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Sample records for amazonian forest culture

  1. Resilience of Amazonian forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monteiro Flores, B.

    2016-01-01

    The Amazon has recently been portrayed as a resilient forest system based on quick recovery of biomass after human disturbance. Yet with climate change, the frequency of droughts and wildfires may increase, implying that parts of this massive forest may shift into a savanna state. Although the Amazo

  2. Hyperdominance in Amazonian forest carbon cycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fauset, S.; Arets, E.J.M.M.; Steege, ter H.; Pena Claros, M.; Poorter, L.; Levis, C.; Toledo, M.

    2015-01-01

    While Amazonian forests are extraordinarily diverse, the abundance of trees is skewed strongly towards relatively few ‘hyperdominant’ species. In addition to their diversity, Amazonian trees are a key component of the global carbon cycle, assimilating and storing more carbon than any other ecosystem

  3. Hyperdominance in Amazonian forest carbon cycling

    OpenAIRE

    Fauset, Sophie; Johnson, Michelle O.; Gloor, Manuel; Baker, Timothy R.; Monteagudo M., Abel; Brienen, Roel J.W.; Feldpausch, Ted R.; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela; Malhi, Yadvinder; Ter Steege, Hans; Pitman, Nigel C. A.; Baraloto, Christopher; Engel,Julien; Petronelli, Pascal; Andrade, Ana

    2015-01-01

    While Amazonian forests are extraordinarily diverse, the abundance of trees is skewed strongly towards relatively few â € hyperdominantâ €™ species. In addition to their diversity, Amazonian trees are a key component of the global carbon cycle, assimilating and storing more carbon than any other ecosystem on Earth. Here we ask, using a unique data set of 530 forest plots, if the functions of storing and producing woody carbon are concentrated in a small number of tree species, whether the mos...

  4. Forest structure and carbon dynamics in Amazonian tropical rain forests.

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    Vieira, Simone; de Camargo, Plinio Barbosa; Selhorst, Diogo; da Silva, Roseana; Hutyra, Lucy; Chambers, Jeffrey Q; Brown, I Foster; Higuchi, Niro; dos Santos, Joaquim; Wofsy, Steven C; Trumbore, Susan E; Martinelli, Luiz Antonio

    2004-08-01

    Living trees constitute one of the major stocks of carbon in tropical forests. A better understanding of variations in the dynamics and structure of tropical forests is necessary for predicting the potential for these ecosystems to lose or store carbon, and for understanding how they recover from disturbance. Amazonian tropical forests occur over a vast area that encompasses differences in topography, climate, and geologic substrate. We observed large differences in forest structure, biomass, and tree growth rates in permanent plots situated in the eastern (near Santarém, Pará), central (near Manaus, Amazonas) and southwestern (near Rio Branco, Acre) Amazon, which differed in dry season length, as well as other factors. Forests at the two sites experiencing longer dry seasons, near Rio Branco and Santarém, had lower stem frequencies (460 and 466 ha(-1) respectively), less biodiversity (Shannon-Wiener diversity index), and smaller aboveground C stocks (140.6 and 122.1 Mg C ha(-1)) than the Manaus site (626 trees ha(-1), 180.1 Mg C ha(-1)), which had less seasonal variation in rainfall. The forests experiencing longer dry seasons also stored a greater proportion of the total biomass in trees with >50 cm diameter (41-45 vs 30% in Manaus). Rates of annual addition of C to living trees calculated from monthly dendrometer band measurements were 1.9 (Manaus), 2.8 (Santarém), and 2.6 (Rio Branco) Mg C ha(-1) year(-1). At all sites, trees in the 10-30 cm diameter class accounted for the highest proportion of annual growth (38, 55 and 56% in Manaus, Rio Branco and Santarém, respectively). Growth showed marked seasonality, with largest stem diameter increment in the wet season and smallest in the dry season, though this may be confounded by seasonal variation in wood water content. Year-to-year variations in C allocated to stem growth ranged from nearly zero in Rio Branco, to 0.8 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1) in Manaus (40% of annual mean) and 0.9 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1) (33% of

  5. Environmental change and the carbon balance of Amazonian forests.

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    Aragão, Luiz E O C; Poulter, Benjamin; Barlow, Jos B; Anderson, Liana O; Malhi, Yadvinder; Saatchi, Sassan; Phillips, Oliver L; Gloor, Emanuel

    2014-11-01

    Extreme climatic events and land-use change are known to influence strongly the current carbon cycle of Amazonia, and have the potential to cause significant global climate impacts. This review intends to evaluate the effects of both climate and anthropogenic perturbations on the carbon balance of the Brazilian Amazon and to understand how they interact with each other. By analysing the outputs of the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) Assessment Report 4 (AR4) model ensemble, we demonstrate that Amazonian temperatures and water stress are both likely to increase over the 21st Century. Curbing deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon by 62% in 2010 relative to the 1990s mean decreased the Brazilian Amazon's deforestation contribution to global land use carbon emissions from 17% in the 1990s and early 2000s to 9% by 2010. Carbon sources in Amazonia are likely to be dominated by climatic impacts allied with forest fires (48.3% relative contribution) during extreme droughts. The current net carbon sink (net biome productivity, NBP) of +0.16 (ranging from +0.11 to +0.21) Pg C year(-1) in the Brazilian Amazon, equivalent to 13.3% of global carbon emissions from land-use change for 2008, can be negated or reversed during drought years [NBP = -0.06 (-0.31 to +0.01) Pg C year(-1) ]. Therefore, reducing forest fires, in addition to reducing deforestation, would be an important measure for minimizing future emissions. Conversely, doubling the current area of secondary forests and avoiding additional removal of primary forests would help the Amazonian gross forest sink to offset approximately 42% of global land-use change emissions. We conclude that a few strategic environmental policy measures are likely to strengthen the Amazonian net carbon sink with global implications. Moreover, these actions could increase the resilience of the net carbon sink to future increases in drought frequency. PMID:25324039

  6. Fish complementarity is associated to forests in Amazonian streams

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    Carolina Rodrigues Bordignon

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The functional structure of communities is commonly measured by the variability in functional traits, which may demonstrate complementarity or redundancy patterns. In this study, we tested the influence of environmental variables on the functional structure of fish assemblages in Amazonian streams within a deforestation gradient. We calculated six ecomorphological traits related to habitat use from each fish species, and used them to calculate the net relatedness index (NRI and the nearest taxon index (NTI. The set of species that used the habitat differently (complementary or overdispersed assemblages occurred in sites with a greater proportion of forests. The set of species that used the habitat in a similar way (redundant or clustered assemblages occurred in sites with a greater proportion of grasses in the stream banks. Therefore, the deforestation of entire watersheds, which has occurred in many Amazonian regions, may be a central factor for the functional homogenization of fish fauna.

  7. Model gives a 3-month warning of Amazonian forest fires

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    Schultz, Colin

    2011-08-01

    The widespread drought suffered by the Amazon rain forest in the summer of 2005 was heralded at the time as the drought of the century. Because of the dehydrated conditions, supplemented by slash and burn agricultural practices, the drought led to widespread forest fires throughout the western Amazon, a portion of the rain forest usually too lush to support spreading wildfires. Only 5 years later, the 2005 season was outdone by even more widespread drought, with fires decimating more than 3000 square kilometers of western Amazonian rain forest. Blame for the wildfires has been consistently laid on deforestation and agricultural practices, but a convincing climatological explanation exists as well. (Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2011GL047392, 2011)

  8. Fire-mediated dieback and compositional cascade in an Amazonian forest

    OpenAIRE

    Barlow, Jos; Peres, Carlos A.

    2008-01-01

    The only fully coupled land–atmosphere global climate model predicts a widespread dieback of Amazonian forest cover through reduced precipitation. Although these predictions are controversial, the structural and compositional resilience of Amazonian forests may also have been overestimated, as current vegetation models fail to consider the potential role of fire in the degradation of forest ecosystems. We examine forest structure and composition in the Arapiuns River basin in the central Braz...

  9. Dynamics of carbon, biomass, and structure in two Amazonian forests

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    Pyle, Elizabeth Hammond; Santoni, Gregory W.; Nascimento, Henrique E. M.; Hutyra, Lucy R.; Vieira, Simone; Curran, Daniel J.; van Haren, Joost; Saleska, Scott R.; Chow, V. Y.; Carmago, Plinio B.; Laurance, William F.; Wofsy, Steven C.

    2008-11-01

    Amazon forests are potentially globally significant sources or sinks for atmospheric carbon dioxide. In this study, we characterize the spatial trends in carbon storage and fluxes in both live and dead biomass (necromass) in two Amazonian forests, the Biological Dynamic of Forest Fragments Project (BDFFP), near Manaus, Amazonas, and the Tapajós National Forest (TNF) near Santarém, Pará. We assessed coarse woody debris (CWD) stocks, tree growth, mortality, and recruitment in ground-based plots distributed across the terra firme forest at both sites. Carbon dynamics were similar within each site, but differed significantly between the sites. The BDFFP and the TNF held comparable live biomass (167 +/- 7.6 MgC.ha-1 versus 149 +/- 6.0 MgC.ha-1, respectively), but stocks of CWD were 2.5 times larger at TNF (16.2 +/- 1.5 MgC.ha-1 at BDFFP, versus 40.1 +/- 3.9 MgC.ha-1 at TNF). A model of current forest dynamics suggests that the BDFFP was close to carbon balance, and its size class structure approximated a steady state. The TNF, by contrast, showed rapid carbon accrual to live biomass (3.24 +/- 0.22 MgC.ha-1.a-1 in TNF, 2.59 +/- 0.16 MgC.ha-1.a-1 in BDFFP), which was more than offset by losses from large stocks of CWD, as well as ongoing shifts of biomass among size classes. This pattern in the TNF suggests recovery from a significant disturbance. The net loss of carbon from the TNF will likely last 10-15 years after the initial disturbance (controlled by the rate of decay of coarse woody debris), followed by uptake of carbon as the forest size class structure and composition continue to shift. The frequency and longevity of forests showing such disequilibruim dynamics within the larger matrix of the Amazon remains an essential question to understanding Amazonian carbon balance.

  10. Branchfall dominates annual carbon flux across lowland Amazonian forests

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    Marvin, David C.; Asner, Gregory P.

    2016-09-01

    Tropical forests play an important role in the global carbon cycle, but knowledge of interannual variation in the total tropical carbon flux and constituent carbon pools is highly uncertain. One such pool, branchfall, is an ecologically important dynamic with links to nutrient cycling, forest productivity, and drought. Identifying and quantifying branchfall over large areas would reveal the role of branchfall in carbon and nutrient cycling. Using data from repeat airborne light detection and ranging campaigns across a wide array of lowland Amazonian forest landscapes totaling nearly 100 000 ha, we find that upper canopy gaps—driven by branchfall—are pervasive features of every landscape studied, and are seven times more frequent than full tree mortality. Moreover, branchfall comprises a major carbon source on a landscape basis, exceeding that of tree mortality by 21%. On a per hectare basis, branchfall and tree mortality result in 0.65 and 0.72 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 gross source of carbon to the atmosphere, respectively. Reducing uncertainties in annual gross rates of tropical forest carbon flux, for example by incorporating large-scale branchfall dynamics, is crucial for effective policies that foster conservation and restoration of tropical forests. Additionally, large-scale branchfall mapping offers ecologists a new dimension of disturbance monitoring and potential new insights into ecosystem structure and function.

  11. Geological control of floristic composition in Amazonian forests

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    Higgins, Mark A; Ruokolainen, Kalle; Tuomisto, Hanna; Llerena, Nelly; Cardenas, Glenda; Phillips, Oliver L; Vásquez, Rodolfo; Räsänen, Matti

    2011-01-01

    Aim Conservation and land-use planning require accurate maps of patterns in species composition and an understanding of the factors that control them. Substantial doubt exists, however, about the existence and determinants of large-area floristic divisions in Amazonia. Here we ask whether Amazonian forests are partitioned into broad-scale floristic units on the basis of geological formations and their edaphic properties. Location Western and central Amazonia. Methods We used Landsat imagery and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation data to identify a possible floristic and geological discontinuity of over 300 km in northern Peru. We then used plant inventories and soil sampling to document changes in species composition and soil properties across this boundary. Data were obtained from 138 sites distributed along more than 450 km of road and river. On the basis of our findings, we used broad-scale Landsat and SRTM mosaics to identify similar patterns across western and central Amazonia. Results The discontinuity identified in Landsat and SRTM data corresponded to a 15-fold change in soil cation concentrations and an almost total change in plant species composition. This discontinuity appears to be caused by the widespread removal of cation-poor surface sediments by river incision to expose cation-rich sediments beneath. Examination of broad-scale Landsat and SRTM mosaics indicated that equivalent processes have generated a north–south discontinuity of over 1500 km in western Brazil. Due to similarities with our study area, we suggest that this discontinuity represents a chemical and ecological limit between western and central Amazonia. Main conclusions Our findings suggest that Amazonian forests are partitioned into large-area units on the basis of geological formations and their edaphic properties. The evolution of these units through geological time may provide a general mechanism for biotic diversification in Amazonia. These compositional

  12. Legacies of Amazonian dark earths on forest composition, structure and dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quintero Vallejo, E.M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary

    Amazonian forest is seen as the archetype of pristine forests, untouched by humans, but this romantic view is far from reality. In recent years, there is increasing evidence of long and extensive landscape modification by humans. Processes of permanent inhabitation,

  13. Diversity and physiological characterization of D-xylose-fermenting yeasts isolated from the Brazilian Amazonian Forest.

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    Raquel M Cadete

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study is the first to investigate the Brazilian Amazonian Forest to identify new D-xylose-fermenting yeasts that might potentially be used in the production of ethanol from sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysates. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 224 yeast strains were isolated from rotting wood samples collected in two Amazonian forest reserve sites. These samples were cultured in yeast nitrogen base (YNB-D-xylose or YNB-xylan media. Candida tropicalis, Asterotremella humicola, Candida boidinii and Debaryomyces hansenii were the most frequently isolated yeasts. Among D-xylose-fermenting yeasts, six strains of Spathaspora passalidarum, two of Scheffersomyces stipitis, and representatives of five new species were identified. The new species included Candida amazonensis of the Scheffersomyces clade and Spathaspora sp. 1, Spathaspora sp. 2, Spathaspora sp. 3, and Candida sp. 1 of the Spathaspora clade. In fermentation assays using D-xylose (50 g/L culture medium, S. passalidarum strains showed the highest ethanol yields (0.31 g/g to 0.37 g/g and productivities (0.62 g/L · h to 0.75 g/L · h. Candida amazonensis exhibited a virtually complete D-xylose consumption and the highest xylitol yields (0.55 g/g to 0.59 g/g, with concentrations up to 25.2 g/L. The new Spathaspora species produced ethanol and/or xylitol in different concentrations as the main fermentation products. In sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic fermentation assays, S. stipitis UFMG-XMD-15.2 generated the highest ethanol yield (0.34 g/g and productivity (0.2 g/L · h, while the new species Spathaspora sp. 1 UFMG-XMD-16.2 and Spathaspora sp. 2 UFMG-XMD-23.2 were very good xylitol producers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrates the promise of using new D-xylose-fermenting yeast strains from the Brazilian Amazonian Forest for ethanol or xylitol production from sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysates.

  14. Changes in Amazonian forest biomass, dynamics, and composition, 1980-2002

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    Phillips, Oliver L.; Higuchi, Niro; Vieira, Simone; Baker, Timothy R.; Chao, Kuo-Jung; Lewis, Simon L.

    Long-term, on-the-ground monitoring of forest plots distributed across Amazonia provides a powerful means to quantify stocks and fluxes of biomass and biodiversity. Here we examine the evidence for concerted changes in the structure, dynamics, and functional composition of old-growth Amazonian forests over recent decades. Mature forests have, as a whole, gained biomass and undergone accelerated growth and dynamics, but questions remain as to the long-term persistence of these changes. Because forest growth on average exceeds mortality, intact Amazonian forests have been functioning as a carbon sink. We estimate a net biomass increase in trees ≥10 cm diameter of 0.62 ± 0.23 t C ha-1 a-1 through the late twentieth century. If representative of the wider forest landscape, this translates into a sink in South American old-growth forest of at least 0.49 ± 0.18 Pg C a-1. If other biomass and necromass components also increased proportionally, the estimated South American old-growth forest sink is 0.79 ± 0.29 Pg C a-1, before allowing for possible gains in soil carbon. If tropical forests elsewhere are behaving similarly, the old-growth biomass forest sink would be 1.60 ± 0.58 Pg C a-1. This bottom-up estimate of the carbon balance of tropical forests is preliminary, pending syntheses of detailed biometric studies across the other tropical continents. There is also some evidence for recent changes in the functional composition (biodiversity) of Amazonian forest, but the evidence is less comprehensive than that for changes in structure and dynamics. The most likely driver(s) of changes are recent increases in the supply of resources such as atmospheric carbon dioxide, which would increase net primary productivity, increasing tree growth and recruitment, and, in turn, mortality. In the future the growth response of remaining undisturbed Amazonian forests is likely to saturate, and there is a risk of these ecosystems transitioning from sink to source driven by higher

  15. Legacies of Amazonian dark earths on forest composition, structure and dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Quintero Vallejo, E.M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Amazonian forest is seen as the archetype of pristine forests, untouched by humans, but this romantic view is far from reality. In recent years, there is increasing evidence of long and extensive landscape modification by humans. Processes of permanent inhabitation, expansion and retreat of human populations have not always been obvious in those ecosystems, leaving sometimes weak and overlooked imprints in the landscape. An example of one of these inconspicuous alterations are the mod...

  16. Scalar turbulent behavior in the roughness sublayer of an Amazonian forest

    OpenAIRE

    Zahn, Einara; Dias, Nelson L.; Araújo, Alessandro; Sá, Leonardo; Söergel, Matthias; Trebs, Ivonne; Wolff, Stefan; Manzi, Antônio

    2016-01-01

    An important current problem in micrometeorology is the characterization of turbulence in the roughness sublayer (RSL), where most of the measurements above tall forests are made. There, scalar turbulent fluctuations display significant departures from the predictions of Monin–Obukhov similarity theory (MOST). In this work, we analyze turbulence data of virtual temperature, carbon dioxide and water vapor in the RSL above an Amazonian Forest (with a canopy height of 40 m), measured at 39.4 ...

  17. [Myths concerning malarial transmission among Amazonian Indians and their relation with 2 types of transmission encountered in the Amazonian forest].

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    Molez, J F

    1999-01-01

    Among the Indians Desana's (Tukano amerindians) in the Upper Rio Negro, the interseasonal variation of the malarial fevers were associated with two myths (localised in two distinguishable places). One myth associates the malarial with the rivers which contain "malaria pots". Conception based on an observation of localised water collection in the banks and the rocky rapids ("banks and rocky's fever"). The transmission and the anophelian density present variation between the seasons in relation to the river's level. Another myth associates malarial fevers in the forest, with the song of a frog ("fever's frog") and the flowering and fructification of a tree (Poaqueira sericea Thul.). There is in South America a particular type of forest malaria, known as "Bromelia malaria" and denounced in human and/or simian transmission. This forest malaria is transmitted by the a sub-genus anopheles (Kerteszia) which larval breeding are areal in the canopy. The breeding places are found in the forest in the epiphyte bromeliads. To understand this type of transmission, we must take reference to the previous endomological data at the Upper Oyapock Wayâpi (Tupi amerindians). This Bromelia malaria could fluctuated according larval density variation, related to washing of epiphytes (end of the rainy season) or to their flowering (end of the dry season). The "fever's frog" myth collected at the Desana's in the Upper Rio Negro can be related to the existence of Bromelia malaria in this amazonian habitat. These myths showed the perfect adaptation of the amerindians to their environment and their complete knowledge of the neotropical forest.

  18. Do soil fertilization and forest canopy foliage affect the growth and photosynthesis of Amazonian saplings?

    OpenAIRE

    Nilvanda dos Santos Magalhães; Ricardo Antonio Marenco; Miguel Angelo Branco Camargo

    2014-01-01

    Most Amazonian soils are highly weathered and poor in nutrients. Therefore, photosynthesis and plant growth should positively respond to the addition of mineral nutrients. Surprisingly, no study has been carried out in situ in the central Amazon to address this issue for juvenile trees. The objective of this study was to determine how photosynthetic rates and growth of tree saplings respond to the addition of mineral nutrients, to the variation in leaf area index of the forest canopy, and to ...

  19. Fire-mediated dieback and compositional cascade in an Amazonian forest.

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    Barlow, Jos; Peres, Carlos A

    2008-05-27

    The only fully coupled land-atmosphere global climate model predicts a widespread dieback of Amazonian forest cover through reduced precipitation. Although these predictions are controversial, the structural and compositional resilience of Amazonian forests may also have been overestimated, as current vegetation models fail to consider the potential role of fire in the degradation of forest ecosystems. We examine forest structure and composition in the Arapiuns River basin in the central Brazilian Amazon, evaluating post-fire forest recovery and the consequences of recurrent fires for the patterns of dominance of tree species. We surveyed tree plots in unburned and once-burned forests examined 1, 3 and 9 years after an unprecedented fire event, in twice-burned forests examined 3 and 9 years after fire and in thrice-burned forests examined 5 years after the most recent fire event. The number of trees recorded in unburned primary forest control plots was stable over time. However, in both once- and twice-burned forest plots, there was a marked recruitment into the 10-20cm diameter at breast height tree size classes between 3 and 9 years post-fire. Considering tree assemblage composition 9 years after the first fire contact, we observed (i) a clear pattern of community turnover among small trees and the most abundant shrubs and saplings, and (ii) that species that were common in any of the four burn treatments (unburned, once-, twice- and thrice-burned) were often rare or entirely absent in other burn treatments. We conclude that episodic wildfires can lead to drastic changes in forest structure and composition, with cascading shifts in forest composition following each additional fire event. Finally, we use these results to evaluate the validity of the savannization paradigm. PMID:18267911

  20. Modeling Forest Understory Fires in an Eastern Amazonian Landscape

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    Alencar, A. A. C.; Solorzano, L. A.; Nepstad, D. C.

    2004-01-01

    Forest understory fires are an increasingly important cause of forest impoverishment in Ammonia, but little is known of the landscape characteristics and climatic phenomena that determine their occurrence. We developed empirical functions relating the occurrence of understory fires to landscape features near Paragominas, a 35- yr-old ranching and logging center in eastern Ammonia. An historical sequence of maps of forest understory fire was created based on field interviews With local farmers and Landsat TM images. Several landscape features that might explain spatial variations in the occurrence of understory fires were also mapped and co-registered for each of the sample dates, including: forest fragment size and shape, forest impoverishment through logging and understory fires, source of ignition (settlements and charcoal pits), roads, forest edges, and others. The spatial relationship between forest understory fire and each landscape characteristic was tested by regression analyses. Fire probability models were then developed for various combinations of landscape characteristics. The analyses were conducted separately for years of the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), which are associated with severe drought in eastern Amazonia, and non-ENS0 years. Most (91 %) of the forest area that burned during the 10-yr sequence caught fire during ENSO years, when severe drought may have increased both forest flammability and the escape of agricultural management fires. Forest understory fires were associated with forest edges, as reported in previous studies from Ammonia. But the strongest predictor of forest fire was the percentage of the forest fragment that had been previously logged or burned. Forest fragment size, distance to charcoal pits, distance to agricultural settlement, proximity to forest edge, and distance to roads were also correlated with forest understory fire. Logistic regression models using information on fragment degradation and distance to ignition

  1. Above- and below-ground net primary productivity across ten Amazonian forests on contrasting soils

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    Aragão, L. E. O. C.; Malhi, Y.; Metcalfe, D. B.; Silva-Espejo, J. E.; Jiménez, E.; Navarrete, D.; Almeida, S.; Costa, A. C. L.; Salinas, N.; Phillips, O. L.; Anderson, L. O.; Alvarez, E.; Baker, T. R.; Goncalvez, P. H.; Huamán-Ovalle, J.; Mamani-Solórzano, M.; Meir, P.; Monteagudo, A.; Patiño, S.; Peñuela, M. C.; Prieto, A.; Quesada, C. A.; Rozas-Dávila, A.; Rudas, A.; Silva, J. A., Jr.; Vásquez, R.

    2009-12-01

    The net primary productivity (NPP) of tropical forests is one of the most important and least quantified components of the global carbon cycle. Most relevant studies have focused particularly on the quantification of the above-ground coarse wood productivity, and little is known about the carbon fluxes involved in other elements of the NPP, the partitioning of total NPP between its above- and below-ground components and the main environmental drivers of these patterns. In this study we quantify the above- and below-ground NPP of ten Amazonian forests to address two questions: (1) How do Amazonian forests allocate productivity among its above- and below-ground components? (2) How do soil and leaf nutrient status and soil texture affect the productivity of Amazonian forests? Using a standardized methodology to measure the major elements of productivity, we show that NPP varies between 9.3±1.3 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 (mean±standard error), at a white sand plot, and 17.0±1.4 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 at a very fertile Terra Preta site, with an overall average of 12.8±0.9 Mg C ha-1 yr-1. The studied forests allocate on average 64±3% and 36±3% of the total NPP to the above- and below-ground components, respectively. The ratio of above-ground and below-ground NPP is almost invariant with total NPP. Litterfall and fine root production both increase with total NPP, while stem production shows no overall trend. Total NPP tends to increase with soil phosphorus and leaf nitrogen status. However, allocation of NPP to below-ground shows no relationship to soil fertility, but appears to decrease with the increase of soil clay content.

  2. Spatial and temporal changes in bird assemblages in forest fragments in an eastern Amazonian savannah.

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    Cintra, Renato; Magnusson, William E; Albernaz, Ana

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the effects of forest fragmentation on bird assemblages in an Amazonian savannah landscape with forest fragments that have been isolated for more than 100 years. The study was conducted in areas surrounding the village of Alter do Chão (2°31'S, 55°00'W), Santarém, Brazil. Bird surveys and measurements of tree density were undertaken in 25 areas, with 19 plots in forest fragments of different sizes and six in an area of continuous forest. Data on forest-fragment size, perimeter, and isolation were obtained from a georeferenced satellite image. Variation in number of bird species recorded per plot was not related to vegetation structure (tree density). The number of bird species recorded per plot increased significantly only with fragment area, but was not influenced by fragment shape or degree of isolation, even when considering species from the savannah matrix in the analysis. Fragments had fewer rare species. Multivariate ordination analyses (multiple dimensional scaling, [MDS]) indicated that bird species composition changed along a gradient from small to large forest fragments and continuous-forest areas. In the Amazonian savannah landscapes of Alter do Chão, the organization and composition of bird assemblages in forest fragments are affected by local long-term forest-fragmentation processes. Differences in the number of bird species recorded per plot and assemblage composition between forest fragments and continuous forest were not influenced by forest structure, suggesting that the observed patterns in species composition result from the effects of fragmentation per se rather than from preexisting differences in vegetation structure between sites. Nevertheless, despite their long history of isolation, the forest fragments still preserve a large proportion (on average 80%) of the avifauna found in continuous-forest areas. The fragments at Alter do Chão are surrounded by natural (rather than planted) grassland, with many trees in the

  3. Arthropod responses to the experimental isolation of Amazonian forest fragments

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    Heraldo L. Vasconcelos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Arthropods are the most diverse and abundant group of animals found in tropical lowland forests, and in light of ongoing global change phenomena, it is essential to better understand their responses to anthropogenic disturbances. Here we present a review of arthropod responses to forest deforestation and fragmentation based on studies conducted at the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project (BDFFP, located in central Amazonia. These studies involved a wide range of arthropod groups. All but one of the studies evaluated changes in total species number or species density in relation to fragment size, (i.e. area effects, and one-third also evaluated edge effects. Our review indicates that almost every arthropod group studied showed some kind of response to reduction in forest area, including altered abundances, species richness or composition in comparisons of different-sized fragments, fragmented and non-fragmented areas, or comparisons of forest edges and forest interiors. These responses tended to be idiosyncratic, with some groups showing predicted declines in abundance or diversity in the fragments while others show no response or even increases. However, some of the observed effects on arthropods, or on the ecological processes in which they are involved, were transient. The most likely explanation for this was the rapid development of secondary growth around fragments, which greatly increased the connectivity between fragments and the remaining forest. Although the BDFFP has provided many insights regarding the effects of forest fragmentation on arthropod assemblages, many diverse groups, such as canopy arthropods, have received scant attention. For those that have been studied, much remains to be learned regarding the long-term dynamics of these assemblages and how landscape context influences local biodiversity. The BDFFP remains an exceptional site in which to investigate how the ecological interactions in which arthropods are

  4. Soil charcoal as long-term pyrogenic carbon storage in Amazonian seasonal forests.

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    Turcios, Maryory M; Jaramillo, Margarita M A; do Vale, José F; Fearnside, Philip M; Barbosa, Reinaldo Imbrozio

    2016-01-01

    Forest fires (paleo + modern) have caused charcoal particles to accumulate in the soil vertical profile in Amazonia. This forest compartment is a long-term carbon reservoir with an important role in global carbon balance. Estimates of stocks remain uncertain in forests that have not been altered by deforestation but that have been impacted by understory fires and selective logging. We estimated the stock of pyrogenic carbon derived from charcoal accumulated in the soil profile of seasonal forest fragments impacted by fire and selective logging in the northern portion of Brazilian Amazonia. Sixty-nine soil cores to 1-m depth were collected in 12 forest fragments of different sizes. Charcoal stocks averaged 3.45 ± 2.17 Mg ha(-1) (2.24 ± 1.41 Mg C ha(-1) ). Pyrogenic carbon was not directly related to the size of the forest fragments. This carbon is equivalent to 1.40% (0.25% to 4.04%) of the carbon stocked in aboveground live tree biomass in these fragments. The vertical distribution of pyrogenic carbon indicates an exponential model, where the 0-30 cm depth range has 60% of the total stored. The total area of Brazil's Amazonian seasonal forests and ecotones not altered by deforestation implies 65-286 Tg of pyrogenic carbon accumulated along the soil vertical profile. This is 1.2-2.3 times the total amount of residual pyrogenic carbon formed by biomass burning worldwide in 1 year. Our analysis suggests that the accumulated charcoal in the soil vertical profile in Amazonian forests is a substantial pyrogenic carbon pool that needs to be considered in global carbon models.

  5. Soil charcoal as long-term pyrogenic carbon storage in Amazonian seasonal forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcios, Maryory M; Jaramillo, Margarita M A; do Vale, José F; Fearnside, Philip M; Barbosa, Reinaldo Imbrozio

    2016-01-01

    Forest fires (paleo + modern) have caused charcoal particles to accumulate in the soil vertical profile in Amazonia. This forest compartment is a long-term carbon reservoir with an important role in global carbon balance. Estimates of stocks remain uncertain in forests that have not been altered by deforestation but that have been impacted by understory fires and selective logging. We estimated the stock of pyrogenic carbon derived from charcoal accumulated in the soil profile of seasonal forest fragments impacted by fire and selective logging in the northern portion of Brazilian Amazonia. Sixty-nine soil cores to 1-m depth were collected in 12 forest fragments of different sizes. Charcoal stocks averaged 3.45 ± 2.17 Mg ha(-1) (2.24 ± 1.41 Mg C ha(-1) ). Pyrogenic carbon was not directly related to the size of the forest fragments. This carbon is equivalent to 1.40% (0.25% to 4.04%) of the carbon stocked in aboveground live tree biomass in these fragments. The vertical distribution of pyrogenic carbon indicates an exponential model, where the 0-30 cm depth range has 60% of the total stored. The total area of Brazil's Amazonian seasonal forests and ecotones not altered by deforestation implies 65-286 Tg of pyrogenic carbon accumulated along the soil vertical profile. This is 1.2-2.3 times the total amount of residual pyrogenic carbon formed by biomass burning worldwide in 1 year. Our analysis suggests that the accumulated charcoal in the soil vertical profile in Amazonian forests is a substantial pyrogenic carbon pool that needs to be considered in global carbon models. PMID:26207816

  6. Idiosyncratic responses of Amazonian birds to primary forest disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Nárgila G; Lees, Alexander C; Aleixo, Alexandre; Barlow, Jos; Berenguer, Erika; Ferreira, Joice; Mac Nally, Ralph; Thomson, James R; Gardner, Toby A

    2016-03-01

    As humans continue to alter tropical landscapes across the world, it is important to understand what environmental factors help determine the persistence of biodiversity in modified ecosystems. Studies on well-known taxonomic groups can offer critical insights as to the fate of biodiversity in these modified systems. Here we investigated species-specific responses of 44 forest-associated bird species with different behavioural traits to forest disturbance in 171 transects distributed across 31 landscapes in two regions of the eastern Brazilian Amazon. We investigated patterns of species occurrence in primary forests varyingly disturbed by selective-logging and fire and examined the relative importance of local, landscape and historical environmental variables in determining species occurrences. Within undisturbed and disturbed primary forest transects, we found that distance to forest edge and the biomass of large trees were the most important predictors driving the occurrence of individual species. However, we also found considerable variation in species responses to different environmental variables as well as inter-regional variation in the responses of the same species to the same environmental variables. We advocate the utility of using species-level analyses to complement community-wide responses in order to uncover highly variable and species-specific responses to environmental change that remain so poorly understood.

  7. Do soil fertilization and forest canopy foliage affect the growth and photosynthesis of Amazonian saplings?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilvanda dos Santos Magalhães

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Most Amazonian soils are highly weathered and poor in nutrients. Therefore, photosynthesis and plant growth should positively respond to the addition of mineral nutrients. Surprisingly, no study has been carried out in situ in the central Amazon to address this issue for juvenile trees. The objective of this study was to determine how photosynthetic rates and growth of tree saplings respond to the addition of mineral nutrients, to the variation in leaf area index of the forest canopy, and to changes in soil water content associated with rainfall seasonality. We assessed the effect of adding a slow-release fertilizer. We determined plant growth from 2010 to 2012 and gas exchange in the wet and dry season of 2012. Rainfall seasonality led to variations in soil water content, but it did not affect sapling growth or leaf gas exchange parameters. Although soil amendment increased phosphorus content by 60 %, neither plant growth nor the photosynthetic parameters were influenced by the addition of mineral nutrients. However, photosynthetic rates and growth of saplings decreased as the forest canopy became denser. Even when Amazonian soils are poor in nutrients, photosynthesis and sapling growth are more responsive to slight variations in light availability in the forest understory than to the availability of nutrients. Therefore, the response of saplings to future increases in atmospheric [CO2] will not be limited by the availability of mineral nutrients in the soil.

  8. Contrasting Colonist and Indigenous Impacts on Amazonian Forests

    OpenAIRE

    LU, FLORA; Gray, Clark; Bilsborrow, Richard E.; Mena, Carlos F.; ERLIEN, CHRISTINE M.; BREMNER, JASON; BARBIERI, ALISSON; Walsh, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    To examine differences in land use and environmental impacts between colonist and indigenous populations in the northern Ecuadorian Amazon, we combined data from household surveys and remotely sensed imagery that was collected from 778 colonist households in 64 colonization sectors, and 499 households from five indigenous groups in 36 communities. Overall, measures of deforestation and forest fragmentation were significantly greater for colonists than indigenous peoples. On average, colonist ...

  9. Wildfires in bamboo-dominated Amazonian forest: impacts on above-ground biomass and biodiversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jos Barlow

    Full Text Available Fire has become an increasingly important disturbance event in south-western Amazonia. We conducted the first assessment of the ecological impacts of these wildfires in 2008, sampling forest structure and biodiversity along twelve 500 m transects in the Chico Mendes Extractive Reserve, Acre, Brazil. Six transects were placed in unburned forests and six were in forests that burned during a series of forest fires that occurred from August to October 2005. Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR calculations, based on Landsat reflectance data, indicate that all transects were similar prior to the fires. We sampled understorey and canopy vegetation, birds using both mist nets and point counts, coprophagous dung beetles and the leaf-litter ant fauna. Fire had limited influence upon either faunal or floral species richness or community structure responses, and stems <10 cm DBH were the only group to show highly significant (p = 0.001 community turnover in burned forests. Mean aboveground live biomass was statistically indistinguishable in the unburned and burned plots, although there was a significant increase in the total abundance of dead stems in burned plots. Comparisons with previous studies suggest that wildfires had much less effect upon forest structure and biodiversity in these south-western Amazonian forests than in central and eastern Amazonia, where most fire research has been undertaken to date. We discuss potential reasons for the apparent greater resilience of our study plots to wildfire, examining the role of fire intensity, bamboo dominance, background rates of disturbance, landscape and soil conditions.

  10. Understanding the radar backscattering from flooded and nonflooded Amazonian forests: results from canopy backscatter modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To understand the potential of using multiwavelength imaging radars to detect flooding in Amazonian floodplain forests, we simulated the radar backscatter from a floodplain forest with a flooded or nonflooded ground condition at C-, L-, and P-bands. Field measurements of forest structure in the Anavilhanas archipelago of the Negro River, Brazil, were used as inputs to the model. Given the same wavelength or incidence angle, the ratio of backscatter from the flooded forest to that from the nonflooded forest was higher at HH polarization than at VV polarization. Given the same wavelength or polarization, the ratio was larger at small incidence angles than at large incidence angles. Given the same polarization or incidence angle, the ratio was larger at a long wavelength than at a short wavelength. As the surface soil moisture underneath the nonflooded forest increased from 10% to 50% of volumetric moisture, the flooded/nonflooded backscatter ratio decreased; the decreases were small at C- and L-band but large at P-band. When the leaf size was comparable to or larger than the wavelength of C-band, the leaf area index (LAI) had a large effect on the simulated C-band (not L-band or P-band) backscatter from the flooded and nonflooded forests. (author)

  11. Isotopic analysis of Bothrops atrox in Amazonian forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, M. G.; Silva, A. M.; Chalkidis, H.; de Oliveira Júnior, R. C.; Camargo, P. B.

    2012-12-01

    The poisoning of snakes is considered a public health problem, especially in populations from rural areas of tropical and subtropical countries. In Brazil, the 26,000 snakebites, 90% are of the genus Bothrops, and Bothrops atrox species predominant in the Amazon region including all the Brazilian Amazon. Research shows that using stable isotopes, we can verify the isotopic composition of tissues of animals that depend mainly on food, water ingested and inhaled gases. For this study, samples taken from Bothrops atrox (B. atrox), in forest using pitfall traps and fall ("Pitt-fall traps with drift fence"). The analyzes were performed by mass spectrometry, where the analytical error is 0.3‰ for carbon and 0.5‰ to nitrogen. The results of the forest animals are significantly different from results of animal vivarium. The average values of the tissues and venoms of snakes of the forest for carbon-13 and nitrogen-15 are: δ13C = -24.68‰ and δ15N = 14.22‰ and mean values of tissue and poisons snakes vivarium (Instituto Butantan) to carbon-13 and nitrogen-15 are δ13C = -20.47‰ and δ15N = 8.36‰, with a significantly different due to different sources of food animals. Based on all results isotopic δ13C and δ15N, we can suggest that changes as the power of the serpent, (nature and captivity), changes occur in relation to diet and environment as the means of the isotopic data are quite distinct, showing that these changes can also cause metabolic changes in the body of the animal itself and the different periods of turnover of each tissue analyzed.

  12. Do species traits determine patterns of wood production in Amazonian forests?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Baker

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the relationships between plant traits and ecosystem properties at large spatial scales is important for predicting how compositional change will affect carbon cycling in tropical forests. Here, we examine the relationships between species wood density, maximum height and wood production for 60 Amazonian forest plots. Firstly, we examine how community-level species traits vary across Amazonia. Average species maximum height and wood density are low in western, compared to eastern, Amazonia and are negatively correlated with aboveground wood productivity and soil fertility. Secondly, we compare biomass growth rates across functional groups defined on the basis of these two traits. In similar size classes, biomass growth rates vary little between trees that differ in wood density and maximum height. However, biomass growth rates are generally higher in western Amazonia across all functional groups. Thirdly, we ask whether the data on the abundance and average biomass growth rates of different functional groups is sufficient to predict the observed, regional-scale pattern of wood productivity. We find that the lower rate of wood production in eastern compared to western Amazonia cannot be estimated on the basis of this information. Overall, these results suggest that the correlations between community-level trait values and wood productivity in Amazonian forests are not causative: direct environmental control of biomass growth rates appears to be the most important driver of wood production at regional scales. This result contrasts with findings for forest biomass where variation in wood density, associated with variation in species composition, is an important driver of regional-scale patterns. Tropical forest wood productivity may therefore be less sensitive than biomass to compositional change that alters community-level averages of these plant traits.

  13. Pipes's distribution by helicopter in Amazonian forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Gilberto R.; Machado, Otto L.M.; Gomes, Antonio E. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    The innumerable logistical problems encountered during the implementation of the gas pipeline Urucu - Coari - Manaus, located in the Amazon forest, connecting the Base Operations Geologist Pedro de Moura in Urucu to the refinery Isaac Sabba - Reman, in the city of Manaus, contributed considerably for PETROBRAS to seek non conventional solutions in the construction and assembly of pipelines in our country. Among these solutions, there is the technique of distributing pipes through cargo helicopters. The need for the usage of this technique, innovative in Brazil, comes from the lack and/or insufficiency of land access from Solimoes River to the gas pipeline main route, and the large quantities of flooded areas and/or flood plain, and also the type of soil, that together with the high index of rainfall in the region, makes the soil fully inappropriate to the traffic of heavy equipment. (author)

  14. Contrasting colonist and indigenous impacts on amazonian forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Flora; Gray, Clark; Bilsborrow, Richard E; Mena, Carlos F; Erlien, Christine M; Bremner, Jason; Barbieri, Alisson; Walsh, Stephen J

    2010-06-01

    To examine differences in land use and environmental impacts between colonist and indigenous populations in the northern Ecuadorian Amazon, we combined data from household surveys and remotely sensed imagery that was collected from 778 colonist households in 64 colonization sectors, and 499 households from five indigenous groups in 36 communities. Overall, measures of deforestation and forest fragmentation were significantly greater for colonists than indigenous peoples. On average, colonist households had approximately double the area in agriculture and cash crops and 5.5 times the area in pasture as indigenous households. Nevertheless, substantial variation in land-use patterns existed among the five indigenous groups in measures such as cattle ownership and use of hired agricultural labor. These findings support the potential conservation value of indigenous lands while cautioning against uniform policies that homogenize indigenous ethnic groups. PMID:20337669

  15. Above- and below-ground net primary productivity across ten Amazonian forests on contrasting soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. O. C. Aragão

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The net primary productivity (NPP of tropical forests is one of the most important and least quantified components of the global carbon cycle. Most relevant studies have focused particularly on the quantification of the above-ground coarse wood productivity, and little is known about the carbon fluxes involved in other elements of the NPP, the partitioning of total NPP between its above- and below-ground components and the main environmental drivers of these patterns. In this study we quantify the above- and below-ground NPP of ten Amazonian forests to address two questions: (1 How do Amazonian forests allocate productivity among its above- and below-ground components? (2 How do soil and leaf nutrient status and soil texture affect the productivity of Amazonian forests? Using a standardized methodology to measure the major elements of productivity, we show that NPP varies between 9.3±1.3 Mg C ha−1 yr−1 (mean±standard error, at a white sand plot, and 17.0±1.4 Mg C ha−1 yr−1 at a very fertile Terra Preta site, with an overall average of 12.8±0.9 Mg C ha−1 yr−1. The studied forests allocate on average 64±3% and 36±3% of the total NPP to the above- and below-ground components, respectively. The ratio of above-ground and below-ground NPP is almost invariant with total NPP. Litterfall and fine root production both increase with total NPP, while stem production shows no overall trend. Total NPP tends to increase with soil phosphorus and leaf nitrogen status. However, allocation of NPP to below-ground shows no relationship to soil fertility, but appears to decrease with the increase of soil clay content.

  16. Above- and below-ground net primary productivity across ten Amazonian forests on contrasting soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. O. C. Aragão

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The net primary productivity (NPP of tropical forests is one of the most important and least quantified components of the global carbon cycle. Most relevant studies have focused particularly on the quantification of the above-ground coarse wood productivity, and little is known about the carbon fluxes involved in other elements of the NPP, the partitioning of total NPP between its above- and below-ground components and the main environmental drivers of these patterns. In this study we quantify the above- and below-ground NPP of ten Amazonian forests to address two questions: (1 How do Amazonian forests allocate productivity among its above- and below-ground components? (2 How do soil and leaf nutrient status and soil texture affect the productivity of Amazonian forests? Using a standardized methodology to measure the major elements of productivity, we show that NPP varies between 9.3±1.3 Mg C ha−1 yr−1 (mean±standard error, at a white sand plot, and 17.0±1.4 Mg C ha−1 yr−1 at a very fertile Terra Preta site, with an overall average of 12.8±0.9 Mg C ha−1 yr−1. The studied forests allocate on average 64±3% and 36±3% of the total NPP to the above- and below-ground components, respectively. The ratio of above-ground and below-ground NPP is almost invariant with total NPP. Litterfall and fine root production both increase with total NPP, while stem production shows no overall trend. Total NPP tends to increase with soil phosphorus and leaf nitrogen status. However, allocation of NPP to below-ground shows no relationship to soil fertility, but appears to decrease with the increase of soil clay content.

  17. Vertical stratification of bat assemblages in flooded and unflooded Amazonian forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria João Ramos PEREIRA, João Tiago MARQUES, Jorge M. PALMEIRIM

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Tropical rainforests usually have multiple strata that results in a vertical stratification of ecological opportunities for animals. We investigated if this stratification influences the way bats use the vertical space in flooded and unflooded forests of the Central Amazon. Using mist-nets set in the canopy (17 to 35 m high and in the understorey (0 to 3 m high we sampled four sites in upland unflooded forests (terra firme, three in forests seasonally flooded by nutrient-rich water (várzea, and three in forests seasonally flooded by nutrient-poor water (igapó. Using rarefaction curves we found that species richness in the understorey and canopy were very similar. An ordination analysis clearly separated the bat assemblages of the canopy from those of the understorey in both flooded and unflooded habitats. Gleaning carnivores were clearly associated with the understorey, whereas frugivores were abundant in both strata. Of the frugivores, Carollinae and some Stenodermatinae were understorey specialists, but several Stenodermatinae mostly used the canopy. The first group mainly includes species that, in general, feed on fruits of understorey shrubs, whereas the second group feed on figs and other canopy fruits. We conclude that vertical stratification in bat communities occurs even within forests with lower canopy heights, such as Amazonian seasonally flooded forests, and that the vertical distribution of bat species is closely related to their diet and foraging behaviour [Current Zoology 56 (4: 469–478, 2010].

  18. Forest response to increased disturbance in the Central Amazon and comparison to Western Amazonian forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Holm

    2014-05-01

    Amazonian regions. This suggests that: (1 the variability between regions cannot be entirely explained by the variability in disturbance regime, but rather potentially sensitive to intrinsic environmental factors; or (2 the models are not accurately simulating all forest characteristics in response to increased disturbances. Last, to help quantify the impacts of increased disturbances on climate and the earth system, we evaluated the fidelity of tree mortality and disturbance in a global land surface model: CLM. For a 100% increase in annual mortality rate, both ZELIG-TROP and CLM were in close agreement with each other and predicted a net carbon loss of 41.9 and 49.9%, respectively, with an insignificant effect on aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP. Likewise, a 20% increase in mortality every 50 years (i.e. periodic disturbance treatment resulted in a reciprocal biomass loss of 18.3 and 18.7% in ZELIG-TROP and CLM, respectively.

  19. Elemental mercury in the atmosphere of a tropical Amazonian forest (French Guiana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amouroux, D.; Wasserman, J.C.Tessier, E.; Donard, O.F.X. [Univ. de Pau et des Pays de l`Adour, Pau (France). Lab. de Chimie Analytique Bio-Inorganique et Environnement

    1999-09-01

    Gaseous atmospheric mercury was investigated at two sites of a tropical Amazonian forest (French Guiana) in the Petit Inini River basin and the Petit Saut Lake in June, 1998. Gaseous atmospheric mercury was identified as elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}). Diurnal variation of atmospheric Hg{sup 0} in both studied aquatic environments were significantly correlated with air temperature and anticorrelated with relative humidity. Average Hg{sup 0} concentrations were higher above the Petit Inini River that the Petit Saut Lake. Background Hg{sup 0} concentrations in the Petit Inini River basin were higher than those observed in remote environments. These data suggest that gold mining activity (i.e., Petit Inini River basin) may influence mercury mobilization in tropical forest ecosystems and that atmospheric transfer is a major pathway for mercury cycling in these environments.

  20. Measurements of soil respiration and simple models dependent on moisture and temperature for an Amazonian southwest tropical forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanchi, F.B.; Rocha, Da H.R.; Freitas, De H.C.; Kruijt, B.; Waterloo, M.J.; Manzi, A.O.

    2009-01-01

    Soil respiration plays a significant role in the carbon cycle of Amazonian tropical forests, although in situ measurements have only been poorly reported and the dependence of soil moisture and soil temperature also weakly understood. This work investigates the temporal variability of soil respirati

  1. Observations of climate, albedo, and surface radiation over cleared and undisturbed Amazonian forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements from the first comparative study of climate over Amazonian tropical forest and an embedded deforested clearing are presented. Observations comprise a continuous 60-day run of data from mid-October to mid-December 1990, covering the end of the dry season and the beginning of the wet season. Mean hourly observations are calculated for the whole period; and for two 10-day periods, one in the dry season and one at the start of the wet season. Much greater variation in weather variables was observed at the clearing compared with over the forest. While the mean values of temperature and specific humidity deficit differed by less than 1°C and 1 g kg−1 respectively, their daily ranges at the clearing were twice those at the forest. Mean daily albedo of the forest was 13.1 per cent, agreeing well with other tropical forest measurements, and of the clearing was 16.3 per cent, somewhat lower than the values currently being used in GCMs. The surface energy balance was investigated and mean available energy calculated for each site. The significant difference in the daily pattern of net radiation between the sites was found to be at least as much due to differences in the longwave radiation balance as to differences in albedo. The diurnal pattern of net radiation therefore changed between dry and wet periods as the higher plant water stress experienced by clearing vegetation altered the daily temperature cycle

  2. PLOT SIZE AND APPROPRIATE SAMPLE SIZE TO STUDY NATURAL REGENERATION IN AMAZONIAN FLOODPLAIN FOREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ricardo Vasconcellos Gama

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the optimum plot size as well as the appropriate sample size in order to provide an accurate sampling of natural regeneration surveys in high floodplain forests, low floodplain forests and in floodplain forests without stratification in the Amazonian estuary. Data were obtained at Exportadora de Madeira do Pará Ltda. – EMAPA forestlands, located in Afuá County, State of Pará. Based on the results, the following plot sizes were recommended: 70m2 - SC1 (0,3m ≤ h < 1,5m, 80m2 - SC2 (h ≥ 1,50m to DAP < 5,0cm, 90m2 - SC3 (5,0cm ≤ DAP < 15,0 cm and 70m2 – ASP (h ≥ 0,3m to DAP < 15,0cm. Considering these optimumplot sizes, it is possible to obtain a representative sampling of the floristic composition when using 19sub-plots in high floodplain, 14 sub-plots in low floodplain, and 19 sub-plots in the forest without stratification to survey the species of SC1 and the species of all sampled population (ASP, while 39 sub-plots are needed for sampling the natural regeneration species in SC2 and SC3.

  3. Analysing Amazonian forest productivity using a new individual and trait-based model (TFS v.1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Fyllas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Repeated long-term censuses have revealed large-scale spatial patterns in Amazon Basin forest structure and dynamism, with some forests in the west of the Basin having up to a twice as high rate of aboveground biomass production and tree recruitment as forests in the east. Possible causes for this variation could be the climatic and edaphic gradients across the Basin and/or the spatial distribution of tree species composition. To help understand causes of this variation a new individual-based model of tropical forest growth designed to take full advantage of the forest census data available from the Amazonian Forest Inventory Network (RAINFOR has been developed. The model incorporates variations in tree size distribution, functional traits and soil physical properties and runs at the stand level with four functional traits, leaf dry mass per area (Ma, leaf nitrogen (NL and phosphorus (PL content and wood density (DW used to represent a continuum of plant strategies found in tropical forests. We first applied the model to validate canopy-level water fluxes at three Amazon eddy flux sites. For all three sites the canopy-level water fluxes were adequately simulated. We then applied the model at seven plots, where intensive measurements of carbon allocation are available. Tree-by-tree multi-annual growth rates generally agreed well with observations for small trees, but with deviations identified for large trees. At the stand-level, simulations at 40 plots were used to explore the influence of climate and soil fertility on the gross (ΠG and net (ΠN primary production rates as well as the carbon use efficiency (CU. Simulated ΠG, ΠN and CU were not associated with temperature. However all three measures of stand level productivity were positively related to annual precipitation and soil fertility.

  4. Biogeography and evolution of Amazonian triatomines (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: implications for Chagas disease surveillance in humid forest ecoregions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Abad-Franch

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available An ecological-evolutionary classification of Amazonian triatomines is proposed based on a revision of their main contemporary biogeographical patterns. Truly Amazonian triatomines include the Rhodniini, the Cavernicolini, and perhaps Eratyrus and some Bolboderini. The tribe Rhodniini comprises two major lineages (pictipes and robustus. The former gave rise to trans-Andean (pallescens and Amazonian (pictipes species groups, while the latter diversified within Amazonia (robustus group and radiated to neighbouring ecoregions (Orinoco, Cerrado-Caatinga-Chaco, and Atlantic Forest. Three widely distributed Panstrongylus species probably occupied Amazonia secondarily, while a few Triatoma species include Amazonian populations that occur only in the fringes of the region. T. maculata probably represents a vicariant subset isolated from its parental lineage in the Caatinga-Cerrado system when moist forests closed a dry trans-Amazonian corridor. These diverse Amazonian triatomines display different degrees of synanthropism, defining a behavioural gradient from household invasion by adult triatomines to the stable colonisation of artificial structures. Anthropogenic ecological disturbance (driven by deforestation is probably crucial in the onset of the process, but the fact that only a small fraction of species effectively colonises artificial environments suggests a role for evolution at the end of the gradient. Domestic infestation foci are restricted to drier subregions within Amazonia; thus, populations adapted to extremely humid rainforest microclimates may have limited chances of successfully colonising the slightly drier artificial microenvironments. These observations suggest several research avenues, from the use of climate data to map risk areas to the assessment of the synanthropic potential of individual vector species.

  5. Influence of drainage status on soil and water chemistry, litter decomposition and soil respiration in central Amazonian forests on sandy soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berton Zanchi, F.; Waterloo, M.J.; Dolman, A.J.; Groenendijk, M.; Kruijt, B.

    2011-01-01

    Central Amazonian rainforest landscape supports a mosaic of tall terra firme rainforest and ecotone campinarana, riparian and campina forests, reflecting topography-induced variations in soil, nutrient and drainage conditions. Spatial and temporal variations in litter decomposition, soil and groundw

  6. Wood Polymer Composites Technology Supporting the Recovery and Protection of Tropical Forests: The Amazonian Phoenix Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio D. Nobre

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon Rain Forest has attracted worldwide attention due its large scale services to climate and also due to the green house gas emissions arising from deforestation. Contributing to the later and detrimental to the former, timber logging in the region has very low efficiency (only 16% in the production chain. Such timber extraction, often referred to as selective logging, has been claimed as a sustainable extractive industry, because the forest is said to restore itself through regenerative growth. But forest regeneration in the Amazon occurs naturally only in a very limited scale, resulting that large scale, low efficiency logging poses a big treat to the functional integrity of the biome, supplying to the market only a fraction of what it could if done differently. So, instead of extracting big centennial logs from the forests, the Amazonian Phoenix project proposes that large expanses of degraded lands be reforested using pioneer plants species from the forest itself. These plants have the capacity to heal gaps in the canopy, being able to grow and produce woody biomass in very extreme conditions. The idea is to mimic the regenerative dynamics of the natural ecosystem in short cycle agrosilvicultural production areas, utilizing a variety of technologies to transform raw fibers from these fast growth native plants into a variety of materials with high aggregated value. This communication presents the research on natural fibers by the Polymeric Composites Group within the Amazonian Phoenix Project. Sustainable technologies employing materials with good and responsible ecological footprints are important and necessary stimulus for a change in the destructive economical activities present in the Amazon frontiers. The relatively well established wood polymer composites technology, for example, is a good candidate solution. Two research and development fields are proposed: the first one considers production systems with simple and cheap

  7. Integrating regional and continental scale comparisons of tree composition in Amazonian terra firme forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Honorio Coronado

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We contrast regional and continental-scale comparisons of the floristic composition of terra firme forest in South Amazonia, using 55 plots across Amazonia and a subset of 30 plots from northern Peru and Ecuador. Firstly, we examine the floristic patterns using both genus- or species-level data and find that the species-level analysis more clearly distinguishes different plot clusters. Secondly, we compare the patterns and causes of floristic differences at regional and continental scales. At a continental scale, ordination analysis shows that species of Lecythidaceae and Sapotaceae are gradually replaced by species of Arecaceae and Myristicaceae from eastern to western Amazonia. These floristic gradients are correlated with gradients in soil fertility and to dry season length, similar to previous studies. At a regional scale, similar patterns are found within north-western Amazonia, where differences in soil fertility distinguish plots where species of Lecythidaceae, characteristic of poor soils, are gradually replaced by species of Myristicaceae on richer soils. The main coordinate of this regional-scale ordination correlates mainly with concentrations of available calcium and magnesium. Thirdly, we ask at a regional scale within north-western Amazonia, whether soil fertility or other distance dependent processes are more important for determining variation in floristic composition. A Mantel test indicates that both soils and geographical distance have a similar and significant role in determining floristic similarity across this region. Overall, these results suggest that regional-scale variation in floristic composition can rival continental scale differences within Amazonian terra firme forests, and that variation in floristic composition at both scales is dependent on a range of processes that include both habitat specialisation related to edaphic conditions and other distance-dependent processes. To fully account for regional scale

  8. Integrating regional and continental scale comparisons of tree composition in Amazonian terra firme forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honorio Coronado, E. N.; Baker, T. R.; Phillips, O. L.; Pitman, N. C. A.; Pennington, R. T.; Vásquez Martínez, R.; Monteagudo, A.; Mogollón, H.; Dávila Cardozo, N.; Ríos, M.; García-Villacorta, R.; Valderrama, E.; Ahuite, M.; Huamantupa, I.; Neill, D. A.; Laurance, W. F.; Nascimento, H. E. M.; Soares de Almeida, S.; Killeen, T. J.; Arroyo, L.; Núñez, P.; Freitas Alvarado, L.

    2009-01-01

    We contrast regional and continental-scale comparisons of the floristic composition of terra firme forest in South Amazonia, using 55 plots across Amazonia and a subset of 30 plots from northern Peru and Ecuador. Firstly, we examine the floristic patterns using both genus- or species-level data and find that the species-level analysis more clearly distinguishes different plot clusters. Secondly, we compare the patterns and causes of floristic differences at regional and continental scales. At a continental scale, ordination analysis shows that species of Lecythidaceae and Sapotaceae are gradually replaced by species of Arecaceae and Myristicaceae from eastern to western Amazonia. These floristic gradients are correlated with gradients in soil fertility and to dry season length, similar to previous studies. At a regional scale, similar patterns are found within north-western Amazonia, where differences in soil fertility distinguish plots where species of Lecythidaceae, characteristic of poor soils, are gradually replaced by species of Myristicaceae on richer soils. The main coordinate of this regional-scale ordination correlates mainly with concentrations of available calcium and magnesium. Thirdly, we ask at a regional scale within north-western Amazonia, whether soil fertility or other distance dependent processes are more important for determining variation in floristic composition. A Mantel test indicates that both soils and geographical distance have a similar and significant role in determining floristic similarity across this region. Overall, these results suggest that regional-scale variation in floristic composition can rival continental scale differences within Amazonian terra firme forests, and that variation in floristic composition at both scales is dependent on a range of processes that include both habitat specialisation related to edaphic conditions and other distance-dependent processes. To fully account for regional scale variation in continental

  9. Responses of squirrel monkeys to seasonal changes in food availability in an eastern Amazonian forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Anita I

    2007-02-01

    Tropical forests are characterized by marked temporal and spatial variation in productivity, and many primates face foraging problems associated with seasonal shifts in fruit availability. In this study, I examined seasonal changes in diet and foraging behaviors of two groups of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus), studied for 12 months in Eastern Brazilian Amazonia, an area characterized by seasonal rainfall. Squirrel monkeys were primarily insectivorous (79% of feeding and foraging time), with fruit consumption highest during the rainy season. Although monkeys fed from 68 plant species, fruit of Attalea maripa palms accounted for 28% of annual fruit-feeding records. Dietary shifts in the dry season were correlated with a decline in ripe A. maripa fruits. Despite pronounced seasonal variation in rainfall and fruit abundance, foraging efficiency, travel time, and distance traveled remained stable between seasons. Instead, squirrel monkeys at this Eastern Amazonian site primarily dealt with the seasonal decline in fruit by showing dietary flexibility. Consumption of insects, flowers, and exudates increased during the dry season. In particular, their foraging behavior at this time strongly resembled that of tamarins (Saguinus sp.) and consisted of heavy use of seed-pod exudates and specialized foraging on large-bodied orthopterans near the forest floor. Comparisons with squirrel monkeys at other locations indicate that, across their geographic range, Saimiri use a variety of behavioral tactics during reduced periods of fruit availability. PMID:17154390

  10. Proof of the Post-drought Effect of Amazonian Forests from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Saatchi, S. S.; Xu, L.; Yu, Y.; Myneni, R. B.; Knyazikhin, Y.; CHOI, S.

    2015-12-01

    In 2005, the tropical forests in Amazonia went through a severe drought event across the entire basin. There have been conflict reports on the drought impact on vegetation and the issue was never settled due to limited ground truth. Remote sensing data have been used but often questioned for signal saturation, data quality, or atmosphere contamination. The quantification of carbon changes in this vast terrestrial carbon pool, especially the post-drought effect, is difficult but essential. Lidar measurements, which are regarded as the accurate retrieval of canopy vertical structure, give us the opportunity to quantify the carbon changes for this severe event. Here, we use the lidar waveforms measured from the GLAS sensor from 2004 to 2007 to calculate the vertical profiles of Amazonian forests and their associated carbon stock. After careful quality-filtering, removal of seasonal effect, as well as uncertainty reduction through spatial averaging and random sampling, we find that the mean canopy height in Amazon has much higher reduction from 2006 to 2007 compared to either the drought year from 2004 to 2005, or the immediate post-drought change from 2005 to 2006, demonstrating a lagged effect of drought. Our estimation of carbon loss from model calculation also show that 2005 drought had an significant impact on the carbon exchange, and emissions from post drought disturbance may match the emissions of annual deforestation from Amazonia.

  11. Analysing Amazonian forest productivity using a new individual and trait-based model (TFS v.1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyllas, N. M.; Gloor, E.; Mercado, L. M.; Sitch, S.; Quesada, C. A.; Domingues, T. F.; Galbraith, D. R.; Torre-Lezama, A.; Vilanova, E.; Ramírez-Angulo, H.; Higuchi, N.; Neill, D. A.; Silveira, M.; Ferreira, L.; Aymard C., G. A.; Malhi, Y.; Phillips, O. L.; Lloyd, J.

    2014-07-01

    Repeated long-term censuses have revealed large-scale spatial patterns in Amazon basin forest structure and dynamism, with some forests in the west of the basin having up to a twice as high rate of aboveground biomass production and tree recruitment as forests in the east. Possible causes for this variation could be the climatic and edaphic gradients across the basin and/or the spatial distribution of tree species composition. To help understand causes of this variation a new individual-based model of tropical forest growth, designed to take full advantage of the forest census data available from the Amazonian Forest Inventory Network (RAINFOR), has been developed. The model allows for within-stand variations in tree size distribution and key functional traits and between-stand differences in climate and soil physical and chemical properties. It runs at the stand level with four functional traits - leaf dry mass per area (Ma), leaf nitrogen (NL) and phosphorus (PL) content and wood density (DW) varying from tree to tree - in a way that replicates the observed continua found within each stand. We first applied the model to validate canopy-level water fluxes at three eddy covariance flux measurement sites. For all three sites the canopy-level water fluxes were adequately simulated. We then applied the model at seven plots, where intensive measurements of carbon allocation are available. Tree-by-tree multi-annual growth rates generally agreed well with observations for small trees, but with deviations identified for larger trees. At the stand level, simulations at 40 plots were used to explore the influence of climate and soil nutrient availability on the gross (ΠG) and net (ΠN) primary production rates as well as the carbon use efficiency (CU). Simulated ΠG, ΠN and CU were not associated with temperature. On the other hand, all three measures of stand level productivity were positively related to both mean annual precipitation and soil nutrient status

  12. Frugivory in Canopy Plants in a Western Amazonian Forest: Dispersal Systems, Phylogenetic Ensembles and Keystone Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo R Stevenson

    Full Text Available Frugivory is a widespread mutualistic interaction in which frugivores obtain nutritional resources while favoring plant recruitment through their seed dispersal services. Nonetheless, how these complex interactions are organized in diverse communities, such as tropical forests, is not fully understood. In this study we evaluated the existence of plant-frugivore sub-assemblages and their phylogenetic organization in an undisturbed western Amazonian forest in Colombia. We also explored for potential keystone plants, based on network analyses and an estimate of the amount of fruit going from plants to frugivores. We carried out diurnal observations on 73 canopy plant species during a period of two years. During focal tree sampling, we recorded frugivore identity, the duration of each individual visit, and feeding rates. We did not find support for the existence of sub assemblages, such as specialized vs. generalized dispersal systems. Visitation rates on the vast majority of canopy species were associated with the relative abundance of frugivores, in which ateline monkeys (i.e. Lagothrix and Ateles played the most important roles. All fruiting plants were visited by a variety of frugivores and the phylogenetic assemblage was random in more than 67% of the cases. In cases of aggregation, the plant species were consumed by only primates or only birds, and filters were associated with fruit protection and likely chemical content. Plants suggested as keystone species based on the amount of pulp going from plants to frugivores differ from those suggested based on network approaches. Our results suggest that in tropical forests most tree-frugivore interactions are generalized, and abundance should be taken into account when assessing the most important plants for frugivores.

  13. Frugivory in Canopy Plants in a Western Amazonian Forest: Dispersal Systems, Phylogenetic Ensembles and Keystone Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Pablo R; Link, Andrés; González-Caro, Sebastian; Torres-Jiménez, María Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Frugivory is a widespread mutualistic interaction in which frugivores obtain nutritional resources while favoring plant recruitment through their seed dispersal services. Nonetheless, how these complex interactions are organized in diverse communities, such as tropical forests, is not fully understood. In this study we evaluated the existence of plant-frugivore sub-assemblages and their phylogenetic organization in an undisturbed western Amazonian forest in Colombia. We also explored for potential keystone plants, based on network analyses and an estimate of the amount of fruit going from plants to frugivores. We carried out diurnal observations on 73 canopy plant species during a period of two years. During focal tree sampling, we recorded frugivore identity, the duration of each individual visit, and feeding rates. We did not find support for the existence of sub assemblages, such as specialized vs. generalized dispersal systems. Visitation rates on the vast majority of canopy species were associated with the relative abundance of frugivores, in which ateline monkeys (i.e. Lagothrix and Ateles) played the most important roles. All fruiting plants were visited by a variety of frugivores and the phylogenetic assemblage was random in more than 67% of the cases. In cases of aggregation, the plant species were consumed by only primates or only birds, and filters were associated with fruit protection and likely chemical content. Plants suggested as keystone species based on the amount of pulp going from plants to frugivores differ from those suggested based on network approaches. Our results suggest that in tropical forests most tree-frugivore interactions are generalized, and abundance should be taken into account when assessing the most important plants for frugivores.

  14. Monitoring needs to transform Amazonian forest maintenance into a global warming-mitigation option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fearnside, P.M. [National Institute for Research in the Amazon, Manaus (Brazil)

    1997-10-01

    Two approaches are frequently mentioned in proposals to use tropical forest maintenance as a carbon offset. One is to set up specific reserves, funding the establishment, demarcation, and guarding of these units. Monitoring, in this case, consists of the relatively straightforward process of confirming that the forest stands in question continue to exist. In Amazonia, where large expanses of tropical forests still exist, the reserve approach has the logical weakness of being completely open to `leakage`: with the implantation of any given reserve, the people who would have been deforesting in the reserve area will probably continue to clear the same amount of forest somewhere else in the region. The second approach is through policy changes aimed at reducing the rate of clearing, but not limited to specific reserves or areas of forest. This second approach addresses more fundamental aspects of the tropical deforestation problem, but has the disadvantages of not assuring the permanence of forest and of not resulting in a visible product that can be convincingly credited to the existence of the project. In order for credit to be assigned to policy change projects, functioning models of the deforestation process must be developed that are capable of producing scenarios with and without different policy changes. This requires understanding the process of deforestation, which depends on monitoring in order to have information as a time series. Information is needed both from satellite imagery and from on-the-ground observations on who occupies the land and why the observed changes occur. Monitoring must be done by individual property if causal factors are to be identified reliably; this is best achieved using a database in Geographical Information System (GIS) that includes property boundaries. Once policy changes are made in practice, not only deforestation but also the policies themselves must be monitored. Decrees and laws are not the same as changes in practice; the

  15. Culturing the forest [Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plieninger, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Reviw of: The Social Lives of Forests Past, Present, and Future of Woodland Resurgence Susanna B. Hecht, Kathleen D. Morrison, and Christine Padoch, Eds. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 2014. 507 pp. $50, £35. ISBN 9780226322667.......Reviw of: The Social Lives of Forests Past, Present, and Future of Woodland Resurgence Susanna B. Hecht, Kathleen D. Morrison, and Christine Padoch, Eds. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 2014. 507 pp. $50, £35. ISBN 9780226322667....

  16. Spatial distribution and functional significance of leaf lamina shape in Amazonian forest trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. M. Malhado

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Leaves in tropical forests come in an enormous variety of sizes and shapes, each of which can be ultimately viewed as an adaptation to the complex problem of optimising the capture of light for photosynthesis. However, the fact that many different shape "strategies" coexist within a habitat demonstrate that there are many other intrinsic and extrinsic factors involved, such as the differential investment in support tissues required for different leaf lamina shapes. Here, we take a macrogeographic approach to understanding the function of different lamina shape categories. Specifically, we use 106 permanent plots spread across the Amazon rainforest basin to: (1 describe the geographic distribution of some simple metrics of lamina shape in plots from across Amazonia, and; (2 identify and quantify relationships between key environmental parameters and lamina shape in tropical forests. Because the plots are not randomly distributed across the study area, achieving this latter objective requires the use of statistics that can account for spatial auto-correlation. We found that between 60–70% of the 2791 species and 83 908 individual trees in the dataset could be classified as elliptic (=the widest part of a leaf is on an axis in the middle fifth of the long axis of the leaf. Furthermore, the average Amazonian tree leaf is 2.5 times longer than it is wide and has an entire margin. Contrary to theoretical expectations we found little support for the hypothesis that narrow leaves are an adaptation to dry conditions and low nutrient soils. However, we did find strong regional patterns in leaf lamina length-width ratios and several significant correlations with precipitation variables suggesting that water availability may be exerting an as yet unrecognised selective pressure on leaf shape of rainforest trees. Furthermore, we found a strong correlation between the proportion of trees with non-entire laminas (dissected, toothed, etc. and mean annual

  17. Heterogeneous movement of insectivorous Amazonian birds through primary and secondary forest: A case study using multistate models with radiotelemetry data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, James; Powell, Luke L.; Wolfe, Jared D.; Johnson, Erik l.; Nichols, James D.; Stouffer, Phillip C.

    2015-01-01

    Given rates of deforestation, disturbance, and secondary forest accumulation in tropical rainforests, there is a great need to quantify habitat use and movement among different habitats. This need is particularly pronounced for animals most sensitive to disturbance, such as insectivorous understory birds. Here we use multistate capture–recapture models with radiotelemetry data to determine the successional stage at which within-day movement probabilities of Amazonian birds in secondary forest are similar to those in primary forest. We radio-tracked three common understory insectivore species in primary and secondary forest at the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments project near Manaus, Brazil: two woodcreepers, Glyphorynchus spirurus (n = 19) andXiphorhynchus pardalotus (n = 18), and the terrestrial antthrush Formicarius colma(n = 19). Forest age was a strong predictor of fidelity to a given habitat. All three species showed greater fidelity to primary forest than to 8–14-year-old secondary forest, indicating the latter’s relatively poor quality. The two woodcreeper species used 12–18-year-old secondary forest in a manner comparable to continuous forest, but F. colmaavoided moving even to 27–31-year-old secondary forest—the oldest at our site. Our results suggest that managers concerned with less sensitive species can assume that forest reserves connected by 12–18-year-old secondary forest corridors are effectively connected. On the other hand, >30 years are required after land abandonment before secondary forest serves as a primary forest-like conduit for movement by F. colma; more sensitive terrestrial insectivores may take longer still.

  18. Dissolved Organic and Inorganic Carbon Flow Paths in an Amazonian Transitional Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania eNeu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As a raindrop falls from the atmosphere, over vegetation and forest canopies, and enters soils and streams it experiences a dynamic exchange of carbon constituents with the surrounding environment. Understanding the magnitude and dynamics of carbon export in above and below ground flow paths is critical for constraining the influence of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems on global carbon cycling. Here we examine the concentration and flux of dissolved organic and inorganic carbon (DOC and DIC in rainfall, throughfall, stemflow, overland flow, soil solution, groundwater, and stream water in an Amazonian transitional forest located near the arc of deforestation. Rainfall was enriched in DOC by interactions with atmospheric particles derived from both biogenic and anthropogenic emissions, resulting in a flux of 82.3 kg C ha-1 yr-1, which was the largest flux from each respective flow path. Forest throughfall, stemflow, and direct overland flow mobilized DOC from products of terrestrial primary production and decomposition. Net throughfall represented the second largest DOC flux (68.4 kg C ha-1 yr-1, whereas stemflow and overland flow only had a flux of 1.5 and 3.9 kg C ha-1 yr-1, respectively. Much of the DOC in above ground flow paths was removed from solution as the rain percolated through soil layers due to both biological decomposition and sorption/desorption to mineral surfaces, resulting in low concentrations in stream and groundwater (2.6 ± 2.4 mg L-1 and 1.45 ± 0.3 mg L-1, respectively relative to throughfall (43.9 ± 5.2 mg L-1 and stemflow (30.6 ± 2.7 mg L-1. The flux of DIC in each respective flow path was generally lower than for DOC, and likely driven by atmospheric gas exchange and inputs from respiration and decomposition. DOC concentrations in above ground flow paths were highest during the first rainfall after a dry period, whereas DIC concentrations generally increased throughout the rainy season as soil moisture increased.

  19. Ground-Vegetation Clutter Affects Phyllostomid Bat Assemblage Structure in Lowland Amazonian Forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Marciente

    Full Text Available Vegetation clutter is a limiting factor for bats that forage near ground level, and may determine the distribution of species and guilds. However, many studies that evaluated the effects of vegetation clutter on bats have used qualitative descriptions rather than direct measurements of vegetation density. Moreover, few studies have evaluated the effect of vegetation clutter on a regional scale. Here, we evaluate the influence of the physical obstruction of vegetation on phyllostomid-bat assemblages along a 520 km transect in continuous Amazonian forest. We sampled bats using mist nets in eight localities during 80 nights (3840 net-hours and estimated the ground-vegetation density with digital photographs. The total number of species, number of animalivorous species, total number of frugivorous species, number of understory frugivorous species, and abundance of canopy frugivorous bats were negatively associated with vegetation clutter. The bat assemblages showed a nested structure in relation to degree of clutter, with animalivorous and understory frugivorous bats distributed throughout the vegetation-clutter gradient, while canopy frugivores were restricted to sites with more open vegetation. The species distribution along the gradient of vegetation clutter was not closely associated with wing morphology, but aspect ratio and wing load differed between frugivores and animalivores. Vegetation structure plays an important role in structuring assemblages of the bats at the regional scale by increasing beta diversity between sites. Differences in foraging strategy and diet of the guilds seem to have contributed more to the spatial distribution of bats than the wing characteristics of the species alone.

  20. Spatial distribution and functional significance of leaf lamina shape in Amazonian forest trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. M. Malhado

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Leaves in tropical forests come in an enormous variety of sizes and shapes, each of which can be ultimately viewed as an adaptation to the complex problem of optimising the capture of light for photosynthesis. However, the fact that many different shape "strategies" coexist within a habitat demonstrate that there are many other intrinsic and extrinsic factors involved, such as the differential investment in support tissues required for different leaf lamina shapes. Here, we take a macrogeographic approach to understanding the function of different lamina shape categories. Specifically, we use 106 permanent plots spread across the Amazon rainforest basin to: 1 describe the geographic distribution of some simple metrics of lamina shape in plots from across Amazonia, and; 2 identify and quantify relationships between key environmental parameters and lamina shape in tropical forests. Because the plots are not randomly distributed across the study area, achieving this latter objective requires the use of statistics that can account for spatial auto-correlation. We found that between 60–70% of the 2791 species and 83 908 individual trees in the dataset could be classified as having elliptic leaves (= the widest part of the leaf is on an axis in the middle fifth of the long axis of the leaf. Furthermore, the average Amazonian tree leaf is 2.5 times longer than it is wide and has an entire margin. Contrary to theoretical expectations we found little support for the hypothesis that narrow leaves are an adaptation to dry conditions. However, we did find strong regional patterns in leaf lamina length-width ratios and several significant correlations with precipitation variables suggesting that water availability may be exerting an as yet unrecognised selective pressure on leaf shape of rainforest trees. Some support was found for the hypothesis that narrow leaves are an adaptation to low nutrient soils. Furthermore, we found a strong correlation between

  1. The influences of CO2 fertilization and land use change on the total aboveground biomass in Amazonian tropical forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanho, A. D.; Zhang, K.; Coe, M. T.; Costa, M. H.; Moorcroft, P. R.

    2012-12-01

    Field observations from undisturbed old-growth Amazonian forest plots have recently reported on the temporal variation of many of the physical and chemical characteristics such as: physiological properties of leaves, above ground live biomass, above ground productivity, mortality and turnover rates. However, although this variation has been measured, it is still not well understood what mechanisms control the observed temporal variability. The observed changes in time are believed to be a result of a combination of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration, climate variability, recovery from natural disturbance (drought, wind blow, flood), and increase of nutrient availability. The time and spatial variability of the fertilization effect of CO2 on above ground biomass will be explored in more detail in this work. A precise understanding of the CO2 effect on the vegetation is essential for an accurate prediction of the future response of the forest to climate change. To address this issue we simultaneously explore the effects of climate variability, historical CO2 and land-use change on total biomass and productivity using two different Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVM). We use the Integrated Biosphere Simulator (IBIS) and the Ecosystem Demography Model 2.1 (ED2.1). Using land use changes database from 1700 - 2008 we reconstruct the total carbon balance in the Amazonian forest in space and time and present how the models predict the forest as carbon sink or source and explore why the model and field data diverge from each other. From 1970 to 2005 the Amazonian forest has been exposed to an increase of approximately 50 ppm in the atmospheric CO2 concentration. Preliminary analyses with the IBIS and ED2.1 dynamic vegetation model shows the CO2 fertilization effect could account for an increase in above ground biomass of 0.03 and 0.04 kg-C/m2/yr on average for the Amazon basin, respectively. The annual biomass change varies temporally and spatially from about 0

  2. Characterization of Amazonian forest fragments in the catchment of the Taxidermista I River in Alta Floresta, MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos José da Silva

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining the connectivity of the remaining forest in the state of Mato Grosso is critically important, and the preservation of riparian vegetation of streams contributes greatly to retaining the integrity of the mosaic of habitats found in this region. The aim of this study was to characterize the Amazonian forest fragments remaining in the catchment of the Taxidermista I River, in Alta Floresta, MT, in order to provide input for the implementation of recovery projects in degraded areas and the conservation of forest fragments. The forest fragments were vectorized and the size, perimeter, and distance of each fragment to the nearest watercourse were evaluated. The circularity index, or the edge/interior ratio, was also determined. In the watershed of the Taxidermista I River, 63 forest fragments ranging in size from 0.44 to 67.51 ha, with perimeters between 262.67 and 4756.26 m, were recorded. The distance from each forest fragment to the nearest watercourse ranges from 0 to 450 m; however, 71.4% of the fragments are connected to a watercourse. The majority of the fragments in this watershed are elongated and occupy a small area, but their perimeter/edge is large relative to their size, which makes them susceptible to edge effects, especially from nearby cattle farms.

  3. Culture phenomenon analysis on the forest tour activity of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Minjin

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes culture and forest culture, the intension of culture and forest culture, combines the understanding of the main cultural factor with the forest tour activity of China, analyzes the compatible phenomenon of Chinese forest culture and traditional culture, and explores culture of forest tourist site containing the meaning in forest tour. The author thinks the tour of forest culture which will be the important component of forest tour in forest culture,This paper puts forward simple questions existing in exploitation and advantage of forest tour culture, and proposes some countermeasures.

  4. Joint simulation of carbon and tree diversity dynamics in an Amazonian forest succession using TROLL, an individual-based forest dynamics model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maréchaux, Isabelle; Chave, Jérôme

    2016-04-01

    Amazonian forests are critical for biogeochemical cycles and provide also key ecosystem services. One approach for modelling forest vegetation dynamics is to parameterize species using field-measured plant traits in individual-based forest growth simulators, a method that has been successfully implemented in temperate forests. Here we extend this approach to the tropics. We parameterized the forest dynamics simulator TROLL over a hundred species and simulated the first decades of an ecological succession with tree species encountered in the coastal zone of French Guiana. The model reproduced well the empirically measured values of gross and net primary productivities (GPP and NPP, obtained from eddy-flux measurements) as well as canopy structure (obtained from aerial LiDAR scanning). Modelled species trajectories compared well with empirically measured ones at a clear-cut site for the past four decades. Modelled carbon accumulation curves show that forests are not mature even after 100 years of regeneration. Finally, we discuss how plant hydrology and responses to drought can be integrated into this modelling scheme using data from leaf water potential at wilting point.

  5. Indifference to dissonance in native Amazonians reveals cultural variation in music perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Josh H; Schultz, Alan F; Undurraga, Eduardo A; Godoy, Ricardo A

    2016-07-28

    by biology remains debated. One widely discussed phenomenon is that some combinations of notes are perceived by Westerners as pleasant, or consonant, whereas others are perceived as unpleasant,or dissonant. The contrast between consonance and dissonance is central to Western music and its origins have fascinated scholars since the ancient Greeks. Aesthetic responses to consonance are commonly assumed by scientists to have biological roots, and thus to be universally present in humans. Ethnomusicologists and composers, in contrast, have argued that consonance is a creation of Western musical culture. The issue has remained unresolved, partly because little is known about the extent of cross-cultural variation in consonance preferences. Here we report experiments with the Tsimane'--a native Amazonian society with minimal exposure to Western culture--and comparison populations in Bolivia and the United States that varied in exposure to Western music. Participants rated the pleasantness of sounds. Despite exhibiting Western-like discrimination abilities and Western-like aesthetic responses to familiar sounds and acoustic roughness, the Tsimane' rated consonant and dissonant chords and vocal harmonies as equally pleasant. By contrast, Bolivian city- and town-dwellers exhibited significant preferences for consonance,albeit to a lesser degree than US residents. The results indicate that consonance preferences can be absent in cultures sufficiently isolated from Western music, and are thus unlikely to reflect innate biases or exposure to harmonic natural sounds. The observed variation in preferences is presumably determined by exposure to musical harmony, suggesting that culture has a dominant role in shaping aesthetic responses to music.

  6. Indifference to dissonance in native Amazonians reveals cultural variation in music perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Josh H; Schultz, Alan F; Undurraga, Eduardo A; Godoy, Ricardo A

    2016-07-28

    by biology remains debated. One widely discussed phenomenon is that some combinations of notes are perceived by Westerners as pleasant, or consonant, whereas others are perceived as unpleasant,or dissonant. The contrast between consonance and dissonance is central to Western music and its origins have fascinated scholars since the ancient Greeks. Aesthetic responses to consonance are commonly assumed by scientists to have biological roots, and thus to be universally present in humans. Ethnomusicologists and composers, in contrast, have argued that consonance is a creation of Western musical culture. The issue has remained unresolved, partly because little is known about the extent of cross-cultural variation in consonance preferences. Here we report experiments with the Tsimane'--a native Amazonian society with minimal exposure to Western culture--and comparison populations in Bolivia and the United States that varied in exposure to Western music. Participants rated the pleasantness of sounds. Despite exhibiting Western-like discrimination abilities and Western-like aesthetic responses to familiar sounds and acoustic roughness, the Tsimane' rated consonant and dissonant chords and vocal harmonies as equally pleasant. By contrast, Bolivian city- and town-dwellers exhibited significant preferences for consonance,albeit to a lesser degree than US residents. The results indicate that consonance preferences can be absent in cultures sufficiently isolated from Western music, and are thus unlikely to reflect innate biases or exposure to harmonic natural sounds. The observed variation in preferences is presumably determined by exposure to musical harmony, suggesting that culture has a dominant role in shaping aesthetic responses to music. PMID:27409816

  7. Diversity and aspects of the ecology of social wasps (Vespidae, Polistinae in Central Amazonian "terra firme" forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Somavilla

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Diversity and aspects of the ecology of social wasps (Vespidae, Polistinae in Central Amazonian "terra firme" forest. The knowledge of social wasp richness and biology in the Amazonian region is considered insufficient. Although the Amazonas state is the largest in the region, until now only two brief surveys were conducted there. Considering that the systematic inventory of an area is the first step towards its conservation and wise use, this study presents faunal data on social wasp diversity in a 25 km² area of "terra firme" (upland forest at the Ducke Reserve, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Wasps were collected in the understory, following a protocol of three collectors walking along 60 trails 1,000 m in extension for 16 days between August and October 2010. Methods used were active search of individuals with entomological nets and nest collecting. Fifty-eight species of social wasps, allocated in 13 genera, were recorded; 67% of the collected species belong to Polybia, Agelaia and Mischocyttarus; other genera were represented by only four species or less. The most frequent species in active searches were Agelaia fulvofasciata (DeGeer, 1773, Agelaia testacea (Fabricius, 1804 and Angiopolybia pallens (Lepeletier, 1836. Twelve species were collected in nests. Prior to this study, 65 Polistinae species were deposited at the INPA Collection. Collecting in the study grid, an area not previously sampled for wasps, resulted in an increase of 25% species, and species richness was 86. According to the results, there is evidence that the diversity of social wasps at the Ducke Reserve is even higher, making it one of the richest areas in the Brazilian Amazonia.

  8. Implication of Forest-Savanna Dynamics on Biomass and Carbon Stock: Effectiveness of an Amazonian Ecological Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto-Santos, F. R.; Luizao, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    The forests-savanna advancement/retraction process seems to play an important role in the global carbon cycle and in the climate-vegetation balance maintenance in the Amazon. To contribute with long term carbon dynamics and assess effectiveness of a protected area in reduce carbon emissions in Brazilian Amazon transitional areas, variations in forest-savanna mosaics biomass and carbon stock within Maraca Ecological Station (MES), Roraima/Brazil, and its outskirts non-protected areas were compared. Composite surface soil samples and indirect methods based on regression models were used to estimate aboveground tree biomass accumulation and assess vegetation and soil carbon stock along eleven 0.6 ha transects perpendicular to the forest-savanna limits. Aboveground biomass and carbon accumulation were influenced by vegetation structure, showing higher values within protected area, with great contribution of trees above 40 cm in diameter. In the savanna environments of protected areas, a higher tree density and carbon stock up to 30 m from the border confirmed a forest encroachment. This pointed that MES acts as carbon sink, even under variations in soil fertility gradient, with a potential increase of the total carbon stock from 9 to 150 Mg C ha-1. Under 20 years of fire and disturbance management, the results indicated the effectiveness of this protected area to reduce carbon emissions and mitigate greenhouse and climate change effects in a forest-savanna transitional area in Brazilian Northern Amazon. The contribution of this study in understanding rates and reasons for biomass and carbon variation, under different management strategies, should be considered the first approximation to assist policies of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) from underresearched Amazonian ecotone; despite further efforts in this direction are still needed. FINANCIAL SUPPORT: Boticário Group Foundation (Fundação Grupo Boticário); National Council for

  9. Comparing CLM and CLM-ED as a basis for representing carbon cycling dynamics in a Central Amazonian forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, R. G.; Holm, J. A.; Koven, C. D.; Riley, W. J.; Chambers, J. Q.; Fisher, R.; Muszala, S.; Higuchi, N.

    2014-12-01

    Old-growth tropical forests are responsible for a potentially large portion of the terrestrial carbon sink, although the underlying control mechanisms of that sink, has large uncertainties. The quantification of the tropical forest carbon sink is a grand challenge of measurement scale. Therefore, there is a strong emphasis on incorporating improved vegetation structure and compositional representativeness in land-surface modeling. Vegetation demography, plant competition, mechanistic mortality, disturbance cycling, and plant functional traits strongly control carbon dynamics and energy budgets of the Earth's surface. Size and age structured scaling processes have not been represented in the widely used Community Land Model (CLM) until the recent inclusion of the Ecosystem Demography (ED) model into CLM 4.5, i.e., CLM-ED. The goal of this study was to compare how CLM-ED captured tropical carbon cycling dynamics compared to CLM and 16 years of field measurements from a central Amazonian forest. We evaluated critical carbon flux processes (Mg C ha-1 yr-1) such as net ecosystem exchange (NEE), net primary production (NPP), and autotrophic respiration (AR), and additional representations of growth and maintenance in CLM and CLM-ED. For a central Amazonian forest CLM estimated GPP from 2000-2012, with transient CO2 concentrations, to be 31.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 and was similar to field measurements, while initial evaluation of the newly developed CLM-ED estimated GPP to be substantially higher. The introduction of the size and age structure of ED to the CLM framework enables a finer granularity of state information in the canopy and new ways to represent canopy physics. Therefore alternative physics processes were compared, including those that are highly resolved at the cohort scale (i.e. plant groups) to those at the highly parameterized community scale (i.e. the plant canopy as a whole). CLM serves as the land-model component for nearly 40% of the Earth System Models

  10. Root Niche Separation as Strategy of Avoidance of Seasonal Drought Stress in a Mature Amazonian Forest (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, V. Y.; Hutyra, L.; Wofsy, S. C.; Munger, J. W.; Saleska, S. R.; De Oliveira, R., Jr.; Camargo, P. B.; Fatichi, S.

    2013-12-01

    Large areas of Amazonian evergreen forests experience seasonal droughts extending for three or more months, and show maximum rates of photosynthesis and evapotranspiration during dry intervals. This apparent resilience is belied by disproportionate mortality of the large trees in manipulations that reduce wet season rainfall, occurring after 2-3 years of treatment. The goal of this study is to characterize the mechanisms that produce these contrasting ecosystem responses. A mechanistic vegetation-hydrology model is developed to test the roles of deep roots and the possibility of 'root niche separation,' in which roots of overstory trees extend to depth, where during the dry season they use water stored from wet season precipitation, while roots of understory trees are concentrated in shallow layers that access dry season precipitation directly. Observational data on canopy phenology, energy fluxes, soil moisture, and soil and root structure from the Tapajos National Forest, Brazil, provided comprehensive observational constraints on the model. Results strongly suggest that deep roots with root niche separation adaptations explain both the observed resilience during seasonal drought and the vulnerability of canopy-dominant trees to extended deficits of wet season rainfall. These mechanisms appear to provide an adaptive strategy that enhances productivity of the largest trees in the face of their disproportionate heat loads and water demand in the dry season. A sensitivity analysis exploring how wet season rainfall affects the stability of the rainforest system is presented.

  11. Structure and composition of altered riparian forests in an agricultural Amazonian landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, R Chelsea; Porder, Stephen; Neill, Christopher; Brando, Paulo; Quintino, Raimundo Mota; do Nascimento, Sebastiâo Aviz

    2015-09-01

    Deforestation and fragmentation influence the microclimate, vegetation structure, and composition of remaining patches of tropical forest. In the southern Amazon, at the frontier of cropland expansion, forests are converted and fragmented in a pattern that leaves standing riparian forests whose dimensions are mandated by the Brazilian National Forest Code. These altered riparian forests share many characteristics of well-studied upland forest fragments, but differ because they remain connected to larger areas of forest downstream, and because they may experience wetter soil conditions because reduction of forest cover in the surrounding watershed raises groundwater levels and increases stream runoff. We compared forest regeneration, structure, composition, and diversity in four areas of intact riparian forest and four areas each of narrow, medium, and wide altered riparian forests that have been surrounded by agriculture since the early 1980s. We found that seedling abundance was reduced by as much as 64% and sapling abundance was reduced by as much as 67% in altered compared to intact riparian forests. The most pronounced differences between altered and intact forest occurred near forest edges and within the narrowest sections of altered riparian forests. Woody plant species composition differed and diversity was reduced in altered forests compared to intact riparian forests. However, despite being fragmented for several decades, large woody plant biomass and carbon storage, the number of live or dead large woody plants, mortality rates, and the size distribution of woody plants did not differ significantly between altered and intact riparian forests. Thus, even in these relatively narrow forests with high edge: area ratios, we saw no evidence of the increases in mortality and declines in biomass that have been found in other tropical forest fragment studies. However, because of the changes in both species community and reduced regeneration, it is unclear how long

  12. Structure and composition of altered riparian forests in an agricultural Amazonian landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, R Chelsea; Porder, Stephen; Neill, Christopher; Brando, Paulo; Quintino, Raimundo Mota; do Nascimento, Sebastiâo Aviz

    2015-09-01

    Deforestation and fragmentation influence the microclimate, vegetation structure, and composition of remaining patches of tropical forest. In the southern Amazon, at the frontier of cropland expansion, forests are converted and fragmented in a pattern that leaves standing riparian forests whose dimensions are mandated by the Brazilian National Forest Code. These altered riparian forests share many characteristics of well-studied upland forest fragments, but differ because they remain connected to larger areas of forest downstream, and because they may experience wetter soil conditions because reduction of forest cover in the surrounding watershed raises groundwater levels and increases stream runoff. We compared forest regeneration, structure, composition, and diversity in four areas of intact riparian forest and four areas each of narrow, medium, and wide altered riparian forests that have been surrounded by agriculture since the early 1980s. We found that seedling abundance was reduced by as much as 64% and sapling abundance was reduced by as much as 67% in altered compared to intact riparian forests. The most pronounced differences between altered and intact forest occurred near forest edges and within the narrowest sections of altered riparian forests. Woody plant species composition differed and diversity was reduced in altered forests compared to intact riparian forests. However, despite being fragmented for several decades, large woody plant biomass and carbon storage, the number of live or dead large woody plants, mortality rates, and the size distribution of woody plants did not differ significantly between altered and intact riparian forests. Thus, even in these relatively narrow forests with high edge: area ratios, we saw no evidence of the increases in mortality and declines in biomass that have been found in other tropical forest fragment studies. However, because of the changes in both species community and reduced regeneration, it is unclear how long

  13. Biogeography and evolution of Amazonian triatomines (Heteroptera: Reduviidae): implications for Chagas disease surveillance in humid forest ecoregions

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Abad-Franch; Fernando A Monteiro

    2007-01-01

    An ecological-evolutionary classification of Amazonian triatomines is proposed based on a revision of their main contemporary biogeographical patterns. Truly Amazonian triatomines include the Rhodniini, the Cavernicolini, and perhaps Eratyrus and some Bolboderini. The tribe Rhodniini comprises two major lineages (pictipes and robustus). The former gave rise to trans-Andean (pallescens) and Amazonian (pictipes) species groups, while the latter diversified within Amazonia (robustus group) and r...

  14. Diversity and composition of Amazonian moths in primary, secondary and plantation forests.

    OpenAIRE

    Hawes, Joseph; da Silva Motta, Catarina; Overal, William L.; Barlow, Jos; Gardner, Toby A.; Peres, Carlos A.

    2009-01-01

    The response of tropical fauna to landscape-level habitat change is poorly understood. Increased conversion of native primary forest to alternative land-uses, including secondary forest and exotic tree plantations, highlights the importance of assessing diversity patterns within these forest types. We sampled 1848 moths from 335 species of Arctiidae, Saturniidae and Sphingidae, over a total of 30 trap-nights. Sampling was conducted during the wet season 2005, using three light-traps at 15 sit...

  15. The importance of remnant native vegetation of Amazonian submontane forest for the conservation of lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, D J; Santos-Filho, M; Canale, G R

    2014-08-01

    Forest fragmentation affects animal population dynamics mainly by loss of habitat and disruption of animal movement. Lizard assemblages are affected by environmental changes, but, depending on their ecological needs, some species might be more vulnerable than others. The southern Amazon suffers accelerated anthropic actions replacing natural environments by farmland (crops and pasture). This region is considerably drier than most of the northern Amazon, with stational semi-deciduous forests fragmented and isolated by pasture, and crops to a lesser extent. Here we report data on lizard assemblages using semi-deciduous forests, forest edge and the surrounding pasture in the southern Amazon in Mato Grosso, Brazil. Lizards were collected in 21 forest fragments (41 to 7,035 ha) surrounded by pasture; using pitfall traps placed on a degradation gradient - from pasture inwards forest fragment (up to 200 m). We collected 242 individuals (14 species, seven families) in 6,300 trap-days. The pattern of species occurrence was largely nested and this nesting was associated with three habitat guilds (generalist, edge-tolerant, and forest species). Although there was no obvious fragmentation effect on lizards diversity community-wise, Hoplocercus spinosus, Bachia dorbignyi, Micrablepharus maximiliani and Kentropyx calcarta were more vulnerable to such effects than all other ten species collected. We verified that assemblages inhabiting pasture and forest edge are a nested subset of assemblages from the forest core. The remnant native vegetation is not distributed homogeneously and lizards species can persist in different parts of the landscape, therefore we recommend the protection of forest remnants as an important conservation action for lizards of the southern Amazon. PMID:25296198

  16. Dispersal limitation induces long-term biomass collapse in overhunted Amazonian forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Carlos A; Emilio, Thaise; Schietti, Juliana; Desmoulière, Sylvain J M; Levi, Taal

    2016-01-26

    Tropical forests are the global cornerstone of biological diversity, and store 55% of the forest carbon stock globally, yet sustained provisioning of these forest ecosystem services may be threatened by hunting-induced extinctions of plant-animal mutualisms that maintain long-term forest dynamics. Large-bodied Atelinae primates and tapirs in particular offer nonredundant seed-dispersal services for many large-seeded Neotropical tree species, which on average have higher wood density than smaller-seeded and wind-dispersed trees. We used field data and models to project the spatial impact of hunting on large primates by ∼ 1 million rural households throughout the Brazilian Amazon. We then used a unique baseline dataset on 2,345 1-ha tree plots arrayed across the Brazilian Amazon to model changes in aboveground forest biomass under different scenarios of hunting-induced large-bodied frugivore extirpation. We project that defaunation of the most harvest-sensitive species will lead to losses in aboveground biomass of between 2.5-5.8% on average, with some losses as high as 26.5-37.8%. These findings highlight an urgent need to manage the sustainability of game hunting in both protected and unprotected tropical forests, and place full biodiversity integrity, including populations of large frugivorous vertebrates, firmly in the agenda of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) programs.

  17. Dispersal limitation induces long-term biomass collapse in overhunted Amazonian forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Carlos A; Emilio, Thaise; Schietti, Juliana; Desmoulière, Sylvain J M; Levi, Taal

    2016-01-26

    Tropical forests are the global cornerstone of biological diversity, and store 55% of the forest carbon stock globally, yet sustained provisioning of these forest ecosystem services may be threatened by hunting-induced extinctions of plant-animal mutualisms that maintain long-term forest dynamics. Large-bodied Atelinae primates and tapirs in particular offer nonredundant seed-dispersal services for many large-seeded Neotropical tree species, which on average have higher wood density than smaller-seeded and wind-dispersed trees. We used field data and models to project the spatial impact of hunting on large primates by ∼ 1 million rural households throughout the Brazilian Amazon. We then used a unique baseline dataset on 2,345 1-ha tree plots arrayed across the Brazilian Amazon to model changes in aboveground forest biomass under different scenarios of hunting-induced large-bodied frugivore extirpation. We project that defaunation of the most harvest-sensitive species will lead to losses in aboveground biomass of between 2.5-5.8% on average, with some losses as high as 26.5-37.8%. These findings highlight an urgent need to manage the sustainability of game hunting in both protected and unprotected tropical forests, and place full biodiversity integrity, including populations of large frugivorous vertebrates, firmly in the agenda of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) programs. PMID:26811455

  18. Human impacts on soil carbon dynamics of deep-rooted Amazonian forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepstad, Daniel C.; Stone, Thomas A.; Davidson, Eric A.

    1994-01-01

    Deforestation and logging degrade more forest in eastern and southern Amazonia than in any other region of the world. This forest alteration affects regional hydrology and the global carbon cycle, but our current understanding of these effects is limited by incomplete knowledge of tropical forest ecosystems. It is widely agreed that roots are concentrated near the soil surface in moist tropical forests, but this generalization incorrectly implies that deep roots are unimportant in water and C budgets. Our results indicate that half of the closed-canopy forests of Brazilian Amazonic occur where rainfall is highly seasonal, and these forests rely on deeply penetrating roots to extract soil water. Pasture vegetation extracts less water from deep soil than the forest it replaces, thus increasing rates of drainage and decreasing rates of evapotranspiration. Deep roots are also a source of modern carbon deep in the soil. The soils of the eastern Amazon contain more carbon below 1 m depth than is present in above-ground biomass. As much as 25 percent of this deep soil C could have annual to decadal turnover times and may be lost to the atmosphere following deforestation. We compared the importance of deep roots in a mature, evergreen forest with an adjacent man-made pasture, the most common type of vegetation on deforested land in Amazonia. The study site is near the town of Paragominas, in the Brazilian state of Para, with a seasonal rainfall pattern and deeply-weathered, kaolinitic soils that are typical for large portions of Amazonia. Root distribution, soil water extraction, and soil carbon dynamics were studied using deep auger holes and shafts in each ecosystem, and the phenology and water status of the leaf canopies were measured. We estimated the geographical distribution of deeply-rooting forests using satellite imagery, rainfall data, and field measurements.

  19. Wildfires in bamboo-dominated Amazonian forest: impacts on above-ground biomass and biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Jos; Silveira, Juliana M; Mestre, Luiz A M; Andrade, Rafael B; Camacho D'Andrea, Gabriela; Louzada, Julio; Vaz-de-Mello, Fernando Z; Numata, Izaya; Lacau, Sébastien; Cochrane, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Fire has become an increasingly important disturbance event in south-western Amazonia. We conducted the first assessment of the ecological impacts of these wildfires in 2008, sampling forest structure and biodiversity along twelve 500 m transects in the Chico Mendes Extractive Reserve, Acre, Brazil. Six transects were placed in unburned forests and six were in forests that burned during a series of forest fires that occurred from August to October 2005. Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) calculations, based on Landsat reflectance data, indicate that all transects were similar prior to the fires. We sampled understorey and canopy vegetation, birds using both mist nets and point counts, coprophagous dung beetles and the leaf-litter ant fauna. Fire had limited influence upon either faunal or floral species richness or community structure responses, and stems disturbance, landscape and soil conditions.

  20. Interpreting participatory Fuzzy Cognitive Maps as complex networks in the social-ecological systems of the Amazonian forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Consuelo; Tarquis, Ana M.; Blanco-Gutiérrez, Irene; Estebe, Paloma; Toledo, Marisol; Martorano, Lucieta

    2015-04-01

    Social-ecological systems are linked complex systems that represent interconnected human and biophysical processes evolving and adapting across temporal and spatial scales. In the real world, social-ecological systems pose substantial challenges for modeling. In this regard, Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCMs) have proven to be a useful method for capturing the functioning of this type of systems. FCMs are a semi-quantitative type of cognitive map that represent a system composed of relevant factors and weighted links showing the strength and direction of cause-effects relationships among factors. Therefore, FCMs can be interpreted as complex system structures or complex networks. In this sense, recent research has applied complex network concepts for the analysis of FCMs that represent social-ecological systems. Key to FCM the tool is its potential to allow feedback loops and to include stakeholder knowledge in the construction of the tool. Also, previous research has demonstrated their potential to represent system dynamics and simulate the effects of changes in the system, such as policy interventions. For illustrating this analysis, we have developed a series of participatory FCM for the study of the ecological and human systems related to biodiversity conservation in two case studies of the Amazonian region, the Bolivia lowlands of Guarayos and the Brazil Tapajos National forest. The research is carried out in the context of the EU project ROBIN1 and it is based on the development of a series of stakeholder workshops to analyze the current state of the socio-ecological environment in the Amazonian forest, reflecting conflicts and challenges for biodiversity conservation and human development. Stakeholders included all relevant actors in the local case studies, namely farmers, environmental groups, producer organizations, local and provincial authorities and scientists. In both case studies we illustrate the use of complex networks concepts, such as the adjacency

  1. Rainfall exclusion in an eastern Amazonian forest alters soil water movement and depth of water uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Saltos, Hugo; Sternberg, Leonel da S L; Moreira, Marcelo Z; Nepstad, Daniel C

    2005-03-01

    Deuterium-labeled water was used to study the effect of the Tapajós Throughfall Exclusion Experiment (TTEE) on soil moisture movement and on depth of water uptake by trees of Coussarea racemosa, Sclerolobium chrysophyllum, and Eschweilera pedicellata. The TTEE simulates an extended dry season in an eastern Amazonian rainforest, a plausible scenario if the El Niño phenomenon changes with climate change. The TTEE excludes 60% of the wet season throughfall from a 1-ha plot (treatment), while the control 1-ha plot receives precipitation year-round. Mean percolation rate of the label peak in the control plot was greater than in the treatment plot during the wet season (0.75 vs. 0.07 m/mo). The rate was similar for both plots during the dry season (ca. 0.15 m/mo), indicative that both plots have similar topsoil structure. Interestingly, the label peak in the control plot during the dry season migrated upward an average distance of 64 cm. We show that water probably moved upward through soil pores-i.e., it did not involve roots (hydraulic lift)-most likely because of a favorable gradient of total (matric + gravitational) potential coupled with sufficient unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. Water probably also moved upward in the treatment plot, but was not detectable; the label in this plot did not percolate below 1 m or beyond the depth of plant water uptake. During the dry season, trees in the rainfall exclusion plot, regardless of species, consistently absorbed water significantly deeper, but never below 1.5-2 m, than trees in the control plot, and therefore may represent expected root function of this understory/subcanopy tree community during extended dry periods. PMID:21652421

  2. The economic importance of products extracted from Amazonian flood plain forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gram, S; Kvist, L P; Cáseres, A

    2001-09-01

    Rural people in the Peruvian Amazon practice agriculture and extract a wide range of products from natural forests, rivers and lakes. Their diversified livelihood system includes fish, game, and plant products. In 2 flood-plain villages, data for one year have been collected to compare the economy of local agriculture with the economy of extracted forest products for subsistence as well as for commerce. The study includes both fauna (game and fish) and flora (timber as well as nontimber). The results show that extracted forest products for subsistence, especially fish, are a main factor in the local economy. The daily net income from extraction activities exceeds both income from cultivation and the normal daily wages for unskilled workers, emphasizing the need for thorough socioeconomic investigations before any alternative land-use option is implemented. The average value per ha of natural forest used for extraction is in the order of USD 13 yr-1, and the average extraction area is 113 ha household-1. When yield from agriculture is included in the calculations, the total per ha value of current extraction and agricultural activities increases to USD 21 yr-1.

  3. Variation of carbon and nitrogen cycling processes along a topographic gradient in a central Amazonian forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luizão, R.C.C.; Luizão, F.J.; Paiva, R.Q.; Monteiro, T.F.; Sousa, L.S.; Kruijt, B.

    2004-01-01

    It is well recognized in the literature that topography can influence soil nutrient stocks and dynamics in temperate regions, but for tropical forests, this source of variation has sometimes been ignored. The nature of such variations may depend upon the soil type, which in turn, is closely linked t

  4. Floristic composition and across-track reflectance gradient in Landsat images over Amazonian forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muro, Javier; doninck, Jasper Van; Tuomisto, Hanna; Higgins, Mark A.; Moulatlet, Gabriel M.; Ruokolainen, Kalle

    2016-09-01

    Remotely sensed image interpretation or classification of tropical forests can be severely hampered by the effects of the bidirectional reflection distribution function (BRDF). Even for narrow swath sensors like Landsat TM/ETM+, the influence of reflectance anisotropy can be sufficiently strong to introduce a cross-track reflectance gradient. If the BRDF could be assumed to be linear for the limited swath of Landsat, it would be possible to remove this gradient during image preprocessing using a simple empirical method. However, the existence of natural gradients in reflectance caused by spatial variation in floristic composition of the forest can restrict the applicability of such simple corrections. Here we use floristic information over Peruvian and Brazilian Amazonia acquired through field surveys, complemented with information from geological maps, to investigate the interaction of real floristic gradients and the effect of reflectance anisotropy on the observed reflectances in Landsat data. In addition, we test the assumption of linearity of the BRDF for a limited swath width, and whether different primary non-inundated forest types are characterized by different magnitudes of the directional reflectance gradient. Our results show that a linear function is adequate to empirically correct for view angle effects, and that the magnitude of the across-track reflectance gradient is independent of floristic composition in the non-inundated forests we studied. This makes a routine correction of view angle effects possible. However, floristic variation complicates the issue, because different forest types have different mean reflectances. This must be taken into account when deriving the correction function in order to avoid eliminating natural gradients.

  5. A trans-Amazonian screening of mtDNA reveals deep intraspecific divergence in forest birds and suggests a vast underestimation of species diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milá, Borja; Tavares, Erika S; Muñoz Saldaña, Alberto; Karubian, Jordan; Smith, Thomas B; Baker, Allan J

    2012-01-01

    The Amazonian avifauna remains severely understudied relative to that of the temperate zone, and its species richness is thought to be underestimated by current taxonomy. Recent molecular systematic studies using mtDNA sequence reveal that traditionally accepted species-level taxa often conceal genetically divergent subspecific lineages found to represent new species upon close taxonomic scrutiny, suggesting that intraspecific mtDNA variation could be useful in species discovery. Surveys of mtDNA variation in Holarctic species have revealed patterns of variation that are largely congruent with species boundaries. However, little information exists on intraspecific divergence in most Amazonian species. Here we screen intraspecific mtDNA genetic variation in 41 Amazonian forest understory species belonging to 36 genera and 17 families in 6 orders, using 758 individual samples from Ecuador and French Guiana. For 13 of these species, we also analyzed trans-Andean populations from the Ecuadorian Chocó. A consistent pattern of deep intraspecific divergence among trans-Amazonian haplogroups was found for 33 of the 41 taxa, and genetic differentiation and genetic diversity among them was highly variable, suggesting a complex range of evolutionary histories. Mean sequence divergence within families was the same as that found in North American birds (13%), yet mean intraspecific divergence in Neotropical species was an order of magnitude larger (2.13% vs. 0.23%), with mean distance between intraspecific lineages reaching 3.56%. We found no clear relationship between genetic distances and differentiation in plumage color. Our results identify numerous genetically and phenotypically divergent lineages which may result in new species-level designations upon closer taxonomic scrutiny and thorough sampling, although lineages in the tropical region could be older than those in the temperate zone without necessarily representing separate species. In-depth phylogeographic surveys

  6. A trans-Amazonian screening of mtDNA reveals deep intraspecific divergence in forest birds and suggests a vast underestimation of species diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borja Milá

    Full Text Available The Amazonian avifauna remains severely understudied relative to that of the temperate zone, and its species richness is thought to be underestimated by current taxonomy. Recent molecular systematic studies using mtDNA sequence reveal that traditionally accepted species-level taxa often conceal genetically divergent subspecific lineages found to represent new species upon close taxonomic scrutiny, suggesting that intraspecific mtDNA variation could be useful in species discovery. Surveys of mtDNA variation in Holarctic species have revealed patterns of variation that are largely congruent with species boundaries. However, little information exists on intraspecific divergence in most Amazonian species. Here we screen intraspecific mtDNA genetic variation in 41 Amazonian forest understory species belonging to 36 genera and 17 families in 6 orders, using 758 individual samples from Ecuador and French Guiana. For 13 of these species, we also analyzed trans-Andean populations from the Ecuadorian Chocó. A consistent pattern of deep intraspecific divergence among trans-Amazonian haplogroups was found for 33 of the 41 taxa, and genetic differentiation and genetic diversity among them was highly variable, suggesting a complex range of evolutionary histories. Mean sequence divergence within families was the same as that found in North American birds (13%, yet mean intraspecific divergence in Neotropical species was an order of magnitude larger (2.13% vs. 0.23%, with mean distance between intraspecific lineages reaching 3.56%. We found no clear relationship between genetic distances and differentiation in plumage color. Our results identify numerous genetically and phenotypically divergent lineages which may result in new species-level designations upon closer taxonomic scrutiny and thorough sampling, although lineages in the tropical region could be older than those in the temperate zone without necessarily representing separate species. In

  7. Associations between primates and other mammals in a central Amazonian forest landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugaasen, Torbjørn; Peres, Carlos A

    2008-07-01

    Little information exists on mixed-species groups between primates and other mammals in Neotropical forests. In this paper, we describe three such associations observed during an extensive large-vertebrate survey in central Amazonia, Brazil. Mixed-species groups between a primate species and another mammal were observed on seven occasions between squirrel monkeys (Saimiri cf. ustus) and either South American coatis (Nasua nasua) or tayras (Eira barbara) and between brown capuchins (Cebus apella) and coatis. All associations were restricted to floodplain forest during its dry stage. We suggest that the associations involving the coatis are connected to foraging and vigilance but may be induced by a common alternative food resource at a time of food shortage. PMID:18306981

  8. Above- and below-ground net primary productivity across ten Amazonian forests on contrasting soils

    OpenAIRE

    L. E. O. C. Aragão; Malhi, Y.; Metcalfe, D.B; Silva-Espejo, J. E.; E. Jiménez; Navarrete, D.; Almeida, S.; Costa, A. C. L.; N. Salinas; O. L. Phillips; L. O. Anderson; Alvarez, E.; T. R. Baker; P. H. Goncalvez; J. Huamán-Ovalle

    2009-01-01

    The net primary productivity (NPP) of tropical forests is one of the most important and least quantified components of the global carbon cycle. Most relevant studies have focused particularly on the quantification of the above-ground coarse wood productivity, and little is known about the carbon fluxes involved in other elements of the NPP, the partitioning of total NPP between its above- and below-ground components and the main environmental drivers of these patterns. In this study we quanti...

  9. Slow Growth Rates of Amazonian Trees: Consequences for Carbon Sequestration and Forest Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, S. A.; Camargo, P. B.; Selhorst, D.; Chambers, J.; Higuchi, N.; Martinelli, L. A.; Trumbore, S.

    2004-12-01

    Growth rates for tropical forest trees estimated from radiocarbon ages and dendrometer measurements illustrate differences in forest age and structure among three sites located in the eastern, central and western Amazon basin. Although growth rates vary dramatically among individual trees overall the slowest growing trees (averaging \\sim0.1mm yr-1 as opposed to 0.3mm yr-1 diameter increment) are found in the central Amazon. Small individuals (DBH \\500 yr are encountered at all sites. Only \\sim2MgC ha-1 year-1, or \\SIM7% of annual photosynthesis, is allocated to growth of living wood at the eastern and central Amazon sites. Rates of C allocation to stem growth are similar across the three sites we studied because slowest growth occurs at the central Amazon site that has highest stem density and greatest biomass. Extrapolating our growth increment data to forest stand, we estimate the mean age of individual trees is \\SIM350 years in the central Amazon but \\SIM200\\-250 years in the other two areas. The mean age of C making up the trees has a smaller range of \\SIM250\\-310 years, because of the greater fraction of biomass in larger individuals in the eastern and western Amazon sites. These residence times for C are longer than those of 100\\-180 years obtained by simply dividing the total biomass C by the rate of C allocation to new wood for the same reason. We estimate that >20% of trees at all sites should have ages >300 years, and that maximum tree ages of >1000 years, though not common, are in accord with the growth rates we find. The fact that many Amazon trees attain ages greater than several centuries should be accounted for in management practices in these forests.

  10. Integrating regional and continental scale comparisons of tree composition in Amazonian terra firme forests

    OpenAIRE

    E. N. Honorio Coronado; Baker, T. R.; Phillips, O.L.; Pitman, N. C. A.; Pennington, R. T.; R. Vásquez Martínez; A. Monteagudo; H. Mogollón; N. Dávila Cardozo; M. Ríos; García-Villacorta, R.; Valderrama, E.; M. Ahuite; I. Huamantupa; Neill, D. A.

    2009-01-01

    We contrast regional and continental-scale comparisons of the floristic composition of terra firme forest in South Amazonia, using 55 plots across Amazonia and a subset of 30 plots from northern Peru and Ecuador. Firstly, we examine the floristic patterns using both genus- or species-level data and find that the species-level analysis more clearly distinguishes different plot clusters. Secondly, we compare the patterns and causes of floristic differences at regional and continental scales. At...

  11. Human population and socioeconomic modulators of conservation performance in 788 Amazonian and Atlantic Forest reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Marques, Ana Alice B; Schneider, Mauricio; Peres, Carlos A

    2016-01-01

    Protected areas form a quintessential component of the global strategy to perpetuate tropical biodiversity within relatively undisturbed wildlands, but they are becoming increasingly isolated by rapid agricultural encroachment. Here we consider a network of 788 forest protected areas (PAs) in the world's largest tropical country to examine the degree to which they remain intact, and their responses to multiple biophysical and socioeconomic variables potentially affecting natural habitat loss under varying contexts of rural development. PAs within the complex Brazilian National System of Conservation Units (SNUC) are broken down into two main classes-strictly protected and sustainable use. Collectively, these account for 22.6% of the forest biomes within Brazil's national territory, primarily within the Amazon and the Atlantic Forest, but are widely variable in size, ecoregional representation, management strategy, and the degree to which they are threatened by human activities both within and outside reserve boundaries. In particular, we examine the variation in habitat conversion rates in both strictly protected and sustainable use reserves as a function of the internal and external human population density, and levels of land-use revenue in adjacent human-dominated landscapes. Our results show that PAs surrounded by heavily settled agro-pastoral landscapes face much greater challenges in retaining their natural vegetation, and that strictly protected areas are considerably less degraded than sustainable use reserves, which can rival levels of habitat degradation within adjacent 10-km buffer areas outside. PMID:27478703

  12. Pollen and seed flow patterns of Carapa guianensis Aublet. (Meliaceae in two types of Amazonian forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Martins

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Various factors affect spatial genetic structure in plant populations, including adult density and primary and secondary seed dispersal mechanisms. We evaluated pollen and seed dispersal distances and spatial genetic structure of Carapa guianensis Aublet. (Meliaceae in occasionally inundated and terra firme forest environments that differed in tree densities and secondary seed dispersal agents. We used parentage analysis to obtain contemporary gene flow estimates and assessed the spatial genetic structure of adults and juveniles. Despite the higher density of adults (diameter at breast height ; 25 cm and spatial aggregation in occasionally inundated forest, the average pollen dispersal distance was similar in both types of forest (195 ± 106min terra firme and 175 ± 87 m in occasionally inundated plots. Higher seed flow rates (36.7% of juveniles were from outside the plot and distances (155 ± 84 m were found in terra firme compared to the occasionally inundated plot (25.4% and 114 ± 69 m. There was a weak spatial genetic structure in juveniles and in terra firme adults. These results indicate that inundation may not have had a significant role in seed dispersal in the occasionally inundated plot, probably because of the higher levels of seedling mortality.

  13. Millennial-Scale ITCZ Variability in the Tropical Atlantic and Dynamics of Amazonian Rain Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Auler, A. S.; Edwards, R. L.; Cheng, H.; Shen, C.; Smart, P. L.; Richards, D. A.

    2003-12-01

    Precipitation in the Amazon Basin is largely related to the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) in the tropical Atlantic which undergoes a regular seasonal migration. We chose a site south of the present day rainforest in semiarid northeastern Brazil, in order to study the timing of pluvial periods when the southern extend of the ITCZ would have been much further south than today. Shifts in the ITCZ position may have influenced the dynamics of rain forest and species diversity. We collected speleothems from northern Bahia state, located southeast of Amazonia. Age determinations with U-series dating methods show that samples grew rapidly during relatively short intervals (several hundreds of years) of glacial periods in the last 210 kyr. In addition, paleopluvial phases delineated by speleothem growth intervals show millennial-scale variations. Pluvial phases coincide with the timing of weak East Asian summer monsoon intensities (Wang et al., 2001, Science 294: 2345-2348), which have been correlated to the timing of stadials in Greenland ice core records and Heinrich events (Bond and Lotti, 1995, Science 267: 1005-1010). Furthermore, these intervals correspond to the periods of light color reflectance of Cariaco Basin sediments from ODP Hole 1002C (Peterson et al., 2000, Science, 290: 1947-1951), which was suggested to be caused by a southward shift of the northernmost position of the ITCZ and decreased rainfall in this region. Abrupt precipitation changes in northeastern Brazil may be due to the southward displacement of the southernmost position of the ITCZ associated with atmosphere-ocean circulation changes caused by (1) an increase in northern high latitude-tropical temperature gradient (Chiang et al., 2003, Paleoceanography, in press), and/or (2) the bipolar seesaw mechanism (Broecker et al., 1998, Paleoceanography 13: 119-121) during these Heinrich events. Pluvial phases are also coincident with higher insolation at 10° S during austral autumn. This

  14. Scaling estimates of vegetation structure in Amazonian tropical forests using multi-angle MODIS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Yhasmin Mendes de; Hilker, Thomas; Gonçalves, Fabio Guimarães; Galvão, Lênio Soares; dos Santos, João Roberto; Lyapustin, Alexei; Maeda, Eduardo Eiji; de Jesus Silva, Camila Valéria

    2016-10-01

    Detailed knowledge of vegetation structure is required for accurate modelling of terrestrial ecosystems, but direct measurements of the three dimensional distribution of canopy elements, for instance from LiDAR, are not widely available. We investigate the potential for modelling vegetation roughness, a key parameter for climatological models, from directional scattering of visible and near-infrared (NIR) reflectance acquired from NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). We compare our estimates across different tropical forest types to independent measures obtained from: (1) airborne laser scanning (ALS), (2) spaceborne Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS)/ICESat, and (3) the spaceborne SeaWinds/QSCAT. Our results showed linear correlation between MODIS-derived anisotropy to ALS-derived entropy (r2 = 0.54, RMSE = 0.11), even in high biomass regions. Significant relationships were also obtained between MODIS-derived anisotropy and GLAS-derived entropy (0.52 ≤ r2 ≤ 0.61; p forest types, providing additional estimates of vegetation structure in the Amazon.

  15. Mortality as a key driver of the spatial distribution of aboveground biomass in Amazonian forest: results from a dynamic vegetation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Delbart

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic Vegetation Models (DVMs simulate energy, water and carbon fluxes between the ecosystem and the atmosphere, between the vegetation and the soil, and between plant organs. They also estimate the potential biomass of a forest in equilibrium having grown under a given climate and atmospheric CO2 level. In this study, we evaluate the Above Ground Woody Biomass (AGWB and the above ground woody Net Primary Productivity (NPPAGW simulated by the DVM ORCHIDEE across Amazonian forests, by comparing the simulation results to a large set of ground measurements (220 sites for biomass, 104 sites for NPPAGW. We found that the NPPAGW is on average overestimated by 63%. We also found that the fraction of biomass that is lost through mortality is 85% too high. These model biases nearly compensate each other to give an average simulated AGWB close to the ground measurement average. Nevertheless, the simulated AGWB spatial distribution differs significantly from the observations. Then, we analyse the discrepancies in biomass with regards to discrepancies in NPPAGW and those in the rate of mortality. When we correct for the error in NPPAGW, the errors on the spatial variations in AGWB are exacerbated, showing clearly that a large part of the misrepresentation of biomass comes from a wrong modelling of mortality processes.

    Previous studies showed that Amazonian forests with high productivity have a higher mortality rate than forests with lower productivity. We introduce this relationship, which results in strongly improved modelling of biomass and of its spatial variations. We discuss the possibility of modifying the mortality modelling in ORCHIDEE, and the opportunity to improve forest productivity modelling through the integration of biomass measurements, in particular from remote sensing.

  16. Mortality as a key driver of the spatial distribution of aboveground biomass in Amazonian forests: results from a Dynamic Vegetation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Delbart

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic Vegetation Models (DVMs simulate energy, water and carbon fluxes between the ecosystem and the atmosphere, between the vegetation and the soil, and between plant organs. They also estimate the potential biomass of a forest in equilibrium having grown under a given climate and atmospheric CO2 level. In this study, we evaluate the above ground woody biomass (AGWB and the above ground woody Net Primary Productivity (NPPAGW simulated by the DVM ORCHIDEE across Amazonian forests, by comparing the simulation results to a large set of ground measurements (220 sites for biomass, 104 sites for NPPAGW. We found that the NPPAGW is on average overestimated by 63%. We also found that the fraction of biomass that is lost through mortality is 85% too high. These model biases nearly compensate each other to give an average simulated AGWB close to the ground measurement average. Nevertheless, the simulated AGWB spatial distribution differs significantly from the observations. Then, we analyse the discrepancies in biomass with regards to discrepancies in NPPAGW and those in the rate of mortality. When we correct for the error in NPPAGW, the errors on the spatial variations in AGWB are exacerbated, showing clearly that a large part of the misrepresentation of biomass comes from a wrong modelling of mortality processes.

    Previous studies showed that Amazonian forests with high productivity have a higher mortality rate than forests with lower productivity. We introduce this relationship, which results in strongly improved modelling of biomass and of its spatial variations. We discuss the possibility of modifying the mortality modelling in ORCHIDEE, and the opportunity to improve forest productivity modelling through the integration of biomass measurements, in particular from remote sensing.

  17. Diet and prey availability of terrestrial insectivorous birds prone to extinction in amazonian forest fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto Macedo Mestre

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study compared niche breath, prey size, and diet variability in two pairs of sympatric species of terrestrial insectivorous birds, each pair containing one species that can persist in small forest fragments and one that does not. The pairs were Myrmeciza ferruginea and Sclerurus rufigularis; and Formicarius colma and F. analis, respectively. The prey availability in forest fragments was also sampled and compared to the availability in continuous forests. Niche breath indices did not differ between pair members, but diet variability differed in the opposite direction from that hypothesized. Although the two bird species most vulnerable to fragmentation fed on larger prey than less vulnerable species, prey availability, including that based on prey size did not differ among fragmented versus continuous forest sites. Thus, diet per se appeared not to be an important cause of extinction-proneness in these species. The simplest explanation proposed, that vulnerability to fragmentation was directly related to territory size, requires testing. However, it was consistent with observations that the bird species feeding on larger prey also need larger territories.Dieta e disponibilidade de presas de aves insetívoras terrestres em fragmentos florestais amazônicos. As aves insetívoras terrestres são um dos grupos mais vulneráveis à fragmentação de florestas tropicais; no entanto algumas espécies desta guilda ainda sobrevivem em fragmentos florestais e em florestas secundárias. Se a sensibilidade destas aves à fragmentação de florestas estivesse associada à dieta, então espécies com a dieta relativamente flexível teriam maior propensão em persistir nos fragmentos florestais. Este estudo comparou sobreposição trófica, amplitude de nicho, tamanho de presas e variabilidade de dieta de dois pares de espécies de aves insetívoras terrestres, onde cada par foi composto por uma espécie que persiste nos fragmentos e outra que n

  18. Species composition and reproductive modes of anurans from a transitional Amazonian forest, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youszef O. C. Bitar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to describe the species composition and reproductive modes of an anuran community from a transition area between the Amazonia and Cerrado biomes. Data were collected in habitats exhibiting different degrees of anthropogenic degradation. The community (35 species identified during the present study presented a larger number of reproductive modes when compared with those from Cerrado communities, but smaller than those of other sites in the Amazon. While all nine modes were recorded in the gallery forests of local rivers and streams, anthropogenic habitats (rubber tree orchards and soybean fields were occupied only by species adapted to environments where humidity is low, typical of the Cerrado. Overall, the anuran fauna of the study area was characterized by species that depend on access to water bodies for their reproduction, with only a few specialized species able to reproduce in dry environments.

  19. Tree Diametric Increment and Litterfall Production in an Eastern Amazonian Forest: the Role of Functional Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, P. B. D.; Ferreira, M. L.; Oliveira Junior, R. C.; Saleska, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    Tree growth is a biotic variable of great importance in understanding the dynamics of tree communities and may be used as a tool in studies of biological or climate modeling. Some climate models predict more recurrent climate anomalies in this century, which may alter the functioning of tropical forests with serious structural and demographic implications. The present study aimed to evaluate the profile of tree growth and litterfall production in an eastern Amazon forest, which has suffered recent climatic disturbances. We contrasted different functional groups based on wood density (stem with 0.55; 0.56-0.7; >0.7 g cm-3), light availability (crown illumination index; high illuminated crown - IIC1 until shaded crown - IIC5), and, size class (trees 10-22.5; 22.6-35; 35.1-55; 55,1-90; >90 cm dbh). Tree diameter increment was monthly measured from November 2011 to September 2013 by using dendrometer bands installed on 850 individuals from different families. Litterfall was collected in 64 circular traps, oven dried and weighed, separated into leaves, twigs, reproductive parts and miscellaneous. During the rainy season the sampled trees had the highest rates of tree diametric increment. When analyzing the data by functional groups, large trees had faster growth, but when grouped by wood density, trees with wood density up to 0.55 and between 0.56 and 0.7 g cm-3 had the fastest rates of growth. When grouped by crown illumination index, trees exposed to higher levels of light grew more in comparison to partially shaded trees. Maximum daily air temperature and precipitation were the most important environmental variables in determining the diametric increment profile of the trees. Litterfall production was estimated to be 7.1 Mg ha-1.year-1 and showed a strong seasonal pattern, with dry season production being higher than in the rainy season. Leaves formed the largest fraction of the litterfall, followed by twigs, reproductive parts, and finally miscellaneous. These

  20. Tests of biogeographic hypotheses for diversification in the Amazonian forest frog, Physalaemus petersi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, W Chris; Caldwell, Janalee P; Peden, Colin E; Padial, José M; De la Riva, Ignacio; Cannatella, David C

    2007-08-01

    Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the biogeographic processes that generate the high species richness of the Amazon basin. We tested two of them in a terra firme (upland) forest frog species, Physalaemus petersi: (1) the riverine barrier hypothesis; and (2) the elevational gradient hypothesis. Mitochondrial DNA sequence data (2.4 kb) from the 12S, 16S, and intervening valine tRNA genes were obtained from 65 P. petersi individuals and 4 outgroup taxa and analyzed with a combination of phylogenetic and population genetic approaches. Moderate support for the riverine barrier hypothesis was found for one of the three rivers examined, but little evidence was found for the elevational gradient hypothesis. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that high levels of sequence divergence (an average of 4.57-4.79%) separate three well-supported clades from the northwestern, southwestern, and eastern Amazon. Strong evidence for recent population expansion in P. petersi in the southwestern region of the Amazon basin was also uncovered. PMID:17383904

  1. Niche partitioning among frugivorous fishes in response to fluctuating resources in the Amazonian floodplain forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Sandra Bibiana; Winemiller, Kirk O

    2014-01-01

    In response to temporal changes in the quality and availability of food resources, consumers should adjust their foraging behavior in a manner that maximizes energy and nutrient intake and, when resources are limiting, minimizes dietary overlap with other consumers. Floodplains of the Amazon and its lowland tributaries are characterized by strong, yet predictable, hydrological seasonality, seasonal availability of fruits, seeds, and other food resources of terrestrial origin, and diverse assemblages of frugivorous fishes, including morphologically similar species of several characiform families. Here, we investigated how diets of frugivorous fishes in the Amazon change in response to fluctuations in food availability, and how this influences patterns of interspecific dietary overlap. We tested predictions from classical theories of foraging and resource competition by estimating changes in diet breadth and overlap across seasons. We monitored fruiting phenology to assess food availability, and surveyed local fish populations during three hydrological seasons in an oligotrophic river and an adjacent oxbow lake in the Colombian Amazon. We analyzed stomach contents and stable isotope data to evaluate temporal and interspecific relationships for dietary composition, breadth, and overlap. Diets of six species of characiform fishes representing three genera changed according to seasonal fluctuations in food availability, and patterns of diet breadth and interspecific overlap during the peak flood pulse were consistent with predictions of optimal foraging theory. During times of high fruit abundance, fishes consumed items to which their functional morphological traits seemed best adapted, potentially enhancing net energy and nutritional gains. As the annual flood pulse subsided and availability of forest food resources in aquatic habitats changed, there was not a consistent pattern of diet breadth expansion or compression. Nonetheless, shifts in both diet composition and

  2. Cultural attitudes are stronger predictors of bushmeat consumption and preference than economic factors among urban Amazonians from Brazil and Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Morsello

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bushmeat consumption persists in urban areas in the Neotropics, yet knowledge of its scale and the relative importance of cultural and economic factors in determining consumption and preference remain elusive. Moreover, the roles of cultural beliefs, social norms, and attitudes in driving urban bushmeat consumption are rarely evaluated. Therefore, we explored in this article the factors that influence consumption and preference for bushmeat in Amazonian towns. Given the availability of other sources of animal protein and the cultural and social importance of bushmeat in the region, we hypothesized that cultural attributes should be better predictors than economic factors of bushmeat consumption and preference. Data analysis involved fitting two-level mixed-effects regressions (random intercepts to a structured sample of 227 individuals (99 households from four towns in the Brazilian (Tabatinga and Atalaia do Norte and Colombian (Leticia and Puerto Nariño Amazon. The results indicate that a third of the interviewees had consumed bushmeat in the past month, which had primarily been harvested by the family or received as a gift rather than obtained through trade. In general, both economic and cultural factors predicted bushmeat consumption and preference, but the objective proxy for culture, individual origin, was unimportant. Among the tested indicators, the strongest predictor was the importance of bushmeat to social relations. Moreover, informal social norms, such as the greater importance attributed to taboos, tended to decrease the average number of wild species that a person would eat, whereas attitudes toward the illegality of hunting were less important. The two economic indicators, increased income and wealth, tended to decrease preference for bushmeat and the likelihood of consumption. Our findings highlight the importance of human beliefs, attitudes, and social norms to the understanding of bushmeat consumption and preference and may

  3. The effects of processing non-timber forest products and trade partnerships on people's well-being and forest conservation in Amazonian societies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Morsello

    Full Text Available This study evaluated whether processing non-timber forest products (NTFPs and establishing trade partnerships between forest communities and companies enhance the outcomes of NTFP commercialization. In particular, we evaluated whether product processing, partnerships, or their combination was associated with a number of outcomes related to the well-being of forest inhabitants and forest conservation. We based our analyses on ethnographic and quantitative data (i.e., survey and systematic observations gathered at seven communities from five societies of the Brazilian and Bolivian Amazon. Our results indicated that product processing and partnerships do not represent a silver bullet able to improve the results of NTFP commercialization in terms of well-being and conservation indicators. Compared with cases without interventions, households adopting partnerships but not product processing were most often associated with improved economic proxies of well-being (total income, NTFP income, food consumption and gender equality in income. In comparison, the combination of product processing and partnerships was associated with similar outcomes. Unexpectedly, product processing alone was associated with negative outcomes in the economic indicators of well-being. All of the investigated strategies were associated with less time spent in social and cultural activities. With respect to forest conservation, the strategies that included a partnership with or without processing produced similar results: while household deforestation tended to decrease, the hunting impact increased. Processing alone was also associated with higher levels of hunting, though it did not reduce deforestation. Our results indicate that establishing partnerships may enhance the outcomes of NTFP trade in terms of the financial outcomes of local communities, but practitioners need to use caution when adopting the processing strategy and they need to evaluate potential negative results

  4. The Effects of Processing Non-Timber Forest Products and Trade Partnerships on People's Well-Being and Forest Conservation in Amazonian Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsello, Carla; Ruiz-Mallén, Isabel; Diaz, Maria Dolores Montoya; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated whether processing non-timber forest products (NTFPs) and establishing trade partnerships between forest communities and companies enhance the outcomes of NTFP commercialization. In particular, we evaluated whether product processing, partnerships, or their combination was associated with a number of outcomes related to the well-being of forest inhabitants and forest conservation. We based our analyses on ethnographic and quantitative data (i.e., survey and systematic observations) gathered at seven communities from five societies of the Brazilian and Bolivian Amazon. Our results indicated that product processing and partnerships do not represent a silver bullet able to improve the results of NTFP commercialization in terms of well-being and conservation indicators. Compared with cases without interventions, households adopting partnerships but not product processing were most often associated with improved economic proxies of well-being (total income, NTFP income, food consumption and gender equality in income). In comparison, the combination of product processing and partnerships was associated with similar outcomes. Unexpectedly, product processing alone was associated with negative outcomes in the economic indicators of well-being. All of the investigated strategies were associated with less time spent in social and cultural activities. With respect to forest conservation, the strategies that included a partnership with or without processing produced similar results: while household deforestation tended to decrease, the hunting impact increased. Processing alone was also associated with higher levels of hunting, though it did not reduce deforestation. Our results indicate that establishing partnerships may enhance the outcomes of NTFP trade in terms of the financial outcomes of local communities, but practitioners need to use caution when adopting the processing strategy and they need to evaluate potential negative results for indicators of

  5. Factors Affecting the Abundance of Leaf-Litter Arthropods in Unburned and Thrice-Burned Seasonally-Dry Amazonian Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Silveira, Juliana M.; Barlow, Jos; Louzada, Julio; Moutinho, Paulo

    2010-01-01

    Fire is frequently used as a land management tool for cattle ranching and annual crops in the Amazon. However, these maintenance fires often escape into surrounding forests, with potentially severe impacts for forest biodiversity. We examined the effect of experimental fires on leaf-litter arthropod abundance in a seasonally-dry forest in the Brazilian Amazon. The study plots (50 ha each) included a thrice-burned forest and an unburned control forest. Pitfall-trap samples were collected at 16...

  6. Activity and abundance of methane-oxidizing bacteria in secondary forest and manioc plantations of Amazonian Dark Earth and their adjacent soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda eBarbosa Lima

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The oxidation of atmospheric CH4 in upland soils is mostly mediated by uncultivated groups of microorganisms that have been identified solely by molecular markers, such as the sequence of the pmoA gene encoding the β-subunit of the particulate methane monooxygenase enzyme. The objective of this work was to compare the activity and diversity of methanotrophs in Amazonian Dark Earth soil (ADE, Hortic Anthrosol and their adjacent non-anthropic soil. Secondly, the effect of land use in the form of manioc cultivation was examined by comparing secondary forest and plantation soils. CH4 oxidation potentials were measured and the structure of the methanotroph communities assessed by qPCR and amplicon pyrosequencing of pmoA genes. The oxidation potentials at low CH4 concentrations (10 ppm of volume were relatively high in all the secondary forest sites of both ADE and adjacent soils. CH4 oxidation by the ADE soil only recently converted to a manioc plantation was also relatively high. In contrast, both the adjacent soils used for manioc cultivation and the ADE soil with a long history of agriculture displayed lower CH4 uptake rates. Amplicon pyrosequencing of pmoA genes indicated that USCα, Methylocystis and the tropical upland soil cluster (TUSC were the dominant groups depending on the site. By qPCR analysis it was found that USCα pmoA genes, which are believed to belong to atmospheric CH4 oxidizers, were more abundant in ADE than adjacent soil. USCα pmoA genes were abundant in both forested and cultivated ADE soil, but were below the qPCR detection limit in manioc plantations of adjacent soil. The results indicate that ADE soils can harbor high abundances of atmospheric CH4 oxidizers and are potential CH4 sinks, but as in other upland soils this activity can be inhibited by the conversion of forest to agricultural plantations.

  7. Root niche separation can explain avoidance of seasonal drought stress and vulnerability of overstory trees to extended drought in a mature Amazonian forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Valeriy Y.; Hutyra, Lucy R.; Wofsy, Steven C.; Munger, J. William; Saleska, Scott R.; de Oliveira, Raimundo C., Jr.; de Camargo, Plínio B.

    2012-12-01

    Large areas of Amazonian evergreen forest experience seasonal droughts extending for three or more months, yet show maximum rates of photosynthesis and evapotranspiration during dry intervals. This apparent resilience is belied by disproportionate mortality of the large trees in manipulations that reduce wet season rainfall, occurring after 2-3 years of treatment. The goal of this study is to characterize the mechanisms that produce these contrasting ecosystem responses. A mechanistic model is developed based on the ecohydrological framework of TIN (Triangulated Irregular Network)-based Real Time Integrated Basin Simulator + Vegetation Generator for Interactive Evolution (tRIBS+VEGGIE). The model is used to test the roles of deep roots and soil capillary flux to provide water to the forest during the dry season. Also examined is the importance of "root niche separation," in which roots of overstory trees extend to depth, where during the dry season they use water stored from wet season precipitation, while roots of understory trees are concentrated in shallow layers that access dry season precipitation directly. Observational data from the Tapajós National Forest, Brazil, were used as meteorological forcing and provided comprehensive observational constraints on the model. Results strongly suggest that deep roots with root niche separation adaptations explain both the observed resilience during seasonal drought and the vulnerability of canopy-dominant trees to extended deficits of wet season rainfall. These mechanisms appear to provide an adaptive strategy that enhances productivity of the largest trees in the face of their disproportionate heat loads and water demand in the dry season. A sensitivity analysis exploring how wet season rainfall affects the stability of the rainforest system is presented.

  8. Factors affecting the abundance of leaf-litter arthropods in unburned and thrice-burned seasonally-dry Amazonian forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana M Silveira

    Full Text Available Fire is frequently used as a land management tool for cattle ranching and annual crops in the Amazon. However, these maintenance fires often escape into surrounding forests, with potentially severe impacts for forest biodiversity. We examined the effect of experimental fires on leaf-litter arthropod abundance in a seasonally-dry forest in the Brazilian Amazon. The study plots (50 ha each included a thrice-burned forest and an unburned control forest. Pitfall-trap samples were collected at 160 randomly selected points in both plots, with sampling stratified across four intra-annual replicates across the dry and wet seasons, corresponding to 6, 8, 10 and 12 months after the most recent fire. Arthropods were identified to the level of order (separating Formicidae. In order to better understand the processes that determine arthropod abundance in thrice-burned forests, we measured canopy openness, understory density and litter depth. All arthropod taxa were significantly affected by fire and season. In addition, the interactions between burn treatment and season were highly significant for all taxa but Isoptera. The burned plot was characterized by a more open canopy, lower understory density and shallower litter depth. Hierarchical partitioning revealed that canopy openness was the most important factor explaining arthropod order abundances in the thrice-burned plot, whereas all three environmental variables were significant in the unburned control plot. These results reveal the marked impact of recurrent wildfires and seasonality on litter arthropods in this transitional forest, and demonstrate the overwhelming importance of canopy-openness in driving post-fire arthropod abundance.

  9. Factors affecting the abundance of leaf-litter arthropods in unburned and thrice-burned seasonally-dry Amazonian forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Juliana M; Barlow, Jos; Louzada, Julio; Moutinho, Paulo

    2010-01-01

    Fire is frequently used as a land management tool for cattle ranching and annual crops in the Amazon. However, these maintenance fires often escape into surrounding forests, with potentially severe impacts for forest biodiversity. We examined the effect of experimental fires on leaf-litter arthropod abundance in a seasonally-dry forest in the Brazilian Amazon. The study plots (50 ha each) included a thrice-burned forest and an unburned control forest. Pitfall-trap samples were collected at 160 randomly selected points in both plots, with sampling stratified across four intra-annual replicates across the dry and wet seasons, corresponding to 6, 8, 10 and 12 months after the most recent fire. Arthropods were identified to the level of order (separating Formicidae). In order to better understand the processes that determine arthropod abundance in thrice-burned forests, we measured canopy openness, understory density and litter depth. All arthropod taxa were significantly affected by fire and season. In addition, the interactions between burn treatment and season were highly significant for all taxa but Isoptera. The burned plot was characterized by a more open canopy, lower understory density and shallower litter depth. Hierarchical partitioning revealed that canopy openness was the most important factor explaining arthropod order abundances in the thrice-burned plot, whereas all three environmental variables were significant in the unburned control plot. These results reveal the marked impact of recurrent wildfires and seasonality on litter arthropods in this transitional forest, and demonstrate the overwhelming importance of canopy-openness in driving post-fire arthropod abundance. PMID:20877720

  10. Culture, worldviews, communication styles, and conflict in forest management

    OpenAIRE

    Morford, S.; Parker, D.; Rogers, H.; Salituro, C.; Waldichuk, T.

    2003-01-01

    This paper explores culture, worldviews, communication styles, and conflict among stakeholders in forest and natural resource management. It addresses the fact that forest managers and stakeholders often speak about forest resources very differently, and it makes suggestions for improving communication among them. It also reviews the history of the development of worldviews regarding the environment. The paper draws from studies of environmental perception, conflict, and communications. A cen...

  11. Low-frequency modulation of the atmospheric surface layer over Amazonian rain forest and its implication for similarity relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randow, von C.; Kruijt, B.; Holtslag, A.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    The application of Monin-Obukhov similarity theory (MOS) is based on empirical relationships derived over uniform surfaces in flat terrain. It is not clear to what extent these relationships hold for complex surfaces such as tropical forest or hilly terrain. This study investigates the influence of

  12. Predicting biomass of hyperdiverse and structurally complex central Amazonian forests - a virtual approach using extensive field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnabosco Marra, Daniel; Higuchi, Niro; Trumbore, Susan E.; Ribeiro, Gabriel H. P. M.; dos Santos, Joaquim; Carneiro, Vilany M. C.; Lima, Adriano J. N.; Chambers, Jeffrey Q.; Negrón-Juárez, Robinson I.; Holzwarth, Frederic; Reu, Björn; Wirth, Christian

    2016-03-01

    Old-growth forests are subject to substantial changes in structure and species composition due to the intensification of human activities, gradual climate change and extreme weather events. Trees store ca. 90 % of the total aboveground biomass (AGB) in tropical forests and precise tree biomass estimation models are crucial for management and conservation. In the central Amazon, predicting AGB at large spatial scales is a challenging task due to the heterogeneity of successional stages, high tree species diversity and inherent variations in tree allometry and architecture. We parameterized generic AGB estimation models applicable across species and a wide range of structural and compositional variation related to species sorting into height layers as well as frequent natural disturbances. We used 727 trees (diameter at breast height ≥ 5 cm) from 101 genera and at least 135 species harvested in a contiguous forest near Manaus, Brazil. Sampling from this data set we assembled six scenarios designed to span existing gradients in floristic composition and size distribution in order to select models that best predict AGB at the landscape level across successional gradients. We found that good individual tree model fits do not necessarily translate into reliable predictions of AGB at the landscape level. When predicting AGB (dry mass) over scenarios using our different models and an available pantropical model, we observed systematic biases ranging from -31 % (pantropical) to +39 %, with root-mean-square error (RMSE) values of up to 130 Mg ha-1 (pantropical). Our first and second best models had both low mean biases (0.8 and 3.9 %, respectively) and RMSE (9.4 and 18.6 Mg ha-1) when applied over scenarios. Predicting biomass correctly at the landscape level in hyperdiverse and structurally complex tropical forests, especially allowing good performance at the margins of data availability for model construction/calibration, requires the inclusion of predictors that express

  13. The influence of soils on heterotrophic respiration exerts a strong control on net ecosystem productivity in seasonally dry Amazonian forests

    OpenAIRE

    J. R. Melton; Shrestha, R. K.; V. K. Arora

    2015-01-01

    Net ecosystem productivity of carbon (NEP) in seasonally dry forests of the Amazon varies greatly between sites with similar precipitation patterns. Correctly modeling the NEP seasonality with terrestrial ecosystem models has proven difficult. Previous modelling studies have mostly advocated for incorporating processes that act to reduce water stress on gross primary productivity (GPP) during the dry season, such as deep soils and roots, plant-mediated hydr...

  14. Agricultural Systems Located in the Forest-Savanna Ecotone of the Venezuelan Amazonian. Are Organic Agroforestry Farms Sustainable?

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Yamila López-Contreras; Igor Netuzhilin; Carmen Leonor Hernández; Danilo López-Hernández

    2009-01-01

    The savannas located in the forest-savanna ecotone in the Venezuelan Amazon have unfertile sandy ultisols and entisols which show a very low crop production unless they are supplemented with large amounts of fertiliser. In spite of this restriction, local farmers have established long-term production systems by using low input doses of organic manure. The use of organic waste in unfertile ultisols and entisols typical of savannas have resulted in increases in organic matter content and biolog...

  15. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities along a pedo-hydrological gradient in a Central Amazonian terra firme forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Freitas, Rejane; Buscardo, Erika; Nagy, Laszlo; dos Santos Maciel, Alex Bruno; Carrenho, Rosilaine; Luizão, Regina C C

    2014-01-01

    Little attention has been paid to plant mutualistic interactions in the Amazon rainforest, and the general pattern of occurrence and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in these ecosystems is largely unknown. This study investigated AMF communities through their spores in soil in a 'terra firme forest' in Central Amazonia. The contribution played by abiotic factors and plant host species identity in regulating the composition, abundance and diversity of such communities along a topographic gradient with different soils and hydrology was also evaluated. Forty-one spore morphotypes were observed with species belonging to the genera Glomus and Acaulospora, representing 44 % of the total taxa. Soil texture and moisture, together with host identity, were predominant factors responsible for shaping AMF communities along the pedo-hydrological gradient. However, the variability within AMF communities was largely associated with shifts in the relative abundance of spores rather than changes in species composition, confirming that common AMF species are widely distributed in plant communities and all plants recruited into the forest are likely to be exposed to the dominant sporulating AMF species. PMID:23754540

  16. Screening of Amazonian plants from the Adolpho Ducke forest reserve, Manaus, state of Amazonas, Brazil, for antimicrobial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Basílio Carneiro

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Tropical forests are species-rich reserves for the discovery and development of antimicrobial drugs. The aim of this work is to investigate the in vitro antimicrobial potential of Amazon plants found within the National Institute on Amazon Research's Adolpho Ducke forest reserve, located in Manaus, state of Amazonas, Brazil. 75 methanol, chloroform and water extracts representing 12 plant species were tested for antimicrobial activity towards strains of Mycobacterium smegmatis, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus oralis, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans using the gel-diffusion method. Active extracts were further evaluated to establish minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC and antimicrobial profiles using bioautography on normal-phase thin-layer chromatography plates. Diclinanona calycina presented extracts with good antimicrobial activity and S. oralis and M. smegmatis were the most sensitive bacteria. D. calycina and Lacmellea gracilis presented extracts with the lowest MIC (48.8 µg/ml. D. calycina methanol and chloroform leaf extracts presented the best overall antimicrobial activity. All test organisms were sensitive to D. calycina branch chloroform extract in the bioautography assay. This is the first evaluation of the biological activity of these plant species and significant in vitro antimicrobial activity was detected in extracts and components from two species, D. calycina and L. gracilis.

  17. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities along a pedo-hydrological gradient in a Central Amazonian terra firme forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Freitas, Rejane; Buscardo, Erika; Nagy, Laszlo; dos Santos Maciel, Alex Bruno; Carrenho, Rosilaine; Luizão, Regina C C

    2014-01-01

    Little attention has been paid to plant mutualistic interactions in the Amazon rainforest, and the general pattern of occurrence and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in these ecosystems is largely unknown. This study investigated AMF communities through their spores in soil in a 'terra firme forest' in Central Amazonia. The contribution played by abiotic factors and plant host species identity in regulating the composition, abundance and diversity of such communities along a topographic gradient with different soils and hydrology was also evaluated. Forty-one spore morphotypes were observed with species belonging to the genera Glomus and Acaulospora, representing 44 % of the total taxa. Soil texture and moisture, together with host identity, were predominant factors responsible for shaping AMF communities along the pedo-hydrological gradient. However, the variability within AMF communities was largely associated with shifts in the relative abundance of spores rather than changes in species composition, confirming that common AMF species are widely distributed in plant communities and all plants recruited into the forest are likely to be exposed to the dominant sporulating AMF species.

  18. The Cultural Ecology Protection and Management of Urban Forests in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ying; SONG, Weiming; Chen, Ke; Guo, Chunjing

    2013-01-01

    Forests have economic, ecological, social and cultural functions. Forests Cultural ecology, the counterpart of forest ecology, is the integration of human spirit formed on the basis of natural forest and living systems. In recent years, China's urbanization rate has increased from 28% in 1993 to 45.68% in 2008, and ecological protection of urban forest has made great progress, but insufficient attention was paid to the forest cultural ecology protection and the relevant regulatory was not w...

  19. The odd man out? Might climate explain the lower tree alpha-diversity of African rain forests relative to Amazonian rain forests?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parmentier, I.; Malhi, Y.; Senterre, B.; Whittaker, R.J.; Alonso, A.; Balinga, M.P.B.; Bakayoko, A.; Bongers, F.J.J.M.; Chatelain, C.; Comiskey, J.; Cortay, R.; Djuikouo Kamdem, M.N.; Doucet, J.L.; Gauier, L.; Hawthorne, W.D.; Issembe, Y.A.; Kouamé, F.N.; Kouka, L.; Leal, M.E.; Lejoly, J.; Lewis, S.L.; Newbery, D.; Nusbaumer, L.; Parren, M.P.E.; Peh, K.S.H.; Phillips, O.L.; Sheil, D.; Sonké, B.; Sosef, M.S.M.; Sunderland, T.; Stropp, J.; Steege, ter H.; Swaine, M.; Tchouto, P.; Gemerden, van B.S.; Valkenburg, van J.; Wöll, H.

    2007-01-01

    1. Comparative analyses of diversity variation among and between regions allow testing of alternative explanatory models and ideas. Here, we explore the relationships between the tree alpha-diversity of small rain forest plots in Africa and in Amazonia and climatic variables, to test the explanatory

  20. Impacts of continual and periodic disturbances on a Central Amazonian forest: lessons from a gap model for future model improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, J. A.; Chambers, J. Q.; Collins, W.

    2013-12-01

    Uncertainties surrounding vegetation and carbon responses to increased disturbance rates associated with climate change remains a major global change issue for Amazon forests. To help quantify the impacts of increased disturbances on climate and the earth system, the fidelity of tree mortality and disturbance algorithms in global land surface models (here the Community Land Model, CLM) warrant critical evaluation. In order to address this issue, we parameterized and calibrated ZELIG-TROP, a dynamic vegetation gap model, to simulate a complex Central Amazon forest toward improving disturbance-recovery processes in CLM. To evaluate the long-term consequences of increased disturbance rates in ZELIG-TROP and CLM for a Central Amazon rainforest, we 1) doubled background tree mortality rates (i.e., high disturbance treatment), and 2) applied a periodic disturbance treatment of removing 20% of stems every 50 years (i.e., periodic treatment) and compared model results. For the high disturbance treatment, ZELIG-TROP predicted that AGB and ANPP decreased by an average of 110 Mg ha-1 and 0.48 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 respectively (41.9% and 7.7%). The net carbon loss due to the periodic treatment, with four large-scale disturbances, was not as extreme as the loss from the high disturbance treatment, due to recovery dynamics. AGB only decreased by 15.9% (vs. 41.9%), however ANPP decreased by 19% (vs. 7.7%). For the high disturbance treatment in ZELIG-TROP, there were a higher proportion of smaller stems and a decrease in larger stems. This resulted in a decrease in coarse litter (trunks and large branches >10 cm in diameter) production rates (Mg C ha-1 yr-1) by 11.5%. For the periodic disturbance the average coarse litter production rates increased by 11.2% due to the four large-scale disturbance events. A comparison of the biomass response of ZELIG-TROP and CLM from simulated disturbance and recovery events displayed the same pattern between the two models, and for both disturbance

  1. The influence of soils on heterotrophic respiration exerts a strong control on net ecosystem productivity in seasonally dry Amazonian forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Melton

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Net ecosystem productivity of carbon (NEP in seasonally dry forests of the Amazon varies greatly between sites with similar precipitation patterns. Correctly modeling the NEP seasonality with terrestrial ecosystem models has proven difficult. Previous modelling studies have mostly advocated incorporating processes that act to reduce water stress on gross primary productivity (GPP during the dry season such as including deep soils and roots, plant-mediated hydraulic redistribution of soil moisture, and increased dry season leaf litter generation which reduces leaf age and thus increases photosynthetic capacity. Recent observations, however, indicate that seasonality in heterotrophic respiration also contributes to the observed seasonal cycle of NEP. Here, we use the dynamic vegetation model CLASS-CTEM – without deep soils or roots, hydraulic redistribution of soil moisture or increased dry season litter generation – at two Large-Scale Biosphere–Atmosphere Experiment (LBA sites (Tapajós km 83 and Jarú Reserve. These LBA sites exhibit opposite seasonal NEP cycles despite similar meteorological conditions. Our simulations are able to reproduce the observed NEP seasonality at both sites. Simulated GPP, heterotrophic respiration, latent and sensible heat fluxes, litter fall rate, soil moisture and temperature, and basic vegetation state are also compared with available observation-based estimates which provide confidence that the model overall behaves realistically at the two sites. Our results indicate that appropriately representing the influence of soil texture and depth, through soil moisture, on seasonal patterns of GPP and, especially, heterotrophic respiration is important to correctly simulating NEP seasonality.

  2. 77 FR 5838 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: USDA Forest Service, Coconino National Forest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... items meet the definition of unassociated funerary objects and repatriation to the Indian tribe stated... Coconino National Forest that meet the definition of unassociated funerary objects under 25 U.S.C. 3001... points; 3 stone artifacts and 1 bone awl. Based on the ceramic collection, material culture...

  3. The Cultural Ecology Protection and Management of Urban Forests in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying; ZHANG; Weiming; SONG; Ke; CHEN; Chunjing; GOU

    2013-01-01

    Forests have economic,ecological,social and cultural functions.Forests Cultural ecology,the counterpart of forest ecology,is the integration of human spirit formed on the basis of natural forest and living systems.In recent years,China’s urbanization rate has increased from 28%in 1993 to 45.68%in 2008,and ecological protection of urban forest has made great progress,but insufficient attention was paid to the forest cultural ecology protection and the relevant regulatory was not well performed.In order to strengthen the protection of forest cultural ecology and the management,the study showed that the social economic development of China has become mature and entered the consumption phase,besides,cultural ecology protection of forest will be the essence of urban forestry development in the future,so more and more attention will be paid to the protection of urban forest cultural ecology,especially with the enhancement of urbanization in China.The study suggests that protection of urban forest cultural ecology should be included into the forest legislation and management.The development planning of urban forest development should be strengthened to highlight the organic combination of material wealth production and spiritual wealth production,and finally promote protection of urban forest culture and the development of green culture.

  4. Perception and attitudes of local people concerning ecosystem services of culturally protected forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, H.; Ouyang, Z.; Zheng, H.; Bluemling, B.

    2013-01-01

    Culturally protected forests (CPFs) can be defined as forest areas preserved and managed by local people on the basis of traditional cultural practices and beliefs, and these forests have been maintained for decades or even centuries without much disturbance or change. Most of them are natural growt

  5. Analysis of Factors Influencing Forest Farmers' Enthusiasm for Forest Culture and Management after the Completion of Reform of Collective Forest Right System

    OpenAIRE

    CHEN, Xingliang; Wu, Hailong; HU, Wangyin

    2014-01-01

    Taking Jiangshan City in Zhejiang Province for example, this article uses the binary logit choice model based on the field survey data, to study the factors influencing forest farmers' enthusiasm for forest culture and management after the completion of reform of collective forest right. Finally the following recommendations are put forth: further improving and implementing the forest ecological benefit compensation fund system; reforming the felling management mode and gradually establishing...

  6. Analysis of Factors Influencing Forest Farmers’ Enthusiasm for Forest Culture and Management after the Completion of Reform of Collective Forest Right System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xingliang; CHEN; Hailong; WU; Wangyin; HU

    2014-01-01

    Taking Jiangshan City in Zhejiang Province for example,this article uses the binary logit choice model based on the field survey data,to study the factors influencing forest farmers’enthusiasm for forest culture and management after the completion of reform of collective forest right.Finally the following recommendations are put forth:further improving and implementing the forest ecological benefit compensation fund system;reforming the felling management mode and gradually establishing the sustainable forest management system based on forest management plan;improving the technology,market and information services to strengthen the forestry science and technology support;developing the specialty industries such as the bamboo industry and oil-tea camellia industry;developing the under-forest economy and cultivating the underforest industries with characteristics based on the local circumstances.

  7. Spatially-Explicit Testing of a General Aboveground Carbon Density Estimation Model in aWestern Amazonian Forest Using Airborne LiDAR

    OpenAIRE

    Patricio Xavier Molina; Asner, Gregory P.; Mercedes Farjas Abadía; Juan Carlos Ojeda Manrique; Luis Alberto Sánchez Diez; Renato Valencia

    2016-01-01

    Mapping aboveground carbon density in tropical forests can support CO2 emissionmonitoring and provide benefits for national resource management. Although LiDAR technology has been shown to be useful for assessing carbon density patterns, the accuracy and generality of calibrations of LiDAR-based aboveground carbon density (ACD) predictions with those obtained from field inventory techniques should be intensified in order to advance tropical forest carbon mapping. Here we present results from...

  8. Human impacts on soil carbon dynamics of deep-rooted Amazonian forests and effect of land use change on the carbon cycle in Amazon soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepstad, Daniel; Stone, Thomas; Davidson, Eric; Trumbore, Susan E.

    1992-01-01

    The main objective of these NASA-funded projects is to improve our understanding of land-use impacts on soil carbon dynamics in the Amazon Basin. Soil contains approximately one half of tropical forest carbon stocks, yet the fate of this carbon following forest impoverishment is poorly studied. Our mechanistics approach draws on numerous techniques for measuring soil carbon outputs, inputs, and turnover time in the soils of adjacent forest and pasture ecosystems at our research site in Paragominas, state of Para, Brazil. We are scaling up from this site-specific work by analyzing Basin-wide patterns in rooting depth and rainfall seasonality, the two factors that we believe should explain much of the variation in tropical soil carbons dynamics. In this report, we summarize ongoing measurements at our Paragominas study site, progress in employing new field data to understand soil C dynamics, and some surprising results from our regional, scale-up work.

  9. Roles of and Threats to Indigenous Cultural Beliefs in Protection of Sacred Forests in Southwest Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    FOLARANMI DAPO BABALOLA; IBRAHEEM LAWAL; EGBE EMMANUEL OPII; ABIODUN OLUSESI OSO

    2014-01-01

    Sacred forests play a central role in the cultural and livelihoods of indigenous people. Despite the vital roles of sacred forests, a decline in the areas of the forests have been reported. The consequence of this is that many of the people’s indigenous knowledge systems built over the years as well as the endemic forest diversity are at the risk of becoming extinct. The study therefore investigated the contributions of selected sacred forests to rural communities as well as the challenges fa...

  10. Roles of and Threats to Indigenous Cultural Beliefs in Protection of Sacred Forests in Southwest Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FOLARANMI DAPO BABALOLA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sacred forests play a central role in the cultural and livelihoods of indigenous people. Despite the vital roles of sacred forests, a decline in the areas of the forests have been reported. The consequence of this is that many of the people’s indigenous knowledge systems built over the years as well as the endemic forest diversity are at the risk of becoming extinct. The study therefore investigated the contributions of selected sacred forests to rural communities as well as the challenges facing the forests. Data was collected through field visit and questionnaire administration. The respondents include people living in two villages (Balogun and Ososun adjacent to Igbo Igunnko (meaning Igunnuko sacred forest and Igbo Oro (Oro sacred forest located in Ogun State, Southwest Nigeria. The forests form part of the history upon which the surrounding villages were established. Among the taboos supporting existence of the sacred forests, prohibition of fishing in Oso’ro River (that link the two sacred forests is the most effective. Increasing rate of firewood collection and killing of wild animals, and land demand for farming and building constitute great threat to existence of the sacred forests. Adoption of Christianity and Islam by the people is also contributing to the neglect of cultural beliefs that are in support of the sacred forests. To prevent further encroachment into the sacred forests, there is need for proper demarcation of the boundary for protection against pressing land uses and over exploitation. Also, the current traditional knowledge and beliefs in support of sacred forest should be properly strengthened to control unsustainable exploitation in the forests.

  11. Ingestion of charcoal by the Amazonian earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus: a potential for tropical soil fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Ponge, Jean-François; Topoliantz, Stéphanie; Ballof, Sylvain; Rossi, Jean-Pierre; Lavelle, Patrick; Betsch, Jean-Marie; Gaucher, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    International audience It is now attested that a large part of the Amazonian rain forest has been cultivated during Pre-Colombian times, using charcoal as an amendment. The incorporation of charcoal to the soil is a starting point for the formation of fertile Amazonian Dark Earths, still selected by Indian people for shifting cultivation. We showed that finely separated charcoal was commonly incorporated in the topsoil by Pontoscolex corethrurus, a tropical earthworm which thrives after bu...

  12. Extremely long-distance seed dispersal by an overfished Amazonian frugivore

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Jill T.; Nuttle, Tim; Saldaña Rojas, Joe S.; Pendergast, Thomas H.; Flecker, Alexander S.

    2011-01-01

    Throughout Amazonia, overfishing has decimated populations of fruit-eating fishes, especially the large-bodied characid, Colossoma macropomum. During lengthy annual floods, frugivorous fishes enter vast Amazonian floodplains, consume massive quantities of fallen fruits and egest viable seeds. Many tree and liana species are clearly specialized for icthyochory, and seed dispersal by fish may be crucial for the maintenance of Amazonian wetland forests. Unlike frugivorous mammals and birds, litt...

  13. Abelhas africanizadas Apis mellifera scutellata Lepeletier, 1836 (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Apinae exploram recursos na floresta amazônica? Do Africanized honeybees explore resources in the amazonian forest?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Luiz de Oliveira

    2005-09-01

    quickly and expand throughout nearly of the Americas. Moreover, to date there is much controversy about the probable impact of these bees, called Africanized honey bees, on native bees. In the Americas, Africanized honeybees are limited to regions of low altitude and cool winters, and in Brazil they occur principally in urban areas, and open or disturbed vegetation, not occurring in the interior of dense forest such as the Amazon Forest. We offered various kinds of bait in the interior of continuous forest, and in forest fragments to verify if Africanized honeybees would be capable of penetrate in it. No Africanized honeybee workers visited any baits in continuous forest or in forest fragments, but they did so in deforested/open areas. This result indicates that there is no possibility of source competition between Africanized and native bees within Amazon forest, and also indicates that large-scale beekeeping is unlikely to succeed in this region, because forest is not explored by Africanized bees.

  14. Analysis on forest culture connotation%森林文化简论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋红星

    2016-01-01

    Forest culture system is a large system as same as forest ecology system and forest industry system. Based on the correlative references,the meaning and connotation of forest culture are analyzed. It is considered that forest culture inherits human civilization and opens ecological thought. Forest culture has eight culture types and four manifestations, and its formation has objective necessities. Then the basic approach to carry forward forest culture is presented.%森林文化体系与生态、产业体系并列为现代林业三大体系。在广泛涉猎相关文献的基础上,对森林文化的意义和内涵进行了系统分析,认为森林文化传承人类文明,开启生态思想,有8种文化形态和4种表现形式,其形成具有客观必然性,提出了弘扬森林文化的基本途径。

  15. Stability of Trifluoromethane in Forest Soils and Methanotrophic Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Gary M.

    1997-01-01

    Trifluoromethane (TFM) has been reported as an endproduct of trifluoroacetate degradation under oxic conditions. Although other halomethanes, such as chloroform, methyl bromide, and methyl fluoride, inhibit methane oxidation or are degraded by methanotrophs, the fate of TFM is unknown. TFM had no affect on atmospheric methane consumption when added to forest soils at either 10 ppm or 10,000 ppm. No degradation of TFM was observed at either concentration for incubations of 6 days. Cultures of Methylobacter albus BG8 and Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b grown With and without added copper were also used to assay TFM degradation at 10 10000 ppm levels. TFM did not inhibit methane oxidation under any growth conditions, including those inducing expression of soluble methane monooxygenase, nor was it degraded at measurable rates. In contrast, parallel assays showed that both methyl fluoride and chloroform inhibited methane oxidation in M. trichosporium OB3b. Our results suggest that TFM may be relatively inert with respect to methanotrophic degradition. Although TFM has a negligible ozone depletion potential, it absorbs infrared radiation and has a relatively long atmospheric residence time. Thus, accumulation of TFM in the atmosphere as a consequence of the decomposition of hydrochlorofluorocarbons may have significant unpredicted climate impacts.

  16. Productivity of aboveground coarse wood biomass and stand age related to soil hydrology of Amazonian forests in the Purus-Madeira interfluvial area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintra, B. B. L.; Schietti, J.; Emillio, T.; Martins, D.; Moulatlet, G.; Souza, P.; Levis, C.; Quesada, C. A.; Schöngart, J.

    2013-04-01

    The ongoing demand for information on forest productivity has increased the number of permanent monitoring plots across the Amazon. Those plots, however, do not comprise the whole diversity of forest types in the Amazon. The complex effects of soil, climate and hydrology on the productivity of seasonally waterlogged interfluvial wetland forests are still poorly understood. The presented study is the first field-based estimate for tree ages and wood biomass productivity in the vast interfluvial region between the Purus and Madeira rivers. We estimate stand age and wood biomass productivity by a combination of tree-ring data and allometric equations for biomass stocks of eight plots distributed along 600 km in the Purus-Madeira interfluvial area that is crossed by the BR-319 highway. We relate stand age and wood biomass productivity to hydrological and edaphic conditions. Mean productivity and stand age were 5.6 ± 1.1 Mg ha-1 yr-1 and 102 ± 18 yr, respectively. There is a strong relationship between tree age and diameter, as well as between mean diameter increment and mean wood density within a plot. Regarding the soil hydromorphic properties we find a positive correlation with wood biomass productivity and a negative relationship with stand age. Productivity also shows a positive correlation with the superficial phosphorus concentration. In addition, superficial phosphorus concentration increases with enhanced soil hydromorphic condition. We raise three hypotheses to explain these results: (1) the reduction of iron molecules on the saturated soils with plinthite layers close to the surface releases available phosphorous for the plants; (2) the poor structure of the saturated soils creates an environmental filter selecting tree species of faster growth rates and shorter life spans and (3) plant growth on saturated soil is favored during the dry season, since there should be low restrictions for soil water availability.

  17. 77 FR 52055 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest.... SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Forest Service, Coconino National Forest, in.... 3005, of the intent to repatriate cultural items in the possession of the Natural History Museum of...

  18. 77 FR 51562 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest.... SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Forest Service, Coconino National Forest, in.... 3005, of the intent to repatriate cultural items located at the Natural History Museum of Utah...

  19. Living among Frequent-fire Forests: Human History and Cultural Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Daniel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Ecological and social factors shaped old-growth forests of the western United States before Euro-American settlement, and will, in large part, determine their future. In this article, we focus on the social factors that affected the forest's ecological structure and function, review the changing cultural influences through law and policy of public land management and use, and discuss the changing public perceptions of fire use. We also provide an overview of the current debates about the conservation of old-growth forests, and the current congressional protection and management of old-growth forests in public land management and use.

  20. Poor Prospects for Avian Biodiversity in Amazonian Oil Palm

    OpenAIRE

    Lees, Alexander C.; Moura, Nárgila G.; Arlete Silva de Almeida; Ima C G Vieira

    2015-01-01

    Expansion of oil palm plantations across the humid tropics has precipitated massive loss of tropical forest habitats and their associated speciose biotas. Oil palm plantation monocultures have been identified as an emerging threat to Amazonian biodiversity, but there are no quantitative studies exploring the impact of these plantations on the biome's biota. Understanding these impacts is extremely important given the rapid projected expansion of oil palm cultivation in the basin. Here we inve...

  1. Adoption of community engagement in the corporate culture of Australian forest plantation companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordon, M.; Lockwood, M.; Schirmer, Jacki; Vanclay, F.; Hanson, D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides practical insight into what can be done to improve the adoption of community engagement (CE) in the corporate culture of two Australian forest plantation companies. Previous research has identified that CE can be limited by corporate cultures that promote a narrow range of CE ben

  2. Detection of Amazonian Black Earth Sites using Hyperspectral Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braswell, B. H.; Palace, M.; Bush, M. B.; Neves, E.; Mcmichael, C.; Czarnecki, C.; Moraes, B.; Raczka, M.

    2012-12-01

    The pre-Columbian indigenous population estimates of the Amazon Basin lowlands are highly uncertain and the subject of considerable controversy. One of the archaeological sources used in reconstruction of Amazonian societies are Amazonian black earths (ABE) or terra preta soils. The immense size of Amazonia, remoteness of many areas, forest vegetation, and lack of archaeological field surveys, make remote sensing beneficial to archaeological studies in this region. Remote sensing allows for comparison and analysis of vegetation across vast areas. Previous research has shown that hyperspectral image data can detect vegetation canopy chemistry differences, associated with soil nutrients and chemistry anomalies at ABE locations. We conducted a preliminary analysis that indicates nine portions of the spectrum where three ABE sites are completely separable from the three non-ABE sites. A discriminant function analysis using stepwise variable selection indicated that five bands were adequate in distinguishing between ABE and non-ABE sites. These five bands ranged between the 2000-2400 nm, indicating that canopy moisture is useful in remotely sensing terra preta. The wealth of site locations we are compiling from numerous sources provides a unique opportunity to develop algorithms for the classification of ABE and non-ABE sites. Our current data holdings include over 1600 Hyperion images and a database of ABE/ non-ABE field observations at approximately 2900 sites. The distribution and number of ABE sites provides information useful for both archaeological research and has consequences for the interpretation of Amazonian forest ecology. Knowledge of the disturbance history of the Amazonian forest provides a context and framework for the placement of all environmental research in the region. This presentation reports results of statistical modeling using extracted spectra from about 400 sites that are within Hyperion scenes.

  3. Fire patterns in the Amazonian biome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragao, Luiz E. O. C.; Shimabukuro, Yosio E.; Lima, Andre; Anderson, Liana O.; Barbier, Nicolas; Saatchi, Sassan

    2010-05-01

    This paper aims to provide an overview of our recent findings on the interplay between climate and land use dynamics in defining fire patterns in Amazonia. Understanding these relationships is currently a fundamental concern for assessing the vulnerability of Amazonia to climate change and its potential for mitigating current increases in atmospheric greenhouse gases. Reducing carbon emissions from tropical deforestation and forest degradation (REDD), for instance, could contribute to a cumulative emission reduction of 13-50 billion tons of carbon (GtC) by 2100. In Amazonia, though, forest fires can release similar quantities of carbon to the atmosphere (~0.2 GtC yr-1) as deforestation alone. Therefore, to achieve carbon savings through REDD mechanism there is an urgent need of understanding and subsequently restraining related Amazonian fire drivers. In this study, we analyze satellite-derived monthly and annual time-series of fires, rainfall and deforestation in Amazonia to: (1) quantify the seasonal patterns and relationships between these variables; (2) quantify fire and rainfall anomalies to evaluate the impact of recent drought on fire patterns; (3) quantify recent trends in fire and deforestation to understand how land use affects fire patterns in Amazonia. Our results demonstrate a marked seasonality of fires. The majority of fires occurs along the Arc of Deforestation, the expanding agricultural frontier in southern and eastern Amazonia, indicating humans are the major ignition sources determining fire seasonality, spatial distribution and long-term patterns. There is a marked seasonality of fires, which is highly correlated (pslash-and-burn of Amazonian vegetation for implementation of pastures and agricultural fields. The cumulative number of hot pixels is exponentially related to the monthly rainfall, which ultimately defines where and when fire can potentially strike. During the 2005 Amazonian drought, the number of hot pixels increased 33% in relation

  4. From gene manipulation to forest establishment: shoot cultures of woody plants can be a central tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCown, B.H.

    1985-05-01

    Establishing germplasm of woody plants in microculture as shoot cultures has proved to be an effective method of overcoming many of the obstacles in working with these crops. Shoot cultures eliminate the changes associated with seasonal growth cycles and phase change and put large plants into a more manageable form. Well-established shoot cultures are central to successful clonal propagation systems for forest trees as well as to genetic improvement based on the use of cellular techniques such as protoplast manipulation. The physiological basis as to why tissues from shoot cultures are so readily manipulated is not well understood.

  5. Empirical Determination of Political Cultures as a Basis for Effective Coordination of Forest Management Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pokorny, B.; Schanz, H.

    2003-01-01

    To design viable strategies to implement sustainable forest management, tools are needed that allow the understanding and management of the driving forces behind conflicting opinions and divergent solutions. The approach of Thompson et al. (1990) to cultural theory-because of its descriptive power-m

  6. Cultural valuation and biodiversity conservation in the Upper Guinea forest, West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraser, James A.; Diabaté, Moussa; Narmah, Woulay; Beavogui, Pépé; Guilavogui, Kaman; Foresta, de Hubert; Braga Junqueira, Andre

    2016-01-01

    The cultural valuation of biodiversity has taken on renewed importance over the last two decades as the ecosystem services framework has become widely adopted. Conservation initiatives increasingly use ecosystem service frameworks to render tropical forest landscapes and their peoples legible to

  7. FOREST AMELIORATION OF SANDY SOILS OF TERSKO-KUMSKOYE INTERFLUVE PLAIN WITH PINE CULTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surkhayev I. G.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the regularities of the growth and development of the plantations of Crimean and Scotch pine on sandy soils of Tersko-Kumskoye interfluve plain, presents the classification of forest suitability, estimates the forest growing efficiency and prospects of the use of pine species when forest amelioration of soils, suggests the technologies for forestations arrangement. During the past century there had been grown over 60 hectares of pine cultures on sands of Tersko-Kumskoye interfluve plain under the strict conditions of transition zone dry steppe-semidesert. The Achikulakskaya NILOS VNIALMI (N. K. Lalymenko, V. I. Kabalaliyev, N. S. Zyuz managed to plant about 60 hectares of Crimean pine and over 5 hectares of Scotch pine cultures in the 70-80-th of the last century, about 50 % of them are still growing. The study of the said forestations led to the following conclusions. On the thick sands (6-8 m of Bazhigansky forest area the stable growth of Scotch pine continues up to 25-30 years, that of Crimean pine – up to 30-35 years. By the age of 40 the productivity of Crimean pine forestations (170-260 m3/ha exceeds visibly the accumulated reserve of Scotch pine forest stand (60-100 m3/ha. The increment in height decreases sharply starting at the age of 15-20 years for Scotch pine and at 25-30 for Crimean pine plantations. On the clay sands with the level of low-mineralized ground water of 2,5-3,0 m and despite high fall the stable growth of Crimean pine continues up to 35-40 years and more. On the monophase sands of Tersky forest area the Crimean pine grows relatively slowly during the first 10-15 years though more evenly year by year. The thick lamellar deposits and monophase sands with the depth of sweet ground water of 3-5 m provide the best conditions for forest growing. The longevity of Scotch pine plantations of 50-55 years and that of Crimean pine of 60-65 years can be achieved by current planting technologies and

  8. Species diversity of culturable endophytic fungi from Brazilian mangrove forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Sebastianes, Fernanda Luiza; Romão-Dumaresq, Aline Silva; Lacava, Paulo Teixeira; Harakava, Ricardo; Azevedo, João Lúcio; de Melo, Itamar Soares; Pizzirani-Kleiner, Aline Aparecida

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to perform a comparative analysis of the diversity of endophytic fungal communities isolated from the leaves and branches of Rhizophora mangle, Avicennia schaueriana and Laguncularia racemosa trees inhabiting two mangroves in the state of São Paulo, Brazil [Cananeia and Bertioga (oil spill-affected and unaffected)] in the summer and winter. Three hundred and forty-three fungi were identified by sequencing the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of rDNA. Differences were observed in the frequencies of fungi isolated from the leaves and branches of these three different plant species sampled from the Bertioga oil spill-affected and the oil-unaffected mangrove sites in the summer and winter; these differences indicate a potential impact on fungal diversity in the study area due to the oil spill. The molecular identification of the fungi showed that the fungal community associated with these mangroves is composed of at least 34 different genera, the most frequent of which were Diaporthe, Colletotrichum, Fusarium, Trichoderma and Xylaria. The Shannon and the Chao1 indices [H'(95 %) = 4.00, H'(97 %) = 4.22, Chao1(95 %) = 204 and Chao1(97 %) = 603] indicated that the mangrove fungal community possesses a vast diversity and richness of endophytic fungi. The data generated in this study revealed a large reservoir of fungal genetic diversity inhabiting these Brazilian mangrove forests and highlighted substantial differences between the fungal communities associated with distinct plant tissues, plant species, impacted sites and sampling seasons. PMID:23832271

  9. 77 FR 11569 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: USDA Forest Service, Coconino National Forest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... responsible for the determinations in this notice. History and Description of the Cultural Items Between 1927 and 1929, two ceramic jars were removed from site NA 660 (Turkey Hill Pueblo) in Coconino County, AZ... ceramic collections and ceramic seriation, Turkey Hill Pueblo (site NA 660) is identified as a...

  10. 广州森林文化发展研究%On Forest Culture Industry Development Research in Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林海云

    2012-01-01

    森林文化作为文化的重要组成部分,理应在文化事业发展中发挥基础性作用。文章从打造广州世界文化名城的高度出发,通过阐述森林文化所包含的内容,分析广州森林文化建设中存在的问题与不足,进而提出重点建设森林文化发展的物质载体、进行森林文化包装、创造森林文化产品等思路。同时提出了发展广州森林文化的保障机制:进一步提高全民参与水平;积极开展森林文化交流活动;加强森林文化人才队伍建设;加快林场管理体制改革;打造广州森林文化体系建设工程。%Forest culture,as an important part of culture,is supposed to play a fundamental role in the development of cultural undertakings.In order to construct Guangzhou as a famous cultural city in the world,this article elaborates the content of forest culture,analyzes the existing problems and shortcomings in the forest cultural construction of Guangzhou,points out that the focus of the construction of forest culture development material carrier,forest culture,forest culture product packaging.It also puts forward the development of Guangzhou forest culture safeguard mechanism: to further improve the level of participation;to actively carry out the forest cultural activities;to strengthen the forest culture talent team construction;to accelerate forest management system reform;to build the Guangzhou forest culture system construction.

  11. Carbon storage in Amazonian podzols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Celia; Lucas, Yves; Pereira, Osvaldo; Merdy, Patricia; Santin, Roberta; Ishida, Débora; du Gardin, Beryl; Melfi, Adolpho

    2014-05-01

    It has recently been discovered that Amazonian podzols may store much larger quantities of carbon than previously thought, particularly in their deep Bh horizons (over 13.6 Pg for Brazilian Amazonia alone [1]). Similarly high carbon stocks are likely to exist in similar climate/soil areas, mainly in Africa and in Borneo. Such carbon stocks raise the problem of their stability in response to changes in land use or climate. Any significant changes in vegetation cover would significantly alter the soil water dynamics, which is likely to affect organic matter turnover in soils. The direction of the change, however, is not clear and is likely to depend on the specific conditions of carbon storage and properties of the soils. It is reasonable to assume that the drying of the Bh horizons of equatorial podzols, which are generally saturated, will lead to an increase in C mineralization, although the extent of this increase has not yet been determined. These unknowns resulted in research programs, granted by the Brazilian FAPESP and the French Région PACA-ARCUS and ANR, dedicated improving estimates of the Amazonian podzol carbon stocks and to an estimate of its mineralisability. Eight test areas were determined from the analysis of remote sensing data in the larger Amazonian podzol region located in the High Rio Negro catchment and studied in detail. Despite the extreme difficulties in carrying out the field work (difficulties in reaching the study sites and extracting the soils), more than a hundred points were sampled. In all podzols the presence of a thick deep Bh was confirmed, sometimes to depths greater than 12 m. The Bh carbon was quantified, indicating that carbon stocks in these podzols are even higher than estimated recently [1]. References 1- Montes, C.R.; Lucas, Y.; Pereira, O.J.R.; Achard, R.; Grimaldi, M.; Mefli, A.J. Deep plant?derived carbon storage in Amazonian podzols. Biogeosciences, 8, 113?120, 2011.

  12. 75 FR 44280 - Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    .... Officials of the American Museum of Natural History and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service.... Officials of the American Museum of Natural History and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service... National Park Service Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: U.S. Department of Agriculture,...

  13. Use of amazonian anthropogenic soils: Comparison between Caboclos communities and Tikunas indigenous group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In general terms, Amazonian soils are infertile and have several constraints for agricultural production. However, use by ancient human societies since pre-columbian times has driven landscape transformation of massive areas and development of anthropogenic soils called Terra Preta do Indio (TP) or Amazonian Dark Earths (ADE). ADE characterization, in terms of fertility and composition, has allowed the development of intensive agricultural activities over time. The current use of ADE for the Brazilian amazon peasants (Caboclos) is different from the indigenous communities in Colombia. The indigenous people in Colombia (Tikunas) no use this type of soils on behalf of cultural restrictions that avoid the use of ancient places. We are comparing the institutional conditions, migrations, social characterization and cultural factors that determine the use/no-use of these soils by the Amazonian societies.

  14. Climatic and cultural changes in the west Congo Basin forests over the past 5000 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oslisly, Richard; White, Lee; Bentaleb, Ilham; Favier, Charly; Fontugne, Michel; Gillet, Jean-François; Sebag, David

    2013-01-01

    Central Africa includes the world's second largest rainforest block. The ecology of the region remains poorly understood, as does its vegetation and archaeological history. However, over the past 20 years, multidisciplinary scientific programmes have enhanced knowledge of old human presence and palaeoenvironments in the forestry block of Central Africa. This first regional synthesis documents significant cultural changes over the past five millennia and describes how they are linked to climate. It is now well documented that climatic conditions in the African tropics underwent significant changes throughout this period and here we demonstrate that corresponding shifts in human demography have had a strong influence on the forests. The most influential event was the decline of the strong African monsoon in the Late Holocene, resulting in serious disturbance of the forest block around 3500 BP. During the same period, populations from the north settled in the forest zone; they mastered new technologies such as pottery and fabrication of polished stone tools, and seem to have practised agriculture. The opening up of forests from 2500 BP favoured the arrival of metallurgist populations that impacted the forest. During this long period (2500-1400 BP), a remarkable increase of archaeological sites is an indication of a demographic explosion of metallurgist populations. Paradoxically, we have found evidence of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) cultivation in the forest around 2200 BP, implying a more arid context. While Early Iron Age sites (prior to 1400 BP) and recent pre-colonial sites (two to eight centuries BP) are abundant, the period between 1600 and 1000 BP is characterized by a sharp decrease in human settlements, with a population crash between 1300 and 1000 BP over a large part of Central Africa. It is only in the eleventh century that new populations of metallurgists settled into the forest block. In this paper, we analyse the spatial and temporal distribution

  15. Poor prospects for avian biodiversity in Amazonian oil palm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, Alexander C; Moura, Nárgila G; de Almeida, Arlete Silva; Vieira, Ima C G

    2015-01-01

    Expansion of oil palm plantations across the humid tropics has precipitated massive loss of tropical forest habitats and their associated speciose biotas. Oil palm plantation monocultures have been identified as an emerging threat to Amazonian biodiversity, but there are no quantitative studies exploring the impact of these plantations on the biome's biota. Understanding these impacts is extremely important given the rapid projected expansion of oil palm cultivation in the basin. Here we investigate the biodiversity value of oil palm plantations in comparison with other dominant regional land-uses in Eastern Amazonia. We carried out bird surveys in oil palm plantations of varying ages, primary and secondary forests, and cattle pastures. We found that oil palm plantations retained impoverished avian communities with a similar species composition to pastures and agrarian land-uses and did not offer habitat for most forest-associated species, including restricted range species and species of conservation concern. On the other hand, the forests that the oil palm companies are legally obliged to protect hosted a relatively species-rich community including several globally-threatened bird species. We consider oil palm to be no less detrimental to regional biodiversity than other agricultural land-uses and that political pressure exerted by large landowners to allow oil palm to count as a substitute for native forest vegetation in private landholdings with forest restoration deficits would have dire consequences for regional biodiversity.

  16. Poor prospects for avian biodiversity in Amazonian oil palm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander C Lees

    Full Text Available Expansion of oil palm plantations across the humid tropics has precipitated massive loss of tropical forest habitats and their associated speciose biotas. Oil palm plantation monocultures have been identified as an emerging threat to Amazonian biodiversity, but there are no quantitative studies exploring the impact of these plantations on the biome's biota. Understanding these impacts is extremely important given the rapid projected expansion of oil palm cultivation in the basin. Here we investigate the biodiversity value of oil palm plantations in comparison with other dominant regional land-uses in Eastern Amazonia. We carried out bird surveys in oil palm plantations of varying ages, primary and secondary forests, and cattle pastures. We found that oil palm plantations retained impoverished avian communities with a similar species composition to pastures and agrarian land-uses and did not offer habitat for most forest-associated species, including restricted range species and species of conservation concern. On the other hand, the forests that the oil palm companies are legally obliged to protect hosted a relatively species-rich community including several globally-threatened bird species. We consider oil palm to be no less detrimental to regional biodiversity than other agricultural land-uses and that political pressure exerted by large landowners to allow oil palm to count as a substitute for native forest vegetation in private landholdings with forest restoration deficits would have dire consequences for regional biodiversity.

  17. Forest restoration in a fog oasis: evidence indicates need for cultural awareness in constructing the reference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Balaguer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the Peruvian Coastal Desert, an archipelago of fog oases, locally called lomas, are centers of biodiversity and of past human activity. Fog interception by a tree canopy, dominated by the legume tree tara (Caesalpinia spinosa, enables the occurrence in the Atiquipa lomas (southern Peru of an environmental island with a diverse flora and high productivity. Although this forest provides essential services to the local population, it has suffered 90% anthropogenic reduction in area. Restoration efforts are now getting under way, including discussion as to the most appropriate reference ecosystem to use. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Genetic diversity of tara was studied in the Atiquipa population and over a wide geographical and ecological range. Neither exclusive plastid haplotypes to loma formations nor clear geographical structuring of the genetic diversity was found. Photosynthetic performance and growth of seedlings naturally recruited in remnant patches of loma forest were compared with those of seedlings recruited or planted in the adjacent deforested area. Despite the greater water and nitrogen availability under tree canopy, growth of forest seedlings did not differ from that of those recruited into the deforested area, and was lower than that of planted seedlings. Tara seedlings exhibited tight stomatal control of photosynthesis, and a structural photoprotection by leaflet closure. These drought-avoiding mechanisms did not optimize seedling performance under the conditions produced by forest interception of fog moisture. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Both weak geographic partitioning of genetic variation and lack of physiological specialization of seedlings to the forest water regime strongly suggest that tara was introduced to lomas by humans. Therefore, the most diverse fragment of lomas is the result of landscape management and resource use by pre-Columbian cultures. We argue that an appropriate reference ecosystem for

  18. Use and management of forest resources in the Colombian Amazon: cultural particularities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Landínez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the main cultural particularities: worldviews and ways of knowing that are associated with the use and management practices of forest resources in the Colombian Amazon. The theoretical cutting proposal contrasts, cultural level, the forms of appropriation of forest resources in indigenous and urban contexts in light of the importance that such activity involves the establishment of management strategies biodiversity in Colombia. Thus, offers an integrated perspective that will address environmental situations considering conflicting factors not only biological but cultural in various scenarios, to give substance to the decisions made and provide a reasonable treatment that enables the implementation of environmental regulatory mechanisms in strategic special biological areas as the Colombian Amazon. Finally, reflect on the importance of facilitating the functional analysis of the connections and interrelationships of ecosystem components, including human communities, to sketch involving both biological and social guidelines for sustainable use of biodiversity.

  19. Late Amazonian Glaciations in Utopia Planitia, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinski, G. R.; Capitan, R. D.; Kerrigan, M.; Barry, N.; Blain, S.

    2012-03-01

    We present evidence from western Utopia Planitia, including lineated valley fill and lobate debris aprons, for widespread glaciations over a large expanse of the northern plains and dichotomy boundary during Late Amazonian times.

  20. Sustainable development, social organization and environment in the Amazonian Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of the development on the environment and the culture in regions like the Amazonian are one of the most dramatic examples that can be in what refers to the physical disappearance of numerous cultures, as well as of their integration to the national society and their rising loss of cultural identity and the devastating consequences that have had the development politicians on the different Amazon ecosystems. The construction of a sustainable development for the region has to evaluate the different societies that have existed and they exist as for the use, handling and exploitation of the natural resources. This paper will be approached this problem in three Amazon societies: the cacique territory, the tribal societies and the societies in formation in the colonization regions. It will be done an analysis and a critic of the development concept and of the consequences that it has had their application so much in the indigenous towns as in the Amazon ecosystems, as well as their relationship with the current characterization of the Amazonian area

  1. Antimicrobial activity of amazonian medicinal plants

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Amanda A; Segovia, Jorge FO; Sousa, Vespasiano YK; Mata, Elida CG; Gonçalves, Magda CA; Bezerra, Roberto M; Junior, Paulo OM; Kanzaki, Luís IB

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aqueous extracts of currently utilized Amazonian medicinal plants were assayed in vitro searching for antimicrobial activity against human and animal pathogenic microorganisms. Methods Medium resuspended lyophilized aqueous extracts of different organs of Amazonian medicinal plants were assayed by in vitro screening for antimicrobial activity. ATCC and standardized microorganisms obtained from Oswaldo Cruz Foundation/Brazil were individually and homogeneously grown in agar plat...

  2. Thresholds of species loss in Amazonian deforestation frontier landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Quintero, Jose Manuel; Gardner, Toby A; Rosa, Isabel; Ferraz, Silvio Frosini de Barros; Sutherland, William J

    2015-04-01

    In the Brazilian Amazon, private land accounts for the majority of remaining native vegetation. Understanding how land-use change affects the composition and distribution of biodiversity in farmlands is critical for improving conservation strategies in the face of rapid agricultural expansion. Working across an area exceeding 3 million ha in the southwestern state of Rondônia, we assessed how the extent and configuration of remnant forest in replicate 10,000-ha landscapes has affected the occurrence of a suite of Amazonian mammals and birds. In each of 31 landscapes, we used field sampling and semistructured interviews with landowners to determine the presence of 28 large and medium sized mammals and birds, as well as a further 7 understory birds. We then combined results of field surveys and interviews with a probabilistic model of deforestation. We found strong evidence for a threshold response of sampled biodiversity to landscape level forest cover; landscapes with deforested landscapes many species are susceptible to extirpation following relatively small additional reductions in forest area. In the model of deforestation by 2030 the number of 10,000-ha landscapes under a conservative threshold of 43% forest cover almost doubled, such that only 22% of landscapes would likely to be able to sustain at least 75% of the 35 focal species we sampled. Brazilian law requires rural property owners in the Amazon to retain 80% forest cover, although this is rarely achieved. Prioritizing efforts to ensure that entire landscapes, rather than individual farms, retain at least 50% forest cover may help safeguard native biodiversity in private forest reserves in the Amazon. PMID:25580947

  3. Impacts of Landscape Context on Patterns of Wind Downfall Damage in a Fragmented Amazonian Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, N.; Uriarte, M.; DeFries, R. S.; Gutierrez-Velez, V. H.; Fernandes, K.; Pinedo-Vasquez, M.

    2015-12-01

    Wind is a major disturbance in the Amazon and has both short-term impacts and lasting legacies in tropical forests. Observed patterns of damage across landscapes result from differences in wind exposure and stand characteristics, such as tree stature, species traits, successional age, and fragmentation. Wind disturbance has important consequences for biomass dynamics in Amazonian forests, and understanding the spatial distribution and size of impacts is necessary to quantify the effects on carbon dynamics. In November 2013, a mesoscale convective system was observed over the study area in Ucayali, Peru, a highly human modified and fragmented forest landscape. We mapped downfall damage associated with the storm in order to ask: how does the severity of damage vary within forest patches, and across forest patches of different sizes and successional ages? We applied spectral mixture analysis to Landsat images from 2013 and 2014 to calculate the change in non-photosynthetic vegetation fraction after the storm, and combined it with C-band SAR data from the Sentinel-1 satellite to predict downfall damage measured in 30 field plots using random forest regression. We then applied this model to map damage in forests across the study area. Using a land cover classification developed in a previous study, we mapped secondary and mature forest, and compared the severity of damage in the two. We found that damage was on average higher in secondary forests, but patterns varied spatially. This study demonstrates the utility of using multiple sources of satellite data for mapping wind disturbance, and adds to our understanding of the sources of variation in wind-related damage. Ultimately, an improved ability to map wind impacts and a better understanding of their spatial patterns can contribute to better quantification of carbon dynamics in Amazonian landscapes.

  4. Amazonian indigenous settlement and local development in Pastaza, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth I. Arias-Gutiérrez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In six Amazonian indigenous communities that call to their selves as membership of nación Kichwa, located in Pastaza province, in Ecuador, it is analyzed the process of inhabitation, population characteristics, how much the territory is enough for food requirements for the indigenous families, and their use of land, to determine important factors to improve strategies for local sustainable development. It is considered important because Ecuador has constitutional protection for plural ethnicity and it is looking for improving a new productivity matrix that let down extraction and contamination and raise another matrix based on knowledge and richness from natural renewable resources. Survey used statistics information, qualitative analysis around reality in process, participant research, documentary analysis, oral history and surveys to leadership and family`s chiefs. Results confirm that communities hold standing their identity and knowledge systems of the Amazonian environment, whose conservation they need. Those are factors to be included in local development strategies that let people become safe from effects of extractives activities that are dangerous for culture and environment, in the geographic and biological diversity of the high Ecuadorian Amazonia.

  5. Sustainable Biomass Energy and Indigenous Cultural Models of Well-being in an Alaska Forest Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munish Sikka

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Oil-dependent indigenous communities in remote regions of Alaska and elsewhere are facing an unprecedented crisis. With the cost of fuel and transport skyrocketing, energy costs are crippling local economies, leading to increasing outmigration and concern for their very existence in the future. What can be done to address this energy crisis, and promote energy security, sustainability and resilience in rural forest communities? We examine the potential of developing a sustainable biomass-energy industry in Southeast Alaska, home to nearly 16,000 Alaska Natives in a dozen rural and two urban communities within the United States’ largest national forest: The Tongass. Although the potential for biomass energy has long been touted, realization of the opportunity has been catalyzed only recently as part of a model of sustainable development being enacted by the region’s largest Native corporation, Sealaska, and its subsidiary, Haa Aaní (“Our Land” L.L.C. In this paper we examine the unique nature of Alaska Native corporations and their potential as engines of sustainable development, particularly through Sealaska’s emerging cultural model of sustainability in relation to social-ecological well-being. We assess the economic, ecological, and atmospheric emissions parameters of a wood-biomass energy industry at various scales according to the “triple bottom line” of sustainability. Finally, we address what additional policy and support measures may be necessary to nurture the successful transition to biomass energy at a sustainable scale to support rural indigenous communities, a more resilient, renewable energy system, and a lower carbon footprint.

  6. Populações de aranhas errantes do gênero Ctenus em fragmentos florestais na Amazônia Central Populations of Ctenus wandering spiders in Amazonian forest fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto Macedo Mestre

    2008-01-01

    ções ambientais.Ctenus is a genus of wandering spiders abundant in Neotropical and African rainforests and is becoming a model organism to understand the biology of predators in the leaf litter fauna. We compared abundance, sex ratio, seasonality and size dimorphism in populations of four species of medium sized wandering spiders, Ctenus amphora, C. crulsi, C. manauara and C. villasboasi in primary forests, fragments with different areas, their borders and secondary forests near them. This study was conducted between February and July 1999, in a terra-firme (non-flooded tropical rain forest, in central Amazonia. The spiders were measured and counted in transects of 250x5 m or 500x5 m in three secondary forest sites, four fragments of primary forest of 1 ha, three of 10 ha, two of 100 ha and four reserves of continuous forest (larger than 10.000 ha. There was a significant predominance of females in two species (C. amphora- 74% and C. crulsi- 65%, sexual dimorphism significant in three species (C. amphora, C. crulsi, and C. manauara, and temporal variation of the abundance for the four species. These results corroborate and complement tendencies from previous studies. There were no statistical differences between spider abundance in interior, borders and between reserves of different areas. Effects of border and size of fragments on the Ctenus spider populations are smaller than the previously observed variations among different habitats in the forest interior. There was no difference in spider size captured in small reserves, large reserves, edges, and continuous forests sites. Comparing these results with other study in the same sites, we conclude that the effects of fragmentation in Ctenus spiders decrease with second grown regeneration, resulting in a rapid reply of these species to habitat modifications.

  7. Análise da estrutura de comunidades arbóreas de uma floresta amazônica de Terra Firme aplicada ao manejo florestal Analysis of the structure of tree communities of a amazonian forest applied to management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Zenaide Oliveira Alves

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve o objetivo de identificar e descrever a estrutura das comunidades arbóreas de uma floresta de terra firme sob regime de manejo na Amazônia Oriental, localizada no município de Almeirim, Pará, Brasil. O levantamento florístico foi realizado em 1.400,30 ha de uma Unidade de Produção Anual (UPA, do Plano de Manejo Florestal da empresa ORSA Florestal. Todos os indivíduos com DAP > 30 cm foram inventariados, registrando-se 77.834 árvores distribuídas em 57 famílias, 229 gêneros e 556 espécies. Oito comunidades foram identificadas por meio de uma analise de agrupamento, apresentando alta diversidade e equibilidade florística (H" médio = 4,25 e J" médio = 0,75. As comunidades apresentaram 138 espécies comuns, 119 espécies de ocorrência exclusiva e 377 espécies raras, representadas por apenas um indivíduo. As espécies que mais se destacaram foram: Dinizia excelsa, Vouacapoua americana, Goupia glabra, Mouriri brachyanthera, Parinari excelsa, Manilkara bidentada, Tachigalia mymecophyla e Licania micrantha. Algumas espécies de valor comercial apresentaram variações importantes na densidade, sugerindo risco de extinção em comunidades onde as espécies apresentam densidade muito baixa. Sugerimos que os planos de manejo considerem as várias comunidades ecológicas encontradas nas UPAs evitando assim variações significativas, causadas pela exploração e seus impactos, na composição florística e estrutura das comunidades existentes.To demonstrate the importance of the ecological concept for forest management, the object of this work was to identify and describe the structure of tree communities of a tropical forest under management in the Eastern Amazonia, located in Almeirim municipality, in the state of Pará, Brazil. The floristic survey was undertaken in a terra-firme tropical forest of 1,400.30 hectares. All individuals with DBH > 30 cm were inventoried, registering 77,834 trees distributed in 57

  8. Resilience of Amazonian landscapes to agricultural intensification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakovac, C.C.

    2015-01-01

    ISBN: 978-94-6257-443-4 Author: Catarina C. Jakovac Title: Resilience of Amazonian landscapes to agricultural intensification Swidden cultivation is the traditional agricultural system in riverine Amazonia, which supports local livelihoods and trans

  9. Large-scale degradation of Amazonian freshwater ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castello, Leandro; Macedo, Marcia N

    2016-03-01

    Hydrological connectivity regulates the structure and function of Amazonian freshwater ecosystems and the provisioning of services that sustain local populations. This connectivity is increasingly being disrupted by the construction of dams, mining, land-cover changes, and global climate change. This review analyzes these drivers of degradation, evaluates their impacts on hydrological connectivity, and identifies policy deficiencies that hinder freshwater ecosystem protection. There are 154 large hydroelectric dams in operation today, and 21 dams under construction. The current trajectory of dam construction will leave only three free-flowing tributaries in the next few decades if all 277 planned dams are completed. Land-cover changes driven by mining, dam and road construction, agriculture and cattle ranching have already affected ~20% of the Basin and up to ~50% of riparian forests in some regions. Global climate change will likely exacerbate these impacts by creating warmer and dryer conditions, with less predictable rainfall and more extreme events (e.g., droughts and floods). The resulting hydrological alterations are rapidly degrading freshwater ecosystems, both independently and via complex feedbacks and synergistic interactions. The ecosystem impacts include biodiversity loss, warmer stream temperatures, stronger and more frequent floodplain fires, and changes to biogeochemical cycles, transport of organic and inorganic materials, and freshwater community structure and function. The impacts also include reductions in water quality, fish yields, and availability of water for navigation, power generation, and human use. This degradation of Amazonian freshwater ecosystems cannot be curbed presently because existing policies are inconsistent across the Basin, ignore cumulative effects, and overlook the hydrological connectivity of freshwater ecosystems. Maintaining the integrity of these freshwater ecosystems requires a basinwide research and policy framework

  10. Large-scale degradation of Amazonian freshwater ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castello, Leandro; Macedo, Marcia N

    2016-03-01

    Hydrological connectivity regulates the structure and function of Amazonian freshwater ecosystems and the provisioning of services that sustain local populations. This connectivity is increasingly being disrupted by the construction of dams, mining, land-cover changes, and global climate change. This review analyzes these drivers of degradation, evaluates their impacts on hydrological connectivity, and identifies policy deficiencies that hinder freshwater ecosystem protection. There are 154 large hydroelectric dams in operation today, and 21 dams under construction. The current trajectory of dam construction will leave only three free-flowing tributaries in the next few decades if all 277 planned dams are completed. Land-cover changes driven by mining, dam and road construction, agriculture and cattle ranching have already affected ~20% of the Basin and up to ~50% of riparian forests in some regions. Global climate change will likely exacerbate these impacts by creating warmer and dryer conditions, with less predictable rainfall and more extreme events (e.g., droughts and floods). The resulting hydrological alterations are rapidly degrading freshwater ecosystems, both independently and via complex feedbacks and synergistic interactions. The ecosystem impacts include biodiversity loss, warmer stream temperatures, stronger and more frequent floodplain fires, and changes to biogeochemical cycles, transport of organic and inorganic materials, and freshwater community structure and function. The impacts also include reductions in water quality, fish yields, and availability of water for navigation, power generation, and human use. This degradation of Amazonian freshwater ecosystems cannot be curbed presently because existing policies are inconsistent across the Basin, ignore cumulative effects, and overlook the hydrological connectivity of freshwater ecosystems. Maintaining the integrity of these freshwater ecosystems requires a basinwide research and policy framework

  11. A new medicinal plant from Amazonian Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asdall, W

    1983-12-01

    Dalbergaria tessmanii, a shrub of the Gesneriaceae locally abundant in the tropical forests of Ecuador, is variously ethnomedicinally employed. For example, none of several Shuar (Jívaro) herbal healers know or use it, but the one Shuar Shaman consulted extols its importance in reducing vaginal bleeding. Although Mestizo native consultants from the provincial capital of Morona-Santiago report its use in alleviating heart problems, those from Pastaza Province employ it to reduce menstrual flow. The Lowland Quechua apparently use it for this purpose as well. This plant has apparently not yet been chemically examined. Its reported use in several different cultural context suggest that it should be phytochemically investigated. PMID:6677821

  12. Occurrence of culturable soil fungi in a tropical moist deciduous forest Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Odisha, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santanu K. Jena

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Similipal Biosphere Reserve (SBR is a tropical moist deciduous forest dominated by the species Shorea robusta. To the best of our knowledge their rich biodiversity has not been explored in term of its microbial wealth. In the present investigation, soil samples were collected from ten selected sites inside SBR and studied for their physicochemical parameters and culturable soil fungal diversity. The soil samples were found to be acidic in nature with a pH ranging from of 5.1–6.0. Highest percentage of organic carbon and moisture content were observed in the samples collected from the sites, Chahala-1 and Chahala-2. The plate count revealed that fungal population ranged from 3.6 × 104–2.1 × 105 and 5.1 × 104–4.7 × 105 cfu/gm of soil in summer and winter seasons respectively. The soil fungus, Aspergillus niger was found to be the most dominant species and Species Important Values Index (SIVI was 43.4 and 28.6 in summer and winter seasons respectively. Among the sites studied, highest fungal diversity indices were observed during summer in the sites, Natto-2 and Natto-1. The Shannon-Wiener and Simpson indices in these two sites were found to be 3.12 and 3.022 and 0.9425 and 0.9373 respectively. However, the highest Fisher’s alpha was observed during winter in the sites Joranda, Natto-2, Chahala-1 and Natto-1 and the values were 3.780, 3.683, 3.575 and 3.418 respectively. Our investigation revealed that, fungal population was dependent on moisture and organic carbon (% of the soil but its diversity was found to be regulated by sporulating species like Aspergillus and Penicillium.

  13. Occurrence of culturable soil fungi in a tropical moist deciduous forest Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Odisha, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Santanu K; Tayung, Kumanand; Rath, Chandi C; Parida, Debraj

    2015-03-01

    Similipal Biosphere Reserve (SBR) is a tropical moist deciduous forest dominated by the species Shorea robusta . To the best of our knowledge their rich biodiversity has not been explored in term of its microbial wealth. In the present investigation, soil samples were collected from ten selected sites inside SBR and studied for their physicochemical parameters and culturable soil fungal diversity. The soil samples were found to be acidic in nature with a pH ranging from of 5.1-6.0. Highest percentage of organic carbon and moisture content were observed in the samples collected from the sites, Chahala-1 and Chahala-2. The plate count revealed that fungal population ranged from 3.6 × 10 (4) -2.1 × 10 (5) and 5.1 × 10 (4) -4.7 × 10 (5) cfu/gm of soil in summer and winter seasons respectively. The soil fungus, Aspergillus niger was found to be the most dominant species and Species Important Values Index (SIVI) was 43.4 and 28.6 in summer and winter seasons respectively. Among the sites studied, highest fungal diversity indices were observed during summer in the sites, Natto-2 and Natto-1. The Shannon-Wiener and Simpson indices in these two sites were found to be 3.12 and 3.022 and 0.9425 and 0.9373 respectively. However, the highest Fisher's alpha was observed during winter in the sites Joranda, Natto-2, Chahala-1 and Natto-1 and the values were 3.780, 3.683, 3.575 and 3.418 respectively. Our investigation revealed that, fungal population was dependent on moisture and organic carbon (%) of the soil but its diversity was found to be regulated by sporulating species like Aspergillus and Penicillium.

  14. Wood decomposition in Amazonian hydropower reservoirs: An additional source of greenhouse gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abril, Gwenaël; Parize, Marcelo; Pérez, Marcela A. P.; Filizola, Naziano

    2013-07-01

    Amazonian hydroelectric reservoirs produce abundant carbon dioxide and methane from large quantities of flooded biomass that decompose anaerobically underwater. Emissions are extreme the first years after impounding and progressively decrease with time. To date, only water-to-air fluxes have been considered in these estimates. Here, we investigate in two Amazonian reservoirs (Balbina and Petit Saut) the fate of above water standing dead trees, by combining a qualitative analysis of wood state and density through time and a quantitative analysis of the biomass initially flooded. Dead wood was much more decomposed in the Balbina reservoir 23 years after flooding than in the Petit Saut reservoir 10 years after flooding. Termites apparently played a major role in wood decomposition, occurring mainly above water, and resulting in a complete conversion of this carbon biomass into CO2 and CH4 at a timescale much shorter than reservoir operation. The analysis of pre-impounding wood biomass reveals that above-water decomposition in Amazonian reservoirs is a large, previously unrecognized source of carbon emissions to the atmosphere, representing 26-45% of the total reservoir flux integrated over 100 years. Accounting for both below- and above-water fluxes, we could estimate that each km2 of Amazonian forest converted to reservoir would emit over 140 Gg CO2-eq in 100 years. Hydropower plants in the Amazon should thus generate 0.25-0.4 MW h per km2 flooded area to produce lower greenhouse gas emissions than gas power plants. They also have the disadvantage to emit most of their greenhouse gases the earliest years of operation.

  15. Diel and seasonal changes of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds within and above an Amazonian rainforest site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Yañez-Serrano

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Amazonian rainforest is a large tropical ecosystem, and is one of the last pristine continental terrains. This ecosystem is ideally located for the study of diel and seasonal behaviour of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOC in the absence of local human interference. In this study, we report the first atmospheric BVOC measurements at the Amazonian Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO site, located in Central Amazonia. A quadrupole Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS with 7 ambient air inlets, positioned from near the ground to about 80 m (0.05, 0.5, 4, 24, 38, 53 and 79 m above the forest floor, was deployed for BVOC monitoring. We report diel and seasonal (February/March 2013 and September 2013 ambient mixing ratios for isoprene, monoterpenes, methyl vinyl ketone (MVK + methacrolein (MACR, acetaldehyde, acetone, methyl ethyl ketone (MEK, methanol and acetonitrile. Clear diel and seasonal patterns were observed for all compounds during the study. In general, lower mixing ratios were observed during night, while maximum mixing ratios were observed with the peak in solar irradiation at 12:00 LT during the wet season (February/March 2013, and with the peak in temperature at 16:00 LT during the dry season (September 2013. Isoprene mixing ratios were highest within the canopy with a median of 7.6 ppb and interquartile range (IQR of 6.1 ppb (dry season at 24 m, from 12:00–15:00. Monoterpene mixing ratios were higher than previously reported for any Amazonian rainforest ecosystem (median 1 ppb, IQR 0.38 ppb during the dry season at 24 m from 15:00–18:00. Oxygenated Volatile Organic Compound (OVOC patterns indicated a transition from dominating forest emissions during the wet season to a blend of biogenic emission, photochemical production, and advection during the dry season. This was inferred from the high mixing ratios found within the canopy, and those obtained above the canopy for the wet and dry season, respectively. Our

  16. Diel and seasonal changes of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds within and above an Amazonian rainforest site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yañez-Serrano, A. M.; Nölscher, A. C.; Williams, J.; Wolff, S.; Alves, E.; Martins, G. A.; Bourtsoukidis, E.; Brito, J.; Jardine, K.; Artaxo, P.; Kesselmeier, J.

    2014-11-01

    The Amazonian rainforest is a large tropical ecosystem, and is one of the last pristine continental terrains. This ecosystem is ideally located for the study of diel and seasonal behaviour of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOC) in the absence of local human interference. In this study, we report the first atmospheric BVOC measurements at the Amazonian Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO) site, located in Central Amazonia. A quadrupole Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS) with 7 ambient air inlets, positioned from near the ground to about 80 m (0.05, 0.5, 4, 24, 38, 53 and 79 m above the forest floor), was deployed for BVOC monitoring. We report diel and seasonal (February/March 2013 and September 2013) ambient mixing ratios for isoprene, monoterpenes, methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) + methacrolein (MACR), acetaldehyde, acetone, methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), methanol and acetonitrile. Clear diel and seasonal patterns were observed for all compounds during the study. In general, lower mixing ratios were observed during night, while maximum mixing ratios were observed with the peak in solar irradiation at 12:00 LT during the wet season (February/March 2013), and with the peak in temperature at 16:00 LT during the dry season (September 2013). Isoprene mixing ratios were highest within the canopy with a median of 7.6 ppb and interquartile range (IQR) of 6.1 ppb (dry season at 24 m, from 12:00-15:00). Monoterpene mixing ratios were higher than previously reported for any Amazonian rainforest ecosystem (median 1 ppb, IQR 0.38 ppb during the dry season at 24 m from 15:00-18:00). Oxygenated Volatile Organic Compound (OVOC) patterns indicated a transition from dominating forest emissions during the wet season to a blend of biogenic emission, photochemical production, and advection during the dry season. This was inferred from the high mixing ratios found within the canopy, and those obtained above the canopy for the wet and dry season, respectively. Our observations

  17. Avatar in the Amazon - Narratives of Cultural Conversion and Environmental Salvation between Cultural Theory and Popular Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ødemark

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2010 the New York Times reported that '[t]ribes of Amazon Find an Ally Out of "Avatar"', James Cameron. The alliance was against the building of Belo Monte, a hydroelectricdam in the Xingu River in Brazil. Cameron made a documentary about Belo Monte, A Message from Pandora. Here he states that Avatar becomes real in the struggle against the dam. This appears to confirm U. K. Heise's observation that the 'Amazon rainforest has long functioned as a complex symbol of exotic natural abundance, global ecological connectedness, and environmental crisis'. This construal, however, downplays the 'symbols' cultural components. In this article I show that the image of an ecological 'rainforest Indian' and a particular kind of culture constitutes a crucial part of the Amazon as 'a complex' cross-disciplinary 'symbol'. Firstly, I examine how an Amazonian topology (closeness to nature, natural cultures is both a product of an interdisciplinary history, and a place to speak from for ethno-political activist. Next I analyze how Amazonian cultures have been turned into 'ethnological isolates' representing a set of grand theoretical problems in anthropology, not least concerning the nature/culture-distinction, and how environmentalism has deployed the same topology. Finally I examine how Avatar and one of its cinematic intertexts, John Boorman's The Emerald Forest, is used as a model to understand the struggle over the Belo Monte. In a paradoxical way the symbolic power of indigenous people in ecological matters here appears to be dependent upon a non-relation, and a reestablishment of clear cut cultural boundaries, where 'the tribal' is also associated with the human past. Disturbingly such symbolic exportation of solutions is consonant with current exportations of the solution of ecological problems to 'other places'.

  18. Institutional, Individual, and Socio-Cultural Domains of Partnerships: A Typology of USDA Forest Service Recreation Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seekamp, Erin; Cerveny, Lee K.; McCreary, Allie

    2011-09-01

    Federal land management agencies, such as the USDA Forest Service, have expanded the role of recreation partners reflecting constrained growth in appropriations and broader societal trends towards civic environmental governance. Partnerships with individual volunteers, service groups, commercial outfitters, and other government agencies provide the USDA Forest Service with the resources necessary to complete projects and meet goals under fiscal constraints. Existing partnership typologies typically focus on collaborative or strategic alliances and highlight organizational dimensions (e.g., structure and process) defined by researchers. This paper presents a partner typology constructed from USDA Forest Service partnership practitioners' conceptualizations of 35 common partner types. Multidimensional scaling of data from unconstrained pile sorts identified 3 distinct cultural dimensions of recreation partners—specifically, partnership character, partner impact, and partner motivations—that represent institutional, individual, and socio-cultural cognitive domains. A hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis provides further insight into the various domains of agency personnel's conceptualizations. While three dimensions with high reliability (RSQ = 0.83) and corresponding hierarchical clusters illustrate commonality between agency personnel's partnership suppositions, this study also reveals variance in personnel's familiarity and affinity for specific partnership types. This real-world perspective on partner types highlights that agency practitioners not only make strategic choices when selecting and cultivating partnerships to accomplish critical task, but also elect to work with partners for the primary purpose of providing public service and fostering land stewardship.

  19. Sleep in an Amazonian manatee, Trichechus inunguis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhametov, L M; Lyamin, O I; Chetyrbok, I S; Vassilyev, A A; Diaz, R P

    1992-04-15

    For the first time, sleep was studied in a representative of the order of Sirenia. Slow wave sleep occupied 27%, and paradoxical sleep 1% of the total recording time in the Amazonian manatee. Trichechus inunguis. The circadian rhythmicity of sleep was pronounced. During the sleep period, the manatee woke up for a short time for each respiratory act. Interhemispheric asynchrony of the electrocortical slow wave activity was found. PMID:1582500

  20. Litter mercury deposition in the Amazonian rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fostier, Anne Hélène; Melendez-Perez, José Javier; Richter, Larissa

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this work was to assess the flux of atmospheric mercury transferred to the soil of the Amazonian rainforest by litterfall. Calculations were based on a large survey of published and unpublished data on litterfall and Hg concentrations in litterfall samples from the Amazonian region. Litterfall based on 65 sites located in the Amazon rainforest averaged 8.15 ± 2.25 Mg ha(-1) y(-1). Average Hg concentrations were calculated from nine datasets for fresh tree leaves and ten datasets for litter, and a median concentration of 60.5 ng Hg g(-1) was considered for Hg deposition in litterfall, which averaged 49 ± 14 μg m(-2) yr(-1). This value was used to estimate that in the Amazonian rainforest, litterfall would be responsible for the annual removing of 268 ± 77 Mg of Hg, approximately 8% of the total atmospheric Hg deposition to land. The impact of the Amazon deforestation on the Hg biogeochemical cycle is also discussed. PMID:26312742

  1. Mosquitoes of eastern Amazonian Ecuador: biodiversity, bionomics and barcodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne-Marie Linton

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two snapshot surveys to establish the diversity and ecological preferences of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in the terra firme primary rain forest surrounding the Tiputini Biodiversity Station in the UNESCO Yasuní Biosphere Reserve of eastern Amazonian Ecuador were carried out in November 1998 and May 1999. The mosquito fauna of this region is poorly known; the focus of this study was to obtain high quality link-reared specimens that could be used to unequivocally confirm species level diversity through integrated systematic study of all life stages and DNA sequences. A total of 2,284 specimens were preserved; 1,671 specimens were link-reared with associated immature exuviae, all but 108 of which are slide mounted. This study identified 68 unique taxa belonging to 17 genera and 27 subgenera. Of these, 12 are new to science and 37 comprise new country records. DNA barcodes [658-bp of the mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase ( COI I gene] are presented for 58 individuals representing 20 species and nine genera. DNA barcoding proved useful in uncovering and confirming new species and we advocate an integrated systematics approach to biodiversity studies in future. Associated bionomics of all species collected are discussed. An updated systematic checklist of the mosquitoes of Ecuador (n = 179 is presented for the first time in 60 years.

  2. Estimating greenhouse gas emissions from future Amazonian hydroelectric reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil plans to meet the majority of its growing electricity demand with new hydropower plants located in the Amazon basin. However, large hydropower plants located in tropical forested regions may lead to significant carbon dioxide and methane emission. Currently, no predictive models exist to estimate the greenhouse gas emissions before the reservoir is built. This paper presents two different approaches to investigate the future carbon balance of eighteen new reservoirs in the Amazon. The first approach is based on a degradation model of flooded carbon stock, while the second approach is based on flux data measured in Amazonian rivers and reservoirs. The models rely on a Monte Carlo simulation framework to represent the balance of the greenhouse gases into the atmosphere that results when land and river are converted into a reservoir. Further, we investigate the role of the residence time/stratification in the carbon emissions estimate. Our results imply that two factors contribute to reducing overall emissions from these reservoirs: high energy densities reservoirs, i.e., the ratio between the installed capacity and flooded area, and vegetation clearing. While the models’ uncertainties are high, we show that a robust treatment of uncertainty can effectively indicate whether a reservoir in the Amazon will result in larger greenhouse gas emissions when compared to other electricity sources. (letter)

  3. Siliceous spicules enhance fracture-resistance and stiffness of pre-colonial Amazonian ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natalio, Filipe; Corrales, Tomas P.; Wanka, Stephanie; Zaslansky, Paul; Kappl, Michael; Lima, Helena Pinto; Butt, Hans-Jürgen; Tremel, Wolfgang

    2015-08-01

    Pottery was a traditional art and technology form in pre-colonial Amazonian civilizations, widely used for cultural expression objects, utensils and as cooking vessels. Abundance and workability of clay made it an excellent choice. However, inferior mechanical properties constrained their functionality and durability. The inclusion of reinforcement particles is a possible route to improve its resistance to mechanical and thermal damage. The Amazonian civilizations incorporated freshwater tree sponge spicules (cauixí) into the clay presumably to prevent shrinkage and crack propagation during drying, firing and cooking. Here we show that isolated siliceous spicules are almost defect-free glass fibres with exceptional mechanical stability. After firing, the spicule Young’s modulus increases (from 28 ± 5 GPa to 46 ± 8 GPa) inferring a toughness increment. Laboratory-fabricated ceramic models containing different inclusions (sand, glass-fibres, sponge spicules) show that mutually-oriented siliceous spicule inclusions prevent shrinkage and crack propagation leading to high stiffness clays (E = 836 ± 3 MPa). Pre-colonial amazonian potters were the first civilization known to employ biological materials to generate composite materials with enhanced fracture resistance and high stiffness in the history of mankind.

  4. Root carbohydrate storage in young saplings of an Amazonian tidal várzea forest before the onset of the wet season Armazenamento de carboidratos antecedendo à estação chuvosa em raízes de plantas jovens em floresta de várzea de estuário amazônico

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio Rubio Scarano; José Henrique Cattânio; Robert M.M. Crawford

    1994-01-01

    Root starch and glucose content were measured for young saplings of 18 Amazonian tidal várzea tree species during a dry season. The pattern of carbohydrate storage depended on the type of plant involved and soil topography which is directly linked to flood regime. Most plants showed high root carbohydrate content at this point in the dry season, however, several typically flood-tolerant species (particularly palm trees) presented a low root carbohydrate content, suggesting a strategy of acqui...

  5. Diversity and genetic structure analysis of three Amazonian Amerindian populations from Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamid Braga

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available 14.00 Normal 0 21 false false false ES-CO X-NONE X-NONE Introduction: In the departments of the Vaupés and Guaviare, in southeastern Colombia, in a transitional area between Amazonia and the eastern plains, inhabit indigenous groups belonging to the Tukanoan (East and Guahiban linguistic families. Although some studies have dealt with the culture and the cosmology description of these groups, little research has been done on the biological diversity and genetic relationships of such groups. Objective: To estimate the diversity, the structure, and the genetic relationships of one Guahiban and two Tukanoan groups of the Colombian Amazonian region. Methods: Samples were collected (n = 106 from unrelated individuals belonging to the Vaupés native indigenous commu­nities. The DNA was extracted and nine autosomal microsatellites were typed. Several measures of diversity, FST, pairwise FST, and population differentiation between groups were calculated. Finally, it was estimated the genetic distances of the groups studied in relation with other Amazonian, Andean and Central American indigenous people. Results: 1. The genetic diversity found stands within the range of other Amazonian populations, whereas compared to the mestizo and afro-descendant Colombian populations, such diversity showed to be lower. 2. The structure and population differentiation tests showed two clusters; one consisting of the Vaupés Tukanoan and Guaviare Tukanoan groups, and a second one formed by the Guayabero. 3. Tukanoan groups are found to be closer related to the Brazilian Amazonian po­pulations than to the Guayabero. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that the Guayabero group from Guaviare, are genetically differentiated from those Tukanoan groups of the Vaupés and Guaviare

  6. Diversity and genetic structure analysis of three Amazonian Amerindian populations from Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamid Braga

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the departments of the Vaupés and Guaviare, in southeastern Colombia, in a transitional area between Amazonia and the eastern plains, inhabit indigenous groups belonging to the Tukanoan (East and Guahiban linguistic families. Although some studies have dealt with the culture and the cosmology description of these groups, little research has been done on the biological diversity and genetic relationships of such groups.Objective: To estimate the diversity, the structure, and the genetic relationships of one Guahiban and two Tukanoan groups of the Colombian Amazonian region.Methods: Samples were collected (n = 106 from unrelated individuals belonging to the Vaupés native indigenous communities. The DNA was extracted and nine autosomal microsatellites were typed. Several measures of diversity, FST, pairwise FST, and population differentiation between groups were calculated. Finally, it was estimated the genetic distances of the groups studied in relation with other Amazonian, Andean and Central American indigenous people.Results: 1. The genetic diversity found stands within the range of other Amazonian populations, whereas compared to the mestizo and afro-descendant Colombian populations, such diversity showed to be lower. 2. The structure and population differentiation tests showed two clusters; one consisting of the Vaupés Tukanoan and Guaviare Tukanoan groups, and a second one formed by the Guayabero. 3. Tukanoan groups are found to be closer related to the Brazilian Amazonian populations than to the Guayabero.Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that the Guayabero group from Guaviare, are genetically differentiated from those Tukanoan groups of the Vaupés and Guaviare.

  7. Produção e predação de frutos em Aniba rosaeodora Ducke var. amazonica Ducke (Lauraceae em sistema de plantio sob floresta de terra firme na Amazônia Central Harvesting and fruit predation of a Aniba rosaeodora Ducke var. amazonica Ducke (Lauraceae ex situ tree population in a central Amazonian upland forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Roberto Spironello

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O pau-rosa (Aniba rosaeodora vem sendo usado desde o século passado para extração de linalol, produto usado como fixador de perfumes. Por causa do extrativismo houve redução drástica em suas populações naturais. Somando a este fato, esta espécie possui padrão irregular de frutificação e, quando frutifica, os seus frutos são consumidos por animais. Estes aspectos foram estudados utilizando uma população de plantio sob sombra parcial de floresta primária. A produtividade das árvores variou de 40 a 1.600 frutos (n = 21 árvores. No geral, cerca de 42,5% foram removidos por frugívoros (6.770 frutos, n = 10 árvores. Dos frutos não removidos, 0,5% foram predados por vertebrados, 81,5% continham larvas de insetos, variando de 36-96% entre indivíduos. Uma espécie de Coleoptera ataca os frutos em estádio imaturo, enquanto outra (Heilipus sp. e uma espécie de Lepidoptera atacam os frutos em estádio final de desenvolvimento. Os resultados projetam perda de 59,5% dos frutos (54,5% por insetos passíveis de coleta. Considerando a importância econômica do pau-rosa faz-se necessário aumentar a disponibilidade de sementes para planos de manejo da espécie. Para se atingir tais objetivos são necessárias algumas medidas: 1 coleta prematura de frutos para maturação em laboratório; 2 utilização de métodos de controle de insetos adultos (em plantios e larvas (em frutos atacados; e 3 estudos de seleção genética para identificar plantas com maior resistência natural a pragas e doenças.The rosewood tree (Aniba rosaeodora has been exploited for linalol, a product used as a fixative by the perfume industry. As a result, its population has decreased to the point that it is at risk of extinction in some Amazonian areas. In addition, the species has an irregular phenological pattern and its fruits are a food source for animals. This study focused on the use an ex situ population planted under partial forest shade. The fruit set

  8. Private development-based forest conservation in Patagonia: comparing mental models and revealing cultural truths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Serenari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Private protected area (PPA conservation agents (CA engaging in development-based conservation in southern Chile have generated conflict with locals. Poor fit of dominant development-based conservation ideology in rural areas is commonly to blame. We developed and administered a cultural consensus survey near the Valdivian Coastal Reserve (RCV and Huilo Huilo Reserve (HH to examine fit of CA cultural truths with local residents. Cultural consensus analysis (CCA of 23 propositions reflecting CA cultural truths confirmed: (1 a single CA culture exists, and (2 RCV communities were more aligned with this culture than HH communities. Inadequate communication, inequitable decision making, divergent opinions about livelihood impacts and trajectories, and PPA purpose may explain differences between CAs and communities. Meanwhile, variability in response between and within communities may reflect differing environmental histories. Private protected area administrations might use CCA to confront cultural differences and thereby improve their community interactions.

  9. Atlantic forcing of Amazonian climates in the last ice age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, M. B.; Mosblech, N.; Valencia, B. G.; Hodell, D. A.; Gosling, W. D.; Van Calsteren, P. W.; Thomas, L. E.; Curtis, J. H.

    2011-12-01

    An absence of study sites means that the relative influence of orbitally driven presession cycles and millenial scale variability upon ice-age Amazonian precipitation is unknown. Here we present a continuous isotopic (δO18 and C13) record spanning the period from ~93-8 ka, from the aseasonal forests of Amazonian Ecuador. The variability in δO18 depletion is probably related to the relative strength of evapotranspired moisture (less depleted) and tropical Atlantic moisture carried across the basin by the South American Low Level Jet (more depleted). Times of strengthened South American Low Level Jet probably correspond to increased overall moisture availability and hence elevated precipitation. The occurrence of markedly depleted δO18 signatures during Heinrich events suggests a strong influence of the Atlantic Ocean on this system, and that these northern hemispheric stadials induced wet episodes in western Amazonia. Weakening of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) has been suggested to strengthen the South American Low Level Jet. The isotopic records reveal strong cohesion with previously published records from southern Brazil. A precessional influence amplifies the north Atlantic signal between c. 93 ka and 50 ka. However, after c. 50 ka the precessional signal weakens, perhaps sugesting that at a critical size the Laurentide ice mass exerted a strong influence on Neotropical climates suppressing the weaker forcing associated with precession. Contrary to long-standing expectation, the Last Glacial Maximum (21 ± 2 ka) does not stand out as time of aridity in this record. However, between c. 35 ka and 18 ka there is a drift toward less depleted rainfall. One hypothesis to account for this observation is that the climate was becoming more seasonal as the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) formed further south than its modern location. The resulting weakened influence of the South American Summer Monsoon (SASM) would probably reduce wet

  10. Village Fengshui Forests of Southern China – Culture History and Conservation Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Coggins

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The post-reform revival of 'fengshui' and related indigenous spiritual practices in China has revitalized traditional village management of “'fengshui' forests” (“'fengshuilin'”.  This study examines the cosmological principles, landscape ecology, conservation status, and floristic diversity of forest patches that comprise important biological refugia in China’s subtropical broadleaved forest region. From 1949-1979, 'fengshui' was prohibited by the state, but many lineage villages continued to protect 'fengshuilin' through nontraditional means.  The restoration of 'fengshui' has enhanced 'fengshuilin' preservation traditions, but lack of state recognition has impeded systematic research and conservation planning. We assess the status of 'fengshui' practice, 'fengshuilin' management, enforcement of harvesting bans, and tree species selection in seventeen villages associated with over 40 forest patches.  There is little evidence of utilitarian criteria for tree species selection, thus 'fengshuilin' contain diverse taxonomic assemblages.  This suggests strong local institutional capacity for maintaining and enhancing forest diversity and unique traditions of indigenous landscape ecology. We would like to express our deep gratitude for the generosity of the Freeman Foundation and ASIANetwork for funding through the ASIANetwork Freeman Student-Faculty Fellows Program for Collaborative Research in Asia.  Without their support for field research in the summer of 2011, this project would not have been possible.

  11. Placentation in the Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, A M; Miglino, M A; Ambrosio, C E;

    2008-01-01

    Evidence from several sources supports a close phylogenetic relationship between elephants and sirenians. To explore whether this was reflected in similar placentation, we examined eight delivered placentae from the Amazonian manatee using light microscopy and immunohistochemistry. In addition......, the fetal placental circulation was described by scanning electron microscopy of vessel casts. The manatee placenta was zonary and endotheliochorial, like that of the elephant. The interhaemal barrier comprised maternal endothelium, cytotrophoblasts and fetal endothelium. We found columnar trophoblast...... detail, but maternal capillaries ran rather straight and roughly parallel to the fetal ones. Overall, there is a close resemblance in placentation between the manatee and the elephant....

  12. Challenges of Opportunity Cost Analysis in Planning REDD+: A Honduran Case Study of Social and Cultural Values Associated with Indigenous Forest Uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer T. Plumb

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The REDD Programme is predicated on the assumption that developed countries will provide sufficient funds to offset opportunity costs associated with avoiding deforestation. The role of non-market values in indigenous land management may challenge the efficacy of compensation schemes targeted at meeting opportunity costs as calculated in traditional opportunity cost analysis (OCA. Furthermore it is unclear how these economic incentives might affect social and cultural values linked to land-use norms, livelihoods, and local governance. This study explores the economic, social and cultural values of forest uses for a Miskito community in the Rio Plátano Biosphere Reserve in Honduras. Data were collected using household surveys, farm visits, and community workshops. OCA indicates potential for successful REDD+ payment schemes; however it is an inadequate method to account for subsistence and cultural opportunity costs associated with avoided deforestation. Compensation to change land-use practices may undermine governance institutions necessary to address deforestation in the region. Our results indicate that small-scale agriculture and other forest-based subsistence activities are important cultural practices for maintaining Miskito identity and forest management institutions. Recommendations are offered for using OCA to develop REDD+ projects that recognize the linkages between social and cultural values and forest management by focusing on approaches that consider a full range of economic, social and cultural opportunity costs.

  13. Tissue culture of forest trees - clonal propagation of mature trees of ecualyptus citriodora hook, by tissue culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, P.K.; Mascarenhas, A.F.; Jagannathan, V.

    1981-01-01

    Multiple shoots were obtained from terminal buds of 20-year-old trees of Eucalyptus citriodora Hook on Murashige and Skoog's medium supplemented with calcium pantothenate, biotin, benzylaminopurine and kinetin. Rooting could be induced by naphthalene-acetic acid in shoot cultures only after they had undergone three subcultures. Incubation at 15/sup 0/C with continuous illumination followed by growth in agitated liquid cultures was essential for inducing shoot development in the primary terminal buds. These treatments were not necessary in later subcultures or with explants from seedlings obtained from seeds. Fifteen subcultures have so far been carried out and healthy viable plantlets obtained in each subculture. It is estimated that over 100,000 plants can be obtained by this method in a year from a single bud of mature Eucalyptus citriodora trees.

  14. The synergistic use of models and observations: understanding the mechanisms behind observed biomass dynamics at 14 Amazonian field sites and the implications for future biomass change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, N. M.; Galbraith, D.; Christoffersen, B. J.; Imbuzeiro, H. A.; Restrepo-Coupe, N.; Malhi, Y.; Saleska, S. R.; Costa, M. H.; Phillips, O.; Andrade, A.; Moorcroft, P. R.

    2011-12-01

    The Amazonian rainforests play a vital role in global water, energy and carbon cycling. The sensitivity of this system to natural and anthropogenic disturbances therefore has important implications for the global climate. Some global models have predicted large-scale forest dieback and the savannization of Amazonia over the next century [Meehl et al., 2007]. While several studies have demonstrated the sensitivity of dynamic global vegetation models to changes in temperature, precipitation, and dry season length [e.g. Galbraith et al., 2010; Good et al., 2011], the ability of these models to accurately reproduce ecosystem dynamics of present-day transitional or low biomass tropical forests has not been demonstrated. A model-data intercomparison was conducted with four state-of-the-art terrestrial ecosystem models to evaluate the ability of these models to accurately represent structure, function, and long-term biomass dynamics over a range of Amazonian ecosystems. Each modeling group conducted a series of simulations for 14 sites including mature forest, transitional forest, savannah, and agricultural/pasture sites. All models were run using standard physical parameters and the same initialization procedure. Model results were compared against forest inventory and dendrometer data in addition to flux tower measurements. While the models compared well against field observations for the mature forest sites, significant differences were observed between predicted and measured ecosystem structure and dynamics for the transitional forest and savannah sites. The length of the dry season and soil sand content were good predictors of model performance. In addition, for the big leaf models, model performance was highest for sites dominated by late successional trees and lowest for sites with predominantly early and mid-successional trees. This study provides insight into tropical forest function and sensitivity to environmental conditions that will aid in predictions of the

  15. Efeitos de área e de borda sobre a estrutura florestal em fragmentos de floresta de terra-firme após 13-17 anos de isolamento Area and edge effects on forest structure in Amazonian forest fragments after 13-17 years of isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique E. M. Nascimento

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available As estimativas de densidade e biomassa de árvores vivas com DAP > 10 cm e arvoretas 1-9,9 cm de DAP, liteira lenhosa grossa caída (LCG diâmetro > 10 cm, árvores mortas em pé (> 10 de DAP e liteira lenhosa fina caída (LCF - 2,5 9,9 cm de diâmetro foram quantificadas em 56 parcelas permanentes de 1 ha, distribuídas em quatro categorias de tamanho de fragmento - fragmentos de 1 ha (4 parcelas, fragmentos de 10 ha (12 parcelas e fragmentos de 100 ha (14 parcelas e floresta contínua (19 parcelas e em duas classes de distância da borda - 300 m (21 parcelas. A densidade e a biomassa de árvores e arvoretas de espécies de estágios sucessionais mais avançados não diferiram significativamente entre as diferentes categorias de tamanho e entre as duas distâncias da borda. Por outro lado, fragmentos florestais e locais 300 m da borda, respectivamente. Fragmentos florestais apresentaram maior quantidade de LCG e LCF do que a floresta contínua. Houve também diferenças significativas entre ambas as distâncias da borda para a quantidade de LCG e LCF e necromassa total. Uma análise de covariância mostrou que não houve efeito de tamanho do fragmento, mas a distância da borda teve um efeito significativo sobre a quantidade de LCG e LCF. A quantidade de LCG e LCF foi correlacionada negativamente com a distância da borda - locais mais próximos à borda tiveram cerca de 40% e 60% mais LCG do que locais mais distantes.Density and biomass of live trees >10 cm DBH and saplings 1-9.9 cm DBH, coarse woody debris (LCG diameter > 10 cm, fine woody debris (LCF diameter 2.5-9.9 cm, and standing dead trees (> 10 cm DBH were quantified in 56 permanent, 1-ha sample plots. These plots are located in four 1- (4 plots, three 10- (12 plots and two 100- (14 plots forest fragments in size and nearby continuous forests (19 plots as well as in two classes of distance from the edges - 300 m (21 plots. Density and biomass of primary species did not differ

  16. Temporal Decay in Timber Species Composition and Value in Amazonian Logging Concessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Vanessa A; Peres, Carlos A

    2016-01-01

    Throughout human history, slow-renewal biological resource populations have been predictably overexploited, often to the point of economic extinction. We assess whether and how this has occurred with timber resources in the Brazilian Amazon. The asynchronous advance of industrial-scale logging frontiers has left regional-scale forest landscapes with varying histories of logging. Initial harvests in unlogged forests can be highly selective, targeting slow-growing, high-grade, shade-tolerant hardwood species, while later harvests tend to focus on fast-growing, light-wooded, long-lived pioneer trees. Brazil accounts for 85% of all native neotropical forest roundlog production, and the State of Pará for almost half of all timber production in Brazilian Amazonia, the largest old-growth tropical timber reserve controlled by any country. Yet the degree to which timber harvests beyond the first-cut can be financially profitable or demographically sustainable remains poorly understood. Here, we use data on legally planned logging of ~17.3 million cubic meters of timber across 314 species extracted from 824 authorized harvest areas in private and community-owned forests, 446 of which reported volumetric composition data by timber species. We document patterns of timber extraction by volume, species composition, and monetary value along aging eastern Amazonian logging frontiers, which are then explained on the basis of historical and environmental variables. Generalized linear models indicate that relatively recent logging operations farthest from heavy-traffic roads are the most selective, concentrating gross revenues on few high-value species. We find no evidence that the post-logging timber species composition and total value of forest stands recovers beyond the first-cut, suggesting that the commercially most valuable timber species become predictably rare or economically extinct in old logging frontiers. In avoiding even more destructive land-use patterns, managing

  17. Temporal Decay in Timber Species Composition and Value in Amazonian Logging Concessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    Throughout human history, slow-renewal biological resource populations have been predictably overexploited, often to the point of economic extinction. We assess whether and how this has occurred with timber resources in the Brazilian Amazon. The asynchronous advance of industrial-scale logging frontiers has left regional-scale forest landscapes with varying histories of logging. Initial harvests in unlogged forests can be highly selective, targeting slow-growing, high-grade, shade-tolerant hardwood species, while later harvests tend to focus on fast-growing, light-wooded, long-lived pioneer trees. Brazil accounts for 85% of all native neotropical forest roundlog production, and the State of Pará for almost half of all timber production in Brazilian Amazonia, the largest old-growth tropical timber reserve controlled by any country. Yet the degree to which timber harvests beyond the first-cut can be financially profitable or demographically sustainable remains poorly understood. Here, we use data on legally planned logging of ~17.3 million cubic meters of timber across 314 species extracted from 824 authorized harvest areas in private and community-owned forests, 446 of which reported volumetric composition data by timber species. We document patterns of timber extraction by volume, species composition, and monetary value along aging eastern Amazonian logging frontiers, which are then explained on the basis of historical and environmental variables. Generalized linear models indicate that relatively recent logging operations farthest from heavy-traffic roads are the most selective, concentrating gross revenues on few high-value species. We find no evidence that the post-logging timber species composition and total value of forest stands recovers beyond the first-cut, suggesting that the commercially most valuable timber species become predictably rare or economically extinct in old logging frontiers. In avoiding even more destructive land-use patterns, managing

  18. New Brazilian Cerambycidae from the Amazonian region (Coleoptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Silva, Antonio; Galileo, Maria Helena M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Three new species of Cerambycidae are described from the Brazilian Amazonian region: Psapharochrus bezarki (Lamiinae, Acanthoderini); Xenofrea ayri (Lamiinae, Xenofreini); and Mecometopus wappesi (Cerambycinae, Clytini). Mecometopus wappesi is added to a previous key. PMID:27551200

  19. Molecular characterization of forest soil based Paenibacillus elgii and optimization of various culture conditions for its improved antimicrobial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dileep eKumar BS

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms have provided a bounty of bioactive secondary metabolites with very exciting biological activities such as antibacterial, antifungal antiviral, and anticancer, etc. The present study aims at the optimization of culture conditions for improved antimicrobial production of Paenibacillus elgii obtained from Wayanad forest of Western Ghats region of Kerala, India. A bacterial strain isolated from the Western Ghats forest soil of Wayanad, Kerala, India was identified as P. elgii by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. P. elgii recorded significant board spectrum activity against all human and plant pathogenic microorganism tested except Candida albicans. It has been well known that even minor variations in the fermentation medium may impact not only the quantity of desired bioactive metabolites but also the general metabolic profile of the producing microorganisms. Thus, further studies were carried out to assess the impact of medium components on the antimicrobial production of P. elgii and to optimize an ideal fermentation medium to maximize its antimicrobial production. Out of three media [nutrient broth (NA, Luria broth (LB and Trypticase soy broth (TSB] used for fermentation, TSB medium recorded significant activity. Glucose and meat peptone were identified as the best carbon and nitrogen sources, which significantly affected the antibiotic production when supplemented with TSB medium. Next the effect of various fermentation conditions such as temperature, pH and incubation time on the production of antimicrobial compounds was studied on TSB+glucose+meat peptone and an initial pH of 7 and a temperature of 30ºC for 3 days were found to be optimum for maximum antimicrobial production. The results indicate that medium composition in the fermentation media along with cultural parameters plays a vital role in the enhanced production of antimicrobial substances.

  20. Molecular characterization of forest soil based Paenibacillus elgii and optimization of various culture conditions for its improved antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S N; Jacob, Jubi; Reshma, U R; Rajesh, R O; Kumar, B S D

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms have provided a bounty of bioactive secondary metabolites with very exciting biological activities such as antibacterial, antifungal antiviral, and anticancer, etc. The present study aims at the optimization of culture conditions for improved antimicrobial production of Paenibacillus elgii obtained from Wayanad forest of Western Ghats region of Kerala, India. A bacterial strain isolated from the Western Ghats forest soil of Wayanad, Kerala, India was identified as P. elgii by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. P. elgii recorded significant board spectrum activity against all human and plant pathogenic microorganism tested except Candida albicans. It has been well known that even minor variations in the fermentation medium may impact not only the quantity of desired bioactive metabolites but also the general metabolic profile of the producing microorganisms. Thus, further studies were carried out to assess the impact of medium components on the antimicrobial production of P. elgii and to optimize an ideal fermentation medium to maximize its antimicrobial production. Out of three media [nutrient broth (NA), Luria broth (LB) and Trypticase soy broth (TSB)] used for fermentation, TSB medium recorded significant activity. Glucose and meat peptone were identified as the best carbon and nitrogen sources, which significantly affected the antibiotic production when supplemented with TSB medium. Next the effect of various fermentation conditions such as temperature, pH, and incubation time on the production of antimicrobial compounds was studied on TSB + glucose + meat peptone and an initial pH of 7 and a temperature of 30°C for 3 days were found to be optimum for maximum antimicrobial production. The results indicate that medium composition in the fermentation media along with cultural parameters plays a vital role in the enhanced production of antimicrobial substances. PMID:26539188

  1. Isozyme characterization of Capsicum accessions from the Amazonian Colombian collection

    OpenAIRE

    Lorena Quintero Barrera; Marisol Cudris García; Martha Cecilia Giraldo; Luz Marina Melgarejo

    2007-01-01

    Two hundred and sixty-one accessions of the genus Capsicum were obtained from the Colombian Amazonian germplasm bank at Amazonian Institute of Scientific Research (Sinchi) and were evaluated with five polymorphic enzymatic systems, including esterase (EST), peroxidase (PRX), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGDH), aspartate amino transferase (GOT), and malic enzyme (ME). Using a cluster analysis (UPGMA) the genetic variability of these accessions were characterized. Grouping of the species...

  2. Anthropogenic Land-use Change and the Dynamics of Amazon Forest Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurance, William F.

    2004-01-01

    This project was focused on assessing the effects of prevailing land uses, such as habitat fragmentation, selective logging, and fire, on biomass and carbon storage in Amazonian forests, and on the dynamics of carbon sequestration in regenerating forests. Ancillary goals included developing GIs models to help predict the future condition of Amazonian forests, and assessing the effects of anthropogenic climate change and ENS0 droughts on intact and fragmented forests. Ground-based studies using networks of permanent plots were linked with remote-sensing data (including Landsat TM and AVHRR) at regional scales, and higher-resolution techniques (IKONOS imagery, videography, LIDAR, aerial photographs) at landscape and local scales. The project s specific goals were quite eclectic and included: Determining the effects of habitat fragmentation on forest dynamics, floristic composition, and the various components of above- and below-ground biomass. Assessing historical and physical factors that affect trajectories of forest regeneration and carbon sequestration on abandoned lands. Extrapolating results from local studies of biomass dynamics in fragmented and regenerating forests to landscape and regional scales in Amazonia, using remote sensing and GIS. Testing the hypothesis that intact Amazonian forests are functioning as a significant carbon sink. Examining destructive synergisms between forest fragmentation and fire. Assessing the short-term impacts of selective logging on aboveground biomass. Developing GIS models that integrate current spatial data on forest cover, deforestation, logging, mining, highway and roads, navigable rivers, vulnerability to wild fires, protected areas, and existing and planned infrastructure projects, in an effort to predict the future condition of Brazilian Amazonian forests over the next 20-25 years. Devising predictive spatial models to assess the influence of varied biophysical and anthropogenic predictors on Amazonian deforestation.

  3. Large-scale heterogeneity of Amazonian phenology revealed from 26-year long AVHRR/NDVI time-series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depiction of phenological cycles in tropical forests is critical for an understanding of seasonal patterns in carbon and water fluxes as well as the responses of vegetation to climate variations. However, the detection of clear spatially explicit phenological patterns across Amazonia has proven difficult using data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). In this work, we propose an alternative approach based on a 26-year time-series of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) to identify regions with homogeneous phenological cycles in Amazonia. Specifically, we aim to use a pattern recognition technique, based on temporal signal processing concepts, to map Amazonian phenoregions and to compare the identified patterns with field-derived information. Our automated method recognized 26 phenoregions with unique intra-annual seasonality. This result highlights the fact that known vegetation types in Amazonia are not only structurally different but also phenologically distinct. Flushing of new leaves observed in the field is, in most cases, associated to a continuous increase in NDVI. The peak in leaf production is normally observed from the beginning to the middle of the wet season in 66% of the field sites analyzed. The phenoregion map presented in this work gives a new perspective on the dynamics of Amazonian canopies. It is clear that the phenology across Amazonia is more variable than previously detected using remote sensing data. An understanding of the implications of this spatial heterogeneity on the seasonality of Amazonian forest processes is a crucial step towards accurately quantifying the role of tropical forests within global biogeochemical cycles. (letter)

  4. 漯河市的城市文化与森林城市建设%On urban culture and forest urban construction in Luohe city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巫柳兰; 江阜家

    2009-01-01

    阐述了城市文化的定义和特征,分析了森林城市建设的要求,探讨了城市文化与森林城市建设的关系,提出了漯河市森林城市建设过程中城市文化的建设方法,以促进城市经济社会事业的发展,加快建设森林城市的进程.%The paper illustrates the definition of urban culture and its characteristics, analyzes the requirements of the forest urban construction, explores the relationship between the urban culture and forest urban construction, and points out some construction methods of the urban culture in the process of the forest urban construction in Lulhe city, so as to enhance the developmeat of the economy and society, to speed up the process of the forest city construction.

  5. THE FIRST ‘CORDED’ CERAMICS ORNAMENTATION OF ENEOLITHIC STEPPE AND NEOLITHIC FOREST-STEPPE CULTURES

    OpenAIRE

    Kotova, Nadezhda S.

    2010-01-01

    The issues outlined in the above volume of Baltic-Pontic Studies (BPS) presented here, can be said to generate several important and complex questions among which, one relating to the topogenesis of ’corded’ ornamentation on the bio-cultural borderlands of east and west Europe, gave birth to an innovative research project. In this respect, specialist researchers of the Pontic-Baltic Eneolithic (from Middle and Late Neolithic contexts) chose 45 vessels (mostly fragments) originating from the D...

  6. Human-Forest Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Eva; Dauksta, D.

    2012-01-01

    with the same attention as the other functions. The aim of this paper is to put a stronger emphasis on the fact that the acknowledgement of cultural bonds is needed in the discussion of sustainable development. Forest should not only be considered as a technical means to solve environmental and economic......The relationship between human beings and forests has been important for the development of society. It is based on various productive, ecological, social and cultural functions of forests. The cultural functions, including the spiritual and symbolic role of forests, are often not addressed......, in addition to economic, ecological and social functions, and lead towards a sustainable relationship between forests and society....

  7. A Synopsis of Sloanea (Elaeocarpaceae in the Neotropical extra-Amazonian Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Sampaio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The genus Sloanea is comprised of 150 species, of which about 50 occur in Brazil among several vegetation types but mainly the Amazon and Atlantic forests. The present work provides a synopsis of the Neotropical species of Sloanea in the extra-Amazonian region based on a recent revision of the genus. In general, morphologically Sloanea comprises large trees endowed with buttressed roots; simple leaves; flowers with sepals that may or may not cover the reproductive organs in pre-anthesis phases; stamens with the connective prolonged into an awn that is acuminate, acute or aristate and fruit covered with rigid or flexible bristles or sometimes unarmed. This synopsis describes 17 species, and provides an identification key, illustrations and comments on their diagnostic characters, geographical distribution and main bibliographic references.

  8. Forest Gardens as an 'intermediate' land-use system in the nature-culture continuum: Characteristics and future potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersum, K.F.

    2004-01-01

    Forest gardens are reconstructed natural forests, in which wild and cultivated plants coexist, such that the structural characteristics and ecological processes of natural forests are preserved, although the species composition has been adapted to suit human needs. These agroforests include a range

  9. 北京妙峰山森林文化条件价值评估%Contingent Valuation of Forest Culture in Miaofeng Mountain in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱霖; 李智勇; 樊宝敏; 张德成; 苏立娟

    2015-01-01

    Objective]Valuation of forest culture in Miaofeng Mountain was intended to provide an example for valuation of forest culture in other areas of China,and to develop approaches to the quantitative assessment of the cultural value of China’s forest. [Method]In order to assess the cultural value of forest in Miaofeng Mountain,interviews were conducted to analyze the recognition of forest culture by using Contingent Valuation Method. Factors influencing the willingness to pay of the respondents were analyzed by using stepwise regression method. [Result]Ancient and famous trees,fables and allusions,and legends of sacred mountains are most popular cultural symbols for the respondents. The respondents comprehended forest culture through a variety of ways,and internet and books were the main approach. Fruit collection in forest was the mostly accepted way of participation in practices related to forest. More than 94% of the respondents agreed that the forest has cultural value. The highest recognition by the respondents was relief of depressed mood as the gained benefit ( 82 . 32%) ,followed by physical exercise ( 62 . 20%) and entertainment ( 45 . 12%) . The willingness to pay for the forest culture in Miaofeng Mountain was 100 RMB per capita,and the most important influencing factor was the annual income of individuals,followed by approbation to forest cultural value and educational background of the respondents. Worries about the transparency of the uses of paid fees was the most important reason for rejecting pay. Most respondents (53. 05%) expressed willingness to pay for producing arts associated with the Miaofeng forest culture, and donation was the most acceptable way of payment by respondents. [Conclusion]A variety of deviations in understanding,mental account,pattern of payment and starting point of bidding,may cause errors in the contingent valuation. Even as a preliminary estimate,the methods and conclusion in this study could be used to provide the basis for

  10. Balanço de nutrientes e da fitomassa em um Argissolo Amarelo sob floresta tropical amazônica após a queima e cultivo com arroz Nutrient and phytomass dynamics in a yellow Argissol under Amazonian tropical forest after burning and rice cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. R. Sampaio

    2003-12-01

    burned areas with cultivation of rice (cultivated. Furthermore, these areas were compared with an area of primary vegetation (forest used as reference. Burning consumed 36.3% of the initial biomass and produced 5.5 Mg ha-1 of ashes with significant amounts of nutrients, mainly Ca, Mg, and K. To clear areas by means of burning turned out to be a practice of low efficiency, because only a small percentage of the original biomass was converted into ashes and the greatest part remained in the form of residues. Even with the restitution of nutrients such as Ca, Mg, K by rain, there was a considerable removal of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S, on the one hand by direct action of the fire, on the other through the carrying off of the ashes by the wind, and/or the removal by the crop. Results indicated that nutrient loss in the burned uncultivated area was greater than in the burned cultivated one, demonstrating the importance of soil covering to keep the elements in the system. At the end of the culture cycle, the residual effect of the ashes was still noticeable in the system, clearly expressed by the P, K, Ca, and Mg values which were higher than those measured in the control area (forest.

  11. 村落文化林与非文化林多尺度物种多样性加性分配%Additive partition of species diversity across multiple spatial scales in community culturally protected forests and non-culturally protected forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高虹; 陈圣宾; 欧阳志云

    2012-01-01

    Culturally protected forests, which are preserved and managed by local people on the basis of traditional cultural practices and beliefs, have certain social and ecological functions, and also show significant role in biodiversity conservation. The research worldwide nowadays mainly focuses on qualitative description of culturally protected forests and therefore lack quantitative comparison of biodiversity and difference in species composition between culturally protected forests and non-culturally protected forests, particularly diversity from different spatial scales. The tree layer, shrub layer, herb layer and vine layer of three culturally protected forests and non-culturally protected forests were investigated, using additive partition measured by species abundance to analyze diversity of multi-scale in subtropical region of China. Partitioning of total species diversity can be described as Alpha diversity ( within grid diversity) + Beta diversity = Gamma diversity (total diversity at landscape) , among which Beta diversity could be divided into diversity between grids, diversity between plots, diversity between forest types. The results were: (1) Total 296 species belonging to 66 families and 163 genera were found in culturally protected forests, dominated by Castanopsis sclerophylla, Cinnamomum camphora and Castanopsis carlesii, while 189 species belonging to 67 families and 135 genera were found in non-culturally protected forests, dominated by Cunninghamia lanceolata, Pinus massoniana and Phyllostachys heterocycla cv. pubescens. Culturally protected forests had more species in tree layer and shrub layer although the differences of species composition were complex in herb and vine layer depending on human disturbance and locations, and most of species diversity was higher in culturally protected forests. (2) This model implied that Beta diversity was increasing at larger spatial scale, and which showed uniform results in different layers in both culturally

  12. The forest has a story: cultural ecosystem services in Kona, Hawai‘i

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachelle K. Gould

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding cultural dimensions of human/environment relationships is now widely seen as key to effective management, yet characterizing these dimensions remains a challenge. We report on an approach for considering the nonmaterial values associated with ecosystems, i.e., cultural ecosystem services. We applied the approach in Kona, Hawai‘i, using 30 semistructured interviews and 205 in-person surveys, striving to balance pragmatism and depth. We found spirituality, heritage, and identity-related values to be particularly salient, with expression of some of these values varying among respondents by ethnicity and duration of residence in Hawai‘i. Although people of various backgrounds reported strong spirituality and heritage-related values, Native Hawaiians rated heritage connections as deeper, and lifetime residents portrayed ecosystem-identity connections as more integral to their well-being than did people from other backgrounds. The approach also proved useful in identifying concerns not addressed in survey and interview prompts, including postcolonial issues, access to ecosystems, and relationships between people of different ethnic backgrounds. Although understanding these nonmaterial dimensions of human-ecosystem relationships can be complex, emerging techniques eliciting qualitative and quantitative data provide feasible ways of deepening that understanding.

  13. Exploring eco-hydrological consequences of the Amazonian ecosystems under climate and land-use changes in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, K.; Castanho, A. D.; Moghim, S.; Bras, R. L.; Coe, M. T.; Costa, M. H.; Levine, N. M.; Longo, M.; McKnight, S.; Wang, J.; Moorcroft, P. R.

    2012-12-01

    Deforestation and drought have imposed regional-scale perturbations onto Amazonian ecosystems and are predicted to cause larger negative impacts on the Amazonian ecosystems and associated regional carbon dynamics in the 21st century. However, global climate models (GCMs) vary greatly in their projections of future climate change in Amazonia, giving rise to uncertainty in the expected fate of the Amazon over the coming century. In this study, we explore the possible eco-hydrological consequences of the Amazonian ecosystems under projected climate and land-use changes in the 21st century using two state-of-the-art terrestrial ecosystem models—Ecosystem Demography Model 2.1(ED2.1) and Integrated Biosphere Simulator model (IBIS)—driven by three representative, bias-corrected climate projections from three IPCC GCMs (NCARPCM1, NCARCCSM3 and HadCM3), coupled with two land-use change scenarios (a business-as-usual and a strict governance scenario). We also analyze the relative roles of climate change, CO2 fertilization, land-use change and fire in driving the projected composition and structure of the Amazonian ecosystems. Our results show that CO2 fertilization enhances vegetation productivity and above-ground biomass (AGB) in the region, while land-use change and fire cause AGB loss and the replacement of forests by the savanna-like vegetation. The impacts of climate change depend strongly on the direction and severity of projected precipitation changes in the region. In particular, when intensified water stress is superimposed on unregulated deforestation, both ecosystem models predict large-scale dieback of Amazonian rainforests.

  14. Geomorphic control of rain-forest floristic composition in French Guiana : more than a soil filtering effect ?

    OpenAIRE

    Guitet, S.; Freycon, V; Brunaux, O.; Pélissier, Raphaël; Sabatier, Daniel; Couteron, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The influence of geomorphological features on rain-forest diversity has been reported in different Amazonian regions. Soil filtering is often assumed to underlie the observed geomorphic control on the floristic composition but other hypotheses related to biogeography or long-term forest dynamics are also possible. We tested relationships between geomorphology, soil properties and forest composition in French Guiana rain forest using a recent geomorphological map and a large dataset comprising...

  15. Are Nontimber Forest Products the Antidote to Rainforest Degradation? Brazil Nut Extraction in Madre De Dios, Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escobal, J.A.; Aldana, U.

    2003-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between poverty and Amazonian forest management by Brazil nut harvesters in southeastern Peru. Although the poor rely more upon natural resource-based income than the rich, wealthier households use more forest wood and land than poorer ones. Contrary to the belie

  16. Phthalate pollution in an Amazonian rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir, Alain; Boulay, Raphaël; Dejean, Alain; Touchard, Axel; Cuvillier-Hot, Virginie

    2016-08-01

    Phthalates are ubiquitous contaminants and endocrine-disrupting chemicals that can become trapped in the cuticles of insects, including ants which were recognized as good bioindicators for such pollution. Because phthalates have been noted in developed countries and because they also have been found in the Arctic, a region isolated from direct anthropogenic influence, we hypothesized that they are widespread. So, we looked for their presence on the cuticle of ants gathered from isolated areas of the Amazonian rainforest and along an anthropogenic gradient of pollution (rainforest vs. road sides vs. cities in French Guiana). Phthalate pollution (mainly di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)) was higher on ants gathered in cities and along road sides than on those collected in the pristine rainforest, indicating that it follows a human-mediated gradient of disturbance related to the use of plastics and many other products that contain phthalates in urban zones. Their presence varied with the ant species; the cuticle of Solenopsis saevissima traps higher amount of phthalates than that of compared species. However, the presence of phthalates in isolated areas of pristine rainforests suggests that they are associated both with atmospheric particles and in gaseous form and are transported over long distances by wind, resulting in a worldwide diffusion. These findings suggest that there is no such thing as a "pristine" zone. PMID:27372101

  17. Acute necrotizing colitis with pneumatosis intestinalis in an Amazonian manatee calf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra Neto, Guilherme; Galvão Bueno, Marina; Silveira Silva, Rodrigo Otavio; Faria Lobato, Francisco Carlos; Plácido Guimarães, Juliana; Bossart, Gregory D; Marmontel, Miriam

    2016-08-01

    On 25 January 2014, a 1 mo old female Amazonian manatee Trichechus inunguis calf weighing 12 kg was rescued by air transport in Guajará, Brazil, and transferred to Mamirauá Institute's Community-based Amazonian Manatee Rehabilitation Center. The calf presented piercing/cutting lesions on the back, neck, and head, in addition to dehydration and intermittent involuntary buoyancy. X-ray analysis revealed a large amount of gases in the gastrointestinal tract. Daily procedures included wound cleaning and dressing, clinical and laboratory monitoring, treatment for intestinal tympanism, and artificial feeding. Adaptation to the nursing formula included 2 kinds of whole milk. Up to 20 d post-rescue the calf presented appetite, was active, and gained weight progressively. Past this period the calf started losing weight and presented constant involuntary buoyancy and died after 41 d in rehabilitation. The major findings at necropsy were pneumatosis intestinalis in cecum and colon, pulmonary edema, and hepatomegaly. The microscopic examination revealed pyogranulomatous and necrohemohrragic colitis with multinucleated giant cells, acute multifocal lymphadenitis with lymphoid depletion in cortical and paramedullary regions of mesenteric lymph nodes, and diffuse severe acinar atrophy of the pancreas. Anaerobic cultures of fragments of cecum and colon revealed colonies genotyped as Clostridium perfringens type A. We speculate that compromised immunity, thermoregulatory failure, and intolerance to artificial diet may have been contributing factors to the infection, leading to enterotoxemia and death. PMID:27503914

  18. Carbon dynamics and ecosystem diversity of Amazonian peatlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laehteenoja, O.

    2011-07-01

    The overall aim was to initiate peatland research in Amazonia, which has been referred to as 'one of the large white spots on the global peatland map'. Specifically, the study was to clarify how common peat accumulation is on Amazonian floodplains, and how extensive and thick peat deposits can be encountered. Secondly, the intention was to study how rapidly Amazonian peatlands sequester carbon, and how much carbon they store and thirdly, to gain some understanding of the diversity of peatland ecosystem types and of the processes forming these ecosystems

  19. Geology, Soils and Basin-wide variations in Amazon Forest Structure and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada, Carlos Alberto; Phillips, Oliver; Lopes-Gonzales, Gabriela; Lloyd, Jon; Rainfor Team

    2015-04-01

    Forest productivity, tree turnover time and above ground biomass vary across the Amazon Basin in an east-west gradient in a pattern which coincides with variations in soil nutrient availability and geology. Forest productivity rates are higher on the most nutrient rich soils close to the Andes while is lower in the ancient, highly weathered soils of central Amazonia. On the other hand above ground biomass is lower in the most productive forests and higher on the least, this being a consequence of higher tree turnover rates in the forests over less weathered and nutrient rich soils. Major geological events have influenced Amazonian soil characteristics profoundly and play an important role in explaining Basin-wide variations in forest biomass, growth and stem turnover rates. Here we show how geology and soil development combine to shape the functioning of Amazonian forests and its carbon stocks and fluxes. To assess the importance of edaphic properties in affect forest structure and dynamics, soil samples were collected in a total of 154 different forest plots across nine different Amazonian countries. Samples were analyzed for exchangeable cations, C, N, pH with various P fractions and soil physical properties also determined. Overall, forest structure and dynamics were found to be strongly and quantitatively related to edaphic conditions.

  20. Stable Forest Cover under Increasing Populations of Swidden Cultivators in Central Laos: the Roles of Intrinsic Culture and Extrinsic Wildlife Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naa Odarkor-Lanquaye

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Swidden agriculture, or shifting cultivation, is variously viewed as a great environmental threat or a sustainable system of land use. In Laos, swidden has long been considered the primary driver of forest loss nationwide, but the assessment is based exclusively on studies from the north of country, where deforestation is most severe. National policies to control swidden have percolated down to management of one of the largest nature reserves in the region, Nakai-Nam Theun National Protected Area (NNT NPA in the Annamite Mountains of central Laos. In NNT NPA, swidden’s presumed unsustainability and deleterious impact on forest cover is an untested assumption. We tested it by methods of historical ecology, tracing the patterns of NNT’s forest cover and human settlement over the past several decades. Principal sources of data were topographical maps dating to 1943, and Landsat images from 1976, 1989, and 2001. The analysis shows that, although NNT has been inhabited by swidden cultivators for hundreds of years, it retained more than 95% forest cover until the 1960s–early 1970s. Subsequently, a post-Vietnam War release of human population, possibly coupled with government encouragement of agricultural expansion, precipitated a decline in forest of 0.5%/year until the 1980s. Curiously, this was followed by stability or an increase (ca. 0.3%/year in forest cover into the current century, even as NNT’s human population continued to grow and as forest declined in Laos overall at 1.7%/year, and in two protected areas near NNT at more than 3%/year. A combination of intrinsic and extrinsic factors probably account for the stability of NNT’s forest cover despite recent population growth. First are cultural propensities for sedentariness and livelihoods with relatively low environmental impact among the ethnic groups inhabiting NNT. Since at least the 1940s, there have been remarkably few changes in the number or location of villages in NNT (and

  1. Local late Amazonian boulder breakdown and denudation rate on Mars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, T.; Hauber, E.; Kleinhans, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Inactive fan surfaces become smoother and develop desert pavement over time by weathering and erosion. We use this mechanism to estimate late Amazonian boulder breakdown and surface denudation rates on a young (∼1.25 Ma) (Schon et al., 2009) fan on Mars. This is done by comparing boulder size and su

  2. Fungal community assembly in the Amazonian Dark Earth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucheta, A.R.; Souza Cannavan, F.S.; Roesch, L.; Tsai, S.M.; Kuramae, E.E.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we compare the fungal community composition and diversity in Amazonian Dark Earth (ADE) and the respective non-anthropogenic origin adjacent (ADJ) soils from four different sites in Brazilian Central Amazon using pyrosequencing of 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. Fungal community composition in

  3. A Miocene perspective on the evolution of the Amazonian biota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, F.P.; Salo, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Between c. 23 and 8 Ma, western Amazonia was occupied by the vast Pebas long-lived lake/wetland system. The Pebas system had a variety of influences over the evolution of Miocene and modern Amazonian biota; it formed a barrier for the exchange of terrestrial biota, a pathway for the transition of ma

  4. Regional Hydro-Climatic Changes due to Three Decades of Amazonian Deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, J.; Medvigy, D.; Fueglistaler, S.; Walko, R. L.

    2015-12-01

    A gamut of studies exist which posit that small scale conversion of forests to urban, pasture or cropland can trigger an increase in regional cloudiness and rain. Several of these studies, pertaining to early stages of Amazonian deforestation, attribute this phenomenon to heightened thermal triggering resulting from small-scale (a few kilometers) patchy deforestation. But it is not clear if this phenomenon can be extrapolated to contemporary (tens of kilometers) or future scales of deforestation. Here, we have carried out the first long-time period study of the effects of changing scales of Amazonian deforestation on regional cloudiness and precipitation using satellite observations made by GOES and TRMM. We have analyzed observations made over the deforested areas in the Brazilian state of Rondonia. We find a shift in the regional hydroclimatic regime over the three decades of deforestation - from spatially uniform cloudiness to dominant cloudiness in the downwind half of the deforested domain. This result is not consistent with a thermal triggering mechanism because thermal triggering would only explain the uniform cloud cover observed during the early stages of deforestation. To further investigate the mechanism, we have also carried out numerical simulations. We found that surface roughness gradients caused by contemporary large scales of deforestation can explain this observed transition. This transition is climatologically important for this region because it affects the observed spatial distribution of precipitation, which has become dominant in the downwind half of the deforested domain in contemporary times. The new mechanism identified here should be accounted for in planning for future land-use change in the Amazon.

  5. A Molecular Survey of the Diversity of Microbial Communities in Different Amazonian Agricultural Model Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acácio A. Navarrete

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The processes of land conversion and agricultural intensification are a significant cause of biodiversity loss, with consequent negative effects both on the environment and the sustainability of food production.The anthrosols associated with pre-Colombian settlements in the Amazonian region are examples of how anthropogenic activities may sustain the native populations against harsh tropical environments for human establishment, even without a previous intentionality of anthropic soil formation. In a case study (Model I—“Slash-and-Burn” the community structures detected by automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA revealed that soil archaeal, bacterial and fungal communities are heterogeneous and each capable of responding differently to environmental characteristics. ARISA data evidenced considerable difference in structure existing between microbial communities in forest and agricultural soils. In a second study (Model II—“Anthropogenic Soil”, the bacterial community structures revealed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP differed among an Amazonian Dark Earth (ADE, black carbon (BC and its adjacent non-anthropogenic oxisoil. The bacterial 16S rRNA gene (OTU richness estimated by pyrosequencing was higher in ADE than BC. The most abundant bacterial phyla in ADE soils and BC were Proteobacteria—24% ADE, 15% BC; Acidobacteria—10% ADE, 21% BC; Actinobacteria—7% ADE, 12% BC; Verrucomicrobia, 8% ADE; 9% BC; Firmicutes—3% ADE, 8% BC. Overall, unclassified bacteria corresponded to 36% ADE, and 26% BC. Regardless of current land uses, our data suggest that soil microbial community structures may be strongly influenced by the historical soil management and that anthrosols in Amazonia, of anthropogenic origins, in addition to their capacity of enhancing crop yields, may also improve microbial diversity, with the support of the black carbon, which may sustain a particular and unique habitat for the

  6. The structure of the Amazonian craton: Available geophysical evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, João Willy Corrêa; Rosa, José Wilson Corrêa; Fuck, Reinhardt A.

    2016-10-01

    The Amazonian craton, which covers a large area of South America, and is thought to have been stable since the end of the Mesoproterozoic, has recently benefited from a series of regional geophysical surveys. The Amazonian craton comprises the northern Guyana shield and the southern Central Brazil shield. It has become the main subject of seismological studies aiming to determine crustal thickness. Moho thickness maps that cover a large part of the South American continent summarize these studies. Receiver function studies, aided by surface wave dispersion tomography, were also useful tools applied in the region over the past decade. These have been improved by the addition of temporary and permanent regional seismological arrays and stations. An interesting NNW-SSE Moho depth anomaly, pointing to crustal thickening of up to 60 km in the central Guyana shield and a 50 km thick anomaly of the southern Central Brazil shield were recently identified. Areas with crustal thickening correspond to Paleoproterozoic magmatic arcs. The upper mantle seismic anisotropy in part of the region has been determined from SKS splitting studies. The currently available seismic anisotropy information shows that the orientation of the determined anisotropic axis is related to the frozen in anisotropy hypothesis for the Amazonian craton. The orientation of the anisotropic axis shows no relation to the current South American plate motion in the Amazonian craton. Most recently, detailed information for the two shields has benefited from a series of high-resolution, regional aerogeophysical surveys, made available by CPRM, the Brazilian Geological Survey. In addition to the mentioned contribution from seismology for imaging deeper crustal structures, regional gravity surveys have been expanded, adding to previous Bouguer anomaly maps, and deep drilling information from early exploration efforts have been compiled for the Amazon basin, which covers the Amazonian craton separating the Guyana

  7. Impacts of hydroelectric dams on alluvial riparian plant communities in eastern Brazilian Amazonian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEANDRO VALLE FERREIRA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The major rivers of the Amazon River basin and their biota are threatened by the planned construction of large hydroelectric dams that are expected to have strong impacts on floodplain plant communities. The present study presents forest inventories from three floodplain sites colonized by alluvial riparian vegetation in the Tapajós, Xingu and Tocantins River basins in eastern Amazonian. Results indicate that tree species of the highly specialized alluvial riparian vegetation are clearly distinct among the three river basins, although they are not very distinct from each other and environmental constraints are very similar. With only 6 of 74 species occurring in all three inventories, most tree and shrub species are restricted to only one of the rivers, indicating a high degree of local distribution. Different species occupy similar environmental niches, making these fragile riparian formations highly valuable. Conservation plans must consider species complementarily when decisions are made on where to place floodplain forest conservation units to avoid the irreversible loss of unique alluvial riparian vegetation biodiversity.

  8. Phylogenetic diversity of Amazonian tree communities

    OpenAIRE

    Honorio Coronado, Eurídice N.; Dexter, Kyle G.; Pennington, R. Toby; Chave, Jérôme; Lewis, Simon L.; Alexiades, Miguel N.; Alvarez, Esteban; Alves de Oliveira, Atila; Amaral, Iêda L.; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro; Arets, Eric J. M. M.; Aymard, Gerardo A.; Baraloto, Christopher; Bonal, Damien; Brienen, Roel

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To examine variation in the phylogenetic diversity (PD) of tree communities across geographical and environmental gradients in Amazonia. Location: Two hundred and eighty-three c. 1 ha forest inventory plots from across Amazonia. Methods: We evaluated PD as the total phylogenetic branch length across species in each plot (PDss), the mean pairwise phylogenetic distance between species (MPD), the mean nearest taxon distance (MNTD) and their equivalents standardized for species richness (ses...

  9. Hair mercury levels in Amazonian populations: spatial distribution and trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbieri Flavia L

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mercury is present in the Amazonian aquatic environments from both natural and anthropogenic sources. As a consequence, many riverside populations are exposed to methylmercury, a highly toxic organic form of mercury, because of their intense fish consumption. Many studies have analysed this exposure from different approaches since the early nineties. This review aims to systematize the information in spatial distribution, comparing hair mercury levels by studied population and Amazonian river basin, looking for exposure trends. Methods The reviewed papers were selected from scientific databases and online libraries. We included studies with a direct measure of hair mercury concentrations in a sample size larger than 10 people, without considering the objectives, approach of the study or mercury speciation. The results are presented in tables and maps by river basin, displaying hair mercury levels and specifying the studied population and health impact, if any. Results The majority of the studies have been carried out in communities from the central Amazonian regions, particularly on the Tapajós River basin. The results seem quite variable; hair mercury means range from 1.1 to 34.2 μg/g. Most studies did not show any significant difference in hair mercury levels by gender or age. Overall, authors emphasized fish consumption frequency as the main risk factor of exposure. The most studied adverse health effect is by far the neurological performance, especially motricity. However, it is not possible to conclude on the relation between hair mercury levels and health impact in the Amazonian situation because of the relatively small number of studies. Conclusions Hair mercury levels in the Amazonian regions seem to be very heterogenic, depending on several factors. There is no obvious spatial trend and there are many areas that have never been studied. Taking into account the low mercury levels currently handled as acceptable, the

  10. The ICIF project: Assessment of pathways of innovative cultures in forest for biomass production. Final report on the implementation of the experimental arrangement in Ardennes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the context created by the objective to increase the production of biomass-based energy, the authors studied the possibilities of using various crops and species in forests (i.e. in more acid soils), but also the impacts of these cultures on soil fertility. In a first part, they present and describe the experimental installation: site selection and characterization, experiment scheme, ash supply (choice, packaging, origin of ashes), and realisation. Then, they report the study of plants growth after one year, report some measurements regarding initial soil conditions (physical and chemical properties), and observations about flora development. They also mention performed information and communication action, and discuss perspectives

  11. Tree communities of white-sand and terra-firme forests of the upper Rio Negro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stropp, J.; Sleen, van der J.P.; Assunção, P.A.; Silva, da A.L.; Steege, ter H.

    2011-01-01

    The high tree diversity and vast extent of Amazonian forests challenge our understanding of how tree species abundance and composition varies across this region. Information about these parameters, usually obtained from tree inventories plots, is essential for revealing patterns of tree diversity. N

  12. Isozyme characterization of Capsicum accessions from the Amazonian Colombian collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Quintero Barrera

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred and sixty-one accessions of the genus Capsicum were obtained from the Colombian Amazonian germplasm bank at Amazonian Institute of Scientific Research (Sinchi and were evaluated with five polymorphic enzymatic systems, including esterase (EST, peroxidase (PRX, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGDH, aspartate amino transferase (GOT, and malic enzyme (ME. Using a cluster analysis (UPGMA the genetic variability of these accessions were characterized. Grouping of the species C. baccatum and C. pubescens were observed, while the species C. annuum, C. chinense and C. frutescens did not group independently, a result that has been previously reported in isoenzyme analyses of this genus. Several accessions were deemed of particular interest for future ecological and evolutive studies. Key words: Colombia, Capsicum, germplasm bank, isoenzymes, peppers.

  13. Hyperdominance in the Amazonian tree flora

    OpenAIRE

    H. ter Steege; Pitman, N.C.A.; Sabatier, D.; Baraloto, C.; Salomao, R. P.; Guevara, J. E.; Phillips, O. L; Castilho, C. V.; Magnusson, W.E.; Molino, J.-F.; A. Monteagudo; Nunez Vargas, P.; Montero, J. C.; Feldpausch, T. R.; Coronado, E. N. H.

    2013-01-01

    The vast extent of the Amazon Basin has historically restricted the study of its tree communities to the local and regional scales. Here, we provide empirical data on the commonness, rarity, and richness of lowland tree species across the entire Amazon Basin and Guiana Shield (Amazonia), collected in 1170 tree plots in all major forest types. Extrapolations suggest that Amazonia harbors roughly 16,000 tree species, of which just 227 (1.4%) account for half of all trees. Most of these are habi...

  14. Alluvial plain dynamics in the southern Amazonian foreland basin

    OpenAIRE

    Lombardo, U

    2015-01-01

    Alluvial plains are formed with sediments that rivers deposit on the adjacent flood-basin, mainly through crevasse splays and avulsions. These result from a combination of processes, some of which push the river towards the crevasse threshold, while others act as triggers. Based on the floodplain sedimentation patterns of large rivers in the southern Amazonian foreland basin, it has been suggested that alluvial plain sediment accumulation ...

  15. The impact of Amazonian deforestation on Amazon basin rainfall

    OpenAIRE

    Spracklen, DV; Garcia-Carreras, L.

    2015-01-01

    We completed a meta-analysis of regional and global climate model simulations (n=96) of the impact of Amazonian deforestation on Amazon basin rainfall. Across all simulations, mean (±1σ) change in annual mean Amazon basin rainfall was -12±11%. Variability in simulated rainfall was not explained by differences in model resolution or surface parameters. Across all simulations we find a negative linear relationship between rainfall and deforestation extent, although individual studies often simu...

  16. Karyomegaly in Baryancistrus sp. (Loricaridae) from Amazonian Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paperna, I; Di Cave, D

    2001-06-20

    Vesicular karyomegaly of the liver hepatocytes is described from Baryancistrus sp. (Loricaridae), in 3 out of 7 fish, collected from Rio Xingu in central Amazonian (neutral water) Brazil and kept about 2 wk in a holding facility fed with acid water (pH 5.0 to 5.5). Altered cells also occurred in the gill epithelium. The vesicles in the liver were shown to contain a periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive substance or residue.

  17. Joy within tranquility: Amazonian Urarina styles of happiness

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Harry

    2015-01-01

    Enjoyment in life among Amazonian Urarina is examined through the lens of two contrastive concepts of happiness. The first, “tranquility,” is a relatively long-term, relational condition implying emotional spontaneity and a flexible, freely chosen work routine that allows for a merging of action and awareness. It epitomizes a broader concern with the development of an individual “style of life,” where attitudes, manners, and actions come into alignment. The second concept, “joy...

  18. Some aspects of the structure and the diversity of the arboreal vegetation of a forest of origin alluvial, not inundating of the Amazons River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the unaware observer, the Amazonian it is a great green and homogeneous mat, sometimes interrupted by serpentine currents of water that they break the continuity of the vegetable mantel. A detailed observation dispels that impression of homogeneity of the Amazon forest. On the contrary the Hylea is sprinkled of overflowed ambient, with numerous plants of thin shafts that conform a tangle, alternate of environments of plane topography, of soils well drainages, trees of thicker trunks, or set of hills of marked slopes, with narrow or wide summits and trees of diverse size and grosser. Equally the Amazonian region has environments that don't correspond to properly this forest, located on tables of gritty white of thin and low vegetation. The author treats topics as general aspects of the Amazonian area, characterization of landscape and forest structures

  19. Low plant density enhances gene dispersal in the Amazonian understory herb Heliconia acuminata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côrtes, Marina C; Uriarte, María; Lemes, Maristerra R; Gribel, Rogério; Kress, W John; Smouse, Peter E; Bruna, Emilio M

    2013-11-01

    In theory, conservation genetics predicts that forest fragmentation will reduce gene dispersal, but in practice, genetic and ecological processes are also dependent on other population characteristics. We used Bayesian genetic analyses to characterize parentage and propagule dispersal in Heliconia acuminata L. C. Richard (Heliconiaceae), a common Amazonian understory plant that is pollinated and dispersed by birds. We studied these processes in two continuous forest sites and three 1-ha fragments in Brazil's Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project. These sites showed variation in the density of H. acuminata. Ten microsatellite markers were used to genotype flowering adults and seedling recruits and to quantify realized pollen and seed dispersal distances, immigration of propagules from outside populations, and reproductive dominance among parents. We tested whether gene dispersal is more dependent on fragmentation or density of reproductive plants. Low plant densities were associated with elevated immigration rates and greater propagule dispersal distances. Reproductive dominance among inside-plot parents was higher for low-density than for high-density populations. Elevated local flower and fruit availability is probably leading to spatially more proximal bird foraging and propagule dispersal in areas with high density of reproductive plants. Nevertheless, genetic diversity, inbreeding coefficients and fine-scale spatial genetic structure were similar across populations, despite differences in gene dispersal. This result may indicate that the opposing processes of longer dispersal events in low-density populations vs. higher diversity of contributing parents in high-density populations balance the resulting genetic outcomes and prevent genetic erosion in small populations and fragments.

  20. Low plant density enhances gene dispersal in the Amazonian understory herb Heliconia acuminata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côrtes, Marina C; Uriarte, María; Lemes, Maristerra R; Gribel, Rogério; Kress, W John; Smouse, Peter E; Bruna, Emilio M

    2013-11-01

    In theory, conservation genetics predicts that forest fragmentation will reduce gene dispersal, but in practice, genetic and ecological processes are also dependent on other population characteristics. We used Bayesian genetic analyses to characterize parentage and propagule dispersal in Heliconia acuminata L. C. Richard (Heliconiaceae), a common Amazonian understory plant that is pollinated and dispersed by birds. We studied these processes in two continuous forest sites and three 1-ha fragments in Brazil's Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project. These sites showed variation in the density of H. acuminata. Ten microsatellite markers were used to genotype flowering adults and seedling recruits and to quantify realized pollen and seed dispersal distances, immigration of propagules from outside populations, and reproductive dominance among parents. We tested whether gene dispersal is more dependent on fragmentation or density of reproductive plants. Low plant densities were associated with elevated immigration rates and greater propagule dispersal distances. Reproductive dominance among inside-plot parents was higher for low-density than for high-density populations. Elevated local flower and fruit availability is probably leading to spatially more proximal bird foraging and propagule dispersal in areas with high density of reproductive plants. Nevertheless, genetic diversity, inbreeding coefficients and fine-scale spatial genetic structure were similar across populations, despite differences in gene dispersal. This result may indicate that the opposing processes of longer dispersal events in low-density populations vs. higher diversity of contributing parents in high-density populations balance the resulting genetic outcomes and prevent genetic erosion in small populations and fragments. PMID:24730040

  1. Food Plants Eaten by Amazonian Manatees (Trichechus inunguis, Mammalia : Sirenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colares Ioni G.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the feeding habits of the Amazonian manatee Trichechus inunguis in some Central Amazonian rivers and lakes, we compared plant epidermis found in the stomach contents and/or faeces of animals with a reference collection of plants present in the studied areas. Twenty five samples from digestive tracts of animals found dead and 25 faeces samples found floating were analyzed. From these samples, 24 aquatic macrophytes were identified. The Gramineae family was identified in 96% of the samples, Paspalum repens and Echinochloa polystachya being the most abundant in the samples. The second most frequent family was the Pontederiaceae primarily Eichhornia crassipes. During the high water period, the animals showed a more selective diet (eight identified species. In the low water period, when food was more scarce, the animals showed a larger diversity of species in their diet (21 species of plants. Differences in the diet among the two studied areas reflected the physiographics characteristics of the region. Amazonian manatees fed mostly on emergent plants.

  2. Tropical Andean forest derives calcium and magnesium from Saharan dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boy, Jens; Wilcke, Wolfgang

    2008-03-01

    We quantified base metal deposition to Amazonian montane rain forest in Ecuador between May 1998 and April 2003 and assessed the response of the base metal budget of three forested microcatchments (8-13 ha). There was a strong interannual variation in deposition of Ca [4.4-29 kg ha-1 a-1], Mg [1.6-12], and K [9.8-30]). High deposition changed the Ca and Mg budgets of the catchments from loss to retention, suggesting that the additionally available Ca and Mg was used by the ecosystem. Increased base metal deposition was related to dust outbursts of the Sahara and an Amazonian precipitation pattern with trans-regional dry spells allowing for dust transport to the Andes. The increased base metal deposition coincided with a strong La Niña event in 1999/2000.

  3. 78 FR 34131 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ..., USDA Forest Service Law Enforcement seized a hide robe from Flora's daughter that had been collected by Flora at the Falls Creek Rock Shelters. Subsequently, in 2009, Bureau of Land Management Law Enforcement... Carnegie Institution, was curated by the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology at Harvard...

  4. Conservation, Community, and Culture? New Organizational Challenges of Community Forest Concessions in the Maya Biosphere Reserve of Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Peter Leigh

    2010-01-01

    Community-based forestry has received much recent attention as an effort to protect threatened Southern forests by linking conservation with sustainable livelihoods. Many researchers have emphasized the importance of effective organization for successful community-based forestry. While significant attention has been paid to community-level…

  5. How natural forest conversion affects insect biodiversity in the Peruvian Amazon: can agroforestry help?

    OpenAIRE

    Perry, Jitka; Lojka, Bohdan; Quinones Ruiz, Lourdes G; Van Damme, Patrick; Houška, Jakub; Cusimamani, Eloy Fernandez

    2016-01-01

    The Amazonian rainforest is a unique ecosystem that comprises habitat for thousands of animal species. Over the last decades, the ever-increasing human population has caused forest conversion to agricultural land with concomitant high biodiversity losses, mainly near a number of fast-growing cities in the Peruvian Amazon. In this research, we evaluated insect species richness and diversity in five ecosystems: natural forests, multistrata agroforests, cocoa agroforests, annual cropping monocul...

  6. How natural Forest Conversion Affects Insect Biodiversity in the Peruvian Amazon: Can Agroforestry Help?

    OpenAIRE

    Jitka Perry; Bohdan Lojka; Quinones Ruiz, Lourdes G; Patrick Van Damme; Jakub Houška; Eloy Fernandez Cusimamani

    2016-01-01

    The Amazonian rainforest is a unique ecosystem that comprises habitat for thousands of animal species. Over the last decades, the ever-increasing human population has caused forest conversion to agricultural land with concomitant high biodiversity losses, mainly near a number of fast-growing cities in the Peruvian Amazon. In this research, we evaluated insect species richness and diversity in five ecosystems: natural forests, multistrata agroforests, cocoa agroforests, annual cropping monocul...

  7. Production of nitrous oxide and consumption of methane by forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, M.; Wofsy, S. C.; Kaplan, W. A.; Mcelroy, M. B.; Goreau, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    Soils in an Amazonian rainforest are observed to release N2O at a rate larger than the global mean by about a factor of 20. Emissions from a New England hardwood forest are approximately 30 times smaller then Brazilian values. Atmospheric methane is consumed by soils in both systems. Tropical forests would provide a major source of atmospheric N2O if the Brazilian results are representative.

  8. Cross-system comparisons of soil nitrogen transformations and nitrous oxide flux in tropical forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Pamela A.; Vitousek, Peter M.

    1987-01-01

    Soil nitrogen transformations and nitrous oxide flux across the soil-air interface have been measured in a variety of tropical forest sites and correlated with patterns of nitrogen circulation. Nitrogen mineralizaton and nitrification potentials were found to be high in the relatively fertile Costa Rica sites and the Amazonian oxisol/ultisols, intermediate in Amazonian white sand soils, and low in the Hawaiian montane sites. Nitrous oxide fluxes ranged from 0 to 6.2 ng/sq cm per h, and the mean flux per site was shown to be highly correlated with mean nitrogen mineralization.

  9. ÉTUDE DE LA MACROFAUNE DU SOL DANS UNE ZONE DE DÉFORESTATION EN AMAZONIE DU SUD-EST, AU BRÉSIL,DANS LE CONTEXTE DE L'AGRICULTURE FAMILIALE

    OpenAIRE

    Mathieu, Jérôme

    2004-01-01

    As primary forest is cleared, pastures and secondary forest occupy an increasing space in the Amazonian landscape. We evaluated the effect of forest clearing on a soil macrofauna (invertebrate) community in a smallholder farming system of southeastern Amazonia. We sampled the soil macrofauna in 22 plots of forest, upland rice fields, pastures, and fallows of different ages. In total, we collected 10,728 invertebrates. In cleared plots the species richness per plot of the soil macrofauna fell ...

  10. 森林碳汇制度对云南民族文化持续发展的保障作用%The Security Effect of Forest Carbon Sequestration on the Sustainable Development of Yunnan Minority Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    官波; 施择; 宁平

    2012-01-01

    发展森林碳汇是应对气候变暖的重要措施,市场化是森林碳汇发展的必然趋势,制度建设是森林碳汇得以发展的保障,生态文化是云南少数民族文化的重要组成部分。森林碳汇制度的建设对云南民族文化持续发展具有重要的保障作用,在此基础上,作者提出了森林碳汇制度的建设必须与云南民族文化的保护发展相结合的对策。%The development of forest carbon sequestration is one of the most important measures to deal with the climate warming,and the marketing is the inevitable trend of forest carbon sequestration development.Ecological culture is an important component of the Yunnan minority cultures and system construction secures the forest carbon sequestration development.And therefore,the system construction of the forest carbon sequestration plays an important role in the sustainable development of Yunnan minority cultures.Based on the above elaboration,the authors put forward some main countermeasures for the correlation between the development of forest carbon sequestration and the protection of Yunnan minority cultures.

  11. Hyperdominance in the Amazonian tree flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Steege, Hans; Pitman, Nigel C A; Sabatier, Daniel; Baraloto, Christopher; Salomão, Rafael P; Guevara, Juan Ernesto; Phillips, Oliver L; Castilho, Carolina V; Magnusson, William E; Molino, Jean-François; Monteagudo, Abel; Núñez Vargas, Percy; Montero, Juan Carlos; Feldpausch, Ted R; Coronado, Eurídice N Honorio; Killeen, Tim J; Mostacedo, Bonifacio; Vasquez, Rodolfo; Assis, Rafael L; Terborgh, John; Wittmann, Florian; Andrade, Ana; Laurance, William F; Laurance, Susan G W; Marimon, Beatriz S; Marimon, Ben-Hur; Guimarães Vieira, Ima Célia; Amaral, Iêda Leão; Brienen, Roel; Castellanos, Hernán; Cárdenas López, Dairon; Duivenvoorden, Joost F; Mogollón, Hugo F; Matos, Francisca Dionízia de Almeida; Dávila, Nállarett; García-Villacorta, Roosevelt; Stevenson Diaz, Pablo Roberto; Costa, Flávia; Emilio, Thaise; Levis, Carolina; Schietti, Juliana; Souza, Priscila; Alonso, Alfonso; Dallmeier, Francisco; Montoya, Alvaro Javier Duque; Fernandez Piedade, Maria Teresa; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro; Arroyo, Luzmila; Gribel, Rogerio; Fine, Paul V A; Peres, Carlos A; Toledo, Marisol; Aymard C, Gerardo A; Baker, Tim R; Cerón, Carlos; Engel, Julien; Henkel, Terry W; Maas, Paul; Petronelli, Pascal; Stropp, Juliana; Zartman, Charles Eugene; Daly, Doug; Neill, David; Silveira, Marcos; Paredes, Marcos Ríos; Chave, Jerome; Lima Filho, Diógenes de Andrade; Jørgensen, Peter Møller; Fuentes, Alfredo; Schöngart, Jochen; Cornejo Valverde, Fernando; Di Fiore, Anthony; Jimenez, Eliana M; Peñuela Mora, Maria Cristina; Phillips, Juan Fernando; Rivas, Gonzalo; van Andel, Tinde R; von Hildebrand, Patricio; Hoffman, Bruce; Zent, Eglée L; Malhi, Yadvinder; Prieto, Adriana; Rudas, Agustín; Ruschell, Ademir R; Silva, Natalino; Vos, Vincent; Zent, Stanford; Oliveira, Alexandre A; Schutz, Angela Cano; Gonzales, Therany; Trindade Nascimento, Marcelo; Ramirez-Angulo, Hirma; Sierra, Rodrigo; Tirado, Milton; Umaña Medina, María Natalia; van der Heijden, Geertje; Vela, César I A; Vilanova Torre, Emilio; Vriesendorp, Corine; Wang, Ophelia; Young, Kenneth R; Baider, Claudia; Balslev, Henrik; Ferreira, Cid; Mesones, Italo; Torres-Lezama, Armando; Urrego Giraldo, Ligia Estela; Zagt, Roderick; Alexiades, Miguel N; Hernandez, Lionel; Huamantupa-Chuquimaco, Isau; Milliken, William; Palacios Cuenca, Walter; Pauletto, Daniela; Valderrama Sandoval, Elvis; Valenzuela Gamarra, Luis; Dexter, Kyle G; Feeley, Ken; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela; Silman, Miles R

    2013-10-18

    The vast extent of the Amazon Basin has historically restricted the study of its tree communities to the local and regional scales. Here, we provide empirical data on the commonness, rarity, and richness of lowland tree species across the entire Amazon Basin and Guiana Shield (Amazonia), collected in 1170 tree plots in all major forest types. Extrapolations suggest that Amazonia harbors roughly 16,000 tree species, of which just 227 (1.4%) account for half of all trees. Most of these are habitat specialists and only dominant in one or two regions of the basin. We discuss some implications of the finding that a small group of species--less diverse than the North American tree flora--accounts for half of the world's most diverse tree community. PMID:24136971

  12. Estimating the global conservation status of more than 15,000 Amazonian tree species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ter Steege, Hans; Pitman, Nigel C. A.; Killeen, Timothy J.;

    2015-01-01

    Estimates of extinction risk for Amazonian plant and animal species are rare and not often incorporated into land-use policy and conservation planning. We overlay spatial distribution models with historical and projected deforestation to show that at least 36% and up to 57% of all Amazonian tree ...

  13. Nutrient limitations to secondary forest regrowth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Eric A.; Martinelli, Luiz A.

    The old, highly weathered soils of the lowland forest within the Amazon Basin generally exhibit conservative P cycles and leaky N cycles. This generalization applies to mature forests, but accelerating land use change is altering Amazonian landscapes. About 16% of the original forest area has been cleared, and about 160,000 km2 is in secondary forest cover. Secondary forests are common in agricultural regions, but few persist in one place for much more than 5 years. The nutrients within ephemeral forests are important for smallholder traditional slash-and-burn agriculture and in alternatives developed to conserve nutrients. Forest clearing causes an initial loss of nutrients through timber harvesting, fire, erosion, soil gaseous emissions, and hydrologic leaching, with N losses exceeding P losses. In contrast, the Ca, Mg, and K present in woody biomass are largely conserved as ash following fire, redistributing these nutrients to the soil. After the initial postclearing pulse of nutrient availability, rates of N cycling and loss consistently decline as cattle pastures age. Fertilization experiments have demonstrated that growth of young forests in abandoned agricultural land is nutrient limited. Several N cycling indicators in a secondary forest chronosequence study also demonstrated a conservative N cycle in young forests. Variable N limitation in young forests helps explain a negative relationship observed between the burn frequency during previous agricultural phases and the rate of forest regrowth. Recuperation of the N cycle gradually occurs during decades of secondary forest succession, such that mature lowland forests eventually recover abundant N relative to a conservative P cycle.

  14. Production of Alkaline Cellulase by Fungi Isolated from an Undisturbed Rain Forest of Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Vega

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline cellulase producing fungi were isolated from soils of an undisturbed rain forest of Peru. The soil dilution plate method was used for the enumeration and isolation of fast growing cellulolytic fungi on an enriched selective medium. Eleven out of 50 different morphological colonies were finally selected by using the plate clearing assay with CMC as substrate at different pH values. All 11 strains produced cellulases in liquid culture with activities at alkaline pH values without an apparent decrease of them indicating that they are true alkaline cellulase producers. Aspergillus sp. LM-HP32, Penicillium sp. LM-HP33, and Penicillium sp. LM-HP37 were the best producers of FP cellulase (>3 U mL−1 with higher specific productivities (>30 U g−1 h−1. Three strains have been found suitable for developing processes for alkaline cellulase production. Soils from Amazonian rain forests are good sources of industrial fungi with particular characteristics. The results of the present study are of commercial and biological interest. Alkaline cellulases may be used in the polishing and washing of denim processing of the textile industry.

  15. 77 FR 11571 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... definition of ``unassociated funerary objects'' under 25 U.S.C. 3001. The cultural items were removed from... Museum, University of Arizona, AZ. In the Federal Register (70 FR 31510, June 1, 2005), paragraph number... pieces of malachite and 6 crystals. Based on material culture, architecture and site organization,...

  16. Reduction of Genetic Diversity of the Harpy Eagle in Brazilian Tropical Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banhos, Aureo; Hrbek, Tomas; Sanaiotti, Tânia M; Farias, Izeni Pires

    2016-01-01

    Habitat loss and fragmentation intensify the effects of genetic drift and endogamy, reducing genetic variability of populations with serious consequences for wildlife conservation. The Harpy Eagle (Harpia harpyja) is a forest dwelling species that is considered near threatened and suffers from habitat loss in the forests of the Neotropical region. In this study, 72 historical and current samples were assessed using eight autosomal microsatellite markers to investigate the distribution of genetic diversity of the Harpy Eagle of the Amazonian and Atlantic forests in Brazil. The results showed that the genetic diversity of Harpy Eagle decreased in the regions where deforestation is intense in the southern Amazon and Atlantic Forest. PMID:26871719

  17. Reduction of Genetic Diversity of the Harpy Eagle in Brazilian Tropical Forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureo Banhos

    Full Text Available Habitat loss and fragmentation intensify the effects of genetic drift and endogamy, reducing genetic variability of populations with serious consequences for wildlife conservation. The Harpy Eagle (Harpia harpyja is a forest dwelling species that is considered near threatened and suffers from habitat loss in the forests of the Neotropical region. In this study, 72 historical and current samples were assessed using eight autosomal microsatellite markers to investigate the distribution of genetic diversity of the Harpy Eagle of the Amazonian and Atlantic forests in Brazil. The results showed that the genetic diversity of Harpy Eagle decreased in the regions where deforestation is intense in the southern Amazon and Atlantic Forest.

  18. Amazonian dark Earth and plant species from the Amazon region contribute to shape rhizosphere bacterial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa Lima, Amanda; Cannavan, Fabiana Souza; Navarrete, Acacio Aparecido; Teixeira, Wenceslau Geraldes; Kuramae, Eiko Eurya; Tsai, Siu Mui

    2015-05-01

    Amazonian Dark Earths (ADE) or Terra Preta de Índio formed in the past by pre-Columbian populations are highly sustained fertile soils supported by microbial communities that differ from those extant in adjacent soils. These soils are found in the Amazon region and are considered as a model soil when compared to the surrounding and background soils. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of ADE and its surrounding soil on the rhizosphere bacterial communities of two leguminous plant species that frequently occur in the Amazon region in forest sites (Mimosa debilis) and open areas (Senna alata). Bacterial community structure was evaluated using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and bacterial community composition by V4 16S rRNA gene region pyrosequencing. T-RFLP analysis showed effect of soil types and plant species on rhizosphere bacterial community structure. Differential abundance of bacterial phyla, such as Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and Firmicutes, revealed that soil type contributes to shape the bacterial communities. Furthermore, bacterial phyla such as Firmicutes and Nitrospira were mostly influenced by plant species. Plant roots influenced several soil chemical properties, especially when plants were grown in ADE. These results showed that differences observed in rhizosphere bacterial community structure and composition can be influenced by plant species and soil fertility due to variation in soil attributes. PMID:25103911

  19. Transcriptome analysis of the Amazonian viper Bothrops atrox venom gland using expressed sequence tags (ESTs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiva, Márcia; Arraes, Fabricio B M; de Souza, Jonso Vieira; Rádis-Baptista, Gandhi; Prieto da Silva, Alvaro R B; Walter, Maria Emilia M T; Brigido, Marcelo de Macedo; Yamane, Tetsuo; López-Lozano, Jorge Luiz; Astolfi-Filho, Spartaco

    2009-03-15

    Bothrops atrox is a highly dangerous pit viper in the Brazilian Amazon region. We produced a global catalogue of gene transcripts to identify the main toxin and other protein families present in the B. atrox venom gland. We prepared a directional cDNA library, from which a set of 610 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were generated by bioinformatics processing. Our data indicated a predominance of transcripts encoding mainly metalloproteinases (59% of the toxins). The expression pattern of the B. atrox venom was similar to Bothrops insularis, Bothrops jararaca and Bothrops jararacussu in terms of toxin type, although some differences were observed. B. atrox showed a higher amount of the PIII class of metalloproteinases which correlates well with the observed intense hemorrhagic action of its toxin. Also, the PLA2 content was the second highest in this sample compared to the other three Bothrops transcriptomes. To our knowledge, this work is the first transcriptome analysis of an Amazonian rain forest pit viper and it will contribute to the body of knowledge regarding the gene diversity of the venom gland of members of the Bothrops genus. Moreover, our results can be used for future studies with other snake species from the Amazon region to investigate differences in gene patterns or phylogenetic relationships. PMID:19708221

  20. Comunidades de morcegos em hábitats de uma Mata Amazônica remanescente na Ilha de São Luís, Maranhão Bat communities of an Amazonian remnant forest of São Luís Island, Maranhão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Dominici Cruz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudos com comunidades de morcegos são escassos no Brasil, não sendo encontrado nenhum no Maranhão. Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar a composição de espécies da comunidade de morcegos do Parque Estadual do Bacanga (PEB, São Luís - MA, além de contribuir para o levantamento da fauna de morcegos do estado. Os morcegos foram capturados com três redes neblina de maio a agosto de 2004 em quatro diferentes hábitats (mata de capoeira, mata de terra firme, mata de várzea e mangue. A diversidade e similaridade entre hábitats foram calculadas, bem como a amplitude e sobreposição dos nichos das espécies consideradas comuns na área. Foram registradas 24 espécies de morcegos, sendo a maior diversidade encontrada na mata de várzea. A baixa similaridade constatada entre o hábitat de mangue e os demais hábitats indica a existência de dois conjuntos de espécies de morcegos distintos, o que é reforçado pelas sobreposições de nicho espacial das espécies mais comuns.There are few studies about bat communities in Brazil and none for the Maranhão state there is none. The present study aimed to analyze the bat community of the Bacanga State Park (PEB, São Luís - MA, and to contribute with bat data for the Maranhão state. The bats were sampled in four different habitats (capoeira forest, terra firme forest, riparian forest, and mangrove, using three mist nets from May to August 2004. Diversity and similarity were calculated, as well as the spatial niches width and overlap of the commonest species in PEB. Twenty four species of bats were recorded in PEB and the riparian habitat forest presented the highest diversity index. The low similarity found between mangrove and the remaining habitats seemed to identify two well-defined assemblages of bats in the sampled area, which is enforced by the spatial niche overlaps of the most commonness species.

  1. Effect of seven years of experimental drought on the aboveground biomass storage of an eastern Amazonian rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Antonio Carlos Lola; Galbraith, David; Almeida, Samuel; Fisher, Rosie; Phillips, Oliver; Metcalfe, Daniel; Levy, Peter; Portela, Bruno; da Costa, Mauricio; Meir, Patrick

    2010-05-01

    At least one climate model predicts severe reductions of rainfall over Amazonia during this century. Long-term throughfall exclusion (TFE) experiments represent the best available means to investigate the resilience of the Amazon rainforest to such droughts. Results are presented from a 7-year TFE study at Caxiuanã National Forest, eastern Amazonia. We focus on the impacts of the drought on tree mortality, wood production and aboveground carbon storage. Tree mortality in the TFE plot over the experimental period was 2.5% yr-1, compared to 1.25% yr-1 in a nearby Control plot experiencing normal rainfall. Differences in stem mortality between plots were greatest in the largest (> 40 cm dbh) size class (4.1% yr-1 in the TFE and 1.4% yr-1 in the Control). Wood production in the TFE plot was approximately 30% lower than in the Control plot. Together, these changes resulted in a loss of 37.8 ± 2.0 Mg C ha-1 (~ 20%) in the TFE plot (2002-2008), whereas the Control plot was essentially carbon neutral(change of - 0.2 ± 1.0 Mg C ha-1). These results are remarkably consistent with those from another TFE (at Tapajós National Forest), suggesting that Amazonian forests may respond to prolonged drought in a predictable manner.

  2. The impact of deforestation in the Amazonian atmospheric radiative balance: a remote sensing assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. T. Sena

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the Amazonian radiative budget after considering three aspects of deforestation: (i the emission of aerosols from biomass burning due to forest fires; (ii changes in surface albedo after deforestation and (iii modifications in the column water vapour amount over deforested areas. Simultaneous Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES shortwave fluxes and aerosol optical depth (AOD retrievals from the Moderate Resolution Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MODIS were analysed during the peak of the biomass burning seasons (August and September from 2000 to 2009. A discrete-ordinate radiative transfer (DISORT code was used to extend instantaneous remote sensing radiative forcing assessments into 24-h averages. The mean direct radiative forcing of aerosols at the top of the atmosphere (TOA during the biomass burning season for the 10-yr studied period was −5.6 ± 1.7 W m−2. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of the direct radiative forcing of aerosols over Amazon was obtained for the biomass burning season of each year. It was observed that for high AOD (larger than 1 at 550 nm the imbalance in the radiative forcing at the TOA may be as high as −20 W m−2 locally. The surface reflectance plays a major role in the aerosol direct radiative effect. The study of the effects of biomass burning aerosols over different surface types shows that the direct radiative forcing is systematically more negative over forest than over savannah-like covered areas. Values of −15.7 ± 2.4 W m−2550 nm and −9.3 ± 1.7 W m−2550 nm were calculated for the mean daily aerosol forcing efficiencies over forest and savannah-like vegetation respectively. The overall mean annual albedo-change radiative forcing due to deforestation over the state of Rondônia, Brazil, was determined as −7.3 ± 0.9 W m−2. Biomass burning aerosols impact the radiative

  3. Effect of interannual climate variability on carbon storage in Amazonian ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, H.; Melillo, J.M.; Kicklighter, D.W.; McGuire, David A.; Helfrich, J. V. K.; Moore, B.; Vorosmarty, C.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Amazon Basin contains almost one-half of the world's undisturbed tropical evergreen forest as well as large areas of tropical savanna. The forests account for about 10 per cent of the world's terrestrial primary productivity and for a similar fraction of the carbon stored in land ecosystems, and short-term field measurements suggest that these ecosystems are globally important carbon sinks. But tropical land ecosystems have experienced substantial interannual climate variability owing to frequent El Nino episodes in recent decades. Of particular importance to climate change policy is how such climate variations, coupled with increases in atmospheric CO2 concentration, affect terrestrial carbon storage. Previous model analyses have demonstrated the importance of temperature in controlling carbon storage. Here we use a transient process-based biogeochemical model of terrestrial ecosystems to investigate interannual variations of carbon storage in undisturbed Amazonian ecosystems in response to climate variability and increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration during the period 1980 to 1994. In El Nino years, which bring hot, dry weather to much of the Amazon region, the ecosystems act as a source of carbon to the atmosphere (up to 0.2 petagrams of carbon in 1987 and 1992). In other years, these ecosystems act as a carbon sink (up to 0.7 Pg C in 1981 and 1993). These fluxes are large; they compare to a 0.3 Pg C per year source to the atmosphere associated with deforestation in the Amazon Basin in the early 1990s. Soil moisture, which is affected by both precipitation and temperature, and which affects both plant and soil processes, appears to be an important control on carbon storage.

  4. Leaf Aging of Amazonian Canopy Trees: Insights to Tropical Ecological Processes and Satellited Detected Canopy Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavana-Bryant, C.; Malhi, Y.; Gerard, F.

    2015-12-01

    Leaf aging is a fundamental driver of changes in leaf traits, thereby, regulating ecosystem processes and remotely-sensed canopy dynamics. Leaf age is particularly important for carbon-rich tropical evergreen forests, as leaf demography (leaf age distribution) has been proposed as a major driver of seasonal productivity in these forests. We explore leaf reflectance as a tool to monitor leaf age and develop a novel spectra-based (PLSR) model to predict age using data from a phenological study of 1,072 leaves from 12 lowland Amazonian canopy tree species in southern Peru. Our results demonstrate monotonic decreases in LWC and Pmass and increase in LMA with age across species; Nmass and Cmassshowed monotonic but species-specific age responses. Spectrally, we observed large age-related variation across species, with the most age-sensitive spectral domains found to be: green peak (550nm), red edge (680-750 nm), NIR (700-850 nm), and around the main water absorption features (~1450 and ~1940 nm). A spectra-based model was more accurate in predicting leaf age (R2= 0.86; %RMSE= 33) compared to trait-based models using single (R2=0.07 to 0.73; %RMSE=7 to 38) and multiple predictors (step-wise analysis; R2=0.76; %RMSE=28). Spectral and trait-based models established a physiochemical basis for the spectral age model. The relative importance of the traits modifying the leaf spectra of aging leaves was: LWC>LMA>Nmass>Pmass,&Cmass. Vegetation indices (VIs), including NDVI, EVI2, NDWI and PRI were all age-dependent. This study highlights the importance of leaf age as a mediator of leaf traits, provides evidence of age-related leaf reflectance changes that have important impacts on VIs used to monitor canopy dynamics and productivity, and proposes a new approach to predicting and monitoring leaf age with important implications for remote sensing.

  5. Studies of the compositions of humic acids from Amazonian Dark Earth soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Etelvino H; deAzevedo, Eduardo R; Bonagamba, Tito J; Cunha, Tony J F; Madari, Beáta E; de M Benites, Vinícius; Hayes, Michael H B

    2007-01-15

    The compositions of humic acids (HAs) isolated from cultivated and forested "Terra Preta de Indio" or Amazonian Dark Earth soils (anthropogenic soils) were compared with those from adjacent non-anthropogenic soils (control soils) using elemental and thermogravimetric analyses, and a variety of solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. The thermogravimetric index, which indicates the molecular thermal resistance, was greater for the anthropogenic soils than for the control soils suggesting polycyclic aromatic components in the former. The cultivated anthropogenic soils were more enriched in C and depleted in H than the anthropogenic soils under forest, as the result of the selective degradation of aliphatic structures and the possible enrichment of H-deficient condensed aromatic structures. The combination of variable amplitude cross-polarization (VACP) and chemical shift anisotropy with total suppression of spinning sidebands experiments with composite pi pulses could be used to quantify the aromaticity of the HAs from the anthropogenic soils. From principal component analysis, using the VACP spectra, it was possible to separate the different constituents of the HAs, such as the carboxylated aromatic structures, from the anthropogenic soils and plant derived compounds. The data show that the HAs from anthropogenic soils have high contents of aryl and ionisable oxygenated functional groups, and the major functionalities from adjacent control soils are oxygenated functional groups from labile structures (carbohydrates, peptides, and with evidence for lignin structures). The anthropogenic soils HAs can be considered to be more recalcitrant, and with more stable reactive functional groups which may, in part, explain their more sustainable fertility due to the organic matter contribution to the soil cation exchange capacity. PMID:17310698

  6. Alluvial plain dynamics in the southern Amazonian foreland basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Lombardo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Alluvial plains are formed with sediments that rivers deposit on the adjacent flood-basin, mainly through crevasse splays and avulsions. These result from a combination of processes, some of which push the river towards the crevasse threshold, while others act as triggers. Based on the floodplain sedimentation patterns of large rivers in the southern Amazonian foreland basin, it has been suggested that alluvial plain sediment accumulation is primarily the result of river crevasse splays triggered by above normal precipitation events due to La Niña. However, more than 90 % of the Amazonian river network is made of small rivers and it is unknown whether small river floodplain sedimentation is influenced by the ENSO cycle as well. Using Landsat images from 1984 to 2014, here I analyse the behaviour of all the twelve tributaries of the Río Mamoré with a catchment in the Andes. I show that these are very active rivers and that the frequency of crevasses is not linked to ENSO activity. I found that most of the sediments eroded from the Andes by the tributaries of the Mamoré are deposited in the alluvial plains, before reaching the parent river. The mid- to late Holocene paleo-channels of these rivers are located tens of kilometres further away from the Andes than the modern crevasses. I conclude that the frequency of crevasses is controlled by intrabasinal processes that act on a year to decade time scale, while the average location of the crevasses is controlled by climatic or neo-tectonic events that act on a millennial scale. Finally, I discuss the implications of river dynamics on rural livelihoods and biodiversity in the Llanos de Moxos, a seasonally flooded savannah covering most of the southern Amazonian foreland basin and the world's largest RAMSAR site.

  7. Alluvial plain dynamics in the southern Amazonian foreland basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Umberto

    2016-05-01

    Alluvial plains are formed with sediments that rivers deposit on the adjacent flood-basin, mainly through crevasse splays and avulsions. These result from a combination of processes, some of which push the river towards the crevasse threshold, while others act as triggers. Based on the floodplain sedimentation patterns of large rivers in the southern Amazonian foreland basin, it has been suggested that alluvial plain sediment accumulation is primarily the result of river crevasse splays and sheet sands triggered by above-normal precipitation events due to La Niña. However, more than 90 % of the Amazonian river network is made of small rivers and it is unknown whether small river floodplain sedimentation is influenced by the ENSO cycle as well. Using Landsat images from 1984 to 2014, here I analyse the behaviour of all 12 tributaries of the Río Mamoré with a catchment in the Andes. I show that these are very active rivers and that the frequency of crevasses is not linked to ENSO activity. The data suggest that most of the sediments eroded from the Andes by the tributaries of the Mamoré are deposited in the alluvial plains, before reaching the parent river. The mid-to-late Holocene paleo-channels of these rivers are located tens of kilometres further away from the Andes than the modern crevasses. I conclude that the frequency of crevasses is controlled by intrabasinal processes that act on a yearly to decadal timescale, while the average location of the crevasses is controlled by climatic or neo-tectonic events that act on a millennial scale. Finally, I discuss the implications of river dynamics on rural livelihoods and biodiversity in the Llanos de Moxos, a seasonally flooded savannah covering most of the southern Amazonian foreland basin and the world's largest RAMSAR site.

  8. Sustainable Forest Management and Cadastre in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Güler Yalcin

    2012-01-01

    In Turkey the forest is one of the most important natural resources. It both affects the rural development processes and is affected from these. Nevertheless “deforestation” is the main forest problem in Turkey. Sustainable forest management is required for the forests meet the social, economic, ecological, cultural and spiritual needs of the next generation. “To protect and to secure the forest areas” is the initial studies to be done for sustainable forest management. To prevent deforestati...

  9. ECOLOGICAL WATER & THE FOREST-GARDEN UNIRRIGATED CULTURE%生态水与林园无灌溉栽培

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王炳章

    2001-01-01

    Ecological water concealed under the earth. First, avert huge waste of water, every year every mevaporate 3m water in the midsea region. Second, unirrigated forest-garden, Which do not have construct ditch, and cultivate cost of production dropped annually.%地表下的生态水,避免了塔克拉玛干沙漠每年每m蒸发3m水的巨额浪费;无灌溉林园,不修渠、不耕耘、生产成本逐年下降。

  10. Amazonian Buriti oil: chemical characterization and antioxidant potential

    OpenAIRE

    Speranza, P.; de Oliveira Falcão, A.; Alves Macedo, J.; da Silva, L. H.M.; da C. Rodrigues, A. M.; Alves Macedo, G.

    2016-01-01

    Buriti oil is an example of an Amazonian palm oil of economic importance. The local population uses this oil for the prevention and treatment of different diseases; however, there are few studies in the literature that evaluate its properties. In this study, detailed chemical and antioxidant properties of Buriti oil were determined. The predominant fatty acid was oleic acid (65.6%) and the main triacylglycerol classes were tri-unsaturated (50.0%) and di-unsaturated-mono-saturated (39.3%) tria...

  11. Carbon content in Amazonian Oxisols after forest conversion to pasture Variação do conteúdo de carbono orgânico em Latossolo da Amazônia após substituição da floresta por pastagens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Lopes da Silva Júnior

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil plays an important role in the C cycle, and substitution of tropical forest by cultivated land affects C dynamic and stock. This study was developed in an area of expansion of human settlement in the Eastern Amazon, in Itupiranga, State of Pará, to evaluate the effects of native forest conversion to Brachiaria brizantha pasture on C contents of a dystrophic Oxisol. Soil samples were collected in areas of native forest (NF, of 8 to 10 year old secondary forest (SF, 1 to 2 year old SF (P1-2, 5 to 7 year old SF (P5-7, and of 10 to 12 year old SF (P10-12, and from under pastures, in the layers 0-2, 2-5 and 5-10 cm, to evaluate C levels and stocks and carry out separation of OM based on particle size. After deforestation, soil density increased to a depth of 5 cm, with greater increase in older pastures. Variation in C levels was greatest in the top soil layer; C contents increased with increasing pasture age. In the layers 2-5 and 5-10 cm, C content proved to be stable for the types of plant cover evaluated. Highest C concentrations were found in the silt fraction; however, C contents were highest in the clay fraction, independent of the plant cover. An increase in C associated with the sand fraction in the form of little decomposed organic residues was observed in pastures, confirming greater sensitivity of this fraction to change in soil use.O solo desempenha importante papel no ciclo do C, porém a substituição da floresta tropical por áreas cultivadas altera a dinâmica e o estoque desse elemento. Em uma frente pioneira de colonização no município de Itupiranga (PA, na Amazônia Oriental, foi desenvolvido este estudo com o objetivo de avaliar as consequências da substituição de floresta nativa por pastagens de Brachiaria brizantha no conteúdo de C de um Latossolo Amarelo distrófico. As amostras de solo foram coletadas em área de floresta nativa (FN, floresta secundária de 8-10 anos (FS, pastagens de 1-2 anos (P1-2, de 5-7 anos

  12. Is the seasonal forest more vulnerable to drought effects in tropical Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, L.; Saatchi, S. S.; Yang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies have found that the seasonal forests in semi-arid region are more susceptible to severe drought events and the persistent effect of these climate extremes can last for 2 to 4 years. However, the Amazonian forests, where the plant available water is often abundant, seasonal forests are considered more drought-tolerant as water deficits coincide with seasonal peaks of solar radiation. But the interactions between climate and anthropogenic changes have made the scenario of these forests in the "arc of deforestation" complicated. The tight coupling between extreme droughts and fire intensity can cause widespread fire-induced tree mortality across southeastern Amazon forests. The legacy effects of droughts, as well as the frequent revisit of these extremes in the recent decade (e.g. the 2005 and 2010 Amazon droughts) have made the projection of forest recovery unclear. In this study, we use satellite proxies of canopy structure, skin temperature and water content from observations of MODIS NIR reflectance, land surface temperature and QSCAT radar backscatter to define the seasonality in the Amazonian forests. It is further calibrated using the measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence from GOSAT, terrestrial water storage from GRACE, as well as the structural metrics from GLAS waveforms. We delineate the post-drought effects of Amazon forests using seasonality-derived phenological regions. The results are expected to have a better understanding of the inter-annual variation of forest seasonality under the influence of both climate extremes and human-induced changes.

  13. Climatic and biotic controls on annual carbon storage in Amazonian ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, H.; Melillo, J.M.; Kicklighter, D.W.; McGuire, A.D.; Helfrich, J.; Moore, B.; Vorosmarty, C.J.

    2000-01-01

    1 The role of undisturbed tropical land ecosystems in the global carbon budget is not well understood. It has been suggested that inter-annual climate variability can affect the capacity of these ecosystems to store carbon in the short term. In this paper, we use a transient version of the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM) to estimate annual carbon storage in undisturbed Amazonian ecosystems during the period 1980-94, and to understand the underlying causes of the year-to-year variations in net carbon storage for this region. 2 We estimate that the total carbon storage in the undisturbed ecosystems of the Amazon Basin in 1980 was 127.6 Pg C, with about 94.3 Pg C in vegetation and 33.3 Pg C in the reactive pool of soil organic carbon. About 83% of the total carbon storage occurred in tropical evergreen forests. Based on our model's results, we estimate that, over the past 15 years, the total carbon storage has increased by 3.1 Pg C (+ 2%), with a 1.9-Pg C (+2%) increase in vegetation carbon and a 1.2-Pg C (+4%) increase in reactive soil organic carbon. The modelled results indicate that the largest relative changes in net carbon storage have occurred in tropical deciduous forests, but that the largest absolute changes in net carbon storage have occurred in the moist and wet forests of the Basin. 3 Our results show that the strength of interannual variations in net carbon storage of undisturbed ecosystems in the Amazon Basin varies from a carbon source of 0.2 Pg C/year to a carbon sink of 0.7 Pg C/year. Precipitation, especially the amount received during the drier months, appears to be a major controller of annual net carbon storage in the Amazon Basin. Our analysis indicates further that changes in precipitation combine with changes in temperature to affect net carbon storage through influencing soil moisture and nutrient availability. 4 On average, our results suggest that the undisturbed Amazonian ecosystems accumulated 0.2 Pg C/year as a result of climate

  14. cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Kreutz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Es un estudio cualitativo que adoptó como referencial teorico-motodológico la antropología y la etnografía. Presenta las experiencias vivenciadas por mujeres de una comunidad en el proceso salud-enfermedad, con el objetivo de comprender los determinantes sócio-culturales e históricos de las prácticas de prevención y tratamiento adoptados por el grupo cultural por medio de la entrevista semi-estructurada. Los temas que emergieron fueron: la relación entre la alimentación y lo proceso salud-enfermedad, las relaciones con el sistema de salud oficial y el proceso salud-enfermedad y lo sobrenatural. Los dados revelaron que los moradores de la comunidad investigada tienen un modo particular de explicar sus procedimientos terapéuticos. Consideramos que es papel de los profesionales de la salud en sus prácticas, la adopción de abordajes o enfoques que consideren al individuo en su dimensión sócio-cultural e histórica, considerando la enorme diversidad cultural en nuestro país.

  15. Holocene paleoenvironmental reconstruction in the Eastern Amazonian Basin: Comprido Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, L. S.; Moreira-Turcq, P.; Cordeiro, R. C.; Turcq, B.; Caquineau, S.; Viana, J. C. C.; Brandini, N.

    2013-07-01

    Two sediment cores were studied from Comprido Lake, a black water floodplain lake located near Monte Alegre City, Eastern Amazonian Basin. The total organic carbon (TOC), nitrogen content (TN), δ13CTOC, sedimentary chlorophyll, diatom record and mineralogical composition revealed different hydrological and climatic regimes during the Holocene. Between 10,300 and 7800 cal yr BP, a dry climate was suggested by low values of TOC and chlorophyll derivatives concentrations that are related to the development of a C4 grasses on unflooded mud banks. A gap in sedimentation due to a complete dryness of the lake occurred between 7800 and 3000 cal years BP corresponding to the Middle Holocene dry phase. From 3000 cal years BP onwards a gradual increase of the TOC, chlorophyll derivatives and Aulacoseira sp. suggest an increase in the productivity and in water lake level due to the high water flow of the Amazon River and the catchment area as well. The Comprido Lake record indicates that the Late Holocene in this region was characterized by a wetter climate, as also observed in other records of the Amazonian Basin.

  16. Structure and composition of the ground-herb community in a terra-firme Central Amazonian forest Estrutura e composição da comunidade herbácea terrestre em uma floresta de terra-firme da Amazônia Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Regina Capellotto Costa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The herb community of tropical forests is very little known, with few studies addressing its structure quantitatively. Even with this scarce body of information, it is clear that the ground herbs are a rich group, comprising 14 to 40% of the species found in total species counts in tropical forests. The present study had the objective of increasing the knowledge about the structure and composition of the ground-herb community and to compare the sites for which there are similar studies. The study was conducted in a tropical non-inundated and evergreen forest 90 km north of Manaus, AM. Ground herbs were surveyed in 22 transects of 40 m², distributed in five plots of 4 ha. The inventoried community was composed of 35 species, distributed in 24 genera and 18 families. Angiosperms were represented by 8 families and Pteridophytes by 10 families. Marantaceae (12 sp and Cyperaceae (4 sp were the richest families. Marantaceae and Poaceae were the families with greatest abundance and cover. Marantaceae, Poaceae, Heliconiaceae and Pteridophytes summed 96% of total herb cover, and therefore were responsible for almost all the cover of the community. The 10 most important species had 83.7% of the individuals. In general, the most abundant species were also the most frequent. Richness per transect varied from 7 to 19 species, and abundance varied from 30 to 114 individuals. The community structure was quite similar to 3 other sites in South America and one site in Asia.A comunidade herbácea das florestas tropicais é pouco conhecida, havendo poucos estudos quantitativos de sua estrutura. Mesmo com esta quantidade escassa de informações, é possível afirmar que as ervas terrestres são um grupo rico, representando 14 a 40% das espécies encontradas em contagens totais de espécies em florestas tropicais. O presente estudo teve como objetivo aumentar o conhecimento sobre a estrutura e composição da comunidade de ervas terrestres e comparar as

  17. Amazonian volcanic activity at the Syrtis volcanic province, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platz, Thomas; Jodlowski, Piotr; Fawdon, Peter; Michael, Greg; Tanaka, Kenneth

    2014-05-01

    The Syrtis Major volcanic province, including the entire Syrtis Major Planum, is located near the Martian highland/lowland transitional zone west of Isidis Planitia. It covers ≡7.4×105 km2 and contains two low-shield volcanic edifices with N-S elongated calderas named Nili and Meroe Paterae. The estimated thickness of erupted material in the province ranges from approximately 0.5 km to 1.0 km with a total volume of about 1.6-3.2×105 km3 [1]. The timing of volcanic activity in the Syrtis Major volcanic province has been suggested to be restricted to the Hesperian Period [1-4]. In the geological map of Greeley and Guest [2], volcanic material of Syrtis Major was assigned an Hesperian age based on the density of observed craters larger than 5 km in diameter. Using the same crater density range, recent studies of Hiesinger et al. [1] and Tanaka et al. [3] and Tanaka et al. [4] assigned an Early Hesperian and Early to Late Hesperian age, respectively, for the entire province. In this study we mapped lava flows, lava channels, and major lava-flow margins and report model ages for lava-flow formation and caldera segments of Nili and Meroe Paterae. The objective of this ongoing survey is to better understand the eruption frequency of this volcanic province. In total, we mapped 67 lava flows, caldera segments, and intra-crater fillings of which 55 were dated. Crater size-frequency distributions (CSFD) were mapped on HRSC and CTX imagery using CraterTools [5]. CSFDs were analyzed and model ages determined in Craterstats [6] using the production and chronology functions of Ivanov [7] and Hartmann and Neukum [8], respectively. A detailed description of the utilization of the crater-counting technique and its limitations with respect to small-scale mapping is given in Platz et al. [9]. Model ages range between 838 Ma (Middle Amazonian) to 3.6 Ga (Late Hesperian). In our survey, a broad age peak occurs between 2 to 2.6 Ga, continuously declining thereafter. We note that

  18. Embryo culture is an efficient way to conserve a medicinally important endangered forest tree species Strychnos potatorum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Srikanth Kagithoju; Vikram Godishala; Madhusudhan Kairamkonda; Rama Swamy Nanna

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports a protocol for germination of Strychnos potatorum (ver.Tel.Chilla) using zygotic embryo culture as an embryo rescue method.A 100% germination rate was obtained by culturing the embryos on full-strength Murashige and Skoog's medium (MS) containing 20 g/L sucrose in comparison to McCown and Lloyd's Woody Plant Medium (WPM).Germination rates decreased when the sucrose concentration was lower or higher than 20 g·L-1.WPM/MS medium containing glucose at levels 30,20,15 g·L-1 showed a smaller percentage of germination and at quarter strength,WPM/MS medium with glucose did not respond.Multiple shoot formation was found at 1.0-2.0 mg/L BAP; 3.0 mg/L Kn; 2.0 mg/L TDZ on MS medium with 20 g·L-1sucrose.Germination rates improved when the embryos were placed upright (vertically) in the medium.The in vitro germinated seedlings were acclimatized in a walk-in-chamber and maintained in the green house with the survival rate of 65%-75%.These plants were transferred to the field and were found to be phenotypically normal,healthy and similar to donor plants.This protocol will be useful to overcome seed dormancy and for rapid multiplication and conservation of S.potatorum using zygotic embryo culture.

  19. Relação entre diferentes espécies de formigas e a mirmecófita Cordia nodosa Lamarck (Boraginaceae em áreas de mata ripária na Amazônia mato-grossense Relationship among different plant-ants and its myrmecophite host Cordia nodosa Lamarck (Boraginaceae in a riparian Mato Grosso Amazonian forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Junqueira Izzo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Os benefícios obtidos por um organismo em uma associação mutualística podem variar em função de fatores ambientais, bem como entre as diferentes espécies que podem estar associadas. Neste trabalho demonstramos que quatro espécies de formigas, Crematogaster brasiliensis, Allomerus octoarticulatus e duas não identificadas do gênero Azteca podem ser encontradas associadas à mirmecófita Cordia nodosa em florestas ripárias sul-amazônicas. Essa composição de espécies de formigas é mais similar a encontrada na Amazônia Andina do que aquela da Amazônia Central brasileira. A colonização por formigas parece ser determinante, pois diminuiu a herbivoria e, consequentemente, aumentou a probabilidade de C. nodosa produzir frutos. Adicionalmente, mesmo não havendo diferença na herbivoria entre plantas colonizadas pelas diferentes espécies de formigas, a probabilidade de uma planta colonizada por formigas do gênero Allomerus produzir frutos é menor do que quando colonizadas pelas outras espécies de formigas. Esse estudo demonstra a dependência de C. nodosa pela colonização de formigas para sua reprodução. Contudo, conforme outros estudos realizados em outras áreas da Amazônia demonstram, nossos resultados também sugerem que Allomerus pode estar castrando as plantas hospedeiras, agindo como parasita em toda a sua distribuição geográfica.The benefits obtained by an organism when involved in a mutualistic interaction vary depending on environmental factors, as well as among the identity of the involved species. In this study, we showed that four ant species, Crematogaster brasiliensis, Allomerus octoarticulatus, and two unidentified Azteca species can be found associated to the myrmecophite Cordia nodosa in riparian forests in the South of Amazonia. This composition of ant-associated species is more similar in forests of Andean Amazon than in Central Amazonia. The colonization of an ant colony on C. nodosa seems to be vital

  20. 近三十年国内森林文化概念、结构与价值研究综述%Literature Review of the Concept, Structure and Value of Forest Culture in last 30 Years in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志刚; 王禹浪; 王俊铮

    2015-01-01

    森林作为陆地自然界生态系统中重要的组成部分,为人类活动提供了重要的物质载体,是人类创造文化和文明的摇篮。人类的祖先便是从森林中走出,一步步迈向草原和平原,走出莽荒,走向文明。人类始终与森林朝夕相伴,相互依存,并不断地将自己对森林的认识、体会和感悟融入到森林之中,使森林被赋予了人格化的意义,从而形成了内涵丰富的森林文化。随着学术界对森林文化的关注度日益提高,学术界在森林文化的内涵、特征、结构、价值等方面取得了一定的成果,有许多见仁见智的精彩论述。本文拟对近三十年以来国内对森林文化的定义与特征、内容结构、价值及其意义研究的成果进行系统梳理,力求对近些年来关于森林文化上述问题的研究现状予以综述。%Forest, as an important part of land ecosystem in nature, is an important material source of human activities, and the cradle of human civilization. Man is much dependent on forest and deepens his knowledge and immersed in the forest in eastablishing forestry culture by putting human emotion into the forest. And we have reached to some externt the connotaion, the features and the structure of the forest culture with forest being paid more and more attention, and there have been some excellent remarks on the forest culture. This paper tries to sort out the latest research work of the forest culture within 30 years based on the previous study.

  1. Influências de Atta spp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae na recuperação da vegetação pós-fogo em floresta de transição amazônica Influences of leafcutter ant Atta spp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae on vegetation recovery after fire in Amazonian transitional forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Santana Carvalho

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo investigou o papel das saúvas na recuperação da vegetação pós-fogo. Foi hipotetizado que a perturbação do fogo aumenta a abundância de ninhos de saúva (1 e as atividades de remoção de sementes (2 e desfolha (3, especialmente no ambiente de borda. Os ninhos de saúva foram inventariados e mapeados e após 17 meses, checados para o registro de sua atividade e de novas colônias emergindo na área. Realizou-se experimentos comparativos de remoção de sementes e desfolha de plântulas em duas parcelas de 50 ha, uma submetida a fogo anual (tratamento e outra sem fogo (controle. A abundância de ninhos de saúva foi maior na parcela tratamento que na parcela controle, especialmente na borda da floresta. As espécies encontradas foram: Atta cephalotes, A. laevigata e A. sexdens , sendo esta última a espécie mais abundante e que mostrou aumento em número de colônias ativas após 17 meses. O aumento na abundância de ninhos na parcela tratamento foi acompanhado por um aumento na atividade dessas formigas. Enquanto mais de duas folhas foram arrancadas por plântula nessa parcela, menos de uma foi registrada na parcela controle. Também a abundância média de galhos desfolhados e de sementes removidas por saúvas foi maior na parcela tratamento que na parcela controle. As saúvas tanto podem diminuir ou retardar o processo de regeneração florestal pós-fogo, quanto acelerá-lo, devido à elevada predação seletiva que favorece as espécies menos palatáveis. Desta forma, suas atividades podem modificador apenas a composição da vegetação recuperando-se do fogo.In this study we investigated the role of leaf-cutting ants in the post-fire vegetation recovery. We hypothesized that a forest plot submitted to annual fire presents: (1 higher abundance of leaf-cutting ant nests; (2 higher removal of seeds; and (3 higher herbivory rates of leaf-cutting ants, when compared to the forest plots without fire (control. The leaf

  2. The role of gallery forests in the distribution of cerrado mammals O papel das matas de galeria na distribuição dos mamíferos do cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Johnson; Saraiva, P.M.; Coelho, D

    1999-01-01

    The Cerrado biome contains a rich mammal community, with an influence from the Amazonian and Atlantic rainforests, principally observed in the gallery forests. In this paper, through literature review, it is shown that the non-volant mammal community of the gallery forests is distinct from the mammal communities of any other physionomy of the Cerrado. Additionally, the gallery forests contain twice as many species common to the rainforests when compared to all the other physiognomies of the C...

  3. C dynamics in Amazonian podzols under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunan, Naoise; Soro, Andre; Potard, Kevin; Pouteau, Valerie; Montes, Celia; Melphi, Adolpho; Lucas, Yves; Chenu, Claire

    2016-04-01

    It has recently been shown that the C stocks in Amazonian podzols are very large. They are much larger than was previously thought, particularly in the Bh horizon, which has been estimated to contain in excess of 13Pg C for Amazonia alone. It is predicted that the changes in regional climate will result in a drier soil water regime which may affect the C dynamics in these soils that are usually saturated. In order to determine the vulnerability to change of the organic C contained in the Amazonian podzols, a series of incubation experiments were established in which the effects of a number of different factors on microbial decomposition were measured. The direct effect of drier soil water regimes was tested by incubating undisturbed cores from the Bh horizon at a range of matric potentials (saturation to wilting point). Contrary to what is usually found in soils, no significant difference in mineralisation was found among matric potentials, suggesting that other factors control microbial mineralisation of this organic C. The effect of nitrogen additions, of anaerobic conditions and of the addition labile C substrate were also tested on undisturbed cores of the Bh horizon of the podzols. Samples incubated under aerobic conditions produced 3 times more CO2 than samples incubated under anaerobic conditions, whilst samples incubated under aerobic conditions with the addition of N mineralised 6.7 times more CO2 than the anaerobic samples. The addition of labile C did not have a significant effect on C mineralisation, i.e. there was no priming effect. The combined addition of labile C and mineral N did not stimulate C mineralisation more than N additions alone. By extrapolating the differences obtained here to the whole of the Amazonian podzols, it is estimated that changes in conditions which result in an increase in O2 and in N (i.e. changes in vegetation due to increases in dry periods with the establishment of a savanna for example) in the soil will cause the release

  4. Estimating the global conservation status of more than 15,000 Amazonian tree species

    OpenAIRE

    H. ter Steege; Pitman, NC; Killeen, TJ; Laurance, WF; Peres, CA; Guevara, JE; Salomão, RP; Castilho, CV; Amaral, IL; de Almeida Matos, FD; de Souza Coelho, L; Magnusson, WE; Phillips, OL; de Andrade Lima Filho, D; de Jesus Veiga Carim, M

    2015-01-01

    Estimates of extinction risk for Amazonian plant and animal species are rare and not often incorporated into land-use policy and conservation planning. We overlay spatial distribution models with historical and projected deforestation to show that at least 36% and up to 57% of all Amazonian tree species are likely to qualify as globally threatened under International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List criteria. If confirmed, these results would increase the number of threatened ...

  5. Estimating the global conservation status of more than 15,000 Amazonian tree species.

    OpenAIRE

    H. ter Steege; Pitman, NC; Killeen, TJ; Laurance, WF; Peres, CA; Guevara, JE; Salomão, RP; Castilho, CV; Amaral, IL; de Almeida Matos, FD; de Souza Coelho, L; Magnusson, WE; Phillips, OL; de Andrade Lima Filho, D; de Jesus Veiga Carim, M

    2015-01-01

    Estimates of extinction risk for Amazonian plant and animal species are rare and not often incorporated into land-use policy and conservation planning. We overlay spatial distribution models with historical and projected deforestation to show that at least 36% and up to 57% of all Amazonian tree species are likely to qualify as globally threatened under International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List criteria. If confirmed, these results would increase the number of threatened ...

  6. Impacts of different management systems on the physical quality of an Amazonian Oxisol

    OpenAIRE

    Elaine Maria Silva Guedes; Antonio Rodrigues Fernandes; Herdjania Veras de Lima; Ademar Pereira Serra; José Ribamar Costa; Rafael da Silva Guedes

    2012-01-01

    The physical quality of Amazonian soils is relatively unexplored, due to the unique characteristics of these soils. The index of soil physical quality is a widely accepted measure of the structural quality of soils and has been used to specify the structural quality of some tropical soils, as for example of the Cerrado ecoregion of Brazil. The research objective was to evaluate the physical quality index of an Amazonian dystrophic Oxisol under different management systems. Soils under five ma...

  7. Morphology, morphometry and ultrastructure of the Amazonian manatee (Sirenia: Trichechidae) spermatozoa

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo S. Amaral; Carolina M. Lucci; Fernando C. W. Rosas; da Silva, Vera M. F.; Sônia N Báo

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the morphological, morphometric and ultrastructural characteristics of the Amazonian manatee Trichechus inunguis (Natterer, 1883) spermatozoon. The spermatozoa were obtained from a urine sample of an adult T. inunguis kept in captivity. The spermatozoa were analyzed by light and transmission electron microscopy. The head of Amazonian manatee spermatozoa had a flat oval shape and a well distinguishable midpiece. The mean dimensions of the spermatozoa were: head length, 7.4...

  8. Above-ground biomass and structure of 260 African tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Simon L.; Sonké, Bonaventure; Sunderland, Terry; Begne, Serge K.; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela; van der Heijden, Geertje M. F.; Phillips, Oliver L.; Affum-Baffoe, Kofi; Baker, Timothy R.; Banin, Lindsay; Bastin, Jean-François; Beeckman, Hans; Boeckx, Pascal; Bogaert, Jan; De Cannière, Charles; Chezeaux, Eric; Clark, Connie J.; Collins, Murray; Djagbletey, Gloria; Djuikouo, Marie Noël K.; Droissart, Vincent; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Ewango, Cornielle E. N.; Fauset, Sophie; Feldpausch, Ted R.; Foli, Ernest G.; Gillet, Jean-François; Hamilton, Alan C.; Harris, David J.; Hart, Terese B.; de Haulleville, Thales; Hladik, Annette; Hufkens, Koen; Huygens, Dries; Jeanmart, Philippe; Jeffery, Kathryn J.; Kearsley, Elizabeth; Leal, Miguel E.; Lloyd, Jon; Lovett, Jon C.; Makana, Jean-Remy; Malhi, Yadvinder; Marshall, Andrew R.; Ojo, Lucas; Peh, Kelvin S.-H.; Pickavance, Georgia; Poulsen, John R.; Reitsma, Jan M.; Sheil, Douglas; Simo, Murielle; Steppe, Kathy; Taedoumg, Hermann E.; Talbot, Joey; Taplin, James R. D.; Taylor, David; Thomas, Sean C.; Toirambe, Benjamin; Verbeeck, Hans; Vleminckx, Jason; White, Lee J. T.; Willcock, Simon; Woell, Hannsjorg; Zemagho, Lise

    2013-01-01

    We report above-ground biomass (AGB), basal area, stem density and wood mass density estimates from 260 sample plots (mean size: 1.2 ha) in intact closed-canopy tropical forests across 12 African countries. Mean AGB is 395.7 Mg dry mass ha−1 (95% CI: 14.3), substantially higher than Amazonian values, with the Congo Basin and contiguous forest region attaining AGB values (429 Mg ha−1) similar to those of Bornean forests, and significantly greater than East or West African forests. AGB therefore appears generally higher in palaeo- compared with neotropical forests. However, mean stem density is low (426 ± 11 stems ha−1 greater than or equal to 100 mm diameter) compared with both Amazonian and Bornean forests (cf. approx. 600) and is the signature structural feature of African tropical forests. While spatial autocorrelation complicates analyses, AGB shows a positive relationship with rainfall in the driest nine months of the year, and an opposite association with the wettest three months of the year; a negative relationship with temperature; positive relationship with clay-rich soils; and negative relationships with C : N ratio (suggesting a positive soil phosphorus–AGB relationship), and soil fertility computed as the sum of base cations. The results indicate that AGB is mediated by both climate and soils, and suggest that the AGB of African closed-canopy tropical forests may be particularly sensitive to future precipitation and temperature changes. PMID:23878327

  9. Above-ground biomass and structure of 260 African tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Simon L; Sonké, Bonaventure; Sunderland, Terry; Begne, Serge K; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela; van der Heijden, Geertje M F; Phillips, Oliver L; Affum-Baffoe, Kofi; Baker, Timothy R; Banin, Lindsay; Bastin, Jean-François; Beeckman, Hans; Boeckx, Pascal; Bogaert, Jan; De Cannière, Charles; Chezeaux, Eric; Clark, Connie J; Collins, Murray; Djagbletey, Gloria; Djuikouo, Marie Noël K; Droissart, Vincent; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Ewango, Cornielle E N; Fauset, Sophie; Feldpausch, Ted R; Foli, Ernest G; Gillet, Jean-François; Hamilton, Alan C; Harris, David J; Hart, Terese B; de Haulleville, Thales; Hladik, Annette; Hufkens, Koen; Huygens, Dries; Jeanmart, Philippe; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Kearsley, Elizabeth; Leal, Miguel E; Lloyd, Jon; Lovett, Jon C; Makana, Jean-Remy; Malhi, Yadvinder; Marshall, Andrew R; Ojo, Lucas; Peh, Kelvin S-H; Pickavance, Georgia; Poulsen, John R; Reitsma, Jan M; Sheil, Douglas; Simo, Murielle; Steppe, Kathy; Taedoumg, Hermann E; Talbot, Joey; Taplin, James R D; Taylor, David; Thomas, Sean C; Toirambe, Benjamin; Verbeeck, Hans; Vleminckx, Jason; White, Lee J T; Willcock, Simon; Woell, Hannsjorg; Zemagho, Lise

    2013-01-01

    We report above-ground biomass (AGB), basal area, stem density and wood mass density estimates from 260 sample plots (mean size: 1.2 ha) in intact closed-canopy tropical forests across 12 African countries. Mean AGB is 395.7 Mg dry mass ha⁻¹ (95% CI: 14.3), substantially higher than Amazonian values, with the Congo Basin and contiguous forest region attaining AGB values (429 Mg ha⁻¹) similar to those of Bornean forests, and significantly greater than East or West African forests. AGB therefore appears generally higher in palaeo- compared with neotropical forests. However, mean stem density is low (426 ± 11 stems ha⁻¹ greater than or equal to 100 mm diameter) compared with both Amazonian and Bornean forests (cf. approx. 600) and is the signature structural feature of African tropical forests. While spatial autocorrelation complicates analyses, AGB shows a positive relationship with rainfall in the driest nine months of the year, and an opposite association with the wettest three months of the year; a negative relationship with temperature; positive relationship with clay-rich soils; and negative relationships with C : N ratio (suggesting a positive soil phosphorus-AGB relationship), and soil fertility computed as the sum of base cations. The results indicate that AGB is mediated by both climate and soils, and suggest that the AGB of African closed-canopy tropical forests may be particularly sensitive to future precipitation and temperature changes. PMID:23878327

  10. The OpenForest Portal as an Open Learning Ecosystem: Co-Developing in the Study of a Multidisciplinary Phenomenon in a Cultural Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljeström, Anu; Enkenberg, Jorma; Vanninen, Petteri; Vartiainen, Henriikka; Pöllänen, Sinikka

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the OpenForest portal and its related multidisciplinary learning project. The OpenForest portal is an open learning environment and ecosystem, in which students can participate in co-developing and co-creating practices. The aim of the OpenForest ecosystem is to create an extensive interactive network of diverse learning…

  11. Lipase Activity among Bacteria Isolated from Amazonian Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willerding, André Luis; de Oliveira, Luiz Antonio; Moreira, Francisco Wesen; Germano, Mariana Gomes; Chagas, Aloísio Freitas

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to select lipase-producing bacteria collected from different counties of the Amazon region. Of the 440 bacteria strains, 181 were selected for the lipase assay in qualitative tests at Petri dishes, being 75 (41%) lipase positive. The enzymatic index was determined during fifteen days at different temperatures (30°, 35°, 40°, and 45°C). The highest lipase activity was observed within 72 hours at 30°C. Twelve bacteria strains presented an index equal to or greater than the standard used like reference, demonstrating the potential of microbial resource. After the bioassay in Petri dishes, the selected bacteria strains were analyzed in quantitative tests on p-nitrophenyl palmitate (p-NPP). A group of the strains was selected for other phases of study with the use in oleaginous substrates of the Amazonian flora, aiming for the application in processes like oil biotransformation. PMID:22007294

  12. Lipase Activity among Bacteria Isolated from Amazonian Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luis Willerding

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to select lipase-producing bacteria collected from different counties of the Amazon region. Of the 440 bacteria strains, 181 were selected for the lipase assay in qualitative tests at Petri dishes, being 75 (41% lipase positive. The enzymatic index was determined during fifteen days at different temperatures (30°, 35°, 40°, and 45°C. The highest lipase activity was observed within 72 hours at 30°C. Twelve bacteria strains presented an index equal to or greater than the standard used like reference, demonstrating the potential of microbial resource. After the bioassay in Petri dishes, the selected bacteria strains were analyzed in quantitative tests on p-nitrophenyl palmitate (p-NPP. A group of the strains was selected for other phases of study with the use in oleaginous substrates of the Amazonian flora, aiming for the application in processes like oil biotransformation.

  13. Optimising bait for pitfall trapping of Amazonian dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Charles J; Louzada, Julio; Beiroz, Wallace; Ewers, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    The accurate sampling of communities is vital to any investigation of ecological processes and biodiversity. Dung beetles have emerged as a widely used focal taxon in environmental studies and can be sampled quickly and inexpensively using baited pitfalls. Although there is now a wealth of available data on dung beetle communities from around the world, there is a lack of standardisation between sampling protocols for accurately sampling dung beetle communities. In particular, bait choice is often led by the idiosyncrasies of the researcher, logistic problems and the dung sources available, which leads to difficulties for inter-study comparisons. In general, human dung is the preferred choice, however, it is often in short supply, which can severely limit sampling effort. By contrast, pigs may produce up to 20 times the volume. We tested the ability of human and pig dung to attract a primary forest dung beetle assemblage, as well as three mixes of the two baits in different proportions. Analyses focussed on the comparability of sampling with pig or human-pig dung mixes with studies that have sampled using human dung. There were no significant differences between richness and abundance sampled by each bait. The assemblages sampled were remarkably consistent across baits, and ordination analyses showed that the assemblages sampled by mixed dung baits were not significantly different from that captured by pure human dung, with the assemblages sampled by 10% and 90% pig mixes structurally most similar to assemblages sampled by human dung. We suggest that a 10:90 human:pig ratio, or similar, is an ideal compromise between sampling efficiency, inter-study comparability and the availability of large quantities of bait for sampling Amazonian dung beetles. Assessing the comparability of assemblage samples collected using different baits represents an important step to facilitating large-scale meta-analyses of dung beetle assemblages collected using non-standard methodology.

  14. Asymmetric dispersal and colonization success of Amazonian plant-ants queens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio M Bruna

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The dispersal ability of queens is central to understanding ant life-history evolution, and plays a fundamental role in ant population and community dynamics, the maintenance of genetic diversity, and the spread of invasive ants. In tropical ecosystems, species from over 40 genera of ants establish colonies in the stems, hollow thorns, or leaf pouches of specialized plants. However, little is known about the relative dispersal ability of queens competing for access to the same host plants. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used empirical data and inverse modeling--a technique developed by plant ecologists to model seed dispersal--to quantify and compare the dispersal kernels of queens from three Amazonian ant species that compete for access to host-plants. We found that the modal colonization distance of queens varied 8-fold, with the generalist ant species (Crematogaster laevis having a greater modal distance than two specialists (Pheidole minutula, Azteca sp. that use the same host-plants. However, our results also suggest that queens of Azteca sp. have maximal distances that are four-sixteen times greater than those of its competitors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We found large differences between ant species in both the modal and maximal distance ant queens disperse to find vacant seedlings used to found new colonies. These differences could result from interspecific differences in queen body size, and hence wing musculature, or because queens differ in their ability to identify potential host plants while in flight. Our results provide support for one of the necessary conditions underlying several of the hypothesized mechanisms promoting coexistence in tropical plant-ants. They also suggest that for some ant species limited dispersal capability could pose a significant barrier to the rescue of populations in isolated forest fragments. Finally, we demonstrate that inverse models parameterized with field data are an excellent means

  15. Química atmosférica na Amazônia: a floresta e as emissões de queimadas controlando a composição da atmosfera amazônica Atmospheric chemistry in Amazonia: the forest and the biomass burning emissions controlling the composition of the Amazonian atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Artaxo

    2005-06-01

    several key atmospheric processes in the region. Cloud formation mechanisms, for instance, are strongly affected when the concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN changes from 200-300 CCN/cc in the wet season to 5,000-10,000 CCN/cc in the dry season. The cloud droplet radius is reduced from values of 18 to 25 micrometers in the wet season to 5 to 10 micrometers in the dry season, suppressing cloud formation and the occurrence of precipitation under some conditions. Ozone is a key trace gas for changes in the forest health, with concentrations increasing from 12 parts per billion (ppb, at the wet season, to values as high as 100 ppb (in the dry season in areas strongly affected by biomass burning emissions. At this level, ozone could be damaging the vegetation in regions far from the emissions. The atmospheric radiation balance is also strongly affected, with a net loss of up to 70% of photosynthetic active radiation at the surface.

  16. Fine litter accumulation in Central Amazonian Tropical Rainforest canopy Acúmulo de liteira fina no dossel de uma Floresta Tropical na Amazônia Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Rita do Couto-Santos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Fine litter dynamics within the canopy differ from litter dynamics on the forest floor for reasons such as differences in microclimate, substrate, disturbance level, stratum influence and decomposition rates. This study is the first attempt to quantify the fine litter accumulated in the canopy of Central Amazonian forests. We compared the canopy litter accumulation to fine litter-layer on forest floor and to other forests and also investigated which were the mostly accumulated litter omponents. We found that Central Amazonian Rainforest intercepts greater fine litter in the canopy (294 g.m-2 compared to other forest formations with higher winds speed as in a Costa Rican Cloud Forest (170 g.m-2. The mean canopy fine litter accumulated at the end of the dry season was less than a half of that on soil surface (833 g.m-2 and the fine wood component dominates the canopy samplings (174 g.m-2 while leafy component predominate on soil surface litter (353 g.m-2.A dinâmica da liteira fina no dossel difere da dinâmica no chão da floresta por razões como diferenças no microclima, tipo de substrato, taxas de decomposição, distúrbios e influência dos estratos. Esta é a primeira tentativa de quantificar a liteira fina acumulada no dossel das florestas da Amazônia Central. Comparamos o acúmulo da liteira no dossel com a camada de liteira do chão da floresta e com outros tipos de florestas e investigamos quais componentes da liteira acumularam em maiores quantidades. A floresta estudada na Amazônia Central interceptou uma maior quantidade de liteira no dossel (294 g.m-2 do que outras florestas com maior influência dos ventos, como na Costa Rica (170 g.m-2. A média de liteira no dossel no fim da estação seca foi menos da metade da acumulada sobre o solo (833 g.m-2. Os galhos finos dominaram nas amostras do dossel (174 g.m-2 enquanto as folhas predominaram na liteira sobre o solo (353 g.m-2.

  17. Empty forest or empty rivers? A century of commercial hunting in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, André P.; Fewster, Rachel M.; Venticinque, Eduardo M.; Peres, Carlos A.; Levi, Taal; Rohe, Fabio; Shepard, Glenn H.

    2016-01-01

    The Amazon basin is the largest and most species-rich tropical forest and river system in the world, playing a pivotal role in global climate regulation and harboring hundreds of traditional and indigenous cultures. It is a matter of intense debate whether the ecosystem is threatened by hunting practices, whereby an “empty forest” loses critical ecological functions. Strikingly, no previous study has examined Amazonian ecosystem resilience through the perspective of the massive 20th century international trade in furs and skins. We present the first historical account of the scale and impacts of this trade and show that whereas aquatic species suffered basin-wide population collapse, terrestrial species did not. We link this differential resilience to the persistence of adequate spatial refuges for terrestrial species, enabling populations to be sustained through source-sink dynamics, contrasting with unremitting hunting pressure on more accessible aquatic habitats. Our findings attest the high vulnerability of aquatic fauna to unregulated hunting, particularly during years of severe drought. We propose that the relative resilience of terrestrial species suggests a marked opportunity for managing, rather than criminalizing, contemporary traditional subsistence hunting in Amazonia, through both the engagement of local people in community-based comanagement programs and science-led conservation governance. PMID:27757421

  18. Regional-scale drivers of forest structure and function in northwestern Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Higgins

    Full Text Available Field studies in Amazonia have found a relationship at continental scales between soil fertility and broad trends in forest structure and function. Little is known at regional scales, however, about how discrete patterns in forest structure or functional attributes map onto underlying edaphic or geological patterns. We collected airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging data and VSWIR (Visible to Shortwave Infrared imaging spectroscopy measurements over 600 km2 of northwestern Amazonian lowland forests. We also established 83 inventories of plant species composition and soil properties, distributed between two widespread geological formations. Using these data, we mapped forest structure and canopy reflectance, and compared them to patterns in plant species composition, soils, and underlying geology. We found that variations in soils and species composition explained up to 70% of variation in canopy height, and corresponded to profound changes in forest vertical profiles. We further found that soils and plant species composition explained more than 90% of the variation in canopy reflectance as measured by imaging spectroscopy, indicating edaphic and compositional control of canopy chemical properties. We last found that soils explained between 30% and 70% of the variation in gap frequency in these forests, depending on the height threshold used to define gaps. Our findings indicate that a relatively small number of edaphic and compositional variables, corresponding to underlying geology, may be responsible for variations in canopy structure and chemistry over large expanses of Amazonian forest.

  19. Urban Forest and Rural Cities: Multi-sited Households, Consumption Patterns, and Forest Resources in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin R. Sears

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In much of the Amazon Basin, approximately 70% of the population lives in urban areas and urbanward migration continues. Based on data collected over more than a decade in two long-settled regions of Amazonia, we find that rural–urban migration in the region is an extended and complex process. Like recent rural–urban migrants worldwide, Amazonian migrants, although they may be counted as urban residents, are often not absent from rural areas but remain members of multi-sited households and continue to participate in rural–urban networks and in rural land-use decisions. Our research indicates that, despite their general poverty, these migrants have affected urban markets for both food and construction materials. We present two cases: that of açaí palm fruit in the estuary of the Amazon and of cheap construction timbers in the Peruvian Amazon. We find that many new Amazonian rural–urban migrants have maintained some important rural patterns of both consumption and knowledge. Through their consumer behavior, they are affecting the areal extent of forests; in the two floodplain regions discussed, tree cover is increasing. We also find changes in forest composition, reflecting the persistence of rural consumption patterns in cities resulting in increased demand for and production of açaí and cheap timber species.

  20. Resilience of southwestern Amazon forests to anthropogenic edge effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Oliver L; Rose, Sam; Mendoza, Abel Monteagudo; Vargas, Percy Núñez

    2006-12-01

    Anthropogenic edge effects can compromise the conservation value of mature tropical forests. To date most edge-effect research in Amazonia has concentrated on forests in relatively seasonal locations or with poor soils in the east of the basin. We present the first evaluation from the relatively richer soils of far western Amazonia on the extent to which mature forest biomass, diversity, and composition are affected by edges. In a southwestern Amazonian landscape we surveyed woody plant diversity, species composition, and biomass in 88x0.1 ha samples of unflooded forest that spanned a wide range in soil properties and included samples as close as 50 m and as distant as >10 km from anthropogenic edges. We applied Mantel tests, multiple regression on distance matrices, and other multivariate techniques to identify anthropogenic effects before and after accounting for soil factors and spatial autocorrelation. The distance to the nearest edge, access point, and the geographical center of the nearest community ("anthropogenic-distance effects") all had no detectable effect on tree biomass or species diversity. Anthropogenic-distance effects on tree species composition were also below the limits of detection and were negligible in comparison with natural environmental and spatial factors. Analysis of the data set's capacity to detect anthropogenic effects confirmed that the forests were not severely affected by edges, although because our study had few plots within 100 m of forest edges, our confidence in patterns in the immediate vicinity of edges is limited. It therefore appears that the conservation value of most "edge" forests in this region has not yet been compromised substantially. We caution that because this is one case study it should not be overinterpreted, but one explanation for our findings may be that western Amazonian tree species are naturally faster growing and more disturbance adapted than those farther east.

  1. Mitochondrial DNA mapping of social-biological interactions in Brazilian Amazonian African-descendant populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Maia Carvalho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The formation of the Brazilian Amazonian population has historically involved three main ethnic groups, Amerindian, African and European. This has resulted in genetic investigations having been carried out using classical polymorphisms and molecular markers. To better understand the genetic variability and the micro-evolutionary processes acting in human groups in the Brazilian Amazon region we used mitochondrial DNA to investigate 159 maternally unrelated individuals from five Amazonian African-descendant communities. The mitochondrial lineage distribution indicated a contribution of 50.2% from Africans (L0, L1, L2, and L3, 46.6% from Amerindians (haplogroups A, B, C and D and a small European contribution of 1.3%. These results indicated high genetic diversity in the Amerindian and African lineage groups, suggesting that the Brazilian Amazonian African-descendant populations reflect a possible population amalgamation of Amerindian women from different Amazonian indigenous tribes and African women from different geographic regions of Africa who had been brought to Brazil as slaves. The present study partially mapped the historical biological and social interactions that had occurred during the formation and expansion of Amazonian African-descendant communities.

  2. A Miocene hyperdiverse crocodylian community reveals peculiar trophic dynamics in proto-Amazonian mega-wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Gismondi, Rodolfo; Flynn, John J.; Baby, Patrice; Tejada-Lara, Julia V.; Wesselingh, Frank P.; Antoine, Pierre-Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Amazonia contains one of the world's richest biotas, but origins of this diversity remain obscure. Onset of the Amazon River drainage at approximately 10.5 Ma represented a major shift in Neotropical ecosystems, and proto-Amazonian biotas just prior to this pivotal episode are integral to understanding origins of Amazonian biodiversity, yet vertebrate fossil evidence is extraordinarily rare. Two new species-rich bonebeds from late Middle Miocene proto-Amazonian deposits of northeastern Peru document the same hyperdiverse assemblage of seven co-occurring crocodylian species. Besides the large-bodied Purussaurus and Mourasuchus, all other crocodylians are new taxa, including a stem caiman—Gnatusuchus pebasensis—bearing a massive shovel-shaped mandible, procumbent anterior and globular posterior teeth, and a mammal-like diastema. This unusual species is an extreme exemplar of a radiation of small caimans with crushing dentitions recording peculiar feeding strategies correlated with a peak in proto-Amazonian molluscan diversity and abundance. These faunas evolved within dysoxic marshes and swamps of the long-lived Pebas Mega-Wetland System and declined with inception of the transcontinental Amazon drainage, favouring diversification of longirostrine crocodylians and more modern generalist-feeding caimans. The rise and demise of distinctive, highly productive aquatic ecosystems substantially influenced evolution of Amazonian biodiversity hotspots of crocodylians and other organisms throughout the Neogene. PMID:25716785

  3. Restructuring space in the name of development : the socio-cultural impact of the Forest Land Allocation Program on the indigenous Co Tu people in Central Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayrak, M.M.; Tran Nam, T.; Burgers, P.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    The Forest Land Allocation (FLA) program was introduced by the Vietnamese government in 1991 and it allowed communities, household groups and households to receive forest land for long term use (50 years). The main assumption of this program was that with ownership, households would have greater inc

  4. Health and demography of native Amazonians: historical perspective and current status Saúde e demografia de povos indígenas amazônicos: perspectiva histórica e situação atual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren M. Hern

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Native Amazonians have been the victims of two massive historical assaults, one at the time of the Conquest and the other during the Twentieth century. Due to epidemic disease and environmental destruction, many tribes have gone from contact to displacement, decimation, and extinction in a single generation. Deculturation and the construction of large development projects have had catastrophic effects on native populations. In many ways, native Amazonians have experienced a reverse of the "Epidemiologic Transition". Paradoxically, one of the effects of cultural disruption for some native Amazonians has been the loss of cultural controls on fertility with the result that high fertility has become a major health problem. Combined with rapid growth of non-indigenous Amazonian populations, deforestation, and urbanization, native Amazonians face grave obstacles to long-term survival.Os nativos da Amazônia foram vítimas de dois grandes ataques históricos: um na época da Conquista e outro durante o século XX. Devido a doenças epidêmicas e à destruição ambiental, inúmeras tribos passaram a vivenciar problemas de deslocamentos, dizimação e extinção em uma única geração. A aculturação e a construção de grandes projetos desenvolvimentistas tiveram efeitos catastróficos sobre as populações indígenas. Em diversos aspectos, os nativos da Amazônia sofreram uma "Transição Epidemiológica". Paradoxalmente, um dos efeitos da dilaceração cultural para alguns dos nativos da Amazônia foi a perda de controles culturais sobre a fecundidade, fazendo com que a elevada fecundidade se tornasse um importante problema de saúde. Com o rápido crescimento de populações amazônicas não indígenas, o desmatamento e a urbanização, os nativos da Amazônia enfrentam sérios obstáculos para a sua sobrevivência a longo prazo.

  5. Bacterial community composition of anthropogenic biochar and Amazonian anthrosols assessed by 16S rRNA gene 454 pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taketani, Rodrigo Gouvêa; Lima, Amanda Barbosa; da Conceição Jesus, Ederson; Teixeira, Wenceslau Geraldes; Tiedje, James M; Tsai, Siu Mui

    2013-08-01

    Biochar (BC) is a common minor constituent of soils and is usually derived from the burning of wood materials. In the case of Amazonian dark earth (ADE) soils, the increased amount of this material is believed to be due to anthropogenic action by ancient indigenous populations. In this study, we use 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing to assess the bacterial diversity observed in the BC found in ADEs as well as in the dark earth itself and the adjacent Acrisol. Samples were taken from two sites, one cultivated with manioc and one with secondary forest cover. Analyses revealed that the community structure found in each sample had unique features. At a coarse phylogenetic resolution, the most abundant phyla in all sequence libraries were Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, Verrucomicrobia and Proteobacteria that were present in similar relative abundance across all samples. However, the class composition varied between them highlighting the difference between the Acrisol and the remaining samples. This result was also corroborated by the comparison of the OTU composition (at 97 % identity). Also, soil coverage has shown an effect over the community structure observed in all samples. This pattern was found to be significant through unweighted UniFrac as well as P tests. These results indicate that, although the ADEs are found in patches within the Acrisols, the contrasting characteristics found between them led to the development of significantly different communities. PMID:23743632

  6. Carbon Dioxide and Methane Evasion from Amazonian Rivers and Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melack, J. M.; Barbosa, P.; Schofield, V.; Amaral, J.; Forsberg, B.; Farjalla, V.

    2013-12-01

    Floodplains, with their mosaic of aquatic habitats, constitute the majority of the wetlands of South America. We report 1) estimates of CH4 and CO2 flux from Amazonian floodplain lakes and rivers during low, rising and high water periods, and 2) identify environmental factors regulating these fluxes. We sampled 10 floodplain lakes, 4 tributaries of Solimões River, 6 stations on the Solimões main stem and 1 station on the Madeira, Negro and Amazonas rivers. Diffusive fluxes were measured with static floating chambers. CH4 fluxes were highly variable, with the majority of the values lower than 5 mmol m-2 d-1. For the lakes, no significant differences among the periods were found. CH4 concentration in the water and water temperature were the two main environmental factors regulating the diffusive flux. Our results highlight the importance of considering both the spatial and temporal scales when estimating CH4 fluxes for a region. CO2 fluxes from water to atmosphere ranged between 327 and -21 mmol m-2 d-1, averaging 58 mmol m-2 d-1. We found higher evasion rates in lakes than in rivers. For both systems the lowest rates were found in low water. pH and dissolved oxygen, phosphorous and organic carbon were the main factors correlated to CO2 evasion from the water bodies.

  7. Fungal Community Assembly in the Amazonian Dark Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucheta, Adriano Reis; Cannavan, Fabiana de Souza; Roesch, Luiz Fernando Wurdig; Tsai, Siu Mui; Kuramae, Eiko Eurya

    2016-05-01

    Here, we compare the fungal community composition and diversity in Amazonian Dark Earth (ADE) and the respective non-anthropogenic origin adjacent (ADJ) soils from four different sites in Brazilian Central Amazon using pyrosequencing of 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. Fungal community composition in ADE soils were more similar to each other than their ADJ soils, except for only one site. Phosphorus and aluminum saturation were the main soil chemical factors contributing to ADE and ADJ fungal community dissimilarities. Differences in fungal richness were not observed between ADE and ADJ soil pairs regarding to the most sites. In general, the most dominant subphyla present in the soils were Pezizomycotina, Agaricomycotina, and Mortierellomycotina. The most abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in ADE showed similarities with the entomopathogenic fungus Cordyceps confragosa and the saprobes Fomitopsis pinicola, Acremonium vitellinum, and Mortierellaceae sp., whereas OTUs similar to Aspergillus niger, Lithothelium septemseptatum, Heliocephala gracillis, and Pestalosphaeria sp. were more abundant in ADJ soils. Differences in fungal community composition were associated to soil chemical factors in ADE (P, Ca, Zn, Mg, organic matter, sum of bases, and base saturation) and ADJ (Al, potential acidity, Al saturation, B, and Fe) soils. These results contribute to a deeper view of the fungi communities in ADE and open new perspectives for entomopathogenic fungi studies. PMID:26585119

  8. Sexual selection drives speciation in an Amazonian frog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boul, K.E.; Funk, W.C.; Darst, C.R.; Cannatella, D.C.; Ryan, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    One proposed mechanism of speciation is divergent sexual selection, whereby divergence in female preferences and male signals results in behavioural isolation. Despite the appeal of this hypothesis, evidence for it remains inconclusive. Here, we present several lines of evidence that sexual selection is driving behavioural isolation and speciation among populations of an Amazonian frog (Physalaemus petersi). First, sexual selection has promoted divergence in male mating calls and female preferences for calls between neighbouring populations, resulting in strong behavioural isolation. Second, phylogenetic analysis indicates that populations have become fixed for alternative call types several times throughout the species' range, and coalescent analysis rejects genetic drift as a cause for this pattern, suggesting that this divergence is due to selection. Finally, gene flow estimated with microsatellite loci is an average of 30 times lower between populations with different call types than between populations separated by a similar geographical distance with the same call type, demonstrating genetic divergence and incipient speciation. Taken together, these data provide strong evidence that sexual selection is driving behavioural isolation and speciation, supporting sexual selection as a cause for speciation in the wild. ?? 2006 The Royal Society.

  9. The impact of Amazonian deforestation on Amazon basin rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spracklen, D. V.; Garcia-Carreras, L.

    2015-11-01

    We completed a meta-analysis of regional and global climate model simulations (n = 96) of the impact of Amazonian deforestation on Amazon basin rainfall. Across all simulations, mean (±1σ) change in annual mean Amazon basin rainfall was -12 ± 11%. Variability in simulated rainfall was not explained by differences in model resolution or surface parameters. Across all simulations we find a negative linear relationship between rainfall and deforestation extent, although individual studies often simulate a nonlinear response. Using the linear relationship, we estimate that deforestation in 2010 has reduced annual mean rainfall across the Amazon basin by 1.8 ± 0.3%, less than the interannual variability in observed rainfall. This may explain why a reduction in Amazon rainfall has not consistently been observed. We estimate that business-as-usual deforestation (based on deforestation rates prior to 2004) would lead to an 8.1 ± 1.4% reduction in annual mean Amazon basin rainfall by 2050, greater than natural variability.

  10. ALTM system in Amazonian forest areas; Sistema ALTM em areas da Floresta Amazonica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sallem Filho, Silas; Bonatto, Amarildo [Esteio Engenharia e Aerolevantamentos S.A., Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Airborne Laser Scanning provides faster and more accurate Digital Elevation Model and Digital Terrain Model tasks compared to conventional photogrammetry. The system generates Laser pulses towards the terrain, perpendicular to the flight line, scanning the terrain surface and recording the distances from the sensor to the ground for each pulse. The main characteristics of the system is the measurement of the first and the last return for each pulse, allowing the objects identification that are above the ground as, for example, vegetation. With this capability it is possible the determination of volumes and biomass estimate, besides the virtual removal of vegetation covering. The Digital Terrain Models are used for Digital Ortho photos rectification and to obtain contour lines for topography maps. The correct points classification according the elevation, allows the representation of the terrain with larger amount of points than the stereo plotting, in areas densely vegetated where the operator esteems the height of the vegetable covering to interpret the terrain. Some additional products, as hypsometric images and intensity images helps in the identification of features on pipeline projects as well as the obtaining of the obstacles height. (author)

  11. Ground-Vegetation Clutter Affects Phyllostomid Bat Assemblage Structure in Lowland Amazonian Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Marciente; Bobrowiec, Paulo Estefano D.; Magnusson, William E

    2015-01-01

    Vegetation clutter is a limiting factor for bats that forage near ground level, and may determine the distribution of species and guilds. However, many studies that evaluated the effects of vegetation clutter on bats have used qualitative descriptions rather than direct measurements of vegetation density. Moreover, few studies have evaluated the effect of vegetation clutter on a regional scale. Here, we evaluate the influence of the physical obstruction of vegetation on phyllostomid-bat assem...

  12. Technical Efficiency, Farm Size and Tropical Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazonian Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Sébastien MARCHAND

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of farm productivity as well as farm size on deforestation in Brazil. A two step econometric approach is adopted. A bootstrapped translog stochastic frontier that is a posteriori checked for functional consistency is used in order to estimate technical efficiency of which estimates are introduced in a land use model to assess the impact of productivity and farm size on deforestation. Analysis of agricultural census tract data suggests that technical efficiency h...

  13. Functional trait differences influence neighbourhood interactions in a hyperdiverse Amazonian forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunel, Claire; Valencia, Renato; Wright, S Joseph; Garwood, Nancy C; Kraft, Nathan J B

    2016-09-01

    As distinct community assembly processes can produce similar community patterns, assessing the ecological mechanisms promoting coexistence in hyperdiverse rainforests remains a considerable challenge. We use spatially explicit neighbourhood models of tree growth to quantify how functional trait and phylogenetic similarities predict variation in growth and crowding effects for the 315 most abundant tree species in a 25-ha lowland rainforest plot in Ecuador. We find that functional trait differences reflect variation in (1) species maximum potential growth, (2) the intensity of interspecific interactions for some species, and (3) species sensitivity to neighbours. We find that neighbours influenced tree growth in 28% of the 315 focal tree species. Neighbourhood effects are not detected in the remaining 72%, which may reflect the low statistical power to model rare taxa and/or species insensitivity to neighbours. Our results highlight the spectrum of ways in which functional trait differences can shape community dynamics in highly diverse rainforests. PMID:27358248

  14. Contrasting patterns of diameter and biomass increment across tree functional groups in Amazonian forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, Helen C; Baker, Timothy R; Martinez, Rodolfo Vasquez; Monteagudo, Abel; Phillips, Oliver L

    2008-12-01

    Species' functional traits may help determine rates of carbon gain, with physiological and morphological trade-offs relating to shade tolerance affecting photosynthetic capacity and carbon allocation strategies. However, few studies have examined these trade-offs from the perspective of whole-plant biomass gain of adult trees. We compared tree-level annual diameter increments and annual above-ground biomass (AGB) increments in eight long-term plots in hyper-diverse northwest Amazonia to wood density (rho; a proxy for shade tolerance), whilst also controlling for resource supply (light and soil fertility). rho and annual diameter increment were negatively related, confirming expected differences in allocation associated with shade tolerance, such that light-demanding species allocate a greater proportion of carbon to diameter gain at the expense of woody tissue density. However, contrary to expectations, we found a positive relationship between rho and annual AGB increment in more fertile sites, although AGB gain did not differ significantly with rho class on low-fertility sites. Whole-plant carbon gain may be greater in shade-tolerant species due to higher total leaf area, despite lower leaf-level carbon assimilation rates. Alternatively, rates of carbon loss may be higher in more light-demanding species: higher rates of litterfall, respiration or allocation to roots, are all plausible mechanisms. However, the relationships between rho and AGB and diameter increments were weak; resource availability always exerted a stronger influence on tree growth rates. PMID:18853192

  15. Dental caries profile in Monte Negro, Amazonian state of Rondônia, Brazil, in 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roosevelt Silva Bastos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This epidemiological survey assessed the dental caries profile in Monte Negro, a small town in the Amazonian state of Rondônia, Brazil, and its relationship with the northern region, national and global goals for oral health in the years 2000 and 2020. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The groups randomly examined were composed of individuals aged 5, 12, 15 to 19, 35 to 44, 65 to 74 years, living in both rural and urban areas. RESULTS: The means dft (standard deviation and DMFT (standard deviation for the groups were, respectively, 3.15 (3.12, 3.41 (2.69, 5.96 (4.19, 16.00 (7.30 and 25.96 (9.82. Caries-free individuals were 34.42%, 14.81% and 8.16% in the preschoolchildren, schoolchildren and adolescent groups, respectively. The Significant Caries Index percentages applied to the two younger groups were 6.65 and 6.70, and they increased to 32.00 in the individuals aged 65 to 74 years. Care Index percentages for adolescents, adults and elderly groups were, respectively, 29.40, 25.00 and 1.41. The dental caries profile in Monte Negro in 2008 shows that, 8 years after the year 2000, no FDI/WHO goal for any age settled in 1982 has been achieved. Dental caries increased with age and the main dental problem of adult and elderly groups was tooth loss. CONCLUSION: Oral health promotion and prevention of oral disease policies are urgent needs. Setting of oral health goals and targets to people living in Monte Negro or Amazonia to be pursuit and achieved in a near future is an important action to do because of the culture, sanitary conditions and socioeconomic aspects of this particular population.

  16. Ocurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in Amazonian manatees (Trichechus inunguis, Natterer, 1883

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida da Glória Faustino

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The apicomplexa protozoa Cryptosporidium infects several mammals, including terrestrial and aquatic species. In the epidemiology of this infection, the ingestion of water and/or food contamined with oocysts comprises the main mechanism of transmission to susceptible animals. Among the Sirenians, the occurrence of this coccidium has been reported in dugongs (Dugong dugon and Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus. The present study was conducted with the aim of verifying the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in Amazonian manatee. For this purpose, fecal samples were collected from ten free-ranging Amazonian manatees, two specimens in captivity, and 103 supernatants fecal samples. The samples were processed by the sedimentation method in formol-ether and Kinyoun stain technique for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp.. The positive samples were then submitted to Direct Immunoflorescence Test. The results showed 4.34% (05/115 of positive samples. This is the first report of Cryptosporidium spp. in the Amazonian manatee.

  17. THE 2005 AND 2010 AMAZONIAN DROUGHTS AS SEEN BY MODIS

    OpenAIRE

    R. B. Myneni

    2012-01-01

    During this decade, the Amazon region in South America has suffered two severe droughts in the short span of five years ––2005 and 2010. The 2005 drought, dubbed a once-in-a-century drought, has been the focus and driver of many studies on the drought sensitivity of Amazon forests. These studies present a complex, and sometimes contradictory, picture of how these forests have responded to the 2005 drought. In particular, Saleska et al. (Science, 2007) reported excessive greenin...

  18. Fast demographic traits promote high diversification rates of Amazonian trees

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Timothy R.; Pennington, R. Toby; Magallon, Susana; Gloor, Emanuel; Laurance, William F.; Alexiades, Miguel; Alvarez, Esteban; Araujo, Alejandro; Arets, Eric J. M. M.; Aymard, Gerardo; de Oliveira, Atila Alves; Amaral, Iêda; Arroyo, Luzmila; Bonal, Damien; Roel J.W. Brienen

    2014-01-01

    The Amazon rain forest sustains the world's highest tree diversity, but it remains unclear why some clades of trees are hyperdiverse, whereas others are not. Using dated phylogenies, estimates of current species richness and trait and demographic data from a large network of forest plots, we show that fast demographic traits - short turnover times - are associated with high diversification rates across 51 clades of canopy trees. This relationship is robust to assuming that diversification rat...

  19. Game depletion hypothesis of amazonian adaptation: data from a native community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, W T

    1988-03-25

    The low population densities and impermanent settlements of Amazonian Indians are often interpreted as adaptations to a fauna that offers limited protein resources and is rapidly depleted by hunting. Data spanning the 10-year life cycle of one northwestern Amazonian settlement show that variations in hunt yields result from temporal variations in peccary (Tayassu pecari and T. tajacu) kills that appear extrinsic to native population size. After 10 years, hunting success remained high and the kill rates for most prey did not suggest depletion. An array of environmental factors accounts for the incipient settlement relocation observed.

  20. Oligarchic forests of economic plants in amazonia: utilization and conservation of an important tropical resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, C M; Balick, M J; Kahn, F; Anderson, A B

    1989-12-01

    Tropical forests dominated by only one or two tree species occupy tens of millions of hectares in Ammonia In many cases, the dominant species produce fruits, seeds, or oils of economic importance. Oligarchic (Gr. oligo = few, archic = dominated or ruled by) forests of six economic species, i. e., Euterpe oleracea, Grias peruviana, Jessenia bataua, Mauritia flexuosa, Myrciaria dubia, and Orbignya phalerata, were studied in Brazil and Peru Natural populations of these species contain from 100 to 3,000 conspecific adult trees/ha and produce up to 11.1 metric tons of fruit/hd/yr. These plant populations are utilized and occasionally managed, by rural inhabitants in the region. Periodic fruit harvests, if properly controlled have only a minimal impact on forest structure and function, yet can generate substantial economic returns Market-oriented extraction of the fruits produced by oligarchic forests appears to represent a promising alternative for reconciling the development and conservation of Amazonian forests. PMID:21129021

  1. Forest Histories & Forest Futures

    OpenAIRE

    Whitlock, Cathy

    2009-01-01

    The climate changes projected for the future will have significant consequences for forest ecosystems and our ability to manage them. It is reasonable to ask: Are there historical precedents that help us understand what might happen in the future or are historical perspectives becoming irrelevant? What synergisms and feedbacks might be expected between rapidly changing climate and land–use in different settings, especially at the wildland–urban interface? What lessons from the past might help...

  2. Control of dry season evapotranspiration over the Amazonian forest as inferred from observations at a southern Amazon forest site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Negrón Juárez, R.I.; Hodnett, M.G.; Fu, R.; Goulden, M.L.; Randow, von C.

    2007-01-01

    The extent to which soil water storage can support an average dry season evapotranspiration (ET) is investigated using observations from the Rebio Jarú site for the period of 2000 to 2002. During the dry season, when total rainfall is less than 100 mm, the soil moisture storage available to root upt

  3. Forest rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balooni, Kulbhushan; Lund, Jens Friis

    2014-01-01

    One of the proposed strategies for implementation of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation plus (REDD+) is to incentivize conservation of forests managed by communities under decentralized forest management. Yet, we argue that this is a challenging road to REDD+ because...... of three general characteristics of forests under existing decentralized management regimes. First, these forests already accumulate biomass and, in some cases, generate leakage, which threatens to undercut REDD+ additionality. Second, these forests are many and small, which will drive up REDD......+ transactions costs. Third, beyond the “conservation islands” represented by forests under decentralized management, processes of deforestation and forest degradation continue. Given these challenges, we argue that REDD+ efforts through decentralized forestry should be redirected from incentivizing further...

  4. Ecotourism Development in Recreational Forest Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Md. A.H. Bhuiyan; Chamhuri Siwar; Shaharuddin M. Ismail; Rabiul Islam

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: This study explored the issues and strategies of ecotourism development in recreational forest areas of Malaysia. There are a number of forest recreational areas and reserves. The recreation forests are designated and managed under the forestry department. These recreational areas of scenic beauty comprise about 0.05% of the total forest reserves in Peninsular Malaysia. Ecotourism should be set in natural areas with special biological, ecological, or cultural interest. Obje...

  5. An overview of the Amazonian Aerosol Characterization Experiment 2008 (AMAZE-08

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Martin

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon Basin provides an excellent environment for studying the sources, transformations, and properties of natural aerosol particles and the resulting links between biological processes and climate. With this framework in mind, the Amazonian Aerosol Characterization Experiment (AMAZE-08, carried out from 7 February to 14 March 2008 during the wet season in the central Amazon Basin, sought to understand the formation, transformations, and cloud-forming properties of fine- and coarse-mode biogenic aerosol particles, especially as related to their effects on cloud activation and regional climate. Special foci included (1 the production mechanisms of secondary organic components at a pristine continental site, including the factors regulating their temporal variability, and (2 predicting and understanding the cloud-forming properties of biogenic particles at such a site. In this overview paper, the field site and the instrumentation employed during the campaign are introduced. Observations and findings are reported, including the large-scale context for the campaign, especially as provided by satellite observations. New findings presented include: (i a particle number-diameter distribution from 10 nm to 10 μm that is representative of the pristine tropical rain forest and recommended for model use; (ii the absence of substantial quantities of primary biological particles in the submicron mode as evidenced by mass spectral characterization; (iii the large-scale production of secondary organic material; (iv insights into the chemical and physical properties of the particles as revealed by thermodenuder-induced changes in the particle number-diameter distributions and mass spectra; and (v comparisons of ground-based predictions and satellite-based observations of hydrometeor phase in clouds. A main finding of AMAZE-08 is the dominance of secondary organic material as particle components. The results presented here provide mechanistic insight and

  6. Forest Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Forest biomass is an abundant biomass feedstock that complements the conventional forest use of wood for paper and wood materials. It may be utilized for bioenergy production, such as heat and electricity, as well as for biofuels and a variety of bioproducts, such as industrial chemicals, textiles, and other renewable materials. The resources within the 2016 Billion-Ton Report include primary forest resources, which are taken directly from timberland-only forests, removed from the land, and taken to the roadside.

  7. Amazonian Buriti oil: chemical characterization and antioxidant potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Speranza, P.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Buriti oil is an example of an Amazonian palm oil of economic importance. The local population uses this oil for the prevention and treatment of different diseases; however, there are few studies in the literature that evaluate its properties. In this study, detailed chemical and antioxidant properties of Buriti oil were determined. The predominant fatty acid was oleic acid (65.6% and the main triacylglycerol classes were tri-unsaturated (50.0% and di-unsaturated-mono-saturated (39.3% triacylglycerols. The positional distribution of the classes of fatty acids on the triacylglycerol backbone indicated a saturated and unsaturated fatty acid relationship similar in the three-triacylglycerol positions. All tocopherol isomers were present, with a total content of 2364.1 mg·kg−1. α-tocopherol constitutes 48% of the total tocopherol content, followed by γ- tocopherol (45%. Total phenolic (107.0 mg gallic acid equivalent·g−1 oil and β-carotene (781.6 mg·kg−1 were particularly high in this oil. The highest antioxidant activity against the free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH was obtained at an oil concentration of 50 mg·mL−1 (73.15%. The antioxidant activity evaluated by the Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC was 95.3 μmol Trolox equivalent·g−1 oil. These results serve to present Buriti oil as an Amazonian resource for cosmetic, food and pharmaceuticals purposes.El aceite de Buriti es un ejemplo de aceite de palma amazónica de gran importancia económica. La población local utiliza este aceite para la prevención y el tratamiento de diferentes enfermedades; sin embargo, hay pocos estudios científicos que evalúen sus propiedades. En este estudio, se determinaron las propiedades antioxidantes del aceite de Buriti. El ácido graso predominante fue el oleico (65,6 % y las principales clases de triglicéridos fueron tri-insaturadas (50,0 % y Di-insaturados-mono-saturada (39,3 %. La distribución posicional de las

  8. Carbon fluxes in tropical forest ecosystems: the value of Eddy-covariance data for individual-based dynamic forest gap models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roedig, Edna; Cuntz, Matthias; Huth, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    The effects of climatic inter-annual fluctuations and human activities on the global carbon cycle are uncertain and currently a major issue in global vegetation models. Individual-based forest gap models, on the other hand, model vegetation structure and dynamics on a small spatial (1000 years). They are well-established tools to reproduce successions of highly-diverse forest ecosystems and investigate disturbances as logging or fire events. However, the parameterizations of the relationships between short-term climate variability and forest model processes are often uncertain in these models (e.g. daily variable temperature and gross primary production (GPP)) and cannot be constrained from forest inventories. We addressed this uncertainty and linked high-resolution Eddy-covariance (EC) data with an individual-based forest gap model. The forest model FORMIND was applied to three diverse tropical forest sites in the Amazonian rainforest. Species diversity was categorized into three plant functional types. The parametrizations for the steady-state of biomass and forest structure were calibrated and validated with different forest inventories. The parameterizations of relationships between short-term climate variability and forest model processes were evaluated with EC-data on a daily time step. The validations of the steady-state showed that the forest model could reproduce biomass and forest structures from forest inventories. The daily estimations of carbon fluxes showed that the forest model reproduces GPP as observed by the EC-method. Daily fluctuations of GPP were clearly reflected as a response to daily climate variability. Ecosystem respiration remains a challenge on a daily time step due to a simplified soil respiration approach. In the long-term, however, the dynamic forest model is expected to estimate carbon budgets for highly-diverse tropical forests where EC-measurements are rare.

  9. The Impact of Amazonian Deforestation on Dry-Season Rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, Andrew J.; Adler, Robert F.; Xu, Li-Ming; Surratt, Jason; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Many modeling studies have concluded that widespread deforestation of Amazonia would lead to decreased rainfall. We analyze geosynchronous infrared satellite data with respect percent cloudiness, and analyze rain estimates from microwave sensors aboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite. We conclude that in the dry-season, when the effects of the surface are not overwhelmed by synoptic-scale weather disturbances, deep convective cloudiness, as well as rainfall occurrence, all increase over the deforested and non-forested (savanna) regions. This is in response to a local circulation initiated by the differential heating of the region's varying forestation. Analysis of the diurnal cycle of cloudiness reveals a shift toward afternoon hours in the deforested and savanna regions, compared to the forested regions. Analysis of 14 years of data from the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager data revealed that only in August did rainfall amounts increase over the deforested region.

  10. Recent (Late Amazonian) enhanced backweathering rates on Mars : Paracratering evidence from gully alcoves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haas, Tjalling; Conway, Susan J.; Krautblatter, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Mars is believed to have been exposed to low planet-wide weathering and denudation since the Noachian. However, the widespread occurrence of alcoves at the rim of pristine impact craters suggests locally enhanced recent backweathering rates. Here we derive Late Amazonian backweathering rates from th

  11. The Perceptions of Knowledge and Learning of Amazonian Indigenous Teacher Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veintie, Tuija; Holm, Gunilla

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on the perceptions of knowledge and learning by indigenous students in an intercultural bilingual teacher education programme in Amazonian Ecuador. The study framed within postcolonial and critical theory attempts to create a space for the indigenous students to speak about their own views through the use of photography and…

  12. Notes on Amazonian Bittacidae (Mecoptera with the descriptions of two new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman D. Penny

    1982-09-01

    Full Text Available New species of Issikiella and Nannobittacus are described and notes are presented on other Amazonian species of Mecoptera.Nova espécie de Issikiella e Nannobittacus são descritas e notas são apresentadas para outras espécies de Mecopteros da Amazônia.

  13. Evolutionary patterns of range size, abundance and species richness in Amazonian angiosperm trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chave, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Amazonian tree species vary enormously in their total abundance and range size, while Amazonian tree genera vary greatly in species richness. The drivers of this variation are not well understood. Here, we construct a phylogenetic hypothesis that represents half of Amazonian tree genera in order to contribute to explaining the variation. We find several clear, broad-scale patterns. Firstly, there is significant phylogenetic signal for all three characteristics; closely related genera tend to have similar numbers of species and similar mean range size and abundance. Additionally, the species richness of genera shows a significant, negative relationship with the mean range size and abundance of their constituent species. Our results suggest that phylogenetically correlated intrinsic factors, namely traits of the genera themselves, shape among lineage variation in range size, abundance and species richness. We postulate that tree stature may be one particularly relevant trait. However, other traits may also be relevant, and our study reinforces the need for ambitious compilations of trait data for Amazonian trees. In the meantime, our study shows how large-scale phylogenies can help to elucidate, and contribute to explaining, macroecological and macroevolutionary patterns in hyperdiverse, yet poorly understood regions like the Amazon Basin. PMID:27651991

  14. Amazonian Dark Earth and plant species from the Amazon region contribute to shape rhizosphere bacterial communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barbosa Lima, A.; Souza Cannavan, F.S.; Navarrete, A.A.; Kuramae, E.E.; Teixeira, W.G.; Tsai, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    Amazonian Dark Earths (ADE) or Terra Preta de Índio formed in the past by pre-Columbian populations are highly sustained fertile soils supported by microbial communities that differ from those extant in adjacent soils. These soils are found in the Amazon region and are considered as a model soil whe

  15. Mammalian Diversity and Matses Ethnomammalogy in Amazonian Peru. Part 1: Primates

    OpenAIRE

    Farid Pazhoohi

    2011-01-01

    Review of Mammalian Diversity and Matses Ethnomammalogy in Amazonian Peru. Part 1: Primates. Robert S. Voss and David W. Fleck. 2011. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, Number 351. Pp.81, 3 figures, 25 tables. Free at AMNH Digital Library ISSN 0003‐0090.

  16. Governance of global climate change in the Brazilian Amazon: the case of Amazonian municipalities of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Inoue

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With regards to the debate about governance of climate change, it should be assumed that the Amazon region plays an important role, as this large area is highly vulnerable to its effects. In this sense, this article aims to discuss how some Amazonian municipalities of Brazil have been taking part in the complexes and multilayered processes of climate governance.

  17. Morphology, morphometry and ultrastructure of the Amazonian manatee (Sirenia: Trichechidae spermatozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo S. Amaral

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the morphological, morphometric and ultrastructural characteristics of the Amazonian manatee Trichechus inunguis (Natterer, 1883 spermatozoon. The spermatozoa were obtained from a urine sample of an adult T. inunguis kept in captivity. The spermatozoa were analyzed by light and transmission electron microscopy. The head of Amazonian manatee spermatozoa had a flat oval shape and a well distinguishable midpiece. The mean dimensions of the spermatozoa were: head length, 7.49 ± 0.24 µm; head width, 3.53 ± 0.19 µm; head thickness, 1.61 ± 0.13 µm; midpiece length, 11.36 ± 0.34 µm; flagellum length, 40.91 ± 1.94 µm; total tail length, 52.16 ± 1.06 µm; total spermatozoon length, 60.08 ± 1.40 µm. The Amazonian manatee spermatozoa were similar in shape to other sirenian spermatozoa; however, presenting a different size. This study describes, for the first time, the morphometric and ultrastructural characteristics of the Amazonian manatee spermatozoa, and also demonstrates the possible use of spermatozoa retrieved from urine samples for biological studies.

  18. The Amazonian Craton and its influence on past fluvial systems (Mesozoic-Cenozoic, Amazonia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Hoorn; M. Roddaz; R. Dino; E. Soares; C. Uba; D. Ochoa-Lozano; R. Mapes

    2010-01-01

    The Amazonian Craton is an old geological feature of Archaean/Proterozoic age that has determined the character of fluvial systems in Amazonia throughout most of its past. This situation radically changed during the Cenozoic, when uplift of the Andes reshaped the relief and drainage patterns of nort

  19. The development of the Amazonian mega-wetland (Miocene; Brazil, Colombia, Peru, Bolivia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Hoorn; F.P. Wesselingh; J. Hovikoski; J. Guerrero

    2010-01-01

    The scenery of Western Amazonia once consisted of fluvial systems that originated on the Amazonian Craton and were directed towards the sub-Andean zone and the Caribbean. In the course of the Early Miocene these fluvial systems were largely replaced by lakes, swamps, tidal channels and marginal mari

  20. Co-occurrence and community assembly in Amazonian palms (Arecaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Balslev, Henrik; Kristiansen, Thea;

    Palms (Arecaceae) are a distinctive, diverse and ecologically important element of tropical rainforest. Often numerous palm species co-occur locally in "palm communities" that span all strata of the forest. In South America, the palm family has a centre of diversity in the western Amazon basin...

  1. Fates of trees damaged by logging in Amazonian Bolivia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shenkin, A.; Bolker, B.; Peña Claros, M.; Licona, J.C.; Putz, F.E.

    2015-01-01

    Estimation of carbon losses from trees felled and incidentally-killed during selective logging of tropical forests is relatively straightforward and well-documented, but less is known about the fates of collaterally-damaged trees that initially survive. Tree response to logging damage is an importan

  2. Planning Forest Opening with Forest Roads

    OpenAIRE

    Krč, Janez; Beguš, Jurij

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the model for determining inaccessible forest areas by density of forest roads. The model is based on the GIS analysis of the distances between the existing network of public and forest roads and inaccessible forest areas, sizes of excluded forest areas, and forest site potentials. In order to increase forest road density, the following must be done: (1) construct connecting roads to the inaccessible forest areas and (2) construct new forest roads with different density i...

  3. Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) diversity of a forest-fragment mosaic in the Amazon rain forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, Rosa Sá Gomes; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb; Hutchings, Roger William

    2011-03-01

    To study the impact of Amazonian forest fragmentation on the mosquito fauna, an inventory of Culicidae was conducted in the upland forest research areas of the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project located 60 km north of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. The culicid community was sampled monthly between February 2002 and May 2003. CDC light traps, flight interception traps, manual aspiration, and net sweeping were used to capture adult specimens along the edges and within forest fragments of different sizes (1, 10, and 100 ha), in second-growth areas surrounding the fragments and around camps. We collected 5,204 specimens, distributed in 18 genera and 160 species level taxa. A list of mosquito taxa is presented with 145 species found in the survey, including seven new records for Brazil, 16 new records for the state of Amazonas, along with the 15 morphotypes that probably represent undescribed species. No exotic species [Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse)] were found within the sampled areas. Several species collected are potential vectors of Plasmodium causing human malaria and of various arboviruses. The epidemiological and ecological implications of mosquito species found are discussed, and the results are compared with other mosquito inventories from the Amazon region.

  4. Inlfuences of sod culture on soil physical and chemical characteristics of Camellia oleifera forest%生草栽培对油茶林地土壤理化性质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周乃富; 袁军; 高超; 黄丽媛

    2014-01-01

    In order to explore a new soil improvement model of Camellia oleifera forest, effects of sod culture on soil physical and chemical characteristics of C. oleifera forest were researched. The results show that sod culture had the functions of adjusting soil temperature, increasing soil temperature over 1℃in Spring, decreasing 12.5℃in Summer and greatly decreasing appearing frequency of high soil temperature. Sod culture benefits keeping soil moisture, especially in July and August of lacking of rainfall in southern region of China, and it can increase water storage of 0-20 cm, 20-40 cm and 40-60 cm soil layers by 15.90%, 7.14%and 2.78%respectively. In addition, sod culture can not only decrease soil bulk density and increase soil porosity and ifeld moisture capacity, but also increase the contents of soil organic matter, available P and available K in C. oleifera forest soil.%为了探寻油茶林地土壤改良模式,研究了生草栽培对油茶林地土壤理化性质的影响情况。结果表明:生草栽培具有冬春季增温而夏季降温的作用,春季可增温1℃以上,夏季不仅能使土壤温度降低12.5℃,还大大降低了高温出现的频率;林地生草有利于保持土壤水分,尤其是南方干旱少雨的7、8月份,可使0~20、20~40和40~60 cm土层的含水量分别提高15.90%、7.14%与2.78%;生草栽培不仅能降低土壤容重,提高其孔隙度和田间持水量,还能显著提高土壤中有机质、速效磷和速效钾的含量。

  5. Towards remotely sensed forest dynamics to track and understand forest change and its consequences for the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    Forest structure and dynamics are changing rapidly around the world as a consequence of climate-change-related pests, droughts and wildfires, and changing anthropogenic forest usage. It is critical to understand these changes at the process level (e.g. demographic performance of trees) to accurately predict subsequent forest responses, including impacts on carbon and water cycles, surface-atmosphere energy dynamics, and ecological trajectories. Remote sensing may offer a critical tool to assess and understand these changes at large scales if it can connect observations of forest canopies to underlying biological processes such as demography. Furthermore, too be effective such an approach must be able to assess the full spectrum of forest demographic groups, including those that fall primarily in the shade of larger trees. Here we describe recent advances that address this problem by reconstructing high-resolution canopy structure in 3D from airborne LiDAR data and then associating LiDAR derived leaf area strata and leaf area light environments with the stem frequency, biomass and performance of trees in different demographic groups. Focusing on Amazonian forests, we demonstrate how forest structure (e.g., size distributions) may be retrieved by accounting for tree architecture over light environments. Furthermore, by linking LiDAR derived light environments with LiDAR derived (or ground measured) size classes, even a single LiDAR survey can help reveal forest dynamics, while multiple LiDAR surveys across years allow for direct assessment of the role of canopy light environments in demographic dynamics. New advances may unlock the full potential of this approach by including estimates of canopy function, and biophysical environments, and by integrating across scales utilizing measurements from tree plots to space-borne LiDAR. We conclude by illustrating the potential of this approach to inform ecosystem models that explicitly represent forest dynamics and vertical

  6. The maintenance of soil fertility in Amazonian managed systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luizão, Flávio J.; Fearnside, Philip M.; Cerri, Carlos E. P.; Lehmann, Johannes

    Most of Brazilian Amazonia faces important limitations for conventional agriculture and pastures due to a generally poor chemical fertility as well as the region's environmental conditions, especially high temperature and moisture. Without proper management, degradation of the soil and resulting unsustainability of agricultural and ranching production occur within a few years, leading to land abandonment. Use of perennial crops, especially those based on native tree species, would be instrumental in order to achieve best management such as that which assure recycling processes similar to those in the primary forest. Recommended alternative land uses are those producing high soil organic matter, recycling of nutrients, substantial agricultural production, and economic viability. These include agroforestry systems, enrichment of second growth with valuable native timber or fruit species, accelerated fallow regrowth via enrichment plantings, sequential agroforestry with slash-and-mulch, and diversified forest plantations. Improvement of agricultural soils can be based on lessons learned from the study of processes involved in the formation and maintenance of the rich "dark earths" (terra preta), which owe their high carbon content and fertility in part to high content of charcoal. Adding powdered charcoal combined with selected nutrients can increase soil carbon in modern agriculture. Considering that limitations to expansion of intensified land uses in Amazonia are serious, regional development should emphasize the natural forest, which can maintain itself without external inputs of nutrients. Instead of creating conditions to further expand deforestation, these forests may be used as they stand to provide a variety of valuable environmental services that could offer a sustainable basis for development of Amazonia.

  7. Management of oak forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löf, Magnus; Brunet, Jörg; Filyushkina, Anna;

    2016-01-01

    uses. Management for the production of high-value timber species like oaks and management to conserve biodiversity, or for cultural services can be in conflict with each other. This study evaluates the capacity of three contrasting management regimes to provide societies with economic revenue from......Identification of the ecosystem services provided by oak-dominated forests in southern Sweden is a prerequisite for ensuring their conservation and sustainable management. These forests seem well-suited for multiple-use forestry, but knowledge is limited regarding how to manage them for multiple...... timber production, habitats for biodiversity and cultural services, and the study analyses associated trade-offs and synergies. The three regimes were: intensive oak timber production (A), combined management for both timber production and biodiversity (B) and biodiversity conservation without management...

  8. Biome-Scale Forest Properties in Amazonia Based on Field and Satellite Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana O. Anderson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Amazonian forests are extremely heterogeneous at different spatial scales. This review intends to present the large-scale patterns of the ecosystem properties of Amazonia, and focuses on two parts of the main components of the net primary production: the long-lived carbon pools (wood and short-lived pools (leaves. First, the focus is on forest biophysical properties, and secondly, on the macro-scale leaf phenological patterns of these forests, looking at field measurements and bringing into discussion the recent findings derived from remote sensing dataset. Finally, I discuss the results of the three major droughts that hit Amazonia in the last 15 years. The panorama that emerges from this review suggests that slow growing forests in central and eastern Amazonia, where soils are poorer, have significantly higher above ground biomass and higher wood density, trees are higher and present lower proportions of large-leaved species than stands in northwest and southwest Amazonia. However, the opposite pattern is observed in relation to forest productivity and dynamism, which is higher in western Amazonia than in central and eastern forests. The spatial patterns on leaf phenology across Amazonia are less marked. Field data from different forest formations showed that new leaf production can be unrelated to climate seasonality, timed with radiation, timed with rainfall and/or river levels. Oppositely, satellite images exhibited a large-scale synchronized peak in new leaf production during the dry season. Satellite data and field measurements bring contrasting results for the 2005 drought. Discussions on data processing and filtering, aerosols effects and a combined analysis with field and satellite images are presented. It is suggested that to improve the understanding of the large-scale patterns on Amazonian forests, integrative analyses that combine new technologies in remote sensing and long-term field ecological data are imperative.

  9. Evidence for ecological divergence across a mosaic of soil types in an Amazonian tropical tree: Protium subserratum (Burseraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiewicz, Tracy M; Fine, Paul V A

    2014-05-01

    Soil heterogeneity is an important driver of divergent natural selection in plants. Neotropical forests have the highest tree diversity on earth, and frequently, soil specialist congeners are distributed parapatrically. While the role of edaphic heterogeneity in the origin and maintenance of tropical tree diversity is unknown, it has been posited that natural selection across the patchwork of soils in the Amazon rainforest is important in driving and maintaining tree diversity. We examined genetic and morphological differentiation among populations of the tropical tree Protium subserratum growing parapatrically on the mosaic of white-sand, brown-sand and clay soils found throughout western Amazonia. Nuclear microsatellites and leaf morphology were used to (i) quantify the extent of phenotypic and genetic divergence across habitat types, (ii) assess the importance of natural selection vs. drift in population divergence, (iii) determine the extent of hybridization and introgression across habitat types, (iv) estimate migration rates among populations. We found significant morphological variation correlated with soil type. Higher levels of genetic differentiation and lower migration rates were observed between adjacent populations found on different soil types than between geographically distant populations on the same soil type. PST -FST comparisons indicate a role for natural selection in population divergence among soil types. A small number of hybrids were detected suggesting that gene flow among soil specialist populations may occur at low frequencies. Our results suggest that edaphic specialization has occurred multiple times in P. subserratum and that divergent natural selection across edaphic boundaries may be a general mechanism promoting and maintaining Amazonian tree diversity.

  10. Modeling disease vector occurrence when detection is imperfect: infestation of Amazonian palm trees by triatomine bugs at three spatial scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Abad-Franch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Failure to detect a disease agent or vector where it actually occurs constitutes a serious drawback in epidemiology. In the pervasive situation where no sampling technique is perfect, the explicit analytical treatment of detection failure becomes a key step in the estimation of epidemiological parameters. We illustrate this approach with a study of Attalea palm tree infestation by Rhodnius spp. (Triatominae, the most important vectors of Chagas disease (CD in northern South America. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The probability of detecting triatomines in infested palms is estimated by repeatedly sampling each palm. This knowledge is used to derive an unbiased estimate of the biologically relevant probability of palm infestation. We combine maximum-likelihood analysis and information-theoretic model selection to test the relationships between environmental covariates and infestation of 298 Amazonian palm trees over three spatial scales: region within Amazonia, landscape, and individual palm. Palm infestation estimates are high (40-60% across regions, and well above the observed infestation rate (24%. Detection probability is higher ( approximately 0.55 on average in the richest-soil region than elsewhere ( approximately 0.08. Infestation estimates are similar in forest and rural areas, but lower in urban landscapes. Finally, individual palm covariates (accumulated organic matter and stem height explain most of infestation rate variation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Individual palm attributes appear as key drivers of infestation, suggesting that CD surveillance must incorporate local-scale knowledge and that peridomestic palm tree management might help lower transmission risk. Vector populations are probably denser in rich-soil sub-regions, where CD prevalence tends to be higher; this suggests a target for research on broad-scale risk mapping. Landscape-scale effects indicate that palm triatomine populations can endure deforestation

  11. Modeling Disease Vector Occurrence when Detection Is Imperfect: Infestation of Amazonian Palm Trees by Triatomine Bugs at Three Spatial Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad-Franch, Fernando; Ferraz, Gonçalo; Campos, Ciro; Palomeque, Francisco S.; Grijalva, Mario J.; Aguilar, H. Marcelo; Miles, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Failure to detect a disease agent or vector where it actually occurs constitutes a serious drawback in epidemiology. In the pervasive situation where no sampling technique is perfect, the explicit analytical treatment of detection failure becomes a key step in the estimation of epidemiological parameters. We illustrate this approach with a study of Attalea palm tree infestation by Rhodnius spp. (Triatominae), the most important vectors of Chagas disease (CD) in northern South America. Methodology/Principal Findings The probability of detecting triatomines in infested palms is estimated by repeatedly sampling each palm. This knowledge is used to derive an unbiased estimate of the biologically relevant probability of palm infestation. We combine maximum-likelihood analysis and information-theoretic model selection to test the relationships between environmental covariates and infestation of 298 Amazonian palm trees over three spatial scales: region within Amazonia, landscape, and individual palm. Palm infestation estimates are high (40–60%) across regions, and well above the observed infestation rate (24%). Detection probability is higher (∼0.55 on average) in the richest-soil region than elsewhere (∼0.08). Infestation estimates are similar in forest and rural areas, but lower in urban landscapes. Finally, individual palm covariates (accumulated organic matter and stem height) explain most of infestation rate variation. Conclusions/Significance Individual palm attributes appear as key drivers of infestation, suggesting that CD surveillance must incorporate local-scale knowledge and that peridomestic palm tree management might help lower transmission risk. Vector populations are probably denser in rich-soil sub-regions, where CD prevalence tends to be higher; this suggests a target for research on broad-scale risk mapping. Landscape-scale effects indicate that palm triatomine populations can endure deforestation in rural areas, but become rarer in

  12. Anthropogenic disturbance in tropical forests can double biodiversity loss from deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Jos; Lennox, Gareth D; Ferreira, Joice; Berenguer, Erika; Lees, Alexander C; Mac Nally, Ralph; Thomson, James R; Ferraz, Silvio Frosini de Barros; Louzada, Julio; Oliveira, Victor Hugo Fonseca; Parry, Luke; Solar, Ricardo Ribeiro de Castro; Vieira, Ima C G; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Begotti, Rodrigo Anzolin; Braga, Rodrigo F; Cardoso, Thiago Moreira; de Oliveira, Raimundo Cosme; Souza, Carlos M; Moura, Nárgila G; Nunes, Sâmia Serra; Siqueira, João Victor; Pardini, Renata; Silveira, Juliana M; Vaz-de-Mello, Fernando Z; Veiga, Ruan Carlo Stulpen; Venturieri, Adriano; Gardner, Toby A

    2016-07-01

    Concerted political attention has focused on reducing deforestation, and this remains the cornerstone of most biodiversity conservation strategies. However, maintaining forest cover may not reduce anthropogenic forest disturbances, which are rarely considered in conservation programmes. These disturbances occur both within forests, including selective logging and wildfires, and at the landscape level, through edge, area and isolation effects. Until now, the combined effect of anthropogenic disturbance on the conservation value of remnant primary forests has remained unknown, making it impossible to assess the relative importance of forest disturbance and forest loss. Here we address these knowledge gaps using a large data set of plants, birds and dung beetles (1,538, 460 and 156 species, respectively) sampled in 36 catchments in the Brazilian state of Pará. Catchments retaining more than 69–80% forest cover lost more conservation value from disturbance than from forest loss. For example, a 20% loss of primary forest, the maximum level of deforestation allowed on Amazonian properties under Brazil’s Forest Code, resulted in a 39–54% loss of conservation value: 96–171% more than expected without considering disturbance effects. We extrapolated the disturbance-mediated loss of conservation value throughout Pará, which covers 25% of the Brazilian Amazon. Although disturbed forests retained considerable conservation value compared with deforested areas, the toll of disturbance outside Pará’s strictly protected areas is equivalent to the loss of 92,000–139,000 km2 of primary forest. Even this lowest estimate is greater than the area deforested across the entire Brazilian Amazon between 2006 and 2015 (ref. 10). Species distribution models showed that both landscape and within-forest disturbances contributed to biodiversity loss, with the greatest negative effects on species of high conservation and functional value. These results demonstrate an urgent need

  13. Anthropogenic disturbance in tropical forests can double biodiversity loss from deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Jos; Lennox, Gareth D; Ferreira, Joice; Berenguer, Erika; Lees, Alexander C; Mac Nally, Ralph; Thomson, James R; Ferraz, Silvio Frosini de Barros; Louzada, Julio; Oliveira, Victor Hugo Fonseca; Parry, Luke; Solar, Ricardo Ribeiro de Castro; Vieira, Ima C G; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Begotti, Rodrigo Anzolin; Braga, Rodrigo F; Cardoso, Thiago Moreira; de Oliveira, Raimundo Cosme; Souza, Carlos M; Moura, Nárgila G; Nunes, Sâmia Serra; Siqueira, João Victor; Pardini, Renata; Silveira, Juliana M; Vaz-de-Mello, Fernando Z; Veiga, Ruan Carlo Stulpen; Venturieri, Adriano; Gardner, Toby A

    2016-07-01

    Concerted political attention has focused on reducing deforestation, and this remains the cornerstone of most biodiversity conservation strategies. However, maintaining forest cover may not reduce anthropogenic forest disturbances, which are rarely considered in conservation programmes. These disturbances occur both within forests, including selective logging and wildfires, and at the landscape level, through edge, area and isolation effects. Until now, the combined effect of anthropogenic disturbance on the conservation value of remnant primary forests has remained unknown, making it impossible to assess the relative importance of forest disturbance and forest loss. Here we address these knowledge gaps using a large data set of plants, birds and dung beetles (1,538, 460 and 156 species, respectively) sampled in 36 catchments in the Brazilian state of Pará. Catchments retaining more than 69–80% forest cover lost more conservation value from disturbance than from forest loss. For example, a 20% loss of primary forest, the maximum level of deforestation allowed on Amazonian properties under Brazil’s Forest Code, resulted in a 39–54% loss of conservation value: 96–171% more than expected without considering disturbance effects. We extrapolated the disturbance-mediated loss of conservation value throughout Pará, which covers 25% of the Brazilian Amazon. Although disturbed forests retained considerable conservation value compared with deforested areas, the toll of disturbance outside Pará’s strictly protected areas is equivalent to the loss of 92,000–139,000 km2 of primary forest. Even this lowest estimate is greater than the area deforested across the entire Brazilian Amazon between 2006 and 2015 (ref. 10). Species distribution models showed that both landscape and within-forest disturbances contributed to biodiversity loss, with the greatest negative effects on species of high conservation and functional value. These results demonstrate an urgent need

  14. Temporal variability of forest fires in eastern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Ane; Asner, Gregory P; Knapp, David; Zarin, Daniel

    2011-10-01

    Widespread occurrence of fires in Amazonian forests is known to be associated with extreme droughts, but historical data on the location and extent of forest fires are fundamental to determining the degree to which climate conditions and droughts have affected fire occurrence in the region. We used remote sensing to derive a 23-year time series of annual landscape-level burn scars in a fragmented forest of the eastern Amazon. Our burn scar data set is based on a new routine developed for the Carnegie Landsat Analysis System (CLAS), called CLAS-BURN, to calculate a physically based burn scar index (BSI) with an overall accuracy of 93% (Kappa coefficient 0.84). This index uses sub-pixel cover fractions of photosynthetic vegetation, non-photosynthetic vegetation, and shade/burn scar spectral end members. From 23 consecutive Landsat images processed with the CLAS-BURN algorithm, we quantified fire frequencies, the variation in fire return intervals, and rates of conversion of burned forest to other land uses in a 32 400 km2 area. From 1983 to 2007, 15% of the forest burned; 38% of these burned forests were subsequently deforested, representing 19% of the area cleared during the period of observation. While 72% of the fire-affected forest burned only once during the 23-year study period, 20% burned twice, 6% burned three times, and 2% burned four or more times, with the maximum of seven times. These frequencies suggest that the current fire return interval is 5-11 times more frequent than the estimated natural fire regime. Our results also quantify the substantial influence of climate and extreme droughts caused by a strong El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on the extent and likelihood of returning forest fires mainly in fragmented landscapes. These results are an important indication of the role of future warmer climate and deforestation in enhancing emissions from more frequently burned forests in the Amazon. PMID:22073631

  15. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus) and Amazonian manatees (Trichechus inunguis) from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Joāo Carlos Gomes; Alves, Leucio Câmara; Faustino, Maria Aparecida da Gloria; Marmontel, Miriam

    2011-12-01

    Infections by Cryptosporidium spp. in aquatic mammals is a major concern due to the possibility of the waterborne transmission of oocysts. The aim of the present study was to report the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus) and Amazonian manatees (Trichechus inunguis) from Brazil. Fecal samples were collected and processed using Kinyoun's method. Positive samples were also submitted to the direct immunofluorescence test. The results revealed the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in 12.5% (17/136) of the material obtained from the Antillean manatees and in 4.3% (05/115) of the samples from the Amazonian manatees. Cryptosporidium spp. infection was more prevalent in captive animals than in free-ranging specimens. PMID:22204053

  16. Phenolic constituents and antioxidant activity of geopropolis from two species of amazonian stingless bees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Ellen Cristina Costa da; Muniz, Magno Perea; Nunomura, Rita de Cassia Saraiva, E-mail: ellensilva@yahoo.com.br [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Nunomura, Sergio Massayoshi [Departamento de Produtos Naturais, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Zilse, Gislene Almeida Carvalho [Departamento de Biodiversidade, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the phenolic constituents and antioxidant activity of geopropolis from two species of stingless Amazonian bees, Melipona interrupta and Melipona seminigra. The chemical investigation of geopropolis from Melipona interrupta led to the isolation of 5,7,4'-trihydroxyflavonone, 3,5,6,7,4'-pentahydroxyflavonol, naringenine-4'-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside and myricetin-3-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside. Their structures were assigned based on spectroscopic analyses, including two-dimensional NMR techniques. Antioxidant activity of methanol and ethanol extracts of M. interrupta and M. seminigra were measured using the 1,2-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. This is also the first work reporting the chemical investigation of stingless bee species from the Amazonian region. (author)

  17. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus) and Amazonian manatees (Trichechus inunguis) from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Joāo Carlos Gomes; Alves, Leucio Câmara; Faustino, Maria Aparecida da Gloria; Marmontel, Miriam

    2011-12-01

    Infections by Cryptosporidium spp. in aquatic mammals is a major concern due to the possibility of the waterborne transmission of oocysts. The aim of the present study was to report the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus) and Amazonian manatees (Trichechus inunguis) from Brazil. Fecal samples were collected and processed using Kinyoun's method. Positive samples were also submitted to the direct immunofluorescence test. The results revealed the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in 12.5% (17/136) of the material obtained from the Antillean manatees and in 4.3% (05/115) of the samples from the Amazonian manatees. Cryptosporidium spp. infection was more prevalent in captive animals than in free-ranging specimens.

  18. Increasing risk of Amazonian drought due to decreasing aerosol pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, Peter M; Harris, Phil P.; Huntingford, Chris; Betts, Richard A; Collins, Matthew; Jones, Chris D.; Jupp, Tim E.; José A. Marengo; Nobre, Carlos A.

    2008-01-01

    The Amazon rainforest plays a crucial role in the climate system, helping to drive atmospheric circulations in the tropics by absorbing energy and recycling about half of the rainfall that falls on it. This region (Amazonia) is also estimated to contain about one-tenth of the total carbon stored in land ecosystems, and to account for one-tenth of global, net primary productivity. The resilience of the forest to the combined pressures of deforestation and global warming is therefore of great c...

  19. OCCURRENCE OF Charybdis hellerii (Milne Edwards, 1867 (CRUSTACEA, DECAPODA, PORTUNIDAE IN AN AMAZONIAN ESTUARY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Batista Bentes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available For the first time specimens of Charybdis hellerii (Milne Edwards 1867, an Indo Pacific specie, were caught in Amazon estuary, Bragança, Pará, North of Brazil. Palavras-chave: Crustacea, Charybdis hellerii , Amazonian Estuary. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v3n3p181-184

  20. Optimizing Sampling Design to Deal with Mist-Net Avoidance in Amazonian Birds and Bats

    OpenAIRE

    João Tiago Marques; Ramos Pereira, Maria J.; Marques, Tiago A.; Carlos David Santos; Joana Santana; Pedro Beja; Palmeirim, Jorge M.

    2013-01-01

    Mist netting is a widely used technique to sample bird and bat assemblages. However, captures often decline with time because animals learn and avoid the locations of nets. This avoidance or net shyness can substantially decrease sampling efficiency. We quantified the day-to-day decline in captures of Amazonian birds and bats with mist nets set at the same location for four consecutive days. We also evaluated how net avoidance influences the efficiency of surveys under different logistic scen...

  1. Ecomorphological patterns of the fishes inhabiting the tide pools of the Amazonian Coastal Zone, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Eleres Soares; Tiago Octavio Begot Ruffeil; Luciano Fogaça de Assis Montag

    2013-01-01

    The present study was based on the identification of the ecomorphological patterns that characterize the fish species found in tide pools in the Amazonian Coastal Zone (ACZ) in the Pará State, Brazil. Representatives of 19 species were collected during two field campaigns in 2011. The dominance, residence status, and trophic guild of each species were established, and morphometric data were obtained for up to 10 specimens of each species. A total of 23 ecomorphological attributes related to l...

  2. Ritualistic use of the holly Ilex guayusa by Amazonian Jívaro Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, W H; Kennelly, E J; Bass, G N; Wedner, H J; Elvin-Lewis, M P; Fast, D

    1991-01-01

    In Amazonian Peru and Ecuador leaf decoctions of the rainforest holly Ilex guayusa with high caffeine concentrations are used as a morning stimulant. After daily ingestion, ritualistic vomiting by male Achuar Indians, better known as Jívaros, reduces excessive caffeine intake, so that blood levels of caffeine and biotransformed dimethylxanthines do not cause undesirable CNS and other effects. Emesis is learned and apparently not due to emetic compounds. PMID:1682531

  3. Physical growth of the shuar: Height, Weight, and BMI references for an indigenous amazonian population

    OpenAIRE

    Urlacher, SS; Blackwell, AD; Liebert, MA; Madimenos, FC; Cepon-Robins, TJ; Gildner, TE; Snodgrass, JJ; Sugiyama, LS

    2016-01-01

    © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Objectives: Information concerning physical growth among small-scale populations remains limited, yet such data are critical to local health efforts and to foster basic understandings of human life history and variation in childhood development. Using a large dataset and robust modeling methods, this study aims to describe growth from birth to adulthood among the indigenous Shuar of Amazonian Ecuador. Methods: Mixed-longitudinal measures of height, weight, and b...

  4. Perception and attitudes of local people concerning ecosystem services of culturally protected forests%居民对文化林生态系统服务功能的认知与态度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高虹; 欧阳志云; 郑华; Bettina Bluemling

    2013-01-01

    文化林是按照文化传统和风俗习惯来保护和管理的森林,在保护生物多样性的同时也维持了生态系统服务功能.采用半结构式访谈法调查了文化林周边村民对文化林的生态系统服务功能的认知及保护意愿,结果表明:(1)村民认为文化林提供的最重要的服务功能为固碳释养、水源涵养及美学价值,并与最满意的服务功能间存在正相关关系.最期望提高的服务功能是文化功能,例如:生态旅游,美学价值.(2)相对周边其他森林村民对文化林的资源利用较小,主要是非林木产品,平均26.3%的被访村民在文化林中获得过收入,40.6%的被访者获得山野菜、竹子、中药材、薪柴等.但90.1%被访者从其他森林中得到薪柴等林产品,开展旅游村落的村民获得林产品比例相对较小,但管护意愿相对较低.(3)村民对文化林的保护积极性较高,70.4%的被访者愿意花时间来管护森林,距文化林越近、家庭收入越高,管护意愿越高.38.9%的被访者愿意支付费用来维持服务功能不变化,距文化林越近,管护意愿越低的被访者,支付意愿越高.(4)通过了解村民对文化林的态度和认知,对我国农村森林生态系统服务功能和天然林保护具有重要意义.建议大力宣传文化林的生态系统服务功能,尤其是文化功能,并寻找替代生计提高居民收入,雇佣当地男性村民看护森林,充分利用村民的传统知识加强共管力度,完善村规民约,在今后规划中尽量将村落沿着文化林布局,积极支持对文化林的保护和发展.%Culturally protected forests (CPFs) can be defined as forest areas preserved and managed by local people on the basis of traditional cultural practices and beliefs, and these forests have been maintained for decades or even centuries without much disturbance or change. Most of them are natural growth forests with well-developed vegetation, which gives them

  5. Controls of Nazca ridge subduction on the Amazonian foreland basin geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espurt, N.; Baby, P.; Brusset, S.; Roddaz, M.; Hermoza, W.; Regard, V.; Martinod, J.; Bolaños, R.

    2006-12-01

    In the central Andes, the Nazca ridge subduction imprints can be tracked on the eastern side of the Andes. The western part of the Amazonian basin is currently an atypical foreland basin because the Amazonian foreland basin 3-D geometry does not follow the foreland basin system model of DeCelles and Giles [1]. The Amazonian foreland basin consists of two main subsiding basins separated by the NE-SW trending structural/morphologic Fitzcarrald Arch. Geomorphic and lithospheric data provide evidence that the large wavelength Fitzcarrald Arch uplift at 750 kilometers ahead of the trench results from the Nazca ridge flat subduction. The flexure of the South American lithosphere is overcompensated by the buoyancy of the Nazca ridge impeaching a four-component foreland basin system. The recent deformations of the Amazon basin are characterized by vertical motions as recorded by the radial modern drainage network and the deformation of Pliocene to recent fluvial deposits on both sides of the arch, according to the kinematics of the Nazca ridge subduction. In addition, analogue lithospheric experiments similarly show that the ridge buoyancy induces uplift above the flat-slab segment in the foreland basin separating two subsiding sub-basins resulting from the flexure of the continental lithosphere. [1] DeCelles, P.G., and Giles, K.A.(1996)Foreland basin systems: Basin Research, 8, 105-123.

  6. Estimating the global conservation status of more than 15,000 Amazonian tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Steege, Hans; Pitman, Nigel C. A.; Killeen, Timothy J.; Laurance, William F.; Peres, Carlos A.; Guevara, Juan Ernesto; Salomão, Rafael P.; Castilho, Carolina V.; Amaral, Iêda Leão; de Almeida Matos, Francisca Dionízia; de Souza Coelho, Luiz; Magnusson, William E.; Phillips, Oliver L.; de Andrade Lima Filho, Diogenes; de Jesus Veiga Carim, Marcelo; Irume, Mariana Victória; Martins, Maria Pires; Molino, Jean-François; Sabatier, Daniel; Wittmann, Florian; López, Dairon Cárdenas; da Silva Guimarães, José Renan; Mendoza, Abel Monteagudo; Vargas, Percy Núñez; Manzatto, Angelo Gilberto; Reis, Neidiane Farias Costa; Terborgh, John; Casula, Katia Regina; Montero, Juan Carlos; Feldpausch, Ted R.; Honorio Coronado, Euridice N.; Montoya, Alvaro Javier Duque; Zartman, Charles Eugene; Mostacedo, Bonifacio; Vasquez, Rodolfo; Assis, Rafael L.; Medeiros, Marcelo Brilhante; Simon, Marcelo Fragomeni; Andrade, Ana; Camargo, José Luís; Laurance, Susan G. W.; Nascimento, Henrique Eduardo Mendonça; Marimon, Beatriz S.; Marimon, Ben-Hur; Costa, Flávia; Targhetta, Natalia; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; Brienen, Roel; Castellanos, Hernán; Duivenvoorden, Joost F.; Mogollón, Hugo F.; Piedade, Maria Teresa Fernandez; Aymard C., Gerardo A.; Comiskey, James A.; Damasco, Gabriel; Dávila, Nállarett; García-Villacorta, Roosevelt; Diaz, Pablo Roberto Stevenson; Vincentini, Alberto; Emilio, Thaise; Levis, Carolina; Schietti, Juliana; Souza, Priscila; Alonso, Alfonso; Dallmeier, Francisco; Ferreira, Leandro Valle; Neill, David; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro; Arroyo, Luzmila; Carvalho, Fernanda Antunes; Souza, Fernanda Coelho; do Amaral, Dário Dantas; Gribel, Rogerio; Luize, Bruno Garcia; Pansonato, Marcelo Petrati; Venticinque, Eduardo; Fine, Paul; Toledo, Marisol; Baraloto, Chris; Cerón, Carlos; Engel, Julien; Henkel, Terry W.; Jimenez, Eliana M.; Maas, Paul; Mora, Maria Cristina Peñuela; Petronelli, Pascal; Revilla, Juan David Cardenas; Silveira, Marcos; Stropp, Juliana; Thomas-Caesar, Raquel; Baker, Tim R.; Daly, Doug; Paredes, Marcos Ríos; da Silva, Naara Ferreira; Fuentes, Alfredo; Jørgensen, Peter Møller; Schöngart, Jochen; Silman, Miles R.; Arboleda, Nicolás Castaño; Cintra, Bruno Barçante Ladvocat; Valverde, Fernando Cornejo; Di Fiore, Anthony; Phillips, Juan Fernando; van Andel, Tinde R.; von Hildebrand, Patricio; Barbosa, Edelcilio Marques; de Matos Bonates, Luiz Carlos; de Castro, Deborah; de Sousa Farias, Emanuelle; Gonzales, Therany; Guillaumet, Jean-Louis; Hoffman, Bruce; Malhi, Yadvinder; de Andrade Miranda, Ires Paula; Prieto, Adriana; Rudas, Agustín; Ruschell, Ademir R.; Silva, Natalino; Vela, César I. A.; Vos, Vincent A.; Zent, Eglée L.; Zent, Stanford; Cano, Angela; Nascimento, Marcelo Trindade; Oliveira, Alexandre A.; Ramirez-Angulo, Hirma; Ramos, José Ferreira; Sierra, Rodrigo; Tirado, Milton; Medina, Maria Natalia Umaña; van der Heijden, Geertje; Torre, Emilio Vilanova; Vriesendorp, Corine; Wang, Ophelia; Young, Kenneth R.; Baider, Claudia; Balslev, Henrik; de Castro, Natalia; Farfan-Rios, William; Ferreira, Cid; Mendoza, Casimiro; Mesones, Italo; Torres-Lezama, Armando; Giraldo, Ligia Estela Urrego; Villarroel, Daniel; Zagt, Roderick; Alexiades, Miguel N.; Garcia-Cabrera, Karina; Hernandez, Lionel; Huamantupa-Chuquimaco, Isau; Milliken, William; Cuenca, Walter Palacios; Pansini, Susamar; Pauletto, Daniela; Arevalo, Freddy Ramirez; Sampaio, Adeilza Felipe; Valderrama Sandoval, Elvis H.; Gamarra, Luis Valenzuela

    2015-01-01

    Estimates of extinction risk for Amazonian plant and animal species are rare and not often incorporated into land-use policy and conservation planning. We overlay spatial distribution models with historical and projected deforestation to show that at least 36% and up to 57% of all Amazonian tree species are likely to qualify as globally threatened under International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List criteria. If confirmed, these results would increase the number of threatened plant species on Earth by 22%. We show that the trends observed in Amazonia apply to trees throughout the tropics, and we predict that most of the world’s >40,000 tropical tree species now qualify as globally threatened. A gap analysis suggests that existing Amazonian protected areas and indigenous territories will protect viable populations of most threatened species if these areas suffer no further degradation, highlighting the key roles that protected areas, indigenous peoples, and improved governance can play in preventing large-scale extinctions in the tropics in this century. PMID:26702442

  7. Estimating the global conservation status of more than 15,000 Amazonian tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Steege, Hans; Pitman, Nigel C A; Killeen, Timothy J; Laurance, William F; Peres, Carlos A; Guevara, Juan Ernesto; Salomão, Rafael P; Castilho, Carolina V; Amaral, Iêda Leão; de Almeida Matos, Francisca Dionízia; de Souza Coelho, Luiz; Magnusson, William E; Phillips, Oliver L; de Andrade Lima Filho, Diogenes; de Jesus Veiga Carim, Marcelo; Irume, Mariana Victória; Martins, Maria Pires; Molino, Jean-François; Sabatier, Daniel; Wittmann, Florian; López, Dairon Cárdenas; da Silva Guimarães, José Renan; Mendoza, Abel Monteagudo; Vargas, Percy Núñez; Manzatto, Angelo Gilberto; Reis, Neidiane Farias Costa; Terborgh, John; Casula, Katia Regina; Montero, Juan Carlos; Feldpausch, Ted R; Honorio Coronado, Euridice N; Montoya, Alvaro Javier Duque; Zartman, Charles Eugene; Mostacedo, Bonifacio; Vasquez, Rodolfo; Assis, Rafael L; Medeiros, Marcelo Brilhante; Simon, Marcelo Fragomeni; Andrade, Ana; Camargo, José Luís; Laurance, Susan G W; Nascimento, Henrique Eduardo Mendonça; Marimon, Beatriz S; Marimon, Ben-Hur; Costa, Flávia; Targhetta, Natalia; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; Brienen, Roel; Castellanos, Hernán; Duivenvoorden, Joost F; Mogollón, Hugo F; Piedade, Maria Teresa Fernandez; Aymard C, Gerardo A; Comiskey, James A; Damasco, Gabriel; Dávila, Nállarett; García-Villacorta, Roosevelt; Diaz, Pablo Roberto Stevenson; Vincentini, Alberto; Emilio, Thaise; Levis, Carolina; Schietti, Juliana; Souza, Priscila; Alonso, Alfonso; Dallmeier, Francisco; Ferreira, Leandro Valle; Neill, David; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro; Arroyo, Luzmila; Carvalho, Fernanda Antunes; Souza, Fernanda Coelho; do Amaral, Dário Dantas; Gribel, Rogerio; Luize, Bruno Garcia; Pansonato, Marcelo Petrati; Venticinque, Eduardo; Fine, Paul; Toledo, Marisol; Baraloto, Chris; Cerón, Carlos; Engel, Julien; Henkel, Terry W; Jimenez, Eliana M; Maas, Paul; Mora, Maria Cristina Peñuela; Petronelli, Pascal; Revilla, Juan David Cardenas; Silveira, Marcos; Stropp, Juliana; Thomas-Caesar, Raquel; Baker, Tim R; Daly, Doug; Paredes, Marcos Ríos; da Silva, Naara Ferreira; Fuentes, Alfredo; Jørgensen, Peter Møller; Schöngart, Jochen; Silman, Miles R; Arboleda, Nicolás Castaño; Cintra, Bruno Barçante Ladvocat; Valverde, Fernando Cornejo; Di Fiore, Anthony; Phillips, Juan Fernando; van Andel, Tinde R; von Hildebrand, Patricio; Barbosa, Edelcilio Marques; de Matos Bonates, Luiz Carlos; de Castro, Deborah; de Sousa Farias, Emanuelle; Gonzales, Therany; Guillaumet, Jean-Louis; Hoffman, Bruce; Malhi, Yadvinder; de Andrade Miranda, Ires Paula; Prieto, Adriana; Rudas, Agustín; Ruschell, Ademir R; Silva, Natalino; Vela, César I A; Vos, Vincent A; Zent, Eglée L; Zent, Stanford; Cano, Angela; Nascimento, Marcelo Trindade; Oliveira, Alexandre A; Ramirez-Angulo, Hirma; Ramos, José Ferreira; Sierra, Rodrigo; Tirado, Milton; Medina, Maria Natalia Umaña; van der Heijden, Geertje; Torre, Emilio Vilanova; Vriesendorp, Corine; Wang, Ophelia; Young, Kenneth R; Baider, Claudia; Balslev, Henrik; de Castro, Natalia; Farfan-Rios, William; Ferreira, Cid; Mendoza, Casimiro; Mesones, Italo; Torres-Lezama, Armando; Giraldo, Ligia Estela Urrego; Villarroel, Daniel; Zagt, Roderick; Alexiades, Miguel N; Garcia-Cabrera, Karina; Hernandez, Lionel; Huamantupa-Chuquimaco, Isau; Milliken, William; Cuenca, Walter Palacios; Pansini, Susamar; Pauletto, Daniela; Arevalo, Freddy Ramirez; Sampaio, Adeilza Felipe; Valderrama Sandoval, Elvis H; Gamarra, Luis Valenzuela

    2015-11-01

    Estimates of extinction risk for Amazonian plant and animal species are rare and not often incorporated into land-use policy and conservation planning. We overlay spatial distribution models with historical and projected deforestation to show that at least 36% and up to 57% of all Amazonian tree species are likely to qualify as globally threatened under International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List criteria. If confirmed, these results would increase the number of threatened plant species on Earth by 22%. We show that the trends observed in Amazonia apply to trees throughout the tropics, and we predict that most of the world's >40,000 tropical tree species now qualify as globally threatened. A gap analysis suggests that existing Amazonian protected areas and indigenous territories will protect viable populations of most threatened species if these areas suffer no further degradation, highlighting the key roles that protected areas, indigenous peoples, and improved governance can play in preventing large-scale extinctions in the tropics in this century. PMID:26702442

  8. Sunlight mediated seasonality in canopy structure and photosynthetic activity of Amazonian rainforests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resolving the debate surrounding the nature and controls of seasonal variation in the structure and metabolism of Amazonian rainforests is critical to understanding their response to climate change. In situ studies have observed higher photosynthetic and evapotranspiration rates, increased litterfall and leaf flushing during the Sunlight-rich dry season. Satellite data also indicated higher greenness level, a proven surrogate of photosynthetic carbon fixation, and leaf area during the dry season relative to the wet season. Some recent reports suggest that rainforests display no seasonal variations and the previous results were satellite measurement artefacts. Therefore, here we re-examine several years of data from three sensors on two satellites under a range of sun positions and satellite measurement geometries and document robust evidence for a seasonal cycle in structure and greenness of wet equatorial Amazonian rainforests. This seasonal cycle is concordant with independent observations of solar radiation. We attribute alternative conclusions to an incomplete study of the seasonal cycle, i.e. the dry season only, and to prognostications based on a biased radiative transfer model. Consequently, evidence of dry season greening in geometry corrected satellite data was ignored and the absence of evidence for seasonal variation in lidar data due to noisy and saturated signals was misinterpreted as evidence of the absence of changes during the dry season. Our results, grounded in the physics of radiative transfer, buttress previous reports of dry season increases in leaf flushing, litterfall, photosynthesis and evapotranspiration in well-hydrated Amazonian rainforests. (letter)

  9. Amazonian climatic change: Water isotope detection of deforestation and greenhouse impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Land use change in the Amazon basin, the largest and most biologically diverse river system in the world, has the potential to cause significant disruption to hydrological, biogeochemical and human systems. The naturally occurring isotopologues of water, commonly, but incorrectly, termed 'isotopes', of interest as possible tracing and validation tools in hydrological simulations are 1H218O and 1H2H16O. Large catchment simulations of water resources where isotopes could be applicable include water re-cycling as a function of precipitation type and variability; evaporation sourcing (i.e. whether water vapour comes from transpiration or from evaporation from rivers, lakes, soil water or the vegetation canopy); ice and snow temperature deposition determination; and aquifer and soil processes including those dependent upon precipitation intensity and melt-water contributions. coupled with measurement of isotopes in water sources, SWI characteristics in river discharge now provide insight into basin- integrated hydro-climates. New data from the Global Network for Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) database, and previously published data now fully analysed, reveal significant changes in seasonal isotopic characteristics in the upper reaches of the Amazon basin underlining the use of stable water isotopes as a means of validating and improving numerical models. Despite observational limitations, which make determination of correctness difficult, some global models are shown here to be too poor to be of value in the Amazon. For example, isotopic depletions, a strong function of rainfall amount, are incorrect when precipitation is inadequately predicted seasonally or following ENSO circulation shifts. Isotopic enrichments of δ18O and δD exhibit systematic variations in the Amazonian water cycle as a result of forest and flooding changes. We find signatures of both circulation and land-use change impacts in the isotopic record: ENSO events cause decreased depletion

  10. Reconstruction of climate, soil, and vegetation conditions of the Srubnaya cultural epoch on the basis of kurgan studies in the Cis-Ural forest-steppe of the Republic of Bashkortostan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prikhod'ko, V. E.; Rohozin, Ye. P.; Chaplygin, M. S.

    2016-09-01

    The reconstruction of soil, vegetation, and climatic conditions for the Srubnaya cultural epoch (3660 ± 40 (date wood), 3860 ± 120 (bones date) was performed on the basis of palynological and paleosol studies with radiocarbon dating of bones and wood fragments from two kurgans in the Cis-Ural forest-steppe of the Republic of Bashkortostan. Morphological features and chemical properties of the modern background soils, the soils formed on the surface of burial mounds (kurgans), and the soils buried under them were characterized. According to palynological data, the climate of this territory in the period of construction of these kurgans was more humid than the modern climate. The paleovegetation of the Srubnaya epoch was represented by mesophilic herbaceous steppes with a lower participation of xerophytic species as compared to the modern steppe and by small forest groves composed of birch and pine trees with some admixture of lime trees. The temperature conditions were close to those at present, or somewhat cooler, which is evidenced by the lower content of pollen of the broadleaved trees. The modern background soils and the soils buried under the kurgans are classified as thin light loamy typical calcareous chernozems; they have similar morphologies and physicochemical properties. However, the reconstructed organic matter content in the upper 50 cm of the buried paleosols is higher than that in the modern soils. This attests to more favorable climatic conditions during the Srubnaya epoch and is in agreement with palynological data.

  11. Forest Policy, Criteria and Indicators, and Certification

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, S.

    2001-01-01

    This paper was presented as a position paper at the International Conference "The Nature and Culture of Forests" in May 2001 at the University of British Columbia, Canada. The conference brought together international scientists and policymakers in the field of Sustainable Forest Management. This paper presents an overall concept for sustainable forest management and the strengths and weaknesses of the components of this framework. It is concluded that an efficient policy framewo...

  12. Amazonian ethnobotany and the search for new drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultes, R E

    1994-01-01

    Tropical rain forests offer enormous prospects for the discovery of new drugs for use in Western medicine. The Amazon supports 80,000 species of higher plants and a diverse Indian population. Focusing attention on those plants used as medicines by indigenous peoples is the most efficient way of identifying the plants that contain bioactive compounds. There is an urgent need for more ethnobotanists and ethnopharmacologists to be trained to document as much information as possible before it and the plants are lost through destruction of the rain forest and acculturation of the indigenous peoples. Ethnobotanical studies have identified plants documented by early travellers; these include Paullinia yoco and Ilex guayusa which are used as stimulants and have been shown to be rich in caffeine. Studies of the hallucinogen prepared from Banisterioposis caapi have shown that the native people know which plants to add to the mixture to lengthen and intensify the intoxication produced by the beta-carboline alkaloids in the plant. Three major snuffs are used in the Amazonia; the plants from which they are derived have been identified. One of the snuffs also has antifungal and curare-like activities; chemical analysis on the active principles has not been done. Several plants are considered as prime candidates for scientific study as sources of useful chemicals for medicine or industry. These include some used to prepare teas or other infusions for treatment of various symptoms of senile dementia. PMID:7736849

  13. Ecotourism Development in Recreational Forest Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. A.H. Bhuiyan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study explored the issues and strategies of ecotourism development in recreational forest areas of Malaysia. There are a number of forest recreational areas and reserves. The recreation forests are designated and managed under the forestry department. These recreational areas of scenic beauty comprise about 0.05% of the total forest reserves in Peninsular Malaysia. Ecotourism should be set in natural areas with special biological, ecological, or cultural interest. Objective: The aim of this study was to illustrate the potentiality to develop ecotourism in the recreational forests of ECER, especially in Sekayu recreational forest area. Approach: The data for analysis is obtained from the secondary sources. Results: The study showed that there are opportunities and potentialities in the recreational forests of ECER for ecotourism development. These are suitable location, availabilities of recreational forests, attractive natural beauty, pollution free environment, limited natural disaster and infrastructure development. There is some strategiesecological integrity, tourism urbanization, forest tourism development, government role and tour operator initiatives can be followed for ecotourism development in the recreational forests of this region. Conclusion: Appropriate policy, initiative and tourism development activities can be ensured ecotourism development in the recreational forests of Malaysia as well as ECER. In Sekayu, community participation must be increased for the sustainable ecotourism development in the forest.

  14. Tide distortion and attenuation in an Amazonian tidal river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo T. A. Freitas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study seeks to evaluate tidal propagation in the Guamá-Capim river system, in the Amazonian region, considering hydrodynamic and geomorphological aspects. Available data sets on fluvial discharge and water level variations were considered, besides several methods of measuring the tides (currents, water levels and discharges recorded at different stations and in different periods. The main point argued is that fluvial discharge is the key-factor in tidal distortion and tidal bore formation in the system investigated, whereas the low relief of the area would be the main factor contributing to landward tidal incursion. The results show an impressive upward tidal incursion of more than 200 km, including substantial distortion -increasing upstream -of the tidal wave, of which the ebb phase lasts up to 5 hours longer than the flood, including higher flood current velocities as far as 161 km upstream. Generally, only hyposynchronous tidal response was observed. Seasonally, the fluvial discharge varies about 10 times in the Guamá and 4 times in the Capim River. The increase of the fluvial discharge results in an increasing distortion of the tide, besides a weak increase of the attenuation. During high fluvial discharge periods in conjunction with equinoctial tides (e.g. March-April, a tidal bore occurs in the system, also increased by the generally low relief. Therefore, the conclusions include: low relief and the distortion related to high fluvial discharges are the main factors controlling tidal propagation along the system and tidal bore formation. Furthermore, the system could be classified as a tidal river, in which massive regional fresh water input results in virtually non-existent salinity throughout the Guamá-Capim system.O presente estudo teve como objetivo investigar a propagação da maré no sistema fluvial Guamá-Capim, na região amazônica, considerando aspectos hidrológicos e geomorfológicos. Os métodos empregados

  15. Domestic Forests: A New Paradigm for Integrating Local Communities' Forestry into Tropical Forest Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois Verdeaux

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite a long history of confrontation between forest agencies and forest people, "indigenous" or "local" practices are increasingly considered as a viable alternative of forest management. This paper is a synthesis derived from various long-term research programs carried out by the authors in Southeast Asia and Africa on forests managed by farmers. These researches looked at local practices and underlying science, including their social, political, and symbolic dimensions. They also addressed evolutionary trends and driving forces, as well as potential and limits for forest conservation and development, mitigation of deforestation, biodiversity conservation, and poverty alleviation in a context of global environmental, political, and social change. We discuss how forest management by local communities, contrary to the unified models of professional forest management, exhibits a high historical and geographical diversity. The analysis we draw from the various examples we studied reveals several invariants, which allows proposing the unifying paradigm of "domestic forest." The first universal feature concerns the local managers themselves, who are, in their vast majority, farmers. Management practices range from local interventions in the forest ecosystem, to more intensive types of forest culture, and ultimately to permanent forest plantation. But in all cases, forest management is closely integrated with agriculture. The second universal feature concerns the conceptual continuity of planted forests with the natural forest, in matters of vegetation's structure and composition as well as economic traits and ecosystem services. The resulting forest is uneven-aged, composed of several strata, harboring a large diversity of species, and producing a wide range of products, with timber seldom being the dominant one. The term "domestic forest" aims at highlighting the close relationship the domestication process establishes between a specific human

  16. FS National Forest Dataset (US Forest Service Proclaimed Forests)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting the boundaries encompassing the National Forest System (NFS) lands within the original proclaimed National Forests, along with...

  17. Energetic characterization of Amazonian biomass; Caracterizacao energetica de biomassas amazonicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feitosa Netto, Genesio Batista; Oliveira, Antonio Geraldo de Paula; Coutinho, Hebert Willian Martins; Nogueira, Manoel Fernandes Martins; Rendeiro, Goncalo [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2006-07-01

    In order to asses the potentiality of Amazon biomasses to generate power, either to supply electric energy to the grid or as fuel to plants supplying power for off-grid location, data for their proximate analysis must be available. A literature review on the subject indicated a lack of information and data concerning typical Amazon rain forest species. This work aimed to characterize (proximate analysis) 43 Amazon species in order to evaluate the energy resource from woody biomass wastes in Amazon region. Higher heating value, carbon, volatile and ash contents were measured in a dry basis. The measurements were performed obeying the following Brazilian standards, NBR 6923, NBR 8112, NBR 8633, NBR 6922. (author)

  18. Energetic planning in isolated Amazonian communities using geographical information system; Planejamento energetico em regioes isoladas da Amazonia utilizando sistemas de informacoes geograficas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Arthur [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia Eletrica; Rocha, Brigida R.P.; Monteiro, Jose H.A.; Gaspar, Gabriella C.M. [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica e de Computacao; Aarao Junior, Raimundo N.N. [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2004-07-01

    This paper proposes a system of electric planning in isolated Amazonian communities. For those communities, we propose the use of decentralized systems of electric energy with biomass as fuel. We also propose a computer system of electric planning with geographical information systems for its facilities of integrating geographical information, so useful in an Amazonian context. (author)

  19. REDD and PINC: A new policy framework to fund tropical forests as global 'eco-utilities'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tropical forests are 'eco-utilities' providing critical ecosystem services that underpin food, energy, water and climate security at local to global scales. Currently, these services are unrecognised and unrewarded in international policy and financial frameworks, causing forests to be worth more dead than alive. Much attention is currently focused on REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation) and A/R (Afforestation and Reforestation) as mitigation options. In this article we propose an additional mechanism - PINC (Proactive Investment in Natural Capital) - that recognises and rewards the value of ecosystem services provided by standing tropical forests, especially from a climate change adaptation perspective. Using Amazonian forests as a case study we show that PINC could improve the wellbeing of rural and forest-dependent populations, enabling them to cope with the impacts associated with climate change and deforestation. By investing pro-actively in areas where deforestation pressures are currently low, the long-term costs of mitigation and adaptation will be reduced. We suggest a number of ways in which funds could be raised through emerging financial mechanisms to provide positive incentives to maintain standing forests. To develop PINC, a new research and capacity-building agenda is needed that explores the interdependence between communities, the forest eco-utility and the wider economy.

  20. US Forest Service National Forest System Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting existing National Forest System Roads (NFSR) that are under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Forest Service. Each feature represents...

  1. Can accelerometers detect mass variations in Amazonian trees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Emmerik, Tim; Steele-Dunne, Susan; Gentine, Pierre; Guerin, Marceau; Hut, Rolf; Oliveira, Rafael; van de Giesen, Nick

    2016-04-01

    The mass of trees is influenced by physiological processes within the tree (e.g. transpiration and root water uptake), as well as external loads (e.g. intercepted precipitation). Recent studies have found diurnal variations in radar backscatter over vegetated areas, which might be attributed to mass changes of the vegetation layer. Field measurements are required to study the driving processes. This study aims to use measured three-dimensional displacement and acceleration of trees, to detect and quantify their diurnal (bio)mass variations. Accelerometers and dendrometers were installed on seven different tree species in the Amazon rainforest. Trees were selected to cover a broad range of wood density. Using spectral analysis, the governing frequencies in the acceleration time series were found. The governing frequencies showed a diurnal pattern, as well as a change during precipitation events. Our results suggest that we can separate and potentially quantify tree mass changes due to (1) internal water redistribution and (2) intercepted precipitation. This will allow further investigation of the effect of precipitation and water stress on tree dynamics in forest canopies.

  2. Information Forests

    CERN Document Server

    Yi, Zhao; Dewan, Maneesh; Zhan, Yiqiang

    2012-01-01

    We describe Information Forests, an approach to classification that generalizes Random Forests by replacing the splitting criterion of non-leaf nodes from a discriminative one -- based on the entropy of the label distribution -- to a generative one -- based on maximizing the information divergence between the class-conditional distributions in the resulting partitions. The basic idea consists of deferring classification until a measure of "classification confidence" is sufficiently high, and instead breaking down the data so as to maximize this measure. In an alternative interpretation, Information Forests attempt to partition the data into subsets that are "as informative as possible" for the purpose of the task, which is to classify the data. Classification confidence, or informative content of the subsets, is quantified by the Information Divergence. Our approach relates to active learning, semi-supervised learning, mixed generative/discriminative learning.

  3. Criteria and Indicators for Sustainable Forest Management in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabiul Islam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study investigated the timber certification of sustainable forest management and the criteria and indicators for sustainable forest management. Approach: Sustainable forest management is an important role in the forestry sector and takes a major player in Malaysia's sustainable development. It is a management regime that integrates and balances social, economic, ecological, cultural and spiritual needs to present and future generations. Results: We analyzed the pillars of sustainable forest management, criteria, indicators, activities and standards of performance for sustainable forest management in Malaysia. Conclusion: The aim of this study was to highlight and clarify the impacts of trade and environment on sustainable forest management in Malaysia.

  4. Carbon emissions from deforestation and forest fragmentation in the Brazilian Amazon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest-fragmentation-related edge effects are one of the major causes of forest degradation in Amazonia and their spatio-temporal dynamics are highly influenced by annual deforestation patterns. Rapid biomass collapse due to edge effects in forest fragments has been reported in the Brazilian Amazon; however the collective impacts of this process on Amazonian carbon fluxes are poorly understood. We estimated biomass loss and carbon emissions from deforestation and forest fragmentation related to edge effects on the basis of the INPE (Brazilian National Space Research Institute) PRODES deforestation data and forest biomass volume data. The areas and ages of edge forests were calculated annually and the corresponding biomass loss and carbon emissions from these forest edges were estimated using published rates of biomass decay and decomposition corresponding to the areas and ages of edge forests. Our analysis estimated carbon fluxes from deforestation (4195 Tg C) and edge forest (126-221 Tg C) for 2001-10 in the Brazilian Amazon. The impacts of varying rates of deforestation on regional forest fragmentation and carbon fluxes were also investigated, with the focus on two periods: 2001-5 (high deforestation rates) and 2006-10 (low deforestation rates). Edge-released carbon accounted for 2.6-4.5% of deforestation-related carbon emissions. However, the relative importance of carbon emissions from forest fragmentation increased from 1.7-3.0% to 3.3-5.6% of the respective deforestation emissions between the two contrasting deforestation rates. Edge-related carbon fluxes are of increasing importance for basin-wide carbon accounting, especially as regards ongoing reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) efforts in Brazilian Amazonia.

  5. Carbon emissions from deforestation and forest fragmentation in the Brazilian Amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Numata, Izaya; Cochrane, Mark A [GIScCE, South Dakota State University (United States); Souza, Carlos M Jr; Sales, Marcio H [Instituto do Homen e Meio Ambiente da Amazonia-IMAZON (Brazil)

    2011-10-15

    Forest-fragmentation-related edge effects are one of the major causes of forest degradation in Amazonia and their spatio-temporal dynamics are highly influenced by annual deforestation patterns. Rapid biomass collapse due to edge effects in forest fragments has been reported in the Brazilian Amazon; however the collective impacts of this process on Amazonian carbon fluxes are poorly understood. We estimated biomass loss and carbon emissions from deforestation and forest fragmentation related to edge effects on the basis of the INPE (Brazilian National Space Research Institute) PRODES deforestation data and forest biomass volume data. The areas and ages of edge forests were calculated annually and the corresponding biomass loss and carbon emissions from these forest edges were estimated using published rates of biomass decay and decomposition corresponding to the areas and ages of edge forests. Our analysis estimated carbon fluxes from deforestation (4195 Tg C) and edge forest (126-221 Tg C) for 2001-10 in the Brazilian Amazon. The impacts of varying rates of deforestation on regional forest fragmentation and carbon fluxes were also investigated, with the focus on two periods: 2001-5 (high deforestation rates) and 2006-10 (low deforestation rates). Edge-released carbon accounted for 2.6-4.5% of deforestation-related carbon emissions. However, the relative importance of carbon emissions from forest fragmentation increased from 1.7-3.0% to 3.3-5.6% of the respective deforestation emissions between the two contrasting deforestation rates. Edge-related carbon fluxes are of increasing importance for basin-wide carbon accounting, especially as regards ongoing reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) efforts in Brazilian Amazonia.

  6. Restoring forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Douglass F.; Oliet, Juan A.; Aronson, James;

    2015-01-01

    Forest loss and degradation is occurring at high rates but humankind is experiencing historical momentum that favors forest restoration. Approaches to restoration may follow various paradigms depending on stakeholder objectives, regional climate, or the degree of site degradation. The vast amount...... of land requiring restoration implies the need for spatial prioritization of restoration efforts according to cost-benefit analyses that include ecological risks. To design resistant and resilient ecosystems that can adapt to emerging circumstances, an adaptive management approach is needed. Global change...

  7. Population structure of the malaria vector Anopheles darlingi in a malaria-endemic region of Eastern Amazonian Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conn, Jan E.; Vineis, Joseph H.; Bollback, Jonathan Paul;

    2006-01-01

    Anopheles darlingi is the primary malaria vector in Latin America, and is especially important in Amazonian is the primary malaria vector in Latin America, and is especially important in Amazonian Brazil. Historically, control efforts have been focused on indoor house spraying using a variety....... darlingi including evidence for a population bottleneck in Peixoto, we analyzed eight microsatellite loci of 256 individuals including evidence for a population bottleneck in Peixoto, we analyzed eight microsatellite loci of 256 individuals from seven locations in Brazil: three in Amapa State, three...

  8. The Tsimane’ Amazonian Panel Study (TAPS): Nine years (2002-2010) of annual data available to the public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, William R.; Reyes-García, Victoria; Tanner, Susan; Rosinger, Asher; Schultz, Alan; Vadez, Vincent; Zhang, Rebecca; Godoy, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    This brief communication contains a description of the 2002-2010 annual panel collected by the Tsimane’ Amazonian Panel Study team. The study took place among the Tsimane’, a native Amazonian society of forager-horticulturalists. The team tracked a wide range of socio-economic and anthropometric variables from all residents (633 adults ≥16 years; 820 children) in 13 villages along the Maniqui River, department of Beni. The panel is ideally suited to examine how market exposure and modernization affect the well-being of a highly autarkic population and to examine human growth in a non-Western rural setting. PMID:26280812

  9. Endocrine monitoring of the ovarian cycle in captive female Amazonian manatees (Trichechus inunguis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Rodrigo S; Rosas, Fernando C W; da Silva, Vera M F; Nichi, Marcilio; Oliveira, Claudio A

    2013-11-01

    The Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis; Mammalia: Sirenia), a threatened aquatic mammal endemic to the Amazon basin, is the only sirenian that lives exclusively in fresh water. Information about the reproductive endocrinology of the Amazonian manatee is scarce; therefore, the aim of this study was to monitor salivary progesterone and estradiol patterns during the ovarian cycle in T. inunguis. Salivary samples were collected daily during a 12-week period of two consecutive years from two captive adult females. The salivary estradiol and progesterone were measured by enzyme immunoassay. The results were analyzed in an iterative process of excluding values that were higher than the mean plus 2 standard deviations until the basal values were determined. The interval between two peaks of salivary estradiol followed by a rise of progesterone was considered as one complete cycle for the calculation of the cycle length. We observed only three complete cycles in all samples analyzed. The cycle length ranged from 42 to 48 days (mean of 44.67 days). We also observed two distinct salivary estradiol peaks during all cycles analyzed, with the first peak occurring before the rise in salivary progesterone and the second occurred followed by a return to basal progesterone levels. This is the first in-depth study of the ovarian cycle in Amazonian manatees. Our results demonstrate that salivary samples can be a useful tool in the endocrine monitoring of this species and suggest that T. inunguis shows a peculiar hormonal pattern during the ovarian cycle, a finding that may have physiological and ecological significance in the reproductive strategy of these animals.

  10. The role of tectonics and climate in the late Quaternary evolution of a northern Amazonian River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremon, Édipo Henrique; Rossetti, Dilce de Fátima; Sawakuchi, André de Oliveira; Cohen, Marcelo Cancela Lisboa

    2016-10-01

    The Amazon basin has most of the largest rivers of the world. However, works focusing the geological evolution of the trunk river or its tributaries have been only partly approached. The Branco River constitutes one of the main northern Amazonian tributaries. A previous work proposed that, before flowing southward into the Negro-Amazon Rivers, the Branco River had a southwest to northeast course into the Caribbean Sea. The present work aimed to establish if the proposed change in the course of this river is supported by morphological and sedimentological data. Other goals were to discuss the factors influencing river development and establish its evolution over time within the chronological framework provided by radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence dating. The work considered the entire course of the Branco River downstream of the Precambrian Guiana Shield, where the river presumably did not exist in ancient times. The river valley is incised into fluvial sedimentary units displaying ages between 100 and 250 ky old, which record active and abandoned channels, crevasse splay/levees, and point bars. The sedimentary deposits in the valley include two alluvial plain units as old as 18.7 ky and which intersects a Late Pleistocene residual megafan. These characteristics suggest that a long segment of the Branco River was established only a few thousand years ago. Together with several structural anomalies, these data are consistent with a mega-capture at the middle reach of this river due to tectonic reactivation in the Late Pleistocene. This integrated approach can be applied to other Amazonian tributaries to unravel how and when the Amazonian drainage basin became established.

  11. Amazonian-aged fluvial system and associated ice-related features in Terra Cimmeria, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeli, Solmaz; Hauber, Ernst; Kleinhans, Maarten; Le Deit, Laetitia; Platz, Thomas; Fawdon, Peter; Jaumann, Ralf

    2016-10-01

    The Martian climate throughout the Amazonian is widely believed to have been cold and hyper-arid, very similar to the current conditions. However, ubiquitous evidence of aqueous and glacial activity has been recently reported, including channels that can be tens to hundreds of kilometres long, alluvial and fluvial deposits, ice-rich mantles, and glacial and periglacial landforms. Here we study a ∼340 km-long fluvial system located in the Terra Cimmeria region, in the southern mid-latitudes of Mars. The fluvial system is composed of an upstream catchment system with narrow glaciofluvial valleys and remnants of ice-rich deposits. We observe depositional features including fan-shaped deposits, and erosional features such as scour marks and streamlined islands. At the downstream section of this fluvial system is an outflow channel named Kārūn Valles, which displays a unique braided alluvial fan and terminates on the floor of the Ariadnes Colles basin. Our observations point to surface runoff of ice/snow melt as the water source for this fluvial activity. According to our crater size-frequency distribution analysis the entire fluvial system formed during early to middle Amazonian, between ∼ 1.8-0.2+0.2 Ga to 510-40+40 Ma. Hydraulic modelling indicates that the Kārūn Valles and consequently the alluvial fan formation took place in geologically short-term event(s). We conclude that liquid water was present in Terra Cimmeria during the early to middle Amazonian, and that Mars during that time may have undergone several episodic glacial-related events.

  12. Seed and Germination Characteristics of 20 Amazonian Liana Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareike Roeder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lianas are an important component of tropical forests, and may reach their highest densities in disturbed areas. However, information on seed and germination characteristics is scarce. Twenty Amazon liana species were screened for their germination characteristics, including light dependence, tolerance of desiccation and of alternating temperatures; these characteristics are considered important for the germination success in areas with relatively open canopies. Between 31–1,420 seeds per species were available, as 15 species seeds came from one mother plant. We studied seed biometry and conducted germination trials with fresh seeds (12 h light daily, or dark and desiccated seeds at 25 °C. Germination at alternating temperatures (20/30 °C, 15/35 °C was analyzed for nine species. Of the 20 species, eight species with the largest seeds had desiccation sensitive seeds; this is the first record for species of four genera and one family, where only desiccation tolerant seeds are otherwise recorded. Light-dependent germination was found in three species (0.01–0.015 g and is the first record for two; however, results were based on seeds from one plant per species. Alternating temperatures of 15/35 °C decreased final germination of four out of nine species, and response to 20/30 °C cycles varied compared to constant 25 °C. Seed and germination characteristics of the species ranged from pioneer to climax traits indicating that establishment of lianas from seeds may be confined to species specific niches.

  13. Calcium fluxes in Hoplosternum littorale (tamoatá) exposed to different types of Amazonian waters

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardo Baldisserotto; Carlos Eduardo Copatti; Levy de Carvalho Gomes; Edsandra Campos Chagas; Richard Philip Brinn; Rodrigo Roubach

    2009-01-01

    Fishes that live in the Amazonian environment may be exposed to several kinds of waters: "black waters", containing high dissolved organic carbon and acidic pH, "white waters", with ten fold higher Ca2+ concentrations than black waters and neutral pH, and "clear waters", with two fold higher Ca2+ concentrations than black waters and also neutral pH. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to analyze Ca2+ fluxes in the facultative air-breather Hoplosternum littorale (tamoatá) exposed to di...

  14. How does the Nazca Ridge subduction influence the modern Amazonian foreland basin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espurt, N.; Baby, P.; Brusset, S.; Roddaz, M.; Hermoza, W.; Regard, V.; Antoine, P.-O.; Salas-Gismondi, R.; Bolaños, R.

    2007-06-01

    The subduction of an aseismic ridge has important consequences on the dynamics of the overriding upper plate. In the central Andes, the Nazca Ridge subduction imprint can be tracked on the eastern side of the Andes. The Fitzcarrald arch is the long-wavelength topography response of the Nazca Ridge flat subduction, 750 km inboard of the trench. This uplift is responsible for the atypical three-dimensional shape of the Amazonian foreland basin. The Fitzcarrald arch uplift is no older than Pliocene as constrained by the study of Neogene sediments and geomorphic markers, according to the kinematics of the Nazca Ridge subduction.

  15. The mammary glands of the Amazonian manatee, Trichechus inunguis (Mammalia: Sirenia): morphological characteristics and microscopic anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Fernanda Rosa; da Silva, Vera Maria Ferreira; Barcellos, José Fernando Marques

    2014-08-01

    The mammaries from carcasses of two female Amazonian manatees were examined. Trichechus inunguis possesses two axillary mammaries beneath the pectoral fins, one on each side of the body. Each papilla mammae has a small hole on its apex--the ostium papillare. The mammaries are covered by a stratified squamous keratinized epithelium. The epithelium of the mammary ducts became thinner more deeply in the tissue and varied from stratified to simple cuboidal. There was no evidence of glandular activity or secretion into the ducts of the mammary glands.

  16. Noninvasive monitoring of androgens in male Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis): biologic validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Rodrigo de Souza; Rosas, Fernando Cesar Weber; Viau, Priscila; d'Affonsêca Neto, José Anselmo; da Silva, Vera Maria Ferreira; de Oliveira, Cláudio Alvarenga

    2009-09-01

    The Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis) is endemic in the Amazonian basin and is the only exclusively fresh water sirenian. Historically hunted on a large scale, this species is now considered endangered, and studies on the reproductive physiology are critical for the improvement of reproductive management of captive and wild populations of manatees. The aim of this study was to verify the viability of androgen measurement in saliva, lacrimal, urine, and fecal samples of the Amazonian manatee by conducting a hormone challenge. Two adult male manatees (A-1 and A-2) were submitted to an experimentation protocol of 12 day (D1 to D10). On D0, the animals received an intramuscular injection of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-analogue. Salivary, lacrimal, urinary, and fecal samples were collected daily (between 0800 hours and 0900 hours) and frozen at -20 degrees C until assayed. Fecal samples were lyophilized, extracted with 80% methanol, and diluted in buffer before the radioimmunoassay (RIA). Urine samples underwent acid hydrolysis and were diluted in depleted bovine serum. Salivary and lacrimal samples were assayed without the extraction step. Hormonal assays were conducted with a commercial testosterone RIA kit. An androgen peak (> median + 2 interquartile range [IQR]) was observed in all matrices of both animals, although it was less prominent in the lacrimal samples of A-2. However, the fecal androgen peak (A-1 peak = 293.78 ng/g dry feces, median [IQR] = 143.58 [32.38] ng/g dry feces; A-2 peak = 686.72 ng/g dry feces, median [IQR] = 243.82 [193.16] ng/g dry feces) occurred later than urinary (A-1 peak = 648.16 ng/mg creatinine [Cr], median [IQR] = 23.88 [30.44] ng/mg Cr; A-2 peak = 370.44 ng/mg Cr, median [IQR] = 113.87 [117.73] ng/mg Cr) and salivary (A-1 peak = 678.89 pg/ml, median [IQR] = 103.69 [119.86] pg/ml; A-2 peak = 733.71 pg/ml, median [IQR] = 262.92 [211.44] pg/ml) androgen peaks. These intervals appear to be correlated with the long digesta

  17. The mammary glands of the Amazonian manatee, Trichechus inunguis (Mammalia: Sirenia): morphological characteristics and microscopic anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Fernanda Rosa; da Silva, Vera Maria Ferreira; Barcellos, José Fernando Marques

    2014-08-01

    The mammaries from carcasses of two female Amazonian manatees were examined. Trichechus inunguis possesses two axillary mammaries beneath the pectoral fins, one on each side of the body. Each papilla mammae has a small hole on its apex--the ostium papillare. The mammaries are covered by a stratified squamous keratinized epithelium. The epithelium of the mammary ducts became thinner more deeply in the tissue and varied from stratified to simple cuboidal. There was no evidence of glandular activity or secretion into the ducts of the mammary glands. PMID:24920139

  18. Forest Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    NASA's Technology Applications Center, with other government and academic agencies, provided technology for improved resources management to the Cibola National Forest. Landsat satellite images enabled vegetation over a large area to be classified for purposes of timber analysis, wildlife habitat, range measurement and development of general vegetation maps.

  19. Dryland forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bose, Purabi; Dijk, van Han

    2016-01-01

    This volume provides new insights and conceptual understandings of the human and gender dimension of vulnerability in relation to the dynamics of tenure reforms in the dryland forests of Asia and Africa. The book analyzes the interaction between biophysical factors such as climate variability (e.

  20. Drought Legacy and the Impacts on the Amazon Forest Carbon Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saatchi, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    Sassan Saatchi1,2, Yifan Yu1, Xiang Xu2, Luiz Aragao3, Liana Anderson31Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA2Institute of Environment and Sustainability, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90045. USA3 Remote Sensing Division, National Institute for Space Research, São José dos Campos, Brazil, 12227-010, BrazilRecent Amazonian droughts have drawn attention to the vulnerability of tropical forests to climate perturbations. Ground and satellite observations of 2005 and 2010 mega-droughts have shown an increase in fire occurrence and tree mortality during the period of drought. Here, we use a combination of satellite observations over a period of about 15 years to examine the legacy of the droughts in terms of impacts on the ecological structure and function of the forests in years following the droughts and the subsequent carbon exchange. Using data from microwave satellite sensors of rainfall, canopy backscatter (2000-2014) and GRACE and GOSAT, we show that the 2005 drought has a legacy of 2-5 years in western Amazonia, by increasing the disturbance in canopy trees and impacting the gross primary production of the forest significantly. Amazonian forests, particularly in the southern region were again impacted by the 2010 mega-drought, causing a legacy of 2-4 years with potential decrease in GPP and productivity observed by GOSAT fluorescence. The persistent of low canopy water content observed by a joint QSCAT and OceanSAT observations were linked to a delay in recharging of the hydrological system observed by GRACE over a period of 2-5 years. The results suggest that Amazonian forests with distinct dry seasons in southern and western regions of the basin are potentially more vulnerable to droughts compared to regions with less seasonality. The long recovery time from the 2005 and 2010 droughts suggests that the occurence of droughts in Amazonia at 5-10 year frequency may lead to long-term alteration of the

  1. Malaria in Brazil: what happens outside the Amazonian endemic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anielle de Pina-Costa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Brazil, a country of continental proportions, presents three profiles of malaria transmission. The first and most important numerically, occurs inside the Amazon. The Amazon accounts for approximately 60% of the nation’s territory and approximately 13% of the Brazilian population. This region hosts 99.5% of the nation’s malaria cases, which are predominantly caused by Plasmodium vivax (i.e., 82% of cases in 2013. The second involves imported malaria, which corresponds to malaria cases acquired outside the region where the individuals live or the diagnosis was made. These cases are imported from endemic regions of Brazil (i.e., the Amazon or from other countries in South and Central America, Africa and Asia. Imported malaria comprised 89% of the cases found outside the area of active transmission in Brazil in 2013. These cases highlight an important question with respect to both therapeutic and epidemiological issues because patients, especially those with falciparum malaria, arriving in a region where the health professionals may not have experience with the clinical manifestations of malaria and its diagnosis could suffer dramatic consequences associated with a potential delay in treatment. Additionally, because the Anopheles vectors exist in most of the country, even a single case of malaria, if not diagnosed and treated immediately, may result in introduced cases, causing outbreaks and even introducing or reintroducing the disease to a non-endemic, receptive region. Cases introduced outside the Amazon usually occur in areas in which malaria was formerly endemic and are transmitted by competent vectors belonging to the subgenus Nyssorhynchus (i.e., Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles aquasalis and species of the Albitarsis complex. The third type of transmission accounts for only 0.05% of all cases and is caused by autochthonous malaria in the Atlantic Forest, located primarily along the southeastern Atlantic Coast. They are caused by parasites

  2. Malaria in Brazil: what happens outside the Amazonian endemic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pina-Costa, Anielle; Brasil, Patrícia; Di Santi, Sílvia Maria; de Araujo, Mariana Pereira; Suárez-Mutis, Martha Cecilia; Santelli, Ana Carolina Faria e Silva; Oliveira-Ferreira, Joseli; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Daniel-Ribeiro, Cláudio Tadeu

    2014-08-01

    Brazil, a country of continental proportions, presents three profiles of malaria transmission. The first and most important numerically, occurs inside the Amazon. The Amazon accounts for approximately 60% of the nation's territory and approximately 13% of the Brazilian population. This region hosts 99.5% of the nation's malaria cases, which are predominantly caused by Plasmodium vivax (i.e., 82% of cases in 2013). The second involves imported malaria, which corresponds to malaria cases acquired outside the region where the individuals live or the diagnosis was made. These cases are imported from endemic regions of Brazil (i.e., the Amazon) or from other countries in South and Central America, Africa and Asia. Imported malaria comprised 89% of the cases found outside the area of active transmission in Brazil in 2013. These cases highlight an important question with respect to both therapeutic and epidemiological issues because patients, especially those with falciparum malaria, arriving in a region where the health professionals may not have experience with the clinical manifestations of malaria and its diagnosis could suffer dramatic consequences associated with a potential delay in treatment. Additionally, because the Anopheles vectors exist in most of the country, even a single case of malaria, if not diagnosed and treated immediately, may result in introduced cases, causing outbreaks and even introducing or reintroducing the disease to a non-endemic, receptive region. Cases introduced outside the Amazon usually occur in areas in which malaria was formerly endemic and are transmitted by competent vectors belonging to the subgenus Nyssorhynchus (i.e., Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles aquasalis and species of the Albitarsis complex). The third type of transmission accounts for only 0.05% of all cases and is caused by autochthonous malaria in the Atlantic Forest, located primarily along the southeastern Atlantic Coast. They are caused by parasites that seem to be (or

  3. Seasonal variation of serum biochemical values of Amazonian snakes (Boa constrictor constrictor kept in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis José da Silva Lima

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In northern Brazil, the seasons are not well defined compared to the South and Southeast regions, due to a hot and humid equatorial climate with a rainy season, known as the Amazonian winter, and a period with less rain, known as the Amazonian summer. The goal of this study was to evaluate the biochemical variation of serum from the Amazon Boa constrictor by correlating the values with the seasons of the region. A biochemical analysis of the serum was performed (AST, ALT, LDH, ALP, calcium, uric acid, phosphorus, total protein, albumin and globulin using 31 individuals of Boa constrictor constrictor, which were kept in captivity. It was observed that eight of the ten parameters were higher in the winter compared to the summer (total protein, albumin, globulin, ALT, AST, ALP, LDH and calcium. The ALT, AST and calcium values had statistically significant differences for the summer and winter, while the other parameters appear to be influenced by seasonality. This was the first study of snakes kept in captivity that analyzed the serum chemistry profile of Boa constrictor constrictor from the state of Pará, Brazil.

  4. The discovery of the Amazonian tree flora with an updated checklist of all known tree taxa

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Steege, Hans; Vaessen, Rens W.; Cárdenas-López, Dairon; Sabatier, Daniel; Antonelli, Alexandre; de Oliveira, Sylvia Mota; Pitman, Nigel C. A.; Jørgensen, Peter Møller; Salomão, Rafael P.

    2016-01-01

    Amazonia is the most biodiverse rainforest on Earth, and the debate over how many tree species grow there remains contentious. Here we provide a checklist of all tree species collected to date, and describe spatial and temporal trends in data accumulation. We report 530,025 unique collections of trees in Amazonia, dating between 1707 and 2015, for a total of 11,676 species in 1225 genera and 140 families. These figures support recent estimates of 16,000 total Amazonian tree species based on ecological plot data from the Amazonian Tree Diversity Network. Botanical collection in Amazonia is characterized by three major peaks, centred around 1840, 1920, and 1980, which are associated with flora projects and the establishment of inventory plots. Most collections were made in the 20th century. The number of collections has increased exponentially, but shows a slowdown in the last two decades. We find that a species’ range size is a better predictor of the number of times it has been collected than the species’ estimated basin-wide population size. Finding, describing, and documenting the distribution of the remaining species will require coordinated efforts at under-collected sites. PMID:27406027

  5. Scale dependence of the simulated impact of Amazonian deforestation on regional climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, A. J.; Lorenz, R.

    2016-09-01

    Using a global climate model, Amazonian deforestation experiments are conducted perturbing 1, 9, 25, 81 and 121 grid points, each with 5 ensemble members. All experiments show warming and drying over Amazonia. The impact of deforestation on temperature, averaged either over the affected area or a wider area, decreases by a factor of two as the scale of the perturbation increases from 1 to 121 grid points. This is associated with changes in the surface energy balance and consequential impacts on the atmosphere above the regions deforested. For precipitation, as the scale of deforestation increases from 9 to 121 grid points, the reduction in rainfall over the perturbed area decreases from ˜1.5 to ˜1 mm d-1. However, if the surrounding area is considered and large deforestation perturbations made, compensatory increases in precipitation occur such that there is little net change. This is largely associated with changes in horizontal advection of moisture. Disagreements between climate model experiments on how Amazonian deforestation affects precipitation and temperature are, at least in part, due to the spatial scale of the region deforested, differences in the areas used to calculate averages and whether areas surrounding deforestation are included in the overall averages.

  6. Seasonal variation in urinary and salivary reproductive hormone levels in Amazonian manatees (Trichechus inunguis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Rodrigo S; Rosas, Fernando C W; da Silva, Vera M F; Graham, Laura H; Viau, Priscila; Nichi, Marcilio; Oliveira, Claudio A

    2015-09-01

    The Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis) is a threatened aquatic mammal endemic to the Amazon basin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the urinary and salivary reproductive hormone levels of captive Amazonian manatees collected during two seasons of the year. Salivary samples from four males and urinary and salivary samples from three females were collected during two seasons (March-June and September-November) over two consecutive years. Salivary testosterone in males was measured by radioimmunoassay and reproductive hormones in females (salivary progesterone and oestradiol and urinary progestogens, oestrogens and luteinising hormone) were measured by enzyme immunoassay. The data were analysed in a 2×2 factorial design, where the factors were year and season. There was no effect of year or season for salivary testosterone. All female hormones showed a seasonal effect (higher hormone levels during March-June than September-November) or an interaction between year and season (Pmanatees; however, apparently only females exhibit reproductive quiescence during the non-breeding season. Further long-term studies are necessary to elucidate which environmental parameters are related to reproductive seasonality in T. inunguis and how this species responds physiologically to those stimuli.

  7. Hydrological pulse regulating the bacterial heterotrophic metabolism between Amazonian mainstems and floodplain lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Oliveira Vidal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated in situ rates of bacterial carbon processing in Amazonian floodplain lakes and mainstems, during both high and low water phases (p < 0.05. Our results showed that Bacterial Production (BP was lower and more variable than Bacterial Respiration (BR, determined as total respiration. Bacterial Carbon Demand (BCD was mostly accounted by BR and presented the same pattern that BR in both water phases. Bacterial growth efficiency showed a wide range (0.2–23% and low mean value of 3 and 6 %, (in high and low water respectively suggesting that dissolved organic carbon (DOC was mostly allocated to catabolic metabolism. However, BGE was regulated by BP in low water phase. Consequently, changes in BGE showed the same pattern that BP. In addition, the hydrological pulse effects on mainstems and floodplains lakes connectivity were found for BP and BGE in low water. Multiple correlation analyses revealed that indexes of organic matter quality (chlorophyll-a, N stable isotopes and C/N ratios were the strongest seasonal drivers of bacterial carbon metabolism. Our work indicated that: (1 the bacterial metabolism was mostly driven by respiration in Amazonian aquatic ecosystems resulting in low BGE in either high and low water phase; (2 the hydrological pulse regulated

  8. Young organic matter as a source of carbon dioxide outgassing from Amazonian rivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayorga, E; Aufdenkampe, A K; Masiello, C A; Krusche, A V; Hedges, J I; Quay, P D; Richey, J E; Brown, T A

    2005-06-23

    Rivers are generally supersaturated with respect to carbon dioxide, resulting in large gas evasion fluxes that can be a significant component of regional net carbon budgets. Amazonian rivers were recently shown to outgas more than ten times the amount of carbon exported to the ocean in the form of total organic carbon or dissolved inorganic carbon. High carbon dioxide concentrations in rivers originate largely from in situ respiration of organic carbon, but little agreement exists about the sources or turnover times of this carbon. Here we present results of an extensive survey of the carbon isotope composition ({sup 13}C and {sup 14}C) of dissolved inorganic carbon and three size-fractions of organic carbon across the Amazonian river system. We find that respiration of contemporary organic matter (less than 5 years old) originating on land and near rivers is the dominant source of excess carbon dioxide that drives outgassing in mid-size to large rivers, although we find that bulk organic carbon fractions transported by these rivers range from tens to thousands of years in age. We therefore suggest that a small, rapidly cycling pool of organic carbon is responsible for the large carbon fluxes from land to water to atmosphere in the humid tropics.

  9. The discovery of the Amazonian tree flora with an updated checklist of all known tree taxa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Steege, Hans; Vaessen, Rens W.; Cárdenas-López, Dairon; Sabatier, Daniel; Antonelli, Alexandre; de Oliveira, Sylvia Mota; Pitman, Nigel C. A.; Jørgensen, Peter Møller; Salomão, Rafael P.

    2016-07-01

    Amazonia is the most biodiverse rainforest on Earth, and the debate over how many tree species grow there remains contentious. Here we provide a checklist of all tree species collected to date, and describe spatial and temporal trends in data accumulation. We report 530,025 unique collections of trees in Amazonia, dating between 1707 and 2015, for a total of 11,676 species in 1225 genera and 140 families. These figures support recent estimates of 16,000 total Amazonian tree species based on ecological plot data from the Amazonian Tree Diversity Network. Botanical collection in Amazonia is characterized by three major peaks, centred around 1840, 1920, and 1980, which are associated with flora projects and the establishment of inventory plots. Most collections were made in the 20th century. The number of collections has increased exponentially, but shows a slowdown in the last two decades. We find that a species’ range size is a better predictor of the number of times it has been collected than the species’ estimated basin-wide population size. Finding, describing, and documenting the distribution of the remaining species will require coordinated efforts at under-collected sites.

  10. Land use intensity trajectories on Amazonian pastures derived from Landsat time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufin, Philippe; Müller, Hannes; Pflugmacher, Dirk; Hostert, Patrick

    2015-09-01

    Monitoring changes in land use intensity of grazing systems in the Amazon is an important prerequisite to study the complex political and socio-economic forces driving Amazonian deforestation. Remote sensing offers the potential to map pasture vegetation over large areas, but mapping pasture conditions consistently through time is not a trivial task because of seasonal changes associated with phenology and data gaps from clouds and cloud shadows. In this study, we tested spectral-temporal metrics derived from intra-annual Landsat time series to distinguish between grass-dominated and woody pastures. The abundance of woody vegetation on pastures is an indicator for management intensity, since the duration and intensity of land use steer secondary succession rates, apart from climate and soil conditions. We used the developed Landsat-based metrics to analyze pasture intensity trajectories between 1985 and 2012 in Novo Progresso, Brazil, finding that woody vegetation cover generally decreased after four to ten years of grazing activity. Pastures established in the 80s and early 90s showed a higher fraction of woody vegetation during their initial land use history than pastures established in the early 2000s. Historic intensity trajectories suggested a trend towards more intensive land use in the last decade, which aligns well with regional environmental policies and market dynamics. This study demonstrates the potential of dense Landsat time series to monitor land-use intensification on Amazonian pastures.

  11. The discovery of the Amazonian tree flora with an updated checklist of all known tree taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Steege, Hans; Vaessen, Rens W; Cárdenas-López, Dairon; Sabatier, Daniel; Antonelli, Alexandre; de Oliveira, Sylvia Mota; Pitman, Nigel C A; Jørgensen, Peter Møller; Salomão, Rafael P

    2016-01-01

    Amazonia is the most biodiverse rainforest on Earth, and the debate over how many tree species grow there remains contentious. Here we provide a checklist of all tree species collected to date, and describe spatial and temporal trends in data accumulation. We report 530,025 unique collections of trees in Amazonia, dating between 1707 and 2015, for a total of 11,676 species in 1225 genera and 140 families. These figures support recent estimates of 16,000 total Amazonian tree species based on ecological plot data from the Amazonian Tree Diversity Network. Botanical collection in Amazonia is characterized by three major peaks, centred around 1840, 1920, and 1980, which are associated with flora projects and the establishment of inventory plots. Most collections were made in the 20th century. The number of collections has increased exponentially, but shows a slowdown in the last two decades. We find that a species' range size is a better predictor of the number of times it has been collected than the species' estimated basin-wide population size. Finding, describing, and documenting the distribution of the remaining species will require coordinated efforts at under-collected sites. PMID:27406027

  12. Two new Culicoides of the paraensis species group (Diptera:Ceratopogonidae from the Amazonian region of Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felippe-Bauer Maria Luiza

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of the Culicoides paraensis species group, C. diversus Felippe-Bauer and C. peruvianus Felippe-Bauer, are described and illustrated based on female specimens from Amazonian region of Peru. A systematic key, table with numerical characters of females, and distribution of species of the C. paraensis group are given.

  13. Nut Production in Bertholletia excelsa across a Logged Forest Mosaic: Implications for Multiple Forest Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Cara A; Guariguata, Manuel R; Menton, Mary; Arroyo Quispe, Eriks; Quaedvlieg, Julia; Warren-Thomas, Eleanor; Fernandez Silva, Harol; Jurado Rojas, Edwin Eduardo; Kohagura Arrunátegui, José Andrés Hideki; Meza Vega, Luis Alberto; Revilla Vera, Olivia; Quenta Hancco, Roger; Valera Tito, Jonatan Frank; Villarroel Panduro, Betxy Tabita; Yucra Salas, Juan José

    2015-01-01

    forests, when a buffer zone cannot be observed, low logging intensities should be implemented. The sustainability of this integrated management system will ultimately depend on a complex series of socioeconomic and ecological interactions. Yet we submit that our study provides an important initial step in understanding the compatibility of timber harvesting with a high value NTFP, potentially allowing for diversification of forest use strategies in Amazonian Perù.

  14. Nut Production in Bertholletia excelsa across a Logged Forest Mosaic: Implications for Multiple Forest Use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara A Rockwell

    nut rich forests, when a buffer zone cannot be observed, low logging intensities should be implemented. The sustainability of this integrated management system will ultimately depend on a complex series of socioeconomic and ecological interactions. Yet we submit that our study provides an important initial step in understanding the compatibility of timber harvesting with a high value NTFP, potentially allowing for diversification of forest use strategies in Amazonian Perù.

  15. REDD and PINC: A new policy framework to fund tropical forests as global 'eco-utilities'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivedi, M R; Mitchell, A W; Mardas, N; Parker, C [Global Canopy Programme, John Krebs Field Station, Wytham, Oxford, OX2 8QJ (United Kingdom); Watson, J E [University of Queensland, Ecology Centre, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Nobre, A D, E-mail: m.trivedi@globalcanopy.or [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, INPA, Escritorio Regional do INPA, Sao Jose dos Campos, 12227-010 (Brazil)

    2009-11-01

    Tropical forests are 'eco-utilities' providing critical ecosystem services that underpin food, energy, water and climate security at local to global scales. Currently, these services are unrecognised and unrewarded in international policy and financial frameworks, causing forests to be worth more dead than alive. Much attention is currently focused on REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation) and A/R (Afforestation and Reforestation) as mitigation options. In this article we propose an additional mechanism - PINC (Proactive Investment in Natural Capital) - that recognises and rewards the value of ecosystem services provided by standing tropical forests, especially from a climate change adaptation perspective. Using Amazonian forests as a case study we show that PINC could improve the wellbeing of rural and forest-dependent populations, enabling them to cope with the impacts associated with climate change and deforestation. By investing pro-actively in areas where deforestation pressures are currently low, the long-term costs of mitigation and adaptation will be reduced. We suggest a number of ways in which funds could be raised through emerging financial mechanisms to provide positive incentives to maintain standing forests. To develop PINC, a new research and capacity-building agenda is needed that explores the interdependence between communities, the forest eco-utility and the wider economy.

  16. Forests and Forest Cover - Ozark National Forest Service Compartments (polygon)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Ozark - St. Francis National Forests stand inventory data for vegetation, maintained in polygon format. Compartment is defined as a division of forest for purposes...

  17. Forests and Forest Cover - MDC_NaturalForestCommunity

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A point feature class of NFCs - Natural Forest Communities. Natural Forest Community shall mean all stands of trees (including their associated understory) which...

  18. Malaria in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, an Atlantic Forest area: an assessment using the health surveillance service

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The lethality of malaria in the extra-Amazonian region is more than 70 times higher than in Amazonia itself. Recently, several studies have shown that autochthonous malaria is not a rare event in the Brazilian southeastern states in the Atlantic Forest biome. Information about autochthonous malaria in the state of Rio de Janeiro (RJ) is scarce. This study aims to assess malaria cases reported to the Health Surveillance System of the State of Rio de Janeiro between 2000-2010. An average of 90 ...

  19. The Potential of Brazil's Forest Sector for Mitigating Global Warming under the Kyoto Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fearnside, Philip M. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia INPA, Av. Andre Araujo, 1756, C.P. 478, 69011-970 Manaus-Amazonas (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    Activities in Brazil's forest sector have substantial potential for mitigating global warming as well as additional environmental and other benefits. Silvicultural plantations of different types, reduced impact logging, and deforestation avoidance all have potential mitigation roles. The magnitude of the annual emission from recent rates of deforestation in Amazonia presents an opportunity for carbon (C) benefits through reducing current rates of deforestation. Measures related to Amazonian deforestation have greater potential carbon benefits than do options such as plantation silviculture, but much depends on how benefits are calculated. Procedures are needed for assessing the environmental and social impacts of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects. 55 refs.

  20. An annotated checklist of trees and relatives in tropical montane forests from southeast Peru: the importance of continue collecting

    OpenAIRE

    William Farfan-Rios; Karina Garcia-Cabrera; Norma Salinas; Mireya N. Raurau-Quisiyupanqui; Silman, Miles R.

    2015-01-01

    The tropical Andes and adjacent Amazon are Earth’s highest biodiversity hotspot. Manu National Park in southeastern Peru encompasses an entire watershed, ranging from Andean highlands to Amazonian lowlands, and is a megadiverse landscape on the Andes to Amazon transition. Here we present an annotated checklist of trees and related species is along an elevation gradient in the Manu Biosphere Reserve that runs from sub-montane forests at 800 m elevation up to the tree line at 3625 m. Based on a...

  1. Forest edge burning in the Brazilian Amazon promoted by escaping fires from managed pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-Crespo, Ana; Oliveira, Paulo J. C.; Boit, Alice; Cardoso, Manoel; Thonicke, Kirsten

    2015-10-01

    Understanding to what extent different land uses influence fire occurrence in the Amazonian forest is particularly relevant for its conservation. We evaluate the relationship between forest fires and different anthropogenic activities linked to a variety of land uses in the Brazilian states of Mato Grosso, Pará, and Rondônia. We combine the new high-resolution (30 m) TerraClass land use database with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer burned area data for 2008 and the extreme dry year of 2010. Excluding the non-forest class, most of the burned area was found in pastures, primary and secondary forests, and agricultural lands across all three states, while only around 1% of the total was located in deforested areas. The trend in burned area did not follow the declining deforestation rates from 2001 to 2010, and the spatial overlap between deforested and burned areas was only 8% on average. This supports the claim of deforestation being disconnected from burning since 2005. Forest degradation showed an even lower correlation with burned area. We found that fires used in managing pastoral and agricultural lands that escape into the neighboring forests largely contribute to forest fires. Such escaping fires are responsible for up to 52% of the burned forest edges adjacent to burned pastures and up to 22% of the burned forest edges adjacent to burned agricultural fields, respectively. Our findings call for the development of control and monitoring plans to prevent fires from escaping from managed lands into forests to support effective land use and ecosystem management.

  2. EFFECT OF FALLOW LAND, CULTIVATED PASTURE AND ABANDONED PASTURE ON SOIL FERTILITY IN TWO DEFORESTED AMAZONIAN REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A DIEZ

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of two practices adopted by settlers (abandoned pasture and fallow land on soil fertility of two deforested Amazonian regions (Belém-Pará and Ariquemes-Rondônia was studied. Whenever possible, cultivated pasture, over similar time periods in both cases and in natural forest, were employed as soil fertility reference standards. Nutrient dynamics was studied using the electroultra-filtration technique. In general, deforestation, as practiced in these areas, has a degrading effect on soil fertility. The effect of burning normally leads to a pH rise caused by ash. This usually yields a favorable transitory effect, improving soil fertility conditions, however not sufficient for plant needs, as inferred from the low P and K levels. Cattle excrements, improved the K level for cultivated pastures. Qualitative differences related to N were observed between cultivated pasture and both, fallow land or abandoned pasture. In the first, a certain recovery of available N levels was detected, mainly affecting the EUF-Norg fraction. On the other hand, a regeneration of organic compounds, in the fallow land and the abandoned pasture, closely related to those existing in the natural forest, was verified. This is mainly due to the presence of a higher proportion of NO3-_N and, consequently, a EUF-Norg/EUF-NO3- ratio close to 1.Comparou-se o efeito de duas práticas de manejo, ou seja, o abandono da pastagem e o pousio, sobre a fertilidade do solo de duas regiões desmatadas da Amazônia (Belém-Pará e Ariquemes-Rondônia. Quando possível, pastagens cultivadas por períodos semelhantes e florestas nativas foram usadas como padrões da fertilidade do solo. A dinâmica dos nutrientes foi estuda pela técnica da eletroultrafiltração (EUF. De um modo geral, o desmatamento, como praticado nessas regiões, tem efeito degradador sobre a fertilidade do solo. A queima da biomassa vegetal normalmente leva a um aumento do pH causado pelas cinzas, resultando

  3. Implementing Participatory Decision Making in Forest Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananda, Jayanath

    2007-04-01

    Forest policy decisions are often a source of debate, conflict, and tension in many countries. The debate over forest land-use decisions often hinges on disagreements about societal values related to forest resource use. Disagreements on social value positions are fought out repeatedly at local, regional, national, and international levels at an enormous social cost. Forest policy problems have some inherent characteristics that make them more difficult to deal with. On the one hand, forest policy decisions involve uncertainty, long time scales, and complex natural systems and processes. On the other hand, such decisions encompass social, political, and cultural systems that are evolving in response to forces such as globalization. Until recently, forest policy was heavily influenced by the scientific community and various economic models of optimal resource use. However, growing environmental awareness and acceptance of participatory democracy models in policy formulation have forced the public authorities to introduce new participatory mechanisms to manage forest resources. Most often, the efforts to include the public in policy formulation can be described using the lower rungs of Arnstein’s public participation typology. This paper presents an approach that incorporates stakeholder preferences into forest land-use policy using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). An illustrative case of regional forest-policy formulation in Australia is used to demonstrate the approach. It is contended that applying the AHP in the policy process could considerably enhance the transparency of participatory process and public acceptance of policy decisions.

  4. Additions of angiosperms to the Flora of Peru from the Andean-Amazonian forests of southern Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isau Huamantupa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We present 25 new records of angiosperms for the Peruvian flora, as a result of different botanical explorations conducted in southern Peru, mainly in the areas of the departments of Cusco, Apurimac and Madre de Dios.

  5. Implications of CO2 pooling on δ13C of ecosystem respiration and leaves in Amazonian forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Waterloo

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The carbon isotope of a leaf (δ13Cleaf is generally more negative in riparian zones than in areas with low soil moisture content or rainfall input. In Central Amazonia, the small-scale topography is composed of plateaus and valleys, with plateaus generally having a lower soil moisture status than the valley edges in the dry season. Yet in the dry season, the nocturnal accumulation of CO2 is higher in the valleys than on the plateaus. Samples of sunlit leaves and atmospheric air were collected along a topographical gradient in the dry season to test whether the δ13Cleaf of sunlit leaves and the carbon isotope ratio of ecosystem respired CO2 (δ13CReco may be more negative in the valley than those on the plateau. The δ13Cleaf was significantly more negative in the valley than on the plateau. Factors considered to be driving the observed variability in δ13Cleaf were: leaf nitrogen concentration, leaf mass per unit area (LMA, soil moisture availability, more negative carbon isotope ratio of atmospheric CO2 (δ13Ca in the valleys during daytime hours, and leaf discrimination (Δleaf. The observed pattern of δ13Cleaf might suggest that water-use efficiency (WUE is higher on the plateaus than in the valleys. However, there was no full supporting evidence for this because it remains unclear how much of the difference in δ13Cleaf was driven by physiology or &delta13Ca. The δ13CReco was more negative in the valleys than on the plateaus on some nights, whereas in others it was not. It is likely that lateral drainage of CO2 enriched in 13C from upslope areas might have happened when the nights were less stable. Biotic factors such as soil CO2 efflux (Rsoil and the responses of plants to environmental variables such as vapor pressure deficit (D may also play a role. The preferential pooling of CO2 in the low-lying areas of this landscape may confound the interpretation of δ13Cleaf and δ13CReco.

  6. Ontogenetic variation of metalloproteinases and plasma coagulant activity in venoms of wild Bothrops atrox specimens from Amazonian rain forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Lozano, Jorge Luis; de Sousa, Marcelo Valle; Ricart, Carlos André O; Chávez-Olortegui, Carlos; Flores Sanchez, Eladio; Muniz, Emiro G; Bührnheim, Paulo F; Morhy, Lauro

    2002-07-01

    A comparative study of venoms from juvenile, sub-adult and adult wild Bothrops atrox specimens captured in Manaus region (Brazil) was performed. All venoms tested had acidic pH (5.5) and the human plasma coagulant activity was higher in venoms from juvenile and sub-adult specimens than in adults. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) showed that the most intense bands in adult venoms corresponded to polypeptides of 23 and 50kDa. The 23kDa protein was not detected in juvenile venoms. The 23 and 50kDa proteins were purified by two steps of reversed phase-HPLC followed by size exclusion HPLC. Partial amino acid sequence of the 23kDa protein showed homology to metalloproteinases from other snake venoms. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometric analysis (ESI-MS) showed that the 23kDa band contained at least three isoforms of 23030, 23300 and 23645Da. The 50kDa polypeptide was N-terminally blocked for Edman degradation and presented molecular masses ranging from 46.8 to 49.4kDa by ESI-MS. Both proteins were detected by anti-mutalysin II antibodies in immunoblotting assay indicating that they belong to the metalloproteinase family. Immunoblotting analysis also showed that the 23kDa band increased in intensity from juvenile to adult specimens.SDS-PAGE analysis of juvenile and adult venoms following autoproteolysis in pH 7.4 suggested that endogenous venom metalloproteinases can digest the 50kDa metalloproteinase, originating a new protein band of 27kDa. It was also demonstrated in juvenile venoms that the 23kDa band was not the result of proteolytic processing of the 50kDa metalloproteinase. PMID:12076654

  7. Implications of CO2 pooling on δ13C of ecosystem respiration and leaves in Amazonian forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, A. C.; Ometto, J. P. H. B.; Dolman, A. J.; Kruijt, B.; Waterloo, M. J.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2007-11-01

    The carbon isotope of a leaf (δ13Cleaf) is generally more negative in riparian zones than in areas with low soil moisture content or rainfall input. In Central Amazonia, the small-scale topography is composed of plateaus and valleys, with plateaus generally being drier than the valley edges in the dry season. The nocturnal accumulation of CO2 is higher in the valleys than on the plateaus in the dry season. The CO2 stored in the valleys takes longer to be released than that on the plateaus, and sometimes the atmospheric CO2 concentration (ca) does not drop to the same level as on the plateaus at any time during the day. Samples of sunlit leaves and atmospheric air were collected along a topographical gradient to test whether the δ13Cleaf of sunlit leaves and the carbon isotope ratio of ecosystem respired CO2 (δ13CR) may be more negative in the valley than those on the plateau. The δ13Cleaf was significantly more negative in the valley than on the plateau. Factors considered to be driving the observed variability in δ13Cleaf were: leaf nitrogen concentration, leaf mass per unit area (LMA), soil moisture availability, more negative carbon isotope ratio of atmospheric CO2 (δ13Ca) in the valleys during daytime hours, and leaf discrimination (Δleaf). The observed pattern of δ13Cleaf suggests that water-use efficiency (WUE) may be higher on the plateaus than in the valleys. The ;13CR was more negative in the valleys than on the plateaus on some nights, whereas in others it was not. It is likely that lateral drainage of CO2 enriched in 13C from upslope areas might have happened when the nights were less stable. Biotic factors such as soil CO2 efflux (Rsoil) and the responses of plants to environmental variables such as vapor pressure deficit (D) may also play a role.

  8. Tenure and forest income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagger, Pamela; Luckert, Martin K.; Duchelle, Amy E.;

    2014-01-01

    We explore the relationship between tenure and forest income in 271 villages throughout the tropics. We find that state-owned forests generate more forest income than private and community-owned forests both per household and per hectare. We explore whether forest income varies according...... to the extent of rule enforcement, and congruence (i.e., overlap of user rights between owners and users). We find negative associations between enforcement and smallholder forest income for state-owned and community forests, and positive associations for privately owned forests. Where user rights are limited...... to formal owners we find negative associations for state-owned forests. Overlapping user rights are positively associated with forest income for community forests. Our findings suggest that policy reforms emphasizing enforcement and reducing overlapping claims to forest resources should consider possible...

  9. Moving beyond a snapshot to understand changes in the well-being of native Amazonians : panel evidence (2002-2006) from Bolivia.

    OpenAIRE

    Godoy, Ricardo; Reyes García, Victòria; Gravlee, Clarence C.; Huanca L., Tomás; Leonard, William R.; McDade, Thomas W.; Tanner, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Forces such as the opening of trade, globalization, multinational corporate resource extraction, urbanization, acculturation, and colonization catalyze economic, ecological, and sociocultural change, which can threaten the well‐being and habitat of native Amazonians. Understanding these forces is of paramount importance to improve the well‐being of native Amazonians and to foster the conservation of biological diversity, yet most analyses of these forces rely on cross‐sectional data. Though a...

  10. Percent Forest Cover (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCTFuture) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water....

  11. Forest Opening in Multipurpose Private Forest - Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hribernik, Boštjan; Potočnik, Igor

    2013-01-01

    In the past, forest opening with forest roads was planned on the basis of forest wood production. By discovering the importance of other forest roles, gradual integration of individual role into planning processes of forest opening started. The modern approach to the planning of forest opening of multipurpose forests requires a simultaneous consideration of all forest roles. Economic justification for enlarging the existing forest road network is based on the density of forest roads, where th...

  12. US Forest Service Healthy Forest Restoration Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting areas designated within National Forest System Lands, in 37 States, that are eligible for insect and disease treatments under...

  13. US Forest Service Administrative Forest Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting all the National Forest System lands administered by an unit. These areas encompasse private lands, other governmental agency...

  14. US Forest Service National Forest System Trails

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the world wide web that depicts National Forest Service trails that have been approved for publication. This service is used internally and...

  15. Study on the planning principles of urban forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dai Xing'an; Zhang Qingfei

    2006-01-01

    The urban forest is the main body for the urban forestry management. There are not unified rules and standards for the planning of the urban forest yet in China. This paper discusses the planning principles of the urban forest: the priority of the ecological function, the adaptation to local conditions, the optimization in the whole system, the mutual dependence of forest and city, the culture continuance and recreation satisfaction, sustainable development and operability, etc. This paper takes Changsha as an example to elaborate the planning principles of the urban forest.Firstly, Changsha urban forest ecosphere is composed of the eco-garden, the round-the-city forest belt, the ecological isolation belt, the green channel, the landscape of the rivers and streams, the forest park, the biodiversity reserve and the eco-forest in suburb area. It aims to make every kind of ecological essential factors organically merge into the complex city ecosystem to build an eco-city, to strengthen the connection of wide-open space with various habitats spots, to protnote resident's accessibility, to perfect landscape ecology, and to make full use of the ecological function of urban forest. When we construct the urban forest, we must optimize the comprehensive benefit and make the urban forest structure and the layout in the best condition in order to build the harmonious green city for both man and nature to realize the whole optimization of the city system by the complex functions of the urban forest in ecology, environmental protection, landscape, recreation, etc.

  16. Mondrian Forests: Efficient Online Random Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshminarayanan, Balaji; Roy, Daniel M.; Teh, Yee Whye

    2014-01-01

    Ensembles of randomized decision trees, usually referred to as random forests, are widely used for classification and regression tasks in machine learning and statistics. Random forests achieve competitive predictive performance and are computationally efficient to train and test, making them excellent candidates for real-world prediction tasks. The most popular random forest variants (such as Breiman's random forest and extremely randomized trees) operate on batches of training data. Online ...

  17. Potential application in biocatalysis of mycelium-bound lipases from Amazonian fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, 212 fungi were isolated from Amazon region plants, aiming to obtain mycelium bound-lipase-producing biocatalysts. These isolates were submitted to hydrolytic and synthetic activity assays. When submitted to the tributyrine substrate test, 87% of the isolates showed hydrolytic activity. Of these, 30% showed good growth in lipase inducing liquid media and were submitted to evaluation of synthetic activity in esterification and transesterification reactions in organic solvents. The nine fungi which had the best synthetic activity were evaluated in the (R, S)-2-octanol resolution reaction, in order to verify the enantioselectivity of mycelium-bound lipases. The isolate UEA115 was the most versatile biocatalyst, showing good performance in esterification reactions (conversion > 90%) and good ability for the resolution of (R, S)-2-octanol (ees 29%; eep 99%; c 22%; E > 200). Thus, this study has demonstrated the great potential of the Amazonian fungi as lipase suppliers for biocatalysts.(author)

  18. Bioactive properties of Tynanthus panurensis (Bureau) Sanwith bark extract, the Amazonian "clavo huasca".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Lidia; Acero, Nuria; Galán, Antonio; Perez-García, Carmen; Alguacil, Luis Fernando; Muñoz-Mingarro, Dolores

    2011-09-01

    Tynanthus panurensis (Bureau) Sanwith (Bignoniaceae) is a liana vine used in traditional Amazonian medicine as a tonic and energizer as well as a treatment for rheumatism. These traditional indications prompted this study of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of T. panurensis bark extract (ETP). Phytochemical analysis of ETP showed the presence of saponins and a high concentration of phenols and flavonoids. A battery of in vitro tests revealed that the extract has free radical-scavenging antioxidant properties and reduces microsomal lipid peroxidation, uric acid synthesis, and tumor necrosis factor-α production. The anti-inflammatory properties of ETP were further confirmed in vivo in a rat carrageenan edema model, in which the extract exhibited a potent activity. These results support the idea that T. panurensis bark extract could be beneficial for treating inflammation and are in agreement with one of the main traditional uses of this plant. PMID:21488753

  19. Potential application in biocatalysis of mycelium-bound lipases from Amazonian fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanotto, Sandra P.; Romano, Israel P.; Lisboa, Lilian U.S.; Duvoisin Junior, Sergio; Lima, Fabiana A.; Silva, Soraya F.; Alburquerque, Patricia M. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Programa em Biotecnologia e Recursos Naturais da Amazonia. Lab. de Biorganica; Martins, Mayra K. [Centro de Biotecnologia do Amazonas, Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In this study, 212 fungi were isolated from Amazon region plants, aiming to obtain mycelium bound-lipase-producing biocatalysts. These isolates were submitted to hydrolytic and synthetic activity assays. When submitted to the tributyrine substrate test, 87% of the isolates showed hydrolytic activity. Of these, 30% showed good growth in lipase inducing liquid media and were submitted to evaluation of synthetic activity in esterification and transesterification reactions in organic solvents. The nine fungi which had the best synthetic activity were evaluated in the (R, S)-2-octanol resolution reaction, in order to verify the enantioselectivity of mycelium-bound lipases. The isolate UEA{sub 1}15 was the most versatile biocatalyst, showing good performance in esterification reactions (conversion > 90%) and good ability for the resolution of (R, S)-2-octanol (ees 29%; eep 99%; c 22%; E > 200). Thus, this study has demonstrated the great potential of the Amazonian fungi as lipase suppliers for biocatalysts.(author)

  20. Bioactive properties of Tynanthus panurensis (Bureau) Sanwith bark extract, the Amazonian "clavo huasca".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Lidia; Acero, Nuria; Galán, Antonio; Perez-García, Carmen; Alguacil, Luis Fernando; Muñoz-Mingarro, Dolores

    2011-09-01

    Tynanthus panurensis (Bureau) Sanwith (Bignoniaceae) is a liana vine used in traditional Amazonian medicine as a tonic and energizer as well as a treatment for rheumatism. These traditional indications prompted this study of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of T. panurensis bark extract (ETP). Phytochemical analysis of ETP showed the presence of saponins and a high concentration of phenols and flavonoids. A battery of in vitro tests revealed that the extract has free radical-scavenging antioxidant properties and reduces microsomal lipid peroxidation, uric acid synthesis, and tumor necrosis factor-α production. The anti-inflammatory properties of ETP were further confirmed in vivo in a rat carrageenan edema model, in which the extract exhibited a potent activity. These results support the idea that T. panurensis bark extract could be beneficial for treating inflammation and are in agreement with one of the main traditional uses of this plant.

  1. The Montesbelos mass-flow (southern Amazonian craton, Brazil): a Paleoproterozoic volcanic debris avalanche deposit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roverato, M.

    2016-07-01

    The present contribution documents the extremely well-preserved Paleoproterozoic architecture of the Montesbelos breccia (named here for the first time), which is interpreted as a rare example of a subaerial paleoproterozoic (>1.85 Ga) granular-dominated mass-flow deposit, few of which are recorded in the literature. Montesbelos deposit is part of the andesitic Sobreiro Formation located in the São Felix do Xingu region, southern Amazonian craton, northern Brazil. The large volume, high variability of textural features, presence of broken clasts, angular low sphericity fragments, mono- to heterolithic character, and the size of the outcrops point to a volcanic debris avalanche flow. Fluviatile sandy material and debris flows are associated with the deposit as a result of post-depositional reworking processes.

  2. The association of genetic markers and malaria infection in the Brazilian Western Amazonian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Beiguelman

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Almost all individuals (182 belonging to an Amazonian riverine population (Portuchuelo, RO, Brazil were investigated for ascertaining data on epidemiological aspects of malaria. Thirteen genetic blood polymorphisms were investigated (ABO, MNSs, Rh, Kell, and Duffy systems, haptoglobins, hemoglobins, and the enzymes glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glyoxalase, phosphoglucomutase, carbonic anhydrase, red cell acid phosphatase, and esterase D. The results indicated that the Duffy system is associated with susceptibility to malaria, as observed in other endemic areas. Moreover, suggestions also arose indicating that the EsD and Rh loci may be significantly associated with resistance to malaria. If statistical type II errors and sample stratification could be ruled out, hypotheses on the existence of a causal mechanism or an unknown closely linked locus involved in susceptibility to malaria infection may explain the present findings.

  3. Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum saloboense n. sp. (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae parasite of Monodelphis emiliae (Marsupiala: Didelphidae from Amazonian Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lainson R.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum saloboense n. sp., is described in the Brazilian opossum Monodelphis emiliae (Thomas, 1912 from primary forest in the Salobo area of the Serra dos Carajás (6° S, 50° 18′ W Pará State, North Brazil. Two morphologically different trypomastigotes were noted. Slender forms, regarded as immature parasites, have a poorly developed undulating membrane adhering closely to the body: large, broad forms with a well developed membrane are considered to be the mature trypomastigotes and have a mean total length of 71.2 μm (62.4-76.2 and a width of 6.1 (5.0-8.0. Infections studied in two opossums were of very low parasitaemia. The large size of T. (M. saloboense readily distinguishes it from the two previously described members of the subgenus Megatrypanum of neotropical marsupials, T. (M. freitasi Régo et al., 1957 of Didelphis azarae and D. marsupialis, and T. (M. samueli Mello, 1977 of Monodelphis domesticus, which measure only 49.0-51.5 μm and 42.4 μm respectively. No infections were obtained in hamsters inoculated with triturated liver and spleen from one infected M. emiliae, or in laboratory mice inoculated with epimastigotes from a blood-agar culture. No division stages could be detected in the internal organs or the peripheral blood.

  4. Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) saloboense n. sp. (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) parasite of Monodelphis emiliae (Marsupiala: Didelphidae) from Amazonian Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lainson, R; Da Silva, F M M; Franco, C M

    2008-06-01

    Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) soloboense n. sp., is described in the Brazilian opossum Monodelphis emiliae (Thomas, 1912) from primary forest in the Salobo area of the Serra dos Carajás (6 degrees S, 50 degrees 18' W) Pará State, North Brazil. Two morphologically different trypomastigotes were noted. Slender forms, regarded as immature parasites, have a poorly developed undulating membrane adhering closely to the body: large, broad forms with a well developed membrane are considered to be the mature trypomastigotes and have a mean total length of 71.2 microm (62.4-76.2) and a width of 6.1 (5.0-8.0). Infections studied in two opossums were of very low parasitaemia. The large size of T. (M.) saloboense readily distinguishes it from the two previously described members of the subgenus Megatrypanum of neotropical marsupials, T. (M.) freitasi Régo et al., 1957 of Didelphis ozarae and D. marsupialis, and T. (M.) samueli Mello, 1977 of Monodelphis domesticus, which measure only 49.0-51.5 microm and 42.4 microm respectively. No infections were obtained in hamsters inoculated with triturated liver and spleen from one infected M. emiliae, or in laboratory mice inoculated with epimastigotes from a blood-agar culture. No division stages could be detected in the internal organs or the peripheral blood. PMID:18642501

  5. On the vertical distribution of smoke in the Amazonian atmosphere during the dry season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marenco, Franco; Johnson, Ben; Langridge, Justin M.; Mulcahy, Jane; Benedetti, Angela; Remy, Samuel; Jones, Luke; Szpek, Kate; Haywood, Jim; Longo, Karla; Artaxo, Paulo

    2016-02-01

    Lidar observations of smoke aerosols have been analysed from six flights of the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements BAe-146 research aircraft over Brazil during the biomass burning season (September 2012). A large aerosol optical depth (AOD) was observed, typically ranging 0.4-0.9, along with a typical aerosol extinction coefficient of 100-400 Mm-1. The data highlight the persistent and widespread nature of the Amazonian haze, which had a consistent vertical structure, observed over a large distance ( ˜ 2200 km) during a period of 14 days. Aerosols were found near the surface; but the larger aerosol load was typically found in elevated layers that extended from 1-1.5 to 4-6 km. The measurements have been compared to model predictions with the Met Office Unified Model (MetUM) and the ECMWF-MACC model. The MetUM generally reproduced the vertical structure of the Amazonian haze observed with the lidar. The ECMWF-MACC model was also able to reproduce the general features of smoke plumes albeit with a small overestimation of the AOD. The models did not always capture localised features such as (i) smoke plumes originating from individual fires, and (ii) aerosols in the vicinity of clouds. In both these circumstances, peak extinction coefficients of the order of 1000-1500 Mm-1 and AODs as large as 1-1.8 were encountered, but these features were either underestimated or not captured in the model predictions. Smoke injection heights derived from the Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS) for the region are compatible with the general height of the aerosol layers.

  6. The Diversity of Bitter Manioc (Manihot Esculenta Crantz Cultivation in a Whitewater Amazonian Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Fraser

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available While bitter manioc has been one of the most important staple crops in the central Amazon for thousands of years, there have been few studies of its cultivation in the fertile whitewater landscapes of this region. Anthropological research on bitter manioc cultivation in the Amazon has focused almost exclusively on long-fallow shifting cultivation in marginal upland areas of low soil fertility. This has contributed to the persistence of the oversimplified notion that because bitter manioc is well adapted to infertile upland soils; it cannot yield well in alluvial and/or fertile soils. I hypothesized that bitter manioc cultivation would be well adapted to the fertile soils of the whitewater landscapes of the central Amazon because of the centrality of this crop to subsistence in this region. In this article, I examine one such whitewater landscape, the middle Madeira River, Amazonas, Brazil, where smallholders cultivate bitter manioc on fertile Amazonian Dark Earths (ADE and floodplain soils, and on infertile Oxisols and Ultisols. In this region, cultivation on fertile soils tends to be short-cycled, characterised by short fallowing (0–6 years and shorter cropping periods (5–12 months with a predominance of low starch fast maturing “weak” landraces. By contrast, cultivation on infertile soils is normally long-cycled, characterised by longer fallows (>10 years and longer cropping periods (1–3 years with a predominance of high starch slow maturing “strong” landraces. This diversity in bitter manioc cultivation systems (landraces, fallow periods, soils demonstrates that Amazonian farmers have adapted bitter manioc cultivation to the specific characteristics of the landscapes that they inhabit. I conclude that contrary to earlier claims, there are no ecological limitations on growing bitter manioc in fertile soils, and therefore the cultivation of this crop in floodplain and ADE soils would have been possible in the pre-Columbian period.

  7. Recent (Late Amazonian) enhanced backweathering rates on Mars: Paracratering evidence from gully alcoves

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haas, Tjalling; Conway, Susan; Krautblatter, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Mars is believed to have been exposed to low planet-wide weathering and denudation since the Noachian period (˜4.1 - 3.7 Ga). However, the widespread occurrence of alcoves at the rim of pristine impact craters suggests locally enhanced recent backweathering rates. Here we derive Late Amazonian backweathering rates from the alcoves of 10 young equatorial and mid-latitude craters, ranging in age from 0.2 to 45 Ma. The enhanced Late Amazonian Martian backweathering rates (10-4 - 10-1 mm yr-1) are approximately one order of magnitude higher than previously reported erosion rates, and are similar to terrestrial rates inferred from Meteor crater and various Arctic and Alpine rock faces, when corrected for age. Alcoves on initially highly fractured and oversteepened crater rims following impact show enhanced backweathering rates that decline over at least 101 - 102 Myr as the crater wall stabilizes. This 'paracratering' backweathering decline with time is analogous to the paraglacial effect observed in rock slopes after deglaciation, but the relaxation time scale of 101 - 102 Myr compared to 10 kyr of the Milankovitch-controlled interglacial duration questions whether a paraglacial steady state is reached on Earth. The backweathering rates on the gullied pole-facing alcoves of the studied mid-latitude craters are much higher (˜2 - 60 times) than those on slopes with other azimuths and those in equatorial craters. The enhanced backweathering rates on gullied crater slopes may result from liquid water acting as a catalyst for backweathering. The decrease in backweathering rates over time might explain the similar size of gullies in young (<1 Ma) and much older craters, as alcove growth and sediment supply decrease to low background rates over time.

  8. The role of Amazonian anthropogenic soils in shifting cultivation: learning from farmers' rationales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André B. Junqueira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated farmers' rationales to understand their decision making in relation to the use of fertile anthropogenic soils, i.e., Amazonian dark earths (ADE, and for dealing with changes in shifting cultivation in Central Amazonia. We analyzed qualitative information from 196 interviews with farmers in 21 riverine villages along the Madeira River. In order to decide about crop management options to attain their livelihood objectives, farmers rely on an integrated and dynamic understanding of their biophysical and social environment. Farmers associate fallow development with higher crop yields and lower weed pressure, but ADE is always associated with high yields and high weeding requirements. Amazonian dark earths are also seen as an opportunity to grow different crops and/or grow crops in more intensified management systems. However, farmers often maintain simultaneously intensive swiddens on ADE and extensive swiddens on nonanthropogenic soils. Farmers acknowledge numerous changes in their socioeconomic environment that affect their shifting cultivation systems, particularly their growing interaction with market economies and the incorporation of modern agricultural practices. Farmers considered that shifting cultivation systems on ADE tend to be more prone to changes leading to intensification, and we identified cases, e.g., swiddens used for watermelon cultivation, in which market demand led to overintensification and resulted in ADE degradation. This shows that increasing intensification can be a potential threat to ADE and can undermine the importance of these soils for agricultural production, for the conservation of agrobiodiversity, and for local livelihoods. Given that farmers have an integrated knowledge of their context and respond to socioeconomic and agro-ecological changes in their environment, we argue that understanding farmers' knowledge and rationales is crucial to identify sustainable pathways for the future of ADE and of

  9. Bushmeat networks link the forest to urban areas in the trifrontier region between Brazil, Colombia, and Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie van Vliet

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have intended to quantify urban consumption and trade in Amazonian towns. However, little is still known about the different ways in which bushmeat is made available in urban areas, including commercial and noncommercial flows, and how those flows contribute to link forests to urban livelihoods. In this study we qualitatively describe the structure and functioning of bushmeat flows in terms of species, catchment area, stakeholders involved, and the motivations for their activity in the main towns of the Amazon trifrontier region between Brazil, Colombia, and Peru. We show that bushmeat trade to urban areas exists under an organized but invisible commodity chain providing a source of income to about 195 persons. Bushmeat is made available either directly from the hunter to the urban consumer, at the main market place, or in food stalls and restaurants. On the Colombian border, the trade is totally invisible, whereas in Peru and Brazil, bushmeat is sold in open markets despite regulations. The catchment area comprises the main rivers: up to Caballococha along the Amazon River, along the Atacuary River in Peru, along the Javari River between Peru and Brazil, and along the Loretoyacu and Amacayacu rivers in Colombia and in periurban forests. Although the trade is rather localized (no commercial flows to larger towns, international transborder trade is commonplace, disregarding Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora regulations. Bushmeat clients in urban areas are mainly nonindigenous or mestizos who can afford bushmeat as a luxury meal. Instead, indigenous people in urban areas do not access bushmeat through the market but rather through their social networks with whom they maintain noncommercial flows including immediate exchange and long-term exchange mechanisms. Although bushmeat is no longer consumed as a daily meal among urban and periurban indigenous families, it constitutes what could be

  10. Criteria and Indicators for Sustainable Forest Management in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Rabiul Islam; Chamhuri Siwar; Shaharuddin M. Ismail; Nurul H. Chamhuri

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: This study investigated the timber certification of sustainable forest management and the criteria and indicators for sustainable forest management. Approach: Sustainable forest management is an important role in the forestry sector and takes a major player in Malaysia's sustainable development. It is a management regime that integrates and balances social, economic, ecological, cultural and spiritual needs to present and future generations. Results: We analyzed the pillars...

  11. Developing sustainable forest management in North-West Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Elbakidze, Marine; Angelstam, Per; Axelsson, Robert

    2007-01-01

    • The Russian Federation is part of the Montreal process supporting the development of sustainable forest management (SFM). • The SFM concept encompasses ecological, economic and socio-cultural dimensions, all of which should be balanced and meet agreed standards. • We compare implementation concepts aiming at sustainable landscapes, such as Model Forest and Biosphere Reserve, with regular approaches for forest landscape management. • Since the mid 1990’s several international and national SF...

  12. Alternatives for Bulgarian forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Päivinen, R.; Nabuurs, G.J.

    2001-01-01

    The European Forest Information Scenario Model (EFISCEN) is an area-based forest matrix model, which is especially suitable for projections of forest resources of large areas under assumptions of total national felling. EFISCEN uses time steps of five years and national forest inventory data. The in

  13. Structuring of Forest Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Farber

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Structuring forest communities is considered as a pre-studying procedure. The paper defines the fundamental structuring terms and describes the theory behind it. Factors hampering forest typology development are discussed. The areas of forest typology promising regarding sustainable and multi-purposed forest management are outlined.

  14. Forest Health Detectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Tara L.

    2014-01-01

    "Forest health" is an important concept often not covered in tree, forest, insect, or fungal ecology and biology. With minimal, inexpensive equipment, students can investigate and conduct their own forest health survey to assess the percentage of trees with natural or artificial wounds or stress. Insects and diseases in the forest are…

  15. Workplan for Catalyzing Collaboration with Amazonian Universities in the Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I. Foster; Moreira, Adriana

    1997-01-01

    Success of the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmospheric Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) program depends on several critical factors, the most important being the effective participation of Amazonian researchers and institutions. Without host-county counterparts, particularly in Amazonia, many important studies cannot he undertaken due either to lack of qualified persons or to legal constraints. No less important, the acceptance of the LBA program in Amazonia is also dependent on what LBA can do for improving the scientific expertise in Amazonia. Gaining the active investment of Amazonian scientists in a comprehensive research program is not a trivial task. Potential collaborators are few, particularly where much of the research was to be originally focused - the southern arc of Brazilian Amazonia. The mid-term goals of the LBA Committee on Training and Education are to increase the number of collaborators and to demonstrate that LBA will be of benefit to the region.

  16. Modeling the complex impacts of timber harvests to find optimal management regimes for Amazon tidal floodplain forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortini, Lucas; Cropper, Wendell P.; Zarin, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    At the Amazon estuary, the oldest logging frontier in the Amazon, no studies have comprehensively explored the potential long-term population and yield consequences of multiple timber harvests over time. Matrix population modeling is one way to simulate long-term impacts of tree harvests, but this approach has often ignored common impacts of tree harvests including incidental damage, changes in post-harvest demography, shifts in the distribution of merchantable trees, and shifts in stand composition. We designed a matrix-based forest management model that incorporates these harvest-related impacts so resulting simulations reflect forest stand dynamics under repeated timber harvests as well as the realities of local smallholder timber management systems. Using a wide range of values for management criteria (e.g., length of cutting cycle, minimum cut diameter), we projected the long-term population dynamics and yields of hundreds of timber management regimes in the Amazon estuary, where small-scale, unmechanized logging is an important economic activity. These results were then compared to find optimal stand-level and species-specific sustainable timber management (STM) regimes using a set of timber yield and population growth indicators. Prospects for STM in Amazonian tidal floodplain forests are better than for many other tropical forests. However, generally high stock recovery rates between harvests are due to the comparatively high projected mean annualized yields from fast-growing species that effectively counterbalance the projected yield declines from other species. For Amazonian tidal floodplain forests, national management guidelines provide neither the highest yields nor the highest sustained population growth for species under management. Our research shows that management guidelines specific to a region’s ecological settings can be further refined to consider differences in species demographic responses to repeated harvests. In principle, such fine

  17. Differential repetitive DNA composition in the centromeric region of chromosomes of Amazonian lizard species in the family Teiidae

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Natalia; Carmo,Edson; NEVES,ROGERIO; Schneider, Carlos Henrique; Gross, Maria Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Differences in heterochromatin distribution patterns and its composition were observed in Amazonian teiid species. Studies have shown repetitive DNA harbors heterochromatic blocks which are located in centromeric and telomeric regions in Ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758), Kentropyx calcarata (Spix, 1825), Kentropyx pelviceps (Cope, 1868), and Tupinambis teguixin (Linnaeus, 1758). In Cnemidophorus sp.1, repetitive DNA has multiple signals along all chromosomes. The aim of this study was to charac...

  18. First attempt to monitor luteinizing hormone and reproductive steroids in urine samples of the Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Rodrigo S; Rosas, Fernando C W; Graham, Laura H; da Silva, Vera M F; Oliveira, Claudio A

    2014-12-01

    The aims of this study were to validate an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the measurement of luteinizing hormone (LH) in urine samples of Amazonian manatees (Trichechus inunguis; Mammalia: Sirenia) and to monitor urinary LH and reproductive steroids during the ovarian cycle in this species. Urine samples were collected from two captive males following a hormonal challenge with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue. The urinary LH results from hormonal challenge were compared with urinary androgens for the purpose of EIA validation. Furthermore, urine samples were collected daily, over a 12-wk period, from two captive adult females, for 2 consecutive yr. The urinary LH pattern from females was compared with the patterns of urinary progestagens and estrogen conjugates throughout the ovarian cycle. An LH peak was observed in both male Amazonian manatees after the hormonal challenge, occurring prior to or together with peak androgen levels. In the females, the ovarian cycle ranged from 40 to 48 days (mean of 43.7 days). Two distinct peaks of estrogen conjugates were observed across all cycles analyzed, and the urinary LH peaks observed were accompanied by peaks of urinary estrogen conjugates. The EIA was validated as a method for the quantification of urinary LH from Amazonian manatees, as it was able to detect variations in the levels of LH in urine samples. These results suggest that T. inunguis exhibits a peculiar hormonal pattern during the ovarian cycle. Therefore, further studies are desirable and necessary to clarify the relationship between this hormonal pattern and morphological changes, as well as mating behavior, in Amazonian manatee. PMID:25632672

  19. Isotopes as validation tools for predictions of the impact of Amazonian deforestation on climate and regional hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotopic analysis and modelling of the Amazon Basin have both been reported for about thirty years. Isotopic data have been used to explain important characteristics of Amazonian hydrologic cycling by means of simple models. To date there has been no attempt to use isotopic data to evaluate global climate models employed to predict the possible impacts of Amazonian deforestation. This paper reviews the history of isotopic analysis and simulations of deforestation in the Amazon and initiates isotopic evaluation of GCMs. It is shown that one widely reported simulation set gives seasonal transpiration and re-evaporated canopy interception budgets different from those derived from isotopic analysis. It is found that temporal changes (1965 to 1990) in wet season deuterium excess differences between Belem and Manaus are consistent with GCM results only if there has been a relative increase in evaporation from non-fractionating water sources over this period. We propose synergistic future interactions among the climate/hydrological modelling and isotopic analysis communities in order to improve confidence in simulations of Amazonian deforestation. (author)

  20. Analyzing the Effect of Intraseasonal Meteorological Variability and Land Cover on Aerosol-Cloud Interactions During the Amazonian Biomass Burning Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    TenHoeve, J. E.; Remer, L. A.; Jacobson, M. Z.

    2010-01-01

    High resolution aerosol, cloud, water vapor, and atmospheric profile data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are utilized to examine the impact of aerosols on clouds during the Amazonian biomass burning season in Rondnia, Brazil. It is found that increasing background column water vapor (CWV) throughout this transition season between the Amazon dry and wet seasons exerts a strong effect on cloud properties. As a result, aerosol-cloud correlations should be stratified by column water vapor to achieve a more accurate assessment of the effect of aerosols on clouds. Previous studies ignored the systematic changes to meteorological factors during the transition season, leading to possible misinterpretation of their results. Cloud fraction is shown generally to increase with aerosol optical depth (AOD) for both low and high values of column water vapor, whereas the relationship between cloud optical depth (COD) and AOD exhibits a different relationship. COD increases with AOD until AOD approx. 0.25 due to the first indirect (microphysical) effect. At higher values of AOD, COD is found to decrease with increasing AOD, which may be due to: (1) the inhibition of cloud development by absorbing aerosols (radiative effect) and/or (2) a retrieval artifact in which the measured reflectance in the visible is less than expected from a cloud top either from the darkening of clouds through the addition of carbonaceous biomass burning aerosols or subpixel dark surface contamination in the measured cloud reflectance. If (1) is a contributing mechanism, as we suspect, then a linear relationship between the indirect effect and increasing AOD, assumed in a majority of GCMs, is inaccurate since these models do not include treatment of aerosol absorption in and around clouds. The effect of aerosols on both column water vapor and clouds over varying land surface types is also analyzed. The study finds that the difference in column water vapor between forest and

  1. How livestock and flooding mediate the ecological integrity of working forests in Amazon River floodplains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Christine M; Sheikh, Pervaze; Gagnon, Paul R; Mcgrath, David G

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of working forests to tropical conservation and development depends upon the maintenance of ecological integrity under ongoing land use. Assessment of ecological integrity requires an understanding of the structure, composition, and function and major drivers that govern their variability. Working forests in tropical river floodplains provide many goods and services, yet the data on the ecological processes that sustain these services is scant. In flooded forests of riverside Amazonian communities, we established 46 0.1-ha plots varying in flood duration, use by cattle and water buffalo, and time since agricultural abandonment (30-90 yr). We monitored three aspects of ecological integrity (stand structure, species composition, and dynamics of trees and seedlings) to evaluate the impacts of different trajectories of livestock activity (alleviation, stasis, and intensification) over nine years. Negative effects of livestock intensification were solely evident in the forest understory, and plots alleviated from past heavy disturbance increased in seedling density but had higher abundance of thorny species than plots maintaining low activity. Stand structure, dynamics, and tree species composition were strongly influenced by the natural pulse of seasonal floods, such that the defining characteristics of integrity were dependent upon flood duration (3-200 d). Forests with prolonged floods ≥ 140 d had not only lower species richness but also lower rates of recruitment and species turnover relative to forests with short floods design includes confounded factors that preclude a definitive assessment of the major drivers of ecological change, we provide much-needed data on the regrowth of a critical but poorly studied ecosystem. In addition to its emphasis on the dynamics of tropical wetland forests undergoing anthropogenic and environmental change, our case study is an important example for how to assess of ecological integrity in working forests of

  2. 优良菌用树种浙江润楠的育苗造林技术%Techniques of seedling cultivation and forestation of Machilus chekiangensis S.Lee —— a tree as eminent mushrooms cultur

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林雄平; 彭彪; 黄仁晓; 黄成模; 魏生清

    2011-01-01

    介绍浙江润楠的菌用价值、形态特征及生态习性,阐述了浙江润楠的播种育苗和造林技术.%The paper introduces the fungus-producing forest worth,morphological characteristics and biological characteristics of the Machilus chekiangensis S.Lee and illustrates in detail the techniques of seedling cultivation and forestation of Machilus chekiangen

  3. Floristic, edaphic and structural characteristics of flooded and unflooded forests in the lower Rio Purús region of central Amazonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haugaasen Torbjørn

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite a natural history interest in the early 1900s, relatively little ecological research has been carried out in the Rio Purús basin of central Amazonia, Brazil. Here we describe a new study area in the region of Lago Uauaçú with an emphasis on the climate, forest structure and composition, and soil characteristics between adjacent unflooded (terra firme and seasonally inundated forests; situated within both the white-water (várzea and black-water (igapó drainage systems that dominate the landscape. The climate was found to be typical of that of the central Amazon. Várzea forest soils had high concentrations of nutrients, while terra firme and igapó soils were comparatively nutrient-poor. Terra firme forests were the most floristically diverse forest type, whereas várzea was intermediate, and igapó the most species-poor. The Lecythidaceae was the most important family in terra firme while the Euphorbiaceae was the most important in both várzea and igapó. There were significant differences between forest types in terms of number of saplings, canopy cover and understorey density. In contrasting our results with other published information, we conclude that the Lago Uauaçú region consists of a typical central Amazonian forest macro-mosaic, but is a unique area with high conservation value due to the intimate juxtaposition of terra firme, várzea and igapó forests.

  4. Calcium fluxes in Hoplosternum littorale (tamoatá exposed to different types of Amazonian waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Baldisserotto

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Fishes that live in the Amazonian environment may be exposed to several kinds of waters: "black waters", containing high dissolved organic carbon and acidic pH, "white waters", with ten fold higher Ca2+ concentrations than black waters and neutral pH, and "clear waters", with two fold higher Ca2+ concentrations than black waters and also neutral pH. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to analyze Ca2+ fluxes in the facultative air-breather Hoplosternum littorale (tamoatá exposed to different Amazonian waters. Fishes were acclimated in well water (similar to clear water and later placed in individual chambers for Ca2+ fluxes measurements. After 4 h, water from the chambers was replaced by a different type of water. Transfer of tamoatás to ion-poor black or acidic black water resulted in net Ca2+ loss only in the first 2 h of experiment. However, transfer from black or acidic black water to white water led to only net Ca2+ influxes. The results obtained allowed us to conclude that transfer of tamoatás to ion-poor waters (black and acidic black water led to transient net Ca2+ loss, while the amount of Ca2+ in the ion-rich white water seems adequate to prevent Ca2+ loss after transfer. Therefore, transfer of tamoatás between these Amazonian waters does not seem to result in serious Ca2+ disturbance.Os peixes que vivem na Amazônia são expostos a vários tipos de água: águas pretas, contendo grande quantidade de carbono orgânico dissolvido, águas brancas, com concentração de Ca2+ dez vezes maior que as águas pretas e pH neutro, e águas claras, com concentração de Ca2+ duas vezes maior que as águas pretas e pH também neutro. Dessa forma, o objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar o fluxo de Ca2+ no peixe de respiração aérea facultativa Hoplosternum littorale (tamoatá exposto a diferentes tipos de águas amazônicas. Os peixes foram aclimatados em água de poço artesiano (semelhante à água clara e depois colocados

  5. Sinopse das espécies de Marlierea Cambess. (Myrtaceae na Amazônia brasileira Sinopse of the species of Marlierea Cambess. (Myrtaceae in Amazonian Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Silva do Rosário

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O estudo de Marlierea Cambess. na Amazônia Brasileira tem como principal objetivo atualizar os dados sobre a morfologia e taxonomia das espécies da região, bem como fornecer subsídios para esclarecer a separação de Marlierea de Myrcia DC. ex Guill., conforme sugerem alguns autores. Na Amazônia Brasileira, Marlierea está representada por 11 espécies (Marlierea bipennis (O. Berg McVaugh, M. caudata McVaugh, M. ensiformis McVaugh, M. ferruginea (Poir. McVaugh, M. mcvaughii B. Holst, M. scytophylla Diels, M. spruceana O. Berg, M. subulata McVaugh, M. summa McVaugh, M. umbraticola (Kunth O. Berg e M. velutina McVaugh e uma mal conhecida (M. obumbrans (O. Berg Nied., habitando principalmente áreas de formações florestais. O gênero se caracteriza pelo hábito arbóreo ou arbustivo; folhas opostas (exceto em M. velutina que pode apresentar folhas opostas e/ou alternas; as inflorescências em panículas (de fascículos, racemos, cimeiras ou dicásios; botões florais geralmente fechados, abertura irregular do cálice, em 4-5 lobos, pétalas freqüentemente ausentes. Os Estados do Amazonas e Pará representam os dois principais centros de distribuição dessas espécies, sendo M. spruceana e M. umbraticola as espécies mais comuns. Marlierea obumbrans será melhor estudada posteriormente, devido apresentar sua delimitação taxonômica confusa entre Myrcia e Marlierea.A morphological study of Marlierea Cambess. occurring in Amazonian Brazil was carried out in order to obtain a better understanding of the morphology and taxonomy of all species in the region and to provide data to elucidate the taxonomic segregation of Marlierea from the morphologically similar Myrcia DC. ex Guill. In Amazonian Brazil, Marlierea is represented by 11, primarily forest, species (Marlierea bipennis (O. Berg McVaugh, M. caudata McVaugh, M. ensiformis McVaugh, M. ferruginea (Poir. McVaugh, M. mcvaughii B. Holst, M. scytophylla Diels, M. spruceana O. Berg, M

  6. Patterns of energy allocation to reproduction in three Amazonian fish species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo N. dos Santos

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The study considered the influence of the hydrological cycle and gonadal development on the accumulation and use of energy in three fish species from an Amazonian flooded area. Fishes were sampled over a 24 hour period at monthly intervals between July 2004 and June 2005 using gillnets of different mesh sizes. Body cavity fat and gonadosomatic indices were determined, as well as energy content of gonads and muscles. Amongst the studied species, different means of energy allocation for reproduction were found: Acestrorhynchus falcirostris allocate energy from body cavity fat to its gonads; Pygocentrus nattereri uses mainly energy accumulated in the muscles for the process of gonadal maturation; and Hoplosternum littorale uses energy accumulated in their muscles and body cavity fat for reproductive processes. It is quite clear that the flood pulse regulates the gain and use of the energy reserves in fishes from the Amazonian floodplain.O presente estudo considerou a influência do ciclo hidrológico e maturação gonadal no acúmulo e utilização da energia em três espécies de peixes, numa área de planície de inundação amazônica. As amostras foram obtidas mensalmente durante o período de julho de 2004 a junho de 2005, utilizando redes de emalhar com vários tamanhos de malhas, durante 24 horas. O índice de gordura cavitária, índice gonadossomático, e teor energético dos músculos e gônadas foram analisados. Dentre as espécies analisadas, foram detectados diferentes padrões de alocação de energia: Acestrorhynchus falcirostris aloca energia das reservas de gordura cavitária para as gônadas; Pygocentrus nattereri utiliza energia dos músculos para este fim e Hoplosternum littorale, além da gordura cavitária, utiliza também energia acumulada nos músculos para realização dos processos reprodutivos. Ficou evidente que o pulso de inundação exerce forte influência no acúmulo e utilização das reservas energéticas dos

  7. Diverse Early Life-History Strategies in Migratory Amazonian Catfish: Implications for Conservation and Management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens C Hegg

    Full Text Available Animal migrations provide important ecological functions and can allow for increased biodiversity through habitat and niche diversification. However, aquatic migrations in general, and those of the world's largest fish in particular, are imperiled worldwide and are often poorly understood. Several species of large Amazonian catfish carry out some of the longest freshwater fish migrations in the world, travelling from the Amazon River estuary to the Andes foothills. These species are important apex predators in the main stem rivers of the Amazon Basin and make up the region's largest fishery. They are also the only species to utilize the entire Amazon Basin to complete their life cycle. Studies indicate both that the fisheries may be declining due to overfishing, and that the proposed and completed dams in their upstream range threaten spawning migrations. Despite this, surprisingly little is known about the details of these species' migrations, or their life history. Otolith microchemistry has been an effective method for quantifying and reconstructing fish migrations worldwide across multiple spatial scales and may provide a powerful tool to understand the movements of Amazonian migratory catfish. Our objective was to describe the migratory behaviors of the three most populous and commercially important migratory catfish species, Dourada (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii, Piramutaba (Brachyplatystoma vaillantii, and Piraíba (Brachyplatystoma filamentosum. We collected fish from the mouth of the Amazon River and the Central Amazon and used strontium isotope signatures ((87Sr/(86Sr recorded in their otoliths to determine the location of early rearing and subsequent. Fish location was determined through discriminant function classification, using water chemistry data from the literature as a training set. Where water chemistry data was unavailable, we successfully in predicted (87Sr/(86Sr isotope values using a regression-based approach that related

  8. US Forest Service Forest Health Protection Insect and Disease Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — This data is a compilation of forest insect, disease and abiotic damage mapped by aerial detection surveys on forested areas in the United States. US Forest...

  9. The Life and Fiction of Antonia Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Sue

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the life and writings of Antonia Forest, who died in 2003, are considered. An attempt is made to put her books into their literary, cultural and religious contexts, and to examine possible reasons for the critical reception of her books during the last 30 years of the twentieth century; from neglect and even disapproval to…

  10. Forest area assessment in the Slovenian forest inventory design

    OpenAIRE

    Hladnik, David; Žižek Kulovec, Laura

    2012-01-01

    In Slovenia, data on forest area are obtained within the framework of forest management planning and data of the actual agriculture and forest land use. The article shows the differences in the assessment methodology of forest cover and spatial structure of forests. In accordance with the concept of national forest inventories, the article suggests upgrading of the existing concept of forest inventories which, in the last decade, have been subordinate to forest management areas and difference...

  11. Uncertainty in forest simulators and forest planning systems

    OpenAIRE

    MÀkinen, Antti

    2010-01-01

    The forest simulator is a computerized model for predicting forest growth and future development as well as effects of forest harvests and treatments. The forest planning system is a decision support tool, usually including a forest simulator and an optimisation model, for finding the optimal forest management actions. The information produced by forest simulators and forest planning systems is used for various analytical purposes and in support of decision making. However, the quality a...

  12. Making Forest Values Work: Enhancing Multi-Dimensional Perspectives towards Sustainable Forest Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doni Blagojević

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Sustainability, sustainable development and sustainable forest management are terms that are commonly, and interchangeably used in the forest industry, however their meaning take on different connotations, relative to varying subject matter. The aim of this paper is to look at these terms in a more comprehensive way, relative to the current ideology of sustainability in forestry. Materials and Methods: This paper applies a literature review of the concepts of: i sustainable development; ii sustainable forest management; and iii economic and non-economic valuation. The concepts are viewed through a historical dimension of shifting paradigms, originating from production- to service-based forestry. Values are discussed through a review of general value theory and spatial, cultural and temporal differences in valuation. Along the evolution of these concepts, we discuss their applicability as frameworks to develop operational guidelines for forest management, relative to the multi-functionality of forests. Results and Conclusions: Potential discrepancies between the conceptual origins of sustainable development and sustainable forest management are highlighted, relative to how they have been interpreted and diffused as new perceptions on forest value for the human society. We infer the current paradigm may not reflect the various dimensions adequately as its implementation is likely to be more related to the distribution of power between stakeholders, rather than the value stakeholders’ place on the various forest attributes.

  13. Forest report 2013; Waldzustandsbericht 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    This forest report of Lower Saxony (Germany) contains the following topics: weather and climate, forest protection, crown defoliation, infiltrated substances, environmental monitoring, insects and fungi, forest soil survey and forest site mapping, and nutritional status of beech on loess.

  14. Molecular systematic analysis reveals cryptic tertiary diversification of a widespread tropical rain forest tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Christopher W; Abdul-Salim, Kobinah; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2003-12-01

    The broad geographic range of many Neotropical rain forest tree species implies excellent dispersal abilities or range establishment that preceded the formation of current dispersal barriers. In order to initiate historical analyses of such widespread Neotropical trees, we sequenced the nuclear ribosomal spacer (ITS) region of Symphonia globulifera L. f. (Clusiaceae) from populations spanning the Neotropics and western Africa. This rain forest tree has left unmistakable Miocene fossils in Mesoamerica (15.5-18.2 Ma) and in South America ( approximately 15 Ma). Although marine dispersal of S. globulifera is considered improbable, our study establishes three marine dispersal events leading to the colonization of Mesoamerica, the Amazon basin, and the West Indies, thus supporting the paleontological data. Our phylogeographic analysis revealed the spatial extent of the three Neotropical S. globulifera clades, which represent trans-Andes (Mesoamerica+west Ecuador), cis-Andes (Amazonia+Guiana), and the West Indies. Strong phylogeographic structure found among trans-Andean populations of S. globulifera stands in contrast to an absence of ITS nucleotide variation across the Amazon basin and indicates profound regional differences in the demographic history of this rain forest tree. Drawing from these results, we provide a historical biogeographic hypothesis to account for differences in the patterns of beta diversity within Mesoamerican and Amazonian forests. PMID:14737707

  15. How natural Forest Conversion Affects Insect Biodiversity in the Peruvian Amazon: Can Agroforestry Help?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Perry

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Amazonian rainforest is a unique ecosystem that comprises habitat for thousands of animal species. Over the last decades, the ever-increasing human population has caused forest conversion to agricultural land with concomitant high biodiversity losses, mainly near a number of fast-growing cities in the Peruvian Amazon. In this research, we evaluated insect species richness and diversity in five ecosystems: natural forests, multistrata agroforests, cocoa agroforests, annual cropping monoculture and degraded grasslands. We determined the relationship between land use intensity and insect diversity changes. Collected insects were taxonomically determined to morphospecies and data evaluated using standardized biodiversity indices. The highest species richness and abundance were found in natural forests, followed by agroforestry systems. Conversely, monocultures and degraded grasslands were found to be biodiversity-poor ecosystems. Diversity indices were relatively high for all ecosystems assessed with decreasing values along the disturbance gradient. An increase in land use disturbance causes not only insect diversity decreases but also complete changes in species composition. As agroforests, especially those with cocoa, currently cover many hectares of tropical land and show a species composition similar to natural forest sites, we can consider them as biodiversity reservoirs for some of the rainforest insect species.

  16. Monodominance in a forest of Brosimum rubescens Taub. (Moraceae): Structure and dynamics of natural regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marimon, Beatriz Schwantes; Felfili, Jeanine M.; Fagg, Christopher William; Marimon-Junior, Ben Hur; Umetsu, Ricardo K.; Oliveira-Santos, Claudinei; Morandi, Paulo S.; Lima, Herson S.; Terra Nascimento, André R.

    2012-08-01

    The study was conducted in a Brosimum rubescens Taub. monodominant forest in Nova Xavantina, Mato Grosso state (14°49.8'S and 52°9.6'W), in the transition zone between the Cerrado and Amazonian Forest in central Brazil. The structure and dynamics of the natural regeneration was compared over a five-year period to identify patterns that affect seedling establishment and explain the maintenance of B. rubescens dominance. We raised the following questions: how does the structure and dynamics of a monodominant forest regeneration vary over time? What patterns affect seedling establishment and help to explain the maintenance of the monodominance of B. rubescens? Natural regeneration was sampled in 30 plots of 1 m × 1 m (seedlings), 2 × 2 (saplings), 5 × 5 (poles) and 10 × 10 (treelets). In the first inventory, the natural regeneration structure was characterized by a higher concentration of individuals in lower height classes and the largest number of seedlings of B. rubescens may be related to rainfall distribution in previous years. Seedling establishment may be limited by drier periods such as "El Niño" events, or by specific light conditions reaching the forest floor. Formation of a persistent seedling bank may provide a competitive advantage for the regeneration of B. rubescens in conditions of gaps pre-opening thus contributing to monodominance maintenance.

  17. Forest Stand Age

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Source data for forest stand age were obtained from the USDA Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) DataMart and were projected for future scenarios based on selected...

  18. National Forest Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This theme shows the USFS national forest boundaries in the state. This data was acquired from the GIS coordinators at both the Chippewa National Forest and the...

  19. New species of Eimeria and Isospora (Protozoa: Eimeriidae in Geochelone spp. (Chelonia: Testudinidae from Amazonian Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lainson R.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Tetrasporocystic, dizoic oocysts of reptiles have been separated by some authors into the genera Eimeria, Choleoeimeria and Acroeimeria (Protozoa: Eimeriidae, based on the site and mode of development of their endogenous stages. The majority of Eimeria species have been, and still are, however, described on oocyst morphology alone. Four different oocysts with this basic morphology were encountered in the faeces of Brazilian tortoises, Geochelone carbonaria Spix, 1824 and are assigned to the genus Eimeria, with the view that they can readily be transferred to the genus Choleoeimeria or Acroeimeria if this is indicated by a future examination of their endogenous development. A morphological comparison distinguishes the oocysts from those of Eimeria spp., previously described in chelonids of the family Testudinidae, and the names E. amazonensis, E. carbonaria, E. carajasensis and E. wellcomei n. spp. are proposed. Coccidial infection appears to be common in G. carbonaria, with three of seven animals examined passing oocysts. Oocysts of Isospora rodriguesae n. sp. (Protozoa: Eimeriidae are described in the faeces of Geochelone denticulata Linnaeus, 1766. They are morphologically very different from those of Isospora testudae, Davronov, 1985 in Testudo horsfieldi. Eimeria motelo H°urková et al., 2000, previously described in Geochelone denticulata from Peru, is here recorded in the same chelonid from Amazonian Brazil.

  20. Middle Miocene vertebrates from the Amazonian Madre de Dios Subandean Zone, Perú

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, Pierre-Olivier; Roddaz, Martin; Brichau, Stéphanie; Tejada-Lara, Julia; Salas-Gismondi, Rodolfo; Altamirano, Ali; Louterbach, Mélanie; Lambs, Luc; Otto, Thierry; Brusset, Stéphane

    2013-03-01

    A new middle Miocene vertebrate fauna from Peruvian Amazonia is described. It yields the marsupials Sipalocyon sp. (Hathliacynidae) and Marmosa (Micoureus) cf. laventica (Didelphidae), as well as an unidentified glyptodontine xenarthran and the rodents Guiomys sp. (Caviidae), “Scleromys” sp., cf. quadrangulatus-schurmanni-colombianus (Dinomyidae), an unidentified acaremyid, and cf. Microsteiromys sp. (Erethizontidae). Apatite Fission Track provides a detrital age (17.1 ± 2.4 Ma) for the locality, slightly older than its inferred biochronological age (Colloncuran-early Laventan South American Land Mammal Ages: ˜15.6-13.0 Ma). Put together, both the mammalian assemblage and lithology of the fossil-bearing level point to a mixture of tropical rainforest environment and more open habitats under a monsoonal-like tropical climate. The fully fluvial origin of the concerned sedimentary sequence suggests that the Amazonian Madre de Dios Subandean Zone was not part of the Pebas mega-wetland System by middle Miocene times. This new assemblage seems to reveal a previously undocumented “spatiotemporal transition” between the late early Miocene assemblages from high latitudes (Patagonia and Southern Chile) and the late middle Miocene faunas of low latitudes (Colombia, Perú, Venezuela, and ?Brazil).

  1. Molecular taxonomy of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) benarrochi (Diptera: Culicidae) and malaria epidemiology in southern Amazonian Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Jan E; Moreno, Marta; Saavedra, Marlon; Bickersmith, Sara A; Knoll, Elisabeth; Fernandez, Roberto; Vera, Hubert; Burrus, Roxanne G; Lescano, Andres G; Sanchez, Juan Francisco; Rivera, Esteban; Vinetz, Joseph M

    2013-02-01

    Anopheline specimens were collected in 2011 by human landing catch, Shannon and CDC traps from the malaria endemic localities of Santa Rosa and San Pedro in Madre de Dios Department, Peru. Most specimens were either Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) benarrochi B or An. (Nys.) rangeli, confirmed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism-internal transcribed spacer 2 (PCR-RFLP-ITS2) and, for selected individuals, ITS2 sequences. A few specimens from Lupuna, Loreto Department, northern Amazonian Peru, were also identified as An. benarrochi B. A statistical parsimony network using ITS2 sequences confirmed that all Peruvian An. benarrochi B analyzed were identical to those in GenBank from Putumayo, southern Colombia. Sequences of the mtDNA COI BOLD region of specimens from all three Peruvian localities were connected using a statistical parsimony network, although there were multiple mutation steps between northern and southern Peruvian sequences. A Bayesian inference of concatenated Peruvian sequences of ITS2 + COI detected a single clade with very high support for all An. benarrochi B except one individual from Lupuna that was excluded. No samples were positive for Plasmodium by CytB-PCR.

  2. Prospects for malaria elimination in non-Amazonian regions of Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Sócrates; Quiñones, Martha Lucia; Quintero, Juan Pablo; Corredor, Vladimir; Fuller, Douglas O; Mateus, Julio Cesar; Calzada, Jose E; Gutierrez, Juan B; Llanos, Alejandro; Soto, Edison; Menendez, Clara; Wu, Yimin; Alonso, Pedro; Carrasquilla, Gabriel; Galinski, Mary; Beier, John C; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam

    2012-03-01

    Latin America contributes 1-1.2 million clinical malaria cases to the global malaria burden of about 300 million per year. In 21 malaria endemic countries, the population at risk in this region represents less than 10% of the total population exposed worldwide. Factors such as rapid deforestation, inadequate agricultural practices, climate change, political instability, and both increasing parasite drug resistance and vector resistance to insecticides contribute to malaria transmission. Recently, several malaria endemic countries have experienced a significant reduction in numbers of malaria cases. This is most likely due to actions taken by National Malaria Control Programs (NMCP) with the support from international funding agencies. We describe here the research strategies and activities to be undertaken by the Centro Latino Americano de Investigación en Malaria (CLAIM), a new research center established for the non-Amazonian region of Latin America by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). Throughout a network of countries in the region, initially including Colombia, Guatemala, Panama, and Peru, CLAIM will address major gaps in our understanding of changing malaria epidemiology, vector biology and control, and clinical malaria mainly due to Plasmodium vivax. In close partnership with NMCPs, CLAIM seeks to conduct research on how and why malaria is decreasing in many countries of the region as a basis for developing and implementing new strategies that will accelerate malaria elimination.

  3. Pollination of lark daisy on roadsides declines as traffic speed increases along an Amazonian highway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargas, J H F; Chaves, S R; Fischer, E

    2016-05-01

    Ecological disturbances caused by roadways have previously been reported, but traffic speed has not been addressed. We investigate effects of traffic speed on pollination of Centratherum punctatum (Asteraceae) along an Amazonian highway roadside. We hypothesised that frequency of flower visitors, duration of single visits and pollen deposition on stigmas will vary negatively as traffic speed increases. After measuring vehicle velocities, we classified three road sections as low-, mid- and high-velocity traffic. The main pollinator bee, Augochlora sp., visited C. punctatum inflorescences with decreasing frequency from low- to high-velocity roadside sections, whereas the nectar thief butterflies did the opposite. Duration of single visits by bees and butterflies was shorter, and arrival of pollen on C. punctatum stigmas was lower, in high- than in low-velocity roadside. Air turbulence due to passing vehicles increases with velocity and disturbed the flower visitors. Overall, results support that traffic velocity negatively affects foraging of flower visitors and the pollination of C. punctatum on roadsides. PMID:26809110

  4. New species of Eimeria and Isospora (Protozoa: Eimeriidae) in Geochelone spp. (Chelonia: Testudinidae) from Amazonian Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lainson, R; Da Silva, F M M; Franco, C M; De Souza, M C

    2008-12-01

    Tetrasporocystic, dizoic oocysts of reptiles have been separated by some authors into the genera Eimeria, Choleoeimeria and Acroeimeria (Protozoa: Eimeriidae), based on the site and mode of development of their endogenous stages. The majority of Eimeria species have been, and still are, however, described on oocyst morphology alone. Four different oocysts with this basic morphology were encountered in the faeces of Brazilian tortoises, Geochelone carbonaria Spix, 1824 and are assigned to the genus Eimeria, with the view that they can readily be transferred to the genus Choleoeimeria or Acroeimeria if this is indicated by a future examination of their endogenous development. A morphological comparison distinguishes the oocysts from those of Eimeria spp., previously described in chelonids of the family Testudinidae, and the names E. amazonensis, E. carbonaria, E. carajasensis and E. wellcomei n. spp. are proposed. Coccidial infection appears to be common in G. carbonaria, with three of seven animals examined passing oocysts. Oocysts of Isospora rodriguesae n. sp. (Protozoa: Eimeriidae) are described in the faeces of Geochelone denticulata Linnaeus, 1766. They are morphologically very different from those of Isospora testudae, Davronov, 1985 in Testudo horsfieldi. Eimeria motelo Hůrková et al., 2000, previously described in Geochelone denticulata from Peru, is here recorded in the some chelonid from Amazonian Brazil. PMID:19202760

  5. Molecular identification of Amazonian stingless bees using polymerase chain reaction single-strand conformation polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, M T; Carvalho-Zilse, G A

    2014-01-01

    In countries containing a mega diversity of wildlife, such as Brazil, identifying and characterizing biological diversity is a continuous process for the scientific community, even in face of technological and scientific advances. This activity demands initiatives for the taxonomic identification of highly diverse groups, such as stingless bees, including molecular analysis strategies. This type of bee is distributed in all of the Brazilian states, with the highest species diversity being found in the State of Amazônia. However, the estimated number of species diverges among taxonomists. These bees are considered the main pollinators in the Amazon rainforest, in which they obtain food and shelter; however, their persistence is constantly threatened by deforestation pressure. Hence, it is important to classify the number and abundance of bee specie, to measure their decline and implement meaningful, priority conservation strategies. This study aims to maximize the implementation of more direct, economic and successful techniques for the taxonomic identification of stingless bees. Specifically, the genes 16S rRNA and COI from mitochondrial DNA were used as molecular markers to differentiate 9 species of Amazonian stingless bees based on DNA polymorphism, using the polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism technique. We registered different, exclusive SSCP haplotypes for both genes in all species analyzed. These results demonstrate that SSCP is a simple and cost-effective technique that is applicable to the molecular identification of stingless bee species. PMID:25117306

  6. Morphophysiological Behavior and Cambial Activity in Seedlings of Two Amazonian Tree Species under Shade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monyck Jeane dos Santos Lopes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Variations in light intensity can lead to important anatomical and morphophysiological changes in plants. Aiming to increase knowledge about the Amazonian tree species, this study examines the influence of shade on the cambial activity and development of Parkia gigantocarpa Ducke and Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum (Huber ex Ducke Barneby seedlings. Seedlings of the two species were grown in a nursery under four shade intensities (treatments: full sun, low, moderate, and high shade (resp., 0%, 23%, 67%, and 73% of shade, or 2000, 1540, 660, and 540 µmol·m−2·s−1 obtained with polyethylene screens. We measured plant height, stem diameter, biomass production, stomatal conductance (gs, transpiration (E, photosynthesis (A, and cambial activity (CA (xylem, cambium, and phloem. Also, we calculated the Dickson Quality Index (DQI. The highest values of biomass production, gs,  E, A, and DQI, were found under full sun, in P. gigantocarpa, and under low shade intensity in S. parahyba. In both species high shade intensity reduced CA. We concluded that the CA and the physiological and morphological attributes work together, explaining the radial growth and increasing seedlings quality, which optimized efficient seedling production under full sun, in P. gigantocarpa, and under low shade intensity in S. parahyba.

  7. Prospects for malaria elimination in non-Amazonian regions of Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Sócrates; Quiñones, Martha Lucia; Quintero, Juan Pablo; Corredor, Vladimir; Fuller, Douglas O; Mateus, Julio Cesar; Calzada, Jose E; Gutierrez, Juan B; Llanos, Alejandro; Soto, Edison; Menendez, Clara; Wu, Yimin; Alonso, Pedro; Carrasquilla, Gabriel; Galinski, Mary; Beier, John C; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam

    2012-03-01

    Latin America contributes 1-1.2 million clinical malaria cases to the global malaria burden of about 300 million per year. In 21 malaria endemic countries, the population at risk in this region represents less than 10% of the total population exposed worldwide. Factors such as rapid deforestation, inadequate agricultural practices, climate change, political instability, and both increasing parasite drug resistance and vector resistance to insecticides contribute to malaria transmission. Recently, several malaria endemic countries have experienced a significant reduction in numbers of malaria cases. This is most likely due to actions taken by National Malaria Control Programs (NMCP) with the support from international funding agencies. We describe here the research strategies and activities to be undertaken by the Centro Latino Americano de Investigación en Malaria (CLAIM), a new research center established for the non-Amazonian region of Latin America by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). Throughout a network of countries in the region, initially including Colombia, Guatemala, Panama, and Peru, CLAIM will address major gaps in our understanding of changing malaria epidemiology, vector biology and control, and clinical malaria mainly due to Plasmodium vivax. In close partnership with NMCPs, CLAIM seeks to conduct research on how and why malaria is decreasing in many countries of the region as a basis for developing and implementing new strategies that will accelerate malaria elimination. PMID:21781953

  8. Urinary parameters of Trichechus inunguis (Mammalia, Sirenia): reference values for the Amazonian Manatee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoja, T M A; Da Rosas, F C W; Dos Silva, V M F; Santos, A M F

    2010-08-01

    The Amazonian manatee, Trichechus inunguis (Natterer 1883) is endemic to the Amazon Basin and is currently considered a vulnerable species. In order to establish normality ranges of urinary parameters to help monitor the health of this species in captivity, chemical urinalyses were performed on twelve males and nine females of various age groups. Urine was collected once a month for twelve months in the tanks just after being drained, by placing stainless steel containers under the genital slit of females and applying abdominal massages to males in order to stimulate urination. Quantitative data of glucose, urea, creatinine, uric acid and amylase levels were obtained using colorimetric spectrophotometry. Dip strips were also useful for routine analyses, despite only providing qualitative results. Normal range to glucose levels, regardless of sex or age class, was 3.0 to 3.6 mgxdL-1, coinciding with qualitative values of glucose measured by dip strips. Statistical differences observed in some parameter levels suggest that some urine parameters analysed must take into consideration the sex and the age class of the animal studied, being these differences less remarkable in creatinine and amylase levels. To this last one, statistical difference was detected only in the calve's urine (7.0 to 11.5 mgxdL-1) compared to other age classes samples (4.1 to 5.3 mgxdL-1). The results presented here may be used as comparative data in future research on urinalysis in related species.

  9. Fish consumption (hair mercury) and nutritional status of Amazonian Amer-Indian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dórea, José G; Barbosa, Antonio C; Ferrari, Iris; De Souza, Jurandir R

    2005-01-01

    Fish are abundant and important dietary items for the Amer-Indians, and total hair-Hg (HHg) concentration is a reliable marker of fish consumption. We studied the impact of fish consumption (HHg) on the nutritional status of Indian children of Eastern Amazonia. Weight-for-height Z score (WHZ) was measured, and HHg was determined in 203 children younger than 10 years of age in three villages. There was significantly higher fish consumption in Kayabi children (16.55 microg Hg/g; SD, 11.44) than in children of the Munduruku villages of Missão-Cururu (4.76 microg Hg/g; SD, 2.09) and Kaburua (2.87 microg Hg/g; SD, 2.13). Anthropometric indices showed WHZ means of -0.27, -0.22, and 0.40, respectively, for Kayabi, Missão-Cururu and Kaburua villages. Despite a different pattern of fish-protein consumption between tribes, there was no significant correlation between WHZ and HHg concentrations (r2 = 0.0079; P < 0.2021). Dietary differences among Amazonian tribes can be traced and used in measuring health outcomes. Higher fish consumption, although important for Kayabis, was compensated by other protein sources by the Kaburua villagers.

  10. Amazonian Plant Natural Products: Perspectives for Discovery of New Antimalarial Drug Leads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio H. Freitas-Junior

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax malaria parasites are now resistant, or showing signs of resistance, to most drugs used in therapy. Novel chemical entities that exhibit new mechanisms of antiplasmodial action are needed. New antimalarials that block transmission of Plasmodium spp. from humans to Anopheles mosquito vectors are key to malaria eradication efforts. Although P. vivax causes a considerable number of malaria cases, its importance has for long been neglected. Vivax malaria can cause severe manifestations and death; hence there is a need for P. vivax-directed research. Plants used in traditional medicine, namely Artemisia annua and Cinchona spp. are the sources of the antimalarial natural products artemisinin and quinine, respectively. Based on these compounds, semi-synthetic artemisinin-derivatives and synthetic quinoline antimalarials have been developed and are the most important drugs in the current therapeutic arsenal for combating malaria. In the Amazon region, where P. vivax predominates, there is a local tradition of using plant-derived preparations to treat malaria. Here, we review the current P. falciparum and P. vivax drug-sensitivity assays, focusing on challenges and perspectives of drug discovery for P. vivax, including tests against hypnozoites. We also present the latest findings of our group and others on the antiplasmodial and antimalarial chemical components from Amazonian plants that may be potential drug leads against malaria.

  11. Second floor, please: the fish fauna of floating litter banks in Amazonian streams and rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucelia Nobre Carvalho

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Floating litter banks are an ephemeral habitat consisting of branches, twigs, flowers, seeds, and fruits that are trapped on the stream water surface by a variety of retention mechanisms. These heterogeneous materials form a deep layer of dead plant matter that is colonized by a variety of organisms, including fish that forage on the aquatic macroinvertebrates found in this unique habitat. In this study, we aimed to characterize which fish species occupy the floating litter banks and their trophic characteristics, as well as determine if fish assemblage composition and species richness can be predicted by the size of the floating litter banks. Fish sampling was conducted in five rivers located in the Amazon basin. Of the 31 floating litter banks sampled that contained fish, 455 individuals were recorded and were distributed within 40 species, 15 families and five orders. Siluriformes were the most representative order among the samples and contained the largest number of families and species. The fish fauna sampled was mainly composed of carnivorous species that are typically found in submerged litter banks of Amazonian streams. The fish assemblage composition in the kinon can be predicted by the volume of the floating litter banks using both presence/absence and abundance data, but not its species richness. In conclusion, kinon banks harbor a rich fish assemblage that utilizes this habitat for shelter and feeding, and may function as a refuge for the fishes during the peak of the flooding season.

  12. Urinary parameters of Trichechus inunguis (Mammalia, Sirenia): reference values for the Amazonian Manatee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoja, T M A; Da Rosas, F C W; Dos Silva, V M F; Santos, A M F

    2010-08-01

    The Amazonian manatee, Trichechus inunguis (Natterer 1883) is endemic to the Amazon Basin and is currently considered a vulnerable species. In order to establish normality ranges of urinary parameters to help monitor the health of this species in captivity, chemical urinalyses were performed on twelve males and nine females of various age groups. Urine was collected once a month for twelve months in the tanks just after being drained, by placing stainless steel containers under the genital slit of females and applying abdominal massages to males in order to stimulate urination. Quantitative data of glucose, urea, creatinine, uric acid and amylase levels were obtained using colorimetric spectrophotometry. Dip strips were also useful for routine analyses, despite only providing qualitative results. Normal range to glucose levels, regardless of sex or age class, was 3.0 to 3.6 mgxdL-1, coinciding with qualitative values of glucose measured by dip strips. Statistical differences observed in some parameter levels suggest that some urine parameters analysed must take into consideration the sex and the age class of the animal studied, being these differences less remarkable in creatinine and amylase levels. To this last one, statistical difference was detected only in the calve's urine (7.0 to 11.5 mgxdL-1) compared to other age classes samples (4.1 to 5.3 mgxdL-1). The results presented here may be used as comparative data in future research on urinalysis in related species. PMID:20730348

  13. DETERMINING OSTEOPOROSIS RISK IN OLDER COLONO ADULTS FROM RURAL AMAZONIAN ECUADOR USING CALCANEAL ULTRASONOMETRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    MADIMENOS, FELICIA C.; LIEBERT, MELISSA A.; CEPON-ROBINS, TARA J.; SNODGRASS, J. JOSH; SUGIYAMA, LAWRENCE S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Low bone density and osteoporosis prevalence, while well-documented in wealthy nations, are poorly studied in rural, non-clinical contexts in economically-developing regions such as Latin America. This study contributes preliminary osteoporosis risk data for a rural Colono (mestizo) population from Amazonian Ecuador. Methods Anthropometrics were collected for 119 adult participants (74 females, 45 males [50–90 years old]). Heel bone density and T-scores were recorded using calcaneal ultrasonometry Results Approximately 33.6% of the participants had low bone density and were at high-risk for osteoporosis. Four times as many females as males were considered high-risk. Consistent with epidemiological literature, advancing age was significantly associated with lower bone density values (p=0.001). Conclusions Low bone density and osteoporosis prevalence are expected to increase in this and other economically-transitioning populations, yet infrastructure to monitor this changing epidemiological landscape is almost non-existent. Human biologists are uniquely positioned to contribute data from remote populations, a critical step towards initiating increased resource allocation for diagnosis and prevention. PMID:25242164

  14. The Organization of Repetitive DNA in the Genomes of Amazonian Lizard Species in the Family Teiidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Natalia D M; Pinheiro, Vanessa S S; Carmo, Edson J; Goll, Leonardo G; Schneider, Carlos H; Gross, Maria C

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive DNA is the largest fraction of the eukaryote genome and comprises tandem and dispersed sequences. It presents variations in relation to its composition, number of copies, distribution, dynamics, and genome organization, and participates in the evolutionary diversification of different vertebrate species. Repetitive sequences are usually located in the heterochromatin of centromeric and telomeric regions of chromosomes, contributing to chromosomal structures. Therefore, the aim of this study was to physically map repetitive DNA sequences (5S rDNA, telomeric sequences, tropomyosin gene 1, and retroelements Rex1 and SINE) of mitotic chromosomes of Amazonian species of teiids (Ameiva ameiva, Cnemidophorus sp. 1, Kentropyx calcarata, Kentropyx pelviceps, and Tupinambis teguixin) to understand their genome organization and karyotype evolution. The mapping of repetitive sequences revealed a distinct pattern in Cnemidophorus sp. 1, whereas the other species showed all sequences interspersed in the heterochromatic region. Physical mapping of the tropomyosin 1 gene was performed for the first time in lizards and showed that in addition to being functional, this gene has a structural function similar to the mapped repetitive elements as it is located preferentially in centromeric regions and termini of chromosomes. PMID:26867142

  15. Thermokarst, mantling and Late Amazonian Epoch periglacial-revisions in the Argyre region, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soare, R. J.; Baoini, D.; Conway, S. J.; Dohm, J. M.; Kargel, J. S.

    2015-10-01

    Thermokarst, mantling and Late Amazonian Epoch periglacial-revisions in the Argyre region, Mars R.J. Soare(1), D. Baioni(2), S.J. Conway (3), J.M. Dohm(4)and J.S. Kargel (5)(1) Geography Department, Dawson College, Montreal, Canada H3Z 1A4 rsoare@dawsoncollege.qc.ca.(2) Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra,della Vita e Ambiente, Università di Urbino "Carlo Bo", Campus SOGESTA, 61029 Urbino (PU) Italy. (3) Department of Physical Sciences, Open University, Milton Keynes, United Kingdom, MK7 6AA. (4) The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-, Japan.(5) Department of Hydrology & Water Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA 85719.1.Introduction Metre to decametre-deep depressions that are rimless, relatively flat-floored, polygonised and scallop-shaped have been widely observed in Utopia Planitia (UP) [e.g. 1-5] and Malea Planum (MP) [6-8]. Although there is some debate about whether the depressions formed by means of sublimation or evaporation, it is commonly believed that the terrain in which the depressions occur is ice-rich.Moreover, most workers assume that this "ice-richness" is derived of a bi-hemispheric, latitudinally-dependent and atmospherically-precipitated mantle that is metres thick [2,4,6-10].

  16. Historical effects on beta diversity and community assembly in Amazonian trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Kyle G.; Terborgh, John W.; Cunningham, Clifford W.

    2012-01-01

    We present a unique perspective on the role of historical processes in community assembly by synthesizing analyses of species turnover among communities with environmental data and independent, population genetic-derived estimates of among-community dispersal. We sampled floodplain and terra firme communities of the diverse tree genus Inga (Fabaceae) across a 250-km transect in Amazonian Peru and found patterns of distance-decay in compositional similarity in both habitat types. However, conventional analyses of distance-decay masked a zone of increased species turnover present in the middle of the transect. We estimated past seed dispersal among the same communities by examining geographic plastid DNA variation for eight widespread Inga species and uncovered a population genetic break in the majority of species that is geographically coincident with the zone of increased species turnover. Analyses of these and 12 additional Inga species shared between two communities located on opposite sides of the zone showed that the populations experienced divergence 42,000–612,000 y ago. Our results suggest that the observed distance decay is the result not of environmental gradients or dispersal limitation coupled with ecological drift—as conventionally interpreted under neutral ecological theory—but rather of secondary contact between historically separated communities. Thus, even at this small spatial scale, historical processes seem to significantly impact species’ distributions and community assembly. Other documented zones of increased species turnover found in the western Amazon basin or elsewhere may be related to similar historical processes. PMID:22547831

  17. Facing operational problems in a biodigester in Yuvientsa - Amazonian region of Ecuador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragundy, J.

    2007-07-01

    Yuvientsa is a Shuar indigenous community located in the Morona Santiago Province in the southwestern part of the Amazonian region of Ecuador. Two types of alternative energies have being implemented in Yuvientsa to satisfy people's needs. Solar panels provide electricity to the community. A biodigester to treat the school lavatories' brown-water (fecal water) and to provide gas for cooking to the communal kitchen was built as well. During the operational phase the biodigester faced some difficulties as: being perforated by people of the community as started inflating, being fumigated against malaria, and not having enough organic matter to produce biogas. As a result in this time the biodigester did not operate satisfactorily and the community did not believe that it could work and produce biogas. A biodigester should not be built without an awareness campaign or showing a direct benefit to the community that ensures its adequate operation and maintenance. Before constructing the reactor the organic matter source to operate the biodigester should be clearly identified and its amount should be enough. (orig.)

  18. Dipterocarpaceae: forest fires and forest recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Priadjati, A.

    2002-01-01

    One of the serious problems Indonesia is facing today is deforestation. Forests have been playing a very important role in Indonesia as the main natural resources for the economic growth of the country. Large areas of tropical forests, worldwide considered to be among the richest in p

  19. Vital forest graphics

    OpenAIRE

    Achard, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of the global trends in forest cover. It looks specifically at the four largest forest ecosystems and analyzes the trends and challenges in their conservation and management. It examines some of the key drivers behind forest loss, including the increasing demand for commodities and energy. Finally, it reviews some of the best practices for sustainable management of forest, including regulatory regimes, participatory management and economic incentives.--Pu...

  20. Biochar and Forest Ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Coleman, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Charcoal is a common component temperate forest soils. It results from wildfire events that frequently disturb the structure and function of vegetation and soils. Recent interest in applying biochar (artificially produced charcoal) to forest ecosystems raises both opportunities and concerns. The greatest opportunity for biochar application to forest soils is through the utilization of continuously produced and overabundant forest biomass for the production of bioenergy. Biochar is a co...