WorldWideScience

Sample records for amazonia

  1. Fires in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragão, Luiz E. O. C.; Anderson, Liana O.; Lima, André; Arai, Egidio

    2016-11-01

    Fire has been used since the first humans arrived in Amazonia; however, it has recently become a widely used instrument for large-scale forest clearance. Patterns of fire incidence in the region have been exacerbated by recent drought events. Understanding temporal and spatial fire patterns as well as their consequences for forest structure, species composition, and the carbon cycle is critical for minimising global change impacts on Amazonian ecosystems and people. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the state of our knowledge on the spatial and temporal patterns of fire incidence in Amazonia, depicting the historical fire usage in the region, their relationship with land use and land cover, and their responses to climate seasonality and droughts. We subsequently focus on the impacts of fire, by quantifying the extent of burnt forests during major droughts and describing the main impacts on forest structure, composition, and carbon stocks. Finally, we present an overview of modelling initiatives for forecasting fire incidence in the region. We conclude by providing a comprehensive view of the processes that influence fire occurrence, potential feedbacks, and impacts in Amazonia. We also highlight how key areas within fire ecology must be improved for a better understanding of the long-term effect of fire on the Amazon forest 'biome'.

  2. Amazonia. Violencias, resistencias, propuestas

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    La Amazonia, ese vasto territorio en América del Sur, alberga sobre todo dos dicotomías, la abundancia y la violencia; se debate permanentemente entre la vida y la muerte. Durante mucho tiempo la inmensa selva amazónica ha sido vista como una reserva de recursos naturales donde el capital hace “sus compras” a conveniencia. La misma complejidad de ese territorio hace necesarias nuevas perspectivas y varias propuestas de salida a su posible devastación. Ese territorio tiene vida propia y es gen...

  3. An Amazonia Symposium: Mixed Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Gloria; Shand, Hope

    1978-01-01

    Reporting on the second symposium on "Amazonia: Extinction or Survival" (Madison, Wisconsin, 1978), this article summarizes papers presented on colonization, health, education, law, etc., and presents the symposium's six resolutions. (JC)

  4. Climate change patterns in Amazonia and biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hai; Sinha, Ashish; Cruz, Francisco W; Wang, Xianfeng; Edwards, R Lawrence; d'Horta, Fernando M; Ribas, Camila C; Vuille, Mathias; Stott, Lowell D; Auler, Augusto S

    2013-01-01

    Precise characterization of hydroclimate variability in Amazonia on various timescales is critical to understanding the link between climate change and biodiversity. Here we present absolute-dated speleothem oxygen isotope records that characterize hydroclimate variation in western and eastern Amazonia over the past 250 and 20 ka, respectively. Although our records demonstrate the coherent millennial-scale precipitation variability across tropical-subtropical South America, the orbital-scale precipitation variability between western and eastern Amazonia exhibits a quasi-dipole pattern. During the last glacial period, our records imply a modest increase in precipitation amount in western Amazonia but a significant drying in eastern Amazonia, suggesting that higher biodiversity in western Amazonia, contrary to 'Refugia Hypothesis', is maintained under relatively stable climatic conditions. In contrast, the glacial-interglacial climatic perturbations might have been instances of loss rather than gain in biodiversity in eastern Amazonia, where forests may have been more susceptible to fragmentation in response to larger swings in hydroclimate.

  5. Precipitation chemistry in central Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreae, M. O.; Talbot, R. W.; Berresheim, H.; Beecher, K. M.

    1990-01-01

    Rain samples from three sites in central Amazonia were collected over a period of 6 weeks during the 1987 wet season and analyzed for ionic species and dissolved organic carbon. A continuous record of precipitation chemistry and amount was obtained at two of these sites, which were free from local or regional pollution, for a time period of over 1 month. The volume-weighted mean concentrations of most species were found to be about a factor of 5 lower during the wet season compared with previous results from the dry season. Only sodium, potassium, and chloride showed similar concentrations in both seasons. When the seasonal difference in rainfall amount is taken into consideration, the deposition fluxes are only slightly lower for most species during the wet season than during the dry season, again with the exception of chloride, potassium, and sodium. Sodium and chloride are present in the same ratio as in sea salt; rapid advection of air masses of marine origin to the central Amazon Basin during the wet season may be responsible for the observed higher deposition flux of these species. Statistical analysis suggests that sulfate is, to a large extent, of marine (sea salt and biogenic) origin, but that long-range transport of combustion-derived aerosols also makes a significant contribution to sulfate and nitrate levels in Amazonian rain. Organic acid concentrations in rain were responsible for a large fraction of the observed precipitation acidity; their concentration was strongly influenced by gas/liquid interactions.

  6. Non-Official Roads Dilemma in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perz, Stephen G.; Arima, Eugenio; Souza, Carlos, Jr.; Caldas, Marcellus; Brandao, Amintas de O., Jr.; Araujo de Souza, Francisco Kennedy; Walker, Robert

    2005-01-01

    At the beginning of this millennium, "non-official" roads predominate in Amazonia. The opening of these roads, a phenomenon that has not been studied in depth, represents a major dilemma - it generates environmental and social impacts, but it helps to reduce the isolation of the communities in Amazonia and to improve the quality of life for those rural populations. The combined positive and negative aspects of this dilemma mean that it is a matter of crucial importance for the government at last to do a proper job in building these roads; if this is disregarded, in the future, the environment and the Brazilians living in that region will be at risk.

  7. Miocene freshwater Mollusca from western Brazilian Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, F.P.; Ranzi, A.; Räsänen, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    Thirteen species of fossil molluscs are reported from the Solimões Formation of western Brazilian Amazonia. Based on mammalian chronology of the Solimões Formation and radiometric ages reported from coeval deposits in adjacent Peru, the age of the fauna is established as Late Miocene. The fauna incl

  8. The domestication of Amazonia before European conquest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Charles R.; Denevan, William M.; Heckenberger, Michael J.; Junqueira, André Braga; Neves, Eduardo G.; Teixeira, Wenceslau G.; Woods, William I.

    2015-01-01

    During the twentieth century, Amazonia was widely regarded as relatively pristine nature, little impacted by human history. This view remains popular despite mounting evidence of substantial human influence over millennial scales across the region. Here, we review the evidence of an anthropogenic Amazonia in response to claims of sparse populations across broad portions of the region. Amazonia was a major centre of crop domestication, with at least 83 native species containing populations domesticated to some degree. Plant domestication occurs in domesticated landscapes, including highly modified Amazonian dark earths (ADEs) associated with large settled populations and that may cover greater than 0.1% of the region. Populations and food production expanded rapidly within land management systems in the mid-Holocene, and complex societies expanded in resource-rich areas creating domesticated landscapes with profound impacts on local and regional ecology. ADE food production projections support estimates of at least eight million people in 1492. By this time, highly diverse regional systems had developed across Amazonia where subsistence resources were created with plant and landscape domestication, including earthworks. This review argues that the Amazonian anthrome was no less socio-culturally diverse or populous than other tropical forested areas of the world prior to European conquest. PMID:26202998

  9. The domestication of Amazonia before European conquest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clement, C.R.; Denevan, W.M.; Heckenberger, M.J.; Braga Junqueira, A.; Neves, E.G.; Teixeira, W.G.; Woods, W.I.

    2015-01-01

    During the twentieth century, Amazonia was widely regarded as relatively pristine nature, little impacted by human history. This view remains popular despite mounting evidence of substantial human influence over millennial scales across the region. Here, we review the evidence of an anthropogenic Am

  10. The domestication of Amazonia before European conquest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Charles R; Denevan, William M; Heckenberger, Michael J; Junqueira, André Braga; Neves, Eduardo G; Teixeira, Wenceslau G; Woods, William I

    2015-08-07

    During the twentieth century, Amazonia was widely regarded as relatively pristine nature, little impacted by human history. This view remains popular despite mounting evidence of substantial human influence over millennial scales across the region. Here, we review the evidence of an anthropogenic Amazonia in response to claims of sparse populations across broad portions of the region. Amazonia was a major centre of crop domestication, with at least 83 native species containing populations domesticated to some degree. Plant domestication occurs in domesticated landscapes, including highly modified Amazonian dark earths (ADEs) associated with large settled populations and that may cover greater than 0.1% of the region. Populations and food production expanded rapidly within land management systems in the mid-Holocene, and complex societies expanded in resource-rich areas creating domesticated landscapes with profound impacts on local and regional ecology. ADE food production projections support estimates of at least eight million people in 1492. By this time, highly diverse regional systems had developed across Amazonia where subsistence resources were created with plant and landscape domestication, including earthworks. This review argues that the Amazonian anthrome was no less socio-culturally diverse or populous than other tropical forested areas of the world prior to European conquest.

  11. Lizards of Brazilian Amazonia (Reptilia: Squamata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avila-Pires, T.C.S.

    1995-01-01

    Eighty-nine species of lizards, six of which polytypic (forming a total of 97 taxa), are presently known from Brazilian Amazonia. This number includes six species and one subspecies described as new to science in this paper: Stenocercus fimbriatus, Lepidoblepharis hoogmoedi, Leposoma osvaldoi, L. sn

  12. Gente, tierra y agua en la Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Buitrago Garavito, Ana Isabel; Jiménez, Eliana; Tobón, Marco Alejandro; Gendrau Acho, Sheila; Ciro Rodríguez, Estefanía; Ciro Rodríguez, Alejandra; Trujillo Osorio, Catalina; Currea Dereser , Alejandra; Torres Zambrano, Nestor Ned; Serrato Hurtado, Clemencia; Duque, Santiago R.; Moreno Hurtado, Flavio; Peñuela, Maria Cristina; Lloyd, Jon; Patiño, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    Con el ánimo de contribuir a la comprensión social, histórica y económica de la gente que habita la región amazónica y al entendimiento del funcionamiento de sus ecosistemas surge el libro Gente, tierra y agua en la Amazonia. lmani mundo III. Este libro es el tercero de la serie Imani mundo, la cual expone trabajos de investigación en la región amazónica tanto en aspectos sociales como en aspectos ecológicos, realizados por el instituto Amazónico de Investigaciones IMANI de la Universidad Nac...

  13. Carbon stock loss from deforestation through 2013 in Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Euler Melo; Yanai, Aurora M; Fonseca, Frederico O R; Fearnside, Philip Martin

    2015-03-01

    The largest carbon stock in tropical vegetation is in Brazilian Amazonia. In this ~5 million km(2) area, over 750,000 km(2) of forest and ~240,000 km(2) of nonforest vegetation types had been cleared through 2013. We estimate current carbon stocks and cumulative gross carbon loss from clearing of premodern vegetation in Brazil's 'Legal Amazonia' and 'Amazonia biome' regions. Biomass of 'premodern' vegetation (prior to major increases in disturbance beginning in the 1970s) was estimated by matching vegetation classes mapped at a scale of 1 : 250,000 and 29 biomass means from 41 published studies for vegetation types classified as forest (2317 1-ha plots) and as either nonforest or contact zones (1830 plots and subplots of varied size). Total biomass (above and below-ground, dry weight) underwent a gross reduction of 18.3% in Legal Amazonia (13.1 Pg C) and 16.7% in the Amazonia biome (11.2 Pg C) through 2013, excluding carbon loss from the effects of fragmentation, selective logging, fires, mortality induced by recent droughts and clearing of forest regrowth. In spite of the loss of carbon from clearing, large amounts of carbon were stored in stands of remaining vegetation in 2013, equivalent to 149 Mg C ha(-1) when weighted by the total area covered by each vegetation type in Legal Amazonia. Native vegetation in Legal Amazonia in 2013 originally contained 58.6 Pg C, while that in the Amazonia biome contained 56 Pg C. Emissions per unit area from clearing could potentially be larger in the future because previously cleared areas were mainly covered by vegetation with lower mean biomass than the remaining vegetation. Estimates of original biomass are essential for estimating losses to forest degradation. This study offers estimates of cumulative biomass loss, as well as estimates of premodern carbon stocks that have not been represented in recent estimates of deforestation impacts.

  14. Pre-Columbian Earthworks in Coastal Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphen Rostain

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available As in other parts of Amazonia, pre-Columbian Indians have profoundly modified the coast of the Guianas. Between 650 and 1650 AD, Arauquinoid people occupied a territory that was approximately 600 km long and used the raised field technique intensively before the European conquest. They erected thousands of raised fields of various shapes, dug canals, ditches, and pathways, and built artificial mounds to establish their villages. All these earthworks changed forever the face of the coastal flooded savannas and their ecology. Such labor was probably organized under the leadership of a central authority: it seems that Arauquinoid societies were organized in a chiefdom system. Statistical calculations, based on the known surface area of raised fields and on their estimated productivity, suggest a population density of 50 to 100 inhabitants per km2. Pre-Columbian inhabitants of the Guianas coast carefully organized, managed and “anthropisized” their territory following a specific pattern.

  15. Amazonia desde dentro: aportes a la investigación de la Amazonia colombiana

    OpenAIRE

    Palacio Castañeda, Germán A.; Nieto Moreno, Juana Valentina; Rosas Riaño, Diana; Buitrago Garavito, Ana Isabel; Cure Valdivieso, Salima; Hurtado Gómez, Lina María; Bolívar Urueta, Edgar Eduardo; Moncayo Martínez, Patricia; Bonilla López, Omar Alfonso; Lozano, Carolina María; Builes, Diego Fernando; Arias García, Juan Carlos

    2007-01-01

    Este libro es una compilación y selección de artículos cuya materia prima la constituyen algunos de los mejores trabajos de tesis de la Maestría en Estudios Amazónicos de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Amazonia. De este modo, los primeros artículos del libro están reunidos bajo el título "Sociedad, comunidades y representaciones"; donde Valentina Nieto describe cómo "mujer de la abundancia", una imagen central en la ideología uitoto, se mantiene viva en las actividades cotidian...

  16. Predicting pre-Columbian anthropogenic soils in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, C H; Palace, M W; Bush, M B; Braswell, B; Hagen, S; Neves, E G; Silman, M R; Tamanaha, E K; Czarnecki, C

    2014-02-22

    The extent and intensity of pre-Columbian impacts on lowland Amazonia have remained uncertain and controversial. Various indicators can be used to gauge the impact of pre-Columbian societies, but the formation of nutrient-enriched terra preta soils has been widely accepted as an indication of long-term settlement and site fidelity. Using known and newly discovered terra preta sites and maximum entropy algorithms (Maxent), we determined the influence of regional environmental conditions on the likelihood that terra pretas would have been formed at any given location in lowland Amazonia. Terra pretas were most frequently found in central and eastern Amazonia along the lower courses of the major Amazonian rivers. Terrain, hydrologic and soil characteristics were more important predictors of terra preta distributions than climatic conditions. Our modelling efforts indicated that terra pretas are likely to be found throughout ca 154 063 km(2) or 3.2% of the forest. We also predict that terra preta formation was limited in most of western Amazonia. Model results suggested that the distribution of terra preta was highly predictable based on environmental parameters. We provided targets for future archaeological surveys under the vast forest canopy and also highlighted how few of the long-term forest inventory sites in Amazonia are able to capture the effects of historical disturbance.

  17. Ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) Density in Central Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Daniel Gomes da; Sollmann, Rahel; Ramalho, Emiliano Esterci; Ilha, Renata; Tan, Cedric K W

    2016-01-01

    Ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) are presumed to be the most abundant of the wild cats throughout their distribution range and to play an important role in the dynamics of sympatric small-felid populations. However, ocelot ecological information is limited, particularly for the Amazon. We conducted three camera-trap surveys during three consecutive dry seasons to estimate ocelot density in Amanã Reserve, Central Amazonia, Brazil. We implemented a spatial capture-recapture (SCR) model that shared detection parameters among surveys. A total effort of 7020 camera-trap days resulted in 93 independent ocelot records. The estimate of ocelot density in Amanã Reserve (24.84 ± SE 6.27 ocelots per 100 km2) was lower than at other sites in the Amazon and also lower than that expected from a correlation of density with latitude and rainfall. We also discuss the importance of using common parameters for survey scenarios with low recapture rates. This is the first density estimate for ocelots in the Brazilian Amazon, which is an important stronghold for the species.

  18. Dynamics, patterns and causes of fires in Northwestern Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolors Armenteras

    Full Text Available According to recent studies, two widespread droughts occurred in the Amazon basin, one during 2005 and one during 2010. The drought increased the prevalence of climate-driven fires over most of the basin. Given the importance of human-atmosphere-vegetation interactions in tropical rainforests, these events have generated concerns over the vulnerability of this area to climate change. This paper focuses on one of the wettest areas of the basin, Northwestern Amazonia, where the interactions between the climate and fires are much weaker and where little is known about the anthropogenic drivers of fires. We have assessed the response of fires to climate over a ten-year period, and analysed the socio-economic and demographic determinants of fire occurrence. The patterns of fires and climate and their linkages in Northwestern Amazonia differ from the enhanced fire response to climate variation observed in the rest of Amazonia. The highest number of recorded fires in Northwestern Amazonia occurred in 2004 and 2007, and this did not coincide with the periods of extreme drought experienced in Amazonia in 2005 and 2010. Rather, during those years, Northwestern Amazonia experienced a relatively small numbers of fire hotspots. We have shown that fire occurrence correlated well with deforestation and was determined by anthropogenic drivers, mainly small-scale agriculture, cattle ranching (i.e., pastures and active agricultural frontiers (including illegal crops. Thus, the particular climatic conditions for air convergence and rainfall created by proximity to the Andes, coupled with the presence of one of the most active colonisation fronts in the region, make this region differently affected by the general drought-induced fire patterns experienced by the rest of the Amazon. Moreover, the results suggest that, even in this wet region, humans are able to modify the frequency of fires and impact these historically well preserved forests.

  19. Dynamics, patterns and causes of fires in Northwestern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenteras, Dolors; Retana, Javier

    2012-01-01

    According to recent studies, two widespread droughts occurred in the Amazon basin, one during 2005 and one during 2010. The drought increased the prevalence of climate-driven fires over most of the basin. Given the importance of human-atmosphere-vegetation interactions in tropical rainforests, these events have generated concerns over the vulnerability of this area to climate change. This paper focuses on one of the wettest areas of the basin, Northwestern Amazonia, where the interactions between the climate and fires are much weaker and where little is known about the anthropogenic drivers of fires. We have assessed the response of fires to climate over a ten-year period, and analysed the socio-economic and demographic determinants of fire occurrence. The patterns of fires and climate and their linkages in Northwestern Amazonia differ from the enhanced fire response to climate variation observed in the rest of Amazonia. The highest number of recorded fires in Northwestern Amazonia occurred in 2004 and 2007, and this did not coincide with the periods of extreme drought experienced in Amazonia in 2005 and 2010. Rather, during those years, Northwestern Amazonia experienced a relatively small numbers of fire hotspots. We have shown that fire occurrence correlated well with deforestation and was determined by anthropogenic drivers, mainly small-scale agriculture, cattle ranching (i.e., pastures) and active agricultural frontiers (including illegal crops). Thus, the particular climatic conditions for air convergence and rainfall created by proximity to the Andes, coupled with the presence of one of the most active colonisation fronts in the region, make this region differently affected by the general drought-induced fire patterns experienced by the rest of the Amazon. Moreover, the results suggest that, even in this wet region, humans are able to modify the frequency of fires and impact these historically well preserved forests.

  20. Estimating Monthly Rainfall from Geostationary Satellite Imagery Over Amazonia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutrim, Elen Maria Camara

    The infrared regression and the grid-history satellite rainfall estimating techniques were utilized to estimate monthly rainfall in Amazonia during one month of the rainy season (March, 1980) and one month of the dry season (September, 1980). The estimates were based on 3-hourly SMS-II infrared and visible images. Three sets of coefficients for the grid history method (Marajo, Arabian Sea, and GATE) were used to estimate rainfall. The estimated rain was compared with gauge measurements over the region. The infrared regression technique overestimated by a factor of 1.5. The Marajo coefficients yielded the best estimate, especially for eastern Amazonia. In the wet month Marajo coefficients overestimated rain by 10% and in the dry month by 70%. The Arabian Sea coefficients overestimated rain and the GATE coefficients slightly underestimated rain for Amazonia. Two maps of monthly rainfall over Amazonia were constructed for March and September, 1980, combining the ground station and satellite inferred rainfall of the grid history method using the Marajo coefficients. The satellite observations and ground data were mutually compatible and were contourable on these final, composite maps. Monthly rainfall was found to be much more inhomogeneous than previously reported. In March there was a belt of high precipitation trending southwest, with higher values and sharpest gradients in the coastal area. The upper Amazon was also an area of high precipitation, both north and south of the equator. In Roraima rainfall decreased drastically to the north. In September, the area of highest precipitation was the northwestern part of Amazonas State (northern hemisphere). Rainfall elsewhere was very localized and in northeastern Amazonia varied from 0 to 150 mm. Even though the grid history method presented better results for estimating rainfall over Amazonia, the IR model could be utilized more efficiently and economically on an operational basis if the calibration were properly made

  1. Dynamics, Patterns and Causes of Fires in Northwestern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenteras, Dolors; Retana, Javier

    2012-01-01

    According to recent studies, two widespread droughts occurred in the Amazon basin, one during 2005 and one during 2010. The drought increased the prevalence of climate-driven fires over most of the basin. Given the importance of human-atmosphere-vegetation interactions in tropical rainforests, these events have generated concerns over the vulnerability of this area to climate change. This paper focuses on one of the wettest areas of the basin, Northwestern Amazonia, where the interactions between the climate and fires are much weaker and where little is known about the anthropogenic drivers of fires. We have assessed the response of fires to climate over a ten-year period, and analysed the socio-economic and demographic determinants of fire occurrence. The patterns of fires and climate and their linkages in Northwestern Amazonia differ from the enhanced fire response to climate variation observed in the rest of Amazonia. The highest number of recorded fires in Northwestern Amazonia occurred in 2004 and 2007, and this did not coincide with the periods of extreme drought experienced in Amazonia in 2005 and 2010. Rather, during those years, Northwestern Amazonia experienced a relatively small numbers of fire hotspots. We have shown that fire occurrence correlated well with deforestation and was determined by anthropogenic drivers, mainly small-scale agriculture, cattle ranching (i.e., pastures) and active agricultural frontiers (including illegal crops). Thus, the particular climatic conditions for air convergence and rainfall created by proximity to the Andes, coupled with the presence of one of the most active colonisation fronts in the region, make this region differently affected by the general drought-induced fire patterns experienced by the rest of the Amazon. Moreover, the results suggest that, even in this wet region, humans are able to modify the frequency of fires and impact these historically well preserved forests. PMID:22523580

  2. The mitogenome of Onchocerca volvulus from the Brazilian Amazonia focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crainey, James L; Silva, Túllio R R da; Encinas, Fernando; Marín, Michel A; Vicente, Ana Carolina P; Luz, Sérgio L B

    2016-01-01

    We report here the first complete mitochondria genome of Onchocerca volvulus from a focus outside of Africa. An O. volvulus mitogenome from the Brazilian Amazonia focus was obtained using a combination of high-throughput and Sanger sequencing technologies. Comparisons made between this mitochondrial genome and publicly available mitochondrial sequences identified 46 variant nucleotide positions and suggested that our Brazilian mitogenome is more closely related to Cameroon-origin mitochondria than West African-origin mitochondria. As well as providing insights into the origins of Latin American onchocerciasis, the Brazilian Amazonia focus mitogenome may also have value as an epidemiological resource.

  3. Hypotheses to explain the origin of species in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Haffer

    Full Text Available The main hypotheses proposed to explain barrier formation separating populations and causing the differentiation of species in Amazonia during the course of geological history are based on different factors, as follow: (1 Changes in the distribution of land and sea or in the landscape due to tectonic movements or sea level fluctuations (Paleogeography hypothesis, (2 the barrier effect of Amazonian rivers (River hypothesis, (3 a combination of the barrier effect of broad rivers and vegetational changes in northern and southern Amazonia (River-refuge hypothesis, (4 the isolation of humid rainforest blocks near areas of surface relief in the periphery of Amazonia separated by dry forests, savannas and other intermediate vegetation types during dry climatic periods of the Tertiary and Quaternary (Refuge hypothesis, (5 changes in canopy-density due to climatic reversals (Canopy-density hypothesis (6 the isolation and speciation of animal populations in small montane habitat pockets around Amazonia due to climatic fluctuations without major vegetational changes (Museum hypothesis, (7 competitive species interactions and local species isolations in peripheral regions of Amazonia due to invasion and counterinvasion during cold/warm periods of the Pleistocene (Disturbance-vicariance hypothesis and (8 parapatric speciation across steep environmental gradients without separation of the respective populations (Gradient hypothesis. Several of these hypotheses probably are relevant to a different degree for the speciation processes in different faunal groups or during different geological periods. The basic paleogeography model refers mainly to faunal differentiation during the Tertiary and in combination with the Refuge hypothesis. Milankovitch‡ cycles leading to global main hypotheses proposed to explain barrier formation separating populations and causing the differentiation of species in Amazonia during the course of geological history are based on

  4. Hypotheses to explain the origin of species in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffer, J

    2008-11-01

    The main hypotheses proposed to explain barrier formation separating populations and causing the differentiation of species in Amazonia during the course of geological history are based on different factors, as follow: (1) Changes in the distribution of land and sea or in the landscape due to tectonic movements or sea level fluctuations (Paleogeography hypothesis), (2) the barrier effect of Amazonian rivers (River hypothesis), (3) a combination of the barrier effect of broad rivers and vegetational changes in northern and southern Amazonia (River-refuge hypothesis), (4) the isolation of humid rainforest blocks near areas of surface relief in the periphery of Amazonia separated by dry forests, savannas and other intermediate vegetation types during dry climatic periods of the Tertiary and Quaternary (Refuge hypothesis), (5) changes in canopy-density due to climatic reversals (Canopy-density hypothesis) (6) the isolation and speciation of animal populations in small montane habitat pockets around Amazonia due to climatic fluctuations without major vegetational changes (Museum hypothesis), (7) competitive species interactions and local species isolations in peripheral regions of Amazonia due to invasion and counterinvasion during cold/warm periods of the Pleistocene (Disturbance-vicariance hypothesis) and (8) parapatric speciation across steep environmental gradients without separation of the respective populations (Gradient hypothesis). Several of these hypotheses probably are relevant to a different degree for the speciation processes in different faunal groups or during different geological periods. The basic paleogeography model refers mainly to faunal differentiation during the Tertiary and in combination with the Refuge hypothesis. Milankovitch cycles leading to global main hypotheses proposed to explain barrier formation separating populations and causing the differentiation of species in Amazonia during the course of geological history are based on different

  5. Selective Logging, Fire, and Biomass in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, R. A.

    1999-01-01

    Biomass and rates of disturbance are major factors in determining the net flux of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, and neither of them is well known for most of the earth's surface. Satellite data over large areas are beginning to be used systematically to measure rates of two of the most important types of disturbance, deforestation and reforestation, but these are not the only types of disturbance that affect carbon storage. Other examples include selective logging and fire. In northern mid-latitude forests, logging and subsequent regrowth of forests have, in recent decades, contributed more to the net flux of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere than any other type of land use. In the tropics logging is also becoming increasingly important. According to the FAO/UNEP assessment of tropical forests, about 25% of total area of productive forests have been logged one or more times in the 60-80 years before 1980. The fraction must be considerably greater at present. Thus, deforestation by itself accounts for only a portion of the emissions carbon from land. Furthermore, as rates of deforestation become more accurately measured with satellites, uncertainty in biomass will become the major factor accounting for the remaining uncertainty in estimates of carbon flux. An approach is needed for determining the biomass of terrestrial ecosystems. 3 Selective logging is increasingly important in Amazonia, yet it has not been included in region-wide, satellite-based assessments of land-cover change, in part because it is not as striking as deforestation. Nevertheless, logging affects terrestrial carbon storage both directly and indirectly. Besides the losses of carbon directly associated with selective logging, logging also increases the likelihood of fire.

  6. Catalogue of distribution of lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) from the Brazilian Amazonia. II. Gekkonidae, Phyllodactylidae, Sphaerodactylidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Júnior, Marco A

    2015-07-02

    I present distribution data of all geckos (Gekkonidae, Phyllodactylidae and Sphaerodactylidae) known from the Brazilian Amazonia, totaling 19 species, belonging to nine genera. This represents six more taxa than previously reported for these families. Data were based on the direct examination of 23,094 specimens deposited in three North American and eight Brazilian museums. Most species (68.4%) are endemic to the Amazonia; non-endemic species are mainly associated with open dry (semideciduous) forest or open vegetation (savanna) enclaves in Amazonia. As a whole, three taxa are widespread in Amazonia, two are restricted to eastern Amazonia, two to western Amazonia, three to northern Amazonia (either widespread or restriced to parts of the Guiana region), one to southern Amazonia, one to southwestern Amazonia, and three to the southern peripheral portion of Amazonia. Additionally, four species have unique distributions and four species have a distribution that is congruent with one of the areas of endemism recognized for other organisms (birds and primates), of which two occur in the area of endemism of Guiana, one in Inambari, and one in Tapajós.

  7. Catalogue of distribution of lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) from the Brazilian Amazonia. III. Anguidae, Scincidae, Teiidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Júnior, Marco A; Amaral, Silvana

    2016-12-09

    We present distribution data of all Anguidae, Scincidae, and Teiidae lizards known from the Brazilian Amazonia, totaling 29 species-level taxa, belonging to 14 genera. This represents 11 more species-level taxa than previously reported for these families in this area. Data were based on literature and 46,806 specimens deposited in three North American and eight Brazilian museums, including the main collections harboring Amazonian material. Most species (~55%) are endemic to Amazonia. Except for Ameiva ameiva, that is present in several environments and domains, non-endemic species are either associated with open dry (semideciduous) forest or open vegetation (savanna) enclaves in Amazonia, occupying similar environments outside Amazonia, gallery forests within the Cerrado, or present disjunct populations in the Atlantic Forest. As a whole, six taxa are widespread in Amazonia, four are restricted to eastern Amazonia, four to western Amazonia, three to southwestern Amazonia, one to northern Amazonia, and seven to the southern peripheral portion of Amazonia. Besides, two species present apparently more restricted, unique distributions. Only three species have a distribution that is congruent with one of the areas of endemism (AE) recognized for other organisms (birds and primates), of which two occur in AE Guiana and one in AE Inambari.

  8. Genome sequence of the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae Amazonia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thompson, C.C.; Marin, M.A.; Dias, G.M.; Dutilh, B.E.; Edwards, R.A.; Iida, T.; Thompson, F.L.; Vicente, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 Amazonia is a pathogen that was isolated from cholera-like diarrhea cases in at least two countries, Brazil and Ghana. Based on multilocus sequence analysis, this lineage belongs to a distinct profile compared to strains from El Tor and classical biotypes. The genomic analysis rev

  9. On relict hydrobiid species in Brazilian Amazonia (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia, Hydrobiidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, F.P.

    2000-01-01

    Two extant hydrobiid species from the lower Tapajos river of Brazil are redescribed. Potamopyrgus amazonicus Haas, 1949, is assigned to the genus Dyris Conrad, 1871. At least eleven species from Miocene deposits of Western Amazonia are assigned to Dyris, a genus that was previously assumed to be ext

  10. Neogene climate evolution in Amazonia and the Brazilian Northeast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, C.; Bernardes-de-Oliveira, M.E.C.; Dino, R.; Garcia, M.J.; Antonioli, L.; da Costa Casado, F.; Hooghiemstra, H.; de Souza Carvalho, I.; Garcia, M.J.; Strohschoen, O.; Cunha Lana, C.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change follows from the interaction between global atmospheric and oceanic processes with regional processes. In this chapter we review which factors determined climate evolution in Amazonia and the Brazilian Northeast and present a recompilation of Neogene palynological and paleobotanical r

  11. Paleoclimates of Amazonia: An ice-age view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bush, M.B.; De Oliveira, P.E.; Raczka, M.F.; Gosling, W.D.; Mayle, F.E.; McMichael, C.H.; Urrego, D.H.; de Souza Carvalho, I.; Garcia, M.J.; Cunha Lana, C.; Strohschoen Jr., O.

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of evidence points to climatic complexity during the Ice-Ages. Amazonia does not respond uniformly to modern climatic forcing, and the same was true of the past. Although some climatic forcings were probably expressed everywhere, they were manifested differently. Consequently, climate

  12. Evapotranspiration of deforested areas in central and southwestern Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randow, von R.C.S.; Randow, C.; Hutjes, R.W.A.; Tomasella, J.; Kruijt, B.

    2012-01-01

    Considering the high rates of evapotranspiration of Amazonian forests, understanding the impacts of deforestation on water loss rates is important for assessing those impacts on a regional and global scale. This paper quantifies evapotranspiration rates in two different pasture sites in Amazonia and

  13. Greenhouse gases study in Amazonia; Estudo de gases de efeito estufa na Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Amelio, Monica Tais Siqueira

    2006-07-01

    The Amazon plays an important role on the global carbon cycle, as changing as carbon storage, since Amazon Basin is the biggest area of tropical forest, around 50% of global. Natural's process, deforestation, and use land are CO{sub 2} sources. The Amazon forest is a significant source of N{sub 2}O by soil process, and CH{sub 4} by anaerobic process like flooded areas, rice cultures, and others sources. This project is part of the LBA project (Large-Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia), and this project is 'Vertical profiles of carbon dioxide and other trace gas species over the Amazon basin using small aircraft'. Since December 2000 vertical profiles of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO, H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O and SF{sub 6} have been measured above central Amazonia. The local sampling was over Tapajos National Forest, a primary forest in Para State, where had a CO{sub 2} flux tower and an east impact area with sources like animals, rice cultivation, biomass burning, etc, to compare the influence of an impact area and a preserved area in the profiles. The Reserva Biologica de Cuieiras, at Amazon State, is the other studied place, where there already exists a CO{sub 2} flux tower, and an east preserved area at this State, to compare with the Cuieiras. The sampling has been carried out on vertical profile from 1000 ft up to 12000 ft using a semi-automated sampling package developed at GMD/NOAA and a small aircraft. The analysis uses the MAGICC system (Multiple Analysis of Gases Influence Climate Change) which is installed at the Atmospheric Chemistry Laboratory (LQA) in IPEN (Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares). The results showed that all gases studied, except H{sub 2} gas, has been following the global trend. At the Para State, for the studied years, the Amazonian Forest performed as small CO{sub 2} sink. To compare Wet and Dry Seasons, subtracted the Ascension concentration values in the period to remove the global influence. So that

  14. Navigating Amazonia under uncertainty: past, present and future environmental governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Emily

    2008-05-27

    One of the major environmental challenges of the twenty-first century is the continued rapid deforestation of Amazonia. The 2005 dieback crisis emphasizes the unprecedented challenges facing Brazil. The examination of past and present institutions for ecosystem management, in Amazonia, shows structural barriers across public, private and community arrangements. The adaptive governance concept helps to understand why these institutions are failing to deliver sustainable futures. In looking forward, it is encouraging to see that important networks of knowledge and a number of novel initiatives are emerging in Brazil. These new arrangements are novel in the way that they seem to be adaptive and navigate structures in the hope of overcoming insurmountable drivers of deforestation.

  15. Catalogue of distribution of lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) from the Brazilian Amazonia. I. Dactyloidae, Hoplocercidae, Iguanidae, Leiosauridae, Polychrotidae, Tropiduridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Júnior, Marco A

    2015-07-08

    I present distribution data of all Dactyloidae, Hoplocercidae, Iguanidae, Leiosauridae, Polychrotidae and Tropiduridae lizards known from the Brazilian Amazonia, totaling 40 species-level taxa, belonging to 11 genera. This represents four more species-level taxa than previously reported for these families. Data were based on the direct examination of 41,243 specimens deposited in three North American and eight Brazilian musea, including the main collections harboring Amazonian material. Most species (62.5%) are endemic to the Amazonia; non-endemic species are mainly associated with open dry (semideciduous) forest or open vegetation (savanna) enclaves in Amazonia, with a few exceptions. As a whole, seven taxa are widespread in Amazonia, one is restricted to eastern Amazonia, three to western Amazonia, five to northern Amazonia (either in part of it or widespread in the Guiana region), two to northwestern Amazonia, one to southern Amazonia, nine to southwestern Amazonia, and seven to the southern peripheral portion of Amazonia. Five species have unique distributions and five species have a distribution that is congruent with one of the areas of endemism (AE) recognized for other organisms (birds and primates). The first herpetological gazetteer for the Brazilian Amazonia with about 3,600 georeferenced localities was also produced.

  16. Anthropogenic soils in central Amazonia: farmers’ practices, agrobiodiversity and land-use patterns

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Keywords: Terra Preta; Amazonian Dark Earths; Shifting cultivation; Homegardens; Intensification; Diversification; Smallholder farming. André Braga Junqueira (2015). Anthropogenic soils in central Amazonia: farmers’ practices, agrobiodiversity and land-use patterns. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, The Netherlands, with summary in English, 163 pp. Rural Amazonia is increasingly experiencing environmental and socio-economic changes that directly affect smallholder farmers, with ...

  17. New Odostomia species (Gastropoda, Heterobranchia, Pyramidellidae) from the Miocene Pebas Formation of Western Amazonia (Peru, Colombia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aartsen, van J.J.; Wesselingh, F.P.

    2000-01-01

    Odostomia nuttalli spec. nov. and O. coluhensis spec. nov. are described from the Miocene Pebas Formation of Peruvian and Columbian Amazonia. A third pyramidellid snail is also diagnosed. These species are indicators for marine influence in the late Middle to early Late Miocence of Western Amazonia.

  18. Surface Ozone Enrichment Downwind of Manaus City, in Central Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, S.; Rizzo, L. V.; Rodrigues, N. P.; Brito, J.; Cirino, G. G.; Souza, R. A. F. D.; Barbosa, H. M.; Artaxo, P.; Martin, S. T.

    2015-12-01

    Amazonia is a unique place to study the impact of anthropogenic emissions on atmospheric photochemistry, fueled by large inputs of solar radiation, humidity, biogenic emissions and turbulent mixing. In the wet season, thousands of km2 of Amazonian forest areas can be considered pristine, whereas in the dry season biomass burning emissions in regional scale add to picture. The Amazon region is also going through localized urban development, in particular, the Manaus city, with 2 million inhabitants. The GoAmazon2014/5 experiment seeks to understand the interactions between urban and biogenic emissions in Amazonia. The combination of biogenic volatile organic compounds and urban NOx emissions is expected to increase tropospheric O3 production, with impacts to the ecosystem and human health. To investigate this issue, surface O3 measurements were taken between Feb and Dec 2014 at two sites in Amazonia: T2, located in the outflow of the Manaus urban plume, and T3, sitting 60 km downwind of the city. The influence of the urban plume at T3 site was detected by a combination of typical ΔCN/ΔCO ratios, Hysplit backtrajectories and threshold concentrations of tracers such as particle number and black carbon. The transport from T2 to T3 typically lasted 7 hours. At T2, the O3 diurnal cycle showed a diurnal peak of 20 ppb in the wet season and of 35 ppb in the dry season, suggesting the contribution of regional biomass burning to O3 photochemical production. In the absence of urban or biomass burning emissions, O3 diurnal cycle at T3 showed a peak of 15 ppb, similar to observations taken in pristine forest areas in Amazonia. When the Manaus plume reached the T3 site in the afternoon, the diurnal O3 peak increased to 40 ppb, indicating a net O3 production rate of 3.6 ppb h-1 along this diurnal transport. When the Manaus plume reached the T3 site before sunrise, i.e., a transport during the night, the diurnal peak was anticipated and reached 25 ppb.

  19. Labrets in Africa and Amazonia: medical implications and cultural determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garve, Roland; Garve, Miriam; Türp, Jens C; Meyer, Christian G

    2017-02-01

    The custom of wearing labrets has a long tradition. Labrets appeared independently several thousand years ago in various culture groups in Asia, Europe, Africa and the Americas. Today, apart from diverse body modifications as increasingly practiced in western civilisations, lip plates and plugs are found among a small number of tribal groups only in Africa and Amazonia. We summarise the history of labrets in different societies, describe medical consequences of wearing lip plates and plugs for jaws and teeth and address relevant cultural issues.

  20. The expansion of intensive agriculture and ranching in Brazilian Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robert; DeFries, Ruth; del Carmen Vera-Diaz, Maria; Shimabukuro, Yosio; Venturieri, Adriano

    Agriculture in Amazonia has often provoked controversy, given the tremendous ecological value of the region's environment. First with ranching, and now with the soybean boom, tractors and cattle have marched across lands that for millennia supported only closed moist forest, resident ecosystems, and dispersed indigenous peoples. The present chapter considers this expansion, focusing on the Brazilian portion of the basin. Its premise is that effective Amazonian policy must be grounded on an understanding of the region's agriculture. The chapter pursues its objectives by first addressing the development initiatives that created the preconditions for Amazonia's current agricultural economy. The region is remote and has therefore required sustained government intervention to release its potential. The policy discussion is followed by descriptions of cattle ranching and soy farming. For each, market settings and trajectories of expansion are presented. Although these sectoral descriptions are data rich, they do not provide a conceptual framework for analyzing the environmental impacts of evolving market conditions. To accomplish this, the chapter invokes the classical land use model of von Thünen to explain Amazonian land cover dynamics in relation to soy-cattle linkages. It addresses these dynamics with remote sensing data from Mato Grosso, Pará, and Rondônia, and then discusses scenarios of agricultural advances on the forest. Conclusions follow, considering possible policy responses to deforestation, and the social context of agricultural intensification, with special attention to the issues of land tenure security and distributional equity.

  1. Secondary Forests from Agricultural Abandonment in Amazonia 2000-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Ongoing negotiations to include reducing emissions from tropical deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) in a post-Kyoto climate agreement highlight the critical role of satellite data for accurate and transparent accounting of forest cover changes. In addition to deforestation and degradation, knowledge of secondary forest dynamics is essential for full carbon accounting under REDD+. Land abandonment to secondary forests also frames one of the key tradeoffs for agricultural production in tropical forest countries-whether to incentivize secondary forest growth (for carbon sequestration and biodiversity conservation) or low-carbon expansion of agriculture or biofuels production in areas of secondary forests. We examined patterns of land abandonment to secondary forest across the arc of deforestation in Brazil and Bolivia using time series of annual Landsat and MODIS data from 2000-2009. Rates of land abandonment to secondary forest during 2002-2006 were less than 5% of deforestation rates in these years. Small areas of new secondary forest were scattered across the entire arc of deforestation, rather than concentrated in any specific region of the basin. Taken together, our analysis of the satellite data record emphasizes the difficulties of addressing the pool of new secondary forests in the context of REDD+ in Amazonia. Due to the small total area of secondary forests, land sparing through agricultural intensification will be an important element of efforts to reduce deforestation rates under REDD+ while improving agricultural productivity in Amazonia.

  2. The Amazonia Variant of Vibrio cholerae: Molecular Identification and Study of Virulence Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baptista MAS

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenic O1 Amazonia variant of Vibrio cholerae has been shown previously to have a cytotoxin acting on cultured Vero and Y-1 cells, and to lack important virulence factors such as the cholera toxin (Coelho et al. 1995a. This study extends the molecular analysis of the Amazonia strains, detecting the presence of the toxR gene, with a very similar sequence to that of the El Tor and classical biotypes. The outer membrane proteins are analyzed, detecting a variation among the group of Amazonia strains, with three different patterns found. As a by-product of this work a polymerase chain reaction fragment was sequenced, reading part of the sequence of the Lon protease of the Amazonia strains. This gene was not previously described in V. cholerae, but its sequence is present in the TIGR database specific for this species.

  3. Anthropogenic soils in central Amazonia: farmers’ practices, agrobiodiversity and land-use patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braga Junqueira, A.

    2015-01-01

    Keywords: Terra Preta; Amazonian Dark Earths; Shifting cultivation; Homegardens; Intensification; Diversification; Smallholder farming. André Braga Junqueira (2015). Anthropogenic soils in central Amazonia: farmers’ practices, agrobiodiversity and land-use patterns. PhD thesis, Wagening

  4. Pre-Columbian Floristic Legacies in Modern Homegardens of Central Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Lins; Helena P Lima; Baccaro, Fabricio B.; Valdely F Kinupp; Glenn H Shepard; Clement, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    Historical ecologists have demonstrated legacy effects in apparently wild landscapes in Europe, North America, Mesoamerica, Amazonia, Africa and Oceania. People live and farm in archaeological sites today in many parts of the world, but nobody has looked for the legacies of past human occupations in the most dynamic areas in these sites: homegardens. Here we show that the useful flora of modern homegardens is partially a legacy of pre-Columbian occupations in Central Amazonia: the more comple...

  5. Shuttle imaging radar A analysis of land use in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Thomas A.; Woodwell, George M.

    1988-01-01

    Over large areas in the tropics, satellite imagery is the principal source of data on the area, current stature, and extent of disturbance of the forests. The information from imagery that covers large areas at low resolution is greatly enhanced when different types of imagery can be compared. The paper presents a comparison of data from Landsat MSS and from the Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR-A) L band HH polarization data for sites in the Amazon Basin. Results indicate that SIR-A backscatter from the undisturbed forest was lower than that from some disturbed areas and from flooded forests and that SIR-A brightness, increases nonlinearly with the Landsat normalized difference vegetation index. It is hypothesized that the brightest radar returns in southern Amazonia are from newly cleared forests that are littered with standing and fallen tree boles that function as corner reflectors; and that backscatter will diminish from disturbed areas over time as fields are burned repeatedly.

  6. Drug tourism or spiritual healing? Ayahuasca seekers in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelman, Michael

    2005-06-01

    This research addresses the question of whether Westerners who seek traditional spiritual medicine known as ayahuasca can be best characterized as "drug tourists" or as people pursuing spiritual and therapeutic opportunities. Participants in an ayahuasca retreat in Amazonia were interviewed regarding their motivations for participation and the benefits they felt that they received. These findings from the interviews were organized to reveal common motivations and benefits. Contrary to the characterization as "drug tourists", the principal motivations can be characterized as: seeking spiritual relations and personal spiritual development; emotional healing; and the development of personal self-awareness, including contact with a sacred nature, God, spirits and plant and natural energies produced by the ayahuasca. The motivation and perceived benefits both point to transpersonal concerns, with the principal perceived benefits involving increased self awareness, insights and access to deeper levels of the self that enhanced personal development and the higher self, providing personal direction in life.

  7. Marine intervals in Neogene fluvial deposits of western Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonstra, Melanie; Troelstra, Simon; Lammertsma, Emmy; Hoorn, Carina

    2014-05-01

    Amazonia is one of the most species rich areas on Earth, but this high diversity is not homogeneous over the entire region. Highest mammal and tree-alpha diversity is found in the fluvio-lacustrine Pebas system, a Neogene wetland associated with rapid radiation of species. The estuarine to marine origin of various modern Amazonian fish, plants, and invertebrates has been associated with past marine ingressions into this freshwater Pebas system. The exact nature and age of these invasions is, however, debated. Here we present new evidence from fluvial and fluvio-lacustrine deposits of Neogene age in southeast Colombia, that point to periods of widespread marine conditions in western Amazonia. Our evidence is based on an analysis of marine palynomorphs, such as organic linings of foraminifera and dinoflagellate cysts, present in dark sandy clay sediments that outcrop along the Caqueta and Amazon rivers. Characteristically, the foraminiferal linings can be assigned to three benthic morphotypes only, e.g. Ammonia, Elphidium and Trochammina. This low diversity assemblage is associated with estuarine/marginal marine conditions. No distinct marine elements such as shelf or planktonic species were encountered. The observed foraminiferal linings and dinocyst assemblages are typical for a (eutrophic) shallow marine environment, suggesting that the Pebas freshwater wetland system occasionally changed to (marginal) marine. Although some reworked elements are found, a typical Neogene dinocyst taxon is commonly found supporting in situ deposition. Sedimentological features typical for tidal conditions that are reported for sites in Peru and northeastern Brazil likely relate to these marine ingressions. Sea level changes as well as foreland basin development related to Andes formation may have facilitated the entry of marine water during the Neogene.

  8. Two hundred years of local avian extinctions in eastern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Nárgila G; Lees, Alexander C; Aleixo, Alexandre; Barlow, Jos; Dantas, Sidnei M; Ferreira, Joice; Lima, Maria de Fátima C; Gardner, Toby A

    2014-10-01

    Local, regional, and global extinctions caused by habitat loss, degradation, and fragmentation have been widely reported for the tropics. The patterns and drivers of this loss of species are now increasingly well known in Amazonia, but there remains a significant gap in understanding of long-term trends in species persistence and extinction in anthropogenic landscapes. Such a historical perspective is critical for understanding the status and trends of extant biodiversity as well as for identifying priorities to halt further losses. Using extensive historical data sets of specimen records and results of contemporary surveys, we searched for evidence of local extinctions of a terra firma rainforest avifauna over 200 years in a 2500 km(2) eastern Amazonian region around the Brazilian city of Belém. This region has the longest history of ornithological fieldwork in the entire Amazon basin and lies in the highly threatened Belém Centre of Endemism. We also compared our historically inferred extinction events with extensive data on species occurrences in a sample of catchments in a nearby municipality (Paragominas) that encompass a gradient of past forest loss. We found evidence for the possible extinction of 47 species (14% of the regional species pool) that were unreported from 1980 to 2013 (80% last recorded between 1900 and 1980). Seventeen species appear on the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List, and many of these are large-bodied. The species lost from the region immediately around Belém are similar to those which are currently restricted to well-forested catchments in Paragominas. Although we anticipate the future rediscovery or recolonization of some species inferred to be extinct by our calculations, we also expect that there are likely to be additional local extinctions, not reported here, given the ongoing loss and degradation of remaining areas of native vegetation across eastern Amazonia.

  9. Workplan for Catalyzing Collaboration with Amazonian Universities in the Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I. Foster; Moreira, Adriana

    1997-01-01

    Success of the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmospheric Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) program depends on several critical factors, the most important being the effective participation of Amazonian researchers and institutions. Without host-county counterparts, particularly in Amazonia, many important studies cannot he undertaken due either to lack of qualified persons or to legal constraints. No less important, the acceptance of the LBA program in Amazonia is also dependent on what LBA can do for improving the scientific expertise in Amazonia. Gaining the active investment of Amazonian scientists in a comprehensive research program is not a trivial task. Potential collaborators are few, particularly where much of the research was to be originally focused - the southern arc of Brazilian Amazonia. The mid-term goals of the LBA Committee on Training and Education are to increase the number of collaborators and to demonstrate that LBA will be of benefit to the region.

  10. Arcella peruviana sp. nov. (Amoebozoa: Arcellinida, Arcellidae), a new species from a tropical peatland in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reczuga, Monika K; Swindles, Graeme T; Grewling, Łukasz; Lamentowicz, Mariusz

    2015-10-01

    There has only been one study on the ecology of testate amoebae from Amazonian peatlands, despite Amazonia being a biodiversity hotspot of global importance. During analysis of litter samples from Aucayacu peatland, western (Peruvian) Amazonia, we discovered a testate amoeba with a distinct morphology unlike any other species reported previously. We describe a new species, Arcella peruviana, based on its distinct morphology, compare it to morphologically similar species and provide information about its ecology. This new species is characterised by a distinct cruciform aperture (diameter ranges between 12 and 17μm) which is slightly invaginated. The test is small (height 43-57μm) and polygonal in cross-section. Our discovery suggests the existence of an unknown diversity of testate amoebae in Amazonia. The absence of the new Arcella species in more intensively-sampled regions supports the view that protists have restricted distributions.

  11. [Environmental sustainability and health indicators in the Legal Amazonia, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Carlos Machado de; Giatti, Leandro Luiz

    2009-06-01

    One of the challenges for public health is to build systems of indicators that allow monitoring current conditions and trends in environmental and health sustainability. This article focuses on the Legal Amazonia macro-region, which has undergone profound socioeconomic, environmental, and health changes since the mid-20th century. The conceptual framework adopted here was the model entitled Driving Forces, Pressures, State, Exposure, Effects, and Action (DPSEEA) proposed by the World Health Organization and adopted for environmental health surveillance by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The results show that numerous motor forces and pressures have contributed to the growth of the economy and the population, as well as to improvements in some traditional health indicators (a reduction in infant mortality and an increase in life expectancy), alongside major social and economic inequalities and heterogeneity in environmental health impacts. This same process has been accompanied by environmental changes that indicate an unsustainable development model for present and future generations, demanding comprehensive action by public health and environmental institutions.

  12. Electric systems failures produced by CG lightning in Eastern Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Paes dos Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Operational records of power outages of the electric energy distribution systems in eastern Amazonia presented a large number of events attributed to lightning strikes, during the 2006 to 2009 period. The regional electricity concessionary data were compared to actual lightning observations made by SIPAM's LDN system, over two areas where operational sub systems of transmission lines are installed. Statistical relations were drawn between the monthly lightning occurrence density and the number of power outages of the electric systems for both areas studied. The results showed that, although with some delays between these variables peaks, the number of power disruptions has a tendency to follow the behavior of the lightning occurrence densities variations. The numerical correlations were positive and may be useful to the transmission lines maintenance crews at least for the Belém-Castanhal electricity distribution sub system. Evidence was found, that the SST's over certain areas of the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, influence convection over the area of interest, and may help to prognosticate the periods of intense electric storms, requiring repair readiness for the regional electric systems.

  13. Deforestation and threats to the biodiversity of Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ICG. Vieira

    Full Text Available This is a review of the main factors currently perceived as threats to the biodiversity of Amazonia. Deforestation and the expansion of the agricultural frontier go hand in hand within the context of occupation and land use in the region, followed by a hasty process of industrialization since the 1950s and, more recently, by a nation-wide attempt to adapt Brazil to economic globalization. Intensive agriculture and cattle-raising, lack of territorial planning, the monoculture of certain crops often promoted by official agencies, and the introduction of exotic species by cultivation are some of the factors affecting Amazonian biodiversity. There are still large gaps in knowledge that need to be dealt with for a better understanding of the local ecosystems so as to allow their preservation, but such investigation is subjected to manifold hindrances by misinformation, disinformation and sheer ignorance from the legal authorities and influential media. Data available for select groups of organisms indicate that the magnitude of the loss and waste of natural resources associated with deforestation is staggering, with estimated numbers of lost birds and primates being over ten times that of such animals illegally commercialized around the world in one year. The challenges to be met for an eventual reversal of this situation demand more systematic and concerted studies, the consolidation of new and existing research groups, and a call for a halt to activities depleting the Amazonian rainforest.

  14. Deforestation and threats to the biodiversity of Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, I C G; Toledo, P M; Silva, J M C; Higuchi, H

    2008-11-01

    This is a review of the main factors currently perceived as threats to the biodiversity of Amazonia. Deforestation and the expansion of the agricultural frontier go hand in hand within the context of occupation and land use in the region, followed by a hasty process of industrialization since the 1950s and, more recently, by a nation-wide attempt to adapt Brazil to economic globalization. Intensive agriculture and cattle-raising, lack of territorial planning, the monoculture of certain crops often promoted by official agencies, and the introduction of exotic species by cultivation are some of the factors affecting Amazonian biodiversity. There are still large gaps in knowledge that need to be dealt with for a better understanding of the local ecosystems so as to allow their preservation, but such investigation is subjected to manifold hindrances by misinformation, disinformation and sheer ignorance from the legal authorities and influential media. Data available for select groups of organisms indicate that the magnitude of the loss and waste of natural resources associated with deforestation is staggering, with estimated numbers of lost birds and primates being over ten times that of such animals illegally commercialized around the world in one year. The challenges to be met for an eventual reversal of this situation demand more systematic and concerted studies, the consolidation of new and existing research groups, and a call for a halt to activities depleting the Amazonian rainforest.

  15. Biome-Scale Forest Properties in Amazonia Based on Field and Satellite Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana O. Anderson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Amazonian forests are extremely heterogeneous at different spatial scales. This review intends to present the large-scale patterns of the ecosystem properties of Amazonia, and focuses on two parts of the main components of the net primary production: the long-lived carbon pools (wood and short-lived pools (leaves. First, the focus is on forest biophysical properties, and secondly, on the macro-scale leaf phenological patterns of these forests, looking at field measurements and bringing into discussion the recent findings derived from remote sensing dataset. Finally, I discuss the results of the three major droughts that hit Amazonia in the last 15 years. The panorama that emerges from this review suggests that slow growing forests in central and eastern Amazonia, where soils are poorer, have significantly higher above ground biomass and higher wood density, trees are higher and present lower proportions of large-leaved species than stands in northwest and southwest Amazonia. However, the opposite pattern is observed in relation to forest productivity and dynamism, which is higher in western Amazonia than in central and eastern forests. The spatial patterns on leaf phenology across Amazonia are less marked. Field data from different forest formations showed that new leaf production can be unrelated to climate seasonality, timed with radiation, timed with rainfall and/or river levels. Oppositely, satellite images exhibited a large-scale synchronized peak in new leaf production during the dry season. Satellite data and field measurements bring contrasting results for the 2005 drought. Discussions on data processing and filtering, aerosols effects and a combined analysis with field and satellite images are presented. It is suggested that to improve the understanding of the large-scale patterns on Amazonian forests, integrative analyses that combine new technologies in remote sensing and long-term field ecological data are imperative.

  16. Amazon forest dynamics under changing abiotic conditions in the early Miocene (Colombian Amazonia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salamanca Villegas, S.; van Soelen, E.; Teunissen van Manen, M.L.; Flantua, S.G.A.; Santos, R.V.; Roddaz, M.; Dantas, E.L.; van Loon, E.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Kim, J.-H.; Hoorn, C.

    2016-01-01

    Aim We analysed in detail a past marine incursion event in north-westernAmazonia and measured its effect on the forest composition. We also deter-mined the sediment provenance in the ?uvio-estuarine system and recon-structed the overall ?oral composition of the Amazon lowland forest duringthe Miocen

  17. Estimates of the height of the boundary layer using SODAR and rawinsoundings in Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisch, G [Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco (IAE/CTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, 12228-904 (Brazil); Santos, L A R dos [Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia (INMET), BrasIlia, 70680-900 (Brazil)], E-mail: gfisch@iae.cta.br, E-mail: landre@inmet.gov.br

    2008-05-01

    During the LBA campaign in Amazonia 2002, simultaneous measurements were made of the boundary layer using different instruments (rawinsoundings and SODAR). The profiles of potential temperature and humidity were used to estimates the height of the boundary layer using 3 different techniques. The SODAR's measurements did not capture the shallow morning boundary layer observed at the profiles.

  18. Ecological research in the large-scale biosphere-atmosphere experiment in Amazonia: early results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keller, M.; Alencar, A.; Asner, G.P.; Braswell, B.; Bustamante, M.; Davidson, E.; Feldpausch, T.; Fernandes, E.; Goulden, M.; Kabat, P.; Kruijt, B.; Luizão, F.; Miller, S.; Markewitz, D.; Nobre, A.D.; Nobre, C.A.; Priante Filho, N.; Rocha, da H.; Silva Dias, P.; Randow, von C.; Vourlitis, G.L.

    2004-01-01

    The Large-scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) is a multinational, interdisciplinary research program led by Brazil. Ecological studies in LBA focus on how tropical forest conversion, regrowth, and selective logging influence carbon storage,. nutrient dynamics, trace gas fluxes, a

  19. Association of vascular epiphytes with landscape units and phorophytes in humid lowland forests of Colombian Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benavides, A.M.; Vasco, A.; Duque, A.J.; Duivenvoorden, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    The species composition of vascular epiphytes and phorophytes (trees and lianas) was studied in ten 0.1-ha forest plots distributed over three landscape units (floodplains, swamps and well-drained uplands) in Colombian Amazonia. The aim was to analyse how host-preferences contributed to the patterns

  20. Species richness and distribution of understorey bryophytes in different forest types in Colombian Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benavides, J.C.; Duque, A.J.; Duivenvoorden, J.F.; Cleef, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    The first bryophyte survey results from Colombian Amazonia are presented. Bryophyte species, differentiated into mosses and liverworts, and further into four life-form classes, were sampled in 0.1-ha plots. These plots were distributed over four landscape units in the middle Caquetá area: floodplain

  1. An illustrated key to nymphs of Perlidae (Insecta, Plecoptera genera in Central Amazonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamada Neusa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available An illustrated key to nymphs of Perlidae collected in streams of Central Amazonia, Brazil is provided. Three genera are reported for this region: Macrogynoplax Enderlein, Anacroneuria Klapálek and Enderleina Jewett. Additional diagnostic characters are provided for Enderleina nymphs.

  2. The Pleasures and Pitfalls of a "Participatory" Documentation Project: An Experience in Northwestern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenzel, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    This article adds a voice from Amazonia to the reflective discussion on documentation projects designed within a "participatory" or "collaborative" paradigm of language research. It offers a critical assessment of one such documentation project carried out from 2007-2011 with the Kotiria and Wa'ikhana (East Tukano) language…

  3. Contrasting andean geodynamics drive evolution of lowland taxa in western Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using a palm lineage of 15 species (Astrocaryum sect. Huicungo), we tested an hypothesis that past geologic events in western Amazonia influenced the modern configuration of the upper Amazon drainage and thus diversification and distribution of these palsm, which found only in this region. The chang...

  4. Mapping landscape scale variations of forest structure, biomass, and productivity in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saatchi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Landscape and environmental variables such as topography, geomorphology, soil types, and climate are important factors affecting forest composition, structure, productivity, and biomass. Here, we combine a network of forest inventories with recently developed global data products from satellite observations in modeling the potential distributions of forest structure and productivity in Amazonia and examine how geomorphology, soil, and precipitation control these distributions. We use the RAINFOR network of forest plots distributed in lowland forests across Amazonia, and satellite observations of tree cover, leaf area index, phenology, moisture, and topographical variations. A maximum entropy estimation (Maxent model is employed to predict the spatial distribution of several key forest structure parameters: basal area, fraction of large trees, fraction of palms, wood density, productivity, and above-ground biomass at 5 km spatial resolution. A series of statistical tests at selected thresholds as well as across all thresholds and jackknife analysis are used to examine the accuracy of distribution maps and the relative contributions of environmental variables. The final maps were interpreted using soil, precipitation, and geomorphological features of Amazonia and it was found that the length of dry season played a key role in impacting the distribution of all forest variables except the wood density. Soil type had a significant impact on the wood productivity. Most high productivity forests were distributed either on less infertile soils of western Amazonia and Andean foothills, on crystalline shields, and younger alluvial deposits. Areas of low elevation and high density of small rivers of Central Amazonia showed distinct features, hosting mainly forests with low productivity and smaller trees.

  5. Long term aerosol and trace gas measurements in Central Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artaxo, Paulo; Barbosa, Henrique M. J.; Ferreira de Brito, Joel; Carbone, Samara; Rizzo, Luciana V.; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Martin, Scot T.

    2016-04-01

    The central region of the Amazonian forest is a pristine region in terms of aerosol and trace gases concentrations. In the wet season, Amazonia is actually one of the cleanest continental region we can observe on Earth. A long term observational program started 20 years ago, and show important features of this pristine region. Several sites were used, between then ATTO (Amazon Tall Tower Observatory) and ZF2 ecological research site, both 70-150 Km North of Manaus, receiving air masses that traveled over 1500 km of pristine tropical forests. The sites are GAW regional monitoring stations. Aerosol chemical composition (OC/EC and trace elements) is being analysed using filters for fine (PM2.5) and coarse mode aerosol as well as Aerodyne ACSM (Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitors). VOCs are measured using PTR-MS, while CO, O3 and CO2 are routinely measured. Aerosol absorption is being studied with AE33 aethalometers and MAAP (Multi Angle Absorption Photometers). Aerosol light scattering are being measured at several wavelengths using TSI and Ecotech nephelometers. Aerosol size distribution is determined using scanning mobility particle sizer at each site. Lidars measure the aerosol column up to 12 Km providing the vertical profile of aerosol extinction. The aerosol column is measures using AERONET sun photometers. In the wet season, organic aerosol comprises 75-85% of fine aerosol, and sulfate and nitrate concentrations are very low (1-3 percent). Aerosols are dominated by biogenic primary particles as well as SOA from biogenic precursors. Black carbon in the wet season accounts for 5-9% of fine mode aerosol. Ozone in the wet season peaks at 10-12 ppb at the middle of the day, while carbon monoxide averages at 50-80 ppb. Aerosol optical thickness (AOT) is a low 0.05 to 0.1 at 550 nm in the wet season. Sahara dust transport events sporadically enhance the concentration of soil dust aerosols and black carbon. In the dry season (August-December), long range transported

  6. Light Absorption of Biogenic Aerosol Particles in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holanda, B. A.; Artaxo, P.; Ferreira De Brito, J.; Barbosa, H. M.; Andreae, M. O.; Saturno, J.; Pöhlker, C.; Holben, B. N.; Schafer, J.

    2014-12-01

    Aerosol absorption is a key issue in proper calculation of aerosol radiative forcing. Especially in the tropics with the dominance of natural biogenic aerosol and brown carbon, the so called anomalous absorption is of particular interest. A special experiment was designed to study the wavelength dependence of aerosol absorption for PM2.5 as well as for PM10 particles in the wet season in Central Amazonia. Aerosol analysis occurred from May to August 2014, in the ZF2 ecological reservation, situated at about 55 km North of Manaus in very pristine conditions Two 7 wavelengths AE33 Aethalometers were deployed measuring in parallel, but with a PM2.5 and PM10 inlets. Two MAAP (Multiangle Aerosol Absorption Photometer) were operated in parallel with the AE33 exactly at the same PM2.5 and PM10 inlets. Organic and elemental carbon was analyzed using collection with quartz filters and analysis using a Sunset OC/EC analyzer. Aerosol light scattering for 3 wavelengths was measured using Air Photon and TSI Nephelometers. Aerosol size distribution was measured with one TSI SMPS and a GRIMM OPC to have the size range from 10 nm to 10 micrometers. Particles were measured under dry conditions using diffusion dryers. Aerosol optical depth and absorption was also measured with an AERONET sunphotometer operated close to the site. As the experiment was run in the wet season, very low equivalent black carbon (EBC) were measured, with average concentrations around 50 ng/m³ during May, increasing to 130 ng/m³ in June and July. The measurements adjusted for similar wavelengths shows excellent agreement between the MAAP and AE33 for both inlets (PM2.5 and PM10). It was not possible statistically infer absorption from the coarse mode biogenic particles, since the absorption was completely dominated by fine mode particles. AERONET measurements shows very low values of AOD, at 0.17 at 500 nm and 0.13 at 870 nm, with very low absorption AOD values at 0.00086 at 676 nm and 0.0068 at 872 nm

  7. Time Resolved Measurements of Primary Biogenic Aerosol Particles in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollny, A. G.; Garland, R.; Pöschl, U.

    2009-04-01

    Biogenic aerosols are ubiquitous in the Earth's atmosphere and they influence atmospheric chemistry and physics, the biosphere, climate, and public health. They play an important role in the spread of biological organisms and reproductive materials, and they can cause or enhance human, animal, and plant diseases. Moreover, they influence the Earth's energy budget by scattering and absorbing radiation, and they can initiate the formation of clouds and precipitation as cloud condensation and ice nuclei. The composition, abundance, and origin of biogenic aerosol particles and components are, however, still not well understood and poorly quantified. Prominent examples of primary biogenic aerosol particles, which are directly emitted from the biosphere to the atmosphere, are pollen, bacteria, fungal spores, viruses, and fragments of animals and plants. During the Amazonian Aerosol Characterization Experiment (AMAZE-08) a large number of aerosol and gas-phase measurements were taken on a remote site close to Manaus, Brazil, during a period of five weeks in February and March 2008. This presented study is focused on data from an ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UVAPS, TSI inc.) that has been deployed for the first time in Amazonia. In this instrument, particle counting and aerodynamic sizing over the range of 0.5-20 µm are complemented by the measurement of UV fluorescence at 355 nm (excitation) and 420-575 nm (emission), respectively. Fluorescence at these wavelengths is characteristic for reduced pyridine nucleotides (e.g., NAD(P)H) and for riboflavin, which are specific for living cells. Thus particles exhibiting fluorescence signals can be regarded as "viable aerosols" or "fluorescent bioparticles" (FBAP), and their concentration can be considered as lower limit for the actual abundance of primary biogenic aerosol particles. Data from the UVAPS were averaged over 5 minute time intervals. The presence of bioparticles in the observed size range has been

  8. Continuous soil carbon storage of old permanent pastures in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Clément; Fontaine, Sébastien; Klumpp, Katja; Picon-Cochard, Catherine; Grise, Marcia Mascarenhas; Dezécache, Camille; Ponchant, Lise; Freycon, Vincent; Blanc, Lilian; Bonal, Damien; Burban, Benoit; Soussana, Jean-François; Blanfort, Vincent

    2016-12-14

    Amazonian forests continuously accumulate carbon (C) in biomass and in soil, representing a carbon sink of 0.42-0.65 GtC yr(-1) . In recent decades, more than 15% of Amazonian forests have been converted into pastures, resulting in net C emissions (~200 tC ha(-1) ) due to biomass burning and litter mineralization in the first years after deforestation. However, little is known about the capacity of tropical pastures to restore a C sink. Our study shows in French Amazonia that the C storage observed in native forest can be partly restored in old (≥24 year) tropical pastures managed with a low stocking rate (±1 LSU ha(-1) ) and without the use of fire since their establishment. A unique combination of a large chronosequence study and eddy covariance measurements showed that pastures stored between -1.27 ± 0.37 and -5.31 ± 2.08 tC ha(-1)  yr(-1) while the nearby native forest stored -3.31 ± 0.44 tC ha(-1)  yr(-1) . This carbon is mainly sequestered in the humus of deep soil layers (20-100 cm), whereas no C storage was observed in the 0- to 20-cm layer. C storage in C4 tropical pasture is associated with the installation and development of C3 species, which increase either the input of N to the ecosystem or the C:N ratio of soil organic matter. Efforts to curb deforestation remain an obvious priority to preserve forest C stocks and biodiversity. However, our results show that if sustainable management is applied in tropical pastures coming from deforestation (avoiding fires and overgrazing, using a grazing rotation plan and a mixture of C3 and C4 species), they can ensure a continuous C storage, thereby adding to the current C sink of Amazonian forests.

  9. Amazonia boliviana: arqueología de los Llanos de Mojos Bolivian Amazonia: archaeology of the Llanos de Mojos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Adolfo Calandra

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A arqueologia da Amazônia boliviana ou das "Terras Baixas" compreende um imenso território que mostra, a luz da informação disponível, significativas descontinuidades espaço-temporais. A identificação nesta área de sociedades constituindo "cacicados da floresta tropical" a partir de critérios baseados em preconceitos, requer a reavaliação da pré-história regional do ponto de vista causal. A arqueologia beniana (de Llanos de Mojos é conhecida, fundamentalmente, a partir das escavações de Erland Nordenskiöld, que sem dúvida estabeleceu as bases conceituais existentes atualmente. Entre os anos de 1977 e 1981 uma missão do Museu de La Plata (Argentina, sob a direção de B. Dougherty, e em estreita colaboração com o Instituto de Arqueologia de La Paz (Bolívia e com o Amazonian Ecosystem Research (EUA, conduziu pesquisas sistemáticas considerando variados itens antropológicos e produzindo numerosas datações de radiocarbono. Estas contribuições ajudaram a esclarecer, mas não a simplificar o panorama pré-hispânico regional, tão importante na temática arqueológica sul-americana. Complementa este artigo uma exaustiva lista de bibliografias que facilita o acesso ao conhecimento sobre este grande território.The archaeology of the Bolivian Amazonia or "Low lands" comprises a large territory that shows, significant time and spatial discontinuities. The identification of societies in this area constituting "Jefaturas de la Floresta Tropical", from criteria based on preconceptions requires the reassessment of regional prehistory from the causal point of view. Benian archeology (Llanos de Mojos is fundamentally known, from the Erland Nordenskiöld excavations, which undoubtedly sets the conceptual bases existing to date. Between 1977 and 1981 a Mission of Museo de La Plata (Argentina, under the direction of B. Dougherty together with the Instituto Nacional de Arqueología of La Paz (Bolivia and the Amazonian Ecosystem

  10. Soil and vegetation carbon stocks in Brazilian Western Amazonia: relationships and ecological implications for natural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, C E G R; do Amaral, E F; de Mendonça, B A F; Oliveira, H; Lani, J L; Costa, L M; Fernandes Filho, E I

    2008-05-01

    The relationships between soils attributes, soil carbon stocks and vegetation carbon stocks are poorly know in Amazonia, even at regional scale. In this paper, we used the large and reliable soil database from Western Amazonia obtained from the RADAMBRASIL project and recent estimates of vegetation biomass to investigate some environmental relationships, quantifying C stocks of intact ecosystem in Western Amazonia. The results allowed separating the western Amazonia into 6 sectors, called pedo-zones: Roraima, Rio Negro Basin, Tertiary Plateaux of the Amazon, Javari-Juruá-Purus lowland, Acre Basin and Rondonia uplands. The highest C stock for the whole soil is observed in the Acre and in the Rio Negro sectors. In the former, this is due to the high nutrient status and high clay activity, whereas in the latter, it is attributed to a downward carbon movement attributed to widespread podzolization and arenization, forming spodic horizons. The youthful nature of shallow soils of the Javari-Juruá-Purus lowlands, associated with high Al, results in a high phytomass C/soil C ratio. A similar trend was observed for the shallow soils from the Roraima and Rondonia highlands. A consistent east-west decline in biomass carbon in the Rio Negro Basin sector is associated with increasing rainfall and higher sand amounts. It is related to lesser C protection and greater C loss of sandy soils, subjected to active chemical leaching and widespread podzolization. Also, these soils possess lower cation exchangeable capacity and lower water retention capacity. Zones where deeply weathered Latosols dominate have a overall pattern of high C sequestration, and greater than the shallower soils from the upper Amazon, west of Madeira and Negro rivers. This was attributed to deeper incorporation of carbon in these clayey and highly pedo-bioturbated soils. The results highlight the urgent need for refining soil data at an appropriate scale for C stocks calculations purposes in Amazonia. There

  11. OSL age determinations of Pleistocene fluvial deposits in Central Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emílio A.A. Soares

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Absolute dating methods have been used in chronological studies of geological processes and sedimentary units of Quaternary age in Central Amazonia, Brazil. Although radiocarbon dating has been very useful in archaeological research and soil studies, the temporal interval of this method is inefficient in evaluating the sedimentation aspects and geological events from the beginning of the Quaternary in the Amazon basin. The use of crystal luminescence dating has been one of the most promising tool for determining the absolute dating of Quaternary deposits in the Amazonian region. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL dating, following the MAR and SAR protocols, in a tectonic-sedimentary study of Quaternary fluvial deposits in the confluence area of the Negro and Solimões rivers, indicated ages from 1.3 (Holocene to about 67.4 kyears (Late Pleistocene for these sediments. Low radioactive isotope concentrations were found about 2ppm for 235U and 238U; 5ppm for 232Th; and the 40K concentrations were almost zero. A comparison was made between MAR and SAR protocols taking into account the fluvial depositional process.Métodos de datação absoluta têm sido usados em estudos cronológicos de processos geológicos e unidades sedimentares de idade quaternária na Amazônia Central, Brasil. Embora as datações pelo 14C tenham sido muito úteis na pesquisa arqueológica e estudos de solos, o intervalo de tempo abrangido por este método é ineficiente para avaliar aspectos da sedimentação e eventos geológicos do início do Quaternário na bacia Amazônica. O uso da datação por luminescência de cristais tem sido uma das ferramentas mais promissoras para a determinação da idade absoluta de depósitos quaternários na região amazônica. A datação por luminescência opticamente estimulada (LOE, seguindo os protocolos MAR e SAR, em um estudo tectono-sedimentar de depósitos aluviais quaternários da área de confluência dos rios Negro e Solim

  12. Edaphic and light conditions of sympatric plant morphotypes in western Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julissa Roncal

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Here I present a dataset of edaphic and light conditions associated with the occurrence of sympatric morphotypes of Geonoma macrostachys (Arecaceae/Palmae, a candidate case study from Amazonia hypothesized to have evolved under ecological speciation. Transects were established in three lowland rainforests in Peru, and the abundance of each local morphotype of this species was recorded in a total area of 4.95 hectares. Composite soil samples and hemispherical photographs were taken along the transects were the species occurred to obtain information on soil nutrients, soil texture, and indirect measurements of light availability. The raw and summary tables disclose the characteristics of each study site and habitats within them, which could be useful to soil scientists, ecologists, and conservationists engaged in similar research activities or meta-analyses in Amazonia.

  13. Edaphic and light conditions of sympatric plant morphotypes in western Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncal, Julissa

    2014-01-01

    Here I present a dataset of edaphic and light conditions associated with the occurrence of sympatric morphotypes of Geonomamacrostachys (Arecaceae/Palmae), a candidate case study from Amazonia hypothesized to have evolved under ecological speciation. Transects were established in three lowland rainforests in Peru, and the abundance of each local morphotype of this species was recorded in a total area of 4.95 hectares. Composite soil samples and hemispherical photographs were taken along the transects were the species occurred to obtain information on soil nutrients, soil texture, and indirect measurements of light availability. The raw and summary tables disclose the characteristics of each study site and habitats within them, which could be useful to soil scientists, ecologists, and conservationists engaged in similar research activities or meta-analyses in Amazonia.

  14. Campylobacter fetus Bacteremia in a Healthy Patient Returning from a Trip to the Ecuadorian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez, A C; Barrera, S; Leon, A; Trueba, G

    2016-12-27

    Campylobacter fetus is an opportunistic pathogen which causes bacteremia and other invasive infections in immunocompromised patients who have been exposed to livestock or ingested animal products (uncooked meat or unpasteurized milk). The present report describes a C. fetus infection in a healthy adult (immunocompetent) who returned from a visit to the Ecuadorian Amazonia and who did not report exposure to the typical sources of infection.

  15. A new species of phlebotomine, Trichophoromyia adelsonsouzai (Diptera: Psychodidae of Brazilian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Vasconcelos dos Santos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The phlebotomine sandfly Trichophoromyia adelsonsouzai sp. nov. is described and illustrated based on the male and female morphological characteristics of specimens collected at Km 27 of the Trans-Amazonian Highway, municipality of Vitória do Xingu, state of Pará, Brazilian Amazonia. This is an area subject to the direct influence of Belo Monte hydroelectric system. With the description of this new species the number of Trichophoromyia sandflies recorded in Brazil is increased to 20.

  16. Hydro-climate and ecological behaviour of the drought of Amazonia in 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, J A; Nobre, C A; Tomasella, J; Cardoso, M F; Oyama, M D

    2008-05-27

    In 2005, southwestern Amazonia experienced the effects of an intense drought that affected life and biodiversity. Several major tributaries as well as parts of the main river itself contained only a fraction of their normal volumes of water, and lakes were drying up. The consequences for local people, animals and the forest itself are impossible to estimate now, but they are likely to be serious. The analyses indicate that the drought was manifested as weak peak river season during autumn to winter as a consequence of a weak summertime season in southwestern Amazonia; the winter season was also accompanied by rainfall that sometimes reached 25% of the climatic value, being anomalously warm and dry and helping in the propagation of fires. Analyses of climatic and hydrological records in Amazonia suggest a broad consensus that the 2005 drought was linked not to El Niño as with most previous droughts in the Amazon, but to warming sea surface temperatures in the tropical North Atlantic Ocean.

  17. Poverty and environment in Amazonia: a specific challenge for joint implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitschein, T.A.; Schreiber, V. [Federal University of Para (Brazil). Program Poverty and Environment in Amazonia

    1998-08-01

    The largest continuous tropical forest is found in Amazonia. Its destruction by burning for cattle pastures and subsistence agriculture contributes to the increases in concentrations of CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere and at the same time exhausts the extraordinary biodiversity of this region. In this sense, global ecological problems such as the greenhouse effect and genetic erosion and the future modes of development in Amazonia represent the same side of a coin. This means that the elaboration and implementation of strategies that understand the value of joint implementation as an indispensable element to reverse the tendencies of devastation which are underway in the regional context are required. It is from this principle that the Program Poverty and Environment in Amazonia of the Federal University of Para has been working since its creation in 1992. Through this approach, encroachment on primary forest areas is avoided, while agroforestry systems restore degraded areas in a manner which mimics the natural regeneration of the forest, enriched with species which produce natural products with potential for industrial use. (author)

  18. Forest productivity and water stress in Amazonia: observations from GOSAT chlorophyll fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Eun; Frankenberg, Christian; van der Tol, Christiaan; Berry, Joseph A; Guanter, Luis; Boyce, C Kevin; Fisher, Joshua B; Morrow, Eric; Worden, John R; Asefi, Salvi; Badgley, Grayson; Saatchi, Sassan

    2013-06-22

    It is unclear to what extent seasonal water stress impacts on plant productivity over Amazonia. Using new Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) satellite measurements of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence, we show that midday fluorescence varies with water availability, both of which decrease in the dry season over Amazonian regions with substantial dry season length, suggesting a parallel decrease in gross primary production (GPP). Using additional SeaWinds Scatterometer onboard QuikSCAT satellite measurements of canopy water content, we found a concomitant decrease in daily storage of canopy water content within branches and leaves during the dry season, supporting our conclusion. A large part (r(2) = 0.75) of the variance in observed monthly midday fluorescence from GOSAT is explained by water stress over moderately stressed evergreen forests over Amazonia, which is reproduced by model simulations that include a full physiological representation of photosynthesis and fluorescence. The strong relationship between GOSAT and model fluorescence (r(2) = 0.79) was obtained using a fixed leaf area index, indicating that GPP changes are more related to environmental conditions than chlorophyll contents. When the dry season extended to drought in 2010 over Amazonia, midday basin-wide GPP was reduced by 15 per cent compared with 2009.

  19. The effect of atmospheric aerosol particles and clouds on Net Ecosystem Exchange in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirino, G. G.; Souza, R. F.; Adams, D. K.; Artaxo, P.

    2013-11-01

    Carbon cycling in Amazonia is closely linked to atmospheric processes and climate in the region as a consequence of the strong coupling between the atmosphere and biosphere. This work examines the effects of changes in net radiation due to atmospheric aerosol particles and clouds on the Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) of CO2 in the Amazon region. Some of the major environmental factors affecting the photosynthetic activity of plants, such as air temperature and relative humidity were also examined. An algorithm for clear-sky irradiance was developed and used to determine the relative irradiance f, which quantifies the percentage of solar radiation absorbed and scattered due to atmospheric aerosol particles and clouds. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) was calculated from irradiances measured with the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) sensor, onboard the TERRA and AQUA satellites, and was validated with ground-based AOD measurements from AERONET sun photometers. Carbon fluxes were measured using eddy-correlation techniques at LBA (The Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia) flux towers. Two sites were studied: the Biological Reserve of Jaru (located in Rondonia) and the Cuieiras Biological Reserve (located in a preserved region in central Amazonia). In the Jaru Biological Reserve, a 29% increase in carbon uptake (NEE) was observed when the AOD ranged from 0.10 to 1.5. In the Cuieiras Biological Reserve, this effect was smaller, accounting for an approximately 20% increase in NEE. High aerosol loading (AOD above 3 at 550 nm) or cloud cover leads to reductions in solar flux and strong decreases in photosynthesis up to the point where NEE approaches 0. The observed increase in NEE is attributed to an enhancement (~50%) in the diffuse fraction of photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). Significant changes in air temperature and relative humidity resulting from changes in solar radiation fluxes under high aerosol loading were also observed at

  20. Cloud condensation nuclei in pristine tropical rainforest air of Amazonia:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunthe, S. S.

    2009-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particles serving as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) are key elements of the hydrological cycle and climate. We have measured and characterized CCN at water vapor supersaturations in the range of S = 0.10-0.82% in pristine tropical rainforest air during the AMAZE-08 campaign in central Amazonia. The effective hygroscopicity parameters describing the influence of chemical composition on the CCN activity of aerosol particles varied in the range of ΰ = 0.05-0.45. The overall median value of ΰ ? 0.15 was only half of the value typically observed for continental aerosols in other regions of the world. Aitken mode particles were less hygroscopic than accumulation mode particles (ΰ ? 0.1 at D ? 50 nm; ΰ ? 0.2 at D ? 200 nm). The CCN measurement results were fully consistent with aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS) data, which showed that the organic mass fraction (Xm,org) was on average as high as ~90% in the Aitken mode (D ? 100 nm) and decreased with increasing particle diameter in the accumulation mode (~80% at D ? 200 nm). The ΰ values exhibited a close linear correlation with Xm,org and extrapolation yielded the following effective hygroscopicity parameters for organic and inorganic particle components: ΰorg ? 0.1 which is consistent with laboratory measurements of secondary organic aerosols and ΰinorg ? 0.6 which is characteristic for ammonium sulfate and related salts. Both the size-dependence and the temporal variability of effective particle hygroscopicity could be parameterized as a function of AMS-based organic and inorganic mass fractions (ΰp = 0.1 Xm,org + 0.6Xm,inorg), and the CCN number concentrations predicted with ΰp were in fair agreement with the measurement results. The median CCN number concentrations at S = 0.1-0.82% ranged from NCCN,0.10 ? 30 cm-3to NCCN,0.82 ? 150 cm-3, the median concentration of aerosol particles larger than 30 nm was NCN,30 ? 180 cm-3, and the corresponding integral CCN efficiencies

  1. There's no place like home: seedling mortality contributes to the habitat specialisation of tree species across Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunel, Claire; Paine, C E Timothy; Fine, Paul V A; Mesones, Italo; Goret, Jean-Yves; Burban, Benoit; Cazal, Jocelyn; Baraloto, Christopher

    2016-10-01

    Understanding the mechanisms generating species distributions remains a challenge, especially in hyperdiverse tropical forests. We evaluated the role of rainfall variation, soil gradients and herbivory on seedling mortality, and how variation in seedling performance along these gradients contributes to habitat specialisation. In a 4-year experiment, replicated at the two extremes of the Amazon basin, we reciprocally transplanted 4638 tree seedlings of 41 habitat-specialist species from seven phylogenetic lineages among the three most important forest habitats of lowland Amazonia. Rainfall variation, flooding and soil gradients strongly influenced seedling mortality, whereas herbivory had negligible impact. Seedling mortality varied strongly among habitats, consistent with predictions for habitat specialists in most lineages. This suggests that seedling performance is a primary determinant of the habitat associations of adult trees across Amazonia. It further suggests that tree diversity, currently mostly harboured in terra firme forests, may be strongly impacted by the predicted climate changes in Amazonia.

  2. Amazonia Introduced to General Relativity: The May 29, 1919, Solar Eclipse from a North-Brazilian Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crispino, Luís C. B.; de Lima, Marcelo C.

    2016-12-01

    In 1919, A. C. D. Crommelin and C. R. Davidson, British astronomers from the Greenwich Observatory in England, passed by Amazonia on their Brazilian journey aiming to measure the bending of stars' light rays during the total solar eclipse of May 29, 1919, and thereby put the theory of general relativity to the test. In the context of Crommelin's and Davidson's visit, we discuss how Amazonia was introduced to Einstein's theory of gravitation, and also the observations and repercussions of the May 29, 1919, solar eclipse in Belém, capital city of the North-Brazilian Pará state.

  3. New species and geographical records of dactylogyrids (Monogenea) of catfish (Siluriformes) from the Peruvian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Palmero, Carlos A; Scholz, Tomáš; Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Kuchta, Roman

    2012-06-01

    Three new species of gill monogeneans (Dactylogyridae: Ancyrocephalinae) are described from siluriform catfish from Iquitos, Peru: Demidospermus mortenthaleri n. sp. from Brachyplatystoma juruense (Boulenger), Demidospermus brevicirrus n. sp. from Pimelodus sp., and Aphanoblastella aurorae n. sp. from Goeldiella eques (Müller & Troschel). Demidospermus mortenthaleri is characterized by a male copulatory organ (MCO) with a small loop at its middle portion; 2 types of hooks, of which pairs 5 and 6 are longer than the remaining hooks; a proximal subunit round and highly depressed thumb; and a sclerotized vagina with a round pad at the vaginal aperture. Demidospermus brevicirrus is distinguished from other congeners by the presence of a short, straight, and robust MCO and boot-shaped accessory piece with a hooked projection directed posteriorly. Aphanoblastella aurorae is the only species of the genus that possesses an arrow-shaped sclerotized vagina and a medial process on the dorsal bar. Another 6 dactylogyrids described previously are recorded for the first time from the Peruvian Amazonia: Cosmetocleithrum bulbocirrus Kritsky, Thatcher and Boeger, 1986 ; Vancleaveus fungulus Kritsky, Thatcher and Boeger, 1986 ; V. janauacaensis Kritsky, Thatcher and Boeger, 1986 ; V. platyrhynchi Kritsky, Thatcher and Boeger, 1986 ; Unilatus unilatus Mizelle and Kritsky, 1967 ; and U. brittani Mizelle, Kritsky and Crane, 1968 . Based on observations of specimens collected in the Peruvian Amazonia, new morphological data for these species are provided. Comparison of new specimens of U. unilatus and U. brittani with those of Unilatus brevispinus Suriano, 1985 and Unilatus longispinus Suriano, 1985 , both originally described from Brazil, has shown that they are conspecific. Therefore, the latter species were synonymized with U. unilatus and U. brittani , respectively. In addition, 56 undescribed monogeneans found in catfish from the Peruvian Amazonia, some of them probably belonging

  4. Environmental impact of geometric earthwork construction in pre-Columbian Amazonia.

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    Carson, John Francis; Whitney, Bronwen S; Mayle, Francis E; Iriarte, José; Prümers, Heiko; Soto, J Daniel; Watling, Jennifer

    2014-07-22

    There is considerable controversy over whether pre-Columbian (pre-A.D. 1492) Amazonia was largely "pristine" and sparsely populated by slash-and-burn agriculturists, or instead a densely populated, domesticated landscape, heavily altered by extensive deforestation and anthropogenic burning. The discovery of hundreds of large geometric earthworks beneath intact rainforest across southern Amazonia challenges its status as a pristine landscape, and has been assumed to indicate extensive pre-Columbian deforestation by large populations. We tested these assumptions using coupled local- and regional-scale paleoecological records to reconstruct land use on an earthwork site in northeast Bolivia within the context of regional, climate-driven biome changes. This approach revealed evidence for an alternative scenario of Amazonian land use, which did not necessitate labor-intensive rainforest clearance for earthwork construction. Instead, we show that the inhabitants exploited a naturally open savanna landscape that they maintained around their settlement despite the climatically driven rainforest expansion that began ∼2,000 y ago across the region. Earthwork construction and agriculture on terra firme landscapes currently occupied by the seasonal rainforests of southern Amazonia may therefore not have necessitated large-scale deforestation using stone tools. This finding implies far less labor--and potentially lower population density--than previously supposed. Our findings demonstrate that current debates over the magnitude and nature of pre-Columbian Amazonian land use, and its impact on global biogeochemical cycling, are potentially flawed because they do not consider this land use in the context of climate-driven forest-savanna biome shifts through the mid-to-late Holocene.

  5. N2O Emissions in Southeastern Amazonia: The Effect of Agricultural Intensification

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    O'Connell, C.; Brando, P. M.; Cerri, C. E.; Coe, M. T.; Davidson, E. A.; Galford, G. L.; Macedo, M.; Neill, C.; Venterea, R. T.

    2014-12-01

    The Amazon is not only an exceptionally biodiverse and carbon-rich tract of tropical forest, it is also a case study in land use change. Over the last 30 years, Amazonia has been home to extraordinary growth in agricultural production, in part from agricultural expansion, but also due to more intense management on Amazonia's existing croplands. We use a year-long campaign and approximately 500 field chamber measurements to estimate how cropland intensification in Mato Grosso, Brazil affects the emission of nitrous oxide (N2O) and soil N dynamics. In this system, soybean cropland intensification occurs when double cropping is introduced, in which maize is planted directly after soybean harvest and fertilized twice with inorganic N. We find that dry season N2O emissions in single-cropped (soybean only) fields, double-cropped (soybean/maize) fields and reference tropical forest are uniformly near zero, or ~0-0.5 ngN/cm^2/hr. Surprisingly, wet season emissions rates remain low as well, between 1-4 ngN/cm^2/hr, for both cropland types and reference forest. By contrast, isolated post-fertilization spikes in N2O emissions are large, with a maximum increase of ~800% and a mean increase of ~400%, though these flux increases resolve rapidly and rates return to their low baseline within days. Finally, we explore the role that soil moisture, soil N availability, and soil C availability play in regulating N2O fluxes in reference forest, soybean fields and intensified soybean-maize fields. Open questions surround how the Amazon's land resources can be leveraged to increase agricultural production at the least harm to the environment. Here, we quantify the consequences of land use change on N2O, a powerful greenhouse gas, in a critical ecosystem undergoing novel agricultural intensification. These results may inform both greenhouse gas accounting and our understanding of the effects of Amazonia's changing agricultural landscape on the nitrogen cycle.

  6. Anuran amphibians of the urban region of Altamira (Oriental Amazonia, state of Pará, Brazil.

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    Flávio Bezerra Barros

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to take stock of the species of anurans in three localities of the urban region of Altamira, a municipal district in the west of the state of Pará (Oriental Amazonia. Collections were made between January and June of 2004. Fifteen species were recorded during the study. The family Hylidae was the most represented, with eight species. The data was compatible with the degree of conservation of the collection areas. The necessity of making new fauna inventories in all Brazilian biomes is of extreme urgency, particularly in the Amazon, given its vast extension and lack of inventories.

  7. New species of Lachesilla Westwood in the pedicularia group (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Lachesillidae) from the Colombian Amazonia.

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    Manchola, Oscar Fernando Saenz; Aldrete, Alfonso Neri García; Obando, Ranulfo González

    2015-02-05

    Two species of Lachesilla, in the pedicularia species group, from the Colombian Amazonia, are here described and illustrated. Also, a record of L. asymmetriproctus García Aldrete, for the Colombian Department of Putumayo is provided. An identification key to Lachesilla species in the pedicularia group with a single male clunial apophysis is presented, together with a diagnosis of this assemblage of species. A table is included indicating the distribution of Lachesilla species with one and two male clunial apophyses. The species treated in this paper constitute the first lachesillids known from the Department of Putumayo, Colombia. 

  8. The Flux of Carbon from Selective Logging, Fire, and Regrowth in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, R. A.

    2004-01-01

    The major goal of this work was to develop a spatial, process-based model (CARLUC) that would calculate sources and sinks of carbon from changes in land use, including logging and fire. The work also included Landsat data, together with fieldwork, to investigate fire and logging in three different forest types within Brazilian Amazonia. Results from these three activities (modeling, fieldwork, and remote sensing) are described, individually, below. The work and some of the personnel overlapped with research carried out by Dr. Daniel Nepstad's LBA team, and thus some of the findings are also reported in his summaries.

  9. Interpreting seasonal changes in the carbon balance of southern Amazonia using measurements of XCO2 and chlorophyll fluorescence from GOSAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parazoo, Nicholas C.; Bowman, Kevin; Frankenberg, Christian; Lee, Jung-Eun; Fisher, Joshua B.; Worden, John; Jones, Dylan B. A.; Berry, Joseph; Collatz, G. James; Baker, Ian T.; Jung, Martin; Liu, Junjie; Osterman, Gregory; O'Dell, Chris; Sparks, Athena; Butz, Andre; Guerlet, Sandrine; Yoshida, Yukio; Chen, Huilin; Gerbig, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Amazon forests exert a major influence on the global carbon cycle, but quantifying the impact is complicated by diverse landscapes and sparse data. Here we examine seasonal carbon balance in southern Amazonia using new measurements of column-averaged dry air mole fraction of CO2 (XCO2) and solar ind

  10. Evolutionary ecology of the Pachydontinae (Bivalvia, Corbulidae) in the Pebas lake/wetland system (Miocene, western Amazonia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, F.P.

    2006-01-01

    Miocene deposits in western Amazonia and adjacent areas of South America harbour a diverse suite of endemic corbulid bivalves, commonly referred to as Pachydontinae, that show a wide variety of morphologies. Especially in the Miocene Pebas Formation (Peru, Colombia and Brazil), this group diversifie

  11. Evidences for a Paleocene marine incursion in southern Amazonia (Madre de Dios Sub-Andean Zone, Peru)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louterbach, M.; Roddaz, M.; Bailleul, J.; Antoine, P.O.; Adnet, S.; Kim, J.H.; van Soelen, E.E.; Parra, F.; Gérard, J.; Calderon, Y.; Gagnaison, C.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Baby, P.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents new biostratigraphic dating, facies analysis, organic geochemical data and Nd–Sr isotopic provenance from five outcrops of southern Amazonia (MD-85, MD-177 MD-184, MD-255 and MD-256) to document for the first time the presence of a shallow marine ingression in the Paleocene of

  12. Miocene long-lived lake Pebas as a stage of mollusc radiations, with implications for landscape evolution in western Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, F.P.

    2006-01-01

    The Miocene Pebas system was a huge (> 1 million km2) system of long-lived lakes and wetlands that occupied most of western Amazonia between c. 23 and 8 Ma. Remarkable endemic radiations of molluscs and ostracods occurred in the Pebas system. The continuity of many of the endemic lineages between c.

  13. The snakes of the genus Atractus Wagler (Reptilia: Squamata: Colubridae) from the Manaus region, central Amazonia, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins, M.; Oliveira, M.E.

    1993-01-01

    Taxonomic and natural history data are presented on eight species of Atractus from the Manaus region, central Amazonia, Brazil, namely: A. alphonsehogei, A. latifrons, A, major, A. poeppigi, A. schach, A. snethlageae, A. torquatus, and A. trilineatus. Four of these species are recorded for the first

  14. Large-scale expansion of agriculture in Amazonia may be a no-win scenario

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    Oliveira, Leydimere J. C.; Costa, Marcos H.; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S.; Coe, Michael T.

    2013-06-01

    Using simplified climate and land-use models, we evaluated primary forests’ carbon storage and soybean and pasture productivity in the Brazilian Legal Amazon under several scenarios of deforestation and increased CO2. The four scenarios for the year 2050 that we analyzed consider (1) radiative effects of increased CO2, (2) radiative and physiological effects of increased CO2, (3) effects of land-use changes on the regional climate and (4) radiative and physiological effects of increased CO2 plus land-use climate feedbacks. Under current conditions, means for aboveground forest live biomass (AGB), soybean yield and pasture yield are 179 Mg-C ha-1, 2.7 Mg-grains ha-1 and 16.2 Mg-dry mass ha-1 yr-1, respectively. Our results indicate that expansion of agriculture in Amazonia may be a no-win scenario: in addition to reductions in carbon storage due to deforestation, total agriculture output may either increase much less than proportionally to the potential expansion in agricultural area, or even decrease, as a consequence of climate feedbacks from changes in land use. These climate feedbacks, usually ignored in previous studies, impose a reduction in precipitation that would lead agriculture expansion in Amazonia to become self-defeating: the more agriculture expands, the less productive it becomes.

  15. Oil palm expansion drives avifaunal decline in the Pucallpa region of Peruvian Amazonia

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    Alicia Srinivas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm is one of the world’s most rapidly expanding crops, replacing humid forests across tropical regions. Studies examining the effect of this land conversion on biodiversity have tended to focus predominantly on Southeast Asia, where the majority of the world’s oil palm is produced. Because the Amazon possesses the greatest area of suitable land for oil palm expansion, oil palm is considered an emerging threat to Amazonian biodiversity. This is the first study to examine how oil palm agriculture affects avian diversity within the context of Western Amazonia. We used mist nets to conduct avifaunal surveys of forest and oil palm habitat in the Pucallpa region of Peruvian Amazonia. Bird species richness, species evenness, and overall abundance were all significantly higher in the forest than in oil palm habitat. Strikingly, less than 5% of all captured species were common to both forest and oil palm habitat. The species absent from the oil palm plantations were disproportionately habitat specialists, forest interior birds, birds with high sensitivity to disturbance, and insectivores and frugivores. The results suggest that oil palm is particularly poor habitat for Amazonian birds, and that the species that are persist on them are of lower conservation value. Given the apparent lack of diversity on oil palm plantations, preventing further conversion of forests to oil palm should be prioritized.

  16. Coupling Between the Climate Variables of Amazonia and its Surrounding Oceans During Drought Periods.

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    Ramos, Antônio M. de T.; Macau, Elbert E. N.

    2016-04-01

    Teleconnection patterns between different climate systems have been seen as a feature of the internal dynamics of atmosphere and ocean. However several questions about this non-linear dynamics remain open, especially the interplay of the warming of Oceans and the anomaly precipitation in the Amazon region. For this reason, we investigate how the coupling between the ocean's temperature and the precipitation in Amazon evolve in time. In particular, how does this coupling behave during an anomalous drought period in Amazonia. Here a data-driven approach is applied to detect the coupling time scale between the precipitation in the North/South Amazonia and its surrounding oceans. The framework comprises statistical and information theory approaches that can reveal directional links between the different regional domains. The method is applied on a daily resolution data sets, the variables are average over regional domains well studied in the literature. Finally, the outcomes are systematically analysed seeking patterns that may reveal the underlying dynamics between these climate systems. Also, the study sheds light into the elementary form of the climate network between these systems.

  17. Understorey fire frequency and the fate of burned forests in southern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, D C; Le Page, Y; DeFries, R; Collatz, G J; Hurtt, G C

    2013-06-05

    Recent drought events underscore the vulnerability of Amazon forests to understorey fires. The long-term impact of fires on biodiversity and forest carbon stocks depends on the frequency of fire damages and deforestation rates of burned forests. Here, we characterized the spatial and temporal dynamics of understorey fires (1999-2010) and deforestation (2001-2010) in southern Amazonia using new satellite-based estimates of annual fire activity (greater than 50 ha) and deforestation (greater than 10 ha). Understorey forest fires burned more than 85 500 km(2) between 1999 and 2010 (2.8% of all forests). Forests that burned more than once accounted for 16 per cent of all understorey fires. Repeated fire activity was concentrated in Mato Grosso and eastern Pará, whereas single fires were widespread across the arc of deforestation. Routine fire activity in Mato Grosso coincided with annual periods of low night-time relative humidity, suggesting a strong climate control on both single and repeated fires. Understorey fires occurred in regions with active deforestation, yet the interannual variability of fire and deforestation were uncorrelated, and only 2.6 per cent of forests that burned between 1999 and 2008 were deforested for agricultural use by 2010. Evidence from the past decade suggests that future projections of frontier landscapes in Amazonia should separately consider economic drivers to project future deforestation and climate to project fire risk.

  18. Do the recent severe droughts in the Amazonia have the same period of length?

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    Zou, Yong; Sampaio, Gilvan; Mário, Antônio; Kurths, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new measure based on drought period length to assess the temporal difference between the recent two severe droughts of 2005 and 2010 in the Amazonia. The sensitivity of the measure is demonstrated by disclosing the distinct spatial responding mechanisms of the Northeastern and Southwestern Amazon (NA, SA) to the surrounding sea surface temperature (SST) variabilities. The Pacific and Atlantic oceans have different roles on the precipitation patterns in Amazonia. More specifically, the very dry periods in the NA are influenced by El Ni\\~no events, while the very dry periods in the SA are affected by the anomalously warming of the SST in the North Atlantic. We show convincingly that the drought 2005 hit SA, which is caused by the North Atlantic only. There are two phases in the drought 2010: (i) it was started in the NA in August 2009 affected by the El Ni\\~no event, and (ii) later shifted the center of action to SA resulted from anomalously high SST in North Atlantic, which further intensifies the...

  19. Do the recent severe droughts in the Amazonia have the same period of length?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yong; Macau, Elbert E. N.; Sampaio, Gilvan; Ramos, Antônio M. T.; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    We propose a new measure based on drought period length to assess the temporal difference between the recent two severe droughts of 2005 and 2010 in the Amazonia. The sensitivity of the measure is demonstrated by disclosing the distinct spatial responding mechanisms of the Northeastern and Southwestern Amazon (NA, SA) to the surrounding sea surface temperature (SST) variabilities. The Pacific and Atlantic oceans have different roles on the precipitation patterns in Amazonia. More specifically, the very dry periods in the NA are influenced by El Niño events, while the very dry periods in the SA are affected by the anomalously warming of the SST in the North Atlantic. Our analysis discloses convincingly that the drought 2005 hit SA, which is correlated to the North Atlantic only. Furthermore, it suggests that there are two phases in the drought 2010: (1) it was started in the NA in August 2009 co-occurred with the El Niño event, and (2) later shifted the center of action to SA resulted from anomalously high SST in North Atlantic, which further intensifies the impacts on the spatial coverage.

  20. Pre-Columbian Floristic Legacies in Modern Homegardens of Central Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Juliana; Lima, Helena P.; Baccaro, Fabricio B.; Kinupp, Valdely F.; Shepard, Glenn H.; Clement, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    Historical ecologists have demonstrated legacy effects in apparently wild landscapes in Europe, North America, Mesoamerica, Amazonia, Africa and Oceania. People live and farm in archaeological sites today in many parts of the world, but nobody has looked for the legacies of past human occupations in the most dynamic areas in these sites: homegardens. Here we show that the useful flora of modern homegardens is partially a legacy of pre-Columbian occupations in Central Amazonia: the more complex the archaeological context, the more variable the floristic composition of useful native plants in homegardens cultivated there today. Species diversity was 10% higher in homegardens situated in multi-occupational archaeological contexts compared with homegardens situated in single-occupational ones. Species heterogeneity (β-diversity) among archaeological contexts was similar for the whole set of species, but markedly different when only native Amazonian species were included, suggesting the influence of pre-conquest indigenous occupations on current homegarden species composition. Our findings show that the legacy of pre-Columbian occupations is visible in the most dynamic of all agroecosystems, adding another dimension to the human footprint in the Amazonian landscape. PMID:26030879

  1. Pre-Columbian floristic legacies in modern homegardens of Central Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Lins

    Full Text Available Historical ecologists have demonstrated legacy effects in apparently wild landscapes in Europe, North America, Mesoamerica, Amazonia, Africa and Oceania. People live and farm in archaeological sites today in many parts of the world, but nobody has looked for the legacies of past human occupations in the most dynamic areas in these sites: homegardens. Here we show that the useful flora of modern homegardens is partially a legacy of pre-Columbian occupations in Central Amazonia: the more complex the archaeological context, the more variable the floristic composition of useful native plants in homegardens cultivated there today. Species diversity was 10% higher in homegardens situated in multi-occupational archaeological contexts compared with homegardens situated in single-occupational ones. Species heterogeneity (β-diversity among archaeological contexts was similar for the whole set of species, but markedly different when only native Amazonian species were included, suggesting the influence of pre-conquest indigenous occupations on current homegarden species composition. Our findings show that the legacy of pre-Columbian occupations is visible in the most dynamic of all agroecosystems, adding another dimension to the human footprint in the Amazonian landscape.

  2. Long term measurements of the elemental composition and optical properties of aerosols in Amazonia

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    Arana A. A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aerosols are being collected and analyzed for trace elements in two sites in Amazonia since January 2008. On eof the site, Manaus is located in a very pristine area in Central Amazonia. The site is nt affected directly by any urban plume for thousands of kilometers. A second site is located in Porto Velho, in a region with heavy land use change and deforestation. Optical properties (light scattering ad absorption are also being measured in order to study the climatic impact of aerosols. It was observed a clear seasonal pattern for both sites, with higher concentrations in the dry season. But the difference in seasonal concentrations observed for Porto Velho is much larger due to stronger anthropogenic influences. In Manaus during the wet season, very low concentrations of heavy metals, maybe the smallest measured in continental regions are reported. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF was used to separate the different aerosol components. In general, for fine and coarse mode and wet and dry season, 3 aerosol components could be observed: 1 Natural biogenic aerosol; 2 biomass burning component; 3 Soil dust both locally and long range transported Sahara dust

  3. Early and Middle Holocene Hunter-Gatherer Occupations in Western Amazonia: The Hidden Shell Middens

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    Lombardo, Umberto; Szabo, Katherine; Capriles, José M.; May, Jan-Hendrik; Amelung, Wulf; Hutterer, Rainer; Lehndorff, Eva; Plotzki, Anna; Veit, Heinz

    2013-01-01

    We report on previously unknown early archaeological sites in the Bolivian lowlands, demonstrating for the first time early and middle Holocene human presence in western Amazonia. Multidisciplinary research in forest islands situated in seasonally-inundated savannahs has revealed stratified shell middens produced by human foragers as early as 10,000 years ago, making them the oldest archaeological sites in the region. The absence of stone resources and partial burial by recent alluvial sediments has meant that these kinds of deposits have, until now, remained unidentified. We conducted core sampling, archaeological excavations and an interdisciplinary study of the stratigraphy and recovered materials from three shell midden mounds. Based on multiple lines of evidence, including radiocarbon dating, sedimentary proxies (elements, steroids and black carbon), micromorphology and faunal analysis, we demonstrate the anthropogenic origin and antiquity of these sites. In a tropical and geomorphologically active landscape often considered challenging both for early human occupation and for the preservation of hunter-gatherer sites, the newly discovered shell middens provide evidence for early to middle Holocene occupation and illustrate the potential for identifying and interpreting early open-air archaeological sites in western Amazonia. The existence of early hunter-gatherer sites in the Bolivian lowlands sheds new light on the region’s past and offers a new context within which the late Holocene “Earthmovers” of the Llanos de Moxos could have emerged. PMID:24013964

  4. Aerosol chemistry during the wet season in central Amazonia - The influence of long-range transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, R. W.; Andreae, M. O.; Berresheim, H.; Artaxo, P.; Garstang, M.

    1990-01-01

    The temporal variation in the concentration and chemistry of the atmospheric aerosol over central Amazonia, Brazil, during the 1987 wet season is discussed based on ground and aircraft collected data obtained during the NASA GTE ABLE 2B expedition conducted in April/May 1987. It is found that wet-season aerosol concentrations and composition are variable in contrast to the more uniform biogenic aerosol observed during the 1985 dry season; four distinct intervals of enhanced aerosol concentration coincided with short periods (3 to 5 d) of extensive rainfall. It is hypothesized that aerosol chemistry in Amazonia during the wet season is strongly influenced by long-range transport of soil dust, marine aerosol, and possibly biomass combustion products advected into the central Basin by large-scale tropospheric circulation, producing periodic pulses of material input to local boundary layer air. The resultant wet-season aerosol regime is dynamic, in contrast to the uniformity of natural biogenic aerosols during the dry season.

  5. Avian malaria, ecological host traits and mosquito abundance in southeastern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecchio, Alan; Ellis, Vincenzo A; Bell, Jeffrey A; Andretti, Christian B; D'Horta, Fernando M; Silva, Allan M; Tkach, Vasyl V; Weckstein, Jason D

    2017-03-27

    Avian malaria is a vector transmitted disease caused by Plasmodium and recent studies suggest that variation in its prevalence across avian hosts is correlated with a variety of ecological traits. Here we examine the relationship between prevalence and diversity of Plasmodium lineages in southeastern Amazonia and: (1) host ecological traits (nest location, nest type, flocking behaviour and diet); (2) density and diversity of avian hosts; (3) abundance and diversity of mosquitoes; and (4) season. We used molecular methods to detect Plasmodium in blood samples from 675 individual birds of 120 species. Based on cytochrome b sequences, we recovered 89 lineages of Plasmodium from 136 infected individuals sampled across seven localities. Plasmodium prevalence was homogeneous over time (dry season and flooding season) and space, but heterogeneous among 51 avian host species. Variation in prevalence among bird species was not explained by avian ecological traits, density of avian hosts, or mosquito abundance. However, Plasmodium lineage diversity was positively correlated with mosquito abundance. Interestingly, our results suggest that avian host traits are less important determinants of Plasmodium prevalence and diversity in southeastern Amazonia than in other regions in which they have been investigated.

  6. Early and middle holocene hunter-gatherer occupations in western Amazonia: the hidden shell middens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Umberto; Szabo, Katherine; Capriles, José M; May, Jan-Hendrik; Amelung, Wulf; Hutterer, Rainer; Lehndorff, Eva; Plotzki, Anna; Veit, Heinz

    2013-01-01

    We report on previously unknown early archaeological sites in the Bolivian lowlands, demonstrating for the first time early and middle Holocene human presence in western Amazonia. Multidisciplinary research in forest islands situated in seasonally-inundated savannahs has revealed stratified shell middens produced by human foragers as early as 10,000 years ago, making them the oldest archaeological sites in the region. The absence of stone resources and partial burial by recent alluvial sediments has meant that these kinds of deposits have, until now, remained unidentified. We conducted core sampling, archaeological excavations and an interdisciplinary study of the stratigraphy and recovered materials from three shell midden mounds. Based on multiple lines of evidence, including radiocarbon dating, sedimentary proxies (elements, steroids and black carbon), micromorphology and faunal analysis, we demonstrate the anthropogenic origin and antiquity of these sites. In a tropical and geomorphologically active landscape often considered challenging both for early human occupation and for the preservation of hunter-gatherer sites, the newly discovered shell middens provide evidence for early to middle Holocene occupation and illustrate the potential for identifying and interpreting early open-air archaeological sites in western Amazonia. The existence of early hunter-gatherer sites in the Bolivian lowlands sheds new light on the region's past and offers a new context within which the late Holocene "Earthmovers" of the Llanos de Moxos could have emerged.

  7. Land-use in Amazonia and the Cerrado of Brazil: State of Knowledge and GIS Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepstad, Daniel C.

    1997-01-01

    We have assembled datasets to strengthen the LargeScale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA). These datasets can now be accessed through the Woods Hole Research Center homepage (www.whrc.org), and will soon be linked to the Pre-LBA homepages of the Brazilian Space Research Institute's Center for Weather and Climate Prediction (Instituto de Pesquisas Espaciais, Centro de Previsao de Tempo e Estudos Climaticos, INPE/CPTEC) and through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Distributed Active Archive Center (ORNL/DMC). Some of the datasets that we are making available involved new field research and/or the digitization of data available in Brazilian government agencies. For example, during the grant period we conducted interviews at 1,100 sawmills across Amazonia to determine their production of sawn timber, and their harvest intensities. These data provide the basis for the first quantitative assessment of the area of forest affected each year by selective logging (Nepstad et al, submitted to Nature). We digitized the locations of all of the rural households in the State of Para that have been mapped by the Brazilian malaria combat agency (SUCAM). We also mapped and digitized areas of deforestation in the state of Tocantins, which is comprised largely of savanna (cerrado), an ecosystem that has been routinely excluded from deforestation mapping exercises.

  8. A palaeobiogeographic model for biotic diversification within Amazonia over the past three million years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas, Camila C; Aleixo, Alexandre; Nogueira, Afonso C R; Miyaki, Cristina Y; Cracraft, Joel

    2012-02-22

    Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain high species diversity in Amazonia, but few generalizations have emerged. In part, this has arisen from the scarcity of rigorous tests for mechanisms promoting speciation, and from major uncertainties about palaeogeographic events and their spatial and temporal associations with diversification. Here, we investigate the environmental history of Amazonia using a phylogenetic and biogeographic analysis of trumpeters (Aves: Psophia), which are represented by species in each of the vertebrate areas of endemism. Their relationships reveal an unforeseen 'complete' time-slice of Amazonian diversification over the past 3.0 Myr. We employ this temporally calibrated phylogeny to test competing palaeogeographic hypotheses. Our results are consistent with the establishment of the current Amazonian drainage system at approximately 3.0-2.0 Ma and predict the temporal pattern of major river formation over Plio-Pleistocene times. We propose a palaeobiogeographic model for the last 3.0 Myr of Amazonian history that has implications for understanding patterns of endemism, the temporal history of Amazonian diversification and mechanisms promoting speciation. The history of Psophia, in combination with new geological evidence, provides the strongest direct evidence supporting a role for river dynamics in Amazonian diversification, and the absence of such a role for glacial climate cycles and refugia.

  9. Outstanding insecurities concerning the use of an Ov16-based ELISA in the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Sérgio Luiz Bessa; Crainey, James Lee; Shelley, Anthony John; Rubio, Miguel

    2014-07-01

    In a recent issue of Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, published in Rio de Janeiro in February 2014 (109: 87-92), Adami et al. have published a survey reporting Mansonella parasite prevalence in the Amazon Region. This report makes a useful contribution to the existing knowledge of filarial parasite distribution within the Amazon area, parasite prevalence rates in relation to age and occupation and provides observations on the possible clinical impact of Mansonella ozzardi. Their publication also provides an account of what appears to be a novel ELISA that has recently been used in the Simuliidae and Onchocerciasis Laboratory of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We are concerned that the publication of this ELISA may have created an excessively positive impression of the effectiveness of the onchocerciasis recrudescence serological surveillance tools that are presently available for use in the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus. In this letter we have, thus, sought to highlight some of the limitations of this ELISA and suggest how continuing insecurities concerning the detection of antibodies to Onchocerca volvulus within the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus might be minimised.

  10. Pre-Columbian floristic legacies in modern homegardens of Central Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Juliana; Lima, Helena P; Baccaro, Fabricio B; Kinupp, Valdely F; Shepard, Glenn H; Clement, Charles R

    2015-01-01

    Historical ecologists have demonstrated legacy effects in apparently wild landscapes in Europe, North America, Mesoamerica, Amazonia, Africa and Oceania. People live and farm in archaeological sites today in many parts of the world, but nobody has looked for the legacies of past human occupations in the most dynamic areas in these sites: homegardens. Here we show that the useful flora of modern homegardens is partially a legacy of pre-Columbian occupations in Central Amazonia: the more complex the archaeological context, the more variable the floristic composition of useful native plants in homegardens cultivated there today. Species diversity was 10% higher in homegardens situated in multi-occupational archaeological contexts compared with homegardens situated in single-occupational ones. Species heterogeneity (β-diversity) among archaeological contexts was similar for the whole set of species, but markedly different when only native Amazonian species were included, suggesting the influence of pre-conquest indigenous occupations on current homegarden species composition. Our findings show that the legacy of pre-Columbian occupations is visible in the most dynamic of all agroecosystems, adding another dimension to the human footprint in the Amazonian landscape.

  11. Outstanding insecurities concerning the use of an Ov16-based ELISA in the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Luiz Bessa Luz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In a recent issue of Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, published in Rio de Janeiro in February 2014 (109: 87-92, Adami et al. have published a survey reporting Mansonella parasite prevalence in the Amazon Region. This report makes a useful contribution to the existing knowledge of filarial parasite distribution within the Amazon area, parasite prevalence rates in relation to age and occupation and provides observations on the possible clinical impact of Mansonella ozzardi. Their publication also provides an account of what appears to be a novel ELISA that has recently been used in the Simuliidae and Onchocerciasis Laboratory of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We are concerned that the publication of this ELISA may have created an excessively positive impression of the effectiveness of the onchocerciasis recrudescence serological surveillance tools that are presently available for use in the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus. In this letter we have, thus, sought to highlight some of the limitations of this ELISA and suggest how continuing insecurities concerning the detection of antibodies to Onchocerca volvulus within the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus might be minimised.

  12. Use of MODIS Sensor Images Combined with Reanalysis Products to Retrieve Net Radiation in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Gabriel; Brunsell, Nathaniel A; Moraes, Elisabete C; Bertani, Gabriel; Dos Santos, Thiago V; Shimabukuro, Yosio E; Aragão, Luiz E O C

    2016-06-24

    In the Amazon region, the estimation of radiation fluxes through remote sensing techniques is hindered by the lack of ground measurements required as input in the models, as well as the difficulty to obtain cloud-free images. Here, we assess an approach to estimate net radiation (Rn) and its components under all-sky conditions for the Amazon region through the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) model utilizing only remote sensing and reanalysis data. The study period comprised six years, between January 2001-December 2006, and images from MODIS sensor aboard the Terra satellite and GLDAS reanalysis products were utilized. The estimates were evaluated with flux tower measurements within the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) project. Comparison between estimates obtained by the proposed method and observations from LBA towers showed errors between 12.5% and 16.4% and 11.3% and 15.9% for instantaneous and daily Rn, respectively. Our approach was adequate to minimize the problem related to strong cloudiness over the region and allowed to map consistently the spatial distribution of net radiation components in Amazonia. We conclude that the integration of reanalysis products and satellite data, eliminating the need for surface measurements as input model, was a useful proposition for the spatialization of the radiation fluxes in the Amazon region, which may serve as input information needed by algorithms that aim to determine evapotranspiration, the most important component of the Amazon hydrological balance.

  13. The Greatest Legacy of the Large Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA): A Bibliometric Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Large Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) is an international continental scale effort led by Brazil to understand how land use change and climate change affects the role of Amazonia in the Earth system. During the first decade of studies (1998-2007), LBA researchers generated new understanding of Amazonia and published over 1000 papers. However, most LBA participants agree that training and education of a large cohort of scientists, especially students from Brazil, was the greatest contribution of LBA. I analyzed bibliographic data from the NASA supported component project known as LBA-ECO. This component covered a large cross-section of the LBA subject areas highlighting land use and land cover change, carbon cycling, nutrient cycling and other aspects of terrestrial and aquatic ecology. I reviewed the complete bibliography of peer-reviewed papers reported by LBA-ECO researchers (http://www.lbaeco.org/cgi-bin/web/investigations/lbaeco_refs.pl). The researchers reported 691 contributions from 1996 through 2013 of which 24 were theses that were removed them from further analysis. Of 667 papers and book chapters, I tallied the first authors separating categories for Brazilians, all students, and Brazilian students. Numerically, LBA-ECO production of papers peaked in 2004. Publication by Brazilians, students, and Brazilian students generally followed the same pattern as publication in general. However, student and Brazilian student contributions as first authors showed clearly increasing proportions of the papers from project initiation through peak publication. Brazilian student participation as first authors averaged more than 20% of all publications from 2003 to 2010 and more than half of all student publications had Brazilians as first authors. Foreign researchers, some initially reluctant to invest in Brazilian students, almost universally adapted the belief that the greatest legacy of LBA would be the contribution to building a cadre of

  14. 1.3-0.9 Ga Oaxaquia (Mexico): Remnant of an arc/backarc on the northern margin of Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keppie, J. Duncan; Ortega-Gutiérrez, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Rocks with ages of ca. 1 Ga occur in central and southern Mexico as inliers surrounded by ubiquitous Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks. They appear to share a common history consisting of: (i) ca. 1300-1200 Ma arc magmatism and deposition of sediments including evaporites; (ii) ca.1160-1100 Ma intrusion of syenite, granite and anorthosite, the later part of which is synchronous with migmatization; (iii) intrusion of a ca. 1035-1010 Ma anorthosite-gabbro-charnockite-granite (AMCG) suite; (iv) a 1000-980 Ma granulite facies tectonothermal event with a stretching axis parallel to the long axis of Oaxaquia; (v) gradual exhumation at 750 and/or 545 Ma; and (vi) 517 Ma intrusion of an isolated calcalkaline granitoid pluton. The common Precambrian geological record of these outcrops suggests that they belonged to a single terrane (Oaxaquia) and formed a juvenile arc/backarc bordering a continent that underwent collision with, and overthrusting of, the Avalonian arc at 1000-980 Ma. This buried Oaxaquia to 25-30 km and was followed by further supra-subduction zone magmatism at ca. 917 Ma. These Precambrian rocks are unconformably overlain by uppermost Cambrian and Silurian platform rocks containing Gondwanan fauna and ca. 1 detrital zircons of Oaxacan provenance. The neighbouring Mixteca terrane includes lower Paleozoic, rift-passive margin sedimentary rocks that also contain 900-750 Ma detrital zircons probably derived from the Goiás arc in eastern Amazonia. The arc-backarc tectonic setting inferred for the 1300-900 Ma rocks also suggests that Oaxaquia lay on an active periphery of Amazonia until ca. 900 Ma, well after the amalgamation of Rodinia. This precludes a location for Oaxaquia off southern and western Amazonia that are inferred to have been juxtaposed against eastern Laurentia; contiguity with eastern Amazonia is also unlikely given the absence of the 900-750 Ma convergent tectonics in the Goiás arc. This leaves northern Amazonia as the most likely position, a

  15. Rhodnius barretti, a new species of Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) from western Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad-Franch, Fernando; Pavan, Márcio G; Jaramillo-O, Nicolás; Palomeque, Francisco S; Dale, Carolina; Chaverra, Duverney; Monteiro, Fernando A

    2013-01-01

    Rhodnius barretti, a new triatomine species, is described based on adult specimens collected in rainforest environments within the Napo ecoregion of western Amazonia (Colombia and Ecuador). R. barretti resembles Rhodnius robustus s.l., but mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences reveal that it is a strongly divergent member of the "robustus lineage", i.e., basal to the clade encompassing Rhodnius nasutus, Rhodnius neglectus, Rhodnius prolixus and five members of the R. robustus species complex. Morphometric analyses also reveal consistent divergence from R. robustus s.l., including head and, as previously shown, wing shape and the length ratios of some anatomical structures. R. barretti occurs, often at high densities, in Attalea butyracea and Oenocarpus bataua palms. It is strikingly aggressive and adults may invade houses flying from peridomestic palms. R. barretti must therefore be regarded as a potential Trypanosoma cruzi vector in the Napo ecoregion, where Chagas disease is endemic.

  16. Deforestation and climate feedbacks threaten the ecological integrity of south-southeastern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Michael T; Marthews, Toby R; Costa, Marcos Heil; Galbraith, David R; Greenglass, Nora L; Imbuzeiro, Hewlley M A; Levine, Naomi M; Malhi, Yadvinder; Moorcroft, Paul R; Muza, Michel Nobre; Powell, Thomas L; Saleska, Scott R; Solorzano, Luis A; Wang, Jingfeng

    2013-06-05

    A mosaic of protected areas, including indigenous lands, sustainable-use production forests and reserves and strictly protected forests is the cornerstone of conservation in the Amazon, with almost 50 per cent of the region now protected. However, recent research indicates that isolation from direct deforestation or degradation may not be sufficient to maintain the ecological integrity of Amazon forests over the next several decades. Large-scale changes in fire and drought regimes occurring as a result of deforestation and greenhouse gas increases may result in forest degradation, regardless of protected status. How severe or widespread these feedbacks will be is uncertain, but the arc of deforestation in south-southeastern Amazonia appears to be particularly vulnerable owing to high current deforestation rates and ecological sensitivity to climate change. Maintaining forest ecosystem integrity may require significant strengthening of forest conservation on private property, which can in part be accomplished by leveraging existing policy mechanisms.

  17. Neogene and Quaternary history of vegetation, climate, and plant diversity in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hammen, Thomas; Hooghiemstra, Henry

    2000-04-01

    The neotropical Amazonian and Andean plant diversity developed mainly during the Tertiary. In Amazonia, Miocene floral diversity seems considerably higher than today. During the Neogene, tropical taxa entered newly created montane area, and montane taxa entered the tropical lowlands. The general decrease of temperature during the upper Neogene and especially during the Quaternary glacial periods may have caused considerable extinctions in the lowlands. Representation of pollen of apparently principally montane taxa ( Podocarpus, Hedyosmum) in Miocene, Pliocene, and Quaternary sediments of Amazonia and surroundings, is still difficult to interpret in terms of temperature decrease at low elevation. Changes in precipitation may have profound impact on the composition of vegetation communities; Ilex and Melastomataceae increase significantly in many glacial pollen records. Increase of Weinmannia in Amazonian pollen records seems the best indicator of downward migration of montane vegetation belts. A temperature lowering at sea-level of 4.5 ±1°C during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) seems reasonable; it may have caused a downslope migration of some 700 m of the lower montane vegetation belt; lower montane arboreal species may have been able to grow in higher elevation areas (>500 m) of Amazonia, increasing background pollen values of montane taxa in the area. Difference between a cool and wet Middle Pleniglacial (60-28 ka BP), and a cold and dry Upper Pleniglacial (28-14 ka BP; thus including the LGM) is evident in Andean and Amazonian records; statements about environmental conditions of the ice-age Amazon should be specified chronologically. The Middle Pleniglacial is a time of accumulation of fluvial sediments. The Upper Pleniglacial is a time of incision of the rivers in their sediments; sedimentation started again in the Lateglacial (since ca. 13 ka BP) and the Holocene, when lake levels rose again. Based on simplified considerations of precipitation changes and

  18. Evaluating the impact of distance measures on deforestation simulations in the fluvial landscapes of amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, Maria; Maeda, Eduardo Eiji; Toivonen, Tuuli

    2014-10-01

    Land use and land cover change (LUCC) models frequently employ different accessibility measures as a proxy for human influence on land change processes. Here, we simulate deforestation in Peruvian Amazonia and evaluate different accessibility measures as LUCC model inputs. We demonstrate how the selection, and different combinations, of accessibility measures impact simulation results. Out of the individual measures, time distance to market center catches the essential aspects of accessibility in our study area. The most accurate simulation is achieved when time distance to market center is used in association with distance to transport network and additional landscape variables. Although traditional Euclidean measures result in clearly lower simulation accuracy when used separately, the combination of two complementary Euclidean measures enhances simulation accuracy significantly. Our results highlight the need for site and context sensitive selection of accessibility variables. More sophisticated accessibility measures can potentially improve LUCC models' spatial accuracy, which often remains low.

  19. Rhodnius barretti, a new species of Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae from western Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Abad-Franch

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhodnius barretti , a new triatomine species, is described based on adult specimens collected in rainforest environments within the Napo ecoregion of western Amazonia (Colombia and Ecuador. R. barretti resembles Rhodnius robustus s.l. , but mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences reveal that it is a strongly divergent member of the “robustus lineage”, i.e., basal to the clade encompassing Rhodnius nasutus , Rhodnius neglectus , Rhodnius prolixus and five members of the R. robustus species complex. Morphometric analyses also reveal consistent divergence from R. robustus s.l. , including head and, as previously shown, wing shape and the length ratios of some anatomical structures. R. barretti occurs, often at high densities, in Attalea butyracea and Oenocarpus bataua palms. It is strikingly aggressive and adults may invade houses flying from peridomestic palms. R. barretti must therefore be regarded as a potential Trypanosoma cruzi vector in the Napo ecoregion, where Chagas disease is endemic.

  20. Leptophlebiidae (Ephemeroptera da Amazônia brasileira Leptophlebiidae (Ephemeroptera from brazilian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José do Nascimento Lopes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Na Amazônia brasileira são registradas dezenove espécies de Leptophlebiidae, distribuídas em dez gêneros. Neste trabalho é apresentada uma lista de todos os gêneros de Leptophlebiidae ocorrentes na Região Neotropical, o numero de espécies de cada gênero no Brasil e um catálogo das espécies registradas na Amazônia brasileira.Brazilian Amazonia has nineteen registered species of Leptophlebiidae, distributed in ten genera. In this work a list of all genera of Leptophlebiidae from the Neotropical Region is presented, the number of species of each genus in Brazil and a catalog of the species occurring in the Brazilian Amazon.

  1. Chemical fingerprints of hydrological compartments and flow paths at La Cuenca, western Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsenbeer, Helmut; Lack, Andreas; Cassel, Keith

    A forested first-order catchment in western Amazonia was monitored for 2 years to determine the chemical fingerprints of precipitation, throughfall, overland flow, pipe flow, soil water, groundwater, and streamflow. We used five tracers (hydrogen, calcium, magnesium, potassium, and silica) to distinguish ``fast'' flow paths mainly influenced by the biological subsystem from ``slow'' flow paths in the geochemical subsystem. The former comprise throughfall, overland flow, and pipe flow and are characterized by a high potassium/silica ratio; the latter are represented by soil water and groundwater, which have a low potassium/silica ratio. Soil water and groundwater differ with respect to calcium and magnesium. The groundwater-controlled streamflow chemistry is strongly modified by contributions from fast flow paths during precipitation events. The high potassium/silica ratio of these flow paths suggests that the storm flow response at La Cuenca is dominated by event water.

  2. Hydrometric and hydrochemicai evidence for fast flowpaths at La Cuenca, Western Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsenbeer, Helmut; Lack, Andreas

    1996-05-01

    A hydrological reconnaissance study in a first-order tropical rainforest catchment in western Amazonia implicated overland flow as an important hydrological pathway. A complementary hydrometric and hydrochemical approach that involved the recording of overland flow hydrographs and the determination of streamflow, overland flow, groundwater, soil water, and throughfall chemical signatures, was essential to establish unambiguously the importance of this pathway. Largely uncontrolled by topography, overland flow does occur in any season, regardless of antecedent moisture conditions, which only influence the volumes generated. The latter effect is also reflected in a close approximation of stormflow and overland flow chemical signatures, as expressed in the K/SiO ratio. We conclude that, despite its greater logistical demands, a complementary hydrometric/hydrochemical approach is essential to understand a catchment's hydrological behaviour, especially where fast pathways are at work; such pathways are apparently common in more forest ecosystems than has been previously assumed.

  3. Rainfall and surface kinematic conditions over central amazonia during ABLE 2B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Steven; Swap, Robert; Garstang, Michael; Ulanski, Stanley; Shipham, Mark

    1990-01-01

    Rainfall, rainfall systems, and surface kinematics of the central Amazon basin wet season are investigated using meteorological and chemical data collected during the wet season Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment (ABLE) near Manaus, Brazil. Through analysis of (GOES-West) imagery, it is determined that, based on location of the initial development, there are three main types of convective systems which influence a mesoscale network near Manaus, namely the Coastal Occurring Systems (COS), the Basin Occurring Systems (BOS), and the Locally Occurring Systems (LOS). Chemical analysis of rainwater delivered by these systems shows significant differences in concentrations of formate, acetate, pyruvate, sulfate, and hydrogen ion, and measurements of aerosol concentrations near Manaus show large influxes of aerosols into central Amazonia after passage of BOS and COS. Results of satellite based classification of the rain-producing systems are discussed.

  4. Rupturing of Biological Spores As a Source of Secondary Particles in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    China, Swarup; Wang, Bingbing; Weis, Johannes; Rizzo, Luciana; Brito, Joel; Cirino, Glauber G; Kovarik, Libor; Artaxo, Paulo; Gilles, Mary K; Laskin, Alexander

    2016-11-15

    Airborne biological particles, such as fungal spores and pollen, are ubiquitous in the Earth's atmosphere and may influence the atmospheric environment and climate, impacting air quality, cloud formation, and the Earth's radiation budget. The atmospheric transformations of airborne biological spores at elevated relative humidity remain poorly understood and their climatic role is uncertain. Using an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM), we observed rupturing of Amazonian fungal spores and subsequent release of submicrometer size fragments after exposure to high humidity. We find that fungal fragments contain elements of inorganic salts (e.g., Na and Cl). They are hygroscopic in nature with a growth factor up to 2.3 at 96% relative humidity, thus they may potentially influence cloud formation. Due to their hygroscopic growth, light scattering cross sections of the fragments are enhanced by up to a factor of 10. Furthermore, rupturing of fungal spores at high humidity may explain the bursting events of new particle formation in Amazonia.

  5. Variation in photosynthetic and nonphotosynthetic vegetation along edaphic and compositional gradients in northwestern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, M. A.; Asner, G. P.; Perez, E.; Elespuru, N.; Alonso, A.

    2014-07-01

    Tropical forests vary substantially in aboveground properties such as canopy height, canopy structure, and plant species composition, corresponding to underlying variations in soils and geology. Forest properties are often difficult to detect and map in the field, however, due to the remoteness and inaccessibility of these forests. Spectral mixture analysis of Landsat imagery allows mapping of photosynthetic and nonphotosynthetic vegetation quantities (PV and NPV), corresponding to biophysical properties such as canopy openness, forest productivity, and disturbance. Spectral unmixing has been used for applications ranging from deforestation monitoring to identifying burn scars from past fires, but little is known about variations in PV and NPV in intact rainforests. Here we use spectral unmixing of Landsat imagery to map PV and NPV in northern Amazonia, and to test their relationship to soils and plant species composition. To do this we sampled 117 sites crossing a geological boundary in northwestern Amazonia for soil cation concentrations and plant species composition. We then used the Carnegie Landsat Analysis System to map PV and NPV for these sites from multiple dates of Landsat imagery. We found that soil cation concentrations and plant species composition consistently explain a majority of the variation in remotely sensed PV and NPV values. After combining PV and NPV into a single variable (PV-NPV), we determined that the influence of soil properties on canopy properties was inseparable from the influence of plant species composition. In all cases, patterns in PV and NPV corresponded to underlying geological patterns. Our findings suggest that geology and soils regulate canopy PV and NPV values in intact tropical forests, possibly through changes in plant species composition.

  6. Genetic structure of traditional varieties of bitter manioc in three soils in Central Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Pereira, Alessandro; Peroni, Nivaldo; Abreu, Aluana Gonçalves; Gribel, Rogério; Clement, Charles R

    2011-10-01

    Manioc is the most important food crop that originated in Amazonia. Many studies have increased our understanding of its evolutionary dynamics under cultivation. However, most of them focused on manioc cultivation in environments with low soil fertility, generally Oxisols. Recent ethnobotanical observations showed that bitter manioc also performs well in high fertility soils, such as Amazonian dark earths (ADE) and the floodplain. We used 10 microsatellite loci to investigate the genetic diversity and structure of bitter manioc varieties grown in different soil types in communities of smallholder farmers along the middle Madeira River in Central Amazonia. The genetic diversity of some sweet varieties and seedlings was also evaluated. Adult individuals showed higher levels of genetic diversity and smaller inbreeding coefficients (A ( R ) = 5.52, H ( O ) = 0.576, f = 0.086) than seedlings (A ( R ) = 4.39, H ( O ) = 0.421, f = 0.242). Bitter manioc varieties from the floodplain showed higher levels of genetic diversity (A ( R ) = 5.19, H ( O ) = 0.606) than those from ADE (A ( R ) = 4.45, H ( O ) = 0.538) and from Oxisols (A ( R ) = 4.15, H ( O ) = 0.559). The varieties grown in the floodplain were strongly differentiated from the varieties grown in Oxisols (F ( ST ) = 0.093) and ADE (F ( ST ) = 0.108), suggesting important genetic structuring among varieties grown in the floodplain and upland soils (ADE and Oxisols). This is the first time that genetic divergence of bitter manioc varieties in cultivation in different Amazonian soils in a small geographic area is reported.

  7. Widespread Forest Vertebrate Extinctions Induced by a Mega Hydroelectric Dam in Lowland Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchimol, Maíra; Peres, Carlos A

    2015-01-01

    Mega hydropower projects in tropical forests pose a major emergent threat to terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity worldwide. Despite the unprecedented number of existing, under-construction and planned hydroelectric dams in lowland tropical forests, long-term effects on biodiversity have yet to be evaluated. We examine how medium and large-bodied assemblages of terrestrial and arboreal vertebrates (including 35 mammal, bird and tortoise species) responded to the drastic 26-year post-isolation history of archipelagic alteration in landscape structure and habitat quality in a major hydroelectric reservoir of Central Amazonia. The Balbina Hydroelectric Dam inundated 3,129 km2 of primary forests, simultaneously isolating 3,546 land-bridge islands. We conducted intensive biodiversity surveys at 37 of those islands and three adjacent continuous forests using a combination of four survey techniques, and detected strong forest habitat area effects in explaining patterns of vertebrate extinction. Beyond clear area effects, edge-mediated surface fire disturbance was the most important additional driver of species loss, particularly in islands smaller than 10 ha. Based on species-area models, we predict that only 0.7% of all islands now harbor a species-rich vertebrate assemblage consisting of ≥80% of all species. We highlight the colossal erosion in vertebrate diversity driven by a man-made dam and show that the biodiversity impacts of mega dams in lowland tropical forest regions have been severely overlooked. The geopolitical strategy to deploy many more large hydropower infrastructure projects in regions like lowland Amazonia should be urgently reassessed, and we strongly advise that long-term biodiversity impacts should be explicitly included in pre-approval environmental impact assessments.

  8. The first species of the genus Caponina from Brazilian Amazonia (Araneae: Caponiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brescovit, Antonio D; Ruiz, Alexander Sánchez

    2013-01-01

    The genus Caponina Simon, 1891 comprises eleven species of medium-sized, soil-dwelling caponiids. Most members of Caponina have six eyes, but some have five, four, three or two eyes (Brignoli 1977, Platnick 1994). The genus is widespread in South and Central America (Platnick 2012). To date, only three species have been recorded from Brazil: Caponina alegre Platnick, 1994 from the state of Rio Grande do Sul, C. notabilis (Mello-Leitão, 1939) from the states of Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul, and C. tijuca Platnick, 1994 from the state of Rio de Janeiro (Platnick 1994). In this paper we describe a new species from the state of Pará, in Brazilian Amazonia. Caponina papamanga new species was collected during the "Butantan na Amazonia" project, founded by the Instituto Butantan. The phylogenetic relationships of C. papamanga could not be studied, but the greatly elongated embolus, the dorsal tubercle on the palpal femur (Figs. 7, 9) and the massive epigynal sclerotizations (Fig. 10) suggest that this species belongs to the monophyletic Andean group proposed by Platnick (1994: 7). All morphological observations and illustrations were made using a Leica MZ12 stereomicroscope with camera lucida. The epigynum was dissected and immersed in clove oil for visualization of internal structures following Levi (1965). Descriptions and measurements follow Platnick (1994). Measurements are given in millimeters. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images were taken using a Jeol-JSM-5200 with attached SLR digital camera. The material examined was deposited in the collections of the Instituto Butantan, Sgo Paulo (IBSP, curator: D.M. Barros Battesti) and the Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Belém (MPEG, curator: A.B. Bonaldo).

  9. Helminth fauna of chiropterans in Amazonia: biological interactions between parasite and host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Albuquerque, Ana Cláudia Alexandre; Moraes, Marcela Figueiredo Duarte; Silva, Ana Carolina; Lapera, Ivan Moura; Tebaldi, José Hairton; Lux Hoppe, Estevam G

    2016-08-01

    Amazonia, the largest Brazilian biome, is one of the most diverse biomes around the world. Considering the Brazilian chiropteran species, 120 out of known 167 species are registered in Pará state, with 10 endemic species. Despite the high diversity of bats in Amazonia, studies on their parasites, especially on helminths, are scarce. Therefore, the present study aims to study the helminth fauna of different bats from the Pará state, Amazon biome, determine the descriptors of infection, and evaluate the host-parasite interactions, as well as evaluate differences in ecological indexes in accordance with the feeding guilds. The study was developed on 67 bats of 21 species captured in several areas of the Pará state. The animals were identified, divided into feeding guilds, and necropsied. The parasites obtained were identified and quantified. A total of 182 parasites were found in 20.89 % of the studied bats, representing nine species, as follows: Anenterotrema eduardocaballeroi, Anenterotrema liliputianum, Ochoterenatrema caballeroi, Tricholeiperia sp., Parahistiostrongylus octacanthus, Litomosoides guiterasi, Litomosoides brasiliensis, Capillariinae gen. sp., and Hymenolepididae gen. sp. Also, the results indicated that there was no impact of parasitism on host body condition and no relationship between sex and parasite intensity. In relation to the feeding guilds, the omnivores showed higher prevalence and mean intensity. Animals from regions closer to the equator tend to have greater richness in parasite species, but the present study revealed low diversity and richness in species. In conclusion, the ecological pattern observed for other animal groups, in which higher parasitic diversity are registered in lower latitudes, is not applicable to chiropterans from the study area.

  10. Atmospheric aerosols in Amazonia and land use change: from natural biogenic to biomass burning conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artaxo, Paulo; Rizzo, Luciana V; Brito, Joel F; Barbosa, Henrique M J; Arana, Andrea; Sena, Elisa T; Cirino, Glauber G; Bastos, Wanderlei; Martin, Scot T; Andreae, Meinrat O

    2013-01-01

    In the wet season, a large portion of the Amazon region constitutes one of the most pristine continental areas, with very low concentrations of atmospheric trace gases and aerosol particles. However, land use change modifies the biosphere-atmosphere interactions in such a way that key processes that maintain the functioning of Amazonia are substantially altered. This study presents a comparison between aerosol properties observed at a preserved forest site in Central Amazonia (TT34 North of Manaus) and at a heavily biomass burning impacted site in south-western Amazonia (PVH, close to Porto Velho). Amazonian aerosols were characterized in detail, including aerosol size distributions, aerosol light absorption and scattering, optical depth and aerosol inorganic and organic composition, among other properties. The central Amazonia site (TT34) showed low aerosol concentrations (PM2.5 of 1.3 +/- 0.7 microg m(-3) and 3.4 +/- 2.0 microg m(-3) in the wet and dry seasons, respectively), with a median particle number concentration of 220 cm(-3) in the wet season and 2200 cm(-3) in the dry season. At the impacted site (PVH), aerosol loadings were one order of magnitude higher (PM2.5 of 10.2 +/- 9.0 microg m(-3) and 33.0 +/- 36.0 microg m(-3) in the wet and dry seasons, respectively). The aerosol number concentration at the impacted site ranged from 680 cm(-3) in the wet season up to 20 000 cm(-3) in the dry season. An aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM) was deployed in 2013 at both sites, and it shows that organic aerosol account to 81% to the non-refractory PM1 aerosol loading at TT34, while biomass burning aerosols at PVH shows a 93% content of organic particles. Three years of filter-based elemental composition measurements shows that sulphate at the impacted site decreases, on average, from 12% of PM2.5 mass during the wet season to 5% in the dry season. This result corroborates the ACSM finding that the biomass burning contributed overwhelmingly to the organic

  11. Biogeographic and diversification patterns of Neotropical Troidini butterflies (Papilionidae support a museum model of diversity dynamics for Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Condamine Fabien L

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The temporal and geographical diversification of Neotropical insects remains poorly understood because of the complex changes in geological and climatic conditions that occurred during the Cenozoic. To better understand extant patterns in Neotropical biodiversity, we investigated the evolutionary history of three Neotropical swallowtail Troidini genera (Papilionidae. First, DNA-based species delimitation analyses were conducted to assess species boundaries within Neotropical Troidini using an enlarged fragment of the standard barcode gene. Molecularly delineated species were then used to infer a time-calibrated species-level phylogeny based on a three-gene dataset and Bayesian dating analyses. The corresponding chronogram was used to explore their temporal and geographical diversification through distinct likelihood-based methods. Results The phylogeny for Neotropical Troidini was well resolved and strongly supported. Molecular dating and biogeographic analyses indicate that the extant lineages of Neotropical Troidini have a late Eocene (33–42 Ma origin in North America. Two independent lineages (Battus and Euryades + Parides reached South America via the GAARlandia temporary connection, and later became extinct in North America. They only began substantive diversification during the early Miocene in Amazonia. Macroevolutionary analysis supports the “museum model” of diversification, rather than Pleistocene refugia, as the best explanation for the diversification of these lineages. Conclusions This study demonstrates that: (i current Neotropical biodiversity may have originated ex situ; (ii the GAARlandia bridge was important in facilitating invasions of South America; (iii colonization of Amazonia initiated the crown diversification of these swallowtails; and (iv Amazonia is not only a species-rich region but also acted as a sanctuary for the dynamics of this diversity. In particular, Amazonia probably allowed

  12. Interpreting seasonal changes in the carbon balance of southern Amazonia using measurements of XCO2 and chlorophyll fluorescence from GOSAT

    OpenAIRE

    Parazoo, Nicholas C.; Bowman, Kevin; Frankenberg, Christian; Lee, Jung-Eun; Fisher, Joshua B.; Worden, John; Jones, Dylan B. A.; Berry, Joseph; Collatz, G James; Baker, Ian T.; Jung, Martin; Liu, Junjie; Osterman, Gregory; O'Dell, Chris; Sparks, Athena

    2013-01-01

    Amazon forests exert a major influence on the global carbon cycle, but quantifying the impact is complicated by diverse landscapes and sparse data. Here we examine seasonal carbon balance in southern Amazonia using new measurements of column-averaged dry air mole fraction of CO_2 (XCO_2) and solar induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) from the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) from July 2009 to December 2010. SIF, which reflects gross primary production (GPP), is used to disentang...

  13. Maximizing Amazonia's Ecosystem Services: Juggling the potential for carbon storage, agricultural yield and biodiversity in the Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, C. S.; Foley, J. A.; Gerber, J. S.; Polasky, S.

    2011-12-01

    The Amazon is not only an exceptionally biodiverse and carbon-rich tract of tropical forest, it is also a case study in land use change. Over the next forty years it will continue to experience pressure from an urbanizing and increasingly affluent populace: under a business-as-usual scenario, global cropland, pasture and biofuels systems will carry on expanding, while the Amazon's carbon storage potential will likely become another viable revenue source under REDD+. Balancing those competing land use pressures ought also take into account Amazonia's high - but heterogeneous - biodiversity. Knowing where Amazonia has opportunities to make efficient or optimal trade offs between carbon storage, agricultural production and biodiversity can allow policymakers to direct or influence LUC drivers. This analysis uses a spatially-explicit model that takes climate and management into account to quantify the potential agricultural yield of both the Amazon's most important agricultural commodities - sugar, soy and maize - as well as several that are going to come into increasing prominence, including palm oil. In addition, it maps the potential for carbon to be stored in forest biomass and relative species richness across Amazonia. We then compare carbon storage, agricultural yield and species richness and identify areas where efficient trade offs occur between food, carbon, and biodiversity - three critical ecosystem goods and services provided by the world's largest tropical forest.

  14. Ostracods (Crustacea) and their palaeoenvironmental implication for the Solimões Formation (Late Miocene; Western Amazonia/Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Martin; Ramos, Maria Ines; Caporaletti, Marco; Piller, Werner E

    2013-03-01

    Western Amazonia's landscape and biota were shaped by an enormous wetland during the Miocene epoch. Among the most discussed topics of this ecosystem range the question on the transitory influx of marine waters. Inter alia the occurrence of typically brackish water associated ostracods is repeatedly consulted to infer elevated salinities or even marine ingressions. The taxonomical investigation of ostracod faunas derived from the upper part of the Solimões Formation (Eirunepé; W-Brazil) documents a moderately diverse assemblage (19 species). A wealth of freshwater ostracods (mainly Cytheridella, Penthesilenula) was found co-occurring with taxa (chiefly Cyprideis) usually related to marginal marine settings today. The observed faunal compositions as well as constantly very light δ(18)O- and δ(13)C-values obtained by measuring both, the freshwater and brackish water ostracod group, refer to entirely freshwater conditions. These results corroborate with previous sedimentological and palaeontological observations, which proposed a fluvial depositional system for this part of western Amazonia during the Late Miocene. We demonstrate that some endemic, "brackish" water ostracods (i.e., Cyprideis) have been effectively adapted to freshwater conditions. Thus, their occurrence is no univocal evidence for the influence of brackish or marine waters in western Amazonia during the Miocene.

  15. Impact of mixing state and hygroscopicity on CCN activity of biomass burning aerosol in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Gácita, Madeleine; Longo, Karla M.; Freire, Julliana L. M.; Freitas, Saulo R.; Martin, Scot T.

    2017-02-01

    Smoke aerosols prevail throughout Amazonia because of widespread biomass burning during the dry season, and external mixing, low variability in the particle size distribution and low particle hygroscopicity are typical. There can be profound effects on cloud properties. This study uses an adiabatic cloud model to simulate the activation of smoke particles as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) for three hypothetical case studies, chosen as to resemble biomass burning aerosol observations in Amazonia. The relative importance of variability in hygroscopicity, mixing state, and activation kinetics for the activated fraction and maximum supersaturation is assessed. For a population with κp = 0.04, an overestimation of the cloud droplet number concentration Nd for the three selected case studies between 22.4 ± 1.4 and 54.3 ± 3.7 % was obtained when assuming a hygroscopicity parameter κp = 0.20. Assuming internal mixing of the aerosol population led to overestimations of up to 20 % of Nd when a group of particles with medium hygroscopicity was present in the externally mixed population cases. However, the overestimations were below 10 % for external mixtures between very low and low-hygroscopicity particles, as seems to be the case for Amazon smoke particles. Kinetic limitations were significant for medium- and high-hygroscopicity particles, and much lower for very low and low-hygroscopicity particles. When particles were assumed to be at equilibrium and to respond instantly to changes in the air parcel supersaturation, the overestimation of the droplet concentration was up to ˜ 100 % in internally mixed populations, and up to ˜ 250 % in externally mixed ones, being larger for the higher values of hygroscopicity. In addition, a perceptible delay between the times when maximum supersaturation and maximum aerosol activated fraction are reached was noticed and, for aerosol populations with effective hygroscopicity κpeff higher than a certain threshold value, the delay in

  16. A phylogenetic lineage of closely related trypanosomes (Trypanosomatidae, Kinetoplastida) of anurans and sand flies (Psychodidae, Diptera) sharing the same ecotopes in brazilian amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Robson C; De Souza, Adelson A; Freitas, Rui A; Campaner, Marta; Takata, Carmem S A; Barrett, Toby V; Shaw, Jeffrey J; Teixeira, Marta M G

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of the phylogenetic relationships among trypanosomes from vertebrates and invertebrates disclosed a new lineage of trypanosomes circulating among anurans and sand flies that share the same ecotopes in Brazilian Amazonia. This assemblage of closely related trypanosomes was determined by comparing whole SSU rDNA sequences of anuran trypanosomes from the Brazilian biomes of Amazonia, the Pantanal, and the Atlantic Forest and from Europe, North America, and Africa, and from trypanosomes of sand flies from Amazonia. Phylogenetic trees based on maximum likelihood and parsimony corroborated the positioning of all new anuran trypanosomes in the aquatic clade but did not support the monophyly of anuran trypanosomes. However, all analyses always supported four major clades (An01-04) of anuran trypanosomes. Clade An04 is composed of trypanosomes from exotic anurans. Isolates in clades An01 and An02 were from Brazilian frogs and toads captured in the three biomes studied, Amazonia, the Pantanal and the Atlantic Forest. Clade An01 contains mostly isolates from Hylidae whereas clade An02 comprises mostly isolates from Bufonidae; and clade An03 contains trypanosomes from sand flies and anurans of Bufonidae, Leptodactylidae, and Leiuperidae exclusively from Amazonia. To our knowledge, this is the first study describing morphological and growth features, and molecular phylogenetic affiliation of trypanosomes from anurans and phlebotomines, incriminating these flies as invertebrate hosts and probably also as important vectors of Amazonian terrestrial anuran trypanosomes.

  17. Extreme seasonal droughts and floods in Amazonia: causes, trends and impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    J. A. Marengo * and J. C. Espinoza** * Centro Nacional de Monitoramento e Alerta de Desastres Naturais, Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação, Sao Paulo, Brazil ** Subdirección de Ciencias de la Atmósfera e Hidrósfera (SCAH), Instituto Geofísico del Perú, Lima, Peru This paper reviews recent progress in the study and understanding of extreme seasonal events in the Amazon region, focusing on drought and floods. The review includes a history of droughts and floods in the past, in the present and some discussions on future extremes in the context of climate change and its impacts on the Amazon region. Several extreme hydrological events, some of them characterized as 'once in a century', have been reported in the Amazon region during the last decade. While abundant rainfall in various sectors of the basin has determined extreme floods along the river's main stem in 1953, 1989, 1999, 2009, 2012-2015, deficient rainfall in 1912, 1926, 1963, 1980, 1983, 1995, 1997, 1998, 2005 and 2010 has caused anomalously low river levels, and an increase in the risk and number of fires in the region, with consequences for humans. This is consistent with changes in the variability of the hydrometeorology of the basin and suggests that extreme hydrological events have been more frequent in the last two decades. Some of these intense/reduced rainfalls and subsequent floods/droughts were associated (but not exclusively) with La Niña/El Niño events. In addition, moisture transport anomalies from the tropical Atlantic into Amazonia, and from northern to southern Amazonia alter the water cycle in the region year-to-year. We also assess the impacts of such extremes on natural and human systems in the region, considering ecological, economic and societal impacts in urban and rural areas, particularly during the recent decades. In the context of the future climate change, studies show a large range of uncertainty, but suggest that drought might intensify through the 21st

  18. Urban Forest and Rural Cities: Multi-sited Households, Consumption Patterns, and Forest Resources in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin R. Sears

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In much of the Amazon Basin, approximately 70% of the population lives in urban areas and urbanward migration continues. Based on data collected over more than a decade in two long-settled regions of Amazonia, we find that rural–urban migration in the region is an extended and complex process. Like recent rural–urban migrants worldwide, Amazonian migrants, although they may be counted as urban residents, are often not absent from rural areas but remain members of multi-sited households and continue to participate in rural–urban networks and in rural land-use decisions. Our research indicates that, despite their general poverty, these migrants have affected urban markets for both food and construction materials. We present two cases: that of açaí palm fruit in the estuary of the Amazon and of cheap construction timbers in the Peruvian Amazon. We find that many new Amazonian rural–urban migrants have maintained some important rural patterns of both consumption and knowledge. Through their consumer behavior, they are affecting the areal extent of forests; in the two floodplain regions discussed, tree cover is increasing. We also find changes in forest composition, reflecting the persistence of rural consumption patterns in cities resulting in increased demand for and production of açaí and cheap timber species.

  19. Megafans and Trumpeter Bird Biodiversity-Psophia Phylogeography and Landscape Evolution in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Justin

    2014-01-01

    Based on geomorphic character and mapped geology, geologists have interpreted the landscape surrounding the Andes Mountains as becoming progressively younger to the East. These sedimentary materials filled the late Miocene swampland that formerly occupied central and western Amazonia. Apart from the ancient landscapes of the Guiana Highlands (top right, figure 1a), Zone Ac is the oldest, followed by Zone Aw, within which megafan Jw is older than megafan Je (figure 1a). DNA-based paleogeography of the trumpeters shows that younger clades diverge from parent lineages with increasing distance from the Andes chain. Thus, Psophia napensis diverges from the P. crepitans parent, and P. ochroptera diverges from P. napensis. The P. ochroptera population is confined solely to the Je megafan (figure 1a). The same trend is seen on the south side of the Amazon depression. Since the timing of the events seems to be of exactly the same order [post-Miocene for the land surfaces and trumpeter divergence within the last 3 million years (figure 1d)], it seems reasonable to think that the megafans provided the substrate on which new bird lineages could speciate. Such physical controls of evolution are becoming more important in the understanding of biodiversity.

  20. The legacy of the Pleistocene megafauna extinctions on nutrient availability in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Christopher E.; Wolf, Adam; Malhi, Yadvinder

    2013-09-01

    In the late Pleistocene, 97 genera of large animals went extinct, concentrated in the Americas and Australia. These extinctions had significant effects on ecosystem structure, seed dispersal and land surface albedo. However, the impact of this dramatic extinction on ecosystem nutrient biogeochemistry, through the lateral transport of dung and bodies, has never been explored. Here we analyse this process using a novel mathematical framework that analyses this lateral transport as a diffusion-like process, and we demonstrate that large animals play a disproportionately large role in the horizontal transfer of nutrients across landscapes. For example, we estimate that the extinction of the Amazonian megafauna decreased the lateral flux of the limiting nutrient phosphorus by more than 98%, with similar, though less extreme, decreases in all continents outside of Africa. This resulted in strong decreases in phosphorus availability in eastern Amazonia away from fertile floodplains, a decline which may still be ongoing. The current P limitation in the Amazon basin may be partially a relic of an ecosystem without the functional connectivity it once had. We argue that the Pleistocene megafauna extinctions resulted in large and ongoing disruptions to terrestrial biogeochemical cycling at continental scales and increased nutrient heterogeneity globally.

  1. Empty forest or empty rivers? A century of commercial hunting in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, André P; Fewster, Rachel M; Venticinque, Eduardo M; Peres, Carlos A; Levi, Taal; Rohe, Fabio; Shepard, Glenn H

    2016-10-01

    The Amazon basin is the largest and most species-rich tropical forest and river system in the world, playing a pivotal role in global climate regulation and harboring hundreds of traditional and indigenous cultures. It is a matter of intense debate whether the ecosystem is threatened by hunting practices, whereby an "empty forest" loses critical ecological functions. Strikingly, no previous study has examined Amazonian ecosystem resilience through the perspective of the massive 20th century international trade in furs and skins. We present the first historical account of the scale and impacts of this trade and show that whereas aquatic species suffered basin-wide population collapse, terrestrial species did not. We link this differential resilience to the persistence of adequate spatial refuges for terrestrial species, enabling populations to be sustained through source-sink dynamics, contrasting with unremitting hunting pressure on more accessible aquatic habitats. Our findings attest the high vulnerability of aquatic fauna to unregulated hunting, particularly during years of severe drought. We propose that the relative resilience of terrestrial species suggests a marked opportunity for managing, rather than criminalizing, contemporary traditional subsistence hunting in Amazonia, through both the engagement of local people in community-based comanagement programs and science-led conservation governance.

  2. Temporal Scales of the Nocturnal Flow Within and Above a Forest Canopy in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Daniel M.; Acevedo, Otávio C.; Chamecki, Marcelo; Fuentes, José D.; Gerken, Tobias; Stoy, Paul C.

    2016-10-01

    Multiresolution decomposition is applied to 10 months of nocturnal turbulence observations taken at eight levels within and above a forest canopy in Central Amazonia. The aim is to identify the contributions of different temporal scales of the flow above and within the canopy. Results show that turbulence intensity in the lower canopy is mostly affected by the static stability in the upper canopy. Horizontal velocity fluctuations peak at time scales longer than 100 s within the canopy, which correspond to the scale of non-turbulent submeso motions above the canopy. In the vertical velocity spectrum near the surface, the peak occurs at time scales around 100 s, which are larger than the time scales of the turbulent flow above the canopy. Heat-flux cospectra within the canopy peak at the same temporal scales as the vertical velocity fluctuations at that level, suggesting the existence of buoyancy driven turbulence. Case studies are presented as evidence that low-frequency fluctuations propagate towards the canopy interior more easily than does turbulence.

  3. EFFECT OF WATER AVAILABILITY ON SOIL MICROBIAL BIOMASS IN SECONDARY FOREST IN EASTERN AMAZONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Gabrig Turbay Rangel-Vasconcelos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil microbial biomass (SMB plays an important role in nutrient cycling in agroecosystems, and is limited by several factors, such as soil water availability. This study assessed the effects of soil water availability on microbial biomass and its variation over time in the Latossolo Amarelo concrecionário of a secondary forest in eastern Amazonia. The fumigation-extraction method was used to estimate the soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen content (SMBC and SMBN. An adaptation of the fumigation-incubation method was used to determine basal respiration (CO2-SMB. The metabolic quotient (qCO2 and ratio of microbial carbon:organic carbon (CMIC:CORG were calculated based on those results. Soil moisture was generally significantly lower during the dry season and in the control plots. Irrigation raised soil moisture to levels close to those observed during the rainy season, but had no significant effect on SMB. The variables did not vary on a seasonal basis, except for the microbial C/N ratio that suggested the occurrence of seasonal shifts in the structure of the microbial community.

  4. Late Quaternary landscape evolution of northeastern Amazonia from pollen and diatom records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DARCILÉA F. CASTRO

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to reconstruct the Late Pleistocene-Holocene floristic composition in an area of the northern Brazilian Amazonia, comparing the results with other Amazonian localities in order to discuss the factors that have influenced phytophysiognomic changes over this time period. The work in eastern Marajó Island at the mouth of the Amazonas River was approached based on analysis of 98 pollen and diatom samples from core data distributed along a proximal to distal transect of a paleoestuarine system. The results indicated high concentration of Rhizophora, associated with arboreal pollen grains typical of the modern Amazonian rainforest during the last 40,000 cal yrs BP. Pollen composition also included wetland herbs. Diatoms were dominated by marine and fresh water taxa. Wetland forest, mangrove and, subordinately herbs remained constant during most of the latest Pleistocene-early/middle Holocene. At 5,000 cal yrs BP, there was a distinguished change from forest and mangrove to wet grassland savanna due to sea level fluctuation. As marine influence decreased, the estuary gave rise to fresh water lacustrine and swamp environments, with establishment of herbaceous campos. A main conclusion from this study is that solely the occurrence of herbaceous savanna can not be used as a definitive indicator of past dry climates in Amazonian areas.

  5. The Cotingo Dam as a test of Brazil's system for evaluating proposed developments in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnside, Philip M.; Barbosa, Reinaldo Imbrozio

    1996-09-01

    The proposed Cotingo Dam in Brazil's far northern state of Roraima is examined with the objective of drawing lessons for Brazil's system of evaluating environmental, social, and financial consequences of development decisions. The Cotingo Dam illustrates the difficulty of translating into practice the principles of economic and environmental assessment. Examination of the financial arguments for the Cotingo Dam indicates that justifications in this sphere are insufficient to explain why the project is favored over other alternatives and points to political factors as the best explanation of the project's high priority. Strong pressure from political and entrepreneurial interest groups almost invariably dominates decision making in Amazonia. The analysis indicates the inherent tendency of the present system to produce decisions in favor of large construction projects at the expense of the environment and local peoples. The requirements intended to assure proper weight for these concerns, such as the report on environmental impacts (RIMA) and the public hearing, fail to serve this role. Cotingo also provides a test case for constitutional protections restricting construction of dams in indigenous lands.

  6. Juvenile tree growth correlates with photosynthesis and leaf phosphorus content in central Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Antonio Marenco

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Light and soil water availability may limit carbon uptake of trees in tropical rainforests. The objective of this work was to determine how photosynthetic traits of juvenile trees respond to variations in rainfall seasonality, leaf nutrient content, and opening of the forest canopy. The correlation between leaf nutrient content and annual growth rate of saplings was also assessed. In a terra firme rainforest of the central Amazon, leaf nutrient content and gas exchange parameters were measured in five sapling tree species in the dry and rainy season of 2008. Sapling growth was measured in 2008 and 2009. Rainfall seasonality led to variations in soil water content, but it did not affect leaf gas exchange parameters. Subtle changes in the canopy opening affected CO2 saturated photosynthesis (A pot, p = 0.04. Although A pot was affected by leaf nutrient content (as follows: P > Mg > Ca > N > K, the relative growth rate of saplings correlated solely with leaf P content (r = 0.52, p = 0.003. At present, reduction in soil water content during the dry season does not seem to be strong enough to cause any effect on photosynthesis of saplings in central Amazonia. This study shows that leaf P content is positively correlated with sapling growth in the central Amazon. Therefore, the positive effect of atmospheric CO2 fertilization on long-term tree growth will depend on the ability of trees to absorb additional amount of P

  7. Late Quaternary landscape evolution of northeastern Amazonia from pollen and diatom records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Darciléa F; De Oliveira, Paulo E; Rossetti, Dilce F; Pessenda, Luiz C R

    2013-03-01

    The main goal of this study was to reconstruct the Late Pleistocene-Holocene floristic composition in an area of the northern Brazilian Amazonia, comparing the results with other Amazonian localities in order to discuss the factors that have influenced phytophysiognomic changes over this time period. The work in eastern Marajó Island at the mouth of the Amazonas River was approached based on analysis of 98 pollen and diatom samples from core data distributed along a proximal to distal transect of a paleoestuarine system. The results indicated high concentration of Rhizophora, associated with arboreal pollen grains typical of the modern Amazonian rainforest during the last 40,000 cal yrs BP. Pollen composition also included wetland herbs. Diatoms were dominated by marine and fresh water taxa. Wetland forest, mangrove and, subordinately herbs remained constant during most of the latest Pleistocene-early/middle Holocene. At 5,000 cal yrs BP, there was a distinguished change from forest and mangrove to wet grassland savanna due to sea level fluctuation. As marine influence decreased, the estuary gave rise to fresh water lacustrine and swamp environments, with establishment of herbaceous campos. A main conclusion from this study is that solely the occurrence of herbaceous savanna can not be used as a definitive indicator of past dry climates in Amazonian areas.

  8. Regional-scale drivers of forest structure and function in northwestern Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Higgins

    Full Text Available Field studies in Amazonia have found a relationship at continental scales between soil fertility and broad trends in forest structure and function. Little is known at regional scales, however, about how discrete patterns in forest structure or functional attributes map onto underlying edaphic or geological patterns. We collected airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging data and VSWIR (Visible to Shortwave Infrared imaging spectroscopy measurements over 600 km2 of northwestern Amazonian lowland forests. We also established 83 inventories of plant species composition and soil properties, distributed between two widespread geological formations. Using these data, we mapped forest structure and canopy reflectance, and compared them to patterns in plant species composition, soils, and underlying geology. We found that variations in soils and species composition explained up to 70% of variation in canopy height, and corresponded to profound changes in forest vertical profiles. We further found that soils and plant species composition explained more than 90% of the variation in canopy reflectance as measured by imaging spectroscopy, indicating edaphic and compositional control of canopy chemical properties. We last found that soils explained between 30% and 70% of the variation in gap frequency in these forests, depending on the height threshold used to define gaps. Our findings indicate that a relatively small number of edaphic and compositional variables, corresponding to underlying geology, may be responsible for variations in canopy structure and chemistry over large expanses of Amazonian forest.

  9. Meso-scale effects of tropical deforestation in Amazonia: preparatory LBA modelling studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolman, A.J.; Ashby, M.; Kabat, P. [DLO, Wageningen (Netherlands). Winand Staring Centre; Silva Dias, M.A. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil); Calvet, J.-C.; Delire, C. [Centre National de Recherches Meteorologiques, 31 - Toulouse (France); Tahara, A.S.; Nobre, C.A. [INPE/CPTEC, Cachoeira Paulista (Brazil). Centro de Previsao de Tempo e Estidps Climaticos; Fisch, G.A. [Centro Tecnico Aerospacial, Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil)

    1999-08-01

    As part of the preparation for the large-scale biosphere atmosphere experiment in amazonia, a mesoscale modelling study was executed to highlight deficiencies in the current understanding of land surface atmosphere interaction at local to subcontinental scales in the dry season. Mesoscale models were run in 1D and 3D mode for the area of Rondonia State, Brazil. The important conclusions are that without calibration it is difficult to model the energy partitioning of pasture; modelling that of forest is easier due to the absence of a strong moisture deficit signal. The simulation of the boundary layer above forest is good, above deforested areas (pasture) poor. The models` underestimate of the temperature of the boundary layer is likely to be caused by the neglect of the radiative effects of aerosols caused by biomass burning, but other factors such as lack of sufficient entrainment in the model at the mixed layer top may also contribute. The Andes generate patterns of subsidence and gravity waves, the effects of which are felt far into the Rondonian area. The results show that the picture presented by GCM modelling studies may need to be balanced by an increased understanding of what happens at the mesoscale. The results are used to identify key measurements for the LBA atmospheric mesoscale campaign needed to improve the model simulations. Similar modelling studies are proposed for the wet season in Rondonia, when convection plays a major role. (orig.) 39 refs.

  10. Molecular phylogeny and morphometric analyses reveal deep divergence between Amazonia and Atlantic Forest species of Dendrophryniscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouquet, Antoine; Recoder, Renato; Teixeira, Mauro; Cassimiro, José; Amaro, Renata Cecília; Camacho, Agustín; Damasceno, Roberta; Carnaval, Ana Carolina; Moritz, Craig; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut

    2012-03-01

    Dendrophryniscus is an early diverging clade of bufonids represented by few small-bodied species distributed in Amazonia and the Atlantic Forest. We used mitochondrial (414 bp of 12S, 575 bp of 16S genes) and nuclear DNA (785 bp of RAG-1) to investigate phylogenetic relationships and the timing of diversification within the genus. These molecular data were gathered from 23 specimens from 19 populations, including eight out of the 10 nominal species of the genus as well as Rhinella boulengeri. Analyses also included sequences of representatives of 18 other bufonid genera that were publically available. We also examined morphological characters to analyze differences within Dendrophryniscus. We found deep genetic divergence between an Amazonian and an Atlantic Forest clade, dating back to Eocene. Morphological data corroborate this distinction. We thus propose to assign the Amazonian species to a new genus, Amazonella. The species currently named R. boulengeri, which has been previously assigned to the genus Rhamphophryne, is shown to be closely related to Dendrophryniscus species. Our findings illustrate cryptic trends in bufonid morphological evolution, and point to a deep history of persistence and diversification within the Amazonian and Atlantic rainforests. We discuss our results in light of available paleoecological data and the biogeographic patterns observed in other similarly distributed groups.

  11. Empty forest or empty rivers? A century of commercial hunting in Amazonia

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    Antunes, André P.; Fewster, Rachel M.; Venticinque, Eduardo M.; Peres, Carlos A.; Levi, Taal; Rohe, Fabio; Shepard, Glenn H.

    2016-01-01

    The Amazon basin is the largest and most species-rich tropical forest and river system in the world, playing a pivotal role in global climate regulation and harboring hundreds of traditional and indigenous cultures. It is a matter of intense debate whether the ecosystem is threatened by hunting practices, whereby an “empty forest” loses critical ecological functions. Strikingly, no previous study has examined Amazonian ecosystem resilience through the perspective of the massive 20th century international trade in furs and skins. We present the first historical account of the scale and impacts of this trade and show that whereas aquatic species suffered basin-wide population collapse, terrestrial species did not. We link this differential resilience to the persistence of adequate spatial refuges for terrestrial species, enabling populations to be sustained through source-sink dynamics, contrasting with unremitting hunting pressure on more accessible aquatic habitats. Our findings attest the high vulnerability of aquatic fauna to unregulated hunting, particularly during years of severe drought. We propose that the relative resilience of terrestrial species suggests a marked opportunity for managing, rather than criminalizing, contemporary traditional subsistence hunting in Amazonia, through both the engagement of local people in community-based comanagement programs and science-led conservation governance. PMID:27757421

  12. Functional diversity of bacterial genes associated with aromatic hydrocarbon degradation in anthropogenic dark earth of Amazonia

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    Mariana Gomes Germano

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the catabolic gene diversity for the bacterial degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons in anthropogenic dark earth of Amazonia (ADE and their biochar (BC. Functional diversity analyses in ADE soils can provide information on how adaptive microorganisms may influence the fertility of soils and what is their involvement in biogeochemical cycles. For this, clone libraries containing the gene encoding for the alpha subunit of aromatic ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases (α-ARHD bacterial gene were constructed, totaling 800 clones. These libraries were prepared from samples of an ADE soil under two different land uses, located at the Caldeirão Experimental Station - secondary forest (SF and agriculture (AG -, and the biochar (SF_BC and AG_BC, respectively. Heterogeneity estimates indicated greater diversity in BC libraries; and Venn diagrams showed more unique operational protein clusters (OPC in the SF_BC library than the ADE soil, which indicates that specific metabolic processes may occur in biochar. Phylogenetic analysis showed unidentified dioxygenases in ADE soils. Libraries containing functional gene encoding for the alpha subunit of the aromatic ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases (ARHD gene from biochar show higher diversity indices than those of ADE under secondary forest and agriculture.

  13. Rupturing of Biological Spores As a Source of Secondary Particles in Amazonia

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    China, Swarup; Wang, Bingbing; Weis, Johannes; Rizzo, Luciana; Brito, Joel; Cirino, Glauber G.; Kovarik, Libor; Artaxo, Paulo; Gilles, Mary K.; Laskin, Alexander

    2016-11-15

    Airborne biological particles, such as fungal spores and pollen, are ubiquitous in the Earth’s atmosphere and play an important role in the atmospheric environment and climate, impacting air quality, cloud formation, and the Earth’s radiation budget. The atmospheric transformations of airborne biological spores at elevated relative humidity remain poorly understood and their climatic role is uncertain. Using an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM), we observed rupturing of Amazonian fungal spores and subsequent release of nanometer to submicron size fragments after exposure to high humidity. We find that fungal fragments contain elements of inorganic salts (e.g., Na and Cl). They are hygroscopic in nature with a growth factor up to 2.3 at 96% relative humidity, thus they may potentially influence cloud formation. Due to their hygroscopic growth, light scattering cross sections of the fragments are enhanced by up to a factor of 10. Furthermore, rupturing of fungal spores at high humidity may explain the bursting events of nanoparticles and may provide insight into new particle formation in Amazonia.

  14. Food habits of Anilius scytale (Serpentes: Aniliidae in the Brazilian Amazonia

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    Gleomar F. Maschio

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Information on the diet of Anilius scytale is provided based on the analysis of 162 specimens from the Brazilian Amazonia. Amphisbaenians (Aulura anomala Barbour, 1914; Leposternon polystegumn [Duméril, 1951] and Amphisbaena sp., which are highly specialized for a fossorial life, accounted for 81.25% of the recorded items, followed by snakes - Anilius scytale (Linnaeus, 1758, and Tantilla melanocephala (Linnaeus, 1758: 12.5% - and caecilians - Caecilia cf. gracilis Shaw, 1802: 6.25%. We found a positive, although not significant, relationship between the snout-vent length of A. scytale and the total length of the prey and a tendency for smaller specimens to ingest proportionately larger prey. Anilius scytale forages mainly on the ground, at night, as well as in aquatic environments. The non-selective capture of either proportionately large or small prey by A. scytale may reflect the opportunistic nature of the encounters. A tendency of the juveniles of this species to ingest proportionately larger prey may be associated with either a low availability of prey with a size compatible to that of the juveniles, or with their inexperience in selecting prey. Ingestion of prey headfirst may be an attempt to minimize the risk of injury the prey could cause through their rigid, pointed and sharp structures or powerful bites.

  15. Lipid Oxidation Inhibitory Effects and Phenolic Composition of Aqueous Extracts from Medicinal Plants of Colombian Amazonia

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    José Ignacio Ruiz-Sanz

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Diverse plants of ethnobotanic interest in Amazonia are commonly used in traditional medicine. We determined the antioxidant potential against lipid peroxidation, the antimicrobial activity, and the polyphenol composition of several Amazonian plants (Brownea rosademonte, Piper glandulosissimum, Piper krukoffii, Piper putumayoense, Solanum grandiflorum, and Vismia baccifera. Extracts from the plant leaf, bark, and stem were prepared as aqueous infusions, as used in folk medicine, and added to rat liver microsomes exposed to iron. The polyphenolic composition was detected by reverse-phase HPLC coupled to diode-array detector and MS/MS analysis. The antimicrobial activity was tested by the spot-on-a-lawn method against several indicator microorganisms. All the extracts inhibited lipid oxidation, except the P. glandulosissimum stem. The plant extracts exhibiting high antioxidant potential (V. baccifera and B. rosademonte contained high levels of flavanols (particularly, catechin and epicatechin. By contrast, S. grandiflorum leaf, which exhibited very low antioxidant activity, was rich in hydroxycinnamic acids. None of the extracts showed antimicrobial activity. This study demonstrates for the first time the presence of bioactive polyphenolic compounds in several Amazonian plants, and highlights the importance of flavanols as major phenolic contributors to antioxidant activity.

  16. Late Miocene sedimentary environments in south-western Amazonia (Solimões Formation; Brazil).

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    Gross, Martin; Piller, Werner E; Ramos, Maria Ines; Douglas da Silva Paz, Jackson

    2011-08-01

    In Miocene times a vast wetland existed in Western Amazonia. Whereas the general development of this amazing ecosystem is well established, many questions remain open on sedimentary environments, stratigraphical correlations as well as its palaeogeographical configuration. Several outcrops located in a barely studied region around Eirunepé (SW Amazonas state, Brazil) were investigated to obtain basic sedimentological data. The observed deposits belong to the upper part of the Solimões Formation and are biostratigraphically dated to the Late Miocene. Vertically as well as laterally highly variable fine-grained clastic successions were recorded. Based on the lithofacies assemblages, these sediments represent fluvial deposits, possibly of an anastomosing river system. Sand bodies formed within active channels and dominant overbank fines are described (levees, crevasse splays/channels/deltas, abandoned channels, backswamps, floodplain paleosols). Lacustrine environments are restricted to local floodplain ponds/lakes. The mollusc and ostracod content as well as very light δ(18)O and δ(13)C values, measured on ostracod valves, refer to exclusively freshwater conditions. Based on palaeontological and geological results the existence of a long-lived lake ("Lake Pebas") or any influx of marine waters can be excluded for that region during the Late Miocene.

  17. Mortality from contact-related epidemics among indigenous populations in Greater Amazonia.

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    Walker, Robert S; Sattenspiel, Lisa; Hill, Kim R

    2015-09-10

    European expansion and contact with indigenous populations led to catastrophic depopulation primarily through the introduction of novel infectious diseases to which native peoples had limited exposure and immunity. In the Amazon Basin such contacts continue to occur with more than 50 isolated indigenous societies likely to make further contacts with the outside world in the near future. Ethnohistorical accounts are useful for quantifying trends in the severity and frequency of epidemics through time and may provide insight into the likely demographic consequences of future contacts. Here we compile information for 117 epidemics that affected 59 different indigenous societies in Greater Amazonia and caused over 11,000 deaths between 1875 and 2008, mostly (75%) from measles, influenza, and malaria. Results show that mortality rates from epidemics decline exponentially through time and, independently, with time since peaceful contact. The frequency of documented epidemics also decreases with time since contact. While previous work on virgin soil epidemics generally emphasizes the calamity of contacts, we focus instead on improvements through time. The prospects for better survivorship during future contacts are good provided modern health care procedures are implemented immediately.

  18. Diversity of bats trypanosomes in hydroeletric area of Belo Monte in Brazilian Amazonia.

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    da Costa, Andréa P; Nunes, Pablo Henrique; Leite, Beatriz Helena Santos; Ferreira, Juliana Isabel G da S; Tonhosolo, Renata; da Rosa, Adriana Ruckert; da Rocha, Patricio Adriano; Aires, Caroline Cotrim; Gennari, Solange Maria; Marcili, Arlei

    2016-12-01

    The Trypanosoma comprises flagellates able to infect many mammalian species and is transmitted by several groups of invertebrates. The order Chiroptera can be infected by the subgenera Herpetosoma, Schizotrypanum, Megatrypanum and Trypanozoon. In this study, we described the diversity of bats trypanosomes, inferring the phylogenetic relationships among the trypanosomes from bats caught Belo Monte Hydroeletric area (Brazilian Amazonia). Trypanosomes from bats were isolated by haemoculture, and the molecular phylogeny based on small subunit rDNA (SSU rDNA) and glycosomal-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH) gene sequences. Morphological characterization included light and scanning electron microscopy. A total of 157 bats were caught in the area belonging 6 Families (Emballonuridae, Furipteridae, Mormoopidae, Natalidae, Phyllostomidae and Vespertilionidae) and 34 species. The bat trypanosome prevalence, as evaluated through haemoculture, was 5,7%. Phylogenetic trees grouped the isolates in T. cruzi branch (TCI and TCbat lineage), T. cruzi marinkellei and Trypanosoma wauwau from Pteronotus parnellii. This is the first isolate from T. wauwau in Para state. The occurrence of T. cruzi in the ​​ Belo Monte Hydroeletric area (UHE Belo Monte) in Amazon/Brazil attentive to the risk of migration human population required for the works of the dam and new cities that grow in the vicinity of these businesses, but it is a zoonosis already known to the Amazon region, and the presence of unclassified Trypanosoma species, attend to the large parasitic biodiversity still unknown.

  19. Population Development of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Landrace Bean Varieties Occurring in Southwestern Amazonia.

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    Lopes, L M; Araújo, A E F; Santos, A C V; Santos, V B; Sousa, A H

    2016-02-01

    The common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris (L.), is one of the most important sources of protein worldwide, and Latin America is one of the recognized centers of diversity of this species. However, storage of this product after harvest is not feasible because of bruchid attacks. This study determined the accumulated normalized rate of emergence and the daily emergence rate of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae:Bruchinae) in five landrace varieties of common bean (BRL 01, SNA 01, RDR 01, RBC 01, and RBC 13) that occurin southwestern Amazonia. These varieties were selected for this study because they are well-distributed throughout the Amazonian communities. Beans of each variety were infested with 50 unsexed adults, and the insects were removed 13 d after beginning the bioassays. The adult progeny obtained from the feeding substrate were counted and removed every other day after the first emergence, until the end of the emergence period. Differences were observed in the calculated rates of development; however, the time required for development and emergence of the insects was independent. Of the five varieties of bean investigated, we observed that the RDR 01, BRL 01, and SNA 01 cultivars are resistant to Z. subfasciatus; the results indicate that the use of these three varieties can reduce problems associated with bruchid attacks and enable storage of the product after harvesting.

  20. Responses of Aquatic Saproxylic Macroinvertebrates to Reduced-Impact Logging in Central Amazonia.

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    Roque, F O; Escarpinati, S C; Valente-Neto, F; Hamada, N

    2015-08-01

    Reduced-impact logging (RIL) is an alternative land use because it reduces damage to forest cover in comparison with clear-cut practices. However, management practices adopted in RIL can affect wood availability and, consequently, fauna associated with dead wood during part of their life cycle (saproxylic). In this study, we evaluated whether aquatic saproxylic macroinvertebrates are affected by reduced-impact logging in Central Amazonia. We selected six streams in areas under reduced-impacted logging and six in primary forest areas and collected submerged woody debris. We did not find any differences in water pH, conductivity, and wood availability between reduced-impacted forest and primary forest streams. We found 248 saproxylic aquatic macroinvertebrates belonging to 37 taxa. We found five wood specialist (Dryops, Lutrochus, Stenochironomus, Oukuriella, and Endotribelos) and 32 generalists, totalling 98 and 150 individuals, respectively. In general, our results show that reduced-impact logging does not affect richness, abundance, and composition of saproxylic macroinvertebrates. The main explanation for this pattern is that management practices do not change important macroinvertebrate niche dimensions, including wood availability and the water's chemical and physical variables. Thus, controlled logging, such as applied in the area of the Central Amazonian streams studied, opens a new prospect for insect conservation and commercial exploitation of wood, which is not possible when clear-cut practices are adopted.

  1. Environmental changes in the western Amazonia: morphological framework, geochemistry, palynology and radiocarbon dating data

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    Horbe, Adriana M.C., E-mail: ahorbe@ufam.edu.b [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Dept. de Geociencias; Behling, Hermann [Georg August Universitaet Goettingen (Germany). Albrecht von Haller Institut fuer Pflanzenwissenschaften. Abteilung fuer Palynologie und Klimadynamik; Nogueira, Afonso C.R. [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias; Mapes, Russell [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States). Dept. of Geological Science

    2011-09-15

    The sediments from the Coari lake, a 'terra firme' lake sculpted into Plio-Pleistocene deposits, and the Acara lake, a flooding-type lake developed on Quaternary sediments in the flood plain of the mid-Solimoes river, in the western Amazonia, Brazil, were studied to investigate the environmental condition of their developing. This study includes mineral composition, geochemistry, Pb isotope, palynology, radiocarbon-age and morphological framework of the lakes obtained from SRTM satellite images. The geological and the environmental conditions in the two lakes are highly variable and suggest that their evolution reflect autogenic processes under humid rain forest condition. Although kaolinite, quartz, muscovite, illite, and smectite are the main minerals in both lakes, the geochemistry indicates distinct source, the Acara lake sediments have higher concentrations of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, FeO, CaO, K{sub 2}O, MgO, Na{sub 2}O, P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, Ba, V, Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb, Sr, Li, Y and La and have more radiogenic Pb than the Coari lake sediments. The radiocarbon ages suggest that at 10160 yr BP the Coari lake started to be developed due to avulsion of the Solimoes river, and the Acara lake was formed by the meander abandonment of Solimoes river retaining its grass dominated shore at ca. 3710 yr BP. (author)

  2. The spatial distribution of Hymenoptera parasitoids in a forest reserve in Central Amazonia, Manaus, AM, Brazil

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    RB. Querino

    Full Text Available Parasitoids are of great importance to forest ecosystems due to their ecological role in the regulation of the population of other insects. The species richness and abundance of parasitoids in the forest canopy and understory, both on the borders and in the interior of a tropical forest reserve in Central Amazonia were investigated. For a 12-month period, specimen collections were made every 15 days from suspended traps placed in the forest canopy and in the understory strata, both on the border and in the interior of forest areas. A total of 12,835 Hymenoptera parasitoids from 23 families were acquired. Braconidae, Diapriidae, Mymaridae, Eulophidae, and Scelionidae were the most represented in the area and strata samples. The results indicate that there were no significant differences in the species richness or abundance of Hymenoptera between the forest borders and the inner forest. The data does show that the presence of Hymenoptera is significantly greater in the understory in both the border and interior areas than in the canopy (vertical stratification. Aphelinidae and Ceraphronidae were significantly associated with the inner forest, while the other seven families with the border of the reserve. The abundance of Hymenoptera parasitoids presented seasonal variations during the year related to the rainy and dry seasons.

  3. Tersilochinae of Western Amazonia (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). Genus Stethantyx Townes, part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaim, Andrey I; Sääksjärvi, Ilari E; Bordera, Santiago

    2015-07-02

    In this paper we describe four new species of Stethantyx Townes (Ichneumonidae: Tersilochinae) from Ecuador and Peru characterized by the fore wing with first and second abscissae of radius meeting at right angle: S. erwini Khalaim & Sääksjärvi, sp. nov., S. radiata Khalaim & Sääksjärvi, sp. nov., S. rufispa Khalaim & Bordera, sp. nov. and S. undulata Khalaim & Sääksjärvi, sp. nov. Second part of the key to species of Stethantyx occurring in Western Amazonia is given. Additionally, S. altamira Khalaim & Broad and S. aprica Khalaim & Broad are recorded from South America for the first time, and new data on distribution of S. alajuela Khalaim & Broad, S. amazonica Khalaim & Sääksjärvi, S. heredia Kha-laim & Broad, S. orellana Khalaim & Sääksjärvi, S. sinuata Khalaim & Sääksjärvi and S. trepida Khalaim & Sääksjärvi in South America are provided. Male of S. orellana is recorded for the first time.

  4. Environmental Costs of Government-Sponsored Agrarian Settlements in Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Maurício; Peres, Carlos A

    2015-01-01

    Brazil has presided over the most comprehensive agrarian reform frontier colonization program on Earth, in which ~1.2 million settlers have been translocated by successive governments since the 1970's, mostly into forested hinterlands of Brazilian Amazonia. These settlements encompass 5.3% of this ~5 million km2 region, but have contributed with 13.5% of all land conversion into agropastoral land uses. The Brazilian Federal Agrarian Agency (INCRA) has repeatedly claimed that deforestation in these areas largely predates the sanctioned arrival of new settlers. Here, we quantify rates of natural vegetation conversion across 1911 agrarian settlements allocated to 568 Amazonian counties and compare fire incidence and deforestation rates before and after the official occupation of settlements by migrant farmers. The timing and spatial distribution of deforestation and fires in our analysis provides irrefutable chronological and spatially explicit evidence of agropastoral conversion both inside and immediately outside agrarian settlements over the last decade. Deforestation rates are strongly related to local human population density and road access to regional markets. Agrarian settlements consistently accelerated rates of deforestation and fires, compared to neighboring areas outside settlements, but within the same counties. Relocated smallholders allocated to forest areas undoubtedly operate as pivotal agents of deforestation, and most of the forest clearance occurs in the aftermath of government-induced migration.

  5. Regional-scale drivers of forest structure and function in northwestern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Mark A; Asner, Gregory P; Anderson, Christopher B; Martin, Roberta E; Knapp, David E; Tupayachi, Raul; Perez, Eneas; Elespuru, Nydia; Alonso, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Field studies in Amazonia have found a relationship at continental scales between soil fertility and broad trends in forest structure and function. Little is known at regional scales, however, about how discrete patterns in forest structure or functional attributes map onto underlying edaphic or geological patterns. We collected airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data and VSWIR (Visible to Shortwave Infrared) imaging spectroscopy measurements over 600 km2 of northwestern Amazonian lowland forests. We also established 83 inventories of plant species composition and soil properties, distributed between two widespread geological formations. Using these data, we mapped forest structure and canopy reflectance, and compared them to patterns in plant species composition, soils, and underlying geology. We found that variations in soils and species composition explained up to 70% of variation in canopy height, and corresponded to profound changes in forest vertical profiles. We further found that soils and plant species composition explained more than 90% of the variation in canopy reflectance as measured by imaging spectroscopy, indicating edaphic and compositional control of canopy chemical properties. We last found that soils explained between 30% and 70% of the variation in gap frequency in these forests, depending on the height threshold used to define gaps. Our findings indicate that a relatively small number of edaphic and compositional variables, corresponding to underlying geology, may be responsible for variations in canopy structure and chemistry over large expanses of Amazonian forest.

  6. On the ability of a global atmospheric inversion to constrain variations of CO2 fluxes over Amazonia

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    L. Molina

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The exchanges of carbon, water and energy between the atmosphere and the Amazon basin have global implications for the current and future climate. Here, the global atmospheric inversion system of the Monitoring of Atmospheric Composition and Climate (MACC service is used to study the seasonal and interannual variations of biogenic CO2 fluxes in Amazonia during the period 2002–2010. The system assimilated surface measurements of atmospheric CO2 mole fractions made at more than 100 sites over the globe into an atmospheric transport model. The present study adds measurements from four surface stations located in tropical South America, a region poorly covered by CO2 observations. The estimates of net ecosystem exchange (NEE optimized by the inversion are compared to an independent estimate of NEE upscaled from eddy-covariance flux measurements in Amazonia. They are also qualitatively evaluated against reports on the seasonal and interannual variations of the land sink in South America from the scientific literature. We attempt at assessing the impact on NEE of the strong droughts in 2005 and 2010 (due to severe and longer-than-usual dry seasons and the extreme rainfall conditions registered in 2009. The spatial variations of the seasonal and interannual variability of optimized NEE are also investigated. While the inversion supports the assumption of strong spatial heterogeneity of these variations, the results reveal critical limitations of the coarse-resolution transport model, the surface observation network in South America during the recent years and the present knowledge of modelling uncertainties in South America that prevent our inversion from capturing the seasonal patterns of fluxes across Amazonia. However, some patterns from the inversion seem consistent with the anomaly of moisture conditions in 2009.

  7. On the ability of a global atmospheric inversion to constrain variations of CO2 fluxes over Amazonia

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    L. Molina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The exchanges of carbon, water, and energy between the atmosphere and the Amazon Basin have global implications for current and future climate. Here, the global atmospheric inversion system of the Monitoring of Atmospheric Composition and Climate service (MACC was used to further study the seasonal and interannual variations of biogenic CO2 fluxes in Amazonia. The system assimilated surface measurements of atmospheric CO2 mole fractions made over more than 100 sites over the globe into an atmospheric transport model. This study added four surface stations located in tropical South America, a region poorly covered by CO2 observations. The estimates of net ecosystem exchange (NEE optimized by the inversion were compared to independent estimates of NEE upscaled from eddy-covariance flux measurements in Amazonia, and against reports on the seasonal and interannual variations of the land sink in South America from the scientific literature. We focused on the impact of the interannual variation of the strong droughts in 2005 and 2010 (due to severe and longer-than-usual dry seasons, and of the extreme rainfall conditions registered in 2009. The spatial variations of the seasonal and interannual variability of optimized NEE were also investigated. While the inversion supported the assumption of strong spatial heterogeneity of these variations, the results revealed critical limitations that prevent global inversion frameworks from capturing the data-driven seasonal patterns of fluxes across Amazonia. In particular, it highlighted issues due to the configuration of the observation network in South America and the lack of continuity of the measurements. However, some robust patterns from the inversion seemed consistent with the abnormal moisture conditions in 2009.

  8. Late Pleistocene-Holocene paleoclimate in southwestern Brazilian Amazonia with basis on floristic changes interpreted from isotope data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, D. F.; Cohen, M. C. L.; Pessenda, L. C. R.

    2015-12-01

    Previous late Quaternary paleoclimatic interpretations in Amazonia have considered fluctuating dry to wet episodes with changes from savanna to forest, a view that concurs with other proposals of undisturbed rainforest despite global oscillations. Most of this debate is based on pollen data, but such elements are scarce in Amazonian sedimentary records. This work interprets vegetation in the Late Pleistocene and Holocene in a southwestern Amazonia lowland using δ13C, δ15N, C/N integrated with geomorphology, sedimentology and radiocarbon dating. The goal was to reconstruct vegetation changes through time and analyze their relation to climate and sedimentary dynamics. Fluvial channel and floodplain deposits with phytoplankton, as well as C3 and C4 land plants, were recorded. Between 42,033-43,168 cal yr BP and 34,804-35,584 cal yr BP, C4 land plants increased as a result of a climate drier than todaýs. However, wet climate prevailed from this time-frame until the onset of the Last Glaciation Maximum. In the Pleistocene/Holocene transition, there was an increased contribution of C4 land plants potentially related to dry episodes. However, the increased contribution of this type of land plant is not synchronous with Holocene dry episodes previously documented for the Amazonian lowland. On the other hand, it is remarkable that the record of this plant type was verified only in sites with modern grassland confined to fluvial paleo-landforms. Thus, rather than due to a dry climatic episode, the recorded grassland expansion and its maintenance up to the present time in the studied sites is more likely associated with the evolution of depositional environments, being coincidental with the progressive abandonment of fluvial systems. An important conclusion derived from the present work is that great care must be placed when reconstructing late Quaternary paleoclimate in Amazonia based on changes in floristic patterns, as they may be also a response to sedimentary dynamics.

  9. Ecological adaptation of wild peach palm, its in situ conservation and deforestation-mediated extinction in southern Brazilian Amazonia.

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    Charles R Clement

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Arc of Fire across southern Amazonia seasonally attracts worldwide attention as forests are cut and burned for agricultural expansion. These forests contain numerous wild relatives of native South American crops, such as peach palm. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our prospecting expeditions examined critical areas for wild peach palm in the Arc of Fire in Mato Grosso, Pará, Maranhão and Tocantins, as well as areas not previously examined in Amazonas and Amapá states. Recent digitization of the RADAM Brasil project permitted comparison among RADAM's parataxonomists' observations, previous botanical collections and our prospecting. Mapping on soils and vegetation types enabled us to hypothesize a set of ecological preferences. Wild peach palm is best adapted to Ultisols (Acrisols in open forests across the Arc of Fire and westward into the more humid western Amazonia. Populations are generally small (fewer than 10 plants on slopes above watercourses. In northern Mato Grosso and southern Pará soybean fields and pastures now occupy numerous areas where RADAM identified wild peach palm. The controversial BR-163 Highway is already eroding wild peach palm as deforestation expands. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Many of these populations are now isolated by increasing forest fragmentation, which will lead to decreased reproduction via inbreeding depression and eventual extinction even without complete deforestation. Federal conservation areas are less numerous in the Arc of Fire than in other parts of Brazilian Amazonia, although there are indigenous lands; these conservation areas contain viable populations of wild peach palm and require better protection than they are currently receiving. Ex situ conservation of these populations is not viable given the relative lack of importance of domesticated peach palm and the difficulty of maintaining even economically interesting genetic resources.

  10. Límites a la autonomía indígena en la Amazonia colombiana

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    François Correa Rubio

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available En las últimas tres décadas, la imagen del Estado sobre la Amazonia se ha transformado. De considerarla como una región que solo producía gastos al erario público, las prospecciones minero-energéticas demuestran la presencia de recursos ávidamente demandados por el mercado mundial que aclimatará la política de reprimarización de la economía y la privatización de los procesos extractivos, en manos de empresas transnacionales, amparado en la propiedad estatal del subsuelo y en el de interés nacional con respecto a sus bienes. Paradójicamente, durante el mismo periodo, las normas nacionales e internacionales han reconocido la autonomía de los indígenas, como un derecho fundamental, que promovió su reorganización, bajo una entidad panétnica, con vínculosnacionales e internacionales, que participa de escenarios de concertación política con el Estado, en defensa de sus derechos colectivos, articulándolos con reivindicaciones popularesregionales. Aunque la autonomía no se restringe al control territorial, como siempre ocurre con las economías de enclave, su oneroso impacto se descargará sobre el territorioy sus pobladores, que en la Amazonia incluye más del 60 % de los grupos indígenas del país. Este artículo introduce la tensión sobre las expectativas y el reciente impacto de las políticas de intervención del Estado en la Amazonia y el proceso de reorganización del movimiento indígena. 

  11. Disentangling the contribution of multiple land covers to fire-mediated carbon emissions in Amazonia during the 2010 drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Liana Oighenstein; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Gloor, Manuel; Arai, Egídio; Adami, Marcos; Saatchi, Sassan S; Malhi, Yadvinder; Shimabukuro, Yosio E; Barlow, Jos; Berenguer, Erika; Duarte, Valdete

    2015-10-01

    In less than 15 years, the Amazon region experienced three major droughts. Links between droughts and fires have been demonstrated for the 1997/1998, 2005, and 2010 droughts. In 2010, emissions of 510 ± 120 Tg C were associated to fire alone in Amazonia. Existing approaches have, however, not yet disentangled the proportional contribution of multiple land cover sources to this total. We develop a novel integration of multisensor and multitemporal satellite-derived data on land cover, active fires, and burned area and an empirical model of fire-induced biomass loss to quantify the extent of burned areas and resulting biomass loss for multiple land covers in Mato Grosso (MT) state, southern Amazonia-the 2010 drought most impacted region. We show that 10.77% (96,855 km(2)) of MT burned. We estimated a gross carbon emission of 56.21 ± 22.5 Tg C from direct combustion of biomass, with an additional 29.4 ± 10 Tg C committed to be emitted in the following years due to dead wood decay. It is estimated that old-growth forest fires in the whole Brazilian Legal Amazon (BLA) have contributed to 14.81 Tg of C (11.75 Tg C to 17.87 Tg C) emissions to the atmosphere during the 2010 fire season, with an affected area of 27,555 km(2). Total C loss from the 2010 fires in MT state and old-growth forest fires in the BLA represent, respectively, 77% (47% to 107%) and 86% (68.2% to 103%) of Brazil's National Plan on Climate Change annual target for Amazonia C emission reductions from deforestation.

  12. REDVET y RECVET están disponibles desde la biblioteca de la Universidad de la Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veterinaria.org

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLos artículos publicados en REDVET y en RECVET son inmediatamente accesibles desde la Biblioteca de la Universidad de la Amazonia, con sede en Florencia, Caquetá, Colombia, Suramérica, donde las dos revistas científicas editadas por Veterinaria Organización aparece en el área de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia junto a la Bases de datos bibliográficas de la Biblioteca Agropecuaria de Colombia (BAC del Centro Internacional de Agricultura tropical (CIAT y la Biblioteca de la FAO (Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Agricultura y la Alimentación.

  13. Morphological characterization of Eustrongylides sp. larvae (Nematoda, Dioctophymatoidea) parasite of Rhinella marina (Amphibia: Bufonidae) from Eastern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos; Melo, Caroline do Socorro Barros; Nascimento, Luciana de Cássia Silva do; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; Furtado, Adriano Penha; Santos, Jeannie Nascimento Dos

    2016-06-07

    Absctract Eustrongylides spp. nematodes have birds as final hosts and uses other vertebrates as intermediate/paratenic host (fish, amphibians and reptiles) and have zoonotic potential. In amphibians, the larvae may be located in the subcutaneous tissues, liver and mesentery, between the muscle fibres, especially in the lower limbs. Rhinella marina, which is widely observed in Brazil, has exhibited complex diversity in its helminth fauna, reflecting the unique habitat of the Amazon biome. For the first time, this study describes the morphological aspects of third-stage larvae of Eustrongylides sp. in Rhinella marina from Santa Cruz do Ararí, Marajó Archipelago, Eastern Amazonia, using light and scanning electron microscopy.

  14. Synergistic impacts of deforestation, climate change and fire on the future biomes distribution in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, G.; Cardoso, M. F.; Nobre, C. A.; Salazar, L. F.

    2013-05-01

    Several studies indicate future increase of environmental risks for the ecosystems in the Amazon region as a result of climate and land-use change, and their synergistic interactions. Modeling studies (e.g. Oyama and Nobre 2004, Salazar et al. 2007, Malhi et al. 2008) project rapid and irreversible replacement of forests by savannas with large-scale losses of biodiversity and livelihoods for people in the region. This process is referred to as the Amazon Dieback, where accelerated plant mortality due to environmental changes lead to forest collapse and savannas expansion after "tipping points" in climate and land surface changes are achieved. In this study we performed new analyses to quantify how deforestation, climate change and fire may combine to affect the distribution of major biomes in Amazonia. Changes in land use consider deforestation scenarios of 0%, 20%, 40%, and 50% (Sampaio et al., 2007), with and without fires (Cardoso et al., 2008), under the two greenhouse gases scenarios B1 and A2 and three "representative concentration pathways" (RCPs): 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5, for years 2015-2034 and 2040-2059 ("2025" and "2050" time-slices), from IPCC AR4 and CMIP5. The results show that the area affected in scenarios A2 and RCP 8.5 is larger than in the climate scenario B1 and RCP 2.6, and in both cases the effect is progressively higher in time. Most important changes occur in the East and South of the Amazon, with replacement of tropical forest by seasonal forest and savanna. The effect of fire in this region is important in all scenarios. The Northwest Amazon presents the smallest changes in the area of tropical forest, indicating that even for substantial land-use modifications and global climate change, the resulting atmospheric conditions would still support tropical forest in the region. In summary, we conclude that the synergistic combination of deforestation, climate change resulting from global warming, and the potential for higher fire occurrence may lead

  15. Impacts of Amazonia biomass burning aerosols assessed from short-range weather forecasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Kolusu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The direct radiative impacts of biomass burning aerosols (BBA on meteorology are investigated using short-range forecasts from the Met Office Unified Model (MetUM over South America during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA. The impacts are evaluated using a set of three simulations: (i no aerosols, (ii with monthly mean aerosol climatologies and (iii with prognostic aerosols modelled using the Coupled Large-scale Aerosol Simulator for Studies In Climate (CLASSIC scheme. Comparison with observations show that the prognostic CLASSIC scheme provides the best representation of BBA. The impacts of BBA are quantified over central and southern Amazonia from the first and second day of 2-day forecasts during 14 September–3 October 2012. On average, during the first day of the forecast, including prognostic BBA reduces the clear-sky net radiation at the surface by 15 ± 1 W m−2 and reduces net top-of-atmosphere (TOA radiation by 8 ± 1 W m−2, with a direct atmospheric warming of 7 ± 1 W m−2. BBA-induced reductions in all-sky radiation are smaller in magnitude: 9.0 ± 1 W m−2 at the surface and 4.0 ± 1 W m−2 at TOA. In this modelling study the BBA therefore exert an overall cooling influence on the Earth–atmosphere system, although some levels of the atmosphere are directly warmed by the absorption of solar radiation. Due to the reduction of net radiative flux at the surface, the mean 2 m air temperature is reduced by around 0.1 ± 0.02 °C. The BBA also cools the boundary layer (BL but warms air above by around 0.2 °C due to the absorption of shortwave radiation. The overall impact is to reduce the BL depth by around 19 ± 8 m. These differences in heating lead to a more anticyclonic circulation at 700 hPa, with winds changing by around 0.6 m s−1. Inclusion of climatological or prognostic BBA in the MetUM makes a small but significant improvement in forecasts of temperature and relative humidity, but improvements were

  16. a Bayesian Approach for Calibration of Trmm 3B42 Over North Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linguet, L.; Marie-Joseph, I.; Becker, M.; Seyler, F.

    2013-12-01

    Northern Amazonian regions experience extremes conditions like floods and droughts. These regions are also characterized by the limited spatial coverage of ground based rain gauges, and unavailability of real-time rainfall data. Satellite-based rainfall estimates (SRE) may be one of the best and appropriate approaches in detecting rainfall distribution. However SRE data need specific calibration and validation for use in flood and drought monitoring activities. This study aimed to calibrate of TRMM 3B42 RT rainfall products over northern Amazonia with a Bayesian filtering approach [1] [2]. The study area is located north of the Amazon River and includes the three Guianas and northern states of Brazil. A set of daily satellite rainfall products with spatial resolution of 0.25°x0.25° (TRMM 3B42 RT) from the year 2000 to 2010 has been selected. Ground reference data are located in French Guiana (27 ground stations from French national meteorological agency) and in the northern Brazilian states (70 ground stations from Brazilian Agência Nacional de Aguas). A lot of bias-adjustment methods rely on computing the difference between satellite and gauge-based precipitation [3] [4]. In this study we defend the idea that an inverse approach based on sequential Monte Carlo filtering helps to calibrate of TRMM 3B42 RT rainfall products. The developed method combines a model of the rainfall process at rain gauge locations with a stochastic observation model based on the joint distribution between ground reference data of the state variable (rainfall data) and the observed satellite data. 50% of the total ground based rainfall measurements were used for the joint distribution and the remaining 50% were used for validation purposes. Validation of the method has been done by comparing the corrected satellite data against independent observed data from rain gauges using the standard verification techniques: mean bias error, root mean square error, and correlation coefficient

  17. Increased Wildfire Risk Driven by Climate and Development Interactions in the Bolivian Chiquitania, Southern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devisscher, Tahia; Anderson, Liana O.; Aragão, Luiz E. O. C.; Galván, Luis; Malhi, Yadvinder

    2016-01-01

    Wildfires are becoming increasingly dominant in tropical landscapes due to reinforcing feedbacks between land cover change and more severe dry conditions. This study focused on the Bolivian Chiquitania, a region located at the southern edge of Amazonia. The extensive, unique and well-conserved tropical dry forest in this region is susceptible to wildfires due to a marked seasonality. We used a novel approach to assess fire risk at the regional level driven by different development trajectories interacting with changing climatic conditions. Possible future risk scenarios were simulated using maximum entropy modelling with presence-only data, combining land cover, anthropogenic and climatic variables. We found that important determinants of fire risk in the region are distance to roads, recent deforestation and density of human settlements. Severely dry conditions alone increased the area of high fire risk by 69%, affecting all categories of land use and land cover. Interactions between extreme dry conditions and rapid frontier expansion further increased fire risk, resulting in potential biomass loss of 2.44±0.8 Tg in high risk area, about 1.8 times higher than the estimates for the 2010 drought. These interactions showed particularly high fire risk in land used for ‘extensive cattle ranching’, ‘agro-silvopastoral use’ and ‘intensive cattle ranching and agriculture’. These findings have serious implications for subsistence activities and the economy in the Chiquitania, which greatly depend on the forestry, agriculture and livestock sectors. Results are particularly concerning if considering the current development policies promoting frontier expansion. Departmental protected areas inhibited wildfires when strategically established in areas of high risk, even under drought conditions. However, further research is needed to assess their effectiveness accounting for more specific contextual factors. This novel and simple modelling approach can inform fire

  18. CO2 and CO emission rates from three forest fire controlled experiments in Western Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, J. A., Jr.; Amaral, S. S.; Costa, M. A. M.; Soares Neto, T. G.; Veras, C. A. G.; Costa, F. S.; van Leeuwen, T. T.; Krieger Filho, G. C.; Tourigny, E.; Forti, M. C.; Fostier, A. H.; Siqueira, M. B.; Santos, J. C.; Lima, B. A.; Cascão, P.; Ortega, G.; Frade, E. F., Jr.

    2016-06-01

    Forests represent an important role in the control of atmospheric emissions through carbon capture. However, in forest fires, the carbon stored during photosynthesis is released into the atmosphere. The carbon quantification, in forest burning, is important for the development of measures for its control. The aim of this study was to quantify CO2 and CO emissions of forest fires in Western Amazonia. In this paper, results are described of forest fire experiments conducted in Cruzeiro do Sul and Rio Branco, state of Acre, and Candeias do Jamari, state of Rondônia, Brazil. These cities are located in the Western portion of the Brazilian Amazon region. The biomass content per hectare, in the virgin forest, was measured by indirect methods using formulas with parameters of forest inventories in the central hectare of the test site. The combustion completeness was estimated by randomly selecting 10% of the total logs and twelve 2 × 2 m2 areas along three transects and examining their consumption rates by the fire. The logs were used to determine the combustion completeness of the larger materials (characteristic diameters larger than 10 cm) and the 2 × 2 m2 areas to determine the combustion completeness of small-size materials (those with characteristic diameters lower than 10 cm) and the. The overall biomass consumption by fire was estimated to be 40.0%, 41.2% and 26.2%, in Cruzeiro do Sul, Rio Branco and Candeias do Jamari, respectively. Considering that the combustion gases of carbon in open fires contain approximately 90.0% of CO2 and 10.0% of CO in volumetric basis, the average emission rates of these gases by the burning process, in the three sites, were estimated as 191 ± 46.7 t ha-1 and 13.5 ± 3.3 t ha-1, respectively.

  19. The Temporal Scale of Holocene Climatic Variability: From the Galapagos to Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, M. B.; Restrepo, A.; Correa, A.; Ford, R.; Valencia, B.; Gosling, W.; Silman, M.; Conroy, J.; Overpeck, J. T.

    2006-12-01

    High-resolution lake cores from the Andes and Amazonian lowlands of W. South America and the Galapagos Islands provide new insights into the Holocene climate history of this region and its interactions with Pacific climate drivers. Our data reveal that a major drought event reported broadly from the Andes and Amazonia in the early to mid-Holocene is actually a complex series of droughts with wet interludes. These results suggest strong climatic instability prior to c. 5600 cal. yr BP. Establishment of wetter conditions at our Andean study site at c. 5600 cal. yr BP correspond to the start of Quinoa cultivation. A similar pattern of higher lake levels coinciding with the local spread of agriculture is also evident in the lowlands. Within an overall pattern of progressively wetter conditions over the last 4000 years there are periods of pronounced climatic instability (drought and flood). Fossil pollen, charcoal, sediment color, and carbon content identify periods of peak erosion between c. 900 and 1100 cal. yr BP. On the Galapagos Islands, a subdecadally resolved analysis of fossil pollen provides a striking pattern of climatic change and human-induced alteration of the landscape. Prior to the period of transforming human activity, the fossil pollen record contains a multidecadal oscillation, with wavlet analysis evealing a quasi- periodicty of c. 60 years. Andean pollen are readily identifible in the Galapagos record and transport of mainland pollen to the islands has varied markedly within the past millennium. These multiproxy records reveal the dynamic nature of Holocene climates in the tropics and the impact those changes have had on people and landscapes.

  20. A 6900-year history of landscape modification by humans in lowland Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, M. B.; Correa-Metrio, A.; McMichael, C. H.; Sully, S.; Shadik, C. R.; Valencia, B. G.; Guilderson, T.; Steinitz-Kannan, M.; Overpeck, J. T.

    2016-06-01

    A sedimentary record from the Peruvian Amazon provided evidence of climate and vegetation change for the last 6900 years. Piston cores collected from the center of Lake Sauce, a 20 m deep lake at 600 m elevation, were 19.7 m in length. The fossil pollen record showed a continuously forested catchment within the period of the record, although substantial changes in forest composition were apparent. Fossil charcoal, found throughout the record, was probably associated with humans setting fires. Two fires, at c. 6700 cal BP and 4270 cal BP, appear to have been stand-replacing events possibly associated with megadroughts. The fire event at 4270 cal BP followed a drought that caused lowered lake levels for several centuries. The successional trajectories of forest recovery following these large fires were prolonged by smaller fire events. Fossil pollen of Zea mays (cultivated maize) provided evidence of agricultural activity at the site since c. 6320 cal BP. About 5150 years ago, the lake deepened and started to deposit laminated sediments. Maize agriculture reached a peak of intensity between c. 3380 and 700 cal BP. Fossil diatom data provided a proxy for lake nutrient status and productivity, both of which peaked during the period of maize cultivation. A marked change in land use was evident after c. 700 cal BP when maize agriculture was apparently abandoned at this site. Iriartea, a hyperdominant of riparian settings in western Amazonia, increased in abundance within the last 1100 years, but declined markedly at c. 1070 cal BP and again between c. 80 and -10 cal BP.

  1. The Challenges from Extreme Climate Events for Sustainable Development in Amazonia: the Acre State Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, M. D. N. M.

    2015-12-01

    In the past ten years Acre State, located in Brazil´s southwestern Amazonia, has confronted sequential and severe extreme events in the form of droughts and floods. In particular, the droughts and forest fires of 2005 and 2010, the 2012 flood within Acre, the 2014 flood of the Madeira River which isolated Acre for two months from southern Brazil, and the most severe flooding throughout the state in 2015 shook the resilience of Acrean society. The accumulated costs of these events since 2005 have exceeded 300 million dollars. For the last 17 years, successive state administrations have been implementing a socio-environmental model of development that strives to link sustainable economic production with environmental conservation, particularly for small communities. In this context, extreme climate events have interfered significantly with this model, increasing the risks of failure. The impacts caused by these events on development in the state have been exacerbated by: a) limitations in monitoring; b) extreme events outside of Acre territory (Madeira River Flood) affecting transportation systems; c) absence of reliable information for decision-making; and d) bureaucratic and judicial impediments. Our experience in these events have led to the following needs for scientific input to reduce the risk of disasters: 1) better monitoring and forecasting of deforestation, fires, and hydro-meteorological variables; 2) ways to increase risk perception in communities; 3) approaches to involve more effectively local and regional populations in the response to disasters; 4) more accurate measurements of the economic and social damages caused by these disasters. We must improve adaptation to and mitigation of current and future extreme climate events and implement a robust civil defense, adequate to these new challenges.

  2. Meso-scale effects of tropical deforestation in Amazonia: preparatory LBA modelling studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Dolman

    Full Text Available As part of the preparation for the Large-Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia, a meso-scale modelling study was executed to highlight deficiencies in the current understanding of land surface atmosphere interaction at local to sub-continental scales in the dry season. Meso-scale models were run in 1-D and 3-D mode for the area of Rondonia State, Brazil. The important conclusions are that without calibration it is difficult to model the energy partitioning of pasture; modelling that of forest is easier due to the absence of a strong moisture deficit signal. The simulation of the boundary layer above forest is good, above deforested areas (pasture poor. The models' underestimate of the temperature of the boundary layer is likely to be caused by the neglect of the radiative effects of aerosols caused by biomass burning, but other factors such as lack of sufficient entrainment in the model at the mixed layer top may also contribute. The Andes generate patterns of subsidence and gravity waves, the effects of which are felt far into the Rondonian area The results show that the picture presented by GCM modelling studies may need to be balanced by an increased understanding of what happens at the meso-scale. The results are used to identify key measurements for the LBA atmospheric meso-scale campaign needed to improve the model simulations. Similar modelling studies are proposed for the wet season in Rondonia, when convection plays a major role.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (aerosols and particles; biosphere-atmosphere interactions · Meterology and atmospheric dynamics (mesoscale meterology

  3. Modern pollen-rain characteristics of tall terra firme moist evergreen forest, southern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, William D.; Mayle, Francis E.; Tate, Nicholas J.; Killeen, Timothy J.

    2005-11-01

    The paucity of modern pollen-rain data from Amazonia constitutes a significant barrier to understanding the Late Quaternary vegetation history of this globally important tropical forest region. Here, we present the first modern pollen-rain data for tall terra firme moist evergreen Amazon forest, collected between 1999 and 2001 from artificial pollen traps within a 500 × 20 m permanent study plot (14°34'50″S, 60°49'48″W) in Noel Kempff Mercado National Park (NE Bolivia). Spearman's rank correlations were performed to assess the extent of spatial and inter-annual variability in the pollen rain, whilst statistically distinctive taxa were identified using Principal Components Analysis (PCA). Comparisons with the floristic and basal area data of the plot (stems ≥10 cm d.b.h.) enabled the degree to which taxa are over/under-represented in the pollen rain to be assessed (using R-rel values). Moraceae/Urticaceae dominates the pollen rain (64% median abundance) and is also an important constituent of the vegetation, accounting for 16% of stems ≥10 cm d.b.h. and ca. 11% of the total basal area. Other important pollen taxa are Arecaceae (cf. Euterpe), Melastomataceae/Combretaceae, Cecropia, Didymopanax, Celtis, and Alchornea. However, 75% of stems and 67% of the total basal area of the plot ≥10 cm d.b.h. belong to species which are unidentified in the pollen rain, the most important of which are Phenakospermum guianensis (a banana-like herb) and the key canopy-emergent trees, Erisma uncinatum and Qualea paraensis.

  4. Molecular composition of organic aerosols in central Amazonia: an ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourtchev, Ivan; Godoi, Ricardo H. M.; Connors, Sarah; Levine, James G.; Archibald, Alex T.; Godoi, Ana F. L.; Paralovo, Sarah L.; Barbosa, Cybelli G. G.; Souza, Rodrigo A. F.; Manzi, Antonio O.; Seco, Roger; Sjostedt, Steve; Park, Jeong-Hoo; Guenther, Alex; Kim, Saewung; Smith, James; Martin, Scot T.; Kalberer, Markus

    2016-09-01

    The Amazon Basin plays key role in atmospheric chemistry, biodiversity and climate change. In this study we applied nanoelectrospray (nanoESI) ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHRMS) for the analysis of the organic fraction of PM2.5 aerosol samples collected during dry and wet seasons at a site in central Amazonia receiving background air masses, biomass burning and urban pollution. Comprehensive mass spectral data evaluation methods (e.g. Kendrick mass defect, Van Krevelen diagrams, carbon oxidation state and aromaticity equivalent) were used to identify compound classes and mass distributions of the detected species. Nitrogen- and/or sulfur-containing organic species contributed up to 60 % of the total identified number of formulae. A large number of molecular formulae in organic aerosol (OA) were attributed to later-generation nitrogen- and sulfur-containing oxidation products, suggesting that OA composition is affected by biomass burning and other, potentially anthropogenic, sources. Isoprene-derived organosulfate (IEPOX-OS) was found to be the most dominant ion in most of the analysed samples and strongly followed the concentration trends of the gas-phase anthropogenic tracers confirming its mixed anthropogenic-biogenic origin. The presence of oxidised aromatic and nitro-aromatic compounds in the samples suggested a strong influence from biomass burning especially during the dry period. Aerosol samples from the dry period and under enhanced biomass burning conditions contained a large number of molecules with high carbon oxidation state and an increased number of aromatic compounds compared to that from the wet period. The results of this work demonstrate that the studied site is influenced not only by biogenic emissions from the forest but also by biomass burning and potentially other anthropogenic emissions from the neighbouring urban environments.

  5. Ecological speciation in the tropics: insights from comparative genetic studies in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheregaray, Luciano B; Cooke, Georgina M; Chao, Ning L; Landguth, Erin L

    2014-01-01

    Evolution creates and sustains biodiversity via adaptive changes in ecologically relevant traits. Ecologically mediated selection contributes to genetic divergence both in the presence or absence of geographic isolation between populations, and is considered an important driver of speciation. Indeed, the genetics of ecological speciation is becoming increasingly studied across a variety of taxa and environments. In this paper we review the literature of ecological speciation in the tropics. We report on low research productivity in tropical ecosystems and discuss reasons accounting for the rarity of studies. We argue for research programs that simultaneously address biogeographical and taxonomic questions in the tropics, while effectively assessing relationships between reproductive isolation and ecological divergence. To contribute toward this goal, we propose a new framework for ecological speciation that integrates information from phylogenetics, phylogeography, population genomics, and simulations in evolutionary landscape genetics (ELG). We introduce components of the framework, describe ELG simulations (a largely unexplored approach in ecological speciation), and discuss design and experimental feasibility within the context of tropical research. We then use published genetic datasets from populations of five codistributed Amazonian fish species to assess the performance of the framework in studies of tropical speciation. We suggest that these approaches can assist in distinguishing the relative contribution of natural selection from biogeographic history in the origin of biodiversity, even in complex ecosystems such as Amazonia. We also discuss on how to assess ecological speciation using ELG simulations that include selection. These integrative frameworks have considerable potential to enhance conservation management in biodiversity rich ecosystems and to complement historical biogeographic and evolutionary studies of tropical biotas.

  6. Allocating logging rights in Peruvian Amazonia--does it matter to be local?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matti Salo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The fate of tropical forests is a global concern, yet many far-reaching decisions affecting forest resources are made locally. We explore allocation of logging rights using a case study from Loreto, Peruvian Amazonia, where millions of hectares of tropical rainforest were offered for concession in a competitive tendering process that addressed issues related to locality. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: After briefly presenting the study area and the tendering process, we identify and define local and non-local actors taking part in the concession process. We then analyse their tenders, results of the tendering, and attributes of the concession areas. Our results show that there was more offer than demand for concession land in the tendering. The number of tenders the concession areas received was related to their size and geographic location in relation to the major cities, but not to their estimated timber volumes or median distances from transport routes. Small and Loreto-based actors offered lower yearly area-based fees compared to larger ones, but the offers did not significantly affect the results of the tenders. Local experience in the form of logging history or residence near the solicited concession areas, as well as being registered in the region of Loreto, improved the success of the tenders. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The allocation process left a considerable number of forest areas under the management of small and local actors, and if Peru is to reach its goal of zero deforestation rate by safeguarding 75 per cent of its forests by 2020, the small and the local actors need to be integrated to the forest regime as important constituents of its legitimacy.

  7. The costs of evaluating species densities and composition of snakes to assess development impacts in amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Fraga

    Full Text Available Studies leading to decision-making for environmental licensing often fail to provide accurate estimates of diversity. Measures of snake diversity are regularly obtained to assess development impacts in the rainforests of the Amazon Basin, but this taxonomic group may be subject to poor detection probabilities. Recently, the Brazilian government tried to standardize sampling designs by the implementation of a system (RAPELD to quantify biological diversity using spatially-standardized sampling units. Consistency in sampling design allows the detection probabilities to be compared among taxa, and sampling effort and associated cost to be evaluated. The cost effectiveness of detecting snakes has received no attention in Amazonia. Here we tested the effects of reducing sampling effort on estimates of species densities and assemblage composition. We identified snakes in seven plot systems, each standardised with 14 plots. The 250 m long centre line of each plot followed an altitudinal contour. Surveys were repeated four times in each plot and detection probabilities were estimated for the 41 species encountered. Reducing the number of observations, or the size of the sampling modules, caused significant loss of information on species densities and local patterns of variation in assemblage composition. We estimated the cost to find a snake as $ 120 U.S., but general linear models indicated the possibility of identifying differences in assemblage composition for half the overall survey costs. Decisions to reduce sampling effort depend on the importance of lost information to target-issues, and may not be the preferred option if there is the potential for identifying individual snake species requiring specific conservation actions. However, in most studies of human disturbance on species assemblages, it is likely to be more cost-effective to focus on other groups of organisms with higher detection probabilities.

  8. Fish Consumption during Pregnancy, Mercury Transfer, and Birth Weight along the Madeira River Basin in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata S. Leão

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Birth weight can be a predictor of maternal health issues related to nutrition and environmental contaminants. Total hair mercury (HHg concentration was studied as an indicator of both fish consumption and methylmercury exposure in mothers (and newborns living in selected low income areas of the Madeira River basin, Amazonia, Brazil. This cohort study (n = 1,433 consisted of traditional riverines (n = 396, riverines who had moved to urban (n = 676 and rural (n = 67 settings, and tin miner settlers (n = 294. Median maternal HHg was significantly different (p = 0.00001 between riverine (12.1 µg·g−1, rural (7.82 µg·g−1, urban (5.4 µg·g−1, and tin miner (4.5 µg·g−1 groups studied. The same trend (of medians was observed for newborns’ HHg which also showed significant differences between riverine (3.0 µg·g−1, rural (2.0 µg·g−1, urban (1.5 µg·g−1, and tin miner (0.8 µg·g−1 groups. The correlation between maternal and newborn HHg was statistically significant in the riverine (r = 0.8952; p = 0.0001, urban (r = 0.6744; p = 0.0001, and rural (r = 0.8416; p = 0.0001 groups but not in the mother-infant pairs in the tin miner group (r = 0.0638; p = 0.2752. Birth weight was significantly different among groups but did not show a pattern consistent with that of fish consumption (and HHg. A multiple regression analysis showed that only family income and gestational age had a significant impact on birth weight. Conclusions: Maternal HHg is an important biomarker of maternal fish consumption and of methylmercury exposure during pregnancy. However, in these Amazonian groups, only maternal education and gestational age seemed to affect birth weight positively.

  9. DISTRIBUTION OF ORGANIC CARBON IN DIFFERENT SOIL FRACTIONS IN ECOSYSTEMS OF CENTRAL AMAZONIA

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    Jean Dalmo de Oliveira Marques

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Organic matter plays an important role in many soil properties, and for that reason it is necessary to identify management systems which maintain or increase its concentrations. The aim of the present study was to determine the quality and quantity of organic C in different compartments of the soil fraction in different Amazonian ecosystems. The soil organic matter (FSOM was fractionated and soil C stocks were estimated in primary forest (PF, pasture (P, secondary succession (SS and an agroforestry system (AFS. Samples were collected at the depths 0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-40, 40-60, 60-80, 80-100, 100-160, and 160-200 cm. Densimetric and particle size analysis methods were used for FSOM, obtaining the following fractions: FLF (free light fraction, IALF (intra-aggregate light fraction, F-sand (sand fraction, F-clay (clay fraction and F-silt (silt fraction. The 0-5 cm layer contains 60 % of soil C, which is associated with the FLF. The F-clay was responsible for 70 % of C retained in the 0-200 cm depth. There was a 12.7 g kg-1 C gain in the FLF from PF to SS, and a 4.4 g kg-1 C gain from PF to AFS, showing that SS and AFS areas recover soil organic C, constituting feasible C-recovery alternatives for degraded and intensively farmed soils in Amazonia. The greatest total stocks of carbon in soil fractions were, in decreasing order: (101.3 Mg ha-1 of C - AFS > (98.4 Mg ha-1 of C - FP > (92.9 Mg ha-1 of C - SS > (64.0 Mg ha-1 of C - P. The forms of land use in the Amazon influence C distribution in soil fractions, resulting in short- or long-term changes.

  10. Increased Wildfire Risk Driven by Climate and Development Interactions in the Bolivian Chiquitania, Southern Amazonia.

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    Devisscher, Tahia; Anderson, Liana O; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Galván, Luis; Malhi, Yadvinder

    2016-01-01

    Wildfires are becoming increasingly dominant in tropical landscapes due to reinforcing feedbacks between land cover change and more severe dry conditions. This study focused on the Bolivian Chiquitania, a region located at the southern edge of Amazonia. The extensive, unique and well-conserved tropical dry forest in this region is susceptible to wildfires due to a marked seasonality. We used a novel approach to assess fire risk at the regional level driven by different development trajectories interacting with changing climatic conditions. Possible future risk scenarios were simulated using maximum entropy modelling with presence-only data, combining land cover, anthropogenic and climatic variables. We found that important determinants of fire risk in the region are distance to roads, recent deforestation and density of human settlements. Severely dry conditions alone increased the area of high fire risk by 69%, affecting all categories of land use and land cover. Interactions between extreme dry conditions and rapid frontier expansion further increased fire risk, resulting in potential biomass loss of 2.44±0.8 Tg in high risk area, about 1.8 times higher than the estimates for the 2010 drought. These interactions showed particularly high fire risk in land used for 'extensive cattle ranching', 'agro-silvopastoral use' and 'intensive cattle ranching and agriculture'. These findings have serious implications for subsistence activities and the economy in the Chiquitania, which greatly depend on the forestry, agriculture and livestock sectors. Results are particularly concerning if considering the current development policies promoting frontier expansion. Departmental protected areas inhibited wildfires when strategically established in areas of high risk, even under drought conditions. However, further research is needed to assess their effectiveness accounting for more specific contextual factors. This novel and simple modelling approach can inform fire and land

  11. The costs of evaluating species densities and composition of snakes to assess development impacts in amazonia.

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    Fraga, Rafael de; Stow, Adam J; Magnusson, William E; Lima, Albertina P

    2014-01-01

    Studies leading to decision-making for environmental licensing often fail to provide accurate estimates of diversity. Measures of snake diversity are regularly obtained to assess development impacts in the rainforests of the Amazon Basin, but this taxonomic group may be subject to poor detection probabilities. Recently, the Brazilian government tried to standardize sampling designs by the implementation of a system (RAPELD) to quantify biological diversity using spatially-standardized sampling units. Consistency in sampling design allows the detection probabilities to be compared among taxa, and sampling effort and associated cost to be evaluated. The cost effectiveness of detecting snakes has received no attention in Amazonia. Here we tested the effects of reducing sampling effort on estimates of species densities and assemblage composition. We identified snakes in seven plot systems, each standardised with 14 plots. The 250 m long centre line of each plot followed an altitudinal contour. Surveys were repeated four times in each plot and detection probabilities were estimated for the 41 species encountered. Reducing the number of observations, or the size of the sampling modules, caused significant loss of information on species densities and local patterns of variation in assemblage composition. We estimated the cost to find a snake as $ 120 U.S., but general linear models indicated the possibility of identifying differences in assemblage composition for half the overall survey costs. Decisions to reduce sampling effort depend on the importance of lost information to target-issues, and may not be the preferred option if there is the potential for identifying individual snake species requiring specific conservation actions. However, in most studies of human disturbance on species assemblages, it is likely to be more cost-effective to focus on other groups of organisms with higher detection probabilities.

  12. Regional N2O fluxes in Amazonia derived from aircraft vertical profiles

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    P. Tans

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Nitrous oxide (N2O is the third most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas. Globally, the main sources of N2O are nitrification and denitrification in soils. About two thirds of the soil emissions occur in the tropics and approximately 20% originate in wet rainforest ecosystems, like the Amazon forest. The work presented here involves aircraft vertical profiles of N2O from the surface to 4 km over two sites in the Eastern and Central Amazon: Tapajós National Forest (SAN and Cuieiras Biologic Reserve (MAN, and the estimation of N2O fluxes for regions upwind of these sites. To our knowledge, these regional scale N2O measurements in Amazonia are unique and represent a new approach to looking regional scale emissions. The fluxes upwind of MAN exhibited little seasonality, and the annual mean was 2.1±1.0 mg N2O m−2 day−1, higher than that for fluxes upwind of SAN, which averaged 1.5±1.6 mg N2O m−2 day−1. The higher rainfall around the MAN site could explain the higher N2O emissions. For fluxes from the coast to SAN seasonality is present for all years, with high fluxes in the months of March through May, and in November through December. The first peak of N2O flux is strongly associated with the wet season. The second peak of high N2O flux recorded at SAN occurs during the dry season and can not be easily explained. However, about half of the dry season profiles exhibit significant correlations with CO, indicating a larger than expected source of N2O from biomass burning. The average CO:N2O ratio for all profiles sampled during the dry season is 94±77 mol CO:mol N2O and suggests a larger biomass burning contribution to the global N2O budget than previously reported.

  13. Amazonia and the Anthropocene: What was the spatial extent and intensity of human landscape modification in the Amazon Basin at the end of prehistory?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Piperno; C. McMichael; M.B. Bush

    2015-01-01

    The nature and spatial scale of prehistoric human landscape modifications in Amazonia are enduring questions. Original conceptions of the issues by archaeologists published more than 40 years ago posited little human influence because of putative environmental constraints. Empirical data accumulated

  14. Learning to Question: The Roles of Multiple Hypotheses, Successive Approximations, Balloons and Toilet Paper in University Science Programs of Southwestern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I. Foster

    2008-01-01

    Learning to question is essential for determining pathways of conservation and development in southwestern Amazonia during a time of rapid global environmental change. Teaching such an approach in graduate science programs in regional universities can be done using play-acting and simulation exercises. Multiple working hypotheses help students…

  15. Trypanosoma cruzi in Brazilian Amazonia: Lineages TCI and TCIIa in wild primates, Rhodnius spp. and in humans with Chagas disease associated with oral transmission.

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    Marcili, Arlei; Valente, Vera C; Valente, Sebastião A; Junqueira, Angela C V; da Silva, Flávia Maia; Pinto, Ana Yecê das Neves; Naiff, Roberto D; Campaner, Marta; Coura, José R; Camargo, Erney P; Miles, Michael A; Teixeira, Marta M G

    2009-04-01

    In this study, we provide phylogenetic and biogeographic evidence that the Trypanosoma cruzi lineages T. cruzi I (TCI) and T. cruzi IIa (TCIIa) circulate amongst non-human primates in Brazilian Amazonia, and are transmitted by Rhodnius species in overlapping arboreal transmission cycles, sporadically infecting humans. TCI presented higher prevalence rates, and no lineages other than TCI and TCIIa were found in this study in wild monkeys and Rhodnius from the Amazonian region. We characterised TCI and TCIIa from wild primates (16 TCI and five TCIIa), Rhodnius spp. (13 TCI and nine TCIIa), and humans with Chagas disease associated with oral transmission (14 TCI and five TCIIa) in Brazilian Amazonia. To our knowledge, TCIIa had not been associated with wild monkeys until now. Polymorphisms of ssrDNA, cytochrome b gene sequences and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) patterns clearly separated TCIIa from TCIIb-e and TCI lineages, and disclosed small intra-lineage polymorphisms amongst isolates from Amazonia. These data are important in understanding the complexity of the transmission cycles, genetic structure, and evolutionary history of T. cruzi populations circulating in Amazonia, and they contribute to both the unravelling of human infection routes and the pathological peculiarities of Chagas disease in this region.

  16. Soil-vegetation relationships on a banded ironstone 'island', Carajás Plateau, Brazilian Eastern Amazonia

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    Jaquelina A. Nunes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation and soil properties of an iron-rich canga (laterite island on the largest outcrop of banded-iron formation in Serra de Carajás (eastern Amazonia, Brazil were studied along a topographic gradient (738-762 m asl, and analyzed to test the hypothesis that soil chemical and physical attributes play a key role in the structure and floristic composition of these plant communities. Soil and vegetation were sampled in eight replicate plots within each of the four vegetation types. Surface (0-10 cm soil samples from each plot were analyzed for basic cations, N, P and plant species density for all species was recorded. CCA ordination analysis showed a strong separation between forest and non-forest sites on the first axis, and between herbaceous and shrubby campo rupestre on the second axis. The four vegetation types shared few plant species, which was attributed to their distinctive soil environments and filtering of their constituent species by chemical, physical and hydrological constraints. Thus, we can infer that Edaphic (pedological factors are crucial in explaining the types and distributions of campo rupestre vegetation associated with ferruginous ironstone uplands (Canga in Carajás, eastern Amazonia, therefore the soil properties are the main drivers of vegetation composition and structure on these ironstone islands.

  17. On the Miocene Cyprideis species flock (Ostracoda; Crustacea) of Western Amazonia (Solimões Formation): Refining taxonomy on species level.

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    Gross, Martin; Ramos, Maria Ines F; Piller, Werner E

    2014-12-18

    The Miocene mega-wetland of western Amazonia holds a diverse, largely endemic ostracod fauna. Among them, especially the genus Cyprideis experienced a remarkable radiation. Micropalaeontologic investigations of a 400 m long sediment core (~62 km SW Benjamin Constant, Amazonia, Brazil) permitted a taxonomic revision of about two-thirds of hitherto described Cyprideis species. We evaluate the diagnostic value of shell characters and provide an extensive illustration of the intraspecific variability of species. Based on comparative morphology, the 20 recorded Cyprideis species are arranged in groups and subgroups. The "smooth" group comprises C. amazonica, C. kotzianae, C. kroemmelbeini, C. machadoi, C. multiradiata, C. olivencai, C. paralela and C. simplex; the "ornate" group C. curucae nom. nov., C. cyrtoma, C. aff. graciosa, C. inversa, C. ituiae n. sp., C. matorae n. sp., C. minipunctata, C. munoztorresi nom. nov., C. pebasae, C. reticulopunctata, C. schedogymnos and C. sulcosigmoidalis. Five species have been revalidated, two renamed, two synonymised and two are new descriptions. Along with 10 further formally established species, for which a review is pending, Cyprideis keeps at least 30 endemic species in that region during Miocene times. Up to 12 Cyprideis species have been found to occur sympatrically, representing >90% of the entire ostracod fauna. Ostracod index species enable a biostratigraphic allocation of the well succession to the Cyprideis minipunctata to Cyprideis cyrtoma biozones, corresponding to a late Middle to early Late Miocene age (late Serravallian-early Tortonian).

  18. Soil-vegetation relationships on a banded ironstone 'island', Carajás Plateau, Brazilian Eastern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Jaquelina A; Schaefer, Carlos E G R; Ferreira Júnior, Walnir G; Neri, Andreza V; Correa, Guilherme R; Enright, Neal J

    2015-01-01

    Vegetation and soil properties of an iron-rich canga (laterite) island on the largest outcrop of banded-iron formation in Serra de Carajás (eastern Amazonia, Brazil) were studied along a topographic gradient (738-762 m asl), and analyzed to test the hypothesis that soil chemical and physical attributes play a key role in the structure and floristic composition of these plant communities. Soil and vegetation were sampled in eight replicate plots within each of the four vegetation types. Surface (0-10 cm) soil samples from each plot were analyzed for basic cations, N, P and plant species density for all species was recorded. CCA ordination analysis showed a strong separation between forest and non-forest sites on the first axis, and between herbaceous and shrubby campo rupestre on the second axis. The four vegetation types shared few plant species, which was attributed to their distinctive soil environments and filtering of their constituent species by chemical, physical and hydrological constraints. Thus, we can infer that Edaphic (pedological) factors are crucial in explaining the types and distributions of campo rupestre vegetation associated with ferruginous ironstone uplands (Canga) in Carajás, eastern Amazonia, therefore the soil properties are the main drivers of vegetation composition and structure on these ironstone islands.

  19. Agricultura en Amazonia: Crecimiento con Abundancia de Recursos Naturales en una Región Periférica Agricultura en Amazonia: Crecimiento con Abundancia de Recursos Naturales en una Región Periférica

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    Steve C. Kyle

    1990-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows how lack of competitiveness for commercial agriculture in Amazonia makes difficult the attraction or retention of mobile factors (capital and labor generating a state of continuous scarcity for these factors. It is also shown that policies attempting to regain equilibrium in factor proportions like capital subsidies or colonization programs are ineffective. Finally, it is shown that attempts to maximize the return on scarce factors lead to overutilization of natural resource and environmental degradation. Although global price incentives policies can help, technical progress is the important variable for the long run sustainability of agriculture in Amazonia. Agricultura en Amazonia: Crecimiento con Abundancia de Recursos Naturales en una Región Periférica

  20. Spatial and temporal contrasts in the distribution of crops and pastures across Amazonia: A new agricultural land use data set from census data since 1950.

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    Imbach, P; Manrow, M; Barona, E; Barretto, A; Hyman, G; Ciais, P

    2015-06-01

    Amazonia holds the largest continuous area of tropical forests with intense land use change dynamics inducing water, carbon, and energy feedbacks with regional and global impacts. Much of our knowledge of land use change in Amazonia comes from studies of the Brazilian Amazon, which accounts for two thirds of the region. Amazonia outside of Brazil has received less attention because of the difficulty of acquiring consistent data across countries. We present here an agricultural statistics database of the entire Amazonia region, with a harmonized description of crops and pastures in geospatial format, based on administrative boundary data at the municipality level. The spatial coverage includes countries within Amazonia and spans censuses and surveys from 1950 to 2012. Harmonized crop and pasture types are explored by grouping annual and perennial cropping systems, C3 and C4 photosynthetic pathways, planted and natural pastures, and main crops. Our analysis examined the spatial pattern of ratios between classes of the groups and their correlation with the agricultural extent of crops and pastures within administrative units of the Amazon, by country, and census/survey dates. Significant correlations were found between all ratios and the fraction of agricultural lands of each administrative unit, with the exception of planted to natural pastures ratio and pasture lands extent. Brazil and Peru in most cases have significant correlations for all ratios analyzed even for specific census and survey dates. Results suggested improvements, and potential applications of the database for carbon, water, climate, and land use change studies are discussed. The database presented here provides an Amazon-wide improved data set on agricultural dynamics with expanded temporal and spatial coverage.

  1. Airborne measurements of trace gas and aerosol particle emissions from biomass burning in Amazonia

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    Guyon, P.; Frank, G. P.; Welling, M.; Chand, D.; Artaxo, P.; Rizzo, L.; Nishioka, G.; Kolle, O.; Fritsch, H.; Silva Dias, M. A. F.; Gatti, L. V.; Cordova, A. M.; Andreae, M. O.

    2005-11-01

    As part of the LBA-SMOCC (Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia - Smoke, Aerosols, Clouds, Rainfall, and Climate) 2002 campaign, we studied the emission of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and aerosol particles from Amazonian deforestation fires using an instrumented aircraft. Emission ratios for aerosol number (CN) relative to CO (ERCN/CO) fell in the range 14-32 cm-3 ppb-1 in most of the investigated smoke plumes. Particle number emission ratios have to our knowledge not been previously measured in tropical deforestation fires, but our results are in agreement with values usually found from tropical savanna fires. The number of particles emitted per amount biomass burned was found to be dependent on the fire conditions (combustion efficiency). Variability in ERCN/CO between fires was similar to the variability caused by variations in combustion behavior within each individual fire. This was confirmed by observations of CO-to-CO2 emission ratios (ERCO/CO2), which stretched across the same wide range of values for individual fires as for all the fires observed during the sampling campaign, reflecting the fact that flaming and smoldering phases are present simultaneously in deforestation fires. Emission factors (EF) for CO and aerosol particles were computed and a correction was applied for the residual smoldering combustion (RSC) fraction of emissions that are not sampled by the aircraft, which increased the EF by a factor of 1.5-2.1. Vertical transport of smoke from the boundary layer (BL) to the cloud detrainment layer (CDL) and the free troposphere (FT) was found to be a very common phenomenon. We observed a 20% loss in particle number as a result of this vertical transport and subsequent cloud processing, attributable to in-cloud coagulation. This small loss fraction suggests that this mode of transport is very efficient in terms of particle numbers and occurs mostly via non-precipitating clouds. The detrained aerosol particles

  2. Sampling effort and fish species richness in small terra firme forest streams of central Amazonia, Brazil

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    Maeda Batista dos Anjos

    Full Text Available Small streams are important components of the landscape in terra firme forests in central Amazonia and harbor a large number of fish species. Nevertheless, the lack of a common sampling protocol in studies of this ichthyofauna hinders comparisons among available results. This study evaluates how the length of stream reach sampled affects estimates of local fish species density in 1st, 2nd, and 3rd order streams, and proposes a mean minimum sampling length that best approximates the absolute number of species in a given stream segment. We sampled three streams in the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project's study sites, between May and August 2004. At each stream, one 1st order, one 2nd order, and one 3rd order segment was sampled. We sampled five 20-m reaches in each stream segment. Three to four people collected along each reach for 45 to 60 minutes. We used Jaccard's coefficient to estimate the similarity of species composition among stream reaches and segments. Estimates of species richness were obtained with Jackknife 1 and Bootstrap algorithms and species accumulation curves. We used simple linear regressions to look for relationships between species density and fish abundance and between species density and the volume of 100-m stream segments. Species density in 1st order stream reaches was slightly higher than in 2nd and 3rd order stream reaches, whereas fish abundance was apparently higher in 3rd order reaches. Similarity in fish species composition between 20-m reaches was low for all studied streams. Species density values in pooled 100-m stream segments represented 71.4% to 94.1% of the estimated values for these streams. Species density showed a direct relationship both with volume of the sampled stream segment and fish abundance. It seems plausible that larger streams contain a higher number of microhabitat types, which allow for the presence of more fish species per stream length. Based on the values of asymptotes and

  3. Leaf Wax δ13C Varies with Elevation in the Peruvian Andes and Western Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, M. S.; Feakins, S. J.; Ponton, C.; Peters, T.; West, A. J.; Galy, V.; Bentley, L. P.; Salinas, N.; Shenkin, A.; Martin, R.; Asner, G. P.; Malhi, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Plant leaf wax carbon isotopic composition (δ13Cwax) reflects the net isotopic effects associated with diffusion into the leaf, fixation of carbon by Rubisco and biosynthesis of individual leaf wax biochemicals. As declining pCO2 with elevation affects the first two fractionations, we expect to find an isotopic gradient in δ13Cwax, if the fractionation of leaf wax biosynthesis is constant. To test this, we report δ13Cwax values from 500 samples of leaves collected by tree-climbers from the upper canopy from 9 forest-inventory plots spanning a 3.5km elevation transect in the Peruvian Andes and western Amazonia during the CHAMBASA field campaign. These samples provide a unique opportunity to study the relationship between δ13Cwax and pCO2 in diverse species across this remote tropical montane forest and lowland rainforest. The very wet climate throughout (2-5 m rainfall per year) minimizes fractionation effects due to stomatal restrictions (i.e. water use efficiency) that may be an important factor elsewhere. Preliminary results show δ13Cwax values on average increase with elevation by ~1.5‰/km, a trend consistent with bulk plant δ13C in previous studies. The mean epsilon between bulk and C29 n-alkane is -7.3±2.2‰. Inter-sample differences are large on the order of 10‰. Shaded leaves and understory leaves are found to be depleted relative to sunlit leaves, presumably due to a lower photosynthetic rate and use of respired CO2 in the understory. C29 n-alkanes are on average ~2.5‰ more depleted than C30 n-alkanoic acids, indicating fractionation during selective decarboxylation. We further compare results from plants with soil and river sediments to provide insights into how leaf wax signals are archived in soils and exported from the landscape. We find a ~1.4‰/km gradient in forest soils similar to plants. We observe a ~2‰ offset between C29 n-alkane in plant leaves and in soils across the elevation profile, which is likely a signal of degradation

  4. The Roles and Movements of Actors in the Deforestation of Brazilian Amazonia

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    Philip M. Fearnside

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Containing the advance of deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia requires understanding the roles and movements of the actors involved. The importance of different actors varies widely among locations within the region, and also evolves at any particular site over the course of frontier establishment and consolidation. Landless migrants have significant roles in clearing the land they occupy and in motivating landholders to clear as a defense against invasion or expropriation. Colonists in official settlements and other small farmers also are responsible for substantial amounts of clearing, but ranchers constitute the largest component of the region's clearing. This group is most responsive to macroeconomic changes affecting such factors as commodity prices, and also receives substantial subsidies. Ulterior motives, such as land speculation and money laundering, also affect this group. Drug trafficking and money laundering represent strong forces in some areas and help spread deforestation where it would be unprofitable based only on the legitimate economy. Goldminers increase the population in distant areas and subsequently enter the ranks of other groups. Work as laborers or debt slaves provides an important entry to the region for poor migrants from northeast Brazil, providing cheap labor to large ranches and a large source of entrants to other groups, such as landless farmers and colonists. Capitalized farmers, including agribusiness for soy production, have tremendous impact in certain areas, such as Mato Grosso. This group responds to commodity markets and provides justification for major infrastructure projects. Landgrabbers, or grileiros, are important in entering public land and beginning the process of deforestation and transfer of land to subsequent groups of actors. These include sawmill owners and loggers, who play an important role in generating funds for clearing by other groups, ranging from landless migrants to large ranchers. They

  5. Medicinal use of fauna by a traditional community in the Brazilian Amazonia

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    Barros Flávio B

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zootherapy inventories are important as they contribute to the world documentation of the prevalence, importance and diversity of the medicinal use of animals in traditional human communities. The present study aims to contribute with a more valuable example of the zootherapy practices of a traditional community in the Brazilian Amazonia – the “Riozinho do Anfrísio” Extractive Reserve, in Northern Brazil. Methods We used the methods of participant observation and semi-structured interviews, applied to 25 informants. We employed the combined properties of two indices to measure the medicinal importance of each cited species to the studied community, as well as their versatility in the treatment of diseases: the well known Use Value (UV and the Medicinal Applications Value (MAV that we developed. Results We recorded 31 species of medicinal animals from six taxonomic categories, seven of which are new to science. The species are used for the treatment of 28 diseases and one species is used as an amulet against snakebites. The five species with the highest UV indices are the most popular and valued by the studied community. Their contrasting MAV indices indicate that they have different therapeutic properties: specific (used for the treatment of few diseases; low versatility and all-purpose (several diseases; high versatility. Similarly, the most cited diseases were also those that could be treated with a larger number of animal species. Ten species are listed in the CITES appendices and 21 are present in the IUCN Red List. The knowledge about the medicinal use of the local fauna is distributed evenly among the different age groups of the informants. Conclusions This study shows that the local fauna represents an important medicinal resource for the inhabitants of the protected area. The combined use of the UV and MAV indices allowed identifying the species with the highest therapeutic potential. This type of information

  6. Long term measurements of aerosol optical properties at a primary forest site in Amazonia

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    L. V. Rizzo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A long term experiment was conducted in a primary forest area in Amazonia, with continuous in-situ measurements of aerosol optical properties between February 2008 and April 2011, comprising, to our knowledge, the longest database ever in the Amazon Basin. Two major classes of aerosol particles, with significantly different optical properties were identified: coarse mode predominant biogenic aerosols in the wet season (January–June, naturally released by the forest metabolism, and fine mode dominated biomass burning aerosols in the dry season (July–December, transported from regional fires. Dry particle median scattering coefficients at the wavelength of 550 nm increased from 6.3 Mm−1 to 22 Mm−1, whereas absorption at 637 nm increased from 0.5 Mm−1 to 2.8 Mm−1 from wet to dry season. Most of the scattering in the dry season was attributed to the predominance of fine mode (PM2 particles (40–80% of PM10 mass, while the enhanced absorption coefficients are attributed to the presence of light absorbing aerosols from biomass burning. As both scattering and absorption increased in the dry season, the single scattering albedo (SSA did not show a significant seasonal variability, in average 0.86 ± 0.08 at 637 nm for dry aerosols. Measured particle optical properties were used to estimate the aerosol forcing efficiency at the top of the atmosphere. Results indicate that in this primary forest site the radiative balance was dominated by the cloud cover, particularly in the wet season. Due to the high cloud fractions, the aerosol forcing efficiency absolute values were below −3.5 W m−2 in 70% of the wet season days and in 46% of the dry season days. Besides the seasonal variation, the influence of out-of-Basin aerosol sources was observed occasionally. Periods of influence of the Manaus urban plume were detected, characterized by a consistent increase on particle scattering (factor 2.5 and absorption coefficients (factor 5. Episodes of

  7. Mayaro virus infection in amazonia: a multimodel inference approach to risk factor assessment.

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    Fernando Abad-Franch

    in village-like areas. This suggests either a vector shift (synanthropic mosquitoes vectoring MAYV or a habitat/habits shift (classical MAYV vectors adapting to densely populated landscapes and nocturnal biting; any such ecological/adaptive novelty could increase the likelihood of MAYV emergence in Amazonia.

  8. Post-Fire Changes in Forest Biomass Retrieved by Airborne LiDAR in Amazonia

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    Luciane Yumie Sato

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fire is one of the main factors directly impacting Amazonian forest biomass and dynamics. Because of Amazonia’s large geographical extent, remote sensing techniques are required for comprehensively assessing forest fire impacts at the landscape level. In this context, Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR stands out as a technology capable of retrieving direct measurements of vegetation vertical arrangement, which can be directly associated with aboveground biomass. This work aims, for the first time, to quantify post-fire changes in forest canopy height and biomass using airborne LiDAR in western Amazonia. For this, the present study evaluated four areas located in the state of Acre, called Rio Branco, Humaitá, Bonal and Talismã. Rio Branco and Humaitá burned in 2005 and Bonal and Talismã burned in 2010. In these areas, we inventoried a total of 25 plots (0.25 ha each in 2014. Humaitá and Talismã are located in an open forest with bamboo and Bonal and Rio Branco are located in a dense forest. Our results showed that even ten years after the fire event, there was no complete recovery of the height and biomass of the burned areas (p < 0.05. The percentage difference in height between control and burned sites was 2.23% for Rio Branco, 9.26% for Humaitá, 10.03% for Talismã and 20.25% for Bonal. All burned sites had significantly lower biomass values than control sites. In Rio Branco (ten years after fire, Humaitá (nine years after fire, Bonal (four years after fire and Talismã (five years after fire biomass was 6.71%, 13.66%, 17.89% and 22.69% lower than control sites, respectively. The total amount of biomass lost for the studied sites was 16,706.3 Mg, with an average loss of 4176.6 Mg for sites burned in 2005 and 2890 Mg for sites burned in 2010, with an average loss of 3615 Mg. Fire impact associated with tree mortality was clearly detected using LiDAR data up to ten years after the fire event. This study indicates that fire disturbance

  9. Weather and climate impacts of biomass burning aerosols during the dry season in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolusu, Seshagirirao; Marsham, John; Spracklen, Dominic; Parker, Douglas; Dalvi, Mohit; Johnson, Ben; Mann, Graham

    2016-04-01

    Amazonia is a major global source of biomass burning aerosols (BBA) with impacts on weather and climate. BBA can be represented in weather models, with satellite-observed fires used to provide emissions fields, but such emissions normally require tuning to give realistic aerosol fields in models. Here, we investigate the two-way coupling between BBA and regional weather during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field campaign, using both a set of short-range (2-day) forecasts and nested 20-day runs with the Met Office Unified Model (MetUM). Short-range forecasts with parametrised convection show that BBA exert an overall cooling influence on the Earth-atmosphere system, although some levels of the atmosphere are directly warmed by the absorption of solar radiation: BBA reduce the clear-sky net radiation at the surface by 15 ± 1 W m-2 and reduces net top-of-atmosphere radiation by 8 ± 1 W m-2, with a direct atmospheric warming of 7 ± 1 W m-2. BBA-induced reductions in all-sky radiation are smaller in magnitude, but of the same sign. The differences in heating induced by BBA lead to a more anticyclonic circulation at 700 hPa. BBA cools the boundary layer, but warms air above, reducing the BL depth by around 19 m. Locally, on a 150 km scale, changes in precipitation reach around 4 mm day-1 due to changes in the location of convection, with BBA leading to fewer rain events that are more intense, which may be linked to the BBA changing the vertical profile of stability in the lower atmosphere. The localised changes in rainfall tend to average out to give a 5 % (0.06 mm day-1) decrease in total precipitation, but the change in regional water budget is dominated by decreased evapotranspiration from the reduced net surface fluxes (0.2 to 0.3 mm day-1). The results show that although including BBA either prognostoically, or through a climatology, improves forecasts, but differences between the impacts of prognostic and climatological aerosol are small

  10. Patrones de distribución espacial de Pteridófitos en la Amazonia colombiana

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    Polanía Silgado Carolina Patricia

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la composición, riqueza y patrones de distribución espacial de las comunidades de pteridófitos en tres paisajes de la región de Chiribiquete, Amazonia colombiana. Se realizaron diez parcelas de 20 x 50 m (1 ha, distribuidas así: cuatro en tierra firme, tres en plano inundable bien drenado y tres en plano inundable mal drenado. Se registraron 39.552 individuos pertenecientes a 45 especies que se agrupan en 15 familias y 22 géneros. La especie más abundante, en total y para los planos inundables, es Trichomanes vandenboschii, mientras que para tierra firme es Adiantum  tomentosum. El paisaje más diverso en cuanto a número de especies es tierra firme y el menos diverso es el plano inundable mal drenado. De acuerdo a los métodos utilizados para evaluar la distribución espacial: gráfica de las posiciones de cada individuo dentro de la parcela, método de cuadrantes contiguos (TTLQV y el índice  estandarizado de Morisita, la comunidad y las especies más abundantes presentan una distribución agregada, con grupos que se presentan entre 3 y 21 m en tierra firme y 3 y 24 m en los planos inundables, las diferencias entre paisajes son en la intensidad y en las distancias de repetición del patrón. Las especies menos abundantes, presentaron una distribución agregada o aleatoria. Los factores ambientales que mejor
    explican la composición, la diferenciación de los tipos de bosque y la distribución espacial de las especies de pteridófitos son: el drenaje, la pendiente, la cantidad de luz sobre la parcela, la
    profundidad de la capa de hojarasca, la densidad arbórea, la concentración de iones intercambiables en el suelo, la relación Carbono/Nitrógeno y la cobertura de pteridófitos terrestres.

  11. Trabajo y relaciones laborales en los enclaves minero-metalúrgicos de la Amazonia

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    Josep Pont Vidal

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:  Labour and labour relations in the enclaves of metallurgical mining in the AmazonThis article is based upon an empirical study of  life and labour conditions in the metallurgical  mining enclaves of the eastern Amazon region.  From the perspective of civil society (associations  of workers, labour conditions are analysed according to interviews with workers and their  family members given outside the work sphere.  Using the method based on ‘grounded theory’, and specifically on the qualitative analysis of  theorization, a scheme of two levels has been  made: the ‘situational activity’ and the ‘subjectivization of the activity’. The first level, the ‘situational activity’, is centred in the sphere of the  organizations of workers and their perceptions  and strategies for action. The second level, the  ‘subjective of the activity’, addresses the subjective interpretations adopted by workers and their  families. Resumen:Este escrito se basa en un estudio empírico de las  condiciones de vida y relaciones laborales en los  enclaves minero-metalúrgicos de la Amazonia  oriental. En él se analizan las condiciones laborales desde la perspectiva de la sociedad civil (asociaciones de trabajadores, recurriendo para ello a  entrevistas con trabajadores y sus familias fuera  del ambiente de trabajo. A partir del método basado en la teorización anclada, y específicamente  en el denominado análisis cualitativo de teorización, se ha confeccionado un esquema de dos  niveles: la ‘actividad situacional’, y la ‘subjetivización de la actividad’. El primer nivel -la ‘actividad situacional’- se centra en la esfera de las  organizaciones de trabajadores y sus ideas y estrategias de acción. El segundo nivel -la ‘subjetivización de la actividad’- trata las interpretaciones  subjetivas adoptadas por los trabajadores y sus  familias.

  12. Sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae from Central Amazonia and four new records for the Amazonas state, Brazil

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    Veracilda R. Alves

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sand flies from Central Amazonia and four new records for the Amazonas state, Brazil. A survey was conducted in May and June 2008 to study the fauna of insects in Central Amazonia, Brazil. As part of the survey, we report here that sixty species of phlebotomine were identified, totaling 13,712 specimens from 13 genera. The collection sites were located at the border between the states of Pará and Amazonas, comprising three municipalities from the Amazonas state (Borba, Maués, and Nhamundá. Malaise, CDC and Shannon traps were used to collect the insects. Most of the sand flies were collected by CDC traps (89.5%, while Malaise and Shannon traps collected 7% and 3.5%, respectively. The most abundant genera, representing 97.1% of the total sand flies identified were: Trichopygomyia Barretto, 1962 (47.6%, Psathyromyia Barretto, 1962 (17.9%, Psychodopygus Mangabeira, 1941 (17.5% and Trichophoromyia Barretto, 1962 (14.3%. The genera with the largest number of species identified were: Psychodopygus (14, Psathyromyia (10, Evandromyia Mangabeira, 1941 (7, Trichophoromyia (5 and Trichopygomyia (5. The most abundant species was Trichopygomyia trichopyga (Floch & Abonnenc, 1945, which represented 29% of the total sand flies identified. Here we also report new records for four species in the Amazonas state: Ps. complexus (Mangabeira, 1941, Ps. llanosmartinsi Fraiha & Ward, 1980, Ty. pinna (Feliciangeli, Ramirez-Pérez & Ramirez, 1989, and Th. readyi (Ryan, 1986. The results of this study provide new, additional information on the distribution of sand flies in the Amazon and increase the number of species in the Amazonas state from 127 to 131.

  13. Analysis of biological and meteorological controls of evapotranspiration in pristine forests and a pasture site in Amazonia

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    Narciso Paulino Junior

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the behavior and seasonality of evapotranspiration influenced by biotic and abiotic factors through analysis of diurnal variation of aerodynamic resistance (ra, stomatal resistance (rs and decoupling factor (Ω. This index was proposed by Jarvis and McNaughton (1986 as an indicative of the control of these resistances on the evapotranspiration of vegetation. Selection of representative data from wet and dry seasons from a primary forest in Central Amazonia and a primary forest and a pasture sites in Southwestern Amazonia had shown that: (i ra is about 20 s.m-1 in both forests in both seasons, and ranges from 70 to 100 s.m-1 in the pasture site; (ii rs varies both throughout the day and seasonally, with medians increasing from 40 in the morning, to 150 s.m-1 in late afternoon, in the wet season in the forests and from 50 to 160 s.m-1 in the pasture. These values increase in the dry season, with the forests rs ranging from 50 up to 500 s.m-1 and pasture rs starting from 140 s.m 1 and reaching up to more than 1800 s.m-1 in the dry afternoons; (iii Ω ranges from 0.5 to 0.8 during the wet season, and reduces to values below 0.5 in the afternoons during the dry season, indicating that, although a strong influence of net radiation in the evaporative loss is present, to a large extent the evapotranspiration fluxes are coupled to the biotic control of stomatal closure in the vegetation, especially in the pasture and during dry periods.

  14. [Distribution patterns of canopy and understory tree species at local scale in a Tierra Firme forest, the Colombian Amazonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto-Silva, Juan Sebastian; López, Dairon Cárdenas; Montoya, Alvaro Javier Duque

    2014-03-01

    The effect of environmental variation on the structure of tree communities in tropical forests is still under debate. There is evidence that in landscapes like Tierra Firme forest, where the environmental gradient decreases at a local level, the effect of soil on the distribution patterns of plant species is minimal, happens to be random or is due to biological processes. In contrast, in studies with different kinds of plants from tropical forests, a greater effect on floristic composition of varying soil and topography has been reported. To assess this, the current study was carried out in a permanent plot of ten hectares in the Amacayacu National Park, Colombian Amazonia. To run the analysis, floristic and environmental variations were obtained according to tree species abundance categories and growth forms. In order to quantify the role played by both environmental filtering and dispersal limitation, the variation of the spatial configuration was included. We used Detrended Correspondence Analysis and Canonical Correspondence Analysis, followed by a variation partitioning, to analyze the species distribution patterns. The spatial template was evaluated using the Principal Coordinates of Neighbor Matrix method. We recorded 14 074 individuals from 1 053 species and 80 families. The most abundant families were Myristicaceae, Moraceae, Meliaceae, Arecaceae and Lecythidaceae, coinciding with other studies from Northwest Amazonia. Beta diversity was relatively low within the plot. Soils were very poor, had high aluminum concentration and were predominantly clayey. The floristic differences explained along the ten hectares plot were mainly associated to biological processes, such as dispersal limitation. The largest proportion of community variation in our dataset was unexplained by either environmental or spatial data. In conclusion, these results support random processes as the major drivers of the spatial variation of tree species at a local scale on Tierra Firme

  15. Increased dry-season length over southern Amazonia in recent decades and its implication for future climate projection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Rong; Yin, Lei; Li, Wenhong; Arias, Paola A; Dickinson, Robert E; Huang, Lei; Chakraborty, Sudip; Fernandes, Katia; Liebmann, Brant; Fisher, Rosie; Myneni, Ranga B

    2013-11-05

    We have observed that the dry-season length (DSL) has increased over southern Amazonia since 1979, primarily owing to a delay of its ending dates (dry-season end, DSE), and is accompanied by a prolonged fire season. A poleward shift of the subtropical jet over South America and an increase of local convective inhibition energy in austral winter (June-August) seem to cause the delay of the DSE in austral spring (September-November). These changes cannot be simply linked to the variability of the tropical Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Although they show some resemblance to the effects of anthropogenic forcings reported in the literature, we cannot attribute them to this cause because of inadequate representation of these processes in the global climate models that were presented in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Fifth Assessment Report. These models significantly underestimate the variability of the DSE and DSL and their controlling processes. Such biases imply that the future change of the DSE and DSL may be underestimated by the climate projections provided by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Fifth Assessment Report models. Although it is not clear whether the observed increase of the DSL will continue in the future, were it to continue at half the rate of that observed, the long DSL and fire season that contributed to the 2005 drought would become the new norm by the late 21st century. The large uncertainty shown in this study highlights the need for a focused effort to better understand and simulate these changes over southern Amazonia.

  16. Vegetation and hydrology changes in Eastern Amazonia inferred from a pollen record

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    Mauro B. de Toledo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Pollen, charcoal, and C14 analyses were performed on a sediment core obtained from Lake Tapera (Amapá to provide the palaeoenvironmental history of this part of Amazonia. A multivariate analysis technique, Detrended Correspondence Analysis, was applied to the pollen data to improve visualization of sample distribution and similarity. A sedimentary hiatus lasting 5,500 years was identified in the Lake Tapera. Because the timing of the hiatus overlapped with the highest Holocene sea-level, which would have increased the local water table preventing the lake from drying out, it is clear that sea-level was not important in maintaining the lake level. Lake Tapera probably depended on riverine flood waters, and the sedimentary gap was caused by reduced Amazon River discharge, due to an extremely dry period in the Andes (8,000-5,000 years BP, when precipitation levels markedly decreased. The lack of Andean pollen (river transported in the record after this event supports this interpretation. The pollen analysis shows that when sedimentation resumed in 1,620 cal. years BP, the vegetation around the lake was changed from forest into savanna. This record demonstrates the need to improve our understanding of climate changes and their associated impacts on vegetation dynamics.Análises de pólen, carvões e datações C foram conduzidas em um testemunho coletado no lago Tapera (Amapá com o objetivo de interpretar a história paleoambiental desta parte da Amazônia. Uma das técnicas de análises multivariadas, Análise de Correspondência Destendenciada (DCA, foi utilizada a fim de melhor visualizar a distribuição e similaridade das amostras. Foi identificado um hiato sedimentar com duração de 5.500 anos no lago Tapera. Como o hiato ocorreu simultaneamente ao nível do mar mais alto do Holoceno, o que deveria ter aumentado o lençol freático, impedindo assim o lago de secar, é evidente que variações do nível do mar não foram importantes na

  17. Amazonia colombiana: Contacto-contagio y catástrofe demográfica indigena

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    Augusto Javier Gómez López

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Según el estudio elaborado por la COMISiÓN AMAZÓNICA DE DESARROLLO Y MEDIO AMBIENTE, en lo que va transcurrido del presente siglo, "90 tribus enteras han dejado de existir" en el conjunto de la región amazónica... "de los seis a nueve millones de indígenas que habitaban la Amazonia secular, sólo quedan hoy algunos grupos exiguos y dispersos" (Comisión, 1994; p.16. La historia de la destrucción de las sociedades nativas amazónicas es también la historia del contacto con los europeos y sus descendientes y, por supuesto, la del contagio de las enfermedades introducidas por éstos, desde que se iniciara alli la büsqueda de ~EI Dorado" y la del "País de la Canela" en el siglo XVI ... Hoy, cuando se invaden las últimas fronteras y refugios indigenas, la historia del contacto y del contagio continúa y sigue acompañada de ese viejo y persistente sueño de "El Dorador.: La invasión de los "garimpeiros" al territorio Yanomami (en la frontera amazónica brasilero-venezolana, a partir del segundo semestre de 1987, alterá el cuadro epidemiológico de las aldeas nativas más periféricas que habían entrado en contacto con los buscadores de oro: infecciones endémicas como la tuberculosis y la malaria fueron preliminarmente las consecuencias de esos iniciales contactos, ya que, por entonces, las aldeas más centrales del territorio Yanomami permaneclan libres aún de esas dolencias, pues allí todavía no habían logrado ingresar dichos buscadores de oro. Estos poco a poco fueron alcanzando el territorio Yanomami aprovechando la apertura de la carretera "Perimetral del Norte", iniciada en los años setentas, construcción que ya había causado la muerte y la desaparición completa de varias comunidades. La situación de salud en todo el territorio Yanomami era caótica en el año de 1990 y, según el diagnóstico de los médicos destacados en la zona con apoyo intemacional, la malaria era la mayor causa de morbilidad: algunas comunidades

  18. New geological framework for Western Amazonia (Brazil) and implications for biogeography and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fátima Rossetti, Dilce; Mann de Toledo, Peter; Góes, Ana Maria

    2005-01-01

    associated with a lake system (i.e., fan-delta) and/or fluvial flood plain areas. After a period of erosion, a fluvial system with eastward draining channels started to develop at around 27,000 14C yr B.P. The fluvial channels were overflooded in mid-Holocene time. This flooding is attributed to an increased period of humidity, with a peak between 5000 and 2500 14C yr B.P. The data presented herein support that, rather than being a monotonous area, the Amazonia was a place with frequent changes in landscape throughout the Neogene-Quaternary, probably as a result of climatic and tectonic factors. We hypothesize that these changes in the physical environment stressed the biota, resulting in speciation and thus had a great impact on modern biodiversity.

  19. Mapping of oil spill environmental sensitivity index (ESI) in western Amazonia, Brazil, using USTC classification of dual season GRFM SAR image mosaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Fernando P. de [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas; Beisl, Carlos H.; Pedroso, Enrico C. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Centro Brasileiro de Recursos - RADARSAT

    2003-07-01

    This study focuses on improving information about oil spill environmental sensitivity in Western Amazonia, Brazil, using a pair of multi seasonal (1995 - low flood to 1996 - high flood) GRFM JERS-1 SAR mosaics. Fuzzy analysis is carried out to extract information about landscape modifications within half hydrological cycle. The oil spill hazard information derived from JERS-1 SAR data is straightforward to interpret and constitutes a representation of the original Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) product conceived by PETROBRAS. (author)

  20. The neuraminidase gene is present in the non-toxigenic Vibrio cholerae Amazonia strain: a different allele in comparison to the pandemic strains

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    Sonia Catarina de Abreu Figueiredo

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The neuraminidase gene, nanH, is present in the O1, non-toxigenic Vibrio cholerae Amazonia strain. Its location has been assigned to a 150 kb NotI DNA fragment, with the use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and DNA hybridization. This NotI fragment is positioned inside 630 kb SfiI and 1900 kb I-CeuI fragments of chromosome 1. Association of the pathogenicity island VPI-2, carrying nanH and other genes, with toxigenic strains has been described by other authors. The presence of nanH in a non-toxigenic strain is an exception to this rule. The Amazonia strain nanH was sequenced (Genbank accession No. AY825932 and compared to available V. cholerae sequences. The sequence is different from those of pandemic strains, with 72 nucleotide substitutions. This is the first description of an O1 strain with a different nanH allele. The most variable domain of the Amazonia NanH is the second lectin wing, comprising 13 out of 17 amino acid substitutions. Based on the presence of nanH in the same region of the genome, and similarity of the adjacent sequences to VPI-2 sequences, it is proposed that the pathogenicity island VPI-2 is present in this strain.

  1. Taxonomy and distribution of the salamander genus Bolitoglossa Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854 (Amphibia, Caudata, Plethodontidae) in Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brcko, Isabela Carvalho; Hoogmoed, Marinus Steven; Neckel-Oliverira, Selvino

    2013-01-01

    For nearly 40 years Bolitoglossa paraensis has been synonymized with Bolitoglossa altamazonica. This fact has been mainly related to taxonomic ambiguities arising from the morphological similarities between these species and the scarcity of material deposited in collections. However, during the past 30 years new material of Bolitoglossa has been collected in many places throughout the Brazilian Amazonia, including the type locality of B. paraensis, Santa Isabel do Pará. In this article we designate the neotype of B. paraensis based on new material from the type locality, correct misinterpretations about this name. We determined how many species of the genus Bolitoglossa occur in Brazilian Amazonia, described three new species, B. caldwellae sp. nov., B. madeira sp. nov., and B. tapajonica sp. nov., provide a key for identifying Brazilian salamanders. Were analyzed two hundred and seventy eight specimens of Bolitoglossa from the Brazilian states of Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Pará, and Rondonia; morphological data ofB. altamazonica from Colombia were used for comparison purposes. We confirm the presence of B. altamazonica in extreme western Brazil, and expand the number of species occurring in Brazilian Amazonia to five.

  2. Optical and geometrical properties of cirrus clouds in Amazonia derived from 1 year of ground-based lidar measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Diego A.; Barja, Boris; Barbosa, Henrique M. J.; Seifert, Patric; Baars, Holger; Pauliquevis, Theotonio; Artaxo, Paulo

    2017-03-01

    Cirrus clouds cover a large fraction of tropical latitudes and play an important role in Earth's radiation budget. Their optical properties, altitude, vertical and horizontal coverage control their radiative forcing, and hence detailed cirrus measurements at different geographical locations are of utmost importance. Studies reporting cirrus properties over tropical rain forests like the Amazon, however, are scarce. Studies with satellite profilers do not give information on the diurnal cycle, and the satellite imagers do not report on the cloud vertical structure. At the same time, ground-based lidar studies are restricted to a few case studies. In this paper, we derive the first comprehensive statistics of optical and geometrical properties of upper-tropospheric cirrus clouds in Amazonia. We used 1 year (July 2011 to June 2012) of ground-based lidar atmospheric observations north of Manaus, Brazil. This dataset was processed by an automatic cloud detection and optical properties retrieval algorithm. Upper-tropospheric cirrus clouds were observed more frequently than reported previously for tropical regions. The frequency of occurrence was found to be as high as 88 % during the wet season and not lower than 50 % during the dry season. The diurnal cycle shows a minimum around local noon and maximum during late afternoon, associated with the diurnal cycle of precipitation. The mean values of cirrus cloud top and base heights, cloud thickness, and cloud optical depth were 14.3 ± 1.9 (SD) km, 12.9 ± 2.2 km, 1.4 ± 1.1 km, and 0.25 ± 0.46, respectively. Cirrus clouds were found at temperatures down to -90 °C. Frequently cirrus were observed within the tropical tropopause layer (TTL), which are likely associated to slow mesoscale uplifting or to the remnants of overshooting convection. The vertical distribution was not uniform, and thin and subvisible cirrus occurred more frequently closer to the tropopause. The mean lidar ratio was 23.3 ± 8.0 sr. However, for

  3. Neotropics provide insights into the emergence of New World monkeys: New dental evidence from the late Oligocene of Peruvian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marivaux, Laurent; Adnet, Sylvain; Altamirano-Sierra, Ali J; Boivin, Myriam; Pujos, François; Ramdarshan, Anusha; Salas-Gismondi, Rodolfo; Tejada-Lara, Julia V; Antoine, Pierre-Olivier

    2016-08-01

    Recent field efforts in Peruvian Amazonia (Contamana area, Loreto Department) have resulted in the discovery of a late Oligocene (ca. 26.5 Ma; Chambira Formation) fossil primate-bearing locality (CTA-61). In this paper, we analyze the primate material consisting of two isolated upper molars, the peculiar morphology of which allows us to describe a new medium-sized platyrrhine monkey: Canaanimico amazonensis gen. et sp. nov. In addition to the recent discovery of Perupithecus ucayaliensis, a primitive anthropoid taxon of African affinities from the alleged latest Eocene Santa Rosa locality (Peruvian Amazonia), the discovery of Canaanimico adds to the evidence that primates were well-established in the Amazonian Basin during the Paleogene. Our phylogenetic results based on dental evidence show that none of the early Miocene Patagonian taxa (Homunculus, Carlocebus, Soriacebus, Mazzonicebus, Dolichocebus, Tremacebus, and Chilecebus), the late Oligocene Bolivian Branisella, or the Peruvian Canaanimico, is nested within a crown platyrrhine clade. All these early taxa are closely related and considered here as stem Platyrrhini. Canaanimico is nested within the Patagonian Soriacebinae, and closely related to Soriacebus, thereby extending back the soriacebine lineage to 26.5 Ma. Given the limited dental evidence, it is difficult to assess if Canaanimico was engaged in a form of pitheciine-like seed predation as is observed in Soriacebus and Mazzonicebus, but dental microwear patterns recorded on one upper molar indicate that Canaanimico was possibly a fruit and hard-object eater. If Panamacebus, a recently discovered stem cebine from the early Miocene of Panama, indicates that the crown platyrrhine radiation was already well underway by the earliest Miocene, Canaanimico indicates in turn that the "homunculid" radiation (as a part of the stem radiation) was well underway by the late Oligocene. These new data suggest that the stem radiation likely occurred in the Neotropics

  4. Santarém, entre la Amazonia de los ríos y la Amazonia de las carreteras Santarém, entre l’Amazonie des fleuves et l’Amazonie des routes

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    Ruben Valbuena

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available La gran región septentrional de Brasil, la Amazonia, que por varios siglos ha representado un enorme vacío y una potencial fuente de riqueza, ha sido objeto durante el último medio siglo de un acelerado proceso de ocupación y puesta en explotación de forma intensiva. Una dinámica de apropiación apreciable, especialmente, en las tres últimas décadas, cuando la materialización de la red terrestre que ha articulado la margen derecha del gran río facilitó la incursión de los recursos humanos y financieros en el hinterland amazónico.Una red que ha reestructurado el espacio regional, al que daba sentido la malla fluvial y la débil red de lugares, configurada por los núcleos de población surgidos en las orillas de los cauces. Santarém, una ciudad histórica con una localización estratégica entre los dos mayores centros urbanos amazónicos, ha sido palco de enormes transformaciones desde la construcción de las carreteras, pues ligada mediante la Cuibá-Santarém al Centro Oeste de Brasil y a través de la Transamazônica al Nordeste brasileño y a la Amazonia Occidental ha pasado a desempeñar un importante papel como nexo articulador en la región Norte. Al mismo tiempo, se erige como el principal asentamiento humano de esta vasta región central, dirigiendo un proceso emergente de construcción regional.La grande région septentrionale du Brésil, l'Amazonie, qui durant plusieurs siècles n’a représenté qu’un énorme vide et une source de richesse potentielle, a fait l'objet pendant le dernier demi-siècle d'un processus accéléré d’occupation et d’une mise en exploitation intensive. Une forte dynamique d'appropriation a facilité l'incursion de nouvelles ressources humaines et financières dans l’hinterland amazonien, spécialement au cours des trois dernières décennies, quand la réalisation d’un réseau terrestre a articulé la rive droite de la grande rivière.Ce réseau a restructuré l'espace r

  5. Ecofunctional Traits and Biomass Production in Leguminous Tree Species under Fertilization Treatments during Forest Restoration in Amazonia

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    Roberto K. Jaquetti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Choosing the correct species and fertilization treatments is a determining factor in the success of forest restoration. Methods: A field study was conducted in a degraded area near the Balbina hydroelectric dam in Amazonas State (AM, Brazil, to evaluate two hypotheses: (i leguminous tree species exhibit differences in growth, leaf nutrient content, and photosynthetic nutrient use efficiencies; and (ii differences in these characteristics depend on the fertilization treatments to which the species have been subjected. Dipteryx odorata, Inga edulis and Schizolobium amazonicum were subjected to the following treatments: (T1 unfertilized control; (T2 post-planting chemical fertilization; (T3 post-planting organic fertilization and (T4 combined chemical and organic post-planting fertilization. Results: In general, I. edulis had the highest absolute growth rate of biomass under all of the fertilization treatments. I. edulis and S. amazonicum showed the highest growth rates under the T4 treatment. D. odorata showed the greatest responses under the T2 and T4 treatments. Native leguminous trees with higher photosynthetic performance and better nutrient use efficiency exhibited greater growth and biomass production. Conclusion: The results suggest that an adequate balance between leguminous species selection and fertilization will aid in the success of forest restoration in Amazonia.

  6. Diversity and abundance of primates and their threats in the interfluvium of the Napo and Putumayo rivers, Peruvian Amazonia

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    Rolando Aquino

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the northeastern Peruvian Amazonia remain areas with scarce information on primates, one of them being the interfluvium between the Napo and Putumayo rivers. This lack of information motivated us to conduct a study to determine the diversity and abundance of primates within the area, as well as to identify the threats, which inhibit these primate species populations. For this purpose, we conducted transect censuses in three sampling sites in October 2007, September 2013 and November 2014. In 1040 km of transect walks we observed 308 groups of nine primate species, the most common being Leontocebus nigricollis (109 groups and the rarest being Alouatta seniculus (16 groups. Smaller groups of Lagothrix lagothricha lagothricha (8-11 individuals and A. seniculus (3-5 individuals were observed in Tamboryacu, a majorly disturbed sampling site. Likewise, the lowest population densities estimated for L. l. lagothricha and A. seniculus corresponded to this same sampling site with 3.8 indiv. /km2 and 1.6 indiv. /km2, respectively, while for the remaining species there were no major differences among the sampling sites. Among the activities, hunting and logging are the predominant threats responsible for the scarce populations of A. seniculus and l. l. lagothricha, mainly in the Napo River Basin.

  7. A community-based survey of human toxoplasmosis in rural Amazonia: seroprevalence, seroconversion rate, and associated risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Marcelo U; Hiramoto, Roberto M; Aureliano, Débora P; da Silva-Nunes, Mônica; da Silva, Natal S; Malafronte, Rosely S; Muniz, Pascoal T

    2009-07-01

    IgG antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii were detected in, March-April 2004, in 65.8% (95% confidence interval, 60.8-70.8%) of 342 systematically sampled subjects 5-90 years of age (87.5% of the eligible) living in a rural settlement in Amazonia, with a seroconversion rate of 9% over 1 year of follow-up of 99 seronegative subjects. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified age as the only significant independent predictor of seropositivity at the baseline. Each additional year of age increases the odds of being seropositive by 6%, and 76.8% of the subjects are expected to be seropositive at 30 years of age. A single high-prevalence spatial cluster, comprising 11.9% of the seropositive subjects, was detected in the area; households in the cluster were less likely to have dogs as pets and their heads had a lower education level, when compared with households located outside the cluster. The challenges for preventing human toxoplasmosis in tropical rural settings are discussed.

  8. Deforestation drivers in Southwest Amazonia: Comparing smallholder farmers in Iñapari, Peru, and Assis Brasil, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeyda Zambrano Angelica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Broad interpretation of land use and forest cover studies has been limited by the biophysical and socio-economic uniqueness of the landscapes in which they are carried out and by the multiple temporal and spatial scales of the underlying processes. We coupled a land cover change approach with a political ecology framework to interpret trends in multi-temporal remote sensing of forest cover change and socio-economic surveys with smallholders in the towns of Iñapari, Peru and Assis Brasil, Brazil in southwest Amazonia. These adjacent towns have similar biogeophysical conditions, but have undergone differing development approaches, and are both presently undergoing infrastructure development for the new Interoceanic highway. Results show that forest cover patterns observed in these two towns cannot be accounted for using single land use drivers. Rather, deforestation patterns result from interactions of national and regional policies affecting financial credit and road infrastructure, along with local processes of market integration and household resources. Based on our results we develop recommendations to minimise deforestation in the study area. Our findings are relevant for the sustainability of land use in the Amazon, in particular for regions undergoing large-scale infrastructure development projects.

  9. HBV/HDV co-infection in the Western Brazilian Amazonia: an intriguing mutation among HDV genotype 3 carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, A; Melo da Silva, E; Pedreira, H; Negreiros, S; Lobato, C; Braga, W; Muwonge, R; Dény, P; Reis, M; Zoulim, F; Trepo, C; D'Oliveira, A; Salcedo, J M; Schinoni, M I; Parana, R

    2014-12-01

    HDV infection still remains a serious public health problem in Amazonia. There are few data regarding the biomolecular aspects of HBV/HDV co-infection in this region. We studied 92 patients HBsAg(+) /anti-HDV IgG(+) followed at the Hepatitis Referral Centers of Porto Velho (RO), Rio Branco and Cruzeiro do Sul (AC), Brazil, from March 2006 to March 2007 for whom the HDV and/or the HBV genotype could be determined. The HDV genotype could be determined in 90 patients, while the HBV genotypes could be positively determined in 74. HBV subgenotype F2 is the most prevalent (40.2%), followed by the subgenotypes A1 (15.2%) and D3 (8.7%), while 16.4% were other subgenotypes or genotypes, 4.3% were discordant and 15.2% were unamplifiable. Surprisingly, HDV genotype 3 (HDV-3) was found in all of the HBV/HDV-infected patients that could be genotyped for HDV, confirming that HDV-3 can associate with non-F HBV genotypes. However, a HDV-3 mutant was found in 29.3% of patients and was more frequently associated with non-F HBV genotypes (P HBV genotypes.

  10. A Spatial Probit Econometric Model of Land Change: The Case of Infrastructure Development in Western Amazonia, Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Y Arima

    Full Text Available Tropical forests are now at the center stage of climate mitigation policies worldwide given their roles as sources of carbon emissions resulting from deforestation and forest degradation. Although the international community has created mechanisms such as REDD+ to reduce those emissions, developing tropical countries continue to invest in infrastructure development in an effort to spur economic growth. Construction of roads in particular is known to be an important driver of deforestation. This article simulates the impact of road construction on deforestation in Western Amazonia, Peru, and quantifies the amount of carbon emissions associated with projected deforestation. To accomplish this objective, the article adopts a Bayesian probit land change model in which spatial dependencies are defined between regions or groups of pixels instead of between individual pixels, thereby reducing computational requirements. It also compares and contrasts the patterns of deforestation predicted by both spatial and non-spatial probit models. The spatial model replicates complex patterns of deforestation whereas the non-spatial model fails to do so. In terms of policy, both models suggest that road construction will increase deforestation by a modest amount, between 200-300 km2. This translates into aboveground carbon emissions of 1.36 and 1.85 x 106 tons. However, recent introduction of palm oil in the region serves as a cautionary example that the models may be underestimating the impact of roads.

  11. Activity patterns and diet of the howler monkey Alouatta belzebul in areas of logged and unlogged forest in Eastern Amazonia

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    Pinto, A. C. B.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This work compared the activity patterns and diet of a group of Alouatta belzebul in areas of logged and unlogged forest in eastern Amazonia. An instantaneous scan sampling procedure was used for the behavioral study (9.3 ± 1.9 complete observation days/month from February to November 2000. Fruit availability was estimated monthly. Activity budgets were not significantly different between sites. Rest was the predominant activity in both sites (53.6 % and 48.7 %, respectively. Average daily path length was 683.5 ± 215.1 m (n = 93, and the home range was 17.8 ha, including 7 ha in unlogged forest and 10.8 ha in the logged forest. Neither fruit availability nor diet varied significantly between sites. The diet was predominantly folivorous (43.4 % and 46.6 % in unlogged and logged forest, respectively and frugivorous (43.9 % and 42.8 %. The spatial use by the group was positively related to fruit sources. This study documented the ability of a ranging group of A. belzebul to survive in a habitat influenced by reduced impact logging without dramatically influencing its activity patterns and diet

  12. Reproducing the organic matter model of anthropogenic dark earth of Amazonia and testing the ecotoxicity of functionalized charcoal compounds

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    Carolina Rodrigues Linhares

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to obtain organic compounds similar to the ones found in the organic matter of anthropogenic dark earth of Amazonia (ADE using a chemical functionalization procedure on activated charcoal, as well as to determine their ecotoxicity. Based on the study of the organic matter from ADE, an organic model was proposed and an attempt to reproduce it was described. Activated charcoal was oxidized with the use of sodium hypochlorite at different concentrations. Nuclear magnetic resonance was performed to verify if the spectra of the obtained products were similar to the ones of humic acids from ADE. The similarity between spectra indicated that the obtained products were polycondensed aromatic structures with carboxyl groups: a soil amendment that can contribute to soil fertility and to its sustainable use. An ecotoxicological test with Daphnia similis was performed on the more soluble fraction (fulvic acids of the produced soil amendment. Aryl chloride was formed during the synthesis of the organic compounds from activated charcoal functionalization and partially removed through a purification process. However, it is probable that some aryl chloride remained in the final product, since the ecotoxicological test indicated that the chemical functionalized soil amendment is moderately toxic.

  13. The effect of seasonality on the structure of rotifers in a black-water shallow lake in Central Amazonia

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    CLARICE C. NOVA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Rotifers have often been used as indicators of sudden changes in physical and chemical features of the aquatic environment. Such features vary greatly during flood pulse events in small lakes connected to major floodplains. However, few are the studies that investigate the consequences of the flood pulse in rotifer species composition, abundance, richness and diversity, especially in Amazonian lakes. We analyzed samples from a small blackwater lake of an “igarapé” connected permanently to the Negro river, in Central Amazonia. Samples were taken twice a year for two years, comprising flooding and receding periods of the flood pulse. Rotifer abundance increased significantly after draught events, and electrical conductivity and turbidity were intrinsically related to such variation. Species composition also changed from flooding to receding periods. Some taxa, such as Brachionus zahniseri reductus and Lecane remanei were restricted to receding periods, while Brachionus zahniseri, Brachionus gillardi and Lecane proiecta were only present during flooding. A shift in the composition of rotifer families was observed from one period to another, showing the effect of renewing waters of the flood pulse. These results suggest that the flood pulse acts as a driving force and stressing condition, considerably altering rotifer community dynamics, either changing species composition or decreasing abundance.

  14. A Spatial Probit Econometric Model of Land Change: The Case of Infrastructure Development in Western Amazonia, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arima, E Y

    2016-01-01

    Tropical forests are now at the center stage of climate mitigation policies worldwide given their roles as sources of carbon emissions resulting from deforestation and forest degradation. Although the international community has created mechanisms such as REDD+ to reduce those emissions, developing tropical countries continue to invest in infrastructure development in an effort to spur economic growth. Construction of roads in particular is known to be an important driver of deforestation. This article simulates the impact of road construction on deforestation in Western Amazonia, Peru, and quantifies the amount of carbon emissions associated with projected deforestation. To accomplish this objective, the article adopts a Bayesian probit land change model in which spatial dependencies are defined between regions or groups of pixels instead of between individual pixels, thereby reducing computational requirements. It also compares and contrasts the patterns of deforestation predicted by both spatial and non-spatial probit models. The spatial model replicates complex patterns of deforestation whereas the non-spatial model fails to do so. In terms of policy, both models suggest that road construction will increase deforestation by a modest amount, between 200-300 km2. This translates into aboveground carbon emissions of 1.36 and 1.85 x 106 tons. However, recent introduction of palm oil in the region serves as a cautionary example that the models may be underestimating the impact of roads.

  15. New molecular identifiers for Simulium limbatum and Simulium incrustatum s.l. and the detection of genetic substructure with potential implications for onchocerciasis epidemiology in the Amazonia focus of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, Priscila A; Crainey, James L; Almeida, Tatiana P; Shelley, Anthony J; Luz, Sergio L B

    2013-08-01

    The Amazonia onchocerciasis focus of southern Venezuela and northern Brazil is the larger of the two remaining Latin American onchocerciasis foci where disease transmission still occurs and is often regarded as the most challenging of all the Latin American foci to eliminate onchocerciasis. The site is home to a population of over 20,000 semi-nomadic, hunter-gatherer Yanomami people and is made-up of a mosaic of rainforest and savannah ecologies, which are influenced by the area's undulating terrain and rich geological diversity. At least six blackfly vectors have been implicated in onchocerciasis transmission in this focus; however, because of the difficulty in their routine identification the relative importance of each has been obscured. Simulium limbatum and Simulium incrustatum s.l. have both been recorded as vectors in the Amazonia focus, but they are difficult to discriminate morphologically and thus the ecological range of these species, and indeed the presence of S. limbatum in the Amazonia focus at all, have remained controversial. In the work described here, we report 15 S. incrustatum s.l. CO1 sequences and 27 S. limbatum sequences obtained from field-caught adult female blackflies collected from forest and savannah localities, inside and just outside the Amazonia focus. Phylogenetic analysis with the sequences generated in this study, showed that both the S. limbatum and the S. incrustatum s.l. CO1 sequences obtained (even from specimens living in sympatry) all fell into discrete species-specific bootstrap-supported monophyletic groups and thus confirmed the utility of the CO1 gene for identifying both these species inside the Amazonia focus. As the S. limbatum-exclusive cluster included CO1 sequences obtained from forest-caught and morphologically identified specimens these results provide the clearest evidence yet of the presence of S. limbatum inside the Amazonia focus. The question, however, of whether S. limbatum is actually a vector in the focus

  16. From Amazonia to the Atlantic forest: molecular phylogeny of Phyzelaphryninae frogs reveals unexpected diversity and a striking biogeographic pattern emphasizing conservation challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouquet, Antoine; Loebmann, Daniel; Castroviejo-Fisher, Santiago; Padial, José M; Orrico, Victor G D; Lyra, Mariana L; Roberto, Igor Joventino; Kok, Philippe J R; Haddad, Célio F B; Rodrigues, Miguel T

    2012-11-01

    Documenting the Neotropical amphibian diversity has become a major challenge facing the threat of global climate change and the pace of environmental alteration. Recent molecular phylogenetic studies have revealed that the actual number of species in South American tropical forests is largely underestimated, but also that many lineages are millions of years old. The genera Phyzelaphryne (1 sp.) and Adelophryne (6 spp.), which compose the subfamily Phyzelaphryninae, include poorly documented, secretive, and minute frogs with an unusual distribution pattern that encompasses the biotic disjunction between Amazonia and the Atlantic forest. We generated >5.8 kb sequence data from six markers for all seven nominal species of the subfamily as well as for newly discovered populations in order to (1) test the monophyly of Phyzelaphryninae, Adelophryne and Phyzelaphryne, (2) estimate species diversity within the subfamily, and (3) investigate their historical biogeography and diversification. Phylogenetic reconstruction confirmed the monophyly of each group and revealed deep subdivisions within Adelophryne and Phyzelaphryne, with three major clades in Adelophryne located in northern Amazonia, northern Atlantic forest and southern Atlantic forest. Our results suggest that the actual number of species in Phyzelaphryninae is, at least, twice the currently recognized species diversity, with almost every geographically isolated population representing an anciently divergent candidate species. Such results highlight the challenges for conservation, especially in the northern Atlantic forest where it is still degraded at a fast pace. Molecular dating revealed that Phyzelaphryninae originated in Amazonia and dispersed during early Miocene to the Atlantic forest. The two Atlantic forest clades of Adelophryne started to diversify some 7 Ma minimum, while the northern Amazonian Adelophryne diversified much earlier, some 13 Ma minimum. This striking biogeographic pattern coincides with

  17. Productos del mercado artesanal en la ciudad de Leticia (Amazonia colombiana) elaborados con especies de bosques de Mauritia flexuosa L.f.

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Lorena Franco Arango; Mauricio Sánchez Sáenz; Ligia Estela Urrego Giraldo; Andrea Galeano González; María Cristina Peñuela-Mora

    2015-01-01

    Los productos forestales no maderables (PFNMs) han tomado fuerza como alternativa para la conservación de ecosistemas y la generación de ingresos económicos en las poblaciones asociadas. Se presenta un mayor interés sobre los productos que provienen de bosques oligárquicos (poco diversos y con alta densidad relativa), especialmente los dominados por palmas, como por ejemplo los bosques de Mauritia flexuosa (aguajales, cananguchales o buritizales). En el mercado artesanal de Leticia (Amazonia ...

  18. Modelo dinámico-probabilístico sobre el comportamiento de los pueblos indígenas en aislamiento de la Amazonia Ecuatoriana.

    OpenAIRE

    Heredia Rengifo, Marco G.; Hernández Díaz-Ambrona, Carlos Gregorio

    2013-01-01

    La supervivencia de los pueblos en aislamiento (PIAs), Tagaeri? Taromenane en la Amazonia ecuatoriana, está influida por agentes externos y características culturales. El área definida como Zona Intangible para el desplazamiento de los PIAs presenta cierta debilidad geográfica, lo que alterna el funcionamiento de estas comunidades. El objetivo de este trabajo es conocer el comportamiento de las comunidades aisladas en relación con las fronteras de contactos. Se ha utilizado el software libre ...

  19. Chagas disease and globalization of the Amazon La enfermedad de Chagas y la globalización de la Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Briceño-León

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of autochthonous cases of Chagas disease in the Amazon since the 1970s has led to fear that the disease may become a new public health problem in the region. This transformation in the disease's epidemiological pattern in the Amazon can be explained by environmental and social changes in the last 30 years. The current article draws on the sociological theory of perverse effects to explain these changes as the unwanted result of the shift from the "inward" development model prevailing until the 1970s to the "outward" model that we know as globalization, oriented by industrial forces and international trade. The current article highlights the implementation of five new patterns in agriculture, cattle-raising, mining, lumbering, and urban occupation that have generated changes in the environment and the traditional indigenous habitat and have led to migratory flows, deforestation, sedentary living, the presence of domestic animals, and changes in the habitat that facilitate colonization of human dwellings by vectors and the domestic and work-related transmission of the disease. The expansion of Chagas disease is thus a perverse effect of the globalization process in the Amazon.El incremento de casos autóctonos de la enfermedad de Chagas en la Amazonia a partir de los años setenta hace temer que pueda convertirse en un novedoso problema de salud pública en la región. Este cambio del patrón epidemiológico de la enfermedad en la región amazónica debe ser explicado por las transformaciones ambientales y sociales que han ocurrido en los pasados treinta años. Este artículo utiliza la teoría sociológica de los efectos perversos para explicar esos cambios como el resultado indeseado del cambio de modelo de desarrollo "hacia adentro", que había existido hasta los años setenta, por otro "hacia fuera" que está orientado por las fuerzas de la producción y el comercio internacional que conocemos como globalización. El art

  20. Activity budget, diet, and use of space by two groups of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) in eastern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Tatyana; Ferrari, Stephen F; Lopes, Maria Aparecida

    2013-07-01

    Squirrel monkeys (Saimiri spp.) are widely distributed in the Amazon basin. This study describes the ecological and behavioral patterns of two social groups of S. sciureus in forests adjacent to the Tucuruí hydroelectric reservoir in eastern Amazonia, including range size, activity budgets, and composition of the diet. The groups were monitored at Base 4 (group B4) and Germoplasma Island (group GI). Quantitative behavioral data were collected using instantaneous scan sampling to record behavior, substrate use, and height. Home ranges were delimited using a GPS to determine group position after each 50 m of movement. Home ranges were 75.0 ha for group B4 (39 members) and 77.5 ha for group GI (32 members). The use of vertical strata was well defined, with a marked preference for the middle and lower levels of the canopy. The activity budgets of both groups were typical of those of other squirrel monkeys and were dominated by foraging (B4 = 48.7 %; GI = 49.6 %), moving (both groups 28.9 %), and feeding (B4 = 14.6 %; GI = 12.4 %). Resting was rare (B4 = 3.5 %; GI = 2.6 %) and less common than social behavior (B4 = 4.3 %; GI = 6.4 %). The diet of both groups was dominated by plant material (B4 = 70.7 % of feeding records; GI = 71.4 %), which is in contrast with the more insectivorous diets recorded for Saimiri at other sites. Group GI spent more time foraging during the dry season, whereas group B4 spent more time in the rainy season when the consumption of fruit increased (significantly, in the case of group GI). The less insectivorous diet of these groups may be due to a number of factors, including the unique habitat configuration at the site and reduced hydrological stress due to the proximity of the reservoir.

  1. Influence of landscape heterogeneity on spatial patterns of wood productivity, wood specific density and above ground biomass in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. O. Anderson

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Long-term studies using the RAINFOR network of forest plots have generated significant insights into the spatial and temporal dynamics of forest carbon cycling in Amazonia. In this work, we map and explore the landscape context of several major RAINFOR plot clusters using Landsat ETM+ satellite data. In particular, we explore how representative the plots are of their landscape context, and test whether bias in plot location within landscapes may be influencing the regional mean values obtained for important forest biophysical parameters. Specifically, we evaluate whether the regional variations in wood productivity, wood specific density and above ground biomass derived from the RAINFOR network could be driven by systematic and unintentional biases in plot location. Remote sensing data covering 45 field plots were aggregated to generate landscape maps to identify the specific physiognomy of the plots. In the Landsat ETM+ data, it was possible to spectrally differentiate three types of terra firme forest, three types of alluvial terrain forest, two types of bamboo-dominated forest, palm forest, Heliconia monodominant vegetation, swamp forest, disturbed forests and land use areas. Overall, the plots were generally representative of the forest physiognomies in the landscape in which they are located. Furthermore, the analysis supports the observed regional trends in those important forest parameters. This study demonstrates the utility of landscape scale analysis of forest physiognomies for validating and supporting the finds of plot based studies. Moreover, the more precise geolocation of many key RAINFOR plot clusters achieved during this research provides important contextual information for studies employing the RAINFOR database.

  2. Who Cares about Forests and Why? Individual Values Attributed to Forests in a Post-Frontier Region in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsello, Carla; Parry, Luke; Pardini, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the multiple ways people value forests is important, as individual values regarding nature have been shown to partly determine willingness to participate in conservation initiatives. As individual values are influenced by past experiences, the way people value forests may be related to the ecosystem services they use and receive. We here aim to investigate if people value forests because of material and non-material benefits forest provide (material and non-material values), and if these values are defined by previous experiences associated with using forest resources and having frequent contact with forests. By interviewing 363 residents across 20 landscapes varying in forest cover in a post-frontier region in Amazonia, we evaluated: (1) if the use of forest resources—especially bushmeat, important for sustenance and cash income in virtually all tropical forests—is associated with attributing higher material value to forests; (2) whether the contact with forest (estimated by local forest cover and visits to forests) is associated with attributing higher non-material value to forests. As expected, respondents from households where hunting occurs and bushmeat consumption is more frequent attributed higher material value to forests, and those living in more deforested landscapes and that visited forests less often attributed lower non-material value to forests. The importance of bushmeat in shaping the way people value forests suggests that encouraging the sustainable use of this product will encourage forest conservation. Results also point to a potential dangerous reinforcing cycle: low forest cover and the loss of contact with forests may erode forest values and facilitate further deforestation. Engaging rural communities in forest conservation initiatives is challenging yet urgent in degraded landscapes, although harnessing appreciation for bushmeat could offer a starting point. PMID:27942038

  3. Landscape dynamics in northwestern Amazonia: an assessment of pastures, fire and illicit crops as drivers of tropical deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenteras, Dolors; Rodríguez, Nelly; Retana, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have identified drivers of deforestation throughout the tropics and, in most cases, have recognised differences in the level of threat. However, only a few have also looked at the temporal and spatial dynamics by which those drivers act, which is critical for assessing the conservation of biodiversity as well as for landscape planning. In this study, we analyse land cover change between 2000 and 2009 in north-western Colombian Amazonia to identify the interactions between the use of fire, cultivation of illicit crops and establishment of pastures, and their impacts on the loss of forest in the region. Yearly analyses were undertaken at randomly selected sample areas to quantify the average areas of transition of land cover types under different landscape compositions: forest-dominated mosaics, pasture mosaics, fire mosaics, and illicit crop mosaics. Our results indicate that despite the fact that forest areas were well-preserved, deforestation occurred at a low annual rate (0.06%). Conversion to pasture was the main factor responsible for forest loss (the area of pastures tripled within forest mosaics over 8 years), and this process was independent of the landscape matrix in which the forests were located. In fire mosaics, burning is a common tool for forest clearing and conversion to pasture. Thus, forests in fire mosaics were highly disturbed and frequently transformed from primary to secondary forests. The use of fire for illicit cropping was not detected, partly due to the small size of common illicit crops. Forest regeneration from pastures and secondary vegetation was observed in areas with large amounts of natural forest. Overall, assuming the continuation of the observed pasture conversion trend and the use of forest fire, we suggest that our results should be incorporated into a spatially explicit and integrated decision support tool to target and focus land-planning activities and policies.

  4. Desmatamento na Amazônia: dinâmica, impactos e controle Deforestation in Amazonia: dynamics, impacts and control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip M. Fearnside

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O desmatamento na Amazônia procede a um alto ritmo por várias razões, muitas das quais dependem de decisões do governo. O desmatamento leva à perda de serviços ambientais, que têm um valor maior que os usos pouco sustentáveis que substituem a floresta. Estes serviços incluem a manutenção da biodiversidade, da ciclagem de água e dos estoques de carbono que evitam o agravamento do efeito estufa. Retroalimentações entre as mudanças climáticas e a floresta, por meio de processos tais como os incêndios florestais, a mortalidade de árvores por seca e calor e a liberação de estoques de carbono no solo, representam ameaças para o clima, a floresta e a população brasileira. Eventos recentes indicam que o desmatamento pode ser controlado, tendo a vontade política, pois os processos subjacentes dependem de decisões humanas.Deforestation in Amazonia proceeds at a rapid rate for various reasons, many of which depend on government decisions. Deforestation causes losses of environmental services that are more valuable than the short-lived uses that replace the forest. These services include maintenance of biodiversity, of water cycling and of the stocks of carbon that avoid further intensification of the greenhouse effect. Feedbacks between climatic changes and the forest through such processes as forest fires, tree mortality from drought and heat and the release of carbon stocks in the soil represent dangers for the climate, the forest and the Brazilian population. Recent events indicate that deforestation can be controlled, given the political will, because the underlying processes depend on human decisions.

  5. Combined effects of deforestation and doubled atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations on the climate of Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, M.H.; Foley, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    It is generally expected that the Amazon basin will experience at least two major environmental changes during the next few decades and centuries: (1) increasing areas of forest will be converted to pasture and cropland, and (2) concentrations of atmospheric CO{sub 2} will continue to rise. In this study, the authors use the National Center for Atmospheric Research GENESIS atmospheric general circulation model, coupled to the Integrated Biosphere Simulator, to determine the combined effects of large-scale deforestation and increased CO{sub 2} concentrations (including both physiological and radiative effects) on Amazonian climate. In these simulations, deforestation decreases basin-average precipitation by 0.73 mm day{sup {minus}1} over the basin, as a consequence of the general reduction in vertical motion above the deforested area (although there are some small regions with increased vertical motion). The overall effect of doubled CO{sub 2} concentrations in Amazonia is an increase in basin-average precipitation of 0.28 mm day{sup {minus}1}. The combined effect of deforestation and doubled CO{sub 2}, including the interactions among the processes, is a decrease in the basin-average precipitation of 0.42 mm day{sup {minus}1}. While the effects of deforestation and increasing CO{sub 2} concentrations on precipitation tend to counteract one another, both processes work to warm the Amazon basin. The effect of deforestation and increasing CO{sub 2} concentrations both tent to increase surface temperature, mainly because of decreases in evapotranspiration and the radiative effect of CO{sub 2}. The combined effect of deforestation and doubled CO{sub 2}, including the interactions among the processes, increases the basin-average temperature by roughly 3.5 C.

  6. Genetic structure of red-handed howler monkey populations in the fragmented landscape of Eastern Brazilian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heitor B. Bastos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We genotyped 15 microsatellite loci in order to evaluate the effects of habitat fragmentation, caused by flooding of the Tucuruí reservoir, on the genetic structure of Alouatta belzebul in eastern Amazonia. The analysis included two populations sampled in 1984, representing both margins of the Tocantins river, and three populations sampled 18 years later. Minimal differences in the diversity levels between present-day (Ho = 0.62-0.69 and A R = 6.07-7.21 and pre-flooding (Ho = 0.60-0.62 and A R = 6.27-6.77 populations indicated there was no significant loss of genetic variability, possibly because of successful management strategies applied during the flooding. The changes observed were limited to shifts in the composition of alleles, which presumably reflect the admixture of subpopulations during flooding. Given this, there were significant differences in the Rst values (p = 0.05 in all but one between-site comparison. Both present-day and original populations showed a deficit of heterozygotes, which suggests that this may be typical of the species, at least at a local level, perhaps because of specific ecological characteristics. The relatively large number of private alleles recorded in all populations may be a consequence of the Wahlund effect resulting from population admixture or a process of expansion rather than the loss of rare alleles through genetic drift. Additionally, the levels of genetic variability observed in this study were higher than those reported for other species of Neotropical primates, suggesting good fitness levels in these A. belzebul populations. Regular genetic monitoring of remnant populations, especially on islands, should nevertheless be an integral component of long-term management strategies.

  7. Papel trófico del microbial loop en un lago de inundación en la Amazonia Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caraballo Gracia Pedro

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de evaluar la participación de las bacterias heterotróficas en el flujo de carbono en la cadena trófica de un lago de inundación amazónico, colectas mensuales de estos microorganismos fueron realizadas durante el año hidrológico de diciembre de 2007 hasta noviembre de 2008, en las regiones litoral, pelágica y de macrófitas acuáticas del lago Catalão, en la Amazonia Central brasilera. Las bacterias fueron multiplicadas in vitro, usando como sustrato el carbono orgánico disuelto (COD del lago en cada una de las regiones estudiadas, para posterior análisis de la abundancia de isotopos estables de carbono y nitrógeno. Estos datos fueron confrontados con los valores de COD de los cuatro periodos limnológicos del lago (seca, inundación, llena y bajada de aguas. En general se encontró que la fuente principal de carbono de las bacterias heterotróficas fue aquella de origen C4, que presentó un aporte mínimo de 75%, en la medida en que el δ13C de las bacterias presentó valor medio de -17,72‰ ± 2,25. Confrontando ese valor, con el δ13C del zooplancton en el mismo período (-33,04‰±3,81 se concluye que el aporte de las bacterias heterotróficas al flujo de carbono hacia niveles tróficos superiores en el lago estudiado es mínimo.

  8. Influence of landscape heterogeneity on spatial patterns of wood productivity, wood specific density and above ground biomass in Amazonia

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    L. O. Anderson

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Long-term studies using the RAINFOR network of forest plots have generated significant insights into the spatial and temporal dynamics of forest carbon cycling in Amazonia. In this work, we map and explore the landscape context of several major RAINFOR plot clusters using Landsat ETM+ satellite data. In particular, we explore how representative the plots are of their landscape context, and test whether bias in plot location within landscapes may be influencing the regional mean values obtained for important forest biophysical parameters. Specifically, we evaluate whether the regional variations in wood productivity, wood specific density and above ground biomass derived from the RAINFOR network could be driven by systematic and unintentional biases in plot location. Remote sensing data covering 45 field plots were aggregated to generate landscape maps to identify the specific physiognomy of the plots. In the Landsat ETM+ data, it was possible to spectrally differentiate three types of terra firme forest, three types of forests over Paleovarzea geomorphologycal formation, two types of bamboo-dominated forest, palm forest, Heliconia monodominant vegetation, swamp forest, disturbed forests and land use areas. Overall, the plots were generally representative of the forest physiognomies in the landscape in which they are located. Furthermore, the analysis supports the observed regional trends in those important forest parameters. This study demonstrates the utility of landscape scale analysis of forest physiognomies for validating and supporting the finds of plot based studies. Moreover, the more precise geolocation of many key RAINFOR plot clusters achieved during this research provides important contextual information for studies employing the RAINFOR database.

  9. Influence of landscape heterogeneity on spatial patterns of wood productivity, wood specific density and above ground biomass in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, L. O.; Malhi, Y.; Ladle, R. J.; Aragão, L. E. O. C.; Shimabukuro, Y.; Phillips, O. L.; Baker, T.; Costa, A. C. L.; Espejo, J. S.; Higuchi, N.; Laurance, W. F.; López-González, G.; Monteagudo, A.; Núñez-Vargas, P.; Peacock, J.; Quesada, C. A.; Almeida, S.

    2009-09-01

    Long-term studies using the RAINFOR network of forest plots have generated significant insights into the spatial and temporal dynamics of forest carbon cycling in Amazonia. In this work, we map and explore the landscape context of several major RAINFOR plot clusters using Landsat ETM+ satellite data. In particular, we explore how representative the plots are of their landscape context, and test whether bias in plot location within landscapes may be influencing the regional mean values obtained for important forest biophysical parameters. Specifically, we evaluate whether the regional variations in wood productivity, wood specific density and above ground biomass derived from the RAINFOR network could be driven by systematic and unintentional biases in plot location. Remote sensing data covering 45 field plots were aggregated to generate landscape maps to identify the specific physiognomy of the plots. In the Landsat ETM+ data, it was possible to spectrally differentiate three types of terra firme forest, three types of forests over Paleovarzea geomorphologycal formation, two types of bamboo-dominated forest, palm forest, Heliconia monodominant vegetation, swamp forest, disturbed forests and land use areas. Overall, the plots were generally representative of the forest physiognomies in the landscape in which they are located. Furthermore, the analysis supports the observed regional trends in those important forest parameters. This study demonstrates the utility of landscape scale analysis of forest physiognomies for validating and supporting the finds of plot based studies. Moreover, the more precise geolocation of many key RAINFOR plot clusters achieved during this research provides important contextual information for studies employing the RAINFOR database.

  10. Determinants of plant community assembly in a mosaic of landscape units in central Amazonia: ecological and phylogenetic perspectives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Natalia Umaña

    Full Text Available The Amazon harbours one of the richest ecosystems on Earth. Such diversity is likely to be promoted by plant specialization, associated with the occurrence of a mosaic of landscape units. Here, we integrate ecological and phylogenetic data at different spatial scales to assess the importance of habitat specialization in driving compositional and phylogenetic variation across the Amazonian forest. To do so, we evaluated patterns of floristic dissimilarity and phylogenetic turnover, habitat association and phylogenetic structure in three different landscape units occurring in terra firme (Hilly and Terrace and flooded forests (Igapó. We established two 1-ha tree plots in each of these landscape units at the Caparú Biological Station, SW Colombia, and measured edaphic, topographic and light variables. At large spatial scales, terra firme forests exhibited higher levels of species diversity and phylodiversity than flooded forests. These two types of forests showed conspicuous differences in species and phylogenetic composition, suggesting that environmental sorting due to flood is important, and can go beyond the species level. At a local level, landscape units showed floristic divergence, driven both by geographical distance and by edaphic specialization. In terms of phylogenetic structure, Igapó forests showed phylogenetic clustering, whereas Hilly and Terrace forests showed phylogenetic evenness. Within plots, however, local communities did not show any particular trend. Overall, our findings suggest that flooded forests, characterized by stressful environments, impose limits to species occurrence, whereas terra firme forests, more environmentally heterogeneous, are likely to provide a wider range of ecological conditions and therefore to bear higher diversity. Thus, Amazonia should be considered as a mosaic of landscape units, where the strength of habitat association depends upon their environmental properties.

  11. Who Cares about Forests and Why? Individual Values Attributed to Forests in a Post-Frontier Region in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carignano Torres, Patricia; Morsello, Carla; Parry, Luke; Pardini, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the multiple ways people value forests is important, as individual values regarding nature have been shown to partly determine willingness to participate in conservation initiatives. As individual values are influenced by past experiences, the way people value forests may be related to the ecosystem services they use and receive. We here aim to investigate if people value forests because of material and non-material benefits forest provide (material and non-material values), and if these values are defined by previous experiences associated with using forest resources and having frequent contact with forests. By interviewing 363 residents across 20 landscapes varying in forest cover in a post-frontier region in Amazonia, we evaluated: (1) if the use of forest resources-especially bushmeat, important for sustenance and cash income in virtually all tropical forests-is associated with attributing higher material value to forests; (2) whether the contact with forest (estimated by local forest cover and visits to forests) is associated with attributing higher non-material value to forests. As expected, respondents from households where hunting occurs and bushmeat consumption is more frequent attributed higher material value to forests, and those living in more deforested landscapes and that visited forests less often attributed lower non-material value to forests. The importance of bushmeat in shaping the way people value forests suggests that encouraging the sustainable use of this product will encourage forest conservation. Results also point to a potential dangerous reinforcing cycle: low forest cover and the loss of contact with forests may erode forest values and facilitate further deforestation. Engaging rural communities in forest conservation initiatives is challenging yet urgent in degraded landscapes, although harnessing appreciation for bushmeat could offer a starting point.

  12. A minute ostracod (Crustacea: Cytheromatidae) from the Miocene Solimões Formation (western Amazonia, Brazil): evidence for marine incursions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Martin; Ramos, Maria Ines F.; Piller, Werner E.

    2016-01-01

    A huge wetland (the ‘Pebas system’) covered western Amazonia during the Miocene, hosting a highly diverse and endemic aquatic fauna. One of the most contentious issues concerns the existence, potential pathways and effects of marine incursions on this ecosystem. Palaeontological evidences (body fossils) are rare. The finding of a new, presumably marine ostracod species (Pellucistoma curupira sp. nov.) in the upper middle Miocene Solimões Formation initiated a taxonomic, ecological and biogeographical review of the genus Pellucistoma. We demonstrate that this marine (sublittoral, euhaline), subtropical–tropical taxon is biogeographically confined to the Americas. The biogeographical distribution of Pellucistoma largely depends on geographical, thermal and osmotic barriers (e.g. land bridges, deep and/or cold waters, sea currents, salinity). We assume an Oligocene/early Miocene, Caribbean origin for Pellucistoma and outline the dispersal of hitherto known species up to the Holocene. Pellucistoma curupira sp. nov. is dwarfed in comparison to all other species of this genus and extremely thin-shelled. This is probably related to poorly oxygenated waters and, in particular, to strongly reduced salinity. The associated ostracod fauna (dominated by the eurypotent Cyprideis and a few, also stunted ostracods of possibly marine ancestry) supports this claim. Geochemical analyses (δ18O, δ13C) on co-occurring ostracod valves (Cyprideis spp.) yielded very light values, indicative of a freshwater setting. These observations point to a successful adaptation of P. curupira sp. nov. to freshwater conditions and therefore do not signify the presence of marine water. Pellucistoma curupira sp. nov. shows closest affinities to Caribbean species. We hypothesize that Pellucistoma reached northern South America (Llanos Basin) during marine incursions in the early Miocene. While larger animals of marine origin (e.g. fishes, dolphins, manatees) migrated actively into the Pebas

  13. a New Site at Central Amazonia Dedicated to Long Term Cloud Properties Observations - Description, First Results and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauliquevis, T.; Barbosa, H. M.; Adams, D. K.; Artaxo, P.; Cirino, G. G.; Barja Gonzalez, B.; Correia, A. L.; Gomes, H. B.; Gouveia, D. A.; Padua, M. B.; Rosario, N. M. E. D.; Souza, R. A. F. D.; Nascimento dos Santos, R. M.; Sapucci, L.; Portela, B. T.

    2014-12-01

    Amazon basin during the wet season is one of the few places on Earth where "natural atmosphere", as it is expected to be in pre-industrial era, can be observed. Atmosphere in clean Amazonia can be regarded as a baseline state of tropical atmosphere. Its hydrological cycle is extreme active, as well as its convection. Several scientific questions with respect to convection remain unclear. Diurnal cycle of convection is far from adequately represented in numeric models. Precipitation typically occurs in models in the first few hours in the morning, whereas actual rain occurs mostly in the early afternoon. Convection parameterizations lack the ability to represent it adequately due to the models coarse resolution of parameterizations compared to the spatial scale of shallow convection. An adequate comprehension of shallow to deep convection transition is critical to improve convection representation in models. To reach this goal, long term measurements that could characterize clouds and convection diurnal cycle are fundamental. The implementation of ACONVEX (Atmospheric CONVection EXperiment) site, situated 50 km upwind from the megacity of Manaus ( -2.894263S°, -59.971452W) aims to fill the existent gap in long term measurements. It is designed to make measurements for more than 10 yrs, and characterize cloud properties in a climatological perspective. The site started its operation in August, 2011, initially with the Raman Lidar. Present time instrumentation set comprises: 1) UV Lidar Raman, 2) CIMEL Sunphotometer, 3) MultiFilter shadow band Radiometer (MFR), 4) GNSS/GPS Receiver, 5) Vertical Pointing Radar, 6) Disdrometer, 7) Ceilometer, 8) Met station. Two sky imagers and a microwave radiometer are about to be operated and will be able to derive 1) Cloud Cover, 2) Cloud Top and Cloud Base Heights, 3) Liquid Water Content, 4) Integrated Precipitable Water, 5) PBL Height, 6) Rain Rate (vertical profile and at surface). In this poster we discuss the site in more

  14. Crecimiento del maíz en vertisoles con alto aluminio en la Baixada Maranhense pre-Amazonia, Brasil.

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    Alessandro Costa-da Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el crecimiento del maíz en suelos con alto contenido de aluminio. Se midió el efecto del Al3+ en raíces y la cantidad de materia seca (raíz, hoja y tallo de maíz. Se efectuó la caracterización físico-química de cuatro muestras de suelo con alto aluminio colectadas del horizonte Ap, en tres municipios de la región conocida como Baixada Maranhense (Pre-Amazonia, Brasil: Santa Rita (SR, Arari (AR y Vitoria do Mearim (VM y un testigo colectado en el municipio de São Luís, Área del Núcleo de Tecnología Rural (T. El estudio, ejecutado en 2009, se llevó a cabo en invernadero y se utilizó 2 dm3 de suelo por maceta. Asimismo las muestras fueron divididas en muestras con y sin fertilización. La variación en la longitud de la raíz y de materia seca de las hojas difirió significativamente entre tratados con y sin fertilizante, excepto en la muestra de la localidad T. La producción de materia seca de raíz, tallo y hoja fue mayor en todos los suelos cuando se fertilizó. El suelo testigo también superó a todos los demás en cuanto a producción de materia seca en la raíz, posiblemente como resultado de una menor cantidad de Al3+ (1,2 cmolc/dm3 en comparación con los suelos SR, AR y VM (6,8; 8,0 y 7,0 cmolc/dm3 respectivamente. Se concluye la fertilización reduce el efecto detrimental del aluminio en la producción de maíz en la Baixada Maranhense.

  15. From forest to cropland and pasture systems: a critical review of soil organic carbon stocks changes in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisaki, Kenji; Perrin, Anne-Sophie; Desjardins, Thierry; Bernoux, Martial; Balbino, Luiz Carlos; Brossard, Michel

    2015-02-26

    The impact of deforestation on soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks is important in the context of climate change and agricultural soil use. Trends of SOC stock changes after agroecosystem establishment vary according to the spatial scale considered, and factors explaining these trends may differ sometimes according to meta-analyses. We have reviewed the knowledge about changes in SOC stocks in Amazonia after the establishment of pasture or cropland, sought relationships between observed changes and soil, climatic variables and management practices, and synthesized the δ(13) C measured in pastures. Our dataset consisted of 21 studies mostly synchronic, across 52 sites (Brazil, Colombia, French Guiana, Suriname), totalling 70 forest-agroecosystem comparisons. We found that pastures (n = 52, mean age = 17.6 years) had slightly higher SOC stocks than forest (+6.8 ± 3.1 %), whereas croplands (n = 18, mean age = 8.7 years) had lower SOC stocks than forest (-8.5 ± 2.9 %). Annual precipitation and SOC stocks under forest had no effect on the SOC changes in the agroecosystems. For croplands, we found a lower SOC loss than other meta-analyses, but the short time period after deforestation here could have reduced this loss. There was no clear effect of tillage on the SOC response. Management of pastures, whether they were degraded/nominal/improved, had no significant effect on SOC response. δ(13) C measurements on 16 pasture chronosequences showed that decay of forest-derived SOC was variable, whereas pasture-derived SOC was less so and was characterized by an accumulation plateau of 20 Mg SOC ha(-1) after 20 years. The large uncertainties in SOC response observed could be derived from the chronosequence approach, sensitive to natural soil variability and to human management practices. This study emphasizes the need for diachronic and long-term studies, associated with better knowledge of agroecosystem management.

  16. A minute ostracod (Crustacea: Cytheromatidae) from the Miocene Solimões Formation (western Amazonia, Brazil): evidence for marine incursions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Martin; Ramos, Maria Ines F; Piller, Werner E

    2016-07-02

    A huge wetland (the 'Pebas system') covered western Amazonia during the Miocene, hosting a highly diverse and endemic aquatic fauna. One of the most contentious issues concerns the existence, potential pathways and effects of marine incursions on this ecosystem. Palaeontological evidences (body fossils) are rare. The finding of a new, presumably marine ostracod species (Pellucistoma curupira sp. nov.) in the upper middle Miocene Solimões Formation initiated a taxonomic, ecological and biogeographical review of the genus Pellucistoma. We demonstrate that this marine (sublittoral, euhaline), subtropical-tropical taxon is biogeographically confined to the Americas. The biogeographical distribution of Pellucistoma largely depends on geographical, thermal and osmotic barriers (e.g. land bridges, deep and/or cold waters, sea currents, salinity). We assume an Oligocene/early Miocene, Caribbean origin for Pellucistoma and outline the dispersal of hitherto known species up to the Holocene. Pellucistoma curupira sp. nov. is dwarfed in comparison to all other species of this genus and extremely thin-shelled. This is probably related to poorly oxygenated waters and, in particular, to strongly reduced salinity. The associated ostracod fauna (dominated by the eurypotent Cyprideis and a few, also stunted ostracods of possibly marine ancestry) supports this claim. Geochemical analyses (δ(18)O, δ(13)C) on co-occurring ostracod valves (Cyprideis spp.) yielded very light values, indicative of a freshwater setting. These observations point to a successful adaptation of P. curupira sp. nov. to freshwater conditions and therefore do not signify the presence of marine water. Pellucistoma curupira sp. nov. shows closest affinities to Caribbean species. We hypothesize that Pellucistoma reached northern South America (Llanos Basin) during marine incursions in the early Miocene. While larger animals of marine origin (e.g. fishes, dolphins, manatees) migrated actively into the Pebas

  17. Numerical analysis of palynological data from Neogene fluvial sediments as evidence for rainforest dynamics in western Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamanca, Sonia; van Manen, Milan; Hoorn, Carina

    2014-05-01

    Deep-time records that give an insight into the composition and dynamics of the ancestral Amazon rain forest are rare. Yet to understand the modern biodiversity patterns it is important to untangle the long-term evolution of this forest. Sampling Neogene strata requires drilling operations or complex fieldwork along the rivers where outcrops generally are small. In the nineties an exceptionally good exposure of fluvial sediments of early Miocene age (17.7-16.1 Ma) was documented near the island of Mariñame (Caquetá River, Colombian Amazonia) (Hoorn, 1994). This 60 m sediment succession consists of quartz-rich sands with a circa 10 m black, sandy clay intercalation. Palynomorphs are well preserved in these organic-rich clays and palynological analysis indicated high pollen diversity and changes in composition following changes in the sedimentary environment and water composition (see van Soelen et al., this session). A numerical analysis in R (2013) of the existing data, using a number of multivariate and other statistical techniques now shows a gradient of change in the composition of the Miocene palynological assemblages. Non-metric-multidimensional scaling using distance matrixes (Oksanen, 2012) and their visualizations in correlograms (Friendly, 2002) indicate that the regional (palm) swamp forests of Mauritiides franciscoi (Mauritia), frequently found together with other palms such as Psilamonocolpites amazonicus (Euterpe?) and Psilamonocolpites rinconii, were affected by a marine incursion. The latter is suggested by the change of composition and the presence of estuarine elements such as Zonocostites ramonae (Rhizophora), foraminifer linings and dinoflagellate cysts, which became common during the marine event. In the older part of the section, and at the top, Rhoipites guianensis (Sterculiaceae/Tiliaceae) is quite abundant, in contrast with the relatively low abundance of M. franciscoi. The numerical analysis allowed us to: a) group the pollen data into 3

  18. Acción gubernamental e institucionalismo en la Amazonia brasileña. El conflicto entorno a las infraestructuras hidroeléctricas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Pont Vidal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este escrito es el fruto de la investigación basada en el conflicto social originado por el proyecto de construcción de la hidroeléctrica de Belo Monte en el río Xingu (estado de Pará, Amazonia oriental y del diagnóstico del "Plano de Desarrollo Regional Sostenible de la Región de Xingú". Se parte de un marco analítico conceptual más amplio que combina los postulados de la corriente sociológica del Nuevo Institucionalismo y la teoría de la acción de Jürgen Habermas. A partir del análisis de la acción instrumental y estratégica de los actores políticos, sociales y económicos de esta región caracterizada de periférica, se establecen una serie de variables.

  19. Learning to Question: The Roles of Multiple Hypotheses, Successive Approximations, Balloons and Toilet Paper in University Science Programs of Southwestern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I. Foster

    2008-06-01

    Learning to question is essential for determining pathways of conservation and development in southwestern Amazonia during a time of rapid global environmental change. Teaching such an approach in graduate science programs in regional universities can be done using play-acting and simulation exercises. Multiple working hypotheses help students learn to question their own research results and expert witnesses. The method of successive approximations enables students to question the results of complex calculations, such as estimates of forest biomass. Balloons and rolls of toilet paper provide means of questioning two-dimensional representations of a three-dimensional Earth and the value of pi. Generation of systematic errors can illustrate the pitfalls of blind acceptance of data. While learning to question is essential, it is insufficient by itself; students must also learn how to be solutionologists in order to satisfy societal demands for solutions to environmental problems. A little irreverence can be an excellent didactic tool for helping students develop the skills necessary to lead conservation and development efforts in the region.

  20. Productos del mercado artesanal en la ciudad de Leticia (Amazonia colombiana elaborados con especies de bosques de Mauritia flexuosa L.f.

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    Sandra Lorena Franco Arango

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Los productos forestales no maderables (PFNMs han tomado fuerza como alternativa para la conservación de ecosistemas y la generación de ingresos económicos en las poblaciones asociadas. Se presenta un mayor interés sobre los productos que provienen de bosques oligárquicos (poco diversos y con alta densidad relativa, especialmente los dominados por palmas, como por ejemplo los bosques de Mauritia flexuosa (aguajales, cananguchales o buritizales. En el mercado artesanal de Leticia (Amazonia colombiana se identificaron 68 productos provenientes de nueve especies de plantas del canaguchal, teniendo las palmas (Astrocaryum chambira, Euterpe precatoria, M. flexuosa, Oenocarpus bataua y Socratea exorrhiza el mayor potencial comercial. Los productos más frecuentes fueron las mochilas de fibras de A. chambira (chambira y los precios de venta más altos correspondieron a las esculturas de Brosimum rubescens (palo de sangre. No existen estadísticas oficiales de este mercado, ni entes del Estado que regulen y orienten la producción y comercialización de los productos que se extraen del bosque. No obstante, los PFNMs representan una alternativa para diversificar las oportunidades productivas de los pobladores de la región.

  1. Increasing concentrations of CO and O{sub 3} - rising deforestation rates and increasing tropospheric carbon monoxide and ozone in Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchhoff, W.J.H. [Inst. Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, San Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    Increasing carbon monoxide and ozone concentrations have been observed in the lower troposphere of the Brazilian Amazon region in recent years (1989-1995). Carbon monoxide and ozone have been measured in the region continuously; from observations at a single site and many sporadic field missions, there is a clear indication that the chemical activity in the troposphere is growing, with increasing concentrations especially during the dry season. On the other hand, the most recent deforestation assessment by the Brazilian Government, performed by the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE) using Landsat data, shows yearly rates rising from the 11,130 km{sup 2} year{sup -1} minimum of the 1990/91 survey, to 13,786 km{sup 2} year{sup -1} for the 1991/92 period, and 14,896 km{sup 2} year{sup -1} for the period 1992/94. It is argued that the increase in deforestation/biomass burning activities in `Amazonia` have produced larger carbon monoxide and ozone concentrations in the lower atmosphere. (orig.)

  2. Zebragryllus Desutter-Grandcolas & Cadena-Casteñada, n.gen. a new Gryllinae genus from Eastern and Western Amazonia, South America (Orthoptera, Grylloidea, Gryllidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desutter-Grandcolas, Laure; Cadena-Castañeda, Oscar J; Jaiswara, Ranjana; Anso, Jeremy

    2014-02-24

    We describe a new genus of grylline cricket, Zebragryllus Desutter-Grandcolas & Cadena-Casteñada n. gen., from the Neotropical Region, using characters of morphology and male genitalia; genitalic characters clearly show that Zebragryllus n. gen. is closely related to Anurogryllus Saussure, 1878. Six species are described as new to science, originating from western (Peru, Colombia) and eastern (French Guiana) Amazonia: Zebragryllus fuscus Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., Z. guianensis Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., Z. intermedius Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., Zebragryllus nauta Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., Zebragryllus nouragui Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., and Zebragryllus wittoto Desutter-Grandcolas and Cadena-Casteñada, n. sp., type species of the genus. They are characterized by their size, coloration (shining black, most often with white patterns of coloration, hence the genus name), and male and female genitalia. The calling songs of Z. guianensis Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., Z. intermedius Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., Z. nouragui Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., and Z. wittoto Desutter-Grandcolas and Cadena-Casteñada, n. sp. are described. An identification key is proposed for both males and females.

  3. Simulating deforestation and carbon loss in Amazonia: impacts in Brazil's Roraima state from reconstructing Highway BR-319 (Manaus-Porto Velho).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barni, Paulo Eduardo; Fearnside, Philip Martin; Graça, Paulo Maurício Lima de Alencastro

    2015-02-01

    Reconstruction of Highway BR-319 (Manaus-Porto Velho) would allow for access from the "arc of deforestation" in the southern part of Brazil's Amazon region to vast blocks of forests in central and northern Amazonia. Building roads is known to be a major driver of deforestation, allowing entry of squatters, and other actors. Rather than deforestation along the highway route, here we consider the road's potential for stimulating deforestation in a separate location, approximately 550 km north of BR-319's endpoint in Manaus. Reconstructing BR-319 has great potential impact to start a new wave of migration to this remote region. The southern portion of the state of Roraima, the focus of our study, is already connected to Manaus by Highway BR-174. We modeled deforestation in southern Roraima and simulated carbon emissions between 2007 and 2030 under four scenarios. Simulations used the AGROECO model in DINAMICA-EGO © software. Two scenarios were considered with reconstruction of BR-319 and two without this road connection. For each of the two possibilities regarding BR-319, simulations were developed for (1) a "conservation" (CONSERV) scenario that assumes the creation of a series of protected areas, and (2) a "business-as-usual" (BAU) scenario that assumes no additional protected areas. Results show that by 2030, with BR-319 rebuilt, deforestation carbon emissions would increase between 19% (CONSERV) and 42% (BAU) over and above those corresponding to no-road scenarios.

  4. Floristic, edaphic and structural characteristics of flooded and unflooded forests in the lower Rio Purús region of central Amazonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haugaasen Torbjørn

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite a natural history interest in the early 1900s, relatively little ecological research has been carried out in the Rio Purús basin of central Amazonia, Brazil. Here we describe a new study area in the region of Lago Uauaçú with an emphasis on the climate, forest structure and composition, and soil characteristics between adjacent unflooded (terra firme and seasonally inundated forests; situated within both the white-water (várzea and black-water (igapó drainage systems that dominate the landscape. The climate was found to be typical of that of the central Amazon. Várzea forest soils had high concentrations of nutrients, while terra firme and igapó soils were comparatively nutrient-poor. Terra firme forests were the most floristically diverse forest type, whereas várzea was intermediate, and igapó the most species-poor. The Lecythidaceae was the most important family in terra firme while the Euphorbiaceae was the most important in both várzea and igapó. There were significant differences between forest types in terms of number of saplings, canopy cover and understorey density. In contrasting our results with other published information, we conclude that the Lago Uauaçú region consists of a typical central Amazonian forest macro-mosaic, but is a unique area with high conservation value due to the intimate juxtaposition of terra firme, várzea and igapó forests.

  5. New species of Ameloblastella Kritsky, Mendoza-Franco & Scholz, 2000 and Cosmetocleithrum Kritsky, Thatcher & Boeger, 1986 (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) infecting the gills of catfishes (Siluriformes) from the Peruvian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Mendoza-Palmero, Carlos A; Scholz, Tomáš

    2016-11-01

    During a research on gill ectoparasites of siluriform fishes from the Peruvian Amazonia, the following monogeneans were found: Ameloblastella edentensis n. sp. from Hypophthalmus edentatus Spix & Agassiz; Ameloblastella peruensis n. sp. from Hypophthalmus sp.; Ameloblastella formatrium n. sp. from Pimelodidae gen. sp. (type-host) and Duopalatinus cf. peruanus Eigenmann & Allen; Ameloblastella unapioides n. sp. from Sorubim lima (Bloch & Schneider) (type-host) and Pimelodus sp; Cosmetocleithrum tortum n. sp. from Nemadoras hemipeltis (Eigenmann); and Cosmetocleithrum bifurcum n. sp. from Hassar orestis (Steindachner) (both Doradidae). All new species described herein are mainly differentiated from their congeners based on the morphology of the copulatory complex. The pimelodids H. edentatus and S. lima, and the doradids N. hemipeltis and H. orestis represent new hosts species for species of Ameloblastella Kritsky, Mendoza-Franco & Scholz, 2000 and Cosmetocleithrum Kritsky, Thatcher & Boeger, 1986, respectively. The morphological diagnosis of the present species of Ameloblastella and Cosmetocleithrum also supported by a previous molecular analysis of these species is briefly discusssed herein.

  6. The genus Manota Williston (Diptera: Mycetophilidae) in Peruvian Amazonia, with description of sixteen new species and notes on local species richness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippa, Heikki; Kurina, Olavi; Sääksjärvi, Ilari E

    2017-02-21

    A comprehensive study of material of the worldwide fungus gnat genus Manota Williston, sampled from the Allpahuayo-Mishana National Reserve in Peruvian Amazonia, was conducted. The following 16 species are described as new: M. aligera sp. n., M. aristoseta sp. n., M. calva sp. n., M. ciliata sp. n., M. exigua sp. n., M. digitata sp. n., M. flabellata sp. n., M. iquitosensis sp. n., M. limulata sp. n., M. micella sp. n., M. minutula sp. n., M. nuda sp. n., M. parvula sp. n., M. pauloides sp. n., M. pustulosa sp. n. and M. serrulata sp. n. In addition, the following 16 species are recorded: M. acuminata Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005, M. acutistylus Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005, M. anfracta Hippa & Kurina, 2013, M. appendiculata Hippa & Kurina, 2013, M. aristata Hippa & Kurina, 2013, M. bisulca Hippa & Kurina, 2013, M. diversiseta Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005, M. iota Hippa & Kurina, 2013, M. micula Hippa & Kurina, 2013, M. papillosa Hippa & Kurina, 2013, M. paula Hippa & Kurina, 2013, M. penicillata Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005, M. pisinna Hippa & Kurina, 2013, M. quantula Hippa & Kurina, 2013, M. spinosa Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005 and M. virgata Hippa & Kurina, 2013. Altogether 67 species of Manota are now known from the Neotropical region.

  7. Late Holocene paleoenvironments of the floodplain of the Solimões River, Central Amazonia, based on the palynological record of Lake Cabaliana

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    Natália de Paula Sá

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The core PD-67 of 160 cm depth was collected from the delta of Lake Cabaliana situated on the Solimões River. Seventeen samples were removed for palynological and sedimentological analysis and three for radiocarbon analysis. Two dry periods, both in the Late Holocene, were observed (2800-2550 cal yr BP, 1450-550 cal yr BP separated by a wetter phase (2550-1450 cal yr BP. In 2800-2550 cal yr BP, varzea forests of Alchornea, Symmeria, Cecropia, Alternanthera and Asteraceae were predominant. Beginning in 2,550-1450 cal yr BP, the varzea was characterized by pioneer elements, such as Cassia, Laetia, Mabea, Symmeria and Cecropia, and by the expansion of Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Sagittaria, Montrichardia and Asteraceae. In 1450-550 cal yr BP the succession of varzea continued with Pseudobombax, Laetia, Luehea/Lueheopsis and Ryanaea increasing simultaneously with the terra firme vegetation of Rutaceae, Sapotaceae, Styrax, Scleronema, Anthurium, Araceae, pteridophytes and Pariana. The successional dynamics at Lake Cabaliana indicated that the local varzea had become established recently, and is composed of a mosaic of different successional stages of vegetation influenced mainly by flood pulse and variation in rainfall. It is therefore possible to propose that the recent climate history of Central Amazonia reflects changes in rainfall patterns in the basin.

  8. Run, hide, or fight: anti-predation strategies in endangered red-nosed cuxiú (Chiropotes albinasus, Pitheciidae) in southeastern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Adrian A; Silla, João M; de Oliveira, Tadeu; Boyle, Sarah A; Bezerra, Bruna M; Spironello, Wilson R; Setz, Eleonore Z F; da Silva, Rafaela F Soares; de Albuquerque Teixeira, Samara; Todd, Lucy M; Pinto, Liliam P

    2017-01-23

    Although primate predation is rarely observed, a series of primate anti-predation strategies have been described. Energetic costs of such strategies can vary from high-cost mobbing, via less costly alarm calling, to low-cost furtive concealment. Here we report the anti-predation strategies of red-nosed cuxiú, Chiropotes albinasus, based on direct observations from four study sites in southeastern Brazilian Amazonia. Over a collective period of 1255 fieldwork hours, we observed nine direct interactions between raptors (all potential predators) and red-nosed cuxiús. Of these, one (11%) resulted in predation. Raptors involved were: Harpia harpyja (four events), Leucopternis sp. (two events), Spizaëtus tyrannus (one event), and unidentified large raptors (two events). Predation attempts occurred in flooded-forest and terra firme rainforest, were directed at both adult and non-adult cuxiús, and involved both adult and juvenile raptors. Anti-predation strategies adopted by the cuxiús included: (1) group defence and mobbing behaviour (two occasions), (2) dropping into dense sub-canopy (seven occasions), (3) alarm calling (eight occasions), and (4) fleeing to, and hiding in, dense vegetation (eight occasions). During each encounter at least two of these behaviours were recorded. These are the first published records of predation, predation attempts, and anti-predator behaviour involving red-nosed cuxiú.

  9. Description and phylogenetic relationships of a new genus and two new species of lizards from Brazilian Amazonia, with nomenclatural comments on the taxonomy of Gymnophthalmidae (Reptilia: Squamata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colli, Guarino R; Hoogmoed, Marinus S; Cannatella, David C; Cassimiro, José; Gomes, Jerriane Oliveira; Ghellere, José Mário; Gomes, Jerriane Oliveira; Ghellere, José Mário; Nunes, Pedro M Sales; Pellegrino, Kátia C M; Salerno, Patricia; Souza, Sergio Marques De; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut

    2015-08-18

    We describe a new genus and two new species of gymnophthalmid lizards based on specimens collected from Brazilian Amazonia, mostly in the "arc of deforestation". The new genus is easily distinguished from other Gymnophthalmidae by having very wide, smooth, and imbricate nuchals, arranged in two longitudinal and 6-10 transverse rows from nape to brachium level, followed by much narrower, strongly keeled, lanceolate, and mucronate scales. It also differs from all other Gymnophthalmidae, except Iphisa, by the presence of two longitudinal rows of ventrals. The new genus differs from Iphisa by having two pairs of enlarged chinshields (one in Iphisa); posterior dorsal scales lanceolate, strongly keeled and not arranged in longitudinal rows (dorsals broad, smooth and forming two longitudinal rows), and lateral scales keeled (smooth). Maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses based on morphological and molecular data indicate the new species form a clade that is most closely related to Iphisa. We also address several nomenclatural issues and present a revised classification of Gymnophthalmidae.

  10. Diagnóstico actitudinal hacia la conservación ambiental en estudiantes de la Universidad Nacional de la Amazonia Peruana

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    Herman Guimet

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudio descriptivo no experimental, que tuvo como objetivo principal, encontrar las diferencias en las actitudes hacia la conservación ambiental entre los estudiantes de la Facultad de Ingeniería Química de la Universidad Nacional de la Amazonia Peruana; según el nivel de estudios, sexo, edad cronológica y el lugar de residencia; la población estuvo conformada por 189 estudiantes y se trabajó con una muestra de 111 estudiantes; la técnica utilizada para recolección de datos fue la encuesta, utilizando como instrumento la escala tipo Likert; los resultados mostraron que en la variable nivel de estudios los estudiantes del III nivel ocuparon el primer lugar, mostrando mejores actitudes y último lugar lo ocupó el V nivel; con respecto a la variable sexo, se encontraron diferencias a favor del sexo masculino; en la variable edad cronológica puede decirse que las actitudes de los estudiantes mayores  ocuparon el primer lugar, seguido de los más jóvenes y finalizando con los estudiantes  del grupo intermedio; así mismo se hallaron diferencias actitudinales entre los estudiantes de los cuatro distrito, como lugar de residencia. La variable nivel de estudios, parece no tener un papel distintivo en las actitudes hacia la conservación ambiental.

  11. Species diversity of edaphic mites (Acari: Oribatida) and effects of topography, soil properties and litter gradients on their qualitative and quantitative composition in 64 km² of forest in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes, Jamile; Franklin, Elizabeth; de Morais, José Wellington; de Souza, Jorge Luiz Pereira

    2011-09-01

    Small-scale spatial distribution of oribatid mites has been investigated in Amazonia. In addition, medium- and large-scale studies are needed to establish the utility of these mites in detecting natural environmental variability, and to distinguish this variability from anthropogenic impacts. We are expanding the knowledge about oribatid mites in a wet upland forest reserve, and investigate whether a standardized and integrated protocol is an efficient way to assess the effects of environmental variables on their qualitative and quantitative composition on a large spatial scale inside an ecological reserve in Central Amazonia, Brazil. Samples for Berlese-Tullgren extraction were taken in 72 plots of 250 × 6 m distributed over 64 km(2). In total 3,182 adult individuals, from 82 species and 79 morphospecies were recorded, expanding the number of species known in the reserve from 149 to 254. Galumna, Rostrozetes and Scheloribates were the most speciose genera, and 57 species were rare. Rostrozetes ovulum, Pergalumna passimpuctata and Archegozetes longisetosus were the most abundant species, and the first two were the most frequent. Species number and abundance were not correlated with clay content, slope, pH and litter quantity. However, Principal Coordinate Analysis indicated that as the percentage of clay content, litter quantity and pH changed, the oribatid mite qualitative and quantitative composition also changed. The standardized protocol effectively captured the diversity, as we collected one of the largest registers of oribatid mites' species for Amazonia. Moreover, biological and ecological data were integrated to capture the effects of environmental variables accounting for their diversity and abundance.

  12. Comment by J.P. Figueiredo, & Hoorn, C. on 'Late Miocene sedimentary environments in south-western Amazonia (Solimões Formation; Brazil)' by Martin Gross, Werner E. Piller, Maria Ines Ramos, Jackson Douglas da Silva Paz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Jorge Jesus Picanço

    2012-04-01

    In their paper Gross et al., 2011 present an excellent description of a series of outcrops from the Eirunepe region in western Amazonia (Brazil). The authors interpret these sediments as relics of a Late Miocene anastomosing fluvial system and conclude that the paleogeography of the entire western Amazon region must have been characterized by this environmental setting. They also imply that therefore a long-lived lake system - or megawetland - never existed. We contend this assumption for some reasons, amongst them, the most important are: (1) this is an inconsistent overgeneralized conclusion; (2) The authors make references to previous scientific works we published which we consider incorrect, and therefore can mislead their readers.

  13. Cloud condensation nuclei in pristine tropical rainforest air of Amazonia: size-resolved measurements and modeling of atmospheric aerosol composition and CCN activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunthe, S. S.; King, S. M.; Rose, D.; Chen, Q.; Roldin, P.; Farmer, D. K.; Jimenez, J. L.; Artaxo, P.; Andreae, M. O.; Martin, S. T.; Pöschl, U.

    2009-10-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particles serving as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) are key elements of the hydrological cycle and climate. We have measured and characterized CCN at water vapor supersaturations in the range of S=0.10-0.82% in pristine tropical rainforest air during the AMAZE-08 campaign in central Amazonia. The effective hygroscopicity parameters describing the influence of chemical composition on the CCN activity of aerosol particles varied in the range of κ≍0.1-0.4 (0.16±0.06 arithmetic mean and standard deviation). The overall median value of κ≍0.15 was by a factor of two lower than the values typically observed for continental aerosols in other regions of the world. Aitken mode particles were less hygroscopic than accumulation mode particles (κ≍0.1 at D≍50 nm; κ≍0.2 at D≍200 nm), which is in agreement with earlier hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (H-TDMA) studies. The CCN measurement results are consistent with aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS) data, showing that the organic mass fraction (forg) was on average as high as ~90% in the Aitken mode (D≤100 nm) and decreased with increasing particle diameter in the accumulation mode (~80% at D≍200 nm). The κ values exhibited a negative linear correlation with forg (R2=0.81), and extrapolation yielded the following effective hygroscopicity parameters for organic and inorganic particle components: κorg≍0.1 which can be regarded as the effective hygroscopicity of biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and κinorg≍0.6 which is characteristic for ammonium sulfate and related salts. Both the size dependence and the temporal variability of effective particle hygroscopicity could be parameterized as a function of AMS-based organic and inorganic mass fractions (κp=κorg×forg +κinorg×finorg). The CCN number concentrations predicted with κp were in fair agreement with the measurement results (~20% average deviation). The median CCN number concentrations at S=0

  14. Low-Cost Evaluation of EO-1 Hyperion and ALI for Detection and Biophysical Characterization of Forest Logging in Amazonia (NCC5-481)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asner, Gregory P.; Keller, Michael M.; Silva, Jose Natalino; Zweede, Johan C.; Pereira, Rodrigo, Jr.

    2002-01-01

    quantify both the presence and degree of structural disturbance caused by various logging regimes. Our quantitative assessment of Hyperion hyperspectral and ALI multi-spectral data for the detection and structural characterization of selective logging in Amazonia will benefit from data collected through an ongoing project run by the Tropical Forest Foundation, within which we have developed a study of the canopy and landscape biophysics of conventional and reduced-impact logging. We will add to our base of forest structural information in concert with an EO-1 overpass. Using a photon transport model inversion technique that accounts for non-linear mixing of the four biogeophysical indicators, we will estimate these parameters across a gradient of selective logging intensity provided by conventional and reduced impact logging sites. We will also compare our physical ly-based approach to both conventional (e.g., NDVI) and novel (e.g., SWIR-channel) vegetation indices as well as to linear mixture modeling methods. We will cross-compare these approaches using Hyperion and ALI imagers to determine the strengths and limitations of these two sensors for applications of forest biophysics. This effort will yield the first physical ly-based, quantitative analysis of the detection and intensity of selective logging in Amazonia, comparing hyperspectral and improved multi-spectral approaches as well as inverse modeling, linear mixture modeling, and vegetation index techniques.

  15. Cryptic speciation in the white-shouldered antshrike (Thamnophilus aethiops, Aves - Thamnophilidae): the tale of a transcontinental radiation across rivers in lowland Amazonia and the northeastern Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Gregory; Aleixo, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    The growing knowledge on paleogeography and the recent applications of molecular biology and phylogeography to the study of the Amazonian biota have provided a framework for testing competing hypotheses of biotic diversification in this region. Here, we reconstruct the spatio-temporal context of diversification of a widespread understory polytypic Amazonian bird species (Thamnophilus aethiops) and contrast it with different hypotheses of diversification and the taxonomy currently practiced in the group. Sequences of mtDNA (cytochrome b and ND2) and nuclear (β-fibrinogen introns 5 and 7 and the Z-liked Musk4) genes, adding up to 4093bp of 89 individuals covering the Amazonian, Andean, and Atlantic Forest populations of T. aethiops were analyzed. Phylogenetic and population genetics analyses revealed ten reciprocally monophyletic and genetically isolated or nearly-isolated lineages in T. aethiops, highlighting several inconsistencies between taxonomy and evolutionary history in this group. Our data suggest that the diversification of T. aethiops started in the Andean highlands, and then proceeded into the Amazonian lowlands probably after the consolidation of the modern Amazonian drainage. The main cladogenetic events in T. aethiops may be related to the formation and structuring of large Amazonian rivers during the Late Miocene-Early Pleistocene, coinciding with the dates proposed for other lineages of Amazonian organisms. Population genetics data do not support climatic fluctuations as a major source of diversification in T. aethiops. Even though not entirely concordant with paleobiogeographic models derived from phylogenies of other vertebrate lineages, our results support a prominent role for rivers as major drivers of diversification in Amazonia, while underscoring that different diversification scenarios are probably related to the distinct evolutionary origins of groups being compared.

  16. Saharan dust in Brazil and Suriname during the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) - Cooperative LBA Regional Experiment (CLAIRE) in March 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formenti, P.; Andreae, M. O.; Lange, L.; Roberts, G.; Cafmeyer, J.; Rajta, I.; Maenhaut, W.; Holben, B. N.; Artaxo, P.; Lelieveld, J.

    2001-07-01

    Advection of Saharan dust was observed via chemical and optical measurements during March 1998 in Brazil and Suriname during the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA)-Cooperative LBA Airborne Regional Experiment (CLAIRE)-98 experiment. In Brazil the dust outbreak produced an increase of a factor of 3 in the daily mean mass concentration (up to 26±7 μg m-3) of particles smaller than 10 μm equivalent aerodynamic diameter (EAD), and in the daily mean aerosol particle scattering coefficient σs (up to 26±8 Mm-1 STP, ambient humidity). Background levels of aerosol scattering (ambient) were σs ˜ 10 Mm-1. The effect of dust advection was evident for all major crustal elements (Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Mn, and Fe), as well as the sea-salt elements (Na, Cl, and S), as the dust layer was transported at low altitude (below 800 hPa). Coarse P and organic carbon (OC) concentrations were not influenced by the occurrence of dust, and were mainly emitted by the rain forest. The dry scattering mass efficiency of dust (particles smaller than 10 μm EAD) was estimated to be between 0.65 (±0.06) and 0.89 (±0.08) m2 g-1. Airborne profiles of aerosol scattering showed two distinct types of vertical structure in the dust layer over Suriname, either vertically uniform (15, 26 March), or plume-like (25 March). Dust layers extended generally up to 700 hPa, while scattering layers occasionally encountered at higher altitudes resulted from smoke emitted by biomass burning in Venezuela and Colombia. Observations in South America were supported by measurements in Israel and Tenerife (Canary Islands), where the dust outbreaks were also detected.

  17. Local perceptions as a guide for the sustainable management of natural resources: empirical evidence from a small-scale society in Bolivian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Fernández-Llamazares

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Research on natural resource management suggests that local perceptions form the basis upon which many small-scale societies monitor availability and change in the stock of common-pool natural resources. In contrast, this literature debates whether local perceptions can be effective in guiding the sustainable management of natural resources. With empirical evidence on this matter still highly limited, we explored the role of local perceptions as drivers of harvesting and management behavior in a small-scale society in Bolivian Amazonia. We conducted structured interviews to capture local perceptions of availability and change in the stock of thatch palm (Geonoma deversa among the Tsimane', an indigenous society of foragers-horticulturalists (n = 296 adults in 13 villages. We analyzed whether perceptions of availability match estimates of abundance obtained from ecological data and whether differences in perception help to explain harvesting behavior and local management of thatch palm. Perceptions of availability of G. deversa are highly contingent upon the social, economic, and cultural conditions within which the Tsimane' have experienced changes in the availability of the resource, thus giving a better reflection of the historical, rather than of the ecological, dimensions of the changes undergone. Although local perceptions might fall short in precision when scrutinized from an ecological standpoint, their importance in informing sustainable management should not be underestimated. Our findings show that most of the harvesting and management actions that the Tsimane' undertake are, at least partially, shaped by their local perceptions. This paper contributes to the broader literature on natural resource management by providing empirical evidence of the critical role of local perceptions in promoting collective responses for the sustainable management of natural resources.

  18. Los pueblos indígenas de la Amazonia Peruana y el uso político de los medios de comunicación

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    Oscar ESPINOSA

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Este artículo trata sobre el uso político de los medios de comunicación (radio, televisión e Internet por parte de los pueblos indígenas de la Amazonia Peruana. En particular, analiza la utilización que el pueblo Shipibo ha hecho de la radio en el proceso de construcción de su identidad étnica y en la creación de sus organizaciones políticas representativas; el tipo de vinculación de los pueblos Ashaninka y Aguaruna, el estado y la televisión sobre todo en la redefinición del concepto de identidad nacional en el contexto de diferentes conflictos armados, y finalmente, se presenta el uso de Internet por el pueblo Ashaninka.El objetivo principal del articulo es mostrar como el empleo de los medios de comunicación permite a las comunidades indígenas hacerse más visibles y actuar políticamente en distintos espacios públicos.ABSTRACT: This article deals with the political use of the means of communication (radio, tv, Internet by the indigenous peoples of the Peruvian Amazonas. In particular, it analyzes the use made by the Shipibo people of the radio in the construction of their ethnic identity and the creation of representative political organization; the links among the Ashaninka and Aguaruna peoples, the state and the tv in the redefinition of the national identity in the context of armed conflicts, and finally, it presents the use of Internet by Ashaninka people.This article aims at showing that the use of mass media allows indigenous groups to become more visible and to act in different political scenarios.

  19. Close evolutionary affinities between freshwater corbulid bivalves from the Neogene of western Amazonia and Paleogene of the northern Great Plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Laurie C.; Hartman, Joseph H.; Wesselingh, Frank

    2006-03-01

    Freshwater corbulid bivalves found in Miocene deposits of western Amazonia have been considered products of an endemic radiation of a marine clade within the large lacustrine system occupying the region at that time. Our reexamination of Paleocene freshwater corbulids of the Tongue River Formation of western North Dakota and eastern Montana, however, extends the stratigraphic and geographic range of three Amazonian taxa— Pachydon, Ostomya, and Anticorbula—to the Paleocene of the northern Great Plains of the United States. Both Paleocene and Miocene freshwater corbulid taxa occur in large freshwater systems with an intermittent marine connection. To test the phylogenetic relationships of one particularly widespread Paleocene species ( Pachydon mactriformis), we conducted cladistic analyses using maximum parsimony and heuristic searches of matrices of conchologic characters. Seven species of Pachydon and Pebasia dispar from the western Amazonian Neogene, Pachydon mactriformis from the Paleocene of North Dakota, representative species of eight neotropical marine corbulid genera, and three additional corbulid taxa were included. Corbula was the outgroup. All analyses produced similar regions of stability within trees. One such area is a Pachydon crown group that includes P. mactriformis, indicating that Paleocene and Miocene Pachydon are not convergent. Our results also indicate that Pachydon does not represent a separate basal radiation within the family. However, we have not resolved a robust sister clade relationship for the Pachydon crown group. Two Amazonian Neogene taxa do not fall within the Pachydon crown group, and their phylogenetic position is not resolved. At this time, we do not have sufficient evidence to refine the definitions of Pachydon and Pachydontinae as monophyletic clades. Although we have evidence that three genera of corbulid bivalves ( Pachydon, Ostomya, and Anticorbula) in the Pebas Formation are not endemic and have long geologic

  20. Anthropogenic landscape in southeastern Amazonia: contemporary impacts of low-intensity harvesting and dispersal of Brazil nuts by the Kayapó Indigenous people.

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    Ribeiro, Maria Beatriz N; Jerozolimski, Adriano; de Robert, Pascale; Salles, Nilson V; Kayapó, Biribiri; Pimentel, Tania P; Magnusson, William E

    2014-01-01

    Brazil nut, the Bertholletia excelsa seed, is one of the most important non-timber forest products in the Amazon Forest and the livelihoods of thousands of traditional Amazonian families depend on its commercialization. B. excelsa has been frequently cited as an indicator of anthropogenic forests and there is strong evidence that past human management has significantly contributed to its present distribution across the Amazon, suggesting that low levels of harvesting may play a positive role in B. excelsa recruitment. Here, we evaluate the effects of Brazil nut harvesting by the Kayapó Indigenous people of southeastern Amazonia on seedling recruitment in 20 B. excelsa groves subjected to different harvesting intensities, and investigated if management by harvesters influences patterns of B. excelsa distribution. The number of years of low-intensity Brazil nut harvesting by the Kayapó over the past two decades was positively related to B. excelsa seedling density in groves. One of the mechanisms behind the higher seedling density in harvested sites seems to be seed dispersal by harvesters along trails. The Kayapó also intentionally plant B. excelsa seeds and seedlings across their territories. Our results show not only that low-intensity Brazil nut harvesting by the Kayapó people does not reduce recruitment of seedlings, but that harvesting and/or associated activities conducted by traditional harvesters may benefit B. excelsa beyond grove borders. Our study supports the hypothesis that B. excelsa dispersal throughout the Amazon was, at least in part, influenced by indigenous groups, and strongly suggests that current human management contributes to the maintenance and formation of B. excelsa groves. We suggest that changes in Brazil nut management practices by traditional people to prevent harvesting impacts may be unnecessary and even counterproductive in many areas, and should be carefully evaluated before implementation.

  1. Activity budget and social interactions in semi-captive gray woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha cana) living in an ex situ conservation area in Central Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartagena-Matos, Bárbara; Gasnier, Thierry; Cravo-Mota, Mariana; Martins Bezerra, Bruna

    2017-01-01

    Areas holding primates in semi-captivity conditions represent an excellent opportunity for collecting data on rare, little known, and endangered taxa, contributing with insightful information to help in their conservation. Here, we present information on the activity budget and social interactions of the elusive gray woolly monkeys, Lagothrix lagotricha cana, in an ex situ conservation area in central Amazonia. We studied the behavior of 18 semi-captive individuals through instantaneous scan and focal animal samplings during 4 months in the wet season. The most frequent activity registered was resting (45%). The remaining time was dedicated to foraging (29%), travelling (23%), social interactions (3%), and self-grooming (1%). Resting and travelling time may be correlated to fruit availability in the area through different seasons. Huddling was the most frequent social interaction, being more common from young individuals toward adult females, which may be associated with breastfeeding. Playing was more common among young males. This activity prepares them to defend themselves from possible attacks and allows them to develop their role in the social group, as future adult males. Aggression was most frequent among adults, primarily from males toward females, likely to demonstrate their dominance over females. Social grooming occurred predominantly from mother to offspring. This interaction can reduce the risk of young predation, directly increasing the female reproductive success. Our data not only add to our understanding of the sociality and behaviors of the genus Lagothrix, but may also serve as a tool to identify environments that support an adequate activity budget for these monkeys. Zoo Biol. 36:21-29, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Local perceptions as a guide for the sustainable management of natural resources: empirical evidence from a small-scale society in Bolivian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Llamazares, Álvaro; Díaz-Reviriego, Isabel; Guèze, Maximilien; Cabeza, Mar; Pyhälä, Aili; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2016-03-01

    Research on natural resource management suggests that local perceptions form the basis upon which many small-scale societies monitor availability and change in the stock of common-pool natural resources. In contrast, this literature debates whether local perceptions can be effective in guiding the sustainable management of natural resources. With empirical evidence on this matter still highly limited, this work explores the role of local perceptions as drivers of harvesting and management behavior in a small-scale society in Bolivian Amazonia. We conducted structured interviews to capture local perceptions of availability and change in the stock of thatch palm (Geonoma deversa) amongst the Tsimane', an indigenous society of foragers-horticulturalists (n = 296 adults in 13 villages). We analyzed whether perceptions of availability match estimates of abundance obtained from ecological data and whether differences in perception help to explain harvesting behavior and local management of thatch palm. Perceptions of availability of G. deversa are highly contingent upon the social, economic and cultural conditions within which the Tsimane' have experienced changes in the availability of the resource, thus giving a better reflection of the historical, rather than of the ecological, dimensions of the changes undergone. While local perceptions might fall short in precision when scrutinized from an ecological standpoint, their importance in informing sustainable management should not be underestimated. Our findings show that most of the harvesting and management actions that the Tsimane' undertake are, at least partially, shaped by their local perceptions. This paper contributes to the broader literature on natural resource management by providing empirical evidence of the critical role of local perceptions in promoting collective responses for the sustainable management of natural resources.

  3. A review of green- and blue-water resources and their trade-offs for future agricultural production in the Amazon Basin: what could irrigated agriculture mean for Amazonia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathuillière, Michael J.; Coe, Michael T.; Johnson, Mark S.

    2016-06-01

    The Amazon Basin is a region of global importance for the carbon and hydrological cycles, a biodiversity hotspot, and a potential centre for future economic development. The region is also a major source of water vapour recycled into continental precipitation through evapotranspiration processes. This review applies an ecohydrological approach to Amazonia's water cycle by looking at contributions of water resources in the context of future agricultural production. At present, agriculture in the region is primarily rain-fed and relies almost exclusively on green-water resources (soil moisture regenerated by precipitation). Future agricultural development, however, will likely follow pathways that include irrigation from blue-water sources (surface water and groundwater) as insurance from variability in precipitation. In this review, we first provide an updated summary of the green-blue ecohydrological framework before describing past trends in Amazonia's water resources within the context of land use and land cover change. We then describe green- and blue-water trade-offs in light of future agricultural production and potential irrigation to assess costs and benefits to terrestrial ecosystems, particularly land and biodiversity protection, and regional precipitation recycling. Management of green water is needed, particularly at the agricultural frontier located in the headwaters of major tributaries to the Amazon River, and home to key downstream blue-water users and ecosystem services, including domestic and industrial users, as well as aquatic ecosystems.

  4. The Elusive Multiplying Factor for Sustainable Development: The Case for Integrating Scientific Research and Basic Education in the MAP Region, SW Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I.; de Los Rios, M.; Mendoza, E.; Reis, V. L.

    2005-05-01

    The Region of Madre de Dios-Peru, the State of Acre-Brazil, and the Department of Pando-Bolivia, known collectively as the trinational MAP Region, lies at the heart of Southwestern Amazonia. This region covers over 300,000 km2 with a population of 700,000 that ranges from urban dwellers to indigenous groups trying to avoid contact with industrial society. This region, home of incredible biological and cultural wealth, represents some of the economically poorest areas of the respective countries. It is also a site of accelerating global change in land-use, with three highways being developed for all-weather transport between central Brazil and Pacific ports. Our group has engaged in pilot experiments to provide regional societies with access to recent scientific results. Our objective is to help these societies in their quest to develop through: a) the use of GPS and satellite imagery for land use planning by small rural producers; b) municipal-level meetings in two countries to evaluate current problems and future land use along the inter-oceanic highway; c) the analysis of deforestation in the trinational river basin; d) dissemination via the media of imagery and analysis of fires during the burning season; and e) incorporation of nearby forests into the rural educational system. While most of these experiments have proven successful, they pale before the challenge of expanding them to become significant in changing land use and promoting sustainable development in this region. The multiplying factors need to be in the range of ten to a thousand times the size of the pilot experiments. Public policy and economic initiatives are crucial, but are often treated as the only means for such multiplication. The basic education system represents another, complementary multiplying factor. In the State of Acre, about a third of the population, 200,000, are in the K-12 school system and of these over 80% are in the 1- to 8-year series. Currently, we are helping local school

  5. The Influence of Urban Emissions on Background Aerosols and Trace Gases in Amazonia as Seen in the GoAmazon2014/2015 Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artaxo, P.; Martin, S. T.; Barbosa, H. M.; Brito, J.; Carbone, S.; Rizzo, L. V.; Andreae, M. O.; Pöhlker, C.; Souza, R. A. F. D.

    2015-12-01

    As part of the GoAmazon2014/2015 experiment, several aerosol and trace gas monitoring stations are being operated for two years before and after the Manaus urban plume in Central Amazonia. Three sites are being operated in pristine conditions, with atmospheric properties under natural biogenic conditions. These three sites named T0 are ATTO (Amazon Tall Tower Observatory), ZF2 and EMBRAPA. After the air masses are exposed to the Manaus plume, one site (called T2) is being operated under the direct influence of the Manaus plume at 5 Km downwind. Finally, at about 150 Km downwind of Manaus is the T3 Manacapuru site. Aerosol chemical composition is being analysed using filters for fine (PM2.5) and coarse mode aerosol as well as three Aerodyne ACSM (Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitors) instruments. Optical properties were measured with several AE33 aethalometers and MAAP, and multi wavelengths nephelometers. Aerosol size distribution is determined using scanning mobility particle sizers. The aerosol column is measures using AERONET sunphotometers before and after the Manaus plume, as well as several Lidar systems. The three sites before the Manaus plume show remarkable similar variability in aerosol concentrations and optical properties. This pattern is very different at the T2 site, with large aerosol concentrations enhancing aerosol absorption and scattering significantly as a result of the Manaus pollution plume. The aerosol is very oxidized before being exposed to the Manaus plume, and this pattern changes significantly for T2 and T3 sites, with a much higher presence of less oxidized aerosol. Typical ozone concentrations at mid-day before Manaus plume is a low 10-12 ppb, value that changes to 50-70 ppb for air masses suffering the influence of Manaus plume. Aerosol size distribution also change significantly, with stronger presence of nucleation mode particles. A detailed comparison of aerosol characteristics and composition for the several sites will be

  6. Trying to Learn Lessons for Response to Extreme Events: Paradigm Shifts Affecting Civil Defense in the Trinational Region of Southwestern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, G. L. P.

    2015-12-01

    The last ten years have seen several extreme climate events in southwestern Amazonia with historic impacts. The City of Rio Branco, Capital of Acre, Brazil´s westernmost State, suffered its seventh consecutive annual flooding and its worst in March 2015. The city of Tarauacá, also in Acre, registered 12 flooding events between November 2014 and April 2015. The most recent flood of the trinational Acre River in 2015 set historic records for flood stage and number of displaced persons in Cobija, the Capital of Pando, Bolivia. From February to April 2014, floods of the Madeira River disrupted the one highway between Acre and southern Brazil. Puerto Maldonado, the capital in Madre de Dios Region of Peru had its worst flood in 50 years during 2014. In 2005 and 2010, prolonged droughts combined with ignition sources resulted in tens to hundreds of thousands of hectares of fire-damaged rainforests in the Madre de Dios, Acre and Pando (MAP) Region. The Civil Defenses in these three contiguous political units faced several abrupt paradigm shifts that affected their responses: 1) The drought of 2005 showed dramatically that regional rainforests do burn; 2) The recent flooding history, particularly in 2012 and 2015, demolished the cultural icon of a nine-year recurrence interval; 3) What happens outside your territory can be devastating. The Madeira River flood impeded an estimated 200 million dollars from circulating in Acre; 4) The past can be a terrible guide. For Cobija and Rio Branco, the 2015 flood was on the order of a meter higher than any other. Many home dwellers did not evacuate in time because they used past floods as a guide; 5) A collapse in communication - cell phones, land lines, and Internet - can get worse. In 2012, such a collapse occurred in two border towns for 5 days, yet in 2015 it lasted more than 11 days. Research is needed to address how institutions linked to Civil Defense can shift paradigms in time to be more effective.

  7. Organizaciones públicas en la Amazonia: ¿cambio autorreferencial o adaptación? Public organizations in the Amazon ¿self-referential change or adaptation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Pont Vidal

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Las instituciones gubernamentales y organizaciones públicas de la Amazonia oriental brasileña se hallan inmersas en un proceso de profundas transformaciones. La Administración pública, las instituciones municipales, la correspondiente gestión pública y el sistema jurídico son los principales sistemas en que tiene lugar este cambio. En este artículo se analiza la cuestión de si realmente se trata de un proceso de cambio autorreferencial, resultado de decisiones internas de las organizaciones, o si, por el contrario, se trata de meras adaptaciones necesarias para cumplir su función y mandato. La aportación de los postulados sistémicos de la acción se limita a los aspectos tecnológicos, siendo necesaria la comprensión de la acción desde la perspectiva del sujeto. A partir de una serie de «observaciones» basadas en casos, estos aspectos se analizan en la Administración pública municipal, más concretamente en la gestión pública y en la Defensoria Pública.The governmental institutions and public organizations of the Eastern Amazon in Brazil are immersed in a process of far-reaching transformations, which are mainly being implemented in the public authorities, the municipal institutions, public management and the legal system. This article analyzes whether the process is really one of self-referential change, the result of internal decisions taken by the organizations, or, on the other hand, whether these organizations are merely making the necessary adaptations for them to fulfill their function and their mandate. The contribution made by the systemic postulates of action are restricted to technological issues, and the action needs to be understood from the perspective of the subject. On the basis of a series of case-based «observations», these issues are analyzed within municipal public authorities, and particularly in the realm of public management and citizens’ rights.

  8. Systematics and biogeography of the Automolus infuscatus complex (Aves; Furnariidae): Cryptic diversity reveals western Amazonia as the origin of a transcontinental radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Eduardo D; Burney, Curtis W; Brumfield, Robb T; Polo, Erico M; Cracraft, Joel; Ribas, Camila C

    2017-02-01

    A revision of the avian Neotropical genus Automolus and the Furnariidae family points to the paraphyly of A. infuscatus and reveals a species complex comprising A. infuscatus, A. ochrolaemus, A. paraensis, A. leucophthalmus, A. lammi and A. subulatus, the latter historically classified in the genus Hyloctistes. Detailed knowledge of the taxonomy, geographic distribution, phylogenetic relationship and divergence times of a taxon allows exploration of its evolutionary history and the testing of different scenarios of diversification. In this context, we studied the A. infuscatus complex using molecular data in order to unveil its cryptic diversity and reveal its evolutionary history. For that we sequenced two mitochondrial (ND2 and cytb) and three nuclear markers (G3PDH, ACO, Fib7) for 302 individuals belonging to all species in the complex and most described subspecies. Our analysis supports the paraphyly of A. infuscatus, indicating the existence of at least two distinct clades not closely related. The remaining species were all recovered as monophyletic. Notwithstanding, a well-structured intraspecific diversity was found with 19 lineages suggesting substantial cryptic diversity within the described species. A. subulatus was recovered within the complex, corroborating its position inside the genus. In spite of the high congruence between distributions of different lineages, with several sister lineages currently separated by the same barriers, the temporal incongruence between divergences over the same barriers reveals a complex evolutionary history. While older events might be related to the emergence of barriers such as the Andes and major Amazonian rivers, younger events suggest dispersal after the consolidation of those barriers. Our analysis suggests that the complex had its origin around 6million years (Ma) and inhabited Western Amazonia in Late Miocene-Early Pliocene. Considering the riparian habit of species in its sister clade, the rise and early

  9. New tools and insights to assist with the molecular identification of Simulium guianense s.l., main Onchocerca volvulus vector within the highland areas of the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crainey, James L; Mattos-Glória, Aline; Hamada, Neusa; Luz, Sérgio L B

    2014-03-01

    Following the success of the Onchocerciasis Elimination Programme for the Americas (OEPA), there is now just one Latin American onchocerciasis focus where onchocerciasis transmission is described as 'on-going:' the Amazonia Onchocerciasis focus. In the hyperendemic highland areas of the Amazonia focus, Simulium guianense s.l. Wise are the most important vectors of the disease. Populations of S. guianense s.l. are, however, known to vary in their cytogenetics and in a range of behaviours, including in their biting habits. In the hypoendemic lowland areas of the Amazonia focus, for example, S. guianense s.l. are generally regarded as zoophilic and consequently unimportant to disease transmission. Robust tools, to discriminate among various populations of S. guianense s.l. have, however, not yet been developed. In the work reported here, we have assessed the utility of a ribosomal DNA sequence fragment spanning the nuclear ribosomal ITS-1, ITS-2 and 5.8S sequence regions and a ∼850 nucleotide portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase gene (CO1) for species-level identification and for resolving the within species substructuring. We report here how we have generated 78 CO1 sequences from a rich set of both zoophilic and anthropophilic populations of S. guianense s.l. that were collected from eight sites that are broadly distributed across Brazil. Consistent with previous findings, our analysis supports the genetic isolation of Simulium litobranchium from S. guianense s.l. In contrast with previous findings, however, our results did not provide support for the divergence of the two species prior to the radiation of S. guianense s.l. In our analysis of the S. guianense s.l. ribosomal DNA sequence trace files we generated, we provide clear evidence of multiple within-specimen single nucleotide polymorphisms and indels suggesting that S. guianense s.l. ribosomal DNA is not a good target for conventional DNA barcoding. This is the first report of S. guianense s

  10. Global warming in Amazonia: impacts and Mitigation Aquecimento Global na Amazônia: impactos e Mitigação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Martin Fearnside

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Global warming has potentially catastrophic impacts in Amazonia, while at the same time maintenance of the Amazon forest offers one of the most valuable and cost-effective options for mitigating climate change. We know that the El Niño phenomenon, caused by temperature oscillations of surface water in the Pacific, has serious impacts in Amazonia, causing droughts and forest fires (as in 1997-1998. Temperature oscillations in the Atlantic also provoke severe droughts (as in 2005. We also know that Amazonian trees die both from fires and from water stress under hot, dry conditions. In addition, water recycled through the forest provides rainfall that maintains climatic conditions appropriate for tropical forest, especially in the dry season. What we need to know quickly, through intensified research, includes progress in representing El Niño and the Atlantic oscillations in climatic models, representation of biotic feedbacks in models used for decision-making about global warming, and narrowing the range of estimating climate sensitivity to reduce uncertainty about the probability of very severe impacts. Items that need to be negotiated include the definition of "dangerous" climate change, with the corresponding maximum levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Mitigation of global warming must include maintaining the Amazon forest, which has benefits for combating global warming from two separate roles: cutting the flow the emissions of carbon each year from the rapid pace of deforestation, and avoiding emission of the stock of carbon in the remaining forest that can be released by various ways, including climate change itself. Barriers to rewarding forest maintenance include the need for financial rewards for both of these roles. Other needs are for continued reduction of uncertainty regarding emissions and deforestation processes, as well as agreement on the basis of carbon accounting. As one of the countries most subject to impacts of

  11. Strengthening Adaptation to Extreme Climate Events in Southwestern Amazonia: an Example from the Trinational Acre River Basin in the Madre de Dios/Peru - Acre/Brazil - Pando/Bolivia (MAP) Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I. F.

    2015-12-01

    Southwestern Amazonia, where Bolivia, Brazil and Peru meet, faces numerous challenges to the sustainable utilization of land and water resources as the region experiences rapid population and economic growth, expanding agriculture, transportation and energy sectors, along with frequent flooding and droughts. It is also predicted to be one of the most susceptible areas for climate change in the coming decade. The Acre River Basin, one of the few trinational basins in Amazonia, lies at the center of the Madre de Dios Region (Peru), Acre State (Brazil) and Pando Department (Bolivia) or MAP Region. It covers approximately 7,500 km2 and its inhabitants range from indigenous groups avoiding contact with industrial society to more than 60,000 dwellers of a binational urban center. The basin incorporates most the challenges facing the region and this paper discusses steps underway to address the basin's vulnerability to climate-related threats. A trinational group of professionals used GIS databases and local knowledge to classify these threats and possible societal responses. To prioritize threats and to propose responses, this group adapted a method proposed by the Queensland Climate Change Centre of Excellence of Australia to develop climate risk matrices for assessing impacts, adaptation, risk and vulnerability. The three priority climate variables were prolonged and more frequent droughts, more intense flooding, and more days with temperatures > 35oC. The final matrix proposed two areas of concentration - 1) Reduce the vulnerability of communities to hydro-meteorological extreme events and 2) Protect and restore ecosystems that maintain critical water-related resources with actions in public policy, capacity-building, and immediate activities. These results are being incorporated into the Amazon Project of the Global Environment Fund of the United Nations Environment Program, administered by the Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization (ACTO).

  12. Anaplasma marginale infection in cattle from south-western Amazonia Infecção por Anaplasma marginale em bovinos na Amazônia Sul Ocidental, Brasil

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    Luciana Gatto Brito

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study provides the first epidemiological data regarding infection by Anaplasma marginale in cattle reared in south-western Brazilian Amazonia. One simple procedure was adapted for the extraction of DNA from blood clots collected in seven microregions of Rondônia State and two mesoregions of Acre State. PCR method was used to asses the frequency of A. marginale infections in 4 to12-month-old cattle. The cattle infection was investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR using the specific primer "msp5" for A. marginale. The DNA amplifications revealed that the mean frequency of A. marginale infection was 98.6% (1,627/1,650 in samples from Rondonia, and 92.87% (208/225 in samples from Acre. The high frequency of A. marginale infections in 4 to 12-month-old cattle indicate a situation of enzootic stability in the studied areas and are comparable to those detected by immunodiagnosis in different endemic regions in Brazil. The DNA extraction of clotted blood method described here can be used for epidemiological studies on anaplasmosis and other bovine hemoparasites.O presente estudo fornece os primeiros dados epidemiológicos relativos a infecção por Anaplasma marginale em bovinos criados na Amazônia Sul Ocidental brasileira. Foi adaptado um procedimento simples para a extração de DNA a partir de coágulos sanguíneos coletados em sete microrregiões do estado de Rondônia e duas mesoregiões do estado do Acre. A técnica da reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR foi aplicada para avaliar a freqüência da infecção por A. marginale em bovinos com idade entre 4 e 12 meses. Após a extração do DNA de cada amostra, a infecção nos bovinos foi investigada pela amplificação do gene "msp5" de A. marginale. As técnicas de amplificação do DNA revelaram que a freqüência de infecção por A. marginale foi de 98,6% (1.627/1.650 nas amostras provenientes de Rondônia e de 92,87% (208/225 nas amostras do Acre. A alta freqüência da

  13. Indicadores de sustentabilidade ambiental e de saúde na Amazônia Legal, Brasil Environmental sustainability and health indicators in the Legal Amazonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Machado de Freitas

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Entre os desafios atuais para a Saúde Pública está o de estruturar sistemas de indicadores que permitam monitorar as condições e tendências da sustentabilidade ambiental e de saúde. Neste artigo procuramos enfrentar esse desafio tendo como foco de análise os estados integrantes da Macrorregião Amazônia Legal, que desde a segunda metade do século XX vem sofrendo intensos processos de mudanças sócio-econômicas, ambientais, de saúde e bem-estar. Para a reunião e análise do conjunto de indicadores adotamos o modelo Forças Motrizes, Pressão, Situação, Exposição, Efeito e Ação (FMPSEEA proposto pela Organização Mundial da Saúde. Os resultados demonstram que, ao mesmo tempo em que as forças motrizes e pressões vêm contribuindo para o crescimento econômico e populacional, resultando em melhoras de indicadores tradicionais de saúde (redução da mortalidade infantil e aumento da expectativa de vida, são grandes as desigualdades sociais e econômicas e a sobreposição dos impactos na saúde da população, em um quadro bastante heterogêneo. Além disso, a situação ambiental também aponta para um modelo de desenvolvimento insustentável para as gerações presentes e futuras, exigindo respostas dos setores ambientais e de saúde à altura dos desafios colocados na atualidade.One of the challenges for public health is to build systems of indicators that allow monitoring current conditions and trends in environmental and health sustainability. This article focuses on the Legal Amazonia macro-region, which has undergone profound socioeconomic, environmental, and health changes since the mid-20th century. The conceptual framework adopted here was the model entitled Driving Forces, Pressures, State, Exposure, Effects, and Action (DPSEEA proposed by the World Health Organization and adopted for environmental health surveillance by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The results show that numerous motor forces and pressures

  14. Imaginaire acoustique et apprentissage d’une ontologie animiste Acoustic imagination and the learning of an animistic ontologyThe case of the Quechua of Peruvian Amazonia

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    Andréa-Luz Gutierrez Choquevilca

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cet article examine le rôle de l’imitation sonore au sein des pratiques et des représentations de la chasse et de la maladie chez les Quechua d’Amazonie (Pastaza, Pérou. L’analyse se fonde sur un ensemble de récits qui mettent en scène une interaction avec les « maîtres du gibier » dans un contexte ordinaire ou rituel. Partant de la description des techniques de chasse au leurre, l’auteur montre la pertinence d’un mode de communication fondé sur la simulation sonore au sein des interactions contrôlées et incontrôlées avec les entités tutélaires du gibier (récits d’initiation cynégétique ou biographies de rencontre d’esprit. Après avoir montré la cohérence de ce schéma dans la sphère de la praxis cynégétique, l’auteur explore un cas de maladie infantile shinkurana, dans lequel l’usage du « masque sonore » et les mécanismes de « voix citées » jouent un rôle clef dans le processus d’attribution d’une « agentivit�� » aux entités pathogènes. L’article analyse ainsi le phénomène de l’imitation sonore comme une stratégie perceptive et cognitive efficace, massivement mobilisée dans un contexte d’apprentissage et de validation des représentations animistes.This article examines the role of sound imitation in the practice and representation of hunting and sickness among the Quechua of Amazonia (Pastaza, Peru. The analysis is based on a set of stories that presents an interaction with “masters of game” in an ordinary or ritual context. Beginning with a description of lure hunting techniques, the author shows the relevance of a communication mode based on sound simulation in controlled and uncontrolled interactions with entities protective of game (stories of hunting initiation or accounts of spirit encounters. After having demonstrated the consistency of this pattern in the sphere of hunting praxis, the author explores a case of infant sickness shinkurana, in which

  15. Andean settlers rush for Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-vega, J

    1990-01-01

    Governments of Andean countries (Peru, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Venezuela) have encouraged migration to the Amazon Basin, which has contributed to its destruction. Population pressure, landlessness, and poverty are the inducements to migrate. Efforts to populate the Amazon forest were begun as early as 1964 in Peru without international notice. By 1980, logging was allowed in Peru, and Brazil considered colonization of the Amazon essential to national sovereignty. By 1986, outside of Lima, Peru, a development project originally funded by the World Bank, the InterAmerican Development Bank, and the US, resulted in conflicts between settlers and Indians, in loggers indiscriminately cutting, and in farmers using slash and burn techniques to clear forests. Elsewhere the Peruvian Amazon, in San Ignacio, the population was growing by 5.5%/year. The jungle road that had been started but never completed, Carretera Marginal, destroyed 5 million hectares of primary forest, and much of the 600,000 hectares of arable land gained by the road suffered from inappropriate farming practices which caused massive erosion and laterization of the soils. Food crop production declined, and production of coca for cocaine increased. Coca crops are controlled by the Shining Path guerrillas, who are trying to overthrow the Peruvian government. Devastation of Ecuador around Lago Agrio continues. In Colombia, east of Bogota, forests have disappeared and hills have eroded and silted up rivers and dams. The Andean piedmont in Bolivia has also been devastated by loggers and by slash and burn farming. Southeastern Bolivian forests have been cleared for soya bean cultivation on poor soils. Social and economic crises propel people into the remaining forests. The solution is to ease foreign debt, transfer appropriate technology at affordable prices, refuse to finance destructive development, and help to educate and train scientific researchers. Family planning services are also urgently needed. Basic facts on population, biodiversity, the greenhouse effect, deforestation, roads, iron, gold, and Indians is provided.

  16. The inclusion of electric power and the challenge of sustainability in remote inland areas of the Amazon; A inclusao eletrica e o desafio da sustentabilidade nas areas remotas do interior da Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcante, Andreia Santos; Cartaxo, Elizabeth Ferreira [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (NIEMA/UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Energia, Meio Ambiente e Agua

    2008-07-01

    This article brings some reflections on the National Program of Universalization of the Access and Use of the Electric Energy, Luz para Todos, in areas as the Amazonia. This Program when implanting and executing the actions characterized the Brazilian state in way uniform, disrespecting the particularity and diversity of the Amazon region. This attitude has not met of the goals foreseen for the electrification of the Amazonian, evidencing thus, that the geographic, cultural and social multiplicities of climates and characteristics constitute great obstacles for the implantation of homogeneous politics. This, for certain, demonstrates that the potential of development of each region has differentiated dynamic, which would have to influence and to direct the formularization of politics. It characterizes this proposal bold and ambitious of the Federal Government from carried through empirical experience in an Amazonian community, Terra Preta do Limao, located in the city of Barreirinha. In this way, given referring to the organizational structure, the situation of job and income, to the access the social goods and services and the productive occupational vocation of this population bring answers on the impacts of the program in the improvement of the quality of life of this social segment. Moreover, it presents indications of that the resources destined to the implantation of the program, make impracticable, for its high cost, other social priorities. Although the electric energy is essential for the economic progress of a country, the expansion of its services to the necessary society to be seen in accord with sustainable criteria, of form to prevent the exploration and high consumption of the natural resources and the wastefulness of energy. With this reading, the work if considers to show to the incoherencies of the Program in the State of Amazon, evidencing the obstacles for the reach of the goals traced for the State. Therefore, considering what the Amazonia

  17. La licenciatura en "lingüística y educación indígena"; proyecto para la profesionalización de docentes en la Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dupont Moreno Carlos

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Los movimientos indigenistas que buscan reivindicaciones políticas, sociales y económicas a nivel continental y la promulgación de leyes y normas que definen y asignan nuevas funciones a la educación para indígenas, comienzan a generar propuestas etnoeducativas en todo el territorio nacional. No obstante, tales esfuerzos se ven obstaculizados por la carencia de personal indígena capacitado para concebir y conducir programas propios, en el marco de la llamada educación bilingüe-intercultural, La Universidad de la Amazonia ha elaborado y puesto en marcha el primer programa de formación profesional, a nivel universitario, a través de un currículo experimental, cuyas características, métodos de implementación y primeros resultados se presentan  someramente en el presente artículo.

  18. PAPEL TRÓFICO DEL MICROBIAL LOOP EN UN LAGO DE INUNDACIÓN EN LA AMAZONÍA CENTRAL The Trophic Role of Microbial Loop in an Amazonia Central Floodplain Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEDRO CARABALLO

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de evaluar la participación de bacterias heterotróficas en el flujo de carbono en la cadena trófica de un lago de inundación amazónico, recolectas mensuales de estos microorganismos fueron realizadas durante el año hidrológico de diciembre de 2007 hasta noviembre de 2008, en las regiones litoral, pelágica y de macrófitas acuáticas del lago Catalão, en la Amazonia central brasilera. Las bacterias fueron multiplicadas in vitro, usando como sustrato carbono orgánico disuelto (COD del lago en cada una de las regiones estudiadas, para posterior análisis de la abundancia de isotopos estables de carbono y nitrógeno. Estos datos fueron confrontados con los valores de COD de los cuatro periodos limnológicos del lago (seca, inundación, llena y bajada de aguas. En general se encontró que la fuente principal de carbono de las bacterias heterotróficas fue aquella de origen C4, que presentó un aporte mínimo de 75%, en la medida en que el d13C de las bacterias presentó valor medio de -17,72‰ ± 2,25. Confrontando ese valor, con el d13C del zooplancton en el mismo período (- 33,04‰ ± 3,81 se concluye que el aporte de las bacterias heterotróficas al flujo de carbono hacia niveles tróficos superiores en el lago estudiado es mínimo.In order to evaluate the role of heterotrophic bacteria on carbon flow in food chains of an Amazonian floodplain lake, monthly collections of these organisms were made during the hydrological year from December 2007 to November 2008. Littoral, pelagic, and aquatic macrophyte regions of the Catalão Lake in Central Amazonia were sampled and bacteria were multiplied in vitro, using dissolved organic carbon (COD of each one of the regions studied as a substrate. The bacterial biomass obtained was used for stable isotope analyses of carbon and nitrogen. These data were confronted with COD values of the four hydrological periods of the lake (dry, rising, flood and fall. In general, it was found

  19. Enzimas hidrolíticas extracelulares de isolados de rizóbia nativos da Amazônia Central, Amazonas, Brasil Extracellular hydrolytic enzymes in indigenous strains of rhizobia in Central Amazonia, Amazonas, Brazil

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    Arlem Nascimento de Oliveira

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A associação rizóbia x leguminosa contribui para enriquecer o solo com nitrogênio por meio da fixação biológica. Entretanto, pouco se conhece a respeito do perfil enzimático desses microrganismos. Nesse contexto, a presente investigação propõe avaliar a produção de enzimas hidrolíticas extracelulares por isolados de rizóbia nativos da Amazônia Central. Essa triagem constitui o primeiro passo na seleção de microrganismos nativos que são potencialmente exploráveis como produtores de enzimas. Foram testados 67 isolados nativos de rizóbia para as atividades amilolítica, celulolítica, lactolítica, lipolítica, pectinolítica e proteolítica, em meio YMA modificado. A atividade ureolítica foi detectada em meio ágar-uréia. As bactérias isoladas dos nódulos de feijão caupi mostraram maior capacidade em produzir enzimas do que os isolados bacterianos de soja. De todas as enzimas hidrolíticas avaliadas, apenas a pectinase não foi detectada neste estudo. Amilase (32,8%, protease (28,4%, urease (20,9% e carboximetilcelulase (9,0% foram as enzimas mais freqüentes produzidas pelos isolados. Neste trabalho, apenas as enzimas amilase e protease variaram significativamente entre os isolados de rizóbia. Os isolados INPA R-926 e INPA R-915 exibiram os maiores índices amilolíticos (IE = 3,1 e proteolíticos (IE = 6,6, respectivamente. Este estudo revelou alguns isolados de rizóbia nativos da Amazônia Central como fontes promissoras de enzimas de importância industrial para uso biotecnológico.Legumes enrich the soil by contributing nitrogen through symbiotic biological nitrogen fixation by rhizobia bacteria. However, very little is known about the extracellular enzymatic profile of these microorganisms. In this context, the production of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes by indigenous strains of rhizobia in Central Amazonia was evaluated. This screening constitutes the first step in selecting indigenous microorganisms that are

  20. A medium-spatial scale distribution pattern of Pseudoscorpionida (Arachnida in a gradient of topography (altitude and inclination, soil factors, and litter in a central Amazonia forest reserve, Brazil

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    N. O. Aguiar

    Full Text Available In Amazonia, nothing is known about the distribution of the invertebrates on a medium-spatial scale pattern. In a trail system of 64 km² at Ducke Reserve, we sampled 72 transects using the hand-sorting method and Berlese-Tullgren extraction. The reserve possesses ecosystems of "terra-firme" forest and the trail system represents a gradient of topographic soil factors and vegetation, avoiding categorizations. Considering the abundance and diversity of Pseudoscorpionida, we investigated the relation of the community to environmental factors tested (topography, clay percentage, litter, and soil pH, to the two major drainage basins of the reserve, and if these invertebrates can be used as biological indicators to monitor changes. We registered two species for the first time in the reserve, increasing the known diversity to 17 species. The lack of correlation with the predictor variables and the large home range, indicate that pseudoscorpions are not good biological indicators in the reserve. As the eastern and western watersheds are not separate management units for the community, our results show that they are generalist predators. In spite of our results and lack of knowledge concerning their biology, life history and taxonomy, pseudoscorpions are cosmopolitan and easy to find and measure. Compared with previous studies in the reserve, they have a consistent pattern of abundance and diversity throughout the years showing the stability of the community which can be checked mainly by comparison with environmental changes that would occur in the reserve. An investigation on a medium-spatial scale pattern and over a long-term period including other habitats, and also other predictor variables, like humidity, the structure of the vegetation and canopy closure, will be necessary to reinforce the observed tendencies.

  1. A medium-spatial scale distribution pattern of Pseudoscorpionida (Arachnida) in a gradient of topography (altitude and inclination), soil factors, and litter in a central Amazonia forest reserve, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, N O; Gualberto, T L; Franklin, E

    2006-08-01

    In Amazonia, nothing is known about the distribution of the invertebrates on a medium-spatial scale pattern. In a trail system of 64 km2 at Ducke Reserve, we sampled 72 transects using the hand-sorting method and Berlese-Tullgren extraction. The reserve possesses ecosystems of "terra-firme" forest and the trail system represents a gradient of topographic soil factors and vegetation, avoiding categorizations. Considering the abundance and diversity of Pseudoscorpionida, we investigated the relation of the community to environmental factors tested (topography, clay percentage, litter, and soil pH), to the two major drainage basins of the reserve, and if these invertebrates can be used as biological indicators to monitor changes. We registered two species for the first time in the reserve, increasing the known diversity to 17 species. The lack of correlation with the predictor variables and the large home range, indicate that pseudoscorpions are not good biological indicators in the reserve. As the eastern and western watersheds are not separate management units for the community, our results show that they are generalist predators. In spite of our results and lack of knowledge concerning their biology, life history and taxonomy, pseudoscorpions are cosmopolitan and easy to find and measure. Compared with previous studies in the reserve, they have a consistent pattern of abundance and diversity throughout the years showing the stability of the community which can be checked mainly by comparison with environmental changes that would occur in the reserve. An investigation on a medium-spatial scale pattern and over a long-term period including other habitats, and also other predictor variables, like humidity, the structure of the vegetation and canopy closure, will be necessary to reinforce the observed tendencies.

  2. Performance of Two Cloud-Radiation Parameterization Schemes in the Finite Volume General Circulation Model for Anomalously Wet May and June 2003 Over the Continental United States and Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sud, Y. C.; Mocko, David M.; Lin, S. J.

    2006-01-01

    An objective assessment of the impact of a new cloud scheme, called Microphysics of Clouds with Relaxed Arakawa-Schubert Scheme (McRAS) (together with its radiation modules), on the finite volume general circulation model (fvGCM) was made with a set of ensemble forecasts that invoke performance evaluation over both weather and climate timescales. The performance of McRAS (and its radiation modules) was compared with that of the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate Model (NCAR CCM3) cloud scheme (with its NCAR physics radiation). We specifically chose the boreal summer months of May and June 2003, which were characterized by an anomalously wet eastern half of the continental United States as well as northern regions of Amazonia. The evaluation employed an ensemble of 70 daily 10-day forecasts covering the 61 days of the study period. Each forecast was started from the analyzed initial state of the atmosphere and spun-up soil moisture from the first-day forecasts with the model. Monthly statistics of these forecasts with up to 10-day lead time provided a robust estimate of the behavior of the simulated monthly rainfall anomalies. Patterns of simulated versus observed rainfall, 500-hPa heights, and top-of-the-atmosphere net radiation were recast into regional anomaly correlations. The correlations were compared among the simulations with each of the schemes. The results show that fvGCM with McRAS and its radiation package performed discernibly better than the original fvGCM with CCM3 cloud physics plus its radiation package. The McRAS cloud scheme also showed a reasonably positive response to the observed sea surface temperature on mean monthly rainfall fields at different time leads. This analysis represents a method for helpful systematic evaluation prior to selection of a new scheme in a global model.

  3. Notas sobre a composição arbóreo-arbustiva de uma fisionomia das savanas de Roraima, Amazônia Brasileira Notes on the woody composition of a vegetation physionomy of the Roraima's savannas, Brazilian Amazonia

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    Reinaldo Imbrozio Barbosa

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um inventário florístico das espécies arbóreo-arbustivas presentes em uma das unidades de vegetação que compõem a paisagem de savanas do Estado de Roraima, extremo norte da Amazônia brasileira. Esta unidade é caracterizada por ser densamente colonizada por ninhos do cupim Cornitermes ovatus Emerson. Foram observadas 29 espécies (15 famílias botânicas em três localidades utilizadas para a amostragem. O total de espécies, por localidade, variou de 12 a 20. As espécies mais abundantes foram Byrsonima verbascifolia (L. DC. e Mimosa microcephala Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd. (subarbustivas, Byrsonima cf. intermedia A. Juss. e Randia formosa (Jack. K. Schum. (arbustivas e, Byrsonima crassifolia (L. H.B.K. e Curatella americana L. (arbóreas. Oito espécies são comuns às três localidades. A diversidade medida pelo Índice de Shannon (H' foi baixa para todos os locais amostrados (A floristic inventory of woody species was carried out in one of the vegetation units that compose the savannas landscape of the Roraima State, northernmost of Brazilian Amazonia. This unit is characterized by dense colonization of nests of termites Cornitermes ovatus Emerson. Twenty nine woody species were observed (15 botany families in three localities used for sampling. The total of species varied from 12 to 20 by locality. The most abundant species were Byrsonima verbascifolia (L. DC. and Mimosa microcephala Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd. (dwarf shrubs, Byrsonima cf. intermedia A. Juss. and Randia formosa (Jack. K. Schum. (shrubby and, Byrsonima crassifolia (L. H.B.K. and Curatella americana L. (arboreal. Eight species are common to all localities. Diversity measured by the Index of Shannon (H' was low for all the areas sampled (<0.90 indicating high specimens concentration in few species. The Index of Sørensen indicated similarities (± 0.60 among studied areas, suggesting a group of landscapes with common plant diversity, representing a same

  4. Use of AFLPS to distinguish landraces of pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes in brazilian Amazonia Uso de AFLPS para discriminar raças primitivas de pupunha (Bactris gasipaes na Amazônia brasileira

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    Charles R. Clement

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the first inhabitants of western Amazonia domesticated pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes Kunth, Palmae or peach palm for its fruits, today it is widely planted for its heart-of-palm. Like other domesticates, pejibaye presents a complex hierarchy of landraces developed before the conquest of the Americas. The existence of three landraces (Pará, Solimões, Putumayo was proposed along the Amazonas and Solimões Rivers, Brazil, based on morphological characteristics. There are some questions remaining about the intermediate landrace being an artifact of the morphometric analysis. AFLPs were used to evaluate the relationships among samples of these putative landraces. DNA was extracted from 99 plants representing 13 populations maintained in the Pejibaye Germplasm Bank, Manaus, AM; six primer combinations generated 245 markers via PCR, which were scored in an ABI Prism 310 sequencer and analyzed with GeneScan Software; Jaccard similarities were estimated and a dendrogram was generated with UPGMA. Two groups of plants were observed in the dendrogram instead of three, and were similar at 0.795. Each group contained two subgroups, similar at 0.815. One group (n=41 contained 73% Pará landrace plants, with one subgroup (n=22 containing 91% Pará, and the other (n=19 containing 53% Pará. The other group (n=58 contained 53% Solimões and 40% Putumayo landrace plants, with one subgroup (n=21 containing 52% Solimões and 43% Putumayo, and the other (n=35 containing 57% Solimões and 37% Putumayo. The first group confirmed the Pará landrace. The second group suggested that the Solimões landrace does not exist, but that the Putumayo landrace extends along the Solimões River to Central Amazonia.Os primeiros povos da Amazônia ocidental domesticaram a pupunha (Bactris gasipaes Kunth, Palmae por seu fruto, embora hoje seja muito plantada por seu palmito. Como outros cultivos domesticados, a pupunha apresenta uma hierarquia complexa de raças primitivas

  5. Morphometric patterns and preferential uses of Capsicum peppers in the State of Roraima, Brazilian Amazonia Padrões morfométricos e usos preferenciais de pimentas Capsicum spp. em Roraima, Amazônia Brasileira

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    Reinaldo I Barbosa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to study distinctions in the morphology of the pepper fruits (Capsicum spp., Solanaceae used by indigenous (living in traditional villages and non-indigenous groups (originated from migration and colonization, with or without miscegenation, living on non-indigenous lands in the State of Roraima, Northern Brazilian Amazonia. In this sense, we used a database with 182 subsamples of Capsicum spp. Accessions were collected at 39 sites (14 indigenous and 25 non-indigenous, which were characterized additionally in relation to the predominant phytophysiognomy (savanna or forest and home zone (rural or urban. We found morphological differences in pepper fruits related to both phytophysiognomy and home zone of the collecting site, but not to ethnical origin. We believe those differences are more related to the inherent crop practices, which suffer strong environmental influence, than to user preference. Both indigenous and non-indigenous groups preferred morphotypes from C. chinense and C. frutescens, which have small and highly pungent fruits. Nevertheless, fruit color was not important. These morphotypes are used by both indigenous and non-indigenous users for preparing sauce and jiquitaia (pepper powder. We suggested 'cultural adherence' as the reason for the common preferred use of peppers by both ethnical groups analyzed in Roraima.O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar distinções no padrão morfológico de frutos de pimentas do gênero Capsicum spp. (Solanaceae utilizados por grupos tradicionais indígenas (vivendo em aldeias e não-indígenas (derivado da migração/colonização, contendo ou não miscigenação, situados fora de áreas indígenas, em Roraima, norte da Amazônia brasileira. Para tanto foi utilizado um banco de dados com 182 subamostras de Capsicum spp. coletadas em 39 localidades daquele estado (14 indígenas e 25 não-indígenas. As localidades foram caracterizadas também por tipos fitofision

  6. Características hidrológicas do solo saturado na Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke - Amazônia central Hydrological characterists of the satured soil in the Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve - central Amazonia

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    Juan Daniel Villacis Fajardo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, investigaram-se a porosidade e condutividade hidráulica da zona saturada do solo, buscando entender como essas variáveis físicas afetam os processos hidrológicos em uma área de floresta primária, sob pressão urbana, na Amazônia central. O experimento foi realizado na Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke, localizada ao norte da cidade de Manaus, AM. No igarapé Bolívia foi instalado um posto fluviométrico (régua linimétrica e linígrafo; no local, foram instalados quatro piezômetros na zona ripária, perpendicular ao curso do igarapé. A porosidade variou no perfil do solo, alcançando valores acima de 0,40 cm³/cm³. Os valores médios de condutividade hidráulica saturada ou infiltração básica (K foram elevados e variaram de 89,5 ± 12,8 a 279,5 ± 9,0 mm/h. O nível d'água no igarapé oscilou entre 65 e 141 cm, no período de observação (novembro de 2005 a outubro de 2007. O piezômetro da camada profunda do solo, distante do curso d'água, variou entre 166,2 e 304,9 cm. As condutividades hidráulicas do solo saturado foram maiores nos pontos mais distantes do curso d'água, tanto na camada superficial quanto na profunda, determinando o comportamento hidrológico do lençol freático no local.This study investigated the porosity and the hydraulic conductivity on the saturated zone of the soil trying to understand how these physical variables affect the hydrological processes, in an area of primary forest under urban pressure, in Central Amazonia. The experiment was carried out in the Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve, located on the north of the city of Manaus - AM. One water measurement station (water level scale was installed in the Igarapé Bolívia and four piezometers were installed in the site, the latter on the riparian zone, perpendicular to the course of the stream. The porosity varied in the soil profile, reaching values above 0.40 cm³/cm³. The mean values for the saturated hydraulic conductivity or basic

  7. Contribuição para o conhecimento da taxonomia, ecologia e fitogeografia de Briófitas da Amazônia Oriental Contribution to the taxonomy, ecology and phytogeographical knowledge of Bryophytes from Eastern Amazonia

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    Lisi Dámaris Pereira Alvarenga

    2009-09-01

    liverworts were collected in non-flooded forest (terra firme, flooded forest (várzea and igapó, secondary forest and savanna ecosystems. They were analyzed for composition, richness and diversity. One thousand eighty one occurrences of 120 Bryophytes species (79 liverworts and 41 mosses were recorded; and among them eight liverworts are new references from the state of Pará. The richest and most frequently encountered families were Lejeuneaceae (58 spp., Calymperaceae (13 spp., Sematophyllaceae (9 spp. and Plagiochilaceae (7 spp.. The most representative communities were the epiphytic (97 species/ 565 occurrences and epixylic (65 spp./ 242 ocurr., followed by foliicolous (27 spp./ 174 ocurr. and terricolous (15 spp./ 96 ocurr.; and the richest and most diverse ecosystem was the terra firme forest. The composition analysis of the surveyed substrates showed a gradual inversion in the richness ratio between liverworts/mosses, where the liverworts were strongly dominant in leaves, slightly dominant in live and dead trunks and the mosses were dominant in the others substrates. The results of this study, like the new references, contribute for understanding patterns of richness and diversity in Amazonia and increase the bryophyte flora of Pará.

  8. Florística e fitossociologia de uma floresta de vertente na Amazônia Central, Amazonas, Brasil Floristic and phytosociology of a slope forest in Central Amazonia, Amazonas, Brazil

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    Arlem Nascimento de Oliveira

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo florístico e fitossociológico de árvores, palmeiras e lianas com diâmetro à altura do peito (DAP >10 cm, em uma floresta de vertente na Amazônia Central (2º35'45" S e 60º12'40" W, foi realizado empregando-se 20 parcelas de 50 x 10 m, distribuídas em dois transectos paralelos de 500 x 10 m. Foram registrados 771 indivíduos, pertencentes a 50 famílias, 120 gêneros e 239 espécies. Das espécies amostradas, 44% são "localmente raras". Sapotaceae, Lecythidaceae, Fabaceae, Caesalpiniaceae e Chrysobalanaceae constituíram as cinco famílias com maior riqueza de espécies e número de indivíduos. Dos 771 indivíduos amostrados, mais de 65% apresentaram DAP > 20 cm. As espécies Eschweilera bracteosa e Protium apiculatum apresentaram os maiores valores de IVI. Cerca de 83% das espécies encontram-se distribuídas aleatoriamente no hectare amostrado. O índice de diversidade Shannon-Wiener foi de 5,01 nats.indivíduo-1, com uniformidade de 0,91, valores altos no contexto de levantamentos semelhantes na região. A heterogeneidade edáfica e topográfica da área, as taxas de recrutamento de novos indivíduos e de espécies "localmente raras" à comunidade local, podem ter contribuído para as altas dissimilaridade (36,2% e diversidade florísticas documentadas neste estudo.The floristic and phytosociological study of trees, palms and lianas with diameter at breast height (DBH >10 cm in a forest slope in Central Amazonia (2º35'45 "S and 60º12'40" W was carried out using 20 plots of 50 x 10 m, distributed in two parallel transects of 500 x 10 m. A total of 771 plants were registered, belonging to 50 families, 120 genera and 239 species. Of the sampled species, 44% are locally rare. Families with the most species and number of individuals were Sapotaceae, Lecythidaceae, Fabaceae, Caesalpiniaceae and Chrysobalanaceae. More than 65% of the sampled plants had DBH > 20 cm. Eschweilera bracteosa and Protium apiculatum were the most

  9. Dinâmica da mobilização de elementos em solos da Amazônia submetidos à inundação Dinamics of elements in soils from Amazonia after controlled inundation

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    Hedinaldo Narciso Lima

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Parte significativa de solos da Amazônia permanece saturada ou inundada por períodos que podem variar de alguns dias a vários meses, em decorrência de enchentes ou deficiência de drenagem em algumas áreas, resultando em alterações químicas, físicas e biológicas nos solos. Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a dinâmica da mobilização de Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Si e P em solos da Amazônia submetidos a inundação. Amostras de vários solos foram submetidas à inundação durante seis meses. Alíquotas da solução foram coletadas periodicamente durante o tempo de inundação e determinaram-se os teores dos diversos elementos em solução. A inundação influenciou a cinética dos elementos, com aumento da mobilização dos mesmos, principalmente, nas primeiras semanas. Os teores de Fe em solução foram mais elevados para os solos mais ricos em Fe amorfo. Em amostras com baixos teores de Fe amorfo e baixo conteúdo de matéria orgânica, os teores de Fe em solução foram muito reduzidos. O teor de P em solução foi influenciado por todas as formas de P. O P ligado ao Fe foi a forma que maior influência exerceu sobre o teor de P solúvel. Os teores dos cátions Ca, Mg, K e Na, em solução, foram diretamente influenciados por seus respectivos teores trocáveis, bem como pela cinética do Fe e do Mn.Significant part of Amazonia soils stays partially or completely waterlogged for varying periods of days to months, as result of widespread inundation or drainage deficiency in some areas, causing changes in chemical, physical and biological properties. In this work, we aimed to evaluate the dynamics of mobilization of Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Si, P in soils subjected to controlled six months inundation. Soil solution aliquots were collected periodically during the inundation period, determining all elements in solution. The inundation influenced the kinetics of elements, increasing their mobilization, notably in

  10. Branch xylem density variations across Amazonia

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    S. Patiño

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of branch xylem density, Dx, were made for 1466 trees representing 503 species, sampled from 80 sites across the Amazon basin. Measured values ranged from 240 kg m−3 for a Brosimum parinarioides from Tapajos in West Pará, Brazil to 1130 kg m−3 for an Aiouea sp. from Caxiuana, Central Pará, Brazil. Analysis of variance showed significant differences in average Dx across the sample plots as well as significant differences between families, genera and species. A partitioning of the total variance in the dataset showed that geographic location and plot accounted for 33% of the variation with species identity accounting for an additional 27%; the remaining "residual" 40% of the variance accounted for by tree to tree (within species variation. Variations in plot means, were, however, hardly accountable at all by differences in species composition. Rather, it would seem that variations of xylem density at plot level must be explained by the effects of soils and/or climate. This conclusion is supported by the observation that the xylem density of the more widely distributed species varied systematically from plot to plot. Thus, as well as having a genetic component branch xylem density is a plastic trait that, for any given species, varies according to where the tree is growing and in a predictable manner. Exceptions to this general rule may be some pioneers belonging to Pourouma and Miconia and some species within the genera Brosimum, Rinorea and Trichillia which seem to be more constrained in terms of this plasticity than most species sampled as part of this study.

  11. Chemical studies on medicinal Myristicaceae from Amazonia.

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    Gottlieb, O R

    1979-12-01

    Drugs from Myristicaceae species are used in the Amazon region as hallucinogens and arrow poisons, as well as for the healing of infected wounds. The former effects were attributed by Schultes and Holmstedt to tryptamines and carbolines. The latter activity is now tentatively ascribed to pterocarpans and neolignans. This, and a proposal that the red colour of the bark resins may be due to oxidative dimers of flavans, are based on a review of the chemistry of Amazonian Myristicaceae.

  12. dos hoteis de selva na Amazonia, Brasil

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    Adriana Gomes de Moraes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the challenge of desvelar of that it forms the hoteleiros enterprises they manage its ambient action without causing great impacts in one of biggest ecosystems of the world, the Amazonian forest, was tried to know in this research the forms of ambient management of the located hotels of forest in the legal Amazônia. The norteadora question of the research was to know that type of ambient management is made by the hotels of selva?Foi used as instrument of collection of data the questionnaire, that if subdividiui in four great subjects to be searched. The first one was relative questions to the planning of the place, according to to the profile of the customer, third to the room and the relative questions architecture the building subject relative questions to the energy resources and infrastructure of the public services. As result of this analysis was concluded that two of three hotels searched are practising management ambient of form less impactante, since type of construction adopted until services offered to guests, or either shows objective that its hotel is coadjuvante for customer that visits this type of place, that stops it does not import luxury, comfort and amenities, more yes contact with the fauna and flora and way of life of the natives

  13. Deforestation in Amazonia impacts riverine carbon dynamics

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    Langerwisch, Fanny; Walz, Ariane; Rammig, Anja; Tietjen, Britta; Thonicke, Kirsten; Cramer, Wolfgang

    2016-12-01

    Fluxes of organic and inorganic carbon within the Amazon basin are considerably controlled by annual flooding, which triggers the export of terrigenous organic material to the river and ultimately to the Atlantic Ocean. The amount of carbon imported to the river and the further conversion, transport and export of it depend on temperature, atmospheric CO2, terrestrial productivity and carbon storage, as well as discharge. Both terrestrial productivity and discharge are influenced by climate and land use change. The coupled LPJmL and RivCM model system (Langerwisch et al., 2016) has been applied to assess the combined impacts of climate and land use change on the Amazon riverine carbon dynamics. Vegetation dynamics (in LPJmL) as well as export and conversion of terrigenous carbon to and within the river (RivCM) are included. The model system has been applied for the years 1901 to 2099 under two deforestation scenarios and with climate forcing of three SRES emission scenarios, each for five climate models. We find that high deforestation (business-as-usual scenario) will strongly decrease (locally by up to 90 %) riverine particulate and dissolved organic carbon amount until the end of the current century. At the same time, increase in discharge leaves net carbon transport during the first decades of the century roughly unchanged only if a sufficient area is still forested. After 2050 the amount of transported carbon will decrease drastically. In contrast to that, increased temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentration determine the amount of riverine inorganic carbon stored in the Amazon basin. Higher atmospheric CO2 concentrations increase riverine inorganic carbon amount by up to 20 % (SRES A2). The changes in riverine carbon fluxes have direct effects on carbon export, either to the atmosphere via outgassing or to the Atlantic Ocean via discharge. The outgassed carbon will increase slightly in the Amazon basin, but can be regionally reduced by up to 60 % due to deforestation. The discharge of organic carbon to the ocean will be reduced by about 40 % under the most severe deforestation and climate change scenario. These changes would have local and regional consequences on the carbon balance and habitat characteristics in the Amazon basin itself as well as in the adjacent Atlantic Ocean.

  14. Bilingual Education: An Experience in Peruvian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Mildred L., Ed.; Davis, Patricia M., Ed.

    This book reports on an experimental bilingual education program conducted in Peru by Peruvian educators and Summer Institute of Linguistics (SIL) linguists. Sections of the book discuss: (1) the historical perspective of the program; (2) program aspects such as teacher training, goals, and curriculum; (3) what this program may contribute to the…

  15. The phlebotomine sandflies of Venezuelan Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliciangeli, M D; Ramirez Perez, J; Ramirez, A

    1988-01-01

    Phlebotomine sandflies were surveyed in two ecologically contrasted areas, the northern moist and southern wet tropical forests, of the Territorio Federal Amazonas, Venezuela. Three new taxa and twenty-one new records were added to the previously known species list for Venezuelan sandflies, which now totals eighty species. Both sexes of Lutzomyia (Psychodopygus) killicki sp.n., L. (Trichophoryomyia) bettinii sp.n., L. (Nyssomyia) olmeca reducta subsp.n. and and the females of L. bernalei Osorno et al., Brumptomyia pintoi Costa Lima and L. begonae (Ortiz & Torres) are described and illustrated.

  16. Micorrizas arbusculares del sur de la Amazonia colombiana y su relación con algunos factores fisicoquímicos y biológicos del suelo Micorrizas arbusculares no sul da Amazônia colombiana e sua relação com algumos fatores fisicoquímicos e biológicos do solo

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    Clara Patricia Peña-Venegas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de micorrizas arbusculares en la vegetación de la Amazonia mejora la nutrición de las plantas en suelos de baja fertilidad. Este trabajo evaluó la presencia natural de hongos micorrícicos de tipo arbuscular (HMA en suelos ácidos de textura franco-arcillosa a arcillosa del sur de la Amazonia colombiana bajo bosque, rastrojo joven, y praderas establecidas, a dos profundidades diferentes. Fue estudiada la presencia de HMA (riqueza y abundancia de esporas relacionado con la acidez, la capacidad de intercambio catiónico, el carbono orgánico, el fósforo total, las fracciones de fósforo soluble y fijado al aluminio, hierro y calcio, y el ADN total del suelo. Se detectaron diferencias significativas, en el contenido de ADN total y el número de esporas respecto a la profundidad de muestreo. El pH presentó un efecto significativo sobre el contenido de ADN y el número de esporas de HMA. El contenido de ADN en el suelo se vio afectado por las concentraciones de fosfatos de aluminio, mientras la esporulación de HMA fue afectada por las concentraciones de fosfatos de hierro del suelo. Así, el número de esporas de HMA en suelos de la Amazonia se ve afectada por la profundidad, el pH y por el tipo de fosfatos minerales presentes.A presença das micorrizas arbusculares na vegetação da Amazônia pode incrementar a nutrição das plantas nos solos com baixa fertilidade. Neste estudo foi avaliada a ocorrência natural de fungos formadores de micorriza arbuscular (MA em solos ácidos de textura argilosa no sul da Amazônia colombiana, considerando-se nas coberturas de floresta nativa, floresta secundaria jovem, e pastagens estabelecidas e duas profundidades. Foi estudada a ocorrência das MA (riqueza e abundância de esporos com relação à: acidez, capacidade de troca de cátions, carbono orgânico, fósforo total, frações de fósforo solúvel, frações fixadas ao alumínio, ferro e cálcio e DNA total do solo. Quanto

  17. Estudio de los estados larvales de la ictiofauna en la zona de Puerto Nariño, Amazonia Colombiana, durante el período de aguas ascendentes (2003

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    Gutiérrez Espinosa Mónica Andrea

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizó taxonómicamente las larvas de peces de la zona de Puerto Nariño (Amazonia colombiana durante el período de aguas ascendentes 2003 (enero a marzo, además se hizo un acercamiento a la dinámica ecológica de la reproducción de los peces a partir de las larvas capturadas. Los muestreos se realizaron con una jama de mano de 80 x 40 cm con marco de hierro y con una malla de anjeo con orificio de 1,5 mm instalada en la proa de una lancha, en siete diferentes localidades con tipo de aguas diferentes (río Amazonas, río Loreto Yacu, caño Zancudillo, lago El Sapo, lago El Correo, lago Tarapoto, caño Igarapé Uassú. Se colectaron 6.492 larvas y juveniles de peces, correspondientes a cinco órdenes (Characiformes, Siluriformes, Perciformes, Clupeiformes y Gymnotiformes y 15 familias. Se identificaron taxonómicamente y se describieron 56 morfoespecies de larvas de peces, de las cuales solo el 23,2% fueron a nivel específico, cifra alta si se tiene en cuenta la falta de información bibliográfica al respecto. La identificación taxonómica fue complicada; sin embargo, la presencia y ausencia de ciertos caracteres como: aletas, barbicelos, escamas y caracteres merísticos como: número de miómeros, número de radios permitió llegar en algunos casos a nivel taxonómico de familia y género. A nivel de orden la identificación fue relativamente fácil especialmente en estados avanzados de desarrollo. A nivel de familia fue un poco más complicado, especialmente en la familia Characidae, pues la similitud en estados tempranos de desarrollo es muy grande. El orden más abundante fue Characiformes (84,9%, seguido por Siluriformes (12,1%, los órdenes Perciformes, Clupeiformes y Gymnotiformes presentaron el 3% de la abundancia. Las familias más abundantes fueron Characidae, Serrasalmidae y Curimatidae, que se caracterizan por realizar migraciones reproductivas especialmente durante el período de aguas
    ascendentes, asegurando que

  18. Using termite nests as a source of organic matter in agrosilvicultural production systems in Amazonia Uso de ninhos de cupin como fonte de matéria orgânica em sistemas de produção agrosilviculturais na Amazônia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Batalha

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available The growth of two annual crops, okra (Abelmoschus escutentus and egg-plant (Solatium melongena and one perennial crop, andiroba (Carapa guianensis, a native forest tree of Amazonia under different treatments with organic manure derived from termite nest material of wood-feeding Nasutitermes species was tested (randomized block design. The use of 25-100 g of nest material gave no significant increase in okra productivity, and 25-200 g gave no significant response in andiroba. The combined use of NPK with 200 g of nest material gave a significant higher production in egg-plant (total number and total fresh weight of fruits when compared to the control (without fertilizer and to the treatment with NPK only.The results suggest the possibility to use termite nest material to enhance crop production in Amazonia, particularly in combination with low amounts of mineral fertilizer. Research lines for further investigations are outlined.Foi avaliado crescimento de duas espécies agriculturais anuais, quiabo (Abelmoschus esculentus e berinjela (Solatium melongena, e de uma espécie perene, andiroba (Carapa guianensis, uma árvore nativa da Amazônia sob diferentes tratamentos com matéria orgânica derivada de material de cupinzeiro de espécies xilófagas de Nasutitermes (desenho de bloco randomizado. O uso de 25-100 g de material de termiteiro não levou a um incremento significativo da produtividade em quiabo, e 25-200 g não resultou numa resposta significativa em andiroba. O uso combinado de NPK com 200 g de ninho de cupim resultou numa produção significantemente maior em S. melongena (número total e peso fresco total de frutos se comparado com o controle (sem fertilizante nenhum e com o tratamento de NPK apenas. Os resultados sugerem a possibilidade de usar material de cupinzeiro para melhorara produção agrossilvicultural na Amazônia, especialmente em combinação com pequenas quantidades de fertilizante mineral Linhas de pesquisa para futuras

  19. Revisão taxonômica dos camarões de água doce (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae, Sergestidae da Amazônia Peruana Taxonomic revision of the freshwater shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae, Sergestidae from the Peruvian Amazonia

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    Carmen Rosa García-Dávila

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizada uma revisão taxonômica das espécies de camarões de água doce da Amazônia peruana que abrangeu oito espécies da família Palaemonidae e uma espécie da família Sergestidae. São descritas duas novas espécies do gênero Pseudopalaemon e feitos os primeiros registros de Euryrhynchus amazoniensis Tiefenbacher, 1978, Macrobrachium jelskii Miers, 1877 e Palaemonetes ivonicus Holthuis, 1950 para o Peru. São fornecidos chave de identificação, dados distribucionais e ilustrações para as espécies estudadas.A taxonomic revision of eight species of freshwater shrimps of the family Palaemonidae and one of the family Sergestidae from the Peruvian Amazonia was made. Two new species of the genus Pseudopalaemon are described, and Euryrhynchus amazoniensis Tiefenbacher, 1978, Macrobrachium jelskii Miers, 1877 e Palaemonetes ivonicus Holthuis, 1950 are recorded from Peru for the first time. Key, distributional data and ilustrations for the species are presented

  20. Insegurança alimentar em domicílios com adolescentes da Amazônia Legal Brasileira: prevalência e fatores associados Inseguridad alimentaria en domicilios con adolescentes de la Amazonia Legal Brasileña: prevalencia y factores asociados Food insecurity in households with adolescents in the Brazilian Amazon: prevalence and associated factors

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    Lúcia Dias da Silva Guerra

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudo transversal de base populacional, realizado em 2007, para investigar a prevalência de insegurança alimentar e fatores associados em domicílios com adolescentes da área urbana de quatro municípios da Amazônia Legal Brasileira, abrangência da rodovia BR-163, que liga Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, a Santarém, Pará. Aplicou-se a Escala Brasileira de Insegurança Alimentar a uma amostra de 363 domicílios e se realizou avaliação antropométrica de 534 adolescentes com idade entre 10 e 19 anos. Na análise múltipla, utilizou-se o modelo de regressão de Poisson. Os resultados apresentaram uma prevalência de 23,1% de insegurança alimentar moderada e grave, indicando associação com as seguintes categorias: baixa renda familiar, condições de saneamento precárias, naturalidade do Estado de Mato Grosso e raça/cor (preta do adolescente. Os resultados apontam a necessidade de ações para a melhoria do acesso ao saneamento básico, a qualificação de recursos humanos visando à geração de emprego e renda e a ações educativas que ampliem a compreensão sobre insegurança alimentar e seus determinantes nos municípios.Estudio transversal de base poblacional, realizado en 2007, para investigar la prevalencia de la inseguridad alimentaria y factores asociados en domicilios con adolescentes del área urbana de cuatro municipios de la Amazonia Legal, que abarca la carretera BR-163, que conecta Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, con Santarém, Pará. Se aplicó la Escala Brasileña de Inseguridad Alimentaria a una muestra de 363 domicilios y se realizó una evaluación antropométrica de 534 adolescentes con edades comprendidas entre 10 y 19 años. En el análisis múltiple, se utilizó el modelo de regresión de Poisson. Los resultados presentaron una prevalencia de un 23,1% de inseguridad alimentaria moderada y grave, indicando asociación con las siguientes categorías: baja renta familiar, condiciones de saneamiento precarias, originario del estado

  1. Diurnal variability of rainfall in southwest Amazonia during the LBA-TRMM field campaign of the austral summer of 1999 Variação diurna da chuva no sudoeste da Amazônia durante a campanha de campo do experimento LBA-TRMM no verão austral de 1999

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    José A. Marengo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The TRMM-LBA field campaign was held during the austral summer of 1999 in southwestern Amazonia. Among the major objectives, was the identification and description of the diurnal variability of rainfall in the region, associated with the different rain producing weather systems that occurred during the January-February season. By using a network of 40 digital rain gauges implemented in the state of Rondônia, and together with observations and analyses of circulation and convection, it was possible to identify details of the diurnal cycle of rainfall and the associated rainfall mechanisms. Rainfall episodes were characterized by regimes of "low-level easterly" and "westerly" winds in the context of the large-scale circulation. The westerly regime is related to an enhanced South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ and an intense and/or wide Low Level Jet (LLJ east of the Andes, which can extend eastward towards Rondônia, even though some westerly regime episodes also show a LLJ that remains close to the foothill of the Andes. The easterly regime is related to easterly propagating systems (e.g. squall-lines with possible weakened or less frequent LLJs and a suppressed SACZ. Diurnal variability of rainfall during westerly surface wind regime shows a characteristic maximum at late afternoon followed by a relatively weaker second maximum at early evening (2100 Local Standard Time LST. The easterly regime composite shows an early morning maximum followed by an even stronger maximum in the afternoon.O experimento de campo do TRMM-LBA ocorreu conteceu durante o verão austral de 1999, na região do sudeste de Amazonia. Entre os principais objetivos deste trabalho pode-se citar a identificação e descrição da variabilidade diurna da chuva nesta região, associada a diferentes fenômenos meteorológicos e sistemas de tempo que ocorreram durante o período de Janeiro-Fevereiro. Usando uma rede de 40 pluviômetros instalados no estado de Rond

  2. Caracterização físico-química de polpas de frutos da Amazônia e sua correlação com a atividade anti-radical livre Physical and chemical characterization of fruit pulps from Amazonia and their correlation to free radical scavenger activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele André Baptista Canuto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Características físico-químicas (cor, pH, acidez total titulável, sólidos solúveis totais, conteúdo de lipídios e umidade e níveis de compostos bioativos (ácido ascórbico, fenólicos totais foram determinados em quinze amostras de polpas de frutos procedentes da região Amazônica (abiu, acerola, açaí, araçá-boi, bacaba, bacuri, buriti, cajá, cajarana, caju, cupuaçu, graviola, murici, noni e tamarindo. A atividade de radicais livres foi avaliada pelo método de ABTS. Algumas polpas apresentaram alta potencialidade antioxidante, associada com a atividade antirradicais livres obtida e os conteúdos dos componentes bioativos como compostos fenólicos e ácido ascórbico, destacando-se acerola e acaí. O conteúdo total de compostos fenólicos foi correlacionado à capacidade antioxidante das polpas.Physical and chemical characteristics (color, pH, titratable acidity, total soluble solids, lipid content, moisture and levels of bioactive compounds (ascorbic acid, total phenolics were determined in fifteen samples of fruit pulps from Amazonia (abiu, acerola, açaí, araça-boi, bacaba, bacuri, buriti, cajá, cajarana, caju, cupuaçu, graviola, murici, noni e tamarindo. The free radical scavenger activity was evaluated by the ABTS assay. Some pulps presented high antioxidant potential, associated with the free radical scavenger activity measured and the content of bioactive components, such as phenolic compounds and ascorbic acid, especialy in acerola and açaí. The total phenolic content was correlated to antioxidant capacity of pulps.

  3. Sobrevivência de espécies arbóreas plantadas em clareiras causadas pela colheita de madeira em uma floresta de terra firme no município de Paragominas na Amazônia brasileira Survival of seedlings planted in gaps after harvesting in a terra firme rain forest in Paragominas region in the Brazilian Amazonia

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    Jaqueline Macêdo Gomes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Analisou-se a sobrevivência de mudas plantadas em 400 clareiras causadas por exploração florestal de impacto reduzido, em floresta de terra firme na Amazônia Oriental. Foram plantadas 3.818 mudas de 17 espécies, das quais apenas Schizolobium amazonicum não ocorre na área de estudo. A distância entre as mudas plantadas foi de aproximadamente 5m. As avaliações ocorreram em 2005 e 2006. Com base na sobrevivência das mudas aos 11 meses após o plantio, as espécies indicadas para o enriquecimento de clareiras são: Schizolobium amazonicum, Cedrela odorata, Jacaranda copaia, Manilkara huberi, Astronium gracile, Pouteria bilocularis, Tabebuia impetiginosa,Pseudopiptadenia suaveolens, Cordia goeldiana, Parkia gigantocarpa, Simarouba amara, Sterculia pilosa, Laetia procera, Dinizia excelsa e Schefflera morototoni. Estudos sobre a taxa de crescimento, em períodos mais longos, são necessários para confirmar a utilização dessas espécies em plantios de enriquecimento de clareiras oriundas de exploração florestal, como alternativa para aumentar a produtividade e o valor econômico das florestas naturais manejadas na Amazônia brasileira.Survival of seedlings planted in 400 gaps created by reduced impact logging in a terra firme forest in the Eastern Amazonia was evaluated. 3,818 seedlings from 17 species occurring in the study area, except for Schizolobium amazonicum (paricá, which is rare in natural forests of Paragominas region, were planted in the gaps. Spacing of planted seedlings was 5m. According to survival of seedlings during 11 months after planting, the species Schizolobium amazonicum, Cedrela odorata, Jacaranda copaia, Manilkara huberi, Astronium gracile, Pouteria bilocularis, Tabebuia impetiginosa,Pseudopiptadenia suaveolens, Cordia goeldiana, Parkia gigantocarpa, Simarouba amara, Sterculia pilosa, Laetia procera, Dinizia excelsa and Schefflera morototoni can be suggested for enriching in gaps created by reduced impact logging

  4. Seasonal dynamics of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in plants of Theobroma grandiflorum Schum and Paullinia cupana Mart. of aN agroforestry system in Central Amazonia, Amazonas State, Brazil Dinâmica sazonal de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares em plantas de Theobroma grandiflorum Schum e Paullinia cupana Mart. de um sistema agroflorestal na Amazônia Central, Amazonas, Brasil

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    Arlem Nascimento de Oliveira

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The seasonal dynamics of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF was investigated in the rhizosphere of two fruit species in a terra firme (upland ecosystem in Central Amazonia. Two host species (Theobroma grandiflorum and Paullinia cupana and nine sampling months (August, September and December/1998, February, April, May and December/1999, February and May/2000 were studied in a completely randomized design, with five replications, set in a 2 x 9 factorial experiment. Soil (0-20 cm depth and root samples were collected between August 1998 and May 2000. The mean percent colonization of AMF for both species reached maximal values in February and May 2000 (rainy season. In April and May 1999, February and May 2000 (rainy season the highest AMF spore numbers were registered. The pluvial precipitation was significantly positively correlated with AMF number spores for both fruit species, and significant positive correlation only with AMF colonization of P. cupana. Soil moisture content was positively correlated with colonization and spore numbers of AMF for both species evaluated. AMF colonization and AMF spore numbers of T. grandiflorum were positively correlated with soil Mg and K concentrations. AMF spore numbers of T. grandiflorum were also negatively correlated with effective cation exchange capacity (ECEC. AMF colonization and AMF spore numbers in the rhizosphere of P. cupana were positively correlated with pH and Mn concentrations. AMF colonization was also positively correlated with AMF spore numbers for both species evaluated. In conclusion, this study showed that AMF colonization and sporulation are seasonal and dependent on host plant species, pluvial precipitation, soil moisture content and soil chemistry in Central Amazonia conditions.A dinâmica sazonal de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA foi investigada na rizosfera de duas espécies frutíferas em um ecossistema de terra firme na Amazônia Central. Adotou-se o delineamento

  5. Geographic pattern of genetic diversity in natural populations of Rosewood (Aniba rosaeodora, in the Central Amazonia Padrão geográfico de diversidade genética em populações naturais de Pau-rosa (Aniba rosaeodora, na Amazônia Central

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    Ronaldo Pereira Santos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Rosewood (Aniba rosaeodora Ducke, Lauraceae is an Amazonian evergreen tree and a source of the purest linalool, the main component of its essential oil, which is very valuable in the international perfumery market. After decades of over-exploitation it is currently considered as threatened. We evaluated the genetic diversity and its distribution in four populations in Central Amazonia. Thirty-five reliable RAPD markers were generated, of which 32 were polymorphic (91.4%. Variation was higher within the populations (76.5%; p O Pau-rosa (Aniba rosaeodora Ducke, Lauraceae é uma árvore amazônica fonte do mais puro linalol, o qual é o principal componente do seu óleo essencial e muito valioso no mercado internacional de perfumaria. Após várias décadas de intensa exploração, a espécie foi levada à categoria de ameaçada de extinção. Quatro populações naturais distribuídas na bacia Amazônia Central foram avaliadas quanto ao nível e a distribuição da diversidade genética. Trinta e cinco marcadores RAPD reprodutíveis foram gerados, dos quais 32 foram polimórficos (91,4%. A diversidade foi maior dentro das populações (76,5%; p < 0,0001 e a distribuição geográfica contribuiu para a diferenciação entre as populações (23,4%; p < 0,0001. A AMOVA indicou que pode haver uma influência parcial do Rio Amazonas no fluxo gênico (3,3%; p < 0,0001, mas foram identificadas evidências de fluxo gênico atravessando o rio. Houve diferenças significativas nas freqüências dos marcadores (p < 0,05 e o fluxo gênico estimado foi relativamente baixo (Nm = 2,02. A correlação entre a distância genética e o fluxo gênico foi de - 0,95 (p = 0,06 e para a distância geográfica e o fluxo gênico foi de - 0,78 (p = 0,12. Houve um padrão geográfico de variabilidade ao longo do eixo Leste - Oeste, influenciado também pelo Rio Amazonas, o que sugere que o rio poderia funcionar como uma barreira para o fluxo gênico. Apesar de amea

  6. Composição florística e fitossociologia de espécies arbóreas do Parque Fenológico da Embrapa Amazônia Ocidental Floristic composition and phytosociology of tree species in the Phenological Site of the Embrapa Western Amazonia

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    Kátia Emídio da Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetiva avaliar a composição florística e a fitossociologia de espécies arbóreas do parque fenológico da Embrapa Amazônia Ocidental no Distrito Agropecuário da Suframa (DAS, Manaus-AM, a fim de subsidiar seleções futuras de árvores matrizes visando estudos fenológicos e a implantação de áreas de coleta de sementes. Foram alocadas aleatoriamente 20 parcelas de 10m x 50 m ao longo de um transecto, amostrando-se todos os indivíduos com diâmetro a 1,30 m do solo, (DAP ≥ 20,0 cm. Foram registrados 240 indivíduos, distribuídos em 100 espécies, 70 gêneros e 29 famílias. As famílias de maior importância ecológica são, em ordem decrescente, Lecythidaceae, Sapotaceae, Mimosaceae, Caesalpiniaceae, Chrysobalanaceae, Fabaceae, Humiriaceae, Moraceae, Vochysiaceae e Apocynaceae. Essas famílias contribuem com 67% da riqueza local de espécies e com 75,8% do número de indivíduos, sugerindo que a diversidade vegetal da área está concentrada em poucas famílias. A família Lecythidaceae possui os maiores valores de dap e número de indivíduos, sendo Sapotaceae a que possui a maior riqueza de espécies na área. As espécies mais importantes, segundo o Índice de Valor de Importância-IVI, são Eschweilera coriacea (DC S.A. Mori; Qualea paraensis Ducke; Vantanea macrocarpa Ducke; Eschweilera atropetiolataThis research was carried out to study the floristic composition and phytosociology of tree species in the phenological site of Embrapa Western Amazonia, Suframa Agropecuary District-SAD, Manaus-AM, aiming to help future selection of seed trees, for the establishment of seed collecting areas. Twenty plots of 10m x 50m were studied, along a topographic sequence, where trees with a diameter at breast height (dbh ≥ 20,0cm were inventoried. A total of 240 trees belonging to 29 families, in 70 genera with 100 species were identified. The most important families, in a decreasing order, were: Lecythidaceae, Sapotaceae

  7. Mineralogia e química de três solos de uma toposseqüência da bacia sedimentar do Alto Solimões, Amazônia ocidental Mineralogy and chemistry of three soils along a topossequence from the Upper Solimões Basin, western Amazonia

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    Hedinaldo Narciso Lima

    2006-02-01

    the knowledge of soils from the upper Amazon, by means of studying three soils along a typical topossequence at Benjamin Constant, near the Brazilian-Peruvian Border. These soils range from the uplands, where Al concentration is high (possessing an "aluminic" character down to the floodplain, with eutric, richer soils. They were classified as Argissolo Amarelo Ta alumínico abrupto, Plintossolo Argilúvico alumínico abrúptico and Neossolo Flúvico Ta eutrófico in the last version of the Brazilian System of Soil Classification. The results showed greater nutrient and primary minerals amounts and youthful development in these soils, compared with well-drained, deeply weathered soils from eastern Amazonia, derived from older, pre-weathered sediments or ancient crystalline rocks. The low amounts of Mn and Fe in the Plintossolo in all fractions analysed, compared with the other soils, indicate that removal is pronounced n this pedo-environment, whereas in the Neossolo Flúvico, new sedimentary additions allow the occurrence of higher Fe and Mn amounts. The maximum phosphorous adsorption capacity values are generally lower in the surface soil horizons, increasing with depth, accompanied by higher clay contents, or plinthite occurrence. Thus, exposure of subsurface layers may be a limiting factor for agriculture in these soils.

  8. Encantarias afroindígenas na Amazônia Marajoara: Narrativas, Praticas de Cura e (Intolerâncias Religiosas (Afroindigena Encantarias in the Marajoara Amazonia: Narratives, Cure Practices and Religious (intolerance - DOI:10.5752/P.2175-5841.2010v8n17p88

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    Agenor Sarraf Pacheco

    2011-02-01

    article brings, from the historical narratives, movements of control,  transgressions, negation and (reaffirmation putted between indians, negros, afroindigenas, political and religious elites, around the amazonic "encatarias", highlighting the perceptions and postures of the Augustinian recoletos priests, since 1928, the year of the foundation of the evangelization of the great archipelago in the times of expansion and dissemination of ways and forms of romanization. Key words: Afroindigena, encantaria, Cure practices, Religious (intolerance, Marajoara Amazonia.

  9. Investigação da ocorrência da Mansonella ozzardi no Estado de Rondônia, Amazônia Ocidental Investigation of the occurrence of Mansonella ozzardi in the State of Rondônia, Western Amazonia, Brazil

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    Sergio de Almeida Basano

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Mansonella ozzardi é uma filária humana que tem como vetor dípteros simulídeos e é amplamente distribuída na Amazônia. Não há informações sobre a ocorrência de casos de mansonelose no Estado de Rondônia, e neste trabalho procurou-se investigar a situação epidemiológica desta parasitose em áreas urbanas e ribeirinhas na Amazônia Ocidental. MÉTODOS: Foram examinados 4.452 moradores às margens dos rios Madeira, Mamoré, Guaporé, Machado e Preto em Rondônia, através da técnica da gota espessa de sangue. Capturou-se às margens do rio Machado e Guaporé 2.112 simulídeos adultos das espécies Cerqueirellum pydanieli e Chirostilbia pertinax. RESULTADOS: Não foram encontradas pessoas infectadas com M. ozzardi e foram encontradas diferentes espécies de simulídeos com potencial de transmissão da mansonelose. CONCLUSÕES: Não foram encontrados indivíduos infectados com M. ozzardi neste estudo. Este fato pode ser explicado pela existência de pacientes com baixas microfilaremias, associado à técnica diagnóstica de baixa sensibilidade utilizada no estudo. Pode-se ainda aventar a possibilidade de ter ocorrido migração insuficiente de pacientes infectados de áreas endêmicas, impossibilitando a implantação da endemia. Estudos posteriores com técnicas diagnósticas mais sensíveis podem ajudar a esclarecer esta questão.INTRODUCTION: Mansonella ozzardi, a human filarial nematode transmitted by Diptera Simuliidae flies (black flies, is widely spread in the Amazon, while the occurrence of mansonelliasis in the State of Rondônia (Western Amazonia has not been reported thus far. The existence of this parasitic disease in this state is investigated in this study. METHODS: A total of 4,452 people who lived alongside the Madeira, Mamore, Guapore, Machado and Preto Rivers, in the State of Rondônia, were examined using the thick blood smear method. Alongside the Machado and Guapore rivers, 2,112 adult simuliid

  10. Relações solo-geoambiente em áreas de ocorrências de Ipucas na planície do Médio Araguaia - Estado de Tocantins Soil-geoenvironment relationships in the Ipucas region of the Mid-Araguaia floodplain, Tocantins State, Southern Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Kardec Elias Martins

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as paisagens do médio rio Araguaia, destacam-se as extensas planícies e depressões sazonalmente alagadas. Nelas se inserem formações florestais higrófilas denominadas Ipucas, como enclaves peculiares pela sua fitossociologia e ambiente pedogeomorfológico. Esses fragmentos florestais naturais ocorrem na planície fluvial, em região de ecótono entre o Cerrado e a Floresta Amazônica. Neste estudo, foi selecionada uma área de 8.200 ha, situada no Município de Lagoa da Confusão, TO, sendo caracterizados nove perfis de solos em diferentes pedoambientes e suas inter-relações nas paisagens da planície do Araguaia, com ênfase nas áreas de Ipucas. Os pedoambientes apresentam grande diversidade, com amplo domínio de solos gleizados, pobres em nutrientes e com plintita em subsuperfície, com teores variáveis de carbono orgânico. Excetuando as áreas de calcário aflorante na borda elevada da planície, onde predominam Cambissolos Háplicos eutróficos com acentuada riqueza química, os solos predominantes no interior da planície do Médio Araguaia, dominantemente Plintossolos e Gleissolos, são acentuadamente pobres em nutrientes e ácidos, mesmo sob formações florestais de Ipucas. Nessas últimas, há um acúmulo de matéria orgânica pelo ambiente hidromórfico redutor e ácido. Por serem áreas extremamente frágeis a intervenções antrópicas, e pouco interligadas, as Ipucas devem ser consideradas áreas de preservação permanente, sendo estreitamente ligadas ao ciclo hidrológico da planície do Araguaia.Amongst the landscape features of Mid Araguaia river valley, there are vast coalesced floodplains and waterlogging depressions, all seasonally inundated. There, scattered forest fragments are found, being regionally called 'Ipucas', with peculiar floristic and geomorphic features. These forest fragments are elements of the natural transition zone (ecotone between Amazonia Forest and Cerrado. We selected an area of

  11. Amazonia colombiana: entre la diferencia y la desigualdad

    OpenAIRE

    Orrego Chica, Bayron

    2014-01-01

    La primacía del culturalismo en los debates teóricos y políticos ha re-direccionado las miradas privilegiadas hacia las reivindicaciones culturales en el marco de los multiculturalismos. Las agendas académicas y las políticas públicas se han centrado en el estudio e intervención de las diferencias culturales dejando a un lado las cuestiones referentes a las condiciones sociales, haciendo que las dinámicas económicas y políticas se desvanezcan en las prácticas culturalistas de agentes e instit...

  12. Drought impact on forest carbon dynamics and fluxes in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Christopher E; Metcalfe, D B; Girardin, C A J; Amézquita, F Farfán; Cabrera, D Galiano; Huasco, W Huaraca; Silva-Espejo, J E; Araujo-Murakami, A; da Costa, M C; Rocha, W; Feldpausch, T R; Mendoza, A L M; da Costa, A C L; Meir, P; Phillips, O L; Malhi, Y

    2015-03-05

    In 2005 and 2010 the Amazon basin experienced two strong droughts, driven by shifts in the tropical hydrological regime possibly associated with global climate change, as predicted by some global models. Tree mortality increased after the 2005 drought, and regional atmospheric inversion modelling showed basin-wide decreases in CO2 uptake in 2010 compared with 2011 (ref. 5). But the response of tropical forest carbon cycling to these droughts is not fully understood and there has been no detailed multi-site investigation in situ. Here we use several years of data from a network of thirteen 1-ha forest plots spread throughout South America, where each component of net primary production (NPP), autotrophic respiration and heterotrophic respiration is measured separately, to develop a better mechanistic understanding of the impact of the 2010 drought on the Amazon forest. We find that total NPP remained constant throughout the drought. However, towards the end of the drought, autotrophic respiration, especially in roots and stems, declined significantly compared with measurements in 2009 made in the absence of drought, with extended decreases in autotrophic respiration in the three driest plots. In the year after the drought, total NPP remained constant but the allocation of carbon shifted towards canopy NPP and away from fine-root NPP. Both leaf-level and plot-level measurements indicate that severe drought suppresses photosynthesis. Scaling these measurements to the entire Amazon basin with rainfall data, we estimate that drought suppressed Amazon-wide photosynthesis in 2010 by 0.38 petagrams of carbon (0.23-0.53 petagrams of carbon). Overall, we find that during this drought, instead of reducing total NPP, trees prioritized growth by reducing autotrophic respiration that was unrelated to growth. This suggests that trees decrease investment in tissue maintenance and defence, in line with eco-evolutionary theories that trees are competitively disadvantaged in the absence of growth. We propose that weakened maintenance and defence investment may, in turn, cause the increase in post-drought tree mortality observed at our plots.

  13. Conservation of freshwater turtles in Amazonia: retrospective and future prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Aderson de Souza Alcântara

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to discuss the current status of conservation of freshwater turtles of the Amazon and the absence of the genus Podocnemis the Official List of Species of Brazilian Fauna Threatened with Extinction. Amazonian turtles are used as food by indigenous people and fisherman communities. However, fishing of adult females, uncontrolled egg collecting, habitat degradation and trafficking in wildlife have caused the decline of these populations. Nevertheless, Podocnemis ex...

  14. Discovery or Extinction of New Scleroderma Species in Amazonia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baseia, Iuri G.; Silva, Bianca D. B.; Ishikawa, Noemia K.; Soares, João V. C.; França, Isadora F.; Ushijima, Shuji; Maekawa, Nitaro

    2016-01-01

    The Amazon Forest is a hotspot of biodiversity harboring an unknown number of undescribed taxa. Inventory studies are urgent, mainly in the areas most endangered by human activities such as extensive dam construction, where species could be in risk of extinction before being described and named. In 2015, intensive studies performed in a few locations in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest revealed three new species of the genus Scleroderma: S. anomalosporum, S. camassuense and S. duckei. The two first species were located in one of the many areas flooded by construction of hydroelectric dams throughout the Amazon; and the third in the Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke, a protected reverse by the INPA. The species were identified through morphology and molecular analyses of barcoding sequences (Internal Transcribed Spacer nrDNA). Scleroderma anomalosporum is characterized mainly by the smooth spores under LM in mature basidiomata (under SEM with small, unevenly distributed granules, a characteristic not observed in other species of the genus), the large size of the basidiomata, up to 120 mm diameter, and the stelliform dehiscence; S. camassuense mainly by the irregular to stellate dehiscence, the subreticulated spores and the bright sulfur-yellow colour, and Scleroderma duckei mainly by the verrucose exoperidium, stelliform dehiscence, and verrucose spores. Description, illustration and affinities with other species of the genus are provided. PMID:28002414

  15. Conservation strategies to mitigate impacts from climate change in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killeen, Timothy J; Solórzano, Luis A

    2008-05-27

    Protected area systems and conservation corridors can help mitigate the impacts of climate change on Amazonian biodiversity. We propose conservation design criteria that will help species survive in situ or adjust range distributions in response to increased drought. The first priority is to protect the western Amazon, identified as the 'Core Amazon', due to stable rainfall regimes and macro-ecological phenomena that have led to the evolution of high levels of biodiversity. Ecotones can buffer the impact from climate change because populations are genetically adapted to climate extremes, particularly seasonality, because high levels of habitat diversity are associated with edaphic variability. Future climatic tension zones should be surveyed for geomorphological features that capture rain or conserve soil moisture to identify potential refugia for humid forest species. Conservation corridors should span environmental gradients to ensure that species can shift range distributions. Riparian corridors provide protection to both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Multiple potential altitudinal corridors exist in the Andes, but natural and anthropogenic bottlenecks will constrain the ability of species to shift their ranges and adapt to climate change. Planned infrastructure investments are a serious threat to the potential to consolidate corridors over the short and medium term.

  16. Conservation of freshwater turtles in Amazonia: retrospective and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aderson de Souza Alcântara

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to discuss the current status of conservation of freshwater turtles of the Amazon and the absence of the genus Podocnemis the Official List of Species of Brazilian Fauna Threatened with Extinction. Amazonian turtles are used as food by indigenous people and fisherman communities. However, fishing of adult females, uncontrolled egg collecting, habitat degradation and trafficking in wildlife have caused the decline of these populations. Nevertheless, Podocnemis expansa and Podocnemis unifilis were not included in the Brazil’s official list of animals threatened. Therefore, the turtles remain at great risk, due to the intense pressure that they are suffering. It is recommended that the criteria and the conservation status are reviewed including those animals in the category of vulnerable and to ensure a thorough review and modification in the current Brazilian law to be covered studies and management of turtles for subsistence, respecting and adding value to way of life of Amazonian peoples.

  17. Habitat fragnentation impacts on Epiphyllous Bryophyte communities in central Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Charles Eugene Zartman

    2003-01-01

    Tropical deforestation is a progressive process resulting in the conversion of rain forest into a mosaic of mature forest fragments, pasture, and degraded habitat. Understanding the long-term effects of habitat fragmentation on tropical plant community structure is critical to predicting how alterations to the landscape will impact tropical biodiversity. The objective of this study was to examine fragmentation effects on the composition, abundance, and species richness of epiphyllous (leaf-in...

  18. The status of conservation of urban forests in eastern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, D D; Vieira, I C G; Salomão, R P; Almeida, S S; Jardim, M A G

    2012-05-01

    This study aims to identify the remnant tree flora in six forest fragments in the metropolitan area of Belém and to analyze these fragments in terms of biological conservation, species richness and diversity in the local urban landscape. The fragments and their respective sampling areas were as follows: Amafrutas reserve (15 ha), Trambioca Is. reserve (2 ha), Bosque Rodrigues Alves city park (15 ha), Combu Is. reserve (10 ha), Gunma Park reserve (10 ha) and Mocambo reserve (5 ha). Inventories were built from lineal plots of 250 m² and included trees with DBH equal to or greater than 10 cm at a height of 1.3 m above ground. Sixty-nine families and 759 species, of which eight were officially listed as endangered (Brazilian National Flora: Ministry of Environment, Normative Instruction of September, 2008; Pará State Flora: Decree Nº. 802 of February 2008) were recorded. These endangered species are: Aspidosperma desmanthum Benth. ex Müll. Arg. (Apocynaceae), Cedrela odorata L. (Meliaceae), Eschweilera piresii S.A Mori (Lecythidaceae), Euxylophora paraensis Huber (Rutaceae), Hymenolobium excelsum Ducke (Leguminosae), Manilkara huberi (Ducke) Chevalier (Sapotaceae), Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart. ex DC.) Standl. (Bignoniaceae), Mezilaurus itauba (Meisn.) Taub. ex Mez (Lauraceae) and Qualea coerulea Aubl. (Vochysiaceae). Emergency actions such as implementing management plans for already existing Conservation Units, the creation of new such units in areas of primary forest fragments (as in the case of the Amafrutas reserve), as well as the intensification of actions of surveillance and monitoring, should be undertaken by Federal, State, and Municipal environmental agencies so as to ensure the conservation of these last primary forest remnants in the metropolitan area of Belém.

  19. The status of conservation of urban forests in eastern Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DD Amaral

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the remnant tree flora in six forest fragments in the metropolitan area of Belém and to analyze these fragments in terms of biological conservation, species richness and diversity in the local urban landscape. The fragments and their respective sampling areas were as follows: Amafrutas reserve (15 ha, Trambioca Is. reserve (2 ha, Bosque Rodrigues Alves city park (15 ha, Combu Is. reserve (10 ha, Gunma Park reserve (10 ha and Mocambo reserve (5 ha. Inventories were built from lineal plots of 250 m² and included trees with DBH equal to or greater than 10 cm at a height of 1.3 m above ground. Sixty-nine families and 759 species, of which eight were officially listed as endangered (Brazilian National Flora: Ministry of Environment, Normative Instruction of September, 2008; Pará State Flora: Decree Nº. 802 of February 2008 were recorded. These endangered species are: Aspidosperma desmanthum Benth. ex Müll. Arg. (Apocynaceae, Cedrela odorata L. (Meliaceae, Eschweilera piresii S.A Mori (Lecythidaceae, Euxylophora paraensis Huber (Rutaceae, Hymenolobium excelsum Ducke (Leguminosae, Manilkara huberi (Ducke Chevalier (Sapotaceae, Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart. ex DC. Standl. (Bignoniaceae, Mezilaurus itauba (Meisn. Taub. ex Mez (Lauraceae and Qualea coerulea Aubl. (Vochysiaceae. Emergency actions such as implementing management plans for already existing Conservation Units, the creation of new such units in areas of primary forest fragments (as in the case of the Amafrutas reserve, as well as the intensification of actions of surveillance and monitoring, should be undertaken by Federal, State, and Municipal environmental agencies so as to ensure the conservation of these last primary forest remnants in the metropolitan area of Belém.

  20. PV-hybrid village power systems in Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, C.L.; Taylor, R.W. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Ribeiro, C.M. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energie Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    The Brazilian Amazon region is an ideal location for isolated mini-grid systems. Hundreds of diesel systems have been installed to supply electricity to this sparsely populated region. However, the availability of renewable energy resources makes the Amazon well-suited to renewable energy systems. This paper describes the technical aspects of two hybrid systems being installed in this region through the cooperative effort of multiple partners: U.S. Department of Energy, through NREL, and Brazilian CEPEL/Eletrobras and state electric utilities.

  1. Pyomyositis in the upper Negro river basin, Brazilian Amazonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borges, Alvaro Humberto Diniz; Faragher, Brian; Lalloo, David G

    2012-01-01

    lesions). Staphylococcus aureus was the only identified infecting organism (18 of 20 culture results, 90%). Complications occurred in 17 patients (20.7%) and the case fatality rate was 2.4%. Children were more likely to present with eosinophilia than adults (OR= 4.20, 95% CI 1.08-16.32, p=0...

  2. Investigations of Mangrove Forest Dynamics in Amazonia, North Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Machado de Menezes, Moirah Paula

    2006-01-01

    The north coast of the Brazilian states of Para, and Maranhao, presents a large continuous belt of mangroves, covering an area of about 700 000 ha. Although mangroves in this region are relatively well preserved, expanding tourism, intensification of fisheries and of urban growth in the region may endanger this important coastal ecosystem. In spite of the immense area covered by mangrove forest, very few is known about species distribution and forest ecology in the region. The present study f...

  3. Amazonia rain forest fires: A lacustrine record of 7000 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turcq, B.; Sifeddine, A. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterol, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Geoquimica; Martin, Louis [PPPG, Inst. de Geociencias, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Absy, M.L. [Inst. Nacional de Pesquisas Amazonicas, Manaus, AM (Brazil). Dept. de Botanica; Soubies, F. [Univ. Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France). Lab. de Mineralogie; Suguio, Kenitiro [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias; Volkmer-Ribeiro, C. [Fundacao Zoobotanica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    1998-03-01

    Although human influence dominates present-day Amazonian rain forest fires, old charcoal fragments, buried in the soils or in lacustrine sediments, confirm that fire has played a major role in the history of Amazonian forests. These fires may have influenced the present-day diversity and structure of the rain forest and, if these fire-favorable events of the past reoccur, there may be drastic consequences for the future of the Amazonian forests. Detailed studies of Carajas lake sediments permit identification of these past fire events, through microscopic observations of small charcoal fragments. They also permit, through radiocarbon dating, a better definition of their timing and make it possible to relate them to past paleo-environmental and paleoclimatic conditions. The paleodata indicate that fire events were concomitant with short dry climate episodes whose frequency of occurrences has varied during the last 7000 years. These dry events may be related to past climate conditions observed in different regions of tropical South America 23 refs, 3 figs

  4. Two-year participatory monitoring of extractivism in Brazilian Amazonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cámara-Leret, Rodrigo; Newton, Peter; Hawes, Joseph

    in three conservation units, including two extractive reserves. Extractive reserves, defined as forest areas inhabited by extractive populations granted long-term usufruct rights to forest resources which they collectively manage, are among the most important protected area types, accounting for one...... areas. Notable among these initiatives is the Programa de Monitoramento da Biodiversidade e do Uso de Recursos Naturais em Unidades de Conservação Estaduais do Amazonas (ProBUC). ProBUC aims to 1) sensitize community residents to the importance of monitoring the state of natural resource use...... and establish norms for sustainable use, 2) train community residents to lead monitoring programs, 3) monitor species with high market potential (e.g. palms), 4) monitor species of special interest (e.g. red listed by IUCN), and 5) monitor land-use change. Since 2005, ProBUC has developed pilot projects...

  5. La Historia, los Antropólogos y la Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Pineda Camacho

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Colombia’s anthropology of the Amazon, like the other Latin American anthropologists of the rain forest, was concerned whit developing a historical vision of the place, complementing in this way other metropolitan perspectives on basin that were centered, whit few exceptions, around a synchronic perspective. Understanding such situation demanded from them not only the explorations of oral traditions, but also conceiving the anthropology of the Amazon as a historical anthropology of the Andes, from India and in the context of the certain metropolitan anthropologies.

  6. A new species of Cryptocellus (Arachnida: Ricinulei from Eastern Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pinto-da-Rocha

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Cryptocellus canga sp. nov. is described from specimens collected in several caves at Carajás National Forest, Pará, Brazil. The new species differs from other species of the genus by the morphology of copulatory apparatus of the male leg III.

  7. Fire and deforestation dynamics in Amazonia (1973–2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Robert D.; van der Werf, Guido R.; Estrada de Wagt, Ivan A.; Houghton, Richard A.; Rizzo, Luciana V.; Artaxo, Paulo; Tsigaridis, Kostas

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Consistent long‐term estimates of fire emissions are important to understand the changing role of fire in the global carbon cycle and to assess the relative importance of humans and climate in shaping fire regimes. However, there is limited information on fire emissions from before the satellite era. We show that in the Amazon region, including the Arc of Deforestation and Bolivia, visibility observations derived from weather stations could explain 61% of the variability in satellite‐based estimates of bottom‐up fire emissions since 1997 and 42% of the variability in satellite‐based estimates of total column carbon monoxide concentrations since 2001. This enabled us to reconstruct the fire history of this region since 1973 when visibility information became available. Our estimates indicate that until 1987 relatively few fires occurred in this region and that fire emissions increased rapidly over the 1990s. We found that this pattern agreed reasonably well with forest loss data sets, indicating that although natural fires may occur here, deforestation and degradation were the main cause of fires. Compared to fire emissions estimates based on Food and Agricultural Organization's Global Forest and Resources Assessment data, our estimates were substantially lower up to the 1990s, after which they were more in line. These visibility‐based fire emissions data set can help constrain dynamic global vegetation models and atmospheric models with a better representation of the complex fire regime in this region. PMID:28286373

  8. Discovery or Extinction of New Scleroderma Species in Amazonia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baseia, Iuri G; Silva, Bianca D B; Ishikawa, Noemia K; Soares, João V C; França, Isadora F; Ushijima, Shuji; Maekawa, Nitaro; Martín, María P

    2016-01-01

    The Amazon Forest is a hotspot of biodiversity harboring an unknown number of undescribed taxa. Inventory studies are urgent, mainly in the areas most endangered by human activities such as extensive dam construction, where species could be in risk of extinction before being described and named. In 2015, intensive studies performed in a few locations in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest revealed three new species of the genus Scleroderma: S. anomalosporum, S. camassuense and S. duckei. The two first species were located in one of the many areas flooded by construction of hydroelectric dams throughout the Amazon; and the third in the Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke, a protected reverse by the INPA. The species were identified through morphology and molecular analyses of barcoding sequences (Internal Transcribed Spacer nrDNA). Scleroderma anomalosporum is characterized mainly by the smooth spores under LM in mature basidiomata (under SEM with small, unevenly distributed granules, a characteristic not observed in other species of the genus), the large size of the basidiomata, up to 120 mm diameter, and the stelliform dehiscence; S. camassuense mainly by the irregular to stellate dehiscence, the subreticulated spores and the bright sulfur-yellow colour, and Scleroderma duckei mainly by the verrucose exoperidium, stelliform dehiscence, and verrucose spores. Description, illustration and affinities with other species of the genus are provided.

  9. Eo-1 Hyperion Measures Canopy Drought Stress In Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asner, Gregory P.; Nepstad, Daniel; Cardinot, Gina; Moutinho, Paulo; Harris, Thomas; Ray, David

    2004-01-01

    The central, south and southeast portions of the Amazon Basin experience a period of decreased cloud cover and precipitation from June through November. There are likely important effects of seasonal and interannual rainfall variation on forest leaf area index, canopy water stress, productivity and regional carbon cycling in the Amazon. While both ground and spaceborne studies of precipitation continue to improve, there has been almost no progress made in observing forest canopy responses to rainfall variability in the humid tropics. This shortfall stems from the large stature of the vegetation and great spatial extent of tropical forests, both of which strongly impede field studies of forest responses to water availability. Those few studies employing satellite measures of canopy responses to seasonal and interannual drought (e.g., Bohlman et al. 1998, Asner et al. 2000) have been limited by the spectral resolution and sampling available from Landsat and AVHRR sensors. We report on a study combining the first landscape-level, managed drought experiment in Amazon tropical forest with the first spaceborne imaging spectrometer observations of this experimental area. Using extensive field data on rainfall inputs, soil water content, and both leaf and canopy responses, we test the hypothesis that spectroscopic signatures unique to hyperspectral observations can be used to quantify relative differences in canopy stress resulting from water availability.

  10. Vegetation survey in Amazonia using LANDSAT data. [Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Dossantos, J. R.; Deaquino, L. C. S.

    1982-01-01

    Automatic Image-100 analysis of LANDSAT data was performed using the MAXVER classification algorithm. In the pilot area, four vegetation units were mapped automatically in addition to the areas occupied for agricultural activities. The Image-100 classified results together with a soil map and information from RADAR images, permitted the establishment of the final legend with six classes: semi-deciduous tropical forest; low land evergreen tropical forest; secondary vegetation; tropical forest of humid areas, predominant pastureland and flood plains. Two water types were identified based on their sediments indicating different geological and geomorphological aspects.

  11. Intergenerational Coresidence among Small Farmers in Brazilian Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanWey, Leah K.; Cebulko, Kara B.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines intergenerational coresidence among rural farm families near Santarem, Para, Brazil using survey data collected by the authors on 896 children whose parents live in 175 households on 150 farms. Married adult children, daughters, and the best educated are more likely to live off their parents' rural property (vs. on the…

  12. Fire and deforestation dynamics in Amazonia (1973-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Marle, Margreet J E; Field, Robert D; van der Werf, Guido R; Estrada de Wagt, Ivan A; Houghton, Richard A; Rizzo, Luciana V; Artaxo, Paulo; Tsigaridis, Kostas

    2017-01-01

    Consistent long-term estimates of fire emissions are important to understand the changing role of fire in the global carbon cycle and to assess the relative importance of humans and climate in shaping fire regimes. However, there is limited information on fire emissions from before the satellite era. We show that in the Amazon region, including the Arc of Deforestation and Bolivia, visibility observations derived from weather stations could explain 61% of the variability in satellite-based estimates of bottom-up fire emissions since 1997 and 42% of the variability in satellite-based estimates of total column carbon monoxide concentrations since 2001. This enabled us to reconstruct the fire history of this region since 1973 when visibility information became available. Our estimates indicate that until 1987 relatively few fires occurred in this region and that fire emissions increased rapidly over the 1990s. We found that this pattern agreed reasonably well with forest loss data sets, indicating that although natural fires may occur here, deforestation and degradation were the main cause of fires. Compared to fire emissions estimates based on Food and Agricultural Organization's Global Forest and Resources Assessment data, our estimates were substantially lower up to the 1990s, after which they were more in line. These visibility-based fire emissions data set can help constrain dynamic global vegetation models and atmospheric models with a better representation of the complex fire regime in this region.

  13. Evidentials and Areal Typology: A Case Study from Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikhenvald, Alexandra Y.; Dixon, R. M. W.

    1998-01-01

    A discussion of areal linguistics and Amazonian languages looks at common properties of Amazonian languages, the occurrence, origins, and development of evidentiality systems in a number of those languages, and patterns of grammatical diffusion. Concludes that communities in the Amazonian linguistics area share common beliefs, mental attitudes,…

  14. Ozone measurements in Amazonia - Dry season versus wet season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H.; Da Silva, I. M. O.; Browell, Edward V.

    1990-01-01

    Recent ozone measurements taken in the Amazonian rain forest environment during the wet season (April-May 1987) are described, revealling new aspects of the regional atmospheric chemistry. The measurements were part of the Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment (ABLE 2B) mission and utilized UV absorption as a measurement technique to obtain surface ozone data; 20 ozonesondes were launched in order to obtain vertical ozone profiles used to describe the upper troposphere and stratosphere. The major differences in comparison to a previous dry season experiment, which found ozone concentrations to be lower in the whole troposphere by nearly a factor of 2, are stressed.

  15. Predicting Fire Susceptibility in the Forests of Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepstad, Daniel C.; Brown, I. Foster; Setzer, Alberto

    2000-01-01

    Although fire is the single greatest threat to the ecological integrity of Amazon forests, our ability to predict the occurrence of Amazon forest fires is rudimentary. Part of the difficulty encountered in making such predictions is the remarkable capacity of Amazon forests to tolerate drought by tapping moisture stored in deep soil. These forests can avoid drought-induced leaf shedding by withdrawing moisture to depths of 8 meters and more. Hence, the absorption of deep soil moisture allows these forests to maintain their leaf canopies following droughts of several months duration, thereby maintaining the deep shade and high relative humidity of the forest interior that prevents these ecosystems from burning. But the drought- and fire-avoidance that is conferred by this deep-rooting phenomenon is not unlimited. During successive years of drought, such as those provoked by El Nino episodes, deep soil moisture can be depleted, and drought-induced leaf shedding begins. The goal of this project was to incorporate this knowledge of Amazon forest fire ecology into a predictive model of forest flammability.

  16. Remote sensing and conservation of isolated indigenous villages in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robert S; Hamilton, Marcus J; Groth, Aaron A

    2014-11-01

    The vast forests on the border between Brazil and Peru harbour a number of indigenous groups that have limited contact with the outside world. Accurate estimates of population sizes and village areas are essential to begin assessing the immediate conservation needs of such isolated groups. In contrast to overflights and encounters on the ground, remote sensing with satellite imagery offers a safe, inexpensive, non-invasive and systematic approach to provide demographic and land-use information for isolated peoples. Satellite imagery can also be used to understand the growth of isolated villages over time. There are five isolated villages in the headwaters of the Envira River confirmed by overflights that are visible with recent satellite imagery further confirming their locations and allowing measurement of their cleared gardens, village areas and thatch roofed houses. These isolated villages appear to have population densities that are an order of magnitude higher than averages for other Brazilian indigenous villages. Here, we report on initial results of a remote surveillance programme designed to monitor movements and assess the demographic health of isolated peoples as a means to better mitigate against external threats to their long-term survival.

  17. Recent Improvements in Estimating Convective and Stratiform Rainfall in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, Andrew J.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we present results from the application of a satellite infrared (IR) technique for estimating rainfall over northern South America. Our main objectives are to examine the diurnal variability of rainfall and to investigate the relative contributions from the convective and stratiform components. We apply the technique of Anagnostou et al (1999). In simple functional form, the estimated rain area A(sub rain) may be expressed as: A(sub rain) = f(A(sub mode),T(sub mode)), where T(sub mode) is the mode temperature of a cloud defined by 253 K, and A(sub mode) is the area encompassed by T(sub mode). The technique was trained by a regression between coincident microwave estimates from the Goddard Profiling (GPROF) algorithm (Kummerow et al, 1996) applied to SSM/I data and GOES IR (11 microns) observations. The apportionment of the rainfall into convective and stratiform components is based on the microwave technique described by Anagnostou and Kummerow (1997). The convective area from this technique was regressed against an IR structure parameter (the Convective Index) defined by Anagnostou et al (1999). Finally, rainrates are assigned to the Am.de proportional to (253-temperature), with different rates for the convective and stratiform

  18. Use of LANDSAT data to monitor pasture project in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Dossantos, A. P.; Novo, E. M. L. D. M.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. No differences were found between acreage evaluation by visual and automatic interpretation of LANDSAT images. It was necessary to interpret both channels 5 and 7 to exactly outline the deforested areas. Channel 7 was necessary for the identification of deforested areas in the presence of recently grown natural vegetation, and channel 5 was necessary to identify the deforested areas in the cerrado regions. Automatic interpretation permitted the discrimination between areas with predominant grass coverage and recently grown natural vegetation.

  19. Biomass-burning emissions and associated haze layers over Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreae, M. O.; Browell, E. V.; Gregory, G. L.; Harriss, R. C.; Hill, G. F.; Sachse, G. W.; Talbot, R. W.; Garstang, M.; Jacob, D. J.; Torres, A. L.

    1988-01-01

    The characteristics of haze layers, which were visually observed over the central Amazon Basin during many of the Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment 2A flights in July/August 1985, were investigated by remote and in situ measurements, using the broad range of instrumentation and sampling equipment on board the Electra aircraft. It was found that these layers strongly influenced the chemical and optical characteristics of the atmosphere over the eastern Amazon Basin. Relative to the regional background, the concentrations of CO, CO2, O3, and NO were significantly elevated in the plumes and haze layers, with the NO/CO ratio in fresh plumes much higher than in the aged haze layers. The haze aerosol was composed predominantly of organic material, NH4, K(+), NO3(-), SO4(2-), and organic anions (formate, acetate, and oxalate).

  20. Dams: impacts on the aquatic mammals population of Amazonia; Barragens: consequencias sobre as populacoes de mamiferos aquaticos da Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colares, Francisco Antonio Pinto [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Lab. de Mamiferos Aquaticos

    1996-12-31

    Many problems are caused by dam`s construction in the rivers for power generation. The elevation of the level of the water for dams formation destroys the habitat of otters and similar animals and can invades its hole and kill its young animals. The work talks about chinese experience in the dams of the river Yangtze (China) that make almost extinguished dolphins of the rivers of that country. For the herbivorous animals, the flora modification can cause problems to have enough food. In conclusion the work recommends a statistics of mammals animals population in dams places for future comparison 13 refs.

  1. Circulatory disease mortality rates in the elderly and exposure to PM2.5 generated by biomass burning in the Brazilian Amazon in 2005 Mortalidad por enfermedades cardiovasculares en los ancianos y la exposición a PM2,5 como resultado de la quema en la Amazonia brasileña en 2005 Mortalidade por doenças circulatórias na população idosa e exposição a PM2,5 em decorrência das queimadas na Amazônia brasileira em 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Ignotti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the association between the exposure to fine particulate matter and circulatory disease mortality rates in the elderly living in the Brazilian Amazon. An ecological study of circulatory disease, acute myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular disease mortality rates in micro areas of the Brazilian Amazon was carried out. The environmental exposure indicator used was percentage hours of PM2.5 concentrations > 25µg/m³ divided by the total number of estimated hours of PM2.5 in 2005. The association between exposure and circulatory disease mortality rates was strongest in the oldest age group. No significant statistical association was found between cerebrovascular disease mortality rates and exposure. Circulatory disease mortality rates in the elderly living in the Amazon have been influenced by atmospheric pollution from emissions caused by forest fires.El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la asociación entre la exposición a las partículas finas, con tasas de mortalidad por enfermedades cardiovasculares en los ancianos en la Amazonia brasileña. Se trata de un estudio ecológico de las tasas de mortalidad por enfermedades cardiovasculares, el infarto agudo de miocardio y enfermedades cerebrovasculares en las microrregiones brasileñas de la Amazonia. El indicador de la exposición ambiental fue estimado como un porcentaje de horas de PM2,5 > 25µg/m³, dividido por el número total de horas estimado de PM2,5 en 2005. La asociación del indicador de exposición con las tasas de mortalidad para las enfermedades circulatorias fue mayor en el grupo de mayor edad. La tasa de mortalidad por enfermedad cerebrovascular no se asoció con el indicador de exposición. Las enfermedades cardiovasculares en los ancianos que viven en la Amazonia han sido influenciadas por la contaminación atmosférica, causada por las emisiones de los incendios.O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a associação da exposição ao

  2. Abundance of two Dendrocincla woodcreepers (aves: Dendrocolaptidae in relation to forest structure in Central Amazonia O uso do habitat por duas espécies de arapaçus Dendrocincla (aves: Dendrocolaptidae em relação a estrutura da floresta na Amazônia Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Cintra

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have been conducted to verify how the structure of the forest affects the occurence and abundance of neotropical birds. Our research was undertaken between January 2002 and July 2004 at the Reserva Ducke, near Manaus (02º55',03º01'S; 59º53',59º59'W in central Amazonia, to verify how the forest structure affects the occurrence and abundance of two bird species: the Plain-brown Woodcreeper Dendrocincla fuliginosa and the White-chinned Woodcreeper Dendrocincla merula. Bird species occurrence was recorded using lines of 20 mist-nets (one sample unit, along 51 1-km transects distributed along 9 pararel 8 km trails covering an area of 6400 ha. Along these transects, we placed 50 x 50m plots where we recorded forest structure components (tree abundance, canopy openness, leaf litter, standing dead trees, logs, proximity to streams, and altitude. We then related these variables to bird occurence and abundance using multiple logistic and multiple linear regression models, respectively. We found that D. fuliginosa frequently used plateau areas; being more abundant in areas with more trees. On the other hand, D. merula occurred more frequently and was more abundant in areas with low tree abundance. Our results suggest that although both species overlap in the reserve (both were recorded in at least 68% of the sampled sites, they differ in the way they use the forest microhabitats. Therefore, local variation in the forest structure may contribute to the coexistence of congeneric species and may help to maintain local alpha diversity.Em florestas neotropicais, poucos estudos tem sido conduzidos para verificar como a estrutura da floresta afeta o uso desse ambiente por aves. Este estudo foi realizado entre Janeiro de 2002 e Julho de 2004 na Reserva Ducke próximo a Manaus (02º55',03º01'S; 59º53',59º59'W, para verificar como a estrutura da floresta afeta a ocorrência e abundância de duas espécies de aves: o Arapaçu-pardo, Dendrocincla

  3. Comunidades de arañas (Arachnida:Araneae asociadas al dosel de bosques de tierra firme e igapó en la Estación Biológica Mosiro Itájura (Caparú, Vaupés, Amazonia Colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flórez Daza Eduardo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available El dosel de los bosques es estructuralmente complejo, por lo cual actúa como reservorio de una gran diversidad de artrópodos que pueden ser residentes permanentes y por lo tanto explotan los microhábitats disponibles (follaje, acumulaciones de liquen y hojarasca, epífitas, corteza, lianas y bejucos asociados, como sitio de vivienda o  alimentación. Se considera que los artrópodos de dosel conforman un componente importante en la cadena trófica de este estrato como fuente de alimentación para otros animales o como controladores naturales de insectos y demás artrópodos. En Colombia no se han realizado estudios encaminados al conocimiento de la araneofauna de dosel; por lo tanto el presente estudio constituye un primer aporte en este campo. Se efectuaron muestreos entre marzo y abril de 2003, a final de la época seca, en bosques de tierra firme e Igapó (inundable en la zona del bajo río Apaporis, Vaupés, Amazonia colombiana. Se seleccionaron 10 árboles en cada bosque a los cuales se accedió usando la técnica de cuerda simple. Las colectas se realizaron entre 18 y 23 m de altura en cada árbol, empleando los siguientes métodos: barrido con red entomológica (50 pases dobles, colecta de epífitas y revisión manual de hojarasca. Se colectó un total de 1.333 arañas, de las cuales se logró determinar hasta familia y separar a morfoespecie el 64%, que equivale a 850 individuos
    de 182 morfoespecies y 40 familias. En el bosque de Igapó se colectaron 560 arañas y se separó a nivel de morfoespecie 393 individuos, pertenecientes a 164 morforespecies y 29 familias. De las 773 arañas colectadas en el bosque de tierra firme se separaron 457 arañas pertenecientes a 162 morfoespecies y 32 familias. En el bosque de Igapó las familias con mayor número de especies resultaron ser Araneidae, Salticidae y Anyphaenidae, en tanto que las más abundantes fueron Salticidae, Pisauridae y Araneidae. En el bosque de tierra firme las familias

  4. Prevalência de excesso de peso e fatores associados em adolescentes de escolas privadas de região urbana na Amazônia Prevalencia de exceso de peso y factores asociados en adolescentes de escuelas privadas de región urbana en Amazonia Prevalence of excess weight and associated factors in adolescents of private schools of an Amazonic urban area, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laércio M. Silva Júnior

    2012-06-01

    was higher at 14 years (40% in both genders. In the multivariate analysis, adjusted for age and gender, more than two hours in the computer per day and a sedentary lifestyle were associated with excess weight. CONCLUSIONS: Excess weight is a serious public health problem in high school students from private institutions of an urban area of the Amazonia Region. The promotion of physical activity and the reduction of time in the computer should be considered as strategies to improve the health of adolescents.

  5. The challenges of sustainable rural electrification in isolated communities of the Amazonia; Os desafios da eletrificacao rural sustentavel em comunidades isoladas da Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Rubem Cesar Rodrigues; Bacellar, Atlas Augusto; Seye, Omar; Goncalves, Cristiano; Cunha, Yasmine dos Santos Ribeiro; Souza, Fernando Cesar Rodrigues; Mota, Sheila Cordeiro; Sardinha, Marcia Drumond; Cunha, Priscila de Sa Leitao; Albuquerque, Felipe Oliveira; Costa, Whillison Bentes da; Silveira Junior, Wellyghan Assis [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Centro de Desenvolvimento Energetico Amazonico

    2008-07-01

    In this article some important elements are discussed in the challenge to make possible the isolated of the Amazon electric supply in maintainable bases. The discussion is made fundamentally starting from the experience lived in the project 'Model for Electric Power Enterprise in Isolated Communities in the Amazon - NERAM', financed by the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development - CNPq in the extent of the program 'Luz para Todos', being implemented by the Amazonian Center of Energy Development - CDEAM of Amazon Federal University - UFAM. The reading of the problem is focused in two aspects considered fundamental for the discussion, which they are: the generation of income and the generation, distribution and electric power sale. (author)

  6. Restriction limits and main drivers of fruit production in palm in central Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Cintia; Costa, Flávia R. C.; Barbosa, Carlos Eduardo; Cintra, Renato

    2016-11-01

    Adult plants incapable of producing viable offspring inflate our perception of the size of population distribution. We propose that species occurrence is limited to a subset of the environmental gradient and that it changes as ontogenetic development progresses. Moreover, fruit production is associated with site-specific environmental conditions. We sampled 2988 adult individuals from nine palm species in 30 plots (40 × 250 m) and used a larger data set including 42 other plots distributed along a continuous topo-edaphic gradient in a terra firme forest near Manaus, Brazil. Five out of nine palm species were more restricted to a sub-section of the topo-edaphic gradient in the adult-size phase. More specifically, reproductive individuals of species Attalea attaleoides and A. microcarpa had even more restricted distributions than adult-sized, non-reproductive plants. Successive environmental filtering and competition probably acting through selective mortality led to increasing habitat restriction, with reproductive adults being restricted to a smaller part of the region than juveniles and adults. Water availability and nutrients limited both the ability to produce fruits and the amount of fruit production. Previous studies have reported stronger habitat associations for older plants than for seedlings or juveniles, but we show here that some species are more restricted at their reproductive stage. Plant specializations to local conditions may be more common than currently acknowledged, and a significant portion of individuals in a population might represent sinks. Such strong environmental limitations of reproductive plants should also be considered in management of species with economic value and in conservation planning.

  7. Behavioral modifications in northern bearded saki monkeys (Chiropotes satanas chiropotes) in forest fragments of central Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Sarah Ann; Smith, Andrew T

    2010-01-01

    We investigated behavioral differences among seven groups of northern bearded saki monkeys (Chiropotes satanas chiropotes) living in five forest fragments and two areas of continuous forest at the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project study area, located approximately 80 km north of Manaus, Brazil. We collected data in six research cycles from July-August 2003 to January 2005-April 2006. When bearded saki monkeys were present in a study area, we followed the group from dawn until dusk for three consecutive days. Every 5 min, we conducted behavioral scans of all visible individuals. There was a positive relationship between forest size and group size, but animals in the small forest fragments lived at greater densities. Bearded saki monkeys in the smaller fragments spent more time resting, less time traveling, and less time vocalizing, but there was no relationship between forest size and the amount of time spent feeding. Our results indicate that the main behavioral differences among the groups are related to the amount of forest resources (e.g., fruit trees, space) available to the monkeys in the smaller fragments, as well as the resulting smaller group sizes. We stress the need to preserve large tracts of forest and provide connectivity between forest patches.

  8. Los nukak : Los últimos nómades de la Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Politis, Gustavo Gabriel

    1994-01-01

    Enclavados en el Noroeste de la selva Amazónica, al sur del río Guaviare, los indígenas Nukak aún mantienen un estilo de vida basado en la caza, la pesca y la recolección, tal como lo hacían cientos de grupos aborígenes americanos antes de la Conquista. A pesar de que habitaron durante mucho tiempo las zonas interribereñas del Noroeste Amazónico, los Nukak sólo adquirieron visibilidad en 1988 cuando un grupo de 41 indígenas, con hambre y enfermos, salieron de la selva y llegaron a la sabana d...

  9. Traduction d’extraits de Amazonia / Amazonie de Michał Walczak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Bocianowski

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available PrésentationMichał Walczak(1979 compte parmi les jeunes auteurs dramatiques polonais dont les pièces sont le plus volontiers montées aujourd'hui. Originaire de Sanok, il commence des études d'économie puis change de voie et entre à l'Académie Théâtrale de Varsovie pour y étudier la mise en scène et la théâtrologie. Il remporte son premier succès en tant qu'auteur avec Piaskownica (Le Bac à sable, pièce publiée en 2002 dans la revue Dialog puis montée l’année suivante à Wałbrzych. Il s'agit ...

  10. Preliminary Compositional Evidence of Provenance of Ceramics from Hatahara Archaeological Site, Central Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Nunes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred twenty four ceramic fragments and six clay samples from the Hatahara archaeological site in Amazonas state, Brazil, were analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis, INAA, to determine the concentration of twenty chemical elements: Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Rb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb, and Zn. The dataset was submitted to multivariate statistical analysis. The classification was done by cluster analysis and discriminant analysis. The results demonstrated the occurrence of four different groups of ceramics, which represent three archaeological phases: Paredão, Manacapuru, and Guarita. This data is consistent with previous traditional petrographic examination of the ceramic samples. Based on probability measures, the great majority of the ceramics are considered to be local in origin.

  11. Geographic distribution of isolated indigenous societies in Amazonia and the efficacy of indigenous territories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan C Kesler

    Full Text Available The headwaters of the Amazon Basin harbor most of the world's last indigenous peoples who have limited contact with encroaching colonists. Knowledge of the geographic distribution of these isolated groups is essential to assist with the development of immediate protections for vulnerable indigenous settlements. We used remote sensing to document the locations of 28 isolated villages within the four Brazilian states of Acre, Amazonas, Roraima, and Rondônia. The sites were confirmed during previous over-flights and by image evidence of thatched-roof houses; they are estimated to host over 1,700 individuals. Locational data were used to train maximum entropy models that identified landscape and anthropogenic features associated with the occurrence of isolated indigenous villages, including elevation, proximity to streams of five different orders, proximity to roads and settlements, proximity to recent deforestation, and vegetation cover type. Isolated villages were identified at mid elevations, within 20 km of the tops of watersheds and at greater distances from existing roads and trails. We further used model results, combined with boundaries of the existing indigenous territory system that is designed to protect indigenous lands, to assess the efficacy of the existing protected area network for isolated peoples. Results indicate that existing indigenous territories encompass all of the villages we identified, and 50% of the areas with high predicted probabilities of isolated village occurrence. Our results are intended to help inform policies that can mitigate against future external threats to isolated peoples.

  12. Uncitermes almeriae, a new termite species from Amazonia (Isoptera, Termitidae, Syntermitinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrijo, Tiago F.; Constantini, Joice P.; Scheffrahn, Rudolf H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Neotropical termite genus Uncitermes Rocha & Cancello, 2012 was known from a single species, Uncitermes teevani (Emerson, 1925). In this paper a new species, Uncitermes almeriae sp. n., is described and illustrated from worker and soldier castes, along with observations on the Uncitermes nest. A distribution map with the occurrences of both species is presented. The new species is distinguished from its congener by the presence of short bristles covering the head capsule and frontal tube. PMID:27408564

  13. Spatially complex land change: The Indirect effect of Brazil's agricultural sector on land use in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Peter D; Walker, Robert T; Arima, Eugenio Y

    2014-11-01

    Soybean farming has brought economic development to parts of South America, as well as environmental hopes and concerns. A substantial hope resides in the decoupling of Brazil's agricultural sector from deforestation in the Amazon region, in which case expansive agriculture need not imply forest degradation. However, concerns have also been voiced about the potential indirect effects of agriculture. This article addresses these indirect effects forthe case of the Brazilian Amazon since 2002. Our work finds that as much as thirty-two percent of deforestation, or the loss of more than 30,000 km(2) of Amazon forest, is attributable, indirectly, to Brazil's soybean sector. However, we also observe that the magnitude of the indirect impact of the agriculture sector on forest loss in the Amazon has declined markedly since 2006. We also find a shift in the underlying causes of indirect land use change in the Amazon, and suggest that land appreciation in agricultural regions has supplanted farm expansions as a source of indirect land use change. Our results are broadly congruent with recent work recognizing the success of policy changes in mitigating the impact of soybean expansion on forest loss in the Amazon. However, they also caution that the soybean sector may continue to incentivize land clearings through its impact on regional land markets.

  14. Characterizing the Chemical Complexity of Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds from Biomass Burning in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernis, R. A.; Yee, L.; Isaacman-VanWertz, G. A.; Kreisberg, N. M.; de Sá, S. S.; Liu, Y.; Martin, S. T.; Alexander, L.; Palm, B. B.; Hu, W.; Campuzano Jost, P.; Day, D. A.; Jimenez, J. L.; Artaxo, P.; Viegas, J.; Manzi, A. O.; Souza, R. A. F. D.; Hering, S. V.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2015-12-01

    Aerosols are a source of great uncertainty in radiative forcing predictions and have poorly understood impacts on human health. In many environments, biomass burning contributes a significant source of primary aerosol as well as reactive gas-phase precursors that can form secondary organic aerosol (SOA). One class of these precursors, semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), has been shown to have a large contribution to the amount of SOA formed from fire emissions. At present, SVOC emissions from biomass burning are poorly constrained and understanding their contributions to SOA formation is an important research challenge. In the Amazonian dry season, biomass burning is a major source of gases and aerosols reducing regional air quality. As part of the GoAmazon 2014/5 field campaign, we deployed the Semi-Volatile Thermal desorption Aerosol Gas Chromatograph (SV-TAG) instrument at the rural T3 site, 60 km to the west of Manaus, Brazil to measure hourly concentrations of SVOCs in the gas and particle phases. This comprehensive technique detects thousands of compounds, enabling the discovery of previously unidentified compounds. In this work we explore compounds for which a correlation with well-known biomass burning tracers is observed to discover the identities of new tracers. We discuss contributions to the total organic aerosol from well-known, rarely reported and newly-identified biomass burning tracers. We find that levoglucosan, perhaps the most commonly used particle phase biomass burning tracer, contributed 0.6% and 0.3% of total organic aerosol in the dry and wet seasons, respectively.

  15. Recovery of energy, water and carbon exchange in degraded forests in eastern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbore, Susan; Brando, Paulo; Oliveira dos Santos, Claudinei; Silvério, Divino; Coe, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Large regions in the state of Mato Grosso in Brazil have been deforested and converted to pasture and soy agriculture. In addition to deforestation, remnant forests in the region are degraded by repeated fire and edge related effects. We are combining eddy covariance with other measures to study the impact of these changes in land cover on energy, water and carbon balance, in a region that sits at the ecotone between continuous forest and savanna. The degraded forest plot is part of a multi-year experimental fire treatment and had experienced large-scale mortality in the years prior to tower installation. Leaf area was strongly reduced in degraded forest, but surprisingly latent energy fluxes nearly equaled those in the intact forest. Carbon uptake rates in the intact forest exceeded those in the degraded forest, though not when expressed on a leaf-area basis. Overall, these results corroborate those found in experimentally logged tropical forest showing rapid recovery of fluxes, despite losses of biomass. Compared to both forests, the soy field reflected more incoming energy, and lost a greater proportion of absorbed radiation as sensible rather than latent heat.

  16. PEDO-TRANSFER FUNCTIONS FOR ESTIMATING SOIL BULK DENSITY IN CENTRAL AMAZONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Seixas Barros

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Under field conditions in the Amazon forest, soil bulk density is difficult to measure. Rigorous methodological criteria must be applied to obtain reliable inventories of C stocks and soil nutrients, making this process expensive and sometimes unfeasible. This study aimed to generate models to estimate soil bulk density based on parameters that can be easily and reliably measured in the field and that are available in many soil-related inventories. Stepwise regression models to predict bulk density were developed using data on soil C content, clay content and pH in water from 140 permanent plots in terra firme (upland forests near Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil. The model results were interpreted according to the coefficient of determination (R2 and Akaike information criterion (AIC and were validated with a dataset consisting of 125 plots different from those used to generate the models. The model with best performance in estimating soil bulk density under the conditions of this study included clay content and pH in water as independent variables and had R2 = 0.73 and AIC = -250.29. The performance of this model for predicting soil density was compared with that of models from the literature. The results showed that the locally calibrated equation was the most accurate for estimating soil bulk density for upland forests in the Manaus region.

  17. Macrofauna as Indicator of Riparian Forests Degradation in the Eastern Brazilian Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Pinzón, Stefania Triana; Rousseau, Guillaume Xavier; Piedade, Alexandra Rocha da; Celentano, Danielle; Zelarayán, Marcelo Luís Corrêa; Braun,Heder

    2015-01-01

    La macrofauna del suelo es ampliamente usada como bioindicadora de calidad ambiental. En este trabajo se estudió el efecto de la degradación forestal de bosques ribereños sobre la abundancia y composición de grupos taxonómicos y funcionales de macroinvertebrados en las cuencas Pepital y Grande, Alcântara, Maranhão - Brasil. Se tomaron muestras en la estación seca en zonas con cuatro niveles de degradación forestal utilizando el método TSBF modificado. Los organismos fueron clasificados en gra...

  18. Variability of carbon and water fluxes following climate extremes over a tropical forest in southwestern Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Zeri

    Full Text Available The carbon and water cycles for a southwestern Amazonian forest site were investigated using the longest time series of fluxes of CO2 and water vapor ever reported for this site. The period from 2004 to 2010 included two severe droughts (2005 and 2010 and a flooding year (2009. The effects of such climate extremes were detected in annual sums of fluxes as well as in other components of the carbon and water cycles, such as gross primary production and water use efficiency. Gap-filling and flux-partitioning were applied in order to fill gaps due to missing data, and errors analysis made it possible to infer the uncertainty on the carbon balance. Overall, the site was found to have a net carbon uptake of ≈5 t C ha(-1 year(-1, but the effects of the drought of 2005 were still noticed in 2006, when the climate disturbance caused the site to become a net source of carbon to the atmosphere. Different regions of the Amazon forest might respond differently to climate extremes due to differences in dry season length, annual precipitation, species compositions, albedo and soil type. Longer time series of fluxes measured over several locations are required to better characterize the effects of climate anomalies on the carbon and water balances for the whole Amazon region. Such valuable datasets can also be used to calibrate biogeochemical models and infer on future scenarios of the Amazon forest carbon balance under the influence of climate change.

  19. Variability of carbon and water fluxes following climate extremes over a tropical forest in southwestern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeri, Marcelo; Sá, Leonardo D A; Manzi, Antônio O; Araújo, Alessandro C; Aguiar, Renata G; von Randow, Celso; Sampaio, Gilvan; Cardoso, Fernando L; Nobre, Carlos A

    2014-01-01

    The carbon and water cycles for a southwestern Amazonian forest site were investigated using the longest time series of fluxes of CO2 and water vapor ever reported for this site. The period from 2004 to 2010 included two severe droughts (2005 and 2010) and a flooding year (2009). The effects of such climate extremes were detected in annual sums of fluxes as well as in other components of the carbon and water cycles, such as gross primary production and water use efficiency. Gap-filling and flux-partitioning were applied in order to fill gaps due to missing data, and errors analysis made it possible to infer the uncertainty on the carbon balance. Overall, the site was found to have a net carbon uptake of ≈5 t C ha(-1) year(-1), but the effects of the drought of 2005 were still noticed in 2006, when the climate disturbance caused the site to become a net source of carbon to the atmosphere. Different regions of the Amazon forest might respond differently to climate extremes due to differences in dry season length, annual precipitation, species compositions, albedo and soil type. Longer time series of fluxes measured over several locations are required to better characterize the effects of climate anomalies on the carbon and water balances for the whole Amazon region. Such valuable datasets can also be used to calibrate biogeochemical models and infer on future scenarios of the Amazon forest carbon balance under the influence of climate change.

  20. Narratives of the Invisible: Autobiography, Kinship, and Alterity in Native Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotti, Vanessa Elisa; Brightman, Marc

    2016-03-01

    Shamanic knowledge is based on an ambiguous commensality with invisible others. As a result, shamans oscillate constantly between spheres of intimacy, both visible and invisible. A place of power and transformation, the spirit world is rarely described by native interlocutors in an objective, detached way; rather, they depict it in terms of events and experiences. Instead of examining the formal qualities of accounts of the spirit world through analyses of ritual performance and shamanic quests, we focus on life histories as autobiographical accounts in order to explore what they reveal about the relationship between personal history (and indigenous historicity) and the spirit world. We introduce the term 'double reflexivity' to refer to processes by which narratives about the self are produced through relationships with alterity.

  1. Estudio preliminar de ictioplancton de la Amazonia peruana con énfasis en la familia Pimelodidae

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    María Rojas

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se informa y describen las larvas de peces presentes en la naciente del río Madre de Dios, con énfasis en la familia Pimelodidae. Las colectas se realizaron entre noviembre y diciembre de 2004, utilizando una red de ictioplancton (300 micras de malla, en 8 transectos que cubrieron un tramo aproximado de 2 km aguas arriba y aguas abajo de la ciudad de Puerto Maldonado. Un total de 83750 larvas fueron examinadas, la mayor abundancia la presentaron los Characiformes (81%, seguido por Siluriformes (18%. En la familia Pimelodidae, se identificaron 12 especies de consumo, destacando Pseudoplatystoma tigrinum, P. fasciatum y Sorubim lima. Los principales órdenes encontrados en el ictioplancton siguen un patrón de abundancia relativa similar al estado adulto. La presencia de larvas de los grandes bagres migradores (familia Pimelodidae en la zona de muestreo sugiere que esta parte del río Madre de Dios es un área de reproducción, y por ende de importancia para la conservación de estas especies.

  2. ‘Spatial Play’ at the Ends of Europe: Oyapock Bridge, Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramsch, O.T.

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on the work of philosopher-semiotician Louis Marin, this contribution to Outlook on Europe reveals the ‘spatial play’ of contending outlooks hovering fitfully over the construction of a bridge at the ‘ends of Europe’, in the heart of the Amazon rainforest, on that very spot where French Guia

  3. Small-scale tourism development in Brazilian Amazonia: The creation of a ‘tourist bubble’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ros-Tonen, M.A.F.; Werneck, A.F.

    2009-01-01

    In Brazil, tourism is promoted as a means of generating employment, tax revenues, foreign exchange and investments in infrastructure. The Amazon region is thereby primarily marketed as a ‘green’ destination. One such a destination is the village of Alter do Chão in the municipality of Santarém in th

  4. Labrets: Piercing and Stretching on the Northwest Coast and in Amazonia

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    Jenny Reddish

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the practice of piercing and stretching the lip in order to accommodate a labret in two regions: the North American Northwest Coast (with historical examples from Tlingit and Haida groups and lowland South America (utilizing ethnographic writings on Suya and Kayapo communities. Drawing on the recent ‘sensorial turn’ within anthropology, I suggest an approach which goes beyond considerations of the symbolism of body ornaments and analyses how the infliction of pain they involve can be manipulated to serve social ends at a local level. Also discussed is the use of labrets within global ‘mediascapes’ (Appadurai 1996 by Kayapo and Northwest Coast groups in the context of self-representation and the politicization of ‘culture’ (Wright 1998.

  5. Reactive Case Detection for Plasmodium vivax Malaria Elimination in Rural Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontoura, Pablo S.; Finco, Bruna F.; Lima, Nathália F.; de Carvalho, Jaques F.; Vinetz, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Malaria burden in Brazil has reached its lowest levels in 35 years and Plasmodium vivax now accounts for 84% of cases countrywide. Targeting residual malaria transmission entrenched in the Amazon is the next major challenge for ongoing elimination efforts. Better strategies are urgently needed to address the vast reservoir of asymptomatic P. vivax carriers in this and other areas approaching malaria elimination. Methods We evaluated a reactive case detection (RCD) strategy tailored for P. vivax transmission in farming settlements in the Amazon Basin of Brazil. Over six months, 41 cases detected by passive surveillance triggered four rounds of RCD (0, 30, 60, and 180 days after index case enrollment), using microscopy- and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)-based diagnosis, comprising subjects sharing the household (HH) with the index case (n = 163), those living in the 5 nearest HHs within 3 km (n = 878), and individuals from 5 randomly chosen control HHs located > 5 km away from index cases (n = 841). Correlates of infection were identified with mixed-effects logistic regression models. Molecular genotyping was used to infer local parasite transmission networks. Principal findings/Conclusions Subjects in index and neighbor HHs were significantly more likely to be parasitemic than control HH members, after adjusting for potential confounders, and together harbored > 90% of the P. vivax biomass in study subjects. Clustering patterns were temporally stable. Four rounds of microscopy-based RCD would identify only 49.5% of the infections diagnosed by qPCR, but 76.8% of the total parasite biomass circulating in the proximity of index HHs. However, control HHs accounted for 27.6% of qPCR-positive samples, 92.6% of them from asymptomatic carriers beyond the reach of RCD. Molecular genotyping revealed high P. vivax diversity, consistent with complex transmission networks and multiple sources of infection within clusters, potentially complicating malaria elimination efforts. PMID:27941968

  6. Geographic distribution of isolated indigenous societies in Amazonia and the efficacy of indigenous territories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Dylan C; Walker, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    The headwaters of the Amazon Basin harbor most of the world's last indigenous peoples who have limited contact with encroaching colonists. Knowledge of the geographic distribution of these isolated groups is essential to assist with the development of immediate protections for vulnerable indigenous settlements. We used remote sensing to document the locations of 28 isolated villages within the four Brazilian states of Acre, Amazonas, Roraima, and Rondônia. The sites were confirmed during previous over-flights and by image evidence of thatched-roof houses; they are estimated to host over 1,700 individuals. Locational data were used to train maximum entropy models that identified landscape and anthropogenic features associated with the occurrence of isolated indigenous villages, including elevation, proximity to streams of five different orders, proximity to roads and settlements, proximity to recent deforestation, and vegetation cover type. Isolated villages were identified at mid elevations, within 20 km of the tops of watersheds and at greater distances from existing roads and trails. We further used model results, combined with boundaries of the existing indigenous territory system that is designed to protect indigenous lands, to assess the efficacy of the existing protected area network for isolated peoples. Results indicate that existing indigenous territories encompass all of the villages we identified, and 50% of the areas with high predicted probabilities of isolated village occurrence. Our results are intended to help inform policies that can mitigate against future external threats to isolated peoples.

  7. Medio siglo de desarrollo en la Amazonia: ¿existen esperanzas para su desarrollo sustentable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc J. Dourojeanni

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available A DESTRUIÇÃO DOS recursos naturais da Amazônia continua aumentando, especialmente o desmatamento, apesar de a retórica dos últimos 50 anos ter mudado de conquista e exploração para desenvolvimento sustentável. Entretanto, mudanças positivas são percebidas, ainda que pequenas: o crescimento da participação popular nas decisões; o Tratado de Cooperação Amazônica, que começa a dar resultados práticos; o interesse internacional melhor orientado; existem experiências bem-sucedidas e melhor documentadas sobre desenvolvimento sustentável; e muitos dos antigos mitos sobre a realidade amazônica estão sendo abandonados. O crescimento da população urbana é uma das principais mudanças percebidas. Hoje, mais de 60% de sua população é urbana e tem grande influência nas decisões políticas, ainda que não necessariamente favorável para o desenvolvimento sustentável. Neste trabalho explora-se algumas das razões pelas quais o desenvolvimento amazônico não é sustentável: entre outras, um paradigma de desenvolvimento sustentável mal definido, a persistente deficiência na identificação dos atores amazônicos e na solução de seus conflitos no planejamento regional, a fragilidade crescente das instituições públicas, a aplicação do simples crescimento econômico como estratégia dominante de desenvolvimento, o limitado acesso à educação, a desordem social. Duas ações estratégicas, que não constituem novidade, são consideradas essenciais para mudar gradativamente o padrão do desenvolvimento na região: a intensificação do uso da terra e a elevação da produtividade nas áreas já desmatadas (acima de 100 milhões de hectares na Amazônia produzem pouco ou nada; a avaliação e o pagamento em escala nacional e internacional dos serviços ambientais fornecidos pela floresta. Esses dois requisitos deverão ser acompanhados pela adoção outras estratégias bem conhecidas, como o manejo sustentável da floresta natural, o reflorestamento de áreas desmatadas não-aproveitáveis na agricultura, estabelecimento de áreas protegidas efetivamente manejadas, entre várias mais.AMAZON NATURAL resources destruction trends continues to increase, especially deforestation, despite changes in rethoric that during the last 50 years moved from conquest and exploitation to sustainable development. However, a few positive changes are noticeable: Amazon people's participation in decision making increased, the Amazon Treaty is starting to produce practical results, the international concerns are better oriented, there are more and better documented success stories to replicate and, several pervasive and prejudicial myths about the Amazon are being lost. Urban population growth is one of the principal changes in the Amazon. Over 60% of the Amazon population are urban and its influence in policy making is very high and not necessarily favorable to sustainable development. In this paper are explored some of the reasons for which development is not sustainable in the Amazon: a sustainable development paradigm ill defined and poorly understood, a persistent lack of identification of actors and their conflicts in most planning exercises, growing fragility of states to organize and provide the rules of the game for development and, of course, the application of the economic growth as dominant strategy combined with lack of education and social order, corruption and other associated evils, are briefly discussed. Two strategic actions, that are not new, are considered central to gradually change the pattern of development in the Amazon: intensification of the use of the land and productivity elevation in already deforested areas (well over 100 million hectares that currently produce very little or nothing; the valuation and payment, at national and international scale, of the environmental services of the forests. These two central requirements are coupled by several other well-known and complementary possibilities such as natural forest management; establishment and management of protected areas, redefinition of success indicators for the Amazon, ecotourism etc. Education, information and participation are essential to allow democracy to play its role in sustainable development.

  8. PLANTAS MEDICINALES UTILIZADAS POR TRES COMUNIDADES INDÍGENAS EN EL NOROCCIDENTE DE LA AMAZONIA (COLOMBIA

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    William Trujillo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Usando entrevistas semiestructuradas y el índice de importancia relativa (IR, este trabajo documenta las plantas medicinales versátiles o de mayor importancia cultural en tres resguardos indígenas (emberá-katío, coreguaje y uitoto ubicadas en el piedemonte y planicie amazónica del departamento del Caquetá, Colombia. También se registran los usos medicinales y la parte de la planta más usada. En total se registraron 122 especies medicinales (94 géneros en 56 familias; Piperaceae fue la familia con el mayor número de especies (13, seguida por Gesneriaceae y Fabaceae con seis especies cada una. Solamente ocho especies fueron usadas entre dos comunidades, pero ninguna por las tres. La parte de la planta usada con mayor frecuencia en las tres comunidades fue la hoja, empleada en un total de 87 preparaciones medicinales utilizando 70 especies. Los cuatro sistemas corporales con mayor número de especies empleadas y número de tratamientos terapéuticos fueron los siguientes: enfermedades de la piel y tejidos subcutáneos, aflicciones y dolores no definidos, enfermedades infecciosas y parasitarias y enfermedades del sistema digestivo. Aproximadamente la mitad de las especies registradas son usadas para tratar fiebres, diarreas, problemas de hongos, mordeduras de serpientes, parásitos internos e inflamaciones. El 11% de las especies registradas (14 especies en 12 géneros y 12 familias fueron versátiles en relación a su uso (IR ≥ 1.0; el árbol nativo Rauvolfia leptophylla (Apocynaceae y la planta herbácea  introducida a América, Kalanchoe pinnata (Crassulaceae, tuvieron los valores de IR más altos (2.0 y 1.6. También se registran algunos síndromes de filiación cultural y se discute la importancia de estas plantas medicinales en el tratamiento de enfermedades comunes de estas comunidades con acceso limitado a centros de salud del gobierno.

  9. ESTRUCTURA POBLACIONAL DE Callicebus cupreus (Primates: Cebidae EN LA AMAZONIA PERUANA

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    Julio Tapia Ruiz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo es evaluar la estructura poblacional de Callicebus cupreus. Se realizaron censos poblacionales por el método del Transecto, colectas por el método del Arreo.  Como consecuencia se aisló 25 grupos familiares en el Caserío Santa Cecilia (Río Manití, Departamento de Loreto (Perú. El ratio de sexo (macho:hembra fue de 1:1,3 en adultos; 1:3 en sub-adultos y 4:1 en crías. La densidad poblacional fue de 12,9 grupos/Km2  ó  33,5 ind/Km2, y el tamaño de grupo fue de 2,6 ind/grupo. Las categorías de edad registradas fueron adultos (79.5%, sub-adultos (9.1%, juveniles (2.3% y crías (9.1%. El peso y longitud promedio de los individuos fueron de 905.3 g y 737 mm en adultos, de 620 g y 697 mm en subadultos, y 40,2 g y 150 mm en crías. Los Juveniles tuvieron sólo 2 representantes (un macho y una hembra con 400 g  de peso y 450 mm longitud. El ratio del sexo fue mayor en las hembras adultas; mientras que en sub-adultos y crías fue mayor en los machos. Las hembras adultas mostraron mayor talla en promedio que los machos de igual categoría etaria quizá como consecuencia de un dimorfismo sexual.

  10. Road Infrastructure Development and Deforestation in Southwest Amazonia: a Tri-National Frontier Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeyda Zambrano, A. M.; Broadbent, E. N.; Asner, G. P.; Knapp, D. E.; Durham, W. H.; Duchelle, A. E.; Wunder, S.

    2012-12-01

    Infrastructure development is a priority in many tropical countries. Road infrastructure, in particular, has been linked to deforestation. However, there is an insufficient understanding of how road infrastructure interacts with population and market dynamics to influence forest clearing. To address this we conducted a large-scale interdisciplinary research project in the tri-national Amazonian frontier of Peru, Brazil, and Bolivia encompassing 101,463 km2. This setting, a gradient of young to old Amazon frontier areas, provided a unique opportunity for the study of human environment interactions under varying stages of road infrastructure development while controlling for biophysical variation. We coupled multivariate statistical approaches on roads, population, markets, and deforestation with multitemporal spatial analysis of deforestation and infrastructure development using remote sensing and geographic information systems. Our results highlight the dynamic conditions occurring in Amazonian frontier regions, including rapid road infrastructure development, expansion of markets, and decrease in forest cover. We found that travel time to the nearest market dominated deforestation dynamics, with infrastructure development resulting in increased market access. Findings from this study support a deforestation framework focusing on urban population and market dynamics, and highlight the importance of modeling landscape deforestation using travel time versus spatial proximity approaches. Results are directly applicable to both furthering the theoretical understanding of human-environment interactions in frontier landscapes, as well as for applied environmental conservation and sustainable development efforts in the tropics.;

  11. NEW LIPASE-PRODUCERS MICROORGANISMS FROM PERUVIAN AMAZONIA WHICH HYDROLYZE PALM OIL AND DERIVATIVES

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    Roxana Trujillo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Two yeasts: Cryptococcus uchicensis TMY9 and Pichia uchicensis TMY10 and one fungus Verticillium tingalensis TMFMB are described for the first time as lipase producer microorganisms. The strains have been isolated after an ecological screening in a palm oil industry. The yeasts- C. uchicensis and Pichia uchicensis - mainly produce extracellular lipases as active as those produced by traditional lipase producing microorganisms. The extracellular lipases are active in the hydrolysis of crude palm oil and its industrial derivatives. Contrarily in the isolated fungus, the lipase mainly remains bonded to biomass. In all cases, greater hydrolytic activities are observed in the hydrolysis of palm olein and super-olein than with saturated substrates as stearine. P. uchicensis lipase shows moderated selectivity versus saturated acid triglycerides compared to substrates with high proportion of oleic acid (olein or superolein. The opposite behavior is observed with C. uchicensis and fungal lipases. P. uchicensis produces a more active crude lipase than C. uchicensis with lower biomass production. The kinetic runs performed with crude yeast lipases suggest a three steps mechanism where the high penetration of lipase in the fat gouts favors the hydrolysis.

  12. Spectral Light Absorption and Scattering by Aerosol Particles in Central Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artaxo, P.; Holanda, B. A.; Ferreira De Brito, J.; Carbone, S.; Barbosa, H. M.; Rizzo, L. V.; Cirino, G. G.; Andreae, M. O.; Saturno, J.; Pöhlker, C.; Martin, S. T.; Holben, B. N.; Schafer, J.

    2015-12-01

    As part of the GoAmazon2014/5, a detailed characterization of spectral light absorption and light scattering was performed at four research sites located in the central Amazon forest at different distances upwind and downwind of Manaus. The sites ATTO (T0a) and Embrapa (T0e) are located upwind of Manaus where it is possible to observe very pristine atmospheric conditions in wet season. The site Tiwa (T2) is being operated under the direct influence of the Manaus plume at 5 km downwind of Manaus and, finally, the Manacapuru (T3) site is located at about 60 km downwind of Manaus. The spectral dependence of light absorption and light scattering were measured using Aethalometers (7-wavelengths) and Nephelometers (3-wavelengths), respectively. By calculating the Absorption Angstrom Exponent (AAE), it was possible to get information about the source of the aerosol whereas the Scattering Angstrom Exponent (SAE) gives information about its size distribution. Sunphotometers from the AERONET network were set up at T3 and T0e sites to measure column Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD). For all the stations, much higher absorption and scattering coefficients were observed during the dry season in comparison to the wet season, as a result of the larger concentration of BC and OC present in the biomass burning events. Additionally, we also observed Manaus plume pollution that alters the BC signal. There is also an increase of the AAE during the dry season due to the larger amount of aerosols from biomass burning compared with urban pollution. High values of AAE are also observed during the wet season, attributed to the presence of long-range transport of aerosols from Africa. The SAE for all the sites are lower during the wet season, with the dominance of large biological particles, and increases during the dry season as a consequence of fine particles emitted from both biomass and fossil fuel burning. The AOD at T0e and T3 (Jan-Jun/2014) showed very similar values ranging from 0.05 to 0.4. The regression coefficient of the T0e vs. T3 correlation was 1.04(4) and R²=0.94, showing similar columnar extinction properties and little influence of the Manaus plume on the total aerosol column.

  13. Piper and Vismia Species from Colombian Amazonia Differentially Affect Cell Proliferation of Hepatocarcinoma Cells

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    Leandro J. Lizcano

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing interest to identify plant-derived natural products with antitumor activities. In this work, we have studied the effects of aqueous leaf extracts from Amazonian Vismia and Piper species on human hepatocarcinoma cell toxicity. Results showed that, depending on the cell type, the plants displayed differential effects; thus, Vismia baccifera induced the selective killing of HepG2, while increasing cell growth of PLC-PRF and SK-HEP-1. In contrast, these two last cell lines were sensitive to the toxicity by Piper krukoffii and Piper putumayoense, while the Piperaceae did not affect HepG2 growth. All the extracts induced cytotoxicity to rat hepatoma McA-RH7777, but were innocuous (V. baccifera at concentrations < 75 µg/mL or even protected cells from basal death (P. putumayoense in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. In every case, cytotoxicity was accompanied by an intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. These results provide evidence for the anticancer activities of the studied plants on specific cell lines and suggest that cell killing could be mediated by ROS, thus involving mechanisms independent of the plants free radical scavenging activities. Results also support the use of these extracts of the Vismia and Piper genera with opposite effects as a model system to study the mechanisms of the antitumoral activity against different types of hepatocarcinoma.

  14. C storage in Amazonia pastures, effects of age, climate and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpp, Katja; Stahl, Clement; Blanfort, Vincent; Fontaine, Sebstien; Burban, Benoit; Darsonville, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    The Amazonian region is one of the major C storing areas, with 36-60% of ecosystem C being stored in forest soils. During last decades, more than 15% of Amazonian tropical forest has been converted to pastures. A number of studies provide evidence that soil C stocks of topsoil (0-20 cm) can be higher in grasslands than in native forests after more than 20 years after conversion (e.g. Don et al 2011). As for younger pastures (stock. The absence of a clear pattern was mostly explained due to conjoined changes following deforestation, such as climate conditions and pasture management. Accordingly, the question remains whether tropical permanent pastures can restore soil C stocks after deforestation and what is the capacity of tropical pastures to initiate a recurrent C storage. Pastures are largely affected by agricultural practices, influencing their carbon balance, in interaction with climate effect. In the past 10 years two major droughts (in 2005 and 2010 [2]) were reported for the Amazonian area. A better insight on effects of climatic variability and agricultural management on carbon storage is, thus, valuable to improve/maintain C storage of pastures in tropical regions. Here we like to assess whether tropical permanent pastures i) can restore soil C stocks after deforestation; ii) and to what extend and iii) which role play management practices with respect to climate variability to maintain a recurrent C storage. To establish reliable estimates of soil C storage in Amazonian region, the net C balance of pastures and native forests was quantified by two independent and complementary studies in French Guiana: a chronosequence study including a soil inventory of soil C stocks (0-100 cm depth) in 24 pastures of various ages (i.e. 0 to 42 yrs after deforestation) and 4 native forests, and 5 years of eddy covariance flux measurements (EC) for a young intensively used pasture (established in 2008) and an old extensively used pasture (established in 1978). Chronosequence provided evidence that soil of old pastures have a higher soil C stock than the native forests. This was confirmed by EC-measurements, showing a higher carbon storage potential of the old pasture compared to young pasture. Concerning grassland management and climate, the carbon balance of the old pasture was less affected by the dry season than the young pasture, supposedly due to a higher vegetation density and diversity (C3, C4 and legumes) preventing from soil drying and enabling the vegetation to maintain a photosynthetic activity. [1] Pan, Y., et al 2011, Science. 333, 988-993. [2] Lewis, S. L., et al 2010, Science, 331.6017.

  15. Number of malpighian tubules in larvae and adults of stingless bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) from Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa-Costa, K; Kerr, W E; Carvalho-Zilse, G A

    2012-02-01

    The number of Malpighian tubules in larvae and adults of bees is variable. Larvae of Apis mellifera L. have four Malpighian tubules, while adults have 100 tubules. In stingless bees, this number varies from four to eight. The objectives of this study were to provide characteristics of the Malpighian tubules as well as to quantify their number in larvae and adults of six species of Meliponinae, Melipona seminigra merrillae Cockerell, Melipona compressipes manaosensis Schwarz, Melipona rufiventris Lepeletier, Scaptotrigona Moure, Frieseomelitta Ihering, and Trigona williana Friese. Malpighian tubules were dissected from larvae and adults, measured, quantified, and maintained in microtubes with Dietrich's solution. The numbers of Malpighian tubules were constant only for larvae of M. rufiventris (four and eight) and Scaptotrigona sp. (four). The most frequent number of tubules in the Melipona group was seven and eight in larvae, and 70 and 90 in adults. In the Trigona group were four and 20 to 40, for larvae and adults, respectively. The results showed differences in the number of Malpighian tubules among the species analyzed and also between the larvae and adults of the same species. Despite the variation observed, species of the group Melipona always have a larger number and longer Malpighian tubules in both larvae and adults as compared to the Trigona group, which may indicate an evolutionary trend of differentiation between these groups.

  16. The Amazon's energetic paradox; O paradoxo energetico da Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcos Vinicius Miranda da [Grupo de Estudos em Educacao, Cultura e Meio Ambiente (GEAM), Belem, PA (Brazil)]. E-mail: marcos_v_m_silva@yahoo.com; Bermann, Celio [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia]. E-mail: cbermann@iee.usp.br

    1999-07-01

    The main energy sources in Amazon region are hydroelectric, biomass, and natural gas. Although abundance of these resources, the energy consumption in this region is one of the most low of Brazil. The article overviews this paradox. In this context, economical, geopolitical, and technical aspects are presented.

  17. Little effects of reduced-impact logging on insect communities in eastern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Denis Silva; Calvão, Lenize Batista; de Assis Montag, Luciano Fogaça; Juen, Leandro; De Marco, Paulo

    2016-07-01

    Selective logging has become a major source of threats to tropical forest, bringing challenges for both ecologists and managers to develop low-impact forestry. Reduced-impact logging (RIL) is a prominent activity accounting for such forestry practices to prevent strong forest disturbances. Our aims were to evaluate the effects of RIL on insect communities of forested streams from Eastern Amazon and to test the hypothesis of negative effects of RIL on species richness, abundance, and functional feeding groups of aquatic insect assemblages. Neither of the evaluated metrics of the studied assemblages were negatively affected by RIL. Environmental metrics, such as substrate heterogeneity, woody canopy cover, and hill slope height, varied more among RIL streams than in reference streams, indicating a gradient according to logging impacts, and are suitable candidates to monitor RIL impacts in Amazonian streams. In addition, the PHI index also varied among REF and RIL, according to age class and year of logging, which could reflect trends to recover the forest structure after logging in a time frame of only 10 years. We conclude that RIL impacts have not had detrimental impacts on insect communities, but have changed little of the environmental conditions, especially of the riparian vegetation around streams.

  18. [Knowledge about viral hepatitis in a sample of Brazilian students from Vale do Araguaia, Legal Amazonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Carlos K B; Savazzi, Kamirri; Honorio-França, Adenilda C; Ferrari, Graziele S L; França, Eduardo L

    2012-06-01

    Viral and non-viral hepatitis are of great concern among developing nations because of their pathogenicity and virulence, and also their wide spreading by contaminated blood, food or water. The objective of this work was to evaluate the knowledge about hepatitis of academic students from three life/health sciences courses and also students from the last year of high school To measure the students' knowledge on hepatitis an instrument containing 22 questions was applied. Surprinsingly, it was verified that 41.9% of students had poor knowledge of viral hepatitis. Among the high school students, 31.8% ignored that viral hepatitis are infectious and transmissible diseases. Considering hepatitis symptomatology, just 18% of high school students declared knowledge of the symptons, but none of those cited the ictericia. Among the academic students, 75.9% of nursing students had adequate knowledge of hepatitis, followed by pharmacy (51.3%), and biology students (18.2%). Nursing students had also higher scores of right answers regarding viral hepatitis and chronic disease. On contrary, biology and high school students had poor knowledge of that matter (37% and 44.5%, respectively). Less than 15% of nursing and pharmacy students did not know that viral hepatitis are sexually transmissible, whereas 78.6% of the 3rd year and 52.4% of the 4th year biology course ignored the sexual transmission of viral hepatitis. Still considering the same question, 54.5% of the high school students also ignored that viral hepatitis are sexually transmitted diseases. Important conclusions can be drawn from this study, since the higher hepatitis knowledge scores were found among nursing students, followed by pharmacy academics. However, biology students, which will serve as high school teachers, had poor and insufficient knowledge on hepatitis. This finding could explain the same poor disease knowledge among high school pupils.

  19. Historical human footprint on modern tree species composition in the Purus-Madeira interfluve, central Amazonia.

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    Carolina Levis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Native Amazonian populations managed forest resources in numerous ways, often creating oligarchic forests dominated by useful trees. The scale and spatial distribution of forest modification beyond pre-Columbian settlements is still unknown, although recent studies propose that human impact away from rivers was minimal. We tested the hypothesis that past human management of the useful tree community decreases with distance from rivers. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In six sites, we inventoried trees and palms with DBH≥10 cm and collected soil for charcoal analysis; we also mapped archaeological evidence around the sites. To quantify forest manipulation, we measured the relative abundance, richness and basal area of useful trees and palms. We found a strong negative exponential relationship between forest manipulation and distance to large rivers. Plots located from 10 to 20 km from a main river had 20-40% useful arboreal species, plots between 20 and 40 km had 12-23%, plots more than 40 km had less than 15%. Soil charcoal abundance was high in the two sites closest to secondary rivers, suggesting past agricultural practices. The shortest distance between archaeological evidence and plots was found in sites near rivers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results strongly suggest that past forest manipulation was not limited to the pre-Columbian settlements along major rivers, but extended over interfluvial areas considered to be primary forest today. The sustainable use of Amazonian forests will be most effective if it considers the degree of past landscape domestication, as human-modified landscapes concentrate useful plants for human sustainable use and management today.

  20. Nitrous oxide fluxes and nitrogen cycling along a pasture chronosequence in Central Amazonia, Brazil

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    B. Wick

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied nitrous oxide (N2O fluxes and soil nitrogen (N cycling following forest conversion to pasture in the central Amazon near Santarém, Pará, Brazil. Two undisturbed forest sites and 27 pasture sites of 0.5 to 60 years were sampled once each during wet and dry seasons. In addition to soil-atmosphere fluxes of N2O we measured 27 soil chemical, soil microbiological and soil physical variables. Soil N2O fluxes were higher in the wet season than in the dry season. Fluxes of N2O from forest soils always exceeded fluxes from pasture soils and showed no consistent trend with pasture age. At our forest sites, nitrate was the dominant form of inorganic N both during wet and dry season. At our pasture sites nitrate generally dominated the inorganic N pools during the wet season and ammonium dominated during the dry season. Net mineralization and nitrification rates displayed large variations. During the dry season net immobilization of N was observed in some pastures. Compared to forest sites, young pasture sites (≤2 years had low microbial biomass N and protease activities. Protease activity and microbial biomass N peaked in pastures of intermediate age (4 to 8 years followed by consistently lower values in older pasture (10 to 60 years. The C/N ratio of litter was low at the forest sites (~25 and rapidly increased with pasture age reaching values of 60-70 at pastures of 15 years and older. Nitrous oxide emissions at our sites were controlled by C and N availability and soil aeration. Fluxes of N2O were negatively correlated to leaf litter C/N ratio, NH4+-N and the ratio of NO3--N to the sum of NO3--N + NH4+-N (indicators of N availability, and methane fluxes and bulk density (indicators of soil aeration status during the wet season. During the dry season fluxes of N2O were positively correlated to microbial biomass N, β-glucosidase activity, total inorganic N stocks and NH4+-N. In our study region, pastures of all age emitted less N2O than old-growth forests, because of a progressive decline in N availability with pasture age combined with strongly anaerobic conditions in some pastures during the wet season.

  1. Do Farmers reduce genetic diversity when they domesticate tropical trees? a case study from Amazonia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollingsworth, P.M.; Dawson, I.K.; Goodall-Copestake, W.P.; Richardson, J.E.; Weber, J.C.; Sotelo Montes, C.; Pennington, R.T.

    2005-01-01

    Agroforestry ecosystems may be an important resource for conservation and sustainable use of tropical trees, but little is known of the genetic diversity they contain. Inga edulis, a widespread indigenous fruit tree in South America, is used as a model to assess the maintenance of genetic diversity

  2. Small-scale Tourism Development in Brazilian Amazonia: The Creation of a ‘Tourist Bubble’

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    Mirjam A.F. Ros-Tonen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, tourism is promoted as a means of generating employment, tax revenues, foreign exchange and investments in infrastructure. The Amazon region is thereby primarily marketed as a ‘green’ destination. One such a destination is the village of Alter do Chão in the municipality of Santarém in the state of Pará, where tourism has expanded rapidly during the past decade. Looking at the main characteristics of tourism in the study area and the actors involved, the authors show that the notion of a ‘tourist bubble’, which was developed for large-scale enclave-like resorts, may apply equally to a small-scale destination. First, it is in the sense of abstracting from historical and cultural contexts in relation to the antecedents of the local population and by commercializing the local Sairé festival as ‘staged authenticity’. Second, a ‘tourist bubble’ is emerging as a result of increasing physical and functional segregation of tourism and residential areas. As far as the local population is concerned, the creation of the ‘bubble’ primarily represents new economic opportunities. However, the introduction of ‘invented traditions’ is also easily adopted because it fits in with the ongoing ethnic reclassification process in Brazil among culturally fragmented populations in search for their ‘roots’ and lost rights. The authors conclude that in order to fully understand the complexity and dynamics of cultural and economic transformations following tourism development, it is necessary to also look beyond the ‘tourist bubble’.Resumen: El desarrollo turístico de pequeña escala en la Amazonía brasileña: la creación de una ‘burbuja turística’En Brasil, los gobiernos en todos niveles están promoviendo el turismo para generar empleo, impuestos, divisas e inversiones en infraestructura. La región amazónica brasileña está siendo comercializada como un destino ‘verde’. La aldea de Alter do Chão en la municipalidad de Santarém al oeste del estado del Pará, donde el turismo se ha expandido rápidamente en la última década, es un ejemplo de tal destino. Analizando las características del turismo en el área de estudio y los actores involucrados, las autoras muestran que la noción de ‘burbuja turística’ se aplica tanto a destinos turísticos de pequeña escala como a complejos tipo enclave a gran escala. Primero, porque en la comercialización del festival de Sairé se abstraen los contextos históricos y culturales propios de la población local. En segundo lugar porque la intensificación de la segregación física y funcional entre las áreas turísticas y residenciales ha provocado una ‘burbuja turística’, aumentando los precios de terrenos residenciales en el centro de la villa. En lo que concierne a la población local, estos desarrollos representan nuevas oportunidades económicas. Sin embargo, las ‘tradiciones inventadas’ son fácilmente adoptadas porque coinciden con el proceso de reclasificación étnica actualmente en curso en Brasil entre grupos de la población socialmente fragmentados y a la búsqueda de sus ‘raíces’ y derechos perdidos. Se describen varios otros efectos, como las consecuencias positivas y negativas en las esferas ambientales, económicas y sociales. Aunque la balanza del desarrollo del turismo en la aldea es positiva en la percepción de los habitantes locales, más expansión engendra el riesgo de degradación ambiental irreversible y la exclusión de los inmigrantes pobres de comunidades vecinas que buscan empleo relacionado con el turismo. Los autores concluyen que para comprender cabalmente la complejidad y dinámica de las transformaciones culturales y económicas del desarrollo del turismo, es necesario mirar más allá de la ‘burbuja turística’.

  3. Fraccionamiento e interesterificacion del aceite de palma (Elaeis guineensis cultivado en la amazonia peruana

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    Mancini Filho, Jorge

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the physical and chemical characteristics of the fruit of the oily palm coming from the river basin of the Manití (Region Loreto - Peru were studied. Also, the fractionation of the palm oil and the interesterification of mixtures of palm oil/estearin was carried out. Physico- chemical properties of the crude oil and of the products obtained and fatty acids were analysed by gas chromatography. The level of saturated fatty acids increased from 51,17% in the palm oil to 54,31% in the stearin. The best products for the food industry were the interesterified samples as they had melting points close to 37 °C.En el presente trabajo se realizó el estudio de las características físicas y químicas del fruto de la palma aceitera procedente de la cuenca del Manití. (Región Loreto - Perú. Del mismo modo se realizó el fraccionamiento e interesterificación de las mezclas de aceite de palma y estearina en las proporciones. Sobre el aceite crudo y los productos se determinaron las propiedades físico-químicos y análisis de ácidos grasos mediante la cromatografía gaseosa. El aceite de palma presenta una concentración de ácido grasos saturados de 51,17% y cuando fraccionado a 25 °C, este se incrementa en la estearina a 54,31%. Los mejores productos para la industria de alimentos son las mezclas interesterificadas de estearina tanto sola como con sus mezclas con aceite de palma, dado que presentan puntos de fusión próximos a 37 °C.

  4. Inter-site variation in allometry and wood density of Goupia glabra Aubl. in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siliprandi, N C; Nogueira, E M; Toledo, J J; Fearnside, P M; Nascimento, H E M

    2016-02-01

    The present study aims to compare the allometry and wood density of Goupia glabra Aubl. (Goupiaceae) in two different terra-firme sites in Amazonian forest. A total of 65 trees ≥ 10 cm DBH was sampled in both sites, with 39 trees in Nova Olinda do Norte (NOlinda, near the Amazon River) and 29 trees in Apuí (near the southern edge of the Amazon forest). Except for the relationship between DBH (diameter at breast height) and Ht (total height), allometric relationships for G.glabra differed significantly between sites. Apuí had lower intercept and greater slope for log10 (DBH) versus log10 (Hs - stem height), and, conversely, greater intercept and lower slope for log10 (DBH) versus log10 (Ch - crown height). The slope differed significantly between the sites for DBH versus Cd (crown diameter), with greater slope found for NOlinda. Mean basic wood density in Apuí was 8.8% lower than in NOlinda. Our findings highlight the variation in adaptive strategy of G. glabra due to environmental differences between sites. This is probably because of different canopy-understory light gradients, which result in differentiation of resource allocation between vertical and horizontal growth, which, in turn, affects mechanical support related to wood density. We also hypothesize that differences in soil fertility and disturbance regimes between sites may act concomitantly with light.

  5. TIPNIS y Amazonia: Contradicciones en la agenda ecológica de Bolivia

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    Ricardo Calla Ortega

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:The ecological agenda of the government of Evo Morales shows great contradictions. In international meetings it presents itself as the radical defender of the environmental rights of the Latin American peoples. In its own country, it pursues developmentalist policies which are based on the extraction of natural resources. This policy is causing large conflicts within the country. The most striking has been over the construction of a highway through the national park of TIPNIS. The contradiction between its in-ternational position and internal policies, which are far less green, is causing severe damage to the credibility of the Morales government, within and outside the country.Resumen:La agenda ecológica del gobierno de Evo Morales demuestra grandes contradicciones. En los encuentros internacionales se presen-ta como un defensor radical de los derechos ecológicos de los pueblos latinoamericanos. En su propio país está persiguiendo un pro-yecto desarrollista basado en la extracción de recursos nacionales. Esta política está causando grandes conflictos dentro del país. La más llamativa ha sido sobre la construc-ción de una autopista por el parque nacional del TIPNIS. La contradicción entre su pos-tura internacional y una política mucho me-nos verde al interior está dañando aguda-mente la credibilidad del gobierno de Mora-les dentro y fuera del país.

  6. Anthropogenic impact of mercury accumulation in fish from the Rio Madeira and Rio Negro rivers (Amazonia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dórea, José G; Barbosa, Antonio C

    2007-03-01

    Fish is an important concentrator of mono-methyl mercury and the main route to human contamination. We compared fish Hg bioaccumulation (within similar weight ranges) in two Amazonian river habitats during high-water seasons. The Rio Madeira has been greatly impacted by agriculture, alluvial gold extraction, and a hydroelectric reservoir, whereas the Rio Negro is much less affected by these human activities. The species at the top of the food web, Hoplias malabaricus (piscivorous; 80-668 ng Hg/g) and Cichla spp. (piscivorous; 42-747 ng Hg/g) showed the highest range of Hg concentrations. Nonpiscivorous species with comparable weight range, such as Potamorhina latior (detritivorous; 20-157 ng Hg/g) and Myleus torquatus (herbivorous; 2-182 ng Hg/g), had lower Hg concentrations. Triportheus elongatus (omnivorous; 5-350 ng Hg/g), with the lowest weight range, also showed a low range of Hg concentrations. Despite the Rio Madeira's higher sediment load as well as environmental impacts (deforestation, agriculture, hydroelectric reservoir, and alluvial gold mining) on natural Hg release, fish Hg bioaccumulation was no different between the two river habitats for nonpiscivorous species. In this small observational study only the species at the top of the food web (M. torquatus, Cichla spp, T. elongatus) showed higher mean Hg concentrations in the Rio Madeira than the dominantly wilderness habitat of the Rio Negro.

  7. Trade-offs among forest value components in community forests of southwestern Amazonia

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    Christopher Baraloto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary conservation interventions must balance potential trade-offs between multiple ecosystem services. In tropical forests, much attention has focused on the extent to which carbon-based conservation provided by REDD+ policies can also mitigate biodiversity conservation. In the nearly one-third of tropical forests that are community owned or managed, conservation strategies must also balance the multiple uses of forest products that support local livelihoods. Although much discussion has focused on policy options, little empirical evidence exists to evaluate the potential for trade-offs among different tropical forest value components. We assessed multiple components of forest value, including tree diversity, carbon stocks, and both timber and nontimber forest product resources, in forest communities across the trinational frontier of Brazil, Peru, and Bolivia. We installed 69 0.5-ha vegetation plots in local communities, and we characterized 15 components of forest value for each plot. Principal components analyses revealed two major axes of forest value, the first of which defined a trade-off between diversity of woody plant communities (taxonomic and functional versus aboveground biomass and standing timber volume. The second axis described abundance of commercial species, with strong positive loadings for density of timber and nontimber forest products, including Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa and copaiba oil (Copaifera spp.. The observed trade-off between different components of forest value suggests a potential for management conflicts prioritizing biodiversity conservation versus carbon stocks in the region. We discuss the potential for integrative indices of forest value for tropical forest conservation.

  8. Reptiles and amphibians of a poorly known region in southwest Amazonia

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    Frederico Gustavo Rodrigues França

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon is the largest tropical forest of the world and it is extremely rich in biodiversity. However, some portions of the biome are still poorly known. This work presents an inventory of the herpetofauna of Boca do Acre municipality, a still preserved region located in southwest Amazonas state. The inventory was carried out in two periods, a sampling during the middle of the rainy season and another one at the end of the rains. Diverse survey methods were employed, such as pitfall traps, diurnal and nocturnal visual searches, car searches on the BR 317 highway, and opportunistic registrations. We recorded 56 amphibians and 53 reptiles during the field work. We captured 27 species in pitfall traps, and 38 were found along the BR 317, alive or dead on the road, being snakes principally affected by road-kills. The species accumulation curves did not reach stability, indicating that the inventory was not complete. Our results show the high species richness of this region, its importance for the Amazonian biodiversity, and the urgency of its preservation.

  9. Rapid formation of isoprene photo-oxidation products observed in Amazonia

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    T. Karl

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Isoprene represents the single most important reactive hydrocarbon for atmospheric chemistry in the tropical atmosphere. It plays a central role in global and regional atmospheric chemistry and possible climate feedbacks. Photo-oxidation of primary hydrocarbons (e.g. isoprene leads to the formation of oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs. The evolution of these intermediates affects the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere (by reacting with OH and can contribute to secondary aerosol formation, a poorly understood process. An accurate and quantitative understanding of VOC oxidation processes is needed for model simulations of regional air quality and global climate. Based on field measurements conducted during the Amazonian Aerosol Characterization Experiment (AMAZE-08 we show that the production of certain OVOCs (e.g. hydroxyacetone from isoprene photo-oxidation in the lower atmosphere is significantly underpredicted by standard chemistry schemes. Recently reported fast secondary production could explain 50% of the observed discrepancy with the remaining part possibly produced via a novel primary production channel, which has been proposed theoretically. The observations of OVOCs are also used to test a recently proposed HOx recycling mechanism via degradation of isoprene peroxy radicals. If generalized our observations suggest that prompt photochemical formation of OVOCs and other uncertainties in VOC oxidation schemes could result in uncertainties of modelled OH reactivity, potentially explaining a fraction of the missing OH sink over forests which has previously been largely attributed to a missing source of primary biogenic VOCs.

  10. NEW LIPASE-PRODUCERS MICROORGANISMS FROM PERUVIAN AMAZONIA WHICH HYDROLYZE PALM OIL AND DERIVATIVES

    OpenAIRE

    Roxana Trujillo; Pedro Peláez; Josep-Vicent Sinisterra

    2014-01-01

    Two yeasts: Cryptococcus uchicensis TMY9 and Pichia uchicensis TMY10 and one fungus Verticillium tingalensis TMFMB are described for the first time as lipase producer microorganisms. The strains have been isolated after an ecological screening in a palm oil industry. The yeasts- C. uchicensis and Pichia uchicensis - mainly produce extracellular lipases as active as those produced by traditional lipase producing microorganisms. The extracellular lipases are active in the hydrolysis of crude pa...

  11. New species of Cladiopsocus Roesler (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Psocomorpha: Cladiopsocidae) from the Colombian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obando, Ranulfo González; Aldrete, Alfonso N García; Carrejo, Nancy

    2016-06-22

    Ten species of Cladiopsocus Roesler were identified among recent collections from the Colombian departments of Amazonas and Putumayo. Eight new species were found, five from Putumayo and three from Amazonas, that are here described and illustrated. C. ramulosus (Enderlein) and C. domesticus (New) were found in the Putumayo department. The number of species in the genus is increased to 28, with two from Angola, and 26 from the Neotropics. An identification key to the males of the neotropical species is included.

  12. Floristic composition and community structure of epiphytic angiosperms in a terra firme forest in central Amazonia

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    Mariana Victória Irume

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This survey aimed to describe the floristic composition and structure of the epiphytic community occurring in a terra firme forest in the city of Coari, Brazil, in the Amazon region. Data collection was performed with a 1.5 ha plot method, with which upland, slope and lowland habitats were sampled. All angiosperm epiphytes and their host plants (diameter at breast height > 10 cm were sampled. We recorded 3.528 individuals in 13 families, 48 genera and 164 species. Araceae was the most prevalent family with regard to the importance value and stood out in all related parameters, followed by Bromeliaceae, Cyclanthaceae and Orchidaceae. The species with the highest epiphytic importance values were Guzmania lingulata (L. Mez. and Philodendron linnaei Kunth. The predominant life form was hemiepiphytic. Estimated floristic diversity was 3.2 (H'. The studied epiphytic community was distributed among 727 host plants belonging to 40 families, 123 genera and 324 species. One individual of Guarea convergens T.D. Penn. was the host with the highest richness and abundance of epiphytes. Stems/trunks of host plants were the most colonized segments, and the most favorable habitat for epiphytism was the lowlands, where 84.1% of species and 48.2% of epiphytic specimens were observed.

  13. The tadpole of Osteocephalus cabrerai (Anura: Hylidae from central Amazonia, Brazil

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    Marcelo Menin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Herein we describe the tadpoles of Osteocephalus cabrerai based on 37 individuals of eight different development stages. We provide comments on spawning sites and breeding period, and compare these tadpoles with those of congeners. The tadpole of O. cabrerai (Stage 39 is characterized by an ovoid body, elongated in lateral view and oval in dorsal view. The snout is rounded, the nostrils oval and the eyes lateral. The tail length is 67% of total length. The larva has a single, sinistral spiracle that is ventrolateral in position. The short vent tube is dextral and attached to the ventral fin. The anteroventral oral disc has marginal and submarginal papillae and a labial tooth row formula 2(2/6(1. Tadpoles inhabit streams in terra firme forest.

  14. Edge effect on post-dispersal artificial seed predation in the southeastern Amazonia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penido, G; Ribeiro, V; Fortunato, D S

    2015-05-01

    This paper evaluates the post-dispersal artificial seed predation rates in two areas of the southeastern Amazon forest-savanna boundary, central Brazil. We conducted the survey in a disturbance regime controlled research site to verify if exists an edge effect in these rates and if the disturbance (in this case annual fire and no fire) affects seed predation. We placed 800 peanuts seeds in each area at regular distance intervals from the fragment`s edge. Data were analyzed by a likelihood ratio model selection in generalized linear models (GLM). The complete model (with effects from edge distance and site and its interaction) was significative (F3=4.43; p=0.005). Seeds had a larger predation rates in fragment's interior in both areas, but in the controlled area (no disturbance) this effect was less linear. This suggests an edge effect for post-dispersal seed predation, and that disturbances might alter these effects. Even if we exclude the site effect (grouping both areas together) there is still a strong edge effect on seed predation rates (F3=32.679; p>0.001). We did not verify predator's species in this study; however, the presence of several species of ants was extremely common in the seeds. The detection of an edge effect in only a short survey time suggests that there is heterogeneity in predation rates and that this variation might affect plant recruitment in fragmented areas of the Amazon forest. Henceforth, this seed predation should be taken in consideration in reforestation projects, where the main source of plants species is from seed distribution.

  15. Edge effect on post-dispersal artificial seed predation in the southeastern Amazonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Penido

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the post-dispersal artificial seed predation rates in two areas of the southeastern Amazon forest-savanna boundary, central Brazil. We conducted the survey in a disturbance regime controlled research site to verify if exists an edge effect in these rates and if the disturbance (in this case annual fire and no fire affects seed predation. We placed 800 peanuts seeds in each area at regular distance intervals from the fragment`s edge. Data were analyzed by a likelihood ratio model selection in generalized linear models (GLM. The complete model (with effects from edge distance and site and its interaction was significative (F3=4.43; p=0.005. Seeds had a larger predation rates in fragment’s interior in both areas, but in the controlled area (no disturbance this effect was less linear. This suggests an edge effect for post-dispersal seed predation, and that disturbances might alter these effects. Even if we exclude the site effect (grouping both areas together there is still a strong edge effect on seed predation rates (F3=32.679; p>0.001. We did not verify predator’s species in this study; however, the presence of several species of ants was extremely common in the seeds. The detection of an edge effect in only a short survey time suggests that there is heterogeneity in predation rates and that this variation might affect plant recruitment in fragmented areas of the Amazon forest. Henceforth, this seed predation should be taken in consideration in reforestation projects, where the main source of plants species is from seed distribution.

  16. Visual assessment of soil structure quality in an agroextractivist system in Southeastern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernanda Simões da Silva, Laura; Stuchi Boschi, Raquel; Ortega Gomes, Matheus; Cooper, Miguel

    2016-04-01

    Soil structure is considered a key factor in the functioning of soil, affecting its ability to support plant and animal life, and moderate environmental quality. Numerous methods are available to evaluate soil structure based on physical, chemical and biological indicators. Among the physical indicators, the attributes most commonly used are soil bulk density, porosity, soil resistance to penetration, tensile strength of aggregates, soil water infiltration, and available water. However, these methods are expensive and generally time costly for sampling and laboratorial procedures. Recently, evaluations using qualitative and semi-quantitative indicators of soil structure quality have gained importance. Among these methods, the method known as Visual Evaluation of Soil Structure (VESS) (Ball et al., 2007; Guimarães et al., 2011) can supply this necessity in temperate and tropical regions. The study area is located in the Piranheira Praialta Agroextrativist Settlement Project in the county of Nova Ipixuna, Pará, Brazil. Two toposequences were chosen, one under native forest and the other under pasture. Pits were opened in different landscape positions (upslope, midslope and downslope) for soil morphological, micromorphological and physical characterization. The use of the soil visual evaluation method (SVE) consisted in collecting an undisturbed soil sample of approximately 25 cm in length, 20 cm in width and 10 cm in depth. 12 soil samples were taken for each land use. The samples were manually fragmented, respecting the fracture planes between the aggregates. The SVE was done comparing the fragmented sample with a visual chart and scores were given to the soil structure. The categories that define the soil structure quality (Qe) vary from 1 to 5. Lower scores mean better soil structure. The final score calculation was done using the classification key of Ball et al. (2007) adapted by Guimarães (2011). A change in soil structure was observed between forest and pasture. The presence of layers of different depths, and size and shape of aggregates resulted in a lower Qe in the forest soils (Qe= 2,04 ±0,4), followed by the pasture (Qe= 3,09 ± 1,3). These results indicate certain degradation in the soil structure in the pasture. The variability of the soil structure in the forest samples was lower. The pasture samples presented a worse soil structure when compared to the forest, although their Qe values can be considered good.

  17. Gendered medicinal plant knowledge contributions to adaptive capacity and health sovereignty in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Reviriego, Isabel; Fernández-Llamazares, Álvaro; Salpeteur, Matthieu; Howard, Patricia L; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2016-12-01

    Local medical systems are key elements of social-ecological systems as they provide culturally appropriate and locally accessible health care options, especially for populations with scarce access to biomedicine. The adaptive capacity of local medical systems generally rests on two pillars: species diversity and a robust local knowledge system, both threatened by local and global environmental change. We first present a conceptual framework to guide the assessment of knowledge diversity and redundancy in local medicinal knowledge systems through a gender lens. Then, we apply this conceptual framework to our research on the local medicinal plant knowledge of the Tsimane' Amerindians. Our results suggest that Tsimane' medicinal plant knowledge is gendered and that the frequency of reported ailments and the redundancy of knowledge used to treat them are positively associated. We discuss the implications of knowledge diversity and redundancy for local knowledge systems' adaptive capacity, resilience, and health sovereignty.

  18. Piper and Vismia species from Colombian Amazonia differentially affect cell proliferation of hepatocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizcano, Leandro J; Siles, Maite; Trepiana, Jenifer; Hernández, M Luisa; Navarro, Rosaura; Ruiz-Larrea, M Begoña; Ruiz-Sanz, José Ignacio

    2014-12-30

    There is an increasing interest to identify plant-derived natural products with antitumor activities. In this work, we have studied the effects of aqueous leaf extracts from Amazonian Vismia and Piper species on human hepatocarcinoma cell toxicity. Results showed that, depending on the cell type, the plants displayed differential effects; thus, Vismia baccifera induced the selective killing of HepG2, while increasing cell growth of PLC-PRF and SK-HEP-1. In contrast, these two last cell lines were sensitive to the toxicity by Piper krukoffii and Piper putumayoense, while the Piperaceae did not affect HepG2 growth. All the extracts induced cytotoxicity to rat hepatoma McA-RH7777, but were innocuous (V. baccifera at concentrations Piper genera with opposite effects as a model system to study the mechanisms of the antitumoral activity against different types of hepatocarcinoma.

  19. On Munduruku, a new Theraphosid genus from Oriental Amazonia (Araneae, Mygalomorphae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura T. Miglio

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Munduruku gen. nov. is proposed for the type species Munduruku bicoloratum sp. nov., from Juruti and Santarém, Pará, Brazil. The main diagnostic character of Munduruku gen. nov. is the presence of a subapical, lanceolate keel on the male palpal bulb, which is unique among the basal taxa of Theraphosinae with type III-IV urticating setae. The female spermathecae consist of two spheroid receptacles with funnel-shaped necks, each of which bears a sclerotized area. In both sexes, the abdomen is remarkably patterned, an uncommon feature in adults of New World theraphosids. Both the bulbus lanceolate keel and the abdominal color pattern are hypothesized as synapomorphies of the genus.

  20. A Late Pleistocene-Holocene wetland megafan in the Brazilian Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, D. F.; Zani, H.; Cohen, M. C. L.; Cremon, É. H.

    2012-12-01

    Despite the growing interest in megafans, definitions provided for this type of environmental setting have not yet been widely agreed upon. A record of sedimentary facies distribution in both space and time including a larger number of analogs is particularly needed for improving megafan facies models. This work focuses on a large fan-like feature from an Amazonian wetland in northern Brazil. Morphological data based on remote sensing, as well as sedimentary facies and radiocarbon analyses, were integrated to propose that this feature is related to a megafan system active during the Late Pleistocene to Holocene. The megafan displays a divergent drainage network, gently-dipping slope, and concave-up and convex-up longitudinal and transverse profiles, respectively. Near surface deposits correspond to fining and coarsening upward sands related to active channels and overbank sand sheets/terminal fan lobes. Sediments are interbedded with abandoned channel/floodplain and lake/pond muds. Morphostructural analyses and drainage anomalies revealed a geological setting affected by reactivation of pre-existing faults contemporaneous with sediment accumulation. Establishment of a megafan system in this wetland most likely occurred within a slightly tectonically subsiding basin under favorable climatic conditions. During wet seasons, high water discharge would have favored sediment transport from highlands into this depositional site. High summer temperatures and drought under a monsoonal regime kept the water levels low. The described megafan could serve as an analog for contemporary tropical wetland megafans formed under a monsoonal climate regime.

  1. Decay of interspecific avian flock networks along a disturbance gradient in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokross, Karl; Ryder, Thomas B.; Côrtes, Marina Corrêa; Wolfe, Jared D.; Stouffer, Philip C

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of how anthropogenic habitat change shapes species interactions is in its infancy. This is in large part because analytical approaches such as network theory have only recently been applied to characterize complex community dynamics. Network models are a powerful tool for quantifying how ecological interactions are affected by habitat modification because they provide metrics that quantify community structure and function. Here, we examine how large-scale habitat alteration has affected ecological interactions among mixed-species flocking birds in Amazonian rainforest. These flocks provide a model system for investigating how habitat heterogeneity influences non-trophic interactions and the subsequent social structure of forest-dependent mixed-species bird flocks. We analyse 21 flock interaction networks throughout a mosaic of primary forest, fragments of varying sizes and secondary forest (SF) at the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project in central Amazonian Brazil. Habitat type had a strong effect on network structure at the levels of both species and flock. Frequency of associations among species, as summarized by weighted degree, declined with increasing levels of forest fragmentation and SF. At the flock level, clustering coefficients and overall attendance positively correlated with mean vegetation height, indicating a strong effect of habitat structure on flock cohesion and stability. Prior research has shown that trophic interactions are often resilient to large-scale changes in habitat structure because species are ecologically redundant. By contrast, our results suggest that behavioural interactions and the structure of non-trophic networks are highly sensitive to environmental change. Thus, a more nuanced, system-by-system approach may be needed when thinking about the resiliency of ecological networks. PMID:24335983

  2. Conservation of freshwater turtles in Amazonia:retrospective and future prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aderson de Souza Alcântara

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to discuss the current status of conservation of freshwater turtles of the Amazon and the absence of the genus Podocnemis the Official List of Species of Brazilian Fauna Threatened with Extinction. Amazonian turtles are used as food by indigenous people and fisherman communities. However, fishing of adult females, uncontrolled egg collecting, habitat degradation and trafficking in wildlife have caused the decline of these populations. Nevertheless, Podocnemis expansa and Podocnemis unifilis were not included in the Brazil’s official list of animals threatened. Therefore, the turtles remain at great risk, due to the intense pressure that they are suffering. It is recommended that the criteria and the conservation status are reviewed including those animals in the category of vulnerable and to ensure a thorough review and modification in the current Brazilian law to be covered studies and management of turtles for subsistence, respecting and adding value to way of life of Amazonian peoples.

  3. Oenocarpus bataua Mart. (Arecaceae) : rediscovering a source of high oleic vegetable oil from Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Montufar, R.; Laffargue, Andreina; Pintaud, Jean-Christophe; Hamon, Serge; Avallone, Sylvie; Dussert, Stéphane

    2010-01-01

    The fatty acid (FA) composition of Oenocarpus bataua oil from 38 samples collected over a large geographical range (i.e. French Guiana and Peru) was analyzed. Fifteen fatty acids were obtained from the mesocarp of this palm species. Oleic (72.7%) and palmitic (18.1%) acids were the predominant FAs. Minor FAs were cis-vaccenic acid (2.3%), linoleic acid (1.9%), stearic acid (1.7%), palmitoleic (0.9%) and alpha-linolenic acid (0.8%). The mean lipid content of the dry mesocarp was 51.6%. The O. ...

  4. Middle Eocene rodents from Peruvian Amazonia reveal the pattern and timing of caviomorph origins and biogeography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, Pierre-Olivier; Marivaux, Laurent; Croft, Darin A; Billet, Guillaume; Ganerød, Morgan; Jaramillo, Carlos; Martin, Thomas; Orliac, Maëva J; Tejada, Julia; Altamirano, Ali J; Duranthon, Francis; Fanjat, Grégory; Rousse, Sonia; Gismondi, Rodolfo Salas

    2012-04-07

    The long-term isolation of South America during most of the Cenozoic produced a highly peculiar terrestrial vertebrate biota, with a wide array of mammal groups, among which caviomorph rodents and platyrrhine primates are Mid-Cenozoic immigrants. In the absence of indisputable pre-Oligocene South American rodents or primates, the mode, timing and biogeography of these extraordinary dispersals remained debated. Here, we describe South America's oldest known rodents, based on a new diverse caviomorph assemblage from the late Middle Eocene (approx. 41 Ma) of Peru, including five small rodents with three stem caviomorphs. Instead of being tied to the Eocene/Oligocene global cooling and drying episode (approx. 34 Ma), as previously considered, the arrival of caviomorphs and their initial radiation in South America probably occurred under much warmer and wetter conditions, around the Mid-Eocene Climatic Optimum. Our phylogenetic results reaffirm the African origin of South American rodents and support a trans-Atlantic dispersal of these mammals during Middle Eocene times. This discovery further extends the gap (approx. 15 Myr) between first appearances of rodents and primates in South America.

  5. Evaluation of simple diffusion chlorinators for decontamination of wells in a rural settlement in Amazonia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Danielle Costa; Luz, Sergio Luiz Bessa; Buss, Daniel Forsin

    2016-03-01

    While the Amazon region has the world's largest reserve of fresh water, the lack of water services and water treatment, especially in non-urban regions, causes environmental and health problems. In isolated rural settlements supply is usually by shallow wells, and the quality of water is a concern for residents. These are situations where there are restricted options for water treatment. This study aimed to assess the use of simplified diffusion chlorinators as an alternative water treatment method. Bacteriological analyses were made of 100 samples of water from the wells, before and after application of the chlorinators, in the Rural Settlement of Rio Pardo, Presidente Figueiredo in the Brazilian State of Amazonas. The sources that were analyzed were considered inappropriate for consumption without prior treatment, and the use of the chlorinators eliminated all contamination by thermotolerant coliforms in the great majority of cases. Also, the method was well received by residents, because it does not leave a taste in the water, is relatively low-cost and handling is easy. We discuss the advantages and limitations of the use of this method of treatment for this social-environmental context and present suggestions for improvement and adaptation, for application of this methodology in other settlements.

  6. Reproductive isolation of sympatric forms of the understorey palm Geonoma macrostachys in western Amazonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borchsenius, Finn; Lozada, Tannya; Knudsen, Jette T.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of a mechanism for attaining reproductive isolation between two diverging populations is a key step in the speciation process. We studied phenotypic variation, genetic differentiation, spatial distribution and reproductive ecology in two sympatric forms of the understorey palm Geono...

  7. Chemical characterisation of total suspended particulate matter from a remote area in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Cátia; Figueiredo, Bernardino R.; Alves, Célia A.; Cardoso, Arnaldo A.; da Silva, Rodrigo; Kanzawa, Simone H.; Vicente, Ana Margarida

    2016-12-01

    This research had as study object the total suspended particulate matter collected in the Alenquer region, a remote area in the Pará state. The main objectives were the characterisation of the inorganic and organic chemical composition of the aerosol, looking for seasonal patterns and the identification of probable emission sources and formation processes. A set of 30 samples were collected in the rainy (April-May) and dry season (August-September) of 2014. The analytical methods included gravimetric analysis, water-soluble ions analysis by ion chromatography (IC), elemental analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) equipped with collision cell technology, carbonaceous content determination with a thermal-optical system and organic speciation by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The average concentrations of particulate matter ranged from 14 ± 1.3 μg·m- 3 to 31 ± 7.8 μg·m- 3, in the rainy and dry season, respectively. The carbonaceous content represented, on average, approximately 27% and 21% of the particulate matter in the rainy and dry season, respectively. Na+, Cl-, SO₄2 -, and NO₃- yield the highest concentrations in both seasons. Na was the dominant element, reflecting the transport of air masses from the Atlantic. An increase in concentrations between the rainy and dry seasons was especially noted for the terrigenous elements such Mn, Fe and Al. The chromatographically resolved organics included n-alkanes, n-alkenes, PAHs, n-alkanoic acids, n-di-acids, resin acids and some phenolic compounds. The primary inputs of organic constituents to the aerosols of Alenquer based on the homologous compound series and biomarkers were: (i) natural emissions from terrestrial higher plants waxes, particularly in dry season; (ii) anthropogenic emissions from diesel fuel combustion and biomass combustion, predominating during the dry season. The chemical characterisation along with the backward trajectory cluster analysis suggests a great influence from natural sources such as marine aerosol, mainly in the rainy season. In the dry season, the region is also affected by soil dust re-suspension and some biomass burning.

  8. Viruses Surveillance Under Different Season Scenarios of the Negro River Basin, Amazonia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Carmen Baur; de Abreu Corrêa, Adriana; de Jesus, Michele Silva; Luz, Sérgio Luiz Bessa; Wyn-Jones, Peter; Kay, David; Vargha, Marta; Miagostovich, Marize Pereira

    2016-03-01

    The Negro River is located in the Amazon basin, the largest hydrological catchment in the world. Its water is used for drinking, domestic activities, recreation and transportation and water quality is significantly affected by anthropogenic impacts. The goals of this study were to determine the presence and concentrations of the main viral etiological agents of acute gastroenteritis, such as group A rotavirus (RVA) and genogroup II norovirus (NoV GII), and to assess the use of human adenovirus (HAdV) and JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) as viral indicators of human faecal contamination in the aquatic environment of Manaus under different hydrological scenarios. Water samples were collected along Negro River and in small streams known as igarapés. Viruses were concentrated by an organic flocculation method and detected by quantitative PCR. From 272 samples analysed, HAdV was detected in 91.9%, followed by JCPyV (69.5%), RVA (23.9%) and NoV GII (7.4%). Viral concentrations ranged from 10(2) to 10(6) GC L(-1) and viruses were more likely to be detected during the flood season, with the exception of NoV GII, which was detected only during the dry season. Statistically significant differences on virus concentrations between dry and flood seasons were observed only for RVA. The HAdV data provides a useful complement to faecal indicator bacteria in the monitoring of aquatic environments. Overall results demonstrated that the hydrological cycle of the Negro River in the Amazon Basin affects the dynamics of viruses in aquatic environments and, consequently, the exposure of citizens to these waterborne pathogens.

  9. A Combined Infrared and Microwave Technique for Studying the Diurnal Variation of Rainfall Over Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, Andrew J.; Xu, L.; Adler, R. F.; Anagnostou, E.; Rickenbach, T. M.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we present results from the application of a satellite infrared (IR) technique for estimating rainfall over northern South America. Our main objectives are to examine the diurnal variability of rainfall and to investigate the relative contributions from the convective and stratiform components. Additional information is contained in the original.

  10. Nitrous oxide flux and nitrogen transformations across a landscape gradient in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Gerald P.; Vitousek, Peter M.; Matson, Pamela A.

    1988-01-01

    Nitrous oxide flux and nitrogen turnover were measured in three types of Amazonian forest ecosystems within Reserva Florestal Ducke near Manaus, Brazil. Nitrogen mineralization and nitrate production measured during 10-day laboratory incubations were 3-4 times higher in clay soils associated with 'terra firme' forests on ridge-top and slope positions than in 'campinarana' forests on bottomland sand soils. In contrast, nitrous oxide fluxes did not differ significantly among sites, but were highly variable in space and time. The observed frequency distribution of flux was positively skewed, with a mean overall sites and all sampling times of 1.3 ng N2O-N/sq cm per hr. Overall, the flux estimates were comparable to or greater than those of temperature forests, but less than others reported for Amazoonia. Results from a field fertilization experiment suggest that most nitrous oxide flux was associated with denitrification of soil nitrate.

  11. Completing below-ground carbon budgets for pastures, recovering forests, and mature forests of Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Eric A.; Nepstad, Daniel C.; Trumbore, Susan E.

    1995-01-01

    This progress report covers the following efforts initiated for the year: year-round monthly soil CO2 flux measurements were started in both primary and secondary forests and in managed and degraded pastures; root sorting and weighing has begun and all four ecosystems at Paragominas have been analyzed through samples; regional modeling of soil water dynamics and minimum rooting depth has been done and the RADAMBRASIL soils database has been digitized and a 20 year record of the precipitation for the region has been produced, along with a hydrological ('bucket-tipping') model that will run within a GIS framework; prototype tension lysimeters have been designed and installed in soil pits to begin assessing the importance of DOC as a source of organic matter in deep soils; and many publications, listed in this document, have resulted from this year's research. Two of the papers published are included with this annual report document.

  12. Language, Culture, and Power: Intercultural Bilingual Education among the Urarina of Peruvian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Bartholomew

    1999-01-01

    The Peruvian national indigenous federation established a bilingual, intercultural teachers' training program to counter stereotypes of indigenous people portrayed in the authoritarian, monolingual Spanish national curriculum, and to enhance language preservation, ethnic mobilization, and cultural survival. A complementary transitional bilingual…

  13. Atypical Mansonella ozzardi Microfilariae from an Endemic Area of Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta-Tang, Thuy-Huong; Luz, Sergio L B; Merino, Francisco J; de Fuentes, Isabel; López-Vélez, Rogelio; Almeida, Tatiana A P; Lanza, Marta; Abrahim, Cláudia M M; Rubio, José M

    2016-09-07

    Mansonellosis is endemic in several regions of Africa, the Caribbean, and Latin America. Mansonella ozzardi and Mansonella perstans have been reported in Latin America, including the Amazon region. A morphological and molecular microfilariae study was performed in Pauini (Brazil). Blood samples were collected from 40 individuals, and were analyzed by Giemsa-stained blood film and by two different nested polymerase chain reactions which detect internal transcribed spacer-1 and the major sperm protein gene. By microscopy, 14 of 40 were positive: 11 as M. ozzardi and three as M. perstans-like infections. Both molecular methods detected 19 positive cases as M. ozzardi, including those 14 individuals detected by microscopy, without detectable genetic differences among any of the 19 positive samples. Molecular techniques showed an improvement of mansonellosis diagnosis and may become an effective tool to evaluate the present status of M. ozzardi and M. perstans in Latin America.

  14. Envia garciai, a new genus and species of mygalomorph spiders (Araneae, Microstigmatidae from Brazilian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ott Ricardo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Envia, comprising only the new species Envia garciai, is proposed. These small mygalomorph spiders were abundantly collected in soil cores and litter samples in primary rain forests near Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil.

  15. Inter-site variation in allometry and wood density of Goupia glabra Aubl. in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siliprandi, N C; Nogueira, E M; Toledo, J J; Fearnside, P M; Nascimento, H E M

    2016-01-22

    The present study aims to compare the allometry and wood density of Goupia glabra Aubl. (Goupiaceae) in two different terra-firme sites in Amazonian forest. A total of 65 trees ≥ 10 cm DBH was sampled in both sites, with 39 trees in Nova Olinda do Norte (NOlinda, near the Amazon River) and 29 trees in Apuí (near the southern edge of the Amazon forest). Except for the relationship between DBH (diameter at breast height) and Ht (total height), allometric relationships for G.glabra differed significantly between sites. Apuí had lower intercept and greater slope for log10 (DBH) versus log10 (Hs - stem height), and, conversely, greater intercept and lower slope for log10 (DBH) versus log10 (Ch - crown height). The slope differed significantly between the sites for DBH versus Cd (crown diameter), with greater slope found for NOlinda. Mean basic wood density in Apuí was 8.8% lower than in NOlinda. Our findings highlight the variation in adaptive strategy of G. glabra due to environmental differences between sites. This is probably because of different canopy-understory light gradients, which result in differentiation of resource allocation between vertical and horizontal growth, which, in turn, affects mechanical support related to wood density. We also hypothesize that differences in soil fertility and disturbance regimes between sites may act concomitantly with light.

  16. Evolution and Mean Properties of Convective Systems in Southwestern Amazonia During TRMM-LBA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickenbach, Thomas M.; Ferreira, Rosana Nieto; Halverson, Jeffrey B.; deSilvaDias, Maria A. F.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    During the wet season TRMM field campaign in Rondonia, Brazil, a variety of convective systems were sampled by radar, sounding, and geostationary satellite for a 60 day period in early 1999. Local variations in the local wind and humidity field have been attributed in part by this study to synoptic scale phenomena, most conspicuously the establishment of stationary frontal systems penetrating into the tropics. These baroclinic systems induced periodic episodes low level moist, westerly flow across Rondonia during the experiment. This flow feature may be an important component of the South American climate system by playing a role in maintaining the South Atlantic Convergence Zone, which was active during these local westerly wind events. It is therefore important to understand the differences in mesoscale properties of convective systems between the westerly wind periods and intervening easterly wind periods. Differences in shear and moisture characteristics (Halverson et al. 2000, this meeting) are compared to structural and life-cycle characteristics of convective systems in Rondonia. Data from ground based radar and geostationary satellite provide a view of the evolution of the vertical structure and horizontal morphology of several large mesoscale convective systems in each regime. Preliminary statistics on the diurnal variation of precipitation intensity, areal coverage, and cloud top area are presented. Results suggest that long-lived, shallow convective systems with a large stratiform component of precipitation are characteristic of the westerly wind periods. A goal of this study is to establish a basis for which to parameterize the mesoscale effects of convection on large scale features of the South American climate system.

  17. Family Life Cycle and Deforestation in Amazonia: Combining Remotely Sensed Information with Primary Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, M.; Walker, R. T.; Shirota, R.; Perz, S.; Skole, D.

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the relationships between the socio-demographic characteristics of small settlers in the Brazilian Amazon and the life cycle hypothesis in the process of deforestation. The analysis was conducted combining remote sensing and geographic data with primary data of 153 small settlers along the TransAmazon Highway. Regression analyses and spatial autocorrelation tests were conducted. The results from the empirical model indicate that socio-demographic characteristics of households as well as institutional and market factors, affect the land use decision. Although remotely sensed information is not very popular among Brazilian social scientists, these results confirm that they can be very useful for this kind of study. Furthermore, the research presented by this paper strongly indicates that family and socio-demographic data, as well as market data, may result in misspecification problems. The same applies to models that do not incorporate spatial analysis.

  18. Sustainability with an Ethical Aim: Lessons from an American Nun in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaree, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Research Topic: An exploration into human imagination, ethical aim and action are the progenitors for reconciliation between humans and their environment. This study of two successful projects in Brazil provides an example of working toward a balance between human endeavors and sustainable environments. This inquiry is an exploration that…

  19. Sources and sinks of formic, acetic, and pyruvic acids over central Amazonia. II - Wet season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, R. W.; Andreae, M. O.; Berresheim, H.; Jacob, D. J.; Beecher, K. M.

    1990-01-01

    Potential sources and sinks of formic, acetic, and pyruvic acids over the Amazon forest were investigated using a photochemical model and data collected on gas phase concentrations of these acids in the forest canopy, boundary layer, and free troposphere over the central Amazon Basin during the 1987 wet season. It was found that the atmospheric reactions previously suggested in the literature as sources of carboxylic acids (i.e., the gas phase decomposition of isoprene, the reaction between CH3CO3 and a peroxide, and aqueous phase oxidation of CH2O) appear to be too slow to explain the observed concentrations, suggesting that other atmospheric reactions, so far unidentified, could make a major contribution to the carboxylic acid budgets.

  20. Mercury in soils and sediments from gold mining liabilities in Southern Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Wasserman

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The 1980-1990 Amazonian gold rush left an enormous liability that increasingly has been substituted by developing fish aquaculture. This work aimed at the identification of the mercury levels in the environment, associated with fish farms located in the North of Mato Grosso State, Southern Amazon. Sediment and soil samples were analyzed for total organic carbon and total mercury. Results indicate that the chemical characteristics of the sediment largely depend on the management procedures of the fish pond (liming, fish food used and fish population. The soils presented relatively low concentrations when compared with other data from the literature.

  1. CO2 flux spatial variability in a tropical reservoir in the Central Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, R. A. S. D.; do Vale, R. S.; Tota, J.; Miller, S. D.; Ferreira, R. B., Jr.; Alves, E. G.; Batalha, S. S. A.; Souza, R. A. F. D.

    2014-12-01

    The carbon budget over water surfaces in the Amazon has an important role in the total budget of this greenhouse gas a regional and global scale. However, more accurate estimates of the spatial and temporal distribution of the CO2 flux over those water surfaces are still required. In this context, this study aims to understand the spatial distribution of CO2 flux in the Balbina hydroelectric reservoir, located at Presidente Figueiredo city, Amazonas, Brazil. The floating chamber method was used to measure and calculate the CO2 flux. This method coup a chamber of known volume with an infrared gas analyzer (LiCor, LI-840A). Measurements were performed at 1 Hz during 20-30 minutes at 5 different points of the reservoir, four upstream (two near the edge and two in the middle) and one downstream of the dam. At all locations the surface water was supersaturated in pCO2 and fluxes were from the water to the atmosphere. The maximum CO2 flux observed was 1.2 μmol m-2 s-1 at the center point of the reservoir upstream the dam. The minimum CO2 flux was 0.05 μmol m-2 s-1, observed near the edge on the upstream side of the dam. On average, CO2 fluxes were larger downstream of the dam, 0.7 μmol m-2 s-1, compared to upstream, 0.45 μmol m-2 s-1. This pattern is consistent with that found in previous studies at this site using other flux estimation methods, and is consistent with turbulent mixing promoted by the water turbine. However, the mean CO2 flux for all measured points using the chambers, 0.47 μmol m-2 s-1, was much lower than those previously found using other methods. The reason for the difference between methods is unclear. In situ deployment of multiple flux estimation methods would be valuable, as would longer periods of measurements.

  2. New land use scenarios for the Brazilian Amazonia: how to reach a sustainable future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, A. P. D.; Vieira, I.; Toledo, P.; Araujo, R.; Coelho, A.; Pinho, P.; Assis, T.; Dalla-Nora, E. L.; Kawakami Savaget, E.; Batistella, M.

    2014-12-01

    Following an intense deforestation process initiated in the 1960s, clear-cut deforestation rates in the Brazilian Amazon have decreased significantly since 2004. A convergence of conditions contributed to this, including the creation of protected areas, the use of effective monitoring and control systems, and credit restriction mechanisms. Although regional social indicators have also slightly improved, society remains unequal and violent, both in urban and rural areas. Furthermore, the combined results of the fall of deforestation and the increased economic importance of the agribusiness sector have led to the political weakening of the so-called socio-environmental model. Thus, the current situation indicates a future of low (clear-cut) carbon emissions and low social conditions. On the other hand, other threats remain, including forest degradation derived from illegal logging and forest fires. There is also considerable uncertainty about the fate of the remaining forest areas as multiple forces can contribute to the return of high deforestation, including the rapidly expanding global markets for agricultural commodities, large-scale transportation and energy infrastructure projects, and weak institutions. We present the results of a participatory scenario process, in which we discussed the future of the region until 2050 combining normative and exploratory approaches. We include an ideal "Sustainability" scenario (Scenario A) in which we envision major socioeconomic, institutional and environmental achievements. Scenario B stays in the "Middle of the road", in which the society maintains some of the positive environmental trends of the last decade, but not reversing the structural situation of social inequities. Scenario C is a pessimistic vision, named "Fragmentation" with high deforestation rates and low social development. The goal of the work was twofold: (a) to propose a method to enrich the discussion among different private and governmental stakeholders on how to build a trajectory towards sustainability; (b) to support the parameterization of spatially-explicit LUCC models in the scope of the AMAZALERT project.

  3. SISTEMA INDÍGENA DIVERSIFICADO DE CULTIVOS Y DESARROLLO LOCAL EN LA AMAZONIA ECUATORIANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth I. Arias Gutiérrez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza el sistema agrobiodiverso Kichwa amazónico, con énfasis en las principales especies promisorias susceptibles de agregación de valor y que están asociadas a sus cultivos diversificados, ingresos y cuantificación económica de las formas de aprovechamiento de la agro biodiversidad, como elementos para establecer estrategias de desarrollo local sostenible para comunidades rurales en el sector central sub andino colonizado. Se utilizaron métodos cualitativos mediante registros en nueve eventos de investigación con las comunidades y sus organizaciones regionales y métodos cuantitativos, a través de 64 cuestionarios aplicados en seis comunidades rurales en el curso bajo, medio y alto del río Anzu. Se informaron hasta 482 especies de flora pero no sus usos; se establece un listado de especies cultivadas, en función del uso, aceptación de consumo, abundancia relativa y posibilidad de valor agregado; se analiza la subvaloración del aporte del sistema, pues su cuantificación no supera el 15 % del total de ingresos familiares, pese a que las comunidades establecen un 67 % de dependencia de los recursos de la selva y agropecuarios para la subsistencia alimentaria. Se propone construir procesos, proyectos y planes de acción conjunta y permanentes, conocidos en asamblea por las comunidades, en base a un diálogo participativo, un marco jurídico y una ética de respeto a los derechos colectivos, que permitan mantener nexos entre la universidad, las comunidades y otras entidades, para investigar, replicar y compartir beneficios, información y transferencia de conocimientos y tecnologías.

  4. Epidemiologia das infecções diarréicas entre populações indígenas da Amazonia Epidemiology of diarrhea infection among indian populations of Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre C. Linhares

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Enteropatógenos bacterianos, viróticos e parasitários têm sido associados freqüentemente a processos gastrintestinais entre indígenas da Amazônia. Entre os índios Parakanã, registrou-se freqüência da ordem de 4% para Shigella flexneri. Por outro lado, taxas de soroprevalência de 98% para a toxina lábil de E. coli foram assinaladas no seio dos Menkrangnotí, Parakanã, Xikrín e Asuriní. Revelaram-se expressivos reservatórios de Salmonella sp. os edentados (63% de positívidade e os marsupiais (20%. Cepas de Shigella disenteriae foram detectadas em 4,2% de 40 índios Suruí avaliados, enquanto entre os Karitiána, isolaram-se, a partir de 85 coproculturas, uma amostra de Shigella boydii e 11 de E. coli. Os rotavírus se constituíram no agente causai do episódio epidêmico explosivo que acometeu os Tiriyó, em julho-agosto de 1977. Utilizando-se a contra-imuno-eletro-osmoforese, detectaram-se 25,6% de soroconversões, com base no exame de 127 amostras pareadas. O sorotipo I de Birmingham caracterizou-se como o agente causai da epidemia que abrangeu, pelo menos, 80% da população sob risco: crianças e velhos foram os mais atingidos. Estudos soroepidemiológicos empreendidos em 13 comunidades indígenas da região amazônica denotaram elevadas taxas de soropositividade (maiores de 50% para rotavírus, em termos gerais, conquanto os Parakanã Novo se tenham revelado não-imunes a esses agentes. O gradativo aumento na freqüência de anticorpos com a idade sugere persistência dos rotavírus nessas comunidades. Ainda, o registro de resultados positivos em crianças de baixa idade sugere o caráter endêmico das infecções. Expressivas taxas de positividade quanto à presença de anticorpos para rotavírus foram detectadas entre os Suruí (67,8% e os Karitiána (77,4%. Enteroparasitas de importância médica também foram detectados. S. stercoralis, Giardia lamblia e Entamoeba hystolitica foram assinaladas, entre os Suruí, em freqüências de 33,3%, 3,3,% e 0,8%, respectivamente. Esses mesmos patógenos foram detectados em freqüências, por ordem, de 3,9%, 12,7% e 8,8% ao exame de amostras fecais oriundas dos Pacaánova. Elevada taxa de Entamoeba hystolitica, cerca de 40%, foi observada entre os Yanomámi. As precárias condições de saneamento em que vivem essas populações, os hábitos inadequados de higiene e possível existência de reservatórios silvestres de enteropatógenos são alguns dos fatores que concorrem para o panorama descrito. Especial atenção merece ser dirigida, presentemente, às chances de propagação da cólera entre os silvícolas amazônicos.Bacteria, viruses and parasites have frequently been associated with gastroenteritis among Amerindians living in the Amazon region. Shigella flexneri has been found in 4% of diarrhoeic specimens collected from Parakanã Indians. In addition, antibodies to the E. coli labile toxin have been detected in 98% of Indians belonging to the Menkrangnotí, Parakanã, Xikrín and Asuriní communities. Both wild edemata and marsupials seem to be important Salmonella sp. reservoirs as studies have demonstrated the occurrence of infection in 63% and 20% of them, respectively. Shigella disenteriae has been isolated from 4.2% of Suruí Amerinds. Among the Kantiána, Shigella boydii (one isolate and E. coli (11 isolates were recovered from 85 specimens processed for bacterial enteropathogens. Rotaviruses were the causative agent of an extensive outbreak of diarrhoea among the Tiriyó, in July-August, 1977. By using the counter-immune-electro-osmophoresis, seroconversions were detected in 25.6 % of paired (pre- and post-epidemic serum samples. Birmingham serotype I was identified as the causative agent of the outbreak, which affected at least 80% of the population at risk: the clinical attack rates were more prominent among both young children and the elderly. Studies on the prevalence of rotavirus antibody among 13 Indian communities in the Amazon region yielded, in general, positivity rates greater than 50%. However, the Parakanã Novo were found to be non-immune to rotaviruses. The increasing rates of seropositivity with age suggest the persistence of rotaviruses in these communities; in addition, high rates of positivity among young children suggest that rotavirus infection may be endemic. Both Suruí and Karitiána were found to have high prevalence rates of rotavirus antibody: 67.8 and 77.4, respectively. Wild marsupials may possibly play a role in the transmission of rotaviruses among Indians. Parasites have also been associated with gastrointestinal disease among Indians in the Amazon region. S. stercoralis and Entamoeba hystolitica have been detected among the Suruí in frequencies of 33.3%, 3.3% and 0.8%, respectively. Among the Pacaánova the same parasites have been recorded in frequencies of 3.9%, 12.7% and 8.8%, respectively. Entamoeba hystolitica was found in 40% of the Yanomámi The poor sanitation conditions and hygiene practices, as well as the possibility of the contact of Indians with wild reservoirs, account for the spread of enteropathogens within these communities in the Amazon region. Special precautions should be currently taken with respect to the possibility of the introduction of cholera among these Amerindians.

  5. Complex plant-disperser-pest interactions in NW Amazonia : beetle larvae and companions travelling inside Attalea maripa palm nuts

    OpenAIRE

    Guix, Juan Carlos

    2006-01-01

    The dispersal and predation, by vertebrates, of bruchid beetle larvae living inside Attalea maripa palm nuts are described in the region of the Middle Negro river (state of Amazonas, Brazil). The complexity of the ecological relationships between palm trees, seed dispersers, beetle seed predators and parasitic or commensal organisms is discussed and their importance to the biological diversity of the Amazonian ecosystems is argued. Se describe la dispersión y depredación por vertebrados de...

  6. The nature of aquatic landscapes in the Miocene of western Amazonia: an integrated palaeontological and geochemical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, F.P.; Kaandorp, R.J.G.; Vonhof, H.B.; Räsänen, M.E.; Renema, W.; Gingras, M.

    2006-01-01

    The Miocene Pebas Formation from the section Santa Rosa de Pichana (Loreto, Peru) was investigated using a combination of analyses of sedimentary facies, molluscan communities and taphonomy, and stable isotopes of both entire shells and growth bands in bivalves. Three sequences, comprising a success

  7. History of natural resource use and environmental impacts in an interfluvial upland forest area in western Amazonia

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    Anders Siren

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Much of the research done on environmental impacts by Amazonian indigenous peoples in the past focus on certain areas where archaeological remains are particularly abundant, such as the Amazon River estuary, the seasonally inundated floodplain of the lower Amazon, and various sites in the forest-savannah mosaic of the southern Amazon The environmental history of interfluvial upland areas has received less attention. This study reconstructed the history of human use of natural resources in an upland area of 1400 km2 surrounding the indigenous Kichwa community of Sarayaku in the Ecuadorian Amazon, based on oral history elicited from local elders as well as historical source documents and some modern scientific studies. Although data is scarce, one can conclude that the impacts of humans on the environment have varied in time and space in quite intricate ways. Hunting has affected, and continues affecting, basically the whole study area, but it is now more concentrated in space than what it has probably ever been before. Also forest clearing has become more concentrated in space but, in addition, it has gone from affecting only hilltops forests to affecting alluvial plains as well as hilltops and, lately, also the slopes of the hills.

  8. Globalización y multiculturalidad. Pueblos indígenas y medio ambiente en la Amazonia

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    Sergio Villena

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a theoretical proposal aimed at analyzing the challenges, threats, menaces and opportunities posed by globalization upon indigenous peoples in the context of a specific global situation: environmental preservation. The problem is approached focusing on three conflicts characteristic of globalization: a the relation between global and local, b the problem of civilizing alternatives, and c the new dynamics of social exclusion/inclusion. These conflicts, once theorized, are used to analyze the convergence of indigenous demands on territoriality, identity and citizenship, with spatial, development and sustainability dimensions surrounding environmental management in a specific case: strategies which have been developed by Amazonian indigenous peoples.

  9. Out of Amazonia: the unexpected trans-Andean distribution of Cochranella resplendens (Lynch and Duellman, 1978) (Anura: Centrolenidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Zuluaga, Claudia; Cano, Estefany; Restrepo, Adriana; Rada, Marco; Daza, Juan M

    2017-03-02

    The glassfrog genus Cochranella, with nine recognized species, is distributed in the lowlands and mid elevation of the Neotropical forests, from Nicaragua to Bolivia (Guayasamin et al. 2009; Twomey et al. 2014). Four species are trans-Andean-C. granulosa (Taylor 1949) occurs in the lowlands and mountains, at mid elevation, of Central America, C. litoralis (Ruiz-Carranza & Lynch 1996) and C. mache Guayasamin & Bonaccorso 2004 occur in the Pacific lowlands and the western cloud forests of Colombia and Ecuador, and C. euknemos (Savage & Starrett 1967) occurs both in Central America and South America (northwestern Colombia).-The other five species have cis-Andean distributions in the Amazonian slopes and lowlands, from Colombia to Bolivia: C. nola Harvey 1996, C. guayasamini Twomey, Delia & Castroviejo-Fisher 2014, C. resplendens (Lynch & Duellman 1973), C. erminea Torres-Gastello, Suárez-Segovia & Cisneros-Heredia 2007, and C. phryxa Aguayo-Vedia & Harvey 2006. In Colombia, C. resplendens is known from the foothills of the Amazon versant in Caquetá (Malambo et al. 2013) and Putumayo (Lynch & Duellman 1973; Ruiz-Carranza et al. 1996). The species is also known from Ecuador (Lynch & Duellman 1973) and Peru (Twomey et al. 2014). Here, we report two new records of Cochranella resplendens, extending the species distribution beyond the Amazonian lowlands into the northern Cordillera Central in Colombia.

  10. Clinical-epidemiological profile of snakebites occurred on the island of Colares, Pará, eastern Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Douglas Guimarães; Maria Correia Palha; Jean Carlos Silva

    2015-01-01

    To describe the clinical and epidemiological profile of snakebites occurred on the island of Colares, Pará, Brazil. The study consisted of a cross-epidemiological research based on the analysis of all cases of poisoning by venomous snakes treated at City Hospital and served on the National System Notifications and Disability (SINAN) and conducted to the Ministry of Health between January 2007 and December 2011. Data obtained from the notification records were analyzed using simple descriptive...

  11. La palabra hecha mambe: cultura y tradición oral en la comunidad Uitoto de la Amazonia colombiana

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    Lina Andrea Galán Barbosa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Conocer la inmensidad de la selva amazónica, la hospitalidad de su gente y sorprendernos ante la gran diversidad de formas, colores, texturas, olores, plantas y animales, es una experiencia sensorial súper potenciada, que amplía el espectro de cualquier persona que se interese por conocer las maravillas de su territorio y las enormes posibilidades que este ofrece. No alcanzan las palabras para describir y agradecer a esta hermosa región, casi olvidada por muchos y recordada por pocos, el abrir sus puertas y sus corazones para recibir a quienes llegan con tanta curiosidad y asombro a conocer una parte de la selva colombiana.

  12. The nutrition transition in amazonia: rapid economic change and its impact on growth and development in Ribeirinhos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piperata, Barbara A; Spence, Jennifer E; Da-Gloria, Pedro; Hubbe, Mark

    2011-09-01

    The goal of this longitudinal study was to assess the impact of economic change and increased market integration on subsistence strategies, living conditions, growth, and nutritional status of Ribeirinhos living in the rural Amazon, Brazil. Data on weight, height, skinfolds, and circumferences, as well as data on economic strategies and living conditions were collected from 469 individuals in 2002 and 429 in 2009. Of these, 204 individuals were measured on both occasions. Independent and paired t-tests were used to identify changes in nutritional status over time in the larger sample and smaller, longitudinal subsample, respectively. Multiple linear regressions were used to examine the relationship between changes in economic/living conditions and nutritional status in the longitudinal subsample. Results indicate modest improvements in linear growth (HAZ) and among male children the observed increase was related to enrollment in the Brazilian conditional cash transfer program, Bolsa Família (P = 0.03). In terms of short-term measures of nutritional status, we found a significant increase in ZTSF and a reduction in ZUMA in most age/sex groups. Among subadults, there was a negative relationship between ZUMA and access to electricity (P = 0.01) and positive relationship between ZUMA and the sale of the açaí fruit (P = 0.04). Significant changes in weight and BMI (P economic strategies and lifestyle, changes in nutritional status were modest which may be explained by increased food insecurity documented during this early stage of transition.

  13. Spatial patterns of water quality in Xingu River Basin (Amazonia prior to the Belo Monte dam impoundment

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    JL. Rodrigues-Filho

    Full Text Available Abstract The Xingu River, one of the most important of the Amazon Basin, is characterized by clear and transparent waters that drain a 509.685 km2 watershed with distinct hydrological and ecological conditions and anthropogenic pressures along its course. As in other basins of the Amazon system, studies in the Xingu are scarce. Furthermore, the eminent construction of the Belo Monte for hydropower production, which will alter the environmental conditions in the basin in its lower middle portion, denotes high importance of studies that generate relevant information that may subsidize a more balanced and equitable development in the Amazon region. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the water quality in the Xingu River and its tributaries focusing on spatial patterns by the use of multivariate statistical techniques, identifying which water quality parameters were more important for the environmental changes in the watershed. Data sampling were carried out during two complete hydrological cycles in twenty-five sampling stations. The data of twenty seven variables were analyzed by Spearman's correlation coefficients, cluster analysis (CA, and principal component analysis (PCA. The results showed a high auto-correlation between variables (> 0.7. These variables were removed from multivariate analyzes because they provided redundant information about the environment. The CA resulted in the formation of six clusters, which were clearly observed in the PCA and were characterized by different water quality. The statistical results allowed to identify a high spatial variation in the water quality, which were related to specific features of the environment, different uses, influences of anthropogenic activities and geochemical characteristics of the drained basins. It was also demonstrated that most of the sampling stations in the Xingu River basin showed good water quality, due to the absence of local impacts and high power of depuration of the river itself.

  14. Os processos de desenvolvimento e desmatamento da Amazônia The process of development and deforestation in Amazonia

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    Rodolfo Coelho Prates

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa - com base na revisão da literatura existente e por meio da análise de dados secundários, realizando uma análise histórica desde a Colonização Portuguesa - as etapas de desenvolvimento da Região Amazônica e sua associação com a prática do desmatamento, destacando as políticas públicas que fomentaram o desenvolvimento da região e o atual avanço de sistemas produtivos orientados pelo estímulo econômico. Demonstra-se que o desenvolvimento populacional e econômico da Amazônia, citados como as principais causas do desmatamento e estimulados, em boa parte, por políticas econômicas, é um processo desuniforme no tempo e no espaço, gerando o desmatamento desigual entre os estados que compõem essa região e dentro de cada estado.Basing on the literature review and on published dataset and following the time chronology of the events since the Portuguese colonization, this paper analyzes the stages of Amazonian region development and its impacts on deforestation, highlighting the policies addressing to foster the Amazon's development and the current stage of economic activities. The population growth and the economic activities, pointed out as the main causes of the Amazonian deforestation and stimulated by economic policies, have been unequally developed inside the Amazonian region, generating the unequal deforestation process among the Amazonian states and inside each state.

  15. Mansonella ozzardi (Nematoda: Onchocercidae in the riverine population of the Tefé River, State of Amazonia, Brazil

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    Jansen Fernandes Medeiros

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study assessed the prevalence of Mansonella ozzardi in riverine communities of the Tefé River, Amazonas, Brazil. Methods: The prevalence of M. ozzardi was estimated by microscopic examination of thick blood smears. Results: The M. ozzardi prevalence rate was 6.3% (19/300. Filarial infection was found in 8 of the 11 communities surveyed, with prevalence rates varying from 2.5% to 22.2%. Conclusions: Tefé is a region of oil and natural gas exploration, in which there is a high turnover of workers. Migration patterns may facilitate the dissemination of mansonelliasis to other regions.

  16. Divergent chemical cues elicit seed collecting by ants in an obligate multi-species mutualism in lowland Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngsteadt, Elsa; Guerra Bustios, Patricia; Schal, Coby

    2010-12-30

    In lowland Amazonian rainforests, specific ants collect seeds of several plant species and cultivate them in arboreal carton nests, forming species-specific symbioses called ant-gardens (AGs). In this obligate mutualism, ants depend on the plants for nest stability and the plants depend on ant nests for substrate and nutrients. AG ants and plants are abundant, dominant members of lowland Amazonian ecosystems, but the cues ants use to recognize the seeds are poorly understood. To address the chemical basis of the ant-seed interaction, we surveyed seed chemistry in nine AG species and eight non-AG congeners. We detected seven phenolic and terpenoid volatiles common to seeds of all or most of the AG species, but a blend of the shared compounds was not attractive to the AG ant Camponotus femoratus. We also analyzed seeds of three AG species (Anthurium gracile, Codonanthe uleana, and Peperomia macrostachya) using behavior-guided fractionation. At least one chromatographic fraction of each seed extract elicited retrieval behavior in C. femoratus, but the active fractions of the three plant species differed in polarity and chemical composition, indicating that shared compounds alone did not explain seed-carrying behavior. We suggest that the various AG seed species must elicit seed-carrying with different chemical cues.

  17. Divergent chemical cues elicit seed collecting by ants in an obligate multi-species mutualism in lowland Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Youngsteadt

    Full Text Available In lowland Amazonian rainforests, specific ants collect seeds of several plant species and cultivate them in arboreal carton nests, forming species-specific symbioses called ant-gardens (AGs. In this obligate mutualism, ants depend on the plants for nest stability and the plants depend on ant nests for substrate and nutrients. AG ants and plants are abundant, dominant members of lowland Amazonian ecosystems, but the cues ants use to recognize the seeds are poorly understood. To address the chemical basis of the ant-seed interaction, we surveyed seed chemistry in nine AG species and eight non-AG congeners. We detected seven phenolic and terpenoid volatiles common to seeds of all or most of the AG species, but a blend of the shared compounds was not attractive to the AG ant Camponotus femoratus. We also analyzed seeds of three AG species (Anthurium gracile, Codonanthe uleana, and Peperomia macrostachya using behavior-guided fractionation. At least one chromatographic fraction of each seed extract elicited retrieval behavior in C. femoratus, but the active fractions of the three plant species differed in polarity and chemical composition, indicating that shared compounds alone did not explain seed-carrying behavior. We suggest that the various AG seed species must elicit seed-carrying with different chemical cues.

  18. Holocene vegetational and coastal environmental changes from the Lago Crispim record in northeastern Pará State, eastern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behling, H; Lima da Costa, M

    2001-04-01

    Vegetational and coastal environmental changes have been interpreted from a 600cm long and 764014C yr B.P. old sediment core from Lago Crispim located in the northeastern Pará State in northern Brazil. The radiocarbon dated sediment core was studied by multi-element geochemistry, pollen and charcoal analysis.Holocene Atlantic sea-level rise caused an elevation of local water table, which allowed the formation of organic deposits in a probably former inter-dune valley. Dense, diverse and tall Amazon rain forest, and some restinga (coastal vegetation) covered the study area at the beginning of the record at 764014C yr B.P. Mangrove vegetation developed along rivers close to the core site at that time. Subsequent decrease in less mangrove vegetation near the study site indicates a sea-level regression, beginning since around 700014C yr B.P. Lower sea-levels probably favoured the formation of a local Mauritia/Mauritiella palm swamp at 662014C yr B.P. Oscillations of higher and lower sea-level stands probably changed the size of the local palm swamp area several times between 6620 and 363014C yr B.P. Sea-level transgression at around 363014C yr B.P., caused marked coastal environmental changes: the development of mangroves near the site, the replacement of the local palm swamp by a Cyperaceae swamp, the substitution of the surrounding former Amazon rain forest and some restinga vegetation mainly by salt marshes. High amount carbonised particles suggest a strong human impact by burning on the coastal ecosystems during this late Holocene period.Highest concentrations of NaCl and also Ca, Mg and K in the upper sediment core indicate that the Atlantic was close during the late Holocene period. The core site, which is today 500m from the coastline and only 1-2m above modern sea-level, was apparently never reached by marine excursions during the Holocene.Less representation of mangrove since ca. 184014C yr B.P., may be related due to a slightly lower sea-level or to human impact in the study region. The modern shallow lake seems to be formed recently by road construction, forming an artificial dam.

  19. Cuerpos, Cadáveres y Comida: Canibalismo, Comensalidad y Organización Social enla Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Vacas Mora.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo revisa briefy los debates académicos más recientes sobre la antropofagia amazónica intentar marco de esa práctica en un contexto más amplio que proporciona un sentido de la actividad de fesh humanos de comer, un fondo que lleva la semiótica de la discusión más allá de lo sensible y que se traslada entre las formas simbólicas de construcción social. Las obras canibalismo amazónico en diferentes niveles, haciendo posible una forma concreta de construcción de identidad, las relaciones de depredación sociocosmical y una forma specifc de generar, fortalecer y mantener el parentesco y los lazos familiares.

  20. Transfer of mercury and methylmercury along macroinvertebrate food chains in a floodplain lake of the Beni River, Bolivian Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, Carlos Israel, E-mail: camoar6088@gmail.com [Instituto de Ecologia, Unidad de Limnologia, UMSA, Casilla postal 10077, La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement IRD, Casilla postal 9214, La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); CONICET-Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, Miguel Lillo 205, 4 000, Tucuman (Argentina); Gibon, Francois-Marie [Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement IRD, Casilla postal 9214, La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); IRD, UMR BOREA, Museum national d' Histoire Naturelle MNHN, Case postale 26, 75231, Paris cedex 05 (France); Duprey, Jean-Louis [Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement IRD, Casilla postal 9214, La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Dominguez, Eduardo [CONICET-Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, Miguel Lillo 205, 4 000, Tucuman (Argentina); Guimaraes, Jean-Remy D. [Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Bloco G-CCS, Rio de Janeiro, CEP 21949-900 (Brazil); Roulet, Marc [Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement IRD, Casilla postal 9214, La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of)

    2010-07-15

    We have evaluated the mercury and methylmercury transfers to and within the macroinvertebrate communities of a floodplain lake of the Beni River basin, Bolivia, during three hydrological seasons and in two habitats (open water and vegetation belt). Using the stable isotopes {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 15}N, six trophic chains were identified during a previous study. Four are based on only one source: seston, organic matter from the bottom sediment, periphyton and macrophytes. Two are based on mixed sources (seston and periphyton in one case, periphyton and macrophytes in the other). During sampling, we found only one taxon that had surface sediment organic matter as food source and very few taxa whose trophic source was constituted by macrophytes. The periphyton was the most important source during all seasons; it produced the longest chain, with three trophic positions. Whatever the season and trophic source, all collected macroinvertebrates contained methyl mercury and the latter was biomagnified in all trophic chains that we identified. The biomagnification of methylmercury through invertebrate trophic chains accurately reflected the existence and length of these chains. Biomagnification was virtually non-existent in the sediment-based chain, low and restricted to the dry season in the macrophyte-based chain. It was significant in the seston-based chain, but limited by the existence of only two trophic levels and restricted to the wet season. Finally, it was very effective in the periphyton-based chain, which offers the highest rate of contamination of the source but, above all, the largest number of trophic levels.

  1. Comparative biology of two populations of Lutzomyia umbratilis (Diptera: Psychodidae) of Central Amazonia, Brazil, under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justiniano, S C B; Chagas, A C; Pessoa, F A C; Queiroz, R G

    2004-05-01

    Lutzomyia umbratilis is the main vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania guyanensis in northern South America. It has been found naturally infected with this species of Leishmania only east of the Rio Negro and north of the Rio Amazonas. However, populations of this sand fly species are also present in areas south of the Amazon river system, which may act as a geographical barrier to the Leishmania guyanensis cycle. With the aim of looking for possible biological differences between populations of L. umbratilis from each side of this river system, their biology in the laboratory was investigated. Progenitors collected on tree bases in Manaus and Manacapuru (east and west, respectively, of the Rio Negro) were reared in the laboratory. Results from observations of the life cycle, fecundity, fertility, and adult longevity at 27 degrees C and 92% RH were analyzed by descriptive statistics and z, t, U, and chi2 tests. Although the Manaus and Manacapuru colonies showed a longer developmental time than most Lutzomyia species reared at similar temperatures, length of time of egg and 4th instar larva of the two populations differed significantly (p < 0.01). Females of the latter retained significantly (p < 0.001) less mature oocytes, and the general productivity (% adults from a known number of eggs) of the colony was significantly (p < 0.01) higher than that of the former. These results show that the L. umbratilis population of Manaus is more productive, and thus a better candidate for future mass-rearing attempts. The two populations differ in their life cycle, fecundity, fertility, adult longevity, and emergence. These differences may reflect some divergence of intrinsic biological features evolved as a result of their geographical isolation by the Rio Negro. It is expected that further investigations on morphometry, cuticular hydrocarbon, isoenzyme, molecular and chromossomal analyses, infection, and cross-mating experiments with these and other allopatric populations of both margins of the Amazon river system will help reveal whether or not L. umbratilis has genetically diverged into two or more reproductively isolated populations of vectors or non-vectors of Leishmania guyanensis.

  2. Comparative biology of two populations of Lutzomyia umbratilis (Diptera: Psychodidae of Central Amazonia, Brazil, under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. B. Justiniano

    Full Text Available Lutzomyia umbratilis is the main vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania guyanensis in northern South America. It has been found naturally infected with this species of Leishmania only east of the Rio Negro and north of the Rio Amazonas. However, populations of this sand fly species are also present in areas south of the Amazon river system, which may act as a geographical barrier to the Leishmania guyanensis cycle. With the aim of looking for possible biological differences between populations of L. umbratilis from each side of this river system, their biology in the laboratory was investigated. Progenitors collected on tree bases in Manaus and Manacapuru (east and west, respectively, of the Rio Negro were reared in the laboratory. Results from observations of the life cycle, fecundity, fertility, and adult longevity at 27ºC and 92% RH were analyzed by descriptive statistics and z, t, U, and chi2 tests. Although the Manaus and Manacapuru colonies showed a longer developmental time than most Lutzomyia species reared at similar temperatures, length of time of egg and 4th instar larva of the two populations differed significantly (p < 0.01. Females of the latter retained significantly (p < 0.001 less mature oocytes, and the general productivity (% adults from a known number of eggs of the colony was significantly (p < 0.01 higher than that of the former. These results show that the L. umbratilis population of Manaus is more productive, and thus a better candidate for future mass-rearing attempts. The two populations differ in their life cycle, fecundity, fertility, adult longevity, and emergence. These differences may reflect some divergence of intrinsic biological features evolved as a result of their geographical isolation by the Rio Negro. It is expected that further investigations on morphometry, cuticular hydrocarbon, isoenzyme, molecular and chromossomal analyses, infection, and cross-mating experiments with these and other allopatric populations of both margins of the Amazon river system will help reveal whether or not L. umbratilis has genetically diverged into two or more reproductively isolated populations of vectors or non-vectors of Leishmania guyanensis.

  3. Seasonal changes in the gonadossomatic index, allometric condition factor and sex ratio of an auchenipterid catfish from eastern Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Magalhães da Silva Freitas

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the seasonal pattern of the gonadosomatic index (GSI, condition factor (K, and sex ratio in the catfish Auchenipterichthys longimanus (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae as an approach to identify its reproductive period. A total of 589 A. longimanus specimens (251 males and 338 females were captured in the rivers of the Caxiuanã National Forest, in the Brazilian state of Pará, between July, 2008 and July, 2009. Among the male specimens, 171 were classified as adults and 80 as juveniles, while there were 249 adults and 89 juvenile females. Using a sinusoidal equation, analysis of the GSI revealed a reproductive asynchrony between the genders, with males attaining their highest GSI values in January, while females peaked in March. For males, the sinusoidal regression for GSI values was significant only when used the complete data set (P=0.001, wears no trend was identified for bimonthly means (P=0.136. For females, by contrast, significant values were obtained for both the complete data set (P=0.012 and bimonthly GSI means (P=0.026. For the condition factor, the sinusoidal equation returned significant seasonal variation in both raw data (P=0.02 and with mean values (P=0.00 for males, but only with raw data for females (P=0.04, which appears to reflect variation in the energy budget between genders. With regard to the sex ratio, more reproductive females were captured than males in January and March, 2009, which suggests a pattern of segregation related to the reproductive process. These parameters are fundamental to the assessment, protection, and management of natural fish stocks, as well as providing guidelines for the development of conservation strategies.

  4. Inhibitory effects against pasture weeds in Brazilian Amazonia of natural products from the marine brown alga Dictyota menstrualis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Rainiomar Raimundo; Filho, Antonio Pedro Silva Souza; Villaça, Roberto Campos; Teixeira, Valéria Laneuville

    2013-12-01

    Fractions of the acetone extract and a mixture of two diterpenes from the marine brown alga Dictyota menstrualis were prepared with the aim of identifying potential effects on the germination of seeds and on elongation of the radicle and hypocotyl of the weeds Mimosa pudica and Senna obtusifolia. The bioassay on seed germination was performed in controlled conditions of 25 degreeC temperature and a 12 hour photoperiod, while the one concerning radicle and hypocotyl elongation was performed at the same temperature, though adopting a photoperiod of 24 hours. The results varied according to the receptor species, the fraction utilized, and its concentration. TLC analysis of the fractions and comparison with isolated products indicated that the diterpenes pachydictyol A and isopachydictyol A were the most abundant compounds in fraction HE, whereas the diterpene 6-hydroxy-dichotomano-2, 13-diene-16, 17-dial (3) was the most abundant compound in fractions DC and EA. Analysis of less polar fractions (in n-hexane, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate) revealed values of less than 30% inhibition. On the other hand, the ethanol/water fraction was the most active in all instances. The biological activity of these fractions must be due to the presence of known diterpenes and/or sulfated polysaccharides isolated in earlier studies.

  5. Quantitative ethnobotany of palms in northwestern South America: a comparative analysis in Amazonia, Andes and Chocó

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cámara-Leret, Rodrigo

    and socioeconomic factors of informants is presented in Chapter 2. In Chapter 3, the field data were used to compare and validate the quality and coverage of palm ethnobotanical information from a literature review of works published over the last 60 years in the same region. The results of this study show...... the highest contribution to the use value of forests. In Chapter 5 the geographical distribution of traditional knowledge is investigated using field data and bibliographic information about the medicinal uses of palms in northwestern South America. Comparisons are made across four countries, 52 Amerindian...

  6. Physical, chemical, and biological properties of soil under soybean cultivation and at an adjacent rainforest in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy Patrick Beldini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Land-use change in the Amazon basin has occurred at an accelerated pace during the last decade, and it is important that the effects induced by these changes on soil properties are better understood. This study investigated the chemical, physical, and biological properties of soil in a field under cultivation of soy and rice, and at an adjacent primary rain forest. Increases in soil bulk density, exchangeable cations and pH were observed in the soy field soil. In the primary forest, soil microbial biomass and basal respiration rates were higher, and the microbial community was metabolically more efficient. The sum of basal respiration across the A, AB and BA horizons on a mass per area basis ranged from 7.31 to 10.05 Mg CO2-C ha-1yr-1, thus yielding estimates for total soil respiration between 9.6 and 15.5 Mg CO2-C ha-1yr-1 across sites and seasons. These estimates are in good agreement with literature values for Amazonian ecosystems. The estimates of heterotrophic respiration made in this study help to further constrain the estimates of autotrophic soil respiration and will be useful for monitoring the effects of future land-use in Amazonian ecosystems.

  7. Cuantificación de gases de efecto invernadero en zonas húmedas tropicales: el caso yahuarcaca, amazonia colombiana

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Los gases de efecto invernadero (GEI), entre ellos el CO2 y el CH4, emitidos desde la superficie terrestre hacia la atmósfera a partir de fuentes naturales y antrópicas son considerados como una prioridad por sus efectos en el calentamiento global. En 2001 el Panel Intergubernamental de Cambio Climático (IPCC) enfocó sus estudios en el análisis de estos gases producidos por fuentes antrópicas, mientras que para las emisiones de origen natural quedan muchas dudas que impiden modelar de una ...

  8. Oil and gas projects in Amazon: an environmental challenge; Projetos de petroleo e gas na Amazonia: um desafio ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taam, Mauricio [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Cabral, Nelson [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Regional Norte SMS ; Cardoso, Vanderlei [TRANSPETRO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Gerencia de Seguranca, Meio Ambiente e Saude

    2004-07-01

    In the heart of the Amazon forest, some 600 km from the city of Manaus, the Brazilian Oil Company - PETROBRAS - is developing the 'URUCU PROJECT'. Consisting on 3 oil and gas production fields and 3 natural gas processing plant, 2 huge pipelines crossing the dense Amazon forest and its rivers and going towards COARI - the Fluvial Terminal of Solimoes river. Then, vessels and ferries, loads LGN to the north region and oil to feed the Manaus refinery plant. In a near future natural gas pipelines will connect COARI to Manaus and URUCU to Porto Velho. The whole project will allow energy supply to the less developed and isolated region of Brazil, and brings relief for the local population, but represents one of the biggest challenges for the oil and gas industry in terms of environmental sustainability for projects in very sensitive areas. The paper concludes that it is viable to face such a challenges counting on an Environmental Management System tailored to fit the region peculiarities, including a high level of Preparedness and Response for oil incidents, and last but never least assuming a respectful attitude towards the Amazon and its people. (author)

  9. Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Pristine Aerosol Particles During the wet Season of Amazonia - Detection of Primary Biological Particles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, J.; Zorn, S. R.; Freutel, F.; Borrmann, S.; Chen, Q.; Farmer, D. K.; Jimenez, J. L.; Flores, M.; Roldin, P.; Artaxo, P.; Martin, S. T.

    2008-12-01

    The contribution of primary biological aerosol (POA) particles to the natural organic aerosol is a subject of current research. Estimations of the POA contribution to the total aerosol particle concentration range between 25 and 80%, depending on location and season. Especially in the tropical rain forest it is expected that POA is a major source of supermicron, possibly also of submicron particles. During AMAZE (Amazonian Aerosol CharacteriZation Experiment), a field project near Manaus, Brazil, in February/March 2008, an Aerodyne ToF-AMS was equipped with a high pressure aerodynamic lens. This high pressure lens (operating pressure 14.6 torr) is designed with the objective to extend the detectable size range of the AMS into the supermicron size range where primary biological particles are expected. Size distribution measured by the AMS were compared with size distribution from an optical particle counter and indicate that the high pressure lens has a 50% cut-off at a vacuum aerodynamic diameter of about 1 μm, but still has significant transmission up to a vacuum aerodynamic diameter of about 2 μm, thus extending the detectable size range of the AMS into the coarse mode. The measuring instruments were situated in a container at ground level. The aerosol was sampled through a 40 m vertical, laminar inlet, which was heated and dried to maintain a relative humidity between 30 and 40%. The inlet was equipped with a 7 μm cut-off cyclone. Size distributions recorded with an optical particle counter parallel to the AMS show that the inlet transmitted aerosol particles up to an optically detected diameter of 10 μm. POA particles like plant fragments, pollen, spores, fungi, viruses etc. contain chemical compounds as proteins, sugars, amino acids, chlorophyll, and cellular material as cellulose. Laboratory experiments have been performed in order to identify typical mass spectral patterns of these compounds. These laboratory data were compared to size resolved particle mass spectra that were obtained during AMAZE. First results indicate that the mass spectra of organic aerosol particle sampled during AMAZE show a size dependence, thereby indicating a size-dependent chemical composition of the aerosol particles. A detailed comparison between the laboratory data and the AMS mass spectra o