WorldWideScience

Sample records for amazonian forest culture

  1. Disease concepts and treatment by tribal healers of an Amazonian forest culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, Christopher N; Uiterloo, Melvin; Uremaru, Amasina; Plotkin, Mark J; Emanuels-Smith, Gwendolyn; Jitan, Jeetendra

    2009-10-12

    The extensive medicinal plant knowledge of Amazonian tribal peoples is widely recognized in the scientific literature and celebrated in popular lore. Despite this broad interest, the ethnomedical systems and knowledge of disease which guide indigenous utilization of botanical diversity for healing remain poorly characterized and understood. No study, to our knowledge, has attempted to directly examine patterns of actual disease recognition and treatment by healers of an Amazonian indigenous culture. The establishment of traditional medicine clinics, operated and directed by elder tribal shamans in two remote Trio villages of the Suriname rainforest, presented a unique investigational opportunity. Quantitative analysis of clinic records from both villages permitted examination of diseases treated over a continuous period of four years. Cross-cultural comparative translations were articulated of recorded disease conditions through ethnographic interviews of elder Trio shamans and a comprehensive atlas of indigenous anatomical nomenclature was developed. 20,337 patient visits within the period 2000 to 2004 were analyzed. 75 disease conditions and 127 anatomical terms are presented. Trio concepts of disease and medical practices are broadly examined within the present and historical state of their culture. The findings of this investigation support the presence of a comprehensive and highly formalized ethnomedical institution within Trio culture with attendant health policy and conservation implications.

  2. How People Domesticated Amazonian Forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levis, C.; Flores, Bernardo; Moreira, Priscilla; Luize, Bruno G.; Alves, Rubana; Franco-Moraes, Juliano; Lins, Juliana; Konings, Evelien; Pena Claros, M.; Bongers, F.; Costa, Flavia; Clement, Charles

    2018-01-01

    For millennia, Amazonian peoples have managed forest resources, modifying the natural environment in subtle and persistent ways. Legacies of past human occupation are striking near archaeological sites, yet we still lack a clear picture of how human management practices resulted in the domestication

  3. Forest structure and carbon dynamics in Amazonian tropical rain forests.

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    Vieira, Simone; de Camargo, Plinio Barbosa; Selhorst, Diogo; da Silva, Roseana; Hutyra, Lucy; Chambers, Jeffrey Q; Brown, I Foster; Higuchi, Niro; dos Santos, Joaquim; Wofsy, Steven C; Trumbore, Susan E; Martinelli, Luiz Antonio

    2004-08-01

    Living trees constitute one of the major stocks of carbon in tropical forests. A better understanding of variations in the dynamics and structure of tropical forests is necessary for predicting the potential for these ecosystems to lose or store carbon, and for understanding how they recover from disturbance. Amazonian tropical forests occur over a vast area that encompasses differences in topography, climate, and geologic substrate. We observed large differences in forest structure, biomass, and tree growth rates in permanent plots situated in the eastern (near Santarém, Pará), central (near Manaus, Amazonas) and southwestern (near Rio Branco, Acre) Amazon, which differed in dry season length, as well as other factors. Forests at the two sites experiencing longer dry seasons, near Rio Branco and Santarém, had lower stem frequencies (460 and 466 ha(-1) respectively), less biodiversity (Shannon-Wiener diversity index), and smaller aboveground C stocks (140.6 and 122.1 Mg C ha(-1)) than the Manaus site (626 trees ha(-1), 180.1 Mg C ha(-1)), which had less seasonal variation in rainfall. The forests experiencing longer dry seasons also stored a greater proportion of the total biomass in trees with >50 cm diameter (41-45 vs 30% in Manaus). Rates of annual addition of C to living trees calculated from monthly dendrometer band measurements were 1.9 (Manaus), 2.8 (Santarém), and 2.6 (Rio Branco) Mg C ha(-1) year(-1). At all sites, trees in the 10-30 cm diameter class accounted for the highest proportion of annual growth (38, 55 and 56% in Manaus, Rio Branco and Santarém, respectively). Growth showed marked seasonality, with largest stem diameter increment in the wet season and smallest in the dry season, though this may be confounded by seasonal variation in wood water content. Year-to-year variations in C allocated to stem growth ranged from nearly zero in Rio Branco, to 0.8 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1) in Manaus (40% of annual mean) and 0.9 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1) (33% of

  4. Environmental change and the carbon balance of Amazonian forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aragao, Luiz E.O.C.; Poulter, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Extreme climatic events and land-use change are known to influence strongly the current carbon cycle of Amazonia, and have the potential to cause significant global climate impacts. This review intends to evaluate the effects of both climate and anthropogenic perturbations on the carbon balance of the Brazilian Amazon and to understand how they interact with each other. By analysing the outputs of the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) Assessment Report 4 (AR4) model ensemble, we demonstrate that Amazonian temperatures and water stress are both likely to increase over the 21. Century. Curbing deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon by 62% in 2010 relative to the 1990's mean decreased the Brazilian Amazon's deforestation contribution to global land use carbon emissions from 17% in the 1990's and early 2000's to 9% by 2010. Carbon sources in Amazonia are likely to be dominated by climatic impacts allied with forest fires (48.3% relative contribution) during extreme droughts. The current net carbon sink (net biome productivity, NBP) of +0.16 (ranging from +0.11 to +0.21) PgCyear-1 in the Brazilian Amazon, equivalent to 13.3% of global carbon emissions from land-use change for 2008, can be negated or reversed during drought years [NBP=-0.06 (-0.31 to +0.01) PgCyear -1 ]. Therefore, reducing forest fires, in addition to reducing deforestation, would be an important measure for minimizing future emissions. Conversely, doubling the current area of secondary forests and avoiding additional removal of primary forests would help the Amazonian gross forest sink to offset approximately 42% of global land-use change emissions. We conclude that a few strategic environmental policy measures are likely to strengthen the Amazonian net carbon sink with global implications. Moreover, these actions could increase the resilience of the net carbon sink to future increases in drought frequency. (authors)

  5. Environmental change and the carbon balance of Amazonian forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragão, Luiz E O C; Poulter, Benjamin; Barlow, Jos B; Anderson, Liana O; Malhi, Yadvinder; Saatchi, Sassan; Phillips, Oliver L; Gloor, Emanuel

    2014-11-01

    Extreme climatic events and land-use change are known to influence strongly the current carbon cycle of Amazonia, and have the potential to cause significant global climate impacts. This review intends to evaluate the effects of both climate and anthropogenic perturbations on the carbon balance of the Brazilian Amazon and to understand how they interact with each other. By analysing the outputs of the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) Assessment Report 4 (AR4) model ensemble, we demonstrate that Amazonian temperatures and water stress are both likely to increase over the 21st Century. Curbing deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon by 62% in 2010 relative to the 1990s mean decreased the Brazilian Amazon's deforestation contribution to global land use carbon emissions from 17% in the 1990s and early 2000s to 9% by 2010. Carbon sources in Amazonia are likely to be dominated by climatic impacts allied with forest fires (48.3% relative contribution) during extreme droughts. The current net carbon sink (net biome productivity, NBP) of +0.16 (ranging from +0.11 to +0.21) Pg C year(-1) in the Brazilian Amazon, equivalent to 13.3% of global carbon emissions from land-use change for 2008, can be negated or reversed during drought years [NBP = -0.06 (-0.31 to +0.01) Pg C year(-1) ]. Therefore, reducing forest fires, in addition to reducing deforestation, would be an important measure for minimizing future emissions. Conversely, doubling the current area of secondary forests and avoiding additional removal of primary forests would help the Amazonian gross forest sink to offset approximately 42% of global land-use change emissions. We conclude that a few strategic environmental policy measures are likely to strengthen the Amazonian net carbon sink with global implications. Moreover, these actions could increase the resilience of the net carbon sink to future increases in drought frequency. © 2014 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2014 Cambridge Philosophical

  6. Fish complementarity is associated to forests in Amazonian streams

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    Carolina Rodrigues Bordignon

    Full Text Available The functional structure of communities is commonly measured by the variability in functional traits, which may demonstrate complementarity or redundancy patterns. In this study, we tested the influence of environmental variables on the functional structure of fish assemblages in Amazonian streams within a deforestation gradient. We calculated six ecomorphological traits related to habitat use from each fish species, and used them to calculate the net relatedness index (NRI and the nearest taxon index (NTI. The set of species that used the habitat differently (complementary or overdispersed assemblages occurred in sites with a greater proportion of forests. The set of species that used the habitat in a similar way (redundant or clustered assemblages occurred in sites with a greater proportion of grasses in the stream banks. Therefore, the deforestation of entire watersheds, which has occurred in many Amazonian regions, may be a central factor for the functional homogenization of fish fauna.

  7. Understanding Colombian Amazonian white sand forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peñuela-Mora, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    Although progress has been made in studies on white sand forests in the Amazon, there is still a considerable gap in our knowledge of the unique species composition of white sand forests and their structure and dynamics, especially in Western Amazon. This thesis aims to fill this gap by addressing

  8. Estimating the risk of Amazonian forest dieback.

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    Rammig, Anja; Jupp, Tim; Thonicke, Kirsten; Tietjen, Britta; Heinke, Jens; Ostberg, Sebastian; Lucht, Wolfgang; Cramer, Wolfgang; Cox, Peter

    2010-08-01

    *Climate change will very likely affect most forests in Amazonia during the course of the 21st century, but the direction and intensity of the change are uncertain, in part because of differences in rainfall projections. In order to constrain this uncertainty, we estimate the probability for biomass change in Amazonia on the basis of rainfall projections that are weighted by climate model performance for current conditions. *We estimate the risk of forest dieback by using weighted rainfall projections from 24 general circulation models (GCMs) to create probability density functions (PDFs) for future forest biomass changes simulated by a dynamic vegetation model (LPJmL). *Our probabilistic assessment of biomass change suggests a likely shift towards increasing biomass compared with nonweighted results. Biomass estimates range between a gain of 6.2 and a loss of 2.7 kg carbon m(-2) for the Amazon region, depending on the strength of CO(2) fertilization. *The uncertainty associated with the long-term effect of CO(2) is much larger than that associated with precipitation change. This underlines the importance of reducing uncertainties in the direct effects of CO(2) on tropical ecosystems.

  9. Effects of reduced-impact logging and forest physiognomy on bat populations of lowland Amazonian forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven J. Presley; Michael R. Willig; Wunderle Jr. Joseph M.; Luis Nélio. Saldanha

    2008-01-01

    1.As human population size increases, demand for natural resources will increase. Logging pressure related to increasing demands continues to threaten remote areas of Amazonian forest. A harvest protocol is required to provide renewable timber resources that meet consumer needs while minimizing negative effects on biodiversity and ecosystem services. Reduced-impact...

  10. Rapid tree carbon stock recovery in managed Amazonian forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutishauser, Ervan; Hérault, Bruno; Baraloto, Christopher; Blanc, Lilian; Descroix, Laurent; Sotta, Eleneide Doff; Ferreira, Joice; Kanashiro, Milton; Mazzei, Lucas; d'Oliveira, Marcus V N; de Oliveira, Luis C; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Putz, Francis E; Ruschel, Ademir R; Rodney, Ken; Roopsind, Anand; Shenkin, Alexander; da Silva, Katia E; de Souza, Cintia R; Toledo, Marisol; Vidal, Edson; West, Thales A P; Wortel, Verginia; Sist, Plinio

    2015-09-21

    While around 20% of the Amazonian forest has been cleared for pastures and agriculture, one fourth of the remaining forest is dedicated to wood production. Most of these production forests have been or will be selectively harvested for commercial timber, but recent studies show that even soon after logging, harvested stands retain much of their tree-biomass carbon and biodiversity. Comparing species richness of various animal taxa among logged and unlogged forests across the tropics, Burivalova et al. found that despite some variability among taxa, biodiversity loss was generally explained by logging intensity (the number of trees extracted). Here, we use a network of 79 permanent sample plots (376 ha total) located at 10 sites across the Amazon Basin to assess the main drivers of time-to-recovery of post-logging tree carbon (Table S1). Recovery time is of direct relevance to policies governing management practices (i.e., allowable volumes cut and cutting cycle lengths), and indirectly to forest-based climate change mitigation interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Nature and culture in Amazonian landscape: a photographic experience echoing Amerindian cosmology and historical ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Pardini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available As an artistic experience, the photographic research "Arborescence - plant physiognomy in Amazonian landscape" conduces the author to discover landscape as an interpenetration of Nature and Culture (man's indirect presence; being face to face with vegetable subjects; continuity, undifferentiation and equivalence between the 'natural' (heterogeneous, spontaneous, native, rural and the 'cultural' (homogeneous, cultivated, exotic, urban in the experience of landscape; arborescence as a "cosmic image" (Gaston Bachelard, where the high (sky, light, branches, sky water and the low (earth, shade, roots, land water are equivalent and reversible poles. Such experience echoes the eco-cosmology of forest societies in Amazonia. The Amerindian cosmology is a "symbolic ecology" (Philippe Descola, that is, "a complex dynamics of social intercourse and transformations between humans and non-humans, visible and invisible subjects" (Bruce Albert; the Amerindian ecology is "a cosmology put into practice" (Kaj Århem, wherein hunted animals and cultivated plants are 'relatives' to be seduced or coerced. Such model appears to be a form of "socialization of nature" (Descola, "humanization of the forest" (Evaristo Eduardo de Miranda and "indirect anthropization" of Amazonian ecosystems (Descola which produces "cultural forests" (William Balée.

  12. Legacies of Amazonian dark earths on forest composition, structure and dynamics

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    Quintero Vallejo, E.M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary

    Amazonian forest is seen as the archetype of pristine forests, untouched by humans, but this romantic view is far from reality. In recent years, there is increasing evidence of long and extensive landscape modification by humans. Processes of permanent inhabitation,

  13. Diversity and physiological characterization of D-xylose-fermenting yeasts isolated from the Brazilian Amazonian Forest.

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    Cadete, Raquel M; Melo, Monaliza A; Dussán, Kelly J; Rodrigues, Rita C L B; Silva, Silvio S; Zilli, Jerri E; Vital, Marcos J S; Gomes, Fátima C O; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A

    2012-01-01

    This study is the first to investigate the Brazilian Amazonian Forest to identify new D-xylose-fermenting yeasts that might potentially be used in the production of ethanol from sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysates. A total of 224 yeast strains were isolated from rotting wood samples collected in two Amazonian forest reserve sites. These samples were cultured in yeast nitrogen base (YNB)-D-xylose or YNB-xylan media. Candida tropicalis, Asterotremella humicola, Candida boidinii and Debaryomyces hansenii were the most frequently isolated yeasts. Among D-xylose-fermenting yeasts, six strains of Spathaspora passalidarum, two of Scheffersomyces stipitis, and representatives of five new species were identified. The new species included Candida amazonensis of the Scheffersomyces clade and Spathaspora sp. 1, Spathaspora sp. 2, Spathaspora sp. 3, and Candida sp. 1 of the Spathaspora clade. In fermentation assays using D-xylose (50 g/L) culture medium, S. passalidarum strains showed the highest ethanol yields (0.31 g/g to 0.37 g/g) and productivities (0.62 g/L · h to 0.75 g/L · h). Candida amazonensis exhibited a virtually complete D-xylose consumption and the highest xylitol yields (0.55 g/g to 0.59 g/g), with concentrations up to 25.2 g/L. The new Spathaspora species produced ethanol and/or xylitol in different concentrations as the main fermentation products. In sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic fermentation assays, S. stipitis UFMG-XMD-15.2 generated the highest ethanol yield (0.34 g/g) and productivity (0.2 g/L · h), while the new species Spathaspora sp. 1 UFMG-XMD-16.2 and Spathaspora sp. 2 UFMG-XMD-23.2 were very good xylitol producers. This study demonstrates the promise of using new D-xylose-fermenting yeast strains from the Brazilian Amazonian Forest for ethanol or xylitol production from sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysates.

  14. Effects of Soil Texture on Belowground Carbon and Nutrient Storage in a Lowland Amazonian Forest Ecosystem.

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    Whendee L. Silver; Jason Neff; Megan McGroddy; Ed Veldkamp; Michael Keller; Raimundo Cosme

    2000-01-01

    Soil texture plays a key role in belowground C storage in forest ecosystems and strongly influences nutrient availability and retention, particularly in highly weathered soils. We used field data and the Century ecosystem model to explore the role of soil texture in belowground C storage, nutrient pool sizes, and N fluxes in highly weathered soils in an Amazonian...

  15. Legacies of Amazonian dark earths on forest composition, structure and dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Quintero Vallejo, E.M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Amazonian forest is seen as the archetype of pristine forests, untouched by humans, but this romantic view is far from reality. In recent years, there is increasing evidence of long and extensive landscape modification by humans. Processes of permanent inhabitation, expansion and retreat of human populations have not always been obvious in those ecosystems, leaving sometimes weak and overlooked imprints in the landscape. An example of one of these inconspicuous alterations are the mod...

  16. Fire-mediated dieback and compositional cascade in an Amazonian forest.

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    Barlow, Jos; Peres, Carlos A

    2008-05-27

    The only fully coupled land-atmosphere global climate model predicts a widespread dieback of Amazonian forest cover through reduced precipitation. Although these predictions are controversial, the structural and compositional resilience of Amazonian forests may also have been overestimated, as current vegetation models fail to consider the potential role of fire in the degradation of forest ecosystems. We examine forest structure and composition in the Arapiuns River basin in the central Brazilian Amazon, evaluating post-fire forest recovery and the consequences of recurrent fires for the patterns of dominance of tree species. We surveyed tree plots in unburned and once-burned forests examined 1, 3 and 9 years after an unprecedented fire event, in twice-burned forests examined 3 and 9 years after fire and in thrice-burned forests examined 5 years after the most recent fire event. The number of trees recorded in unburned primary forest control plots was stable over time. However, in both once- and twice-burned forest plots, there was a marked recruitment into the 10-20cm diameter at breast height tree size classes between 3 and 9 years post-fire. Considering tree assemblage composition 9 years after the first fire contact, we observed (i) a clear pattern of community turnover among small trees and the most abundant shrubs and saplings, and (ii) that species that were common in any of the four burn treatments (unburned, once-, twice- and thrice-burned) were often rare or entirely absent in other burn treatments. We conclude that episodic wildfires can lead to drastic changes in forest structure and composition, with cascading shifts in forest composition following each additional fire event. Finally, we use these results to evaluate the validity of the savannization paradigm.

  17. Soil charcoal as long-term pyrogenic carbon storage in Amazonian seasonal forests.

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    Turcios, Maryory M; Jaramillo, Margarita M A; do Vale, José F; Fearnside, Philip M; Barbosa, Reinaldo Imbrozio

    2016-01-01

    Forest fires (paleo + modern) have caused charcoal particles to accumulate in the soil vertical profile in Amazonia. This forest compartment is a long-term carbon reservoir with an important role in global carbon balance. Estimates of stocks remain uncertain in forests that have not been altered by deforestation but that have been impacted by understory fires and selective logging. We estimated the stock of pyrogenic carbon derived from charcoal accumulated in the soil profile of seasonal forest fragments impacted by fire and selective logging in the northern portion of Brazilian Amazonia. Sixty-nine soil cores to 1-m depth were collected in 12 forest fragments of different sizes. Charcoal stocks averaged 3.45 ± 2.17 Mg ha(-1) (2.24 ± 1.41 Mg C ha(-1) ). Pyrogenic carbon was not directly related to the size of the forest fragments. This carbon is equivalent to 1.40% (0.25% to 4.04%) of the carbon stocked in aboveground live tree biomass in these fragments. The vertical distribution of pyrogenic carbon indicates an exponential model, where the 0-30 cm depth range has 60% of the total stored. The total area of Brazil's Amazonian seasonal forests and ecotones not altered by deforestation implies 65-286 Tg of pyrogenic carbon accumulated along the soil vertical profile. This is 1.2-2.3 times the total amount of residual pyrogenic carbon formed by biomass burning worldwide in 1 year. Our analysis suggests that the accumulated charcoal in the soil vertical profile in Amazonian forests is a substantial pyrogenic carbon pool that needs to be considered in global carbon models. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Ectomycorrhizal fungi in Amazonian tropical forests in Colombia

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    Vasco Palacios, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The ectomycorrhizal (EcM) symbiosis was assumed to be restricted to the temperate regions where forests are dominated by EcM host plants, and the tropics were supposed to be dominated by endomycorrhizal fungi. However, evidence of the presence of EcM symbiosis in tropical lowland ecosystems has been

  19. Do soil fertilization and forest canopy foliage affect the growth and photosynthesis of Amazonian saplings?

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    Nilvanda dos Santos Magalhães

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Most Amazonian soils are highly weathered and poor in nutrients. Therefore, photosynthesis and plant growth should positively respond to the addition of mineral nutrients. Surprisingly, no study has been carried out in situ in the central Amazon to address this issue for juvenile trees. The objective of this study was to determine how photosynthetic rates and growth of tree saplings respond to the addition of mineral nutrients, to the variation in leaf area index of the forest canopy, and to changes in soil water content associated with rainfall seasonality. We assessed the effect of adding a slow-release fertilizer. We determined plant growth from 2010 to 2012 and gas exchange in the wet and dry season of 2012. Rainfall seasonality led to variations in soil water content, but it did not affect sapling growth or leaf gas exchange parameters. Although soil amendment increased phosphorus content by 60 %, neither plant growth nor the photosynthetic parameters were influenced by the addition of mineral nutrients. However, photosynthetic rates and growth of saplings decreased as the forest canopy became denser. Even when Amazonian soils are poor in nutrients, photosynthesis and sapling growth are more responsive to slight variations in light availability in the forest understory than to the availability of nutrients. Therefore, the response of saplings to future increases in atmospheric [CO2] will not be limited by the availability of mineral nutrients in the soil.

  20. Oil palm monoculture induces drastic erosion of an Amazonian forest mammal fauna.

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    Mendes-Oliveira, Ana Cristina; Peres, Carlos A; Maués, Paula Cristina R de A; Oliveira, Geovana Linhares; Mineiro, Ivo G B; de Maria, Susanne L Silva; Lima, Renata C S

    2017-01-01

    Oil palm monoculture comprises one of the most financially attractive land-use options in tropical forests, but cropland suitability overlaps the distribution of many highly threatened vertebrate species. We investigated how forest mammals respond to a landscape mosaic, including mature oil palm plantations and primary forest patches in Eastern Amazonia. Using both line-transect censuses (LTC) and camera-trapping (CT), we quantified the general patterns of mammal community structure and attempted to identify both species life-history traits and the environmental and spatial covariates that govern species intolerance to oil palm monoculture. Considering mammal species richness, abundance, and species composition, oil palm plantations were consistently depauperate compared to the adjacent primary forest, but responses differed between functional groups. The degree of forest habitat dependency was a leading trait, determining compositional dissimilarities across habitats. Considering both the LTC and CT data, distance from the forest-plantation interface had a significant effect on mammal assemblages within each habitat type. Approximately 87% of all species detected within oil palm were never farther than 1300 m from the forest edge. Our study clearly reinforces the notion that conventional oil palm plantations are extremely hostile to native tropical forest biodiversity, which does not bode well given prospects for oil palm expansion in both aging and new Amazonian deforestation frontiers.

  1. Understanding the radar backscattering from flooded and nonflooded Amazonian forests: results from canopy backscatter modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.; Hess, L.L.; Filoso, S.; Melack, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    To understand the potential of using multiwavelength imaging radars to detect flooding in Amazonian floodplain forests, we simulated the radar backscatter from a floodplain forest with a flooded or nonflooded ground condition at C-, L-, and P-bands. Field measurements of forest structure in the Anavilhanas archipelago of the Negro River, Brazil, were used as inputs to the model. Given the same wavelength or incidence angle, the ratio of backscatter from the flooded forest to that from the nonflooded forest was higher at HH polarization than at VV polarization. Given the same wavelength or polarization, the ratio was larger at small incidence angles than at large incidence angles. Given the same polarization or incidence angle, the ratio was larger at a long wavelength than at a short wavelength. As the surface soil moisture underneath the nonflooded forest increased from 10% to 50% of volumetric moisture, the flooded/nonflooded backscatter ratio decreased; the decreases were small at C- and L-band but large at P-band. When the leaf size was comparable to or larger than the wavelength of C-band, the leaf area index (LAI) had a large effect on the simulated C-band (not L-band or P-band) backscatter from the flooded and nonflooded forests. (author)

  2. Isotopic analysis of Bothrops atrox in Amazonian forest

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    Martinez, M. G.; Silva, A. M.; Chalkidis, H.; de Oliveira Júnior, R. C.; Camargo, P. B.

    2012-12-01

    The poisoning of snakes is considered a public health problem, especially in populations from rural areas of tropical and subtropical countries. In Brazil, the 26,000 snakebites, 90% are of the genus Bothrops, and Bothrops atrox species predominant in the Amazon region including all the Brazilian Amazon. Research shows that using stable isotopes, we can verify the isotopic composition of tissues of animals that depend mainly on food, water ingested and inhaled gases. For this study, samples taken from Bothrops atrox (B. atrox), in forest using pitfall traps and fall ("Pitt-fall traps with drift fence"). The analyzes were performed by mass spectrometry, where the analytical error is 0.3‰ for carbon and 0.5‰ to nitrogen. The results of the forest animals are significantly different from results of animal vivarium. The average values of the tissues and venoms of snakes of the forest for carbon-13 and nitrogen-15 are: δ13C = -24.68‰ and δ15N = 14.22‰ and mean values of tissue and poisons snakes vivarium (Instituto Butantan) to carbon-13 and nitrogen-15 are δ13C = -20.47‰ and δ15N = 8.36‰, with a significantly different due to different sources of food animals. Based on all results isotopic δ13C and δ15N, we can suggest that changes as the power of the serpent, (nature and captivity), changes occur in relation to diet and environment as the means of the isotopic data are quite distinct, showing that these changes can also cause metabolic changes in the body of the animal itself and the different periods of turnover of each tissue analyzed.

  3. Multi-scale comparisons of tree composition in Amazonian terra firme forests

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    L. Freitas Alvarado

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available We explored the floristic composition of terra firme forests across Amazonia using 55 plots. Firstly, we examined the floristic patterns using both genus- and species-level data and found that the species-level analysis more clearly distinguishes among forests. Next, we compared the variation in plot floristic composition at regional- and continental-scales, and found that average among-pair floristic similarity and its decay with distance behave similarly at regional- and continental-scales. Nevertheless, geographical distance had different effects on floristic similarity within regions at distances <100 km, where north-western and south-western Amazonian regions showed greater floristic variation than plots of central and eastern Amazonia. Finally, we quantified the role of environmental factors and geographical distance for determining variation in floristic composition. A partial Mantel test indicated that while geographical distance appeared to be more important at continental scales, soil fertility was crucial at regional scales within western Amazonia, where areas with similar soil conditions were more likely to share a high number of species. Overall, these results suggest that regional-scale variation in floristic composition can rival continental-scale differences within Amazonian terra firme forests, and that variation in floristic composition at both scales is influenced by geographical distance and environmental factors, such as climate and soil fertility. To fully account for regional-scale variation in continental studies of floristic composition, future floristic studies should focus on forest types poorly represented at regional scales in current datasets, such as terra firme forests with high soil fertility in north-western Amazonia.

  4. Pipes's distribution by helicopter in Amazonian forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Gilberto R.; Machado, Otto L.M.; Gomes, Antonio E. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    The innumerable logistical problems encountered during the implementation of the gas pipeline Urucu - Coari - Manaus, located in the Amazon forest, connecting the Base Operations Geologist Pedro de Moura in Urucu to the refinery Isaac Sabba - Reman, in the city of Manaus, contributed considerably for PETROBRAS to seek non conventional solutions in the construction and assembly of pipelines in our country. Among these solutions, there is the technique of distributing pipes through cargo helicopters. The need for the usage of this technique, innovative in Brazil, comes from the lack and/or insufficiency of land access from Solimoes River to the gas pipeline main route, and the large quantities of flooded areas and/or flood plain, and also the type of soil, that together with the high index of rainfall in the region, makes the soil fully inappropriate to the traffic of heavy equipment. (author)

  5. Contrasting colonist and indigenous impacts on amazonian forests.

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    Lu, Flora; Gray, Clark; Bilsborrow, Richard E; Mena, Carlos F; Erlien, Christine M; Bremner, Jason; Barbieri, Alisson; Walsh, Stephen J

    2010-06-01

    To examine differences in land use and environmental impacts between colonist and indigenous populations in the northern Ecuadorian Amazon, we combined data from household surveys and remotely sensed imagery that was collected from 778 colonist households in 64 colonization sectors, and 499 households from five indigenous groups in 36 communities. Overall, measures of deforestation and forest fragmentation were significantly greater for colonists than indigenous peoples. On average, colonist households had approximately double the area in agriculture and cash crops and 5.5 times the area in pasture as indigenous households. Nevertheless, substantial variation in land-use patterns existed among the five indigenous groups in measures such as cattle ownership and use of hired agricultural labor. These findings support the potential conservation value of indigenous lands while cautioning against uniform policies that homogenize indigenous ethnic groups.

  6. Rates of species loss from Amazonian forest fragments

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    Ferraz, Gonçalo; Russell, Gareth J.; Stouffer, Philip C.; Bierregaard, Richard O.; Pimm, Stuart L.; Lovejoy, Thomas E.

    2003-01-01

    In the face of worldwide habitat fragmentation, managers need to devise a time frame for action. We ask how fast do understory bird species disappear from experimentally isolated plots in the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project, central Amazon, Brazil. Our data consist of mist-net records obtained over a period of 13 years in 11 sites of 1, 10, and 100 hectares. The numbers of captures per species per unit time, analyzed under different simplifying assumptions, reveal a set of species-loss curves. From those declining numbers, we derive a scaling rule for the time it takes to lose half the species in a fragment as a function of its area. A 10-fold decrease in the rate of species loss requires a 1,000-fold increase in area. Fragments of 100 hectares lose one half of their species in <15 years, too short a time for implementing conservation measures. PMID:14614134

  7. Vertical stratification of bat assemblages in flooded and unflooded Amazonian forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria João Ramos PEREIRA, João Tiago MARQUES, Jorge M. PALMEIRIM

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Tropical rainforests usually have multiple strata that results in a vertical stratification of ecological opportunities for animals. We investigated if this stratification influences the way bats use the vertical space in flooded and unflooded forests of the Central Amazon. Using mist-nets set in the canopy (17 to 35 m high and in the understorey (0 to 3 m high we sampled four sites in upland unflooded forests (terra firme, three in forests seasonally flooded by nutrient-rich water (várzea, and three in forests seasonally flooded by nutrient-poor water (igapó. Using rarefaction curves we found that species richness in the understorey and canopy were very similar. An ordination analysis clearly separated the bat assemblages of the canopy from those of the understorey in both flooded and unflooded habitats. Gleaning carnivores were clearly associated with the understorey, whereas frugivores were abundant in both strata. Of the frugivores, Carollinae and some Stenodermatinae were understorey specialists, but several Stenodermatinae mostly used the canopy. The first group mainly includes species that, in general, feed on fruits of understorey shrubs, whereas the second group feed on figs and other canopy fruits. We conclude that vertical stratification in bat communities occurs even within forests with lower canopy heights, such as Amazonian seasonally flooded forests, and that the vertical distribution of bat species is closely related to their diet and foraging behaviour [Current Zoology 56 (4: 469–478, 2010].

  8. Phylogenetic impoverishment of Amazonian tree communities in an experimentally fragmented forest landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Bráulio A; Tabarelli, Marcelo; Melo, Felipe P L; Camargo, José L C; Andrade, Ana; Laurance, Susan G; Laurance, William F

    2014-01-01

    Amazonian rainforests sustain some of the richest tree communities on Earth, but their ecological and evolutionary responses to human threats remain poorly known. We used one of the largest experimental datasets currently available on tree dynamics in fragmented tropical forests and a recent phylogeny of angiosperms to test whether tree communities have lost phylogenetic diversity since their isolation about two decades previously. Our findings revealed an overall trend toward phylogenetic impoverishment across the experimentally fragmented landscape, irrespective of whether tree communities were in 1-ha, 10-ha, or 100-ha forest fragments, near forest edges, or in continuous forest. The magnitude of the phylogenetic diversity loss was low (phylogenetic diversity, we observed a significant decrease of 50% in phylogenetic dispersion since forest isolation, irrespective of plot location. Analyses based on tree genera that have significantly increased (28 genera) or declined (31 genera) in abundance and basal area in the landscape revealed that increasing genera are more phylogenetically related than decreasing ones. Also, the loss of phylogenetic diversity was greater in tree communities where increasing genera proliferated and decreasing genera reduced their importance values, suggesting that this taxonomic replacement is partially underlying the phylogenetic impoverishment at the landscape scale. This finding has clear implications for the current debate about the role human-modified landscapes play in sustaining biodiversity persistence and key ecosystem services, such as carbon storage. Although the generalization of our findings to other fragmented tropical forests is uncertain, it could negatively affect ecosystem productivity and stability and have broader impacts on coevolved organisms.

  9. Taxonomic and functional composition of arthropod assemblages across contrasting Amazonian forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarre, Greg P A; Hérault, Bruno; Fine, Paul V A; Vedel, Vincent; Lupoli, Roland; Mesones, Italo; Baraloto, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Arthropods represent most of global biodiversity, with the highest diversity found in tropical rain forests. Nevertheless, we have a very incomplete understanding of how tropical arthropod communities are assembled. We conducted a comprehensive mass sampling of arthropod communities within three major habitat types of lowland Amazonian rain forest, including terra firme clay, white-sand and seasonally flooded forests in Peru and French Guiana. We examined how taxonomic and functional composition (at the family level) differed across these habitat types in the two regions. The overall arthropod community composition exhibited strong turnover among habitats and between regions. In particular, seasonally flooded forest habitats of both regions comprised unique assemblages. Overall, 17·7% (26 of 147) of arthropod families showed significant preferences for a particular habitat type. We present a first reproducible arthropod functional classification among the 147 taxa based on similarity among 21 functional traits describing feeding source, major mouthparts and microhabitats inhabited by each taxon. We identified seven distinct functional groups whose relative abundance contrasted strongly across the three habitats, with sap and leaf feeders showing higher abundances in terra firme clay forest. Our novel arthropod functional classification provides an important complement to link these contrasting patterns of composition to differences in forest functioning across geographical and environmental gradients. This study underlines that both environment and biogeographical processes are responsible for driving arthropod taxonomic composition while environmental filtering is the main driver of the variance in functional composition. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2015 British Ecological Society.

  10. Measurements of soil respiration and simple models dependent on moisture and temperature for an Amazonian southwest tropical forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanchi, F.B.; Rocha, Da H.R.; Freitas, De H.C.; Kruijt, B.; Waterloo, M.J.; Manzi, A.O.

    2009-01-01

    Soil respiration plays a significant role in the carbon cycle of Amazonian tropical forests, although in situ measurements have only been poorly reported and the dependence of soil moisture and soil temperature also weakly understood. This work investigates the temporal variability of soil

  11. Biomass consumption and CO2, CO and main hydrocarbon gas emissions in an Amazonian forest clearing fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. G. Soares Neto; J. A. Carvalho; C. A. G. Veras; E. C. Alvarado; R. Gielow; E. N. Lincoln; T. J. Christian; R. J. Yokelson; J. C. Santos

    2009-01-01

    Biomass consumption and CO2, CO and hydrocarbon gas emissions in an Amazonian forest clearing fire are presented and discussed. The experiment was conducted in the arc of deforestation, near the city of Alta Floresta, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The average carbon content of dry biomass was 48% and the estimated average moisture content of fresh biomass was 42% on...

  12. Evaluation of directional normalization methods for Landsat TM/ETM+ over primary Amazonian lowland forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van doninck, Jasper; Tuomisto, Hanna

    2017-06-01

    Biodiversity mapping in extensive tropical forest areas poses a major challenge for the interpretation of Landsat images, because floristically clearly distinct forest types may show little difference in reflectance. In such cases, the effects of the bidirectional reflection distribution function (BRDF) can be sufficiently strong to cause erroneous image interpretation and classification. Since the opening of the Landsat archive in 2008, several BRDF normalization methods for Landsat have been developed. The simplest of these consist of an empirical view angle normalization, whereas more complex approaches apply the semi-empirical Ross-Li BRDF model and the MODIS MCD43-series of products to normalize directional Landsat reflectance to standard view and solar angles. Here we quantify the effect of surface anisotropy on Landsat TM/ETM+ images over old-growth Amazonian forests, and evaluate five angular normalization approaches. Even for the narrow swath of the Landsat sensors, we observed directional effects in all spectral bands. Those normalization methods that are based on removing the surface reflectance gradient as observed in each image were adequate to normalize TM/ETM+ imagery to nadir viewing, but were less suitable for multitemporal analysis when the solar vector varied strongly among images. Approaches based on the MODIS BRDF model parameters successfully reduced directional effects in the visible bands, but removed only half of the systematic errors in the infrared bands. The best results were obtained when the semi-empirical BRDF model was calibrated using pairs of Landsat observation. This method produces a single set of BRDF parameters, which can then be used to operationally normalize Landsat TM/ETM+ imagery over Amazonian forests to nadir viewing and a standard solar configuration.

  13. Amazonian landscapes and the bias in field studies of forest structure and biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin, David C; Asner, Gregory P; Knapp, David E; Anderson, Christopher B; Martin, Roberta E; Sinca, Felipe; Tupayachi, Raul

    2014-12-02

    Tropical forests convert more atmospheric carbon into biomass each year than any terrestrial ecosystem on Earth, underscoring the importance of accurate tropical forest structure and biomass maps for the understanding and management of the global carbon cycle. Ecologists have long used field inventory plots as the main tool for understanding forest structure and biomass at landscape-to-regional scales, under the implicit assumption that these plots accurately represent their surrounding landscape. However, no study has used continuous, high-spatial-resolution data to test whether field plots meet this assumption in tropical forests. Using airborne LiDAR (light detection and ranging) acquired over three regions in Peru, we assessed how representative a typical set of field plots are relative to their surrounding host landscapes. We uncovered substantial mean biases (9-98%) in forest canopy structure (height, gaps, and layers) and aboveground biomass in both lowland Amazonian and montane Andean landscapes. Moreover, simulations reveal that an impractical number of 1-ha field plots (from 10 to more than 100 per landscape) are needed to develop accurate estimates of aboveground biomass at landscape scales. These biases should temper the use of plots for extrapolations of forest dynamics to larger scales, and they demonstrate the need for a fundamental shift to high-resolution active remote sensing techniques as a primary sampling tool in tropical forest biomass studies. The potential decrease in the bias and uncertainty of remotely sensed estimates of forest structure and biomass is a vital step toward successful tropical forest conservation and climate-change mitigation policy.

  14. The linkages between photosynthesis, productivity, growth and biomass in lowland Amazonian forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhi, Yadvinder; Doughty, Christopher E; Goldsmith, Gregory R; Metcalfe, Daniel B; Girardin, Cécile A J; Marthews, Toby R; Del Aguila-Pasquel, Jhon; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro; Brando, Paulo; da Costa, Antonio C L; Silva-Espejo, Javier E; Farfán Amézquita, Filio; Galbraith, David R; Quesada, Carlos A; Rocha, Wanderley; Salinas-Revilla, Norma; Silvério, Divino; Meir, Patrick; Phillips, Oliver L

    2015-06-01

    Understanding the relationship between photosynthesis, net primary productivity and growth in forest ecosystems is key to understanding how these ecosystems will respond to global anthropogenic change, yet the linkages among these components are rarely explored in detail. We provide the first comprehensive description of the productivity, respiration and carbon allocation of contrasting lowland Amazonian forests spanning gradients in seasonal water deficit and soil fertility. Using the largest data set assembled to date, ten sites in three countries all studied with a standardized methodology, we find that (i) gross primary productivity (GPP) has a simple relationship with seasonal water deficit, but that (ii) site-to-site variations in GPP have little power in explaining site-to-site spatial variations in net primary productivity (NPP) or growth because of concomitant changes in carbon use efficiency (CUE), and conversely, the woody growth rate of a tropical forest is a very poor proxy for its productivity. Moreover, (iii) spatial patterns of biomass are much more driven by patterns of residence times (i.e. tree mortality rates) than by spatial variation in productivity or tree growth. Current theory and models of tropical forest carbon cycling under projected scenarios of global atmospheric change can benefit from advancing beyond a focus on GPP. By improving our understanding of poorly understood processes such as CUE, NPP allocation and biomass turnover times, we can provide more complete and mechanistic approaches to linking climate and tropical forest carbon cycling. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Observations of climate, albedo, and surface radiation over cleared and undisturbed Amazonian forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastable, H.G.; Shuttleworth, W.J.; Dallarosa, R.L.G.; Fisch, G.; Nobre, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements from the first comparative study of climate over Amazonian tropical forest and an embedded deforested clearing are presented. Observations comprise a continuous 60-day run of data from mid-October to mid-December 1990, covering the end of the dry season and the beginning of the wet season. Mean hourly observations are calculated for the whole period; and for two 10-day periods, one in the dry season and one at the start of the wet season. Much greater variation in weather variables was observed at the clearing compared with over the forest. While the mean values of temperature and specific humidity deficit differed by less than 1°C and 1 g kg −1 respectively, their daily ranges at the clearing were twice those at the forest. Mean daily albedo of the forest was 13.1 per cent, agreeing well with other tropical forest measurements, and of the clearing was 16.3 per cent, somewhat lower than the values currently being used in GCMs. The surface energy balance was investigated and mean available energy calculated for each site. The significant difference in the daily pattern of net radiation between the sites was found to be at least as much due to differences in the longwave radiation balance as to differences in albedo. The diurnal pattern of net radiation therefore changed between dry and wet periods as the higher plant water stress experienced by clearing vegetation altered the daily temperature cycle

  16. Multi-scale comparisons of tree composition in Amazonian terra firme forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honorio Coronado, E. N.; Baker, T. R.; Phillips, O. L.; Pitman, N. C. A.; Pennington, R. T.; Vásquez Martínez, R.; Monteagudo, A.; Mogollón, H.; Dávila Cardozo, N.; Ríos, M.; García-Villacorta, R.; Valderrama, E.; Ahuite, M.; Huamantupa, I.; Neill, D. A.; Laurance, W. F.; Nascimento, H. E. M.; Soares de Almeida, S.; Killeen, T. J.; Arroyo, L.; Núñez, P.; Freitas Alvarado, L.

    2009-11-01

    We explored the floristic composition of terra firme forests across Amazonia using 55 plots. Firstly, we examined the floristic patterns using both genus- and species-level data and found that the species-level analysis more clearly distinguishes among forests. Next, we compared the variation in plot floristic composition at regional- and continental-scales, and found that average among-pair floristic similarity and its decay with distance behave similarly at regional- and continental-scales. Nevertheless, geographical distance had different effects on floristic similarity within regions at distances floristic variation than plots of central and eastern Amazonia. Finally, we quantified the role of environmental factors and geographical distance for determining variation in floristic composition. A partial Mantel test indicated that while geographical distance appeared to be more important at continental scales, soil fertility was crucial at regional scales within western Amazonia, where areas with similar soil conditions were more likely to share a high number of species. Overall, these results suggest that regional-scale variation in floristic composition can rival continental-scale differences within Amazonian terra firme forests, and that variation in floristic composition at both scales is influenced by geographical distance and environmental factors, such as climate and soil fertility. To fully account for regional-scale variation in continental studies of floristic composition, future floristic studies should focus on forest types poorly represented at regional scales in current datasets, such as terra firme forests with high soil fertility in north-western Amazonia.

  17. Rapid decay of tree-community composition in Amazonian forest fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurance, William F.; Nascimento, Henrique E. M.; Laurance, Susan G.; Andrade, Ana; Ribeiro, José E. L. S.; Giraldo, Juan Pablo; Lovejoy, Thomas E.; Condit, Richard; Chave, Jerome; Harms, Kyle E.; D'Angelo, Sammya

    2006-01-01

    Forest fragmentation is considered a greater threat to vertebrates than to tree communities because individual trees are typically long-lived and require only small areas for survival. Here we show that forest fragmentation provokes surprisingly rapid and profound alterations in Amazonian tree-community composition. Results were derived from a 22-year study of exceptionally diverse tree communities in 40 1-ha plots in fragmented and intact forests, which were sampled repeatedly before and after fragment isolation. Within these plots, trajectories of change in abundance were assessed for 267 genera and 1,162 tree species. Abrupt shifts in floristic composition were driven by sharply accelerated tree mortality and recruitment within ≈100 m of fragment margins, causing rapid species turnover and population declines or local extinctions of many large-seeded, slow-growing, and old-growth taxa; a striking increase in a smaller set of disturbance-adapted and abiotically dispersed species; and significant shifts in tree size distributions. Even among old-growth trees, species composition in fragments is being restructured substantially, with subcanopy species that rely on animal seed-dispersers and have obligate outbreeding being the most strongly disadvantaged. These diverse changes in tree communities are likely to have wide-ranging impacts on forest architecture, canopy-gap dynamics, plant–animal interactions, and forest carbon storage. PMID:17148598

  18. Resilient networks of ant-plant mutualists in Amazonian forest fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passmore, Heather A; Bruna, Emilio M; Heredia, Sylvia M; Vasconcelos, Heraldo L

    2012-01-01

    The organization of networks of interacting species, such as plants and animals engaged in mutualisms, strongly influences the ecology and evolution of partner communities. Habitat fragmentation is a globally pervasive form of spatial heterogeneity that could profoundly impact the structure of mutualist networks. This is particularly true for biodiversity-rich tropical ecosystems, where the majority of plant species depend on mutualisms with animals and it is thought that changes in the structure of mutualist networks could lead to cascades of extinctions. We evaluated effects of fragmentation on mutualistic networks by calculating metrics of network structure for ant-plant networks in continuous Amazonian forests with those in forest fragments. We hypothesized that networks in fragments would have fewer species and higher connectance, but equal nestedness and resilience compared to forest networks. Only one of the nine metrics we compared differed between continuous forest and forest fragments, indicating that networks were resistant to the biotic and abiotic changes that accompany fragmentation. This is partially the result of the loss of only specialist species with one connection that were lost in forest fragments. We found that the networks of ant-plant mutualists in twenty-five year old fragments are similar to those in continuous forest, suggesting these interactions are resistant to the detrimental changes associated with habitat fragmentation, at least in landscapes that are a mosaic of fragments, regenerating forests, and pastures. However, ant-plant mutualistic networks may have several properties that may promote their persistence in fragmented landscapes. Proactive identification of key mutualist partners may be necessary to focus conservation efforts on the interactions that insure the integrity of network structure and the ecosystems services networks provide.

  19. Resilient networks of ant-plant mutualists in Amazonian forest fragments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather A Passmore

    Full Text Available The organization of networks of interacting species, such as plants and animals engaged in mutualisms, strongly influences the ecology and evolution of partner communities. Habitat fragmentation is a globally pervasive form of spatial heterogeneity that could profoundly impact the structure of mutualist networks. This is particularly true for biodiversity-rich tropical ecosystems, where the majority of plant species depend on mutualisms with animals and it is thought that changes in the structure of mutualist networks could lead to cascades of extinctions.We evaluated effects of fragmentation on mutualistic networks by calculating metrics of network structure for ant-plant networks in continuous Amazonian forests with those in forest fragments. We hypothesized that networks in fragments would have fewer species and higher connectance, but equal nestedness and resilience compared to forest networks. Only one of the nine metrics we compared differed between continuous forest and forest fragments, indicating that networks were resistant to the biotic and abiotic changes that accompany fragmentation. This is partially the result of the loss of only specialist species with one connection that were lost in forest fragments.We found that the networks of ant-plant mutualists in twenty-five year old fragments are similar to those in continuous forest, suggesting these interactions are resistant to the detrimental changes associated with habitat fragmentation, at least in landscapes that are a mosaic of fragments, regenerating forests, and pastures. However, ant-plant mutualistic networks may have several properties that may promote their persistence in fragmented landscapes. Proactive identification of key mutualist partners may be necessary to focus conservation efforts on the interactions that insure the integrity of network structure and the ecosystems services networks provide.

  20. Carbon recovery dynamics following disturbance by selective logging in Amazonian forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piponiot, Camille; Sist, Plinio; Mazzei, Lucas; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Putz, Francis E; Rutishauser, Ervan; Shenkin, Alexander; Ascarrunz, Nataly; de Azevedo, Celso P; Baraloto, Christopher; França, Mabiane; Guedes, Marcelino; Honorio Coronado, Eurídice N; d'Oliveira, Marcus VN; Ruschel, Ademir R; da Silva, Kátia E; Doff Sotta, Eleneide; de Souza, Cintia R; Vidal, Edson; West, Thales AP; Hérault, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    When 2 Mha of Amazonian forests are disturbed by selective logging each year, more than 90 Tg of carbon (C) is emitted to the atmosphere. Emissions are then counterbalanced by forest regrowth. With an original modelling approach, calibrated on a network of 133 permanent forest plots (175 ha total) across Amazonia, we link regional differences in climate, soil and initial biomass with survivors’ and recruits’ C fluxes to provide Amazon-wide predictions of post-logging C recovery. We show that net aboveground C recovery over 10 years is higher in the Guiana Shield and in the west (21 ±3 Mg C ha-1) than in the south (12 ±3 Mg C ha-1) where environmental stress is high (low rainfall, high seasonality). We highlight the key role of survivors in the forest regrowth and elaborate a comprehensive map of post-disturbance C recovery potential in Amazonia. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21394.001 PMID:27993185

  1. Influence of drainage status on soil and water chemistry, litter decomposition and soil respiration in central Amazonian forests on sandy soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berton Zanchi, F.; Waterloo, M.J.; Dolman, A.J.; Groenendijk, M.; Kruijt, B.

    2011-01-01

    Central Amazonian rainforest landscape supports a mosaic of tall terra firme rainforest and ecotone campinarana, riparian and campina forests, reflecting topography-induced variations in soil, nutrient and drainage conditions. Spatial and temporal variations in litter decomposition, soil and

  2. Wood Polymer Composites Technology Supporting the Recovery and Protection of Tropical Forests: The Amazonian Phoenix Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio D. Nobre

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon Rain Forest has attracted worldwide attention due its large scale services to climate and also due to the green house gas emissions arising from deforestation. Contributing to the later and detrimental to the former, timber logging in the region has very low efficiency (only 16% in the production chain. Such timber extraction, often referred to as selective logging, has been claimed as a sustainable extractive industry, because the forest is said to restore itself through regenerative growth. But forest regeneration in the Amazon occurs naturally only in a very limited scale, resulting that large scale, low efficiency logging poses a big treat to the functional integrity of the biome, supplying to the market only a fraction of what it could if done differently. So, instead of extracting big centennial logs from the forests, the Amazonian Phoenix project proposes that large expanses of degraded lands be reforested using pioneer plants species from the forest itself. These plants have the capacity to heal gaps in the canopy, being able to grow and produce woody biomass in very extreme conditions. The idea is to mimic the regenerative dynamics of the natural ecosystem in short cycle agrosilvicultural production areas, utilizing a variety of technologies to transform raw fibers from these fast growth native plants into a variety of materials with high aggregated value. This communication presents the research on natural fibers by the Polymeric Composites Group within the Amazonian Phoenix Project. Sustainable technologies employing materials with good and responsible ecological footprints are important and necessary stimulus for a change in the destructive economical activities present in the Amazon frontiers. The relatively well established wood polymer composites technology, for example, is a good candidate solution. Two research and development fields are proposed: the first one considers production systems with simple and cheap

  3. The importance of forest disturbance for the recruitment of the large arborescent palm Attalea maripa in a seasonally-dry Amazonian forest

    OpenAIRE

    Salm,Rodolfo

    2005-01-01

    The hypothesis that forest disturbance is important for the recruitment of the large arborescent palms Attalea maripa was tested with a natural experiment in the Pinkaití site (7º 46'S; 51º 57'W), a seasonally-dry Amazonian forest. A 8,000 m long trail, that crosses, in its lower half, an open forest along the Pinkaití stream bottomlands and, on its upper half, a dense forest on a hill, was divided in 160 0.15 ha (50x30 m) sampling units. At each unit, adult palms were counted and percentage ...

  4. Proof of the Post-drought Effect of Amazonian Forests from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Saatchi, S. S.; Xu, L.; Yu, Y.; Myneni, R. B.; Knyazikhin, Y.; CHOI, S.

    2015-12-01

    In 2005, the tropical forests in Amazonia went through a severe drought event across the entire basin. There have been conflict reports on the drought impact on vegetation and the issue was never settled due to limited ground truth. Remote sensing data have been used but often questioned for signal saturation, data quality, or atmosphere contamination. The quantification of carbon changes in this vast terrestrial carbon pool, especially the post-drought effect, is difficult but essential. Lidar measurements, which are regarded as the accurate retrieval of canopy vertical structure, give us the opportunity to quantify the carbon changes for this severe event. Here, we use the lidar waveforms measured from the GLAS sensor from 2004 to 2007 to calculate the vertical profiles of Amazonian forests and their associated carbon stock. After careful quality-filtering, removal of seasonal effect, as well as uncertainty reduction through spatial averaging and random sampling, we find that the mean canopy height in Amazon has much higher reduction from 2006 to 2007 compared to either the drought year from 2004 to 2005, or the immediate post-drought change from 2005 to 2006, demonstrating a lagged effect of drought. Our estimation of carbon loss from model calculation also show that 2005 drought had an significant impact on the carbon exchange, and emissions from post drought disturbance may match the emissions of annual deforestation from Amazonia.

  5. The importance of hydraulic architecture to the distribution patterns of trees in a central Amazonian forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosme, Luiza H M; Schietti, Juliana; Costa, Flávia R C; Oliveira, Rafael S

    2017-07-01

    Species distributions and assemblage composition may be the result of trait selection through environmental filters. Here, we ask whether filtering of species at the local scale could be attributed to their hydraulic architectural traits, revealing the basis of hydrological microhabitat partitioning in a Central Amazonian forest. We analyzed the hydraulic characteristics at tissue (anatomical traits, wood specific gravity (WSG)), organ (leaf area, specific leaf area (SLA), leaf area : sapwood area ratio) and whole-plant (height) levels for 28 pairs of congeneric species from 14 genera restricted to either valleys or plateaus of a terra-firme forest in Central Amazonia. On plateaus, species had higher WSG, but lower mean vessel area, mean vessel hydraulic diameter, sapwood area and SLA than in valleys; traits commonly associated with hydraulic safety. Mean vessel hydraulic diameter and mean vessel area increased with height for both habitats, but leaf area and leaf area : sapwood area ratio investments with tree height declined in valley vs plateau species. [Correction added after online publication 29 March 2017: the preceding sentence has been reworded.] Two strategies for either efficiency or safety were detected, based on vessel size or allocation to sapwood. In conclusion, contrasting hydrological conditions act as environmental filters, generating differences in species composition at the local scale. This has important implications for the prediction of species distributions under future climate change scenarios. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. Response of frugivorous primates to changes in fruit supply in a northern Amazonian forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourthé, I

    2014-08-01

    Few attempts have been made to understand how spatiotemporal changes in fruit supply influence frugivores in tropical forests. The marked spatiotemporal variation in fruit supply can affect frugivore abundance and distribution, but studies addressing the effects of this variation on primates are scarce. The present study aimed to investigate how the spatiotemporal distribution of fruits influences the local distribution of three frugivorous primates in the eastern part of the Maracá Ecological Station, a highly seasonal Amazonian rainforest. Specifically, it was hypothesised that primate distribution will track changes in fruit supply, resulting that sites with high fruit availability should be heavily used by primates. During a 1-year study, fruit supply (ground fruit surveys) and primate density (line-transects) were monitored in twelve 2 km-long transects at monthly intervals. Fruit supply varied seasonally, being low during the dry season. The density of Ateles belzebuth was positively related to fruit supply during fruit shortage, but Cebus olivaceus and Alouatta macconnelli did not follow the same pattern. The supply of Sapotaceae fruit was an important component determining local distribution of A. belzebuth during the overall fruit shortage. Highly frugivorous primates such as A. belzebuth respond to seasonal decline in fruit supply by congregating at places with high fruit supply in this forest, particularly, those with many individuals of species of Sapotaceae. This study underscores the importance of small-scale spatiotemporal changes of fruit supply as a key component of frugivorous primate ecology in highly seasonal environments.

  7. Regeneration of five commercially-valuable tree species after experimental logging in an Amazonian forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima Albertina Pimentel

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the regeneration variation of five commercially valuable tree species in relation to different intensities of felling in fourteen 4-ha plots in an area under experimental forest management. This experiment was carried out in a typical Amazonian tropical forest sample on "terra-firme," in Manaus (AM. Plots were logged 7 and 8 years (1987 and 1988, or 3 years (1993 before the study. All trees with height greater than 2 m, and diameter at breast height (DBH smaller than 10 cm were measured. Only Aniba hostmanniana, Ocotea aciphylla, Licaria pachycarpa, Eschweilera coriacea and Goupia glabra were sufficiently common for individual analyses. These species have high timber values in the local market. Eight years after logging, the species responded differently to logging intensities. The numbers of individuals of Goupia glabra and Aniba hostmanniana were positively related to the intensity of logging, while Ocotea aciphylla, Licaria pachycarpa, and Eschweilera coriacea showed no statistically significant response. In the most recently (1993 logged areas, Goupia glabra and Aniba hostmanniana had higher numbers of individuals than the control plots.

  8. Integrating regional and continental scale comparisons of tree composition in Amazonian terra firme forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honorio Coronado, E. N.; Baker, T. R.; Phillips, O. L.; Pitman, N. C. A.; Pennington, R. T.; Vásquez Martínez, R.; Monteagudo, A.; Mogollón, H.; Dávila Cardozo, N.; Ríos, M.; García-Villacorta, R.; Valderrama, E.; Ahuite, M.; Huamantupa, I.; Neill, D. A.; Laurance, W. F.; Nascimento, H. E. M.; Soares de Almeida, S.; Killeen, T. J.; Arroyo, L.; Núñez, P.; Freitas Alvarado, L.

    2009-01-01

    We contrast regional and continental-scale comparisons of the floristic composition of terra firme forest in South Amazonia, using 55 plots across Amazonia and a subset of 30 plots from northern Peru and Ecuador. Firstly, we examine the floristic patterns using both genus- or species-level data and find that the species-level analysis more clearly distinguishes different plot clusters. Secondly, we compare the patterns and causes of floristic differences at regional and continental scales. At a continental scale, ordination analysis shows that species of Lecythidaceae and Sapotaceae are gradually replaced by species of Arecaceae and Myristicaceae from eastern to western Amazonia. These floristic gradients are correlated with gradients in soil fertility and to dry season length, similar to previous studies. At a regional scale, similar patterns are found within north-western Amazonia, where differences in soil fertility distinguish plots where species of Lecythidaceae, characteristic of poor soils, are gradually replaced by species of Myristicaceae on richer soils. The main coordinate of this regional-scale ordination correlates mainly with concentrations of available calcium and magnesium. Thirdly, we ask at a regional scale within north-western Amazonia, whether soil fertility or other distance dependent processes are more important for determining variation in floristic composition. A Mantel test indicates that both soils and geographical distance have a similar and significant role in determining floristic similarity across this region. Overall, these results suggest that regional-scale variation in floristic composition can rival continental scale differences within Amazonian terra firme forests, and that variation in floristic composition at both scales is dependent on a range of processes that include both habitat specialisation related to edaphic conditions and other distance-dependent processes. To fully account for regional scale variation in continental

  9. Analysing Amazonian forest productivity using a new individual and trait-based model (TFS v.1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyllas, N. M.; Gloor, E.; Mercado, L. M.; Sitch, S.; Quesada, C. A.; Domingues, T. F.; Galbraith, D. R.; Torre-Lezama, A.; Vilanova, E.; Ramírez-Angulo, H.; Higuchi, N.; Neill, D. A.; Silveira, M.; Ferreira, L.; Aymard C., G. A.; Malhi, Y.; Phillips, O. L.; Lloyd, J.

    2014-07-01

    Repeated long-term censuses have revealed large-scale spatial patterns in Amazon basin forest structure and dynamism, with some forests in the west of the basin having up to a twice as high rate of aboveground biomass production and tree recruitment as forests in the east. Possible causes for this variation could be the climatic and edaphic gradients across the basin and/or the spatial distribution of tree species composition. To help understand causes of this variation a new individual-based model of tropical forest growth, designed to take full advantage of the forest census data available from the Amazonian Forest Inventory Network (RAINFOR), has been developed. The model allows for within-stand variations in tree size distribution and key functional traits and between-stand differences in climate and soil physical and chemical properties. It runs at the stand level with four functional traits - leaf dry mass per area (Ma), leaf nitrogen (NL) and phosphorus (PL) content and wood density (DW) varying from tree to tree - in a way that replicates the observed continua found within each stand. We first applied the model to validate canopy-level water fluxes at three eddy covariance flux measurement sites. For all three sites the canopy-level water fluxes were adequately simulated. We then applied the model at seven plots, where intensive measurements of carbon allocation are available. Tree-by-tree multi-annual growth rates generally agreed well with observations for small trees, but with deviations identified for larger trees. At the stand level, simulations at 40 plots were used to explore the influence of climate and soil nutrient availability on the gross (ΠG) and net (ΠN) primary production rates as well as the carbon use efficiency (CU). Simulated ΠG, ΠN and CU were not associated with temperature. On the other hand, all three measures of stand level productivity were positively related to both mean annual precipitation and soil nutrient status

  10. Forest ecosystem services: Cultural values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melissa M. Kreye; Damian C. Adams; Ramesh Ghimire; Wayde Morse; Taylor Stein; J. M. Bowker

    2017-01-01

    How we define “culture” and societal well-being related to culture depends heavily on who is looking at it, but culture can be generally described as “the customs and beliefs of a particular group of people that are used to express their collectively held values” (Soulbury Commission 2012). In the context of forests, culturally derived norms, beliefs, and values help...

  11. Heterogeneous movement of insectivorous Amazonian birds through primary and secondary forest: A case study using multistate models with radiotelemetry data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, James; Powell, Luke L.; Wolfe, Jared D.; Johnson, Erik l.; Nichols, James D.; Stouffer, Phillip C.

    2015-01-01

    Given rates of deforestation, disturbance, and secondary forest accumulation in tropical rainforests, there is a great need to quantify habitat use and movement among different habitats. This need is particularly pronounced for animals most sensitive to disturbance, such as insectivorous understory birds. Here we use multistate capture–recapture models with radiotelemetry data to determine the successional stage at which within-day movement probabilities of Amazonian birds in secondary forest are similar to those in primary forest. We radio-tracked three common understory insectivore species in primary and secondary forest at the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments project near Manaus, Brazil: two woodcreepers, Glyphorynchus spirurus (n = 19) andXiphorhynchus pardalotus (n = 18), and the terrestrial antthrush Formicarius colma(n = 19). Forest age was a strong predictor of fidelity to a given habitat. All three species showed greater fidelity to primary forest than to 8–14-year-old secondary forest, indicating the latter’s relatively poor quality. The two woodcreeper species used 12–18-year-old secondary forest in a manner comparable to continuous forest, but F. colmaavoided moving even to 27–31-year-old secondary forest—the oldest at our site. Our results suggest that managers concerned with less sensitive species can assume that forest reserves connected by 12–18-year-old secondary forest corridors are effectively connected. On the other hand, >30 years are required after land abandonment before secondary forest serves as a primary forest-like conduit for movement by F. colma; more sensitive terrestrial insectivores may take longer still.

  12. Downstream impacts of a Central Amazonian hydroelectric dam on tree growth and mortality in floodplain forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, A. F. D.; Silva, T. S. F.; Silva, J. D. S.; Piedade, M. T. F.; Streher, A. S.; Ferreira-Ferreira, J.; Schongart, J.

    2017-12-01

    The flood pulse of large Amazonian Rivers is characterized by predictable high- and low-water periods during the annual cycle, and is the main driving force in the floodplains regulating decomposition, nutrient cycles, productivity, life cycles and growth rhythms of floodplains' biota. Over at least 20 millions of years, tree species in these ecosystems developed complex adaptative mechanisms to tolerate flooding, such as the tree species Macrolobium acaciifolium (Fabaceae) and Eschweilera tenuifolia (Lecythidaceae) occupying the lower topographic positions in the floodplain forests along the oligothrophic black-water rivers. Tree growth occurs mainly during terrestrial phase, while during the aquatic phase the anoxic conditions result into a cambial dormancy and formation of annual tree rings. The hydroelectric dam Balbina which was installed in the Uatumã River (central Amazonia) during the 1980s altered significantly the flood pulse regime resulting into higher minimum and lower maximum annual water levels. The suppression of the terrestrial phase caused large-scale mortality of flood-adapted trees growing on the lower topographic positions, as evidenced by radiocarbon dating and cross-dating techniques (dendrochronology). In this study we estimated the extension of dead forests using high resolution ALOS/PALSAR radar images, for their detection along a fluvial distance of more than 280 km downstream of the power plant. Further we analyzed tree growth of 60 living individuals of E. tenuifolia by tree-ring analyses comparing the post- and pre-dam periods. We evaluated the impacts of the altered hydrological regime on tree growth considering ontogenetic effects and the fluvial distance of the trees to the dam. Since the Balbina power plant started operating the associated igapó forests lost about 11% of its cover. We found a significant reduction of tree growth of E. tenuifolia during the post-dam period as a consequence of the increasing aquatic phase duration

  13. A mid-Pleistocene rainforest corridor enabled synchronous invasions of the Atlantic Forest by Amazonian anole lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prates, Ivan; Rivera, Danielle; Rodrigues, Miguel T; Carnaval, Ana C

    2016-10-01

    Shifts in the geographic distribution of habitats over time can promote dispersal and vicariance, thereby influencing large-scale biogeographic patterns and ecological processes. An example is that of transient corridors of suitable habitat across disjunct but ecologically similar regions, which have been associated with climate change over time. Such connections likely played a role in the assembly of tropical communities, especially within the highly diverse Amazonian and Atlantic rainforests of South America. Although these forests are presently separated by open and dry ecosystems, paleoclimatic and phylogenetic evidence suggest that they have been transiently connected in the past. However, little is known about the timing, magnitude and the distribution of former forest connections. We employ sequence data at multiple loci from three codistributed arboreal lizards (Anolis punctatus, Anolis ortonii and Polychrus marmoratus) to infer the phylogenetic relationships among Amazonian and Atlantic Forest populations and to test alternative historical demographic scenarios of colonization and vicariance using coalescent simulations and approximate Bayesian computation (ABC). Data from the better-sampled Anolis species support colonization of the Atlantic Forest from eastern Amazonia. Hierarchical ABC indicates that the three species colonized the Atlantic Forest synchronously during the mid-Pleistocene. We find support of population bottlenecks associated with founder events in the two Anolis, but not in P. marmoratus, consistently with their distinct ecological tolerances. Our findings support that climatic fluctuations provided key opportunities for dispersal and forest colonization in eastern South America through the cessation of environmental barriers. Evidence of species-specific histories strengthens assertions that biological attributes play a role in responses to shared environmental change. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Spatial distribution and functional significance of leaf lamina shape in Amazonian forest trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. M. Malhado

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Leaves in tropical forests come in an enormous variety of sizes and shapes, each of which can be ultimately viewed as an adaptation to the complex problem of optimising the capture of light for photosynthesis. However, the fact that many different shape "strategies" coexist within a habitat demonstrate that there are many other intrinsic and extrinsic factors involved, such as the differential investment in support tissues required for different leaf lamina shapes. Here, we take a macrogeographic approach to understanding the function of different lamina shape categories. Specifically, we use 106 permanent plots spread across the Amazon rainforest basin to: 1 describe the geographic distribution of some simple metrics of lamina shape in plots from across Amazonia, and; 2 identify and quantify relationships between key environmental parameters and lamina shape in tropical forests. Because the plots are not randomly distributed across the study area, achieving this latter objective requires the use of statistics that can account for spatial auto-correlation. We found that between 60–70% of the 2791 species and 83 908 individual trees in the dataset could be classified as having elliptic leaves (= the widest part of the leaf is on an axis in the middle fifth of the long axis of the leaf. Furthermore, the average Amazonian tree leaf is 2.5 times longer than it is wide and has an entire margin. Contrary to theoretical expectations we found little support for the hypothesis that narrow leaves are an adaptation to dry conditions. However, we did find strong regional patterns in leaf lamina length-width ratios and several significant correlations with precipitation variables suggesting that water availability may be exerting an as yet unrecognised selective pressure on leaf shape of rainforest trees. Some support was found for the hypothesis that narrow leaves are an adaptation to low nutrient soils. Furthermore, we found a strong correlation between

  15. The influences of CO2 fertilization and land use change on the total aboveground biomass in Amazonian tropical forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanho, A. D.; Zhang, K.; Coe, M. T.; Costa, M. H.; Moorcroft, P. R.

    2012-12-01

    Field observations from undisturbed old-growth Amazonian forest plots have recently reported on the temporal variation of many of the physical and chemical characteristics such as: physiological properties of leaves, above ground live biomass, above ground productivity, mortality and turnover rates. However, although this variation has been measured, it is still not well understood what mechanisms control the observed temporal variability. The observed changes in time are believed to be a result of a combination of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration, climate variability, recovery from natural disturbance (drought, wind blow, flood), and increase of nutrient availability. The time and spatial variability of the fertilization effect of CO2 on above ground biomass will be explored in more detail in this work. A precise understanding of the CO2 effect on the vegetation is essential for an accurate prediction of the future response of the forest to climate change. To address this issue we simultaneously explore the effects of climate variability, historical CO2 and land-use change on total biomass and productivity using two different Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVM). We use the Integrated Biosphere Simulator (IBIS) and the Ecosystem Demography Model 2.1 (ED2.1). Using land use changes database from 1700 - 2008 we reconstruct the total carbon balance in the Amazonian forest in space and time and present how the models predict the forest as carbon sink or source and explore why the model and field data diverge from each other. From 1970 to 2005 the Amazonian forest has been exposed to an increase of approximately 50 ppm in the atmospheric CO2 concentration. Preliminary analyses with the IBIS and ED2.1 dynamic vegetation model shows the CO2 fertilization effect could account for an increase in above ground biomass of 0.03 and 0.04 kg-C/m2/yr on average for the Amazon basin, respectively. The annual biomass change varies temporally and spatially from about 0

  16. Indifference to dissonance in native Amazonians reveals cultural variation in music perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Josh H; Schultz, Alan F; Undurraga, Eduardo A; Godoy, Ricardo A

    2016-07-28

    by biology remains debated. One widely discussed phenomenon is that some combinations of notes are perceived by Westerners as pleasant, or consonant, whereas others are perceived as unpleasant,or dissonant. The contrast between consonance and dissonance is central to Western music and its origins have fascinated scholars since the ancient Greeks. Aesthetic responses to consonance are commonly assumed by scientists to have biological roots, and thus to be universally present in humans. Ethnomusicologists and composers, in contrast, have argued that consonance is a creation of Western musical culture. The issue has remained unresolved, partly because little is known about the extent of cross-cultural variation in consonance preferences. Here we report experiments with the Tsimane'--a native Amazonian society with minimal exposure to Western culture--and comparison populations in Bolivia and the United States that varied in exposure to Western music. Participants rated the pleasantness of sounds. Despite exhibiting Western-like discrimination abilities and Western-like aesthetic responses to familiar sounds and acoustic roughness, the Tsimane' rated consonant and dissonant chords and vocal harmonies as equally pleasant. By contrast, Bolivian city- and town-dwellers exhibited significant preferences for consonance,albeit to a lesser degree than US residents. The results indicate that consonance preferences can be absent in cultures sufficiently isolated from Western music, and are thus unlikely to reflect innate biases or exposure to harmonic natural sounds. The observed variation in preferences is presumably determined by exposure to musical harmony, suggesting that culture has a dominant role in shaping aesthetic responses to music.

  17. Changing patterns of fire occurrence in proximity to forest edges, roads and rivers between NW Amazonian countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenteras, Dolors; Barreto, Joan Sebastian; Tabor, Karyn; Molowny-Horas, Roberto; Retana, Javier

    2017-06-01

    Tropical forests in NW Amazonia are highly threatened by the expansion of the agricultural frontier and subsequent deforestation. Fire is used, both directly and indirectly, in Brazilian Amazonia to propagate deforestation and increase forest accessibility. Forest fragmentation, a measure of forest degradation, is also attributed to fire occurrence in the tropics. However, outside the Brazilian Legal Amazonia the role of fire in increasing accessibility and forest fragmentation is less explored. In this study, we compared fire regimes in five countries that share this tropical biome in the most north-westerly part of the Amazon Basin (Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Brazil). We analysed spatial differences in the timing of peak fire activity and in relation to proximity to roads and rivers using 12 years of MODIS active fire detections. We also distinguished patterns of fire in relation to forest fragmentation by analysing fire distance to the forest edge as a measure of fragmentation for each country. We found significant hemispheric differences in peak fire occurrence with the highest number of fires in the south in 2005 vs. 2007 in the north. Despite this, both hemispheres are equally affected by fire. We also found difference in peak fire occurrence by country. Fire peaked in February in Colombia and Venezuela, whereas it peaked in September in Brazil and Peru, and finally Ecuador presented two fire peaks in January and October. We confirmed the relationship between fires and forest fragmentation for all countries and also found significant differences in the distance between the fire and the forest edge for each country. Fires were associated with roads and rivers in most countries. These results can inform land use planning at the regional, national and subnational scales to minimize the contribution of road expansion and subsequent access to the Amazonian natural resources to fire occurrence and the associated deforestation and carbon emissions.

  18. Connecting Amazonian, Cerrado, and Atlantic Forest histories: Paraphyly, old divergences, and modern population dynamics in tyrant-manakins (Neopelma/Tyranneutes, Aves: Pipridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capurucho, João Marcos Guimarães; Ashley, Mary V; Ribas, Camila C; Bates, John M

    2018-06-11

    Several biogeographic hypotheses have been proposed to explain connections between Amazonian and Atlantic forest biotas. These hypotheses are related to the timing of the connections and their geographic patterns. We performed a phylogeographic investigation of Tyrant-manakins (Aves: Pipridae, Neopelma/Tyranneutes) which include species inhabiting the Amazon and Atlantic forests, as well as gallery forests of the Cerrado. Using DNA sequence data, we determined phylogenetic relationships, temporal and geographic patterns of diversification, and recent intraspecific population genetic patterns, relative to the history of these biomes. We found Neopelma to be a paraphyletic genus, as N. chrysolophum is sister to Neopelma + Tyranneutes, with an estimated divergence of approximately 18 Myrs BP, within the oldest estimated divergence times of other Amazonian and Atlantic forest avian taxa. Subsequent divergences in the group occurred from Mid Miocene to Early Pliocene and involved mainly the Amazonian species, with an expansion into and subsequent speciation in the Cerrado gallery forests by N. pallescens. We found additional structure within N. chrysocephalum and N. sulphureiventer. Analysis of recent population dynamics in N. chrysocephalum, N. sulphureiventer, and N. pallescens revealed recent demographic fluctuations and restrictions to gene flow related to environmental changes since the last glacial cycle. No genetic structure was detected across the Amazon River in N. pallescens. The tyrant-manakins represent an old historical connection between the Amazon and Atlantic Forest. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Diversity and aspects of the ecology of social wasps (Vespidae, Polistinae in Central Amazonian "terra firme" forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Somavilla

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Diversity and aspects of the ecology of social wasps (Vespidae, Polistinae in Central Amazonian "terra firme" forest. The knowledge of social wasp richness and biology in the Amazonian region is considered insufficient. Although the Amazonas state is the largest in the region, until now only two brief surveys were conducted there. Considering that the systematic inventory of an area is the first step towards its conservation and wise use, this study presents faunal data on social wasp diversity in a 25 km² area of "terra firme" (upland forest at the Ducke Reserve, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Wasps were collected in the understory, following a protocol of three collectors walking along 60 trails 1,000 m in extension for 16 days between August and October 2010. Methods used were active search of individuals with entomological nets and nest collecting. Fifty-eight species of social wasps, allocated in 13 genera, were recorded; 67% of the collected species belong to Polybia, Agelaia and Mischocyttarus; other genera were represented by only four species or less. The most frequent species in active searches were Agelaia fulvofasciata (DeGeer, 1773, Agelaia testacea (Fabricius, 1804 and Angiopolybia pallens (Lepeletier, 1836. Twelve species were collected in nests. Prior to this study, 65 Polistinae species were deposited at the INPA Collection. Collecting in the study grid, an area not previously sampled for wasps, resulted in an increase of 25% species, and species richness was 86. According to the results, there is evidence that the diversity of social wasps at the Ducke Reserve is even higher, making it one of the richest areas in the Brazilian Amazonia.

  20. Culture phenomenon analysis on the forest tour activity of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Minjin

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes culture and forest culture, the intension of culture and forest culture, combines the understanding of the main cultural factor with the forest tour activity of China, analyzes the compatible phenomenon of Chinese forest culture and traditional culture, and explores culture of forest tourist site containing the meaning in forest tour. The author thinks the tour of forest culture which will be the important component of forest tour in forest culture,This paper puts forward simple questions existing in exploitation and advantage of forest tour culture, and proposes some countermeasures.

  1. Implication of Forest-Savanna Dynamics on Biomass and Carbon Stock: Effectiveness of an Amazonian Ecological Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto-Santos, F. R.; Luizao, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    The forests-savanna advancement/retraction process seems to play an important role in the global carbon cycle and in the climate-vegetation balance maintenance in the Amazon. To contribute with long term carbon dynamics and assess effectiveness of a protected area in reduce carbon emissions in Brazilian Amazon transitional areas, variations in forest-savanna mosaics biomass and carbon stock within Maraca Ecological Station (MES), Roraima/Brazil, and its outskirts non-protected areas were compared. Composite surface soil samples and indirect methods based on regression models were used to estimate aboveground tree biomass accumulation and assess vegetation and soil carbon stock along eleven 0.6 ha transects perpendicular to the forest-savanna limits. Aboveground biomass and carbon accumulation were influenced by vegetation structure, showing higher values within protected area, with great contribution of trees above 40 cm in diameter. In the savanna environments of protected areas, a higher tree density and carbon stock up to 30 m from the border confirmed a forest encroachment. This pointed that MES acts as carbon sink, even under variations in soil fertility gradient, with a potential increase of the total carbon stock from 9 to 150 Mg C ha-1. Under 20 years of fire and disturbance management, the results indicated the effectiveness of this protected area to reduce carbon emissions and mitigate greenhouse and climate change effects in a forest-savanna transitional area in Brazilian Northern Amazon. The contribution of this study in understanding rates and reasons for biomass and carbon variation, under different management strategies, should be considered the first approximation to assist policies of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) from underresearched Amazonian ecotone; despite further efforts in this direction are still needed. FINANCIAL SUPPORT: Boticário Group Foundation (Fundação Grupo Boticário); National Council for

  2. SPECIES DIVERSITY AND COMMUNITY STRUCTURE OF FRUIT-FEEDING BUTTERFLIES (LEPIDOPTERA: NYMPHALIDAE IN AN EASTERN AMAZONIAN FOREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCAS PEREIRA MARTINS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Deforestation has negative impacts on diversity and community patterns of several taxa. In the eastern Amazon, where much deforestation is predicted for the coming years, forests patches may be essential to maintain the local biodiversity. Despite increasing concerns about the conservation of threatened areas, few studies have been performed to analyze the communities of diversified groups, such as insects, in the eastern Amazon. Here, we investigated species diversity and community structure of fruit-feeding butterflies, a well-known bioindicator group, in a threatened remnant of an eastern Amazonian forest located on Maranhão Island, northeastern Brazil. Fruit-feeding butterflies were sampled monthly for one year. Diversity and evenness indices, richness estimators, rarefaction curve, and rank-abundance plot were used to describe community structure in the study area. We captured 529 fruit-feeding butterflies in four subfamilies, 23 genera and 34 species. The three most abundant species, Hamadryas februa, Hamadryas feronia, and Hermeuptychia cf. atalanta are indicators of disturbed habitats and represented more than half of the collected individuals. Richness estimators revealed that between 87 and 94% of the fruit-feeding butterfly species were sampled, suggesting few additional records would be made for the area. Our results indicate that human-caused disturbances have altered local community patterns and provide baseline data for future research in threatened regions of the eastern Amazon.

  3. Gamebird responses to anthropogenic forest fragmentation and degradation in a southern Amazonian landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Michalski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Although large-bodied tropical forest birds are impacted by both habitat loss and fragmentation, their patterns of habitat occupancy will also depend on the degree of forest habitat disturbance, which may interact synergistically or additively with fragmentation effects. Here, we examine the effects of forest patch and landscape metrics, and levels of forest disturbance on the patterns of persistence of six gamebird taxa in the southern Brazilian Amazon. We use both interview data conducted with long-term residents and/or landowners from 129 remnant forest patches and 15 continuous forest sites and line-transect census data from a subset of 21 forest patches and two continuous forests. Forest patch area was the strongest predictor of species persistence, explaining as much as 46% of the overall variation in gamebird species richness. Logistic regression models showed that anthropogenic disturbance—including surface wildfires, selective logging and hunting pressure—had a variety of effects on species persistence. Most large-bodied gamebird species were sensitive to forest fragmentation, occupying primarily large, high-quality forest patches in higher abundances, and were typically absent from patches 10,000 ha, relatively undisturbed forest patches to both maximize persistence and maintain baseline abundances of large neotropical forest birds.

  4. The variation of apparent crown size and canopy heterogeneity across lowland Amazonian forests

    OpenAIRE

    Barbier, N.; Couteron, Pierre; Proisy, Christophe; Malhi, Y.; Gastellu-Etchegorry, J. P.

    2010-01-01

    Aim The size structure of a forest canopy is an important descriptor of the forest environment that may yield information on forest biomass and ecology. However, its variability at regional scales is poorly described or understood because of the still prohibitive cost of very high-resolution imagery as well as the lack of an appropriate methodology. We here employ a novel approach to describe and map the canopy structure of tropical forests. Location Amazonia. Methods We apply Fourier transfo...

  5. Satellite Images Combined with Field Data Reveal Negative Changes in the Distribution of Babassu Palms after Clearing off Amazonian Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitja, D.; Delaître, E.; Santos, A. M.; Miranda, I.; Coelho, R. F. R.; Macedo, D. J.; Demagistri, L.; Petit, M.

    2018-02-01

    When the Amazonian rain forest is cut to create pasture, some of the original vegetal species survive clearing, even expressing their ability to invade agro-systems. It is true of the babassu palm, which can be considered, paradoxically, a natural resource by the "Interstate Movement of Babassu Fruit Breaker Women" or as native weed by land owners-farmers. To manage potential conflict of land uses, we study here the current density of this palm tree in different habitats, based on a combination of field data and remote sensing data. Firstly, we checked that the field survey methodology (i.e., counting free-trunk palm trees over 20 cm in circumference) provides density values compatible with those stemming from satellite images interpretation. We can see then that, a PA-Benfica Brazilian territory revealed an average density of the babassu lower in pastures (2.86 ind/ha) than in the dense forest (4.72 ind/ha) from which they originate and than in fallow land (4.31 ind/ha). We analyze in detail density data repartition in three habitats and we discuss results from the literature on the density of this palm tree versus its resilience at different developmental stages after forest clearing, depending on anthropogenic—or not—factors, including solar radiation, fire, weeding, clear cutting, burying fruit, and competition with forage grass. All these results can be exploited for the design of future management plans for the babassu palm and we think that the linked methodology and interdisciplinary approach can be extended to others palms and trees species in similar problematic issues.

  6. Fragmentation increases wind disturbance impacts on forest structure and carbon stocks in a western Amazonian landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Naomi B; Uriarte, María; DeFries, Ruth; Bedka, Kristopher M; Fernandes, Katia; Gutiérrez-Vélez, Victor; Pinedo-Vasquez, Miguel A

    2017-09-01

    Tropical second-growth forests could help mitigate climate change, but the degree to which their carbon potential is achieved will depend on exposure to disturbance. Wind disturbance is common in tropical forests, shaping structure, composition, and function, and influencing successional trajectories. However, little is known about the impacts of extreme winds on second-growth forests in fragmented landscapes, though these ecosystems are often located in mosaics of forest, pasture, cropland, and other land cover types. Indirect evidence suggests that fragmentation increases risk of wind damage in tropical forests, but no studies have found such impacts following severe storms. In this study, we ask whether fragmentation and forest type (old vs. second growth) were associated with variation in wind damage after a severe convective storm in a fragmented production landscape in western Amazonia. We applied linear spectral unmixing to Landsat 8 imagery from before and after the storm, and combined it with field observations of damage to map wind effects on forest structure and biomass. We also used Landsat 8 imagery to map land cover with the goals of identifying old- and second-growth forest and characterizing fragmentation. We used these data to assess variation in wind disturbance across 95,596 ha of forest, distributed over 6,110 patches. We find that fragmentation is significantly associated with wind damage, with damage severity higher at forest edges and in edgier, more isolated patches. Damage was also more severe in old-growth than in second-growth forests, but this effect was weaker than that of fragmentation. These results illustrate the importance of considering landscape context in planning tropical forest restoration and natural regeneration projects. Assessments of long-term carbon sequestration potential need to consider spatial variation in disturbance exposure. Where risk of extreme winds is high, minimizing fragmentation and isolation could increase

  7. Culture and resource management: factors affecting forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjorie C. Falanruw

    1992-01-01

    Efforts to manage Pacific Island forest resources are more likely to succeed if they are based on an understanding of the cultural framework of land use activities. This paper explores the relationship between agricultural systems, population density, culture, and use of forest resources on the islands of Yap. Agricultural intensification is related to population...

  8. Impact of a drier Early-Mid-Holocene climate upon Amazonian forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayle, Francis E; Power, Mitchell J

    2008-05-27

    This paper uses a palaeoecological approach to examine the impact of drier climatic conditions of the Early-Mid-Holocene (ca 8000-4000 years ago) upon Amazonia's forests and their fire regimes. Palaeovegetation (pollen data) and palaeofire (charcoal) records are synthesized from 20 sites within the present tropical forest biome, and the underlying causes of any emergent patterns or changes are explored by reference to independent palaeoclimate data and present-day patterns of precipitation, forest cover and fire activity across Amazonia. During the Early-Mid-Holocene, Andean cloud forest taxa were replaced by lowland tree taxa as the cloud base rose while lowland ecotonal areas, which are presently covered by evergreen rainforest, were instead dominated by savannahs and/or semi-deciduous dry forests. Elsewhere in the Amazon Basin there is considerable spatial and temporal variation in patterns of vegetation disturbance and fire, which probably reflects the complex heterogeneous patterns in precipitation and seasonality across the basin, and the interactions between climate change, drought- and fire susceptibility of the forests, and Palaeo-Indian land use. Our analysis shows that the forest biome in most parts of Amazonia appears to have been remarkably resilient to climatic conditions significantly drier than those of today, despite widespread evidence of forest burning. Only in ecotonal areas is there evidence of biome replacement in the Holocene. From this palaeoecological perspective, we argue against the Amazon forest 'dieback' scenario simulated for the future.

  9. Simulation of the Unexpected Photosynthetic Seasonality in Amazonian Evergreen Forests by Using an Improved Diffuse Fraction-Based Light Use Efficiency Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hao; Wang, Shao-Qiang; da Rocha, Humberto R.; Rap, Alexandru; Bonal, Damien; Butt, Nathalie; Coupe, Natalia Restrepo; Shugart, Herman H.

    2017-11-01

    Understanding the mechanism of photosynthetic seasonality in Amazonian evergreen forests is critical for its formulation in global climate and carbon cycle models. However, the control of the unexpected photosynthetic seasonality is highly uncertain. Here we use eddy-covariance data across a network of Amazonian research sites and a novel evapotranspiration (E) and two-leaf-photosynthesis-coupled model to investigate links between photosynthetic seasonality and climate factors on monthly scales. It reproduces the GPP seasonality (R2 = 0.45-0.69) with a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 0.67-1.25 g C m-2 d-1 and a Bias of -0.03-1.04 g C m-2 d-1 for four evergreen forest sites. We find that the proportion of diffuse and direct sunlight governs the photosynthetic seasonality via their interaction with sunlit and shaded leaves, supported by a proof that canopy light use efficiency (LUE) has a strong linear relationship with the fraction of diffuse sunlight for Amazonian evergreen forests. In the transition from dry season to rainy season, incident total radiation (Q) decreased while LUE and diffuse fraction increased, which produced the large seasonal increase ( 34%) in GPP of evergreen forests. We conclude that diffuse radiation is an important environmental driver of the photosynthetic seasonality in tropical Amazon forests yet depending on light utilization by sunlit and shaded leaves. Besides, the GPP model simulates the precipitation-dominated GPP seasonality (R2 = 0.40-0.69) at pasture and savanna sites. These findings present an improved physiological method to relate light components with GPP in tropical Amazon.

  10. Dispersal limitation induces long-term biomass collapse in overhunted Amazonian forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Carlos A; Emilio, Thaise; Schietti, Juliana; Desmoulière, Sylvain J M; Levi, Taal

    2016-01-26

    Tropical forests are the global cornerstone of biological diversity, and store 55% of the forest carbon stock globally, yet sustained provisioning of these forest ecosystem services may be threatened by hunting-induced extinctions of plant-animal mutualisms that maintain long-term forest dynamics. Large-bodied Atelinae primates and tapirs in particular offer nonredundant seed-dispersal services for many large-seeded Neotropical tree species, which on average have higher wood density than smaller-seeded and wind-dispersed trees. We used field data and models to project the spatial impact of hunting on large primates by ∼ 1 million rural households throughout the Brazilian Amazon. We then used a unique baseline dataset on 2,345 1-ha tree plots arrayed across the Brazilian Amazon to model changes in aboveground forest biomass under different scenarios of hunting-induced large-bodied frugivore extirpation. We project that defaunation of the most harvest-sensitive species will lead to losses in aboveground biomass of between 2.5-5.8% on average, with some losses as high as 26.5-37.8%. These findings highlight an urgent need to manage the sustainability of game hunting in both protected and unprotected tropical forests, and place full biodiversity integrity, including populations of large frugivorous vertebrates, firmly in the agenda of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) programs.

  11. Human impacts on soil carbon dynamics of deep-rooted Amazonian forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepstad, Daniel C.; Stone, Thomas A.; Davidson, Eric A.

    1994-01-01

    Deforestation and logging degrade more forest in eastern and southern Amazonia than in any other region of the world. This forest alteration affects regional hydrology and the global carbon cycle, but our current understanding of these effects is limited by incomplete knowledge of tropical forest ecosystems. It is widely agreed that roots are concentrated near the soil surface in moist tropical forests, but this generalization incorrectly implies that deep roots are unimportant in water and C budgets. Our results indicate that half of the closed-canopy forests of Brazilian Amazonic occur where rainfall is highly seasonal, and these forests rely on deeply penetrating roots to extract soil water. Pasture vegetation extracts less water from deep soil than the forest it replaces, thus increasing rates of drainage and decreasing rates of evapotranspiration. Deep roots are also a source of modern carbon deep in the soil. The soils of the eastern Amazon contain more carbon below 1 m depth than is present in above-ground biomass. As much as 25 percent of this deep soil C could have annual to decadal turnover times and may be lost to the atmosphere following deforestation. We compared the importance of deep roots in a mature, evergreen forest with an adjacent man-made pasture, the most common type of vegetation on deforested land in Amazonia. The study site is near the town of Paragominas, in the Brazilian state of Para, with a seasonal rainfall pattern and deeply-weathered, kaolinitic soils that are typical for large portions of Amazonia. Root distribution, soil water extraction, and soil carbon dynamics were studied using deep auger holes and shafts in each ecosystem, and the phenology and water status of the leaf canopies were measured. We estimated the geographical distribution of deeply-rooting forests using satellite imagery, rainfall data, and field measurements.

  12. Organic aerosols from biomass burning in Amazonian rain forest and their impact onto the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecinato, A.; Mabilia, R.; De Castro Vasconcellos, P.

    2001-01-01

    A field campaign performed in Southern Brazilian Amazonia in 1993 has proved that this region is subjected to fallout of particulated exhausts released by fires of forestal biomass. In fact, organic content of aerosols collected at urban sites located on the border of pluvial forest, about 50 km from fires, was similar to that of biomass burning exhausts. Aerosol composition is indicative of dolous origin of fires. However, organic contents seems to be influenced by two additional sources, i. e. motor vehicle and high vegetation emission. Chemical pattern of organic aerosols released by biomass burning of forest seems to promote occurrence of photochemical smog episodes in that region [it

  13. Estimating Amazonian rainforest stability and the likelihood for large-scale forest dieback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammig, Anja; Thonicke, Kirsten; Jupp, Tim; Ostberg, Sebastian; Heinke, Jens; Lucht, Wolfgang; Cramer, Wolfgang; Cox, Peter

    2010-05-01

    Annually, tropical forests process approximately 18 Pg of carbon through respiration and photosynthesis - more than twice the rate of anthropogenic fossil fuel emissions. Current climate change may be transforming this carbon sink into a carbon source by changing forest structure and dynamics. Increasing temperatures and potentially decreasing precipitation and thus prolonged drought stress may lead to increasing physiological stress and reduced productivity for trees. Resulting decreases in evapotranspiration and therefore convective precipitation could further accelerate drought conditions and destabilize the tropical ecosystem as a whole and lead to an 'Amazon forest dieback'. The projected direction and intensity of climate change vary widely within the region and between different scenarios from climate models (GCMs). In the scope of a World Bank-funded study, we assessed the 24 General Circulation Models (GCMs) evaluated in the 4th Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC-AR4) with respect to their capability to reproduce present-day climate in the Amazon basin using a Bayesian approach. With this approach, greater weight is assigned to the models that simulate well the annual cycle of rainfall. We then use the resulting weightings to create probability density functions (PDFs) for future forest biomass changes as simulated by the Lund-Potsdam-Jena Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (LPJmL) to estimate the risk of potential Amazon rainforest dieback. Our results show contrasting changes in forest biomass throughout five regions of northern South America: If photosynthetic capacity and water use efficiency is enhanced by CO2, biomass increases across all five regions. However, if CO2-fertilisation is assumed to be absent or less important, then substantial dieback occurs in some scenarios and thus, the risk of forest dieback is considerably higher. Particularly affected are regions in the central Amazon basin. The range of

  14. Interpreting participatory Fuzzy Cognitive Maps as complex networks in the social-ecological systems of the Amazonian forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Consuelo; Tarquis, Ana M.; Blanco-Gutiérrez, Irene; Estebe, Paloma; Toledo, Marisol; Martorano, Lucieta

    2015-04-01

    Social-ecological systems are linked complex systems that represent interconnected human and biophysical processes evolving and adapting across temporal and spatial scales. In the real world, social-ecological systems pose substantial challenges for modeling. In this regard, Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCMs) have proven to be a useful method for capturing the functioning of this type of systems. FCMs are a semi-quantitative type of cognitive map that represent a system composed of relevant factors and weighted links showing the strength and direction of cause-effects relationships among factors. Therefore, FCMs can be interpreted as complex system structures or complex networks. In this sense, recent research has applied complex network concepts for the analysis of FCMs that represent social-ecological systems. Key to FCM the tool is its potential to allow feedback loops and to include stakeholder knowledge in the construction of the tool. Also, previous research has demonstrated their potential to represent system dynamics and simulate the effects of changes in the system, such as policy interventions. For illustrating this analysis, we have developed a series of participatory FCM for the study of the ecological and human systems related to biodiversity conservation in two case studies of the Amazonian region, the Bolivia lowlands of Guarayos and the Brazil Tapajos National forest. The research is carried out in the context of the EU project ROBIN1 and it is based on the development of a series of stakeholder workshops to analyze the current state of the socio-ecological environment in the Amazonian forest, reflecting conflicts and challenges for biodiversity conservation and human development. Stakeholders included all relevant actors in the local case studies, namely farmers, environmental groups, producer organizations, local and provincial authorities and scientists. In both case studies we illustrate the use of complex networks concepts, such as the adjacency

  15. A trans-Amazonian screening of mtDNA reveals deep intraspecific divergence in forest birds and suggests a vast underestimation of species diversity.

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    Borja Milá

    Full Text Available The Amazonian avifauna remains severely understudied relative to that of the temperate zone, and its species richness is thought to be underestimated by current taxonomy. Recent molecular systematic studies using mtDNA sequence reveal that traditionally accepted species-level taxa often conceal genetically divergent subspecific lineages found to represent new species upon close taxonomic scrutiny, suggesting that intraspecific mtDNA variation could be useful in species discovery. Surveys of mtDNA variation in Holarctic species have revealed patterns of variation that are largely congruent with species boundaries. However, little information exists on intraspecific divergence in most Amazonian species. Here we screen intraspecific mtDNA genetic variation in 41 Amazonian forest understory species belonging to 36 genera and 17 families in 6 orders, using 758 individual samples from Ecuador and French Guiana. For 13 of these species, we also analyzed trans-Andean populations from the Ecuadorian Chocó. A consistent pattern of deep intraspecific divergence among trans-Amazonian haplogroups was found for 33 of the 41 taxa, and genetic differentiation and genetic diversity among them was highly variable, suggesting a complex range of evolutionary histories. Mean sequence divergence within families was the same as that found in North American birds (13%, yet mean intraspecific divergence in Neotropical species was an order of magnitude larger (2.13% vs. 0.23%, with mean distance between intraspecific lineages reaching 3.56%. We found no clear relationship between genetic distances and differentiation in plumage color. Our results identify numerous genetically and phenotypically divergent lineages which may result in new species-level designations upon closer taxonomic scrutiny and thorough sampling, although lineages in the tropical region could be older than those in the temperate zone without necessarily representing separate species. In

  16. Retention of phosphorus in highly weathered soils under a lowland Amazonian forest ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. E. McGroddy; W. L. Silver; Jr. de Oliveira; W. Z. de Mello; M. Keller

    2008-01-01

    The low available phosphorus (P) pools typical of highly weathered tropical forest soils are thought to result from a combination of export of phosphorus via erosion and leaching as well as chemical reactions resulting in physically and chemically protected P compounds. Despite the low apparent P availability, these soils support some of the highest terrestrial net...

  17. Parameterization of Leaf-Level Gas Exchange for Plant Functional Groups From Amazonian Seasonal Tropical Rain Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, T. F.; Berry, J. A.; Ometto, J. P.; Martinelli, L. A.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2004-12-01

    Plant communities exert strong influence over the magnitude of carbon and water cycling through ecosystems by controlling photosynthetic gas exchange and respiratory processes. Leaf-level gas exchange fluxes result from a combination of physiological properties, such as carboxylation capacity, respiration rates and hydraulic conductivity, interacting with environmental drivers such as water and light availability, leaf-to-air vapor pressure deficit, and temperature. Carbon balance models concerned with ecosystem-scale responses have as a common feature the description of eco-physiological properties of vegetation. Here we focus on the parameterization of ecophysiological gas-exchange properties of plant functional groups from a pristine Amazonian seasonally dry tropical rain forest ecosystem (FLONA-Tapajós, Santarém, PA, Brazil). The parameters were specific leaf weight, leaf nitrogen content, leaf carbon isotope ratio, maximum photosynthetic assimilation rate, photosynthetic carboxylation capacity, dark respiration rates, and stomatal conductance to water vapor. Our plant functional groupings were lianas at the top of the canopy, trees at the top of the canopy, mid-canopy trees and undestory trees. Within the functional groups, we found no evidence that leaves acclimated to seasonal changes in precipitation. However, there were life-form dependent distinctions when a combination of parameters was included. Top-canopy lianas were statistically different from top-canopy trees for leaf carbon isotope ratio, maximum photosynthetic assimilation rate, and stomatal conductance to water vapor, suggesting that lianas are more conservative in the use of water, causing a stomatal limitation on photosynthetic assimilation. Top-canopy, mid canopy and understory groupings were distinct for specific leaf weight, leaf nitrogen content, leaf carbon isotope ratio, maximum photosynthetic assimilation rate, and photosynthetic carboxylation capacity. The recognition that plant

  18. Assessment of altimetry data in Amazonian forest based in INSAR, LIDAR; and GPS technologies.

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    Corina da Costa Freitas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a great amount of altimetry data collected by several experiments taken in the Tapajós National Forest located in the Brazilian Amazon State of Pará. Some of these data were produced by current state of the art technology whose effectiveness is still being proven by scientific investigations. In 1999 LIDAR profiles associated to videography data were taken in the region. In 2000 it was collected P and X band interferometric multifrequency data over areas of different vegetation types. The backscatter response collected by P band radar antenna potentially produces a real digital terrain model (DTM due to its penetration capability across forest canopy toward the soil. When collected in X band radiation is reflected in the top forest canopy which produces a digital surface model (DSM. The availability of digital terrain model and digital surface model covering the same forested area is of great interest for many purposes, especially cartographic applications and carbon stock estimation. Also in 2000, the SRTM mission provided global interferometric cover in C and X bands that permitted the use of these data in the present work. In 2001, 2002, 2003 e 2005 several field control positions were surveyed using GPS dual frequency receivers and by topography surveying methods using total stations. The purpose of this work is to make an evaluation of the errors affecting the original multiple sensor data collected in the study area and apply an effective correction in order to eliminate those errors to permit using the models in other applications. An effective correction type was developed that reduced the original errors. The correction methodology consisted in altimetry offset determination and its application to the original data. Evaluations confirmed that the correction methodology produced good results and the corrected models presented global and local errors lesser than those in the original models.

  19. Human population and socioeconomic modulators of conservation performance in 788 Amazonian and Atlantic Forest reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Marques, Ana Alice B; Schneider, Mauricio; Peres, Carlos A

    2016-01-01

    Protected areas form a quintessential component of the global strategy to perpetuate tropical biodiversity within relatively undisturbed wildlands, but they are becoming increasingly isolated by rapid agricultural encroachment. Here we consider a network of 788 forest protected areas (PAs) in the world's largest tropical country to examine the degree to which they remain intact, and their responses to multiple biophysical and socioeconomic variables potentially affecting natural habitat loss under varying contexts of rural development. PAs within the complex Brazilian National System of Conservation Units (SNUC) are broken down into two main classes-strictly protected and sustainable use. Collectively, these account for 22.6% of the forest biomes within Brazil's national territory, primarily within the Amazon and the Atlantic Forest, but are widely variable in size, ecoregional representation, management strategy, and the degree to which they are threatened by human activities both within and outside reserve boundaries. In particular, we examine the variation in habitat conversion rates in both strictly protected and sustainable use reserves as a function of the internal and external human population density, and levels of land-use revenue in adjacent human-dominated landscapes. Our results show that PAs surrounded by heavily settled agro-pastoral landscapes face much greater challenges in retaining their natural vegetation, and that strictly protected areas are considerably less degraded than sustainable use reserves, which can rival levels of habitat degradation within adjacent 10-km buffer areas outside.

  20. Human population and socioeconomic modulators of conservation performance in 788 Amazonian and Atlantic Forest reserves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Alice B. de Marques

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Protected areas form a quintessential component of the global strategy to perpetuate tropical biodiversity within relatively undisturbed wildlands, but they are becoming increasingly isolated by rapid agricultural encroachment. Here we consider a network of 788 forest protected areas (PAs in the world’s largest tropical country to examine the degree to which they remain intact, and their responses to multiple biophysical and socioeconomic variables potentially affecting natural habitat loss under varying contexts of rural development. PAs within the complex Brazilian National System of Conservation Units (SNUC are broken down into two main classes—strictly protected and sustainable use. Collectively, these account for 22.6% of the forest biomes within Brazil’s national territory, primarily within the Amazon and the Atlantic Forest, but are widely variable in size, ecoregional representation, management strategy, and the degree to which they are threatened by human activities both within and outside reserve boundaries. In particular, we examine the variation in habitat conversion rates in both strictly protected and sustainable use reserves as a function of the internal and external human population density, and levels of land-use revenue in adjacent human-dominated landscapes. Our results show that PAs surrounded by heavily settled agro-pastoral landscapes face much greater challenges in retaining their natural vegetation, and that strictly protected areas are considerably less degraded than sustainable use reserves, which can rival levels of habitat degradation within adjacent 10-km buffer areas outside.

  1. Human population and socioeconomic modulators of conservation performance in 788 Amazonian and Atlantic Forest reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Mauricio; Peres, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    Protected areas form a quintessential component of the global strategy to perpetuate tropical biodiversity within relatively undisturbed wildlands, but they are becoming increasingly isolated by rapid agricultural encroachment. Here we consider a network of 788 forest protected areas (PAs) in the world’s largest tropical country to examine the degree to which they remain intact, and their responses to multiple biophysical and socioeconomic variables potentially affecting natural habitat loss under varying contexts of rural development. PAs within the complex Brazilian National System of Conservation Units (SNUC) are broken down into two main classes—strictly protected and sustainable use. Collectively, these account for 22.6% of the forest biomes within Brazil’s national territory, primarily within the Amazon and the Atlantic Forest, but are widely variable in size, ecoregional representation, management strategy, and the degree to which they are threatened by human activities both within and outside reserve boundaries. In particular, we examine the variation in habitat conversion rates in both strictly protected and sustainable use reserves as a function of the internal and external human population density, and levels of land-use revenue in adjacent human-dominated landscapes. Our results show that PAs surrounded by heavily settled agro-pastoral landscapes face much greater challenges in retaining their natural vegetation, and that strictly protected areas are considerably less degraded than sustainable use reserves, which can rival levels of habitat degradation within adjacent 10-km buffer areas outside. PMID:27478703

  2. Effects of high-frequency understorey fires on woody plant regeneration in southeastern Amazonian forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balch, Jennifer K.; Massad, Tara J.; Brando, Paulo M.; Nepstad, Daniel C.; Curran, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic understorey fires affect large areas of tropical forest, yet their effects on woody plant regeneration post-fire remain poorly understood. We examined the effects of repeated experimental fires on woody stem (less than 1 cm at base) mortality, recruitment, species diversity, community similarity and regeneration mode (seed versus sprout) in Mato Grosso, Brazil. From 2004 to 2010, forest plots (50 ha) were burned twice (B2) or five times (B5), and compared with an unburned control (B0). Stem density recovered within a year after the first burn (initial density: 12.4–13.2 stems m−2), but after 6 years, increased mortality and decreased regeneration—primarily of seedlings—led to a 63 per cent and 85 per cent reduction in stem density in B2 and B5, respectively. Seedlings and sprouts across plots in 2010 displayed remarkable community similarity owing to shared abundant species. Although the dominant surviving species were similar across plots, a major increase in sprouting occurred—almost three- and fourfold greater in B2 and B5 than in B0. In B5, 29 species disappeared and were replaced by 11 new species often present along fragmented forest edges. By 2010, the annual burn regime created substantial divergence between the seedling community and the initial adult tree community (greater than or equal to 20 cm dbh). Increased droughts and continued anthropogenic ignitions associated with frontier land uses may promote high-frequency fire regimes that may substantially alter regeneration and therefore successional processes. PMID:23610167

  3. Scaling estimates of vegetation structure in Amazonian tropical forests using multi-angle MODIS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Yhasmin Mendes; Hilker, Thomas; Goncalves, Fabio Guimarães; Galvão, Lênio Soares; dos Santos, João Roberto; Lyapustin, Alexei; Maeda, Eduardo Eiji; de Jesus Silva, Camila Valéria

    2018-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of vegetation structure is required for accurate modelling of terrestrial ecosystems, but direct measurements of the three dimensional distribution of canopy elements, for instance from LiDAR, are not widely available. We investigate the potential for modelling vegetation roughness, a key parameter for climatological models, from directional scattering of visible and near-infrared (NIR) reflectance acquired from NASA’s Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). We compare our estimates across different tropical forest types to independent measures obtained from: (1) airborne laser scanning (ALS), (2) spaceborne Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS)/ICESat, and (3) the spaceborne SeaWinds/QSCAT. Our results showed linear correlation between MODIS-derived anisotropy to ALS-derived entropy (r2= 0.54, RMSE=0.11), even in high biomass regions. Significant relationships were also obtained between MODIS-derived anisotropy and GLAS-derived entropy (0.52≤ r2≤ 0.61; pMODIS-derived anisotropy and backscattering measurements (σ0) from SeaWinds/QuikSCAT presented an r2 of 0.59 and a RMSE of 0.11. We conclude that multi-angular MODIS observations are suitable to extrapolate measures of canopy entropy across different forest types, providing additional estimates of vegetation structure in the Amazon. PMID:29618964

  4. Diet and prey availability of terrestrial insectivorous birds prone to extinction in amazonian forest fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto Macedo Mestre

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study compared niche breath, prey size, and diet variability in two pairs of sympatric species of terrestrial insectivorous birds, each pair containing one species that can persist in small forest fragments and one that does not. The pairs were Myrmeciza ferruginea and Sclerurus rufigularis; and Formicarius colma and F. analis, respectively. The prey availability in forest fragments was also sampled and compared to the availability in continuous forests. Niche breath indices did not differ between pair members, but diet variability differed in the opposite direction from that hypothesized. Although the two bird species most vulnerable to fragmentation fed on larger prey than less vulnerable species, prey availability, including that based on prey size did not differ among fragmented versus continuous forest sites. Thus, diet per se appeared not to be an important cause of extinction-proneness in these species. The simplest explanation proposed, that vulnerability to fragmentation was directly related to territory size, requires testing. However, it was consistent with observations that the bird species feeding on larger prey also need larger territories.Dieta e disponibilidade de presas de aves insetívoras terrestres em fragmentos florestais amazônicos. As aves insetívoras terrestres são um dos grupos mais vulneráveis à fragmentação de florestas tropicais; no entanto algumas espécies desta guilda ainda sobrevivem em fragmentos florestais e em florestas secundárias. Se a sensibilidade destas aves à fragmentação de florestas estivesse associada à dieta, então espécies com a dieta relativamente flexível teriam maior propensão em persistir nos fragmentos florestais. Este estudo comparou sobreposição trófica, amplitude de nicho, tamanho de presas e variabilidade de dieta de dois pares de espécies de aves insetívoras terrestres, onde cada par foi composto por uma espécie que persiste nos fragmentos e outra que n

  5. Species composition and reproductive modes of anurans from a transitional Amazonian forest, Brazil

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    Youszef O. C. Bitar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to describe the species composition and reproductive modes of an anuran community from a transition area between the Amazonia and Cerrado biomes. Data were collected in habitats exhibiting different degrees of anthropogenic degradation. The community (35 species identified during the present study presented a larger number of reproductive modes when compared with those from Cerrado communities, but smaller than those of other sites in the Amazon. While all nine modes were recorded in the gallery forests of local rivers and streams, anthropogenic habitats (rubber tree orchards and soybean fields were occupied only by species adapted to environments where humidity is low, typical of the Cerrado. Overall, the anuran fauna of the study area was characterized by species that depend on access to water bodies for their reproduction, with only a few specialized species able to reproduce in dry environments.

  6. The price of gold: mercury exposure in the Amazonian rain forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branches, F J; Erickson, T B; Aks, S E; Hryhorczuk, D O

    1993-01-01

    Concern has surfaced over the recent discovery of human mercury exposure throughout the tropical rain forest of South America's Amazon River Basin. The probable source of mercury has been traced to gold mines located within the interior. The mining process involves the extraction of gold from ore by burning off a mercury additive, resulting in vaporization of elemental mercury into the surrounding environment. The purpose of this case series is to document mercury levels in miners and local villagers presenting with a history of exposure, or signs and symptoms consistent with mercury toxicity. Over a five year period (1986-91), the whole blood and urine mercury levels of 55 Brazilian patients demonstrating signs and symptoms consistent with mercury exposure were collected. Thirty-three (60%) of the subjects had direct occupational exposure to mercury via gold mining and refining. Whole blood mercury levels ranged from 0.4-13.0 micrograms/dL (mean 3.05 micrograms/dL). Spot urine levels ranged 0-151 micrograms/L (mean = 32.7 micrograms/L). Occupational mercury exposure is occurring in the Amazon River Basin. Interventions aimed at altering the gold mining process while protecting the workers and surrounding villagers from the source of exposure are essential. The impact of the gold mining industry on general environmental contamination has not been investigated.

  7. Carbon dioxide measurements in the nocturnal boundary layer over Amazonian forest

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    A. D. Culf

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of carbon dioxide concentration, temperature and windspeed were made in the nocturnal boundary layer over a tropical forest near Manaus, Brazil using a tethered balloon system. The measurements were made up to a maximum height of 300 m on ten consecutive nights in November 1995. Simultaneous surface flux and in-canopy concentration measurements were made at the surface close to the site. The observation period included several different types of conditions. Generally strong windshear and relatively weak temperature gradients prevented the formation of a strong capping inversion to the nocturnal boundary layer. On some nights, however, the inversion was sufficiently strong that the CO2 concentration at 100 m above the surface exceeded 400 ppm. The concentration within the canopy was largely controlled by the presence of an inversion very close to the canopy surface. The temperature and wind profiles are contrasted with conditions in Randônia, Brazil, where the windshear was found to be weaker and higher carbon dioxide concentrations were observed in the early morning. The difference in carbon dioxide concentrations in the nocturnal boundary layer between dusk and dawn is used to estimate the regional nighttime flux of carbon dioxide. The value obtained generally exceeds the measured surface flux and sometimes exceeds the sum of the surface flux and the in-canopy storage made at the tower site. The reasons for the discrepancy are not clear; either one of the methods is in error or the regional carbon dioxide budget differs significantly from the local budget measured at the tower site.

  8. Niche partitioning among frugivorous fishes in response to fluctuating resources in the Amazonian floodplain forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Sandra Bibiana; Winemiller, Kirk O

    2014-01-01

    In response to temporal changes in the quality and availability of food resources, consumers should adjust their foraging behavior in a manner that maximizes energy and nutrient intake and, when resources are limiting, minimizes dietary overlap with other consumers. Floodplains of the Amazon and its lowland tributaries are characterized by strong, yet predictable, hydrological seasonality, seasonal availability of fruits, seeds, and other food resources of terrestrial origin, and diverse assemblages of frugivorous fishes, including morphologically similar species of several characiform families. Here, we investigated how diets of frugivorous fishes in the Amazon change in response to fluctuations in food availability, and how this influences patterns of interspecific dietary overlap. We tested predictions from classical theories of foraging and resource competition by estimating changes in diet breadth and overlap across seasons. We monitored fruiting phenology to assess food availability, and surveyed local fish populations during three hydrological seasons in an oligotrophic river and an adjacent oxbow lake in the Colombian Amazon. We analyzed stomach contents and stable isotope data to evaluate temporal and interspecific relationships for dietary composition, breadth, and overlap. Diets of six species of characiform fishes representing three genera changed according to seasonal fluctuations in food availability, and patterns of diet breadth and interspecific overlap during the peak flood pulse were consistent with predictions of optimal foraging theory. During times of high fruit abundance, fishes consumed items to which their functional morphological traits seemed best adapted, potentially enhancing net energy and nutritional gains. As the annual flood pulse subsided and availability of forest food resources in aquatic habitats changed, there was not a consistent pattern of diet breadth expansion or compression. Nonetheless, shifts in both diet composition and

  9. Interethnic Interaction, Strategic Bargaining Power, and the Dynamics of Cultural Norms : A Field Study in an Amazonian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunce, John Andrew; McElreath, Richard

    2017-12-01

    Ethnic groups are universal and unique to human societies. Such groups sometimes have norms of behavior that are adaptively linked to their social and ecological circumstances, and ethnic boundaries may function to protect that variation from erosion by interethnic interaction. However, such interaction is often frequent and voluntary, suggesting that individuals may be able to strategically reduce its costs, allowing adaptive cultural variation to persist in spite of interaction with out-groups with different norms. We examine five mechanisms influencing the dynamics of ethnically distinct cultural norms, each focused on strategic individual-level choices in interethnic interaction: bargaining, interaction-frequency-biased norm adoption, assortment on norms, success-biased interethnic social learning, and childhood socialization. We use Bayesian item response models to analyze patterns of norm variation and interethnic interaction in an ethnically structured Amazonian population. We show that, among indigenous Matsigenka, interethnic education with colonial Mestizos is more strongly associated with Mestizo-typical norms than even extensive interethnic experience in commerce and wage labor is. Using ethnographic observations, we show that all five of the proposed mechanisms of norm adoption may contribute to this effect. However, of these mechanisms, we argue that changes in relative bargaining power are particularly important for ethnic minorities wishing to preserve distinctive norms while engaging in interethnic interaction in domains such as education. If this mechanism proves applicable in a range of other ethnographic contexts, it would constitute one cogent explanation for when and why ethnically structured cultural variation can either persist or erode given frequent, and often mutually beneficial, interethnic interaction.

  10. Influence of drainage status on soil and water chemistry, litter decomposition and soil respiration in central Amazonian forests on sandy soils

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    Antônio Ocimar Manzi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Central Amazonian rainforest landscape supports a mosaic of tall terra firme rainforest and ecotone campinarana, riparian and campina forests, reflecting topography-induced variations in soil, nutrient and drainage conditions. Spatial and temporal variations in litter decomposition, soil and groundwater chemistry and soil CO2 respiration were studied in forests on sandy soils, whereas drought sensitivity of poorly-drained valley soils was investigated in an artificial drainage experiment. Slightly changes in litter decomposition or water chemistry were observed as a consequence of artificial drainage. Riparian plots did experience higher litter decomposition rates than campina forest. In response to a permanent lowering of the groundwater level from 0.1 m to 0.3 m depth in the drainage plot, topsoil carbon and nitrogen contents decreased substantially. Soil CO2 respiration decreased from 3.7±0.6 µmol m-2 s-1 before drainage to 2.5±0.2 and 0.8±0.1 µmol m-2 s-1 eight and 11 months after drainage, respectively. Soil respiration in the control plot remained constant at 3.7±0.6 µmol m-2 s-1. The above suggests that more frequent droughts may affect topsoil carbon and nitrogen content and soil respiration rates in the riparian ecosystem, and may induce a transition to less diverse campinarana or short-statured campina forest that covers areas with strongly-leached sandy soil.

  11. The effects of processing non-timber forest products and trade partnerships on people's well-being and forest conservation in Amazonian societies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Morsello

    Full Text Available This study evaluated whether processing non-timber forest products (NTFPs and establishing trade partnerships between forest communities and companies enhance the outcomes of NTFP commercialization. In particular, we evaluated whether product processing, partnerships, or their combination was associated with a number of outcomes related to the well-being of forest inhabitants and forest conservation. We based our analyses on ethnographic and quantitative data (i.e., survey and systematic observations gathered at seven communities from five societies of the Brazilian and Bolivian Amazon. Our results indicated that product processing and partnerships do not represent a silver bullet able to improve the results of NTFP commercialization in terms of well-being and conservation indicators. Compared with cases without interventions, households adopting partnerships but not product processing were most often associated with improved economic proxies of well-being (total income, NTFP income, food consumption and gender equality in income. In comparison, the combination of product processing and partnerships was associated with similar outcomes. Unexpectedly, product processing alone was associated with negative outcomes in the economic indicators of well-being. All of the investigated strategies were associated with less time spent in social and cultural activities. With respect to forest conservation, the strategies that included a partnership with or without processing produced similar results: while household deforestation tended to decrease, the hunting impact increased. Processing alone was also associated with higher levels of hunting, though it did not reduce deforestation. Our results indicate that establishing partnerships may enhance the outcomes of NTFP trade in terms of the financial outcomes of local communities, but practitioners need to use caution when adopting the processing strategy and they need to evaluate potential negative results

  12. The effects of processing non-timber forest products and trade partnerships on people's well-being and forest conservation in Amazonian societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsello, Carla; Ruiz-Mallén, Isabel; Diaz, Maria Dolores Montoya; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated whether processing non-timber forest products (NTFPs) and establishing trade partnerships between forest communities and companies enhance the outcomes of NTFP commercialization. In particular, we evaluated whether product processing, partnerships, or their combination was associated with a number of outcomes related to the well-being of forest inhabitants and forest conservation. We based our analyses on ethnographic and quantitative data (i.e., survey and systematic observations) gathered at seven communities from five societies of the Brazilian and Bolivian Amazon. Our results indicated that product processing and partnerships do not represent a silver bullet able to improve the results of NTFP commercialization in terms of well-being and conservation indicators. Compared with cases without interventions, households adopting partnerships but not product processing were most often associated with improved economic proxies of well-being (total income, NTFP income, food consumption and gender equality in income). In comparison, the combination of product processing and partnerships was associated with similar outcomes. Unexpectedly, product processing alone was associated with negative outcomes in the economic indicators of well-being. All of the investigated strategies were associated with less time spent in social and cultural activities. With respect to forest conservation, the strategies that included a partnership with or without processing produced similar results: while household deforestation tended to decrease, the hunting impact increased. Processing alone was also associated with higher levels of hunting, though it did not reduce deforestation. Our results indicate that establishing partnerships may enhance the outcomes of NTFP trade in terms of the financial outcomes of local communities, but practitioners need to use caution when adopting the processing strategy and they need to evaluate potential negative results for indicators of

  13. The Effects of Processing Non-Timber Forest Products and Trade Partnerships on People's Well-Being and Forest Conservation in Amazonian Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsello, Carla; Ruiz-Mallén, Isabel; Diaz, Maria Dolores Montoya; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated whether processing non-timber forest products (NTFPs) and establishing trade partnerships between forest communities and companies enhance the outcomes of NTFP commercialization. In particular, we evaluated whether product processing, partnerships, or their combination was associated with a number of outcomes related to the well-being of forest inhabitants and forest conservation. We based our analyses on ethnographic and quantitative data (i.e., survey and systematic observations) gathered at seven communities from five societies of the Brazilian and Bolivian Amazon. Our results indicated that product processing and partnerships do not represent a silver bullet able to improve the results of NTFP commercialization in terms of well-being and conservation indicators. Compared with cases without interventions, households adopting partnerships but not product processing were most often associated with improved economic proxies of well-being (total income, NTFP income, food consumption and gender equality in income). In comparison, the combination of product processing and partnerships was associated with similar outcomes. Unexpectedly, product processing alone was associated with negative outcomes in the economic indicators of well-being. All of the investigated strategies were associated with less time spent in social and cultural activities. With respect to forest conservation, the strategies that included a partnership with or without processing produced similar results: while household deforestation tended to decrease, the hunting impact increased. Processing alone was also associated with higher levels of hunting, though it did not reduce deforestation. Our results indicate that establishing partnerships may enhance the outcomes of NTFP trade in terms of the financial outcomes of local communities, but practitioners need to use caution when adopting the processing strategy and they need to evaluate potential negative results for indicators of

  14. Shifts in indigenous culture relate to forest tree diversity: a case study from the Tsimane’, Bolivian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guèze, Maximilien; Luz, Ana Catarina; Paneque-Gálvez, Jaime; Macía, Manuel J.; Orta-Martínez, Martí; Pino, Joan; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how indigenous peoples’ management practices relate to biological diversity requires addressing contemporary changes in indigenous peoples’ way of life. This study explores the association between cultural change among a Bolivian Amazonian indigenous group, the Tsimane’, and tree diversity in forests surrounding their villages. We interviewed 86 informants in six villages about their level of attachment to traditional Tsimane’ values, our proxy for cultural change. We estimated tree diversity (Fisher’s Alpha index) by inventorying trees in 48 0.1-ha plots in old-growth forests distributed in the territory of the same villages. We used multivariate models to assess the relation between cultural change and alpha tree diversity. Cultural change was associated with alpha tree diversity and the relation showed an inverted U-shape, thus suggesting that tree alpha diversity peaked in villages undergoing intermediate cultural change. Although the results do not allow for testing the direction of the relation, we propose that cultural change relates to tree diversity through the changes in practices and behaviors that affect the traditional ecological knowledge of Tsimane’ communities; further research is needed to determine the causality. Our results also find support in the intermediate disturbance hypothesis, and suggest that indigenous management can be seen as an intermediate form of anthropogenic disturbance affecting forest communities in a subtle, non-destructive way. PMID:26097240

  15. Shifts in indigenous culture relate to forest tree diversity: a case study from the Tsimane', Bolivian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guèze, Maximilien; Luz, Ana Catarina; Paneque-Gálvez, Jaime; Macía, Manuel J; Orta-Martínez, Martí; Pino, Joan; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2015-06-01

    Understanding how indigenous peoples' management practices relate to biological diversity requires addressing contemporary changes in indigenous peoples' way of life. This study explores the association between cultural change among a Bolivian Amazonian indigenous group, the Tsimane', and tree diversity in forests surrounding their villages. We interviewed 86 informants in six villages about their level of attachment to traditional Tsimane' values, our proxy for cultural change. We estimated tree diversity (Fisher's Alpha index) by inventorying trees in 48 0.1-ha plots in old-growth forests distributed in the territory of the same villages. We used multivariate models to assess the relation between cultural change and alpha tree diversity. Cultural change was associated with alpha tree diversity and the relation showed an inverted U-shape, thus suggesting that tree alpha diversity peaked in villages undergoing intermediate cultural change. Although the results do not allow for testing the direction of the relation, we propose that cultural change relates to tree diversity through the changes in practices and behaviors that affect the traditional ecological knowledge of Tsimane' communities; further research is needed to determine the causality. Our results also find support in the intermediate disturbance hypothesis, and suggest that indigenous management can be seen as an intermediate form of anthropogenic disturbance affecting forest communities in a subtle, non-destructive way.

  16. Amazonian forest restoration: an innovative system for native species selection based on phenological data and performance indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver H. Knowles; John A. Parrotta

    1995-01-01

    One hundred and sixty taxa of upland moist forest trees were studied with reference to their suitability for forest restoration on bauxite mined Iands in western Para State, Brazil. Over a 14-year period, field observations in native primary forests, nursery studies, and evaluations of over 600 ha of mixed-species reforestation areas were used to characterize fruiting...

  17. Variation in stem mortality rates determines patterns of above-ground biomass in Amazonian forests: implications for dynamic global vegetation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michelle O; Galbraith, David; Gloor, Manuel; De Deurwaerder, Hannes; Guimberteau, Matthieu; Rammig, Anja; Thonicke, Kirsten; Verbeeck, Hans; von Randow, Celso; Monteagudo, Abel; Phillips, Oliver L; Brienen, Roel J W; Feldpausch, Ted R; Lopez Gonzalez, Gabriela; Fauset, Sophie; Quesada, Carlos A; Christoffersen, Bradley; Ciais, Philippe; Sampaio, Gilvan; Kruijt, Bart; Meir, Patrick; Moorcroft, Paul; Zhang, Ke; Alvarez-Davila, Esteban; Alves de Oliveira, Atila; Amaral, Ieda; Andrade, Ana; Aragao, Luiz E O C; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro; Arets, Eric J M M; Arroyo, Luzmila; Aymard, Gerardo A; Baraloto, Christopher; Barroso, Jocely; Bonal, Damien; Boot, Rene; Camargo, Jose; Chave, Jerome; Cogollo, Alvaro; Cornejo Valverde, Fernando; Lola da Costa, Antonio C; Di Fiore, Anthony; Ferreira, Leandro; Higuchi, Niro; Honorio, Euridice N; Killeen, Tim J; Laurance, Susan G; Laurance, William F; Licona, Juan; Lovejoy, Thomas; Malhi, Yadvinder; Marimon, Bia; Marimon, Ben Hur; Matos, Darley C L; Mendoza, Casimiro; Neill, David A; Pardo, Guido; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Pitman, Nigel C A; Poorter, Lourens; Prieto, Adriana; Ramirez-Angulo, Hirma; Roopsind, Anand; Rudas, Agustin; Salomao, Rafael P; Silveira, Marcos; Stropp, Juliana; Ter Steege, Hans; Terborgh, John; Thomas, Raquel; Toledo, Marisol; Torres-Lezama, Armando; van der Heijden, Geertje M F; Vasquez, Rodolfo; Guimarães Vieira, Ima Cèlia; Vilanova, Emilio; Vos, Vincent A; Baker, Timothy R

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the processes that determine above-ground biomass (AGB) in Amazonian forests is important for predicting the sensitivity of these ecosystems to environmental change and for designing and evaluating dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs). AGB is determined by inputs from woody productivity [woody net primary productivity (NPP)] and the rate at which carbon is lost through tree mortality. Here, we test whether two direct metrics of tree mortality (the absolute rate of woody biomass loss and the rate of stem mortality) and/or woody NPP, control variation in AGB among 167 plots in intact forest across Amazonia. We then compare these relationships and the observed variation in AGB and woody NPP with the predictions of four DGVMs. The observations show that stem mortality rates, rather than absolute rates of woody biomass loss, are the most important predictor of AGB, which is consistent with the importance of stand size structure for determining spatial variation in AGB. The relationship between stem mortality rates and AGB varies among different regions of Amazonia, indicating that variation in wood density and height/diameter relationships also influences AGB. In contrast to previous findings, we find that woody NPP is not correlated with stem mortality rates and is weakly positively correlated with AGB. Across the four models, basin-wide average AGB is similar to the mean of the observations. However, the models consistently overestimate woody NPP and poorly represent the spatial patterns of both AGB and woody NPP estimated using plot data. In marked contrast to the observations, DGVMs typically show strong positive relationships between woody NPP and AGB. Resolving these differences will require incorporating forest size structure, mechanistic models of stem mortality and variation in functional composition in DGVMs. © 2016 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Challenges of Governing Second-Growth Forests: A Case Study from the Brazilian Amazonian State of Pará

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Ima; Gardner, Toby; Ferreira, Joice; Lees, Alexander; Barlow, Jos

    2014-01-01

    Despite the growing ecological and social importance of second-growth and regenerating forests across much of the world, significant inconsistencies remain in the legal framework governing these forests in many tropical countries and elsewhere. Such inconsistencies and uncertainties undermine attempts to improve both the transparency and sustainability of management regimes. Here, we present a case-study overview of some of the main challenges facing the governance of second-growth forests an...

  19. The impact of smoke from forest fires on the spectral dispersion of cloud droplet size distributions in the Amazonian region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, J A; Silva Dias, M A F

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the main microphysical characteristics of clouds developing in polluted and clean conditions in the biomass-burning season of the Amazon region are examined, with special attention to the spectral dispersion of the cloud droplet size distribution and its potential impact on climate modeling applications. The dispersion effect has been shown to alter the climate cooling predicted by the so-called Twomey effect. In biomass-burning polluted conditions, high concentrations of low dispersed cloud droplets are found. Clean conditions revealed an opposite situation. The liquid water content (0.43 ± 0.19 g m -3 ) is shown to be uncorrelated with the cloud drop number concentration, while the effective radius is found to be very much correlated with the relative dispersion of the size distribution (R 2 = 0.81). The results suggest that an increase in cloud condensation nuclei concentration from biomass-burning aerosols may lead to an additional effect caused by a decrease in relative dispersion. Since the dry season in the Amazonian region is vapor limiting, the dispersion effect of cloud droplet size distributions could be substantially larger than in other polluted regions.

  20. Challenges of Governing Second-Growth Forests: A Case Study from the Brazilian Amazonian State of Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ima Célia Guimarães Vieira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite the growing ecological and social importance of second-growth and regenerating forests across much of the world, significant inconsistencies remain in the legal framework governing these forests in many tropical countries and elsewhere. Such inconsistencies and uncertainties undermine attempts to improve both the transparency and sustainability of management regimes. Here, we present a case-study overview of some of the main challenges facing the governance of second-growth forests and the forest restoration process in the Brazilian Amazon, with a focus on the state of Pará, which is both the most populous state in the Amazon and the state with the highest rates of deforestation in recent years. First, we briefly review the history of environmental governance in Brazil that has led to the current system of legislation governing second-growth forests and the forest restoration process in Pará. Next, we draw on this review to examine the kinds of legislative and operational impediments that stand in the way of the development and implementation of a more effective governance system. In particular, we highlight problems created by significant ambiguities in legal terminology and inconsistencies in guidance given across different levels of government. We also outline some persistent problems with the implementation of legal guidance, including the need to understand local biophysical factors in order to guide an effective restoration program, as well as difficulties presented by access to technical assistance, institutional support and financial resources for the establishment and monitoring of both existing secondary forests and newly regenerating areas of forest. Whilst we focus here on a Brazilian case study, we suggest that these kinds of impediments to the good governance of second-growth forests are commonplace and require more concerted attention from researchers, managers and policy makers.

  1. Litter and nutrient flows in tropical upland forest flooded by a hydropower plant in the Amazonian basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Guilherme Henrique A; Jordão, Henos Carlos K; Silva, Vanessa Francieli V; Pereira, Marcos Gervasio

    2016-12-01

    Extensive areas in the Brazilian Amazon have been flooded for the construction of hydroelectric dams. However, the water regime of these areas affects the dynamics of igarapés (streams) in adjacent terra firme (upland forests). When the reservoirs are filled, the water levels of streams rise above the normal levels and upland bank forests are flooded. We investigated how this flooding affects the litterfall and nutrient input in the upland forests upstream of a hydroelectric dam reservoir in the Central Amazonia. When the reservoir was filled, the forests were flooded and produced more than twice the litter (8.80Mg·ha -1 yr -1 ), with three times more leaves (6.36Mg·ha -1 yr -1 ) than when they were not flooded (4.20 and 1.92Mg·ha -1 yr -1 , respectively). During flooding, the decomposition rate was four times lower in flooded forests (0.328g·g -1 yr -1 ) than in control forests (1.460g·g -1 yr -1 ). Despite this, the flooding did not favor litter or nutrient accumulation. Therefore, dam construction changes the organic matter and nutrient cycling in upland Amazon rainforests. This may influence the important role that they play in organic matter dynamics and could have consequences for the regional carbon balance and, ultimately, global climate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Factors affecting the abundance of leaf-litter arthropods in unburned and thrice-burned seasonally-dry Amazonian forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Juliana M; Barlow, Jos; Louzada, Julio; Moutinho, Paulo

    2010-09-21

    Fire is frequently used as a land management tool for cattle ranching and annual crops in the Amazon. However, these maintenance fires often escape into surrounding forests, with potentially severe impacts for forest biodiversity. We examined the effect of experimental fires on leaf-litter arthropod abundance in a seasonally-dry forest in the Brazilian Amazon. The study plots (50 ha each) included a thrice-burned forest and an unburned control forest. Pitfall-trap samples were collected at 160 randomly selected points in both plots, with sampling stratified across four intra-annual replicates across the dry and wet seasons, corresponding to 6, 8, 10 and 12 months after the most recent fire. Arthropods were identified to the level of order (separating Formicidae). In order to better understand the processes that determine arthropod abundance in thrice-burned forests, we measured canopy openness, understory density and litter depth. All arthropod taxa were significantly affected by fire and season. In addition, the interactions between burn treatment and season were highly significant for all taxa but Isoptera. The burned plot was characterized by a more open canopy, lower understory density and shallower litter depth. Hierarchical partitioning revealed that canopy openness was the most important factor explaining arthropod order abundances in the thrice-burned plot, whereas all three environmental variables were significant in the unburned control plot. These results reveal the marked impact of recurrent wildfires and seasonality on litter arthropods in this transitional forest, and demonstrate the overwhelming importance of canopy-openness in driving post-fire arthropod abundance.

  3. Spatial Variation in Bird Community Composition in Relation to Topographic Gradient and Forest Heterogeneity in a Central Amazonian Rainforest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Cintra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of landscape features and forest structure on the avian community at the Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke near Manaus, in the Brazilian Amazon. We sampled the landscape and forest in 72 50 × 50 m plots systematically distributed in the reserve, covering an area of 6,400 ha. The avifauna was sampled using mist nets and acoustic surveys near the plots. We found no significant relationships between landscape features and forest components in the plots and the number of bird species and individuals sampled. Results of Principal Coordinate Analyses, however, showed that bird species composition changes along a topographic gradient (plateau-slope-valley, and also in relation to leaf litter depth and distance to forest streams. We also found compositional differences in the avian community on the eastern and western water basins that compose the reserve. Our results suggest that although most bird species occur throughout the reserve, many species track differences in the landscape and the forest structure.

  4. Heterogeneous movement of insectivorous Amazonian birds through primary and secondary forest: A case study using multistate models with radiotelemetry data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke L. Powell; Jared D. Wolfe; Erik I. Johnson; James E. Hines; James D. Nichols; Philip C Stouffer

    2015-01-01

    Given rates of deforestation, disturbance, and secondary forest accumulation in tropical rainforests, there is a great need to quantify habitat use and movement among different habitats. This need is particularly pronounced for animals most sensitive to disturbance, such as insectivorous understory birds. Here we use multistate capture–recapture models with...

  5. Biomass accumulation rates of Amazonian secondary forest and biomass of old-growth forests from Landsat time series and the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. H. Helmer; M. A. Lefsky; D. A. Roberts

    2009-01-01

    We estimate the age of humid lowland tropical forests in Rondônia, Brazil, from a somewhat densely spaced time series of Landsat images (1975–2003) with an automated procedure, the Threshold Age Mapping Algorithm (TAMA), first described here. We then estimate a landscape-level rate of aboveground woody biomass accumulation of secondary forest by combining forest age...

  6. SPECIES DIVERSITY AND COMMUNITY STRUCTURE OF FRUIT-FEEDING BUTTERFLIES (LEPIDOPTERA: NYMPHALIDAE) IN AN EASTERN AMAZONIAN FOREST

    OpenAIRE

    MARTINS, LUCAS PEREIRA; ARAUJO JUNIOR, ELIAS DA COSTA; MARTINS, ANANDA REGINA PEREIRA; DUARTE, MARCELO; AZEVEDO, GISELE GARCIA

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Deforestation has negative impacts on diversity and community patterns of several taxa. In the eastern Amazon, where much deforestation is predicted for the coming years, forests patches may be essential to maintain the local biodiversity. Despite increasing concerns about the conservation of threatened areas, few studies have been performed to analyze the communities of diversified groups, such as insects, in the eastern Amazon. Here, we investigated species diversity and community ...

  7. Socio- cultural importance of sacred forests conservation in south ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sacred forests have been an important part of many African traditional societies for decades. This is an example of in-situ biodiversity conservation, which has supported various ecosystem functions. This study highlighted various approaches used by communities to enhance the socio- cultural importance of sacred forest ...

  8. Segmentation of culturally diverse visitors' values in forest recreation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Li; H.C. Zinn; G.E. Chick; J.D. Absher; A.R. Graefe; Y. Hsu

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the potential utility of HOFSTEDE’s measure of cultural values (1980) for group segmentation in an ethnically diverse population in a forest recreation context, and to validate the values segmentation, if any, via socio-demographic and service quality related variables. In 2002, the visitors to the Angeles National Forest (ANF)...

  9. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities along a pedo-hydrological gradient in a Central Amazonian terra firme forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Freitas, Rejane; Buscardo, Erika; Nagy, Laszlo; dos Santos Maciel, Alex Bruno; Carrenho, Rosilaine; Luizão, Regina C C

    2014-01-01

    Little attention has been paid to plant mutualistic interactions in the Amazon rainforest, and the general pattern of occurrence and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in these ecosystems is largely unknown. This study investigated AMF communities through their spores in soil in a 'terra firme forest' in Central Amazonia. The contribution played by abiotic factors and plant host species identity in regulating the composition, abundance and diversity of such communities along a topographic gradient with different soils and hydrology was also evaluated. Forty-one spore morphotypes were observed with species belonging to the genera Glomus and Acaulospora, representing 44 % of the total taxa. Soil texture and moisture, together with host identity, were predominant factors responsible for shaping AMF communities along the pedo-hydrological gradient. However, the variability within AMF communities was largely associated with shifts in the relative abundance of spores rather than changes in species composition, confirming that common AMF species are widely distributed in plant communities and all plants recruited into the forest are likely to be exposed to the dominant sporulating AMF species.

  10. Culturally and economically important nontimber forest products of northern Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle J. Baumflek; Marla R. Emery; Clare. Ginger

    2010-01-01

    Nontimber forest products (NTFPs) gathered for food, medicine, craft, spiritual, aesthetic, and utilitarian purposes make substantial contributions to the economic viability and cultural vitality of communities. In the St. John River watershed of northern Maine, people identifying with cultural groups including Acadian, Maliseet, Mi'kmaq, Scotch-Irish, and Swedish...

  11. Influence of landscape heterogeneity on water available to tropical forests in an Amazonian catchment and implications for modeling drought response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yilin; Leung, L. Ruby; Duan, Zhuoran; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Maxwell, Reed M.; Chambers, Jeffrey Q.; Tomasella, Javier

    2017-08-01

    The Amazon basin has experienced periodic droughts in the past, and intense and frequent droughts are predicted in the future. Landscape heterogeneity could play an important role in how tropical forests respond to drought by influencing water available to plants. Using the one-dimensional ACME Land Model and the three-dimensional ParFlow variably saturated flow model, numerical experiments were performed for a catchment in central Amazon to elucidate processes that influence water available for plant use and provide insights for improving Earth system models. Results from ParFlow show that topography has a dominant influence on groundwater table and runoff through lateral flow. Without any representations of lateral processes, ALM simulates very different seasonal variations in groundwater table and runoff compared to ParFlow even if it is able to reproduce the long-term spatial average groundwater table of ParFlow through simple parameter calibration. In the ParFlow simulations, even in the plateau with much deeper water table depth during the dry season in the drought year of 2005, plant transpiration is not water stressed as the soil saturation is still sufficient for the stomata to be fully open based on the empirical wilting formulation in the models. This finding is insensitive to uncertainty in atmospheric forcing and soil parameters, but the empirical wilting formulation is an important factor that should be addressed using observations and modeling of coupled plant hydraulics-soil hydrology processes in future studies. The results could be applicable to other catchments in the Amazon basin with similar seasonal variability and hydrologic regimes.

  12. The odd man out? Might climate explain the lower tree alpha-diversity of African rain forests relative to Amazonian rain forests?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parmentier, I.; Malhi, Y.; Senterre, B.; Whittaker, R.J.; Alonso, A.; Balinga, M.P.B.; Bakayoko, A.; Bongers, F.J.J.M.; Chatelain, C.; Comiskey, J.; Cortay, R.; Djuikouo Kamdem, M.N.; Doucet, J.L.; Gauier, L.; Hawthorne, W.D.; Issembe, Y.A.; Kouamé, F.N.; Kouka, L.; Leal, M.E.; Lejoly, J.; Lewis, S.L.; Newbery, D.; Nusbaumer, L.; Parren, M.P.E.; Peh, K.S.H.; Phillips, O.L.; Sheil, D.; Sonké, B.; Sosef, M.S.M.; Sunderland, T.; Stropp, J.; Steege, ter H.; Swaine, M.; Tchouto, P.; Gemerden, van B.S.; Valkenburg, van J.; Wöll, H.

    2007-01-01

    1. Comparative analyses of diversity variation among and between regions allow testing of alternative explanatory models and ideas. Here, we explore the relationships between the tree alpha-diversity of small rain forest plots in Africa and in Amazonia and climatic variables, to test the explanatory

  13. The Cultural Ecology Protection and Management of Urban Forests in China

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG, Ying; SONG, Weiming; CHEN, Ke; GUO, Chunjing

    2013-01-01

    Forests have economic, ecological, social and cultural functions. Forests Cultural ecology, the counterpart of forest ecology, is the integration of human spirit formed on the basis of natural forest and living systems. In recent years, China's urbanization rate has increased from 28% in 1993 to 45.68% in 2008, and ecological protection of urban forest has made great progress, but insufficient attention was paid to the forest cultural ecology protection and the relevant regulatory was not w...

  14. The sustainability search in the Amazonian productive systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Allan A

    2001-01-01

    Historically the society and the state have a little attention to the Amazonian area and this it continues being one of the regions but marginal of the country. The countries that possess Amazon territory have spread to neglect those lands so far away and unknown. In spite of their margination, the region goes getting paid every time but importance in the nation and the world. The information that it keeps their diversity biotic and cultural it has international recognition; economically it has considerable reservations of minerals, wood and fishes, which are extracted to supply the national and international markets. Politically the region is mentioned by the social conflict and the colonization that it fronts, it also has the only frontiers with Brazil and Peru, in the future, will be built the marginal highway of the forest; connecting to Ecuador with Colombia and Venezuela, opening significant spaces for the trade and the international integration

  15. Influence of landscape heterogeneity on water available to tropical forests in an Amazonian catchment and implications for modeling drought response: Water Available to Tropical Forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Yilin; Leung, Lai-Yung; Duan, Zhuoran; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Maxwell, Reed M.; Chambers, Jeffrey Q.; Tomasella, Javier

    2017-08-18

    The Amazon basin experienced periodic droughts in the past, and climate models projected more intense and frequent droughts in the future. How tropical forests respond to drought may depend on water availability, which is modulated by landscape heterogeneity. Using the one-dimensional ACME Land Model (ALM) and the three-dimensional ParFlow variably saturated flow model, a series of numerical experiments were performed for the Asu catchment in central Amazon to elucidate processes that influence water available for plant use and provide insights for improving Earth system models. Results from ParFlow show that topography has a dominant influence on groundwater table and runoff through lateral flow. Without any representations of lateral processes, ALM simulates very different seasonal variations in groundwater table and runoff compared to ParFlow even if it is able to reproduce the long-term spatial average groundwater table of ParFlow through simple parameter calibration. In the ParFlow simulations, the groundwater table is evidently deeper and the soil saturation is lower in the plateau compared to the valley. However, even in the plateau during the dry season in the drought year of 2005, plant transpiration is not water stressed in the ParFlow simulations as the soil saturation is still sufficient to maintain a soil matric potential for the stomata to be fully open. This finding is insensitive to uncertainty in atmospheric forcing and soil parameters, but the empirical wilting formulation used in the models is an important factor that should be addressed using observations and modeling of coupled plant hydraulics-soil hydrology processes in future studies.

  16. Forest conservation in a changing world: natural or cultural? Example from the Western Carpathians forests, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Feurdean

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to plan for the future management of some of the most biodiverse forests of Europe, it is essential that we understand under which condition they arose and the time and processes responsible for their variability. Here, I highlight the main findings from the palaeoecological (pollen and charcoal, archaeological and historical investigation comprising the last 6000 years, in the Apuseni Natural Park, NW Romania and discuss the effect of the past land use and forest management on these forests. I then ask what does it mean in term of conservation values if these forests are not natural but a human product and bring up the relevance of cultural landscape for conservation.

  17. Present-day African analogue of a pre-European Amazonian floodplain fishery shows convergence in cultural niche construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKey, Doyle B; Durécu, Mélisse; Pouilly, Marc; Béarez, Philippe; Ovando, Alex; Kalebe, Mashuta; Huchzermeyer, Carl F

    2016-12-27

    Erickson [Erickson CL (2000) Nature 408 (6809):190-193] interpreted features in seasonal floodplains in Bolivia's Beni savannas as vestiges of pre-European earthen fish weirs, postulating that they supported a productive, sustainable fishery that warranted cooperation in the construction and maintenance of perennial structures. His inferences were bold, because no close ethnographic analogues were known. A similar present-day Zambian fishery, documented here, appears strikingly convergent. The Zambian fishery supports Erickson's key inferences about the pre-European fishery: It allows sustained high harvest levels; weir construction and operation require cooperation; and weirs are inherited across generations. However, our comparison suggests that the pre-European system may not have entailed intensive management, as Erickson postulated. The Zambian fishery's sustainability is based on exploiting an assemblage dominated by species with life histories combining high fecundity, multiple reproductive cycles, and seasonal use of floodplains. As water rises, adults migrate from permanent watercourses into floodplains, through gaps in weirs, to feed and spawn. Juveniles grow and then migrate back to dry-season refuges as water falls. At that moment fishermen set traps in the gaps, harvesting large numbers of fish, mostly juveniles. In nature, most juveniles die during the first dry season, so that their harvest just before migration has limited impact on future populations, facilitating sustainability and the adoption of a fishery based on inherited perennial structures. South American floodplain fishes with similar life histories were the likely targets of the pre-European fishery. Convergence in floodplain fish strategies in these two regions in turn drove convergence in cultural niche construction.

  18. Perception and attitudes of local people concerning ecosystem services of culturally protected forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, H.; Ouyang, Z.; Zheng, H.; Bluemling, B.

    2013-01-01

    Culturally protected forests (CPFs) can be defined as forest areas preserved and managed by local people on the basis of traditional cultural practices and beliefs, and these forests have been maintained for decades or even centuries without much disturbance or change. Most of them are natural

  19. Tissue culture and micropropagation for forest biomass production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, E.; Maine, F.W.

    1984-09-01

    An increase in forest production will be necessary in the future when wood becomes a major renewable source of energy and chemicals along with its traditional role of fibre source. This increase could eventually by achieved be proper selection and breeding of trees. Clonal forestry by vegetative propagation of cuttings is becoming a viable alternative to a seedling-based forestry with many advantages, and cutting could be used to quickly propagate large numbers of clones of control-pollinated seedlings. Most forest trees are propagated sexually and seed orchards were started in the US and Canada in the last 40-50 years for breeding purposes. Forests could ultimately be established with improved seedlings instead of from seed with unknown genetic potential, or by natural regeneration. Micropropagation is the term used to refer to the propagation of plants raised by tissue culture methods rather than from seeds or cuttings. Many clonal plantlets could be regenerated asexually in the laboratory and eventually transplanted to permanent sites. In addition the technology could be developed to produce new variants from somatic cells. Tissue culture is a technique which may be useful for plant propagation where conventional methods are inadequate or unsuitable. However, traditional studies of field planting observed over long periods of time would still be necessary. This document has the object of informing those who may wish to know more about these techniques in relation to practical application, and require a general overview rather than experimental details, which are given in an annotated bilbiography. 274 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Human impacts on soil carbon dynamics of deep-rooted Amazonian forests and effect of land use change on the carbon cycle in Amazon soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepstad, Daniel; Stone, Thomas; Davidson, Eric; Trumbore, Susan E.

    1992-01-01

    The main objective of these NASA-funded projects is to improve our understanding of land-use impacts on soil carbon dynamics in the Amazon Basin. Soil contains approximately one half of tropical forest carbon stocks, yet the fate of this carbon following forest impoverishment is poorly studied. Our mechanistics approach draws on numerous techniques for measuring soil carbon outputs, inputs, and turnover time in the soils of adjacent forest and pasture ecosystems at our research site in Paragominas, state of Para, Brazil. We are scaling up from this site-specific work by analyzing Basin-wide patterns in rooting depth and rainfall seasonality, the two factors that we believe should explain much of the variation in tropical soil carbons dynamics. In this report, we summarize ongoing measurements at our Paragominas study site, progress in employing new field data to understand soil C dynamics, and some surprising results from our regional, scale-up work.

  1. Intensive Culture on Northern Forest-Industry Lands: Trends, Expectations, and Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    David A. Gansner; Owen W. Herrick; Dietmar W. Rose

    1977-01-01

    Results of a survey of intensive forest-culture practices on forest-industry lands in the North. Timber-stand improvement and commercial thinning have been and apparently will continue to be the most popular practices undertaken. Estimated increases in recent annual harvests due to intensive culture averaged about 4 percent, and greater increases are expected during...

  2. Seed dispersal of a useful palm (Astrocaryum chambira Burret) in three amazonian forests with different human intervention used in ecological restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez Beatriz H; Parrado Rosselli Angela; Stevenson Pablo

    2009-01-01

    The young leaves of Astrocaryum chambira are used by the indigenous people in the Amazon as raw material for handicrafts. However, few studies have been made on the natural history of this palm and on the indirect impact caused by the decrease of its dispersal agents. Considering that the loss of animal dispersal vectors due to hunting and landscape modification can affect seed dispersal processes of tropical forest plants, the goal of this study was to compare seed dispersal of A. chambira in three terra firme forests of the Colombian Amazon, with different degrees of human intervention. We censused densities of dispersal agents of A. chambira, and characterized the seed shadow. We also marked seeds to estimate dispersal distances, and established density and distance-dependent experimental stations to assess their relevance on seed dispersal. The results showed that seed removal was proportional to dispersal agent densities and forest intervention levels. Insects were the main seed predators in all sites but their effect was less pronounced in the low intervened forest site. Seed density did not show any effect on removal, while a higher probability of survival at intermediate distances from the parent palm (10 m) was found. Future studies should focus on seedling establishment, recruitment rates and the effects of human intervention on subsequent life stages of the palm.

  3. Abelhas africanizadas Apis mellifera scutellata Lepeletier, 1836 (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Apinae exploram recursos na floresta amazônica? Do Africanized honeybees explore resources in the amazonian forest?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Luiz de Oliveira

    2005-09-01

    quickly and expand throughout nearly of the Americas. Moreover, to date there is much controversy about the probable impact of these bees, called Africanized honey bees, on native bees. In the Americas, Africanized honeybees are limited to regions of low altitude and cool winters, and in Brazil they occur principally in urban areas, and open or disturbed vegetation, not occurring in the interior of dense forest such as the Amazon Forest. We offered various kinds of bait in the interior of continuous forest, and in forest fragments to verify if Africanized honeybees would be capable of penetrate in it. No Africanized honeybee workers visited any baits in continuous forest or in forest fragments, but they did so in deforested/open areas. This result indicates that there is no possibility of source competition between Africanized and native bees within Amazon forest, and also indicates that large-scale beekeeping is unlikely to succeed in this region, because forest is not explored by Africanized bees.

  4. Local-scale spatial variation in diversity of social wasps in an Amazonian rain forest in Caxiuanã, Pará, Brazil (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Tobias Silveira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Polistine wasps are important in Neotropical ecosystems due to their ubiquity and diversity. Inventories have not adequately considered spatial attributes of collected specimens. Spatial data on biodiversity are important for study and mitigation of anthropogenic impacts over natural ecosystems and for protecting species. We described and analyzed local-scale spatial patterns of collecting records of wasp species, as well as spatial variation of diversity descriptors in a 2500-hectare area of an Amazon forest in Brazil. Rare species comprised the largest fraction of the fauna. Close range spatial effects were detected for most of the more common species, with clustering of presence-data at short distances. Larger spatial lag effects could also be identified in some species, constituting probably cases of exogenous autocorrelation and candidates for explanations based on environmental factors. In a few cases, significant or near significant correlations were found between five species (of Agelaia, Angiopolybia, and Mischocyttarus and three studied environmental variables: distance to nearest stream, terrain altitude, and the type of forest canopy. However, association between these factors and biodiversity variables were generally low. When used as predictors of polistine richness in a linear multiple regression, only the coefficient for the forest canopy variable resulted significant. Some level of prediction of wasp diversity variables can be attained based on environmental variables, especially vegetation structure. Large-scale landscape and regional studies should be scheduled to address this issue.

  5. Productivity of aboveground coarse wood biomass and stand age related to soil hydrology of Amazonian forests in the Purus-Madeira interfluvial area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintra, B. B. L.; Schietti, J.; Emillio, T.; Martins, D.; Moulatlet, G.; Souza, P.; Levis, C.; Quesada, C. A.; Schöngart, J.

    2013-04-01

    The ongoing demand for information on forest productivity has increased the number of permanent monitoring plots across the Amazon. Those plots, however, do not comprise the whole diversity of forest types in the Amazon. The complex effects of soil, climate and hydrology on the productivity of seasonally waterlogged interfluvial wetland forests are still poorly understood. The presented study is the first field-based estimate for tree ages and wood biomass productivity in the vast interfluvial region between the Purus and Madeira rivers. We estimate stand age and wood biomass productivity by a combination of tree-ring data and allometric equations for biomass stocks of eight plots distributed along 600 km in the Purus-Madeira interfluvial area that is crossed by the BR-319 highway. We relate stand age and wood biomass productivity to hydrological and edaphic conditions. Mean productivity and stand age were 5.6 ± 1.1 Mg ha-1 yr-1 and 102 ± 18 yr, respectively. There is a strong relationship between tree age and diameter, as well as between mean diameter increment and mean wood density within a plot. Regarding the soil hydromorphic properties we find a positive correlation with wood biomass productivity and a negative relationship with stand age. Productivity also shows a positive correlation with the superficial phosphorus concentration. In addition, superficial phosphorus concentration increases with enhanced soil hydromorphic condition. We raise three hypotheses to explain these results: (1) the reduction of iron molecules on the saturated soils with plinthite layers close to the surface releases available phosphorous for the plants; (2) the poor structure of the saturated soils creates an environmental filter selecting tree species of faster growth rates and shorter life spans and (3) plant growth on saturated soil is favored during the dry season, since there should be low restrictions for soil water availability.

  6. Calibrating the simple biosphere model for Amazonian tropical forest using field and remote sensing data. I - Average calibration with field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Piers J.; Shuttleworth, W. James; Dorman, Jeff L.; Dalcher, Amnon; Roberts, John M.

    1989-01-01

    Using meteorological and hydrological measurements taken in and above the central-Amazon-basin tropical forest, calibration of the Sellers et al. (1986) simple biosphere (SiB) model are described. The SiB model is a one-dimensional soil-vegetation-atmosphere model designed for use within GCMs models, representing the vegetation cover by analogy with processes operating within a single representative plant. The experimental systems and the procedures used to obtain field data are described, together with the specification of the physiological parameterization required to provide an average description of data. It was found that some of the existing literature on stomatal behavior for tropical species is inconsistent with the observed behavior of the complete canopy in Amazonia, and that the rainfall interception store of the canopy is considerably smaller than originally specified in the SiB model.

  7. Reduced Future Precipitation Makes Permanence of Amazonian Carbon Sinks Questionable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, V.

    2011-12-01

    The tropical forests of the Amazon, considered as a tipping element in Earth's climate system, provide several ecosystem services including the maintenance of favourable regional climatic conditions in the region and storage of large amounts of carbon in their above- and below-ground pools. While it is nearly impossible, at present, to put a dollar value on these ecosystem services, the developed countries have started paying large sums of money to developing countries in the tropics to reduce deforestation. Norway recently committed up to $1 billion to the Amazon fund. The United Nations' Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD) program also financially supports national activities of 13 countries worldwide. The primary assumption inherent in paying for avoiding deforestation is that avoided land use change emissions contribute towards climate change mitigation. In addition, the standing forests that are spared deforestation contribute towards additional carbon sinks associated with the CO2 fertilization effect. Implicit in this reasoning is the understanding that the carbon sinks provided by avoided deforestation have some "permanence" associated with them, at least in the order of 50-100 years. Clearly, if "avoided deforestation" is essentially "delayed deforestation" then the benefits will not be long lasting. More importantly, changes in climate have the potential to adversely affect the permanence of carbon sinks, whether they are being paid for or not. This presentation will address the question of "permanence" by analyzing simulations of the second generation Canadian Earth system model (CanESM2) that are contributing results to the upcoming fifth Coupled Modeled Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). CanESM2 results for the future RCP 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios show, that due to reduced future precipitation, the Amazonian region remains a net source of carbon over the 21st century in all scenarios. The carbon losses during the recent

  8. forest birds in the Ongoye Forest Reserve, KwaZulu-Natal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1997-02-03

    Feb 3, 1997 ... Amazonian Peru to support the edge-effect principle. By choosing a large forest and ... rodents, anurans; see Laurance 1990) is overdue. We also agree with .... Edge and other effects of isolation on Amazon forest fragments.

  9. Beyond Good Governances: Lesson from Forest and Cultural Governance in Pelalawan, Pangkalan Kerinci, Riau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novi Paramita Dewi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The shift in government concept into governance takes the consequence of changes in public governance including in the forestry sector. Good forest governance becomes a great hope for managing the forest condition so that sustainable forest management can be realized. However, in its implementation, it contains a big challenge for the forest in Indonesia which is mostly identical with indigenous people. Meanwhile, the development becomes a necessity that cannot be inhibited in which business corporation as the actor who plays in the forest governance is considered as a major threat to the environment and indigenous people. To achieve good forest governance, it is necessary to have a synergy with cultural governance that is hoped to be able to accommodate the indigenous people interests. This paper is a case study related to the practice as an effort to achieve good forest governance in the indigenous people of Pelalawan that are followed by the cultural governance effort so that the indigenous people culture of Pelalawan that is closely related to the forest can still be maintained.

  10. Social, cultural, and economic aspects of livestock ranching on the Santa Fe and Carson National Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alice M. McSweeney; Carol Raish

    2012-01-01

    We examined the cultural, social, and economic aspects of livestock operations of ranchers who have Federal grazing permits (called permittees) on the Santa Fe and Carson National Forests of northern New Mexico. This study was an expansion of the 2003 pilot study and was designed to provide much-needed information concerning the culture and economic practices of the...

  11. Adoption of community engagement in the corporate culture of Australian forest plantation companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordon, M.; Lockwood, M.; Schirmer, Jacki; Vanclay, F.; Hanson, D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides practical insight into what can be done to improve the adoption of community engagement (CE) in the corporate culture of two Australian forest plantation companies. Previous research has identified that CE can be limited by corporate cultures that promote a narrow range of CE

  12. Brazil's Amazonian dams: Ecological and socioeconomic impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnside, P. M.

    2016-12-01

    Brazil's 2015-2024 Energy Expansion Plan calls for 11 hydroelectric dams with installed capacity ≥ 30 MW in the country's Amazon region. Dozens of other large dams are planned beyond this time horizon, and dams with environmental and socioeconomic impacts. Loss of forest to flooding is one, the Balbina and Tucuruí Dams being examples (each 3000 km2). If the Babaquara/Altamira Dam is built it will flood as much forest as both of these combined. Some planned dams imply loss of forest in protected areas, for example on the Tapajós River. Aquatic and riparian ecosystems are lost, including unique biodiversity. Endemic fish species in rapids on the Xingu and Tapajós Rivers are examples. Fish migrations are blocked, such as the commercially important "giant catfish" of the Madeira River. Dams emit greenhouse gases, including CO2 from the trees killed and CH4 from decay under anoxic conditions at the bottom of reservoirs. Emissions can exceed those from fossil-fuel generation, particularly over the 20-year period during which global emissions must be greatly reduced to meet 1.5-2°C limit agreed in Paris. Carbon credit for dams under the Climate Convention causes further net emission because the dams are not truly "additional." Anoxic environments in stratified reservoirs cause methylation of mercury present in Amazonian soils, which concentrates in fish, posing a health risk to human consumers. Population displacement is a major impact; for example, the Marabá Dam would displace 40,000 people, mostly traditional riverside dwellers (ribeirinhos). Various dams impact indigenous peoples, such as the Xingu River dams (beginning with Belo Monte) and the São Luiz do Tapajós and Chacorão Dams on the Tapajós River. Brazil has many energy options other than dams. Much energy use has little benefit for the country, such as exporting aluminum. Electric showerheads use 5% of the country's power. Losses in transmission lines (20%) are far above global averages and can be

  13. Sacred Forests : Indigenous Knowledge and Cultural Beliefs for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to assess the use of indigenous knowledge in forest conservation by the local people of Ifo Local Government Area (LGA) of Ogun State. Purposeful sampling technique was used to select two villages: Balogun and Ososun in Oke-pata community, Ifo LGA. The communities were selected based on ...

  14. Cultural valuation and biodiversity conservation in the Upper Guinea forest, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Fraser

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The cultural valuation of biodiversity has taken on renewed importance over the last two decades as the ecosystem services framework has become widely adopted. Conservation initiatives increasingly use ecosystem service frameworks to render tropical forest landscapes and their peoples legible to market-oriented initiatives such as REDD+ and biodiversity offsetting schemes. Ecosystem service approaches have been widely criticized by scholars in the social sciences and humanities for their narrow focus on a small number of easily quantifiable and marketable services and a reductionist and sometimes simplistic approach to culture. We address the need to combine methods from each of the "three cultures" of natural science, quantitative social science, and qualitative social science/humanities in conceptualizing the relationship between cultural valuation and biodiversity conservation. We combine qualitative data with forest inventories and a quantitative index of cultural value to evaluate the relationship between cultural valuation and biodiversity conservation in Upper Guinea forest in Liberia, West Africa. Our study focuses on "sacred agroforests," spaces that are associated with Mande macro-language speaking groups such as the Loma. We demonstrate that sacred agroforests are associated with different cultural values compared with secondary forests. Although biodiversity and biomass are similar, sacred agroforests exhibit a different species composition, especially of culturally salient species, increasing overall landscape agro-biodiversity. Sacred agroforests are also shaped and conserved by local cultural institutions revolving around ancestor worship, ritual, and the metaphysical conceptual category "salɛ." We conclude that to understand the relationship between cultural valuation and biodiversity conservation, interpretivist approaches such as phenomenology should be employed alongside positivist ecosystem service frameworks.

  15. Primavera Ring. Management perspectives on La Primavera forest buffer zone, from the cultural landscapes approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Alcocer Santos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The current article intends to high light the need to implement a buffer zone for La Primavera Forest,  Biosphere reserve MaB UNESCO in Guadalajara, Jalisco. The criteria to develop this transition zone is based on understanding this territory as a Cultural Landscape. Seeking common ground between Biosphere Reserves and Cultural Landscapes criteria to organize the management and development of the buffer zone. To understand the opponents of city development and forest preservation as complementary elements, a paradigm shift is needed. This is an applied research from the ITESO, and it is structured as a Think Tank that involves society, government and academy.

  16. From gene manipulation to forest establishment: shoot cultures of woody plants can be a central tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCown, B.H.

    1985-05-01

    Establishing germplasm of woody plants in microculture as shoot cultures has proved to be an effective method of overcoming many of the obstacles in working with these crops. Shoot cultures eliminate the changes associated with seasonal growth cycles and phase change and put large plants into a more manageable form. Well-established shoot cultures are central to successful clonal propagation systems for forest trees as well as to genetic improvement based on the use of cellular techniques such as protoplast manipulation. The physiological basis as to why tissues from shoot cultures are so readily manipulated is not well understood.

  17. Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis R. Iverson; Mark W. Schwartz

    1994-01-01

    Originally diminished by development, forests are coming back: forest biomass is accumulating. Forests are repositories for many threatened species. Even with increased standing timber, however, biodiversity is threatened by increased forest fragmentation and by exotic species.

  18. Use of amazonian anthropogenic soils: Comparison between Caboclos communities and Tikunas indigenous group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres Sanabria, Camilo; Cuartas Ricaurte, Jorge Armando

    2013-01-01

    In general terms, Amazonian soils are infertile and have several constraints for agricultural production. However, use by ancient human societies since pre-columbian times has driven landscape transformation of massive areas and development of anthropogenic soils called Terra Preta do Indio (TP) or Amazonian Dark Earths (ADE). ADE characterization, in terms of fertility and composition, has allowed the development of intensive agricultural activities over time. The current use of ADE for the Brazilian amazon peasants (Caboclos) is different from the indigenous communities in Colombia. The indigenous people in Colombia (Tikunas) no use this type of soils on behalf of cultural restrictions that avoid the use of ancient places. We are comparing the institutional conditions, migrations, social characterization and cultural factors that determine the use/no-use of these soils by the Amazonian societies.

  19. Serving culturally diverse visitors to forests in California: a resource guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nina S. Roberts; Deborah J. Chavez; Benjamin M. Lara; Emilyn A. Sheffield

    2009-01-01

    The national forests of California are experiencing an increase in new visitors yet, in some areas, a continued lack of ethnic diversity persists. In addition, changing demographics has led to a need for keeping up with trends while also being aware of constraints to visitor use. Knowing how to serve culturally diverse visitors in ways that are innovative and inclusive...

  20. Fire-free land use in pre-1492 Amazonian savannas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriarte, José; Power, Mitchell J; Rostain, Stéphen; Mayle, Francis E; Jones, Huw; Watling, Jennifer; Whitney, Bronwen S; McKey, Doyle B

    2012-04-24

    The nature and scale of pre-Columbian land use and the consequences of the 1492 "Columbian Encounter" (CE) on Amazonia are among the more debated topics in New World archaeology and paleoecology. However, pre-Columbian human impact in Amazonian savannas remains poorly understood. Most paleoecological studies have been conducted in neotropical forest contexts. Of studies done in Amazonian savannas, none has the temporal resolution needed to detect changes induced by either climate or humans before and after A.D. 1492, and only a few closely integrate paleoecological and archaeological data. We report a high-resolution 2,150-y paleoecological record from a French Guianan coastal savanna that forces reconsideration of how pre-Columbian savanna peoples practiced raised-field agriculture and how the CE impacted these societies and environments. Our combined pollen, phytolith, and charcoal analyses reveal unexpectedly low levels of biomass burning associated with pre-A.D. 1492 savanna raised-field agriculture and a sharp increase in fires following the arrival of Europeans. We show that pre-Columbian raised-field farmers limited burning to improve agricultural production, contrasting with extensive use of fire in pre-Columbian tropical forest and Central American savanna environments, as well as in present-day savannas. The charcoal record indicates that extensive fires in the seasonally flooded savannas of French Guiana are a post-Columbian phenomenon, postdating the collapse of indigenous populations. The discovery that pre-Columbian farmers practiced fire-free savanna management calls into question the widely held assumption that pre-Columbian Amazonian farmers pervasively used fire to manage and alter ecosystems and offers fresh perspectives on an emerging alternative approach to savanna land use and conservation that can help reduce carbon emissions.

  1. Soil depth influence on Amazonian ecophysiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerstrom, I.; Baker, I. T.; Gallup, S.; Denning, A. S.

    2017-12-01

    Models of land-atmosphere interaction are important for simulating present day weather and critical for predictions of future climate. Land-atmosphere interaction models have become increasingly complex in the last 30 years, leading to the need for further studies examining their intricacies and improvement. This research focuses on the effect of variable soil depth on Amazonian Gross Primary Production (GPP), respiration, and their combination into overall carbon flux. We evaluate a control, which has a universal soil depth of 10 meters, with two experiments of variable soil depths. To conduct this study we ran the 3 models for the period 2000-2012, evaluating similarities and differences between them. We focus on the Amazon rain forest, and compare differences in components of carbon flux. Not surprisingly, we find that the main differences between the models arises in regions where the soil depth is dissimilar between models. However, we did not observe significant differences in GPP between known drought, wet, and average years; interannual variability in carbon dynamics was less than anticipated. We also anticipated that differences between models would be most significant during the dry season, but found discrepancies that persisted through the entire annual cycle.

  2. Cultural landscapes of the Araucaria Forests in the northern plateau of Santa Catarina, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado Mello, Anna Jacinta; Peroni, Nivaldo

    2015-06-09

    íva itself. These areas still remain today due to cultural tradition, use and management of plant resources. Through this cultural tradition of maintaining caívas the vegetation of the Araucaria Forest has been conserved associated to the use of the Araucaria Forests native plant resources.

  3. Drought sensitivity of Amazonian carbon balance revealed by atmospheric measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, L. V.; Gloor, M.; Miller, J. B.; Doughty, C. E.; Malhi, Y.; Domingues, L. G.; Basso, L. S.; Martinewski, A.; Correia, C. S. C.; Borges, V. F.; Freitas, S.; Braz, R.; Anderson, L. O.; Rocha, H.; Grace, J.; Phillips, O. L.; Lloyd, J.

    2014-02-01

    Feedbacks between land carbon pools and climate provide one of the largest sources of uncertainty in our predictions of global climate. Estimates of the sensitivity of the terrestrial carbon budget to climate anomalies in the tropics and the identification of the mechanisms responsible for feedback effects remain uncertain. The Amazon basin stores a vast amount of carbon, and has experienced increasingly higher temperatures and more frequent floods and droughts over the past two decades. Here we report seasonal and annual carbon balances across the Amazon basin, based on carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide measurements for the anomalously dry and wet years 2010 and 2011, respectively. We find that the Amazon basin lost 0.48+/-0.18 petagrams of carbon per year (PgCyr-1) during the dry year but was carbon neutral (0.06+/-0.1PgCyr-1) during the wet year. Taking into account carbon losses from fire by using carbon monoxide measurements, we derived the basin net biome exchange (that is, the carbon flux between the non-burned forest and the atmosphere) revealing that during the dry year, vegetation was carbon neutral. During the wet year, vegetation was a net carbon sink of 0.25+/-0.14PgCyr-1, which is roughly consistent with the mean long-term intact-forest biomass sink of 0.39+/-0.10PgCyr-1 previously estimated from forest censuses. Observations from Amazonian forest plots suggest the suppression of photosynthesis during drought as the primary cause for the 2010 sink neutralization. Overall, our results suggest that moisture has an important role in determining the Amazonian carbon balance. If the recent trend of increasing precipitation extremes persists, the Amazon may become an increasing carbon source as a result of both emissions from fires and the suppression of net biome exchange by drought.

  4. Species diversity of culturable endophytic fungi from Brazilian mangrove forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Sebastianes, Fernanda Luiza; Romão-Dumaresq, Aline Silva; Lacava, Paulo Teixeira; Harakava, Ricardo; Azevedo, João Lúcio; de Melo, Itamar Soares; Pizzirani-Kleiner, Aline Aparecida

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to perform a comparative analysis of the diversity of endophytic fungal communities isolated from the leaves and branches of Rhizophora mangle, Avicennia schaueriana and Laguncularia racemosa trees inhabiting two mangroves in the state of São Paulo, Brazil [Cananeia and Bertioga (oil spill-affected and unaffected)] in the summer and winter. Three hundred and forty-three fungi were identified by sequencing the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of rDNA. Differences were observed in the frequencies of fungi isolated from the leaves and branches of these three different plant species sampled from the Bertioga oil spill-affected and the oil-unaffected mangrove sites in the summer and winter; these differences indicate a potential impact on fungal diversity in the study area due to the oil spill. The molecular identification of the fungi showed that the fungal community associated with these mangroves is composed of at least 34 different genera, the most frequent of which were Diaporthe, Colletotrichum, Fusarium, Trichoderma and Xylaria. The Shannon and the Chao1 indices [H'(95 %) = 4.00, H'(97 %) = 4.22, Chao1(95 %) = 204 and Chao1(97 %) = 603] indicated that the mangrove fungal community possesses a vast diversity and richness of endophytic fungi. The data generated in this study revealed a large reservoir of fungal genetic diversity inhabiting these Brazilian mangrove forests and highlighted substantial differences between the fungal communities associated with distinct plant tissues, plant species, impacted sites and sampling seasons.

  5. Placentation in the Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, A M; Miglino, M A; Ambrosio, C E

    2008-01-01

    Evidence from several sources supports a close phylogenetic relationship between elephants and sirenians. To explore whether this was reflected in similar placentation, we examined eight delivered placentae from the Amazonian manatee using light microscopy and immunohistochemistry. In addition, t...

  6. Production of cellulases by fungal cultures isolated from forest litter soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sri Lakshmi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were the isolation and screening of fungal cultures from forest litter soil for cellulases production. In the present study, four fungal cultures were isolated and identified. Among these fungal cultures, three belonged to the genus Aspergillus and one belonged to the genus Pencillium. These fungal cultures were tested to find their ability to produce cellulases, that catalyze the degradation of cellulose, which is a linear polymer made of glucose subunits linked by beta-1, 4 glycosidic bonds. The fungal isolate 3 (Aspergillus sp. was noticed to show maximum zone of hydrolysis of carboxy-methyl cellulose and produce higher titers of cellulases including exoglucanase, endoglucanase and beta -D-glucosidase. The activities of the cellulases were determined by Filter paper assay (FPA, Carboxy-methly cellulase assay (CMCase and beta -D-glucosidase assay respectively. The total soluble sugar and extracellular protein contents of the fungal filtrates were also determined.

  7. Sustainable development, social organization and environment in the Amazonian Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieco, Juan Jose

    2001-01-01

    The effects of the development on the environment and the culture in regions like the Amazonian are one of the most dramatic examples that can be in what refers to the physical disappearance of numerous cultures, as well as of their integration to the national society and their rising loss of cultural identity and the devastating consequences that have had the development politicians on the different Amazon ecosystems. The construction of a sustainable development for the region has to evaluate the different societies that have existed and they exist as for the use, handling and exploitation of the natural resources. This paper will be approached this problem in three Amazon societies: the cacique territory, the tribal societies and the societies in formation in the colonization regions. It will be done an analysis and a critic of the development concept and of the consequences that it has had their application so much in the indigenous towns as in the Amazon ecosystems, as well as their relationship with the current characterization of the Amazonian area

  8. CARBON FIXING CAPACITY OF AMAZONIAN SOILS IN RELATION TO ITS DEGRADATION CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Clara Patricia Peña Venegas; Edmundo Rafael Mendoza Olmos; Carlos Hernando Rodríguez León; Gladys Inés Cardona Vanegas; Bernardo Eusebio Betancurt Parra; Maolenmarx Tatiana Garzón Gómez

    2015-01-01

    Amazonian deforestation and transformation alert about their effects worldwide. One concern is the increase of the Carbon (C) levels emitted. Previous works have estimated the fixed C in Amazon forests without including the C stored in soils. Within soil, the organic carbon molecules are highly sensitive to degradation, affecting the natural capacity of soils to fix and store C. The present study evaluates the impact of degradation in the natural capacity of Amazon soils to fix C. Thirty five...

  9. An integrative taxonomy approach unveils unknown and threatened moth species in Amazonian rainforest fragments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lamarre, Greg P. A.; Decaëns, T.; Rougerie, R.; Barbut, J.; Dewaard, J. R.; Hebert, P. D. N.; Herbin, D.; Laguerre, M.; Thiaucourt, P.; Martins, M. B.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 5 (2016), s. 475-479 ISSN 1752-458X EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 669609 - Diversity6continents Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Amazonian forest * Belém center of endemism * centinelan extinction Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.840, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/icad.12187/full

  10. Deforestation and stream warming affect body size of Amazonian fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilha, Paulo; Schiesari, Luis; Yanagawa, Fernando I; Jankowski, KathiJo; Navas, Carlos A

    2018-01-01

    Declining body size has been suggested to be a universal response of organisms to rising temperatures, manifesting at all levels of organization and in a broad range of taxa. However, no study to date evaluated whether deforestation-driven warming could trigger a similar response. We studied changes in fish body size, from individuals to assemblages, in streams in Southeastern Amazonia. We first conducted sampling surveys to validate the assumption that deforestation promoted stream warming, and to test the hypothesis that warmer deforested streams had reduced fish body sizes relative to cooler forest streams. As predicted, deforested streams were up to 6 °C warmer and had fish 36% smaller than forest streams on average. This body size reduction could be largely explained by the responses of the four most common species, which were 43-55% smaller in deforested streams. We then conducted a laboratory experiment to test the hypothesis that stream warming as measured in the field was sufficient to cause a growth reduction in the dominant fish species in the region. Fish reared at forest stream temperatures gained mass, whereas those reared at deforested stream temperatures lost mass. Our results suggest that deforestation-driven stream warming is likely to be a relevant factor promoting observed body size reductions, although other changes in stream conditions, like reductions in organic matter inputs, can also be important. A broad scale reduction in fish body size due to warming may be occurring in streams throughout the Amazonian Arc of Deforestation, with potential implications for the conservation of Amazonian fish biodiversity and food supply for people around the Basin.

  11. Deforestation and stream warming affect body size of Amazonian fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagawa, Fernando I.; Jankowski, KathiJo; Navas, Carlos A.

    2018-01-01

    Declining body size has been suggested to be a universal response of organisms to rising temperatures, manifesting at all levels of organization and in a broad range of taxa. However, no study to date evaluated whether deforestation-driven warming could trigger a similar response. We studied changes in fish body size, from individuals to assemblages, in streams in Southeastern Amazonia. We first conducted sampling surveys to validate the assumption that deforestation promoted stream warming, and to test the hypothesis that warmer deforested streams had reduced fish body sizes relative to cooler forest streams. As predicted, deforested streams were up to 6 °C warmer and had fish 36% smaller than forest streams on average. This body size reduction could be largely explained by the responses of the four most common species, which were 43–55% smaller in deforested streams. We then conducted a laboratory experiment to test the hypothesis that stream warming as measured in the field was sufficient to cause a growth reduction in the dominant fish species in the region. Fish reared at forest stream temperatures gained mass, whereas those reared at deforested stream temperatures lost mass. Our results suggest that deforestation-driven stream warming is likely to be a relevant factor promoting observed body size reductions, although other changes in stream conditions, like reductions in organic matter inputs, can also be important. A broad scale reduction in fish body size due to warming may be occurring in streams throughout the Amazonian Arc of Deforestation, with potential implications for the conservation of Amazonian fish biodiversity and food supply for people around the Basin. PMID:29718960

  12. Treetop shelter of a neotropical river otter cub (Lontra longicaudis - Carnivora: Mustelidae in an Amazonian flooded forest Abrigo em copa de árvore de filhote de lontra neotropical (Lontra longicaudis - Carnivora: Mustelidae em floresta inundável amazônica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Manuel Ribeiro Simões dos Santos

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The finding of a Neotropical river otter (Lontra longicaudis cub occupying a shelter in a hollowed treetop is reported. The observation was made in a seasonally flooded forest in Central Amazonia, during the high water peak of the annual inundation cycle. A literature review indicates that this is the first description of a shelter of the species, both in a hollowed tree and in Amazonia. This observation can indicate a strong relationship between the species' breeding cycle with the annual dynamics of Amazonian rivers. We discuss potential advantages and disadvantages of breeding when water level is high.É relatada a observação de um filhote de lontra (Lontra longicaudis ocupando um abrigo em uma cavidade na copa de uma árvore. A observação foi feita em uma floresta inundada na Amazônia Central, no pico de cheia do ciclo anual de inundação. A revisão da literatura revela que esta é a primeira descrição de um abrigo desta espécie em uma cavidade de árvore na natureza e na Amazônia. Tal observação pode indicar uma forte relação entre o ciclo reprodutivo da espécie e a dinâmica anual dos rios amazônicos. Discutimos vantagens e desvantagens potenciais da reprodução na época da cheia.

  13. Spatial trends in leaf size of Amazonian rainforest trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhado, A. C. M.; Malhi, Y.; Whittaker, R. J.; Ladle, R. J.; Ter Steege, H.; Phillips, O. L.; Butt, N.; Aragão, L. E. O. C.; Quesada, C. A.; Araujo-Murakami, A.; Arroyo, L.; Peacock, J.; Lopez-Gonzalez, G.; Baker, T. R.; Anderson, L. O.; Almeida, S.; Higuchi, N.; Killeen, T. J.; Monteagudo, A.; Neill, D.; Pitman, N.; Prieto, A.; Salomão, R. P.; Vásquez-Martínez, R.; Laurance, W. F.

    2009-08-01

    Leaf size influences many aspects of tree function such as rates of transpiration and photosynthesis and, consequently, often varies in a predictable way in response to environmental gradients. The recent development of pan-Amazonian databases based on permanent botanical plots has now made it possible to assess trends in leaf size across environmental gradients in Amazonia. Previous plot-based studies have shown that the community structure of Amazonian trees breaks down into at least two major ecological gradients corresponding with variations in soil fertility (decreasing from southwest to northeast) and length of the dry season (increasing from northwest to south and east). Here we describe the geographic distribution of leaf size categories based on 121 plots distributed across eight South American countries. We find that the Amazon forest is predominantly populated by tree species and individuals in the mesophyll size class (20.25-182.25 cm2). The geographic distribution of species and individuals with large leaves (>20.25 cm2) is complex but is generally characterized by a higher proportion of such trees in the northwest of the region. Spatially corrected regressions reveal weak correlations between the proportion of large-leaved species and metrics of water availability. We also find a significant negative relationship between leaf size and wood density.

  14. Climatic and cultural changes in the west Congo Basin forests over the past 5000 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oslisly, Richard; White, Lee; Bentaleb, Ilham; Favier, Charly; Fontugne, Michel; Gillet, Jean-François; Sebag, David

    2013-01-01

    Central Africa includes the world's second largest rainforest block. The ecology of the region remains poorly understood, as does its vegetation and archaeological history. However, over the past 20 years, multidisciplinary scientific programmes have enhanced knowledge of old human presence and palaeoenvironments in the forestry block of Central Africa. This first regional synthesis documents significant cultural changes over the past five millennia and describes how they are linked to climate. It is now well documented that climatic conditions in the African tropics underwent significant changes throughout this period and here we demonstrate that corresponding shifts in human demography have had a strong influence on the forests. The most influential event was the decline of the strong African monsoon in the Late Holocene, resulting in serious disturbance of the forest block around 3500 BP. During the same period, populations from the north settled in the forest zone; they mastered new technologies such as pottery and fabrication of polished stone tools, and seem to have practised agriculture. The opening up of forests from 2500 BP favoured the arrival of metallurgist populations that impacted the forest. During this long period (2500-1400 BP), a remarkable increase of archaeological sites is an indication of a demographic explosion of metallurgist populations. Paradoxically, we have found evidence of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) cultivation in the forest around 2200 BP, implying a more arid context. While Early Iron Age sites (prior to 1400 BP) and recent pre-colonial sites (two to eight centuries BP) are abundant, the period between 1600 and 1000 BP is characterized by a sharp decrease in human settlements, with a population crash between 1300 and 1000 BP over a large part of Central Africa. It is only in the eleventh century that new populations of metallurgists settled into the forest block. In this paper, we analyse the spatial and temporal distribution

  15. Thresholds of species loss in Amazonian deforestation frontier landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Quintero, Jose Manuel; Gardner, Toby A; Rosa, Isabel; Ferraz, Silvio Frosini de Barros; Sutherland, William J

    2015-04-01

    In the Brazilian Amazon, private land accounts for the majority of remaining native vegetation. Understanding how land-use change affects the composition and distribution of biodiversity in farmlands is critical for improving conservation strategies in the face of rapid agricultural expansion. Working across an area exceeding 3 million ha in the southwestern state of Rondônia, we assessed how the extent and configuration of remnant forest in replicate 10,000-ha landscapes has affected the occurrence of a suite of Amazonian mammals and birds. In each of 31 landscapes, we used field sampling and semistructured interviews with landowners to determine the presence of 28 large and medium sized mammals and birds, as well as a further 7 understory birds. We then combined results of field surveys and interviews with a probabilistic model of deforestation. We found strong evidence for a threshold response of sampled biodiversity to landscape level forest cover; landscapes with deforested landscapes many species are susceptible to extirpation following relatively small additional reductions in forest area. In the model of deforestation by 2030 the number of 10,000-ha landscapes under a conservative threshold of 43% forest cover almost doubled, such that only 22% of landscapes would likely to be able to sustain at least 75% of the 35 focal species we sampled. Brazilian law requires rural property owners in the Amazon to retain 80% forest cover, although this is rarely achieved. Prioritizing efforts to ensure that entire landscapes, rather than individual farms, retain at least 50% forest cover may help safeguard native biodiversity in private forest reserves in the Amazon. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  16. 77 FR 52055 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... appropriate Indian tribe, has determined that the cultural items meet the definition of unassociated funerary... and under the control of the Coconino National Forest that meet the definition of unassociated... material culture, Elden Pueblo (site NA 142) has been identified as a Northern Sinagua site, comprised of a...

  17. 77 FR 51562 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... appropriate Indian tribe, has determined that the cultural items meet the definition of unassociated funerary... the Coconino National Forest that meet the definition of unassociated funerary objects under 25 U.S.C... evidence and material culture, Elden Pueblo (site NA 142) has been identified as a Northern Sinagua site...

  18. Use and management of forest resources in the Colombian Amazon: cultural particularities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Landínez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the main cultural particularities: worldviews and ways of knowing that are associated with the use and management practices of forest resources in the Colombian Amazon. The theoretical cutting proposal contrasts, cultural level, the forms of appropriation of forest resources in indigenous and urban contexts in light of the importance that such activity involves the establishment of management strategies biodiversity in Colombia. Thus, offers an integrated perspective that will address environmental situations considering conflicting factors not only biological but cultural in various scenarios, to give substance to the decisions made and provide a reasonable treatment that enables the implementation of environmental regulatory mechanisms in strategic special biological areas as the Colombian Amazon. Finally, reflect on the importance of facilitating the functional analysis of the connections and interrelationships of ecosystem components, including human communities, to sketch involving both biological and social guidelines for sustainable use of biodiversity.

  19. Forest restoration in a fog oasis: evidence indicates need for cultural awareness in constructing the reference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Balaguer

    Full Text Available In the Peruvian Coastal Desert, an archipelago of fog oases, locally called lomas, are centers of biodiversity and of past human activity. Fog interception by a tree canopy, dominated by the legume tree tara (Caesalpinia spinosa, enables the occurrence in the Atiquipa lomas (southern Peru of an environmental island with a diverse flora and high productivity. Although this forest provides essential services to the local population, it has suffered 90% anthropogenic reduction in area. Restoration efforts are now getting under way, including discussion as to the most appropriate reference ecosystem to use.Genetic diversity of tara was studied in the Atiquipa population and over a wide geographical and ecological range. Neither exclusive plastid haplotypes to loma formations nor clear geographical structuring of the genetic diversity was found. Photosynthetic performance and growth of seedlings naturally recruited in remnant patches of loma forest were compared with those of seedlings recruited or planted in the adjacent deforested area. Despite the greater water and nitrogen availability under tree canopy, growth of forest seedlings did not differ from that of those recruited into the deforested area, and was lower than that of planted seedlings. Tara seedlings exhibited tight stomatal control of photosynthesis, and a structural photoprotection by leaflet closure. These drought-avoiding mechanisms did not optimize seedling performance under the conditions produced by forest interception of fog moisture.Both weak geographic partitioning of genetic variation and lack of physiological specialization of seedlings to the forest water regime strongly suggest that tara was introduced to lomas by humans. Therefore, the most diverse fragment of lomas is the result of landscape management and resource use by pre-Columbian cultures. We argue that an appropriate reference ecosystem for ecological restoration of lomas should include sustainable agroforestry

  20. Conservation and the Colombian Amazonian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defler, Thomas R

    2001-01-01

    Colombia is a special country in terms of its biological wealth, for it has been classified it as one of the three countries of the world with more biodiversity after Brazil and Indonesia; in the number of species of organisms that they are inside the national limits and it surpasses to gigantic countries as Canada, the United States and Russia. Colombia, for its characteristic biotic, is in the entire world the first one in number of species of birds, of frogs and of orchids and probably second in the world (after Brazil) in the number of species of plants superiors (angiosperms) and species of palms; also, worldwide it is classified to the country among the first ones in the number of species of mammals, reptiles, fish of fresh water and insects. This article, it seeks to discuss the problem of the conservation in the Colombian Amazonian, evaluating the necessities for the future and pointing out some of the current problems that impede a healthy conservation

  1. Forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melin, J.

    1997-01-01

    Forests have the capacity to trap and retain radionuclides for a substantial period of time. The dynamic behaviour of nutrients, pollution and radionuclides in forests is complex. The rotation period of a forest stand in the Nordic countries is about 100 years, whilst the time for decomposition of organic material in a forest environment can be several hundred years. This means that any countermeasure applied in the forest environment must have an effect for several decades, or be reapplied continuously for long periods of time. To mitigate the detrimental effect of a contaminated forest environment on man, and to minimise the economic loss in trade of contaminated forest products, it is necessary to understand the mechanisms of transfer of radionuclides through the forest environment. It must also be stressed that any countermeasure applied in the forest environment must be evaluated with respect to long, as well as short term, negative effects, before any decision about remedial action is taken. Of the radionuclides studied in forests in the past, radiocaesium has been the main contributor to dose to man. In this document, only radiocaesium will be discussed since data on the impact of other radionuclides on man are too scarce for a proper evaluation. (EG)

  2. Litter mercury deposition in the Amazonian rainforest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fostier, Anne Hélène; Melendez-Perez, José Javier; Richter, Larissa

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to assess the flux of atmospheric mercury transferred to the soil of the Amazonian rainforest by litterfall. Calculations were based on a large survey of published and unpublished data on litterfall and Hg concentrations in litterfall samples from the Amazonian region. Litterfall based on 65 sites located in the Amazon rainforest averaged 8.15 ± 2.25 Mg ha"−"1 y"−"1. Average Hg concentrations were calculated from nine datasets for fresh tree leaves and ten datasets for litter, and a median concentration of 60.5 ng Hg g"−"1 was considered for Hg deposition in litterfall, which averaged 49 ± 14 μg m"−"2 yr"−"1. This value was used to estimate that in the Amazonian rainforest, litterfall would be responsible for the annual removing of 268 ± 77 Mg of Hg, approximately 8% of the total atmospheric Hg deposition to land. The impact of the Amazon deforestation on the Hg biogeochemical cycle is also discussed. - Highlights: • Based on published data we estimated the litterfall in the Amazonian rainforest. • All the published data on Hg concentration in leaves and litter from the region and some unpublished data are presented. • We calculated the litter mercury deposition. • We estimated the contribution of dry, wet and litter Hg deposition in the Amazonian rainforest. • We also discussed the impact of Amazon deforestation on the Hg biogeochemical cycle. - The Amazonian rainforest is responsible for removing at least 268 Mg Hg y"−"1, 8% of the total atmospheric mercury deposition to land.

  3. Amazonian indigenous settlement and local development in Pastaza, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth I. Arias-Gutiérrez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In six Amazonian indigenous communities that call to their selves as membership of nación Kichwa, located in Pastaza province, in Ecuador, it is analyzed the process of inhabitation, population characteristics, how much the territory is enough for food requirements for the indigenous families, and their use of land, to determine important factors to improve strategies for local sustainable development. It is considered important because Ecuador has constitutional protection for plural ethnicity and it is looking for improving a new productivity matrix that let down extraction and contamination and raise another matrix based on knowledge and richness from natural renewable resources. Survey used statistics information, qualitative analysis around reality in process, participant research, documentary analysis, oral history and surveys to leadership and family`s chiefs. Results confirm that communities hold standing their identity and knowledge systems of the Amazonian environment, whose conservation they need. Those are factors to be included in local development strategies that let people become safe from effects of extractives activities that are dangerous for culture and environment, in the geographic and biological diversity of the high Ecuadorian Amazonia.

  4. Impacts of Landscape Context on Patterns of Wind Downfall Damage in a Fragmented Amazonian Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, N.; Uriarte, M.; DeFries, R. S.; Gutierrez-Velez, V. H.; Fernandes, K.; Pinedo-Vasquez, M.

    2015-12-01

    Wind is a major disturbance in the Amazon and has both short-term impacts and lasting legacies in tropical forests. Observed patterns of damage across landscapes result from differences in wind exposure and stand characteristics, such as tree stature, species traits, successional age, and fragmentation. Wind disturbance has important consequences for biomass dynamics in Amazonian forests, and understanding the spatial distribution and size of impacts is necessary to quantify the effects on carbon dynamics. In November 2013, a mesoscale convective system was observed over the study area in Ucayali, Peru, a highly human modified and fragmented forest landscape. We mapped downfall damage associated with the storm in order to ask: how does the severity of damage vary within forest patches, and across forest patches of different sizes and successional ages? We applied spectral mixture analysis to Landsat images from 2013 and 2014 to calculate the change in non-photosynthetic vegetation fraction after the storm, and combined it with C-band SAR data from the Sentinel-1 satellite to predict downfall damage measured in 30 field plots using random forest regression. We then applied this model to map damage in forests across the study area. Using a land cover classification developed in a previous study, we mapped secondary and mature forest, and compared the severity of damage in the two. We found that damage was on average higher in secondary forests, but patterns varied spatially. This study demonstrates the utility of using multiple sources of satellite data for mapping wind disturbance, and adds to our understanding of the sources of variation in wind-related damage. Ultimately, an improved ability to map wind impacts and a better understanding of their spatial patterns can contribute to better quantification of carbon dynamics in Amazonian landscapes.

  5. A 15-year post evaluation of the fire effects on ant community in an area of Amazonian forest Uma avaliação após 15 anos do efeito do fogo sobre a comunidade de formiga em uma área de floresta amazônica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean C. Santos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fire represents an important disturbance to ant communities in areas of fire regime. Otherwise, little is known about the effects of fire on ant communities in areas of non-fire regimes, such as in the Amazonian region. We evaluated the long-term effect of fire on ant species richness in a rain forest (Bacaba Plateau burned 15-years ago and compare our data with the data of primary unburned forest. A total of 85 ant species distributed in 21 genera and 14 tribes were collected; among them, 72 and 44 species were found on the litter and vegetation, respectively. The fire damaged forest studied supports an intermediate richness of ants when compared to a primary unburned rain forest in the same region. A comparative analysis of ant species richness showed that the Bacaba Plateau presented a different ant fauna when compared with the primary unburned forests, suggesting that fire can alter ant species composition. Although, our results cannot be conclusive on the effects of fire on ant community, they represent a pioneer data on human induced fire in tropical rain forests.O fogo representa uma importante perturbação para a comunidade de formigas em áreas de regime de fogo. No entanto, pouco se conhece sobre os efeitos do fogo na comunidade de formiga em áreas de não-regime, tal como a região da Amazônia. Nós analisamos o efeito de longo prazo do fogo sobre a riqueza de formiga numa floresta tropical queimada 15 anos atrás e comparamos nossos dados, com os de uma floresta primária não-queimada. Foram coletadas um total de 85 espécies de formigas distribuídas em 21 gêneros e 14 tribos, dentre eles 72 e 44 espécies foram encontradas na liteira e vegetação, respectivamente. Esta área de floresta queimada, com 85 espécies, pode suportar uma riqueza intermédia de formigas quando comparadas com uma floresta tropical primária não-queimada, com 29, 22 e 98 espécies na mesma região. Uma análise comparativa da riqueza de espécies de

  6. Organic aerosols from biomass burning in Amazonian rain forest and their impact onto the environment; La combustione di biomassa nella Foresta Amazzonica Aerosoli organici e impatto sull'ambiente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecinato, A; Mabilia, R [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto sull' Inquinamento Atmosferico, Monterotondo Scalo, RM (Italy); De Castro Vasconcellos, P [Sao Paulo Universidad, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Dept. de Engenharia Quimica Ambiental

    2001-03-01

    A field campaign performed in Southern Brazilian Amazonia in 1993 has proved that this region is subjected to fallout of particulated exhausts released by fires of forestal biomass. In fact, organic content of aerosols collected at urban sites located on the border of pluvial forest, about 50 km from fires, was similar to that of biomass burning exhausts. Aerosol composition is indicative of dolous origin of fires. However, organic contents seems to be influenced by two additional sources, i. e. motor vehicle and high vegetation emission. Chemical pattern of organic aerosols released by biomass burning of forest seems to promote occurrence of photochemical smog episodes in that region. [Italian] Una campagna di misura realizzata nella regione amazzonica nel 1993 ha dimostrato la ricaduta sull'area circostante dei prodotti di combustione della biomassa forestale, attraverso la speciazione degli aerosoli atmosferici raccolti in un sito urbano posto ai margini della foresta, tuttavia le poveri sospese rivelano l'origine dolosa degli incendi. La composizione chimica degli aerosoli organici provenienti dalla combustione di biomassa sembra favorire i processi di smog fotochimico nella regione.

  7. Use of forest biomass to provide energy in a context of sustainable rural development - Three case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villa Lopera, Jose Antonio

    2000-01-01

    The author includes topics like energy and global climatic change; sustainable development and study of cases (conservation and restoration of forests in the Atrato, pacific Colombian, forest handling, forest handling and forest systems in the Colombian Amazonian and conversion of subjected lands to cattle rising and itinerant agriculture to forest and other systems

  8. Fat and muscle mass in different groups of pre-pubertal and pubertal rural children. Cross-cultural comparisons between Sahelian (rural Senegal) and Amazonian (Beni River, Bolivia) children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benefice, Eric; Luna Monrroy, Selma J; Lopez Rodriguez, Ronald W; Ndiaye, Gnagna

    2011-07-01

    An increase in fat accretion is essential for triggering the puberty spurt. Hence, nutritional constraints may influence puberty timing. To measure changes in fat and muscle mass in children living in natural environments but with different nutritional exposures. Cross-comparisons of children from rural Senegal and lowland (Amazonian) Bolivia were carried out. Anthropometric measurements of stature, weight, four subcutaneous skin-folds (triceps, biceps, subscapular, supra-iliac) and arm circumference were made. Children were divided into two age groups (5-9.9-year-olds or 'pre pubescents' (n = 381) and 10-15-year-olds or 'pubescents' (n = 692)). Senegalese girls menstruated later than Bolivian girls and Senegalese boys also matured later than Bolivian boys. Bolivian children displayed more fat and muscle before puberty and during puberty than the Senegalese. They also had more fat deposited on the trunk. There were substantial differences in living conditions and nutritional patterns between both locations. In Senegal, nutritional stress is likely to appear early during in utero life and to persist throughout the growth period, including puberty. This leads to a deficit in fat accretion before and during puberty that is associated with a considerable delay in puberty occurrence. In Bolivia, such stress is far less severe. Variability in puberty should be analysed taking into account these differences.

  9. Populações de aranhas errantes do gênero Ctenus em fragmentos florestais na Amazônia Central Populations of Ctenus wandering spiders in Amazonian forest fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto Macedo Mestre

    2008-01-01

    ções ambientais.Ctenus is a genus of wandering spiders abundant in Neotropical and African rainforests and is becoming a model organism to understand the biology of predators in the leaf litter fauna. We compared abundance, sex ratio, seasonality and size dimorphism in populations of four species of medium sized wandering spiders, Ctenus amphora, C. crulsi, C. manauara and C. villasboasi in primary forests, fragments with different areas, their borders and secondary forests near them. This study was conducted between February and July 1999, in a terra-firme (non-flooded tropical rain forest, in central Amazonia. The spiders were measured and counted in transects of 250x5 m or 500x5 m in three secondary forest sites, four fragments of primary forest of 1 ha, three of 10 ha, two of 100 ha and four reserves of continuous forest (larger than 10.000 ha. There was a significant predominance of females in two species (C. amphora- 74% and C. crulsi- 65%, sexual dimorphism significant in three species (C. amphora, C. crulsi, and C. manauara, and temporal variation of the abundance for the four species. These results corroborate and complement tendencies from previous studies. There were no statistical differences between spider abundance in interior, borders and between reserves of different areas. Effects of border and size of fragments on the Ctenus spider populations are smaller than the previously observed variations among different habitats in the forest interior. There was no difference in spider size captured in small reserves, large reserves, edges, and continuous forests sites. Comparing these results with other study in the same sites, we conclude that the effects of fragmentation in Ctenus spiders decrease with second grown regeneration, resulting in a rapid reply of these species to habitat modifications.

  10. Slow growth rates of Amazonian trees: Consequences for carbon cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Simone; Trumbore, Susan; Camargo, Plinio B.; Selhorst, Diogo; Chambers, Jeffrey Q.; Higuchi, Niro; Martinelli, Luiz Antonio

    2005-01-01

    Quantifying age structure and tree growth rate of Amazonian forests is essential for understanding their role in the carbon cycle. Here, we use radiocarbon dating and direct measurement of diameter increment to document unexpectedly slow growth rates for trees from three locations spanning the Brazilian Amazon basin. Central Amazon trees, averaging only ≈1mm/year diameter increment, grow half as fast as those from areas with more seasonal rainfall to the east and west. Slow growth rates mean that trees can attain great ages; across our sites we estimate 17-50% of trees with diameter >10 cm have ages exceeding 300 years. Whereas a few emergent trees that make up a large portion of the biomass grow faster, small trees that are more abundant grow slowly and attain ages of hundreds of years. The mean age of carbon in living trees (60-110 years) is within the range of or slightly longer than the mean residence time calculated from C inventory divided by annual C allocation to wood growth (40-100 years). Faster C turnover is observed in stands with overall higher rates of diameter increment and a larger fraction of the biomass in large, fast-growing trees. As a consequence, forests can recover biomass relatively quickly after disturbance, whereas recovering species composition may take many centuries. Carbon cycle models that apply a single turnover time for carbon in forest biomass do not account for variations in life strategy and therefore may overestimate the carbon sequestration potential of Amazon forests. PMID:16339903

  11. Forest Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Hummel; K. L. O' Hara

    2008-01-01

    Global variation in forests and in human cultures means that a single method for managing forests is not possible. However, forest management everywhere shares some common principles because it is rooted in physical and biological sciences like chemistry and genetics. Ecological forest management is an approach that combines an understanding of universal processes with...

  12. Extremely long-distance seed dispersal by an overfished Amazonian frugivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jill T; Nuttle, Tim; Saldaña Rojas, Joe S; Pendergast, Thomas H; Flecker, Alexander S

    2011-11-22

    Throughout Amazonia, overfishing has decimated populations of fruit-eating fishes, especially the large-bodied characid, Colossoma macropomum. During lengthy annual floods, frugivorous fishes enter vast Amazonian floodplains, consume massive quantities of fallen fruits and egest viable seeds. Many tree and liana species are clearly specialized for icthyochory, and seed dispersal by fish may be crucial for the maintenance of Amazonian wetland forests. Unlike frugivorous mammals and birds, little is known about seed dispersal effectiveness of fishes. Extensive mobility of frugivorous fish could result in extremely effective, multi-directional, long-distance seed dispersal. Over three annual flood seasons, we tracked fine-scale movement patterns and habitat use of wild Colossoma, and seed retention in the digestive tracts of captive individuals. Our mechanistic model predicts that Colossoma disperses seeds extremely long distances to favourable habitats. Modelled mean dispersal distances of 337-552 m and maximum of 5495 m are among the longest ever reported. At least 5 per cent of seeds are predicted to disperse 1700-2110 m, farther than dispersal by almost all other frugivores reported in the literature. Additionally, seed dispersal distances increased with fish size, but overfishing has biased Colossoma populations to smaller individuals. Thus, overexploitation probably disrupts an ancient coevolutionary relationship between Colossoma and Amazonian plants.

  13. Análise florística e estrutura de florestas de várzea no estuário amazônico Floristic analysis and structure of tidal flooded forests in the amazonian estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Soares de Almeida

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta os resultados de análise fitossociológica e da estrutura, feita em 4 inventários florísticos executados em parcelas de 1 hectare de florestas inundáveis de várzea localizadas na área do estuário e do baixo Amazonas. As florestas de várzea do estuário albergam uma riqueza de espécies relativamente baixa em relação a outras áreas da região como as florestas de terra firme. No entanto a estrutura de tamanho é considerável, com as árvores atingindo elevada biomassa vegetal. Provavelmente isto é devido ao aporte constante de nutrientes através dos sedimentos que viajam milhares de quilômetros de distância desde as nascentes andinas até o delta do rio Amazonas. As florestas inundáveis de várzea são dominadas por poucas espécies, algumas com muitos indivíduos, como o açaí (Euterpe oleracea e o muru-muru (Astrocaryum murumuru, outras com árvores muito grandes como a pitaíca (Swartzia polyphylla, pracuúba (Mora paraensis e a seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis. A ucuúba (Virola surinamensis, uma espécie que apresenta populações ameaçadas pela exploração madeireira, parece apresentar tanto indivíduos grandes como elevada densidade. As florestas de várzea apresentam baixa similaridade entre si, provavelmente decorrente da imensa variação do ambiente de várzea nos rios, paranás, ilhas e lagos, como os efeitos de zonação, altura de inundação, salinidade, velocidade da água, entre outros fatores. Estratégias de seleção de áreas de várzea para conservação devem levar em conta a variação ambiental, o grau de interferência humana e a diversidade local e entre ambientes.This work presents results of the analysis made in four 1-hectare plots of floristic inventory in the flooded forests located in the delta and lower basin of the Amazon river. The flooded forests, so called "várzea" forests, harbor a relatively low species richness in relation to other areas such as "terra firme

  14. A new medicinal plant from Amazonian Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asdall, W

    1983-12-01

    Dalbergaria tessmanii, a shrub of the Gesneriaceae locally abundant in the tropical forests of Ecuador, is variously ethnomedicinally employed. For example, none of several Shuar (Jívaro) herbal healers know or use it, but the one Shuar Shaman consulted extols its importance in reducing vaginal bleeding. Although Mestizo native consultants from the provincial capital of Morona-Santiago report its use in alleviating heart problems, those from Pastaza Province employ it to reduce menstrual flow. The Lowland Quechua apparently use it for this purpose as well. This plant has apparently not yet been chemically examined. Its reported use in several different cultural context suggest that it should be phytochemically investigated.

  15. Análise da estrutura de comunidades arbóreas de uma floresta amazônica de Terra Firme aplicada ao manejo florestal Analysis of the structure of tree communities of a amazonian forest applied to management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Zenaide Oliveira Alves

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve o objetivo de identificar e descrever a estrutura das comunidades arbóreas de uma floresta de terra firme sob regime de manejo na Amazônia Oriental, localizada no município de Almeirim, Pará, Brasil. O levantamento florístico foi realizado em 1.400,30 ha de uma Unidade de Produção Anual (UPA, do Plano de Manejo Florestal da empresa ORSA Florestal. Todos os indivíduos com DAP > 30 cm foram inventariados, registrando-se 77.834 árvores distribuídas em 57 famílias, 229 gêneros e 556 espécies. Oito comunidades foram identificadas por meio de uma analise de agrupamento, apresentando alta diversidade e equibilidade florística (H" médio = 4,25 e J" médio = 0,75. As comunidades apresentaram 138 espécies comuns, 119 espécies de ocorrência exclusiva e 377 espécies raras, representadas por apenas um indivíduo. As espécies que mais se destacaram foram: Dinizia excelsa, Vouacapoua americana, Goupia glabra, Mouriri brachyanthera, Parinari excelsa, Manilkara bidentada, Tachigalia mymecophyla e Licania micrantha. Algumas espécies de valor comercial apresentaram variações importantes na densidade, sugerindo risco de extinção em comunidades onde as espécies apresentam densidade muito baixa. Sugerimos que os planos de manejo considerem as várias comunidades ecológicas encontradas nas UPAs evitando assim variações significativas, causadas pela exploração e seus impactos, na composição florística e estrutura das comunidades existentes.To demonstrate the importance of the ecological concept for forest management, the object of this work was to identify and describe the structure of tree communities of a tropical forest under management in the Eastern Amazonia, located in Almeirim municipality, in the state of Pará, Brazil. The floristic survey was undertaken in a terra-firme tropical forest of 1,400.30 hectares. All individuals with DBH > 30 cm were inventoried, registering 77,834 trees distributed in 57

  16. Public awareness of aesthetic and other forest values associated with sustainable forest management: a cross-cultural comparison among the public in four countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sang Seop; Innes, John L; Meitner, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Korea, China, Japan and Canada are all members of the Montreal Process (MP). However, there has been little comparative research on the public awareness of forest values within the framework of Sustainable Forest Management, not only between Asia and Canada, but also among these three Asian countries. This is true of aesthetic values, especially as the MP framework has no indicator for aesthetic values. We conducted surveys to identify similarities and differences in the perceptions of various forest values, including aesthetic values, between residents of the four countries: university student groups in Korea, China, Japan and Canada, as well as a more detailed assessment of the attitudes of Koreans by including two additional groups, Korean office workers, and Koreans living in Canada. A multivariate analysis of variance test across the four university student groups revealed significant differences in the rating of six forest functions out of 31. However the same test across the three Korean groups indicated no significant differences indicating higher confidence in the generalizability of our university student comparisons. For the forest aesthetic values, an analysis of variance test showed no significant differences across all groups. The forest aesthetic value was rated 6.95 to 7.98 (out of 10.0) depending on the group and rated relatively highly among ten social values across all the groups. Thurstone scale rankings and relative distances of six major forest values indicated that climate change control was ranked as the highest priority and scenic beauty was ranked the lowest by all the groups. Comparison tests of the frequencies of preferred major forest values revealed no significant differences across the groups with the exception of the Japanese group. These results suggest that public awareness of aesthetic and other forest values are not clearly correlated with the cultural backgrounds of the individuals, and the Korean university students' awareness

  17. Origin and domestication of native Amazonian crops

    OpenAIRE

    Clément, R. Charles; De Cristo-Araujo, Michelly; Coppens D'Eeckenbrugge, Géo; Alves Pereira, Allessandro; Picanço-Rodrigues, Doriane

    2010-01-01

    Molecular analyses are providing new elements to decipher the origin, domestication and dispersal of native Amazonian crops in an expanding archaeological context. Solid molecular data are available for manioc (Manihot esculenta), cacao (Theobroma cacao), pineapple (Ananas comosus), peach palm (Bactris gasipaes) and guaraná (Paullinia cupana), while hot peppers (Capsicum spp.), inga (Inga edulis), Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa) and cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum) are being studied. Emerg...

  18. An Amazonian rainforest and its fragments as a laboratory of global change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurance, William F; Camargo, José L C; Fearnside, Philip M; Lovejoy, Thomas E; Williamson, G Bruce; Mesquita, Rita C G; Meyer, Christoph F J; Bobrowiec, Paulo E D; Laurance, Susan G W

    2018-02-01

    We synthesize findings from one of the world's largest and longest-running experimental investigations, the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project (BDFFP). Spanning an area of ∼1000 km 2 in central Amazonia, the BDFFP was initially designed to evaluate the effects of fragment area on rainforest biodiversity and ecological processes. However, over its 38-year history to date the project has far transcended its original mission, and now focuses more broadly on landscape dynamics, forest regeneration, regional- and global-change phenomena, and their potential interactions and implications for Amazonian forest conservation. The project has yielded a wealth of insights into the ecological and environmental changes in fragmented forests. For instance, many rainforest species are naturally rare and hence are either missing entirely from many fragments or so sparsely represented as to have little chance of long-term survival. Additionally, edge effects are a prominent driver of fragment dynamics, strongly affecting forest microclimate, tree mortality, carbon storage and a diversity of fauna. Even within our controlled study area, the landscape has been highly dynamic: for example, the matrix of vegetation surrounding fragments has changed markedly over time, succeeding from large cattle pastures or forest clearcuts to secondary regrowth forest. This, in turn, has influenced the dynamics of plant and animal communities and their trajectories of change over time. In general, fauna and flora have responded differently to fragmentation: the most locally extinction-prone animal species are those that have both large area requirements and low tolerance of the modified habitats surrounding fragments, whereas the most vulnerable plants are those that respond poorly to edge effects or chronic forest disturbances, and that rely on vulnerable animals for seed dispersal or pollination. Relative to intact forests, most fragments are hyperdynamic, with unstable or fluctuating

  19. Fluxes of CO2, CH4, CO, BVOCs, NOx, and O3 in an Old Growth Amazonian Forest: Ecosystem Processes, Carbon Cycle, Atmospheric Chemistry, and Feedbacks on Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wofsy, Steven C. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2016-12-20

    A comprehensive, merged data set of trace gases (NO, NO2, CO2, CH4 and O3) along with has been tabulated and subjected to meticulous quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC). The merged data set is being submitted to the ARM website dedicated to the Green Ocean Experiment: https://www.arm.gov/research/campaigns/amf2014goamazon Analysis using the final data set is in progress to determine the magnitudes of the fluxes for CH4, H2O, CO2, O3, NOx, sensible and latent heat, momentum, and their seasonal variations. Here are summary statements, from the discussion above: Total NO fluxes were calculated following Keller et al., 1986. A vertical gradient is established in the mixing ratio of NO because it is emitted at the soil surface and mixed upward in the atmosphere (see above). Once in the atmosphere, the NO reacts rapidly with O3 to produce NO2 (NO + O3 → NO2 + O2). Therefore, if the vertical profiles of the mixing ratios of NO and O3 are known, the surface flux of NO may be determined. If any other reaction removes NO (e.g., deposition on leaves), FNO should estimate the lower limit to the NO flux from the soil in this forest. Our preliminary results show fluxes of NO averaged 133 x 109 molecules cm-2 s-1, a factor of 4 higher than fluxes previously observed in white sand soils in the Amazon, and a factor of 3 to 14 higher than fluxes observed for yellow clay soils (Bakwin et al., 1990 and references therein). The soil in the km 67 site is predominately oxisol with pockets of sandy ultisols, both having low reduced nutrient contents, mostly due to efficient microorganism decomposition and acid leaching by rain water. Oxisols contain both oxidized and reduced forms of nitrogen, of which concentrations vary independently of leaching (Jordan et al., 1982), with most

  20. Litter mercury deposition in the Amazonian rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fostier, Anne Hélène; Melendez-Perez, José Javier; Richter, Larissa

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this work was to assess the flux of atmospheric mercury transferred to the soil of the Amazonian rainforest by litterfall. Calculations were based on a large survey of published and unpublished data on litterfall and Hg concentrations in litterfall samples from the Amazonian region. Litterfall based on 65 sites located in the Amazon rainforest averaged 8.15 ± 2.25 Mg ha(-1) y(-1). Average Hg concentrations were calculated from nine datasets for fresh tree leaves and ten datasets for litter, and a median concentration of 60.5 ng Hg g(-1) was considered for Hg deposition in litterfall, which averaged 49 ± 14 μg m(-2) yr(-1). This value was used to estimate that in the Amazonian rainforest, litterfall would be responsible for the annual removing of 268 ± 77 Mg of Hg, approximately 8% of the total atmospheric Hg deposition to land. The impact of the Amazon deforestation on the Hg biogeochemical cycle is also discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Limited Effects of Type I Interferons on Kyasanur Forest Disease Virus in Cell Culture.

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    Bradley W M Cook

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The tick-borne flavivirus, Kyasanur Forest disease virus (KFDV causes seasonal infections and periodic outbreaks in south-west India. The current vaccine offers poor protection with reported issues of coverage and immunogenicity. Since there are no approved prophylactic therapeutics for KFDV, type I IFN-α/β subtypes were assessed for antiviral potency against KFDV in cell culture.The continued passage of KFDV-infected cells with re-administered IFN-α2a treatment did not eliminate KFDV and had little effect on infectious particle production whereas the IFN-sensitive, green fluorescent protein-expressing vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV-GFP infection was controlled. Further evaluation of the other IFN-α/β subtypes versus KFDV infection indicated that single treatments of either IFN-αWA and IFN-αΚ appeared to be more effective than IFN-α2a at reducing KFDV titres. Concentration-dependent analysis of these IFN-α/β subtypes revealed that regardless of subtype, low concentrations of IFN were able to limit cytopathic effects (CPE, while significantly higher concentrations were needed for inhibition of virion release. Furthermore, expression of the KFDV NS5 in cell culture before IFN addition enabled VSV-GFP to overcome the effects of IFN-α/β signalling, producing a robust infection.Treatment of cell culture with IFN does not appear to be suitable for KFDV eradication and the assay used for such studies should be carefully considered. Further, it appears that the NS5 protein is sufficient to permit KFDV to bypass the antiviral properties of IFN. We suggest that other prophylactic therapeutics should be evaluated in place of IFN for treatment of individuals with KFDV disease.

  2. An integrated airborne laser scanning approach to forest management and cultural heritage issues: a case study at Porolissum, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria Roman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the opportunities that arise where forest ecosystem management and cultural heritage monuments protection converge. The case study area for our analysis was the landscape surrounding the Moigrad-Porolissum Archaeological site. We emphasize that an Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS or LiDAR-Light Detection and Ranging approach to both forest management and cultural heritage conservation is an outstanding tool, assisting policy-makers and conservationists in decision making for integrated planning and management of the environment. LiDAR-derived surface models enabled a synoptic, never-seen-before view of the ancient Roman frontiers defensive systems while also revealing the present forest road network. The thorough and accurate road inventory data are very useful for updating and modifying forest base maps and registries and also for identifying the priority sectors for archaeological discharge. The ability to identify and determine optimal routes for forest management and to locate previously unmapped ancient archaeological remains aids in reducing costs and creating operational efficiencies as well as in complying with the legislation and avoiding infringements. The potential of LiDAR to demonstrate the long-term and comprehensive human impact on wooded areas is discussed. We identified a significant historical landscape change, consisting of a deforestation period, spanning over more than 160 years, during the Roman Period in Dacia (106-271 AD. The transdisciplinary analysis of the LiDAR data provides the base for combining knowledge from archaeology, forestry and environmental history in order to achieve a thorough analysis of the landscape changes and history. In the “nature versus culture” dichotomy, the landscape, outfield areas and forests are primarily perceived as nature, while in reality they are often heavily marked by human impact. LiDAR offers an efficient method for broadening our knowledge regarding the

  3. Exploring the mitochondrial DNA variability of the Amazonian Yanomami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varano, Sara; Scorrano, Gabriele; Martínez-Labarga, Cristina; Finocchio, Andrea; Rapone, Cesare; Berti, Andrea; Rickards, Olga

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the mitochondrial variability in the Yanomami population to reconstruct its demographic history and explore its genetic composition in relation to its cultural and linguistic features. A total of 174 human head hair shafts -collected in 1958- belonging to individuals from a Yanomami group living in Santa Isabel, Brazil, were analyzed. Automated extraction of the hairs was performed, and several methods were applied to optimize the analysis of the degraded DNA. The mtDNA hypervariable segments I-II, along with the 9-bp COII-tRNA Lys deletion, were investigated. Using published data from the Yanomami and other Amazonian populations, several statistical analyses were carried out to explore the genetic variability within the study population. Ninety eight percent of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences analyzed belonged to Native American haplogroups, while 2% belonged to African haplogroups. Compared with the Yanomami groups previously studied, the Santa Isabel sample seemed more genetically similar to other Amazonian populations. Among the Yanomami samples studied to date, the Santa Isabel Yanomami show a higher genetic heterogeneity. This could be due to gene flow with non-Yanomami populations, as well as to the introduction of new mitochondrial haplotypes by gold miners. In both cases, the geographic location of Santa Isabel might have made this Yanomami village less isolated than the others, suggesting that the Rio Negro played a central role in increasing its genetic variability. On the whole, the Yanomami were quite genetically diversified, probably mirroring their great linguistic heterogeneity. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:846-856, 2016. © 2016Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Leaf-litter amount as a factor in the structure of a ponerine ants community (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Ponerinae in an eastern Amazonian rainforest, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandro Herbert dos Santos Bastos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf-litter amount as a factor in the structure of a ponerine ants community (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Ponerinae in an eastern Amazonian rainforest, Brazil. Leaf-litter may be an important factor in structuring ponerine ant communities (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Ponerinae in tropical rainforests. We specifically examined how leaf-litter affects the structure of a ponerine ant community in primary Amazonian rainforest sites at the Ferreira Penna Scientific Station, Pará, Brazil. A total of 53 species belonging to eight genera of three ponerine tribes were collected with mini-Winkler extractors. The amount of leaf-litter positively affected the abundance and richness of the ponerine ant community, and also influenced species composition. Nearby samples often had low species similarity, especially when adjacent samples differed in the amount of leaf-litter. Leaf-litter availability in Amazonian primary forests is a key factor for distribution of ground-dwelling ponerine species, even at small scales.

  5. Avatar in the Amazon - Narratives of Cultural Conversion and Environmental Salvation between Cultural Theory and Popular Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ødemark

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2010 the New York Times reported that '[t]ribes of Amazon Find an Ally Out of "Avatar"', James Cameron. The alliance was against the building of Belo Monte, a hydroelectricdam in the Xingu River in Brazil. Cameron made a documentary about Belo Monte, A Message from Pandora. Here he states that Avatar becomes real in the struggle against the dam. This appears to confirm U. K. Heise's observation that the 'Amazon rainforest has long functioned as a complex symbol of exotic natural abundance, global ecological connectedness, and environmental crisis'. This construal, however, downplays the 'symbols' cultural components. In this article I show that the image of an ecological 'rainforest Indian' and a particular kind of culture constitutes a crucial part of the Amazon as 'a complex' cross-disciplinary 'symbol'. Firstly, I examine how an Amazonian topology (closeness to nature, natural cultures is both a product of an interdisciplinary history, and a place to speak from for ethno-political activist. Next I analyze how Amazonian cultures have been turned into 'ethnological isolates' representing a set of grand theoretical problems in anthropology, not least concerning the nature/culture-distinction, and how environmentalism has deployed the same topology. Finally I examine how Avatar and one of its cinematic intertexts, John Boorman's The Emerald Forest, is used as a model to understand the struggle over the Belo Monte. In a paradoxical way the symbolic power of indigenous people in ecological matters here appears to be dependent upon a non-relation, and a reestablishment of clear cut cultural boundaries, where 'the tribal' is also associated with the human past. Disturbingly such symbolic exportation of solutions is consonant with current exportations of the solution of ecological problems to 'other places'.

  6. Voices of Contact: Politics of Language in Urban Amazonian Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroblewski, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is a study of diverse linguistic resources and contentious identity politics among indigenous Amazonian Kichwas in the city of Tena, Ecuador. Tena is a rapidly developing Amazonian provincial capital city with a long history of interethnic and interlinguistic contact. In recent decades, the course of indigenous Kichwa identity…

  7. Cultural treatments and woody debris: the study case of beech forests in Casentino (Italy

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    Calamini G

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the first results about quantity and quality of dead wood on the ground in beech forests of Foreste Casentinesi, Monte Falterona and Campigna National Park. The presence of dead wood depends on several factors such as forest productivity, natural disturbances and human activities. Data from some mature managed beech stands have been collected and compared with those from unmanaged beech forest (Sasso Fratino full-protected Reserve. Results do not show significant differences between managed and unmanaged forests. The dead wood varies between 5 and 8 Mg ha-1 (in terms of total dry weight mostly composed by fine woody debris.

  8. Fish are central in the diet of Amazonian riparians: should we worry about their mercury concentrations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorea, Jose G.

    2003-01-01

    The Amazon rain forest extends over an area of 7.8x10 6 km 2 in nine countries. It harbors a diverse human population distributed in dense cities and isolated communities with extreme levels of infrastructure. Amazonian forest people, either autochthons or frontier riparians (ribeirinhos) living in isolated areas, share the same environment for survival and nutritional status. The peculiarities of the hydrological cycle determine disease patterns, agricultural conditions, and food availability. Feeding strategies depend heavily on cassava products and fish. These two foods carry toxic substances such as linamarin (naturally present in cassava) and monomethyl mercury (MMHg) (bioconcentrated in fish flesh) that cause neurotoxic diseases in other parts of the world but not in Amazonia, where neurotoxic cases of food origin are rare and not related to these staples. While cassava detoxification processes may partly explain its safe consumption, the Hg concentrations in Amazonian fish are within traditionally safe limits for this population and contribute to an important metabolic interaction with cassava. The gold rush of the 1970s and 1980s brought large-scale environmental disruption and physical destruction of ecosystems at impact points, along with a heavy discharge of metallic Hg. The discharged Hg has not yet impacted on MMHg concentrations in fish or in hair of fish consumers. Hair Hg concentration, used as a biomarker of fish consumption, indicates that the Amazonian riparians are acquiring an excellent source of protein carrying important nutrients, the lack of which could aggravate their existing health problems. Therefore, in a scenario of insufficient health services and an unhealthy environment, food habits based on fish consumption are part of a successful survival strategy and recommendations for changes are not yet justifiable

  9. Fish are central in the diet of Amazonian riparians: should we worry about their mercury concentrations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorea, Jose G

    2003-07-01

    The Amazon rain forest extends over an area of 7.8x10(6)km(2) in nine countries. It harbors a diverse human population distributed in dense cities and isolated communities with extreme levels of infrastructure. Amazonian forest people, either autochthons or frontier riparians (ribeirinhos) living in isolated areas, share the same environment for survival and nutritional status. The peculiarities of the hydrological cycle determine disease patterns, agricultural conditions, and food availability. Feeding strategies depend heavily on cassava products and fish. These two foods carry toxic substances such as linamarin (naturally present in cassava) and monomethyl mercury (MMHg) (bioconcentrated in fish flesh) that cause neurotoxic diseases in other parts of the world but not in Amazonia, where neurotoxic cases of food origin are rare and not related to these staples. While cassava detoxification processes may partly explain its safe consumption, the Hg concentrations in Amazonian fish are within traditionally safe limits for this population and contribute to an important metabolic interaction with cassava. The gold rush of the 1970s and 1980s brought large-scale environmental disruption and physical destruction of ecosystems at impact points, along with a heavy discharge of metallic Hg. The discharged Hg has not yet impacted on MMHg concentrations in fish or in hair of fish consumers. Hair Hg concentration, used as a biomarker of fish consumption, indicates that the Amazonian riparians are acquiring an excellent source of protein carrying important nutrients, the lack of which could aggravate their existing health problems. Therefore, in a scenario of insufficient health services and an unhealthy environment, food habits based on fish consumption are part of a successful survival strategy and recommendations for changes are not yet justifiable.

  10. Biomassa da rebrota de copas de pau-rosa (Aniba rosaeodora Ducke em plantios sob sombra parcial em floresta primária Canopy sprouting biomass of rosewood (Aniba rosaeodora Ducke in an Amazonian terra firme forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Tarso Barbosa Sampaio

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo propõe uma nova metodologia de exploração do pau-rosa (Aniba rosaeodora Ducke em substituição ao método tradicional, predatório, de corte raso. Avaliando-se a biomassa da rebrota de copas (galhos e folhas e de cepas cortadas a 1 m de altura do solo, será possível inferir sobre o manejo de plantios visando maximizar a produção de óleo essencial desta espécie. Os plantios estão localizados na Reserva Florestal Adolph Ducke, Manaus, Brasil. Treze anos após a poda das copas e do corte das árvores a 1 m do solo, o peso seco da rebrota da copa (39,5 kg foi significativamente superior ao peso seco de galhos e folhas das árvores testemunha (23 kg e da rebrota das cepas (13,7 kg, revelando que a poda da copa estimulou maior produtividade de galhos e folhas das árvores do plantio. Como o peso do fuste representou 85,5% da média do peso total das árvores e a produtividade de óleo é diretamente proporcional á biomassa aérea, a exploração atual é predominantemente feita através do corte raso das árvores. A alta capacidade de rebrota da copa e o maior rendimento de óleo a partir de galhos e folhas em relação à madeira, no entanto, indicam que o manejo dos plantios desta espécie poderá ser feito através da poda da copa das árvores, evitando a destruição total das árvores e uma possível extinção da espécie.The aim of this study is to develop a new management technique in rosewood trees (Aniba roseodora Ducke to replace the traditional clear-cut method. The biomass of branches and leaves originated by sprouting is used to estimate oil productivity, focusing on the silvicultural management of this species. The plantation is located at the Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve, Manaus, Brazil. The biomass of branches and leaves was quantified 13 years after the first pruning. The average dry weight of tree canopy sprouts (39.5 kg was greater than the control (23 kg. That is one indication that the canopy pruning

  11. Phylogenetic insights into the diversity of homocytous cyanobacteria from Amazonian rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genuário, Diego Bonaldo; Vaz, Marcelo Gomes Marçal Vieira; Melo, Itamar Soares de

    2017-11-01

    The Amazon Rainforest holds great tropical biodiversity, mainly because of its favourable climatic conditions. The high temperatures, luminosity and humidity coupled with the nutritional simplicity of cyanobacteria allow undiscovered diversity to flourish within this group of microorganisms. Some efforts to reveal this diversity have been attempted; however, most were focused on the microscopic observation of environmental samples without any genetic information. Very few studies focusing on morphological, ecological and molecular criteria have been conducted, and none have been devoted to homocytous cyanobacteria forms in Amazonia region. Therefore, the genetic relationships amongst strains retrieved from this ecosystem with regard to other environments from Brazil and the world have not been tested and, consequently, the Amazonian strains would naturally be assumed as novel to science. To examine these relationships, cultured homocytous cyanobacteria isolated from two Amazonian rivers (Amazonas and Solimões) were evaluated using a phylogenetic perspective, considering the 16S rRNA gene sequence. A total of eleven homocytous cyanobacterial strains were isolated. Morphologically, they were identified as Pseudanabaena, Leptolyngbya, Planktothrix and Phormidium, but genetically they were included in the typical clusters of Planktothrix, Pseudanabaena, Cephalothrix, Pantanalinema and Alkalinema. These three latter genera have been detected in other Brazilian ecosystems only (Pantanal, Atlantic Rainforest and Pampa), while those remaining have been extensively found in many parts of the world. The data provided here indicate that Amazonian rivers support a homocytous cyanobacterial diversity previously reported from other geographical and ecological environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Mosquitoes of eastern Amazonian Ecuador: biodiversity, bionomics and barcodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne-Marie Linton

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two snapshot surveys to establish the diversity and ecological preferences of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in the terra firme primary rain forest surrounding the Tiputini Biodiversity Station in the UNESCO Yasuní Biosphere Reserve of eastern Amazonian Ecuador were carried out in November 1998 and May 1999. The mosquito fauna of this region is poorly known; the focus of this study was to obtain high quality link-reared specimens that could be used to unequivocally confirm species level diversity through integrated systematic study of all life stages and DNA sequences. A total of 2,284 specimens were preserved; 1,671 specimens were link-reared with associated immature exuviae, all but 108 of which are slide mounted. This study identified 68 unique taxa belonging to 17 genera and 27 subgenera. Of these, 12 are new to science and 37 comprise new country records. DNA barcodes [658-bp of the mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase ( COI I gene] are presented for 58 individuals representing 20 species and nine genera. DNA barcoding proved useful in uncovering and confirming new species and we advocate an integrated systematics approach to biodiversity studies in future. Associated bionomics of all species collected are discussed. An updated systematic checklist of the mosquitoes of Ecuador (n = 179 is presented for the first time in 60 years.

  13. Regional hydro-climatic impacts of contemporary Amazonian deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Jaya

    More than 17% of the Amazon rainforest has been cleared in the past three decades triggering important climatological and societal impacts. This thesis is devoted to identifying and explaining the regional hydroclimatic impacts of this change employing multidecadal satellite observations and numerical simulations providing an integrated perspective on this topic. The climatological nature of this study motivated the implementation and application of a cloud detection technique to a new geostationary satellite dataset. The resulting sub daily, high spatial resolution, multidecadal time series facilitated the detection of trends and variability in deforestation triggered cloud cover changes. The analysis was complemented by satellite precipitation, reanalysis and ground based datasets and attribution with the variable resolution Ocean-Land-Atmosphere-Model. Contemporary Amazonian deforestation affects spatial scales of hundreds of kilometers. But, unlike the well-studied impacts of a few kilometers scale deforestation, the climatic response to contemporary, large scale deforestation is neither well observed nor well understood. Employing satellite datasets, this thesis shows a transition in the regional hydroclimate accompanying increasing scales of deforestation, with downwind deforested regions receiving 25% more and upwind deforested regions receiving 25% less precipitation from the deforested area mean. Simulations robustly reproduce these shifts when forced with increasing deforestation alone, suggesting a negligible role of large-scale decadal climate variability in causing the shifts. Furthermore, deforestation-induced surface roughness variations are found necessary to reproduce the observed spatial patterns in recent times illustrating the strong scale-sensitivity of the climatic response to Amazonian deforestation. This phenomenon, inconsequential during the wet season, is found to substantially affect the regional hydroclimate in the local dry and parts of

  14. Avian distribution in treefall gaps and understorey of terra firme forest in the lowland Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    JR WUNDERLE; MICHAEL R. WILLIG; LUIZA MAGALLI PINTO HENRIQUES

    2005-01-01

    We compared the bird distributions in the understorey of treefall gaps and sites with intact canopy in Amazonian terra firme forest in Brazil. We compiled 2216 mist-net captures (116 species) in 32 gap and 32 forest sites over 22.3 months. Gap habitats differed from forest habitats in having higher capture rates, total captures, species richness and diversity....

  15. Abrupt increases in Amazonian tree mortality due to drought–fire interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brando, Paulo Monteiro; Balch, Jennifer K.; Nepstad, Daniel C.; Morton, Douglas C.; Putz, Francis E.; Coe, Michael T.; Silvério, Divino; Macedo, Marcia N.; Davidson, Eric A.; Nóbrega, Caroline C.; Alencar, Ane; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S.

    2014-01-01

    Interactions between climate and land-use change may drive widespread degradation of Amazonian forests. High-intensity fires associated with extreme weather events could accelerate this degradation by abruptly increasing tree mortality, but this process remains poorly understood. Here we present, to our knowledge, the first field-based evidence of a tipping point in Amazon forests due to altered fire regimes. Based on results of a large-scale, long-term experiment with annual and triennial burn regimes (B1yr and B3yr, respectively) in the Amazon, we found abrupt increases in fire-induced tree mortality (226 and 462%) during a severe drought event, when fuel loads and air temperatures were substantially higher and relative humidity was lower than long-term averages. This threshold mortality response had a cascading effect, causing sharp declines in canopy cover (23 and 31%) and aboveground live biomass (12 and 30%) and favoring widespread invasion by flammable grasses across the forest edge area (80 and 63%), where fires were most intense (e.g., 220 and 820 kW⋅m−1). During the droughts of 2007 and 2010, regional forest fires burned 12 and 5% of southeastern Amazon forests, respectively, compared with Amazon forests. Future projections of vegetation responses to climate change across drier portions of the Amazon require more than simulation of global climate forcing alone and must also include interactions of extreme weather events, fire, and land-use change. PMID:24733937

  16. Occurrence of culturable soil fungi in a tropical moist deciduous forest Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Odisha, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Santanu K; Tayung, Kumanand; Rath, Chandi C; Parida, Debraj

    2015-03-01

    Similipal Biosphere Reserve (SBR) is a tropical moist deciduous forest dominated by the species Shorea robusta . To the best of our knowledge their rich biodiversity has not been explored in term of its microbial wealth. In the present investigation, soil samples were collected from ten selected sites inside SBR and studied for their physicochemical parameters and culturable soil fungal diversity. The soil samples were found to be acidic in nature with a pH ranging from of 5.1-6.0. Highest percentage of organic carbon and moisture content were observed in the samples collected from the sites, Chahala-1 and Chahala-2. The plate count revealed that fungal population ranged from 3.6 × 10 (4) -2.1 × 10 (5) and 5.1 × 10 (4) -4.7 × 10 (5) cfu/gm of soil in summer and winter seasons respectively. The soil fungus, Aspergillus niger was found to be the most dominant species and Species Important Values Index (SIVI) was 43.4 and 28.6 in summer and winter seasons respectively. Among the sites studied, highest fungal diversity indices were observed during summer in the sites, Natto-2 and Natto-1. The Shannon-Wiener and Simpson indices in these two sites were found to be 3.12 and 3.022 and 0.9425 and 0.9373 respectively. However, the highest Fisher's alpha was observed during winter in the sites Joranda, Natto-2, Chahala-1 and Natto-1 and the values were 3.780, 3.683, 3.575 and 3.418 respectively. Our investigation revealed that, fungal population was dependent on moisture and organic carbon (%) of the soil but its diversity was found to be regulated by sporulating species like Aspergillus and Penicillium.

  17. Occurrence of culturable soil fungi in a tropical moist deciduous forest Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Odisha, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Santanu K.; Tayung, Kumanand; Rath, Chandi C.; Parida, Debraj

    2015-01-01

    Similipal Biosphere Reserve (SBR) is a tropical moist deciduous forest dominated by the species Shorea robusta . To the best of our knowledge their rich biodiversity has not been explored in term of its microbial wealth. In the present investigation, soil samples were collected from ten selected sites inside SBR and studied for their physicochemical parameters and culturable soil fungal diversity. The soil samples were found to be acidic in nature with a pH ranging from of 5.1–6.0. Highest percentage of organic carbon and moisture content were observed in the samples collected from the sites, Chahala-1 and Chahala-2. The plate count revealed that fungal population ranged from 3.6 × 10 4 –2.1 × 10 5 and 5.1 × 10 4 –4.7 × 10 5 cfu/gm of soil in summer and winter seasons respectively. The soil fungus, Aspergillus niger was found to be the most dominant species and Species Important Values Index (SIVI) was 43.4 and 28.6 in summer and winter seasons respectively. Among the sites studied, highest fungal diversity indices were observed during summer in the sites, Natto-2 and Natto-1. The Shannon-Wiener and Simpson indices in these two sites were found to be 3.12 and 3.022 and 0.9425 and 0.9373 respectively. However, the highest Fisher’s alpha was observed during winter in the sites Joranda, Natto-2, Chahala-1 and Natto-1 and the values were 3.780, 3.683, 3.575 and 3.418 respectively. Our investigation revealed that, fungal population was dependent on moisture and organic carbon (%) of the soil but its diversity was found to be regulated by sporulating species like Aspergillus and Penicillium . PMID:26221092

  18. Occurrence of culturable soil fungi in a tropical moist deciduous forest Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Odisha, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santanu K. Jena

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Similipal Biosphere Reserve (SBR is a tropical moist deciduous forest dominated by the species Shorea robusta. To the best of our knowledge their rich biodiversity has not been explored in term of its microbial wealth. In the present investigation, soil samples were collected from ten selected sites inside SBR and studied for their physicochemical parameters and culturable soil fungal diversity. The soil samples were found to be acidic in nature with a pH ranging from of 5.1–6.0. Highest percentage of organic carbon and moisture content were observed in the samples collected from the sites, Chahala-1 and Chahala-2. The plate count revealed that fungal population ranged from 3.6 × 104–2.1 × 105 and 5.1 × 104–4.7 × 105 cfu/gm of soil in summer and winter seasons respectively. The soil fungus, Aspergillus niger was found to be the most dominant species and Species Important Values Index (SIVI was 43.4 and 28.6 in summer and winter seasons respectively. Among the sites studied, highest fungal diversity indices were observed during summer in the sites, Natto-2 and Natto-1. The Shannon-Wiener and Simpson indices in these two sites were found to be 3.12 and 3.022 and 0.9425 and 0.9373 respectively. However, the highest Fisher’s alpha was observed during winter in the sites Joranda, Natto-2, Chahala-1 and Natto-1 and the values were 3.780, 3.683, 3.575 and 3.418 respectively. Our investigation revealed that, fungal population was dependent on moisture and organic carbon (% of the soil but its diversity was found to be regulated by sporulating species like Aspergillus and Penicillium.

  19. The culture collection and herbarium of the Center for Forest Mycology Research: A national resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.A. Glaeser; K.K. Nakasone; D.J. Lodge; B. Ortiz-Santana; D.L. Lindner

    2013-01-01

    The Center for Forest Mycology Research (CFMR), U.S. Forest Service, Northern Research Station, Madison, WI, is home to the world's largest collection of wood-inhabiting fungi. These collections constitute a library of the fungal kingdom that is used by researchers thoughout the world. The CFMR collections have many practical uses that have improved the lives of...

  20. Restoring oak forest, woodlands and savannahs using modern silvicultural analogs to historic cultural fire regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel C. Dey; Richard P. Guyette; Callie J. Schweitzer; Michael C. Stambaugh; John M. Kabrick

    2015-01-01

    Variability in historic fire regimes in eastern North America resulted in an array of oak savannahs, woodlands and forests that were dominant vegetation types throughout the region. In the past century, once abundant savannahs and woodlands have become scarce due to conversion to agriculture, or development of forest structure in the absence of fire. In addition, the...

  1. Origin and Domestication of Native Amazonian Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doriane Picanço-Rodrigues

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular analyses are providing new elements to decipher the origin, domestication and dispersal of native Amazonian crops in an expanding archaeological context. Solid molecular data are available for manioc (Manihot esculenta, cacao (Theobroma cacao, pineapple (Ananas comosus, peach palm (Bactris gasipaes and guaraná (Paullinia cupana, while hot peppers (Capsicum spp., inga (Inga edulis, Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa and cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum are being studied. Emergent patterns include the relationships among domestication, antiquity (terminal Pleistocene to early Holocene, origin in the periphery, ample pre-Columbian dispersal and clear phylogeographic population structure for manioc, pineapple, peach palm and, perhaps, Capsicum peppers. Cacao represents the special case of an Amazonian species possibly brought into domestication in Mesoamerica, but close scrutiny of molecular data suggests that it may also have some incipiently domesticated populations in Amazonia. Another pattern includes the relationships among species with incipiently domesticated populations or very recently domesticated populations, rapid pre- or post-conquest dispersal and lack of phylogeographic population structure, e.g., Brazil nut, cupuassu and guaraná. These patterns contrast the peripheral origin of most species with domesticated populations with the subsequent concentration of their genetic resources in the center of the basin, along the major white water rivers where high pre-conquest population densities developed. Additional molecular genetic analyses on these and other species will allow better examination of these processes and will enable us to relate them to other historical ecological patterns in Amazonia.

  2. Institutional, Individual, and Socio-Cultural Domains of Partnerships: A Typology of USDA Forest Service Recreation Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seekamp, Erin; Cerveny, Lee K.; McCreary, Allie

    2011-09-01

    Federal land management agencies, such as the USDA Forest Service, have expanded the role of recreation partners reflecting constrained growth in appropriations and broader societal trends towards civic environmental governance. Partnerships with individual volunteers, service groups, commercial outfitters, and other government agencies provide the USDA Forest Service with the resources necessary to complete projects and meet goals under fiscal constraints. Existing partnership typologies typically focus on collaborative or strategic alliances and highlight organizational dimensions (e.g., structure and process) defined by researchers. This paper presents a partner typology constructed from USDA Forest Service partnership practitioners' conceptualizations of 35 common partner types. Multidimensional scaling of data from unconstrained pile sorts identified 3 distinct cultural dimensions of recreation partners—specifically, partnership character, partner impact, and partner motivations—that represent institutional, individual, and socio-cultural cognitive domains. A hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis provides further insight into the various domains of agency personnel's conceptualizations. While three dimensions with high reliability (RSQ = 0.83) and corresponding hierarchical clusters illustrate commonality between agency personnel's partnership suppositions, this study also reveals variance in personnel's familiarity and affinity for specific partnership types. This real-world perspective on partner types highlights that agency practitioners not only make strategic choices when selecting and cultivating partnerships to accomplish critical task, but also elect to work with partners for the primary purpose of providing public service and fostering land stewardship.

  3. Produção e predação de frutos em Aniba rosaeodora Ducke var. amazonica Ducke (Lauraceae em sistema de plantio sob floresta de terra firme na Amazônia Central Harvesting and fruit predation of a Aniba rosaeodora Ducke var. amazonica Ducke (Lauraceae ex situ tree population in a central Amazonian upland forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Roberto Spironello

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O pau-rosa (Aniba rosaeodora vem sendo usado desde o século passado para extração de linalol, produto usado como fixador de perfumes. Por causa do extrativismo houve redução drástica em suas populações naturais. Somando a este fato, esta espécie possui padrão irregular de frutificação e, quando frutifica, os seus frutos são consumidos por animais. Estes aspectos foram estudados utilizando uma população de plantio sob sombra parcial de floresta primária. A produtividade das árvores variou de 40 a 1.600 frutos (n = 21 árvores. No geral, cerca de 42,5% foram removidos por frugívoros (6.770 frutos, n = 10 árvores. Dos frutos não removidos, 0,5% foram predados por vertebrados, 81,5% continham larvas de insetos, variando de 36-96% entre indivíduos. Uma espécie de Coleoptera ataca os frutos em estádio imaturo, enquanto outra (Heilipus sp. e uma espécie de Lepidoptera atacam os frutos em estádio final de desenvolvimento. Os resultados projetam perda de 59,5% dos frutos (54,5% por insetos passíveis de coleta. Considerando a importância econômica do pau-rosa faz-se necessário aumentar a disponibilidade de sementes para planos de manejo da espécie. Para se atingir tais objetivos são necessárias algumas medidas: 1 coleta prematura de frutos para maturação em laboratório; 2 utilização de métodos de controle de insetos adultos (em plantios e larvas (em frutos atacados; e 3 estudos de seleção genética para identificar plantas com maior resistência natural a pragas e doenças.The rosewood tree (Aniba rosaeodora has been exploited for linalol, a product used as a fixative by the perfume industry. As a result, its population has decreased to the point that it is at risk of extinction in some Amazonian areas. In addition, the species has an irregular phenological pattern and its fruits are a food source for animals. This study focused on the use an ex situ population planted under partial forest shade. The fruit set

  4. Fishing in the Amazonian Forest: A Gendered Social Network Puzzle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Díaz-Reviriego, I.; Fernández-Llamazares,; Howard, P.L.; Molina, J.L.; Reyes-García, V.

    2017-01-01

    LLCWe employ social network analysis (SNA) to describe the structure of subsistence fishing social networks and to explore the relation between fishers’ emic perceptions of fishing expertise and their position in networks. Participant observation and quantitative methods were employed among the

  5. Anthropogenic influence on Amazonian forests in prehistory: An ecological perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bush, M.B.; McMichael, C.H.; Piperno, D.R.; Silman, M.R.; Barlow, J.; Peres, C.A.; Power, M.; Palace, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    An important debate has been re-invigorated by new data concerning the size and environmental impacts of human populations in the Amazon Basin during pre-history. Here, we review the history of debates concerning pre-historic human occupation of the Amazon Basin along with the presentation of

  6. A Bilingual Experiment in the Amazonian Jungle of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Mary Ruth

    1971-01-01

    In the Amazonian jungle of Peru 240 Indian leaders representing 20 different South American Indian language groups are successfully teaching their own people to read and write, first in their mother tongue and then in Spanish. (Author/EB)

  7. Temporal Decay in Timber Species Composition and Value in Amazonian Logging Concessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Vanessa A; Peres, Carlos A

    2016-01-01

    Throughout human history, slow-renewal biological resource populations have been predictably overexploited, often to the point of economic extinction. We assess whether and how this has occurred with timber resources in the Brazilian Amazon. The asynchronous advance of industrial-scale logging frontiers has left regional-scale forest landscapes with varying histories of logging. Initial harvests in unlogged forests can be highly selective, targeting slow-growing, high-grade, shade-tolerant hardwood species, while later harvests tend to focus on fast-growing, light-wooded, long-lived pioneer trees. Brazil accounts for 85% of all native neotropical forest roundlog production, and the State of Pará for almost half of all timber production in Brazilian Amazonia, the largest old-growth tropical timber reserve controlled by any country. Yet the degree to which timber harvests beyond the first-cut can be financially profitable or demographically sustainable remains poorly understood. Here, we use data on legally planned logging of ~17.3 million cubic meters of timber across 314 species extracted from 824 authorized harvest areas in private and community-owned forests, 446 of which reported volumetric composition data by timber species. We document patterns of timber extraction by volume, species composition, and monetary value along aging eastern Amazonian logging frontiers, which are then explained on the basis of historical and environmental variables. Generalized linear models indicate that relatively recent logging operations farthest from heavy-traffic roads are the most selective, concentrating gross revenues on few high-value species. We find no evidence that the post-logging timber species composition and total value of forest stands recovers beyond the first-cut, suggesting that the commercially most valuable timber species become predictably rare or economically extinct in old logging frontiers. In avoiding even more destructive land-use patterns, managing

  8. Fish species richness is associated with the availability of landscape components across seasons in the Amazonian floodplain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Edwar Carvalho Freitas

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding environmental biodiversity drivers in freshwater systems continues to be a fundamental challenge in studies of their fish assemblages. The present study seeks to determine the degree to which landscape variables of Amazonian floodplain lakes influences fish assemblages in these environments. Fish species richness was estimated in 15 Amazonian floodplain lakes during the high and low-water phases and correlated with the areas of four inundated wetland classes: (i open water, (ii flooded herbaceous, (iii flooded shrubs and (iv flooded forest estimated in different radius circular areas around each sampling site. Data were analyzed using generalized linear models with fish species richness, total and guilds as the dependent variable and estimates of buffered landscape areas as explanatory variables. Our analysis identified the significance of landscape variables in determining the diversity of fish assemblages in Amazonian floodplain lakes. Spatial scale was also identified as a significant determinant of fish diversity as landscape effects were more evident at larger spatial scales. In particular, (1 total species richness was more sensitive to variations in the landscape areas than number of species within guilds and (2 the spatial extent of the wetland class of shrubs was consistently the more influential on fish species diversity.

  9. Amazonian phylogeography: mtDNA sequence variation in arboreal echimyid rodents (Caviomorpha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, M N; Patton, J L

    1993-09-01

    Patterns of evolutionary relationships among haplotype clades of sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b DNA gene are examined for five genera of arboreal rodents of the Caviomorph family Echimyidae from the Amazon Basin. Data are available for 798 bp of sequence from a total of 24 separate localities in Peru, Venezuela, Bolivia, and Brazil for Mesomys, Isothrix, Makalata, Dactylomys, and Echimys. Sequence divergence, corrected for multiple hits, is extensive, ranging from less than 1% for comparisons within populations of over 20% among geographic units within genera. Both the degree of differentiation and the geographic patterning of the variation suggest that more than one species composes the Amazonian distribution of the currently recognized Mesomys hispidus, Isothrix bistriata, Makalata didelphoides, and Dactylomys dactylinus. There is general concordance in the geographic range of haplotype clades for each of these taxa, and the overall level of differentiation within them is largely equivalent. These observations suggest that a common vicariant history underlies the respective diversification of each genus. However, estimated times of divergence based on the rate of third position transversion substitutions for the major clades within each genus typically range above 1 million years. Thus, allopatric isolation precipitating divergence must have been considerably earlier than the late Pleistocene forest fragmentation events commonly invoked for Amazonian biota.

  10. Isolation and in vitro culture of trypanosomes from Leptodactylus ocellatus from the Atlantic Forest in a new experimental culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, M; Souza, C S F; da Costa, S C Gonçalves; Souto-Padrón, T; D'Agosto, M

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify the in vitro development of Trypanosoma sp. isolated from Leptodactylus ocellatus frogs under a new protocol using a biphasic medium composed of Novy, McNeal, and Nicolle (NNN) blood agar medium as a solid phase and liver infusion, brain heart infusion, and tryptose (LIBHIT) medium as a liquid phase. Blood forms, collected by cardiac puncture or after the maceration of different organs, were inoculated in culture tubes containing the biphasic medium composed by NNN and LIBHIT. Trypanosomes were observed 4 days postinoculation; most bloodstream trypomastigotes had differentiated into epimastigotes and amastigotes by this time. Trypomastigotes were again observed in older cultures (7 days). Parasites were successfully subcultured for 8 mo in this medium and successfully cryopreserved. The present study provides a new protocol medium for the isolation and culture of anuran trypanosomes.

  11. Characterizing European cultural landscapes: Accounting for structure, management intensity and value of agricultural and forest landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieskens, Koen F.; Schulp, Catharina J.E.; Levers, Christian; Lieskovský, Juraj; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Plieninger, Tobias; Verburg, Peter H.

    Abstract Almost all rural areas in Europe have been shaped or altered by humans and can be considered cultural landscapes, many of which now are considered to entail valuable cultural heritage. Current dynamics in land management have put cultural landscapes under a huge pressure of agricultural

  12. Large-scale heterogeneity of Amazonian phenology revealed from 26-year long AVHRR/NDVI time-series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Fabrício B; Shimabukuro, Yosio E; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Anderson, Liana O; Pereira, Gabriel; Cardozo, Franciele; Arai, Egídio

    2013-01-01

    Depiction of phenological cycles in tropical forests is critical for an understanding of seasonal patterns in carbon and water fluxes as well as the responses of vegetation to climate variations. However, the detection of clear spatially explicit phenological patterns across Amazonia has proven difficult using data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). In this work, we propose an alternative approach based on a 26-year time-series of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) to identify regions with homogeneous phenological cycles in Amazonia. Specifically, we aim to use a pattern recognition technique, based on temporal signal processing concepts, to map Amazonian phenoregions and to compare the identified patterns with field-derived information. Our automated method recognized 26 phenoregions with unique intra-annual seasonality. This result highlights the fact that known vegetation types in Amazonia are not only structurally different but also phenologically distinct. Flushing of new leaves observed in the field is, in most cases, associated to a continuous increase in NDVI. The peak in leaf production is normally observed from the beginning to the middle of the wet season in 66% of the field sites analyzed. The phenoregion map presented in this work gives a new perspective on the dynamics of Amazonian canopies. It is clear that the phenology across Amazonia is more variable than previously detected using remote sensing data. An understanding of the implications of this spatial heterogeneity on the seasonality of Amazonian forest processes is a crucial step towards accurately quantifying the role of tropical forests within global biogeochemical cycles. (letter)

  13. Studying the Effects of Amazonian Land Cover Change on Glacier Mass Balance in the Tropical Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, B. G.; Fernandez, A.; Gabrielli, P.; Montenegro, A.; Postigo, J.; Hellstrom, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    Recent research has highlighted several ongoing environmental changes occurring across Tropical South America, including Andean glacier retreat, drought, as well as changes in land-use and land-cover. As the regional climate of the area is mostly characterized by land-ocean interactions, the atmospheric convection in the Amazon, and the effect of the Andes on circulation patterns, it follows that changes in one of those regions may affect the other. Most scholars who have studied the causes of tropical glaciers' fluctuations have not analyzed the linkages with changes in the Amazon with the same attention paid to the influence of Pacific sea surface temperature. Here we study the response of glacier surface mass balance in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru (10°S), to a scenario where the Amazonian rainforest is replaced by savannas. We ran climatic simulations at 2-km spatial resolution utilizing the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model considering two scenarios: (a) control (CRTL), with today's rainforest extent; and (b) land cover change (LCC), where all the rainforest was replaced by savanna. WRF output was in turn ingested into a glacier energy and mass balance (GEMB) model that we validate by reconstructing both the accumulated mass balance from available observations, and the altitudinal distribution of mass balance in the region. Seasonal comparison between CRTL and LCC scenarios indicates that forest replacement by savanna results in more positive glacier mass balance. This shift to more positive mass balance contrasts with a (WRF) modeled rise in the elevation of the freezing line (0°C) between 30 to 120 m for the LCC scenario. Our results are surprising because most previous studies have shown that reducing Amazon forest cover diminishes rainfall and increases temperature, suggesting that glaciers should lose mass. We hypothesize and discuss implications of possible land-atmospheric processes that might drive this tropical glacier response to

  14. Cultural significance of the flora of a tropical dry forest in the Doche vereda (Villavieja, Huila, Colombia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosero-Toro, Jeison Herley; Romero-Duque, Luz Piedad; Santos-Fita, Dídac; Ruan-Soto, Felipe

    2018-03-22

    In Colombia, ethnobotanical studies regarding plant cultural significance (CS) in tropical dry forests are scarce and mainly focused on the Caribbean region. Different authors have indicated that the plants with the most uses are those of greater cultural importance. Additionally, gender differences in knowledge and interest in natural resources has been widely recorded. This study evaluated the cultural significance of plants in the Doche community, in the Department of Huila. Furthermore, it evaluates the richness of plant knowledge among local inhabitants, looking for testing the hypothesis that the CS of plants positively correlates to the number of uses people inform about, and that there are significant differences on the richness of ethnobotanical knowledge between men and women in this community. The ethnobotanical categories: "food," "condiment," "economy," "fodder," "firewood," "timber", "medicine," and "others" were established to carry out semi-structured interviews, social cartography, and ethnobotanical walks. The frequency of mention was calculated as a measure of CS. The richness of knowledge of each collaborator was obtained. Non-parametric tests were performed to determine whether differences between the numbers of mentioned species existed between genders and ethnobotanical categories. Finally, Pearson correlation tests determined the relationship between CS and the number of ethnobotanical categories. A hundred useful species were registered in crops and forests. The most abundant categories were medicinal (45 species), firewood (30), and fodder (28). The most culturally significant species according to frequency of mention were Pseudosamanea guachapele, Guazuma ulmifolia, Manihot esculenta, and Musa balbisiana. The species with the most registered uses (five) were Guazuma ulmifolia and Gliricidia sepium. We found a correlation between CS and the number of uses per ethnobotanical category, but no significant difference between genders regarding

  15. Private development-based forest conservation in Patagonia: comparing mental models and revealing cultural truths

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    Christopher Serenari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Private protected area (PPA conservation agents (CA engaging in development-based conservation in southern Chile have generated conflict with locals. Poor fit of dominant development-based conservation ideology in rural areas is commonly to blame. We developed and administered a cultural consensus survey near the Valdivian Coastal Reserve (RCV and Huilo Huilo Reserve (HH to examine fit of CA cultural truths with local residents. Cultural consensus analysis (CCA of 23 propositions reflecting CA cultural truths confirmed: (1 a single CA culture exists, and (2 RCV communities were more aligned with this culture than HH communities. Inadequate communication, inequitable decision making, divergent opinions about livelihood impacts and trajectories, and PPA purpose may explain differences between CAs and communities. Meanwhile, variability in response between and within communities may reflect differing environmental histories. Private protected area administrations might use CCA to confront cultural differences and thereby improve their community interactions.

  16. Efeitos de área e de borda sobre a estrutura florestal em fragmentos de floresta de terra-firme após 13-17 anos de isolamento Area and edge effects on forest structure in Amazonian forest fragments after 13-17 years of isolation

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    Henrique E. M. Nascimento

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available As estimativas de densidade e biomassa de árvores vivas com DAP > 10 cm e arvoretas 1-9,9 cm de DAP, liteira lenhosa grossa caída (LCG diâmetro > 10 cm, árvores mortas em pé (> 10 de DAP e liteira lenhosa fina caída (LCF - 2,5 9,9 cm de diâmetro foram quantificadas em 56 parcelas permanentes de 1 ha, distribuídas em quatro categorias de tamanho de fragmento - fragmentos de 1 ha (4 parcelas, fragmentos de 10 ha (12 parcelas e fragmentos de 100 ha (14 parcelas e floresta contínua (19 parcelas e em duas classes de distância da borda - 300 m (21 parcelas. A densidade e a biomassa de árvores e arvoretas de espécies de estágios sucessionais mais avançados não diferiram significativamente entre as diferentes categorias de tamanho e entre as duas distâncias da borda. Por outro lado, fragmentos florestais e locais 300 m da borda, respectivamente. Fragmentos florestais apresentaram maior quantidade de LCG e LCF do que a floresta contínua. Houve também diferenças significativas entre ambas as distâncias da borda para a quantidade de LCG e LCF e necromassa total. Uma análise de covariância mostrou que não houve efeito de tamanho do fragmento, mas a distância da borda teve um efeito significativo sobre a quantidade de LCG e LCF. A quantidade de LCG e LCF foi correlacionada negativamente com a distância da borda - locais mais próximos à borda tiveram cerca de 40% e 60% mais LCG do que locais mais distantes.Density and biomass of live trees >10 cm DBH and saplings 1-9.9 cm DBH, coarse woody debris (LCG diameter > 10 cm, fine woody debris (LCF diameter 2.5-9.9 cm, and standing dead trees (> 10 cm DBH were quantified in 56 permanent, 1-ha sample plots. These plots are located in four 1- (4 plots, three 10- (12 plots and two 100- (14 plots forest fragments in size and nearby continuous forests (19 plots as well as in two classes of distance from the edges - 300 m (21 plots. Density and biomass of primary species did not differ

  17. Challenges of Opportunity Cost Analysis in Planning REDD+: A Honduran Case Study of Social and Cultural Values Associated with Indigenous Forest Uses

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    Spencer T. Plumb

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The REDD Programme is predicated on the assumption that developed countries will provide sufficient funds to offset opportunity costs associated with avoiding deforestation. The role of non-market values in indigenous land management may challenge the efficacy of compensation schemes targeted at meeting opportunity costs as calculated in traditional opportunity cost analysis (OCA. Furthermore it is unclear how these economic incentives might affect social and cultural values linked to land-use norms, livelihoods, and local governance. This study explores the economic, social and cultural values of forest uses for a Miskito community in the Rio Plátano Biosphere Reserve in Honduras. Data were collected using household surveys, farm visits, and community workshops. OCA indicates potential for successful REDD+ payment schemes; however it is an inadequate method to account for subsistence and cultural opportunity costs associated with avoided deforestation. Compensation to change land-use practices may undermine governance institutions necessary to address deforestation in the region. Our results indicate that small-scale agriculture and other forest-based subsistence activities are important cultural practices for maintaining Miskito identity and forest management institutions. Recommendations are offered for using OCA to develop REDD+ projects that recognize the linkages between social and cultural values and forest management by focusing on approaches that consider a full range of economic, social and cultural opportunity costs.

  18. In vitro regeneration of Amazonian pineapple (Ananas comosus plants ecotype Gobernadora

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    Héctor Alexander Blanco Flores

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of pineapple (Ananas comosus cultivars and ecotypes of local commercial importance in Venezuela, among them the Amazonian ones, cultivated mainly by the aboriginal Piaroa, are of relevance. They sow the propagules, which restricts the availability of material for large-scale cultivation. This limitation was approached by plant tissue culture for in vitro propagation of Amazonian pineapple plants, Gobernadora ecotype, through somatic embryogenesis (ES and adventitious organogenesis (OA. Basal and intermediate sections of leaves were tested. Only the leaf base sections (FBS were morphogenically induced. The highest number of vitroplants (1.58 plants / explant was obtained from the embryogenic callus induced in MS medium with Picloram 10 mg.L-1 + Thidiazuron 2 mg.L-1, transferred to MS medium without hormones. In the organogenic process, the highest number of plants/explants (5 was obtained directly in MS with naphthaleneacetic acid 5 mg.L-1 + benzylaminopurine 0.25 mg.L-1, transferred to MS. The latter being the best in vitro culture system due to its productivity and for being a method that minimizes somaclonal variation.

  19. Village Fengshui Forests of Southern China – Culture History and Conservation Status

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    Chris Coggins

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The post-reform revival of 'fengshui' and related indigenous spiritual practices in China has revitalized traditional village management of “'fengshui' forests” (“'fengshuilin'”.  This study examines the cosmological principles, landscape ecology, conservation status, and floristic diversity of forest patches that comprise important biological refugia in China’s subtropical broadleaved forest region. From 1949-1979, 'fengshui' was prohibited by the state, but many lineage villages continued to protect 'fengshuilin' through nontraditional means.  The restoration of 'fengshui' has enhanced 'fengshuilin' preservation traditions, but lack of state recognition has impeded systematic research and conservation planning. We assess the status of 'fengshui' practice, 'fengshuilin' management, enforcement of harvesting bans, and tree species selection in seventeen villages associated with over 40 forest patches.  There is little evidence of utilitarian criteria for tree species selection, thus 'fengshuilin' contain diverse taxonomic assemblages.  This suggests strong local institutional capacity for maintaining and enhancing forest diversity and unique traditions of indigenous landscape ecology. We would like to express our deep gratitude for the generosity of the Freeman Foundation and ASIANetwork for funding through the ASIANetwork Freeman Student-Faculty Fellows Program for Collaborative Research in Asia.  Without their support for field research in the summer of 2011, this project would not have been possible.

  20. Unexpected high diversity of galling insects in the Amazonian upper canopy: the savanna out there.

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    Julião, Genimar R; Venticinque, Eduardo M; Fernandes, G Wilson; Price, Peter W

    2014-01-01

    A relatively large number of studies reassert the strong relationship between galling insect diversity and extreme hydric and thermal status in some habitats, and an overall pattern of a greater number of galling species in the understory of scleromorphic vegetation. We compared galling insect diversity in the forest canopy and its relationship with tree richness among upland terra firme, várzea, and igapó floodplains in Amazonia, Brazil. The soils of these forest types have highly different hydric and nutritional status. Overall, we examined the upper layer of 1,091 tree crowns. Galling species richness and abundance were higher in terra firme forests compared to várzea and igapó forests. GLM-ANCOVA models revealed that the number of tree species sampled in each forest type was determinant in the gall-forming insect diversity. The ratio between galling insect richness and number of tree species sampled (GIR/TSS ratio) was higher in the terra firme forest and in seasonally flooded igapó, while the várzea presented the lowest GIR/TSS ratio. In this study, we recorded unprecedented values of galling species diversity and abundance per sampling point. The GIR/TSS ratio from várzea was approximately 2.5 times higher than the highest value of this ratio ever reported in the literature. Based on this fact, we ascertained that várzea and igapó floodplain forests (with lower GIA and GIR), together with the speciose terra firme galling community emerge as the gall diversity apex landscape among all biogeographic regions already investigated. Contrary to expectation, our results also support the "harsh environment hypothesis", and unveil the Amazonian upper canopy as similar to Mediterranean vegetation habitats, hygrothermically stressed environments with leaf temperature at lethal limits and high levels of leaf sclerophylly.

  1. Unexpected high diversity of galling insects in the Amazonian upper canopy: the savanna out there.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genimar R Julião

    Full Text Available A relatively large number of studies reassert the strong relationship between galling insect diversity and extreme hydric and thermal status in some habitats, and an overall pattern of a greater number of galling species in the understory of scleromorphic vegetation. We compared galling insect diversity in the forest canopy and its relationship with tree richness among upland terra firme, várzea, and igapó floodplains in Amazonia, Brazil. The soils of these forest types have highly different hydric and nutritional status. Overall, we examined the upper layer of 1,091 tree crowns. Galling species richness and abundance were higher in terra firme forests compared to várzea and igapó forests. GLM-ANCOVA models revealed that the number of tree species sampled in each forest type was determinant in the gall-forming insect diversity. The ratio between galling insect richness and number of tree species sampled (GIR/TSS ratio was higher in the terra firme forest and in seasonally flooded igapó, while the várzea presented the lowest GIR/TSS ratio. In this study, we recorded unprecedented values of galling species diversity and abundance per sampling point. The GIR/TSS ratio from várzea was approximately 2.5 times higher than the highest value of this ratio ever reported in the literature. Based on this fact, we ascertained that várzea and igapó floodplain forests (with lower GIA and GIR, together with the speciose terra firme galling community emerge as the gall diversity apex landscape among all biogeographic regions already investigated. Contrary to expectation, our results also support the "harsh environment hypothesis", and unveil the Amazonian upper canopy as similar to Mediterranean vegetation habitats, hygrothermically stressed environments with leaf temperature at lethal limits and high levels of leaf sclerophylly.

  2. Characterization of Unexplored Deadwood Mycobiome in Highly Diverse Subtropical Forests Using Culture-independent Molecular Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purahong, Witoon; Pietsch, Katherina A; Lentendu, Guillaume; Schöps, Ricardo; Bruelheide, Helge; Wirth, Christian; Buscot, François; Wubet, Tesfaye

    2017-01-01

    The deadwood mycobiome, also known as wood-inhabiting fungi (WIF), are among the key players in wood decomposition, having a large impact on nutrient cycling in forest soils. However, our knowledge of WIF richness and distribution patterns in different forest biomes is limited. Here, we used pyrotag sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) region to characterize the deadwood mycobiome of two tree species with greatly different wood characteristics ( Schima superba and Pinus massoniana ) in a Chinese subtropical forest ecosystem. Specifically, we tested (i) the effects of tree species and wood quality properties on WIF OTU richness and community composition; (ii) the role of biotic and abiotic factors in shaping the WIF communities; and (iii) the relationship between WIF OTU richness, community composition and decomposition rates. Due to different wood chemical properties, we hypothesized that the WIF communities derived from the two tree species would be correlated differently with biotic and abiotic factors. Our results show that deadwood in subtropical forests harbors diverse fungal communities comprising six ecological functional groups. We found interesting colonization patterns for this subtropical biome, where Resinicium spp. were highly detected in both broadleaved and coniferous deadwood. In addition, the members of Xylariales were frequently found in Schima . The two deadwood species differed significantly in WIF OTU richness ( Pinus > Schima ) and community composition ( P < 0.001). Variations in WIF community composition of both tree species were significantly explained by wood pH and ecological factors (biotic: deadwood species, basal area and abiotic: soil pH), but the WIF communities derived from each tree species correlated differently with abiotic factors. Interestingly, we found that deadwood decomposition rate significantly correlated with WIF communities and negatively correlated with WIF OTU richness. We conclude that the

  3. “But the forest does know it...” Persistence of omusitu in the BaNande culture and thought (Democratic Republic of Congo

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    Francesco Remotti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The BaNande, farmers of the hills of the North Kivu (Democratic Republic of the Congo, call themselves proudly abakondi, the young and strong men who cut down the trees, who destroy the forest. Almost their entire culture is based on the principle of the “cut” (eritwa, as well as their social and political organization is due to the historical achievement of their territory wrested from the forest. Even the erotic activity is designed with the typical categories of abakondi. But the traditional culture of the BaNande was not geared only to this sense of conquest of the forest. The author of this article tries to show how the forest (omusitu would be made to survive in different ways. First, not all of the forest was destroyed. Indeed islands of forest remain here and there, such as supplies of food, timber, medicines, as memory of what had been destroyed, and as headquarters of the forest spirits. Second, whenever a chief died, he was buried on his hill not underground, but imprisoned by the trees of the forest planted all around his body. These tree tombs, real historical monuments of vegetable nature, are called by the BaNande amahero and are designed as “small forest” (singular akasitu. Finally it was diffused in the nande culture the awareness that the destruction of the forest doesn’t happen with impunity. The pride of abakondi is replaced by the recognition of omusitu (forest as autonomous world, which demands to be at least partially preserved, both physically in the territory, both as an entity with even “consciousness”. Once, the BaNande thought of not being able to break free from this consciousness, and this ecological anxiety emerged especially in the most significant moments of the reproduction of their culture, i.e. when in the olusumba (their rite of initiation in the forest they had to form their new men. But this conscience belongs to the past: on the hills of the Bunande the “spirits of the forest” have

  4. Exploring eco-hydrological consequences of the Amazonian ecosystems under climate and land-use changes in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, K.; Castanho, A. D.; Moghim, S.; Bras, R. L.; Coe, M. T.; Costa, M. H.; Levine, N. M.; Longo, M.; McKnight, S.; Wang, J.; Moorcroft, P. R.

    2012-12-01

    Deforestation and drought have imposed regional-scale perturbations onto Amazonian ecosystems and are predicted to cause larger negative impacts on the Amazonian ecosystems and associated regional carbon dynamics in the 21st century. However, global climate models (GCMs) vary greatly in their projections of future climate change in Amazonia, giving rise to uncertainty in the expected fate of the Amazon over the coming century. In this study, we explore the possible eco-hydrological consequences of the Amazonian ecosystems under projected climate and land-use changes in the 21st century using two state-of-the-art terrestrial ecosystem models—Ecosystem Demography Model 2.1(ED2.1) and Integrated Biosphere Simulator model (IBIS)—driven by three representative, bias-corrected climate projections from three IPCC GCMs (NCARPCM1, NCARCCSM3 and HadCM3), coupled with two land-use change scenarios (a business-as-usual and a strict governance scenario). We also analyze the relative roles of climate change, CO2 fertilization, land-use change and fire in driving the projected composition and structure of the Amazonian ecosystems. Our results show that CO2 fertilization enhances vegetation productivity and above-ground biomass (AGB) in the region, while land-use change and fire cause AGB loss and the replacement of forests by the savanna-like vegetation. The impacts of climate change depend strongly on the direction and severity of projected precipitation changes in the region. In particular, when intensified water stress is superimposed on unregulated deforestation, both ecosystem models predict large-scale dieback of Amazonian rainforests.

  5. Phthalate pollution in an Amazonian rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir, Alain; Boulay, Raphaël; Dejean, Alain; Touchard, Axel; Cuvillier-Hot, Virginie

    2016-08-01

    Phthalates are ubiquitous contaminants and endocrine-disrupting chemicals that can become trapped in the cuticles of insects, including ants which were recognized as good bioindicators for such pollution. Because phthalates have been noted in developed countries and because they also have been found in the Arctic, a region isolated from direct anthropogenic influence, we hypothesized that they are widespread. So, we looked for their presence on the cuticle of ants gathered from isolated areas of the Amazonian rainforest and along an anthropogenic gradient of pollution (rainforest vs. road sides vs. cities in French Guiana). Phthalate pollution (mainly di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)) was higher on ants gathered in cities and along road sides than on those collected in the pristine rainforest, indicating that it follows a human-mediated gradient of disturbance related to the use of plastics and many other products that contain phthalates in urban zones. Their presence varied with the ant species; the cuticle of Solenopsis saevissima traps higher amount of phthalates than that of compared species. However, the presence of phthalates in isolated areas of pristine rainforests suggests that they are associated both with atmospheric particles and in gaseous form and are transported over long distances by wind, resulting in a worldwide diffusion. These findings suggest that there is no such thing as a "pristine" zone.

  6. DNA Metabarcoding of Amazonian Ichthyoplankton Swarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggia, M E; Vigouroux, Y; Renno, J F; Duponchelle, F; Desmarais, E; Nunez, J; García-Dávila, C; Carvajal-Vallejos, F M; Paradis, E; Martin, J F; Mariac, C

    2017-01-01

    Tropical rainforests harbor extraordinary biodiversity. The Amazon basin is thought to hold 30% of all river fish species in the world. Information about the ecology, reproduction, and recruitment of most species is still lacking, thus hampering fisheries management and successful conservation strategies. One of the key understudied issues in the study of population dynamics is recruitment. Fish larval ecology in tropical biomes is still in its infancy owing to identification difficulties. Molecular techniques are very promising tools for the identification of larvae at the species level. However, one of their limits is obtaining individual sequences with large samples of larvae. To facilitate this task, we developed a new method based on the massive parallel sequencing capability of next generation sequencing (NGS) coupled with hybridization capture. We focused on the mitochondrial marker cytochrome oxidase I (COI). The results obtained using the new method were compared with individual larval sequencing. We validated the ability of the method to identify Amazonian catfish larvae at the species level and to estimate the relative abundance of species in batches of larvae. Finally, we applied the method and provided evidence for strong temporal variation in reproductive activity of catfish species in the Ucayalí River in the Peruvian Amazon. This new time and cost effective method enables the acquisition of large datasets, paving the way for a finer understanding of reproductive dynamics and recruitment patterns of tropical fish species, with major implications for fisheries management and conservation.

  7. DNA Metabarcoding of Amazonian Ichthyoplankton Swarms.

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    M E Maggia

    Full Text Available Tropical rainforests harbor extraordinary biodiversity. The Amazon basin is thought to hold 30% of all river fish species in the world. Information about the ecology, reproduction, and recruitment of most species is still lacking, thus hampering fisheries management and successful conservation strategies. One of the key understudied issues in the study of population dynamics is recruitment. Fish larval ecology in tropical biomes is still in its infancy owing to identification difficulties. Molecular techniques are very promising tools for the identification of larvae at the species level. However, one of their limits is obtaining individual sequences with large samples of larvae. To facilitate this task, we developed a new method based on the massive parallel sequencing capability of next generation sequencing (NGS coupled with hybridization capture. We focused on the mitochondrial marker cytochrome oxidase I (COI. The results obtained using the new method were compared with individual larval sequencing. We validated the ability of the method to identify Amazonian catfish larvae at the species level and to estimate the relative abundance of species in batches of larvae. Finally, we applied the method and provided evidence for strong temporal variation in reproductive activity of catfish species in the Ucayalí River in the Peruvian Amazon. This new time and cost effective method enables the acquisition of large datasets, paving the way for a finer understanding of reproductive dynamics and recruitment patterns of tropical fish species, with major implications for fisheries management and conservation.

  8. Medicinal knowledge and plant utilization in an Amazonian coastal community of Marudá, Pará State (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho-Ferreira, Márlia

    2009-10-29

    It shows the local medicinal uses of biodiversity in Brazil's Amazonian littoral, promoting the value of folk knowledge, and its applicability in future studies. To demonstrate the importance of the knowledge of medicinal plants in the Amazonian coastal community of Marudá, located in Pará State, Brazil. Fieldwork was conducted between 1996 and 1998, using the methods of participant observation, semi-structured interviews and informal discussions to elicit information from community residents and plant specialists, in addition to collecting plant material. Community residents possess knowledge of 229 medicinal plants distributed in 81 botanical families and know how to manipulate them in a variety of ways, with special care taken to ensure that they are used in the safest and most efficient manner. Therapeutic indications for these plants include illness and disease recognized in the repertoire of Western medicine as well as ailments perceived from a local cultural perspective. Results from this study attest to informants' knowledge of medicinal flora and their ability and openness to integrate new species from diverse origins into their gamut of medicinal knowledge, including industrial therapeutic preparations and animal products. Local uses of biodiversity in Brazil's Amazonian littoral are also evinced, promoting the value of folk medicinal knowledge. Similarly, it mentions the potential of implementing local knowledge in Brazil's Unitary Health System.

  9. Anthropogenic Land-use Change and the Dynamics of Amazon Forest Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurance, William F.

    2004-01-01

    This project was focused on assessing the effects of prevailing land uses, such as habitat fragmentation, selective logging, and fire, on biomass and carbon storage in Amazonian forests, and on the dynamics of carbon sequestration in regenerating forests. Ancillary goals included developing GIs models to help predict the future condition of Amazonian forests, and assessing the effects of anthropogenic climate change and ENS0 droughts on intact and fragmented forests. Ground-based studies using networks of permanent plots were linked with remote-sensing data (including Landsat TM and AVHRR) at regional scales, and higher-resolution techniques (IKONOS imagery, videography, LIDAR, aerial photographs) at landscape and local scales. The project s specific goals were quite eclectic and included: Determining the effects of habitat fragmentation on forest dynamics, floristic composition, and the various components of above- and below-ground biomass. Assessing historical and physical factors that affect trajectories of forest regeneration and carbon sequestration on abandoned lands. Extrapolating results from local studies of biomass dynamics in fragmented and regenerating forests to landscape and regional scales in Amazonia, using remote sensing and GIS. Testing the hypothesis that intact Amazonian forests are functioning as a significant carbon sink. Examining destructive synergisms between forest fragmentation and fire. Assessing the short-term impacts of selective logging on aboveground biomass. Developing GIS models that integrate current spatial data on forest cover, deforestation, logging, mining, highway and roads, navigable rivers, vulnerability to wild fires, protected areas, and existing and planned infrastructure projects, in an effort to predict the future condition of Brazilian Amazonian forests over the next 20-25 years. Devising predictive spatial models to assess the influence of varied biophysical and anthropogenic predictors on Amazonian deforestation.

  10. Soil-atmosphere exchange of nitrous oxide, methane and carbon dioxide in a gradient of elevation in the coastal Brazilian Atlantic forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Sousa Neto; J.B. Carmo; Michael Keller; S.C. Martins; L.F. Alves; S.A. Vieira; M.C. Piccolo; P. Camargo; H.T.Z. Couto; C.A. Joly; L.A. Martinelli

    2011-01-01

    Soils of tropical forests are important to the global budgets of greenhouse gases. The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is the second largest tropical moist forest area of South America, after the vast Amazonian domain. This study aimed to investigate the emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) fluxes along an altitudinal transect and the...

  11. Multiple, novel biologically active endophytic actinomycetes isolated from upper Amazonian rainforests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bascom-Slack, Carol A; Ma, Cong; Moore, Emily; Babbs, Beatrice; Fenn, Kathleen; Greene, Joshua S; Hann, Bradley D; Keehner, Jocelyn; Kelley-Swift, Elizabeth G; Kembaiyan, Vivek; Lee, Sun Jin; Li, Puyao; Light, David Y; Lin, Emily H; Schorn, Michelle A; Vekhter, Daniel; Boulanger, Lori-Ann; Hess, W M; Vargas, Percy Núñez; Strobel, Gary A; Strobel, Scott A

    2009-08-01

    Microbial biodiversity provides an increasingly important source of medically and industrially useful compounds. We have isolated 14 actinomycete species from a collection of approximately 300 plant stem samples from the upper Amazonian rainforest in Peru. All of the cultured isolates produce substances with inhibitory activity directed at a range of potential fungal and bacterial pathogens. For some organisms, this activity is very broad in spectrum while other organisms show specific activity against a limited number of organisms. Two of these organisms preferentially inhibit bacterial test organisms over eukaryotic organisms. rDNA sequence analysis indicates that these organisms are not equivalent to any other cultured deposits in GenBank. Our results provide evidence of the untapped biodiversity in the form of biologically active microbes present within the tissues of higher plants.

  12. Cultural territory and the transformation of the forest into a social artifact

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    Marcos Pereira Magalhães

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The perspective of landscape archaeology views all cultural territory as a space whose landscapes are constructed and environments transformed into social artifacts. The space that a society uses consists of localities with diverse material objects and natural resources that make up a cultural territory with related anthropogenic environments. Much like material artifacts, the landscapes reproduce the spiritual, political, and economic representations of a society. Recent archaeological studies conducted in the region of Porto Trombetas (Pará state have looked into the manner in which societies related to the Konduri ceramic tradition altered the environment by modifying, planting, or cultivating selected plant species according to their particular cultural norms. A botanical inventory and archaeological excavations carried out at the site Greig II, associated with the Konduri tradition, indicate how specific cultural activities create more productive environments as well as familiar landscapes with a specific cultural identity. Independent of the possible stylistic variations present in material culture, societies construct landscapes where they organize and create social and territorial identities.

  13. Observations On Some Upper Amazonian Wetlands of Southeastern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Householder, J. E.; Muttiah, R.; Khanal, S.

    2007-05-01

    Upper Amazonian wetlands represent little studied, poorly understood, and grossly under protected systems. Scientific investigation of Amazonian wetlands is in its infancy; nor is there much known about their ecological services. Regionally, wetlands form a ubiquitous and significant component of floodplain habitat fed by perennial springs as well as overland runoff. Locally, wetland vegetation forms bewilderingly complex vegetation mosaics that seem to be governed by local topography and hydrology. Drawing upon intensive field campaigns and remotely sensed imagery, we summarize the results and experiences gathered in wetlands of southeastern Peru.

  14. Carbon dynamics and ecosystem diversity of Amazonian peatlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laehteenoja, O.

    2011-07-01

    The overall aim was to initiate peatland research in Amazonia, which has been referred to as 'one of the large white spots on the global peatland map'. Specifically, the study was to clarify how common peat accumulation is on Amazonian floodplains, and how extensive and thick peat deposits can be encountered. Secondly, the intention was to study how rapidly Amazonian peatlands sequester carbon, and how much carbon they store and thirdly, to gain some understanding of the diversity of peatland ecosystem types and of the processes forming these ecosystems

  15. Molecular characterization of forest soil based Paenibacillus elgii and optimization of various culture conditions for its improved antimicrobial activity

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    S. N. Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms have provided a bounty of bioactive secondary metabolites with very exciting biological activities such as antibacterial, antifungal antiviral, and anticancer, etc. The present study aims at the optimization of culture conditions for improved antimicrobial production of Paenibacillus elgii obtained from Wayanad forest of Western Ghats region of Kerala, India. A bacterial strain isolated from the Western Ghats forest soil of Wayanad, Kerala, India was identified as P. elgii by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. P. elgii recorded significant board spectrum activity against all human and plant pathogenic microorganism tested except Candida albicans. It has been well known that even minor variations in the fermentation medium may impact not only the quantity of desired bioactive metabolites but also the general metabolic profile of the producing microorganisms. Thus, further studies were carried out to assess the impact of medium components on the antimicrobial production of P. elgii and to optimize an ideal fermentation medium to maximize its antimicrobial production. Out of three media [nutrient broth (NA, Luria broth (LB and Trypticase soy broth (TSB] used for fermentation, TSB medium recorded significant activity. Glucose and meat peptone were identified as the best carbon and nitrogen sources, which significantly affected the antibiotic production when supplemented with TSB medium. Next the effect of various fermentation conditions such as temperature, pH, and incubation time on the production of antimicrobial compounds was studied on TSB + glucose + meat peptone and an initial pH of 7 and a temperature of 30°C for 3 days were found to be optimum for maximum antimicrobial production. The results indicate that medium composition in the fermentation media along with cultural parameters plays a vital role in the enhanced production of antimicrobial substances.

  16. Simultaneous separation and quantitation of amino acids and polyamines of forest tree tissues and cell cultures within a single high-performance liquid chromatography run using dansyl derivatization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakesh Minocha; Stephanie Long

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop a rapid HPLC method for simultaneous separation and quantitation of dansylated amino acids and common polyamines in the same matrix for analyzing forest tree tissues and cell cultures. The major modifications incorporated into this method as compared to previously published HPLC methods for separation of only dansyl...

  17. Espanola/Canjilon Pilot Study: Economic, social, and cultural aspects of public land grazing on the Santa Fe and Carson National Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol Raish

    1999-01-01

    Many of the livestock grazing permittees on the Carson and Santa Fe National Forests in northern New Mexico are descendants of Hispanic settlers who have farmed and ranched in the region for 400 years. Much of the permitted land was formerly owned or used by local communities under Spanish and Mexican land grants. Cultural differences and historical issues of...

  18. CARBON FIXING CAPACITY OF AMAZONIAN SOILS IN RELATION TO ITS DEGRADATION CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Patricia Peña Venegas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Amazonian deforestation and transformation alert about their effects worldwide. One concern is the increase of the Carbon (C levels emitted. Previous works have estimated the fixed C in Amazon forests without including the C stored in soils. Within soil, the organic carbon molecules are highly sensitive to degradation, affecting the natural capacity of soils to fix and store C. The present study evaluates the impact of degradation in the natural capacity of Amazon soils to fix C. Thirty five farms with different typology were selected in Caquetá department which hold the highest deforestation and soil degradation rates in the Colombian Amazon. Soil samples were taken from natural forest relicts, cropping areas and introduced pastures of the farms, in locations with high, intermediate and low soil degradation. Aerial biomass was estimated in pastures with different level of soil degradation. Changes in the labile C stock were estimated from the soil organic carbon and the microbial biomass using substrate induced respiration. Results showed that the main C pool is in the natural forest relicts and the crops of the farms, independently from the size or type of farm sampled. The hills with higher intervention showed the lowest soil C fixation capacities. The soil C fixation capacity was related with changes in the soil microbial composition where conserved soils store preferentially C as fungal biomass while degraded soils store C as bacterial biomass. These estimations contribute to establish the cost of sustainability and soil degradation in the Colombian Amazon.

  19. Anthropometric measurements of adolescents from two Amazonian ecosystems: variations according to seasonality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Hilton P; Veiga, Gloria V; Kac, Gilberto; Pereira, Rosangela A

    2010-03-01

    This paper aims to describe the nutritional status of Caboclo adolescents living in two areas of the Amazon Basin. Two cross-sectional studies, the first in the dry and the second in the wet season, were carried out in two Amazonian ecosystems: the forest and black water ecosystem, and the floodplain and white water ecosystem. Measurements of weight, stature, arm circumference and triceps, subscapular and suprailiac skinfolds were performed on 247 adolescents (10-19 years of age). Nutritional status was classified using body mass index according to international criteria and the prevalence of underweight and overweight was estimated. Linear mixed effects models were used with the anthropometric measurements as dependent variables and time interval, place of residence, sex, age and stature variation as independent variables. During the wet season, the prevalence of overweight among girls was higher in the forest (42%) than in the floodplain (9%). Longitudinal linear regression models showed that the arm circumference measurement was influenced both by seasonality and location, revealing that the increment between dry and wet seasons was less pronounced in the floodplain. At the time of the study, overweight already constituted a major public health concern among girls living in the forest area. In order to develop adequate public health policies for this important segment of the Amazon population further studies are necessary to investigate the role of environment and seasonality on the growth and nutritional status of adolescents.

  20. On the origin of Amazonian landscapes and biodiversity: a synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, F.P.; Hoorn, C.; Kroonenberg, S.B.; Antonelli, A.; Lundberg, J.G.; Vonhof, H.B.; Hooghiemstra, H.; Hoorn, M.; Wesselingh, F.P.

    2010-01-01

    In northern South America the Cenozoic was a period of intense tectonic and climatic interaction that resulted in a dynamic Amazonian landscape dominated by lowlands with local and shield-derived rivers. These drainage systems constantly changed shape and size. During the entire Cenozoic, the

  1. “But the forest does know it...” Persistence of omusitu in the BaNande culture and thought (Democratic Republic of Congo)

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Remotti

    2016-01-01

    The BaNande, farmers of the hills of the North Kivu (Democratic Republic of the Congo), call themselves proudly abakondi, the young and strong men who cut down the trees, who destroy the forest. Almost their entire culture is based on the principle of the “cut” (eritwa), as well as their social and political organization is due to the historical achievement of their territory wrested from the forest. Even the erotic activity is designed with the typical categories of abakondi. But the traditi...

  2. Vocalizations of primary forest frog species in the Central Amazon.

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmerman, Barbara L.; Bogart, James P.

    1984-01-01

    The calls of 18 species of Amazonian forest frogs were recorded in 3 localities: the Tapajos National Park near Itaituba, the Reserva Ducke near Manaus, and the INPA-WWF reserves near Manaus. Structural and time parameters and sonographs of these calls including previously undescribed vocalization by 10 species are presented. Unlike open habitat species, several forest frong species characteriscally demonstrated one on more of the following temporal parameters: very low call rates, sporadic i...

  3. Ecological and distributional notes on hummingbirds from Bolivian lowland forests

    OpenAIRE

    Abrahamczyk, S; Kessler, M

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the distribution, ecology and behaviour of hummingbirds in the Andean foothills of Bolivia, where many lowland hummingbird species reach their south-western distributional limits. In November 2007 – October 2008, we surveyed hummingbirds at six sites along a 660-km transect, from tropical Amazonian humid forest to subtropical spiny forest of the Gran Chaco. In total, we found 21 hummingbird species. For ten of these, we provide new information on latitudinal and eleva...

  4. Enviromental indicators in Amazonian Kichwa Communities from Ecuador for the ellaboration of a sustainable development strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Irene Arias Gutiérrez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An environmental diagnosis is made in the Amazonian Kichwa region (Napo and Pastaza provinces, Ecuador for the ellaboration of a sustainable development strategy. The environmental indicators such as the number of cultivated plant species and their use. The use of forest and agricultural products were measured, as well. Qualitative and quantitative research methods, most appropriate for this study, were used. The quantitative methodology consisted in surveying to the residents, the leaders of the six communities and the heads of 64 households scattered around five rural parishes. The main results are collected in a strategic agenda that would boost the ecological sustainability. The communities employ a high number of species directly as food, and a fewer for medical, flavoring and cosmetic use. However, a single use of resources as raw materials is observed. With no the application of science and technology, there is not an orderly and efficient use of resources, which is achieved by establishing links with other universities research projects. It is necessary to replenish and enhance native renewable resources used by the communities, and add value and work on human capital formation for the protection of these resources. Local resources are not reasonably used with a focus on the protection of the environment and the extensive Amazonian biodiversity. There are high rates of illiteracy in the communities. That’s why it is important the development of bio-knowledge through public interventions, which will help sustain the national competitive advantage, based on its natural and biological richness, supported by the development of local production networks and technology generation. A proposed strategy for a sustainable agro-ecological community development was made.

  5. Enhanced canopy growth precedes senescence in 2005 and 2010 Amazonian droughts

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Yi Y.

    2018-04-09

    Unprecedented droughts hit southern Amazonia in 2005 and 2010, causing a sharp increase in tree mortality and carbon loss. To better predict the rainforest\\'s response to future droughts, it is necessary to understand its behavior during past events. Satellite observations provide a practical source of continuous observations of Amazonian forest. Here we used a passive microwave-based vegetation water content record (i.e., vegetation optical depth, VOD), together with multiple hydrometeorological observations as well as conventional satellite vegetation measures, to investigate the rainforest canopy dynamics during the 2005 and 2010 droughts. During the onset of droughts in the wet-to-dry season (May–July) of both years, we found large-scale positive anomalies in VOD, leaf area index (LAI) and enhanced vegetation index (EVI) over the southern Amazonia. These observations are very likely caused by enhanced canopy growth. Concurrent below-average rainfall and above-average radiation during the wet-to-dry season can be interpreted as an early arrival of normal dry season conditions, leading to enhanced new leaf development and ecosystem photosynthesis, as supported by field observations. Our results suggest that further rainfall deficit into the subsequent dry season caused water and heat stress during the peak of 2005 and 2010 droughts (August–October) that exceeded the tolerance limits of the rainforest, leading to widespread negative VOD anomalies over the southern Amazonia. Significant VOD anomalies were observed mainly over the western part in 2005 and mainly over central and eastern parts in 2010. The total area with significant negative VOD anomalies was comparable between these two drought years, though the average magnitude of significant negative VOD anomalies was greater in 2005. This finding broadly agrees with the field observations indicating that the reduction in biomass carbon uptake was stronger in 2005 than 2010. The enhanced canopy growth

  6. Enhanced canopy growth precedes senescence in 2005 and 2010 Amazonian droughts

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Yi Y.; van Dijk, Albert I.J.M.; Miralles, Diego G.; McCabe, Matthew; Evans, Jason P.; de Jeu, Richard A.M.; Gentine, Pierre; Huete, Alfredo; Parinussa, Robert M.; Wang, Lixin; Guan, Kaiyu; Berry, Joe; Restrepo-Coupe, Natalia

    2018-01-01

    Unprecedented droughts hit southern Amazonia in 2005 and 2010, causing a sharp increase in tree mortality and carbon loss. To better predict the rainforest's response to future droughts, it is necessary to understand its behavior during past events. Satellite observations provide a practical source of continuous observations of Amazonian forest. Here we used a passive microwave-based vegetation water content record (i.e., vegetation optical depth, VOD), together with multiple hydrometeorological observations as well as conventional satellite vegetation measures, to investigate the rainforest canopy dynamics during the 2005 and 2010 droughts. During the onset of droughts in the wet-to-dry season (May–July) of both years, we found large-scale positive anomalies in VOD, leaf area index (LAI) and enhanced vegetation index (EVI) over the southern Amazonia. These observations are very likely caused by enhanced canopy growth. Concurrent below-average rainfall and above-average radiation during the wet-to-dry season can be interpreted as an early arrival of normal dry season conditions, leading to enhanced new leaf development and ecosystem photosynthesis, as supported by field observations. Our results suggest that further rainfall deficit into the subsequent dry season caused water and heat stress during the peak of 2005 and 2010 droughts (August–October) that exceeded the tolerance limits of the rainforest, leading to widespread negative VOD anomalies over the southern Amazonia. Significant VOD anomalies were observed mainly over the western part in 2005 and mainly over central and eastern parts in 2010. The total area with significant negative VOD anomalies was comparable between these two drought years, though the average magnitude of significant negative VOD anomalies was greater in 2005. This finding broadly agrees with the field observations indicating that the reduction in biomass carbon uptake was stronger in 2005 than 2010. The enhanced canopy growth

  7. Combining Taxonomic and Functional Approaches to Unravel the Spatial Distribution of an Amazonian Butterfly Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graça, Márlon B; Morais, José W; Franklin, Elizabeth; Pequeno, Pedro A C L; Souza, Jorge L P; Bueno, Anderson Saldanha

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the spatial distribution of an Amazonian fruit-feeding butterfly assemblage by linking species taxonomic and functional approaches. We hypothesized that: 1) vegetation richness (i.e., resources) and abundance of insectivorous birds (i.e., predators) should drive changes in butterfly taxonomic composition, 2) larval diet breadth should decrease with increase of plant species richness, 3) small-sized adults should be favored by higher abundance of birds, and 4) communities with eyespot markings should be able to exploit areas with higher predation pressure. Fruit-feeding butterflies were sampled with bait traps and insect nets across 25 km(2) of an Amazonian ombrophilous forest in Brazil. We measured larval diet breadth, adult body size, and wing marking of all butterflies. Our results showed that plant species richness explained most of the variation in butterfly taxonomic turnover. Also, community average diet breadth decreased with increase of plant species richness, which supports our expectations. In contrast, community average body size increased with the abundance of birds, refuting our hypothesis. We detected no influence of environmental gradients on the occurrence of species with eyespot markings. The association between butterfly taxonomic and functional composition points to a mediator role of the functional traits in the environmental filtering of butterflies. The incorporation of the functional approach into the analyses allowed for the detection of relationships that were not observed using a strictly taxonomic perspective and provided an extra insight into comprehending the potential adaptive strategies of butterflies. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. The forest has a story: cultural ecosystem services in Kona, Hawai'i

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachelle K. Gould

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding cultural dimensions of human/environment relationships is now widely seen as key to effective management, yet characterizing these dimensions remains a challenge. We report on an approach for considering the nonmaterial values associated with ecosystems, i.e., cultural ecosystem services. We applied the approach in Kona, Hawai'i, using 30 semistructured interviews and 205 in-person surveys, striving to balance pragmatism and depth. We found spirituality, heritage, and identity-related values to be particularly salient, with expression of some of these values varying among respondents by ethnicity and duration of residence in Hawai'i. Although people of various backgrounds reported strong spirituality and heritage-related values, Native Hawaiians rated heritage connections as deeper, and lifetime residents portrayed ecosystem-identity connections as more integral to their well-being than did people from other backgrounds. The approach also proved useful in identifying concerns not addressed in survey and interview prompts, including postcolonial issues, access to ecosystems, and relationships between people of different ethnic backgrounds. Although understanding these nonmaterial dimensions of human-ecosystem relationships can be complex, emerging techniques eliciting qualitative and quantitative data provide feasible ways of deepening that understanding.

  9. Impacts of hydroelectric dams on alluvial riparian plant communities in Eastern Brazilian Amazonian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Leandro Valle; Cunha, Denise A; Chaves, Priscilla P; Matos, Darley C L; Parolin, Pia

    2013-09-01

    The major rivers of the Amazon River basin and their biota are threatened by the planned construction of large hydroelectric dams that are expected to have strong impacts on floodplain plant communities. The present study presents forest inventories from three floodplain sites colonized by alluvial riparian vegetation in the Tapajós, Xingu and Tocantins River basins in eastern Amazonian. Results indicate that tree species of the highly specialized alluvial riparian vegetation are clearly distinct among the three river basins, although they are not very distinct from each other and environmental constraints are very similar. With only 6 of 74 species occurring in all three inventories, most tree and shrub species are restricted to only one of the rivers, indicating a high degree of local distribution. Different species occupy similar environmental niches, making these fragile riparian formations highly valuable. Conservation plans must consider species complementarily when decisions are made on where to place floodplain forest conservation units to avoid the irreversible loss of unique alluvial riparian vegetation biodiversity.

  10. Impacts of hydroelectric dams on alluvial riparian plant communities in eastern Brazilian Amazonian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEANDRO VALLE FERREIRA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The major rivers of the Amazon River basin and their biota are threatened by the planned construction of large hydroelectric dams that are expected to have strong impacts on floodplain plant communities. The present study presents forest inventories from three floodplain sites colonized by alluvial riparian vegetation in the Tapajós, Xingu and Tocantins River basins in eastern Amazonian. Results indicate that tree species of the highly specialized alluvial riparian vegetation are clearly distinct among the three river basins, although they are not very distinct from each other and environmental constraints are very similar. With only 6 of 74 species occurring in all three inventories, most tree and shrub species are restricted to only one of the rivers, indicating a high degree of local distribution. Different species occupy similar environmental niches, making these fragile riparian formations highly valuable. Conservation plans must consider species complementarily when decisions are made on where to place floodplain forest conservation units to avoid the irreversible loss of unique alluvial riparian vegetation biodiversity.

  11. Effectively Engaging in Tribal Consultation to protect Traditional Cultural Properties while navigating the 1872 Mining Law - Tonto National Forest, Western Apache Tribes, & Resolution Copper Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nez, N.

    2017-12-01

    By effectively engaging in government-to-government consultation the Tonto National Forest is able to consider oral histories and tribal cultural knowledge in decision making. These conversations often have the potential to lead to the protection and preservation of public lands. Discussed here is one example of successful tribal consultation and how it let to the protection of Traditional Cultural Properties (TCPs). One hour east of Phoenix, Arizona on the Tonto National Forest, Resolution Copper Mine, is working to access a rich copper vein more than 7,000 feet deep. As part of the mining plan of operation they are investigating viable locations to store the earth removed from the mine site. One proposed storage location required hydrologic and geotechnical studies to determine viability. This constituted a significant amount of ground disturbance in an area that is of known importance to local Indian tribes. To ensure proper consideration of tribal concerns, the Forest engaged nine local tribes in government-government consultation. Consultation resulted in the identification of five springs in the project area considered (TCPs) by the Western Apache tribes. Due to the presence of identified TCPs, the Forest asked tribes to assist in the development of mitigation measures to minimize effects of this project on the TCPs identified. The goal of this partnership was to find a way for the Mine to still be able to gather data, while protecting TCPs. During field visits and consultations, a wide range of concerns were shared which were recorded and considered by Tonto National Forest. The Forest developed a proposed mitigation approach to protect springs, which would prevent (not permit) the installation of water monitoring wells, geotechnical borings or trench excavations within 1,200 feet of perennial springs in the project area. As an added mitigation measure, a cultural resources specialist would be on-site during all ground-disturbing activities. Diligent work on

  12. Regional Eco-hydrologic Sensitivity to Projected Amazonian Land Use Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, R. G.; Longo, M.; Zhang, K.; Levine, N. M.; Moorcroft, P. R.; Bras, R. L.

    2011-12-01

    Given business as usual land-use practices, it is estimated that by 2050 roughly half of the Amazon's pre-anthropogenic closed-canopy forest stands would remain. Of this, eight of the Amazon's twelve major hydrologic basins would lose more than half of their forest cover to deforestation. With the availability of these land-use projections, we may start to question the associated response of the region's hydrologic climate to significant land-cover change. Here the Ecosystem-Demography Model 2 (EDM2, a dynamic and spatially distributed terrestrial model of plant structure and composition, succession, disturbance and thermodynamic transfer) is coupled with the Brazilian Regional Atmospheric Model (BRAMS, a three-dimensional limited area model of the atmospheric fluid momentum equations and physics parameterizations for closing the system of equations at the lower boundary, convection, radiative transfer, microphysics, etc). This experiment conducts decadal simulations, framed with high-reliability lateral boundary conditions of reanalysis atmospheric data (ERA-40 interim) and variable impact of land-use scenarios (SimAmazonia). This is done by initializing the regional ecosystem structure with both aggressive and conservationist deforestation scenarios, and also by differentially allowing and not-allowing dynamic vegetation processes. While the lateral boundaries of the simulation will not reflect the future climate in the region, reanalysis data has provided improved realism as compared to results derived from GCM boundary data. Therefore, the ecosystem response (forest composition and structure) and the time-space patterns of hydrologic information (soil moisture, rainfall, evapotranspiration) are objectively compared in the context of a sensitivity experiment, as opposed to a forecast. The following questions are addressed. How do aggressive and conservative scenarios of Amazonian deforestation effect the regional patterning of hydrologic information in the

  13. Effects of dam-induced landscape fragmentation on amazonian ant-plant mutualistic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emer, Carine; Venticinque, Eduardo Martins; Fonseca, Carlos Roberto

    2013-08-01

    Mutualistic networks are critical to biological diversity maintenance; however, their structures and functionality may be threatened by a swiftly changing world. In the Amazon, the increasing number of dams poses a large threat to biological diversity because they greatly alter and fragment the surrounding landscape. Tight coevolutionary interactions typical of tropical forests, such as the ant-myrmecophyte mutualism, where the myrmecophyte plants provide domatia nesting space to their symbiotic ants, may be jeopardized by the landscape changes caused by dams. We analyzed 31 ant-myrmecophyte mutualistic networks in undisturbed and disturbed sites surrounding Balbina, the largest Central Amazonian dam. We tested how ant-myrmecophyte networks differ among dam-induced islands, lake edges, and undisturbed forests in terms of species richness, composition, structure, and robustness (number of species remaining in the network after partner extinctions). We also tested how landscape configuration in terms of area, isolation, shape, and neighborhood alters the structure of the ant-myrmecophyte networks on islands. Ant-myrmecophytic networks were highly compartmentalized in undisturbed forests, and the compartments had few strongly connected mutualistic partners. In contrast, networks at lake edges and on islands were not compartmentalized and were negatively affected by island area and isolation in terms of species richness, density, and composition. Habitat loss and fragmentation led to coextinction cascades that contributed to the elimination of entire ant-plant compartments. Furthermore, many myrmecophytic plants in disturbed sites lost their mutualistic ant partners or were colonized by opportunistic, nonspecialized ants. Robustness of ant-myrmecophyte networks on islands was lower than robustness near lake edges and in undisturbed forest and was particularly susceptible to the extinction of plants. Beyond the immediate habitat loss caused by the building of large dams

  14. Hair mercury levels in Amazonian populations: spatial distribution and trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbieri Flavia L

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mercury is present in the Amazonian aquatic environments from both natural and anthropogenic sources. As a consequence, many riverside populations are exposed to methylmercury, a highly toxic organic form of mercury, because of their intense fish consumption. Many studies have analysed this exposure from different approaches since the early nineties. This review aims to systematize the information in spatial distribution, comparing hair mercury levels by studied population and Amazonian river basin, looking for exposure trends. Methods The reviewed papers were selected from scientific databases and online libraries. We included studies with a direct measure of hair mercury concentrations in a sample size larger than 10 people, without considering the objectives, approach of the study or mercury speciation. The results are presented in tables and maps by river basin, displaying hair mercury levels and specifying the studied population and health impact, if any. Results The majority of the studies have been carried out in communities from the central Amazonian regions, particularly on the Tapajós River basin. The results seem quite variable; hair mercury means range from 1.1 to 34.2 μg/g. Most studies did not show any significant difference in hair mercury levels by gender or age. Overall, authors emphasized fish consumption frequency as the main risk factor of exposure. The most studied adverse health effect is by far the neurological performance, especially motricity. However, it is not possible to conclude on the relation between hair mercury levels and health impact in the Amazonian situation because of the relatively small number of studies. Conclusions Hair mercury levels in the Amazonian regions seem to be very heterogenic, depending on several factors. There is no obvious spatial trend and there are many areas that have never been studied. Taking into account the low mercury levels currently handled as acceptable, the

  15. Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy B; Rodríguez, Melanie Domenech; Bernal, Guillermo

    2011-02-01

    This article summarizes the definitions, means, and research of adapting psychotherapy to clients' cultural backgrounds. We begin by reviewing the prevailing definitions of cultural adaptation and providing a clinical example. We present an original meta-analysis of 65 experimental and quasi-experimental studies involving 8,620 participants. The omnibus effect size of d = .46 indicates that treatments specifically adapted for clients of color were moderately more effective with that clientele than traditional treatments. The most effective treatments tended to be those with greater numbers of cultural adaptations. Mental health services targeted to a specific cultural group were several times more effective than those provided to clients from a variety of cultural backgrounds. We recommend a series of research-supported therapeutic practices that account for clients' culture, with culture-specific treatments being more effective than generally culture-sensitive treatments. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Carbon Dioxide Physiological Forcing Dominates Projected Eastern Amazonian Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, T. B.; Forster, P. M.; Andrews, T.; Boucher, O.; Faluvegi, G.; Fläschner, D.; Kasoar, M.; Kirkevâg, A.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Myhre, G.; Olivié, D.; Samset, B. H.; Shawki, D.; Shindell, D.; Takemura, T.; Voulgarakis, A.

    2018-03-01

    Future projections of east Amazonian precipitation indicate drying, but they are uncertain and poorly understood. In this study we analyze the Amazonian precipitation response to individual atmospheric forcings using a number of global climate models. Black carbon is found to drive reduced precipitation over the Amazon due to temperature-driven circulation changes, but the magnitude is uncertain. CO2 drives reductions in precipitation concentrated in the east, mainly due to a robustly negative, but highly variable in magnitude, fast response. We find that the physiological effect of CO2 on plant stomata is the dominant driver of the fast response due to reduced latent heating and also contributes to the large model spread. Using a simple model, we show that CO2 physiological effects dominate future multimodel mean precipitation projections over the Amazon. However, in individual models temperature-driven changes can be large, but due to little agreement, they largely cancel out in the model mean.

  17. Amazonian Dark Earths: pathways to sustainable development in tropical rainforests?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Schmidt

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Fertile dark anthrosols associated with pre-Columbian settlement across the Amazon Basin have sparked wide interest for their potential contribution to sustainable use and management of tropical soils and ecosystems. In the Upper Xingu region of the southern Amazon, research on archaeological settlements and among contemporary descendant populations provides critical new data on the formation and use of anthrosols. These findings provide a basis for describing the variability of soil modifications that result from diverse human activities and a general model for the formation of Amazonian anthrosols. They underscore the potential for indigenous systems of knowledge and resource management to inform efforts for conservation and sustainable development of Amazonian ecosystems.

  18. Isozyme characterization of Capsicum accessions from the Amazonian Colombian collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Quintero Barrera

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred and sixty-one accessions of the genus Capsicum were obtained from the Colombian Amazonian germplasm bank at Amazonian Institute of Scientific Research (Sinchi and were evaluated with five polymorphic enzymatic systems, including esterase (EST, peroxidase (PRX, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGDH, aspartate amino transferase (GOT, and malic enzyme (ME. Using a cluster analysis (UPGMA the genetic variability of these accessions were characterized. Grouping of the species C. baccatum and C. pubescens were observed, while the species C. annuum, C. chinense and C. frutescens did not group independently, a result that has been previously reported in isoenzyme analyses of this genus. Several accessions were deemed of particular interest for future ecological and evolutive studies. Key words: Colombia, Capsicum, germplasm bank, isoenzymes, peppers.

  19. Human-Forest Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Eva; Dauksta, D.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between human beings and forests has been important for the development of society. It is based on various productive, ecological, social and cultural functions of forests. The cultural functions, including the spiritual and symbolic role of forests, are often not addressed...... with the same attention as the other functions. The aim of this paper is to put a stronger emphasis on the fact that the acknowledgement of cultural bonds is needed in the discussion of sustainable development. Forest should not only be considered as a technical means to solve environmental and economic...... problems. To achieve a deeper understanding of the dependency of society on forests, it is necessary to recognise the role of forests in our consciousness of being human. Giving a historical overview about the cultural bonds between people and forests, the first part of the paper puts focus on non...

  20. Stable Forest Cover under Increasing Populations of Swidden Cultivators in Central Laos: the Roles of Intrinsic Culture and Extrinsic Wildlife Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William G. Robichaud

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Swidden agriculture, or shifting cultivation, is variously viewed as a great environmental threat or a sustainable system of land use. In Laos, swidden has long been considered the primary driver of forest loss nationwide, but the assessment is based exclusively on studies from the north of country, where deforestation is most severe. National policies to control swidden have percolated down to management of one of the largest nature reserves in the region, Nakai-Nam Theun National Protected Area (NNT NPA in the Annamite Mountains of central Laos. In NNT NPA, swidden's presumed unsustainability and deleterious impact on forest cover is an untested assumption. We tested it by methods of historical ecology, tracing the patterns of NNT's forest cover and human settlement over the past several decades. Principal sources of data were topographical maps dating to 1943, and Landsat images from 1976, 1989, and 2001. The analysis shows that, although NNT has been inhabited by swidden cultivators for hundreds of years, it retained more than 95% forest cover until the 1960s-early 1970s. Subsequently, a post-Vietnam War release of human population, possibly coupled with government encouragement of agricultural expansion, precipitated a decline in forest of 0.5%/year until the 1980s. Curiously, this was followed by stability or an increase (ca. 0.3%/year in forest cover into the current century, even as NNT's human population continued to grow and as forest declined in Laos overall at 1.7%/year, and in two protected areas near NNT at more than 3%/year. A combination of intrinsic and extrinsic factors probably account for the stability of NNT's forest cover despite recent population growth. First are cultural propensities for sedentariness and livelihoods with relatively low environmental impact among the ethnic groups inhabiting NNT. Since at least the 1940s, there have been remarkably few changes in the number or location of villages in NNT (and despite

  1. Identification of Amazonian trees with DNA barcodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Mailyn Adriana; Baraloto, Christopher; Engel, Julien; Mori, Scott A; Pétronelli, Pascal; Riéra, Bernard; Roger, Aurélien; Thébaud, Christophe; Chave, Jérôme

    2009-10-16

    Large-scale plant diversity inventories are critical to develop informed conservation strategies. However, the workload required for classic taxonomic surveys remains high and is particularly problematic for megadiverse tropical forests. Based on a comprehensive census of all trees in two hectares of a tropical forest in French Guiana, we examined whether plant DNA barcoding could contribute to increasing the quality and the pace of tropical plant biodiversity surveys. Of the eight plant DNA markers we tested (rbcLa, rpoC1, rpoB, matK, ycf5, trnL, psbA-trnH, ITS), matK and ITS had a low rate of sequencing success. More critically, none of the plastid markers achieved a rate of correct plant identification greater than 70%, either alone or combined. The performance of all barcoding markers was noticeably low in few species-rich clades, such as the Laureae, and the Sapotaceae. A field test of the approach enabled us to detect 130 molecular operational taxonomic units in a sample of 252 juvenile trees. Including molecular markers increased the identification rate of juveniles from 72% (morphology alone) to 96% (morphology and molecular) of the individuals assigned to a known tree taxon. We conclude that while DNA barcoding is an invaluable tool for detecting errors in identifications and for identifying plants at juvenile stages, its limited ability to identify collections will constrain the practical implementation of DNA-based tropical plant biodiversity programs.

  2. Orchid bees (Apidae: Euglossini in a forest fragment in the ecotone Cerrado-Amazonian forest, Brazil

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    José Max Barbosa Oliveira-Junior

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta información sobre la riqueza de especies y abundancia de Euglossini en la zona de transición entre el Cerrado y la selva amazónica, en la cuenca del río Xingu. Las muestras se recogieron en un fragmento de bosque en el municipio de Ribeirão Cascalheira, Mato Grosso, Brasil, entre el 1 y 5 de noviembre de 2011. Las sustancias puras de benzoato de bencilo, 1,8 cineol, eugenol y la vainillina se utilizaron en la colección activa, mientras que el salicilato de metilo se utilizó en trampas pasiva. Un total de 168 machos pertenecientes a los cuatro géneros fueron registrados, distribuidos en 19 especies. La mayor riqueza de especies se registró en Euglossa, con Eulaema nigrita, la especie más abundante en la comunidad. La riqueza de especies varió entre el borde y el primer punto dentro del fragmento. Los machos de Euglossini eran más activos entre 10:00-11:00 h, y el 1,8 cineol fue la sustancia pura más atractiva. El fragmento estudiado contenía un alto grado de riqueza de especies de Euglossini en una región de la heterogeneidad ambiental extensa, que sigue siendo en gran parte desconocido con relación a su fauna de insectos y merece la atención para la elaboración de nuevos inventarios.

  3. Institutional, individual, and socio-cultural domains of partnerships: a typology of USDA Forest Service recreation partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin Seekamp; Lee K. Cerveny; Allie. McCreary

    2011-01-01

    Federal land management agencies, such as the USDA Forest Service, have expanded the role of recreation partners reflecting constrained growth in appropriations and broader societal trends towards civic environmental governance. Partnerships with individual volunteers, service groups, commercial outfitters, and other government agencies provide the USDA Forest Service...

  4. Social organization influences the exchange and species richness of medicinal plants in Amazonian homegardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Medicinal plants provide indigenous and peasant communities worldwide with means to meet their healthcare needs. Homegardens often act as medicine cabinets, providing easily accessible medicinal plants for household needs. Social structure and social exchanges have been proposed as factors influencing the species diversity that people maintain in their homegardens. Here, we assess the association between the exchange of medicinal knowledge and plant material and medicinal plant richness in homegardens. Using Tsimane' Amazonian homegardens as a case study, we explore whether social organization shapes exchanges of medicinal plant knowledge and medicinal plant material. We also use network centrality measures to evaluate people's location and performance in medicinal plant knowledge and plant material exchange networks. Our results suggest that social organization, specifically kinship and gender relations, influences medicinal plant exchange patterns significantly. Homegardens total and medicinal plant species richness are related to gardeners' centrality in the networks, whereby people with greater centrality maintain greater plant richness. Thus, together with agroecological conditions, social relations among gardeners and the culturally specific social structure seem to be important determinants of plant richness in homegardens. Understanding which factors pattern general species diversity in tropical homegardens, and medicinal plant diversity in particular, can help policy makers, health providers, and local communities to understand better how to promote and preserve medicinal plants in situ. Biocultural approaches that are also gender sensitive offer a culturally appropriate means to reduce the global and local loss of both biological and cultural diversity.

  5. Animal breeding of the Saltov Culture bearers from the forest-steppe part of the Seversky Donets Basin (Ukraine. Part 3

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    Vladimir Koloda

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a description and analysis of the archaeozoological material from medieval monuments of Saltov Culture (Kharkiv region, Ukraine in a wide geographical, climatic, cultural, historical, and archaeological context. The proposed statistical, biometric, and demographic analysis of the archaeozoological material reveals a settled character of Saltovian economy and animal husbandry from the forest-steppe zone. The settled character of animal breeding is suggested by the dominance of cattle and the significant presence of the domestic pig in the domestic herd, while the small cattle had a subordinate role in economy. The important role of the domestic horse (after cattle represents a specific feature of the Saltovian domestic herd that distinguishes the Saltovian archaeozoological complexes from other agriculture based cultures from Eastern Europe. The third part of the work proposes a comparative analysis of the archaeozoological complexes from Middle Age of Kharkov Region.

  6. Effects of reduced impact logging on bat biodiversity in terra firme forest of lowland Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan Castro-Arellanos; Steven J. Presley; Luis Nelio Saldanha; Michael R. Willig; Joseph M. Wunderle Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Timber harvest is one of the main causes of degradation of Amazonian tropical forests, where bats represent important components of biodiversity. In addition, bats may represent keystone taxa in the Neotropics, as they are primary agents of pollination and seed dispersal for many pioneer plants. We assessed the impact of low harvest (18m3/ha),...

  7. Avian Communities in the Amazonian Cangas Vegetation: Biogeographic Affinities, Components of Beta-Diversity and Conservation

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    SÉRGIO H. BORGES

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Amazonian cangas is a vegetation type distributed as patches of open vegetation embedded in a matrix of tropical forest and that grows over iron-rich soils in the Serra dos Carajás region. To characterize cangas avifauna, we surveyed birds in eight patches varying from 43 to 1,366 hectares. Cangas avifauna has compositional affinities with savannas widespread throughout the Amazon and other biomes, and we estimate that more than 200 bird species occurs in this habitat. Species composition was relatively homogeneous, and the similarity among cangas patches was the dominant component of the beta-diversity. Bird communities in cangas patches exhibited statistically significant nested structure in respect to species richness and patch size. In contrast, the nested site arrangement was not affected by the isolation of patches. Number of species and composition are moderately affected by the area of cangas patches but not by its degree of isolation. To conserve this unique habitat are necessary a strict protection of carefully chosen patches of cangas and an investigation of the conservation value of secondary vegetation recovered by the mining companies.

  8. PERCEPTIONS AND REPRESENTATIONS OF THE FOREIGN AUTHOR ABOUT AMAZONIAN MAN: AN ANALYSIS UNDER THE CATEGORIES OF GEOGRAPHY

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    Klondy Lúcia de Oliveira Agra

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I analyze, with aid of the concepts guide for the geographical science, two works by Americans over the Brazilian Amazon. Amazon Town of Charles Wagley, and the travel journal of American George E. Hafstad. Works which exposes the Brazilian Amazon and way of life of its people, describing in detail actions, habits, thoughts and beliefs, way of acting man Amazonian descriptions that form a backdrop of compositions and orientations of Amazon to the world. The main objective of this paper is to check the perceptions and representations of foreign researchers to translate Amazon contexts and scenarios to your community, with the help of the notions of space, place, landscape and territory. Interest in the analysis of these materials is due to singular description of Amazonian details that demonstrate the concern of foreign technicians involved with research in the Brazilian Amazon, between the years 1940 to 1950, with reading contexts and scenarios and detailed translation of the analyzed reality to their community, and also by the possibility of observation and demystification of misunderstandings made by these researchers and the rescue of cultural and historical values of this region.

  9. Classification of Vegetation over a Residual Megafan Landform in the Amazonian Lowland Based on Optical and SAR Imagery

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    Édipo Henrique Cremon

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The origin of large areas dominated by pristine open vegetation that is in sharp contrast with surrounding dense forest within the Amazonian lowland has generally been related to past arid climates, but this is still an issue open for debate. In this paper, we characterize a large open vegetation patch over a residual megafan located in the northern Amazonia. The main goal was to investigate the relationship between this paleolandform and vegetation classes mapped based on the integration of optical and SAR data using the decision tree. Our remote sensing dataset includes PALSAR and TM/Landsat images. Five classes were identified: rainforest; flooded forest; wooded open vegetation; grassy-shrubby open vegetation; and water body. The output map resulting from the integration of PALSAR and TM/Landsat images showed an overall accuracy of 94%. Narrow, elongated and sinuous belts of forest within the open vegetation areas progressively bifurcate into others revealing paleochannels arranged into distributary pattern. Such characteristics, integrated with pre-existing geological information, led us to propose that the distribution of vegetation classes highlight a morphology attributed to a Quaternary megafan developed previous to the modern fluvial tributary system. The characterization of such megafan is important for reconstructing landscape changes associated with the evolution of the Amazon drainage basin.

  10. Wood specific gravity and anatomy of branches and roots in 113 Amazonian rainforest tree species across environmental gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunel, Claire; Ruelle, Julien; Beauchêne, Jacques; Fine, Paul V A; Baraloto, Christopher

    2014-04-01

    Wood specific gravity (WSG) is a strong predictor of tree performance across environmental gradients. Yet it remains unclear how anatomical elements linked to different wood functions contribute to variation in WSG in branches and roots across tropical forests. We examined WSG and wood anatomy in white sand, clay terra firme and seasonally flooded forests in French Guiana, spanning broad environmental gradients found throughout Amazonia. We measured 15 traits relating to branches and small woody roots in 113 species representing the 15 most abundant species in each habitat and representative species from seven monophyletic lineages occurring in all habitats. Fiber traits appear to be major determinants of WSG, independent of vessel traits, in branches and roots. Fiber traits and branch and root WSG increased from seasonally flooded species to clay terra firme species and lastly to white sand species. Branch and root wood traits were strongly phylogenetically constrained. Lineages differed in wood design, but exhibited similar variation in wood structure across habitats. We conclude that tropical trees can invest differently in support and transport to respond to environmental conditions. Wind disturbance and drought stress represent significant filters driving tree distribution of Amazonian forests; hence we suggest that biophysical explanations should receive more attention. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. The ICIF project: Assessment of pathways of innovative cultures in forest for biomass production. Final report on the implementation of the experimental arrangement in Ardennes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantien, Caroline; Gibaud, Gwenaelle; Richter, Claudine; Pousse, Noemie; Boulanger, Vincent; Deleuze, Christine

    2014-12-01

    Within the context created by the objective to increase the production of biomass-based energy, the authors studied the possibilities of using various crops and species in forests (i.e. in more acid soils), but also the impacts of these cultures on soil fertility. In a first part, they present and describe the experimental installation: site selection and characterization, experiment scheme, ash supply (choice, packaging, origin of ashes), and realisation. Then, they report the study of plants growth after one year, report some measurements regarding initial soil conditions (physical and chemical properties), and observations about flora development. They also mention performed information and communication action, and discuss perspectives

  12. Aging Perceptions in Tsimane' Amazonian Forager-Farmers Compared With Two Industrialized Societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokowski, Piotr; Sorokowska, Agnieszka; Frackowiak, Tomasz; Löckenhoff, Corinna E

    2017-07-01

    Cross-cultural studies suggest that aging attitudes show some variation across societies, but this evidence is mostly drawn from industrialized settings. The limited research record on pre-industrial societies is largely qualitative in nature. The present study targeted this gap by adapting an existing multidimensional measure of aging attitudes for use in traditional populations and administering it to samples from one traditional society and two industrialized societies. We administered the adapted multidimensional measure of aging attitudes to samples from one traditional society (Tsimane' Amazonian forager-farmers in Bolivia, n = 90) and two industrialized societies (the United States, n = 91, and Poland, n = 100). Across societies, aging perceptions were more favorable for respect and wisdom than for other domains of functioning, and women were perceived to be aging less favorably. Further, the Tsimane' reported more positive aging perceptions than the U.S. and Polish samples, especially with regard to memory functioning. Within the Tsimane' sample, there was no evidence of an influence of acculturation on aging perceptions. The present study contributed to our understanding of cross-cultural differences in aging attitudes. Theoretical implications and directions for future research are discussed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Effect of interannual climate variability on carbon storage in Amazonian ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, H.; Melillo, J.M.; Kicklighter, D.W.; McGuire, David A.; Helfrich, J. V. K.; Moore, B.; Vorosmarty, C.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Amazon Basin contains almost one-half of the world's undisturbed tropical evergreen forest as well as large areas of tropical savanna. The forests account for about 10 per cent of the world's terrestrial primary productivity and for a similar fraction of the carbon stored in land ecosystems, and short-term field measurements suggest that these ecosystems are globally important carbon sinks. But tropical land ecosystems have experienced substantial interannual climate variability owing to frequent El Nino episodes in recent decades. Of particular importance to climate change policy is how such climate variations, coupled with increases in atmospheric CO2 concentration, affect terrestrial carbon storage. Previous model analyses have demonstrated the importance of temperature in controlling carbon storage. Here we use a transient process-based biogeochemical model of terrestrial ecosystems to investigate interannual variations of carbon storage in undisturbed Amazonian ecosystems in response to climate variability and increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration during the period 1980 to 1994. In El Nino years, which bring hot, dry weather to much of the Amazon region, the ecosystems act as a source of carbon to the atmosphere (up to 0.2 petagrams of carbon in 1987 and 1992). In other years, these ecosystems act as a carbon sink (up to 0.7 Pg C in 1981 and 1993). These fluxes are large; they compare to a 0.3 Pg C per year source to the atmosphere associated with deforestation in the Amazon Basin in the early 1990s. Soil moisture, which is affected by both precipitation and temperature, and which affects both plant and soil processes, appears to be an important control on carbon storage.

  14. Medicinal plants of the Achuar (Jivaro) of Amazonian Ecuador: ethnobotanical survey and comparison with other Amazonian pharmacopoeias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannini, Peter

    2015-04-22

    This paper presents the first ethnobotanical survey conducted among the Achuar (Jivaro), indigenous people living in Amazonian Ecuador and Peru. The aims of this study are: (a) to present and discuss Achuar medicinal plant knowledge in the context of the epidemiology of this population (b) to compare the use of Achuar medicinal plants with the uses reported among the Shuar Jivaro and other Amazonian peoples. The author conducted field research in 9 indigenous villages in the region of Morona Santiago and Pastaza in Ecuador. Semi-structured interviews on local illnesses and herbal remedies were carried out with 82 informants and plant specimens were collected and later identified in Quito. A literature research was conducted on the medicinal species reported by Achuar people during this study. The most reported medicinal plants are species used by the Achuar to treat diarrhoea, parasites infection, fractures, wounds, and snakebites. Informants reported the use of 134 medicinal species for a total of 733 recorded use-reports. Of these 134 species, 44 are reported at least 3 times for one or more specific disease condition for a total of 56 uses. These species are considered a core kit of medicinal plants of the Achuar of Ecuador. Most of these medicinal species are widely used in the Amazon rainforest and in many other parts of Latin America. The author documented a core kit of 44 medicinal plants used among the Achuar of Ecuador and found that this core set of medicinal plants reflects local epidemiological concerns and the pharmacopoeias of the Shuar and other Amazonian groups. These findings suggest that inter-group diffusion of medicinal plant knowledge had a prominent role in the acquisition of current Achuar knowledge of medicinal plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Production of nitrous oxide and consumption of methane by forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, M.; Wofsy, S. C.; Kaplan, W. A.; Mcelroy, M. B.; Goreau, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    Soils in an Amazonian rainforest are observed to release N2O at a rate larger than the global mean by about a factor of 20. Emissions from a New England hardwood forest are approximately 30 times smaller then Brazilian values. Atmospheric methane is consumed by soils in both systems. Tropical forests would provide a major source of atmospheric N2O if the Brazilian results are representative.

  16. Riverscape genetics identifies replicated ecological divergence across an Amazonian ecotone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Georgina M; Landguth, Erin L; Beheregaray, Luciano B

    2014-07-01

    Ecological speciation involves the evolution of reproductive isolation and niche divergence in the absence of a physical barrier to gene flow. The process is one of the most controversial topics of the speciation debate, particularly in tropical regions. Here, we investigate ecologically based divergence across an Amazonian ecotone in the electric fish, Steatogenys elegans. We combine phylogenetics, genome scans, and population genetics with a recently developed individual-based evolutionary landscape genetics approach that incorporates selection. This framework is used to assess the relative contributions of geography and divergent natural selection between environments as biodiversity drivers. We report on two closely related and sympatric lineages that exemplify how divergent selection across a major Amazonian aquatic ecotone (i.e., between rivers with markedly different hydrochemical properties) may result in replicated ecologically mediated speciation. The results link selection across an ecological gradient with reproductive isolation and we propose that assortative mating based on water color may be driving the divergence. Divergence resulting from ecologically driven selection highlights the importance of considering environmental heterogeneity in studies of speciation in tropical regions. Furthermore, we show that framing ecological speciation in a spatially explicit evolutionary landscape genetics framework provides an important first step in exploring a wide range of the potential effects of spatial dependence in natural selection. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  17. Pterygium: prevalence and severity in an Amazonian ophthalmic setting, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Joanna Coutts

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This is a cross sectional ophthalmic clinic-based study to estimate the prevalence and severity of pterygium in a selected population in the Amazon Basin, Brazil. METHODS: The study included 225 subjects above 20 years age from three different places of residence of Manaus city (group 1, n=89, river based communities (group 2, n= 116 and indigenous rainforest inhabitants (group 3, n=20. Pterygia was graded 1-4 by torch examination and gender, age and occupation determined. RESULTS: were assessed to have pterygia (grades 2-4 117 people; 52% against 108 control subjects with bilateral disease in 43% of subjects. Prevalence of grades 2-4 increased from 36% in group 1 to 62.5 % in group 2 and 75% in group 3. Of these subjects the percentage with outdoor professions increased across the groups from 31.2% to 67.1 % and 70% respectively. Also subjects of group 2 who worked largely outdoors, showed increasing pterygia severity, from grades 2 at 57% (p=0.0002, grade 3 at 93.3% (p,0.0001 to grade 4 at 100% (p=0.0004 CONCLUSION: Amazonian communities have a high prevalence of pterygia, which correlates to greater outdoor occupation and sun exposure. This study agrees with previous worldwide reports and it is the first study to compare the prevalence of pterygium in rural and urban living in Amazonian in Brazil. This study highlights the public health significance and gross need for intervention studies.

  18. Amazonian Buriti oil: chemical characterization and antioxidant potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speranza, P.; Oliveira Falcao, A. de; Alves Macedo, J.; Silva, L.H.M. da; Rodrigues, A.M. da C.; Alves Macedo, G.

    2016-07-01

    Buriti oil is an example of an Amazonian palm oil of economic importance. The local population uses this oil for the prevention and treatment of different diseases; however, there are few studies in the literature that evaluate its properties. In this study, detailed chemical and antioxidant properties of Buriti oil were determined. The predominant fatty acid was oleic acid (65.6%) and the main triacylglycerol classes were tri-unsaturated (50.0%) and di-unsaturated-mono-saturated(39.3%) triacylglycerols. The positional distribution of the classes of fatty acids on the triacylglycerol backbone indicated a saturated and unsaturated fatty acid relationship similar in the three-triacylglycerol positions. All tocopherol isomers were present, with a total content of 2364.1 mg·kg−1. α-tocopherol constitutes 48% of the total tocopherol content, followed by γ- tocopherol (45%). Total phenolic (107.0 mg gallic acid equivalent·g−1 oil) and β-carotene (781.6 mg·kg−1) were particularly high in this oil. The highest antioxidant activity against the free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) was obtained at an oil concentration of 50 mg·mL−1 (73.15%). The antioxidant activity evaluated by the Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) was 95.3 μmol Trolox equivalent·g−1 oil. These results serve to present Buriti oil as an Amazonian resource for cosmetic, food and pharmaceuticals purposes. (Author)

  19. Comunidades de morcegos em hábitats de uma Mata Amazônica remanescente na Ilha de São Luís, Maranhão Bat communities of an Amazonian remnant forest of São Luís Island, Maranhão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Dominici Cruz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudos com comunidades de morcegos são escassos no Brasil, não sendo encontrado nenhum no Maranhão. Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar a composição de espécies da comunidade de morcegos do Parque Estadual do Bacanga (PEB, São Luís - MA, além de contribuir para o levantamento da fauna de morcegos do estado. Os morcegos foram capturados com três redes neblina de maio a agosto de 2004 em quatro diferentes hábitats (mata de capoeira, mata de terra firme, mata de várzea e mangue. A diversidade e similaridade entre hábitats foram calculadas, bem como a amplitude e sobreposição dos nichos das espécies consideradas comuns na área. Foram registradas 24 espécies de morcegos, sendo a maior diversidade encontrada na mata de várzea. A baixa similaridade constatada entre o hábitat de mangue e os demais hábitats indica a existência de dois conjuntos de espécies de morcegos distintos, o que é reforçado pelas sobreposições de nicho espacial das espécies mais comuns.There are few studies about bat communities in Brazil and none for the Maranhão state there is none. The present study aimed to analyze the bat community of the Bacanga State Park (PEB, São Luís - MA, and to contribute with bat data for the Maranhão state. The bats were sampled in four different habitats (capoeira forest, terra firme forest, riparian forest, and mangrove, using three mist nets from May to August 2004. Diversity and similarity were calculated, as well as the spatial niches width and overlap of the commonest species in PEB. Twenty four species of bats were recorded in PEB and the riparian habitat forest presented the highest diversity index. The low similarity found between mangrove and the remaining habitats seemed to identify two well-defined assemblages of bats in the sampled area, which is enforced by the spatial niche overlaps of the most commonness species.

  20. Climatic and biotic controls on annual carbon storage in Amazonian ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, H.; Melillo, J.M.; Kicklighter, D.W.; McGuire, A.D.; Helfrich, J.; Moore, B.; Vorosmarty, C.J.

    2000-01-01

    1 The role of undisturbed tropical land ecosystems in the global carbon budget is not well understood. It has been suggested that inter-annual climate variability can affect the capacity of these ecosystems to store carbon in the short term. In this paper, we use a transient version of the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM) to estimate annual carbon storage in undisturbed Amazonian ecosystems during the period 1980-94, and to understand the underlying causes of the year-to-year variations in net carbon storage for this region. 2 We estimate that the total carbon storage in the undisturbed ecosystems of the Amazon Basin in 1980 was 127.6 Pg C, with about 94.3 Pg C in vegetation and 33.3 Pg C in the reactive pool of soil organic carbon. About 83% of the total carbon storage occurred in tropical evergreen forests. Based on our model's results, we estimate that, over the past 15 years, the total carbon storage has increased by 3.1 Pg C (+ 2%), with a 1.9-Pg C (+2%) increase in vegetation carbon and a 1.2-Pg C (+4%) increase in reactive soil organic carbon. The modelled results indicate that the largest relative changes in net carbon storage have occurred in tropical deciduous forests, but that the largest absolute changes in net carbon storage have occurred in the moist and wet forests of the Basin. 3 Our results show that the strength of interannual variations in net carbon storage of undisturbed ecosystems in the Amazon Basin varies from a carbon source of 0.2 Pg C/year to a carbon sink of 0.7 Pg C/year. Precipitation, especially the amount received during the drier months, appears to be a major controller of annual net carbon storage in the Amazon Basin. Our analysis indicates further that changes in precipitation combine with changes in temperature to affect net carbon storage through influencing soil moisture and nutrient availability. 4 On average, our results suggest that the undisturbed Amazonian ecosystems accumulated 0.2 Pg C/year as a result of climate

  1. Life history and environment of Cecropia latiloba in Amazonian floodplains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Parolin

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Cecropia latiloba can be considered to be one of the most efficient colonizers of open areas in the nutrient-rich whitewater floodplains of the Amazon river. Its main strategy to be successful is the high tolerance towards waterlogging and submergence, and the fast vertical growth and reiteration capacity. This, and the tolerance of high irradiation and sediment deposition allow C. latiloba to form large monospecific stands on open sites, and thus the first closed canopy which represents the initial phase of a successional sequence which leads to highly diverse forests. This tree is extremely well adapted to the adverse growth conditions in Amazonian floodplains with prolongued periods of flooding and seedling submergence. The species occurs on the lowest levels in the flooding gradient. Although it belongs to the most often cited species under aspects of taxonomy, species distribution and general descriptions of the ecosystem, little has been published about its ecology. In the present paper the ecological, physiological and phenological characteristics of C. latiloba are described. It is an evergreen species which constantly produces new leaves. With flooding, leaf production is reduced but new leaves are flushed also with prolongued flooding. The peak of flowering and fruiting are in the flooded period. When mature, the fruits are dispersed mainly by water and fish. Seed germination occurs, without dormancy, within 5-13 days after water retreat. In the 7 months before the first flooded period seedlings reach 1 m of height, and height growth increases until a height of 15-20 m is achieved. Photosynthetic assimilation is high, with values of up to 21 mmol CO2m-2s-1 . C. latiloba is a very flood tolerant species, and waterlogged seedlings continuously produce new leaves and adventitiuos rootsCecropia latiloba puede ser considerada una de las especies colonizadoras más eficientes de áreas abiertas en las llanuras inundadas de agua dulce, rica

  2. 78 FR 34131 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ..., USDA Forest Service Law Enforcement seized a hide robe from Flora's daughter that had been collected by Flora at the Falls Creek Rock Shelters. Subsequently, in 2009, Bureau of Land Management Law Enforcement..., Cambridge, MA, and by the University of Colorado Museum of Natural History, Boulder, CO. In February 2009...

  3. Wild Harvests from Scottish Woodlands Social, cultural and economic values of contemporary non-timber forest products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marla Emery; Suzanne Martin; Alison Dyke; Alison Dyke

    2006-01-01

    More than 30 people were interviewed about the wild edibles, medicinals, and craft materials they collect and the part that collecting plays in their lives as part of the Wild Harvests from Scottish Woodlands project. Interviews were conducted in autumn 2004. Collecting non-timber forest products (NTFPs) is a source of joy and satisfaction for many of those interviewed...

  4. Conservation, Community, and Culture? New Organizational Challenges of Community Forest Concessions in the Maya Biosphere Reserve of Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Peter Leigh

    2010-01-01

    Community-based forestry has received much recent attention as an effort to protect threatened Southern forests by linking conservation with sustainable livelihoods. Many researchers have emphasized the importance of effective organization for successful community-based forestry. While significant attention has been paid to community-level…

  5. cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Kreutz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Es un estudio cualitativo que adoptó como referencial teorico-motodológico la antropología y la etnografía. Presenta las experiencias vivenciadas por mujeres de una comunidad en el proceso salud-enfermedad, con el objetivo de comprender los determinantes sócio-culturales e históricos de las prácticas de prevención y tratamiento adoptados por el grupo cultural por medio de la entrevista semi-estructurada. Los temas que emergieron fueron: la relación entre la alimentación y lo proceso salud-enfermedad, las relaciones con el sistema de salud oficial y el proceso salud-enfermedad y lo sobrenatural. Los dados revelaron que los moradores de la comunidad investigada tienen un modo particular de explicar sus procedimientos terapéuticos. Consideramos que es papel de los profesionales de la salud en sus prácticas, la adopción de abordajes o enfoques que consideren al individuo en su dimensión sócio-cultural e histórica, considerando la enorme diversidad cultural en nuestro país.

  6. Coarse- and fine-scale patterns of distribution and habitat selection places an Amazonian floodplain curassow in double jeopardy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel A. Leite

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Patterns of habitat selection are influenced by local productivity, resource availability, and predation risk. Species have taken millions of years to hone the macro- and micro-habitats they occupy, but these may now overlap with contemporary human threats within natural species ranges. Wattled Curassow (Crax globulosa, an endemic galliform species of the western Amazon, is threatened by both hunting and habitat loss, and is restricted to white-water floodplain forests of major Amazonian rivers. In this study conducted along the Juruá River, Amazonas, Brazil, we quantified the ranging ecology and fine-scale patterns of habitat selection of the species. We estimated the home range size of C. globulosa using conventional VHF telemetry. To estimate patterns of habitat selection, we used geo-locations of day ranges to examine the extent and intensity of use across the floodplain, which were then compared to a high-resolution flood map of the study area. We captured two females and one male, which we monitored for 13 months between September 2014 and September 2015. Average home range size was 283 ha, based on the 95% aLoCoH estimator. Wattled Curassows selected areas of prolonged flood pulses (six to eight months/year and had a consistent tendency to be near open water, usually in close proximity to river banks and lakes, especially during the dry season. Amazonian floodplains are densely settled, and the small portions of floodplain habitat used by Wattled Curassows are both the most accessible to hunters and most vulnerable to deforestation. As a result, the geographic and ecological distribution of Wattled Curassows places them at much higher extinction risk at multiple spatial scales, highlighting the need to consider habitat preferences within their conservation strategy.

  7. Pre-LBA Anglo-Brazilian Amazonian Climate Observation Study (ABRACOS) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The data set presents the principal data from the Anglo-BRazilian Amazonian Climate Observation Study (ABRACOS) (Gash et al. 1996) and provides quality controlled...

  8. Pre-LBA Anglo-Brazilian Amazonian Climate Observation Study (ABRACOS) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The data set presents the principal data from the Anglo-BRazilian Amazonian Climate Observation Study (ABRACOS) (Gash et al. 1996) and provides quality...

  9. Composition and diversity of northwestern Amazonian rainforests in a geoecological context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duivenvoorden, J.F.; Duque, A.J.; Hoorn, C.; Wesselingh, F.P.

    2010-01-01

    The northwestern Amazonian landscape includes most of the representative landscape units that characterize Amazonia, and for this reason it constitutes an excellent place to investigate relationships between the abiotic environment (geology, geomorphology, soils) and biodiversity. In this review we

  10. Estimating the global conservation status of more than 15,000 Amazonian tree species

    OpenAIRE

    ter Steege, H.; et al., [Unknown; Duivenvoorden, J.F.

    2015-01-01

    Estimates of extinction risk for Amazonian plant and animal species are rare and not often incorporated into land-use policy and conservation planning. We overlay spatial distribution models with historical and projected deforestation to show that at least 36% and up to 57% of all Amazonian tree species are likely to qualify as globally threatened under International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List criteria. If confirmed, these results would increase the number of threatened ...

  11. Impact of selective logging on inbreeding and gene dispersal in an Amazonian tree population of Carapa guianensis Aubl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloutier, D; Kanashiro, M; Ciampi, A Y; Schoen, D J

    2007-02-01

    Selective logging may impact patterns of genetic diversity within populations of harvested forest tree species by increasing distances separating conspecific trees, and modifying physical and biotic features of the forest habitat. We measured levels of gene diversity, inbreeding, pollen dispersal and spatial genetic structure (SGS) of an Amazonian insect-pollinated Carapa guianensis population before and after commercial selective logging. Similar levels of gene diversity and allelic richness were found before and after logging in both the adult and the seed generations. Pre- and post-harvest outcrossing rates were high, and not significantly different from one another. We found no significant levels of biparental inbreeding either before or after logging. Low levels of pollen pool differentiation were found, and the pre- vs. post-harvest difference was not significant. Pollen dispersal distance estimates averaged between 75 m and 265 m before logging, and between 76 m and 268 m after logging, depending on the value of tree density and the dispersal model used. There were weak and similar levels of differentiation of allele frequencies in the adults and in the pollen pool, before and after logging occurred, as well as weak and similar pre- and post-harvest levels of SGS among adult trees. The large neighbourhood sizes estimated suggest high historical levels of gene flow. Overall our results indicate that there is no clear short-term genetic impact of selective logging on this population of C. guianensis.

  12. Impacts of selective logging on inbreeding and gene flow in two Amazonian timber species with contrasting ecological and reproductive characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, C C; Kanashiro, M; Harris, S A; Boshier, D H

    2015-01-01

    Selective logging in Brazil allows for the removal of up to 90% of trees above 50 cm diameter of a given timber species, independent of a species' life history characteristics or how quickly it will recover. The genetic and demographic effects of selective logging on two Amazonian timber species (Dipteryx odorata Leguminosae, Jacaranda copaia Bignoniaceae) with contrasting ecological and reproductive characteristics were assessed in the same forest. Genetic diversity and gene flow were characterized by genotyping adults and seed sampled before and after logging, using hypervariable microsatellite markers. Overall, there were no short-term genetic impacts on the J. copaia population, with commercial application of current Brazilian forest management regulations. In contrast, for D. Odorata, selective logging showed a range of genetic impacts, with a 10% loss of alleles, and reductions in siring by pollen from trees within the 546-ha study area (23-11%) and in the number of pollen donors per progeny array (2.8-1.6), illustrating the importance of the surrounding landscape. Asynchrony in flowering between D. odorata trees led to trees with no breeding partners, which could limit the species reproduction and regeneration under current regulations. The results are summarized with other published studies from the same site and the implications for forest management discussed. The different types and levels of impacts associated with each species support the idea that ecological and genetic information by species, ecological guild or reproductive group is essential in helping to derive sustainable logging guidelines for tropical forests. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. A marvelous new glassfrog (Centrolenidae, Hyalinobatrachium) from Amazonian Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guayasamin, Juan M.; Cisneros-Heredia, Diego F.; Maynard, Ross J.; Lynch, Ryan L.; Culebras, Jaime; Hamilton, Paul S.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Hyalinobatrachium is a behaviorally and morphologically conserved genus of Neotropical anurans, with several pending taxonomic problems. Using morphology, vocalizations, and DNA, a new species from the Amazonian lowlands of Ecuador is described and illustrated. The new species, Hyalinobatrachium yaku sp. n., is differentiated from all other congenerics by having small, middorsal, dark green spots on the head and dorsum, a transparent pericardium, and a tonal call that lasts 0.27–0.4 s, with a dominant frequency of 5219.3–5329.6 Hz. Also, a mitochondrial phylogeny for the genus is presented that contains the new species, which is inferred as sister to H. pellucidum. Conservation threats to H. yaku sp. n. include habitat destruction and/or pollution mainly because of oil and mining activities. PMID:28769670

  14. Local-scale spatial variation in diversity of social wasps in an Amazonian rain forest in Caxiuanã, Pará, Brazil (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae Variação na diversidade de vespas sociais em escala local numa floresta pluvial amazônica em Caxiuanã, Pará, Brasil (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Tobias Silveira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Polistine wasps are important in Neotropical ecosystems due to their ubiquity and diversity. Inventories have not adequately considered spatial attributes of collected specimens. Spatial data on biodiversity are important for study and mitigation of anthropogenic impacts over natural ecosystems and for protecting species. We described and analyzed local-scale spatial patterns of collecting records of wasp species, as well as spatial variation of diversity descriptors in a 2500-hectare area of an Amazon forest in Brazil. Rare species comprised the largest fraction of the fauna. Close range spatial effects were detected for most of the more common species, with clustering of presence-data at short distances. Larger spatial lag effects could also be identified in some species, constituting probably cases of exogenous autocorrelation and candidates for explanations based on environmental factors. In a few cases, significant or near significant correlations were found between five species (of Agelaia, Angiopolybia, and Mischocyttarus and three studied environmental variables: distance to nearest stream, terrain altitude, and the type of forest canopy. However, association between these factors and biodiversity variables were generally low. When used as predictors of polistine richness in a linear multiple regression, only the coefficient for the forest canopy variable resulted significant. Some level of prediction of wasp diversity variables can be attained based on environmental variables, especially vegetation structure. Large-scale landscape and regional studies should be scheduled to address this issue.Vespas sociais são importantes nos ecossistemas neotropicais pela abundância e diversidade. A maioria dos inventários recentes não têm dedicado atenção aos atributos espaciais dos espécimes coletados. Dados espaciais são importantes para estudar e mitigar impactos sobre ecossistemas naturais e proteger espécies. Este artigo descreve e

  15. 75 FR 44808 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    ... Arizona State Museum, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, that meet the definition of unassociated funerary... are considered to be unassociated funerary objects. Based on material culture, architecture and site...

  16. Leaf level emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from some Amazonian and Mediterranean plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracho-Nunez, A.; Knothe, , N. M.; Welter, S.; Staudt, M.; Costa, W. R.; Liberato, M. A. R.; Piedade, M. T. F.; Kesselmeier, J.

    2013-09-01

    Emission inventories defining regional and global biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOC) emission strengths are needed to determine the impact of VOC on atmospheric chemistry (oxidative capacity) and physics (secondary organic aerosol formation and effects). The aim of this work was to contribute with measurements of tree species from the poorly described tropical vegetation in direct comparison with the quite well-investigated, highly heterogeneous emissions from Mediterranean vegetation. VOC emission from sixteen plant species from the Mediterranean area were compared with twelve plant species from different environments of the Amazon basin by an emission screening at leaf level using branch enclosures. Analysis of the volatile organics was performed online by a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) and offline by collection on adsorbent tubes and subsequent gas chromatographic analysis. Isoprene was the most dominant compound emitted followed by monoterpenes, methanol and acetone. The average loss rates of VOC carbon in relation to the net CO2 assimilation were found below 4% and indicating normal unstressed plant behavior. Most of the Mediterranean species emitted a large variety of monoterpenes, whereas only five tropical species were identified as monoterpene emitters exhibiting a quite conservative emission pattern (α-pinene plants showed additional emissions of sesquiterpenes. In the case of Amazonian plants no sesquiterpenes were detected. However, missing of sesquiterpenes may also be due to a lack of sensitivity of the measuring systems. Furthermore, our screening activities cover only 1% of tree species of such tropical areas as estimated based on recent biodiversity reports. Methanol emissions, an indicator of growth, were found to be common in most of the tropical and Mediterranean species. A few species from both ecosystems showed acetone emissions. The observed heterogeneous emissions, including reactive VOC species which are not

  17. Asymmetric dispersal and colonization success of Amazonian plant-ants queens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio M Bruna

    Full Text Available The dispersal ability of queens is central to understanding ant life-history evolution, and plays a fundamental role in ant population and community dynamics, the maintenance of genetic diversity, and the spread of invasive ants. In tropical ecosystems, species from over 40 genera of ants establish colonies in the stems, hollow thorns, or leaf pouches of specialized plants. However, little is known about the relative dispersal ability of queens competing for access to the same host plants.We used empirical data and inverse modeling--a technique developed by plant ecologists to model seed dispersal--to quantify and compare the dispersal kernels of queens from three Amazonian ant species that compete for access to host-plants. We found that the modal colonization distance of queens varied 8-fold, with the generalist ant species (Crematogaster laevis having a greater modal distance than two specialists (Pheidole minutula, Azteca sp. that use the same host-plants. However, our results also suggest that queens of Azteca sp. have maximal distances that are four-sixteen times greater than those of its competitors.We found large differences between ant species in both the modal and maximal distance ant queens disperse to find vacant seedlings used to found new colonies. These differences could result from interspecific differences in queen body size, and hence wing musculature, or because queens differ in their ability to identify potential host plants while in flight. Our results provide support for one of the necessary conditions underlying several of the hypothesized mechanisms promoting coexistence in tropical plant-ants. They also suggest that for some ant species limited dispersal capability could pose a significant barrier to the rescue of populations in isolated forest fragments. Finally, we demonstrate that inverse models parameterized with field data are an excellent means of quantifying the dispersal of ant queens.

  18. Assessment of bacterial bph gene in Amazonian dark earth and their adjacent soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brossi, Maria Julia de Lima; Mendes, Lucas William; Germano, Mariana Gomes; Lima, Amanda Barbosa; Tsai, Siu Mui

    2014-01-01

    Amazonian Anthrosols are known to harbour distinct and highly diverse microbial communities. As most of the current assessments of these communities are based on taxonomic profiles, the functional gene structure of these communities, such as those responsible for key steps in the carbon cycle, mostly remain elusive. To gain insights into the diversity of catabolic genes involved in the degradation of hydrocarbons in anthropogenic horizons, we analysed the bacterial bph gene community structure, composition and abundance using T-RFLP, 454-pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR essays, respectively. Soil samples were collected in two Brazilian Amazon Dark Earth (ADE) sites and at their corresponding non-anthropogenic adjacent soils (ADJ), under two different land use systems, secondary forest (SF) and manioc cultivation (M). Redundancy analysis of T-RFLP data revealed differences in bph gene structure according to both soil type and land use. Chemical properties of ADE soils, such as high organic carbon and organic matter, as well as effective cation exchange capacity and pH, were significantly correlated with the structure of bph communities. Also, the taxonomic affiliation of bph gene sequences revealed the segregation of community composition according to the soil type. Sequences at ADE sites were mostly affiliated to aromatic hydrocarbon degraders belonging to the genera Streptomyces, Sphingomonas, Rhodococcus, Mycobacterium, Conexibacter and Burkholderia. In both land use sites, shannon's diversity indices based on the bph gene data were higher in ADE than ADJ soils. Collectively, our findings provide evidence that specific properties in ADE soils shape the structure and composition of bph communities. These results provide a basis for further investigations focusing on the bio-exploration of novel enzymes with potential use in the biotechnology/biodegradation industry.

  19. Leaf level emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC from some Amazonian and Mediterranean plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bracho-Nunez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Emission inventories defining regional and global biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOC emission strengths are needed to determine the impact of VOC on atmospheric chemistry (oxidative capacity and physics (secondary organic aerosol formation and effects. The aim of this work was to contribute with measurements of tree species from the poorly described tropical vegetation in direct comparison with the quite well-investigated, highly heterogeneous emissions from Mediterranean vegetation. VOC emission from sixteen plant species from the Mediterranean area were compared with twelve plant species from different environments of the Amazon basin by an emission screening at leaf level using branch enclosures. Analysis of the volatile organics was performed online by a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS and offline by collection on adsorbent tubes and subsequent gas chromatographic analysis. Isoprene was the most dominant compound emitted followed by monoterpenes, methanol and acetone. The average loss rates of VOC carbon in relation to the net CO2 assimilation were found below 4% and indicating normal unstressed plant behavior. Most of the Mediterranean species emitted a large variety of monoterpenes, whereas only five tropical species were identified as monoterpene emitters exhibiting a quite conservative emission pattern (α-pinene < limonene < sabinene < ß-pinene. Mediterranean plants showed additional emissions of sesquiterpenes. In the case of Amazonian plants no sesquiterpenes were detected. However, missing of sesquiterpenes may also be due to a lack of sensitivity of the measuring systems. Furthermore, our screening activities cover only 1% of tree species of such tropical areas as estimated based on recent biodiversity reports. Methanol emissions, an indicator of growth, were found to be common in most of the tropical and Mediterranean species. A few species from both ecosystems showed acetone emissions. The observed

  20. Assessment of Bacterial bph Gene in Amazonian Dark Earth and Their Adjacent Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brossi, Maria Julia de Lima; Mendes, Lucas William; Germano, Mariana Gomes; Lima, Amanda Barbosa; Tsai, Siu Mui

    2014-01-01

    Amazonian Anthrosols are known to harbour distinct and highly diverse microbial communities. As most of the current assessments of these communities are based on taxonomic profiles, the functional gene structure of these communities, such as those responsible for key steps in the carbon cycle, mostly remain elusive. To gain insights into the diversity of catabolic genes involved in the degradation of hydrocarbons in anthropogenic horizons, we analysed the bacterial bph gene community structure, composition and abundance using T-RFLP, 454-pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR essays, respectively. Soil samples were collected in two Brazilian Amazon Dark Earth (ADE) sites and at their corresponding non-anthropogenic adjacent soils (ADJ), under two different land use systems, secondary forest (SF) and manioc cultivation (M). Redundancy analysis of T-RFLP data revealed differences in bph gene structure according to both soil type and land use. Chemical properties of ADE soils, such as high organic carbon and organic matter, as well as effective cation exchange capacity and pH, were significantly correlated with the structure of bph communities. Also, the taxonomic affiliation of bph gene sequences revealed the segregation of community composition according to the soil type. Sequences at ADE sites were mostly affiliated to aromatic hydrocarbon degraders belonging to the genera Streptomyces, Sphingomonas, Rhodococcus, Mycobacterium, Conexibacter and Burkholderia. In both land use sites, shannon's diversity indices based on the bph gene data were higher in ADE than ADJ soils. Collectively, our findings provide evidence that specific properties in ADE soils shape the structure and composition of bph communities. These results provide a basis for further investigations focusing on the bio-exploration of novel enzymes with potential use in the biotechnology/biodegradation industry. PMID:24927167

  1. ECOLOGICAL WATER & THE FOREST-GARDEN UNIRRIGATED CULTURE%生态水与林园无灌溉栽培

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王炳章

    2001-01-01

    Ecological water concealed under the earth. First, avert huge waste of water, every year every mevaporate 3m water in the midsea region. Second, unirrigated forest-garden, Which do not have construct ditch, and cultivate cost of production dropped annually.%地表下的生态水,避免了塔克拉玛干沙漠每年每m蒸发3m水的巨额浪费;无灌溉林园,不修渠、不耕耘、生产成本逐年下降。

  2. 77 FR 13625 - Notice of Inventory Completion: USDA Forest Service, Daniel Boone National Forest, Winchester, KY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... Forest Service, Daniel Boone National Forest, Winchester, KY AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Daniel Boone National Forest... culturally affiliated with the human remains may contact the Daniel Boone National Forest, Winchester, KY...

  3. Relação entre diferentes espécies de formigas e a mirmecófita Cordia nodosa Lamarck (Boraginaceae em áreas de mata ripária na Amazônia mato-grossense Relationship among different plant-ants and its myrmecophite host Cordia nodosa Lamarck (Boraginaceae in a riparian Mato Grosso Amazonian forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Junqueira Izzo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Os benefícios obtidos por um organismo em uma associação mutualística podem variar em função de fatores ambientais, bem como entre as diferentes espécies que podem estar associadas. Neste trabalho demonstramos que quatro espécies de formigas, Crematogaster brasiliensis, Allomerus octoarticulatus e duas não identificadas do gênero Azteca podem ser encontradas associadas à mirmecófita Cordia nodosa em florestas ripárias sul-amazônicas. Essa composição de espécies de formigas é mais similar a encontrada na Amazônia Andina do que aquela da Amazônia Central brasileira. A colonização por formigas parece ser determinante, pois diminuiu a herbivoria e, consequentemente, aumentou a probabilidade de C. nodosa produzir frutos. Adicionalmente, mesmo não havendo diferença na herbivoria entre plantas colonizadas pelas diferentes espécies de formigas, a probabilidade de uma planta colonizada por formigas do gênero Allomerus produzir frutos é menor do que quando colonizadas pelas outras espécies de formigas. Esse estudo demonstra a dependência de C. nodosa pela colonização de formigas para sua reprodução. Contudo, conforme outros estudos realizados em outras áreas da Amazônia demonstram, nossos resultados também sugerem que Allomerus pode estar castrando as plantas hospedeiras, agindo como parasita em toda a sua distribuição geográfica.The benefits obtained by an organism when involved in a mutualistic interaction vary depending on environmental factors, as well as among the identity of the involved species. In this study, we showed that four ant species, Crematogaster brasiliensis, Allomerus octoarticulatus, and two unidentified Azteca species can be found associated to the myrmecophite Cordia nodosa in riparian forests in the South of Amazonia. This composition of ant-associated species is more similar in forests of Andean Amazon than in Central Amazonia. The colonization of an ant colony on C. nodosa seems to be vital

  4. Influências de Atta spp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae na recuperação da vegetação pós-fogo em floresta de transição amazônica Influences of leafcutter ant Atta spp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae on vegetation recovery after fire in Amazonian transitional forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Santana Carvalho

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo investigou o papel das saúvas na recuperação da vegetação pós-fogo. Foi hipotetizado que a perturbação do fogo aumenta a abundância de ninhos de saúva (1 e as atividades de remoção de sementes (2 e desfolha (3, especialmente no ambiente de borda. Os ninhos de saúva foram inventariados e mapeados e após 17 meses, checados para o registro de sua atividade e de novas colônias emergindo na área. Realizou-se experimentos comparativos de remoção de sementes e desfolha de plântulas em duas parcelas de 50 ha, uma submetida a fogo anual (tratamento e outra sem fogo (controle. A abundância de ninhos de saúva foi maior na parcela tratamento que na parcela controle, especialmente na borda da floresta. As espécies encontradas foram: Atta cephalotes, A. laevigata e A. sexdens , sendo esta última a espécie mais abundante e que mostrou aumento em número de colônias ativas após 17 meses. O aumento na abundância de ninhos na parcela tratamento foi acompanhado por um aumento na atividade dessas formigas. Enquanto mais de duas folhas foram arrancadas por plântula nessa parcela, menos de uma foi registrada na parcela controle. Também a abundância média de galhos desfolhados e de sementes removidas por saúvas foi maior na parcela tratamento que na parcela controle. As saúvas tanto podem diminuir ou retardar o processo de regeneração florestal pós-fogo, quanto acelerá-lo, devido à elevada predação seletiva que favorece as espécies menos palatáveis. Desta forma, suas atividades podem modificador apenas a composição da vegetação recuperando-se do fogo.In this study we investigated the role of leaf-cutting ants in the post-fire vegetation recovery. We hypothesized that a forest plot submitted to annual fire presents: (1 higher abundance of leaf-cutting ant nests; (2 higher removal of seeds; and (3 higher herbivory rates of leaf-cutting ants, when compared to the forest plots without fire (control. The leaf

  5. 75 FR 44280 - Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: U... Museum of Natural History, New York City, NY AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice..., ethnographic materials, technology and architecture indicate that the prehistoric peoples of the upper Verde...

  6. Higher Education and Urban Migration for Community Resilience: Indigenous Amazonian Youth Promoting Place-Based Livelihoods and Identities in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Diana

    2018-01-01

    This paper offers an ethnographic analysis of indigenous Peruvian Amazonian youth pursuing higher education through urban migration to contribute to the resilience of their communities, place-based livelihoods, and indigenous Amazonian identities. Youth and their communities promoted education and migration as powerful tools in the context of…

  7. A Miocene hyperdiverse crocodylian community reveals peculiar trophic dynamics in proto-Amazonian mega-wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Gismondi, Rodolfo; Flynn, John J; Baby, Patrice; Tejada-Lara, Julia V; Wesselingh, Frank P; Antoine, Pierre-Olivier

    2015-04-07

    Amazonia contains one of the world's richest biotas, but origins of this diversity remain obscure. Onset of the Amazon River drainage at approximately 10.5 Ma represented a major shift in Neotropical ecosystems, and proto-Amazonian biotas just prior to this pivotal episode are integral to understanding origins of Amazonian biodiversity, yet vertebrate fossil evidence is extraordinarily rare. Two new species-rich bonebeds from late Middle Miocene proto-Amazonian deposits of northeastern Peru document the same hyperdiverse assemblage of seven co-occurring crocodylian species. Besides the large-bodied Purussaurus and Mourasuchus, all other crocodylians are new taxa, including a stem caiman-Gnatusuchus pebasensis-bearing a massive shovel-shaped mandible, procumbent anterior and globular posterior teeth, and a mammal-like diastema. This unusual species is an extreme exemplar of a radiation of small caimans with crushing dentitions recording peculiar feeding strategies correlated with a peak in proto-Amazonian molluscan diversity and abundance. These faunas evolved within dysoxic marshes and swamps of the long-lived Pebas Mega-Wetland System and declined with inception of the transcontinental Amazon drainage, favouring diversification of longirostrine crocodylians and more modern generalist-feeding caimans. The rise and demise of distinctive, highly productive aquatic ecosystems substantially influenced evolution of Amazonian biodiversity hotspots of crocodylians and other organisms throughout the Neogene. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Mitochondrial DNA mapping of social-biological interactions in Brazilian Amazonian African-descendant populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Maia Carvalho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The formation of the Brazilian Amazonian population has historically involved three main ethnic groups, Amerindian, African and European. This has resulted in genetic investigations having been carried out using classical polymorphisms and molecular markers. To better understand the genetic variability and the micro-evolutionary processes acting in human groups in the Brazilian Amazon region we used mitochondrial DNA to investigate 159 maternally unrelated individuals from five Amazonian African-descendant communities. The mitochondrial lineage distribution indicated a contribution of 50.2% from Africans (L0, L1, L2, and L3, 46.6% from Amerindians (haplogroups A, B, C and D and a small European contribution of 1.3%. These results indicated high genetic diversity in the Amerindian and African lineage groups, suggesting that the Brazilian Amazonian African-descendant populations reflect a possible population amalgamation of Amerindian women from different Amazonian indigenous tribes and African women from different geographic regions of Africa who had been brought to Brazil as slaves. The present study partially mapped the historical biological and social interactions that had occurred during the formation and expansion of Amazonian African-descendant communities.

  9. A Miocene hyperdiverse crocodylian community reveals peculiar trophic dynamics in proto-Amazonian mega-wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Gismondi, Rodolfo; Flynn, John J.; Baby, Patrice; Tejada-Lara, Julia V.; Wesselingh, Frank P.; Antoine, Pierre-Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Amazonia contains one of the world's richest biotas, but origins of this diversity remain obscure. Onset of the Amazon River drainage at approximately 10.5 Ma represented a major shift in Neotropical ecosystems, and proto-Amazonian biotas just prior to this pivotal episode are integral to understanding origins of Amazonian biodiversity, yet vertebrate fossil evidence is extraordinarily rare. Two new species-rich bonebeds from late Middle Miocene proto-Amazonian deposits of northeastern Peru document the same hyperdiverse assemblage of seven co-occurring crocodylian species. Besides the large-bodied Purussaurus and Mourasuchus, all other crocodylians are new taxa, including a stem caiman—Gnatusuchus pebasensis—bearing a massive shovel-shaped mandible, procumbent anterior and globular posterior teeth, and a mammal-like diastema. This unusual species is an extreme exemplar of a radiation of small caimans with crushing dentitions recording peculiar feeding strategies correlated with a peak in proto-Amazonian molluscan diversity and abundance. These faunas evolved within dysoxic marshes and swamps of the long-lived Pebas Mega-Wetland System and declined with inception of the transcontinental Amazon drainage, favouring diversification of longirostrine crocodylians and more modern generalist-feeding caimans. The rise and demise of distinctive, highly productive aquatic ecosystems substantially influenced evolution of Amazonian biodiversity hotspots of crocodylians and other organisms throughout the Neogene. PMID:25716785

  10. Fast demographic traits promote high diversification rates of Amazonian trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baker, T.R.; Pennington, R.T.; Magallon, S.; Gloor, E.; Laurance, W.F.; Alexiades, M.; Alvarez, E.; Araujo, de A.; Arets, E.J.M.M.

    2014-01-01

    The Amazon rain forest sustains the world's highest tree diversity, but it remains unclear why some clades of trees are hyperdiverse, whereas others are not. Using dated phylogenies, estimates of current species richness and trait and demographic data from a large network of forest plots, we show

  11. Individual health and the visibility of village economic inequality: Longitudinal evidence from native Amazonians in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undurraga, Eduardo A; Nica, Veronica; Zhang, Rebecca; Mensah, Irene C; Godoy, Ricardo A

    2016-12-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that income inequality is associated with worse individual health. But does the visibility of inequality matter? Using data from a horticultural-foraging society of native Amazonians in Bolivia (Tsimane'), we examined whether village inequality in resources and behaviors with greater cultural visibility is more likely to bear a negative association with health than village inequality in less conspicuous resources. We draw on a nine-year annual panel (2002-2010) from 13 Tsimane' villages for our main analysis, and an additional survey to gauge the cultural visibility of resources. We measured inequality using the Gini coefficient. We tested the robustness of our results using a shorter two-year annual panel (2008-2009) in another 40 Tsimane' villages and an additional measure of inequality (coefficient of variation, CV). Behaviors with low cultural visibility (e.g., household farm area planted with staples) were less likely to be associated with individual health, compared to more conspicuous behaviors (e.g., expenditures in durable goods, consumption of domesticated animals). We find some evidence that property rights and access to resources matter, with inequality of privately-owned resources showing a larger effect on health. More inequality was associated with improved perceived health - maybe due to improved health prospects from increasing wealth - and worse anthropometric indicators. For example, a unit increase in the Gini coefficient of expenditures in durable goods was associated with 0.24 fewer episodes of stress and a six percentage-point lower probability of reporting illness. A one-point increase in the CV of village inequality in meat consumption was associated with a 4 and 3 percentage-point lower probability of reporting illness and being in bed due to illness, and a 0.05 SD decrease in age-sex standardized arm-muscle area. In small-scale, rural societies at the periphery of market economies, nominal economic inequality in

  12. First report of Oxysternon silenus Castelnau (Scarabaeidae, Scarabaeinae, Phanaeini in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno K. C. Filgueiras

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available First report of Oxysternon silenus Castelnau (Scarabaeidae, Scarabaeinae, Phanaeini in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. This is the first record of Oxysternon silenus in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Specimens were collected in the Serra Grande landscape, municipality of Ibateguara, in Alagoas State. The samples were done from August 17 to 19, 2007 with pitfall traps. Before the present study, Oxysternon silenus had been reported predominantly in Amazonian region. The finding of this species corroborates the hypothesis of the biogeographical relationships between the Amazon Rainforest and the Atlantic Forest.

  13. Eastern Africa Coastal Forest Programme

    OpenAIRE

    Younge, A.

    2002-01-01

    The eastern African coastal forest ecoregion is recognised as one of Africa’s centres of species endemism, and is distributed over six countries (Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique, Zimbabwe and Malawi). Most is found in Kenya, Tanzania and Mozambique, which form our focal region. The coastal forests are fragmented, small and surrounded by poor communities that have a high demand for land and forest resources. Although coastal forests have significant cultural and traditional...

  14. The impact of Amazonian deforestation on Amazon basin rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spracklen, D. V.; Garcia-Carreras, L.

    2015-11-01

    We completed a meta-analysis of regional and global climate model simulations (n = 96) of the impact of Amazonian deforestation on Amazon basin rainfall. Across all simulations, mean (±1σ) change in annual mean Amazon basin rainfall was -12 ± 11%. Variability in simulated rainfall was not explained by differences in model resolution or surface parameters. Across all simulations we find a negative linear relationship between rainfall and deforestation extent, although individual studies often simulate a nonlinear response. Using the linear relationship, we estimate that deforestation in 2010 has reduced annual mean rainfall across the Amazon basin by 1.8 ± 0.3%, less than the interannual variability in observed rainfall. This may explain why a reduction in Amazon rainfall has not consistently been observed. We estimate that business-as-usual deforestation (based on deforestation rates prior to 2004) would lead to an 8.1 ± 1.4% reduction in annual mean Amazon basin rainfall by 2050, greater than natural variability.

  15. Physicochemical characteristics of pollen collected by Amazonian stingless bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemilla Sarmento Rebelo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine the physicochemical characteristics of pollen collected by the Amazonian stingless bees Melipona seminigra and Melipona interrupta , in order to verify whether their characteristics meet the physicochemical requirements established by the Brazilian Technical Regulation for Identity and Quality of Bee Pollen. Physicochemical analyses were performed through official analytical methods. Results of pollen analyses collected by M. seminigra and M. interrupta were respectively as follows: moisture: 53.39 and 37.12%; protein: 37.63 and 24.00%; lipids: 10.81 and 6.47%; ash: 4.03 and 2.74%; crude fiber: 9.30 and 13.65%; carbohydrates: 25.66 and 44.27%; energy: 350.47 and 331.33kcal%; pH: 3.70 and 3.34; total solids: 46.60 and 62.87%, and water activity: 0.91 and 0.85. The percentages of moisture and pH in pollen collected by both studied bees are not in agreement with the Technical Regulation for bee pollen. Since some characteristics, which are inherent to the Melipona pollen, were not in conform to the current Regulation, we recommend that further studies should be conducted to better characterize it, and correct the Regulation, if necessary.

  16. Pesticide use and biodiversity conservation in the Amazonian agricultural frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiesari, Luis; Waichman, Andrea; Brock, Theo; Adams, Cristina; Grillitsch, Britta

    2013-06-05

    Agricultural frontiers are dynamic environments characterized by the conversion of native habitats to agriculture. Because they are currently concentrated in diverse tropical habitats, agricultural frontiers are areas where the largest number of species is exposed to hazardous land management practices, including pesticide use. Focusing on the Amazonian frontier, we show that producers have varying access to resources, knowledge, control and reward mechanisms to improve land management practices. With poor education and no technical support, pesticide use by smallholders sharply deviated from agronomical recommendations, tending to overutilization of hazardous compounds. By contrast, with higher levels of technical expertise and resources, and aiming at more restrictive markets, large-scale producers adhered more closely to technical recommendations and even voluntarily replaced more hazardous compounds. However, the ecological footprint increased significantly over time because of increased dosage or because formulations that are less toxic to humans may be more toxic to other biodiversity. Frontier regions appear to be unique in terms of the conflicts between production and conservation, and the necessary pesticide risk management and risk reduction can only be achieved through responsibility-sharing by diverse stakeholders, including governmental and intergovernmental organizations, NGOs, financial institutions, pesticide and agricultural industries, producers, academia and consumers.

  17. Epidemiological aspects of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL in an endemic area of forest extractivist culture in western Brazilian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Fernandes Brilhante

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The study sought to analyze clinical and epidemiological aspects of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in Xapuri, Acre, Brazil. Data from 2008 to 2014 registered in the notification records of the disease of the Information System of the Complaints of Notification (SINAN, and the data of the Information Department of the Unified Health System (DATASUS available from 2007 to 2013 were used and analyzed in the light of the statistics of the temporal series by the Prais-Winsten method and chi-squared test. A total of 906 cases were registered with 60.2% occurring in men and 39.7% in women. The groups from 0 to 4 years of age (48.0% and from 5 to 19 years of age (23.3% were the most affected. Regarding the clinical forms, 77.7% presented CL and 22.3% mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL. Among the 896 cases with information on the diagnostic methods used, Montenegro’s skin test predominated (66.4%, with a positive result of 95.8% for CL and 99.3% for MCL. Treatment with N-methylglucamine antimony was performed in 99.4% of the cases, but discontinuously used in the majority of patients. This study presents information which may be used as a tool for the epidemiological surveillance and control of the disease in Xapuri, a region which depends essentially on forest resources and ecological tourism.

  18. The OpenForest Portal as an Open Learning Ecosystem: Co-Developing in the Study of a Multidisciplinary Phenomenon in a Cultural Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljeström, Anu; Enkenberg, Jorma; Vanninen, Petteri; Vartiainen, Henriikka; Pöllänen, Sinikka

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the OpenForest portal and its related multidisciplinary learning project. The OpenForest portal is an open learning environment and ecosystem, in which students can participate in co-developing and co-creating practices. The aim of the OpenForest ecosystem is to create an extensive interactive network of diverse learning…

  19. Road networks predict human influence on Amazonian bird communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sadia E.; Lees, Alexander C.; Moura, Nárgila G.; Gardner, Toby A.; Barlow, Jos; Ferreira, Joice; Ewers, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Road building can lead to significant deleterious impacts on biodiversity, varying from direct road-kill mortality and direct habitat loss associated with road construction, to more subtle indirect impacts from edge effects and fragmentation. However, little work has been done to evaluate the specific effects of road networks and biodiversity loss beyond the more generalized effects of habitat loss. Here, we compared forest bird species richness and composition in the municipalities of Santarém and Belterra in Pará state, eastern Brazilian Amazon, with a road network metric called ‘roadless volume (RV)’ at the scale of small hydrological catchments (averaging 3721 ha). We found a significant positive relationship between RV and both forest bird richness and the average number of unique species (species represented by a single record) recorded at each site. Forest bird community composition was also significantly affected by RV. Moreover, there was no significant correlation between RV and forest cover, suggesting that road networks may impact biodiversity independently of changes in forest cover. However, variance partitioning analysis indicated that RV has partially independent and therefore additive effects, suggesting that RV and forest cover are best used in a complementary manner to investigate changes in biodiversity. Road impacts on avian species richness and composition independent of habitat loss may result from road-dependent habitat disturbance and fragmentation effects that are not captured by total percentage habitat cover, such as selective logging, fire, hunting, traffic disturbance, edge effects and road-induced fragmentation. PMID:25274363

  20. Regional-Scale Drivers of Forest Structure and Function in Northwestern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Mark A.; Asner, Gregory P.; Anderson, Christopher B.; Martin, Roberta E.; Knapp, David E.; Tupayachi, Raul; Perez, Eneas; Elespuru, Nydia; Alonso, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Field studies in Amazonia have found a relationship at continental scales between soil fertility and broad trends in forest structure and function. Little is known at regional scales, however, about how discrete patterns in forest structure or functional attributes map onto underlying edaphic or geological patterns. We collected airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data and VSWIR (Visible to Shortwave Infrared) imaging spectroscopy measurements over 600 km2 of northwestern Amazonian lowland forests. We also established 83 inventories of plant species composition and soil properties, distributed between two widespread geological formations. Using these data, we mapped forest structure and canopy reflectance, and compared them to patterns in plant species composition, soils, and underlying geology. We found that variations in soils and species composition explained up to 70% of variation in canopy height, and corresponded to profound changes in forest vertical profiles. We further found that soils and plant species composition explained more than 90% of the variation in canopy reflectance as measured by imaging spectroscopy, indicating edaphic and compositional control of canopy chemical properties. We last found that soils explained between 30% and 70% of the variation in gap frequency in these forests, depending on the height threshold used to define gaps. Our findings indicate that a relatively small number of edaphic and compositional variables, corresponding to underlying geology, may be responsible for variations in canopy structure and chemistry over large expanses of Amazonian forest. PMID:25793602

  1. Regional-scale drivers of forest structure and function in northwestern Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Higgins

    Full Text Available Field studies in Amazonia have found a relationship at continental scales between soil fertility and broad trends in forest structure and function. Little is known at regional scales, however, about how discrete patterns in forest structure or functional attributes map onto underlying edaphic or geological patterns. We collected airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging data and VSWIR (Visible to Shortwave Infrared imaging spectroscopy measurements over 600 km2 of northwestern Amazonian lowland forests. We also established 83 inventories of plant species composition and soil properties, distributed between two widespread geological formations. Using these data, we mapped forest structure and canopy reflectance, and compared them to patterns in plant species composition, soils, and underlying geology. We found that variations in soils and species composition explained up to 70% of variation in canopy height, and corresponded to profound changes in forest vertical profiles. We further found that soils and plant species composition explained more than 90% of the variation in canopy reflectance as measured by imaging spectroscopy, indicating edaphic and compositional control of canopy chemical properties. We last found that soils explained between 30% and 70% of the variation in gap frequency in these forests, depending on the height threshold used to define gaps. Our findings indicate that a relatively small number of edaphic and compositional variables, corresponding to underlying geology, may be responsible for variations in canopy structure and chemistry over large expanses of Amazonian forest.

  2. Amazonian Buriti oil: chemical characterization and antioxidant potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Speranza, P.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Buriti oil is an example of an Amazonian palm oil of economic importance. The local population uses this oil for the prevention and treatment of different diseases; however, there are few studies in the literature that evaluate its properties. In this study, detailed chemical and antioxidant properties of Buriti oil were determined. The predominant fatty acid was oleic acid (65.6% and the main triacylglycerol classes were tri-unsaturated (50.0% and di-unsaturated-mono-saturated (39.3% triacylglycerols. The positional distribution of the classes of fatty acids on the triacylglycerol backbone indicated a saturated and unsaturated fatty acid relationship similar in the three-triacylglycerol positions. All tocopherol isomers were present, with a total content of 2364.1 mg·kg−1. α-tocopherol constitutes 48% of the total tocopherol content, followed by γ- tocopherol (45%. Total phenolic (107.0 mg gallic acid equivalent·g−1 oil and β-carotene (781.6 mg·kg−1 were particularly high in this oil. The highest antioxidant activity against the free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH was obtained at an oil concentration of 50 mg·mL−1 (73.15%. The antioxidant activity evaluated by the Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC was 95.3 μmol Trolox equivalent·g−1 oil. These results serve to present Buriti oil as an Amazonian resource for cosmetic, food and pharmaceuticals purposes.El aceite de Buriti es un ejemplo de aceite de palma amazónica de gran importancia económica. La población local utiliza este aceite para la prevención y el tratamiento de diferentes enfermedades; sin embargo, hay pocos estudios científicos que evalúen sus propiedades. En este estudio, se determinaron las propiedades antioxidantes del aceite de Buriti. El ácido graso predominante fue el oleico (65,6 % y las principales clases de triglicéridos fueron tri-insaturadas (50,0 % y Di-insaturados-mono-saturada (39,3 %. La distribución posicional de las

  3. ALTM system in Amazonian forest areas; Sistema ALTM em areas da Floresta Amazonica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sallem Filho, Silas; Bonatto, Amarildo [Esteio Engenharia e Aerolevantamentos S.A., Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Airborne Laser Scanning provides faster and more accurate Digital Elevation Model and Digital Terrain Model tasks compared to conventional photogrammetry. The system generates Laser pulses towards the terrain, perpendicular to the flight line, scanning the terrain surface and recording the distances from the sensor to the ground for each pulse. The main characteristics of the system is the measurement of the first and the last return for each pulse, allowing the objects identification that are above the ground as, for example, vegetation. With this capability it is possible the determination of volumes and biomass estimate, besides the virtual removal of vegetation covering. The Digital Terrain Models are used for Digital Ortho photos rectification and to obtain contour lines for topography maps. The correct points classification according the elevation, allows the representation of the terrain with larger amount of points than the stereo plotting, in areas densely vegetated where the operator esteems the height of the vegetable covering to interpret the terrain. Some additional products, as hypsometric images and intensity images helps in the identification of features on pipeline projects as well as the obtaining of the obstacles height. (author)

  4. Current knowledge on overall post-logging biomass dynamics in Northern Amazonian forests

    OpenAIRE

    Sist, Plinio; Blanc, Lilian; Mazzei, Lucas; Baraloto, Christopher; Aussenac, Raphael

    2012-01-01

    En este artículo se presentan los efectos de la explotación maderera sobre la diná- mica de la biomasa aérea gracias a los resultados del estudio de post-tala y aca- rreo en dos bosques: Cikel en el este de Pará en Brasil y Paracou en Guayana Francesa. El objetivo principal consistió en comparar el impacto de la tala comercial en la regeneración de la biomasa aérea en estos bosques cuyas características difie- ren en cuanto a la estructura y el creci- miento. En ambos lugares, la intensidad d...

  5. Functional trait differences influence neighbourhood interactions in a hyperdiverse Amazonian forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunel, Claire; Valencia, Renato; Wright, S Joseph; Garwood, Nancy C; Kraft, Nathan J B

    2016-09-01

    As distinct community assembly processes can produce similar community patterns, assessing the ecological mechanisms promoting coexistence in hyperdiverse rainforests remains a considerable challenge. We use spatially explicit neighbourhood models of tree growth to quantify how functional trait and phylogenetic similarities predict variation in growth and crowding effects for the 315 most abundant tree species in a 25-ha lowland rainforest plot in Ecuador. We find that functional trait differences reflect variation in (1) species maximum potential growth, (2) the intensity of interspecific interactions for some species, and (3) species sensitivity to neighbours. We find that neighbours influenced tree growth in 28% of the 315 focal tree species. Neighbourhood effects are not detected in the remaining 72%, which may reflect the low statistical power to model rare taxa and/or species insensitivity to neighbours. Our results highlight the spectrum of ways in which functional trait differences can shape community dynamics in highly diverse rainforests. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  6. The development of the Amazonian mega-wetland (Miocene; Brazil, Colombia, Peru, Bolivia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, C.; Wesselingh, F.P.; Hovikoski, J.; Guerrero, J.; Hoorn, C.; Wesselingh, F.P.

    2010-01-01

    The scenery of Western Amazonia once consisted of fluvial systems that originated on the Amazonian Craton and were directed towards the sub-Andean zone and the Caribbean. In the course of the Early Miocene these fluvial systems were largely replaced by lakes, swamps, tidal channels and marginal

  7. The Amazonian Craton and its influence on past fluvial systems (Mesozoic-Cenozoic, Amazonia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, C.; Roddaz, M.; Dino, R.; Soares, E.; Uba, C.; Ochoa-Lozano, D.; Mapes, R.; Hoorn, C.; Wesselingh, F.P.

    2010-01-01

    The Amazonian Craton is an old geological feature of Archaean/Proterozoic age that has determined the character of fluvial systems in Amazonia throughout most of its past. This situation radically changed during the Cenozoic, when uplift of the Andes reshaped the relief and drainage patterns of

  8. The role of Amazonian anthropogenic soils in shifting cultivation: learning from farmers’ rationales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braga Junqueira, A.; Almekinders, C.J.M.; Stomph, T.J.; Clement, C.R.; Struik, P.C.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated farmers’ rationales to understand their decision making in relation to the use of fertile anthropogenic soils, i.e., Amazonian dark earths (ADE), and for dealing with changes in shifting cultivation in Central Amazonia. We analyzed qualitative information from 196 interviews with

  9. A new Amazonian species from the Drosophila annulimana species group (Diptera, Drosophilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco S. Gottschalk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila caxiuana sp. nov., Drosophila subgenus, is described and illustrated. This new species was collected in the Amazonian Biome (Caquajó river, Portel, Pará, Brazil and is an atypical species to the group due the unusual morphology of the male terminalia.

  10. Amazonian-aged fluvial system and associated ice-related features in Terra Cimmeria, Mars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adeli, Solmaz; Hauber, Ernst; Kleinhans, Maarten; Le Deit, Laetitia; Platz, Thomas; Fawdon, Peter; Jaumann, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    The Martian climate throughout the Amazonian is widely believed to have been cold and hyper-arid, very similar to the current conditions. However, ubiquitous evidence of aqueous and glacial activity has been recently reported, including channels that can be tens to hundreds of kilometres long,

  11. Evolutionary patterns of range size, abundance and species richness in Amazonian angiosperm trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Dexter

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Amazonian tree species vary enormously in their total abundance and range size, while Amazonian tree genera vary greatly in species richness. The drivers of this variation are not well understood. Here, we construct a phylogenetic hypothesis that represents half of Amazonian tree genera in order to contribute to explaining the variation. We find several clear, broad-scale patterns. Firstly, there is significant phylogenetic signal for all three characteristics; closely related genera tend to have similar numbers of species and similar mean range size and abundance. Additionally, the species richness of genera shows a significant, negative relationship with the mean range size and abundance of their constituent species. Our results suggest that phylogenetically correlated intrinsic factors, namely traits of the genera themselves, shape among lineage variation in range size, abundance and species richness. We postulate that tree stature may be one particularly relevant trait. However, other traits may also be relevant, and our study reinforces the need for ambitious compilations of trait data for Amazonian trees. In the meantime, our study shows how large-scale phylogenies can help to elucidate, and contribute to explaining, macroecological and macroevolutionary patterns in hyperdiverse, yet poorly understood regions like the Amazon Basin.

  12. Urban Forest and Rural Cities: Multi-sited Households, Consumption Patterns, and Forest Resources in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Padoch

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In much of the Amazon Basin, approximately 70% of the population lives in urban areas and urbanward migration continues. Based on data collected over more than a decade in two long-settled regions of Amazonia, we find that rural-urban migration in the region is an extended and complex process. Like recent rural-urban migrants worldwide, Amazonian migrants, although they may be counted as urban residents, are often not absent from rural areas but remain members of multi-sited households and continue to participate in rural-urban networks and in rural land-use decisions. Our research indicates that, despite their general poverty, these migrants have affected urban markets for both food and construction materials. We present two cases: that of açaí palm fruit in the estuary of the Amazon and of cheap construction timbers in the Peruvian Amazon. We find that many new Amazonian rural-urban migrants have maintained some important rural patterns of both consumption and knowledge. Through their consumer behavior, they are affecting the areal extent of forests; in the two floodplain regions discussed, tree cover is increasing. We also find changes in forest composition, reflecting the persistence of rural consumption patterns in cities resulting in increased demand for and production of açaí and cheap timber species.

  13. National forest economic clusters: a new model for assessing national-forest-based natural resources products and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas D. Rojas

    2007-01-01

    National forest lands encompass numerous rural and urban communities. Some national-forest-based communities lie embedded within national forests, and others reside just outside the official boundaries of national forests. The urban and rural communities within or near national forest lands include a wide variety of historical traditions and cultural values that affect...

  14. The Impact of Amazonian Deforestation on Dry-Season Rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, Andrew J.; Adler, Robert F.; Xu, Li-Ming; Surratt, Jason; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Many modeling studies have concluded that widespread deforestation of Amazonia would lead to decreased rainfall. We analyze geosynchronous infrared satellite data with respect percent cloudiness, and analyze rain estimates from microwave sensors aboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite. We conclude that in the dry-season, when the effects of the surface are not overwhelmed by synoptic-scale weather disturbances, deep convective cloudiness, as well as rainfall occurrence, all increase over the deforested and non-forested (savanna) regions. This is in response to a local circulation initiated by the differential heating of the region's varying forestation. Analysis of the diurnal cycle of cloudiness reveals a shift toward afternoon hours in the deforested and savanna regions, compared to the forested regions. Analysis of 14 years of data from the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager data revealed that only in August did rainfall amounts increase over the deforested region.

  15. Road networks predict human influence on Amazonian bird communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sadia E; Lees, Alexander C; Moura, Nárgila G; Gardner, Toby A; Barlow, Jos; Ferreira, Joice; Ewers, Robert M

    2014-11-22

    Road building can lead to significant deleterious impacts on biodiversity, varying from direct road-kill mortality and direct habitat loss associated with road construction, to more subtle indirect impacts from edge effects and fragmentation. However, little work has been done to evaluate the specific effects of road networks and biodiversity loss beyond the more generalized effects of habitat loss. Here, we compared forest bird species richness and composition in the municipalities of Santarém and Belterra in Pará state, eastern Brazilian Amazon, with a road network metric called 'roadless volume (RV)' at the scale of small hydrological catchments (averaging 3721 ha). We found a significant positive relationship between RV and both forest bird richness and the average number of unique species (species represented by a single record) recorded at each site. Forest bird community composition was also significantly affected by RV. Moreover, there was no significant correlation between RV and forest cover, suggesting that road networks may impact biodiversity independently of changes in forest cover. However, variance partitioning analysis indicated that RV has partially independent and therefore additive effects, suggesting that RV and forest cover are best used in a complementary manner to investigate changes in biodiversity. Road impacts on avian species richness and composition independent of habitat loss may result from road-dependent habitat disturbance and fragmentation effects that are not captured by total percentage habitat cover, such as selective logging, fire, hunting, traffic disturbance, edge effects and road-induced fragmentation. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Urban Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Nowak

    2016-01-01

    Urban forests (and trees) constitute the second forest resource considered in this report. We specifically emphasize the fact that agricultural and urban forests exist on a continuum defined by their relationship (and interrelationship) with a given landscape. These two forest types generally serve different purposes, however. Whereas agricultural forests are...

  17. The Importance of Deep Roots and Hydraulic Redistribution to Amazonian Rainforest Resilience and Response to Hydro-Climatic Variability: A Simulation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewry, D.; Kumar, P.; Sivapalan, M.; Long, S.; Liang, X.

    2008-12-01

    Amazonian rain forests are a crucial component of the terrestrial biosphere, acting as a significant sink of anthropogenic carbon emissions, as well as playing a key role in driving tropical climate patterns through surface energy partitioning and significant precipitation recycling. Recent studies using remotely-sensed indices of canopy functioning (ie. canopy greeness, canopy water storage and photosynthetic capacity) have raised questions regarding the response of deep-rooted Amazonian vegetation functioning to short-term hydro-climatic forcing anomalies. Climate model predictions show an increase in ENSO-driven drought for eastern Amazonia in the coming decades. In this context, we utilize a multi-layer process-based model that represents the complex set of interactions and feedbacks between the canopy, soil and root subsystems to examine the impacts of drought on deep-rooted Amazonian rainforests. The model canopy is partitioned into several layers, allowing for resolution of the shortwave and longwave radiation regimes that drive photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and leaf energy balance in each layer, along with the canopy microclimate. The above-ground component of the model is coupled to a multi-layer soil-root model that computes soil moisture and heat transport, root water uptake, and the passive redistribution of moisture across soil potential gradients by the root system (ie. hydraulic redistribution). Carbon and nitrogen transformations in each layer of the soil system are modulated by microbial activity, and act to provide nutrient constraints on the photosynthetic capacity of the canopy. Model skill in capturing the seasonal and inter-annual variability in canopy-atmosphere exchange is evaluated through multi-year records of canopy- top eddy covariance CO2, water vapor and heat fluxes collected at a field site in eastern Amazonia. A nearby throughfall exclusion experiment provides information on the vertical distribution of soil moisture under

  18. Understanding moisture recycling for atmospheric river management in Amazonian communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Wei; Luedeke, Matthias; Zemp, Delphine-Clara; Lakes, Tobia; Pradhan, Prajal; Kropp, Juergen

    2017-04-01

    The invisible atmospheric transports of moisture have recently attracted more research efforts into understanding their structures, processes involved and their function as an ecosystem service. Current attention has been focused on larger scale analysis such as studying global or continental level moisture recycling. Here we applied a water balance model to backtrack the flying river that sustains two local communities in the Colombian and Peruvian Amazon where vulnerable communities rely highly on the rainfall for agricultural practices. By utilising global precipitation (TRMM Multisatillite Precipitation Analysis; TMPA) and evapotranspiration products (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer MODIS, MOD16ET) as input data in the present modelling experiments to compensate the sparse ground observation data in these regions, the moisture recycling process targeting the two amazonian communities which has not yet been explored quantitatively has been shown. The TMPA was selected because of its proved comparativeness with observation data in its precipitation estimations over Amazon regions while the MOD16ET data was chosen for being validated by previous studies in the Amazon basin and for reported good performance. In average, 45.5 % of the precipitation occurring to Caquetá region in Colombia is of terrestrial origin from the South American continent while 48.2% of the total rainfall received by Peruvian Yurimaguas is also from the South American land sources. The spatial distribution of the precipitationsheds (defined previously as the upwind contribution of evapotranspiration to a specific location's precipitation) shows transboundary and transnational shares in the moisture contributors of the precipitation for both regions. An interesting reversed upstream-downstream roles can be observed when the upstream regions in traditional watershed thinking become downstream areas considering precipitationsheds and flying rivers. Strong seasonal variations are

  19. Holocene Enviromental Changes in AN Amazonian Floodplain Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, L.; Moreira-Turcq, P. F.; Turcq, B.; Cordeiro, R. C.

    2011-12-01

    The floodplains lakes are built due to the fluctuations in the level of the rivers, which causes the formation of bars and accumulation of sediment carried by the rivers and its tributaries. Thus, significant quantities of organic matter can accumulate within these lakes that might represent important carbon sinks. The organic sedimentation process in the floodplains remains unknown as well as very little is known about past conditions in the Amazonian floodplains. Because these gaps, the aim of this work is to provide, through sedimentological, mineralogical and organic geochemical analysis of a 124-cm long core collected in Lago Comprido (eastern Amazonia), evidences of paleoenviromental changes during the Holocene. The core COM1 was analysed using radiocarbon dates, organic carbon concentration, C/N ratio, delta 13C and diatoms. The core points out different sedimentary environments that occurs in the last 9900 years cal BP. The record is divided into three phases: - phase III (124-94 cm, 9900 to 3200 cal years BP): this interval is characterized by delta 13C values typical of graminea, suggesting dry conditions with longer low water levels of the Amazon River. Supporting evidence for driest conditions during this period comes from low organic carbon values due to oxidation and absence of diatoms in the sediment. The carbon flux was very low, reaching an average of 0.9 g C/m2/year. - phase II (93-46 cm, 3200 to 940 years cal BP): increasing lake level beginning in this phase. The delta 13C values ranged between -25% and -29%, which are thought to represent terrestrial plants. This may indicate the presence of a flooded vegetation in this site. The freshwater planktonic diatoms Aulacoseira sp start to increase in this phase, additional evidence that the period of the annual high water stands was probably longer than before. Carbon flux increases, reaching an average of 5 g C/m2/year. - phase I (45-0cm, < 940 years cal BP): the delta 13C values and CN ratios did

  20. D Hydrodynamics Simulation of Amazonian Seasonally Flooded Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinel, S. S.; Bonnet, M. P.; Da Silva, J. S.; Cavalcanti, R., Sr.; Calmant, S.

    2016-12-01

    In the low Amazonian basin, interactions between floodplains and river channels are important in terms of water exchanges, sediments, or nutrients. These wetlands are considered as hotspot of biodiversity and are among the most productive in the world. However, they are threatened by climatic changes and anthropic activities. Hence, considering the implications for predicting inundation status of floodplain habitats, the strong interactions between water circulation, energy fluxes, biogeochemical and ecological processes, detailed analyses of flooding dynamics are useful and needed. Numerical inundation models offer means to study the interactions among different water sources. Modeling floods events in this area is challenging because flows respond to dynamic hydraulic controls coming from several water sources, complex geomorphology, and vegetation. In addition, due to the difficulty of access, there is a lack of existing hydrological data. In this context, the use of monitoring systems by remote sensing is a good option. In this study, we simulated filling and drainage processes of an Amazon floodplain (Janauacá Lake, AM, Brazil) over a 6 years period (2006-2012). Common approaches of flow modeling in the Amazon region consist of coupling a 1D simulation of the main channel flood wave to a 2D simulation of the inundation of the floodplain. Here, our approach differs as the floodplain is fully simulated. Model used is the 3D model IPH-ECO, which consists of a three-dimensional hydrodynamic module coupled with an ecosystem module. The IPH-ECO hydrodynamic module solves the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations using a semi-implicit discretization. After having calibrated the simulation against roughness coefficients, we validated the model in terms of vertical accuracy against water levels (daily in situ and altimetrics data), in terms of flood extent against inundation maps deduced from available remote-sensed product imagery (ALOS-1/PALSAR.), and in terms

  1. The significance of species segregation for Amazonian chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouwersloot, H.G.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Ganzeveld, L.N.; Krol, M.C.; Lelieveld, J.

    2010-01-01

    Tropical rain forest chemistry is driven by the exchange of biogenic compounds, dynamic processes like turbulent mixing and the diurnal variability of the atmospheric boundary layer. The segregation of species due to inefficient turbulent mixing has recently been recognized as a possible relevant

  2. Fates of trees damaged by logging in Amazonian Bolivia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shenkin, A.; Bolker, B.; Peña Claros, M.; Licona, J.C.; Putz, F.E.

    2015-01-01

    Estimation of carbon losses from trees felled and incidentally-killed during selective logging of tropical forests is relatively straightforward and well-documented, but less is known about the fates of collaterally-damaged trees that initially survive. Tree response to logging damage is an

  3. Control of dry season evapotranspiration over the Amazonian forest as inferred from observations at a southern Amazon forest site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Negrón Juárez, R.I.; Hodnett, M.G.; Fu, R.; Goulden, M.L.; Randow, von C.

    2007-01-01

    The extent to which soil water storage can support an average dry season evapotranspiration (ET) is investigated using observations from the Rebio Jarú site for the period of 2000 to 2002. During the dry season, when total rainfall is less than 100 mm, the soil moisture storage available to root

  4. Forest rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balooni, Kulbhushan; Lund, Jens Friis

    2014-01-01

    One of the proposed strategies for implementation of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation plus (REDD+) is to incentivize conservation of forests managed by communities under decentralized forest management. Yet, we argue that this is a challenging road to REDD+ because...... conservation of forests under existing decentralized management arrangements toward a push for extending the coverage of forests under decentralized management, making forest rights the hard currency of REDD+....

  5. Seasonal cycles of isoprene concentrations in the Amazonian rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trostdorf, C. R.; Gatti, L. V.; Yamazaki, A.; Potosnak, M. J.; Guenther, A.; Martins, W. C.; Munger, J. W.

    2004-03-01

    Tropical forests are an important global source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other atmospheric trace gases. The high biodiversity in tropical rainforests complicates the extrapolation of biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from leaf-level measurements to landscape and regional or global scales. In Amazónia, a significant fraction of the carbon emitted from the biosphere to the atmosphere is emitted in the form of BVOCs, and the knowledge of these emissions is important to our understanding of tropical and global atmospheric chemistry and carbon cycling. As part of the Large scale Biosphere-atmosphere experiment in Amazónia (LBA). VOC concentrations were measured at two sites near Santarém, Para State, Brazil. The two sites are located in the National Forest of Tapajós, the first corresponding to primary forest and the second to a forest, that was selectively logged. The samples were collected simultaneously at heights of 65 and 55 m (20 and 10 m above forest canopy, respectively). The average isoprene mixing ratio was 2.2-2.5 ppb at the two sites and the standard deviations within a site ranged from 1 to 1.2 ppb. A strong seasonality of isoprene mixing ratio was observed and associated with the wet and dry seasons. The lowest mixing ratios were found during the transition between the wet to dry season, while at the start of the biomass burning season the mixing ratios increase. A qualitative analysis of a one dimensional model demonstrates that the seasonal cycle in concentrations reflects changes in isoprene production by the ecosystem, not changes in boundary layer dynamics or chemistry. The magnitude of the cycle indicates that the physiological capacity of the ecosystem to emit isoprene may depend on water availability although phenological changes could also contribute to the observed variations. A simple 1-D model that assumes mean daytime isoprene fluxes of 1.5 mg m-2h-1 and 0.9 mg m-2h-1 scaled by an algorithm depending on

  6. Oligarchic forests of economic plants in amazonia: utilization and conservation of an important tropical resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, C M; Balick, M J; Kahn, F; Anderson, A B

    1989-12-01

    Tropical forests dominated by only one or two tree species occupy tens of millions of hectares in Ammonia In many cases, the dominant species produce fruits, seeds, or oils of economic importance. Oligarchic (Gr. oligo = few, archic = dominated or ruled by) forests of six economic species, i. e., Euterpe oleracea, Grias peruviana, Jessenia bataua, Mauritia flexuosa, Myrciaria dubia, and Orbignya phalerata, were studied in Brazil and Peru Natural populations of these species contain from 100 to 3,000 conspecific adult trees/ha and produce up to 11.1 metric tons of fruit/hd/yr. These plant populations are utilized and occasionally managed, by rural inhabitants in the region. Periodic fruit harvests, if properly controlled have only a minimal impact on forest structure and function, yet can generate substantial economic returns Market-oriented extraction of the fruits produced by oligarchic forests appears to represent a promising alternative for reconciling the development and conservation of Amazonian forests.

  7. History of natural resource use and environmental impacts in an interfluvial upland forest area in western Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Anders Siren

    2014-01-01

    Much of the research done on environmental impacts by Amazonian indigenous peoples in the past focus on certain areas where archaeological remains are particularly abundant, such as the Amazon River estuary, the seasonally inundated floodplain of the lower Amazon, and various sites in the forest-savannah mosaic of the southern Amazon The environmental history of interfluvial upland areas has received less attention. This study reconstructed the history of human use of natural resources in an ...

  8. Understory Bird Communities in Amazonian Rainforest Fragments: Species Turnover through 25 Years Post-Isolation in Recovering Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stouffer, Philip C.; Johnson, Erik I.; Bierregaard, Richard O.; Lovejoy, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    Inferences about species loss following habitat conversion are typically drawn from short-term surveys, which cannot reconstruct long-term temporal dynamics of extinction and colonization. A long-term view can be critical, however, to determine the stability of communities within fragments. Likewise, landscape dynamics must be considered, as second growth structure and overall forest cover contribute to processes in fragments. Here we examine bird communities in 11 Amazonian rainforest fragments of 1–100 ha, beginning before the fragments were isolated in the 1980s, and continuing through 2007. Using a method that accounts for imperfect detection, we estimated extinction and colonization based on standardized mist-net surveys within discreet time intervals (1–2 preisolation samples and 4–5 post-isolation samples). Between preisolation and 2007, all fragments lost species in an area-dependent fashion, with loss of as few as <10% of preisolation species from 100-ha fragments, but up to 70% in 1-ha fragments. Analysis of individual time intervals revealed that the 2007 result was not due to gradual species loss beginning at isolation; both extinction and colonization occurred in every time interval. In the last two samples, 2000 and 2007, extinction and colonization were approximately balanced. Further, 97 of 101 species netted before isolation were detected in at least one fragment in 2007. Although a small subset of species is extremely vulnerable to fragmentation, and predictably goes extinct in fragments, developing second growth in the matrix around fragments encourages recolonization in our landscapes. Species richness in these fragments now reflects local turnover, not long-term attrition of species. We expect that similar processes could be operating in other fragmented systems that show unexpectedly low extinction. PMID:21731616

  9. Understory bird communities in Amazonian rainforest fragments: species turnover through 25 years post-isolation in recovering landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip C Stouffer

    Full Text Available Inferences about species loss following habitat conversion are typically drawn from short-term surveys, which cannot reconstruct long-term temporal dynamics of extinction and colonization. A long-term view can be critical, however, to determine the stability of communities within fragments. Likewise, landscape dynamics must be considered, as second growth structure and overall forest cover contribute to processes in fragments. Here we examine bird communities in 11 Amazonian rainforest fragments of 1-100 ha, beginning before the fragments were isolated in the 1980s, and continuing through 2007. Using a method that accounts for imperfect detection, we estimated extinction and colonization based on standardized mist-net surveys within discreet time intervals (1-2 preisolation samples and 4-5 post-isolation samples. Between preisolation and 2007, all fragments lost species in an area-dependent fashion, with loss of as few as <10% of preisolation species from 100-ha fragments, but up to 70% in 1-ha fragments. Analysis of individual time intervals revealed that the 2007 result was not due to gradual species loss beginning at isolation; both extinction and colonization occurred in every time interval. In the last two samples, 2000 and 2007, extinction and colonization were approximately balanced. Further, 97 of 101 species netted before isolation were detected in at least one fragment in 2007. Although a small subset of species is extremely vulnerable to fragmentation, and predictably goes extinct in fragments, developing second growth in the matrix around fragments encourages recolonization in our landscapes. Species richness in these fragments now reflects local turnover, not long-term attrition of species. We expect that similar processes could be operating in other fragmented systems that show unexpectedly low extinction.

  10. Forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Michael C. Amacher

    2009-01-01

    Productive soils are the foundation of sustainable forests throughout the United States. Forest soils are generally subjected to fewer disturbances than agricultural soils, particularly those that are tilled, so forest soils tend to have better preserved A-horizons than agricultural soils. Another major contrast between forest and agricultural soils is the addition of...

  11. Forest hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Devendra Amatya; Steve McNulty

    2016-01-01

    Forest hydrology studies the distribution, storage, movement, and quality of water and the hydrological processes in forest-dominated ecosystems. Forest hydrological science is regarded as the foundation of modern integrated water¬shed management. This chapter provides an overview of the history of forest hydrology and basic principles of this unique branch of...

  12. Forest Interpreter's Primer on Fire Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelker, Thomas M.

    Specifically prepared for the use of Forest Service field-based interpreters of the management, protection, and use of forest and range resources and the associated human, cultural, and natural history found on these lands, this book is the second in a series of six primers on the multiple use of forest and range resources. Following an…

  13. Phenolic constituents and antioxidant activity of geopropolis from two species of amazonian stingless bees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Ellen Cristina Costa da; Muniz, Magno Perea; Nunomura, Rita de Cassia Saraiva, E-mail: ellensilva@yahoo.com.br [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Nunomura, Sergio Massayoshi [Departamento de Produtos Naturais, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Zilse, Gislene Almeida Carvalho [Departamento de Biodiversidade, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the phenolic constituents and antioxidant activity of geopropolis from two species of stingless Amazonian bees, Melipona interrupta and Melipona seminigra. The chemical investigation of geopropolis from Melipona interrupta led to the isolation of 5,7,4'-trihydroxyflavonone, 3,5,6,7,4'-pentahydroxyflavonol, naringenine-4'-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside and myricetin-3-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside. Their structures were assigned based on spectroscopic analyses, including two-dimensional NMR techniques. Antioxidant activity of methanol and ethanol extracts of M. interrupta and M. seminigra were measured using the 1,2-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. This is also the first work reporting the chemical investigation of stingless bee species from the Amazonian region. (author)

  14. Phenolic constituents and antioxidant activity of geopropolis from two species of amazonian stingless bees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Ellen Cristina Costa da; Muniz, Magno Perêa; Nunomura, Rita de Cássia Saraiva; Nunomura, Sergio Massayoshi; Zilse, Gislene Almeida Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the phenolic constituents and antioxidant activity of geopropolis from two species of stingless Amazonian bees, Melipona interrupta and Melipona seminigra. The chemical investigation of geopropolis from Melipona interrupta led to the isolation of 5,7,4’-trihydroxyflavonone, 3,5,6,7,4’-pentahydroxyflavonol, naringenine-4’-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and myricetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside. Their structures were assigned based on spectroscopic analyses, including two-dimensional NMR techniques. Antioxidant activity of methanol and ethanol extracts of M. interrupta and M. seminigra were measured using the 1,2-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. This is also the first work reporting the chemical investigation of stingless bee species from the Amazonian region. (author)

  15. Biodiversity, threats and conservation challenges in the Cerrado of Amapá, an Amazonian savanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Mustin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available An Amazonian savanna in northern Brazil known as the Cerrado of Amapá is under imminent threat from poor land-use planning, the expansion of large-scale agriculture and other anthropogenic pressures. These savannas house a rich and unique flora and fauna, including endemic plants and animals. However, the area remains under-sampled for most taxa, and better sampling may uncover new species. We estimate that only ~9.16% of these habitats have any kind of protection, and legislative changes threaten to further weaken or remove this protection. Here we present the status of knowledge concerning the biodiversity of the Cerrado of Amapá, its conservation status, and the main threats to the conservation of this Amazonian savanna. To secure the future of these unique and imperilled habitats, we suggest urgent expansion of protected areas, as well as measures that would promote less-damaging land uses to support the local population.

  16. Phenolic constituents and antioxidant activity of geopropolis from two species of amazonian stingless bees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Ellen Cristina Costa da; Muniz, Magno Perea; Nunomura, Rita de Cassia Saraiva, E-mail: ellensilva@yahoo.com.br [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Nunomura, Sergio Massayoshi [Departamento de Produtos Naturais, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Zilse, Gislene Almeida Carvalho [Departamento de Biodiversidade, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the phenolic constituents and antioxidant activity of geopropolis from two species of stingless Amazonian bees, Melipona interrupta and Melipona seminigra. The chemical investigation of geopropolis from Melipona interrupta led to the isolation of 5,7,4'-trihydroxyflavonone, 3,5,6,7,4'-pentahydroxyflavonol, naringenine-4'-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside and myricetin-3-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside. Their structures were assigned based on spectroscopic analyses, including two-dimensional NMR techniques. Antioxidant activity of methanol and ethanol extracts of M. interrupta and M. seminigra were measured using the 1,2-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. This is also the first work reporting the chemical investigation of stingless bee species from the Amazonian region. (author)

  17. Awakening the Biodiversity Potential trough ST&I Investments in the Sector of Amazonian Biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    e Souza Frickmann, Fabiana dos Santos; Guimarães Vasconcellos, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    The biotechnological development conciliated to Amazonian biodiversity represents a big potential for richness to Brazil. This study analyses the Brazilian investments in ST&I Amazonia's, utilizing as indicator for that, the resources applied in R&D and the patent appli;cations coming from Amazon, which were filed with the National Institute of Industrial Property during the period from 2003 to 2008. The objective is to analyze how where such investments applied by the Ministry of Science, Te...

  18. Soil science, development, and the "elusive nature" of Colombia's Amazonian plains

    OpenAIRE

    Lyons, KM

    2014-01-01

    Since 2000, the productive capacities and contested governance of Amazonian soils emerged as a matter of political concern in the U.S.-Colombia "War on Drugs." State soil scientists are enlisted to engender a classifiable entity whose definition makes it emerge from productivity: good soils are thickly productive, market-oriented, and an entity that can be improved after human action. A network of farmers in the department of Putumayo, however, engages in material practices where soils are le...

  19. The unpublished 1719 Report of Jacinto de Carvalho on Amazonian ethnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Porro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available After working for thirteen years at the Amazonian Jesuitic missions, the Portuguese Jacinto de Carvalho (1677-1744 sent to the Superior of his order a report on the country and on some of its native tribes' customs. This report, the main ethnographic source of early 18th Century Amazonia, is known only through a coeval Italian translation still unpublished. In this paper, the parts on ethnographic matters have been commented and translated to Portuguese.

  20. Conservation strategies for Arapaima gigas (Schinz, 1822) and the Amazonian várzea ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Hrbek,T.; Crossa,M.; Farias,IP.

    2007-01-01

    In the present study we report a spatial autocorrelation analysis of molecular data obtained for Arapaima gigas, and the implication of this study for conservation and management. Arapaima is an important, but critically over-exploited giant food fish of the Amazonian várzea. Analysis of 14 variable microsatellite loci and 2,347 bp of mtDNA from 126 individuals sampled in seven localities within the Amazon basin suggests that Arapaima forms a continuous population with extensive genetic excha...

  1. Genetic structure in the Amazonian catfish Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii : influence of life history strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Carvajal-Vallejos, F. M.; Duponchelle, Fabrice; Desmarais, E.; Cerqueira, F.; Quérouil, Sophie; Nunez Rodriguez, Jesus; Garcia, C.; Renno, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    The Dorado or Plateado (Gilded catfish) Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii (Pimelodidae, Siluriformes) is a commercially valuable migratory catfish performing the largest migration in freshwaters: from the Amazonian headwaters in the Andean foothills (breeding area) to the Amazon estuary (nursery area). In spite of its importance to inform management and conservation efforts, the genetic variability of this species has only recently begun to be studied. The aim of the present work was to determine ...

  2. Awakening the Biodiversity Potential Trough ST&I Investments in the Sector of Amazonian Biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana dos Santos e Souza Frickmann

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The biotechnological development conciliated to Amazonian biodiversity represents a big potential for richness to Brazil. This study analyses the Brazilian investments in ST&I Amazonia’s, utilizing as indicator for that, the resources applied in R&D and the patent appli;cations coming from Amazon, which were filed with the National Institute of Industrial Property during the period from 2003 to 2008. The objective is to analyze how where such investments applied by the Ministry of Science, Technology, and Innovation (MCTI, and which was their impact over the biotechnological inventions of Amazonian origin. In the results, we observed that R$ 1,308.09 million was invested in ST&I in Amazonia. The Amazonian state that attracted the larger part of such resources was Amazonas and 153 patent applications were identified coming from the state of Amazonas; out of which, 56% derived from companies of the Manaus Industrial Pole, and 9% originated from biomedical and alimentary sectors.

  3. Sunlight mediated seasonality in canopy structure and photosynthetic activity of Amazonian rainforests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi, Jian; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Choi, Sungho; Park, Taejin; Barichivich, Jonathan; Ciais, Philippe; Fu, Rong; Ganguly, Sangram; Hall, Forrest; Hilker, Thomas; Huete, Alfredo; Jones, Matthew; Kimball, John; Lyapustin, Alexei I; Mõttus, Matti; Nemani, Ramakrishna R; Piao, Shilong; Poulter, Benjamin; Saleska, Scott R

    2015-01-01

    Resolving the debate surrounding the nature and controls of seasonal variation in the structure and metabolism of Amazonian rainforests is critical to understanding their response to climate change. In situ studies have observed higher photosynthetic and evapotranspiration rates, increased litterfall and leaf flushing during the Sunlight-rich dry season. Satellite data also indicated higher greenness level, a proven surrogate of photosynthetic carbon fixation, and leaf area during the dry season relative to the wet season. Some recent reports suggest that rainforests display no seasonal variations and the previous results were satellite measurement artefacts. Therefore, here we re-examine several years of data from three sensors on two satellites under a range of sun positions and satellite measurement geometries and document robust evidence for a seasonal cycle in structure and greenness of wet equatorial Amazonian rainforests. This seasonal cycle is concordant with independent observations of solar radiation. We attribute alternative conclusions to an incomplete study of the seasonal cycle, i.e. the dry season only, and to prognostications based on a biased radiative transfer model. Consequently, evidence of dry season greening in geometry corrected satellite data was ignored and the absence of evidence for seasonal variation in lidar data due to noisy and saturated signals was misinterpreted as evidence of the absence of changes during the dry season. Our results, grounded in the physics of radiative transfer, buttress previous reports of dry season increases in leaf flushing, litterfall, photosynthesis and evapotranspiration in well-hydrated Amazonian rainforests. (letter)

  4. Scorpion envenoming in Morona Santiago, Amazonian Ecuador: Molecular phylogenetics confirms involvement of the Tityus obscurus group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, Juan P; García, Fernanda; Medina, Doris; Vásquez, Manolo; García, José; Graham, Matthew R; Romero-Alvarez, Daniel; Pardal, Pedro P de Oliveira; Ishikawa, Edna A Y; Borges, Adolfo

    2018-02-01

    Scorpion envenoming by species in the genus Tityus is hereby reported from rural locations in the Amazonian province of Morona Santiago, southeastern Ecuador. Twenty envenoming cases (18 patients under 15 years of age) including one death (a 4-year-old male) were recorded at the Macas General Hospital, Morona Santiago, between January 2015 and December 2016 from the counties of Taisha (n=17), Huamboyo (n=1), Palora (n=1), and Logroño (n=1). An additional fatality from 2014 (a 3-year-old female from Nayantza, Taisha county) is also reported. Leukocytosis and low serum potassium levels were detected in most patients. We observed a significant negative correlation between leukocytosis and hypokalemia. Scorpions involved in three accidents from Macuma, Taisha County, were identified as genetically related to Tityus obscurus from the Brazilian Amazonian region based on comparison of mitochondrial DNA sequences encoding cytochrome oxidase subunit I. These cases, along with previously reported envenoming from northern Manabí, reinforce the notion that scorpionism is a health hazard for children in Ecuador and emphasizes the need to supply effective antivenoms against local species, which are not currently available. The genetic affinity of the Ecuadorian specimens with T. obscurus may underlay toxinological, clinical, and venom antigenic relationships among Amazonian scorpions that deserves further exploration for designing therapeutic strategies to treat scorpionism in the region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Estimating the global conservation status of more than 15,000 Amazonian tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Steege, Hans; Pitman, Nigel C. A.; Killeen, Timothy J.; Laurance, William F.; Peres, Carlos A.; Guevara, Juan Ernesto; Salomão, Rafael P.; Castilho, Carolina V.; Amaral, Iêda Leão; de Almeida Matos, Francisca Dionízia; de Souza Coelho, Luiz; Magnusson, William E.; Phillips, Oliver L.; de Andrade Lima Filho, Diogenes; de Jesus Veiga Carim, Marcelo; Irume, Mariana Victória; Martins, Maria Pires; Molino, Jean-François; Sabatier, Daniel; Wittmann, Florian; López, Dairon Cárdenas; da Silva Guimarães, José Renan; Mendoza, Abel Monteagudo; Vargas, Percy Núñez; Manzatto, Angelo Gilberto; Reis, Neidiane Farias Costa; Terborgh, John; Casula, Katia Regina; Montero, Juan Carlos; Feldpausch, Ted R.; Honorio Coronado, Euridice N.; Montoya, Alvaro Javier Duque; Zartman, Charles Eugene; Mostacedo, Bonifacio; Vasquez, Rodolfo; Assis, Rafael L.; Medeiros, Marcelo Brilhante; Simon, Marcelo Fragomeni; Andrade, Ana; Camargo, José Luís; Laurance, Susan G. W.; Nascimento, Henrique Eduardo Mendonça; Marimon, Beatriz S.; Marimon, Ben-Hur; Costa, Flávia; Targhetta, Natalia; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; Brienen, Roel; Castellanos, Hernán; Duivenvoorden, Joost F.; Mogollón, Hugo F.; Piedade, Maria Teresa Fernandez; Aymard C., Gerardo A.; Comiskey, James A.; Damasco, Gabriel; Dávila, Nállarett; García-Villacorta, Roosevelt; Diaz, Pablo Roberto Stevenson; Vincentini, Alberto; Emilio, Thaise; Levis, Carolina; Schietti, Juliana; Souza, Priscila; Alonso, Alfonso; Dallmeier, Francisco; Ferreira, Leandro Valle; Neill, David; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro; Arroyo, Luzmila; Carvalho, Fernanda Antunes; Souza, Fernanda Coelho; do Amaral, Dário Dantas; Gribel, Rogerio; Luize, Bruno Garcia; Pansonato, Marcelo Petrati; Venticinque, Eduardo; Fine, Paul; Toledo, Marisol; Baraloto, Chris; Cerón, Carlos; Engel, Julien; Henkel, Terry W.; Jimenez, Eliana M.; Maas, Paul; Mora, Maria Cristina Peñuela; Petronelli, Pascal; Revilla, Juan David Cardenas; Silveira, Marcos; Stropp, Juliana; Thomas-Caesar, Raquel; Baker, Tim R.; Daly, Doug; Paredes, Marcos Ríos; da Silva, Naara Ferreira; Fuentes, Alfredo; Jørgensen, Peter Møller; Schöngart, Jochen; Silman, Miles R.; Arboleda, Nicolás Castaño; Cintra, Bruno Barçante Ladvocat; Valverde, Fernando Cornejo; Di Fiore, Anthony; Phillips, Juan Fernando; van Andel, Tinde R.; von Hildebrand, Patricio; Barbosa, Edelcilio Marques; de Matos Bonates, Luiz Carlos; de Castro, Deborah; de Sousa Farias, Emanuelle; Gonzales, Therany; Guillaumet, Jean-Louis; Hoffman, Bruce; Malhi, Yadvinder; de Andrade Miranda, Ires Paula; Prieto, Adriana; Rudas, Agustín; Ruschell, Ademir R.; Silva, Natalino; Vela, César I. A.; Vos, Vincent A.; Zent, Eglée L.; Zent, Stanford; Cano, Angela; Nascimento, Marcelo Trindade; Oliveira, Alexandre A.; Ramirez-Angulo, Hirma; Ramos, José Ferreira; Sierra, Rodrigo; Tirado, Milton; Medina, Maria Natalia Umaña; van der Heijden, Geertje; Torre, Emilio Vilanova; Vriesendorp, Corine; Wang, Ophelia; Young, Kenneth R.; Baider, Claudia; Balslev, Henrik; de Castro, Natalia; Farfan-Rios, William; Ferreira, Cid; Mendoza, Casimiro; Mesones, Italo; Torres-Lezama, Armando; Giraldo, Ligia Estela Urrego; Villarroel, Daniel; Zagt, Roderick; Alexiades, Miguel N.; Garcia-Cabrera, Karina; Hernandez, Lionel; Huamantupa-Chuquimaco, Isau; Milliken, William; Cuenca, Walter Palacios; Pansini, Susamar; Pauletto, Daniela; Arevalo, Freddy Ramirez; Sampaio, Adeilza Felipe; Valderrama Sandoval, Elvis H.; Gamarra, Luis Valenzuela

    2015-01-01

    Estimates of extinction risk for Amazonian plant and animal species are rare and not often incorporated into land-use policy and conservation planning. We overlay spatial distribution models with historical and projected deforestation to show that at least 36% and up to 57% of all Amazonian tree species are likely to qualify as globally threatened under International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List criteria. If confirmed, these results would increase the number of threatened plant species on Earth by 22%. We show that the trends observed in Amazonia apply to trees throughout the tropics, and we predict that most of the world’s >40,000 tropical tree species now qualify as globally threatened. A gap analysis suggests that existing Amazonian protected areas and indigenous territories will protect viable populations of most threatened species if these areas suffer no further degradation, highlighting the key roles that protected areas, indigenous peoples, and improved governance can play in preventing large-scale extinctions in the tropics in this century. PMID:26702442

  6. Forest pathology in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, D.E.

    2003-01-01

    Native Hawaiian forests are characterised by a high degree of endemism, including pathogens as well as their hosts. With the exceptions of koa (Acacia koa Gray), possibly maile (Alyxia oliviformis Gaud.), and, in the past, sandalwood (Santalum spp.), forest species are of little commercial value. On the other hand, these forests are immensely important from a cultural, ecological, and evolutionary standpoint. Forest disease research was lacking during the mid-twentieth century, but increased markedly with the recognition of ohia (Metrosideros polymorpha Gaud.) decline in the 1970s. Because many pathogens are themselves endemic, or are assumed to be, having evolved with their hosts, research emphasis in natural areas is on understanding host-parasite interactions and evolutionary influences, rather than disease control. Aside from management of native forests, attempts at establishing a commercial forest industry have included importation of several species of pine, Araucaria, and Eucalyptus as timber crops, and of numerous ornamentals. Diseases of these species have been introduced with their hosts. The attacking of native species by introduced pathogens is problematic - for example, Armillaria mellea (Vahl ex Fr.) Que??l. on koa and mamane (Sophora chrysophylla (Salisb.) Seem.). Much work remains to be done in both native and commercial aspects of Hawaiian forest pathology.

  7. Biogeography of squirrel monkeys (genus Saimiri): South-central Amazon origin and rapid pan-Amazonian diversification of a lowland primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch Alfaro, Jessica W; Boubli, Jean P; Paim, Fernanda P; Ribas, Camila C; Silva, Maria Nazareth F da; Messias, Mariluce R; Röhe, Fabio; Mercês, Michelle P; Silva Júnior, José S; Silva, Claudia R; Pinho, Gabriela M; Koshkarian, Gohar; Nguyen, Mai T T; Harada, Maria L; Rabelo, Rafael M; Queiroz, Helder L; Alfaro, Michael E; Farias, Izeni P

    2015-01-01

    The squirrel monkey, Saimiri, is a pan-Amazonian Pleistocene radiation. We use statistical phylogeographic methods to create a mitochondrial DNA-based timetree for 118 squirrel monkey samples across 68 localities spanning all Amazonian centers of endemism, with the aim of better understanding (1) the effects of rivers as barriers to dispersal and distribution; (2) the area of origin for modern Saimiri; (3) whether ancestral Saimiri was a lowland lake-affiliated or an upland forest taxa; and (4) the effects of Pleistocene climate fluctuation on speciation. We also use our topology to help resolve current controversies in Saimiri taxonomy and species relationships. The Rondônia and Inambari centers in the southern Amazon were recovered as the most likely areas of origin for Saimiri. The Amazon River proved a strong barrier to dispersal, and squirrel monkey expansion and diversification was rapid, with all speciation events estimated to occur between 1.4 and 0.6Ma, predating the last three glacial maxima and eliminating climate extremes as the main driver of squirrel monkey speciation. Saimiri expansion was concentrated first in central and western Amazonia, which according to the "Young Amazon" hypothesis was just becoming available as floodplain habitat with the draining of the Amazon Lake. Squirrel monkeys also expanded and diversified east, both north and south of the Amazon, coincident with the formation of new rivers. This evolutionary history is most consistent with a Young Amazon Flooded Forest Taxa model, suggesting Saimiri has always maintained a lowland wetlands niche and was able to greatly expand its range with the transition from a lacustrine to a riverine system in Amazonia. Saimiri vanzolinii was recovered as the sister group to one clade of Saimiri ustus, discordant with the traditional Gothic vs. Roman morphological division of squirrel monkeys. We also found paraphyly within each of the currently recognized species: S. sciureus, S. ustus, and S

  8. Long and short term changes in the forests of the Cumberland Plateau and Mountains using large scale forest inventory data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher M. Oswalt; Andrew J. Hartsell

    2012-01-01

    The Cumberland Plateau and Mountains (CPM) are a significant component of the eastern deciduous forest with biological and cultural resources strongly connected to and dependent upon the forest resources of the region. As a result, continuous inventory and monitoring is critical. The USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program has been collecting...

  9. Energetic planning in isolated Amazonian communities using geographical information system; Planejamento energetico em regioes isoladas da Amazonia utilizando sistemas de informacoes geograficas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Arthur [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia Eletrica; Rocha, Brigida R.P.; Monteiro, Jose H.A.; Gaspar, Gabriella C.M. [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica e de Computacao; Aarao Junior, Raimundo N.N. [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2004-07-01

    This paper proposes a system of electric planning in isolated Amazonian communities. For those communities, we propose the use of decentralized systems of electric energy with biomass as fuel. We also propose a computer system of electric planning with geographical information systems for its facilities of integrating geographical information, so useful in an Amazonian context. (author)

  10. Energetic characterization of Amazonian biomass; Caracterizacao energetica de biomassas amazonicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feitosa Netto, Genesio Batista; Oliveira, Antonio Geraldo de Paula; Coutinho, Hebert Willian Martins; Nogueira, Manoel Fernandes Martins; Rendeiro, Goncalo [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2006-07-01

    In order to asses the potentiality of Amazon biomasses to generate power, either to supply electric energy to the grid or as fuel to plants supplying power for off-grid location, data for their proximate analysis must be available. A literature review on the subject indicated a lack of information and data concerning typical Amazon rain forest species. This work aimed to characterize (proximate analysis) 43 Amazon species in order to evaluate the energy resource from woody biomass wastes in Amazon region. Higher heating value, carbon, volatile and ash contents were measured in a dry basis. The measurements were performed obeying the following Brazilian standards, NBR 6923, NBR 8112, NBR 8633, NBR 6922. (author)

  11. Forest Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Forest biomass is an abundant biomass feedstock that complements the conventional forest use of wood for paper and wood materials. It may be utilized for bioenergy production, such as heat and electricity, as well as for biofuels and a variety of bioproducts, such as industrial chemicals, textiles, and other renewable materials. The resources within the 2016 Billion-Ton Report include primary forest resources, which are taken directly from timberland-only forests, removed from the land, and taken to the roadside.

  12. Biome-Scale Forest Properties in Amazonia Based on Field and Satellite Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana O. Anderson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Amazonian forests are extremely heterogeneous at different spatial scales. This review intends to present the large-scale patterns of the ecosystem properties of Amazonia, and focuses on two parts of the main components of the net primary production: the long-lived carbon pools (wood and short-lived pools (leaves. First, the focus is on forest biophysical properties, and secondly, on the macro-scale leaf phenological patterns of these forests, looking at field measurements and bringing into discussion the recent findings derived from remote sensing dataset. Finally, I discuss the results of the three major droughts that hit Amazonia in the last 15 years. The panorama that emerges from this review suggests that slow growing forests in central and eastern Amazonia, where soils are poorer, have significantly higher above ground biomass and higher wood density, trees are higher and present lower proportions of large-leaved species than stands in northwest and southwest Amazonia. However, the opposite pattern is observed in relation to forest productivity and dynamism, which is higher in western Amazonia than in central and eastern forests. The spatial patterns on leaf phenology across Amazonia are less marked. Field data from different forest formations showed that new leaf production can be unrelated to climate seasonality, timed with radiation, timed with rainfall and/or river levels. Oppositely, satellite images exhibited a large-scale synchronized peak in new leaf production during the dry season. Satellite data and field measurements bring contrasting results for the 2005 drought. Discussions on data processing and filtering, aerosols effects and a combined analysis with field and satellite images are presented. It is suggested that to improve the understanding of the large-scale patterns on Amazonian forests, integrative analyses that combine new technologies in remote sensing and long-term field ecological data are imperative.

  13. A successful case of biological invasion: the fish Cichla piquiti, an Amazonian species introduced into the Pantanal, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EK. Resende

    Full Text Available The "tucunaré", Cichla piquiti, an exotic Amazonian fish has become established along the left bank of the Paraguay River in the Pantanal. It was introduced by escaping from culture ponds in the Upper Piquiri River and spread downstream, along the lateral flooded areas of that river, continuing through the clear waters of the left bank of the Paraguay River and reaching south as far as the Paraguai Mirim and Negrinho rivers. Adult spawners have been found in the region, meaning that it is a self-sustained population. Reproduction occurs in the period of low waters. They were found feeding on fishes of lentic environments belonging to the families Characidae, Cichlidae and Loricariidae. Until the end of 2004, its distribution was restricted to the left bank of the Paraguay River, but in March 2005, some specimens were found on the right bank, raising a question for the future: what will be the distribution area of the tucunaré in the Pantanal? Information about its dispersion is increasing: it is known to be in the Tuiuiú Lake, Pantanal National Park and in the Bolivian Pantanal, all of them on the right bank of the Paraguay River. The hypothesis that the "tucunaré" could not cross turbid waters, such as in the Paraguay River, was refuted by these recent findings. Possibly, the tucunaré's capacity to lay more than one batch of eggs in a reproductive period, as well as its care of eggs and young, lead them to establish themselves successfully in new environments, as has been observed in the Pantanal and other localities.

  14. Revisiting Amazonian Plants for Skin Care and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Burlando

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This review concerns five species of trees and palm trees that occur as dominant plants in different rainforest areas of the Amazon region. Due to their abundance, these species can be exploited as sustainable sources of botanical materials and include Carapa guianensis Aubl., family Meliaceae; Eperua falcata Aubl., family Fabaceae; Quassia amara L., family Simaroubaceae; and Attalea speciosa Mart. and Oenocarpus bataua Mart., family Arecaceae. For each species, the general features, major constituents, overall medicinal properties, detailed dermatological and skin care applications, and possible harmful effects have been considered. The major products include seed oils from A. speciosa and C. guianensis, fruit oil from O. bataua, and active compounds such as limonoids from C. guianensis, flavonoids from E. falcata, and quassinoids from Q. amara. The dermatologic and cosmetic applications of these plants are growing rapidly but are still widely based on empiric knowledge. Applications include skin rehydration and soothing; anti-inflammatory, antiage, and antiparasite effects; hair care; burn and wound healing; and the amelioration of rosacea and psoriasis conditions. Despite a limited knowledge about their constituents and properties, these species appear as promising sources of bioactive compounds for skin care and health applications. An improvement of knowledge about their properties will provide added value to the exploitation of these forest resources.

  15. Anthropogenic disturbance in tropical forests can double biodiversity loss from deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Jos; Lennox, Gareth D; Ferreira, Joice; Berenguer, Erika; Lees, Alexander C; Mac Nally, Ralph; Thomson, James R; Ferraz, Silvio Frosini de Barros; Louzada, Julio; Oliveira, Victor Hugo Fonseca; Parry, Luke; Solar, Ricardo Ribeiro de Castro; Vieira, Ima C G; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Begotti, Rodrigo Anzolin; Braga, Rodrigo F; Cardoso, Thiago Moreira; de Oliveira, Raimundo Cosme; Souza, Carlos M; Moura, Nárgila G; Nunes, Sâmia Serra; Siqueira, João Victor; Pardini, Renata; Silveira, Juliana M; Vaz-de-Mello, Fernando Z; Veiga, Ruan Carlo Stulpen; Venturieri, Adriano; Gardner, Toby A

    2016-07-07

    Concerted political attention has focused on reducing deforestation, and this remains the cornerstone of most biodiversity conservation strategies. However, maintaining forest cover may not reduce anthropogenic forest disturbances, which are rarely considered in conservation programmes. These disturbances occur both within forests, including selective logging and wildfires, and at the landscape level, through edge, area and isolation effects. Until now, the combined effect of anthropogenic disturbance on the conservation value of remnant primary forests has remained unknown, making it impossible to assess the relative importance of forest disturbance and forest loss. Here we address these knowledge gaps using a large data set of plants, birds and dung beetles (1,538, 460 and 156 species, respectively) sampled in 36 catchments in the Brazilian state of Pará. Catchments retaining more than 69–80% forest cover lost more conservation value from disturbance than from forest loss. For example, a 20% loss of primary forest, the maximum level of deforestation allowed on Amazonian properties under Brazil’s Forest Code, resulted in a 39–54% loss of conservation value: 96–171% more than expected without considering disturbance effects. We extrapolated the disturbance-mediated loss of conservation value throughout Pará, which covers 25% of the Brazilian Amazon. Although disturbed forests retained considerable conservation value compared with deforested areas, the toll of disturbance outside Pará’s strictly protected areas is equivalent to the loss of 92,000–139,000 km2 of primary forest. Even this lowest estimate is greater than the area deforested across the entire Brazilian Amazon between 2006 and 2015 (ref. 10). Species distribution models showed that both landscape and within-forest disturbances contributed to biodiversity loss, with the greatest negative effects on species of high conservation and functional value. These results demonstrate an urgent need

  16. Mercury in fish from the Madeira River and health risk to Amazonian and riverine populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, José Maria; Gomes, José M; Anjos, Marcelo R; Silveira, Josianne N; Custódio, Flavia B; Gloria, M Beatriz A

    2018-07-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify total mercury in highly popular Amazonian fish pacu, curimatã, jaraqui, and sardinha from the Madeira River and to estimate the exposure to methylmercury from fish consumption. The samples were obtained from two locations - Puruzinho Igarapé and Santa Rosa - near Humaitá, Amazonia, Brazil in two seasons of 2015 (high and low waters). The fish were identified, weighed and measured, and lipids were quantified. Total mercury was determined by gold amalgamation-atomic absorption spectrometry. Mean levels were used to calculate exposure of Amazonian and riverine populations. There was significant correlation (p < 0.05) between length × weight for all fish; length × lipid and weight × lipid were significant only for pacu. Total mercury levels varied along muscle tissue for the fish, except for sardinha; therefore muscle from the dorsal area along the fish were sampled, homogenized and used for analysis. The levels of total mercury varied from 0.01 to 0.46 mg/kg, with higher median levels in sardinha (0.24 mg/kg), followed by curimatã (0.16 mg/kg), jaraqui (0.13 mg/kg) and pacu (0.04 mg/kg), corresponding with the respective feeding habits along the trophic chain. Total mercury levels were not affected by the location of fish capture and by high and low waters seasons. Total mercury correlated significantly with length and weight for jaraqui and with length for sardinha (negative correlation). Total mercury levels in fish complied with legislation; however, exposures to methylmercury from fish consumption overpassed the safe intake reference dose for sardinha for Amazonians; however, for the riverine communities, all of the fish would cause potential health risk, mainly for children and women of childbearing age. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Physical growth of the shuar: Height, Weight, and BMI references for an indigenous amazonian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urlacher, Samuel S; Blackwell, Aaron D; Liebert, Melissa A; Madimenos, Felicia C; Cepon-Robins, Tara J; Gildner, Theresa E; Snodgrass, J Josh; Sugiyama, Lawrence S

    2016-01-01

    Information concerning physical growth among small-scale populations remains limited, yet such data are critical to local health efforts and to foster basic understandings of human life history and variation in childhood development. Using a large dataset and robust modeling methods, this study aims to describe growth from birth to adulthood among the indigenous Shuar of Amazonian Ecuador. Mixed-longitudinal measures of height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) were collected from Shuar participants (n = 2,463; age: 0-29 years). Centile growth curves and tables were created for each anthropometric variable of interest using Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale, and Shape (GAMLSS). Pseudo-velocity and Lambda-Mu-Sigma curves were generated to further investigate Shuar patterns of growth and to facilitate comparison with United States Center for Disease Control and Prevention and multinational World Health Organization growth references. The Shuar are small throughout life and exhibit complex patterns of growth that differ substantially from those of international references. Similar to other Amazonians, Shuar growth in weight compares more favorably to references than growth in height, resulting in BMI curves that approximate international medians. Several additional characteristics of Shuar development are noteworthy, including large observed variation in body size early in life, significant infant growth faltering, extended male growth into adulthood, and a markedly early female pubertal growth spurt in height. Phenotypic plasticity and genetic selection in response to local environmental factors may explain many of these patterns. Providing a detailed reference of growth for the Shuar and other Amazonian populations, this study possesses direct clinical application and affords valuable insight into childhood health and the ecology of human growth. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Seed and Germination Characteristics of 20 Amazonian Liana Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareike Roeder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lianas are an important component of tropical forests, and may reach their highest densities in disturbed areas. However, information on seed and germination characteristics is scarce. Twenty Amazon liana species were screened for their germination characteristics, including light dependence, tolerance of desiccation and of alternating temperatures; these characteristics are considered important for the germination success in areas with relatively open canopies. Between 31–1,420 seeds per species were available, as 15 species seeds came from one mother plant. We studied seed biometry and conducted germination trials with fresh seeds (12 h light daily, or dark and desiccated seeds at 25 °C. Germination at alternating temperatures (20/30 °C, 15/35 °C was analyzed for nine species. Of the 20 species, eight species with the largest seeds had desiccation sensitive seeds; this is the first record for species of four genera and one family, where only desiccation tolerant seeds are otherwise recorded. Light-dependent germination was found in three species (0.01–0.015 g and is the first record for two; however, results were based on seeds from one plant per species. Alternating temperatures of 15/35 °C decreased final germination of four out of nine species, and response to 20/30 °C cycles varied compared to constant 25 °C. Seed and germination characteristics of the species ranged from pioneer to climax traits indicating that establishment of lianas from seeds may be confined to species specific niches.

  19. Deforestation and Carbon Stock Loss in Brazil's Amazonian Settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Aurora Miho; Nogueira, Euler Melo; de Alencastro Graça, Paulo Maurício Lima; Fearnside, Philip Martin

    2017-03-01

    We estimate deforestation and the carbon stock in 2740 (82 %) of the 3325 settlements in Brazil's Legal Amazonia region. Estimates are made both using available satellite data and a carbon map for the "pre-modern" period (prior to 1970). We used data from Brazil's Project for Monitoring Deforestation in Amazonia updated through 2013 and from the Brazilian Biomes Deforestation Monitoring Project (PMDBBS) updated through 2010. To obtain the pre-modern and recent carbon stocks we performed an intersection between a carbon map and a map derived from settlement boundaries and deforestation data. Although the settlements analyzed occupied only 8 % of Legal Amazonia, our results indicate that these settlements contributed 17 % (160,410 km 2 ) of total clearing (forest + non-forest) in Legal Amazonia (967,003 km 2 ). This represents a clear-cutting of 41 % of the original vegetation in the settlements. Out of this total, 72 % (115,634 km 2 ) was in the "Federal Settlement Project" (PA) category. Deforestation in settlements represents 20 % (2.6 Pg C) of the total carbon loss in Legal Amazonia (13.1 Pg C). The carbon stock in remaining vegetation represents 3.8 Pg C, or 6 % of the total remaining carbon stock in Legal Amazonia (58.6 Pg C) in the periods analyzed. The carbon reductions in settlements are caused both by the settlers and by external actors. Our findings suggest that agrarian reform policies contributed directly to carbon loss. Thus, the implementation of new settlements should consider potential carbon stock losses, especially if settlements are created in areas with high carbon stocks.

  20. Ecomorphological correlates of twenty dominant fish species of Amazonian floodplain lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. K. Siqueira-Souza

    Full Text Available Abstract Fishes inhabiting Amazonian floodplain lakes exhibits a great variety of body shape, which was a key advantage to colonize the several habitats that compose these areas adjacent to the large Amazon rivers. In this paper, we did an ecomorphological analysis of twenty abundant species, sampled in May and August 2011, into two floodplain lakes of the lower stretch of the Solimões River. The analysis detected differences among species, which could be probably associated with swimming ability and habitat use preferences.

  1. Natural infection of Lutzomyia tortura with Leishmania (Viannia) naiffi in an Amazonian area of Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hirotomo; Gomez, Eduardo A; Yamamoto, Yu-ichi; Calvopiña, Manuel; Guevara, Angel G; Marco, Jorge D; Barroso, Paola A; Iwata, Hiroyuki; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2008-09-01

    Natural infection of sand flies with Leishmania parasites was surveyed in an Amazonian area in Ecuador where leishmaniasis is endemic. Seventy-one female sand flies were dissected and one was positive for Leishmania protozoa. The species of this sand fly was identified as Lutzomyia (Lu.) tortura on the basis of morphologic characteristics. Analysis of the cytochrome b gene sequence identified the parasite as L. (Viannia) naiffi. We report the distribution of L. (V.) naiffi in Ecuador and detection of a naturally infected sand fly in the Ecuadorian Amazon and natural infection of Lu. tortura with Leishmania parasites in the New World.

  2. Sulfur and lead isotope characteristics of the Pontes e Lacerda gold deposits, SW Amazonian Craton Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraldes, M.C.; Tassinari, C.C.G.; Babinski; M; Iyer, S

    2001-01-01

    This work deals with the characterization of the S and Pb isotope signatures in sulfides from the Pontes e Lacerda mesothermal gold deposits located in the SW sector of Amazonian craton. Stable and radiogenic isotopes have played an important role in the study of ore deposited and hydrothermal processes and they are most useful when can be used together. The purpose of this study is to constrain the sources and the mechanisms of gold deposition in Pontes e Lacerda region which may be a helpful contribution to an exploratory model in the area (au)

  3. Self-amplified Amazon forest loss due to vegetation-atmosphere feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemp, Delphine Clara; Schleussner, Carl-Friedrich; Barbosa, Henrique M. J.; Hirota, Marina; Montade, Vincent; Sampaio, Gilvan; Staal, Arie; Wang-Erlandsson, Lan; Rammig, Anja

    2017-03-01

    Reduced rainfall increases the risk of forest dieback, while in return forest loss might intensify regional droughts. The consequences of this vegetation-atmosphere feedback for the stability of the Amazon forest are still unclear. Here we show that the risk of self-amplified Amazon forest loss increases nonlinearly with dry-season intensification. We apply a novel complex-network approach, in which Amazon forest patches are linked by observation-based atmospheric water fluxes. Our results suggest that the risk of self-amplified forest loss is reduced with increasing heterogeneity in the response of forest patches to reduced rainfall. Under dry-season Amazonian rainfall reductions, comparable to Last Glacial Maximum conditions, additional forest loss due to self-amplified effects occurs in 10-13% of the Amazon basin. Although our findings do not indicate that the projected rainfall changes for the end of the twenty-first century will lead to complete Amazon dieback, they suggest that frequent extreme drought events have the potential to destabilize large parts of the Amazon forest.

  4. Malaria in Brazil: what happens outside the Amazonian endemic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pina-Costa, Anielle; Brasil, Patrícia; Di Santi, Sílvia Maria; de Araujo, Mariana Pereira; Suárez-Mutis, Martha Cecilia; Santelli, Ana Carolina Faria e Silva; Oliveira-Ferreira, Joseli; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Daniel-Ribeiro, Cláudio Tadeu

    2014-08-01

    Brazil, a country of continental proportions, presents three profiles of malaria transmission. The first and most important numerically, occurs inside the Amazon. The Amazon accounts for approximately 60% of the nation's territory and approximately 13% of the Brazilian population. This region hosts 99.5% of the nation's malaria cases, which are predominantly caused by Plasmodium vivax (i.e., 82% of cases in 2013). The second involves imported malaria, which corresponds to malaria cases acquired outside the region where the individuals live or the diagnosis was made. These cases are imported from endemic regions of Brazil (i.e., the Amazon) or from other countries in South and Central America, Africa and Asia. Imported malaria comprised 89% of the cases found outside the area of active transmission in Brazil in 2013. These cases highlight an important question with respect to both therapeutic and epidemiological issues because patients, especially those with falciparum malaria, arriving in a region where the health professionals may not have experience with the clinical manifestations of malaria and its diagnosis could suffer dramatic consequences associated with a potential delay in treatment. Additionally, because the Anopheles vectors exist in most of the country, even a single case of malaria, if not diagnosed and treated immediately, may result in introduced cases, causing outbreaks and even introducing or reintroducing the disease to a non-endemic, receptive region. Cases introduced outside the Amazon usually occur in areas in which malaria was formerly endemic and are transmitted by competent vectors belonging to the subgenus Nyssorhynchus (i.e., Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles aquasalis and species of the Albitarsis complex). The third type of transmission accounts for only 0.05% of all cases and is caused by autochthonous malaria in the Atlantic Forest, located primarily along the southeastern Atlantic Coast. They are caused by parasites that seem to be (or

  5. Malaria in Brazil: what happens outside the Amazonian endemic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anielle de Pina-Costa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Brazil, a country of continental proportions, presents three profiles of malaria transmission. The first and most important numerically, occurs inside the Amazon. The Amazon accounts for approximately 60% of the nation’s territory and approximately 13% of the Brazilian population. This region hosts 99.5% of the nation’s malaria cases, which are predominantly caused by Plasmodium vivax (i.e., 82% of cases in 2013. The second involves imported malaria, which corresponds to malaria cases acquired outside the region where the individuals live or the diagnosis was made. These cases are imported from endemic regions of Brazil (i.e., the Amazon or from other countries in South and Central America, Africa and Asia. Imported malaria comprised 89% of the cases found outside the area of active transmission in Brazil in 2013. These cases highlight an important question with respect to both therapeutic and epidemiological issues because patients, especially those with falciparum malaria, arriving in a region where the health professionals may not have experience with the clinical manifestations of malaria and its diagnosis could suffer dramatic consequences associated with a potential delay in treatment. Additionally, because the Anopheles vectors exist in most of the country, even a single case of malaria, if not diagnosed and treated immediately, may result in introduced cases, causing outbreaks and even introducing or reintroducing the disease to a non-endemic, receptive region. Cases introduced outside the Amazon usually occur in areas in which malaria was formerly endemic and are transmitted by competent vectors belonging to the subgenus Nyssorhynchus (i.e., Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles aquasalis and species of the Albitarsis complex. The third type of transmission accounts for only 0.05% of all cases and is caused by autochthonous malaria in the Atlantic Forest, located primarily along the southeastern Atlantic Coast. They are caused by parasites

  6. Late Quaternary sedimentary dynamics in Western Amazonia: Implications for the origin of open vegetation/forest contrasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, D. F.; Bertani, T. C.; Zani, H.; Cremon, E. H.; Hayakawa, E. H.

    2012-12-01

    This work investigated the evolution of sedimentary environments during the latest Quaternary and their influence on the paradoxical occurrence of open vegetation patches in sharp contact with the Amazonian forest. The approach integrated pre-existing geological and floristic data from lowlands in the Brazilian Amazonia, with remote sensing imagery including multispectral optical images (TM, ETM+, and ASTER), Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR), InSAR C-band SRTM-DEMs, and high resolution images obtained from Google Earth™. The detection of an abundance of paleomorphologies provided evidence of a scenario in which constant environmental shifts were linked to the evolution of fluvial and megafan depositional systems. In all studied areas, the open vegetation patches are not random, but associated with sedimentary deposits representative of environments either deactivated during the Holocene or presently in the process of deactivation. Sedimentary evolution would have determined the distribution of wetlands and terra firme in many areas of the Amazonian lowlands, and would have a major impact on the development of open vegetated patches within the modern rainforest. Subsiding areas were filled up with megafan deposits, and many fluvial tributaries were rearranged on the landscape. The close relationship between vegetation and the physical environment suggests that sedimentary history related to the evolution of depositional settings during the latest Quaternary played a major role in the distribution of flooded and non-flooded areas of the Amazonian lowlands, with a direct impact on the distribution of modern floristic patterns. As the depositional sites were abandoned and their sedimentary deposits were exposed to the surface, they became sites suitable for vegetation growth, first of herbaceous species and then of forest. Although climate fluctuations might have been involved, fault reactivation appears to have been the main cause of changes in

  7. Molecular Study of the Amazonian Macabea Cattle History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Julio; Landi, Vincenzo; Martínez, Amparo; Gómez, Mayra; Camacho, María Esperanza; Álvarez, Luz Ángela; Aguirre, Lenin; Delgado, Juan Vicente

    2016-01-01

    Macabea cattle are the only Bos taurus breed that have adapted to the wet tropical conditions of the Amazon. This breed has integrated into the culture of the indigenous Shuar-Asuar nations probably since its origins, being one of the few European zoogenetic resources assimilated by the deep-jungle Amazon communities. Despite its potential for local endogenous sustainable development, this breed is currently endangered. The present study used molecular genetics tools to investigate the within- and between-breeds diversity, in order to characterize the breed population, define its associations with other breeds, and infer its origin and evolution. The within-breed genetic diversity showed high values, as indicated by all genetic parameters, such as the mean number of alleles (MNA = 7.25±2.03), the observed heterozygosity (Ho = 0.72±0.02) and the expected heterozygosity (He = 0.72±0.02). The between-breeds diversity analysis, which included factorial correspondence analysis, Reynolds genetic distance, neighbor-joining analysis, and genetic structure analysis, showed that the Macabea breed belongs to the group of the American Creoles, with a Southern-Spain origin. Our outcomes demonstrated that the Macabea breed has a high level of purity and null influences of exotic cosmopolitan breeds with European or Asiatic origin. This breed is an important zoogenetic resource of Ecuador, with relevant and unique attributes; therefore, there is an urgent need to develop conservation strategies for the Macabea breed.

  8. Enzymes of energy metabolism in hatchlings of amazonian freshwater turtles (Testudines, Podocnemididae

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    WP. Duncan

    Full Text Available The metabolic profiles of selected tissues were analyzed in hatchlings of the Amazonian freshwater turtles Podocnemis expansa, P. unifilis and P. sextuberculata. Metabolic design in these species was judged based on the key enzymes of energy metabolism, with special emphasis on carbohydrate, lipid, amino acid and ketone body metabolism. All species showed a high glycolytic potential in all sampled tissues. Based on low levels of hexokinase, glycogen may be an important fuel for these species. The high lactate dehydrogenase activity in the liver may play a significant role in carbohydrate catabolism, possibly during diving. Oxidative metabolism in P. sextuberculata appears to be designed for the use of lipids, amino acids and ketone bodies. The maximal activities of 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, glutamine dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase and succinyl-CoA keto transferase display high aerobic potential, especially in muscle and liver tissues of this species. Although amino acids and ketone bodies may be important fuels for oxidative metabolism, carbohydrates and lipids are the major fuels used by P. expansa and P. unifilis. Our results are consistent with the food habits and lifestyle of Amazonian freshwater turtles. The metabolic design, based on enzyme activities, suggests that hatchlings of P. unifilis and P. expansa are predominately herbivorous, whereas P. sextuberculata rely on a mixed diet of animal matter and vegetation.

  9. Amazonian Amphibian Diversity Is Primarily Derived from Late Miocene Andean Lineages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Juan C; Coloma, Luis A; Summers, Kyle; Caldwell, Janalee P; Ree, Richard; Cannatella, David C

    2009-01-01

    The Neotropics contains half of remaining rainforests and Earth's largest reservoir of amphibian biodiversity. However, determinants of Neotropical biodiversity (i.e., vicariance, dispersals, extinctions, and radiations) earlier than the Quaternary are largely unstudied. Using a novel method of ancestral area reconstruction and relaxed Bayesian clock analyses, we reconstructed the biogeography of the poison frog clade (Dendrobatidae). We rejected an Amazonian center-of-origin in favor of a complex connectivity model expanding over the Neotropics. We inferred 14 dispersals into and 18 out of Amazonia to adjacent regions; the Andes were the major source of dispersals into Amazonia. We found three episodes of lineage dispersal with two interleaved periods of vicariant events between South and Central America. During the late Miocene, Amazonian, and Central American-Chocoan lineages significantly increased their diversity compared to the Andean and Guianan-Venezuelan-Brazilian Shield counterparts. Significant percentage of dendrobatid diversity in Amazonia and Chocó resulted from repeated immigrations, with radiations at Venezuelan Highlands, and Guiana Shield have undergone extended in situ diversification at near constant rate since the Oligocene. The effects of Miocene paleogeographic events on Neotropical diversification dynamics provided the framework under which Quaternary patterns of endemism evolved. PMID:19278298

  10. Seasonal variation of serum biochemical values of Amazonian snakes (Boa constrictor constrictor kept in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis José da Silva Lima

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In northern Brazil, the seasons are not well defined compared to the South and Southeast regions, due to a hot and humid equatorial climate with a rainy season, known as the Amazonian winter, and a period with less rain, known as the Amazonian summer. The goal of this study was to evaluate the biochemical variation of serum from the Amazon Boa constrictor by correlating the values with the seasons of the region. A biochemical analysis of the serum was performed (AST, ALT, LDH, ALP, calcium, uric acid, phosphorus, total protein, albumin and globulin using 31 individuals of Boa constrictor constrictor, which were kept in captivity. It was observed that eight of the ten parameters were higher in the winter compared to the summer (total protein, albumin, globulin, ALT, AST, ALP, LDH and calcium. The ALT, AST and calcium values had statistically significant differences for the summer and winter, while the other parameters appear to be influenced by seasonality. This was the first study of snakes kept in captivity that analyzed the serum chemistry profile of Boa constrictor constrictor from the state of Pará, Brazil.

  11. Hydrological pulse regulating the bacterial heterotrophic metabolism between Amazonian mainstems and floodplain lakes

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    Luciana Oliveira Vidal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated in situ rates of bacterial carbon processing in Amazonian floodplain lakes and mainstems, during both high and low water phases (p < 0.05. Our results showed that Bacterial Production (BP was lower and more variable than Bacterial Respiration (BR, determined as total respiration. Bacterial Carbon Demand (BCD was mostly accounted by BR and presented the same pattern that BR in both water phases. Bacterial growth efficiency showed a wide range (0.2–23% and low mean value of 3 and 6 %, (in high and low water respectively suggesting that dissolved organic carbon (DOC was mostly allocated to catabolic metabolism. However, BGE was regulated by BP in low water phase. Consequently, changes in BGE showed the same pattern that BP. In addition, the hydrological pulse effects on mainstems and floodplains lakes connectivity were found for BP and BGE in low water. Multiple correlation analyses revealed that indexes of organic matter quality (chlorophyll-a, N stable isotopes and C/N ratios were the strongest seasonal drivers of bacterial carbon metabolism. Our work indicated that: (1 the bacterial metabolism was mostly driven by respiration in Amazonian aquatic ecosystems resulting in low BGE in either high and low water phase; (2 the hydrological pulse regulated

  12. Heterogeneous effects of market integration on sub-adult body size and nutritional status among the Shuar of Amazonian Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urlacher, Samuel S; Liebert, Melissa A; Josh Snodgrass, J; Blackwell, Aaron D; Cepon-Robins, Tara J; Gildner, Theresa E; Madimenos, Felicia C; Amir, Dorsa; Bribiescas, Richard G; Sugiyama, Lawrence S

    2016-07-01

    Market integration (MI)-increasing production for and consumption from a market-based economy-is drastically altering traditional ways of life and environmental conditions among indigenous Amazonian peoples. The effects of MI on the biology and health of Amazonian children and adolescents, however, remain unclear. This study examines the impact of MI on sub-adult body size and nutritional status at the population, regional and household levels among the Shuar of Amazonian Ecuador. Anthropometric data were collected between 2005-2014 from 2164 Shuar (aged 2-19 years) living in two geographic regions differing in general degree of MI. High-resolution household economic, lifestyle and dietary data were collected from a sub-sample of 631 participants. Analyses were performed to investigate relationships between body size and year of data collection, region and specific aspects of household MI. Results from temporal and regional analyses suggest that MI has a significant and overall positive impact on Shuar body size and nutritional status. However, household-level results exhibit nuanced and heterogeneous specific effects of MI underlying these overarching relationships. This study provides novel insight into the complex socio-ecological pathways linking MI, physical growth and health among the Shuar and other indigenous Amazonian populations.

  13. Heterogeneous effects of market integration on subadult body size and nutritional status among the Shuar of Amazonian Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urlacher, Samuel S.; Liebert, Melissa A.; Snodgrass, J. Josh; Blackwell, Aaron D.; Cepon-Robins, Tara J.; Gildner, Theresa E.; Madimenos, Felicia C.; Amir, Dorsa; Bribiescas, Richard G.; Sugiyama, Lawrence S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Market integration (MI) – increasing production for and consumption from a market-based economy – is drastically altering traditional ways of life and environmental conditions among indigenous Amazonian peoples. The effects of MI on the biology and health of Amazonian children and adolescents, however, remain unclear. Aim This study examines the impact of MI on subadult body size and nutritional status at the population, regional, and household levels among the Shuar of Amazonian Ecuador. Subjects and Methods Anthropometric data were collected between 2005 and 2014 from 2,164 Shuar (age 2-19 years) living in two geographic regions differing in general degree of MI. High-resolution household economic, lifestyle, and dietary data were collected from a subsample of 631 participants. Analyses were performed to investigate relationships between body size and year of data collection, region, and specific aspects of household MI. Results Results from temporal and regional analyses suggest that MI has a significant and overall positive impact on Shuar body size and nutritional status. However, household-level results exhibit nuanced and heterogeneous specific effects of MI underlying these overarching relationships. Conclusion This study provides novel insight into the complex socio-ecological pathways linking MI, physical growth, and health among the Shuar and other indigenous Amazonian populations. PMID:27230632

  14. The role of fertile anthropogenic soils in the conservation of native and exotic agrobiodiversity in Amazonian homegardens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souza, de Nathalia B.; Junqueira, André Braga; Struik, Paul C.; Stomph, Tjeerdjan; Clement, Charles R.

    2017-01-01

    Amazonian dark earths (ADE) are anthropogenic soils mostly created between 500 and 2500 years ago by pre-Columbian populations. ADE are currently used by local people for different agricultural and agroforestry systems. Because of their high fertility they may play an important role in the

  15. A New Infrared Desert Dust Index over French Guyana Rain forest: First results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinie, J.; Barnacin, E.; Henry, J. L.; Gobinddass, M. L.; Panechou-Pulcherie, K.; Feuillard, T.; Nagau, J.

    2017-12-01

    Recently a NASA researcher showed the role of desert dust contribution for the Amazonian rain forest. In another hand, desert dust impact population health when PM 10 level reached values around and upper the PM 10 threshold of the 50 µg m-3, established by the World Health Organization (WHO). Infrared Desert Dust Index (IDDI) developed by Legrand with Meteosat infrared images, allow the following of desert dust plumes over semi-arid land. In French Guiana the WHO threshold is currently overpass in measurements done by ORA air quality network, in the two main towns located close to the coast. For inland population, it is very difficult to have continuous dust measures due to the low infrastructure supplies. We need to develop a tools in order to follow the crossing of desert dust over the French Guyana rain forest, from the coast to inland villages. Following the IDDI concept and comparing with VIIRS AOT EDR result over the same area, a modified IDDI for Amazonian region (IDDI_A) has been proposed to identify the dusty pixels over the forest. Despite of high cloud presence, a good correlation between AOT EDR and IDDI_A was obtained. The IDDI_A calculation has been applied over French Guiana area for different PM 10 level at Cayenne, a town along the coast.

  16. Lessons from a Community-Based Program to Monitor Forest Vertebrates in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchimol, Maíra; von Mühlen, Eduardo M.; Venticinque, Eduardo M.

    2017-09-01

    A large number of sustainable use reserves recently have been titled in the Brazilian Amazonia. These reserves require public participation in the design and implementation of management and monitoring programs. Species-monitoring programs that engage local stakeholders may be useful for assessing wildlife status over the long term. We collaborated on the development of a participatory program to monitor forest vertebrates in the Piagaçu-Purus Sustainable Development Reserve and to build capacity among the local people. We examined relations between the distance to the nearest human community and sighting rates of each species, and evaluated the program overall. Eighteen wildlife monitors received training in line transect and sign surveys and then conducted surveys along a total of ten transects. Sighting rates of most species in the Piagaçu-Purus Sustainable Development Reserve were higher than those reported in other Amazonian forests. Distance to the human community was not associated with the overall vertebrate sighting rate. Use of the trained monitors was successful in terms of data acquisition and engagement. The involvement of local people promoted discussions about regulation of hunting in the reserve. Implementation of community-based programs to monitor forest wildlife in Amazonian sustainable use reserves may empower local communities and assess the status of wildlife through time.

  17. REDD and PINC: A new policy framework to fund tropical forests as global 'eco-utilities'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivedi, M R; Mitchell, A W; Mardas, N; Parker, C; Watson, J E; Nobre, A D

    2009-01-01

    Tropical forests are 'eco-utilities' providing critical ecosystem services that underpin food, energy, water and climate security at local to global scales. Currently, these services are unrecognised and unrewarded in international policy and financial frameworks, causing forests to be worth more dead than alive. Much attention is currently focused on REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation) and A/R (Afforestation and Reforestation) as mitigation options. In this article we propose an additional mechanism - PINC (Proactive Investment in Natural Capital) - that recognises and rewards the value of ecosystem services provided by standing tropical forests, especially from a climate change adaptation perspective. Using Amazonian forests as a case study we show that PINC could improve the wellbeing of rural and forest-dependent populations, enabling them to cope with the impacts associated with climate change and deforestation. By investing pro-actively in areas where deforestation pressures are currently low, the long-term costs of mitigation and adaptation will be reduced. We suggest a number of ways in which funds could be raised through emerging financial mechanisms to provide positive incentives to maintain standing forests. To develop PINC, a new research and capacity-building agenda is needed that explores the interdependence between communities, the forest eco-utility and the wider economy.

  18. REDD and PINC: A new policy framework to fund tropical forests as global 'eco-utilities'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, M. R.; Mitchell, A. W.; Mardas, N.; Parker, C.; Watson, J. E.; Nobre, A. D.

    2009-11-01

    Tropical forests are 'eco-utilities' providing critical ecosystem services that underpin food, energy, water and climate security at local to global scales. Currently, these services are unrecognised and unrewarded in international policy and financial frameworks, causing forests to be worth more dead than alive. Much attention is currently focused on REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation) and A/R (Afforestation and Reforestation) as mitigation options. In this article we propose an additional mechanism - PINC (Proactive Investment in Natural Capital) - that recognises and rewards the value of ecosystem services provided by standing tropical forests, especially from a climate change adaptation perspective. Using Amazonian forests as a case study we show that PINC could improve the wellbeing of rural and forest-dependent populations, enabling them to cope with the impacts associated with climate change and deforestation. By investing pro-actively in areas where deforestation pressures are currently low, the long-term costs of mitigation and adaptation will be reduced. We suggest a number of ways in which funds could be raised through emerging financial mechanisms to provide positive incentives to maintain standing forests. To develop PINC, a new research and capacity-building agenda is needed that explores the interdependence between communities, the forest eco-utility and the wider economy.

  19. Texas' forests, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    James W. Bentley; Consuelo Brandeis; Jason A. Cooper; Christopher M. Oswalt; Sonja N. Oswalt; KaDonna Randolph

    2014-01-01

    This bulletin describes forest resources of the State of Texas at the time of the 2008 forest inventory. This bulletin addresses forest area, volume, growth, removals, mortality, forest health, timber product output, and the economy of the forest sector.

  20. Forest resources of the Lincoln National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    John D. Shaw

    2006-01-01

    The Interior West Forest Inventory and Analysis (IWFIA) program of the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, as part of its national Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) duties, conducted forest resource inventories of the Southwestern Region (Region 3) National Forests. This report presents highlights of the Lincoln National Forest 1997 inventory...

  1. Gender Bias Affects Forests Worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlène Elias

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Gender biases persist in forestry research and practice. These biases result in reduced scientific rigor and inequitable, ineffective, and less efficient policies, programs, and interventions. Drawing from a two-volume collection of current and classic analyses on gender in forests, we outline five persistent and inter-related themes: gendered governance, tree tenure, forest spaces, division of labor, and ecological knowledge. Each emerges across geographic regions in the northern and southern hemisphere and reflects inequities in women’s and men’s ability to make decisions about and benefit from trees, forests, and their products. Women’s ability to participate in community-based forest governance is typically less than men’s, causing concern for social equity and forest stewardship. Women’s access to trees and their products is commonly more limited than men’s, and mediated by their relationship with their male counterparts. Spatial patterns of forest use reflect gender norms and taboos, and men’s greater access to transportation. The division of labor results in gender specialization in the collection of forest products, with variations in gender roles across regions. All these gender differences result in ecological knowledge that is distinct but also complementary and shifting across the genders. The ways gender plays out in relation to each theme may vary across cultures and contexts, but the influence of gender, which intersects with other factors of social differentiation in shaping forest landscapes, is global.

  2. Social and cultural factors behind community resistance during an Ebola outbreak in a village of the Guinean Forest region, February 2015: a field experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrión Martín, A I; Derrough, T; Honomou, P; Kolie, N; Diallo, B; Koné, M; Rodier, G; Kpoghomou, C; Jansà, J M

    2016-05-01

    During the Ebola outbreak in Guinea, community resistance obstructed case investigation and response. We investigated a cluster of Ebola cases that were hiding in the forest, refusing external help, to identify sociocultural determinants related to community resistance. Participant observation, interviews and focus group discussions were carried out. Most villagers feared the Ebola treatment centre (ETC) as there was the belief that people were killed in ETCs for organ trade. Four survivors accompanied back to the village from the ETC shared their experiences and reassured their neighbours. Subsequently, community compliance with contact tracing improved, leading to the timely detection of cases. Engaging Ebola virus disease survivors improved community compliance. Understanding the sociocultural context and community perceptions may improve community engagement and prevent Ebola virus transmission. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Nontimber forest product opportunities in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Pilz; Susan J. Alexander; Jerry Smith; Robert Schroeder; Jim. Freed

    2006-01-01

    Nontimber forest products from southern Alaska (also called special forest products) have been used for millennia as resources vital to the livelihoods and culture of Alaska Natives and, more recently, as subsistence resources for the welfare of all citizens. Many of these products are now being sold, and Alaskans seek additional income opportunities through...

  4. EFFECT OF FALLOW LAND, CULTIVATED PASTURE AND ABANDONED PASTURE ON SOIL FERTILITY IN TWO DEFORESTED AMAZONIAN REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A DIEZ

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of two practices adopted by settlers (abandoned pasture and fallow land on soil fertility of two deforested Amazonian regions (Belém-Pará and Ariquemes-Rondônia was studied. Whenever possible, cultivated pasture, over similar time periods in both cases and in natural forest, were employed as soil fertility reference standards. Nutrient dynamics was studied using the electroultra-filtration technique. In general, deforestation, as practiced in these areas, has a degrading effect on soil fertility. The effect of burning normally leads to a pH rise caused by ash. This usually yields a favorable transitory effect, improving soil fertility conditions, however not sufficient for plant needs, as inferred from the low P and K levels. Cattle excrements, improved the K level for cultivated pastures. Qualitative differences related to N were observed between cultivated pasture and both, fallow land or abandoned pasture. In the first, a certain recovery of available N levels was detected, mainly affecting the EUF-Norg fraction. On the other hand, a regeneration of organic compounds, in the fallow land and the abandoned pasture, closely related to those existing in the natural forest, was verified. This is mainly due to the presence of a higher proportion of NO3-_N and, consequently, a EUF-Norg/EUF-NO3- ratio close to 1.Comparou-se o efeito de duas práticas de manejo, ou seja, o abandono da pastagem e o pousio, sobre a fertilidade do solo de duas regiões desmatadas da Amazônia (Belém-Pará e Ariquemes-Rondônia. Quando possível, pastagens cultivadas por períodos semelhantes e florestas nativas foram usadas como padrões da fertilidade do solo. A dinâmica dos nutrientes foi estuda pela técnica da eletroultrafiltração (EUF. De um modo geral, o desmatamento, como praticado nessas regiões, tem efeito degradador sobre a fertilidade do solo. A queima da biomassa vegetal normalmente leva a um aumento do pH causado pelas cinzas, resultando

  5. Misalignment of Lava Flows from Topographic Slope Directions Reveals Late Amazonian Deformation at Arsia Mons, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, B. A.; Chadwick, J.; McGovern, P. J., Jr.; Tucker, W.

    2017-12-01

    Arsia Mons is the southernmost of the three large Tharsis Montes near the equator of Mars and one of the largest volcanoes in the solar system. The main edifice of Arsia is about 440 km in diameter, the summit is over 9 km above the surrounding plains and has a pronounced 110 km caldera. Like the other Tharsis volcanoes, Arsia has a large, Late Amazonian glacial deposit on its NW flank. Previous crater retention studies for lava flows on Arsia have shown that the volcano experienced significant volcanic activity in the past 200 Ma. In this study, numerous long (>25 km), thin lava flows on the plains surrounding Arsia were mapped and used as indicators of the topographic slope direction at the time of their emplacement. The azimuthal orientation of each flow was compared with the present-day slope directions on the surrounding plains, derived from Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) topographic data. The results reveal regions around Arsia where the flows no longer conform to the topography, indicating deformation in the time since the flows where emplaced. In a region of Daedalia Planum to the SE of Arsia, modern slope directions adjacent to 40 long lava flows are consistently misaligned from the paleo-slopes indicated by the lava flow orientations, with an angular offset that averages 7.2° in the clockwise direction. Crater size-frequency measurements for these tilted plains using CraterStats software indicate that the deformation responsible for the misaligned flows took place since 330 ± 10 Ma. Conversely, part of Daedalia Planum to the southwest of Arsia is younger, with a crater retention age of 160 ± 6 Ma, and this area shows no consistent flow-topography misalignments. These observations suggest that extensive regional deformation occurred between the two dates, consistent with other evidence for significant volcanism at Arsia in the Late Amazonian at about 200 Ma. Geophysical modelling using the finite element program COMSOL Multiphysics is planned to

  6. Urban and architectural risk factors for malaria in indigenous Amazonian settlements in Brazil: a typological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leandro-Reguillo, Patricia; Thomson-Luque, Richard; Monteiro, Wuelton M; de Lacerda, Marcus V G

    2015-07-22

    In the Amazon, m alaria is highly endemic in indigenous populations, which are often considered one of the last barriers to malaria elimination due to geographic isolation. Although the improvement of housing conditions is a good strategy towards the control and prevention of vector-borne diseases, such as malaria, this preventive practice has been barely undertaken in Latin America. An analysis of the architectural and urban features of indigenous Amazonian populations is essential to define and adapt these vector control measures. A total of 32 villages of 29 different ethnicities were studied and mapped by reviewing literature and visual information, and using a geographic information system. The most important architectural and urban characteristics influencing malaria were analysed according to the following categories: number of households and dimensions, supporting area, openings, materials, lifespan and location. Housing typologies found were classified within each of these variables. The results of this typological analysis included an easy-to-handle working template and revealing of features that benefit or hamper the presence of malaria vectors in Amerindians communities. Among risk factors, presence of open eaves, permeable walls, open-side constructions, large number of sleepers indoors, temporary-ephemeral houses, linear villages along stream banks, houseboats villages, poor urban drainage and villages surrounded by anthropogenic environments were highlighted. Indigenous settlements very permissive for anophelines were identified in ethnic groups, such as the Yanomami, Palikur, Paumari, Waimiri-Atroari and Wajãpi. Positive features were also recognized, including opaque and closed houses, large radial villages on bare soil, highly elevated stilted houses and the fire indoors, found among the Yawalapiti, Ashaninka, and Gavião-Parkatejê tribes. However, as Amazonian indigenous settlement typologies vary greatly even among villages of the same ethnic

  7. Chondroprotective effects of a proanthocyanidin rich Amazonian genonutrient reflects direct inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases and upregulation of IGF-1 production by human chondrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Kalpana

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Amazonian medicinal plant Sangre de grado (Croton palanostigma has traditional applications for the treatment of wound healing and inflammation. We sought to characterize two extracts (progrado and zangrado in terms of safety and oligomeric proanthocyanidin chain length. Additionally progrado was evaluated for antioxidant activity and possible chondroprotective actions. Methods Acute oral safety and toxicity was tested in rats according under OECD protocol number 420. The profile of proanthocyanidin oligomers was determined by HPLC and progrado's antioxidant activity quantified by the ORAC, NORAC and HORAC assays. Human cartilage explants, obtained from surgical specimens, were used to assess chondroproteciton with activity related to direct inhibitory effects on human matrix metalloproteinase (MMP, gelatinolytic activity using synovial fluid and chondrocytes activated with IL-1β (10 ng/ml. Additionally, progrado (2–10 μg/ml was tested for its ability to maintain optimal IGF-1 transcription and translation in cartilage explants and cultured chondrocytes. Results Both progrado and zangrado at doses up to 2000 mg/kg (po displayed no evidence of toxicity. Oligomeric proanthocyanidin content was high for both progrado (158 mg/kg and zangrado (124 mg/kg, with zangrado almost entirely composed of short oligomers ( Conclusion Progrado has a promising safety profile, significant chondroprotective and antioxidant actions, directly inhibits MMP activity and promotes the production of the cartilage repair factor, IGF-1. This suggests that progrado may offer therapeutic benefits in joint health, wound healing and inflammation.

  8. Abrupt increases in Amazonian tree mortality due to drought–fire interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Brando, Paulo Monteiro; Balch, Jennifer K.; Nepstad, Daniel C.; Morton, Douglas C.; Putz, Francis E.; Coe, Michael T.; Silvério, Divino; Macedo, Marcia N.; Davidson, Eric A.; Nóbrega, Caroline C.; Alencar, Ane; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change alone is unlikely to drive severe tropical forest degradation in the next few decades, but an alternative process associated with severe weather and forest fires is already operating in southeastern Amazonia. Recent droughts caused greatly elevated fire-induced tree mortality in a fire experiment and widespread regional forest fires that burned 5–12% of southeastern Amazon forests. These results suggest that feedbacks between fires and extreme climatic conditions could increase...

  9. Carbon emissions from deforestation and forest fragmentation in the Brazilian Amazon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numata, Izaya; Cochrane, Mark A; Souza, Carlos M Jr; Sales, Marcio H

    2011-01-01

    Forest-fragmentation-related edge effects are one of the major causes of forest degradation in Amazonia and their spatio-temporal dynamics are highly influenced by annual deforestation patterns. Rapid biomass collapse due to edge effects in forest fragments has been reported in the Brazilian Amazon; however the collective impacts of this process on Amazonian carbon fluxes are poorly understood. We estimated biomass loss and carbon emissions from deforestation and forest fragmentation related to edge effects on the basis of the INPE (Brazilian National Space Research Institute) PRODES deforestation data and forest biomass volume data. The areas and ages of edge forests were calculated annually and the corresponding biomass loss and carbon emissions from these forest edges were estimated using published rates of biomass decay and decomposition corresponding to the areas and ages of edge forests. Our analysis estimated carbon fluxes from deforestation (4195 Tg C) and edge forest (126-221 Tg C) for 2001-10 in the Brazilian Amazon. The impacts of varying rates of deforestation on regional forest fragmentation and carbon fluxes were also investigated, with the focus on two periods: 2001-5 (high deforestation rates) and 2006-10 (low deforestation rates). Edge-released carbon accounted for 2.6-4.5% of deforestation-related carbon emissions. However, the relative importance of carbon emissions from forest fragmentation increased from 1.7-3.0% to 3.3-5.6% of the respective deforestation emissions between the two contrasting deforestation rates. Edge-related carbon fluxes are of increasing importance for basin-wide carbon accounting, especially as regards ongoing reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) efforts in Brazilian Amazonia.

  10. Carbon emissions from deforestation and forest fragmentation in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Izaya; Cochrane, Mark A.; Souza, Carlos M., Jr.; Sales, Marcio H.

    2011-10-01

    Forest-fragmentation-related edge effects are one of the major causes of forest degradation in Amazonia and their spatio-temporal dynamics are highly influenced by annual deforestation patterns. Rapid biomass collapse due to edge effects in forest fragments has been reported in the Brazilian Amazon; however the collective impacts of this process on Amazonian carbon fluxes are poorly understood. We estimated biomass loss and carbon emissions from deforestation and forest fragmentation related to edge effects on the basis of the INPE (Brazilian National Space Research Institute) PRODES deforestation data and forest biomass volume data. The areas and ages of edge forests were calculated annually and the corresponding biomass loss and carbon emissions from these forest edges were estimated using published rates of biomass decay and decomposition corresponding to the areas and ages of edge forests. Our analysis estimated carbon fluxes from deforestation (4195 Tg C) and edge forest (126-221 Tg C) for 2001-10 in the Brazilian Amazon. The impacts of varying rates of deforestation on regional forest fragmentation and carbon fluxes were also investigated, with the focus on two periods: 2001-5 (high deforestation rates) and 2006-10 (low deforestation rates). Edge-released carbon accounted for 2.6-4.5% of deforestation-related carbon emissions. However, the relative importance of carbon emissions from forest fragmentation increased from 1.7-3.0% to 3.3-5.6% of the respective deforestation emissions between the two contrasting deforestation rates. Edge-related carbon fluxes are of increasing importance for basin-wide carbon accounting, especially as regards ongoing reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) efforts in Brazilian Amazonia.

  11. Commonness of Amazonian palm (Arecaceae) species: Cross-scale links and potential determinants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Thea; Svenning, J.-C.; Grández, César

    2009-01-01

    was positively related to topographic niche breadth. Stem height correlated with continental range size and was the only species life-history trait related to any commonness measure. Distance from the study area to a species' range centre did not influence any of the commonness measures. The factors determining......The mechanisms that cause variation in commonness (abundances and range sizes) of species remain debated in ecology, and a repeatedly observed pattern is the positive relation between local abundances and larger scale range sizes. We used the Amazonian palm species (Arecaceae) to investigate...... the dependence between and potential determinants of commonness across three (local, landscape, continental) spatial scales. Commonness at the smaller scales (local abundance, landscape frequency) was estimated using data from 57 transects (5 × 500 m) in primary, non-inundated (terra firme) rainforest...

  12. Antioxidant Potential and Modulatory Effects of Restructured Lipids from the Amazonian Palms on Liver Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea de Oliveira Falcão

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic interesterification is used to manipulate oil and fat in order to obtain improved restructured lipids with desired technological properties. However, with raw materials containing significant amounts of bioactive compounds, the influence of this enzymatic process on the bioactivity of the final product is still not clear. Thus, the aim of this study is to evaluate the antioxidant potential and modulatory effects of two raw materials from the Amazonian area, buriti oil and murumuru fat, before and after lipase interesterification, on human hepatoma cells (HepG2. The results indicate that minor bioactive compounds naturally found in the raw materials and their antioxidant capacity are preserved after enzymatic interesterification, and that the restructured lipids modulate HepG2 endogenous antioxidant enzyme.

  13. Using proximal soil sensors and fuzzy classification for mapping Amazonian Dark Earths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Söderström

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We tested if hand-carried field proximal soil sensing (PSS can be used to map the distribution of anthropogenic Amazonian Dark Earths (ADE. ADE soils are rich in archaeological artefacts, nutrients, organic matter and carbon in the very stable form of pyrogenic carbon, also referred to as black carbon or biochar. To test the capacity of PSS to detect signature ADE properties we measured electrical conductivity (ECa, magnetic susceptibility (MSa and gamma ray data by transect sampling and compared these readings, using fuzzy classification, with datasets on chemical soil properties from a 28 ha large study area located on the Belterra Plateau of the Lower Amazon in northern Brazil. Results indicate that ECa and MSa measurements were good indicators of ADE signatures, but that the gamma radiation sensor was less useful in the deeply weathered soils. PSS and fuzzy classification can be used for rapid field mapping of ADE for both agricultural and archaeological purposes.

  14. Further blood genetic studies on Amazonian diversity--data from four Indian groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callegari-Jacques, S M; Salzano, F M; Weimer, T A; Hutz, M H; Black, F L; Santos, S E; Guerreiro, J F; Mestriner, M A; Pandey, J P

    1994-01-01

    Information related to 31 protein genetic systems was obtained for 307 individuals affiliated with the Cinta Larga, Karitiana, Surui and Kararaô Indians of northern Brazil. In terms of genetic distances the Cinta Larga showed more similarities with the Karitiana (both are Tupi-speaking tribes), while at a more distant level the Surui clustered with the Kararaô. The latter, a Cayapo subgroup, showed a completely different genetic constitution from the other subgroups of this same tribe. Both the Kararaô and Karitiana are small, remnant populations, and their gene pools have presumably been severely affected by random and founder effects. These results were incorporated with those of 25 other Amazonian Indian tribes, and analysis by two multivariate techniques confirmed a previously observed geographical dichotomy, suggesting either that the Amazon river constitutes a barrier to north-south gene flow or that latitudinally different past migrations entered the region from the west.

  15. The association of genetic markers and malaria infection in the Brazilian Western Amazonian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Beiguelman

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Almost all individuals (182 belonging to an Amazonian riverine population (Portuchuelo, RO, Brazil were investigated for ascertaining data on epidemiological aspects of malaria. Thirteen genetic blood polymorphisms were investigated (ABO, MNSs, Rh, Kell, and Duffy systems, haptoglobins, hemoglobins, and the enzymes glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glyoxalase, phosphoglucomutase, carbonic anhydrase, red cell acid phosphatase, and esterase D. The results indicated that the Duffy system is associated with susceptibility to malaria, as observed in other endemic areas. Moreover, suggestions also arose indicating that the EsD and Rh loci may be significantly associated with resistance to malaria. If statistical type II errors and sample stratification could be ruled out, hypotheses on the existence of a causal mechanism or an unknown closely linked locus involved in susceptibility to malaria infection may explain the present findings.

  16. Recovery of Areas Degraded by Mining Within the Amazon Forest: Interaction of the Physical Condition of Soil and Biological Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, A. I.; Mello, G. F.; Longo, R. M.; Fengler, F. H.; Peche Filho, A., Sr.

    2017-12-01

    One of the greatest natural riches of Brazil is the Amazon rainforest. The Amazon region is known for its abundance of mineral resources, and may include topaz, oil, and especially cassiterite. In this scope, the mining sector in Brazil has great strategic importance because it accounts for approximately 30% of the country's exports with a mineral production of 40 billion dollars (Brazilian Mining Institute, 2015). In this scenario, as a consequence of mining, the Amazonian ecosystem has been undergoing a constant process of degradation. An important artifice in the exploitation of mineral resources is the rehabilitation and/or recovery of degraded areas. This recovery requires the establishment of degradation indicators and also the quality of the soil associated with its biota, since the Amazonian environment is dynamic, heterogeneous and complex in its physical, chemical and biological characteristics. In this way, this work presupposes that it is possible to characterize the different stages of recovery of tillage floor areas in deactivated cassiterite mines, within the Amazonian forest, in order to evaluate the interactions between the level of biological activity (Serrapilheira Height, Coefficient Metabolic, Basal Breath) and physical soil characteristics (aggregate DMG, Porosity, Total Soil Density, Moisture Content), through canonical correlation analysis. The results present correlations between the groups of indicators. Thus, from the use of the groups defined by canonical correlations, it was possible to identify the response of the set of physical and biological variables to the areas at different stages of recovery.

  17. The Spatial Distribution of Forest Biomass in the Brazilian Amazon: A Comparison of Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, R. A.; Lawrence, J. L.; Hackler, J. L.; Brown, S.

    2001-01-01

    The amount of carbon released to the atmosphere as a result of deforestation is determined, in part, by the amount of carbon held in the biomass of the forests converted to other uses. Uncertainty in forest biomass is responsible for much of the uncertainty in current estimates of the flux of carbon from land-use change. We compared several estimates of forest biomass for the Brazilian Amazon, based on spatial interpolations of direct measurements, relationships to climatic variables, and remote sensing data. We asked three questions. First, do the methods yield similar estimates? Second, do they yield similar spatial patterns of distribution of biomass? And, third, what factors need most attention if we are to predict more accurately the distribution of forest biomass over large areas? Amazonian forests (including dead and below-ground biomass) vary by more than a factor of two, from a low of 39 PgC to a high of 93 PgC. Furthermore, the estimates disagree as to the regions of high and low biomass. The lack of agreement among estimates confirms the need for reliable determination of aboveground biomass over large areas. Potential methods include direct measurement of biomass through forest inventories with improved allometric regression equations, dynamic modeling of forest recovery following observed stand-replacing disturbances (the approach used in this research), and estimation of aboveground biomass from airborne or satellite-based instruments sensitive to the vertical structure plant canopies.

  18. The role of Amazonian anthropogenic soils in shifting cultivation: learning from farmers' rationales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André B. Junqueira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated farmers' rationales to understand their decision making in relation to the use of fertile anthropogenic soils, i.e., Amazonian dark earths (ADE, and for dealing with changes in shifting cultivation in Central Amazonia. We analyzed qualitative information from 196 interviews with farmers in 21 riverine villages along the Madeira River. In order to decide about crop management options to attain their livelihood objectives, farmers rely on an integrated and dynamic understanding of their biophysical and social environment. Farmers associate fallow development with higher crop yields and lower weed pressure, but ADE is always associated with high yields and high weeding requirements. Amazonian dark earths are also seen as an opportunity to grow different crops and/or grow crops in more intensified management systems. However, farmers often maintain simultaneously intensive swiddens on ADE and extensive swiddens on nonanthropogenic soils. Farmers acknowledge numerous changes in their socioeconomic environment that affect their shifting cultivation systems, particularly their growing interaction with market economies and the incorporation of modern agricultural practices. Farmers considered that shifting cultivation systems on ADE tend to be more prone to changes leading to intensification, and we identified cases, e.g., swiddens used for watermelon cultivation, in which market demand led to overintensification and resulted in ADE degradation. This shows that increasing intensification can be a potential threat to ADE and can undermine the importance of these soils for agricultural production, for the conservation of agrobiodiversity, and for local livelihoods. Given that farmers have an integrated knowledge of their context and respond to socioeconomic and agro-ecological changes in their environment, we argue that understanding farmers' knowledge and rationales is crucial to identify sustainable pathways for the future of ADE and of

  19. Parasitological indicators of onchocerciasis relevant to ivermectin control programmes in the Amazonian focus of Southern Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivas-Martínez, S; Basáñez, M G; Botto, C; Villegas, L; García, M; Curtis, C F

    2000-11-01

    In the previous paper it was concluded that those aged > or = 15 years of both sexes could comprise the indicator group for rapid epidemiological assessment (REA) of onchocerciasis in the Amazonian focus. This paper explores relationships between community microfilarial (mf) prevalence, intensity, and nodule prevalence in 20 Yanomami communities, that would allow identification of REA methods in the region. The mean nodule ratio (prevalence of nodules/prevalence of mf) was 0.54 when onchocercomata in the indicator group were considered. The Spearman correlation coefficient between mf and nodule prevalence was 0.686 (P = 0.001). Palpation of nodules had 92 % specificity and 32 % sensitivity when compared to skin-snipping for the diagnosis of onchocerciasis. The predictive value positive increased from 75 % to 81 % when the indicator group was used. A microfilarial prevalence > 75 % in this group would be indicative of hyperendemic status in the village, between 30 and 75 % of mesoendemicity, and 10 % would suggest a community mf prevalence > 20 % with a sensitivity of 85 % and a specificity of 71 %. A multiple linear regression model of the arc-sine transformed mf prevalence in the village (all ages) on nodule prevalence in those aged > or = 15 years and altitude of the village explained 72 % of the variance. The model combining nodule and altitudinal information had a sensitivity of 92 % and a specificity of 71 % in comparison to an estimated mf prevalence of 21 % or more. It is suggested that the usefulness of the REA methods proposed be assessed in other areas of the Amazonian onchocerciasis focus.

  20. Amazonian onchocerciasis: parasitological profiles by host-age, sex, and endemicity in southern Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivas-Martínez, S; Basáñez, M G; Botto, C; Rojas, S; García, M; Pacheco, M; Curtis, C F

    2000-11-01

    This paper describes, for the human onchocerciasis focus of southern Venezuela, the age profiles of Onchocerca volvulus microfilarial (mf) and nodule prevalence, mf intensity, and mf aggregation for the whole examined population (836 Yanomami people) living in 20 villages, and for these communities classified according to endemicity levels (hypoendemic: < or = 20 %; mesoendemic: 21-59 %; hyperendemic: < or = 60 % infected). Mf prevalence and intensity increased with age, particularly in the hyperendemic areas, and there were no marked differences between the sexes. The prevalence of nodules followed the same age pattern. Fifty percent mf prevalence was reached in the 15-19 year age-class when the population was taken as a whole; nearly in the 10 to 14-year-olds for the hyperendemic level, in those aged 20-29 years in mesoendemic areas, and not reached at all in hypoendemic villages. The degree of mf aggregation was measured by the k value of the negative binomial distribution and by the variance to mean ratio (VMR). The relationship between the standard deviation (S.D.) of mf counts and the mean mf density was also explored. These 3 indices (k, VMR, and S.D.) showed a tendency to increase with both mean mf load and host age. Since infection intensity and host age were themselves positively related, it was not possible to draw definite conclusions about age-specific changes of parasite aggregation. There was not a significant decrease of mf intensity after an earlier peak neither was there a shift towards younger ages of the maximum no. of mf/mg reached as the endemicity level increased. These results are discussed in relation to detection of density dependence in the human host, selection of an indicator age-group for rapid epidemiological assessment (REA) methods, and strategies of ivermectin distribution in the Amazonian focus. It is recommended that, for the Amazonian onchocerciasis focus, the indicator group for REA consists of all those aged 15 years and over.

  1. Evidence of suppression of onchocerciasis transmission in the Venezuelan Amazonian focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botto, Carlos; Basañez, María-Gloria; Escalona, Marisela; Villamizar, Néstor J; Noya-Alarcón, Oscar; Cortez, José; Vivas-Martínez, Sarai; Coronel, Pablo; Frontado, Hortencia; Flores, Jorge; Graterol, Beatriz; Camacho, Oneida; Tovar, Yseliam; Borges, Daniel; Morales, Alba Lucia; Ríos, Dalila; Guerra, Francisco; Margeli, Héctor; Rodriguez, Mario Alberto; Unnasch, Thomas R; Grillet, María Eugenia

    2016-01-27

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has set goals for onchocerciasis elimination in Latin America by 2015. Most of the six previously endemic countries are attaining this goal by implementing twice a year (and in some foci, quarterly) mass ivermectin (Mectizan®) distribution. Elimination of transmission has been verified in Colombia, Ecuador and Mexico. Challenges remain in the Amazonian focus straddling Venezuela and Brazil, where the disease affects the hard-to-reach Yanomami indigenous population. We provide evidence of suppression of Onchocerca volvulus transmission by Simulium guianense s.l. in 16 previously hyperendemic Yanomami communities in southern Venezuela after 15 years of 6-monthly and 5 years of 3-monthly mass ivermectin treatment. Baseline and monitoring and evaluation parasitological, ophthalmological, entomological and serological surveys were conducted in selected sentinel and extra-sentinel communities of the focus throughout the implementation of the programme. From 2010 to 2012-2015, clinico-parasitological surveys indicate a substantial decrease in skin microfilarial prevalence and intensity of infection; accompanied by no evidence (or very low prevalence and intensity) of ocular microfilariae in the examined population. Of a total of 51,341 S. guianense flies tested by PCR none had L3 infection (heads only). Prevalence of infective flies and seasonal transmission potentials in 2012-2013 were, respectively, under 1% and 20 L3/person/transmission season. Serology in children aged 1-10 years demonstrated that although 26 out of 396 (7%) individuals still had Ov-16 antibodies, only 4/218 (2%) seropositives were aged 1-5 years. We report evidence of recent transmission and morbidity suppression in some communities of the focus representing 75% of the Yanomami population and 70% of all known communities. We conclude that onchocerciasis transmission could be feasibly interrupted in the Venezuelan Amazonian focus.

  2. On the vertical distribution of smoke in the Amazonian atmosphere during the dry season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Marenco

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Lidar observations of smoke aerosols have been analysed from six flights of the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements BAe-146 research aircraft over Brazil during the biomass burning season (September 2012. A large aerosol optical depth (AOD was observed, typically ranging 0.4–0.9, along with a typical aerosol extinction coefficient of 100–400 Mm−1. The data highlight the persistent and widespread nature of the Amazonian haze, which had a consistent vertical structure, observed over a large distance ( ∼ 2200 km during a period of 14 days. Aerosols were found near the surface; but the larger aerosol load was typically found in elevated layers that extended from 1–1.5 to 4–6 km. The measurements have been compared to model predictions with the Met Office Unified Model (MetUM and the ECMWF-MACC model. The MetUM generally reproduced the vertical structure of the Amazonian haze observed with the lidar. The ECMWF-MACC model was also able to reproduce the general features of smoke plumes albeit with a small overestimation of the AOD. The models did not always capture localised features such as (i smoke plumes originating from individual fires, and (ii aerosols in the vicinity of clouds. In both these circumstances, peak extinction coefficients of the order of 1000–1500 Mm−1 and AODs as large as 1–1.8 were encountered, but these features were either underestimated or not captured in the model predictions. Smoke injection heights derived from the Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS for the region are compatible with the general height of the aerosol layers.

  3. Boreal forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essen, P.A.; Ericson, L.; Ehnstroem, B.; Sjoeberg, K.

    1997-01-01

    We review patterns and processes important for biodiversity in the Fennoscandian boreal forest, describe man's past and present impact and outline a strategy for conservation. Natural disturbances, particularly forest fire and gap formation, create much of the structural and functional diversity in forest ecosystems. Several boreal plants and animals are adapted to fire regimes. In contrast, many organisms (epiphytic lichens, fungi, invertebrates) require stable conditions with long continuity in canopy cover. The highly mechanized and efficient Fennoscandian forest industry has developed during the last century. The result is that most natural forest has been lost and that several hundreds of species, mainly cryptograms and invertebrates, are threatened. The forestry is now in a transition from exploitation to sustainable production and has recently incorporated some measures to protect the environment. Programmes for maintaining biodiversity in the boreal forest should include at least three parts. First, the system of forest reserves must be significantly improved through protection of large representative ecosystems and key biotopes that host threatened species. Second, we must restore ecosystem properties that have been lost or altered. Natural disturbance regimes must be allowed to operate or be imitated, for example by artificial fire management. Stand-level management should particularly increase the amount of coarse woody debris, the number of old deciduous trees and large, old conifers, by using partial cutting. Third, natural variation should also be mimicked at the landscape level, for example, by reducing fragmentation and increasing links between landscape elements. Long-term experiments are required to evaluate the success of different management methods in maintaining biodiversity in the boreal forest. (au) 260 refs

  4. Compromise Programming in forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boris A. Poff; Aregai Tecle; Daniel G. Neary; Brian Geils

    2010-01-01

    Multi-objective decision-making (MODM) is an appropriate approach for evaluating a forest management scenario involving multiple interests. Today's land managers must accommodate commercial as well as non-commercial objectives that may be expressed quantitatively and/or qualitatively, and respond to social, political, economic and cultural changes. The spatial and...

  5. Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum saloboense n. sp. (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae parasite of Monodelphis emiliae (Marsupiala: Didelphidae from Amazonian Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lainson R.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum saloboense n. sp., is described in the Brazilian opossum Monodelphis emiliae (Thomas, 1912 from primary forest in the Salobo area of the Serra dos Carajás (6° S, 50° 18′ W Pará State, North Brazil. Two morphologically different trypomastigotes were noted. Slender forms, regarded as immature parasites, have a poorly developed undulating membrane adhering closely to the body: large, broad forms with a well developed membrane are considered to be the mature trypomastigotes and have a mean total length of 71.2 μm (62.4-76.2 and a width of 6.1 (5.0-8.0. Infections studied in two opossums were of very low parasitaemia. The large size of T. (M. saloboense readily distinguishes it from the two previously described members of the subgenus Megatrypanum of neotropical marsupials, T. (M. freitasi Régo et al., 1957 of Didelphis azarae and D. marsupialis, and T. (M. samueli Mello, 1977 of Monodelphis domesticus, which measure only 49.0-51.5 μm and 42.4 μm respectively. No infections were obtained in hamsters inoculated with triturated liver and spleen from one infected M. emiliae, or in laboratory mice inoculated with epimastigotes from a blood-agar culture. No division stages could be detected in the internal organs or the peripheral blood.

  6. Effects of temperature, pH and carbon and nitrogen sources on growth of in vitro cultures of ectomycorrhizal isolates from Pinus heldreichii forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazarević, J.; Stojičić, D.; Keča, N.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of study: This study aims to provide basic information about physiological characteristics of isolates of Lactarius deliciosus (L.) Gray, Russula sanguinaria (Schumach.) Rauschert, Suillus collinitus (Fr) Kuntze, Suillus granulatus (L.) Rousell, Tricholoma batchii Gulden and Tricholoma imbricatum (Fr.) Kumm. Area of study: The isolates are obtained from Pinus heldreichii H. Christ forest in the south-eastern part of Montenegro. Material and methods: The isolates were molecularly characterised by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. The effects of different temperatures (20, 22, 25°C), pHs (4, 4.5, 5.2, 5.8, 6.5, 7.5), and carbon (glucose, sucrose, dextrin, arabinose, xylose and starch) and nitrogen (NH4+, NO3- and protein) sources on their growth were examined under laboratory conditions. Main results: The studied factors established significant differences in the development of isolates. Isolates of R. sanguinaria, L. deliciosus and both Suillus, were characterised by faster growth at 22°C, while Tricholoma isolates grew faster at 25°C. S. granulatus, S. collinitus and T. imbticatum isolates grew well at lower pH values (4 - 5.2), while L. deliciosus, R. sanguinaria and T. bachii exhibited faster growth at pHs between 5.8 and 6.5. The examined isolates were able to utilize various carbohydrates as carbon sources. The biggest mycelial growth was characterised for sucrose, then glucose, dextrin, arabinose, starch and xylose. They grew on all examined nitrogen sources, while the biggest mycelia growth was achieved on ammonium, followed by nitrate and protein. Those characteristics varied amongst the species. Research highlights: Information about physiological characteristics of Tricholoma, Lactarius, Russula, as well as Suillus, are sparse. Hence, the data obtained in this study could contribute to the understanding of their function in ecosystems. (Author)

  7. Forests: An International and Interdisciplinary Scientific Open Access Journal

    OpenAIRE

    Eric J. Jokela

    2014-01-01

    Forests was established to provide comprehensive coverage on the ecology, conservation and management of forests, with the first issue published in March 2010. As an international and multi-disciplinary journal, Forests has provided a forum for publishing process–based and applied scholarly articles that span the technological, environmental, cultural, economic, and social realm associated with the management, use, conservation, and understanding of forested ecosystems. By all accounts, Fore...

  8. Implications of CO2 pooling on d13C of ecosystem respiration and leaves in Amazonian forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araujo, de A.C.; Ometto, J.P.H.B.; Dolman, A.J.; Kruijt, B.; Waterloo, M.J.; Ehleringer, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    The carbon isotope of a leaf (d13Cleaf) is generally more negative in riparian zones than in areas with low soil moisture content or rainfall input. In Central Amazonia, the small-scale topography is composed of plateaus and valleys, with plateaus generally having a lower soil moisture status than

  9. Implications of CO2 pooling on delta13C of ecosystem respiration and leaves in Amazonian forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, A. C.; Ometto, J. P. H. B.; Dolman, A. J.; Kruijt, B.; Waterloo, M. J.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2008-05-01

    The carbon isotope of a leaf (δ13Cleaf) is generally more negative in riparian zones than in areas with low soil moisture content or rainfall input. In Central Amazonia, the small-scale topography is composed of plateaus and valleys, with plateaus generally having a lower soil moisture status than the valley edges in the dry season. Yet in the dry season, the nocturnal accumulation of CO2 is higher in the valleys than on the plateaus. Samples of sunlit leaves and atmospheric air were collected along a topographical gradient in the dry season to test whether the δ13Cleaf of sunlit leaves and the carbon isotope ratio of ecosystem respired CO2 (δ13CReco) may be more negative in the valley than those on the plateau. The δ13Cleaf was significantly more negative in the valley than on the plateau. Factors considered to be driving the observed variability in δ13Cleaf were: leaf nitrogen concentration, leaf mass per unit area (LMA), soil moisture availability, more negative carbon isotope ratio of atmospheric CO2 (δ13Ca) in the valleys during daytime hours, and leaf discrimination (Δleaf). The observed pattern of δ13Cleaf might suggest that water-use efficiency (WUE) is higher on the plateaus than in the valleys. However, there was no full supporting evidence for this because it remains unclear how much of the difference in δ13Cleaf was driven by physiology or &delta13Ca. The δ13CReco was more negative in the valleys than on the plateaus on some nights, whereas in others it was not. It is likely that lateral drainage of CO2 enriched in 13C from upslope areas might have happened when the nights were less stable. Biotic factors such as soil CO2 efflux (Rsoil) and the responses of plants to environmental variables such as vapor pressure deficit (D) may also play a role. The preferential pooling of CO2 in the low-lying areas of this landscape may confound the interpretation of δ13Cleaf and δ13CReco.

  10. Implications of CO2 pooling on δ13C of ecosystem respiration and leaves in Amazonian forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Waterloo

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The carbon isotope of a leaf (δ13Cleaf is generally more negative in riparian zones than in areas with low soil moisture content or rainfall input. In Central Amazonia, the small-scale topography is composed of plateaus and valleys, with plateaus generally having a lower soil moisture status than the valley edges in the dry season. Yet in the dry season, the nocturnal accumulation of CO2 is higher in the valleys than on the plateaus. Samples of sunlit leaves and atmospheric air were collected along a topographical gradient in the dry season to test whether the δ13Cleaf of sunlit leaves and the carbon isotope ratio of ecosystem respired CO2 (δ13CReco may be more negative in the valley than those on the plateau. The δ13Cleaf was significantly more negative in the valley than on the plateau. Factors considered to be driving the observed variability in δ13Cleaf were: leaf nitrogen concentration, leaf mass per unit area (LMA, soil moisture availability, more negative carbon isotope ratio of atmospheric CO2 (δ13Ca in the valleys during daytime hours, and leaf discrimination (Δleaf. The observed pattern of δ13Cleaf might suggest that water-use efficiency (WUE is higher on the plateaus than in the valleys. However, there was no full supporting evidence for this because it remains unclear how much of the difference in δ13Cleaf was driven by physiology or &delta13Ca. The δ13CReco was more negative in the valleys than on the plateaus on some nights, whereas in others it was not. It is likely that lateral drainage of CO2 enriched in 13C from upslope areas might have happened when the nights were less stable. Biotic factors such as soil CO2 efflux (Rsoil and the responses of plants to environmental variables such as vapor pressure deficit (D may also play a role. The preferential pooling of CO2 in the low-lying areas of this landscape may confound the interpretation of δ13Cleaf and δ13CReco.

  11. Implications of CO2 pooling on δ13C of ecosystem respiration and leaves in Amazonian forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, A. C.; Ometto, J. P. H. B.; Dolman, A. J.; Kruijt, B.; Waterloo, M. J.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2007-11-01

    The carbon isotope of a leaf (δ13Cleaf) is generally more negative in riparian zones than in areas with low soil moisture content or rainfall input. In Central Amazonia, the small-scale topography is composed of plateaus and valleys, with plateaus generally being drier than the valley edges in the dry season. The nocturnal accumulation of CO2 is higher in the valleys than on the plateaus in the dry season. The CO2 stored in the valleys takes longer to be released than that on the plateaus, and sometimes the atmospheric CO2 concentration (ca) does not drop to the same level as on the plateaus at any time during the day. Samples of sunlit leaves and atmospheric air were collected along a topographical gradient to test whether the δ13Cleaf of sunlit leaves and the carbon isotope ratio of ecosystem respired CO2 (δ13CR) may be more negative in the valley than those on the plateau. The δ13Cleaf was significantly more negative in the valley than on the plateau. Factors considered to be driving the observed variability in δ13Cleaf were: leaf nitrogen concentration, leaf mass per unit area (LMA), soil moisture availability, more negative carbon isotope ratio of atmospheric CO2 (δ13Ca) in the valleys during daytime hours, and leaf discrimination (Δleaf). The observed pattern of δ13Cleaf suggests that water-use efficiency (WUE) may be higher on the plateaus than in the valleys. The ;13CR was more negative in the valleys than on the plateaus on some nights, whereas in others it was not. It is likely that lateral drainage of CO2 enriched in 13C from upslope areas might have happened when the nights were less stable. Biotic factors such as soil CO2 efflux (Rsoil) and the responses of plants to environmental variables such as vapor pressure deficit (D) may also play a role.

  12. Between nature and the city : Youth and ecotourism in an Amazonianforest town’ on the Brazilian Atlantic Coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neleman, S.; de Castro, F.

    2016-01-01

    Reconciling conservation with rural development often constitutes a socio-environmental dilemma, in which ecotourism plays the part of either the panacea or the ‘poverty trap’ for local populations. Features of the local context, such as social heterogeneity, opportunities for education and jobs,

  13. "Apu Ollantay": Inca Theatre as an example of the modes of interaction between the Incas and Western Amazonian societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Bertazoni

    Full Text Available The article looks closely at the Quechua play "Apu Ollantay" in order to better understand the relationships of power that the Incas established with the Amazonian corner of their empire, known in Inca terms as Antisuyu. It is argued that the drama "Apu Ollantay" functioned as a social and political device in order to enhance Inca imperial magnitude and project an image of a magnanimous ruler.

  14. Mercury exposure in a high fish eating Bolivian Amazonian population with intense small-scale gold-mining activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Flavia Laura; Cournil, Amandine; Gardon, Jacques

    2009-08-01

    Methylmercury exposure in Amazonian communities through fish consumption has been widely documented in Brazil. There is still a lack of data in other Amazonian countries, which is why we conducted this study in the Bolivian Amazon basin. Simple random sampling was used from a small village located in the lower Beni River, where there is intense gold mining and high fish consumption. All participants were interviewed and hair samples were taken to measure total mercury concentrations. The hair mercury geometric mean in the general population was 3.02 microg/g (CI: 2.69-3.37; range: 0.42-15.65). Age and gender were not directly associated with mercury levels. Fish consumption showed a positive relation and so did occupation, especially small-scale gold mining. Hair mercury levels were lower than those found in Brazilian studies, but still higher than in non-exposed populations. It is necessary to assess mercury exposure in the Amazonian regions where data is still lacking, using a standardized indicator.

  15. Isotopes as validation tools for predictions of the impact of Amazonian deforestation on climate and regional hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson-Sellers, A.; Chambers, S.; McGuffie, K.

    2002-01-01

    Isotopic analysis and modelling of the Amazon Basin have both been reported for about thirty years. Isotopic data have been used to explain important characteristics of Amazonian hydrologic cycling by means of simple models. To date there has been no attempt to use isotopic data to evaluate global climate models employed to predict the possible impacts of Amazonian deforestation. This paper reviews the history of isotopic analysis and simulations of deforestation in the Amazon and initiates isotopic evaluation of GCMs. It is shown that one widely reported simulation set gives seasonal transpiration and re-evaporated canopy interception budgets different from those derived from isotopic analysis. It is found that temporal changes (1965 to 1990) in wet season deuterium excess differences between Belem and Manaus are consistent with GCM results only if there has been a relative increase in evaporation from non-fractionating water sources over this period. We propose synergistic future interactions among the climate/hydrological modelling and isotopic analysis communities in order to improve confidence in simulations of Amazonian deforestation. (author)

  16. Land-use poverty traps identified in shifting cultivation systems shape long-term tropical forest cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coomes, Oliver T.; Takasaki, Yoshito; Rhemtulla, Jeanine M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we illustrate how fine-grained longitudinal analyses of land holding and land use among forest peasant households in an Amazonian village can enrich our understanding of the poverty/land cover nexus. We examine the dynamic links in shifting cultivation systems among asset poverty, land use, and land cover in a community where poverty is persistent and primary forests have been replaced over time—with community enclosure—by secondary forests (i.e., fallows), orchards, and crop land. Land cover change is assessed using aerial photographs/satellite imagery from 1965 to 2007. Household and plot level data are used to track land holding, portfolios, and use as well as land cover over the past 30 y, with particular attention to forest status (type and age). Our analyses find evidence for two important types of “land-use” poverty traps—a “subsistence crop” trap and a “short fallow” trap—and indicate that the initial conditions of land holding by forest peasants have long-term effects on future forest cover and household welfare. These findings suggest a new mechanism driving poverty traps: insufficient initial land holdings induce land use patterns that trap households in low agricultural productivity. Path dependency in the evolution of household land portfolios and land use strategies strongly influences not only the wellbeing of forest people but also the dynamics of tropical deforestation and secondary forest regrowth. PMID:21873179

  17. REDD and PINC: A new policy framework to fund tropical forests as global 'eco-utilities'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivedi, M R; Mitchell, A W; Mardas, N; Parker, C [Global Canopy Programme, John Krebs Field Station, Wytham, Oxford, OX2 8QJ (United Kingdom); Watson, J E [University of Queensland, Ecology Centre, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Nobre, A D, E-mail: m.trivedi@globalcanopy.or [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, INPA, Escritorio Regional do INPA, Sao Jose dos Campos, 12227-010 (Brazil)

    2009-11-01

    Tropical forests are 'eco-utilities' providing critical ecosystem services that underpin food, energy, water and climate security at local to global scales. Currently, these services are unrecognised and unrewarded in international policy and financial frameworks, causing forests to be worth more dead than alive. Much attention is currently focused on REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation) and A/R (Afforestation and Reforestation) as mitigation options. In this article we propose an additional mechanism - PINC (Proactive Investment in Natural Capital) - that recognises and rewards the value of ecosystem services provided by standing tropical forests, especially from a climate change adaptation perspective. Using Amazonian forests as a case study we show that PINC could improve the wellbeing of rural and forest-dependent populations, enabling them to cope with the impacts associated with climate change and deforestation. By investing pro-actively in areas where deforestation pressures are currently low, the long-term costs of mitigation and adaptation will be reduced. We suggest a number of ways in which funds could be raised through emerging financial mechanisms to provide positive incentives to maintain standing forests. To develop PINC, a new research and capacity-building agenda is needed that explores the interdependence between communities, the forest eco-utility and the wider economy.

  18. Illinois' Forests 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan J. Crocker; Gary J. Brand; Brett J. Butler; David E. Haugen; Dick C. Little; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Charles H. Perry; Ronald J. Piva; Barry T. Wilson; Christopher W. Woodall

    2009-01-01

    The first full, annualized inventory of Illinois' forests reports more than 4.5 million acres of forest land with an average of 459 trees per acre. Forest land is dominated by oak/hickory forest types, which occupy 65 percent of total forest land area. Seventy-two percent of forest land consists of sawtimber, 20 percent contains poletimber, and 8 percent contains...

  19. Minnesota's Forests 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick D. Miles; David Heinzen; Manfred E. Mielke; Christopher W. Woodall; Brett J. Butler; Ron J. Piva; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Charles H. Perry; Dale D. Gormanson; Charles J. Barnett

    2011-01-01

    The second full annual inventory of Minnesota's forests reports 17 million acres of forest land with an average volume of more than 1,000 cubic feet per acre. Forest land is dominated by the aspen forest type, which occupies nearly 30 percent of the total forest land area. Twenty-eight percent of forest land consists of sawtimber, 35 percent poletimber, 35 percent...

  20. Nut Production in Bertholletia excelsa across a Logged Forest Mosaic: Implications for Multiple Forest Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Cara A.; Guariguata, Manuel R.; Menton, Mary; Arroyo Quispe, Eriks; Quaedvlieg, Julia; Warren-Thomas, Eleanor; Fernandez Silva, Harol; Jurado Rojas, Edwin Eduardo; Kohagura Arrunátegui, José Andrés Hideki; Meza Vega, Luis Alberto; Revilla Vera, Olivia; Valera Tito, Jonatan Frank; Villarroel Panduro, Betxy Tabita; Yucra Salas, Juan José

    2015-01-01

    forests, when a buffer zone cannot be observed, low logging intensities should be implemented. The sustainability of this integrated management system will ultimately depend on a complex series of socioeconomic and ecological interactions. Yet we submit that our study provides an important initial step in understanding the compatibility of timber harvesting with a high value NTFP, potentially allowing for diversification of forest use strategies in Amazonian Perù. PMID:26271042

  1. Nut Production in Bertholletia excelsa across a Logged Forest Mosaic: Implications for Multiple Forest Use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara A Rockwell

    nut rich forests, when a buffer zone cannot be observed, low logging intensities should be implemented. The sustainability of this integrated management system will ultimately depend on a complex series of socioeconomic and ecological interactions. Yet we submit that our study provides an important initial step in understanding the compatibility of timber harvesting with a high value NTFP, potentially allowing for diversification of forest use strategies in Amazonian Perù.

  2. The Contribution of Forests and Trees to Sustainable Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Hunter

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available With the growing demands from a population expected to reach 9 billion people by 2050, it is unclear how our current global food system will meet future food needs. Ensuring that all people have access to adequate and nutritious food produced in an environmentally and socio-culturally sustainable manner is one of the greatest challenges of our time. “Sustainable diets” have been proposed as a multidimensional framework to address the need for nutritious and adequate food in the context of the many challenges facing the world today: reducing poverty and hunger, improving environmental health, enhancing human well-being and health, and strengthening local food networks, sustainable livelihoods and cultural heritage. This paper examines the contribution of forests and trees to sustainable diets, covering among others, nutritional, cultural, environmental and provisioning aspects. The literature reviewed highlight major opportunities to strengthen the contribution of forest and tree foods to sustainable diets. However, several constraints need to be removed. They relate to: cultural aspects, sustainable use of non-wood forest products, organization of forest food provisioning, limited knowledge of forest food composition, challenges in adapting management of forests and trees to account for forest foods, and in integrating forest biodiversity into complex landscapes managed for multiple benefits. Finally, the paper identifies research gaps and makes recommendations to enhance the contribution of forest foods to sustainable diets through increased awareness and better integration of information and knowledge on nutritious forest foods into national nutrition strategies and programs.

  3. The Amazonian Floodplains, an ecotype with challenging questions on volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesselmeier, J.

    2012-12-01

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions are affected by a variety of biotic and abiotic factors such as light intensity, temperature, CO2 and drought. Another factor usually overlooked but very important for the tropical rainforest in Amazonia is regular flooding. According to recent estimates, the total Amazonian floodplain area easily ranges up to 700,000 km^2, including whitewater river floodplains (várzea) blackwater regions (igapó) and further clearwater regions. Regarding the total Amazonian wetlands the area sums up to more than 2.000.000 km^2, i.e. 30% of Amazonia. To survive the flooding periods causing anoxic conditions for the root system of up to several months, vegetation has developed several morphological, anatomical and physiological strategies. One is to switch over the root metabolism to fermentation, thus producing ethanol as one of the main products. Ethanol is a toxic metabolite which is transported into the leaves by the transpiration stream. From there it can either be directly emitted into the atmosphere, or can be re-metabolized to acetaldehyde and/or acetate. All of these compounds are volatile enough to be partly released into the atmosphere. We observed emissions of ethanol, acetaldehyde and acetic acid under root anoxia. Furthermore, plant stress induced by flooding also affected leaf primary physiological processes as well as other VOC emissions such as the release of isoprenoids and other volatiles. For example, Hevea spruceana could be identified as a monoterpene emitting tree species behaving differently upon anoxia depending on the origin, with increasing emissions of the species from igapó and decreasing with the corresponding species from várzea. Contrasting such short term inundations, studies of VOC emissions under long term conditions (2-3 months) did not confirm the ethanol/acetaldehyde emissions, whereas emissions of other VOC species decreased considerably. These results demonstrate that the transfer of our knowledge

  4. Diverse Early Life-History Strategies in Migratory Amazonian Catfish: Implications for Conservation and Management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens C Hegg

    Full Text Available Animal migrations provide important ecological functions and can allow for increased biodiversity through habitat and niche diversification. However, aquatic migrations in general, and those of the world's largest fish in particular, are imperiled worldwide and are often poorly understood. Several species of large Amazonian catfish carry out some of the longest freshwater fish migrations in the world, travelling from the Amazon River estuary to the Andes foothills. These species are important apex predators in the main stem rivers of the Amazon Basin and make up the region's largest fishery. They are also the only species to utilize the entire Amazon Basin to complete their life cycle. Studies indicate both that the fisheries may be declining due to overfishing, and that the proposed and completed dams in their upstream range threaten spawning migrations. Despite this, surprisingly little is known about the details of these species' migrations, or their life history. Otolith microchemistry has been an effective method for quantifying and reconstructing fish migrations worldwide across multiple spatial scales and may provide a powerful tool to understand the movements of Amazonian migratory catfish. Our objective was to describe the migratory behaviors of the three most populous and commercially important migratory catfish species, Dourada (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii, Piramutaba (Brachyplatystoma vaillantii, and Piraíba (Brachyplatystoma filamentosum. We collected fish from the mouth of the Amazon River and the Central Amazon and used strontium isotope signatures ((87Sr/(86Sr recorded in their otoliths to determine the location of early rearing and subsequent. Fish location was determined through discriminant function classification, using water chemistry data from the literature as a training set. Where water chemistry data was unavailable, we successfully in predicted (87Sr/(86Sr isotope values using a regression-based approach that related

  5. Molecular organization and chromosomal localization of 5S rDNA in Amazonian Engystomops (Anura, Leiuperidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Débora Silva; Rivera, Miryan; Lourenço, Luciana Bolsoni

    2012-03-20

    For anurans, knowledge of 5S rDNA is scarce. For Engystomops species, chromosomal homeologies are difficult to recognize due to the high level of inter- and intraspecific cytogenetic variation. In an attempt to better compare the karyotypes of the Amazonian species Engystomops freibergi and Engystomops petersi, and to extend the knowledge of 5S rDNA organization in anurans, the 5S rDNA sequences of Amazonian Engystomops species were isolated, characterized, and mapped. Two types of 5S rDNA, which were readily differentiated by their NTS (non-transcribed spacer) sizes and compositions, were isolated from specimens of E. freibergi from Brazil and E. petersi from two Ecuadorian localities (Puyo and Yasuní). In the E. freibergi karyotypes, the entire type I 5S rDNA repeating unit hybridized to the pericentromeric region of 3p, whereas the entire type II 5S rDNA repeating unit mapped to the distal region of 6q, suggesting a differential localization of these sequences. The type I NTS probe clearly detected the 3p pericentromeric region in the karyotypes of E. freibergi and E. petersi from Puyo and the 5p pericentromeric region in the karyotype of E. petersi from Yasuní, but no distal or interstitial signals were observed. Interestingly, this probe also detected many centromeric regions in the three karyotypes, suggesting the presence of a satellite DNA family derived from 5S rDNA. The type II NTS probe detected only distal 6q regions in the three karyotypes, corroborating the differential distribution of the two types of 5S rDNA. Because the 5S rDNA types found in Engystomops are related to those of Physalaemus with respect to their nucleotide sequences and chromosomal locations, their origin likely preceded the evolutionary divergence of these genera. In addition, our data indicated homeology between Chromosome 5 in E. petersi from Yasuní and Chromosomes 3 in E. freibergi and E. petersi from Puyo. In addition, the chromosomal location of the type II 5S r

  6. Diverse Early Life-History Strategies in Migratory Amazonian Catfish: Implications for Conservation and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegg, Jens C; Giarrizzo, Tommaso; Kennedy, Brian P

    2015-01-01

    Animal migrations provide important ecological functions and can allow for increased biodiversity through habitat and niche diversification. However, aquatic migrations in general, and those of the world's largest fish in particular, are imperiled worldwide and are often poorly understood. Several species of large Amazonian catfish carry out some of the longest freshwater fish migrations in the world, travelling from the Amazon River estuary to the Andes foothills. These species are important apex predators in the main stem rivers of the Amazon Basin and make up the region's largest fishery. They are also the only species to utilize the entire Amazon Basin to complete their life cycle. Studies indicate both that the fisheries may be declining due to overfishing, and that the proposed and completed dams in their upstream range threaten spawning migrations. Despite this, surprisingly little is known about the details of these species' migrations, or their life history. Otolith microchemistry has been an effective method for quantifying and reconstructing fish migrations worldwide across multiple spatial scales and may provide a powerful tool to understand the movements of Amazonian migratory catfish. Our objective was to describe the migratory behaviors of the three most populous and commercially important migratory catfish species, Dourada (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii), Piramutaba (Brachyplatystoma vaillantii), and Piraíba (Brachyplatystoma filamentosum). We collected fish from the mouth of the Amazon River and the Central Amazon and used strontium isotope signatures ((87)Sr/(86)Sr) recorded in their otoliths to determine the location of early rearing and subsequent. Fish location was determined through discriminant function classification, using water chemistry data from the literature as a training set. Where water chemistry data was unavailable, we successfully in predicted (87)Sr/(86)Sr isotope values using a regression-based approach that related the geology

  7. Emplacement and deformation of the A-type Madeira granite (Amazonian Craton, Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siachoque, Astrid; Salazar, Carlos Alejandro; Trindade, Ricardo

    2017-04-01

    The Madeira granite is one of the Paleoproterozoic (1.82 Ga) A-type granite intrusions in the Amazonian Craton. It is elongated in the NE-SW direction and is composed of four facies. Classical structural techniques and the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) method were applied to the study of its internal fabric. Magnetic susceptibility measurements, thermomagnetic curves, remanent coercivity spectra, optical microscopy and SEM (scanning electron microscopy) analyses were carried out on the earlier and later facies of the Madeira granite: the rapakivi granite (RG) and the albite granite (AG) respectively. The last one is subdivided into the border albite granite (BAG) and the core albite granite (CAG) subfacies. AMS fabric pattern is controlled by pure magnetite in all facies, despite significant amounts of hematite in the BAG subfacies. Microstructural observations show that in almost all sites, magnetic fabric correlates to magmatic state fabrics that are defined by a weak NE-SW orientation of mafic and felsic silicates. However, strain mechanisms in both subfacies of AG also exhibit evidence for solid-state deformation at high to moderate temperatures. Pegmatite dyke, strike slip fault (SFA-B-C), hydrothermal vein, normal fault (F1-2) and joint (J) structures were observed and their orientation and kinematics is consistent with the magmatic and solid-state structures. Dykes, SFA-C and F1, are usually orientated along the N70°E/40°N plane, which is nearly parallel to the strike of AMS and magmatic foliations. In contrast, veins, SFB, F2 and some J are oriented perpendicular to the N70°E trend. Kinematic analysis in these structures shows evidence for a dextral sense of movement in the system in the brittle regime. The coherent structural pattern for the three facies of Madeira granite suggests that the different facies form a nested pluton. The coherence in orientation and kinematics from magmatic to high-temperature solid-state, and into the brittle

  8. Transitions between Andean and Amazonian centers of endemism in the radiation of some arboreal rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The tropical Andes and Amazon are among the richest regions of endemism for mammals, and each has given rise to extensive in situ radiations. Various animal lineages have radiated ex situ after colonizing one of these regions from the other: Amazonian clades of dendrobatid frogs and passerine birds may have Andean ancestry, and transitions from the Amazon to Andes may be even more common. To examine biogeographic transitions between these regions, we investigated the evolutionary history of three clades of rodents in the family Echimyidae: bamboo rats (Dactylomys-Olallamys-Kannabateomys), spiny tree-rats (Mesomys-Lonchothrix), and brush-tailed rats (Isothrix). Each clade is distributed in both the Andes and Amazonia, and is more diverse in the lowlands. We used two mitochondrial (cyt-b and 12S) and three nuclear (GHR, vWF, and RAG1) markers to reconstruct their phylogenetic relationships. Tree topologies and ancestral geographic ranges were then used to determine whether Andean forms were basal to or derived from lowland radiations. Results Four biogeographic transitions are identified among the generic radiations. The bamboo rat clade unambiguously originated in the Amazon ca. 9 Ma, followed by either one early transition to the Andes (Olallamys) and a later move to the Amazon (Dactylomys), or two later shifts to the Andes (one in each genus). The Andean species of both Dactylomys and Isothrix are sister to their lowland species, raising the possibility that highland forms colonized the Amazon Basin. However, uncertainty in their reconstructed ancestral ranges obscures the origin of these transitions. The lone Andean species of Mesomys is confidently nested within the lowland radiation, thereby indicating an Amazon-to-Andes transition ca. 2 Ma. Conclusions Differences in the timing of these biogeographic transitions do not appear to explain the different polarities of these trees. Instead, even within the radiation of a single family, both Andean and

  9. Forest insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis T. Williams

    1949-01-01

    Standing timber is one of the few important kinds of property that are not generally covered by insurance. Studies made by the Forest Service and other agencies have indicated that the risks involved in the insurance of timber are not unduly great, provided they can be properly distributed. Such studies, however, have thus far failed to induce any notable development...

  10. Forest Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    NASA's Technology Applications Center, with other government and academic agencies, provided technology for improved resources management to the Cibola National Forest. Landsat satellite images enabled vegetation over a large area to be classified for purposes of timber analysis, wildlife habitat, range measurement and development of general vegetation maps.

  11. Sinopse das espécies de Marlierea Cambess. (Myrtaceae na Amazônia brasileira Sinopse of the species of Marlierea Cambess. (Myrtaceae in Amazonian Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Silva do Rosário

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O estudo de Marlierea Cambess. na Amazônia Brasileira tem como principal objetivo atualizar os dados sobre a morfologia e taxonomia das espécies da região, bem como fornecer subsídios para esclarecer a separação de Marlierea de Myrcia DC. ex Guill., conforme sugerem alguns autores. Na Amazônia Brasileira, Marlierea está representada por 11 espécies (Marlierea bipennis (O. Berg McVaugh, M. caudata McVaugh, M. ensiformis McVaugh, M. ferruginea (Poir. McVaugh, M. mcvaughii B. Holst, M. scytophylla Diels, M. spruceana O. Berg, M. subulata McVaugh, M. summa McVaugh, M. umbraticola (Kunth O. Berg e M. velutina McVaugh e uma mal conhecida (M. obumbrans (O. Berg Nied., habitando principalmente áreas de formações florestais. O gênero se caracteriza pelo hábito arbóreo ou arbustivo; folhas opostas (exceto em M. velutina que pode apresentar folhas opostas e/ou alternas; as inflorescências em panículas (de fascículos, racemos, cimeiras ou dicásios; botões florais geralmente fechados, abertura irregular do cálice, em 4-5 lobos, pétalas freqüentemente ausentes. Os Estados do Amazonas e Pará representam os dois principais centros de distribuição dessas espécies, sendo M. spruceana e M. umbraticola as espécies mais comuns. Marlierea obumbrans será melhor estudada posteriormente, devido apresentar sua delimitação taxonômica confusa entre Myrcia e Marlierea.A morphological study of Marlierea Cambess. occurring in Amazonian Brazil was carried out in order to obtain a better understanding of the morphology and taxonomy of all species in the region and to provide data to elucidate the taxonomic segregation of Marlierea from the morphologically similar Myrcia DC. ex Guill. In Amazonian Brazil, Marlierea is represented by 11, primarily forest, species (Marlierea bipennis (O. Berg McVaugh, M. caudata McVaugh, M. ensiformis McVaugh, M. ferruginea (Poir. McVaugh, M. mcvaughii B. Holst, M. scytophylla Diels, M. spruceana O. Berg, M

  12. Understorey fire propagation and tree mortality on adjacent areas to an Amazonian deforestation fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.A. Carvalho; C.A. Gurgel Veras; E.C. Alvarado; D.V. Sandberg; S.J. Leite; R. Gielow; E.R.C. Rabelo; J.C. Santos

    2010-01-01

    Fire characteristics in tropical ecosystems are poorly documented quantitatively in the literature. This paper describes an understorey fire propagating across the edges of a biomass burn of a cleared primary forest. The experiment was carried out in 2001 in the Amazon forest near Alta Floresta, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, as part of biomass burning experiments...

  13. Combating Forest Corruption: the Forest Integrity Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, A.; Siebert, U.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the strategies and activities of the Forest Integrity Network. One of the most important underlying causes of forest degradation is corruption and related illegal logging. The Forest Integrity Network is a timely new initiative to combat forest corruption. Its approach is to

  14. Forest ownership dynamics of southern forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett J. Butler; David N. Wear

    2013-01-01

    Key FindingsPrivate landowners hold 86 percent of the forest area in the South; two-thirds of this area is owned by families or individuals.Fifty-nine percent of family forest owners own between 1 and 9 acres of forest land, but 60 percent of family-owned forests are in holdings of 100 acres or more.Two-...

  15. Phosphate fertilizers with varying water-solubility applied to Amazonian soils: II. Soil P extraction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muraoka, T.; Brasil, E.C.; Scivittaro, W.B.

    2002-01-01

    A pot experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions at the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Piracicaba (SP, Brazil), to evaluate the phosphorus availability of different phosphate sources in five Amazonian soils. The soils utilized were: medium texture Yellow Latosol, clayey Yellow Latosol, very clayey Yellow Latosol, clayey Red-Yellow Podzolic and very clayey Red-Yellow Podzolic. Four phosphate sources were applied: triple superphosphate, ordinary Yoorin thermophosphate, coarse Yoorin termo-phosphate and North Carolina phosphate rock at P rates of 0, 40, 80 and 120 mg kg -1 soil. The dry matter yield and the amount of P taken up by cowpea and rice were correlated with the extractable P by anionic exchangeable resin, Mehlich-1, Mehlich-3 and Bray-I. The results showed that the extractable P by Mehlich-1 was higher in the soils amended with North Carolina rock phosphate. Irrespective of the phosphorus sources used, the Mehlich-3 extractant showed close correlation with plant response. The Mehlich-3 and Bray-I extractants were more sensitive to soil variations. The Mehlich-3 extractant was more suitable in predicting the P availability to plants in the different soils and phosphorus sources studied. (author)

  16. Fire effects on the composition of a bird community in an amazonian Savanna (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Cintra

    Full Text Available The effects of fire on the composition of a bird community were investigated in an Amazonian savanna near Alter-do-Chão, Pará (Brazil. Mist-net captures and visual counts were used to assess species richness and bird abundance pre- and post-fire in an approximately 20 ha area. Visual counts along transects were used to survey birds in an approximately 2000 ha area in a nearby area. Results using the same method of ordination analysis (multidimensional scaling showed significant effects of fire in the 20 ha and 2000 ha areas and strongly suggest direct effects on bird community composition. However, the effects were different at different spatial scales and/or in different years, indicating that the effects of fire vary spatially and/or temporally. Bird community composition pre-fire was significantly different from that found post-fire. Using multiple regression analysis it was found that the numbers of burned and unburned trees were not significantly related to either bird species richness or bird abundance. Two months after the fire, neither bird species richness nor bird abundance was significantly related to the number of flowering trees (Lafoensia pacari or fruiting trees (Byrsonima crassifolia. Since fire is an annual event in Alter-do-Chão and is becoming frequent in the entire Amazon, bird community composition in affected areas could be constantly changing in time and space.

  17. Potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in soils from the surroundings of the Trans-Amazonian Highway, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Edna Santos; Fernandes, Antonio Rodrigues; de Souza Braz, Anderson Martins; Sabino, Lorena Lira Leite; Alleoni, Luís Reynaldo Ferracciú

    2015-01-01

    The Trans-Amazonian Highway (TAH) is located in the northern region of Brazil, comprising a border region where agricultural, mining, and logging activities are the main activities responsible for fostering economic development, in addition to large hydroelectric plants. Such activities lead to environmental contamination by potentially toxic elements (PTEs). Environmental monitoring is only possible through the determination of element contents under natural conditions. Many extraction methods have been proposed to determine PTEs' bioavailability in the soil; however, there is no consensus about which extractor is most suitable. In this study, we determined the contents of PTEs in soils in the surroundings of TAH after mineral extraction with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-triethanolamine (DTPA-TEA), Mehlich I, and Mehlich III solutions. Soil samples were collected in areas of natural vegetation in the vicinity of TAH in the state of Pará, Brazil. Chemical attributes and particle size were determined, besides concentrations of Fe, Al, Mn, and Ti by sulfuric acid digestion, Si after alkaline solution attack, and poorly crystalline Fe, Al, and "free" Fe oxides. Mehlich III solution extracted greater contents from Fe, Al, and Pb as compared to Mehlich I and DTPA-TEA and similar contents from Cd, Mn, Zn, and Cu. Significant correlations were found between concentrations of PTEs and the contents of Fe and Mn oxides as well as organic carbon and soil cation exchange capacity. Contents of Cu, Mn, Fe, and Zn by the three methods were positively correlated.

  18. Morphophysiological Behavior and Cambial Activity in Seedlings of Two Amazonian Tree Species under Shade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monyck Jeane dos Santos Lopes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Variations in light intensity can lead to important anatomical and morphophysiological changes in plants. Aiming to increase knowledge about the Amazonian tree species, this study examines the influence of shade on the cambial activity and development of Parkia gigantocarpa Ducke and Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum (Huber ex Ducke Barneby seedlings. Seedlings of the two species were grown in a nursery under four shade intensities (treatments: full sun, low, moderate, and high shade (resp., 0%, 23%, 67%, and 73% of shade, or 2000, 1540, 660, and 540 µmol·m−2·s−1 obtained with polyethylene screens. We measured plant height, stem diameter, biomass production, stomatal conductance (gs, transpiration (E, photosynthesis (A, and cambial activity (CA (xylem, cambium, and phloem. Also, we calculated the Dickson Quality Index (DQI. The highest values of biomass production, gs,  E, A, and DQI, were found under full sun, in P. gigantocarpa, and under low shade intensity in S. parahyba. In both species high shade intensity reduced CA. We concluded that the CA and the physiological and morphological attributes work together, explaining the radial growth and increasing seedlings quality, which optimized efficient seedling production under full sun, in P. gigantocarpa, and under low shade intensity in S. parahyba.

  19. Functional Traits, Flocking Propensity, and Perceived Predation Risk in an Amazonian Understory Bird Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Ari E; Gomez, Juan P; Ponciano, José Miguel; Robinson, Scott K

    2016-05-01

    Within a community, different species might share similar predation risks, and, thus, the ability of species to signal and interpret heterospecific threat information may determine species' associations. We combined observational, experimental, and phylogenetic approaches to determine the extent to which evolutionary history and functional traits determined flocking propensity and perceived predation risk (response to heterospecific alarm calls) in a lowland Amazonian bird community. We predicted that small birds that feed myopically and out in the open would have higher flocking propensities and account for a higher proportion of positive responses to alarms. Using generalized linear models and the incorporation of phylogeny on data from 56 species, our results suggest that phylogenetic relationships alongside body size, foraging height, vegetation density, and response to alarm calls influence flocking propensity. Conversely, phylogenetic relationships did not influence response to heterospecific alarm calls. Among functional traits, however, foraging strategy, foraging density, and flocking propensity partially explained responses to alarm calls. Our results suggest that flocking propensity and perceived predation risk are positively related and that functional ecological traits and evolutionary history may explain certain species' associations.

  20. The unique functioning of a pre-Columbian Amazonian floodplain fishery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatrix, Rumsaïs; Roux, Bruno; Béarez, Philippe; Prestes-Carneiro, Gabriela; Amaya, Marcelo; Aramayo, Jose Luis; Rodrigues, Leonor; Lombardo, Umberto; Iriarte, Jose; de Souza, Jonas Gregorio; Robinson, Mark; Bernard, Cyril; Pouilly, Marc; Durécu, Mélisse; Huchzermeyer, Carl F; Kalebe, Mashuta; Ovando, Alex; McKey, Doyle

    2018-04-16

    Archaeology provides few examples of large-scale fisheries at the frontier between catching and farming of fish. We analysed the spatial organization of earthen embankments to infer the functioning of a landscape-level pre-Columbian Amazonian fishery that was based on capture of out-migrating fish after reproduction in seasonal floodplains. Long earthen weirs cross floodplains. We showed that weirs bear successive V-shaped features (termed 'Vs' for the sake of brevity) pointing downstream for outflowing water and that ponds are associated with Vs, the V often forming the pond's downstream wall. How Vs channelled fish into ponds cannot be explained simply by hydraulics, because Vs surprisingly lack fishways, where, in other weirs, traps capture fish borne by current flowing through these gaps. We suggest that when water was still high enough to flow over the weir, out-migrating bottom-hugging fish followed current downstream into Vs. Finding deeper, slower-moving water, they remained. Receding water further concentrated fish in ponds. The pond served as the trap, and this function shaped pond design. Weir-fishing and pond-fishing are both practiced in African floodplains today. In combining the two, this pre-Columbian system appears unique in the world.

  1. Phylogeography and population genetics of the endangered Amazonian manatee, Trichechus inunguis Natterer, 1883 (Mammalia, Sirenia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantanhede, Andréa Martins; Da Silva, Vera Maria Ferreira; Farias, Izeni Pires; Hrbek, Tomas; Lazzarini, Stella Maris; Alves-Gomes, José

    2005-02-01

    We used mitochondrial DNA control region sequences to examine phylogeography and population differentiation of the endangered Amazonian manatee Trichechus inunguis. We observe lack of molecular differentiation among localities and we find weak association between geographical and genetic distances. However, nested clade analysis supports restricted gene flow and/or dispersal with some long-distance dispersal. Although this species has a history of extensive hunting, genetic diversity and effective population sizes are relatively high when compared to the West Indian manatee Trichechus manatus. Patterns of mtDNA haplotype diversity in T. inunguis suggest a genetic disequilibrium most likely explained by demographic expansion resulting from secession of hunting and enforcement of conservation and protective measures. Phylogenetic analysis of T. manatus and T. inunguis haplotypes suggests that T. inunguis is nested within T. manatus, effectively making T. manatus a paraphyletic entity. Paraphyly of T. manatus and recent divergence times of T. inunguis and the three main T. manatus lineages suggest a possible need for a taxonomic re-evaluation of the western Atlantic Trichechus.

  2. Water contamination from oil extraction activities in Northern Peruvian Amazonian rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusta-García, Raúl; Orta-Martínez, Martí; Mayor, Pedro; González-Crespo, Carlos; Rosell-Melé, Antoni

    2017-06-01

    Oil extraction activities in the Northern Peruvian Amazon have generated a long-standing socio-environmental conflict between oil companies, governmental authorities and indigenous communities, partly derived from the discharge of produced waters containing high amounts of heavy metals and hydrocarbons. To assess the impact of produced waters discharges we conducted a meta-analysis of 2951 river water and 652 produced water chemical analyses from governmental institutions and oil companies reports, collected in four Amazonian river basins (Marañon, Tigre, Corrientes and Pastaza) and their tributaries. Produced water discharges had much higher concentrations of chloride, barium, cadmium and lead than are typically found in fresh waters, resulting in the widespread contamination of the natural water courses. A significant number of water samples had levels of cadmium, barium, hexavalent chromium and lead that did not meet Peruvian and international water standards. Our study shows that spillage of produced water in Peruvian Amazon rivers placed at risk indigenous population and wildlife during several decades. Furthermore, the impact of such activities in the headwaters of the Amazon extended well beyond the boundaries of oil concessions and national borders, which should be taken into consideration when evaluating large scale anthropogenic impacts in the Amazon. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Diurnal biting periodicity of parous Simulium (Diptera: Simuliidae) vectors in the onchocerciasis Amazonian focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillet, M-E; Villamizar, N J; Cortez, J; Frontado, H L; Escalona, M; Vivas-Martínez, S; Basáñez, M-G

    2005-05-01

    We describe the hourly patterns of parous biting activity of the three main simuliid vectors of human onchocerciasis in the Amazonian focus straddling between Venezuela and Brazil, namely, Simulium guianense s.l. Wise; S. incrustatum Lutz, and S. oyapockense s.l. Floch and Abonnenc. Time series of the hourly numbers of host-seeking parous flies caught in five Yanomami villages during dry, rainy, and their transition periods from 1995 to 2001 were investigated using harmonic analysis (assuming an underlying circadian rhythm) and periodic correlation (based on Spearman's r). Parous S guianense s.l. showed a bimodal activity pattern, with a minor peak in mid-morning and a major peak at 16:00 h. S. incrustatum exhibited mainly unimodal activity during either early morning or midday according to locality. S. oyapockense s.l. bit humans throughout the day mainly between 10:00 and 16:00 h but also showed bimodal periodicity in some localities. Superimposed on the endogenous, species-specific daily cycles, parous activity showed variation according to locality, season, air temperature and relative humidity, with biting being promoted by warmer and drier hours during wet seasons/periods and reduced during hotter times in dry seasons or transitions. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for blackfly biology and ecology as well as onchocerciasis epidemiology and control.

  4. Prediction of community prevalence of human onchocerciasis in the Amazonian onchocerciasis focus: Bayesian approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabin, Hélène; Escalona, Marisela; Marshall, Clare; Vivas-Martínez, Sarai; Botto, Carlos; Joseph, Lawrence; Basáñez, María-Gloria

    2003-01-01

    To develop a Bayesian hierarchical model for human onchocerciasis with which to explore the factors that influence prevalence of microfilariae in the Amazonian focus of onchocerciasis and predict the probability of any community being at least mesoendemic (>20% prevalence of microfilariae), and thus in need of priority ivermectin treatment. Models were developed with data from 732 individuals aged > or =15 years who lived in 29 Yanomami communities along four rivers of the south Venezuelan Orinoco basin. The models' abilities to predict prevalences of microfilariae in communities were compared. The deviance information criterion, Bayesian P-values, and residual values were used to select the best model with an approximate cross-validation procedure. A three-level model that acknowledged clustering of infection within communities performed best, with host age and sex included at the individual level, a river-dependent altitude effect at the community level, and additional clustering of communities along rivers. This model correctly classified 25/29 (86%) villages with respect to their need for priority ivermectin treatment. Bayesian methods are a flexible and useful approach for public health research and control planning. Our model acknowledges the clustering of infection within communities, allows investigation of links between individual- or community-specific characteristics and infection, incorporates additional uncertainty due to missing covariate data, and informs policy decisions by predicting the probability that a new community is at least mesoendemic.

  5. Conservation strategies for Arapaima gigas (Schinz, 1822) and the Amazonian várzea ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrbek, T; Crossa, M; Farias, I P

    2007-12-01

    In the present study we report a spatial autocorrelation analysis of molecular data obtained for Arapaima gigas, and the implication of this study for conservation and management. Arapaima is an important, but critically over-exploited giant food fish of the Amazonian várzea. Analysis of 14 variable microsatellite loci and 2,347 bp of mtDNA from 126 individuals sampled in seven localities within the Amazon basin suggests that Arapaima forms a continuous population with extensive genetic exchange among localities. Weak effect of isolation-by-distance is observed in microsatellite data, but not in mtDNA data. Spatial autocorrelation analysis of genetic and geographic data suggests that genetic exchange is significantly restricted at distances greater than 2,500 km. We recommend implementing a source-sink metapopulation management and conservation model by proposing replicate high quality várzea reserves in the upper, central, and lower Amazon basin. This conservation strategy would: 1) preserve all of the current genetic diversity of Arapaima; 2) create a set of reserves to supply immigrants for locally depleted populations; 3) preserve core várzea areas in the Amazon basin on which many other species depend. We stress that conservation strategies should not only preserve current genetic diversity, but also the evolutionary processes which have generated the observed patterns.

  6. Conservation strategies for Arapaima gigas (Schinz, 1822 and the Amazonian várzea ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hrbek

    Full Text Available In the present study we report a spatial autocorrelation analysis of molecular data obtained for Arapaima gigas, and the implication of this study for conservation and management. Arapaima is an important, but critically over-exploited giant food fish of the Amazonian várzea. Analysis of 14 variable microsatellite loci and 2,347 bp of mtDNA from 126 individuals sampled in seven localities within the Amazon basin suggests that Arapaima forms a continuous population with extensive genetic exchange among localities. Weak effect of isolation-by-distance is observed in microsatellite data, but not in mtDNA data. Spatial autocorrelation analysis of genetic and geographic data suggests that genetic exchange is significantly restricted at distances greater than 2,500 km. We recommend implementing a source-sink metapopulation management and conservation model by proposing replicate high quality várzea reserves in the upper, central, and lower Amazon basin. This conservation strategy would: 1 preserve all of the current genetic diversity of Arapaima; 2 create a set of reserves to supply immigrants for locally depleted populations; 3 preserve core várzea areas in the Amazon basin on which many other species depend. We stress that conservation strategies should not only preserve current genetic diversity, but also the evolutionary processes which have generated the observed patterns.

  7. Facing operational problems in a biodigester in Yuvientsa - Amazonian region of Ecuador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragundy, J.

    2007-07-01

    Yuvientsa is a Shuar indigenous community located in the Morona Santiago Province in the southwestern part of the Amazonian region of Ecuador. Two types of alternative energies have being implemented in Yuvientsa to satisfy people's needs. Solar panels provide electricity to the community. A biodigester to treat the school lavatories' brown-water (fecal water) and to provide gas for cooking to the communal kitchen was built as well. During the operational phase the biodigester faced some difficulties as: being perforated by people of the community as started inflating, being fumigated against malaria, and not having enough organic matter to produce biogas. As a result in this time the biodigester did not operate satisfactorily and the community did not believe that it could work and produce biogas. A biodigester should not be built without an awareness campaign or showing a direct benefit to the community that ensures its adequate operation and maintenance. Before constructing the reactor the organic matter source to operate the biodigester should be clearly identified and its amount should be enough. (orig.)

  8. Beings of a Feather: Learning About the Lives of Birds with Amazonian Peoples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Jernigan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a memoir of the author's fieldwork experiences studying traditional knowledge of bird species in the Peruvian Amazon. It describes his growth as a researcher, in light of the practical and methodological challenges of carrying out this kind of work. It also relates how the author's thinking has evolved on questions of current theoretical interest in ethnobiology. The first section outlines how the author came to be interested in this topic while pursuing an ethnobotanical dissertation project. Next, the discussion follows his work with the indigenous Aguaruna and Iquito peoples, learning about and documenting their understandings of the nesting, foraging and reproductive behavior of local avian species. On one hand, he found that local people provided details of these behaviors that match, in many ways, the counts of academic ornithologists. However, local interpretations of why these behaviors take place are often framed by some very different assumptions. The author uses Victor Toledo's tripartite framework of kosmos (overarching belief systems, corpus (cognitive categories, and praxis (set of practices to discuss similarities and differences in Aguaruna, Iquito, and academic ornithology. He also discusses his progression of views on the topic of perspectivism and eventual preference for a theoretical framework favoring a polyontological approach to understanding Amazonian ethnoecology.

  9. Genetic structure in the Amazonian catfish Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii: influence of life history strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal-Vallejos, F M; Duponchelle, F; Desmarais, E; Cerqueira, F; Querouil, S; Nuñez, J; García, C; Renno, J-F

    2014-08-01

    The Dorado or Plateado (Gilded catfish) Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii (Pimelodidae, Siluriformes) is a commercially valuable migratory catfish performing the largest migration in freshwaters: from the Amazonian headwaters in the Andean foothills (breeding area) to the Amazon estuary (nursery area). In spite of its importance to inform management and conservation efforts, the genetic variability of this species has only recently begun to be studied. The aim of the present work was to determine the population genetic structure of B. rousseauxii in two regions: the Upper Madera Basin (five locations in the Bolivian Amazon) and the Western Amazon Basin (one regional sample from the Uyucalí-Napo-Marañon-Amazon basin, Peru). Length polymorphism at nine microsatellite loci (284 individuals) was used to determine genetic variability and to identify the most probable panmictic units (using a Bayesian approach), after a significant departure from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was observed in the overall dataset (Western Amazon + Upper Madera). Bayesian analyses revealed at least three clusters in admixture in the five locations sampled in the Bolivian Amazon, whereas only two of these clusters were observed in the Western Amazon. Considering the migratory behaviour of B. rousseauxii, different life history strategies, including homing, are proposed to explain the cluster distribution. Our results are discussed in the light of the numerous threats to the species survival in the Madera basin, in particular dam and reservoir construction.

  10. Molecular Taxonomy of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) benarrochi (Diptera: Culicidae) and Malaria Epidemiology in Southern Amazonian Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Jan E.; Moreno, Marta; Saavedra, Marlon; Bickersmith, Sara A.; Knoll, Elisabeth; Fernandez, Roberto; Vera, Hubert; Burrus, Roxanne G.; Lescano, Andres G.; Sanchez, Juan Francisco; Rivera, Esteban; Vinetz, Joseph M.

    2013-01-01

    Anopheline specimens were collected in 2011 by human landing catch, Shannon and CDC traps from the malaria endemic localities of Santa Rosa and San Pedro in Madre de Dios Department, Peru. Most specimens were either Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) benarrochi B or An. (Nys.) rangeli, confirmed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism-internal transcribed spacer 2 (PCR-RFLP-ITS2) and, for selected individuals, ITS2 sequences. A few specimens from Lupuna, Loreto Department, northern Amazonian Peru, were also identified as An. benarrochi B. A statistical parsimony network using ITS2 sequences confirmed that all Peruvian An. benarrochi B analyzed were identical to those in GenBank from Putumayo, southern Colombia. Sequences of the mtDNA COI BOLD region of specimens from all three Peruvian localities were connected using a statistical parsimony network, although there were multiple mutation steps between northern and southern Peruvian sequences. A Bayesian inference of concatenated Peruvian sequences of ITS2+COI detected a single clade with very high support for all An. benarrochi B except one individual from Lupuna that was excluded. No samples were positive for Plasmodium by CytB-PCR. PMID:23243107

  11. Analysis of the changes in forest ecosystem functions, structure and composition in the Black Sea region of Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sedat Kele(s); (I)dris Durusoy; Günay Çakir

    2017-01-01

    We used geographical information system to analyze changes in forest ecosystem functions, structure and composition in a typical department of forest man-agement area consisting of four forest management plan-ning units in Turkey. To assess these effects over a 25 year period we compiled data from three forest management plans that were made in 1986, 2001 and 2011. Temporal changes in forest ecosystem functions were estimated based on the three pillars of forest sustainability: eco-nomics, ecology and socio-culture. We assessed a few indicators such as land-use and forest cover, forest types, tree species, development stage, stand age classes, crown closure, growing stock and its increment, and timber bio-mass. The results of the case study suggested a shift in forest values away from economic values toward ecologi-cal and socio-cultural values over last two planning peri-ods. Forest ecosystem structure improved, due mainly to increasing forest area, decreasing non-forest areas (espe-cially in settlement and agricultural areas), forestation on forest openings, rehabilitation of degraded forests, con-version of even-aged forests to uneven-aged forests and conversion of coppice forests to high forests with greater growing stock increments. There were also favorable changes in forest management planning approaches.

  12. Bushmeat networks link the forest to urban areas in the trifrontier region between Brazil, Colombia, and Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie van Vliet

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have intended to quantify urban consumption and trade in Amazonian towns. However, little is still known about the different ways in which bushmeat is made available in urban areas, including commercial and noncommercial flows, and how those flows contribute to link forests to urban livelihoods. In this study we qualitatively describe the structure and functioning of bushmeat flows in terms of species, catchment area, stakeholders involved, and the motivations for their activity in the main towns of the Amazon trifrontier region between Brazil, Colombia, and Peru. We show that bushmeat trade to urban areas exists under an organized but invisible commodity chain providing a source of income to about 195 persons. Bushmeat is made available either directly from the hunter to the urban consumer, at the main market place, or in food stalls and restaurants. On the Colombian border, the trade is totally invisible, whereas in Peru and Brazil, bushmeat is sold in open markets despite regulations. The catchment area comprises the main rivers: up to Caballococha along the Amazon River, along the Atacuary River in Peru, along the Javari River between Peru and Brazil, and along the Loretoyacu and Amacayacu rivers in Colombia and in periurban forests. Although the trade is rather localized (no commercial flows to larger towns, international transborder trade is commonplace, disregarding Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora regulations. Bushmeat clients in urban areas are mainly nonindigenous or mestizos who can afford bushmeat as a luxury meal. Instead, indigenous people in urban areas do not access bushmeat through the market but rather through their social networks with whom they maintain noncommercial flows including immediate exchange and long-term exchange mechanisms. Although bushmeat is no longer consumed as a daily meal among urban and periurban indigenous families, it constitutes what could be

  13. [Tuberculosis in Amazonian municipalities of the Brazil-Colombia-Peru-Venezuela border: epidemiological situation and risk factors associated with treatment default].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belo, Elsia Nascimento; Orellana, Jesem Douglas Yamall; Levino, Antônio; Basta, Paulo Cesar

    2013-11-01

    To describe the epidemiological situation and the incidence of tuberculosis and to investigate the factors associated with treatment default in the Amazonian municipalities located in the northern Brazilian international border. This retrospective study employed sociodemographic, clinical, and epidemiological tuberculosis data recorded in the Brazilian Notifiable Diseases Information System (SINAN) between 2001 and 2010. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with treatment default. Tuberculosis affected mostly indigenous peoples (51.9%), males (57.9%), and people aged 25-44 years (31.4%). The predominant clinical presentation was pulmonary (89.7%), yet in 24.5% of the cases the patients did not undergo sputum smear microscopy, and only half received supervised treatment. In 70.0% of the cases notified, patients were discharged as cured. Treatment default was recorded in 10.0% of the patients. Of all deaths, 4.1% were by tuberculosis and other causes, and 1.7% by multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. The average incidence by race/color was greater among indigenous peoples, ranging from 202.3/100 000 in 2001 to 65.6/100 000 in 2010. Treatment default was associated with failure to perform the follow-up smear at the second, fourth, and sixth months (OR = 11.9, 95%CI: 7.4-19.0); with resuming treatment after default (OR = 3.0, 95%CI: 1.5-5.9); and with living in specific subregions, particularly the Alto Solimões region (OR = 6.7, 95%CI: 4.6-9.8). The present results show a high incidence of tuberculosis in the Amazon portion of the northern Brazilian international border, especially among indigenous peoples. Considering the socio-cultural specificities of these populations and the poor tuberculosis control in this area, the authors of the study conclude that the integration of different national health systems is both necessary and urgent.

  14. Forest fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, M.

    1991-01-01

    This book examines the many complex and sensitive issues relating to wildland fires. Beginning with an overview of the fires of 1980s, the book discusses the implications of continued drought and considers the behavior of wildland fires, from ignition and spread to spotting and firestorms. Topics include the effects of weather, forest fuels, fire ecology, and the effects of fire on plants and animals. In addition, the book examines firefighting methods and equipment, including new minimum impact techniques and compressed air foam; prescribed burning; and steps that can be taken to protect individuals and human structures. A history of forest fire policies in the U.S. and a discussion of solutions to fire problems around the world completes the coverage. With one percent of the earth's surface burning every year in the last decade, this is a penetrating book on a subject of undeniable importance

  15. Dispersal of forest insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcmanus, M. L.

    1979-01-01

    Dispersal flights of selected species of forest insects which are associated with periodic outbreaks of pests that occur over large contiguous forested areas are discussed. Gypsy moths, spruce budworms, and forest tent caterpillars were studied for their massive migrations in forested areas. Results indicate that large dispersals into forested areas are due to the females, except in the case of the gypsy moth.

  16. South Dakota's forests 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Piva; W. Keith Moser; Douglas D. Haugan; Gregory J. Josten; Gary J. Brand; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Mark H. Hansen; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Charles H. Perry; Christopher W. Woodall

    2009-01-01

    The first completed annual inventory of South Dakota's forests reports almost 1.7 million acres of forest land. Softwood forests make up 74 percent of the total forest land area; the ponderosa pine forest type by itself accounts for 69 percent of the total.

  17. Forest report 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This forest condition report of Hesse (Germany) includes the following topics: forest condition survey for all tree species, forest in the in the Rhine-Main area, weather and climate, soil water balance and drought stress, insects and fungi, Forestry Environment Monitoring, infiltrated substances, main results of Forest soil survey in Hesse (BZE II), the substrate group red sandstone, heavy metal contamination of forests.

  18. Mapping Forest Inventory and Analysis forest land use: timberland, reserved forest land, and other forest land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark D. Nelson; John Vissage

    2007-01-01

    The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program produces area estimates of forest land use within three subcategories: timberland, reserved forest land, and other forest land. Mapping these subcategories of forest land requires the ability to spatially distinguish productive from unproductive land, and reserved from nonreserved land. FIA field data were spatially...

  19. Modeling the complex impacts of timber harvests to find optimal management regimes for Amazon tidal floodplain forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortini, Lucas B.; Cropper, Wendell P.; Zarin, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    At the Amazon estuary, the oldest logging frontier in the Amazon, no studies have comprehensively explored the potential long-term population and yield consequences of multiple timber harvests over time. Matrix population modeling is one way to simulate long-term impacts of tree harvests, but this approach has often ignored common impacts of tree harvests including incidental damage, changes in post-harvest demography, shifts in the distribution of merchantable trees, and shifts in stand composition. We designed a matrix-based forest management model that incorporates these harvest-related impacts so resulting simulations reflect forest stand dynamics under repeated timber harvests as well as the realities of local smallholder timber management systems. Using a wide range of values for management criteria (e.g., length of cutting cycle, minimum cut diameter), we projected the long-term population dynamics and yields of hundreds of timber management regimes in the Amazon estuary, where small-scale, unmechanized logging is an important economic activity. These results were then compared to find optimal stand-level and species-specific sustainable timber management (STM) regimes using a set of timber yield and population growth indicators. Prospects for STM in Amazonian tidal floodplain forests are better than for many other tropical forests. However, generally high stock recovery rates between harvests are due to the comparatively high projected mean annualized yields from fast-growing species that effectively counterbalance the projected yield declines from other species. For Amazonian tidal floodplain forests, national management guidelines provide neither the highest yields nor the highest sustained population growth for species under management. Our research shows that management guidelines specific to a region’s ecological settings can be further refined to consider differences in species demographic responses to repeated harvests. In principle, such fine

  20. Forests and Forest Cover - MDC_NaturalForestCommunity

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — A point feature class of NFCs - Natural Forest Communities. Natural Forest Community shall mean all stands of trees (including their associated understory) which...