em quatro diferentes hábitats (mata de capoeira, mata de terra firme, mata de várzea e mangue. A diversidade e similaridade entre hábitats foram calculadas, bem como a amplitude e sobreposição dos nichos das espécies consideradas comuns na área. Foram registradas 24 espécies de morcegos, sendo a maior diversidade encontrada na mata de várzea. A baixa similaridade constatada entre o hábitat de mangue e os demais hábitats indica a existência de dois conjuntos de espécies de morcegos distintos, o que é reforçado pelas sobreposições de nicho espacial das espécies mais comuns.There are few studies about bat communities in Brazil and none for the Maranhão state there is none. The present study aimed to analyze the bat community of the Bacanga State Park (PEB, São Luís - MA, and to contribute with bat data for the Maranhão state. The bats were sampled in four different habitats (capoeira forest, terra firme forest, riparian forest, and mangrove, using three mist nets from May to August 2004. Diversity and similarity were calculated, as well as the spatial niches width and overlap of the commonest species in PEB. Twenty four species of bats were recorded in PEB and the riparian habitat forest presented the highest diversity index. The low similarity found between mangrove and the remaining habitats seemed to identify two well-defined assemblages of bats in the sampled area, which is enforced by the spatial niche overlaps of the most commonness species.

  9. Effect of seven years of experimental drought on the aboveground biomass storage of an eastern Amazonian rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Antonio Carlos Lola; Galbraith, David; Almeida, Samuel; Fisher, Rosie; Phillips, Oliver; Metcalfe, Daniel; Levy, Peter; Portela, Bruno; da Costa, Mauricio; Meir, Patrick

    2010-05-01

    At least one climate model predicts severe reductions of rainfall over Amazonia during this century. Long-term throughfall exclusion (TFE) experiments represent the best available means to investigate the resilience of the Amazon rainforest to such droughts. Results are presented from a 7-year TFE study at Caxiuanã National Forest, eastern Amazonia. We focus on the impacts of the drought on tree mortality, wood production and aboveground carbon storage. Tree mortality in the TFE plot over the experimental period was 2.5% yr-1, compared to 1.25% yr-1 in a nearby Control plot experiencing normal rainfall. Differences in stem mortality between plots were greatest in the largest (> 40 cm dbh) size class (4.1% yr-1 in the TFE and 1.4% yr-1 in the Control). Wood production in the TFE plot was approximately 30% lower than in the Control plot. Together, these changes resulted in a loss of 37.8 ± 2.0 Mg C ha-1 (~ 20%) in the TFE plot (2002-2008), whereas the Control plot was essentially carbon neutral(change of - 0.2 ± 1.0 Mg C ha-1). These results are remarkably consistent with those from another TFE (at Tapajós National Forest), suggesting that Amazonian forests may respond to prolonged drought in a predictable manner.

  10. Classification of Vegetation over a Residual Megafan Landform in the Amazonian Lowland Based on Optical and SAR Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Édipo Henrique Cremon

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The origin of large areas dominated by pristine open vegetation that is in sharp contrast with surrounding dense forest within the Amazonian lowland has generally been related to past arid climates, but this is still an issue open for debate. In this paper, we characterize a large open vegetation patch over a residual megafan located in the northern Amazonia. The main goal was to investigate the relationship between this paleolandform and vegetation classes mapped based on the integration of optical and SAR data using the decision tree. Our remote sensing dataset includes PALSAR and TM/Landsat images. Five classes were identified: rainforest; flooded forest; wooded open vegetation; grassy-shrubby open vegetation; and water body. The output map resulting from the integration of PALSAR and TM/Landsat images showed an overall accuracy of 94%. Narrow, elongated and sinuous belts of forest within the open vegetation areas progressively bifurcate into others revealing paleochannels arranged into distributary pattern. Such characteristics, integrated with pre-existing geological information, led us to propose that the distribution of vegetation classes highlight a morphology attributed to a Quaternary megafan developed previous to the modern fluvial tributary system. The characterization of such megafan is important for reconstructing landscape changes associated with the evolution of the Amazon drainage basin.

  11. The impact of deforestation in the Amazonian atmospheric radiative balance: a remote sensing assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. T. Sena

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the Amazonian radiative budget after considering three aspects of deforestation: (i the emission of aerosols from biomass burning due to forest fires; (ii changes in surface albedo after deforestation and (iii modifications in the column water vapour amount over deforested areas. Simultaneous Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES shortwave fluxes and aerosol optical depth (AOD retrievals from the Moderate Resolution Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MODIS were analysed during the peak of the biomass burning seasons (August and September from 2000 to 2009. A discrete-ordinate radiative transfer (DISORT code was used to extend instantaneous remote sensing radiative forcing assessments into 24-h averages. The mean direct radiative forcing of aerosols at the top of the atmosphere (TOA during the biomass burning season for the 10-yr studied period was −5.6 ± 1.7 W m−2. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of the direct radiative forcing of aerosols over Amazon was obtained for the biomass burning season of each year. It was observed that for high AOD (larger than 1 at 550 nm the imbalance in the radiative forcing at the TOA may be as high as −20 W m−2 locally. The surface reflectance plays a major role in the aerosol direct radiative effect. The study of the effects of biomass burning aerosols over different surface types shows that the direct radiative forcing is systematically more negative over forest than over savannah-like covered areas. Values of −15.7 ± 2.4 W m−2550 nm and −9.3 ± 1.7 W m−2550 nm were calculated for the mean daily aerosol forcing efficiencies over forest and savannah-like vegetation respectively. The overall mean annual albedo-change radiative forcing due to deforestation over the state of Rondônia, Brazil, was determined as −7.3 ± 0.9 W m−2. Biomass burning aerosols impact the radiative

  12. Studies of the compositions of humic acids from Amazonian Dark Earth soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Etelvino H; deAzevedo, Eduardo R; Bonagamba, Tito J; Cunha, Tony J F; Madari, Beáta E; de M Benites, Vinícius; Hayes, Michael H B

    2007-01-15

    The compositions of humic acids (HAs) isolated from cultivated and forested "Terra Preta de Indio" or Amazonian Dark Earth soils (anthropogenic soils) were compared with those from adjacent non-anthropogenic soils (control soils) using elemental and thermogravimetric analyses, and a variety of solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. The thermogravimetric index, which indicates the molecular thermal resistance, was greater for the anthropogenic soils than for the control soils suggesting polycyclic aromatic components in the former. The cultivated anthropogenic soils were more enriched in C and depleted in H than the anthropogenic soils under forest, as the result of the selective degradation of aliphatic structures and the possible enrichment of H-deficient condensed aromatic structures. The combination of variable amplitude cross-polarization (VACP) and chemical shift anisotropy with total suppression of spinning sidebands experiments with composite pi pulses could be used to quantify the aromaticity of the HAs from the anthropogenic soils. From principal component analysis, using the VACP spectra, it was possible to separate the different constituents of the HAs, such as the carboxylated aromatic structures, from the anthropogenic soils and plant derived compounds. The data show that the HAs from anthropogenic soils have high contents of aryl and ionisable oxygenated functional groups, and the major functionalities from adjacent control soils are oxygenated functional groups from labile structures (carbohydrates, peptides, and with evidence for lignin structures). The anthropogenic soils HAs can be considered to be more recalcitrant, and with more stable reactive functional groups which may, in part, explain their more sustainable fertility due to the organic matter contribution to the soil cation exchange capacity. PMID:17310698

  13. Leaf Aging of Amazonian Canopy Trees: Insights to Tropical Ecological Processes and Satellited Detected Canopy Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavana-Bryant, C.; Malhi, Y.; Gerard, F.

    2015-12-01

    Leaf aging is a fundamental driver of changes in leaf traits, thereby, regulating ecosystem processes and remotely-sensed canopy dynamics. Leaf age is particularly important for carbon-rich tropical evergreen forests, as leaf demography (leaf age distribution) has been proposed as a major driver of seasonal productivity in these forests. We explore leaf reflectance as a tool to monitor leaf age and develop a novel spectra-based (PLSR) model to predict age using data from a phenological study of 1,072 leaves from 12 lowland Amazonian canopy tree species in southern Peru. Our results demonstrate monotonic decreases in LWC and Pmass and increase in LMA with age across species; Nmass and Cmassshowed monotonic but species-specific age responses. Spectrally, we observed large age-related variation across species, with the most age-sensitive spectral domains found to be: green peak (550nm), red edge (680-750 nm), NIR (700-850 nm), and around the main water absorption features (~1450 and ~1940 nm). A spectra-based model was more accurate in predicting leaf age (R2= 0.86; %RMSE= 33) compared to trait-based models using single (R2=0.07 to 0.73; %RMSE=7 to 38) and multiple predictors (step-wise analysis; R2=0.76; %RMSE=28). Spectral and trait-based models established a physiochemical basis for the spectral age model. The relative importance of the traits modifying the leaf spectra of aging leaves was: LWC>LMA>Nmass>Pmass,&Cmass. Vegetation indices (VIs), including NDVI, EVI2, NDWI and PRI were all age-dependent. This study highlights the importance of leaf age as a mediator of leaf traits, provides evidence of age-related leaf reflectance changes that have important impacts on VIs used to monitor canopy dynamics and productivity, and proposes a new approach to predicting and monitoring leaf age with important implications for remote sensing.

  14. Effect of interannual climate variability on carbon storage in Amazonian ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, H.; Melillo, J.M.; Kicklighter, D.W.; McGuire, David A.; Helfrich, J. V. K., III; Moore, B., III; Vorosmarty, C.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Amazon Basin contains almost one-half of the world's undisturbed tropical evergreen forest as well as large areas of tropical savanna. The forests account for about 10 per cent of the world's terrestrial primary productivity and for a similar fraction of the carbon stored in land ecosystems, and short-term field measurements suggest that these ecosystems are globally important carbon sinks. But tropical land ecosystems have experienced substantial interannual climate variability owing to frequent El Nino episodes in recent decades. Of particular importance to climate change policy is how such climate variations, coupled with increases in atmospheric CO2 concentration, affect terrestrial carbon storage. Previous model analyses have demonstrated the importance of temperature in controlling carbon storage. Here we use a transient process-based biogeochemical model of terrestrial ecosystems to investigate interannual variations of carbon storage in undisturbed Amazonian ecosystems in response to climate variability and increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration during the period 1980 to 1994. In El Nino years, which bring hot, dry weather to much of the Amazon region, the ecosystems act as a source of carbon to the atmosphere (up to 0.2 petagrams of carbon in 1987 and 1992). In other years, these ecosystems act as a carbon sink (up to 0.7 Pg C in 1981 and 1993). These fluxes are large; they compare to a 0.3 Pg C per year source to the atmosphere associated with deforestation in the Amazon Basin in the early 1990s. Soil moisture, which is affected by both precipitation and temperature, and which affects both plant and soil processes, appears to be an important control on carbon storage.

  15. Alluvial plain dynamics in the southern Amazonian foreland basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Lombardo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Alluvial plains are formed with sediments that rivers deposit on the adjacent flood-basin, mainly through crevasse splays and avulsions. These result from a combination of processes, some of which push the river towards the crevasse threshold, while others act as triggers. Based on the floodplain sedimentation patterns of large rivers in the southern Amazonian foreland basin, it has been suggested that alluvial plain sediment accumulation is primarily the result of river crevasse splays triggered by above normal precipitation events due to La Niña. However, more than 90 % of the Amazonian river network is made of small rivers and it is unknown whether small river floodplain sedimentation is influenced by the ENSO cycle as well. Using Landsat images from 1984 to 2014, here I analyse the behaviour of all the twelve tributaries of the Río Mamoré with a catchment in the Andes. I show that these are very active rivers and that the frequency of crevasses is not linked to ENSO activity. I found that most of the sediments eroded from the Andes by the tributaries of the Mamoré are deposited in the alluvial plains, before reaching the parent river. The mid- to late Holocene paleo-channels of these rivers are located tens of kilometres further away from the Andes than the modern crevasses. I conclude that the frequency of crevasses is controlled by intrabasinal processes that act on a year to decade time scale, while the average location of the crevasses is controlled by climatic or neo-tectonic events that act on a millennial scale. Finally, I discuss the implications of river dynamics on rural livelihoods and biodiversity in the Llanos de Moxos, a seasonally flooded savannah covering most of the southern Amazonian foreland basin and the world's largest RAMSAR site.

  16. Alluvial plain dynamics in the southern Amazonian foreland basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Umberto

    2016-05-01

    Alluvial plains are formed with sediments that rivers deposit on the adjacent flood-basin, mainly through crevasse splays and avulsions. These result from a combination of processes, some of which push the river towards the crevasse threshold, while others act as triggers. Based on the floodplain sedimentation patterns of large rivers in the southern Amazonian foreland basin, it has been suggested that alluvial plain sediment accumulation is primarily the result of river crevasse splays and sheet sands triggered by above-normal precipitation events due to La Niña. However, more than 90 % of the Amazonian river network is made of small rivers and it is unknown whether small river floodplain sedimentation is influenced by the ENSO cycle as well. Using Landsat images from 1984 to 2014, here I analyse the behaviour of all 12 tributaries of the Río Mamoré with a catchment in the Andes. I show that these are very active rivers and that the frequency of crevasses is not linked to ENSO activity. The data suggest that most of the sediments eroded from the Andes by the tributaries of the Mamoré are deposited in the alluvial plains, before reaching the parent river. The mid-to-late Holocene paleo-channels of these rivers are located tens of kilometres further away from the Andes than the modern crevasses. I conclude that the frequency of crevasses is controlled by intrabasinal processes that act on a yearly to decadal timescale, while the average location of the crevasses is controlled by climatic or neo-tectonic events that act on a millennial scale. Finally, I discuss the implications of river dynamics on rural livelihoods and biodiversity in the Llanos de Moxos, a seasonally flooded savannah covering most of the southern Amazonian foreland basin and the world's largest RAMSAR site.

  17. Is the seasonal forest more vulnerable to drought effects in tropical Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, L.; Saatchi, S. S.; Yang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies have found that the seasonal forests in semi-arid region are more susceptible to severe drought events and the persistent effect of these climate extremes can last for 2 to 4 years. However, the Amazonian forests, where the plant available water is often abundant, seasonal forests are considered more drought-tolerant as water deficits coincide with seasonal peaks of solar radiation. But the interactions between climate and anthropogenic changes have made the scenario of these forests in the "arc of deforestation" complicated. The tight coupling between extreme droughts and fire intensity can cause widespread fire-induced tree mortality across southeastern Amazon forests. The legacy effects of droughts, as well as the frequent revisit of these extremes in the recent decade (e.g. the 2005 and 2010 Amazon droughts) have made the projection of forest recovery unclear. In this study, we use satellite proxies of canopy structure, skin temperature and water content from observations of MODIS NIR reflectance, land surface temperature and QSCAT radar backscatter to define the seasonality in the Amazonian forests. It is further calibrated using the measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence from GOSAT, terrestrial water storage from GRACE, as well as the structural metrics from GLAS waveforms. We delineate the post-drought effects of Amazon forests using seasonality-derived phenological regions. The results are expected to have a better understanding of the inter-annual variation of forest seasonality under the influence of both climate extremes and human-induced changes.

  18. Carbon content in Amazonian Oxisols after forest conversion to pasture Variação do conteúdo de carbono orgânico em Latossolo da Amazônia após substituição da floresta por pastagens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Lopes da Silva Júnior

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil plays an important role in the C cycle, and substitution of tropical forest by cultivated land affects C dynamic and stock. This study was developed in an area of expansion of human settlement in the Eastern Amazon, in Itupiranga, State of Pará, to evaluate the effects of native forest conversion to Brachiaria brizantha pasture on C contents of a dystrophic Oxisol. Soil samples were collected in areas of native forest (NF, of 8 to 10 year old secondary forest (SF, 1 to 2 year old SF (P1-2, 5 to 7 year old SF (P5-7, and of 10 to 12 year old SF (P10-12, and from under pastures, in the layers 0-2, 2-5 and 5-10 cm, to evaluate C levels and stocks and carry out separation of OM based on particle size. After deforestation, soil density increased to a depth of 5 cm, with greater increase in older pastures. Variation in C levels was greatest in the top soil layer; C contents increased with increasing pasture age. In the layers 2-5 and 5-10 cm, C content proved to be stable for the types of plant cover evaluated. Highest C concentrations were found in the silt fraction; however, C contents were highest in the clay fraction, independent of the plant cover. An increase in C associated with the sand fraction in the form of little decomposed organic residues was observed in pastures, confirming greater sensitivity of this fraction to change in soil use.O solo desempenha importante papel no ciclo do C, porém a substituição da floresta tropical por áreas cultivadas altera a dinâmica e o estoque desse elemento. Em uma frente pioneira de colonização no município de Itupiranga (PA, na Amazônia Oriental, foi desenvolvido este estudo com o objetivo de avaliar as consequências da substituição de floresta nativa por pastagens de Brachiaria brizantha no conteúdo de C de um Latossolo Amarelo distrófico. As amostras de solo foram coletadas em área de floresta nativa (FN, floresta secundária de 8-10 anos (FS, pastagens de 1-2 anos (P1-2, de 5-7 anos

  19. Food preference of the amazonian manatee in captivity

    OpenAIRE

    Elton Pinto Colares; Ioni Gonçalves Colares

    2011-01-01

    Studies on one endangered species´ feeding contribute to the more complex knowledge about its ecology, as also its preservation and/or management. By this means, aiming to obtain one better development and food supply for the animals kept in captivity in the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisa da Amazônia, one experiment was conducted to verify their food preferences. Aiming to observe the Amazonian manatee´s feeding behavior, eight animals were used kept inside one pool with 28,26 m2 and 1,0 m de...

  20. Embryo culture is an efficient way to conserve a medicinally important endangered forest tree species Strychnos potatorum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Srikanth Kagithoju; Vikram Godishala; Madhusudhan Kairamkonda; Rama Swamy Nanna

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports a protocol for germination of Strychnos potatorum (ver.Tel.Chilla) using zygotic embryo culture as an embryo rescue method.A 100% germination rate was obtained by culturing the embryos on full-strength Murashige and Skoog's medium (MS) containing 20 g/L sucrose in comparison to McCown and Lloyd's Woody Plant Medium (WPM).Germination rates decreased when the sucrose concentration was lower or higher than 20 g·L-1.WPM/MS medium containing glucose at levels 30,20,15 g·L-1 showed a smaller percentage of germination and at quarter strength,WPM/MS medium with glucose did not respond.Multiple shoot formation was found at 1.0-2.0 mg/L BAP; 3.0 mg/L Kn; 2.0 mg/L TDZ on MS medium with 20 g·L-1sucrose.Germination rates improved when the embryos were placed upright (vertically) in the medium.The in vitro germinated seedlings were acclimatized in a walk-in-chamber and maintained in the green house with the survival rate of 65%-75%.These plants were transferred to the field and were found to be phenotypically normal,healthy and similar to donor plants.This protocol will be useful to overcome seed dormancy and for rapid multiplication and conservation of S.potatorum using zygotic embryo culture.

  1. Structure and composition of the ground-herb community in a terra-firme Central Amazonian forest Estrutura e composição da comunidade herbácea terrestre em uma floresta de terra-firme da Amazônia Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Regina Capellotto Costa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The herb community of tropical forests is very little known, with few studies addressing its structure quantitatively. Even with this scarce body of information, it is clear that the ground herbs are a rich group, comprising 14 to 40% of the species found in total species counts in tropical forests. The present study had the objective of increasing the knowledge about the structure and composition of the ground-herb community and to compare the sites for which there are similar studies. The study was conducted in a tropical non-inundated and evergreen forest 90 km north of Manaus, AM. Ground herbs were surveyed in 22 transects of 40 m², distributed in five plots of 4 ha. The inventoried community was composed of 35 species, distributed in 24 genera and 18 families. Angiosperms were represented by 8 families and Pteridophytes by 10 families. Marantaceae (12 sp and Cyperaceae (4 sp were the richest families. Marantaceae and Poaceae were the families with greatest abundance and cover. Marantaceae, Poaceae, Heliconiaceae and Pteridophytes summed 96% of total herb cover, and therefore were responsible for almost all the cover of the community. The 10 most important species had 83.7% of the individuals. In general, the most abundant species were also the most frequent. Richness per transect varied from 7 to 19 species, and abundance varied from 30 to 114 individuals. The community structure was quite similar to 3 other sites in South America and one site in Asia.A comunidade herbácea das florestas tropicais é pouco conhecida, havendo poucos estudos quantitativos de sua estrutura. Mesmo com esta quantidade escassa de informações, é possível afirmar que as ervas terrestres são um grupo rico, representando 14 a 40% das espécies encontradas em contagens totais de espécies em florestas tropicais. O presente estudo teve como objetivo aumentar o conhecimento sobre a estrutura e composição da comunidade de ervas terrestres e comparar as

  2. Local-scale spatial variation in diversity of social wasps in an Amazonian rain forest in Caxiuanã, Pará, Brazil (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae Variação na diversidade de vespas sociais em escala local numa floresta pluvial amazônica em Caxiuanã, Pará, Brasil (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Tobias Silveira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Polistine wasps are important in Neotropical ecosystems due to their ubiquity and diversity. Inventories have not adequately considered spatial attributes of collected specimens. Spatial data on biodiversity are important for study and mitigation of anthropogenic impacts over natural ecosystems and for protecting species. We described and analyzed local-scale spatial patterns of collecting records of wasp species, as well as spatial variation of diversity descriptors in a 2500-hectare area of an Amazon forest in Brazil. Rare species comprised the largest fraction of the fauna. Close range spatial effects were detected for most of the more common species, with clustering of presence-data at short distances. Larger spatial lag effects could also be identified in some species, constituting probably cases of exogenous autocorrelation and candidates for explanations based on environmental factors. In a few cases, significant or near significant correlations were found between five species (of Agelaia, Angiopolybia, and Mischocyttarus and three studied environmental variables: distance to nearest stream, terrain altitude, and the type of forest canopy. However, association between these factors and biodiversity variables were generally low. When used as predictors of polistine richness in a linear multiple regression, only the coefficient for the forest canopy variable resulted significant. Some level of prediction of wasp diversity variables can be attained based on environmental variables, especially vegetation structure. Large-scale landscape and regional studies should be scheduled to address this issue.Vespas sociais são importantes nos ecossistemas neotropicais pela abundância e diversidade. A maioria dos inventários recentes não têm dedicado atenção aos atributos espaciais dos espécimes coletados. Dados espaciais são importantes para estudar e mitigar impactos sobre ecossistemas naturais e proteger espécies. Este artigo descreve e

  3. The OpenForest Portal as an Open Learning Ecosystem: Co-Developing in the Study of a Multidisciplinary Phenomenon in a Cultural Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljeström, Anu; Enkenberg, Jorma; Vanninen, Petteri; Vartiainen, Henriikka; Pöllänen, Sinikka

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the OpenForest portal and its related multidisciplinary learning project. The OpenForest portal is an open learning environment and ecosystem, in which students can participate in co-developing and co-creating practices. The aim of the OpenForest ecosystem is to create an extensive interactive network of diverse learning…

  4. Holocene paleoenvironmental reconstruction in the Eastern Amazonian Basin: Comprido Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, L. S.; Moreira-Turcq, P.; Cordeiro, R. C.; Turcq, B.; Caquineau, S.; Viana, J. C. C.; Brandini, N.

    2013-07-01

    Two sediment cores were studied from Comprido Lake, a black water floodplain lake located near Monte Alegre City, Eastern Amazonian Basin. The total organic carbon (TOC), nitrogen content (TN), δ13CTOC, sedimentary chlorophyll, diatom record and mineralogical composition revealed different hydrological and climatic regimes during the Holocene. Between 10,300 and 7800 cal yr BP, a dry climate was suggested by low values of TOC and chlorophyll derivatives concentrations that are related to the development of a C4 grasses on unflooded mud banks. A gap in sedimentation due to a complete dryness of the lake occurred between 7800 and 3000 cal years BP corresponding to the Middle Holocene dry phase. From 3000 cal years BP onwards a gradual increase of the TOC, chlorophyll derivatives and Aulacoseira sp. suggest an increase in the productivity and in water lake level due to the high water flow of the Amazon River and the catchment area as well. The Comprido Lake record indicates that the Late Holocene in this region was characterized by a wetter climate, as also observed in other records of the Amazonian Basin.

  5. Amazonian volcanic activity at the Syrtis volcanic province, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platz, Thomas; Jodlowski, Piotr; Fawdon, Peter; Michael, Greg; Tanaka, Kenneth

    2014-05-01

    The Syrtis Major volcanic province, including the entire Syrtis Major Planum, is located near the Martian highland/lowland transitional zone west of Isidis Planitia. It covers ≡7.4×105 km2 and contains two low-shield volcanic edifices with N-S elongated calderas named Nili and Meroe Paterae. The estimated thickness of erupted material in the province ranges from approximately 0.5 km to 1.0 km with a total volume of about 1.6-3.2×105 km3 [1]. The timing of volcanic activity in the Syrtis Major volcanic province has been suggested to be restricted to the Hesperian Period [1-4]. In the geological map of Greeley and Guest [2], volcanic material of Syrtis Major was assigned an Hesperian age based on the density of observed craters larger than 5 km in diameter. Using the same crater density range, recent studies of Hiesinger et al. [1] and Tanaka et al. [3] and Tanaka et al. [4] assigned an Early Hesperian and Early to Late Hesperian age, respectively, for the entire province. In this study we mapped lava flows, lava channels, and major lava-flow margins and report model ages for lava-flow formation and caldera segments of Nili and Meroe Paterae. The objective of this ongoing survey is to better understand the eruption frequency of this volcanic province. In total, we mapped 67 lava flows, caldera segments, and intra-crater fillings of which 55 were dated. Crater size-frequency distributions (CSFD) were mapped on HRSC and CTX imagery using CraterTools [5]. CSFDs were analyzed and model ages determined in Craterstats [6] using the production and chronology functions of Ivanov [7] and Hartmann and Neukum [8], respectively. A detailed description of the utilization of the crater-counting technique and its limitations with respect to small-scale mapping is given in Platz et al. [9]. Model ages range between 838 Ma (Middle Amazonian) to 3.6 Ga (Late Hesperian). In our survey, a broad age peak occurs between 2 to 2.6 Ga, continuously declining thereafter. We note that

  6. The role of gallery forests in the distribution of cerrado mammals O papel das matas de galeria na distribuição dos mamíferos do cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Johnson; Saraiva, P.M.; Coelho, D

    1999-01-01

    The Cerrado biome contains a rich mammal community, with an influence from the Amazonian and Atlantic rainforests, principally observed in the gallery forests. In this paper, through literature review, it is shown that the non-volant mammal community of the gallery forests is distinct from the mammal communities of any other physionomy of the Cerrado. Additionally, the gallery forests contain twice as many species common to the rainforests when compared to all the other physiognomies of the C...

  7. Impacts of selective logging on inbreeding and gene flow in two Amazonian timber species with contrasting ecological and reproductive characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, C C; Kanashiro, M; Harris, S A; Boshier, D H

    2015-01-01

    Selective logging in Brazil allows for the removal of up to 90% of trees above 50 cm diameter of a given timber species, independent of a species' life history characteristics or how quickly it will recover. The genetic and demographic effects of selective logging on two Amazonian timber species (Dipteryx odorata Leguminosae, Jacaranda copaia Bignoniaceae) with contrasting ecological and reproductive characteristics were assessed in the same forest. Genetic diversity and gene flow were characterized by genotyping adults and seed sampled before and after logging, using hypervariable microsatellite markers. Overall, there were no short-term genetic impacts on the J. copaia population, with commercial application of current Brazilian forest management regulations. In contrast, for D. Odorata, selective logging showed a range of genetic impacts, with a 10% loss of alleles, and reductions in siring by pollen from trees within the 546-ha study area (23-11%) and in the number of pollen donors per progeny array (2.8-1.6), illustrating the importance of the surrounding landscape. Asynchrony in flowering between D. odorata trees led to trees with no breeding partners, which could limit the species reproduction and regeneration under current regulations. The results are summarized with other published studies from the same site and the implications for forest management discussed. The different types and levels of impacts associated with each species support the idea that ecological and genetic information by species, ecological guild or reproductive group is essential in helping to derive sustainable logging guidelines for tropical forests. PMID:25402015

  8. Relação entre diferentes espécies de formigas e a mirmecófita Cordia nodosa Lamarck (Boraginaceae em áreas de mata ripária na Amazônia mato-grossense Relationship among different plant-ants and its myrmecophite host Cordia nodosa Lamarck (Boraginaceae in a riparian Mato Grosso Amazonian forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Junqueira Izzo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Os benefícios obtidos por um organismo em uma associação mutualística podem variar em função de fatores ambientais, bem como entre as diferentes espécies que podem estar associadas. Neste trabalho demonstramos que quatro espécies de formigas, Crematogaster brasiliensis, Allomerus octoarticulatus e duas não identificadas do gênero Azteca podem ser encontradas associadas à mirmecófita Cordia nodosa em florestas ripárias sul-amazônicas. Essa composição de espécies de formigas é mais similar a encontrada na Amazônia Andina do que aquela da Amazônia Central brasileira. A colonização por formigas parece ser determinante, pois diminuiu a herbivoria e, consequentemente, aumentou a probabilidade de C. nodosa produzir frutos. Adicionalmente, mesmo não havendo diferença na herbivoria entre plantas colonizadas pelas diferentes espécies de formigas, a probabilidade de uma planta colonizada por formigas do gênero Allomerus produzir frutos é menor do que quando colonizadas pelas outras espécies de formigas. Esse estudo demonstra a dependência de C. nodosa pela colonização de formigas para sua reprodução. Contudo, conforme outros estudos realizados em outras áreas da Amazônia demonstram, nossos resultados também sugerem que Allomerus pode estar castrando as plantas hospedeiras, agindo como parasita em toda a sua distribuição geográfica.The benefits obtained by an organism when involved in a mutualistic interaction vary depending on environmental factors, as well as among the identity of the involved species. In this study, we showed that four ant species, Crematogaster brasiliensis, Allomerus octoarticulatus, and two unidentified Azteca species can be found associated to the myrmecophite Cordia nodosa in riparian forests in the South of Amazonia. This composition of ant-associated species is more similar in forests of Andean Amazon than in Central Amazonia. The colonization of an ant colony on C. nodosa seems to be vital

  9. In vitro screening of Amazonian plants for hemolytic activity and inhibition of platelet aggregation in human blood Testes in vitro de plantas Amazônicas para atividade hemolítica e inibição da agregação plaquetária em sangue humano

    OpenAIRE

    Viviana Maria Araújo de Oliveira; Ana Lucia Basilio Carneiro; Glaucia Socorro de Barros Cauper; Adrian Martin Pohlit

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, different aerial parts from twelve Amazonian plant species found in the National Institute for Amazon Research's (INPA's) Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve (in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil) were collected. Separate portions of dried, ground plant materials were extracted with water (by infusion), methanol and chloroform (by continuous liquid-solid extraction) and solvents were removed first by rotary evaporation, and finally by freeze-drying which yielded a total of seventy-one f...

  10. Influências de Atta spp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae na recuperação da vegetação pós-fogo em floresta de transição amazônica Influences of leafcutter ant Atta spp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae on vegetation recovery after fire in Amazonian transitional forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Santana Carvalho

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo investigou o papel das saúvas na recuperação da vegetação pós-fogo. Foi hipotetizado que a perturbação do fogo aumenta a abundância de ninhos de saúva (1 e as atividades de remoção de sementes (2 e desfolha (3, especialmente no ambiente de borda. Os ninhos de saúva foram inventariados e mapeados e após 17 meses, checados para o registro de sua atividade e de novas colônias emergindo na área. Realizou-se experimentos comparativos de remoção de sementes e desfolha de plântulas em duas parcelas de 50 ha, uma submetida a fogo anual (tratamento e outra sem fogo (controle. A abundância de ninhos de saúva foi maior na parcela tratamento que na parcela controle, especialmente na borda da floresta. As espécies encontradas foram: Atta cephalotes, A. laevigata e A. sexdens , sendo esta última a espécie mais abundante e que mostrou aumento em número de colônias ativas após 17 meses. O aumento na abundância de ninhos na parcela tratamento foi acompanhado por um aumento na atividade dessas formigas. Enquanto mais de duas folhas foram arrancadas por plântula nessa parcela, menos de uma foi registrada na parcela controle. Também a abundância média de galhos desfolhados e de sementes removidas por saúvas foi maior na parcela tratamento que na parcela controle. As saúvas tanto podem diminuir ou retardar o processo de regeneração florestal pós-fogo, quanto acelerá-lo, devido à elevada predação seletiva que favorece as espécies menos palatáveis. Desta forma, suas atividades podem modificador apenas a composição da vegetação recuperando-se do fogo.In this study we investigated the role of leaf-cutting ants in the post-fire vegetation recovery. We hypothesized that a forest plot submitted to annual fire presents: (1 higher abundance of leaf-cutting ant nests; (2 higher removal of seeds; and (3 higher herbivory rates of leaf-cutting ants, when compared to the forest plots without fire (control. The leaf

  11. Morphology, morphometry and ultrastructure of the Amazonian manatee (Sirenia: Trichechidae) spermatozoa

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo S. Amaral; Lucci, Carolina M; Fernando C. W. Rosas; Vera M. F. da Silva; Báo, Sônia N.

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the morphological, morphometric and ultrastructural characteristics of the Amazonian manatee Trichechus inunguis (Natterer, 1883) spermatozoon. The spermatozoa were obtained from a urine sample of an adult T. inunguis kept in captivity. The spermatozoa were analyzed by light and transmission electron microscopy. The head of Amazonian manatee spermatozoa had a flat oval shape and a well distinguishable midpiece. The mean dimensions of the spermatozoa were: head length, 7.4...

  12. Biochemical parameters of the amazonian manatee´s blood (Trichechus inunguis, Mammalia: Sirenia)

    OpenAIRE

    Elton Pinto Colares; Ioni Gonçalves Colares; Ary Domingos do Amaral

    2011-01-01

    The blood biochemical and hematological parameters make possible to acquire information about the physiological situation of animals or their population, permitting in this way the diagnosis of possible pathologies. The objective of this work was to check the normal values of some biochemical parameters of the captive Amazonian manatee´s blood and compare them with other animals´. In this study, 10 Amazonian manatees kept in captivity in the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, being ...

  13. Impacts of different management systems on the physical quality of an Amazonian Oxisol

    OpenAIRE

    Elaine Maria Silva Guedes; Antonio Rodrigues Fernandes; Herdjania Veras de Lima; Ademar Pereira Serra; José Ribamar Costa; Rafael da Silva Guedes

    2012-01-01

    The physical quality of Amazonian soils is relatively unexplored, due to the unique characteristics of these soils. The index of soil physical quality is a widely accepted measure of the structural quality of soils and has been used to specify the structural quality of some tropical soils, as for example of the Cerrado ecoregion of Brazil. The research objective was to evaluate the physical quality index of an Amazonian dystrophic Oxisol under different management systems. Soils under five ma...

  14. Estimating the global conservation status of more than 15,000 Amazonian tree species

    OpenAIRE

    H. ter Steege; Pitman, NC; Killeen, TJ; Laurance, WF; Peres, CA; Guevara, JE; Salomão, RP; Castilho, CV; Amaral, IL; de Almeida Matos, FD; de Souza Coelho, L; Magnusson, WE; Phillips, OL; de Andrade Lima Filho, D; de Jesus Veiga Carim, M

    2015-01-01

    Estimates of extinction risk for Amazonian plant and animal species are rare and not often incorporated into land-use policy and conservation planning. We overlay spatial distribution models with historical and projected deforestation to show that at least 36% and up to 57% of all Amazonian tree species are likely to qualify as globally threatened under International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List criteria. If confirmed, these results would increase the number of threatened ...

  15. Estimating the global conservation status of more than 15,000 Amazonian tree species.

    OpenAIRE

    H. ter Steege; Pitman, NC; Killeen, TJ; Laurance, WF; Peres, CA; Guevara, JE; Salomão, RP; Castilho, CV; Amaral, IL; de Almeida Matos, FD; de Souza Coelho, L; Magnusson, WE; Phillips, OL; de Andrade Lima Filho, D; de Jesus Veiga Carim, M

    2015-01-01

    Estimates of extinction risk for Amazonian plant and animal species are rare and not often incorporated into land-use policy and conservation planning. We overlay spatial distribution models with historical and projected deforestation to show that at least 36% and up to 57% of all Amazonian tree species are likely to qualify as globally threatened under International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List criteria. If confirmed, these results would increase the number of threatened ...

  16. C dynamics in Amazonian podzols under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunan, Naoise; Soro, Andre; Potard, Kevin; Pouteau, Valerie; Montes, Celia; Melphi, Adolpho; Lucas, Yves; Chenu, Claire

    2016-04-01

    It has recently been shown that the C stocks in Amazonian podzols are very large. They are much larger than was previously thought, particularly in the Bh horizon, which has been estimated to contain in excess of 13Pg C for Amazonia alone. It is predicted that the changes in regional climate will result in a drier soil water regime which may affect the C dynamics in these soils that are usually saturated. In order to determine the vulnerability to change of the organic C contained in the Amazonian podzols, a series of incubation experiments were established in which the effects of a number of different factors on microbial decomposition were measured. The direct effect of drier soil water regimes was tested by incubating undisturbed cores from the Bh horizon at a range of matric potentials (saturation to wilting point). Contrary to what is usually found in soils, no significant difference in mineralisation was found among matric potentials, suggesting that other factors control microbial mineralisation of this organic C. The effect of nitrogen additions, of anaerobic conditions and of the addition labile C substrate were also tested on undisturbed cores of the Bh horizon of the podzols. Samples incubated under aerobic conditions produced 3 times more CO2 than samples incubated under anaerobic conditions, whilst samples incubated under aerobic conditions with the addition of N mineralised 6.7 times more CO2 than the anaerobic samples. The addition of labile C did not have a significant effect on C mineralisation, i.e. there was no priming effect. The combined addition of labile C and mineral N did not stimulate C mineralisation more than N additions alone. By extrapolating the differences obtained here to the whole of the Amazonian podzols, it is estimated that changes in conditions which result in an increase in O2 and in N (i.e. changes in vegetation due to increases in dry periods with the establishment of a savanna for example) in the soil will cause the release

  17. Forest rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balooni, Kulbhushan; Lund, Jens Friis

    2014-01-01

    One of the proposed strategies for implementation of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation plus (REDD+) is to incentivize conservation of forests managed by communities under decentralized forest management. Yet, we argue that this is a challenging road to REDD+ because of ...... conservation of forests under existing decentralized management arrangements toward a push for extending the coverage of forests under decentralized management, making forest rights the hard currency of REDD+....

  18. Asymmetric dispersal and colonization success of Amazonian plant-ants queens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio M Bruna

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The dispersal ability of queens is central to understanding ant life-history evolution, and plays a fundamental role in ant population and community dynamics, the maintenance of genetic diversity, and the spread of invasive ants. In tropical ecosystems, species from over 40 genera of ants establish colonies in the stems, hollow thorns, or leaf pouches of specialized plants. However, little is known about the relative dispersal ability of queens competing for access to the same host plants. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used empirical data and inverse modeling--a technique developed by plant ecologists to model seed dispersal--to quantify and compare the dispersal kernels of queens from three Amazonian ant species that compete for access to host-plants. We found that the modal colonization distance of queens varied 8-fold, with the generalist ant species (Crematogaster laevis having a greater modal distance than two specialists (Pheidole minutula, Azteca sp. that use the same host-plants. However, our results also suggest that queens of Azteca sp. have maximal distances that are four-sixteen times greater than those of its competitors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We found large differences between ant species in both the modal and maximal distance ant queens disperse to find vacant seedlings used to found new colonies. These differences could result from interspecific differences in queen body size, and hence wing musculature, or because queens differ in their ability to identify potential host plants while in flight. Our results provide support for one of the necessary conditions underlying several of the hypothesized mechanisms promoting coexistence in tropical plant-ants. They also suggest that for some ant species limited dispersal capability could pose a significant barrier to the rescue of populations in isolated forest fragments. Finally, we demonstrate that inverse models parameterized with field data are an excellent means

  19. Leaf level emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC from some Amazonian and Mediterranean plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bracho-Nunez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Emission inventories defining regional and global biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOC emission strengths are needed to determine the impact of VOC on atmospheric chemistry (oxidative capacity and physics (secondary organic aerosol formation and effects. The aim of this work was to contribute with measurements of tree species from the poorly described tropical vegetation in direct comparison with the quite well-investigated, highly heterogeneous emissions from Mediterranean vegetation. VOC emission from sixteen plant species from the Mediterranean area were compared with twelve plant species from different environments of the Amazon basin by an emission screening at leaf level using branch enclosures. Analysis of the volatile organics was performed online by a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS and offline by collection on adsorbent tubes and subsequent gas chromatographic analysis. Isoprene was the most dominant compound emitted followed by monoterpenes, methanol and acetone. The average loss rates of VOC carbon in relation to the net CO2 assimilation were found below 4% and indicating normal unstressed plant behavior. Most of the Mediterranean species emitted a large variety of monoterpenes, whereas only five tropical species were identified as monoterpene emitters exhibiting a quite conservative emission pattern (α-pinene < limonene < sabinene < ß-pinene. Mediterranean plants showed additional emissions of sesquiterpenes. In the case of Amazonian plants no sesquiterpenes were detected. However, missing of sesquiterpenes may also be due to a lack of sensitivity of the measuring systems. Furthermore, our screening activities cover only 1% of tree species of such tropical areas as estimated based on recent biodiversity reports. Methanol emissions, an indicator of growth, were found to be common in most of the tropical and Mediterranean species. A few species from both ecosystems showed acetone emissions. The observed

  20. Química atmosférica na Amazônia: a floresta e as emissões de queimadas controlando a composição da atmosfera amazônica Atmospheric chemistry in Amazonia: the forest and the biomass burning emissions controlling the composition of the Amazonian atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Artaxo

    2005-06-01

    several key atmospheric processes in the region. Cloud formation mechanisms, for instance, are strongly affected when the concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN changes from 200-300 CCN/cc in the wet season to 5,000-10,000 CCN/cc in the dry season. The cloud droplet radius is reduced from values of 18 to 25 micrometers in the wet season to 5 to 10 micrometers in the dry season, suppressing cloud formation and the occurrence of precipitation under some conditions. Ozone is a key trace gas for changes in the forest health, with concentrations increasing from 12 parts per billion (ppb, at the wet season, to values as high as 100 ppb (in the dry season in areas strongly affected by biomass burning emissions. At this level, ozone could be damaging the vegetation in regions far from the emissions. The atmospheric radiation balance is also strongly affected, with a net loss of up to 70% of photosynthetic active radiation at the surface.

  1. Lipase Activity among Bacteria Isolated from Amazonian Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willerding, André Luis; de Oliveira, Luiz Antonio; Moreira, Francisco Wesen; Germano, Mariana Gomes; Chagas, Aloísio Freitas

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to select lipase-producing bacteria collected from different counties of the Amazon region. Of the 440 bacteria strains, 181 were selected for the lipase assay in qualitative tests at Petri dishes, being 75 (41%) lipase positive. The enzymatic index was determined during fifteen days at different temperatures (30°, 35°, 40°, and 45°C). The highest lipase activity was observed within 72 hours at 30°C. Twelve bacteria strains presented an index equal to or greater than the standard used like reference, demonstrating the potential of microbial resource. After the bioassay in Petri dishes, the selected bacteria strains were analyzed in quantitative tests on p-nitrophenyl palmitate (p-NPP). A group of the strains was selected for other phases of study with the use in oleaginous substrates of the Amazonian flora, aiming for the application in processes like oil biotransformation. PMID:22007294

  2. Lipase Activity among Bacteria Isolated from Amazonian Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luis Willerding

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to select lipase-producing bacteria collected from different counties of the Amazon region. Of the 440 bacteria strains, 181 were selected for the lipase assay in qualitative tests at Petri dishes, being 75 (41% lipase positive. The enzymatic index was determined during fifteen days at different temperatures (30°, 35°, 40°, and 45°C. The highest lipase activity was observed within 72 hours at 30°C. Twelve bacteria strains presented an index equal to or greater than the standard used like reference, demonstrating the potential of microbial resource. After the bioassay in Petri dishes, the selected bacteria strains were analyzed in quantitative tests on p-nitrophenyl palmitate (p-NPP. A group of the strains was selected for other phases of study with the use in oleaginous substrates of the Amazonian flora, aiming for the application in processes like oil biotransformation.

  3. Cadmium in the Amazonian Guajara Estuary: Distribution and remobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, S.F. [Instituto de Quimica, Departamento de Geoquimica, Universidade Federal Fluminense (Brazil)]. E-mail: nascimento@lisa.univ-paris12.fr; Kurzweil, H. [Institut fuer Petrologie, Universitaet Wien (Austria); Wruss, W. [Institut fuer Chemische Technologie anorganischer Stoffe, Technische Univesitaet Wien (Austria); Fenzl, N. [Nucleo de Altos Estudos Amazonicos, Universidade Federal do Para (Brazil)

    2006-03-15

    Extremely high total cadmium concentrations (average about 500 mg/kg) together with very small (average of 1.1 {mu}g/l) dissolved available cadmium have been found in the more acidic deeper layers of the bottom sediments of the Brazilian Amazonian Guajara Estuary. The paper shows that climatic changes and the periodic input of the Atlantic waters into the Estuary appear to have no direct influence on annual average total cadmium concentration, but they affect accumulation, distribution and remobilization of cadmium in different ways during the rainy season (February/March) and the dry season (November/December). Even if only a very small part of the total Cd is available, the concentrations of dissolved Cd in the Estuary are still high enough to cause environmental concern, if compared with concentrations in natural freshwater ecosystems. - Distribution and remobilization of cadmium is affected differently by season.

  4. Regional-scale drivers of forest structure and function in northwestern Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Higgins

    Full Text Available Field studies in Amazonia have found a relationship at continental scales between soil fertility and broad trends in forest structure and function. Little is known at regional scales, however, about how discrete patterns in forest structure or functional attributes map onto underlying edaphic or geological patterns. We collected airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging data and VSWIR (Visible to Shortwave Infrared imaging spectroscopy measurements over 600 km2 of northwestern Amazonian lowland forests. We also established 83 inventories of plant species composition and soil properties, distributed between two widespread geological formations. Using these data, we mapped forest structure and canopy reflectance, and compared them to patterns in plant species composition, soils, and underlying geology. We found that variations in soils and species composition explained up to 70% of variation in canopy height, and corresponded to profound changes in forest vertical profiles. We further found that soils and plant species composition explained more than 90% of the variation in canopy reflectance as measured by imaging spectroscopy, indicating edaphic and compositional control of canopy chemical properties. We last found that soils explained between 30% and 70% of the variation in gap frequency in these forests, depending on the height threshold used to define gaps. Our findings indicate that a relatively small number of edaphic and compositional variables, corresponding to underlying geology, may be responsible for variations in canopy structure and chemistry over large expanses of Amazonian forest.

  5. Fine litter accumulation in Central Amazonian Tropical Rainforest canopy Acúmulo de liteira fina no dossel de uma Floresta Tropical na Amazônia Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Rita do Couto-Santos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Fine litter dynamics within the canopy differ from litter dynamics on the forest floor for reasons such as differences in microclimate, substrate, disturbance level, stratum influence and decomposition rates. This study is the first attempt to quantify the fine litter accumulated in the canopy of Central Amazonian forests. We compared the canopy litter accumulation to fine litter-layer on forest floor and to other forests and also investigated which were the mostly accumulated litter omponents. We found that Central Amazonian Rainforest intercepts greater fine litter in the canopy (294 g.m-2 compared to other forest formations with higher winds speed as in a Costa Rican Cloud Forest (170 g.m-2. The mean canopy fine litter accumulated at the end of the dry season was less than a half of that on soil surface (833 g.m-2 and the fine wood component dominates the canopy samplings (174 g.m-2 while leafy component predominate on soil surface litter (353 g.m-2.A dinâmica da liteira fina no dossel difere da dinâmica no chão da floresta por razões como diferenças no microclima, tipo de substrato, taxas de decomposição, distúrbios e influência dos estratos. Esta é a primeira tentativa de quantificar a liteira fina acumulada no dossel das florestas da Amazônia Central. Comparamos o acúmulo da liteira no dossel com a camada de liteira do chão da floresta e com outros tipos de florestas e investigamos quais componentes da liteira acumularam em maiores quantidades. A floresta estudada na Amazônia Central interceptou uma maior quantidade de liteira no dossel (294 g.m-2 do que outras florestas com maior influência dos ventos, como na Costa Rica (170 g.m-2. A média de liteira no dossel no fim da estação seca foi menos da metade da acumulada sobre o solo (833 g.m-2. Os galhos finos dominaram nas amostras do dossel (174 g.m-2 enquanto as folhas predominaram na liteira sobre o solo (353 g.m-2.

  6. Urban Forest and Rural Cities: Multi-sited Households, Consumption Patterns, and Forest Resources in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin R. Sears

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In much of the Amazon Basin, approximately 70% of the population lives in urban areas and urbanward migration continues. Based on data collected over more than a decade in two long-settled regions of Amazonia, we find that rural–urban migration in the region is an extended and complex process. Like recent rural–urban migrants worldwide, Amazonian migrants, although they may be counted as urban residents, are often not absent from rural areas but remain members of multi-sited households and continue to participate in rural–urban networks and in rural land-use decisions. Our research indicates that, despite their general poverty, these migrants have affected urban markets for both food and construction materials. We present two cases: that of açaí palm fruit in the estuary of the Amazon and of cheap construction timbers in the Peruvian Amazon. We find that many new Amazonian rural–urban migrants have maintained some important rural patterns of both consumption and knowledge. Through their consumer behavior, they are affecting the areal extent of forests; in the two floodplain regions discussed, tree cover is increasing. We also find changes in forest composition, reflecting the persistence of rural consumption patterns in cities resulting in increased demand for and production of açaí and cheap timber species.

  7. Forest Interpreter's Primer on Fire Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelker, Thomas M.

    Specifically prepared for the use of Forest Service field-based interpreters of the management, protection, and use of forest and range resources and the associated human, cultural, and natural history found on these lands, this book is the second in a series of six primers on the multiple use of forest and range resources. Following an…

  8. Health and demography of native Amazonians: historical perspective and current status Saúde e demografia de povos indígenas amazônicos: perspectiva histórica e situação atual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren M. Hern

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Native Amazonians have been the victims of two massive historical assaults, one at the time of the Conquest and the other during the Twentieth century. Due to epidemic disease and environmental destruction, many tribes have gone from contact to displacement, decimation, and extinction in a single generation. Deculturation and the construction of large development projects have had catastrophic effects on native populations. In many ways, native Amazonians have experienced a reverse of the "Epidemiologic Transition". Paradoxically, one of the effects of cultural disruption for some native Amazonians has been the loss of cultural controls on fertility with the result that high fertility has become a major health problem. Combined with rapid growth of non-indigenous Amazonian populations, deforestation, and urbanization, native Amazonians face grave obstacles to long-term survival.Os nativos da Amazônia foram vítimas de dois grandes ataques históricos: um na época da Conquista e outro durante o século XX. Devido a doenças epidêmicas e à destruição ambiental, inúmeras tribos passaram a vivenciar problemas de deslocamentos, dizimação e extinção em uma única geração. A aculturação e a construção de grandes projetos desenvolvimentistas tiveram efeitos catastróficos sobre as populações indígenas. Em diversos aspectos, os nativos da Amazônia sofreram uma "Transição Epidemiológica". Paradoxalmente, um dos efeitos da dilaceração cultural para alguns dos nativos da Amazônia foi a perda de controles culturais sobre a fecundidade, fazendo com que a elevada fecundidade se tornasse um importante problema de saúde. Com o rápido crescimento de populações amazônicas não indígenas, o desmatamento e a urbanização, os nativos da Amazônia enfrentam sérios obstáculos para a sua sobrevivência a longo prazo.

  9. A Miocene hyperdiverse crocodylian community reveals peculiar trophic dynamics in proto-Amazonian mega-wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Gismondi, Rodolfo; Flynn, John J; Baby, Patrice; Tejada-Lara, Julia V; Wesselingh, Frank P; Antoine, Pierre-Olivier

    2015-04-01

    Amazonia contains one of the world's richest biotas, but origins of this diversity remain obscure. Onset of the Amazon River drainage at approximately 10.5 Ma represented a major shift in Neotropical ecosystems, and proto-Amazonian biotas just prior to this pivotal episode are integral to understanding origins of Amazonian biodiversity, yet vertebrate fossil evidence is extraordinarily rare. Two new species-rich bonebeds from late Middle Miocene proto-Amazonian deposits of northeastern Peru document the same hyperdiverse assemblage of seven co-occurring crocodylian species. Besides the large-bodied Purussaurus and Mourasuchus, all other crocodylians are new taxa, including a stem caiman-Gnatusuchus pebasensis-bearing a massive shovel-shaped mandible, procumbent anterior and globular posterior teeth, and a mammal-like diastema. This unusual species is an extreme exemplar of a radiation of small caimans with crushing dentitions recording peculiar feeding strategies correlated with a peak in proto-Amazonian molluscan diversity and abundance. These faunas evolved within dysoxic marshes and swamps of the long-lived Pebas Mega-Wetland System and declined with inception of the transcontinental Amazon drainage, favouring diversification of longirostrine crocodylians and more modern generalist-feeding caimans. The rise and demise of distinctive, highly productive aquatic ecosystems substantially influenced evolution of Amazonian biodiversity hotspots of crocodylians and other organisms throughout the Neogene. PMID:25716785

  10. Mitochondrial DNA mapping of social-biological interactions in Brazilian Amazonian African-descendant populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Maia Carvalho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The formation of the Brazilian Amazonian population has historically involved three main ethnic groups, Amerindian, African and European. This has resulted in genetic investigations having been carried out using classical polymorphisms and molecular markers. To better understand the genetic variability and the micro-evolutionary processes acting in human groups in the Brazilian Amazon region we used mitochondrial DNA to investigate 159 maternally unrelated individuals from five Amazonian African-descendant communities. The mitochondrial lineage distribution indicated a contribution of 50.2% from Africans (L0, L1, L2, and L3, 46.6% from Amerindians (haplogroups A, B, C and D and a small European contribution of 1.3%. These results indicated high genetic diversity in the Amerindian and African lineage groups, suggesting that the Brazilian Amazonian African-descendant populations reflect a possible population amalgamation of Amerindian women from different Amazonian indigenous tribes and African women from different geographic regions of Africa who had been brought to Brazil as slaves. The present study partially mapped the historical biological and social interactions that had occurred during the formation and expansion of Amazonian African-descendant communities.

  11. Extension of the geographic range of Ateles chamek (Primates, Atelidae): evidence of river-barrier crossing by an amazonian primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabelo, Rafael Magalhães; Silva, Felipe Ennes; Vieira, Tatiana; Ferreira-Ferreira, Jefferson; Paim, Fernanda Pozzan; Dutra, Wallace; de Souza E Silva Júnior, José; Valsecchi, João

    2014-04-01

    The black-faced black spider monkey (Ateles chamek) is endangered because of hunting and habitat loss. There are many gaps in our understanding of its geographic distribution. The Ucayali-Solimões-Amazon fluvial complex is currently recognized as the northern boundary of the species' range, although published reports have indicated that it occurs north of the Rio Solimões. In this study we investigate published records, generate new field records, and assess the current information concerning the northern boundary of this species' range. We conducted the study at the Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve in the central Brazilian Amazon, an area of 1,124,000 ha that consists entirely of Amazonian flooded forest (várzea). We collected data on the occurrence of the species from museum specimens and through field surveys, including interviews with local residents, direct observations, and the collection of new museum specimens. We confirmed the presence of A. chamek at 17 locations in the reserve, one of which was an island formed by a river bend cut-off that would have effectively taken any resident spider to the (new) north bank of the Solimões. We therefore conclude that fluvial dynamics were involved in creating the conditions for the dispersal and colonization of the species on the northern bank of the Rio Solimões. The data we present extends the known distribution of the species and increases its representation in protected areas. PMID:24510072

  12. Ecotourism Development in Recreational Forest Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Md. A.H. Bhuiyan; Chamhuri Siwar; Shaharuddin M. Ismail; Rabiul Islam

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: This study explored the issues and strategies of ecotourism development in recreational forest areas of Malaysia. There are a number of forest recreational areas and reserves. The recreation forests are designated and managed under the forestry department. These recreational areas of scenic beauty comprise about 0.05% of the total forest reserves in Peninsular Malaysia. Ecotourism should be set in natural areas with special biological, ecological, or cultural interest. Obje...

  13. Basin-wide variations in foliar properties of Amazonian forest: phylogeny, soils and climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lloyd

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available We analysed 1040 individual trees, located in 62 plots across the Amazon Basin for leaf mass per unit area (MA, foliar carbon isotopic composition (δ13C and leaf level concentrations of C, N, P, Ca, Mg, K and Al. All trees were identified to the species level with the dataset containing 58 families, 236 genera and 508 species, distributed across a wide range of soil types and precipitation regimes. Some foliar characteristics such as MA, [C], [N] and [Mg] emerge as highly constrained by the taxonomic affiliation of tree species, but with others such as [P], [K], [Ca] and δ13C also strongly influenced by site growing conditions. By removing the environmental contribution to trait variation, we find that intrinsic values of most trait pairs coordinate, although different species (characterised by different trait suites are found at discrete locations along a common axis of coordination. Species that tend to occupy higher fertility soils are characterised by a lower MA and have a higher intrinsic [N], [P], [K], [Mg] and δ13C than their lower fertility counterparts. Despite this consistency, different scaling patterns were observed between low and high fertility sites. Inter-relationships are thus substantially modified by growth environment. Analysing the environmental component of trait variation, we found soil fertility to be the most important predictor, influencing all leaf nutrient concentrations and δ13C and reducing MA. Mean annual temperature was negatively associated with leaf level [N], [P] and [K] concentrations. Total annual precipitation positively influences MA, [C] and δ13C, but with a negative impact on [Mg]. These results provide a first basis for understanding the relationship between the physiological functioning and distribution of tree species across Amazonia.

  14. Basin-wide variations in foliar properties of Amazonian forest: phylogeny, soils and climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Fyllas

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We analysed 1040 individual trees, positioned in sixty three plots across the Amazon Basin for leaf mass per area (MA, leaf carbon isotope composition (δ13C and leaf level concentrations of C, N, P, Ca, Mg, K and Al. All trees were identified to the species with the dataset containing 58 families, 236 genera and 508 species, distributed across a wide range of soil types and precipitation regimes. Some foliar characters such as MA, [C], [N] and [Mg] emerge as highly constrained by the taxonomic affiliation of tree species, but with others such as [P], [K], [Ca] and δ13C also strongly influenced by site growing conditions. By removing the environmental contribution to trait variation, we find that intrinsic values of most trait pairs coordinate, although different species (characterised by different trait suites are found at discrete locations along a common axis of coordination. Species that tend to occupy higher fertility soils are characterised by a lower MA and have a higher intrinsic [N], [P], [K], [Mg] and δ13C than their lower fertility counterparts. Despite this consistency, different scaling patterns were observed between low and high fertility sites. Inter-relationships are thus substantially modified by growth environment. Analysing the environmental component of trait variation, we found soil fertility to be the most important predictor, influencing all leaf nutrient concentrations and δ13C composition and reducing MA. Mean annual temperature was negatively associated with leaf level [N], [P] and [K] concentrations. Total annual precipitation positively influences MA, [C] and δ13C, but with a negative impact on [Mg]. These results provide a first basis for understanding the relationship between the physiological functioning and distribution of tree species across Amazonia.

  15. ALTM system in Amazonian forest areas; Sistema ALTM em areas da Floresta Amazonica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sallem Filho, Silas; Bonatto, Amarildo [Esteio Engenharia e Aerolevantamentos S.A., Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Airborne Laser Scanning provides faster and more accurate Digital Elevation Model and Digital Terrain Model tasks compared to conventional photogrammetry. The system generates Laser pulses towards the terrain, perpendicular to the flight line, scanning the terrain surface and recording the distances from the sensor to the ground for each pulse. The main characteristics of the system is the measurement of the first and the last return for each pulse, allowing the objects identification that are above the ground as, for example, vegetation. With this capability it is possible the determination of volumes and biomass estimate, besides the virtual removal of vegetation covering. The Digital Terrain Models are used for Digital Ortho photos rectification and to obtain contour lines for topography maps. The correct points classification according the elevation, allows the representation of the terrain with larger amount of points than the stereo plotting, in areas densely vegetated where the operator esteems the height of the vegetable covering to interpret the terrain. Some additional products, as hypsometric images and intensity images helps in the identification of features on pipeline projects as well as the obtaining of the obstacles height. (author)

  16. Functional trait differences influence neighbourhood interactions in a hyperdiverse Amazonian forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunel, Claire; Valencia, Renato; Wright, S Joseph; Garwood, Nancy C; Kraft, Nathan J B

    2016-09-01

    As distinct community assembly processes can produce similar community patterns, assessing the ecological mechanisms promoting coexistence in hyperdiverse rainforests remains a considerable challenge. We use spatially explicit neighbourhood models of tree growth to quantify how functional trait and phylogenetic similarities predict variation in growth and crowding effects for the 315 most abundant tree species in a 25-ha lowland rainforest plot in Ecuador. We find that functional trait differences reflect variation in (1) species maximum potential growth, (2) the intensity of interspecific interactions for some species, and (3) species sensitivity to neighbours. We find that neighbours influenced tree growth in 28% of the 315 focal tree species. Neighbourhood effects are not detected in the remaining 72%, which may reflect the low statistical power to model rare taxa and/or species insensitivity to neighbours. Our results highlight the spectrum of ways in which functional trait differences can shape community dynamics in highly diverse rainforests. PMID:27358248

  17. Ground-Vegetation Clutter Affects Phyllostomid Bat Assemblage Structure in Lowland Amazonian Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Marciente; Bobrowiec, Paulo Estefano D.; Magnusson, William E

    2015-01-01

    Vegetation clutter is a limiting factor for bats that forage near ground level, and may determine the distribution of species and guilds. However, many studies that evaluated the effects of vegetation clutter on bats have used qualitative descriptions rather than direct measurements of vegetation density. Moreover, few studies have evaluated the effect of vegetation clutter on a regional scale. Here, we evaluate the influence of the physical obstruction of vegetation on phyllostomid-bat assem...

  18. Technical Efficiency, Farm Size and Tropical Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazonian Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Sébastien MARCHAND

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of farm productivity as well as farm size on deforestation in Brazil. A two step econometric approach is adopted. A bootstrapped translog stochastic frontier that is a posteriori checked for functional consistency is used in order to estimate technical efficiency of which estimates are introduced in a land use model to assess the impact of productivity and farm size on deforestation. Analysis of agricultural census tract data suggests that technical efficiency h...

  19. Pesticide use and biodiversity conservation in the Amazonian agricultural frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiesari, Luis; Waichman, Andrea; Brock, Theo; Adams, Cristina; Grillitsch, Britta

    2013-06-01

    Agricultural frontiers are dynamic environments characterized by the conversion of native habitats to agriculture. Because they are currently concentrated in diverse tropical habitats, agricultural frontiers are areas where the largest number of species is exposed to hazardous land management practices, including pesticide use. Focusing on the Amazonian frontier, we show that producers have varying access to resources, knowledge, control and reward mechanisms to improve land management practices. With poor education and no technical support, pesticide use by smallholders sharply deviated from agronomical recommendations, tending to overutilization of hazardous compounds. By contrast, with higher levels of technical expertise and resources, and aiming at more restrictive markets, large-scale producers adhered more closely to technical recommendations and even voluntarily replaced more hazardous compounds. However, the ecological footprint increased significantly over time because of increased dosage or because formulations that are less toxic to humans may be more toxic to other biodiversity. Frontier regions appear to be unique in terms of the conflicts between production and conservation, and the necessary pesticide risk management and risk reduction can only be achieved through responsibility-sharing by diverse stakeholders, including governmental and intergovernmental organizations, NGOs, financial institutions, pesticide and agricultural industries, producers, academia and consumers. PMID:23610177

  20. Fungal Community Assembly in the Amazonian Dark Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucheta, Adriano Reis; Cannavan, Fabiana de Souza; Roesch, Luiz Fernando Wurdig; Tsai, Siu Mui; Kuramae, Eiko Eurya

    2016-05-01

    Here, we compare the fungal community composition and diversity in Amazonian Dark Earth (ADE) and the respective non-anthropogenic origin adjacent (ADJ) soils from four different sites in Brazilian Central Amazon using pyrosequencing of 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. Fungal community composition in ADE soils were more similar to each other than their ADJ soils, except for only one site. Phosphorus and aluminum saturation were the main soil chemical factors contributing to ADE and ADJ fungal community dissimilarities. Differences in fungal richness were not observed between ADE and ADJ soil pairs regarding to the most sites. In general, the most dominant subphyla present in the soils were Pezizomycotina, Agaricomycotina, and Mortierellomycotina. The most abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in ADE showed similarities with the entomopathogenic fungus Cordyceps confragosa and the saprobes Fomitopsis pinicola, Acremonium vitellinum, and Mortierellaceae sp., whereas OTUs similar to Aspergillus niger, Lithothelium septemseptatum, Heliocephala gracillis, and Pestalosphaeria sp. were more abundant in ADJ soils. Differences in fungal community composition were associated to soil chemical factors in ADE (P, Ca, Zn, Mg, organic matter, sum of bases, and base saturation) and ADJ (Al, potential acidity, Al saturation, B, and Fe) soils. These results contribute to a deeper view of the fungi communities in ADE and open new perspectives for entomopathogenic fungi studies. PMID:26585119

  1. Sexual selection drives speciation in an Amazonian frog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boul, K.E.; Funk, W.C.; Darst, C.R.; Cannatella, D.C.; Ryan, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    One proposed mechanism of speciation is divergent sexual selection, whereby divergence in female preferences and male signals results in behavioural isolation. Despite the appeal of this hypothesis, evidence for it remains inconclusive. Here, we present several lines of evidence that sexual selection is driving behavioural isolation and speciation among populations of an Amazonian frog (Physalaemus petersi). First, sexual selection has promoted divergence in male mating calls and female preferences for calls between neighbouring populations, resulting in strong behavioural isolation. Second, phylogenetic analysis indicates that populations have become fixed for alternative call types several times throughout the species' range, and coalescent analysis rejects genetic drift as a cause for this pattern, suggesting that this divergence is due to selection. Finally, gene flow estimated with microsatellite loci is an average of 30 times lower between populations with different call types than between populations separated by a similar geographical distance with the same call type, demonstrating genetic divergence and incipient speciation. Taken together, these data provide strong evidence that sexual selection is driving behavioural isolation and speciation, supporting sexual selection as a cause for speciation in the wild. ?? 2006 The Royal Society.

  2. Physicochemical characteristics of pollen collected by Amazonian stingless bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemilla Sarmento Rebelo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine the physicochemical characteristics of pollen collected by the Amazonian stingless bees Melipona seminigra and Melipona interrupta , in order to verify whether their characteristics meet the physicochemical requirements established by the Brazilian Technical Regulation for Identity and Quality of Bee Pollen. Physicochemical analyses were performed through official analytical methods. Results of pollen analyses collected by M. seminigra and M. interrupta were respectively as follows: moisture: 53.39 and 37.12%; protein: 37.63 and 24.00%; lipids: 10.81 and 6.47%; ash: 4.03 and 2.74%; crude fiber: 9.30 and 13.65%; carbohydrates: 25.66 and 44.27%; energy: 350.47 and 331.33kcal%; pH: 3.70 and 3.34; total solids: 46.60 and 62.87%, and water activity: 0.91 and 0.85. The percentages of moisture and pH in pollen collected by both studied bees are not in agreement with the Technical Regulation for bee pollen. Since some characteristics, which are inherent to the Melipona pollen, were not in conform to the current Regulation, we recommend that further studies should be conducted to better characterize it, and correct the Regulation, if necessary.

  3. Carbon Dioxide and Methane Evasion from Amazonian Rivers and Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melack, J. M.; Barbosa, P.; Schofield, V.; Amaral, J.; Forsberg, B.; Farjalla, V.

    2013-12-01

    Floodplains, with their mosaic of aquatic habitats, constitute the majority of the wetlands of South America. We report 1) estimates of CH4 and CO2 flux from Amazonian floodplain lakes and rivers during low, rising and high water periods, and 2) identify environmental factors regulating these fluxes. We sampled 10 floodplain lakes, 4 tributaries of Solimões River, 6 stations on the Solimões main stem and 1 station on the Madeira, Negro and Amazonas rivers. Diffusive fluxes were measured with static floating chambers. CH4 fluxes were highly variable, with the majority of the values lower than 5 mmol m-2 d-1. For the lakes, no significant differences among the periods were found. CH4 concentration in the water and water temperature were the two main environmental factors regulating the diffusive flux. Our results highlight the importance of considering both the spatial and temporal scales when estimating CH4 fluxes for a region. CO2 fluxes from water to atmosphere ranged between 327 and -21 mmol m-2 d-1, averaging 58 mmol m-2 d-1. We found higher evasion rates in lakes than in rivers. For both systems the lowest rates were found in low water. pH and dissolved oxygen, phosphorous and organic carbon were the main factors correlated to CO2 evasion from the water bodies.

  4. Oxidative mitigation of aquatic methane emissions in large Amazonian rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawakuchi, Henrique O; Bastviken, David; Sawakuchi, André O; Ward, Nicholas D; Borges, Clovis D; Tsai, Siu M; Richey, Jeffrey E; Ballester, Maria Victoria R; Krusche, Alex V

    2016-03-01

    The flux of methane (CH4 ) from inland waters to the atmosphere has a profound impact on global atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) levels, and yet, strikingly little is known about the dynamics controlling sources and sinks of CH4 in the aquatic setting. Here, we examine the cycling and flux of CH4 in six large rivers in the Amazon basin, including the Amazon River. Based on stable isotopic mass balances of CH4 , inputs and outputs to the water column were estimated. We determined that ecosystem methane oxidation (MOX) reduced the diffusive flux of CH4 by approximately 28-96% and varied depending on hydrologic regime and general geochemical characteristics of tributaries of the Amazon River. For example, the relative amount of MOX was maximal during high water in black and white water rivers and minimal in clear water rivers during low water. The abundance of genetic markers for methane-oxidizing bacteria (pmoA) was positively correlated with enhanced signals of oxidation, providing independent support for the detected MOX patterns. The results indicate that MOX in large Amazonian rivers can consume from 0.45 to 2.07 Tg CH4 yr(-1) , representing up to 7% of the estimated global soil sink. Nevertheless, climate change and changes in hydrology, for example, due to construction of dams, can alter this balance, influencing CH4 emissions to atmosphere. PMID:26872424

  5. The impact of Amazonian deforestation on Amazon basin rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spracklen, D. V.; Garcia-Carreras, L.

    2015-11-01

    We completed a meta-analysis of regional and global climate model simulations (n = 96) of the impact of Amazonian deforestation on Amazon basin rainfall. Across all simulations, mean (±1σ) change in annual mean Amazon basin rainfall was -12 ± 11%. Variability in simulated rainfall was not explained by differences in model resolution or surface parameters. Across all simulations we find a negative linear relationship between rainfall and deforestation extent, although individual studies often simulate a nonlinear response. Using the linear relationship, we estimate that deforestation in 2010 has reduced annual mean rainfall across the Amazon basin by 1.8 ± 0.3%, less than the interannual variability in observed rainfall. This may explain why a reduction in Amazon rainfall has not consistently been observed. We estimate that business-as-usual deforestation (based on deforestation rates prior to 2004) would lead to an 8.1 ± 1.4% reduction in annual mean Amazon basin rainfall by 2050, greater than natural variability.

  6. Ocurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in Amazonian manatees (Trichechus inunguis, Natterer, 1883

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida da Glória Faustino

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The apicomplexa protozoa Cryptosporidium infects several mammals, including terrestrial and aquatic species. In the epidemiology of this infection, the ingestion of water and/or food contamined with oocysts comprises the main mechanism of transmission to susceptible animals. Among the Sirenians, the occurrence of this coccidium has been reported in dugongs (Dugong dugon and Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus. The present study was conducted with the aim of verifying the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in Amazonian manatee. For this purpose, fecal samples were collected from ten free-ranging Amazonian manatees, two specimens in captivity, and 103 supernatants fecal samples. The samples were processed by the sedimentation method in formol-ether and Kinyoun stain technique for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp.. The positive samples were then submitted to Direct Immunoflorescence Test. The results showed 4.34% (05/115 of positive samples. This is the first report of Cryptosporidium spp. in the Amazonian manatee.

  7. Forest Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Forest biomass is an abundant biomass feedstock that complements the conventional forest use of wood for paper and wood materials. It may be utilized for bioenergy production, such as heat and electricity, as well as for biofuels and a variety of bioproducts, such as industrial chemicals, textiles, and other renewable materials. The resources within the 2016 Billion-Ton Report include primary forest resources, which are taken directly from timberland-only forests, removed from the land, and taken to the roadside.

  8. THE 2005 AND 2010 AMAZONIAN DROUGHTS AS SEEN BY MODIS

    OpenAIRE

    R. B. Myneni

    2012-01-01

    During this decade, the Amazon region in South America has suffered two severe droughts in the short span of five years ––2005 and 2010. The 2005 drought, dubbed a once-in-a-century drought, has been the focus and driver of many studies on the drought sensitivity of Amazon forests. These studies present a complex, and sometimes contradictory, picture of how these forests have responded to the 2005 drought. In particular, Saleska et al. (Science, 2007) reported excessive greenin...

  9. Road networks predict human influence on Amazonian bird communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sadia E; Lees, Alexander C; Moura, Nárgila G; Gardner, Toby A; Barlow, Jos; Ferreira, Joice; Ewers, Robert M

    2014-11-22

    Road building can lead to significant deleterious impacts on biodiversity, varying from direct road-kill mortality and direct habitat loss associated with road construction, to more subtle indirect impacts from edge effects and fragmentation. However, little work has been done to evaluate the specific effects of road networks and biodiversity loss beyond the more generalized effects of habitat loss. Here, we compared forest bird species richness and composition in the municipalities of Santarém and Belterra in Pará state, eastern Brazilian Amazon, with a road network metric called 'roadless volume (RV)' at the scale of small hydrological catchments (averaging 3721 ha). We found a significant positive relationship between RV and both forest bird richness and the average number of unique species (species represented by a single record) recorded at each site. Forest bird community composition was also significantly affected by RV. Moreover, there was no significant correlation between RV and forest cover, suggesting that road networks may impact biodiversity independently of changes in forest cover. However, variance partitioning analysis indicated that RV has partially independent and therefore additive effects, suggesting that RV and forest cover are best used in a complementary manner to investigate changes in biodiversity. Road impacts on avian species richness and composition independent of habitat loss may result from road-dependent habitat disturbance and fragmentation effects that are not captured by total percentage habitat cover, such as selective logging, fire, hunting, traffic disturbance, edge effects and road-induced fragmentation. PMID:25274363

  10. Seasonal variation of serum biochemical values of Amazonian snakes (Boa constrictor constrictor) kept in captivity

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis José da Silva Lima; Renata Kelly Gonzaga Bastos; Larissa dos Santos Seixas; Monique Araújo Luz; Erika Renata Branco; Nazaré Fonseca de Souza; Carla Cristina Guimarães de Moraes; Andre Marcelo Conceição Meneses

    2012-01-01

    In northern Brazil, the seasons are not well defined compared to the South and Southeast regions, due to a hot and humid equatorial climate with a rainy season, known as the Amazonian winter, and a period with less rain, known as the Amazonian summer. The goal of this study was to evaluate the biochemical variation of serum from the Amazon Boa constrictor by correlating the values with the seasons of the region. A biochemical analysis of the serum was performed (AST, ALT, LDH, ALP, calcium, u...

  11. Bushmeat networks link the forest to urban areas in the trifrontier region between Brazil, Colombia, and Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Nathalie van Vliet; Maria Paula Quiceno; Daniel Cruz; Lindon Jonhson Neves de Aquino; Blanca Yagüe; Tatiana Schor; Sara Hernandez; Robert Nasi

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have intended to quantify urban consumption and trade in Amazonian towns. However, little is still known about the different ways in which bushmeat is made available in urban areas, including commercial and noncommercial flows, and how those flows contribute to link forests to urban livelihoods. In this study we qualitatively describe the structure and functioning of bushmeat flows in terms of species, catchment area, stakeholders involved, and the motivations for their activit...

  12. An overview of the Amazonian Aerosol Characterization Experiment 2008 (AMAZE-08

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Martin

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon Basin provides an excellent environment for studying the sources, transformations, and properties of natural aerosol particles and the resulting links between biological processes and climate. With this framework in mind, the Amazonian Aerosol Characterization Experiment (AMAZE-08, carried out from 7 February to 14 March 2008 during the wet season in the central Amazon Basin, sought to understand the formation, transformations, and cloud-forming properties of fine- and coarse-mode biogenic aerosol particles, especially as related to their effects on cloud activation and regional climate. Special foci included (1 the production mechanisms of secondary organic components at a pristine continental site, including the factors regulating their temporal variability, and (2 predicting and understanding the cloud-forming properties of biogenic particles at such a site. In this overview paper, the field site and the instrumentation employed during the campaign are introduced. Observations and findings are reported, including the large-scale context for the campaign, especially as provided by satellite observations. New findings presented include: (i a particle number-diameter distribution from 10 nm to 10 μm that is representative of the pristine tropical rain forest and recommended for model use; (ii the absence of substantial quantities of primary biological particles in the submicron mode as evidenced by mass spectral characterization; (iii the large-scale production of secondary organic material; (iv insights into the chemical and physical properties of the particles as revealed by thermodenuder-induced changes in the particle number-diameter distributions and mass spectra; and (v comparisons of ground-based predictions and satellite-based observations of hydrometeor phase in clouds. A main finding of AMAZE-08 is the dominance of secondary organic material as particle components. The results presented here provide mechanistic insight and

  13. Amazonian Buriti oil: chemical characterization and antioxidant potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Speranza, P.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Buriti oil is an example of an Amazonian palm oil of economic importance. The local population uses this oil for the prevention and treatment of different diseases; however, there are few studies in the literature that evaluate its properties. In this study, detailed chemical and antioxidant properties of Buriti oil were determined. The predominant fatty acid was oleic acid (65.6% and the main triacylglycerol classes were tri-unsaturated (50.0% and di-unsaturated-mono-saturated (39.3% triacylglycerols. The positional distribution of the classes of fatty acids on the triacylglycerol backbone indicated a saturated and unsaturated fatty acid relationship similar in the three-triacylglycerol positions. All tocopherol isomers were present, with a total content of 2364.1 mg·kg−1. α-tocopherol constitutes 48% of the total tocopherol content, followed by γ- tocopherol (45%. Total phenolic (107.0 mg gallic acid equivalent·g−1 oil and β-carotene (781.6 mg·kg−1 were particularly high in this oil. The highest antioxidant activity against the free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH was obtained at an oil concentration of 50 mg·mL−1 (73.15%. The antioxidant activity evaluated by the Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC was 95.3 μmol Trolox equivalent·g−1 oil. These results serve to present Buriti oil as an Amazonian resource for cosmetic, food and pharmaceuticals purposes.El aceite de Buriti es un ejemplo de aceite de palma amazónica de gran importancia económica. La población local utiliza este aceite para la prevención y el tratamiento de diferentes enfermedades; sin embargo, hay pocos estudios científicos que evalúen sus propiedades. En este estudio, se determinaron las propiedades antioxidantes del aceite de Buriti. El ácido graso predominante fue el oleico (65,6 % y las principales clases de triglicéridos fueron tri-insaturadas (50,0 % y Di-insaturados-mono-saturada (39,3 %. La distribución posicional de las

  14. The Influence of Amazonian Deforestation under Varied Rainfall Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, J. E.; Desai, A. R.; Harding, K. J.; Snyder, P. K.; Foley, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    In the past six years the Amazon basin has experienced two "once in a century" level droughts. The impacts of the 2005 and 2010 droughts ranged from large increases in fire frequency to a reversal of the Amazon region from a net carbon sink of ~.4 Pg C year-1 in normal years to a source of 1.8 Pg C year-1 for 2010. Coupled with impacts from deforestation in the region, these droughts strongly altered the services provided by local ecosystems including the biogeophysical regulation of energy and water flow between the land and the atmosphere. We investigated how the biogeophysical impacts of land cover change (LCC) in the Amazon Basin differ under drought versus pluvial conditions, and how the differences may enhance or diminish those conditions by altering precipitation patterns and intensity. In particular, we focus on how changes in evapotranspiration due to LCC influence both surface energy balance and local/downstream precipitation differently under varying rainfall regimes. We utilized a series of twelve simulations of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale atmospheric model coupled to the Noah land surface model to model the influence of deforestation on regional precipitation. These simulations represent three drought years (including 2005 and 2010) and three pluvial years, with land cover set as both potential and actual for each year. Using the precipitation backtrajectory approach of Dirmeyer and Brubaker (2007) we identify where evapotranspired moisture from the Amazon falls as precipitation during the region's dry season. This allows us to calculate how the dual influences of deforestation and natural variability alter the location, magnitude, and recycling ratio of rainfall originating from Amazonian evapotranspiration, all of which are key metrics for both ecological services and productivity in the region.

  15. Spatiotemporal dynamics of forest fragmentation and its potential implications for carbon dynamics in the Brazilian Amazon between 2001 and 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, I.; Cochrane, M.

    2012-12-01

    Vast tracts of Amazonian tropical rain forest have been converted to human land uses in recent decades as regional development proceeds. Large losses of forest cover are exacerbated because remaining forests are fragmented into smaller habitats. The current basin-wide status and implications of forest fragmentation on remnant forests and regional carbon dynamics are not well known. We performed a regional forest fragmentation analysis for the entire Brazilian Amazon between 2001 and 2010 using INPE PRODES data. During the past decade, the number of forest fragments doubled, nearly 125,000 fragments were formed, with more than 50% being smaller than 10 ha. Forest edges increased by 36,335 km/year on average over the study period. However, the rate was much greater from 2001-2005 (50,046 km/year) than 2006-2010 (25,365 km/year) when deforestation rates dropped drastically. In 2010, 55% of basin-wide forest edges were Amazon. Edge-released carbon accounted for 2.6-4.5% of deforestation-related carbon emissions. However, the relative importance of carbon emissions from forest fragmentation varied according to annual deforestation rates and increased from 1.7-3.0% to 3.3-5.6% of the respective deforestation emissions in 2001-2005 and 2006-2010, respectively. As of 2010, 17% of Amazonian forests are within 1km of forest edges, making them easily accessible and vulnerable to degradation. On the other hand, 51% of remaining forests across the basin are within protected areas and only 1.5% has been deforested within 1 km of a forest edge, while, unprotected forests, 1km-edge forests averaged 34% deforestation. The state of Rondônia, where 95% of unprotected forests are within 1km of edges in 2010, emits the largest amount of carbon unit area of forest edge (4.7Mg/km2), while overall edge-related carbon across the Amazon is 2.7 Mg/km2. Our results indicate that the Brazilian Amazon now largely consists of two contrasting forest conditions: protected areas with vast

  16. The Importance of Deep Roots and Hydraulic Redistribution to Amazonian Rainforest Resilience and Response to Hydro-Climatic Variability: A Simulation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewry, D.; Kumar, P.; Sivapalan, M.; Long, S.; Liang, X.

    2008-12-01

    Amazonian rain forests are a crucial component of the terrestrial biosphere, acting as a significant sink of anthropogenic carbon emissions, as well as playing a key role in driving tropical climate patterns through surface energy partitioning and significant precipitation recycling. Recent studies using remotely-sensed indices of canopy functioning (ie. canopy greeness, canopy water storage and photosynthetic capacity) have raised questions regarding the response of deep-rooted Amazonian vegetation functioning to short-term hydro-climatic forcing anomalies. Climate model predictions show an increase in ENSO-driven drought for eastern Amazonia in the coming decades. In this context, we utilize a multi-layer process-based model that represents the complex set of interactions and feedbacks between the canopy, soil and root subsystems to examine the impacts of drought on deep-rooted Amazonian rainforests. The model canopy is partitioned into several layers, allowing for resolution of the shortwave and longwave radiation regimes that drive photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and leaf energy balance in each layer, along with the canopy microclimate. The above-ground component of the model is coupled to a multi-layer soil-root model that computes soil moisture and heat transport, root water uptake, and the passive redistribution of moisture across soil potential gradients by the root system (ie. hydraulic redistribution). Carbon and nitrogen transformations in each layer of the soil system are modulated by microbial activity, and act to provide nutrient constraints on the photosynthetic capacity of the canopy. Model skill in capturing the seasonal and inter-annual variability in canopy-atmosphere exchange is evaluated through multi-year records of canopy- top eddy covariance CO2, water vapor and heat fluxes collected at a field site in eastern Amazonia. A nearby throughfall exclusion experiment provides information on the vertical distribution of soil moisture under

  17. The Impact of Amazonian Deforestation on Dry-Season Rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, Andrew J.; Adler, Robert F.; Xu, Li-Ming; Surratt, Jason; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Many modeling studies have concluded that widespread deforestation of Amazonia would lead to decreased rainfall. We analyze geosynchronous infrared satellite data with respect percent cloudiness, and analyze rain estimates from microwave sensors aboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite. We conclude that in the dry-season, when the effects of the surface are not overwhelmed by synoptic-scale weather disturbances, deep convective cloudiness, as well as rainfall occurrence, all increase over the deforested and non-forested (savanna) regions. This is in response to a local circulation initiated by the differential heating of the region's varying forestation. Analysis of the diurnal cycle of cloudiness reveals a shift toward afternoon hours in the deforested and savanna regions, compared to the forested regions. Analysis of 14 years of data from the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager data revealed that only in August did rainfall amounts increase over the deforested region.

  18. Planning Forest Opening with Forest Roads

    OpenAIRE

    Krč, Janez; Beguš, Jurij

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the model for determining inaccessible forest areas by density of forest roads. The model is based on the GIS analysis of the distances between the existing network of public and forest roads and inaccessible forest areas, sizes of excluded forest areas, and forest site potentials. In order to increase forest road density, the following must be done: (1) construct connecting roads to the inaccessible forest areas and (2) construct new forest roads with different density i...

  19. Inlfuences of sod culture on soil physical and chemical characteristics of Camellia oleifera forest%生草栽培对油茶林地土壤理化性质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周乃富; 袁军; 高超; 黄丽媛

    2014-01-01

    In order to explore a new soil improvement model of Camellia oleifera forest, effects of sod culture on soil physical and chemical characteristics of C. oleifera forest were researched. The results show that sod culture had the functions of adjusting soil temperature, increasing soil temperature over 1℃in Spring, decreasing 12.5℃in Summer and greatly decreasing appearing frequency of high soil temperature. Sod culture benefits keeping soil moisture, especially in July and August of lacking of rainfall in southern region of China, and it can increase water storage of 0-20 cm, 20-40 cm and 40-60 cm soil layers by 15.90%, 7.14%and 2.78%respectively. In addition, sod culture can not only decrease soil bulk density and increase soil porosity and ifeld moisture capacity, but also increase the contents of soil organic matter, available P and available K in C. oleifera forest soil.%为了探寻油茶林地土壤改良模式,研究了生草栽培对油茶林地土壤理化性质的影响情况。结果表明:生草栽培具有冬春季增温而夏季降温的作用,春季可增温1℃以上,夏季不仅能使土壤温度降低12.5℃,还大大降低了高温出现的频率;林地生草有利于保持土壤水分,尤其是南方干旱少雨的7、8月份,可使0~20、20~40和40~60 cm土层的含水量分别提高15.90%、7.14%与2.78%;生草栽培不仅能降低土壤容重,提高其孔隙度和田间持水量,还能显著提高土壤中有机质、速效磷和速效钾的含量。

  20. Morphology, morphometry and ultrastructure of the Amazonian manatee (Sirenia: Trichechidae spermatozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo S. Amaral

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the morphological, morphometric and ultrastructural characteristics of the Amazonian manatee Trichechus inunguis (Natterer, 1883 spermatozoon. The spermatozoa were obtained from a urine sample of an adult T. inunguis kept in captivity. The spermatozoa were analyzed by light and transmission electron microscopy. The head of Amazonian manatee spermatozoa had a flat oval shape and a well distinguishable midpiece. The mean dimensions of the spermatozoa were: head length, 7.49 ± 0.24 µm; head width, 3.53 ± 0.19 µm; head thickness, 1.61 ± 0.13 µm; midpiece length, 11.36 ± 0.34 µm; flagellum length, 40.91 ± 1.94 µm; total tail length, 52.16 ± 1.06 µm; total spermatozoon length, 60.08 ± 1.40 µm. The Amazonian manatee spermatozoa were similar in shape to other sirenian spermatozoa; however, presenting a different size. This study describes, for the first time, the morphometric and ultrastructural characteristics of the Amazonian manatee spermatozoa, and also demonstrates the possible use of spermatozoa retrieved from urine samples for biological studies.

  1. Amazonian Dark Earth and plant species from the Amazon region contribute to shape rhizosphere bacterial communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barbosa Lima, A.; Souza Cannavan, F.S.; Navarrete, A.A.; Kuramae, E.E.; Teixeira, W.G.; Tsai, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    Amazonian Dark Earths (ADE) or Terra Preta de Índio formed in the past by pre-Columbian populations are highly sustained fertile soils supported by microbial communities that differ from those extant in adjacent soils. These soils are found in the Amazon region and are considered as a model soil whe

  2. Governance of global climate change in the Brazilian Amazon: the case of Amazonian municipalities of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Inoue

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With regards to the debate about governance of climate change, it should be assumed that the Amazon region plays an important role, as this large area is highly vulnerable to its effects. In this sense, this article aims to discuss how some Amazonian municipalities of Brazil have been taking part in the complexes and multilayered processes of climate governance.

  3. Qualitative assessment of visuospatial errors in mercury-exposed Amazonian children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chevrier, Cécile; Sullivan, Kimberly; White, Roberta F.;

    2009-01-01

    In order to better define the effects of methylmercury (MeHg) exposure on neurodevelopment, qualitative error types observed in the responses of exposed children to the Stanford-Binet Copying Test were categorized and quantified using raw data from two studies of 395 Amazonian children aged 7-12 ...

  4. Mammalian Diversity and Matses Ethnomammalogy in Amazonian Peru. Part 1: Primates

    OpenAIRE

    Farid Pazhoohi

    2011-01-01

    Review of Mammalian Diversity and Matses Ethnomammalogy in Amazonian Peru. Part 1: Primates. Robert S. Voss and David W. Fleck. 2011. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, Number 351. Pp.81, 3 figures, 25 tables. Free at AMNH Digital Library ISSN 0003‐0090.

  5. Notes on Amazonian Bittacidae (Mecoptera with the descriptions of two new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman D. Penny

    1982-09-01

    Full Text Available New species of Issikiella and Nannobittacus are described and notes are presented on other Amazonian species of Mecoptera.Nova espécie de Issikiella e Nannobittacus são descritas e notas são apresentadas para outras espécies de Mecopteros da Amazônia.

  6. The Amazonian Craton and its influence on past fluvial systems (Mesozoic-Cenozoic, Amazonia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Hoorn; M. Roddaz; R. Dino; E. Soares; C. Uba; D. Ochoa-Lozano; R. Mapes

    2010-01-01

    The Amazonian Craton is an old geological feature of Archaean/Proterozoic age that has determined the character of fluvial systems in Amazonia throughout most of its past. This situation radically changed during the Cenozoic, when uplift of the Andes reshaped the relief and drainage patterns of nort

  7. The development of the Amazonian mega-wetland (Miocene; Brazil, Colombia, Peru, Bolivia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Hoorn; F.P. Wesselingh; J. Hovikoski; J. Guerrero

    2010-01-01

    The scenery of Western Amazonia once consisted of fluvial systems that originated on the Amazonian Craton and were directed towards the sub-Andean zone and the Caribbean. In the course of the Early Miocene these fluvial systems were largely replaced by lakes, swamps, tidal channels and marginal mari

  8. Recent (Late Amazonian) enhanced backweathering rates on Mars : Paracratering evidence from gully alcoves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haas, Tjalling; Conway, Susan J.; Krautblatter, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Mars is believed to have been exposed to low planet-wide weathering and denudation since the Noachian. However, the widespread occurrence of alcoves at the rim of pristine impact craters suggests locally enhanced recent backweathering rates. Here we derive Late Amazonian backweathering rates from th

  9. What is the future of Amazon forests under climate change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleska, S. R.; Huete, A.; Ratana, P.; Da Rocha, H.; Tannus, R.; Restrepo, N.; Kruijt, B.; von Randow, C.

    2007-05-01

    Large changes in Amazon carbon and water cycles, as predicted to occur with climate change by some coupled carbon/climate models, are expected to have global impact. Some models predict that these forests may be vulnerable to catastrophic collapse due to global warming-induced increases in drought, whilst others do not. Hence it is critically important to understand the mechanisms of forest-climate interactions in Amazonia. In order to address this question on observable timescales, we propose investigations at annual to decadal timescales which can give insight into the mechanisms that, in the model simulations, cause forest collapse. We first investigated large-scale seasonal and spatial patterns of Amazonian carbon fluxes, and the effects of land-use conversion thereon, by combining spatially continuous satellite data from the Terra- Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) with data from a network of ground-based eddy flux towers. This work showed that primary forest photosynthetic activity begins its seasonal increase in the dry season, well before onset of the wet-season, a broad pattern opposite to that predicted by ecosystem models which simulate dry-season declines in primary forest photosynthesis due to water-limitation. Extending these observations to decadal timescales, ideally through another large ENSO-scale drought, should give strong insight into the longer term mechanisms implicated in predictions of Amazon forest collapse.

  10. Management of oak forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löf, Magnus; Brunet, Jörg; Filyushkina, Anna;

    2016-01-01

    Identification of the ecosystem services provided by oak-dominated forests in southern Sweden is a prerequisite for ensuring their conservation and sustainable management. These forests seem well-suited for multiple-use forestry, but knowledge is limited regarding how to manage them for multiple...... uses. Management for the production of high-value timber species like oaks and management to conserve biodiversity, or for cultural services can be in conflict with each other. This study evaluates the capacity of three contrasting management regimes to provide societies with economic revenue from...... timber production, habitats for biodiversity and cultural services, and the study analyses associated trade-offs and synergies. The three regimes were: intensive oak timber production (A), combined management for both timber production and biodiversity (B) and biodiversity conservation without management...

  11. Forests and water: Managing interrelations

    OpenAIRE

    Brüschweiler, Sabine; Höggel, Udo; Kläy, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    Due to their biodiversity, forests generate a range of products and services that are of economic, social or cultural value to human beings. Natural resource management provisions should ensure the creation and maintenance of these goods and services in the long term. However, unsustainable management practices of forests do not only generate short-term benefits but also considerable costs for society. Payment by the beneficiaries of the services would enable us to internalise external costs ...

  12. Utilization of Non-Timber Forest Products Based on Traditional Culture: A Case Study of Iban Dyeing in Sarawak, Borneo, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natsuho Fujisawa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this brief report, we describe four plant species that Iban weavers use for dyes and six ingredients that they use in mordants. From September to November 2009, we interviewed four weavers and observed additional persons collecting and processing dye plants in three Iban villages whose names are Rumah Engkang, Rumah Ejon, and Rumah Nyawai. We also collected twenty-four plant vouchers which are deposited in the Sarawak Herbarium in the Forest Research Centre of Sarawak. The means by which Iban acquire dye materials varies by community and by individual weaver within each community. Generally, however, Iban collect plants when they are abundant in forests and easy to access and cultivate or, alternatively, they purchase plants that are scarce in the wild. Women use the yarns that they dye with plants to weave cloths.

  13. Utilization of Non-Timber Forest Products Based on Traditional Culture: A Case Study of Iban Dyeing in Sarawak, Borneo, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Natsuho Fujisawa; Tohru Nakashizuka

    2012-01-01

    In this brief report, we describe four plant species that Iban weavers use for dyes and six ingredients that they use in mordants. From September to November 2009, we interviewed four weavers and observed additional persons collecting and processing dye plants in three Iban villages whose names are Rumah Engkang, Rumah Ejon, and Rumah Nyawai. We also collected twenty-four plant vouchers which are deposited in the Sarawak Herbarium in the Forest Research Centre of Sarawak. The means by which I...

  14. Biome-Scale Forest Properties in Amazonia Based on Field and Satellite Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana O. Anderson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Amazonian forests are extremely heterogeneous at different spatial scales. This review intends to present the large-scale patterns of the ecosystem properties of Amazonia, and focuses on two parts of the main components of the net primary production: the long-lived carbon pools (wood and short-lived pools (leaves. First, the focus is on forest biophysical properties, and secondly, on the macro-scale leaf phenological patterns of these forests, looking at field measurements and bringing into discussion the recent findings derived from remote sensing dataset. Finally, I discuss the results of the three major droughts that hit Amazonia in the last 15 years. The panorama that emerges from this review suggests that slow growing forests in central and eastern Amazonia, where soils are poorer, have significantly higher above ground biomass and higher wood density, trees are higher and present lower proportions of large-leaved species than stands in northwest and southwest Amazonia. However, the opposite pattern is observed in relation to forest productivity and dynamism, which is higher in western Amazonia than in central and eastern forests. The spatial patterns on leaf phenology across Amazonia are less marked. Field data from different forest formations showed that new leaf production can be unrelated to climate seasonality, timed with radiation, timed with rainfall and/or river levels. Oppositely, satellite images exhibited a large-scale synchronized peak in new leaf production during the dry season. Satellite data and field measurements bring contrasting results for the 2005 drought. Discussions on data processing and filtering, aerosols effects and a combined analysis with field and satellite images are presented. It is suggested that to improve the understanding of the large-scale patterns on Amazonian forests, integrative analyses that combine new technologies in remote sensing and long-term field ecological data are imperative.

  15. Anthropogenic disturbance in tropical forests can double biodiversity loss from deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Jos; Lennox, Gareth D; Ferreira, Joice; Berenguer, Erika; Lees, Alexander C; Mac Nally, Ralph; Thomson, James R; Ferraz, Silvio Frosini de Barros; Louzada, Julio; Oliveira, Victor Hugo Fonseca; Parry, Luke; Solar, Ricardo Ribeiro de Castro; Vieira, Ima C G; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Begotti, Rodrigo Anzolin; Braga, Rodrigo F; Cardoso, Thiago Moreira; de Oliveira, Raimundo Cosme; Souza, Carlos M; Moura, Nárgila G; Nunes, Sâmia Serra; Siqueira, João Victor; Pardini, Renata; Silveira, Juliana M; Vaz-de-Mello, Fernando Z; Veiga, Ruan Carlo Stulpen; Venturieri, Adriano; Gardner, Toby A

    2016-07-01

    Concerted political attention has focused on reducing deforestation, and this remains the cornerstone of most biodiversity conservation strategies. However, maintaining forest cover may not reduce anthropogenic forest disturbances, which are rarely considered in conservation programmes. These disturbances occur both within forests, including selective logging and wildfires, and at the landscape level, through edge, area and isolation effects. Until now, the combined effect of anthropogenic disturbance on the conservation value of remnant primary forests has remained unknown, making it impossible to assess the relative importance of forest disturbance and forest loss. Here we address these knowledge gaps using a large data set of plants, birds and dung beetles (1,538, 460 and 156 species, respectively) sampled in 36 catchments in the Brazilian state of Pará. Catchments retaining more than 69–80% forest cover lost more conservation value from disturbance than from forest loss. For example, a 20% loss of primary forest, the maximum level of deforestation allowed on Amazonian properties under Brazil’s Forest Code, resulted in a 39–54% loss of conservation value: 96–171% more than expected without considering disturbance effects. We extrapolated the disturbance-mediated loss of conservation value throughout Pará, which covers 25% of the Brazilian Amazon. Although disturbed forests retained considerable conservation value compared with deforested areas, the toll of disturbance outside Pará’s strictly protected areas is equivalent to the loss of 92,000–139,000 km2 of primary forest. Even this lowest estimate is greater than the area deforested across the entire Brazilian Amazon between 2006 and 2015 (ref. 10). Species distribution models showed that both landscape and within-forest disturbances contributed to biodiversity loss, with the greatest negative effects on species of high conservation and functional value. These results demonstrate an urgent need

  16. Perception and attitudes of local people concerning ecosystem services of culturally protected forests%居民对文化林生态系统服务功能的认知与态度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高虹; 欧阳志云; 郑华; Bettina Bluemling

    2013-01-01

    文化林是按照文化传统和风俗习惯来保护和管理的森林,在保护生物多样性的同时也维持了生态系统服务功能.采用半结构式访谈法调查了文化林周边村民对文化林的生态系统服务功能的认知及保护意愿,结果表明:(1)村民认为文化林提供的最重要的服务功能为固碳释养、水源涵养及美学价值,并与最满意的服务功能间存在正相关关系.最期望提高的服务功能是文化功能,例如:生态旅游,美学价值.(2)相对周边其他森林村民对文化林的资源利用较小,主要是非林木产品,平均26.3%的被访村民在文化林中获得过收入,40.6%的被访者获得山野菜、竹子、中药材、薪柴等.但90.1%被访者从其他森林中得到薪柴等林产品,开展旅游村落的村民获得林产品比例相对较小,但管护意愿相对较低.(3)村民对文化林的保护积极性较高,70.4%的被访者愿意花时间来管护森林,距文化林越近、家庭收入越高,管护意愿越高.38.9%的被访者愿意支付费用来维持服务功能不变化,距文化林越近,管护意愿越低的被访者,支付意愿越高.(4)通过了解村民对文化林的态度和认知,对我国农村森林生态系统服务功能和天然林保护具有重要意义.建议大力宣传文化林的生态系统服务功能,尤其是文化功能,并寻找替代生计提高居民收入,雇佣当地男性村民看护森林,充分利用村民的传统知识加强共管力度,完善村规民约,在今后规划中尽量将村落沿着文化林布局,积极支持对文化林的保护和发展.%Culturally protected forests (CPFs) can be defined as forest areas preserved and managed by local people on the basis of traditional cultural practices and beliefs, and these forests have been maintained for decades or even centuries without much disturbance or change. Most of them are natural growth forests with well-developed vegetation, which gives them

  17. Temporal variability of forest fires in eastern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Ane; Asner, Gregory P; Knapp, David; Zarin, Daniel

    2011-10-01

    Widespread occurrence of fires in Amazonian forests is known to be associated with extreme droughts, but historical data on the location and extent of forest fires are fundamental to determining the degree to which climate conditions and droughts have affected fire occurrence in the region. We used remote sensing to derive a 23-year time series of annual landscape-level burn scars in a fragmented forest of the eastern Amazon. Our burn scar data set is based on a new routine developed for the Carnegie Landsat Analysis System (CLAS), called CLAS-BURN, to calculate a physically based burn scar index (BSI) with an overall accuracy of 93% (Kappa coefficient 0.84). This index uses sub-pixel cover fractions of photosynthetic vegetation, non-photosynthetic vegetation, and shade/burn scar spectral end members. From 23 consecutive Landsat images processed with the CLAS-BURN algorithm, we quantified fire frequencies, the variation in fire return intervals, and rates of conversion of burned forest to other land uses in a 32 400 km2 area. From 1983 to 2007, 15% of the forest burned; 38% of these burned forests were subsequently deforested, representing 19% of the area cleared during the period of observation. While 72% of the fire-affected forest burned only once during the 23-year study period, 20% burned twice, 6% burned three times, and 2% burned four or more times, with the maximum of seven times. These frequencies suggest that the current fire return interval is 5-11 times more frequent than the estimated natural fire regime. Our results also quantify the substantial influence of climate and extreme droughts caused by a strong El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on the extent and likelihood of returning forest fires mainly in fragmented landscapes. These results are an important indication of the role of future warmer climate and deforestation in enhancing emissions from more frequently burned forests in the Amazon. PMID:22073631

  18. The maintenance of soil fertility in Amazonian managed systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luizão, Flávio J.; Fearnside, Philip M.; Cerri, Carlos E. P.; Lehmann, Johannes

    Most of Brazilian Amazonia faces important limitations for conventional agriculture and pastures due to a generally poor chemical fertility as well as the region's environmental conditions, especially high temperature and moisture. Without proper management, degradation of the soil and resulting unsustainability of agricultural and ranching production occur within a few years, leading to land abandonment. Use of perennial crops, especially those based on native tree species, would be instrumental in order to achieve best management such as that which assure recycling processes similar to those in the primary forest. Recommended alternative land uses are those producing high soil organic matter, recycling of nutrients, substantial agricultural production, and economic viability. These include agroforestry systems, enrichment of second growth with valuable native timber or fruit species, accelerated fallow regrowth via enrichment plantings, sequential agroforestry with slash-and-mulch, and diversified forest plantations. Improvement of agricultural soils can be based on lessons learned from the study of processes involved in the formation and maintenance of the rich "dark earths" (terra preta), which owe their high carbon content and fertility in part to high content of charcoal. Adding powdered charcoal combined with selected nutrients can increase soil carbon in modern agriculture. Considering that limitations to expansion of intensified land uses in Amazonia are serious, regional development should emphasize the natural forest, which can maintain itself without external inputs of nutrients. Instead of creating conditions to further expand deforestation, these forests may be used as they stand to provide a variety of valuable environmental services that could offer a sustainable basis for development of Amazonia.

  19. Cascading effects of deforestation and drying trends on reduced forest resilience in the Amazon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemp, Delphine; Schleussner, Carl-Friedrich; Barbosa, Henrique; Sampaio, Gilvan; Hirota, Marina; Rammig, Anja

    2015-04-01

    Increasing dryness in the Amazon region combined with forest degradation could potentially lead to critical transitions of parts of the tropical evergreen forest into seasonal forest or savanna with substantial consequences for regional as well as continental climate. In the assessment of these risks and processes involved, vegetation-climate feedbacks play a central role. In particular, the degradation of tropical forest affects cascading moisture recycling that accounts for about 10% of total South American annual precipitation. Unlike tropical dense forest with deep-rooted trees, a degraded forest experiences water deficit and decreases evapotranspiration rate during the dry season. As a result, the moisture recycling weakens, intensifying the dry season locally and downwind. This in turn affects the resilience of the remaining forested areas, which gives rise to a self-amplifying feedback - loop of forest degradation and reduced dry season precipitation. Here, we examine how perturbations of the hydrological cycle (induced by deforestation or reduced incoming moisture from the ocean) lead to cascading effects of increased dryness and reduced forest resilience. We combine a simple empirical model based on remote sensing data together with an Eulerian moisture tracking model to quantify the probability of cascading vegetation change in present day and future Amazonian rainforest.

  20. Modeling disease vector occurrence when detection is imperfect: infestation of Amazonian palm trees by triatomine bugs at three spatial scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Abad-Franch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Failure to detect a disease agent or vector where it actually occurs constitutes a serious drawback in epidemiology. In the pervasive situation where no sampling technique is perfect, the explicit analytical treatment of detection failure becomes a key step in the estimation of epidemiological parameters. We illustrate this approach with a study of Attalea palm tree infestation by Rhodnius spp. (Triatominae, the most important vectors of Chagas disease (CD in northern South America. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The probability of detecting triatomines in infested palms is estimated by repeatedly sampling each palm. This knowledge is used to derive an unbiased estimate of the biologically relevant probability of palm infestation. We combine maximum-likelihood analysis and information-theoretic model selection to test the relationships between environmental covariates and infestation of 298 Amazonian palm trees over three spatial scales: region within Amazonia, landscape, and individual palm. Palm infestation estimates are high (40-60% across regions, and well above the observed infestation rate (24%. Detection probability is higher ( approximately 0.55 on average in the richest-soil region than elsewhere ( approximately 0.08. Infestation estimates are similar in forest and rural areas, but lower in urban landscapes. Finally, individual palm covariates (accumulated organic matter and stem height explain most of infestation rate variation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Individual palm attributes appear as key drivers of infestation, suggesting that CD surveillance must incorporate local-scale knowledge and that peridomestic palm tree management might help lower transmission risk. Vector populations are probably denser in rich-soil sub-regions, where CD prevalence tends to be higher; this suggests a target for research on broad-scale risk mapping. Landscape-scale effects indicate that palm triatomine populations can endure deforestation

  1. Reducing forest emissions in the Amazon Basin: A review of drivers of land-use change and how payments for environmental services (PES) schemes can affect them

    OpenAIRE

    S. Wertz-Kanounnikoff; M. Kongphan-Apirak; Wunder, Sven

    2008-01-01

    Land-use change and deforestation in Latin America generally, and in the Amazon Basin specifically, are driven primarily by economic profitability (agricultural expansion and logging) and governance weaknesses (notably, lenient law enforcement), and only to a much lesser extent by deterministic poverty cycles. Nevertheless, poor forest dwellers (indigenous communities, smallholders, rubber tappers) have the potential to be important stakeholders in stabilising Amazonian land use. Changing inc...

  2. Forest Policy, Criteria and Indicators, and Certification

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, S.

    2001-01-01

    This paper was presented as a position paper at the International Conference "The Nature and Culture of Forests" in May 2001 at the University of British Columbia, Canada. The conference brought together international scientists and policymakers in the field of Sustainable Forest Management. This paper presents an overall concept for sustainable forest management and the strengths and weaknesses of the components of this framework. It is concluded that an efficient policy framewo...

  3. Restoring forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Douglass F.; Oliet, Juan A.; Aronson, James;

    2015-01-01

    of land requiring restoration implies the need for spatial prioritization of restoration efforts according to cost-benefit analyses that include ecological risks. To design resistant and resilient ecosystems that can adapt to emerging circumstances, an adaptive management approach is needed. Global...... scales. The capacity for new concepts and technologies to be adopted by managers and accepted by society will depend on effective technology transfer and a community-based approach to forest restoration. The many benefits human society gains from forests requires that forest restoration considers...

  4. Ecotourism Development in Recreational Forest Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. A.H. Bhuiyan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study explored the issues and strategies of ecotourism development in recreational forest areas of Malaysia. There are a number of forest recreational areas and reserves. The recreation forests are designated and managed under the forestry department. These recreational areas of scenic beauty comprise about 0.05% of the total forest reserves in Peninsular Malaysia. Ecotourism should be set in natural areas with special biological, ecological, or cultural interest. Objective: The aim of this study was to illustrate the potentiality to develop ecotourism in the recreational forests of ECER, especially in Sekayu recreational forest area. Approach: The data for analysis is obtained from the secondary sources. Results: The study showed that there are opportunities and potentialities in the recreational forests of ECER for ecotourism development. These are suitable location, availabilities of recreational forests, attractive natural beauty, pollution free environment, limited natural disaster and infrastructure development. There is some strategiesecological integrity, tourism urbanization, forest tourism development, government role and tour operator initiatives can be followed for ecotourism development in the recreational forests of this region. Conclusion: Appropriate policy, initiative and tourism development activities can be ensured ecotourism development in the recreational forests of Malaysia as well as ECER. In Sekayu, community participation must be increased for the sustainable ecotourism development in the forest.

  5. Phenolic constituents and antioxidant activity of geopropolis from two species of amazonian stingless bees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the phenolic constituents and antioxidant activity of geopropolis from two species of stingless Amazonian bees, Melipona interrupta and Melipona seminigra. The chemical investigation of geopropolis from Melipona interrupta led to the isolation of 5,7,4’-trihydroxyflavonone, 3,5,6,7,4’-pentahydroxyflavonol, naringenine-4’-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and myricetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside. Their structures were assigned based on spectroscopic analyses, including two-dimensional NMR techniques. Antioxidant activity of methanol and ethanol extracts of M. interrupta and M. seminigra were measured using the 1,2-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. This is also the first work reporting the chemical investigation of stingless bee species from the Amazonian region. (author)

  6. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus) and Amazonian manatees (Trichechus inunguis) from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Joāo Carlos Gomes; Alves, Leucio Câmara; Faustino, Maria Aparecida da Gloria; Marmontel, Miriam

    2011-12-01

    Infections by Cryptosporidium spp. in aquatic mammals is a major concern due to the possibility of the waterborne transmission of oocysts. The aim of the present study was to report the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus) and Amazonian manatees (Trichechus inunguis) from Brazil. Fecal samples were collected and processed using Kinyoun's method. Positive samples were also submitted to the direct immunofluorescence test. The results revealed the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in 12.5% (17/136) of the material obtained from the Antillean manatees and in 4.3% (05/115) of the samples from the Amazonian manatees. Cryptosporidium spp. infection was more prevalent in captive animals than in free-ranging specimens. PMID:22204053

  7. Phenolic constituents and antioxidant activity of geopropolis from two species of amazonian stingless bees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Ellen Cristina Costa da; Muniz, Magno Perea; Nunomura, Rita de Cassia Saraiva, E-mail: ellensilva@yahoo.com.br [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Nunomura, Sergio Massayoshi [Departamento de Produtos Naturais, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Zilse, Gislene Almeida Carvalho [Departamento de Biodiversidade, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the phenolic constituents and antioxidant activity of geopropolis from two species of stingless Amazonian bees, Melipona interrupta and Melipona seminigra. The chemical investigation of geopropolis from Melipona interrupta led to the isolation of 5,7,4'-trihydroxyflavonone, 3,5,6,7,4'-pentahydroxyflavonol, naringenine-4'-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside and myricetin-3-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside. Their structures were assigned based on spectroscopic analyses, including two-dimensional NMR techniques. Antioxidant activity of methanol and ethanol extracts of M. interrupta and M. seminigra were measured using the 1,2-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. This is also the first work reporting the chemical investigation of stingless bee species from the Amazonian region. (author)

  8. Domestic Forests: A New Paradigm for Integrating Local Communities' Forestry into Tropical Forest Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois Verdeaux

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite a long history of confrontation between forest agencies and forest people, "indigenous" or "local" practices are increasingly considered as a viable alternative of forest management. This paper is a synthesis derived from various long-term research programs carried out by the authors in Southeast Asia and Africa on forests managed by farmers. These researches looked at local practices and underlying science, including their social, political, and symbolic dimensions. They also addressed evolutionary trends and driving forces, as well as potential and limits for forest conservation and development, mitigation of deforestation, biodiversity conservation, and poverty alleviation in a context of global environmental, political, and social change. We discuss how forest management by local communities, contrary to the unified models of professional forest management, exhibits a high historical and geographical diversity. The analysis we draw from the various examples we studied reveals several invariants, which allows proposing the unifying paradigm of "domestic forest." The first universal feature concerns the local managers themselves, who are, in their vast majority, farmers. Management practices range from local interventions in the forest ecosystem, to more intensive types of forest culture, and ultimately to permanent forest plantation. But in all cases, forest management is closely integrated with agriculture. The second universal feature concerns the conceptual continuity of planted forests with the natural forest, in matters of vegetation's structure and composition as well as economic traits and ecosystem services. The resulting forest is uneven-aged, composed of several strata, harboring a large diversity of species, and producing a wide range of products, with timber seldom being the dominant one. The term "domestic forest" aims at highlighting the close relationship the domestication process establishes between a specific human

  9. A Forest Management Map of European Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel van den Wyngaert; Markus Didion; Gert-Jan Nabuurs; Hengeveld, Geerten M.; Clerkx, A. P. P. M. (Sandra); Mart-Jan Schelhaas

    2012-01-01

    Forest management to a large extent determines the possible services that the forest can provide. Different objectives in forest management determine the rotation length and valuation of different stages in forest succession. We present a method of mapping potential forest management at 1-km resolution to inform policy, land use modeling, and forest resource projections. The presented method calculates the suitability of a location to different forest management alternatives based on biotic, ...

  10. Increasing risk of Amazonian drought due to decreasing aerosol pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, Peter M; Harris, Phil P.; Huntingford, Chris; Betts, Richard A; Collins, Matthew; Jones, Chris D.; Jupp, Tim E.; José A. Marengo; Nobre, Carlos A.

    2008-01-01

    The Amazon rainforest plays a crucial role in the climate system, helping to drive atmospheric circulations in the tropics by absorbing energy and recycling about half of the rainfall that falls on it. This region (Amazonia) is also estimated to contain about one-tenth of the total carbon stored in land ecosystems, and to account for one-tenth of global, net primary productivity. The resilience of the forest to the combined pressures of deforestation and global warming is therefore of great c...

  11. Co-occurrence and community assembly in Amazonian palms (Arecaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Balslev, Henrik; Kristiansen, Thea;

    Palms (Arecaceae) are a distinctive, diverse and ecologically important element of tropical rainforest. Often numerous palm species co-occur locally in "palm communities" that span all strata of the forest. In South America, the palm family has a centre of diversity in the western Amazon basin...... habitat, indicating niche assembly. Habitat associations were phylogenetically non- random, leading to, e.g., co-existence of close relatives on flood plains. Dispersal and biogeographic history had a clear effect on alpha diversity, gamma diversity, and species turnover, and to a lesser degree on...

  12. Boreal forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review patterns and processes important for biodiversity in the Fennoscandian boreal forest, describe man's past and present impact and outline a strategy for conservation. Natural disturbances, particularly forest fire and gap formation, create much of the structural and functional diversity in forest ecosystems. Several boreal plants and animals are adapted to fire regimes. In contrast, many organisms (epiphytic lichens, fungi, invertebrates) require stable conditions with long continuity in canopy cover. The highly mechanized and efficient Fennoscandian forest industry has developed during the last century. The result is that most natural forest has been lost and that several hundreds of species, mainly cryptograms and invertebrates, are threatened. The forestry is now in a transition from exploitation to sustainable production and has recently incorporated some measures to protect the environment. Programmes for maintaining biodiversity in the boreal forest should include at least three parts. First, the system of forest reserves must be significantly improved through protection of large representative ecosystems and key biotopes that host threatened species. Second, we must restore ecosystem properties that have been lost or altered. Natural disturbance regimes must be allowed to operate or be imitated, for example by artificial fire management. Stand-level management should particularly increase the amount of coarse woody debris, the number of old deciduous trees and large, old conifers, by using partial cutting. Third, natural variation should also be mimicked at the landscape level, for example, by reducing fragmentation and increasing links between landscape elements. Long-term experiments are required to evaluate the success of different management methods in maintaining biodiversity in the boreal forest. (au) 260 refs

  13. Seasonal variations in blood parameters of the Amazonian manatee, Trichechus inunguis

    OpenAIRE

    Elton P. Colares; Ioni G. Colares; Adalto Bianchini; Euclydes A. Santos

    2000-01-01

    Seasonal variations in body weight, food consumption and blood glucose, total lipids, urea, total proteins, albumin and globulins of captive Amazonian manatees, Trichechus inunguis, were determined. Body weight changed significantly along the year, increasing from autumn to spring and decreasing in summer. The mean daily food intake of paragrass remained almost unchanged along the year. Paragrass administered to the manatees showed important variations in crude protein and lipid content along...

  14. Ecomorphological patterns of the fishes inhabiting the tide pools of the Amazonian Coastal Zone, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Eleres Soares; Tiago Octavio Begot Ruffeil; Luciano Fogaça de Assis Montag

    2013-01-01

    The present study was based on the identification of the ecomorphological patterns that characterize the fish species found in tide pools in the Amazonian Coastal Zone (ACZ) in the Pará State, Brazil. Representatives of 19 species were collected during two field campaigns in 2011. The dominance, residence status, and trophic guild of each species were established, and morphometric data were obtained for up to 10 specimens of each species. A total of 23 ecomorphological attributes related to l...

  15. Nutrition or Detoxification: Why Bats Visit Mineral Licks of the Amazonian Rainforest

    OpenAIRE

    Voigt, Christian C.; Capps, Krista A.; Dechmann, Dina K. N.; Michener, Robert H.; Kunz, Thomas H

    2008-01-01

    Many animals in the tropics of Africa, Asia and South America regularly visit so-called salt or mineral licks to consume clay or drink clay-saturated water. Whether this behavior is used to supplement diets with locally limited nutrients or to buffer the effects of toxic secondary plant compounds remains unclear. In the Amazonian rainforest, pregnant and lactating bats are frequently observed and captured at mineral licks. We measured the nitrogen isotope ratio in wing tissue of omnivorous sh...

  16. Did the martian outflow channels mostly form during the Amazonian Period?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, J. Alexis P.; Platz, Thomas; Gulick, Virginia; Baker, Victor R.; Fairén, Alberto G.; Kargel, Jeffrey; Yan, Jianguo; Miyamoto, Hideaki; Glines, Natalie

    2015-09-01

    Simud, Tiu, and Ares Valles comprise some of the largest outflow channels on Mars. Their excavation has been attributed variously to (or a combination of) erosion by catastrophic floods, glaciers, and debris flows. Numerous investigations indicate that they formed largely during the Late Hesperian (3.61-3.37 Ga). However, these studies mostly equate the ages of the outflow channel floors to those of the flows that generated mesoscale (several hundred meters to a few kilometers) bedforms within them. To improve the statistical accuracy in the age determinations of these flow events, we have used recently acquired high-resolution image and topographic data to map and date portions of Simud, Tiu and Ares Valles, which are extensively marked by these bedforms. Our results, which remove the statistical effects of older and younger outflow channel floor surfaces on the generation of modeled ages, reveal evidence for major outflow channel discharges occurring during the Early (3.37-1.23 Ga) and Middle (1.23-0.328 Ga) Amazonian, with activity significantly peaking during the Middle Amazonian stages. We also find that during the documented stages of Middle Amazonian discharges, the floor of Tiu Valles underwent widespread collapse, resulting in chaotic terrain formation. In addition, we present evidence showing that following the outflow channel discharges, collapse within northern Simud Valles generated another chaotic terrain. This younger chaos region likely represents the latest stage of large-scale outflow channel resurfacing within the study area. Our findings imply that in southern circum-Chryse the martian hydrosphere experienced large-scale drainage during the Amazonian, which likely led to periodic inundation and sedimentation within the northern plains.

  17. Amazonian dark earths and Caboclo subsistence on the middle Madeira River, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Fraser, James Angus

    2010-01-01

    This thesis examines the relationship between Amazonian Dark Earths (ADE) and Caboclo subsistence on the Middle Madeira River, Brazil. ADE are fertile anthropogenic (man-made) soils formed through practices of burning and waste disposal by pre-Columbian Amerindian populations. “Caboclo” is a social category that refers to the people of diverse origins that form the majority of the contemporary rural population of Brazilian Amazonia. Bitter manioc fields (roças) and homegardens (sítios) are th...

  18. Optimizing Sampling Design to Deal with Mist-Net Avoidance in Amazonian Birds and Bats

    OpenAIRE

    João Tiago Marques; Ramos Pereira, Maria J.; Marques, Tiago A.; Carlos David Santos; Joana Santana; Pedro Beja; Palmeirim, Jorge M.

    2013-01-01

    Mist netting is a widely used technique to sample bird and bat assemblages. However, captures often decline with time because animals learn and avoid the locations of nets. This avoidance or net shyness can substantially decrease sampling efficiency. We quantified the day-to-day decline in captures of Amazonian birds and bats with mist nets set at the same location for four consecutive days. We also evaluated how net avoidance influences the efficiency of surveys under different logistic scen...

  19. Ritualistic use of the holly Ilex guayusa by Amazonian Jívaro Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, W H; Kennelly, E J; Bass, G N; Wedner, H J; Elvin-Lewis, M P; Fast, D

    1991-01-01

    In Amazonian Peru and Ecuador leaf decoctions of the rainforest holly Ilex guayusa with high caffeine concentrations are used as a morning stimulant. After daily ingestion, ritualistic vomiting by male Achuar Indians, better known as Jívaros, reduces excessive caffeine intake, so that blood levels of caffeine and biotransformed dimethylxanthines do not cause undesirable CNS and other effects. Emesis is learned and apparently not due to emetic compounds. PMID:1682531

  20. Physical growth of the shuar: Height, Weight, and BMI references for an indigenous amazonian population

    OpenAIRE

    Urlacher, SS; Blackwell, AD; Liebert, MA; Madimenos, FC; Cepon-Robins, TJ; Gildner, TE; Snodgrass, JJ; Sugiyama, LS

    2016-01-01

    © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Objectives: Information concerning physical growth among small-scale populations remains limited, yet such data are critical to local health efforts and to foster basic understandings of human life history and variation in childhood development. Using a large dataset and robust modeling methods, this study aims to describe growth from birth to adulthood among the indigenous Shuar of Amazonian Ecuador. Methods: Mixed-longitudinal measures of height, weight, and b...

  1. Spatial patterns of grasses influence soil macrofauna biodiversity in Amazonian pastures

    OpenAIRE

    Mathieu, J.; Grimaldi, Michel; Jouquet, Pascal; Rouland, Corinne; Lavelle, Patrick; Desjardins, Thierry; Rossi, J. P.

    2009-01-01

    Grasslands are often characterized by small-scale spatial heterogeneity due to the juxtaposition of grass tufts and bare ground. Although the mechanisms generating plant spatial patterns have been widely studied, few studies concentrated on the consequences of these patterns on belowground macrofauna. Our objective was to analyze the impact of grass tuft (Brachiaria bryzantha cv. marandu) spatial distribution on soil macrofauna diversity in Amazonian pastures, at a small scale (less than 9 m(...

  2. Remembering the auca:Violence and Generational Memory in Amazonian Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    High, Casey

    2009-01-01

    In Amazonian Ecuador and beyond, indigenous Waorani people have received considerable attention for their history of revenge killings during much of the twentieth century. In pointing to the heterogeneous forms of social memory assigned to specific generations, the article describes how oral histories and public performances of past violence mediate changing forms of sociality. While the victim's perspective in oral histories is fundamental to Waorani notions of personhood and ethnic identity...

  3. Mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activity and major fatty acid constituents of Amazonian native flora oils

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel da Silva Teixeira; Paula Rafaela Rocha; Hudson Caetano Polonini; Marcos Antônio Fernandes Brandão; Maria das Graças Afonso Miranda Chaves; Nádia Rezende Barbosa Raposo

    2012-01-01

    In order to treat hyperpigmentation-related problems, there has been a global trend in developing cosmetics claiming to have skin-whitening properties, which act by inhibiting melanin biosynthesis. The objective of this work was to evaluate the in vitro mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activity of five Amazonian native flora oils, and so to verify the possibility of their incorporation into cosmetic products. In addition, the fatty acid composition of the essential oils was determined by gas ch...

  4. OCCURRENCE OF Charybdis hellerii (Milne Edwards, 1867 (CRUSTACEA, DECAPODA, PORTUNIDAE IN AN AMAZONIAN ESTUARY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Batista Bentes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available For the first time specimens of Charybdis hellerii (Milne Edwards 1867, an Indo Pacific specie, were caught in Amazon estuary, Bragança, Pará, North of Brazil. Palavras-chave: Crustacea, Charybdis hellerii , Amazonian Estuary. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v3n3p181-184

  5. FS National Forest Dataset (US Forest Service Proclaimed Forests)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting the boundaries encompassing the National Forest System (NFS) lands within the original proclaimed National Forests, along with...

  6. Amazonian climatic change: Water isotope detection of deforestation and greenhouse impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Land use change in the Amazon basin, the largest and most biologically diverse river system in the world, has the potential to cause significant disruption to hydrological, biogeochemical and human systems. The naturally occurring isotopologues of water, commonly, but incorrectly, termed 'isotopes', of interest as possible tracing and validation tools in hydrological simulations are 1H218O and 1H2H16O. Large catchment simulations of water resources where isotopes could be applicable include water re-cycling as a function of precipitation type and variability; evaporation sourcing (i.e. whether water vapour comes from transpiration or from evaporation from rivers, lakes, soil water or the vegetation canopy); ice and snow temperature deposition determination; and aquifer and soil processes including those dependent upon precipitation intensity and melt-water contributions. coupled with measurement of isotopes in water sources, SWI characteristics in river discharge now provide insight into basin- integrated hydro-climates. New data from the Global Network for Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) database, and previously published data now fully analysed, reveal significant changes in seasonal isotopic characteristics in the upper reaches of the Amazon basin underlining the use of stable water isotopes as a means of validating and improving numerical models. Despite observational limitations, which make determination of correctness difficult, some global models are shown here to be too poor to be of value in the Amazon. For example, isotopic depletions, a strong function of rainfall amount, are incorrect when precipitation is inadequately predicted seasonally or following ENSO circulation shifts. Isotopic enrichments of δ18O and δD exhibit systematic variations in the Amazonian water cycle as a result of forest and flooding changes. We find signatures of both circulation and land-use change impacts in the isotopic record: ENSO events cause decreased depletion

  7. Estimating the global conservation status of more than 15,000 Amazonian tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Steege, Hans; Pitman, Nigel C. A.; Killeen, Timothy J.; Laurance, William F.; Peres, Carlos A.; Guevara, Juan Ernesto; Salomão, Rafael P.; Castilho, Carolina V.; Amaral, Iêda Leão; de Almeida Matos, Francisca Dionízia; de Souza Coelho, Luiz; Magnusson, William E.; Phillips, Oliver L.; de Andrade Lima Filho, Diogenes; de Jesus Veiga Carim, Marcelo; Irume, Mariana Victória; Martins, Maria Pires; Molino, Jean-François; Sabatier, Daniel; Wittmann, Florian; López, Dairon Cárdenas; da Silva Guimarães, José Renan; Mendoza, Abel Monteagudo; Vargas, Percy Núñez; Manzatto, Angelo Gilberto; Reis, Neidiane Farias Costa; Terborgh, John; Casula, Katia Regina; Montero, Juan Carlos; Feldpausch, Ted R.; Honorio Coronado, Euridice N.; Montoya, Alvaro Javier Duque; Zartman, Charles Eugene; Mostacedo, Bonifacio; Vasquez, Rodolfo; Assis, Rafael L.; Medeiros, Marcelo Brilhante; Simon, Marcelo Fragomeni; Andrade, Ana; Camargo, José Luís; Laurance, Susan G. W.; Nascimento, Henrique Eduardo Mendonça; Marimon, Beatriz S.; Marimon, Ben-Hur; Costa, Flávia; Targhetta, Natalia; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; Brienen, Roel; Castellanos, Hernán; Duivenvoorden, Joost F.; Mogollón, Hugo F.; Piedade, Maria Teresa Fernandez; Aymard C., Gerardo A.; Comiskey, James A.; Damasco, Gabriel; Dávila, Nállarett; García-Villacorta, Roosevelt; Diaz, Pablo Roberto Stevenson; Vincentini, Alberto; Emilio, Thaise; Levis, Carolina; Schietti, Juliana; Souza, Priscila; Alonso, Alfonso; Dallmeier, Francisco; Ferreira, Leandro Valle; Neill, David; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro; Arroyo, Luzmila; Carvalho, Fernanda Antunes; Souza, Fernanda Coelho; do Amaral, Dário Dantas; Gribel, Rogerio; Luize, Bruno Garcia; Pansonato, Marcelo Petrati; Venticinque, Eduardo; Fine, Paul; Toledo, Marisol; Baraloto, Chris; Cerón, Carlos; Engel, Julien; Henkel, Terry W.; Jimenez, Eliana M.; Maas, Paul; Mora, Maria Cristina Peñuela; Petronelli, Pascal; Revilla, Juan David Cardenas; Silveira, Marcos; Stropp, Juliana; Thomas-Caesar, Raquel; Baker, Tim R.; Daly, Doug; Paredes, Marcos Ríos; da Silva, Naara Ferreira; Fuentes, Alfredo; Jørgensen, Peter Møller; Schöngart, Jochen; Silman, Miles R.; Arboleda, Nicolás Castaño; Cintra, Bruno Barçante Ladvocat; Valverde, Fernando Cornejo; Di Fiore, Anthony; Phillips, Juan Fernando; van Andel, Tinde R.; von Hildebrand, Patricio; Barbosa, Edelcilio Marques; de Matos Bonates, Luiz Carlos; de Castro, Deborah; de Sousa Farias, Emanuelle; Gonzales, Therany; Guillaumet, Jean-Louis; Hoffman, Bruce; Malhi, Yadvinder; de Andrade Miranda, Ires Paula; Prieto, Adriana; Rudas, Agustín; Ruschell, Ademir R.; Silva, Natalino; Vela, César I. A.; Vos, Vincent A.; Zent, Eglée L.; Zent, Stanford; Cano, Angela; Nascimento, Marcelo Trindade; Oliveira, Alexandre A.; Ramirez-Angulo, Hirma; Ramos, José Ferreira; Sierra, Rodrigo; Tirado, Milton; Medina, Maria Natalia Umaña; van der Heijden, Geertje; Torre, Emilio Vilanova; Vriesendorp, Corine; Wang, Ophelia; Young, Kenneth R.; Baider, Claudia; Balslev, Henrik; de Castro, Natalia; Farfan-Rios, William; Ferreira, Cid; Mendoza, Casimiro; Mesones, Italo; Torres-Lezama, Armando; Giraldo, Ligia Estela Urrego; Villarroel, Daniel; Zagt, Roderick; Alexiades, Miguel N.; Garcia-Cabrera, Karina; Hernandez, Lionel; Huamantupa-Chuquimaco, Isau; Milliken, William; Cuenca, Walter Palacios; Pansini, Susamar; Pauletto, Daniela; Arevalo, Freddy Ramirez; Sampaio, Adeilza Felipe; Valderrama Sandoval, Elvis H.; Gamarra, Luis Valenzuela

    2015-01-01

    Estimates of extinction risk for Amazonian plant and animal species are rare and not often incorporated into land-use policy and conservation planning. We overlay spatial distribution models with historical and projected deforestation to show that at least 36% and up to 57% of all Amazonian tree species are likely to qualify as globally threatened under International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List criteria. If confirmed, these results would increase the number of threatened plant species on Earth by 22%. We show that the trends observed in Amazonia apply to trees throughout the tropics, and we predict that most of the world’s >40,000 tropical tree species now qualify as globally threatened. A gap analysis suggests that existing Amazonian protected areas and indigenous territories will protect viable populations of most threatened species if these areas suffer no further degradation, highlighting the key roles that protected areas, indigenous peoples, and improved governance can play in preventing large-scale extinctions in the tropics in this century. PMID:26702442

  8. Estimating the global conservation status of more than 15,000 Amazonian tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Steege, Hans; Pitman, Nigel C A; Killeen, Timothy J; Laurance, William F; Peres, Carlos A; Guevara, Juan Ernesto; Salomão, Rafael P; Castilho, Carolina V; Amaral, Iêda Leão; de Almeida Matos, Francisca Dionízia; de Souza Coelho, Luiz; Magnusson, William E; Phillips, Oliver L; de Andrade Lima Filho, Diogenes; de Jesus Veiga Carim, Marcelo; Irume, Mariana Victória; Martins, Maria Pires; Molino, Jean-François; Sabatier, Daniel; Wittmann, Florian; López, Dairon Cárdenas; da Silva Guimarães, José Renan; Mendoza, Abel Monteagudo; Vargas, Percy Núñez; Manzatto, Angelo Gilberto; Reis, Neidiane Farias Costa; Terborgh, John; Casula, Katia Regina; Montero, Juan Carlos; Feldpausch, Ted R; Honorio Coronado, Euridice N; Montoya, Alvaro Javier Duque; Zartman, Charles Eugene; Mostacedo, Bonifacio; Vasquez, Rodolfo; Assis, Rafael L; Medeiros, Marcelo Brilhante; Simon, Marcelo Fragomeni; Andrade, Ana; Camargo, José Luís; Laurance, Susan G W; Nascimento, Henrique Eduardo Mendonça; Marimon, Beatriz S; Marimon, Ben-Hur; Costa, Flávia; Targhetta, Natalia; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; Brienen, Roel; Castellanos, Hernán; Duivenvoorden, Joost F; Mogollón, Hugo F; Piedade, Maria Teresa Fernandez; Aymard C, Gerardo A; Comiskey, James A; Damasco, Gabriel; Dávila, Nállarett; García-Villacorta, Roosevelt; Diaz, Pablo Roberto Stevenson; Vincentini, Alberto; Emilio, Thaise; Levis, Carolina; Schietti, Juliana; Souza, Priscila; Alonso, Alfonso; Dallmeier, Francisco; Ferreira, Leandro Valle; Neill, David; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro; Arroyo, Luzmila; Carvalho, Fernanda Antunes; Souza, Fernanda Coelho; do Amaral, Dário Dantas; Gribel, Rogerio; Luize, Bruno Garcia; Pansonato, Marcelo Petrati; Venticinque, Eduardo; Fine, Paul; Toledo, Marisol; Baraloto, Chris; Cerón, Carlos; Engel, Julien; Henkel, Terry W; Jimenez, Eliana M; Maas, Paul; Mora, Maria Cristina Peñuela; Petronelli, Pascal; Revilla, Juan David Cardenas; Silveira, Marcos; Stropp, Juliana; Thomas-Caesar, Raquel; Baker, Tim R; Daly, Doug; Paredes, Marcos Ríos; da Silva, Naara Ferreira; Fuentes, Alfredo; Jørgensen, Peter Møller; Schöngart, Jochen; Silman, Miles R; Arboleda, Nicolás Castaño; Cintra, Bruno Barçante Ladvocat; Valverde, Fernando Cornejo; Di Fiore, Anthony; Phillips, Juan Fernando; van Andel, Tinde R; von Hildebrand, Patricio; Barbosa, Edelcilio Marques; de Matos Bonates, Luiz Carlos; de Castro, Deborah; de Sousa Farias, Emanuelle; Gonzales, Therany; Guillaumet, Jean-Louis; Hoffman, Bruce; Malhi, Yadvinder; de Andrade Miranda, Ires Paula; Prieto, Adriana; Rudas, Agustín; Ruschell, Ademir R; Silva, Natalino; Vela, César I A; Vos, Vincent A; Zent, Eglée L; Zent, Stanford; Cano, Angela; Nascimento, Marcelo Trindade; Oliveira, Alexandre A; Ramirez-Angulo, Hirma; Ramos, José Ferreira; Sierra, Rodrigo; Tirado, Milton; Medina, Maria Natalia Umaña; van der Heijden, Geertje; Torre, Emilio Vilanova; Vriesendorp, Corine; Wang, Ophelia; Young, Kenneth R; Baider, Claudia; Balslev, Henrik; de Castro, Natalia; Farfan-Rios, William; Ferreira, Cid; Mendoza, Casimiro; Mesones, Italo; Torres-Lezama, Armando; Giraldo, Ligia Estela Urrego; Villarroel, Daniel; Zagt, Roderick; Alexiades, Miguel N; Garcia-Cabrera, Karina; Hernandez, Lionel; Huamantupa-Chuquimaco, Isau; Milliken, William; Cuenca, Walter Palacios; Pansini, Susamar; Pauletto, Daniela; Arevalo, Freddy Ramirez; Sampaio, Adeilza Felipe; Valderrama Sandoval, Elvis H; Gamarra, Luis Valenzuela

    2015-11-01

    Estimates of extinction risk for Amazonian plant and animal species are rare and not often incorporated into land-use policy and conservation planning. We overlay spatial distribution models with historical and projected deforestation to show that at least 36% and up to 57% of all Amazonian tree species are likely to qualify as globally threatened under International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List criteria. If confirmed, these results would increase the number of threatened plant species on Earth by 22%. We show that the trends observed in Amazonia apply to trees throughout the tropics, and we predict that most of the world's >40,000 tropical tree species now qualify as globally threatened. A gap analysis suggests that existing Amazonian protected areas and indigenous territories will protect viable populations of most threatened species if these areas suffer no further degradation, highlighting the key roles that protected areas, indigenous peoples, and improved governance can play in preventing large-scale extinctions in the tropics in this century. PMID:26702442

  9. Hydrological pulse regulating the bacterial heterotrophic metabolism between Amazonian mainstems and floodplain lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Luciana O.; Abril, Gwenäel; Artigas, Luiz F.; Melo, Michaela L.; Bernardes, Marcelo C.; Lobão, Lúcia M.; Reis, Mariana C.; Moreira-Turcq, Patrícia; Benedetti, Marc; Tornisielo, Valdemar L.; Roland, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated in situ rates of bacterial carbon processing in Amazonian floodplain lakes and mainstems, during both high water (HW) and low water (LW) phases (p < 0.05). Our results showed that bacterial production (BP) was lower and more variable than bacterial respiration, determined as total respiration. Bacterial carbon demand was mostly accounted by BR and presented the same pattern that BR in both water phases. Bacterial growth efficiency (BGE) showed a wide range (0.2–23%) and low mean value of 3 and 6%, (in HW and LW, respectively) suggesting that dissolved organic carbon was mostly allocated to catabolic metabolism. However, BGE was regulated by BP in LW phase. Consequently, changes in BGE showed the same pattern that BP. In addition, the hydrological pulse effects on mainstems and floodplains lakes connectivity were found for BP and BGE in LW. Multiple correlation analyses revealed that indexes of organic matter (OM) quality (chlorophyll-a, N stable isotopes and C/N ratios) were the strongest seasonal drivers of bacterial carbon metabolism. Our work indicated that: (i) the bacterial metabolism was mostly driven by respiration in Amazonian aquatic ecosystems resulting in low BGE in either high or LW phase; (ii) the hydrological pulse regulated the bacterial heterotrophic metabolism between Amazonian mainstems and floodplain lakes mostly driven by OM quality. PMID:26483776

  10. Sunlight mediated seasonality in canopy structure and photosynthetic activity of Amazonian rainforests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resolving the debate surrounding the nature and controls of seasonal variation in the structure and metabolism of Amazonian rainforests is critical to understanding their response to climate change. In situ studies have observed higher photosynthetic and evapotranspiration rates, increased litterfall and leaf flushing during the Sunlight-rich dry season. Satellite data also indicated higher greenness level, a proven surrogate of photosynthetic carbon fixation, and leaf area during the dry season relative to the wet season. Some recent reports suggest that rainforests display no seasonal variations and the previous results were satellite measurement artefacts. Therefore, here we re-examine several years of data from three sensors on two satellites under a range of sun positions and satellite measurement geometries and document robust evidence for a seasonal cycle in structure and greenness of wet equatorial Amazonian rainforests. This seasonal cycle is concordant with independent observations of solar radiation. We attribute alternative conclusions to an incomplete study of the seasonal cycle, i.e. the dry season only, and to prognostications based on a biased radiative transfer model. Consequently, evidence of dry season greening in geometry corrected satellite data was ignored and the absence of evidence for seasonal variation in lidar data due to noisy and saturated signals was misinterpreted as evidence of the absence of changes during the dry season. Our results, grounded in the physics of radiative transfer, buttress previous reports of dry season increases in leaf flushing, litterfall, photosynthesis and evapotranspiration in well-hydrated Amazonian rainforests. (letter)

  11. Amazonian ethnobotany and the search for new drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultes, R E

    1994-01-01

    Tropical rain forests offer enormous prospects for the discovery of new drugs for use in Western medicine. The Amazon supports 80,000 species of higher plants and a diverse Indian population. Focusing attention on those plants used as medicines by indigenous peoples is the most efficient way of identifying the plants that contain bioactive compounds. There is an urgent need for more ethnobotanists and ethnopharmacologists to be trained to document as much information as possible before it and the plants are lost through destruction of the rain forest and acculturation of the indigenous peoples. Ethnobotanical studies have identified plants documented by early travellers; these include Paullinia yoco and Ilex guayusa which are used as stimulants and have been shown to be rich in caffeine. Studies of the hallucinogen prepared from Banisterioposis caapi have shown that the native people know which plants to add to the mixture to lengthen and intensify the intoxication produced by the beta-carboline alkaloids in the plant. Three major snuffs are used in the Amazonia; the plants from which they are derived have been identified. One of the snuffs also has antifungal and curare-like activities; chemical analysis on the active principles has not been done. Several plants are considered as prime candidates for scientific study as sources of useful chemicals for medicine or industry. These include some used to prepare teas or other infusions for treatment of various symptoms of senile dementia. PMID:7736849

  12. REDD and PINC: A new policy framework to fund tropical forests as global 'eco-utilities'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tropical forests are 'eco-utilities' providing critical ecosystem services that underpin food, energy, water and climate security at local to global scales. Currently, these services are unrecognised and unrewarded in international policy and financial frameworks, causing forests to be worth more dead than alive. Much attention is currently focused on REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation) and A/R (Afforestation and Reforestation) as mitigation options. In this article we propose an additional mechanism - PINC (Proactive Investment in Natural Capital) - that recognises and rewards the value of ecosystem services provided by standing tropical forests, especially from a climate change adaptation perspective. Using Amazonian forests as a case study we show that PINC could improve the wellbeing of rural and forest-dependent populations, enabling them to cope with the impacts associated with climate change and deforestation. By investing pro-actively in areas where deforestation pressures are currently low, the long-term costs of mitigation and adaptation will be reduced. We suggest a number of ways in which funds could be raised through emerging financial mechanisms to provide positive incentives to maintain standing forests. To develop PINC, a new research and capacity-building agenda is needed that explores the interdependence between communities, the forest eco-utility and the wider economy.

  13. Variability of Carbon and Water Fluxes Following Climate Extremes over a Tropical Forest in Southwestern Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Zeri, Marcelo; Sá, Leonardo D. A.; Antônio O. Manzi; Araújo, Alessandro C.; Aguiar, Renata G.; von Randow, Celso; Sampaio, Gilvan; Fernando L. Cardoso; Nobre, Carlos A.

    2014-01-01

    The carbon and water cycles for a southwestern Amazonian forest site were investigated using the longest time series of fluxes of CO2 and water vapor ever reported for this site. The period from 2004 to 2010 included two severe droughts (2005 and 2010) and a flooding year (2009). The effects of such climate extremes were detected in annual sums of fluxes as well as in other components of the carbon and water cycles, such as gross primary production and water use efficiency. Gap-filling and fl...

  14. Tide distortion and attenuation in an Amazonian tidal river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo T. A. Freitas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study seeks to evaluate tidal propagation in the Guamá-Capim river system, in the Amazonian region, considering hydrodynamic and geomorphological aspects. Available data sets on fluvial discharge and water level variations were considered, besides several methods of measuring the tides (currents, water levels and discharges recorded at different stations and in different periods. The main point argued is that fluvial discharge is the key-factor in tidal distortion and tidal bore formation in the system investigated, whereas the low relief of the area would be the main factor contributing to landward tidal incursion. The results show an impressive upward tidal incursion of more than 200 km, including substantial distortion -increasing upstream -of the tidal wave, of which the ebb phase lasts up to 5 hours longer than the flood, including higher flood current velocities as far as 161 km upstream. Generally, only hyposynchronous tidal response was observed. Seasonally, the fluvial discharge varies about 10 times in the Guamá and 4 times in the Capim River. The increase of the fluvial discharge results in an increasing distortion of the tide, besides a weak increase of the attenuation. During high fluvial discharge periods in conjunction with equinoctial tides (e.g. March-April, a tidal bore occurs in the system, also increased by the generally low relief. Therefore, the conclusions include: low relief and the distortion related to high fluvial discharges are the main factors controlling tidal propagation along the system and tidal bore formation. Furthermore, the system could be classified as a tidal river, in which massive regional fresh water input results in virtually non-existent salinity throughout the Guamá-Capim system.O presente estudo teve como objetivo investigar a propagação da maré no sistema fluvial Guamá-Capim, na região amazônica, considerando aspectos hidrológicos e geomorfológicos. Os métodos empregados

  15. Energetic planning in isolated Amazonian communities using geographical information system; Planejamento energetico em regioes isoladas da Amazonia utilizando sistemas de informacoes geograficas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Arthur [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia Eletrica; Rocha, Brigida R.P.; Monteiro, Jose H.A.; Gaspar, Gabriella C.M. [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica e de Computacao; Aarao Junior, Raimundo N.N. [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2004-07-01

    This paper proposes a system of electric planning in isolated Amazonian communities. For those communities, we propose the use of decentralized systems of electric energy with biomass as fuel. We also propose a computer system of electric planning with geographical information systems for its facilities of integrating geographical information, so useful in an Amazonian context. (author)

  16. Criteria and Indicators for Sustainable Forest Management in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabiul Islam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study investigated the timber certification of sustainable forest management and the criteria and indicators for sustainable forest management. Approach: Sustainable forest management is an important role in the forestry sector and takes a major player in Malaysia's sustainable development. It is a management regime that integrates and balances social, economic, ecological, cultural and spiritual needs to present and future generations. Results: We analyzed the pillars of sustainable forest management, criteria, indicators, activities and standards of performance for sustainable forest management in Malaysia. Conclusion: The aim of this study was to highlight and clarify the impacts of trade and environment on sustainable forest management in Malaysia.

  17. Forested wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugo, A.E.; Brinson, M.; Brown, S. (eds.)

    1990-01-01

    Forested wetlands have important roles in global biogeochemical cycles, supporting freshwater and saltwater commercial fisheries, and in providing a place for wildlife of all kinds to flourish. Scientific attention towards these ecosystems has lagged with only a few comprehensive works on forested wetlands of the world. A major emphasis of this book is to develop unifying principles and data bases on the structure and function of forested wetlands, in order to stimulate scientific study of them. Wetlands are areas that are inundated or saturated by surface-water or ground-water, at such a frequency and duration that under natural conditions they support organisms adapted to poorly aerated and/or saturated soil. The strategy of classifying the conditions that control the structure and behavior of forested wetlands by assuming that the physiognomy and floristic composition of the system will reflect the total energy expenditure of the ecosystem; and the structural and functional characteristics of forested wetlands from different parts of the world are the major topics covered.

  18. Energetic characterization of Amazonian biomass; Caracterizacao energetica de biomassas amazonicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feitosa Netto, Genesio Batista; Oliveira, Antonio Geraldo de Paula; Coutinho, Hebert Willian Martins; Nogueira, Manoel Fernandes Martins; Rendeiro, Goncalo [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2006-07-01

    In order to asses the potentiality of Amazon biomasses to generate power, either to supply electric energy to the grid or as fuel to plants supplying power for off-grid location, data for their proximate analysis must be available. A literature review on the subject indicated a lack of information and data concerning typical Amazon rain forest species. This work aimed to characterize (proximate analysis) 43 Amazon species in order to evaluate the energy resource from woody biomass wastes in Amazon region. Higher heating value, carbon, volatile and ash contents were measured in a dry basis. The measurements were performed obeying the following Brazilian standards, NBR 6923, NBR 8112, NBR 8633, NBR 6922. (author)

  19. US Forest Service National Forest System Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting existing National Forest System Roads (NFSR) that are under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Forest Service. Each feature represents...

  20. Accounting of forest resources in the framework of sustainable development

    OpenAIRE

    I.V. Zamula; О.V. Shavurska

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, deforestation of territories and degradation of forest resources is a global problem as it leads to a climate change, soil degradation, the decline in natural reproduction of forest resources and to the disappearance of many valuable species of forest cultures. Due to the importance of the preservation of forest resources for environment it is necessary to revise the conceptual approach to the reflection of such resources both at the micro- and at the macroeconomic level. Preser...

  1. Forests: An International and Interdisciplinary Scientific Open Access Journal

    OpenAIRE

    Eric J. Jokela

    2014-01-01

    Forests was established to provide comprehensive coverage on the ecology, conservation and management of forests, with the first issue published in March 2010. As an international and multi-disciplinary journal, Forests has provided a forum for publishing process–based and applied scholarly articles that span the technological, environmental, cultural, economic, and social realm associated with the management, use, conservation, and understanding of forested ecosystems. By all accounts, Fore...

  2. Arabuko-Sokoke Forest Management and Conservation Project

    OpenAIRE

    Nature Kenya; BirdLife International

    2007-01-01

    The goal of the 1996-2002 project was the conservation of Arabuko-Sokoke Forest, its biodiversity, and its functional, socio-economic and cultural values. This was achieved by establishing and supporting management and conservation practices with community involvement. Forest management has traditionally been the responsibility of the Government. Forests are gradually degrading nation-wide, mainly because of inadequate representation of stakeholders in forest management, and shortage of resou...

  3. Forest report 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This forest report of Lower Saxony (Germany) contains the following topics: weather and climate, forest protection, crown defoliation, infiltrated substances, environmental monitoring, insects and fungi, forest soil survey and forest site mapping, and nutritional status of beech on loess.

  4. Information Forests

    CERN Document Server

    Yi, Zhao; Dewan, Maneesh; Zhan, Yiqiang

    2012-01-01

    We describe Information Forests, an approach to classification that generalizes Random Forests by replacing the splitting criterion of non-leaf nodes from a discriminative one -- based on the entropy of the label distribution -- to a generative one -- based on maximizing the information divergence between the class-conditional distributions in the resulting partitions. The basic idea consists of deferring classification until a measure of "classification confidence" is sufficiently high, and instead breaking down the data so as to maximize this measure. In an alternative interpretation, Information Forests attempt to partition the data into subsets that are "as informative as possible" for the purpose of the task, which is to classify the data. Classification confidence, or informative content of the subsets, is quantified by the Information Divergence. Our approach relates to active learning, semi-supervised learning, mixed generative/discriminative learning.

  5. Carbon emissions from deforestation and forest fragmentation in the Brazilian Amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Numata, Izaya; Cochrane, Mark A [GIScCE, South Dakota State University (United States); Souza, Carlos M Jr; Sales, Marcio H [Instituto do Homen e Meio Ambiente da Amazonia-IMAZON (Brazil)

    2011-10-15

    Forest-fragmentation-related edge effects are one of the major causes of forest degradation in Amazonia and their spatio-temporal dynamics are highly influenced by annual deforestation patterns. Rapid biomass collapse due to edge effects in forest fragments has been reported in the Brazilian Amazon; however the collective impacts of this process on Amazonian carbon fluxes are poorly understood. We estimated biomass loss and carbon emissions from deforestation and forest fragmentation related to edge effects on the basis of the INPE (Brazilian National Space Research Institute) PRODES deforestation data and forest biomass volume data. The areas and ages of edge forests were calculated annually and the corresponding biomass loss and carbon emissions from these forest edges were estimated using published rates of biomass decay and decomposition corresponding to the areas and ages of edge forests. Our analysis estimated carbon fluxes from deforestation (4195 Tg C) and edge forest (126-221 Tg C) for 2001-10 in the Brazilian Amazon. The impacts of varying rates of deforestation on regional forest fragmentation and carbon fluxes were also investigated, with the focus on two periods: 2001-5 (high deforestation rates) and 2006-10 (low deforestation rates). Edge-released carbon accounted for 2.6-4.5% of deforestation-related carbon emissions. However, the relative importance of carbon emissions from forest fragmentation increased from 1.7-3.0% to 3.3-5.6% of the respective deforestation emissions between the two contrasting deforestation rates. Edge-related carbon fluxes are of increasing importance for basin-wide carbon accounting, especially as regards ongoing reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) efforts in Brazilian Amazonia.

  6. Carbon emissions from deforestation and forest fragmentation in the Brazilian Amazon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest-fragmentation-related edge effects are one of the major causes of forest degradation in Amazonia and their spatio-temporal dynamics are highly influenced by annual deforestation patterns. Rapid biomass collapse due to edge effects in forest fragments has been reported in the Brazilian Amazon; however the collective impacts of this process on Amazonian carbon fluxes are poorly understood. We estimated biomass loss and carbon emissions from deforestation and forest fragmentation related to edge effects on the basis of the INPE (Brazilian National Space Research Institute) PRODES deforestation data and forest biomass volume data. The areas and ages of edge forests were calculated annually and the corresponding biomass loss and carbon emissions from these forest edges were estimated using published rates of biomass decay and decomposition corresponding to the areas and ages of edge forests. Our analysis estimated carbon fluxes from deforestation (4195 Tg C) and edge forest (126-221 Tg C) for 2001-10 in the Brazilian Amazon. The impacts of varying rates of deforestation on regional forest fragmentation and carbon fluxes were also investigated, with the focus on two periods: 2001-5 (high deforestation rates) and 2006-10 (low deforestation rates). Edge-released carbon accounted for 2.6-4.5% of deforestation-related carbon emissions. However, the relative importance of carbon emissions from forest fragmentation increased from 1.7-3.0% to 3.3-5.6% of the respective deforestation emissions between the two contrasting deforestation rates. Edge-related carbon fluxes are of increasing importance for basin-wide carbon accounting, especially as regards ongoing reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) efforts in Brazilian Amazonia.

  7. 78 FR 56649 - Information Collection; Volunteer Application and Agreement for Natural and Cultural Resources...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... the following natural resource agencies are included: 1. Department of Agriculture: Forest Service and... Forest Service Information Collection; Volunteer Application and Agreement for Natural and Cultural... Application and Agreement for Natural and Cultural Resources Agencies. This Information Collection...

  8. Increasing risk of Amazonian drought due to decreasing aerosol pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Peter M; Harris, Phil P; Huntingford, Chris; Betts, Richard A; Collins, Matthew; Jones, Chris D; Jupp, Tim E; Marengo, José A; Nobre, Carlos A

    2008-05-01

    The Amazon rainforest plays a crucial role in the climate system, helping to drive atmospheric circulations in the tropics by absorbing energy and recycling about half of the rainfall that falls on it. This region (Amazonia) is also estimated to contain about one-tenth of the total carbon stored in land ecosystems, and to account for one-tenth of global, net primary productivity. The resilience of the forest to the combined pressures of deforestation and global warming is therefore of great concern, especially as some general circulation models (GCMs) predict a severe drying of Amazonia in the twenty-first century. Here we analyse these climate projections with reference to the 2005 drought in western Amazonia, which was associated with unusually warm North Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs). We show that reduction of dry-season (July-October) rainfall in western Amazonia correlates well with an index of the north-south SST gradient across the equatorial Atlantic (the 'Atlantic N-S gradient'). Our climate model is unusual among current GCMs in that it is able to reproduce this relationship and also the observed twentieth-century multidecadal variability in the Atlantic N-S gradient, provided that the effects of aerosols are included in the model. Simulations for the twenty-first century using the same model show a strong tendency for the SST conditions associated with the 2005 drought to become much more common, owing to continuing reductions in reflective aerosol pollution in the Northern Hemisphere. PMID:18464740

  9. Bacillus polymachus sp. nov., with a broad range of antibacterial activity, isolated from forest topsoil samples by using a modified culture method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuan Manh; Kim, Jaisoo

    2015-02-01

    A new, modified culture method that utilizes a transwell plate with a 0.4 µm pore-size microporous membrane was developed. This system allows only trace nutrients from the soil into the liquid culture through the microporous membrane. The method is a more powerful tool for the discovery of novel species from soils than are traditional methods. Such newly identified species could potentially produce useful metabolites. A bacterial strain, T515(T), was isolated using this modified culture method. Growth of strain T515(T) occurred at pH 4-9 in a temperature range between 20 °C and 40 °C and in the presence of 0-2 % (w/v) NaCl on R2A agar. Colonies on the agar plates were tiny, white, and convex after 5 days incubation at 28 °C. Comparative analysis of the nearly full-length 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain T515(T) revealed close pairwise similarity with species of the genus Bacillus, and strain T515(T) was most closely related to Bacillus panaciterrae Gsoil 1517(T) (96.7 %) and Bacillus funiculus NAF001(T) (96.0 %). The major quinone of strain T515(T) was menaquinone-7 (MK-7) and the major fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0 (45.5 %), anteiso-C15 : 0 (23.2 %) and C16 : 0 (10.9 %). The predominant polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. Strain T515(T) was sensitive to streptomycin and tetracycline, but resistant to rifampicin (0.125 µg ml(-1)), ampicillin (0.5 µg ml(-1)) and chloramphenicol (1 µg ml(-1)). The strain showed antimicrobial activities against the six strains tested: Bacillus subtilis KEMB 51201-001, Staphylococcus aureus KEMB 4659, Pseudomonas aeruginosa KACC 10185, Staphylococcus epidermidis KACC 13234, Paenibacillus larvae KACC 14031 and Escherichia coli KEMB 212-234. Based on these results, strain T515(T) represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus with the proposed name, Bacillus polymachus sp. nov. The type strain is T515(T) ( = KEMB 9005-168(T) = KACC 18242(T) = NBRC 110614(T)). PMID

  10. The Tsimane’ Amazonian Panel Study (TAPS): Nine years (2002-2010) of annual data available to the public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, William R.; Reyes-García, Victoria; Tanner, Susan; Rosinger, Asher; Schultz, Alan; Vadez, Vincent; Zhang, Rebecca; Godoy, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    This brief communication contains a description of the 2002-2010 annual panel collected by the Tsimane’ Amazonian Panel Study team. The study took place among the Tsimane’, a native Amazonian society of forager-horticulturalists. The team tracked a wide range of socio-economic and anthropometric variables from all residents (633 adults ≥16 years; 820 children) in 13 villages along the Maniqui River, department of Beni. The panel is ideally suited to examine how market exposure and modernization affect the well-being of a highly autarkic population and to examine human growth in a non-Western rural setting. PMID:26280812

  11. Endocrine monitoring of the ovarian cycle in captive female Amazonian manatees (Trichechus inunguis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Rodrigo S; Rosas, Fernando C W; da Silva, Vera M F; Nichi, Marcilio; Oliveira, Claudio A

    2013-11-01

    The Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis; Mammalia: Sirenia), a threatened aquatic mammal endemic to the Amazon basin, is the only sirenian that lives exclusively in fresh water. Information about the reproductive endocrinology of the Amazonian manatee is scarce; therefore, the aim of this study was to monitor salivary progesterone and estradiol patterns during the ovarian cycle in T. inunguis. Salivary samples were collected daily during a 12-week period of two consecutive years from two captive adult females. The salivary estradiol and progesterone were measured by enzyme immunoassay. The results were analyzed in an iterative process of excluding values that were higher than the mean plus 2 standard deviations until the basal values were determined. The interval between two peaks of salivary estradiol followed by a rise of progesterone was considered as one complete cycle for the calculation of the cycle length. We observed only three complete cycles in all samples analyzed. The cycle length ranged from 42 to 48 days (mean of 44.67 days). We also observed two distinct salivary estradiol peaks during all cycles analyzed, with the first peak occurring before the rise in salivary progesterone and the second occurred followed by a return to basal progesterone levels. This is the first in-depth study of the ovarian cycle in Amazonian manatees. Our results demonstrate that salivary samples can be a useful tool in the endocrine monitoring of this species and suggest that T. inunguis shows a peculiar hormonal pattern during the ovarian cycle, a finding that may have physiological and ecological significance in the reproductive strategy of these animals. PMID:24075242

  12. The mammary glands of the Amazonian manatee, Trichechus inunguis (Mammalia: Sirenia): morphological characteristics and microscopic anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Fernanda Rosa; da Silva, Vera Maria Ferreira; Barcellos, José Fernando Marques

    2014-08-01

    The mammaries from carcasses of two female Amazonian manatees were examined. Trichechus inunguis possesses two axillary mammaries beneath the pectoral fins, one on each side of the body. Each papilla mammae has a small hole on its apex--the ostium papillare. The mammaries are covered by a stratified squamous keratinized epithelium. The epithelium of the mammary ducts became thinner more deeply in the tissue and varied from stratified to simple cuboidal. There was no evidence of glandular activity or secretion into the ducts of the mammary glands. PMID:24920139

  13. Calcium fluxes in Hoplosternum littorale (tamoatá) exposed to different types of Amazonian waters

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardo Baldisserotto; Carlos Eduardo Copatti; Levy de Carvalho Gomes; Edsandra Campos Chagas; Richard Philip Brinn; Rodrigo Roubach

    2009-01-01

    Fishes that live in the Amazonian environment may be exposed to several kinds of waters: "black waters", containing high dissolved organic carbon and acidic pH, "white waters", with ten fold higher Ca2+ concentrations than black waters and neutral pH, and "clear waters", with two fold higher Ca2+ concentrations than black waters and also neutral pH. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to analyze Ca2+ fluxes in the facultative air-breather Hoplosternum littorale (tamoatá) exposed to di...

  14. Production and some properties of crude alkaline proteases of indigenous Central Amazonian rhizobia strains

    OpenAIRE

    Arlem Nascimento de Oliveira; Luiz Antonio de Oliveira; Jerusa Souza Andrade

    2010-01-01

    Two rhizobia strains isolated from soils of the Central Amazonian floodplain produced appreciable quantities of crude alkaline protease extracts with inexpensive carbon and nitrogen sources. These protease crude extracts were optimally active at pH 9.0-11.0. The optimum temperatures were 35 ºC for Rhizobium sp. strain R-986 and 55 ºC for Bradyrhizobium sp. strain R-993. Protease activities in the crude extracts were enhanced in the presence of 5 mM metal ions, such as Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Mn2+...

  15. Forest fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book examines the many complex and sensitive issues relating to wildland fires. Beginning with an overview of the fires of 1980s, the book discusses the implications of continued drought and considers the behavior of wildland fires, from ignition and spread to spotting and firestorms. Topics include the effects of weather, forest fuels, fire ecology, and the effects of fire on plants and animals. In addition, the book examines firefighting methods and equipment, including new minimum impact techniques and compressed air foam; prescribed burning; and steps that can be taken to protect individuals and human structures. A history of forest fire policies in the U.S. and a discussion of solutions to fire problems around the world completes the coverage. With one percent of the earth's surface burning every year in the last decade, this is a penetrating book on a subject of undeniable importance

  16. Nut Production in Bertholletia excelsa across a Logged Forest Mosaic: Implications for Multiple Forest Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Cara A; Guariguata, Manuel R; Menton, Mary; Arroyo Quispe, Eriks; Quaedvlieg, Julia; Warren-Thomas, Eleanor; Fernandez Silva, Harol; Jurado Rojas, Edwin Eduardo; Kohagura Arrunátegui, José Andrés Hideki; Meza Vega, Luis Alberto; Revilla Vera, Olivia; Quenta Hancco, Roger; Valera Tito, Jonatan Frank; Villarroel Panduro, Betxy Tabita; Yucra Salas, Juan José

    2015-01-01

    forests, when a buffer zone cannot be observed, low logging intensities should be implemented. The sustainability of this integrated management system will ultimately depend on a complex series of socioeconomic and ecological interactions. Yet we submit that our study provides an important initial step in understanding the compatibility of timber harvesting with a high value NTFP, potentially allowing for diversification of forest use strategies in Amazonian Perù. PMID:26271042

  17. Nut Production in Bertholletia excelsa across a Logged Forest Mosaic: Implications for Multiple Forest Use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara A Rockwell

    nut rich forests, when a buffer zone cannot be observed, low logging intensities should be implemented. The sustainability of this integrated management system will ultimately depend on a complex series of socioeconomic and ecological interactions. Yet we submit that our study provides an important initial step in understanding the compatibility of timber harvesting with a high value NTFP, potentially allowing for diversification of forest use strategies in Amazonian Perù.

  18. Malaria in Brazil: what happens outside the Amazonian endemic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anielle de Pina-Costa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Brazil, a country of continental proportions, presents three profiles of malaria transmission. The first and most important numerically, occurs inside the Amazon. The Amazon accounts for approximately 60% of the nation’s territory and approximately 13% of the Brazilian population. This region hosts 99.5% of the nation’s malaria cases, which are predominantly caused by Plasmodium vivax (i.e., 82% of cases in 2013. The second involves imported malaria, which corresponds to malaria cases acquired outside the region where the individuals live or the diagnosis was made. These cases are imported from endemic regions of Brazil (i.e., the Amazon or from other countries in South and Central America, Africa and Asia. Imported malaria comprised 89% of the cases found outside the area of active transmission in Brazil in 2013. These cases highlight an important question with respect to both therapeutic and epidemiological issues because patients, especially those with falciparum malaria, arriving in a region where the health professionals may not have experience with the clinical manifestations of malaria and its diagnosis could suffer dramatic consequences associated with a potential delay in treatment. Additionally, because the Anopheles vectors exist in most of the country, even a single case of malaria, if not diagnosed and treated immediately, may result in introduced cases, causing outbreaks and even introducing or reintroducing the disease to a non-endemic, receptive region. Cases introduced outside the Amazon usually occur in areas in which malaria was formerly endemic and are transmitted by competent vectors belonging to the subgenus Nyssorhynchus (i.e., Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles aquasalis and species of the Albitarsis complex. The third type of transmission accounts for only 0.05% of all cases and is caused by autochthonous malaria in the Atlantic Forest, located primarily along the southeastern Atlantic Coast. They are caused by parasites

  19. REDD and PINC: A new policy framework to fund tropical forests as global 'eco-utilities'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivedi, M R; Mitchell, A W; Mardas, N; Parker, C [Global Canopy Programme, John Krebs Field Station, Wytham, Oxford, OX2 8QJ (United Kingdom); Watson, J E [University of Queensland, Ecology Centre, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Nobre, A D, E-mail: m.trivedi@globalcanopy.or [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, INPA, Escritorio Regional do INPA, Sao Jose dos Campos, 12227-010 (Brazil)

    2009-11-01

    Tropical forests are 'eco-utilities' providing critical ecosystem services that underpin food, energy, water and climate security at local to global scales. Currently, these services are unrecognised and unrewarded in international policy and financial frameworks, causing forests to be worth more dead than alive. Much attention is currently focused on REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation) and A/R (Afforestation and Reforestation) as mitigation options. In this article we propose an additional mechanism - PINC (Proactive Investment in Natural Capital) - that recognises and rewards the value of ecosystem services provided by standing tropical forests, especially from a climate change adaptation perspective. Using Amazonian forests as a case study we show that PINC could improve the wellbeing of rural and forest-dependent populations, enabling them to cope with the impacts associated with climate change and deforestation. By investing pro-actively in areas where deforestation pressures are currently low, the long-term costs of mitigation and adaptation will be reduced. We suggest a number of ways in which funds could be raised through emerging financial mechanisms to provide positive incentives to maintain standing forests. To develop PINC, a new research and capacity-building agenda is needed that explores the interdependence between communities, the forest eco-utility and the wider economy.

  20. Dispersal of forest insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcmanus, M. L.

    1979-01-01

    Dispersal flights of selected species of forest insects which are associated with periodic outbreaks of pests that occur over large contiguous forested areas are discussed. Gypsy moths, spruce budworms, and forest tent caterpillars were studied for their massive migrations in forested areas. Results indicate that large dispersals into forested areas are due to the females, except in the case of the gypsy moth.

  1. Tenure and forest income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagger, Pamela; Luckert, Martin K.; Duchelle, Amy E.;

    2014-01-01

    We explore the relationship between tenure and forest income in 271 villages throughout the tropics. We find that state-owned forests generate more forest income than private and community-owned forests both per household and per hectare. We explore whether forest income varies according to the e...

  2. Implementing Participatory Decision Making in Forest Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananda, Jayanath

    2007-04-01

    Forest policy decisions are often a source of debate, conflict, and tension in many countries. The debate over forest land-use decisions often hinges on disagreements about societal values related to forest resource use. Disagreements on social value positions are fought out repeatedly at local, regional, national, and international levels at an enormous social cost. Forest policy problems have some inherent characteristics that make them more difficult to deal with. On the one hand, forest policy decisions involve uncertainty, long time scales, and complex natural systems and processes. On the other hand, such decisions encompass social, political, and cultural systems that are evolving in response to forces such as globalization. Until recently, forest policy was heavily influenced by the scientific community and various economic models of optimal resource use. However, growing environmental awareness and acceptance of participatory democracy models in policy formulation have forced the public authorities to introduce new participatory mechanisms to manage forest resources. Most often, the efforts to include the public in policy formulation can be described using the lower rungs of Arnstein’s public participation typology. This paper presents an approach that incorporates stakeholder preferences into forest land-use policy using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). An illustrative case of regional forest-policy formulation in Australia is used to demonstrate the approach. It is contended that applying the AHP in the policy process could considerably enhance the transparency of participatory process and public acceptance of policy decisions.

  3. Forests and Forest Cover - MDC_NaturalForestCommunity

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A point feature class of NFCs - Natural Forest Communities. Natural Forest Community shall mean all stands of trees (including their associated understory) which...

  4. Forests and Forest Cover - Ozark National Forest Service Compartments (polygon)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Ozark - St. Francis National Forests stand inventory data for vegetation, maintained in polygon format. Compartment is defined as a division of forest for purposes...

  5. MONITORING AND CONTROL OF RISKS FOR THE EXECUTION PROCESS OF FOREST ROADS

    OpenAIRE

    Cristian SLINCU; Valentina Doina CIOBANU; Dumitrascu, Adela-Eliza; Stelian Alexandru BORZ

    2013-01-01

    In the context of sustainable forest management, full forest accessibility by a permanent network of forest roads, represents an imperative of our time, because the forest mechanization and use of modern working processes, both in tending and cultural interventions, as well as in timber harvesting. Most forest roads are primarily industrial roads but many are also a public benefit by providing access for recreation activities, to utilities and facilities. The case study details a probabilisti...

  6. Landscape biogeochemistry reflected in shifting distributions of chemical traits in the Amazon forest canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asner, Gregory P.; Anderson, Christopher B.; Martin, Roberta E.; Tupayachi, Raul; Knapp, David E.; Sinca, Felipe

    2015-07-01

    Tropical forest functional diversity, which is a measure of the diversity of organismal interactions with the environment, is poorly understood despite its importance for linking evolutionary biology to ecosystem biogeochemistry. Functional diversity is reflected in functional traits such as the concentrations of different compounds in leaves or the density of leaf mass, which are related to plant activities such as plant defence, nutrient cycling, or growth. In the Amazonian lowlands, river movement and microtopography control nutrient mobility, which may influence functional trait distributions. Here we use airborne laser-guided imaging spectroscopy to develop maps of 16 forest canopy traits, throughout four large landscapes that harbour three common forest community types on the Madre de Dios and Tambopata rivers in southwestern Amazonia. Our maps, which are based on quantitative chemometric analysis of forest canopies with visible-to-near infrared (400-2,500 nm) spectroscopy, reveal substantial variation in canopy traits and their distributions within and among forested landscapes. Forest canopy trait distributions are arranged in a nested pattern, with location along rivers controlling trait variation between different landscapes, and microtopography controlling trait variation within landscapes. We suggest that processes of nutrient deposition and depletion drive increasing phosphorus limitation, and a corresponding increase in plant defence, in an eastward direction from the base of the Andes into the Amazon Basin.

  7. Forest edge burning in the Brazilian Amazon promoted by escaping fires from managed pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-Crespo, Ana; Oliveira, Paulo J. C.; Boit, Alice; Cardoso, Manoel; Thonicke, Kirsten

    2015-10-01

    Understanding to what extent different land uses influence fire occurrence in the Amazonian forest is particularly relevant for its conservation. We evaluate the relationship between forest fires and different anthropogenic activities linked to a variety of land uses in the Brazilian states of Mato Grosso, Pará, and Rondônia. We combine the new high-resolution (30 m) TerraClass land use database with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer burned area data for 2008 and the extreme dry year of 2010. Excluding the non-forest class, most of the burned area was found in pastures, primary and secondary forests, and agricultural lands across all three states, while only around 1% of the total was located in deforested areas. The trend in burned area did not follow the declining deforestation rates from 2001 to 2010, and the spatial overlap between deforested and burned areas was only 8% on average. This supports the claim of deforestation being disconnected from burning since 2005. Forest degradation showed an even lower correlation with burned area. We found that fires used in managing pastoral and agricultural lands that escape into the neighboring forests largely contribute to forest fires. Such escaping fires are responsible for up to 52% of the burned forest edges adjacent to burned pastures and up to 22% of the burned forest edges adjacent to burned agricultural fields, respectively. Our findings call for the development of control and monitoring plans to prevent fires from escaping from managed lands into forests to support effective land use and ecosystem management.

  8. Seasonal variation in urinary and salivary reproductive hormone levels in Amazonian manatees (Trichechus inunguis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Rodrigo S; Rosas, Fernando C W; da Silva, Vera M F; Graham, Laura H; Viau, Priscila; Nichi, Marcilio; Oliveira, Claudio A

    2015-09-01

    The Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis) is a threatened aquatic mammal endemic to the Amazon basin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the urinary and salivary reproductive hormone levels of captive Amazonian manatees collected during two seasons of the year. Salivary samples from four males and urinary and salivary samples from three females were collected during two seasons (March-June and September-November) over two consecutive years. Salivary testosterone in males was measured by radioimmunoassay and reproductive hormones in females (salivary progesterone and oestradiol and urinary progestogens, oestrogens and luteinising hormone) were measured by enzyme immunoassay. The data were analysed in a 2×2 factorial design, where the factors were year and season. There was no effect of year or season for salivary testosterone. All female hormones showed a seasonal effect (higher hormone levels during March-June than September-November) or an interaction between year and season (Pmanatees; however, apparently only females exhibit reproductive quiescence during the non-breeding season. Further long-term studies are necessary to elucidate which environmental parameters are related to reproductive seasonality in T. inunguis and how this species responds physiologically to those stimuli. PMID:24690451

  9. Land use intensity trajectories on Amazonian pastures derived from Landsat time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufin, Philippe; Müller, Hannes; Pflugmacher, Dirk; Hostert, Patrick

    2015-09-01

    Monitoring changes in land use intensity of grazing systems in the Amazon is an important prerequisite to study the complex political and socio-economic forces driving Amazonian deforestation. Remote sensing offers the potential to map pasture vegetation over large areas, but mapping pasture conditions consistently through time is not a trivial task because of seasonal changes associated with phenology and data gaps from clouds and cloud shadows. In this study, we tested spectral-temporal metrics derived from intra-annual Landsat time series to distinguish between grass-dominated and woody pastures. The abundance of woody vegetation on pastures is an indicator for management intensity, since the duration and intensity of land use steer secondary succession rates, apart from climate and soil conditions. We used the developed Landsat-based metrics to analyze pasture intensity trajectories between 1985 and 2012 in Novo Progresso, Brazil, finding that woody vegetation cover generally decreased after four to ten years of grazing activity. Pastures established in the 80s and early 90s showed a higher fraction of woody vegetation during their initial land use history than pastures established in the early 2000s. Historic intensity trajectories suggested a trend towards more intensive land use in the last decade, which aligns well with regional environmental policies and market dynamics. This study demonstrates the potential of dense Landsat time series to monitor land-use intensification on Amazonian pastures.

  10. The discovery of the Amazonian tree flora with an updated checklist of all known tree taxa

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Steege, Hans; Vaessen, Rens W.; Cárdenas-López, Dairon; Sabatier, Daniel; Antonelli, Alexandre; de Oliveira, Sylvia Mota; Pitman, Nigel C. A.; Jørgensen, Peter Møller; Salomão, Rafael P.

    2016-01-01

    Amazonia is the most biodiverse rainforest on Earth, and the debate over how many tree species grow there remains contentious. Here we provide a checklist of all tree species collected to date, and describe spatial and temporal trends in data accumulation. We report 530,025 unique collections of trees in Amazonia, dating between 1707 and 2015, for a total of 11,676 species in 1225 genera and 140 families. These figures support recent estimates of 16,000 total Amazonian tree species based on ecological plot data from the Amazonian Tree Diversity Network. Botanical collection in Amazonia is characterized by three major peaks, centred around 1840, 1920, and 1980, which are associated with flora projects and the establishment of inventory plots. Most collections were made in the 20th century. The number of collections has increased exponentially, but shows a slowdown in the last two decades. We find that a species’ range size is a better predictor of the number of times it has been collected than the species’ estimated basin-wide population size. Finding, describing, and documenting the distribution of the remaining species will require coordinated efforts at under-collected sites. PMID:27406027

  11. Young organic matter as a source of carbon dioxide outgassing from Amazonian rivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayorga, E; Aufdenkampe, A K; Masiello, C A; Krusche, A V; Hedges, J I; Quay, P D; Richey, J E; Brown, T A

    2005-06-23

    Rivers are generally supersaturated with respect to carbon dioxide, resulting in large gas evasion fluxes that can be a significant component of regional net carbon budgets. Amazonian rivers were recently shown to outgas more than ten times the amount of carbon exported to the ocean in the form of total organic carbon or dissolved inorganic carbon. High carbon dioxide concentrations in rivers originate largely from in situ respiration of organic carbon, but little agreement exists about the sources or turnover times of this carbon. Here we present results of an extensive survey of the carbon isotope composition ({sup 13}C and {sup 14}C) of dissolved inorganic carbon and three size-fractions of organic carbon across the Amazonian river system. We find that respiration of contemporary organic matter (less than 5 years old) originating on land and near rivers is the dominant source of excess carbon dioxide that drives outgassing in mid-size to large rivers, although we find that bulk organic carbon fractions transported by these rivers range from tens to thousands of years in age. We therefore suggest that a small, rapidly cycling pool of organic carbon is responsible for the large carbon fluxes from land to water to atmosphere in the humid tropics.

  12. The discovery of the Amazonian tree flora with an updated checklist of all known tree taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Steege, Hans; Vaessen, Rens W; Cárdenas-López, Dairon; Sabatier, Daniel; Antonelli, Alexandre; de Oliveira, Sylvia Mota; Pitman, Nigel C A; Jørgensen, Peter Møller; Salomão, Rafael P

    2016-01-01

    Amazonia is the most biodiverse rainforest on Earth, and the debate over how many tree species grow there remains contentious. Here we provide a checklist of all tree species collected to date, and describe spatial and temporal trends in data accumulation. We report 530,025 unique collections of trees in Amazonia, dating between 1707 and 2015, for a total of 11,676 species in 1225 genera and 140 families. These figures support recent estimates of 16,000 total Amazonian tree species based on ecological plot data from the Amazonian Tree Diversity Network. Botanical collection in Amazonia is characterized by three major peaks, centred around 1840, 1920, and 1980, which are associated with flora projects and the establishment of inventory plots. Most collections were made in the 20th century. The number of collections has increased exponentially, but shows a slowdown in the last two decades. We find that a species' range size is a better predictor of the number of times it has been collected than the species' estimated basin-wide population size. Finding, describing, and documenting the distribution of the remaining species will require coordinated efforts at under-collected sites. PMID:27406027

  13. Climatic trends in the Amazonian area of Ecuador: Classical and multifractal analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán, H.; Kalauzi, A.; Llerena, G.; Sucoshañay, J.; Piedra, D.

    The climate evolution and change in the Amazonian area is very important at least at a continental scale involving Latin America where more than 550 million people live. The objective of the present study was to investigate, from an environmental perspective, the climatic trends in the Amazonian area of continental Ecuador. We performed both classical and multifractal analyses of these trends on four climatic variables (maximum and minimum temperature, evaporation and evaporation/precipitation ratio). Data were collected from Puyo meteorological station, Pastaza Province, Ecuador. Data sets covered 31 years (from January 1974 to September 2005). Each time series consisted of 380 months. Piecewise regression analyses with breaking point showed two regimes with a cutoff ranging from t = 80 months (maximum and minimum temperature) to t = 133 months for the evaporation pattern (determination coefficient ≥ 0.979) while the multifractal analyses showed an increasing complexity within each climatic variable. All the considered climatic variables showed an increase since 1974 to approximately 1985. After that some type of smoother increase was observed.

  14. Seasonal variation of serum biochemical values of Amazonian snakes (Boa constrictor constrictor kept in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis José da Silva Lima

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In northern Brazil, the seasons are not well defined compared to the South and Southeast regions, due to a hot and humid equatorial climate with a rainy season, known as the Amazonian winter, and a period with less rain, known as the Amazonian summer. The goal of this study was to evaluate the biochemical variation of serum from the Amazon Boa constrictor by correlating the values with the seasons of the region. A biochemical analysis of the serum was performed (AST, ALT, LDH, ALP, calcium, uric acid, phosphorus, total protein, albumin and globulin using 31 individuals of Boa constrictor constrictor, which were kept in captivity. It was observed that eight of the ten parameters were higher in the winter compared to the summer (total protein, albumin, globulin, ALT, AST, ALP, LDH and calcium. The ALT, AST and calcium values had statistically significant differences for the summer and winter, while the other parameters appear to be influenced by seasonality. This was the first study of snakes kept in captivity that analyzed the serum chemistry profile of Boa constrictor constrictor from the state of Pará, Brazil.

  15. Hydrological pulse regulating the bacterial heterotrophic metabolism between Amazonian mainstems and floodplain lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Oliveira Vidal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated in situ rates of bacterial carbon processing in Amazonian floodplain lakes and mainstems, during both high and low water phases (p < 0.05. Our results showed that Bacterial Production (BP was lower and more variable than Bacterial Respiration (BR, determined as total respiration. Bacterial Carbon Demand (BCD was mostly accounted by BR and presented the same pattern that BR in both water phases. Bacterial growth efficiency showed a wide range (0.2–23% and low mean value of 3 and 6 %, (in high and low water respectively suggesting that dissolved organic carbon (DOC was mostly allocated to catabolic metabolism. However, BGE was regulated by BP in low water phase. Consequently, changes in BGE showed the same pattern that BP. In addition, the hydrological pulse effects on mainstems and floodplains lakes connectivity were found for BP and BGE in low water. Multiple correlation analyses revealed that indexes of organic matter quality (chlorophyll-a, N stable isotopes and C/N ratios were the strongest seasonal drivers of bacterial carbon metabolism. Our work indicated that: (1 the bacterial metabolism was mostly driven by respiration in Amazonian aquatic ecosystems resulting in low BGE in either high and low water phase; (2 the hydrological pulse regulated

  16. Differential expression of a retrotransposable element, Rex6, in Colossoma macropomum fish from different Amazonian environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Cassiane Martins; Mareco, Edson Assunção; Silva, Maeli Dal Pai; Martins, Cesar; Alves-Costa, Fernanda Antunes

    2014-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are DNA sequences that have the ability to move and replicate within the genomes. TEs can be classified according to their intermediates of transposition, RNA (retrotransposons) or DNA. In some aquatic organisms, it has been observed that environmental factors such as pH, temperature and pollution may stimulate differential transcription and mobilization of retrotransposons. In light of this information, the present study sought to evaluate the expression of Rex6 TE transcripts in Colossoma macropomum, which is a very commercially exploited fish in Brazil. In order to establish a comparative analysis using real-time PCR, the samples were collected from Amazonian rivers with different physical and chemical characteristics (distinguished by clear water and black water). Quantitative RT-PCR analyses revealed a differential pattern of expression between tissues collected from different types of water (clear and black waters). When it came to the hepatic and muscle tissues sampled, the levels of Rex6 transcripts were significantly different between the two Amazonian water types. These results suggest that environmental conditions operate differently in the regulation of Rex6 transcription in C. macropomum, results which have implications in the reshaping of the genome against environmental variations. PMID:25089227

  17. Malaria in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, an Atlantic Forest area: an assessment using the health surveillance service

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The lethality of malaria in the extra-Amazonian region is more than 70 times higher than in Amazonia itself. Recently, several studies have shown that autochthonous malaria is not a rare event in the Brazilian southeastern states in the Atlantic Forest biome. Information about autochthonous malaria in the state of Rio de Janeiro (RJ) is scarce. This study aims to assess malaria cases reported to the Health Surveillance System of the State of Rio de Janeiro between 2000-2010. An average of 90 ...

  18. The Potential of Brazil's Forest Sector for Mitigating Global Warming under the Kyoto Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fearnside, Philip M. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia INPA, Av. Andre Araujo, 1756, C.P. 478, 69011-970 Manaus-Amazonas (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    Activities in Brazil's forest sector have substantial potential for mitigating global warming as well as additional environmental and other benefits. Silvicultural plantations of different types, reduced impact logging, and deforestation avoidance all have potential mitigation roles. The magnitude of the annual emission from recent rates of deforestation in Amazonia presents an opportunity for carbon (C) benefits through reducing current rates of deforestation. Measures related to Amazonian deforestation have greater potential carbon benefits than do options such as plantation silviculture, but much depends on how benefits are calculated. Procedures are needed for assessing the environmental and social impacts of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects. 55 refs.

  19. An annotated checklist of trees and relatives in tropical montane forests from southeast Peru: the importance of continue collecting

    OpenAIRE

    William Farfan-Rios; Karina Garcia-Cabrera; Norma Salinas; Mireya N. Raurau-Quisiyupanqui; Silman, Miles R.

    2015-01-01

    The tropical Andes and adjacent Amazon are Earth’s highest biodiversity hotspot. Manu National Park in southeastern Peru encompasses an entire watershed, ranging from Andean highlands to Amazonian lowlands, and is a megadiverse landscape on the Andes to Amazon transition. Here we present an annotated checklist of trees and related species is along an elevation gradient in the Manu Biosphere Reserve that runs from sub-montane forests at 800 m elevation up to the tree line at 3625 m. Based on a...

  20. Study on the planning principles of urban forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dai Xing'an; Zhang Qingfei

    2006-01-01

    The urban forest is the main body for the urban forestry management. There are not unified rules and standards for the planning of the urban forest yet in China. This paper discusses the planning principles of the urban forest: the priority of the ecological function, the adaptation to local conditions, the optimization in the whole system, the mutual dependence of forest and city, the culture continuance and recreation satisfaction, sustainable development and operability, etc. This paper takes Changsha as an example to elaborate the planning principles of the urban forest.Firstly, Changsha urban forest ecosphere is composed of the eco-garden, the round-the-city forest belt, the ecological isolation belt, the green channel, the landscape of the rivers and streams, the forest park, the biodiversity reserve and the eco-forest in suburb area. It aims to make every kind of ecological essential factors organically merge into the complex city ecosystem to build an eco-city, to strengthen the connection of wide-open space with various habitats spots, to protnote resident's accessibility, to perfect landscape ecology, and to make full use of the ecological function of urban forest. When we construct the urban forest, we must optimize the comprehensive benefit and make the urban forest structure and the layout in the best condition in order to build the harmonious green city for both man and nature to realize the whole optimization of the city system by the complex functions of the urban forest in ecology, environmental protection, landscape, recreation, etc.

  1. EFFECT OF FALLOW LAND, CULTIVATED PASTURE AND ABANDONED PASTURE ON SOIL FERTILITY IN TWO DEFORESTED AMAZONIAN REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A DIEZ

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of two practices adopted by settlers (abandoned pasture and fallow land on soil fertility of two deforested Amazonian regions (Belém-Pará and Ariquemes-Rondônia was studied. Whenever possible, cultivated pasture, over similar time periods in both cases and in natural forest, were employed as soil fertility reference standards. Nutrient dynamics was studied using the electroultra-filtration technique. In general, deforestation, as practiced in these areas, has a degrading effect on soil fertility. The effect of burning normally leads to a pH rise caused by ash. This usually yields a favorable transitory effect, improving soil fertility conditions, however not sufficient for plant needs, as inferred from the low P and K levels. Cattle excrements, improved the K level for cultivated pastures. Qualitative differences related to N were observed between cultivated pasture and both, fallow land or abandoned pasture. In the first, a certain recovery of available N levels was detected, mainly affecting the EUF-Norg fraction. On the other hand, a regeneration of organic compounds, in the fallow land and the abandoned pasture, closely related to those existing in the natural forest, was verified. This is mainly due to the presence of a higher proportion of NO3-_N and, consequently, a EUF-Norg/EUF-NO3- ratio close to 1.Comparou-se o efeito de duas práticas de manejo, ou seja, o abandono da pastagem e o pousio, sobre a fertilidade do solo de duas regiões desmatadas da Amazônia (Belém-Pará e Ariquemes-Rondônia. Quando possível, pastagens cultivadas por períodos semelhantes e florestas nativas foram usadas como padrões da fertilidade do solo. A dinâmica dos nutrientes foi estuda pela técnica da eletroultrafiltração (EUF. De um modo geral, o desmatamento, como praticado nessas regiões, tem efeito degradador sobre a fertilidade do solo. A queima da biomassa vegetal normalmente leva a um aumento do pH causado pelas cinzas, resultando

  2. Percent Forest Cover (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCTFuture) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water....

  3. Percent Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCT) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water. More...

  4. Forest Opening in Multipurpose Private Forest - Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hribernik, Boštjan; Potočnik, Igor

    2013-01-01

    In the past, forest opening with forest roads was planned on the basis of forest wood production. By discovering the importance of other forest roles, gradual integration of individual role into planning processes of forest opening started. The modern approach to the planning of forest opening of multipurpose forests requires a simultaneous consideration of all forest roles. Economic justification for enlarging the existing forest road network is based on the density of forest roads, where th...

  5. US Forest Service National Forest System Trails

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the world wide web that depicts National Forest Service trails that have been approved for publication. This service is used internally and...

  6. US Forest Service Administrative Forest Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting all the National Forest System lands administered by an unit. These areas encompasse private lands, other governmental agency...

  7. US Forest Service Healthy Forest Restoration Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting areas designated within National Forest System Lands, in 37 States, that are eligible for insect and disease treatments under...

  8. Mondrian Forests: Efficient Online Random Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshminarayanan, Balaji; Roy, Daniel M.; Teh, Yee Whye

    2014-01-01

    Ensembles of randomized decision trees, usually referred to as random forests, are widely used for classification and regression tasks in machine learning and statistics. Random forests achieve competitive predictive performance and are computationally efficient to train and test, making them excellent candidates for real-world prediction tasks. The most popular random forest variants (such as Breiman's random forest and extremely randomized trees) operate on batches of training data. Online ...

  9. Gale Crater: An Amazonian Impact Crater Lake at the Plateau/Plain Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrol, N. A.; Grin, E. A.

    1998-01-01

    sedimentary material that can originate both from drainage of the regional subsurface aquifer, and/or from surface flood. The central deposit shows three main levels: (a) the current crater floor (north of Gale), (b) an ancient level about 200 rn higher (south of Gale), and (c) the massive terraced deposits. A crater statistics on the 15,400 kM2 area of the crater floor and deposit [3,41 gave: 259+/-112.4 craters, most of them partly embayed in the sedimentary deposit, and all inferior to 5-km diameter. For superimposed crater population only, the result is 194+/-112. The deduced relative ages ranges from Early to Middle Amazonian. The population of craters are comparable for the three levels, implying that the last sedimentation/erosion episode on Gale was recent and affected the whole crater. The streamlined morphology of the border of the deposit, the layering, the channels, and the terraces are compatible with a significant fluvio-lacustrine history of the site. Multiple levels may suggest different episodes, but the common statistical age of the three levels shows that the last episode involved the whole crater. The origin of the lake water in Gale may have varied in time. Three major contributions have been proposed: (a) the drainage of the regional underground aquifer by Gale crater over an area of 110-km radius around the crater which would have provided approximately 1,600 cubic km of water, (b), surface drainage entering Gale by the south and north rims. In the south, a 250-km long system originates in the cratered uplands in a Noachian crater material plain (Nc), and crosses Hesperian and Amazonian crater material plains (AHc) northward [1]. Several fluvial systems originate in the Aeolis Mensae, east of Gale. They may had two functions in time: to recharge, the underground aquifer in the region of Gale, and to supply surface water in the crater by overspilling the northern rim, and (c) surface floods that originated from the rising of the water level in the

  10. Differential Expression of Myogenic Regulatory Factor Genes in the Skeletal Muscles of Tambaqui Colossoma macropomum (Cuvier 1818) from Amazonian Black and Clear Water

    OpenAIRE

    Alves-Costa, F. A.; Barbosa, C. M.; Aguiar, R. C. M.; Mareco, E.A.; Dal-Pai-Silva, M.

    2013-01-01

    Hypothesizing that the Amazonian water system differences would affect the expression of muscle growth-related genes in juvenile tambaqui Colossoma macropomum (Cuvier 1818), this study aimed to analyze the morphometric data and expression of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) in the white and red muscle from tambaqui obtained from clear and black Amazonian water systems. All of the MRF transcript levels (myod, myf5, myogenin, and mrf4) were significantly lower in the red muscle from black wat...

  11. Moving beyond a snapshot to understand changes in the well-being of native Amazonians : panel evidence (2002-2006) from Bolivia.

    OpenAIRE

    Godoy, Ricardo; Reyes García, Victòria; Gravlee, Clarence C.; Huanca L., Tomás; Leonard, William R.; McDade, Thomas W.; Tanner, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Forces such as the opening of trade, globalization, multinational corporate resource extraction, urbanization, acculturation, and colonization catalyze economic, ecological, and sociocultural change, which can threaten the well‐being and habitat of native Amazonians. Understanding these forces is of paramount importance to improve the well‐being of native Amazonians and to foster the conservation of biological diversity, yet most analyses of these forces rely on cross‐sectional data. Though a...

  12. Criteria and Indicators for Sustainable Forest Management in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Rabiul Islam; Chamhuri Siwar; Shaharuddin M. Ismail; Nurul H. Chamhuri

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: This study investigated the timber certification of sustainable forest management and the criteria and indicators for sustainable forest management. Approach: Sustainable forest management is an important role in the forestry sector and takes a major player in Malaysia's sustainable development. It is a management regime that integrates and balances social, economic, ecological, cultural and spiritual needs to present and future generations. Results: We analyzed the pillars...

  13. Developing sustainable forest management in North-West Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Elbakidze, Marine; Angelstam, Per; Axelsson, Robert

    2007-01-01

    • The Russian Federation is part of the Montreal process supporting the development of sustainable forest management (SFM). • The SFM concept encompasses ecological, economic and socio-cultural dimensions, all of which should be balanced and meet agreed standards. • We compare implementation concepts aiming at sustainable landscapes, such as Model Forest and Biosphere Reserve, with regular approaches for forest landscape management. • Since the mid 1990’s several international and national SF...

  14. Bushmeat networks link the forest to urban areas in the trifrontier region between Brazil, Colombia, and Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie van Vliet

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have intended to quantify urban consumption and trade in Amazonian towns. However, little is still known about the different ways in which bushmeat is made available in urban areas, including commercial and noncommercial flows, and how those flows contribute to link forests to urban livelihoods. In this study we qualitatively describe the structure and functioning of bushmeat flows in terms of species, catchment area, stakeholders involved, and the motivations for their activity in the main towns of the Amazon trifrontier region between Brazil, Colombia, and Peru. We show that bushmeat trade to urban areas exists under an organized but invisible commodity chain providing a source of income to about 195 persons. Bushmeat is made available either directly from the hunter to the urban consumer, at the main market place, or in food stalls and restaurants. On the Colombian border, the trade is totally invisible, whereas in Peru and Brazil, bushmeat is sold in open markets despite regulations. The catchment area comprises the main rivers: up to Caballococha along the Amazon River, along the Atacuary River in Peru, along the Javari River between Peru and Brazil, and along the Loretoyacu and Amacayacu rivers in Colombia and in periurban forests. Although the trade is rather localized (no commercial flows to larger towns, international transborder trade is commonplace, disregarding Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora regulations. Bushmeat clients in urban areas are mainly nonindigenous or mestizos who can afford bushmeat as a luxury meal. Instead, indigenous people in urban areas do not access bushmeat through the market but rather through their social networks with whom they maintain noncommercial flows including immediate exchange and long-term exchange mechanisms. Although bushmeat is no longer consumed as a daily meal among urban and periurban indigenous families, it constitutes what could be

  15. Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum saloboense n. sp. (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae parasite of Monodelphis emiliae (Marsupiala: Didelphidae from Amazonian Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lainson R.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum saloboense n. sp., is described in the Brazilian opossum Monodelphis emiliae (Thomas, 1912 from primary forest in the Salobo area of the Serra dos Carajás (6° S, 50° 18′ W Pará State, North Brazil. Two morphologically different trypomastigotes were noted. Slender forms, regarded as immature parasites, have a poorly developed undulating membrane adhering closely to the body: large, broad forms with a well developed membrane are considered to be the mature trypomastigotes and have a mean total length of 71.2 μm (62.4-76.2 and a width of 6.1 (5.0-8.0. Infections studied in two opossums were of very low parasitaemia. The large size of T. (M. saloboense readily distinguishes it from the two previously described members of the subgenus Megatrypanum of neotropical marsupials, T. (M. freitasi Régo et al., 1957 of Didelphis azarae and D. marsupialis, and T. (M. samueli Mello, 1977 of Monodelphis domesticus, which measure only 49.0-51.5 μm and 42.4 μm respectively. No infections were obtained in hamsters inoculated with triturated liver and spleen from one infected M. emiliae, or in laboratory mice inoculated with epimastigotes from a blood-agar culture. No division stages could be detected in the internal organs or the peripheral blood.

  16. Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) saloboense n. sp. (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) parasite of Monodelphis emiliae (Marsupiala: Didelphidae) from Amazonian Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lainson, R; Da Silva, F M M; Franco, C M

    2008-06-01

    Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) soloboense n. sp., is described in the Brazilian opossum Monodelphis emiliae (Thomas, 1912) from primary forest in the Salobo area of the Serra dos Carajás (6 degrees S, 50 degrees 18' W) Pará State, North Brazil. Two morphologically different trypomastigotes were noted. Slender forms, regarded as immature parasites, have a poorly developed undulating membrane adhering closely to the body: large, broad forms with a well developed membrane are considered to be the mature trypomastigotes and have a mean total length of 71.2 microm (62.4-76.2) and a width of 6.1 (5.0-8.0). Infections studied in two opossums were of very low parasitaemia. The large size of T. (M.) saloboense readily distinguishes it from the two previously described members of the subgenus Megatrypanum of neotropical marsupials, T. (M.) freitasi Régo et al., 1957 of Didelphis ozarae and D. marsupialis, and T. (M.) samueli Mello, 1977 of Monodelphis domesticus, which measure only 49.0-51.5 microm and 42.4 microm respectively. No infections were obtained in hamsters inoculated with triturated liver and spleen from one infected M. emiliae, or in laboratory mice inoculated with epimastigotes from a blood-agar culture. No division stages could be detected in the internal organs or the peripheral blood. PMID:18642501

  17. Forest Health Detectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Tara L.

    2014-01-01

    "Forest health" is an important concept often not covered in tree, forest, insect, or fungal ecology and biology. With minimal, inexpensive equipment, students can investigate and conduct their own forest health survey to assess the percentage of trees with natural or artificial wounds or stress. Insects and diseases in the forest are…

  18. Alternatives for Bulgarian forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Päivinen, R.; Nabuurs, G.J.

    2001-01-01

    The European Forest Information Scenario Model (EFISCEN) is an area-based forest matrix model, which is especially suitable for projections of forest resources of large areas under assumptions of total national felling. EFISCEN uses time steps of five years and national forest inventory data. The in

  19. Structuring of Forest Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Farber

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Structuring forest communities is considered as a pre-studying procedure. The paper defines the fundamental structuring terms and describes the theory behind it. Factors hampering forest typology development are discussed. The areas of forest typology promising regarding sustainable and multi-purposed forest management are outlined.

  20. Potential application in biocatalysis of mycelium-bound lipases from Amazonian fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, 212 fungi were isolated from Amazon region plants, aiming to obtain mycelium bound-lipase-producing biocatalysts. These isolates were submitted to hydrolytic and synthetic activity assays. When submitted to the tributyrine substrate test, 87% of the isolates showed hydrolytic activity. Of these, 30% showed good growth in lipase inducing liquid media and were submitted to evaluation of synthetic activity in esterification and transesterification reactions in organic solvents. The nine fungi which had the best synthetic activity were evaluated in the (R, S)-2-octanol resolution reaction, in order to verify the enantioselectivity of mycelium-bound lipases. The isolate UEA115 was the most versatile biocatalyst, showing good performance in esterification reactions (conversion > 90%) and good ability for the resolution of (R, S)-2-octanol (ees 29%; eep 99%; c 22%; E > 200). Thus, this study has demonstrated the great potential of the Amazonian fungi as lipase suppliers for biocatalysts.(author)

  1. The Montesbelos mass-flow (southern Amazonian craton, Brazil): a Paleoproterozoic volcanic debris avalanche deposit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roverato, M.

    2016-07-01

    The present contribution documents the extremely well-preserved Paleoproterozoic architecture of the Montesbelos breccia (named here for the first time), which is interpreted as a rare example of a subaerial paleoproterozoic (>1.85 Ga) granular-dominated mass-flow deposit, few of which are recorded in the literature. Montesbelos deposit is part of the andesitic Sobreiro Formation located in the São Felix do Xingu region, southern Amazonian craton, northern Brazil. The large volume, high variability of textural features, presence of broken clasts, angular low sphericity fragments, mono- to heterolithic character, and the size of the outcrops point to a volcanic debris avalanche flow. Fluviatile sandy material and debris flows are associated with the deposit as a result of post-depositional reworking processes.

  2. Bioactive properties of Tynanthus panurensis (Bureau) Sanwith bark extract, the Amazonian "clavo huasca".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Lidia; Acero, Nuria; Galán, Antonio; Perez-García, Carmen; Alguacil, Luis Fernando; Muñoz-Mingarro, Dolores

    2011-09-01

    Tynanthus panurensis (Bureau) Sanwith (Bignoniaceae) is a liana vine used in traditional Amazonian medicine as a tonic and energizer as well as a treatment for rheumatism. These traditional indications prompted this study of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of T. panurensis bark extract (ETP). Phytochemical analysis of ETP showed the presence of saponins and a high concentration of phenols and flavonoids. A battery of in vitro tests revealed that the extract has free radical-scavenging antioxidant properties and reduces microsomal lipid peroxidation, uric acid synthesis, and tumor necrosis factor-α production. The anti-inflammatory properties of ETP were further confirmed in vivo in a rat carrageenan edema model, in which the extract exhibited a potent activity. These results support the idea that T. panurensis bark extract could be beneficial for treating inflammation and are in agreement with one of the main traditional uses of this plant. PMID:21488753

  3. The association of genetic markers and malaria infection in the Brazilian Western Amazonian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Beiguelman

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Almost all individuals (182 belonging to an Amazonian riverine population (Portuchuelo, RO, Brazil were investigated for ascertaining data on epidemiological aspects of malaria. Thirteen genetic blood polymorphisms were investigated (ABO, MNSs, Rh, Kell, and Duffy systems, haptoglobins, hemoglobins, and the enzymes glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glyoxalase, phosphoglucomutase, carbonic anhydrase, red cell acid phosphatase, and esterase D. The results indicated that the Duffy system is associated with susceptibility to malaria, as observed in other endemic areas. Moreover, suggestions also arose indicating that the EsD and Rh loci may be significantly associated with resistance to malaria. If statistical type II errors and sample stratification could be ruled out, hypotheses on the existence of a causal mechanism or an unknown closely linked locus involved in susceptibility to malaria infection may explain the present findings.

  4. Forests: An International and Interdisciplinary Scientific Open Access Journal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J. Jokela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Forests was established to provide comprehensive coverage on the ecology, conservation and management of forests, with the first issue published in March 2010. As an international and multi-disciplinary journal, Forests has provided a forum for publishing process–based and applied scholarly articles that span the technological, environmental, cultural, economic, and social realm associated with the management, use, conservation, and understanding of forested ecosystems. By all accounts, Forests is well poised toward becoming a premier publication outlet in this diverse field of study. In its short tenure, Forests received its first Impact Factor in 2013 (1.094—Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE/Web of Science, which placed it 25th out of 62 Forestry journals. Notably, Forests ranked first among the open access journals in this category.

  5. Community capacity building towards sustainable forest management in the Long Beach Model Forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, M. [Long Beach Model Forest, BC (Canada); Paradis, D. [Ma-Mook Development Corporation, Tofino, BC (Canada)

    1999-09-01

    Cooperative joint problem solving processes which integrate social, environmental, economic and cultural values of all who value the use of forests are described as a prerequisite, and as the most useful way of building community capacity towards sustainable forest management. In the context of the Long Beach Model Forest, which comprises an area of 400,000 hectares, the most important components of the process are a community internship program that includes local youth, trained and employed as research and project apprentices, and a rainforest interpretive centre (RIC) which provides community programs that are designed to engage people on issues, and increase interest and awareness about sustainability and resource management. The RIC provides a growing resource library that is available to the public, an ongoing guest speaker series to learn more about local research, information about the elements of sustainable forest management, First Nations' perspectives, and rainforest ecology. It also delivers interpretive programs to schools, youth groups and community events in the area on topics such as rainforest and marine ecosystems, biodiversity, forest values, sustainability topics and current forest issues. Most importantly, by promoting and providing transparency between native communities, forest companies and institutions, the RIC and the Model Forest Program help to forge a collective vision of sustainable forest management.

  6. The Diversity of Bitter Manioc (Manihot Esculenta Crantz Cultivation in a Whitewater Amazonian Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Fraser

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available While bitter manioc has been one of the most important staple crops in the central Amazon for thousands of years, there have been few studies of its cultivation in the fertile whitewater landscapes of this region. Anthropological research on bitter manioc cultivation in the Amazon has focused almost exclusively on long-fallow shifting cultivation in marginal upland areas of low soil fertility. This has contributed to the persistence of the oversimplified notion that because bitter manioc is well adapted to infertile upland soils; it cannot yield well in alluvial and/or fertile soils. I hypothesized that bitter manioc cultivation would be well adapted to the fertile soils of the whitewater landscapes of the central Amazon because of the centrality of this crop to subsistence in this region. In this article, I examine one such whitewater landscape, the middle Madeira River, Amazonas, Brazil, where smallholders cultivate bitter manioc on fertile Amazonian Dark Earths (ADE and floodplain soils, and on infertile Oxisols and Ultisols. In this region, cultivation on fertile soils tends to be short-cycled, characterised by short fallowing (0–6 years and shorter cropping periods (5–12 months with a predominance of low starch fast maturing “weak” landraces. By contrast, cultivation on infertile soils is normally long-cycled, characterised by longer fallows (>10 years and longer cropping periods (1–3 years with a predominance of high starch slow maturing “strong” landraces. This diversity in bitter manioc cultivation systems (landraces, fallow periods, soils demonstrates that Amazonian farmers have adapted bitter manioc cultivation to the specific characteristics of the landscapes that they inhabit. I conclude that contrary to earlier claims, there are no ecological limitations on growing bitter manioc in fertile soils, and therefore the cultivation of this crop in floodplain and ADE soils would have been possible in the pre-Columbian period.

  7. The role of Amazonian anthropogenic soils in shifting cultivation: learning from farmers' rationales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André B. Junqueira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated farmers' rationales to understand their decision making in relation to the use of fertile anthropogenic soils, i.e., Amazonian dark earths (ADE, and for dealing with changes in shifting cultivation in Central Amazonia. We analyzed qualitative information from 196 interviews with farmers in 21 riverine villages along the Madeira River. In order to decide about crop management options to attain their livelihood objectives, farmers rely on an integrated and dynamic understanding of their biophysical and social environment. Farmers associate fallow development with higher crop yields and lower weed pressure, but ADE is always associated with high yields and high weeding requirements. Amazonian dark earths are also seen as an opportunity to grow different crops and/or grow crops in more intensified management systems. However, farmers often maintain simultaneously intensive swiddens on ADE and extensive swiddens on nonanthropogenic soils. Farmers acknowledge numerous changes in their socioeconomic environment that affect their shifting cultivation systems, particularly their growing interaction with market economies and the incorporation of modern agricultural practices. Farmers considered that shifting cultivation systems on ADE tend to be more prone to changes leading to intensification, and we identified cases, e.g., swiddens used for watermelon cultivation, in which market demand led to overintensification and resulted in ADE degradation. This shows that increasing intensification can be a potential threat to ADE and can undermine the importance of these soils for agricultural production, for the conservation of agrobiodiversity, and for local livelihoods. Given that farmers have an integrated knowledge of their context and respond to socioeconomic and agro-ecological changes in their environment, we argue that understanding farmers' knowledge and rationales is crucial to identify sustainable pathways for the future of ADE and of

  8. Step selection techniques uncover the environmental predictors of space use patterns in flocks of Amazonian birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, Jonathan R; Mokross, Karl; Stouffer, Philip C; Lewis, Mark A

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the behavioral decisions behind animal movement and space use patterns is a key challenge for behavioral ecology. Tools to quantify these patterns from movement and animal-habitat interactions are vital for transforming ecology into a predictive science. This is particularly important in environments undergoing rapid anthropogenic changes, such as the Amazon rainforest, where animals face novel landscapes. Insectivorous bird flocks are key elements of avian biodiversity in the Amazonian ecosystem. Therefore, disentangling and quantifying the drivers behind their movement and space use patterns is of great importance for Amazonian conservation. We use a step selection function (SSF) approach to uncover environmental drivers behind movement choices. This is used to construct a mechanistic model, from which we derive predicted utilization distributions (home ranges) of flocks. We show that movement decisions are significantly influenced by canopy height and topography, but depletion and renewal of resources do not appear to affect movement significantly. We quantify the magnitude of these effects and demonstrate that they are helpful for understanding various heterogeneous aspects of space use. We compare our results to recent analytic derivations of space use, demonstrating that the analytic approximation is only accurate when assuming that there is no persistence in the animals' movement. Our model can be translated into other environments or hypothetical scenarios, such as those given by proposed future anthropogenic actions, to make predictions of spatial patterns in bird flocks. Furthermore, our approach is quite general, so could potentially be used to understand the drivers of movement and spatial patterns for a wide variety of animal communities. PMID:25558353

  9. On the vertical distribution of smoke in the Amazonian atmosphere during the dry season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marenco, Franco; Johnson, Ben; Langridge, Justin M.; Mulcahy, Jane; Benedetti, Angela; Remy, Samuel; Jones, Luke; Szpek, Kate; Haywood, Jim; Longo, Karla; Artaxo, Paulo

    2016-02-01

    Lidar observations of smoke aerosols have been analysed from six flights of the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements BAe-146 research aircraft over Brazil during the biomass burning season (September 2012). A large aerosol optical depth (AOD) was observed, typically ranging 0.4-0.9, along with a typical aerosol extinction coefficient of 100-400 Mm-1. The data highlight the persistent and widespread nature of the Amazonian haze, which had a consistent vertical structure, observed over a large distance ( ˜ 2200 km) during a period of 14 days. Aerosols were found near the surface; but the larger aerosol load was typically found in elevated layers that extended from 1-1.5 to 4-6 km. The measurements have been compared to model predictions with the Met Office Unified Model (MetUM) and the ECMWF-MACC model. The MetUM generally reproduced the vertical structure of the Amazonian haze observed with the lidar. The ECMWF-MACC model was also able to reproduce the general features of smoke plumes albeit with a small overestimation of the AOD. The models did not always capture localised features such as (i) smoke plumes originating from individual fires, and (ii) aerosols in the vicinity of clouds. In both these circumstances, peak extinction coefficients of the order of 1000-1500 Mm-1 and AODs as large as 1-1.8 were encountered, but these features were either underestimated or not captured in the model predictions. Smoke injection heights derived from the Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS) for the region are compatible with the general height of the aerosol layers.

  10. Modeling the complex impacts of timber harvests to find optimal management regimes for Amazon tidal floodplain forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortini, Lucas; Cropper, Wendell P.; Zarin, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    At the Amazon estuary, the oldest logging frontier in the Amazon, no studies have comprehensively explored the potential long-term population and yield consequences of multiple timber harvests over time. Matrix population modeling is one way to simulate long-term impacts of tree harvests, but this approach has often ignored common impacts of tree harvests including incidental damage, changes in post-harvest demography, shifts in the distribution of merchantable trees, and shifts in stand composition. We designed a matrix-based forest management model that incorporates these harvest-related impacts so resulting simulations reflect forest stand dynamics under repeated timber harvests as well as the realities of local smallholder timber management systems. Using a wide range of values for management criteria (e.g., length of cutting cycle, minimum cut diameter), we projected the long-term population dynamics and yields of hundreds of timber management regimes in the Amazon estuary, where small-scale, unmechanized logging is an important economic activity. These results were then compared to find optimal stand-level and species-specific sustainable timber management (STM) regimes using a set of timber yield and population growth indicators. Prospects for STM in Amazonian tidal floodplain forests are better than for many other tropical forests. However, generally high stock recovery rates between harvests are due to the comparatively high projected mean annualized yields from fast-growing species that effectively counterbalance the projected yield declines from other species. For Amazonian tidal floodplain forests, national management guidelines provide neither the highest yields nor the highest sustained population growth for species under management. Our research shows that management guidelines specific to a region’s ecological settings can be further refined to consider differences in species demographic responses to repeated harvests. In principle, such fine

  11. The Value of the Commonwealth: An Ecocritical History of Robinson Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, David Barrett

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation provides an ecocritical history of Robinson Forest, a southern Appalachian forest owned by the University of Kentucky. The objective of this dissertation is to examine the literary, environmental, and cultural history of Robinson Forest from its geologic formation to the present, paying particular attention to the production of…

  12. How livestock and flooding mediate the ecological integrity of working forests in Amazon River floodplains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Christine M; Sheikh, Pervaze; Gagnon, Paul R; Mcgrath, David G

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of working forests to tropical conservation and development depends upon the maintenance of ecological integrity under ongoing land use. Assessment of ecological integrity requires an understanding of the structure, composition, and function and major drivers that govern their variability. Working forests in tropical river floodplains provide many goods and services, yet the data on the ecological processes that sustain these services is scant. In flooded forests of riverside Amazonian communities, we established 46 0.1-ha plots varying in flood duration, use by cattle and water buffalo, and time since agricultural abandonment (30-90 yr). We monitored three aspects of ecological integrity (stand structure, species composition, and dynamics of trees and seedlings) to evaluate the impacts of different trajectories of livestock activity (alleviation, stasis, and intensification) over nine years. Negative effects of livestock intensification were solely evident in the forest understory, and plots alleviated from past heavy disturbance increased in seedling density but had higher abundance of thorny species than plots maintaining low activity. Stand structure, dynamics, and tree species composition were strongly influenced by the natural pulse of seasonal floods, such that the defining characteristics of integrity were dependent upon flood duration (3-200 d). Forests with prolonged floods ≥ 140 d had not only lower species richness but also lower rates of recruitment and species turnover relative to forests with short floods condition by livestock trajectory. Although our study design includes confounded factors that preclude a definitive assessment of the major drivers of ecological change, we provide much-needed data on the regrowth of a critical but poorly studied ecosystem. In addition to its emphasis on the dynamics of tropical wetland forests undergoing anthropogenic and environmental change, our case study is an important example for how to

  13. Floristic, edaphic and structural characteristics of flooded and unflooded forests in the lower Rio Purús region of central Amazonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haugaasen Torbjørn

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite a natural history interest in the early 1900s, relatively little ecological research has been carried out in the Rio Purús basin of central Amazonia, Brazil. Here we describe a new study area in the region of Lago Uauaçú with an emphasis on the climate, forest structure and composition, and soil characteristics between adjacent unflooded (terra firme and seasonally inundated forests; situated within both the white-water (várzea and black-water (igapó drainage systems that dominate the landscape. The climate was found to be typical of that of the central Amazon. Várzea forest soils had high concentrations of nutrients, while terra firme and igapó soils were comparatively nutrient-poor. Terra firme forests were the most floristically diverse forest type, whereas várzea was intermediate, and igapó the most species-poor. The Lecythidaceae was the most important family in terra firme while the Euphorbiaceae was the most important in both várzea and igapó. There were significant differences between forest types in terms of number of saplings, canopy cover and understorey density. In contrasting our results with other published information, we conclude that the Lago Uauaçú region consists of a typical central Amazonian forest macro-mosaic, but is a unique area with high conservation value due to the intimate juxtaposition of terra firme, várzea and igapó forests.

  14. First attempt to monitor luteinizing hormone and reproductive steroids in urine samples of the Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Rodrigo S; Rosas, Fernando C W; Graham, Laura H; da Silva, Vera M F; Oliveira, Claudio A

    2014-12-01

    The aims of this study were to validate an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the measurement of luteinizing hormone (LH) in urine samples of Amazonian manatees (Trichechus inunguis; Mammalia: Sirenia) and to monitor urinary LH and reproductive steroids during the ovarian cycle in this species. Urine samples were collected from two captive males following a hormonal challenge with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue. The urinary LH results from hormonal challenge were compared with urinary androgens for the purpose of EIA validation. Furthermore, urine samples were collected daily, over a 12-wk period, from two captive adult females, for 2 consecutive yr. The urinary LH pattern from females was compared with the patterns of urinary progestagens and estrogen conjugates throughout the ovarian cycle. An LH peak was observed in both male Amazonian manatees after the hormonal challenge, occurring prior to or together with peak androgen levels. In the females, the ovarian cycle ranged from 40 to 48 days (mean of 43.7 days). Two distinct peaks of estrogen conjugates were observed across all cycles analyzed, and the urinary LH peaks observed were accompanied by peaks of urinary estrogen conjugates. The EIA was validated as a method for the quantification of urinary LH from Amazonian manatees, as it was able to detect variations in the levels of LH in urine samples. These results suggest that T. inunguis exhibits a peculiar hormonal pattern during the ovarian cycle. Therefore, further studies are desirable and necessary to clarify the relationship between this hormonal pattern and morphological changes, as well as mating behavior, in Amazonian manatee. PMID:25632672

  15. PERCEPTIONS AND REPRESENTATIONS OF THE FOREIGN AUTHOR ABOUT AMAZONIAN MAN: AN ANALYSIS UNDER THE CATEGORIES OF GEOGRAPHY

    OpenAIRE

    Klondy Lúcia de Oliveira Agra

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I analyze, with aid of the concepts guide for the geographical science, two works by Americans over the Brazilian Amazon. Amazon Town of Charles Wagley, and the travel journal of American George E. Hafstad. Works which exposes the Brazilian Amazon and way of life of its people, describing in detail actions, habits, thoughts and beliefs, way of acting man Amazonian descriptions that form a backdrop of compositions and orientations of Amazon to the world. The main objective of ...

  16. Divergence of nature myths and social relations: Polish state foresters between hierarchical and egalitarian contexts

    OpenAIRE

    Storch, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of a survey among Polish foresters, the socio-cultural context of the Polish state forest organization is explored. The study is based upon Grid-group cultural theory, which assumes four political cultures (hierarchical, egalitarian, individualistic, fatalistic). These cultures comprise different perceptions of nature, compassed as nature myths. Yet testing the influence of the adherence to these nature myths on some variables (organizational level, main tasks, years in forestry,...

  17. Isotopes as validation tools for predictions of the impact of Amazonian deforestation on climate and regional hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotopic analysis and modelling of the Amazon Basin have both been reported for about thirty years. Isotopic data have been used to explain important characteristics of Amazonian hydrologic cycling by means of simple models. To date there has been no attempt to use isotopic data to evaluate global climate models employed to predict the possible impacts of Amazonian deforestation. This paper reviews the history of isotopic analysis and simulations of deforestation in the Amazon and initiates isotopic evaluation of GCMs. It is shown that one widely reported simulation set gives seasonal transpiration and re-evaporated canopy interception budgets different from those derived from isotopic analysis. It is found that temporal changes (1965 to 1990) in wet season deuterium excess differences between Belem and Manaus are consistent with GCM results only if there has been a relative increase in evaporation from non-fractionating water sources over this period. We propose synergistic future interactions among the climate/hydrological modelling and isotopic analysis communities in order to improve confidence in simulations of Amazonian deforestation. (author)

  18. Application of biocontrol agents in forest nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bare-root conifer seedling culture consists of growing seedlings (sown or transplanted) in soil, and is the predominant method for supplying America’s need for healthy regeneration stock to produce and sustain forests, wildlife food sources, fiber, wood products, paper, bio-pharmaceuticals and now p...

  19. Dipterocarpaceae: forest fires and forest recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Priadjati, A.

    2002-01-01

    One of the serious problems Indonesia is facing today is deforestation. Forests have been playing a very important role in Indonesia as the main natural resources for the economic growth of the country. Large areas of tropical forests, worldwide considered to be among the richest in plant diversity, have been lost in recent years mainly due to inappropriate logging, illegal logging, shifting cultivation, and forest fires. The negative repercussions of these activities are felt from an economi...

  20. Forest inventory in Myanmar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest inventory in Myanmar started in 1850s. Up till 1975, Myanmar Forest Department conducted forest inventories covering approximately one forest division every year. The National Forest Survey and Inventory Project funded by UNDP and assisted by FAO commenced in 1981 and the National Forest Management and Inventory project followed in 1986. Up till end March 1993, pre-investment inventory has covered 26.7 million acres, reconnaissance inventory 5.4 million acres and management inventory has carried out in 12 townships

  1. Forest area assessment in the Slovenian forest inventory design

    OpenAIRE

    Hladnik, David; Žižek Kulovec, Laura

    2012-01-01

    In Slovenia, data on forest area are obtained within the framework of forest management planning and data of the actual agriculture and forest land use. The article shows the differences in the assessment methodology of forest cover and spatial structure of forests. In accordance with the concept of national forest inventories, the article suggests upgrading of the existing concept of forest inventories which, in the last decade, have been subordinate to forest management areas and difference...

  2. Uncertainty in forest simulators and forest planning systems

    OpenAIRE

    MÀkinen, Antti

    2010-01-01

    The forest simulator is a computerized model for predicting forest growth and future development as well as effects of forest harvests and treatments. The forest planning system is a decision support tool, usually including a forest simulator and an optimisation model, for finding the optimal forest management actions. The information produced by forest simulators and forest planning systems is used for various analytical purposes and in support of decision making. However, the quality a...

  3. Making Forest Values Work: Enhancing Multi-Dimensional Perspectives towards Sustainable Forest Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doni Blagojević

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Sustainability, sustainable development and sustainable forest management are terms that are commonly, and interchangeably used in the forest industry, however their meaning take on different connotations, relative to varying subject matter. The aim of this paper is to look at these terms in a more comprehensive way, relative to the current ideology of sustainability in forestry. Materials and Methods: This paper applies a literature review of the concepts of: i sustainable development; ii sustainable forest management; and iii economic and non-economic valuation. The concepts are viewed through a historical dimension of shifting paradigms, originating from production- to service-based forestry. Values are discussed through a review of general value theory and spatial, cultural and temporal differences in valuation. Along the evolution of these concepts, we discuss their applicability as frameworks to develop operational guidelines for forest management, relative to the multi-functionality of forests. Results and Conclusions: Potential discrepancies between the conceptual origins of sustainable development and sustainable forest management are highlighted, relative to how they have been interpreted and diffused as new perceptions on forest value for the human society. We infer the current paradigm may not reflect the various dimensions adequately as its implementation is likely to be more related to the distribution of power between stakeholders, rather than the value stakeholders’ place on the various forest attributes.

  4. Sinopse das espécies de Marlierea Cambess. (Myrtaceae na Amazônia brasileira Sinopse of the species of Marlierea Cambess. (Myrtaceae in Amazonian Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Silva do Rosário

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O estudo de Marlierea Cambess. na Amazônia Brasileira tem como principal objetivo atualizar os dados sobre a morfologia e taxonomia das espécies da região, bem como fornecer subsídios para esclarecer a separação de Marlierea de Myrcia DC. ex Guill., conforme sugerem alguns autores. Na Amazônia Brasileira, Marlierea está representada por 11 espécies (Marlierea bipennis (O. Berg McVaugh, M. caudata McVaugh, M. ensiformis McVaugh, M. ferruginea (Poir. McVaugh, M. mcvaughii B. Holst, M. scytophylla Diels, M. spruceana O. Berg, M. subulata McVaugh, M. summa McVaugh, M. umbraticola (Kunth O. Berg e M. velutina McVaugh e uma mal conhecida (M. obumbrans (O. Berg Nied., habitando principalmente áreas de formações florestais. O gênero se caracteriza pelo hábito arbóreo ou arbustivo; folhas opostas (exceto em M. velutina que pode apresentar folhas opostas e/ou alternas; as inflorescências em panículas (de fascículos, racemos, cimeiras ou dicásios; botões florais geralmente fechados, abertura irregular do cálice, em 4-5 lobos, pétalas freqüentemente ausentes. Os Estados do Amazonas e Pará representam os dois principais centros de distribuição dessas espécies, sendo M. spruceana e M. umbraticola as espécies mais comuns. Marlierea obumbrans será melhor estudada posteriormente, devido apresentar sua delimitação taxonômica confusa entre Myrcia e Marlierea.A morphological study of Marlierea Cambess. occurring in Amazonian Brazil was carried out in order to obtain a better understanding of the morphology and taxonomy of all species in the region and to provide data to elucidate the taxonomic segregation of Marlierea from the morphologically similar Myrcia DC. ex Guill. In Amazonian Brazil, Marlierea is represented by 11, primarily forest, species (Marlierea bipennis (O. Berg McVaugh, M. caudata McVaugh, M. ensiformis McVaugh, M. ferruginea (Poir. McVaugh, M. mcvaughii B. Holst, M. scytophylla Diels, M. spruceana O. Berg, M

  5. Calcium fluxes in Hoplosternum littorale (tamoatá exposed to different types of Amazonian waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Baldisserotto

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Fishes that live in the Amazonian environment may be exposed to several kinds of waters: "black waters", containing high dissolved organic carbon and acidic pH, "white waters", with ten fold higher Ca2+ concentrations than black waters and neutral pH, and "clear waters", with two fold higher Ca2+ concentrations than black waters and also neutral pH. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to analyze Ca2+ fluxes in the facultative air-breather Hoplosternum littorale (tamoatá exposed to different Amazonian waters. Fishes were acclimated in well water (similar to clear water and later placed in individual chambers for Ca2+ fluxes measurements. After 4 h, water from the chambers was replaced by a different type of water. Transfer of tamoatás to ion-poor black or acidic black water resulted in net Ca2+ loss only in the first 2 h of experiment. However, transfer from black or acidic black water to white water led to only net Ca2+ influxes. The results obtained allowed us to conclude that transfer of tamoatás to ion-poor waters (black and acidic black water led to transient net Ca2+ loss, while the amount of Ca2+ in the ion-rich white water seems adequate to prevent Ca2+ loss after transfer. Therefore, transfer of tamoatás between these Amazonian waters does not seem to result in serious Ca2+ disturbance.Os peixes que vivem na Amazônia são expostos a vários tipos de água: águas pretas, contendo grande quantidade de carbono orgânico dissolvido, águas brancas, com concentração de Ca2+ dez vezes maior que as águas pretas e pH neutro, e águas claras, com concentração de Ca2+ duas vezes maior que as águas pretas e pH também neutro. Dessa forma, o objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar o fluxo de Ca2+ no peixe de respiração aérea facultativa Hoplosternum littorale (tamoatá exposto a diferentes tipos de águas amazônicas. Os peixes foram aclimatados em água de poço artesiano (semelhante à água clara e depois colocados

  6. National Forest Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This theme shows the USFS national forest boundaries in the state. This data was acquired from the GIS coordinators at both the Chippewa National Forest and the...

  7. Forest Stand Age

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Source data for forest stand age were obtained from the USDA Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) DataMart and were projected for future scenarios based on selected...

  8. European mixed forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bravo-Oviedo, Andres; Pretzsch, Hans; Ammer, Christian;

    2014-01-01

    Methods: Review of existent definitions of mixed forests based and literature review encompassing dynamics, management and economic valuation of mixed forests. Main results: A mixed forest is defined as a forest unit, excluding linear formations, where at least two tree species coexist at any...... for specific objectives. A variety of structures and patterns of mixtures can occur, and the interactions between the component species and their relative proportions may change over time. The research perspectives identified are (i) species interactions and responses to hazards, (ii) the concept of...... maximum density in mixed forests, (iii) conversion of monocultures to mixed-species forest and (iv) economic valuation of ecosystem services provided by mixed forests. Research highlights: The definition is considered a high-level one which encompasses previous attempts to define mixed forests. Current...

  9. Parameterization of PAR vertical profile within horizontally uniform forest canopies for use in environmental modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalic, Branislava; Firanj, Ana; Mihailovic, Dragutin T.; Podrascanin, Zorica

    2013-08-01

    radiation transfer within the forest canopy plays crucial role in energy balance and turbulent transfer processes. Objective of this study is to suggest a new relation for vertical profile of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) in case of horizontally uniform forest canopy. It is based on (i) the Lambert-Beer law relationship and (ii) new parameterization of leaf area density (LAD) profile. We have supposed that absorption coefficient μ varies with height and depends on LAD distribution. To check validity of the relation proposed, we have compared calculated values with the observations using data sets assimilated during Anglo-Brazilian Amazonian Climate Observation Study experiment at two observational sites located in Reserva Jaru and Reserva Ducke (Brazil) with different types of forest. Among all available measurements, 615 profiles observed between 08 and 18 local mean time for 72 days at 2 locations were selected. For comparison study, two more profiles based on constant- and variable-LAD approximation were introduced. Obtained results indicate that suggested relation: (i) well reproduces PAR profile within the forest in comparison with observations and (ii) shows better agreement with observations in comparison with two other profiles used in this study.

  10. Molecular systematic analysis reveals cryptic tertiary diversification of a widespread tropical rain forest tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Christopher W; Abdul-Salim, Kobinah; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2003-12-01

    The broad geographic range of many Neotropical rain forest tree species implies excellent dispersal abilities or range establishment that preceded the formation of current dispersal barriers. In order to initiate historical analyses of such widespread Neotropical trees, we sequenced the nuclear ribosomal spacer (ITS) region of Symphonia globulifera L. f. (Clusiaceae) from populations spanning the Neotropics and western Africa. This rain forest tree has left unmistakable Miocene fossils in Mesoamerica (15.5-18.2 Ma) and in South America ( approximately 15 Ma). Although marine dispersal of S. globulifera is considered improbable, our study establishes three marine dispersal events leading to the colonization of Mesoamerica, the Amazon basin, and the West Indies, thus supporting the paleontological data. Our phylogeographic analysis revealed the spatial extent of the three Neotropical S. globulifera clades, which represent trans-Andes (Mesoamerica+west Ecuador), cis-Andes (Amazonia+Guiana), and the West Indies. Strong phylogeographic structure found among trans-Andean populations of S. globulifera stands in contrast to an absence of ITS nucleotide variation across the Amazon basin and indicates profound regional differences in the demographic history of this rain forest tree. Drawing from these results, we provide a historical biogeographic hypothesis to account for differences in the patterns of beta diversity within Mesoamerican and Amazonian forests. PMID:14737707

  11. How natural Forest Conversion Affects Insect Biodiversity in the Peruvian Amazon: Can Agroforestry Help?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Perry

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Amazonian rainforest is a unique ecosystem that comprises habitat for thousands of animal species. Over the last decades, the ever-increasing human population has caused forest conversion to agricultural land with concomitant high biodiversity losses, mainly near a number of fast-growing cities in the Peruvian Amazon. In this research, we evaluated insect species richness and diversity in five ecosystems: natural forests, multistrata agroforests, cocoa agroforests, annual cropping monoculture and degraded grasslands. We determined the relationship between land use intensity and insect diversity changes. Collected insects were taxonomically determined to morphospecies and data evaluated using standardized biodiversity indices. The highest species richness and abundance were found in natural forests, followed by agroforestry systems. Conversely, monocultures and degraded grasslands were found to be biodiversity-poor ecosystems. Diversity indices were relatively high for all ecosystems assessed with decreasing values along the disturbance gradient. An increase in land use disturbance causes not only insect diversity decreases but also complete changes in species composition. As agroforests, especially those with cocoa, currently cover many hectares of tropical land and show a species composition similar to natural forest sites, we can consider them as biodiversity reservoirs for some of the rainforest insect species.

  12. Dipterocarpaceae: forest fires and forest recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Priadjati, A.

    2002-01-01

    One of the serious problems Indonesia is facing today is deforestation. Forests have been playing a very important role in Indonesia as the main natural resources for the economic growth of the country. Large areas of tropical forests, worldwide considered to be among the richest in p

  13. The Amazonian Floodplains, an ecotype with challenging questions on volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesselmeier, J.

    2012-12-01

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions are affected by a variety of biotic and abiotic factors such as light intensity, temperature, CO2 and drought. Another factor usually overlooked but very important for the tropical rainforest in Amazonia is regular flooding. According to recent estimates, the total Amazonian floodplain area easily ranges up to 700,000 km^2, including whitewater river floodplains (várzea) blackwater regions (igapó) and further clearwater regions. Regarding the total Amazonian wetlands the area sums up to more than 2.000.000 km^2, i.e. 30% of Amazonia. To survive the flooding periods causing anoxic conditions for the root system of up to several months, vegetation has developed several morphological, anatomical and physiological strategies. One is to switch over the root metabolism to fermentation, thus producing ethanol as one of the main products. Ethanol is a toxic metabolite which is transported into the leaves by the transpiration stream. From there it can either be directly emitted into the atmosphere, or can be re-metabolized to acetaldehyde and/or acetate. All of these compounds are volatile enough to be partly released into the atmosphere. We observed emissions of ethanol, acetaldehyde and acetic acid under root anoxia. Furthermore, plant stress induced by flooding also affected leaf primary physiological processes as well as other VOC emissions such as the release of isoprenoids and other volatiles. For example, Hevea spruceana could be identified as a monoterpene emitting tree species behaving differently upon anoxia depending on the origin, with increasing emissions of the species from igapó and decreasing with the corresponding species from várzea. Contrasting such short term inundations, studies of VOC emissions under long term conditions (2-3 months) did not confirm the ethanol/acetaldehyde emissions, whereas emissions of other VOC species decreased considerably. These results demonstrate that the transfer of our knowledge

  14. Diverse Early Life-History Strategies in Migratory Amazonian Catfish: Implications for Conservation and Management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens C Hegg

    Full Text Available Animal migrations provide important ecological functions and can allow for increased biodiversity through habitat and niche diversification. However, aquatic migrations in general, and those of the world's largest fish in particular, are imperiled worldwide and are often poorly understood. Several species of large Amazonian catfish carry out some of the longest freshwater fish migrations in the world, travelling from the Amazon River estuary to the Andes foothills. These species are important apex predators in the main stem rivers of the Amazon Basin and make up the region's largest fishery. They are also the only species to utilize the entire Amazon Basin to complete their life cycle. Studies indicate both that the fisheries may be declining due to overfishing, and that the proposed and completed dams in their upstream range threaten spawning migrations. Despite this, surprisingly little is known about the details of these species' migrations, or their life history. Otolith microchemistry has been an effective method for quantifying and reconstructing fish migrations worldwide across multiple spatial scales and may provide a powerful tool to understand the movements of Amazonian migratory catfish. Our objective was to describe the migratory behaviors of the three most populous and commercially important migratory catfish species, Dourada (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii, Piramutaba (Brachyplatystoma vaillantii, and Piraíba (Brachyplatystoma filamentosum. We collected fish from the mouth of the Amazon River and the Central Amazon and used strontium isotope signatures ((87Sr/(86Sr recorded in their otoliths to determine the location of early rearing and subsequent. Fish location was determined through discriminant function classification, using water chemistry data from the literature as a training set. Where water chemistry data was unavailable, we successfully in predicted (87Sr/(86Sr isotope values using a regression-based approach that related

  15. Patterns of energy allocation to reproduction in three Amazonian fish species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo N. dos Santos

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The study considered the influence of the hydrological cycle and gonadal development on the accumulation and use of energy in three fish species from an Amazonian flooded area. Fishes were sampled over a 24 hour period at monthly intervals between July 2004 and June 2005 using gillnets of different mesh sizes. Body cavity fat and gonadosomatic indices were determined, as well as energy content of gonads and muscles. Amongst the studied species, different means of energy allocation for reproduction were found: Acestrorhynchus falcirostris allocate energy from body cavity fat to its gonads; Pygocentrus nattereri uses mainly energy accumulated in the muscles for the process of gonadal maturation; and Hoplosternum littorale uses energy accumulated in their muscles and body cavity fat for reproductive processes. It is quite clear that the flood pulse regulates the gain and use of the energy reserves in fishes from the Amazonian floodplain.O presente estudo considerou a influência do ciclo hidrológico e maturação gonadal no acúmulo e utilização da energia em três espécies de peixes, numa área de planície de inundação amazônica. As amostras foram obtidas mensalmente durante o período de julho de 2004 a junho de 2005, utilizando redes de emalhar com vários tamanhos de malhas, durante 24 horas. O índice de gordura cavitária, índice gonadossomático, e teor energético dos músculos e gônadas foram analisados. Dentre as espécies analisadas, foram detectados diferentes padrões de alocação de energia: Acestrorhynchus falcirostris aloca energia das reservas de gordura cavitária para as gônadas; Pygocentrus nattereri utiliza energia dos músculos para este fim e Hoplosternum littorale, além da gordura cavitária, utiliza também energia acumulada nos músculos para realização dos processos reprodutivos. Ficou evidente que o pulso de inundação exerce forte influência no acúmulo e utilização das reservas energéticas dos

  16. Vital forest graphics

    OpenAIRE

    Achard, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of the global trends in forest cover. It looks specifically at the four largest forest ecosystems and analyzes the trends and challenges in their conservation and management. It examines some of the key drivers behind forest loss, including the increasing demand for commodities and energy. Finally, it reviews some of the best practices for sustainable management of forest, including regulatory regimes, participatory management and economic incentives.--Pu...

  17. Forest edge development

    OpenAIRE

    Wiström, Björn

    2015-01-01

    This thesis investigates design guidelines and management systems for the development of stationary forest edges with a graded profile in infrastructure and urban environments. The spatial restriction for the edge to move forward caused by human land use counteracts the natural dynamics and development patterns of graded forest edges. However graded forest edges with successively increasing height from the periphery to the interior of the forest edge are often seen as ideal as they supports ...

  18. Biochar and Forest Ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Coleman, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Charcoal is a common component temperate forest soils. It results from wildfire events that frequently disturb the structure and function of vegetation and soils. Recent interest in applying biochar (artificially produced charcoal) to forest ecosystems raises both opportunities and concerns. The greatest opportunity for biochar application to forest soils is through the utilization of continuously produced and overabundant forest biomass for the production of bioenergy. Biochar is a co...

  19. DIVERSITY AND ENDEMICITY OF CHILIMO FOREST, CENTRAL ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teshome Soromessa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the regeneration, structural and uses of some woody species in Chilimo Forest, one of the dry Afromontane Forests of Ethiopia were conducted. To gather vegetation and environmental data from the study forest, a 900 m2 (30 m x 30 m quadrat was laid following the homogeneity of vegetation. All together the plant species recorded from Chilimo Forest are 213 which can be categorised into 83 families. Of these, the highest proportion is the angiosperm (represented by 193 species followed by pteridophyta (16 species; the least represented being the gymnosperms (represented by 2 exotic and 2 indigenous species. To provide a better management and monitoring as well as to maintain the biodiversity, cultural and economic values of the forest unsustainable utility of the forest would be controlled with the various conservation activities in place.

  20. Forest report 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This forest condition report of Hessen (Germany) includes the following topics: forest condition survey for all tree species, weather and climate, the impact of spring drought on soil water balance and growth, drought stress risk of beech in Hessen, insects and fungi, Forestry Environment Monitoring, infiltrated substances, trends in the soil solution of forest ecosystems, soil chemistry and rooting in deeper soil layers.