WorldWideScience

Sample records for amazonia

  1. Amazonia and Global Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Michael; Bustamante, Mercedes; Gash, John; Silva Dias, Pedro

    Amazonia and Global Change synthesizes results of the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) for scientists and students of Earth system science and global environmental change. LBA, led by Brazil, asks how Amazonia currently functions in the global climate and biogeochemical systems and how the functioning of Amazonia will respond to the combined pressures of climate and land use change, such as • Wet season and dry season aerosol concentrations and their effects on diffuse radiation and photosynthesis • Increasing greenhouse gas concentration, deforestation, widespread biomass burning and changes in the Amazonian water cycle • Drought effects and simulated drought through rainfall exclusion experiments • The net flux of carbon between Amazonia and the atmosphere • Floodplains as an important regulator of the basin carbon balance including serving as a major source of methane to the troposphere • The impact of the likely increased profitability of cattle ranching. The book will serve a broad community of scientists and policy makers interested in global change and environmental issues with high-quality scientific syntheses accessible to nonspecialists in a wide community of social scientists, ecologists, atmospheric chemists, climatologists, and hydrologists.

  2. The environment and the hydroelectric in Amazonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some aspects about social and environmental impacts due to the hydroelectric power plants constructed in Amazonia region are presented, including considerations of energy planning and management with international example. (C.G.C.)

  3. Greenhouse gases study in Amazonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Amazon plays an important role on the global carbon cycle, as changing as carbon storage, since Amazon Basin is the biggest area of tropical forest, around 50% of global. Natural's process, deforestation, and use land are CO2 sources. The Amazon forest is a significant source of N2O by soil process, and CH4 by anaerobic process like flooded areas, rice cultures, and others sources. This project is part of the LBA project (Large-Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia), and this project is 'Vertical profiles of carbon dioxide and other trace gas species over the Amazon basin using small aircraft'. Since December 2000 vertical profiles of CO2, CH4, CO, H2, N2O and SF6 have been measured above central Amazonia. The local sampling was over Tapajos National Forest, a primary forest in Para State, where had a CO2 flux tower and an east impact area with sources like animals, rice cultivation, biomass burning, etc, to compare the influence of an impact area and a preserved area in the profiles. The Reserva Biologica de Cuieiras, at Amazon State, is the other studied place, where there already exists a CO2 flux tower, and an east preserved area at this State, to compare with the Cuieiras. The sampling has been carried out on vertical profile from 1000 ft up to 12000 ft using a semi-automated sampling package developed at GMD/NOAA and a small aircraft. The analysis uses the MAGICC system (Multiple Analysis of Gases Influence Climate Change) which is installed at the Atmospheric Chemistry Laboratory (LQA) in IPEN (Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares). The results showed that all gases studied, except H2 gas, has been following the global trend. At the Para State, for the studied years, the Amazonian Forest performed as small CO2 sink. To compare Wet and Dry Seasons, subtracted the Ascension concentration values in the period to remove the global influence. So that, in the 2004 and 2005 wet seasons and 2004 dry season comparison it was observed 2 ppm

  4. Ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) Density in Central Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Gomes da Rocha; Rahel Sollmann; Emiliano Esterci Ramalho; Renata Ilha; Tan, Cedric K. W.

    2016-01-01

    Ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) are presumed to be the most abundant of the wild cats throughout their distribution range and to play an important role in the dynamics of sympatric small-felid populations. However, ocelot ecological information is limited, particularly for the Amazon. We conducted three camera-trap surveys during three consecutive dry seasons to estimate ocelot density in Amanã Reserve, Central Amazonia, Brazil. We implemented a spatial capture-recapture (SCR) model that shared ...

  5. Predicting anthropogenic soils across the Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcmichael, C.; Palace, M. W.; Bush, M. B.; Braswell, B. H.; Hagen, S. C.; Silman, M.; Neves, E.; Czarnecki, C.

    2012-12-01

    Hidden under the forest canopy in lowland Amazonia are nutrient-enriched soils, called terra pretas (or Amazonian black earths), which were formed by prehistoric indigenous populations. These anthrosols are in stark contrast to typical nutrient-poor Amazonian soils, and have retained increased nutrient levels for hundreds of years. Because of their long-term nutrient retaining ability, terra pretas may be crucial for developing sustainable agricultural practices in Amazonia, especially given the deforestation necessary for traditional slash-and-burn systems. However, the frequency and distribution of terra preta soils across the landscape remains debatable, and archaeologists have estimated that terra pretas cover anywhere from 0.1% to 10% of the lowland Amazonian forests. The highest concentration of terra preta soils has been found along the central and eastern portions of the Amazon River and its major tributaries, but whether this is a true pattern or simply reflects sampling bias remains unknown. A possible explanation is that specific environmental or biotic conditions were preferred for human settlement and terra preta formation. Here, we use environmental parameters to predict the probabilities of terra preta soils across lowland Amazonian forests. We compiled a database of 2708 sites across Amazonia, including locations that contain terra pretas (n = 917), and those that are known to be terra preta-free (n = 1791). More than 20 environmental variables, including precipitation, elevation, slope, soil fertility, and distance to river were converted into 90-m resolution raster images across Amazonia and used to model the probability of terra preta occurrence. The relationship between the predictor variables and the occurrence of terra preta was examined using three modeling techniques: logistic regression, auto-logistic regression, and maximum entropy estimations. All three techniques provided similar predictions for terra preta distributions and the amount

  6. Gente, tierra y agua en la Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Buitrago Garavito, Ana Isabel; Jiménez, Eliana; Tobón, Marco Alejandro; Gendrau Acho, Sheila; Ciro Rodríguez, Estefanía; Ciro Rodríguez, Alejandra; Trujillo Osorio, Catalina; Currea Dereser , Alejandra; Torres Zambrano, Nestor Ned; Serrato Hurtado, Clemencia; Santiago R. Duque; Moreno Hurtado, Flavio; Peñuela, Maria Cristina; Lloyd, Jon; Patiño, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    Con el ánimo de contribuir a la comprensión social, histórica y económica de la gente que habita la región amazónica y al entendimiento del funcionamiento de sus ecosistemas surge el libro Gente, tierra y agua en la Amazonia. lmani mundo III. Este libro es el tercero de la serie Imani mundo, la cual expone trabajos de investigación en la región amazónica tanto en aspectos sociales como en aspectos ecológicos, realizados por el instituto Amazónico de Investigaciones IMANI de la Universidad Nac...

  7. Soils of Amazonia with particular reference to the RAINFOR sites

    OpenAIRE

    C. A. Quesada; Lloyd, J; Anderson, L. O.; Fyllas, N. M.; M. Schwarz; C. I. Czimczik

    2011-01-01

    The tropical forests of Amazonia occur on a wide variety of different soil types reflecting a rich diversity of geologic and geomorphologic conditions. We here review the existing literature about the main soil groups of Amazonia, describing their genesis, geographical patterns and principal chemical, physical and morphologic characteristics. Original data is also presented with profiles of exchangeable cations, carbon and particle size fraction illustrated for the principal soil types...

  8. Carbon stock loss from deforestation through 2013 in Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Euler Melo; Yanai, Aurora M; Fonseca, Frederico O R; Fearnside, Philip Martin

    2015-03-01

    The largest carbon stock in tropical vegetation is in Brazilian Amazonia. In this ~5 million km(2) area, over 750,000 km(2) of forest and ~240,000 km(2) of nonforest vegetation types had been cleared through 2013. We estimate current carbon stocks and cumulative gross carbon loss from clearing of premodern vegetation in Brazil's 'Legal Amazonia' and 'Amazonia biome' regions. Biomass of 'premodern' vegetation (prior to major increases in disturbance beginning in the 1970s) was estimated by matching vegetation classes mapped at a scale of 1 : 250,000 and 29 biomass means from 41 published studies for vegetation types classified as forest (2317 1-ha plots) and as either nonforest or contact zones (1830 plots and subplots of varied size). Total biomass (above and below-ground, dry weight) underwent a gross reduction of 18.3% in Legal Amazonia (13.1 Pg C) and 16.7% in the Amazonia biome (11.2 Pg C) through 2013, excluding carbon loss from the effects of fragmentation, selective logging, fires, mortality induced by recent droughts and clearing of forest regrowth. In spite of the loss of carbon from clearing, large amounts of carbon were stored in stands of remaining vegetation in 2013, equivalent to 149 Mg C ha(-1) when weighted by the total area covered by each vegetation type in Legal Amazonia. Native vegetation in Legal Amazonia in 2013 originally contained 58.6 Pg C, while that in the Amazonia biome contained 56 Pg C. Emissions per unit area from clearing could potentially be larger in the future because previously cleared areas were mainly covered by vegetation with lower mean biomass than the remaining vegetation. Estimates of original biomass are essential for estimating losses to forest degradation. This study offers estimates of cumulative biomass loss, as well as estimates of premodern carbon stocks that have not been represented in recent estimates of deforestation impacts. PMID:25380507

  9. Agricultural intensification increases deforestation fire activity in Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Morton, DC; DeFries, RS; Randerson, JT; Giglio, L.; Schroeder, W.; van der Werf, GR

    2008-01-01

    Fire-driven deforestation is the major source of carbon emissions from Amazonia. Recent expansion of mechanized agriculture in forested regions of Amazonia has increased the average size of deforested areas, but related changes in fire dynamics remain poorly characterized. We estimated the contribution of fires from the deforestation process to total fire activity based on the local frequency of active fire detections from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors. Hig...

  10. Navigating Amazonia under uncertainty: past, present and future environmental governance

    OpenAIRE

    Boyd, Emily; Martin, James

    2008-01-01

    One of the major environmental challenges of the twenty-first century is the continued rapid deforestation of Amazonia. The 2005 dieback crisis emphasizes the unprecedented challenges facing Brazil. The examination of past and present institutions for ecosystem management, in Amazonia, shows structural barriers across public, private and community arrangements. The adaptive governance concept helps to understand why these institutions are failing to deliver sustainable futures. In looking for...

  11. Pre-Columbian Earthworks in Coastal Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphen Rostain

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available As in other parts of Amazonia, pre-Columbian Indians have profoundly modified the coast of the Guianas. Between 650 and 1650 AD, Arauquinoid people occupied a territory that was approximately 600 km long and used the raised field technique intensively before the European conquest. They erected thousands of raised fields of various shapes, dug canals, ditches, and pathways, and built artificial mounds to establish their villages. All these earthworks changed forever the face of the coastal flooded savannas and their ecology. Such labor was probably organized under the leadership of a central authority: it seems that Arauquinoid societies were organized in a chiefdom system. Statistical calculations, based on the known surface area of raised fields and on their estimated productivity, suggest a population density of 50 to 100 inhabitants per km2. Pre-Columbian inhabitants of the Guianas coast carefully organized, managed and “anthropisized” their territory following a specific pattern.

  12. Predicting pre-Columbian anthropogenic soils in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, C H; Palace, M W; Bush, M B; Braswell, B; Hagen, S; Neves, E G; Silman, M R; Tamanaha, E K; Czarnecki, C

    2014-02-22

    The extent and intensity of pre-Columbian impacts on lowland Amazonia have remained uncertain and controversial. Various indicators can be used to gauge the impact of pre-Columbian societies, but the formation of nutrient-enriched terra preta soils has been widely accepted as an indication of long-term settlement and site fidelity. Using known and newly discovered terra preta sites and maximum entropy algorithms (Maxent), we determined the influence of regional environmental conditions on the likelihood that terra pretas would have been formed at any given location in lowland Amazonia. Terra pretas were most frequently found in central and eastern Amazonia along the lower courses of the major Amazonian rivers. Terrain, hydrologic and soil characteristics were more important predictors of terra preta distributions than climatic conditions. Our modelling efforts indicated that terra pretas are likely to be found throughout ca 154 063 km(2) or 3.2% of the forest. We also predict that terra preta formation was limited in most of western Amazonia. Model results suggested that the distribution of terra preta was highly predictable based on environmental parameters. We provided targets for future archaeological surveys under the vast forest canopy and also highlighted how few of the long-term forest inventory sites in Amazonia are able to capture the effects of historical disturbance. PMID:24403329

  13. Soils of amazonia with particular reference to the rainfor sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Quesada

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The tropical forests of Amazonia occur on a wide variety of different soil types reflecting a rich diversity of geologic and geomorphologic conditions. We here review the existing literature about the main soil groups of Amazonia, describing their genesis, geographical patterns and principal chemical, physical and morphologic characteristics. Original data is also presented with profiles of exchangeable cations, carbon and particle size fraction illustrated for the principal soil types, also emphasizing the high diversity existing within the main soil groups when possible. Maps of geographic distribution of soils occurring under forest vegetation are also introduced, and to contextualize soils into an evolutionary framework, a scheme of soil development is proposed having as its basis a chemical weathering index. We identify a continuum of soil evolution in Amazonia with soil properties varying predictably along this pedogenetic gradient.

  14. Ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) Density in Central Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha, Daniel Gomes; Sollmann, Rahel; Ramalho, Emiliano Esterci; Ilha, Renata; Tan, Cedric K. W.

    2016-01-01

    Ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) are presumed to be the most abundant of the wild cats throughout their distribution range and to play an important role in the dynamics of sympatric small-felid populations. However, ocelot ecological information is limited, particularly for the Amazon. We conducted three camera-trap surveys during three consecutive dry seasons to estimate ocelot density in Amanã Reserve, Central Amazonia, Brazil. We implemented a spatial capture-recapture (SCR) model that shared detection parameters among surveys. A total effort of 7020 camera-trap days resulted in 93 independent ocelot records. The estimate of ocelot density in Amanã Reserve (24.84 ± SE 6.27 ocelots per 100 km2) was lower than at other sites in the Amazon and also lower than that expected from a correlation of density with latitude and rainfall. We also discuss the importance of using common parameters for survey scenarios with low recapture rates. This is the first density estimate for ocelots in the Brazilian Amazon, which is an important stronghold for the species. PMID:27191598

  15. Ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) Density in Central Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Daniel Gomes da; Sollmann, Rahel; Ramalho, Emiliano Esterci; Ilha, Renata; Tan, Cedric K W

    2016-01-01

    Ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) are presumed to be the most abundant of the wild cats throughout their distribution range and to play an important role in the dynamics of sympatric small-felid populations. However, ocelot ecological information is limited, particularly for the Amazon. We conducted three camera-trap surveys during three consecutive dry seasons to estimate ocelot density in Amanã Reserve, Central Amazonia, Brazil. We implemented a spatial capture-recapture (SCR) model that shared detection parameters among surveys. A total effort of 7020 camera-trap days resulted in 93 independent ocelot records. The estimate of ocelot density in Amanã Reserve (24.84 ± SE 6.27 ocelots per 100 km2) was lower than at other sites in the Amazon and also lower than that expected from a correlation of density with latitude and rainfall. We also discuss the importance of using common parameters for survey scenarios with low recapture rates. This is the first density estimate for ocelots in the Brazilian Amazon, which is an important stronghold for the species. PMID:27191598

  16. Ocelot (Leopardus pardalis Density in Central Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Gomes da Rocha

    Full Text Available Ocelots (Leopardus pardalis are presumed to be the most abundant of the wild cats throughout their distribution range and to play an important role in the dynamics of sympatric small-felid populations. However, ocelot ecological information is limited, particularly for the Amazon. We conducted three camera-trap surveys during three consecutive dry seasons to estimate ocelot density in Amanã Reserve, Central Amazonia, Brazil. We implemented a spatial capture-recapture (SCR model that shared detection parameters among surveys. A total effort of 7020 camera-trap days resulted in 93 independent ocelot records. The estimate of ocelot density in Amanã Reserve (24.84 ± SE 6.27 ocelots per 100 km2 was lower than at other sites in the Amazon and also lower than that expected from a correlation of density with latitude and rainfall. We also discuss the importance of using common parameters for survey scenarios with low recapture rates. This is the first density estimate for ocelots in the Brazilian Amazon, which is an important stronghold for the species.

  17. Dynamics, patterns and causes of fires in Northwestern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenteras, Dolors; Retana, Javier

    2012-01-01

    According to recent studies, two widespread droughts occurred in the Amazon basin, one during 2005 and one during 2010. The drought increased the prevalence of climate-driven fires over most of the basin. Given the importance of human-atmosphere-vegetation interactions in tropical rainforests, these events have generated concerns over the vulnerability of this area to climate change. This paper focuses on one of the wettest areas of the basin, Northwestern Amazonia, where the interactions between the climate and fires are much weaker and where little is known about the anthropogenic drivers of fires. We have assessed the response of fires to climate over a ten-year period, and analysed the socio-economic and demographic determinants of fire occurrence. The patterns of fires and climate and their linkages in Northwestern Amazonia differ from the enhanced fire response to climate variation observed in the rest of Amazonia. The highest number of recorded fires in Northwestern Amazonia occurred in 2004 and 2007, and this did not coincide with the periods of extreme drought experienced in Amazonia in 2005 and 2010. Rather, during those years, Northwestern Amazonia experienced a relatively small numbers of fire hotspots. We have shown that fire occurrence correlated well with deforestation and was determined by anthropogenic drivers, mainly small-scale agriculture, cattle ranching (i.e., pastures) and active agricultural frontiers (including illegal crops). Thus, the particular climatic conditions for air convergence and rainfall created by proximity to the Andes, coupled with the presence of one of the most active colonisation fronts in the region, make this region differently affected by the general drought-induced fire patterns experienced by the rest of the Amazon. Moreover, the results suggest that, even in this wet region, humans are able to modify the frequency of fires and impact these historically well preserved forests. PMID:22523580

  18. Dynamics, patterns and causes of fires in Northwestern Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolors Armenteras

    Full Text Available According to recent studies, two widespread droughts occurred in the Amazon basin, one during 2005 and one during 2010. The drought increased the prevalence of climate-driven fires over most of the basin. Given the importance of human-atmosphere-vegetation interactions in tropical rainforests, these events have generated concerns over the vulnerability of this area to climate change. This paper focuses on one of the wettest areas of the basin, Northwestern Amazonia, where the interactions between the climate and fires are much weaker and where little is known about the anthropogenic drivers of fires. We have assessed the response of fires to climate over a ten-year period, and analysed the socio-economic and demographic determinants of fire occurrence. The patterns of fires and climate and their linkages in Northwestern Amazonia differ from the enhanced fire response to climate variation observed in the rest of Amazonia. The highest number of recorded fires in Northwestern Amazonia occurred in 2004 and 2007, and this did not coincide with the periods of extreme drought experienced in Amazonia in 2005 and 2010. Rather, during those years, Northwestern Amazonia experienced a relatively small numbers of fire hotspots. We have shown that fire occurrence correlated well with deforestation and was determined by anthropogenic drivers, mainly small-scale agriculture, cattle ranching (i.e., pastures and active agricultural frontiers (including illegal crops. Thus, the particular climatic conditions for air convergence and rainfall created by proximity to the Andes, coupled with the presence of one of the most active colonisation fronts in the region, make this region differently affected by the general drought-induced fire patterns experienced by the rest of the Amazon. Moreover, the results suggest that, even in this wet region, humans are able to modify the frequency of fires and impact these historically well preserved forests.

  19. The mitogenome of Onchocerca volvulus from the Brazilian Amazonia focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crainey, James L; Silva, Túllio R R da; Encinas, Fernando; Marín, Michel A; Vicente, Ana Carolina P; Luz, Sérgio L B

    2016-01-01

    We report here the first complete mitochondria genome of Onchocerca volvulus from a focus outside of Africa. An O. volvulus mitogenome from the Brazilian Amazonia focus was obtained using a combination of high-throughput and Sanger sequencing technologies. Comparisons made between this mitochondrial genome and publicly available mitochondrial sequences identified 46 variant nucleotide positions and suggested that our Brazilian mitogenome is more closely related to Cameroon-origin mitochondria than West African-origin mitochondria. As well as providing insights into the origins of Latin American onchocerciasis, the Brazilian Amazonia focus mitogenome may also have value as an epidemiological resource. PMID:26814648

  20. The mitogenome of Onchocerca volvulus from the Brazilian Amazonia focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James L Crainey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report here the first complete mitochondria genome of Onchocerca volvulus from a focus outside of Africa. An O. volvulus mitogenome from the Brazilian Amazonia focus was obtained using a combination of high-throughput and Sanger sequencing technologies. Comparisons made between this mitochondrial genome and publicly available mitochondrial sequences identified 46 variant nucleotide positions and suggested that our Brazilian mitogenome is more closely related to Cameroon-origin mitochondria than West African-origin mitochondria. As well as providing insights into the origins of Latin American onchocerciasis, the Brazilian Amazonia focus mitogenome may also have value as an epidemiological resource.

  1. Selective Logging, Fire, and Biomass in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, R. A.

    1999-01-01

    Biomass and rates of disturbance are major factors in determining the net flux of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, and neither of them is well known for most of the earth's surface. Satellite data over large areas are beginning to be used systematically to measure rates of two of the most important types of disturbance, deforestation and reforestation, but these are not the only types of disturbance that affect carbon storage. Other examples include selective logging and fire. In northern mid-latitude forests, logging and subsequent regrowth of forests have, in recent decades, contributed more to the net flux of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere than any other type of land use. In the tropics logging is also becoming increasingly important. According to the FAO/UNEP assessment of tropical forests, about 25% of total area of productive forests have been logged one or more times in the 60-80 years before 1980. The fraction must be considerably greater at present. Thus, deforestation by itself accounts for only a portion of the emissions carbon from land. Furthermore, as rates of deforestation become more accurately measured with satellites, uncertainty in biomass will become the major factor accounting for the remaining uncertainty in estimates of carbon flux. An approach is needed for determining the biomass of terrestrial ecosystems. 3 Selective logging is increasingly important in Amazonia, yet it has not been included in region-wide, satellite-based assessments of land-cover change, in part because it is not as striking as deforestation. Nevertheless, logging affects terrestrial carbon storage both directly and indirectly. Besides the losses of carbon directly associated with selective logging, logging also increases the likelihood of fire.

  2. Genome sequence of the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae Amazonia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thompson, C.C.; Marin, M.A.; Dias, G.M.; Dutilh, B.E.; Edwards, R.A.; Iida, T.; Thompson, F.L.; Vicente, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 Amazonia is a pathogen that was isolated from cholera-like diarrhea cases in at least two countries, Brazil and Ghana. Based on multilocus sequence analysis, this lineage belongs to a distinct profile compared to strains from El Tor and classical biotypes. The genomic analysis rev

  3. Molluscan radiations and landscape evolution in Miocene Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, F.P.

    2008-01-01

    This PhD study aims to exploit the rich archive provided by the Miocene mollusc fauna of the Pebas Formation and other inland Miocene Amazonian formations to reconstruct landscape evolution and biotic development in lowland Amazonia during the Neogene. Over 160 samples from more than 70 Pebas Format

  4. Is deforestation driving Southeastern Amazonia's hydrological transition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, M. E.; Lee, E.; Farinosi, F.; Moorcroft, P. R.; Pereira, F. F.

    2015-12-01

    Changes in forest cover are critical for the maintenance of the hydrological cycle in tropical forests and surrounding landscapes. Most evidence suggesting impacts of deforestation on river flows comes from local scale and short duration experiments, but these are largely prohibited in vast and inaccessible areas of the Amazon. Although rainfall-runoff models are commonly used to scale up deforestation effects to regional scales and multidecadal time ranges, most of these models assume static land use/land cover, excluding temporal variability in human disturbance in decadal long simulations. This presentation will present a study carried out in the Tapajos River in Brazil, a large basin in southeast Amazonia, where we aim to understand the role of human disturbance and vegetation dynamics on river flows. This study analyzed spatial and temporal trends in observed rainfall, forest cover, and river flow indicators for 1970s to 2000s. During this period, no significant changes occur in total annual rainfall, while over 140,000 km2 (35% of original cover) of forest were cleared. Contrary to the expected response following deforestation, 90-day minimum river flows showed a significant decrease though most gauges in the basin. In order to isolate deforestation effects, two contrasting scenarios were computed at a daily scale using the Ecosystem Demography Model 2 in combination with a water flow routing scheme; the first scenario incorporated natural disturbance resembling 1970 forest conditions, while the second scenario incorporated both natural and human disturbance (aka., land use conversion), the later as observed annually from the 1970s to the 2000s. We estimated that deforestation began affecting dry season flows in the early 1990s once less than 10% of the original forest cover was lost. Also, a potential effect of deforestation on the timing of rainfall-flow responses was also detected in the lower river gauges. While the estimated effects on timing are also

  5. Greenhouse gases study in Amazonia; Estudo de gases de efeito estufa na Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Amelio, Monica Tais Siqueira

    2006-07-01

    The Amazon plays an important role on the global carbon cycle, as changing as carbon storage, since Amazon Basin is the biggest area of tropical forest, around 50% of global. Natural's process, deforestation, and use land are CO{sub 2} sources. The Amazon forest is a significant source of N{sub 2}O by soil process, and CH{sub 4} by anaerobic process like flooded areas, rice cultures, and others sources. This project is part of the LBA project (Large-Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia), and this project is 'Vertical profiles of carbon dioxide and other trace gas species over the Amazon basin using small aircraft'. Since December 2000 vertical profiles of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO, H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O and SF{sub 6} have been measured above central Amazonia. The local sampling was over Tapajos National Forest, a primary forest in Para State, where had a CO{sub 2} flux tower and an east impact area with sources like animals, rice cultivation, biomass burning, etc, to compare the influence of an impact area and a preserved area in the profiles. The Reserva Biologica de Cuieiras, at Amazon State, is the other studied place, where there already exists a CO{sub 2} flux tower, and an east preserved area at this State, to compare with the Cuieiras. The sampling has been carried out on vertical profile from 1000 ft up to 12000 ft using a semi-automated sampling package developed at GMD/NOAA and a small aircraft. The analysis uses the MAGICC system (Multiple Analysis of Gases Influence Climate Change) which is installed at the Atmospheric Chemistry Laboratory (LQA) in IPEN (Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares). The results showed that all gases studied, except H{sub 2} gas, has been following the global trend. At the Para State, for the studied years, the Amazonian Forest performed as small CO{sub 2} sink. To compare Wet and Dry Seasons, subtracted the Ascension concentration values in the period to remove the global influence. So that

  6. Soils of Amazonia with particular reference to the RAINFOR sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Quesada

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The tropical forests of the Amazon Basin occur on a wide variety of different soil types reflecting a rich diversity of geologic origins and geomorphic processes. We here review the existing literature about the main soil groups of Amazonia, describing their genesis, geographical patterns and principal chemical, physical and morphologic characteristics. Original data is also presented, with profiles of exchangeable cations, carbon and particle size fraction illustrated for the principal soil types; also emphasizing the high diversity existing within the main soil groups when possible. Maps of geographic distribution of soils occurring under forest vegetation are also introduced, and to contextualize soils into an evolutionary framework, a scheme of soil development is presented having as its basis a chemical weathering index. We identify a continuum of soil evolution in Amazonia with soil properties varying predictably along this pedogenetic gradient.

  7. Soils of Amazonia with particular reference to the RAINFOR sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada, C. A.; Lloyd, J.; Anderson, L. O.; Fyllas, N. M.; Schwarz, M.; Czimczik, C. I.

    2011-06-01

    The tropical forests of the Amazon Basin occur on a wide variety of different soil types reflecting a rich diversity of geologic origins and geomorphic processes. We here review the existing literature about the main soil groups of Amazonia, describing their genesis, geographical patterns and principal chemical, physical and morphologic characteristics. Original data is also presented, with profiles of exchangeable cations, carbon and particle size fraction illustrated for the principal soil types; also emphasizing the high diversity existing within the main soil groups when possible. Maps of geographic distribution of soils occurring under forest vegetation are also introduced, and to contextualize soils into an evolutionary framework, a scheme of soil development is presented having as its basis a chemical weathering index. We identify a continuum of soil evolution in Amazonia with soil properties varying predictably along this pedogenetic gradient.

  8. Predicting pre-Columbian anthropogenic soils in Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    McMichael, C. H.; Palace, M. W.; Bush, M.B.; Braswell, B.; Hagen, S.; Neves, E.G.; Silman, M.R.; Tamanaha, E. K.; Czarnecki, C

    2014-01-01

    The extent and intensity of pre-Columbian impacts on lowland Amazonia have remained uncertain and controversial. Various indicators can be used to gauge the impact of pre-Columbian societies, but the formation of nutrient-enriched terra preta soils has been widely accepted as an indication of long-term settlement and site fidelity. Using known and newly discovered terra preta sites and maximum entropy algorithms (Maxent), we determined the influence of regional environmental conditions on the...

  9. A daily rainfall erosivity model for Western Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Elsenbeer, Helmut; Cassel, Keith; Tinner, W.

    2008-01-01

    Rainfall erosivities as defined by the R factor from the universal soil loss equation were determined for all events during a two-year period at the station La Cuenca in western Amazonia. Three methods based on a power relationship between rainfall amount and erosivity were then applied to estimate event and daily rainfall erosivities from the respective rainfall amounts. A test of the resulting regression equations against an independent data set proved all three methods equally adequate in ...

  10. The logic of livestock and deforestation in Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Hecht, S.

    1993-01-01

    Metadata only record This article analyzes the logic and the economics of livestock in Amazonia by evaluating the various means of making profits from land and natural-resource capital. I also elaborate how the Amazonian livestock sector is closely linked to virtually every other rural development activity. These links establish a framework for analyzing deforestation patterns. The analysis qualifies some of the current explanations of deforestation. Finally, I focus on current approaches ...

  11. Dynamics, Patterns and Causes of Fires in Northwestern Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Dolors Armenteras; Javier Retana

    2012-01-01

    According to recent studies, two widespread droughts occurred in the Amazon basin, one during 2005 and one during 2010. The drought increased the prevalence of climate-driven fires over most of the basin. Given the importance of human-atmosphere-vegetation interactions in tropical rainforests, these events have generated concerns over the vulnerability of this area to climate change. This paper focuses on one of the wettest areas of the basin, Northwestern Amazonia, where the interactions bet...

  12. Evaluation of MODIS vegetation indices for detecting deforestation in Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Yosio Edemir Shimabukuro; Antonio Roberto Formaggio; Antonio Henrique Correia; Valdete Duarte

    2007-01-01

    Vegetation indices (NDVI and EVI) obtained from MODIS products (250 m and 500m, surface reflectance) were evaluated in relation to the possibility of detecting and monitoring deforestation areas in Amazonia. A new vegetation index, the DNRG (Normalized Difference between Red and Green spectral bands), was proposed with the same objective. The radiometric quality of the multi-date MODIS products was evaluated to verify the possibility of using vegetation index to generate deforestation maps. T...

  13. Energy planning for sustainable development in Amazonia; Politica de planejamento energetico para o desenvolvimento sustentavel na Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lascio, Marco Alfredo Di [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Faculdade de Tecnologia. Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica

    1996-12-31

    This work start presenting a view of the use of electricity comparing with renewable energy. After this, it analyses the big importance of hydroelectric Amazonian potential in the electric system expansion. Details of utilization of electric power in Amazonia are discussed. In conclusion it considers the necessity of the use the biomass in decentralized systems and the necessity of a detailed monitoring of environment to decide about new hydroelectric power plants 39 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Anthropogenic soils in central Amazonia: farmers’ practices, agrobiodiversity and land-use patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Braga Junqueira, A.

    2015-01-01

    Keywords: Terra Preta; Amazonian Dark Earths; Shifting cultivation; Homegardens; Intensification; Diversification; Smallholder farming. André Braga Junqueira (2015). Anthropogenic soils in central Amazonia: farmers’ practices, agrobiodiversity and land-use patterns. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, The Netherlands, with summary in English, 163 pp. Rural Amazonia is increasingly experiencing environmental and socio-economic changes that directly affect smallholder farmers, with ...

  15. New Odostomia species (Gastropoda, Heterobranchia, Pyramidellidae) from the Miocene Pebas Formation of Western Amazonia (Peru, Colombia)

    OpenAIRE

    Aartsen, van, J.J.; Wesselingh, F.P.

    2000-01-01

    Odostomia nuttalli spec. nov. and O. coluhensis spec. nov. are described from the Miocene Pebas Formation of Peruvian and Columbian Amazonia. A third pyramidellid snail is also diagnosed. These species are indicators for marine influence in the late Middle to early Late Miocence of Western Amazonia. Some ecological implications are discussed.

  16. Notas sobre aves de la amazonia (caquetá)

    OpenAIRE

    Borrero H., José Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    During two short visits made by the author to the Araracuara region of the Colombian Amazonia, it was possible to identify and some times to photograph 66 species of birds, some of them new to the area, and others little known in relation to his ecogeographic distribution. Enfassis is made for the need to give greater importance to the sight records and new forms of identification, rather than collecting, in order to document the presence of the various species in the study areas, to adquiere...

  17. Notas sobre aves de la Amazonia (Caquetá) Notas sobre aves de la Amazonia (Caquetá)

    OpenAIRE

    Borrero H. José Ignacio

    1982-01-01

    During two short visits made by the author to the Araracuara region of the Colombian Amazonia, it was possible to identify and some times to photograph 66 species of birds, some of them new to the area, and others little known in relation to his ecogeographic distribution. Enfassis is made for the need to give greater importance to the sight records and new forms of identification, rather than collecting, in order to document the presence of the various species in the study areas, to...

  18. Secondary Forests from Agricultural Abandonment in Amazonia 2000-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Ongoing negotiations to include reducing emissions from tropical deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) in a post-Kyoto climate agreement highlight the critical role of satellite data for accurate and transparent accounting of forest cover changes. In addition to deforestation and degradation, knowledge of secondary forest dynamics is essential for full carbon accounting under REDD+. Land abandonment to secondary forests also frames one of the key tradeoffs for agricultural production in tropical forest countries-whether to incentivize secondary forest growth (for carbon sequestration and biodiversity conservation) or low-carbon expansion of agriculture or biofuels production in areas of secondary forests. We examined patterns of land abandonment to secondary forest across the arc of deforestation in Brazil and Bolivia using time series of annual Landsat and MODIS data from 2000-2009. Rates of land abandonment to secondary forest during 2002-2006 were less than 5% of deforestation rates in these years. Small areas of new secondary forest were scattered across the entire arc of deforestation, rather than concentrated in any specific region of the basin. Taken together, our analysis of the satellite data record emphasizes the difficulties of addressing the pool of new secondary forests in the context of REDD+ in Amazonia. Due to the small total area of secondary forests, land sparing through agricultural intensification will be an important element of efforts to reduce deforestation rates under REDD+ while improving agricultural productivity in Amazonia.

  19. The expansion of intensive agriculture and ranching in Brazilian Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robert; DeFries, Ruth; del Carmen Vera-Diaz, Maria; Shimabukuro, Yosio; Venturieri, Adriano

    Agriculture in Amazonia has often provoked controversy, given the tremendous ecological value of the region's environment. First with ranching, and now with the soybean boom, tractors and cattle have marched across lands that for millennia supported only closed moist forest, resident ecosystems, and dispersed indigenous peoples. The present chapter considers this expansion, focusing on the Brazilian portion of the basin. Its premise is that effective Amazonian policy must be grounded on an understanding of the region's agriculture. The chapter pursues its objectives by first addressing the development initiatives that created the preconditions for Amazonia's current agricultural economy. The region is remote and has therefore required sustained government intervention to release its potential. The policy discussion is followed by descriptions of cattle ranching and soy farming. For each, market settings and trajectories of expansion are presented. Although these sectoral descriptions are data rich, they do not provide a conceptual framework for analyzing the environmental impacts of evolving market conditions. To accomplish this, the chapter invokes the classical land use model of von Thünen to explain Amazonian land cover dynamics in relation to soy-cattle linkages. It addresses these dynamics with remote sensing data from Mato Grosso, Pará, and Rondônia, and then discusses scenarios of agricultural advances on the forest. Conclusions follow, considering possible policy responses to deforestation, and the social context of agricultural intensification, with special attention to the issues of land tenure security and distributional equity.

  20. Anthropogenic soils in central Amazonia: farmers’ practices, agrobiodiversity and land-use patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braga Junqueira, A.

    2015-01-01

    Keywords: Terra Preta; Amazonian Dark Earths; Shifting cultivation; Homegardens; Intensification; Diversification; Smallholder farming. André Braga Junqueira (2015). Anthropogenic soils in central Amazonia: farmers’ practices, agrobiodiversity and land-use patterns. PhD thesis, Wagening

  1. Pre-Columbian Floristic Legacies in Modern Homegardens of Central Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Lins, Juliana; Lima, Helena P.; Baccaro, Fabricio B.; Kinupp, Valdely F.; Shepard, Glenn H.; Charles R. Clement

    2015-01-01

    Historical ecologists have demonstrated legacy effects in apparently wild landscapes in Europe, North America, Mesoamerica, Amazonia, Africa and Oceania. People live and farm in archaeological sites today in many parts of the world, but nobody has looked for the legacies of past human occupations in the most dynamic areas in these sites: homegardens. Here we show that the useful flora of modern homegardens is partially a legacy of pre-Columbian occupations in Central Amazonia: the more comple...

  2. Environmental impact of geometric earthwork construction in pre-Columbian Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Carson, John Francis; Whitney, Bronwen S.; Mayle, Francis E; Iriarte, José; Prümers, Heiko; Watling, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable controversy over whether pre-Columbian (pre-A.D. 1492) Amazonia was largely “pristine” and sparsely populated by slash-and-burn agriculturists, or instead a densely populated, domesticated landscape, heavily altered by extensive deforestation and anthropogenic burning. The discovery of hundreds of large geometric earthworks beneath intact rainforest across southern Amazonia challenges its status as a pristine landscape, and has been assumed to indicate extensive pre-Colu...

  3. Two-year participatory monitoring of extractivism in Brazilian Amazonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cámara-Leret, Rodrigo; Newton, Peter; Hawes, Joseph;

    establish norms for sustainable use, 2) train community residents to lead monitoring programs, 3) monitor species with high market potential (e.g. palms), 4) monitor species of special interest (e.g. red listed by IUCN), and 5) monitor land-use change. Since 2005, ProBUC has developed pilot projects in......-indigenous semi-subsistence groups referred to as caboclos, outnumber native Amerindians by a factor of ten. The Brazilian government has committed to supporting participatory programs where monitoring biodiversity and co-management of natural resources are spearheaded by residents of sustainable-use protected...... seventh of Brazilian Amazonia. Here, we present the results of a two-year participatory monitoring program of extractive activities by caboclos inhabiting one of ProBUC’s pilot areas, the Uacari Sustainable Development Reserve, as well as the Médio Juruá Extractive Reserve, both within the Juruá River...

  4. Drug tourism or spiritual healing? Ayahuasca seekers in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelman, Michael

    2005-06-01

    This research addresses the question of whether Westerners who seek traditional spiritual medicine known as ayahuasca can be best characterized as "drug tourists" or as people pursuing spiritual and therapeutic opportunities. Participants in an ayahuasca retreat in Amazonia were interviewed regarding their motivations for participation and the benefits they felt that they received. These findings from the interviews were organized to reveal common motivations and benefits. Contrary to the characterization as "drug tourists", the principal motivations can be characterized as: seeking spiritual relations and personal spiritual development; emotional healing; and the development of personal self-awareness, including contact with a sacred nature, God, spirits and plant and natural energies produced by the ayahuasca. The motivation and perceived benefits both point to transpersonal concerns, with the principal perceived benefits involving increased self awareness, insights and access to deeper levels of the self that enhanced personal development and the higher self, providing personal direction in life. PMID:16149335

  5. Marine intervals in Neogene fluvial deposits of western Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonstra, Melanie; Troelstra, Simon; Lammertsma, Emmy; Hoorn, Carina

    2014-05-01

    Amazonia is one of the most species rich areas on Earth, but this high diversity is not homogeneous over the entire region. Highest mammal and tree-alpha diversity is found in the fluvio-lacustrine Pebas system, a Neogene wetland associated with rapid radiation of species. The estuarine to marine origin of various modern Amazonian fish, plants, and invertebrates has been associated with past marine ingressions into this freshwater Pebas system. The exact nature and age of these invasions is, however, debated. Here we present new evidence from fluvial and fluvio-lacustrine deposits of Neogene age in southeast Colombia, that point to periods of widespread marine conditions in western Amazonia. Our evidence is based on an analysis of marine palynomorphs, such as organic linings of foraminifera and dinoflagellate cysts, present in dark sandy clay sediments that outcrop along the Caqueta and Amazon rivers. Characteristically, the foraminiferal linings can be assigned to three benthic morphotypes only, e.g. Ammonia, Elphidium and Trochammina. This low diversity assemblage is associated with estuarine/marginal marine conditions. No distinct marine elements such as shelf or planktonic species were encountered. The observed foraminiferal linings and dinocyst assemblages are typical for a (eutrophic) shallow marine environment, suggesting that the Pebas freshwater wetland system occasionally changed to (marginal) marine. Although some reworked elements are found, a typical Neogene dinocyst taxon is commonly found supporting in situ deposition. Sedimentological features typical for tidal conditions that are reported for sites in Peru and northeastern Brazil likely relate to these marine ingressions. Sea level changes as well as foreland basin development related to Andes formation may have facilitated the entry of marine water during the Neogene.

  6. Two hundred years of local avian extinctions in eastern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Nárgila G; Lees, Alexander C; Aleixo, Alexandre; Barlow, Jos; Dantas, Sidnei M; Ferreira, Joice; Lima, Maria de Fátima C; Gardner, Toby A

    2014-10-01

    Local, regional, and global extinctions caused by habitat loss, degradation, and fragmentation have been widely reported for the tropics. The patterns and drivers of this loss of species are now increasingly well known in Amazonia, but there remains a significant gap in understanding of long-term trends in species persistence and extinction in anthropogenic landscapes. Such a historical perspective is critical for understanding the status and trends of extant biodiversity as well as for identifying priorities to halt further losses. Using extensive historical data sets of specimen records and results of contemporary surveys, we searched for evidence of local extinctions of a terra firma rainforest avifauna over 200 years in a 2500 km(2) eastern Amazonian region around the Brazilian city of Belém. This region has the longest history of ornithological fieldwork in the entire Amazon basin and lies in the highly threatened Belém Centre of Endemism. We also compared our historically inferred extinction events with extensive data on species occurrences in a sample of catchments in a nearby municipality (Paragominas) that encompass a gradient of past forest loss. We found evidence for the possible extinction of 47 species (14% of the regional species pool) that were unreported from 1980 to 2013 (80% last recorded between 1900 and 1980). Seventeen species appear on the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List, and many of these are large-bodied. The species lost from the region immediately around Belém are similar to those which are currently restricted to well-forested catchments in Paragominas. Although we anticipate the future rediscovery or recolonization of some species inferred to be extinct by our calculations, we also expect that there are likely to be additional local extinctions, not reported here, given the ongoing loss and degradation of remaining areas of native vegetation across eastern Amazonia. PMID:24779443

  7. Changes in radiative forcing in Amazonia: the influence of clouds and aerosols controlling carbon budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artaxo, Paulo

    2016-07-01

    Surface radiation fluxes are critically important in photosynthetic processes that controls carbon assimilation and losses in tropical forests. Clouds and aerosols control the surface radiation fluxes in Amazonia, and the ratio of diffuse and direct radiation directly affects photosynthetic plant processes. Biomass burning emissions changes the atmosphere aerosol loading. The background aerosol optical thickness in wet season Amazonia is about 0.1 at 550 nm, while during the dry season AOT can reach values as high as 3-4 over large areas. The increase in diffuse radiation significantly enhance photosynthesis. Remote sensing measurements using MODIS and AERONET were used to measure the large scale aerosol distribution over Amazonia, and LBA flux towers provided the carbon balance over several sites. The enhancement in carbon uptake for AOD between 0.1 and 1 can reach 45%. For AOD above 1, the reduction in the direct flux starts to dominate and a strong reduction in carbon uptake is observed. Cloud cover also has a huge impact on carbon balance in Amazonia, but it is more difficult to quantify. These effects controls carbon balance in Amazonia.

  8. Evaluation of MODIS vegetation indices for detecting deforestation in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosio Edemir Shimabukuro

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation indices (NDVI and EVI obtained from MODIS products (250 m and 500m, surface reflectance were evaluated in relation to the possibility of detecting and monitoring deforestation areas in Amazonia. A new vegetation index, the DNRG (Normalized Difference between Red and Green spectral bands, was proposed with the same objective. The radiometric quality of the multi-date MODIS products was evaluated to verify the possibility of using vegetation index to generate deforestation maps. The internal accuracy of multi-date composites were evaluated providing a value of positional error less than 1 pixel (< 250 m and, consequently geometric corrections were not necessary. The potential of surface reflectance MODIS products was evaluated in the region of Terra do Meio (Pará State, Brazil, between latitudes 06?00’S to 08?00’S and longitudes 51?00’W to 54?00’W, using the Euclidian minimum distance supervised algorithm of classification. Global accuracies above 87% were obtained demonstrating a good potential for using these products in systems for deforestation detection in near real time.

  9. Electric systems failures produced by CG lightning in Eastern Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Paes dos Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Operational records of power outages of the electric energy distribution systems in eastern Amazonia presented a large number of events attributed to lightning strikes, during the 2006 to 2009 period. The regional electricity concessionary data were compared to actual lightning observations made by SIPAM's LDN system, over two areas where operational sub systems of transmission lines are installed. Statistical relations were drawn between the monthly lightning occurrence density and the number of power outages of the electric systems for both areas studied. The results showed that, although with some delays between these variables peaks, the number of power disruptions has a tendency to follow the behavior of the lightning occurrence densities variations. The numerical correlations were positive and may be useful to the transmission lines maintenance crews at least for the Belém-Castanhal electricity distribution sub system. Evidence was found, that the SST's over certain areas of the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, influence convection over the area of interest, and may help to prognosticate the periods of intense electric storms, requiring repair readiness for the regional electric systems.

  10. Biome-Scale Forest Properties in Amazonia Based on Field and Satellite Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana O. Anderson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Amazonian forests are extremely heterogeneous at different spatial scales. This review intends to present the large-scale patterns of the ecosystem properties of Amazonia, and focuses on two parts of the main components of the net primary production: the long-lived carbon pools (wood and short-lived pools (leaves. First, the focus is on forest biophysical properties, and secondly, on the macro-scale leaf phenological patterns of these forests, looking at field measurements and bringing into discussion the recent findings derived from remote sensing dataset. Finally, I discuss the results of the three major droughts that hit Amazonia in the last 15 years. The panorama that emerges from this review suggests that slow growing forests in central and eastern Amazonia, where soils are poorer, have significantly higher above ground biomass and higher wood density, trees are higher and present lower proportions of large-leaved species than stands in northwest and southwest Amazonia. However, the opposite pattern is observed in relation to forest productivity and dynamism, which is higher in western Amazonia than in central and eastern forests. The spatial patterns on leaf phenology across Amazonia are less marked. Field data from different forest formations showed that new leaf production can be unrelated to climate seasonality, timed with radiation, timed with rainfall and/or river levels. Oppositely, satellite images exhibited a large-scale synchronized peak in new leaf production during the dry season. Satellite data and field measurements bring contrasting results for the 2005 drought. Discussions on data processing and filtering, aerosols effects and a combined analysis with field and satellite images are presented. It is suggested that to improve the understanding of the large-scale patterns on Amazonian forests, integrative analyses that combine new technologies in remote sensing and long-term field ecological data are imperative.

  11. Long term measurements of the elemental composition and optical properties of aerosols in Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Arana A. A.; Artaxo P; Rizzo L.V.; Bastos W.

    2013-01-01

    Aerosols are being collected and analyzed for trace elements in two sites in Amazonia since January 2008. On eof the site, Manaus is located in a very pristine area in Central Amazonia. The site is nt affected directly by any urban plume for thousands of kilometers. A second site is located in Porto Velho, in a region with heavy land use change and deforestation. Optical properties (light scattering ad absorption) are also being measured in order to study the climatic impact of aerosols. It w...

  12. Environmental Controls of Soil Organic Carbon in Soils Across Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada, Carlos Alberto; Paz, Claudia; Phillips, Oliver; Nonato Araujo Filho, Raimundo; Lloyd, Jon

    2015-04-01

    Amazonian forests store and cycle a significant amount of carbon on its soils and vegetation. Yet, Amazonian forests are now subject to strong environmental pressure from both land use and climate change. Some of the more dramatic model projections for the future of the Amazon predict a major change in precipitation followed by savanization of most currently forested areas, resulting in major carbon losses to the atmosphere. However, how soil carbon stocks will respond to climatic and land use changes depend largely on how soil carbon is stabilized. Amazonian soils are highly diverse, being very variable in their weathering levels and chemical and physical properties, and thus it is important to consider how the different soils of the Basin stabilize and store soil organic carbon (SOC). The wide variation in soil weathering levels present in Amazonia, suggests that soil groups with contrasting pedogenetic development should differ in their predominant mechanism of SOC stabilization. In this study we investigated the edaphic, mineralogical and climatic controls of SOC concentration in 147 pristine forest soils across nine different countries in Amazonia, encompassing 14 different WRB soil groups. Soil samples were collected in 1 ha permanent plots used for forest dynamics studies as part of the RAINFOR project. Only 0-30 cm deep averages are reported here. Soil samples were analyzed for carbon and nitrogen and for their chemical (exchangeable bases, phosphorus, pH) and physical properties, (particle size, bulk density) and mineralogy through standard selective dissolution techniques (Fe and Al oxides) and by semi-quantitative X-Ray diffraction. In Addition, selected soils from each soil group had SOC fractionated by physical and chemical techniques. Our results indicate that different stabilization mechanisms are responsible for SOC stabilization in Amazonian soils with contrasting pedogenetic level. Ferralsols and Acrisols were found to have uniform mineralogy

  13. Evaporation from young secondary vegetation in eastern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölscher, D.; de A. Sá, T. D.; Bastos, T. X.; Denich, M.; Fölster, H.

    1997-06-01

    The fallow vegetation of the slash and burn agriculture in eastern Amazonia is dominated by shrubs and trees. This study of evaporation from such secondary vegetation started when the above-ground parts of the vegetation were approximately 2.5 years old. The results are based mainly on a data set containing 231 days of micrometeorological observations in the period from April 1992 to April 1993. Evaporation values obtained with the Penman open water formula ranged from 1.1 to 7.2 mm d-1, with an overall mean of 4.6 mm d-1. Actual evaporation, calculated with the Bowen ratio approach, varied from 1.2 to 5.9 mm d-1, with an overall mean of 3.9 mm d-1. Due to the high net radiation and vapour pressure deficit, and the evenly distributed moderate rainfall, the actual evaporation was constantly high during the transition between the rainy and dry seasons. In a relatively dry period, water limitations were indicated by a decrease in the actual evaporation compared with the Penman open water evaporation. Day-to-day variability was pronounced in the rainy season. An overall average of 79% of the net radiation was converted to latent heat flux. The annual evaporation was calculated by an interpolation of missing data with the continuously observed net radiation. The total actual evaporation was estimated to be 1364 mm a-1, against rainfall of 1819 mm a-1; the remaining 455 mm were allocated to drainage. When actual evaporation exceeded rainfall during the dry season, there had to be access to water storage down to depths of more than 3 m. We conclude that the young secondary vegetation can re-evaporate an important part of the rainfall input in spite of the marked seasonal distribution of rainfall. Possible regional climatic changes due to deforestation may be less severe in areas where woody secondary vegetation plays an important role in land cover.

  14. An illustrated key to nymphs of Perlidae (Insecta, Plecoptera genera in Central Amazonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamada Neusa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available An illustrated key to nymphs of Perlidae collected in streams of Central Amazonia, Brazil is provided. Three genera are reported for this region: Macrogynoplax Enderlein, Anacroneuria Klapálek and Enderleina Jewett. Additional diagnostic characters are provided for Enderleina nymphs.

  15. The Amazonian Craton and its influence on past fluvial systems (Mesozoic-Cenozoic, Amazonia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Hoorn; M. Roddaz; R. Dino; E. Soares; C. Uba; D. Ochoa-Lozano; R. Mapes

    2010-01-01

    The Amazonian Craton is an old geological feature of Archaean/Proterozoic age that has determined the character of fluvial systems in Amazonia throughout most of its past. This situation radically changed during the Cenozoic, when uplift of the Andes reshaped the relief and drainage patterns of nort

  16. Carbon replacement and stability changes in short-term silvo-pastoralo experiments in Colombian Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosquera Vidal, O.; Buurman, P.; Ramirez, B.L.; Amezquita, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    There is little information on the effects of land use change on soil Carbon stocks in Colombian Amazonia. Such information would be needed to assess the impact of this area on the global C cycle and the sustainability of agricultural systems that are replacing native forest. The aim of this study w

  17. Mapping landscape scale variations of forest structure, biomass, and productivity in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saatchi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Landscape and environmental variables such as topography, geomorphology, soil types, and climate are important factors affecting forest composition, structure, productivity, and biomass. Here, we combine a network of forest inventories with recently developed global data products from satellite observations in modeling the potential distributions of forest structure and productivity in Amazonia and examine how geomorphology, soil, and precipitation control these distributions. We use the RAINFOR network of forest plots distributed in lowland forests across Amazonia, and satellite observations of tree cover, leaf area index, phenology, moisture, and topographical variations. A maximum entropy estimation (Maxent model is employed to predict the spatial distribution of several key forest structure parameters: basal area, fraction of large trees, fraction of palms, wood density, productivity, and above-ground biomass at 5 km spatial resolution. A series of statistical tests at selected thresholds as well as across all thresholds and jackknife analysis are used to examine the accuracy of distribution maps and the relative contributions of environmental variables. The final maps were interpreted using soil, precipitation, and geomorphological features of Amazonia and it was found that the length of dry season played a key role in impacting the distribution of all forest variables except the wood density. Soil type had a significant impact on the wood productivity. Most high productivity forests were distributed either on less infertile soils of western Amazonia and Andean foothills, on crystalline shields, and younger alluvial deposits. Areas of low elevation and high density of small rivers of Central Amazonia showed distinct features, hosting mainly forests with low productivity and smaller trees.

  18. Mapping hydrological environments in central Amazonia: ground validation and surface model based on SRTM DEM data corrected for deforestation

    OpenAIRE

    G. M. Moulatlet; Rennó, C. D.; F. R. C. Costa; Emilio, T.; Schietti, J

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important freely available digital elevation models (DEMs) for Amazonia is the one obtained by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). However, since SRTM tends to represent the vegetation surface instead of the ground surface, the broad use of SRTM DEM as a framework for terrain description in Amazonia is hampered by the presence of deforested areas. We present here two data sets: (1) a deforestation-corrected SRTM DEM for the interfluve between the Pur...

  19. Mapping hydrological environments in central Amazonia: ground validation and surface model based on SRTM DEM data corrected for deforestation

    OpenAIRE

    G. M. Moulatlet; Rennó, C. D.; F. R. C. Costa; Emilio, T.; Schietti, J

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important freely available digital elevation models (DEMs) for Amazonia is the one obtained by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). However, since SRTM tends to represent the vegetation surface instead of the ground surface, the broad use of SRTM DEM as a framework for terrain description in Amazonia is hampered by the presence of deforested areas. We present here two datasets: (1) a deforestation-corrected SRTM DEM for the interfluve ...

  20. Impact of Biomass Burning Aerosols on the Biosphere over Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavelle, F.; Haywood, J.; Mercado, L.; Folberth, G.; Bellouin, N.

    2014-12-01

    Biomass burning (BB) smoke from deforestation and the burning of agricultural waste emit a complex cocktail of aerosol particles and gases. BB emissions show a regional hotspot over South America on the edges of Amazonia. These major perturbations and impacts on surface temperature, surface fluxes, chemistry, radiation, rainfall, may have significant consequent impacts on the Amazon rainforest, the largest and most productive carbon store on the planet. There is therefore potential for very significant interaction and interplay between aerosols, clouds, radiation and the biosphere in the region. Terrestrial carbon production (i.e. photosynthesis) is intimately tied to the supply of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR - i.e. wavelengths between 300-690 nm). PAR in sufficient intensity and duration is critical for plant growth. However, if a decrease in total radiation is accompanied by an increase in the component of diffuse radiation, plant productivity may increase due to higher light use efficiency per unit of PAR and less photosynthetic saturation. This effect, sometimes referred as diffuse light fertilization effect, could have increased the global land carbon sink by approximately one quarter during the global dimming period and is expected to be a least as important locally. By directly interacting with radiation, BB aerosols significantly reduce the total amount of PAR available to plant canopies. In addition, BB aerosols also play a centre role in cloud formation because they provide the necessary cloud condensation nuclei, hence indirectly altering the water cycle and the components and quantity of PAR. In this presentation, we use the recent observations from the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) to explore the impact of radiation changes on the carbon cycle in the Amazon region caused by BB emissions. A parameterisation of the impact of diffuse and direct radiation upon photosynthesis rates and net primary productivity in the

  1. Brazilian Amazonia Deforestation Detection Using Spatio-Temporal Scan Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, C. A. O.; Santos, N. T.; Carneiro, A. P. S.; Balieiro, A. A. S.

    2012-07-01

    The spatio-temporal models, developed for analyses of diseases, can also be used for others fields of study, including concerns about forest and deforestation. The aim of this paper is to quantitatively check priority areas in order to combat deforestation on the Amazon forest, using the space-time scan statistic. The study area location is at the south of the Amazonas State and cover around 297.183 kilometre squares, including the municipality of Boca do Acre, Labrea, Canutama, Humaita, Manicore, Novo Aripuana e Apui County on the north region of Brazil. This area has showed a significant change for land cover, which has increased the number of deforestation's alerts. Therefore this situation becomes a concern and gets more investigation, trying to stop factors that increase the number of cases in the area. The methodology includes the location and year that deforestation's alert occurred. These deforestation's alerts are mapped by the DETER (Detection System of Deforestation in Real Time in Amazonia), which is carry out by the Brazilian Space Agency (INPE). The software SatScanTM v7.0 was used in order to define space-time permutation scan statistic for detection of deforestation cases. The outcome of this experiment shows an efficient model to detect space-time clusters of deforestation's alerts. The model was efficient to detect the location, the size, the order and characteristics about activities at the end of the experiments. Two clusters were considered actives and kept actives up to the end of the study. These clusters are located in Canutama and Lábrea County. This quantitative spatial modelling of deforestation warnings allowed: firstly, identifying actives clustering of deforestation, in which the environment government official are able to concentrate their actions; secondly, identifying historic clustering of deforestation, in which the environment government official are able to monitoring in order to avoid them to became actives again; and finally

  2. Long term aerosol and trace gas measurements in Central Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artaxo, Paulo; Barbosa, Henrique M. J.; Ferreira de Brito, Joel; Carbone, Samara; Rizzo, Luciana V.; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Martin, Scot T.

    2016-04-01

    The central region of the Amazonian forest is a pristine region in terms of aerosol and trace gases concentrations. In the wet season, Amazonia is actually one of the cleanest continental region we can observe on Earth. A long term observational program started 20 years ago, and show important features of this pristine region. Several sites were used, between then ATTO (Amazon Tall Tower Observatory) and ZF2 ecological research site, both 70-150 Km North of Manaus, receiving air masses that traveled over 1500 km of pristine tropical forests. The sites are GAW regional monitoring stations. Aerosol chemical composition (OC/EC and trace elements) is being analysed using filters for fine (PM2.5) and coarse mode aerosol as well as Aerodyne ACSM (Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitors). VOCs are measured using PTR-MS, while CO, O3 and CO2 are routinely measured. Aerosol absorption is being studied with AE33 aethalometers and MAAP (Multi Angle Absorption Photometers). Aerosol light scattering are being measured at several wavelengths using TSI and Ecotech nephelometers. Aerosol size distribution is determined using scanning mobility particle sizer at each site. Lidars measure the aerosol column up to 12 Km providing the vertical profile of aerosol extinction. The aerosol column is measures using AERONET sun photometers. In the wet season, organic aerosol comprises 75-85% of fine aerosol, and sulfate and nitrate concentrations are very low (1-3 percent). Aerosols are dominated by biogenic primary particles as well as SOA from biogenic precursors. Black carbon in the wet season accounts for 5-9% of fine mode aerosol. Ozone in the wet season peaks at 10-12 ppb at the middle of the day, while carbon monoxide averages at 50-80 ppb. Aerosol optical thickness (AOT) is a low 0.05 to 0.1 at 550 nm in the wet season. Sahara dust transport events sporadically enhance the concentration of soil dust aerosols and black carbon. In the dry season (August-December), long range transported

  3. Mid-Late Pleistocene OSL chronology in western Amazonia and implications for the transcontinental Amazon pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Dilce F.; Cohen, Marcelo C. L.; Tatumi, Sonia H.; Sawakuchi, André O.; Cremon, Édipo H.; Mittani, Juan C. R.; Bertani, Thiago C.; Munita, Casimiro J. A. S.; Tudela, Diego R. G.; Yee, Márcio; Moya, Gabriela

    2015-12-01

    The origin of the transcontinental Amazon drainage system remains unrevealed. Sedimentary deposits formed from the Neogene in the Amazonas and Solimões Basins constitute natural archives for reconstructing this event in space and time. However, paleoenvironmental and chronological analyses focusing on these deposits, or even their basic mapping, are still scarce to allow such investigation. In this context, primary interests are fluvial strata related to the lithostratigraphic Içá Formation, mapped over a widespread area in western Amazonian lowlands. Although long regarded as Plio-Pleistocene in age, this unit has not yet been dated and its overall depositional setting remains largely undescribed. The main goal of the present work is to contribute for improving facies analysis and chronology of these deposits, approaching an area in southwestern Amazonia and another in northern Amazonia, which are located more than 1000 km apart. Despite this great distance, the sedimentological and chronological characteristics of deposits from these two areas are analogous. Hence, facies analysis revealed paleoenvironments including active channel, abandoned channel, point bar, crevasse splay and floodplain, which are altogether compatible with meandering fluvial systems. Similarly, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating revealed thirty three ages ranging from 65.4 ± 16.9 to 219.6 ± 25.1 ky (in addition to three outliners of 54.0 ± 7.6, 337.3 ± 36.9 and 346.6 ± 48.6 ky), and nine 97.1 ± 9.9 to 254.8 ± 23.8 ky for the areas in southwestern and northern Amazonia, respectively. These data lead to establish that deposits mapped as Içá Formation over a vast area of western Brazilian Amazonia have a Mid-Late Pleistocene age, rather than the previously inferred Plio-Pleistocene age. It follows that if Plio-Pleistocene deposits exist in this region they remain to be dated and must be restricted to a narrow belt in western Amazonia, as well as isolated occurrences

  4. Soil and vegetation carbon stocks in Brazilian Western Amazonia: relationships and ecological implications for natural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, C E G R; do Amaral, E F; de Mendonça, B A F; Oliveira, H; Lani, J L; Costa, L M; Fernandes Filho, E I

    2008-05-01

    The relationships between soils attributes, soil carbon stocks and vegetation carbon stocks are poorly know in Amazonia, even at regional scale. In this paper, we used the large and reliable soil database from Western Amazonia obtained from the RADAMBRASIL project and recent estimates of vegetation biomass to investigate some environmental relationships, quantifying C stocks of intact ecosystem in Western Amazonia. The results allowed separating the western Amazonia into 6 sectors, called pedo-zones: Roraima, Rio Negro Basin, Tertiary Plateaux of the Amazon, Javari-Juruá-Purus lowland, Acre Basin and Rondonia uplands. The highest C stock for the whole soil is observed in the Acre and in the Rio Negro sectors. In the former, this is due to the high nutrient status and high clay activity, whereas in the latter, it is attributed to a downward carbon movement attributed to widespread podzolization and arenization, forming spodic horizons. The youthful nature of shallow soils of the Javari-Juruá-Purus lowlands, associated with high Al, results in a high phytomass C/soil C ratio. A similar trend was observed for the shallow soils from the Roraima and Rondonia highlands. A consistent east-west decline in biomass carbon in the Rio Negro Basin sector is associated with increasing rainfall and higher sand amounts. It is related to lesser C protection and greater C loss of sandy soils, subjected to active chemical leaching and widespread podzolization. Also, these soils possess lower cation exchangeable capacity and lower water retention capacity. Zones where deeply weathered Latosols dominate have a overall pattern of high C sequestration, and greater than the shallower soils from the upper Amazon, west of Madeira and Negro rivers. This was attributed to deeper incorporation of carbon in these clayey and highly pedo-bioturbated soils. The results highlight the urgent need for refining soil data at an appropriate scale for C stocks calculations purposes in Amazonia. There

  5. OSL age determinations of Pleistocene fluvial deposits in Central Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emílio A.A. Soares

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Absolute dating methods have been used in chronological studies of geological processes and sedimentary units of Quaternary age in Central Amazonia, Brazil. Although radiocarbon dating has been very useful in archaeological research and soil studies, the temporal interval of this method is inefficient in evaluating the sedimentation aspects and geological events from the beginning of the Quaternary in the Amazon basin. The use of crystal luminescence dating has been one of the most promising tool for determining the absolute dating of Quaternary deposits in the Amazonian region. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL dating, following the MAR and SAR protocols, in a tectonic-sedimentary study of Quaternary fluvial deposits in the confluence area of the Negro and Solimões rivers, indicated ages from 1.3 (Holocene to about 67.4 kyears (Late Pleistocene for these sediments. Low radioactive isotope concentrations were found about 2ppm for 235U and 238U; 5ppm for 232Th; and the 40K concentrations were almost zero. A comparison was made between MAR and SAR protocols taking into account the fluvial depositional process.Métodos de datação absoluta têm sido usados em estudos cronológicos de processos geológicos e unidades sedimentares de idade quaternária na Amazônia Central, Brasil. Embora as datações pelo 14C tenham sido muito úteis na pesquisa arqueológica e estudos de solos, o intervalo de tempo abrangido por este método é ineficiente para avaliar aspectos da sedimentação e eventos geológicos do início do Quaternário na bacia Amazônica. O uso da datação por luminescência de cristais tem sido uma das ferramentas mais promissoras para a determinação da idade absoluta de depósitos quaternários na região amazônica. A datação por luminescência opticamente estimulada (LOE, seguindo os protocolos MAR e SAR, em um estudo tectono-sedimentar de depósitos aluviais quaternários da área de confluência dos rios Negro e Solim

  6. Is the current stress state in the Central Amazonia caused by surface water loading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibanez, Delano M.; Riccomini, Claudio; Miranda, Fernando P.

    2014-11-01

    We present new fault data for the region of the Manaus, Central Amazonia, Brazil. Field measurements concentrate on the Miocene-Holocene sedimentary deposits exposed on the Amazonas River Basin, in order to investigate the development of this region in this time-interval. Two faulting events are distinguished since the Miocene. The oldest one is related to NW-SE extension during Miocene times and associated with paleoseismicity, while the younger is associated with NE-SW extension direction and seems to persist today. These two deformational events may be thereby considered Neotectonic. Moreover, the second extensional pulse with NE-SW orientation can be explained by the surface hydrological loading, which induces the Central Amazonia flexural subsidence and may promote extensional stresses in the upper crust.

  7. Edaphic and light conditions of sympatric plant morphotypes in western Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julissa Roncal

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Here I present a dataset of edaphic and light conditions associated with the occurrence of sympatric morphotypes of Geonoma macrostachys (Arecaceae/Palmae, a candidate case study from Amazonia hypothesized to have evolved under ecological speciation. Transects were established in three lowland rainforests in Peru, and the abundance of each local morphotype of this species was recorded in a total area of 4.95 hectares. Composite soil samples and hemispherical photographs were taken along the transects were the species occurred to obtain information on soil nutrients, soil texture, and indirect measurements of light availability. The raw and summary tables disclose the characteristics of each study site and habitats within them, which could be useful to soil scientists, ecologists, and conservationists engaged in similar research activities or meta-analyses in Amazonia.

  8. Satellite observation of tropical forest seasonality: spatial patterns of carbon exchange in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Saatchi, Sassan S.; Yang, Yan; Myneni, Ranga B.; Frankenberg, Christian; Chowdhury, Diya; Bi, Jian

    2015-08-01

    Determining the seasonality of terrestrial carbon exchange with the atmosphere remains a challenge in tropical forests because of the heterogeneity of ecosystem and climate. The magnitude and spatial variability of this flux are unknown, particularly in Amazonia where empirical upscaling approaches from spatially sparse in situ measurements and simulations from process-based models have been challenged in recent scientific literature. Here, we use satellite proxy observations of canopy structure, skin temperature, water content, and optical properties over a period of 10 years (2000-2009) to constrain and quantify the spatial pattern and seasonality of carbon exchange of Amazonian forests. We identify nine regions through an optimized cluster approach with distinct leaf phenology synchronized with either water or light availability and corresponding seasonal cycles of gross primary production (GPP), covering more than 600 million ha of remaining old growth forests of Amazonia. We find South and Southwestern regions show strong seasonality of GPP with a peak in the wet season; while from Central Western to Northeastern Amazonia cover three regions with rising GPP in the dry season. The remaining four regions have significant but weak seasonality. These patterns agree with satellite florescence observations, a better proxy for photosynthetic activity. Our results suggest that only one-third of the patterns can be explained by the spatial autocorrelation caused by intra-annual variability of climate over Amazonia. The remaining two-thirds of variations are due to biogeography of the Amazon basin driven by forest composition, structure, and nutrients. These patterns, for the first time, provide a complex picture of seasonal changes of tropical forests related to photosynthesis and influenced by water, light, and stomatal responses of trees that can improve modeling of regional carbon cycle and future prediction of impacts of climate change.

  9. The Roles and Movements of Actors in the Deforestation of Brazilian Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Philip M. Fearnside

    2008-01-01

    Containing the advance of deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia requires understanding the roles and movements of the actors involved. The importance of different actors varies widely among locations within the region, and also evolves at any particular site over the course of frontier establishment and consolidation. Landless migrants have significant roles in clearing the land they occupy and in motivating landholders to clear as a defense against invasion or expropriation. Colonists in offic...

  10. Molecular composition of organic aerosols in central Amazonia: an ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry study

    OpenAIRE

    I. Kourtchev; R. H. M. Godoi; Connors, S.; Levine, J. G.; Archibald, A.; Godoi, A.F.L.; Paralovo, S.; C. G. G. Barbosa; R. A. F. Souza; Manzi, A. O.; Seco, R.; Sjostedt, S.; Park, J.-H.; Guenther, A.; Kim, S.

    2016-01-01

    The Amazon basin plays key role in atmospheric chemistry, biodiversity and climate change. In this study we applied nanoelectrospray (nanoESI) ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry (UHR-MS) for the analysis of the organic fraction of PM2.5 aerosol samples collected during dry and wet seasons at a site in central Amazonia receiving background air masses, biomass burning and urban pollution. Comprehensive mass spectral data evaluation methods (e.g., Kendrick Mass Defect, Van Krevelen diagrams,...

  11. Forest productivity and water stress in Amazonia: observations from GOSAT chlorophyll fluorescence

    OpenAIRE

    J.-E. Lee; C. Frankenberg; C. van der Tol; J. A. Berry; Luis Guanter; C. K. Boyce; J. B. Fisher; E. Morrow; J. R. Worden; S. Asefi; G. Badgley; S. Saatchi

    2013-01-01

    It is unclear to what extent seasonal water stress impacts on plant productivity over Amazonia. Using new Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) satellite measurements of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence, we show that midday fluorescence varies with water availability, both of which decrease in the dry season over Amazonian regions with substantial dry season length, suggesting a parallel decrease in gross primary production (GPP). Using additional SeaWinds Scatterometer onboard Qui...

  12. Interactions between rainfall, deforestation and fires during recent years in the Brazilian Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Aragão, Luiz Eduardo O.C; Malhi, Yadvinder; Barbier, Nicolas; Lima, Andre; Shimabukuro, Yosio; Anderson, Liana; Saatchi, Sassan

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the interplay between climate and land-use dynamics is a fundamental concern for assessing the vulnerability of Amazonia to climate change. In this study, we analyse satellite-derived monthly and annual time series of rainfall, fires and deforestation to explicitly quantify the seasonal patterns and relationships between these three variables, with a particular focus on the Amazonian drought of 2005. Our results demonstrate a marked seasonality with one peak per year for all var...

  13. Understorey fire frequency and the fate of burned forests in southern Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    D. C. Morton; Le Page, Y.; DeFries, R.; G. J. Collatz; Hurtt, G. C.

    2013-01-01

    Recent drought events underscore the vulnerability of Amazon forests to understorey fires. The long-term impact of fires on biodiversity and forest carbon stocks depends on the frequency of fire damages and deforestation rates of burned forests. Here, we characterized the spatial and temporal dynamics of understorey fires (1999–2010) and deforestation (2001–2010) in southern Amazonia using new satellite-based estimates of annual fire activity (greater than 50 ha) and deforestation (greater th...

  14. Evaluating the Impact of Distance Measures on Deforestation Simulations in the Fluvial Landscapes of Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Salonen, Maria; Maeda, Eduardo Eiji; Toivonen, Tuuli

    2013-01-01

    Land use and land cover change (LUCC) models frequently employ different accessibility measures as a proxy for human influence on land change processes. Here, we simulate deforestation in Peruvian Amazonia and evaluate different accessibility measures as LUCC model inputs. We demonstrate how the selection, and different combinations, of accessibility measures impact simulation results. Out of the individual measures, time distance to market center catches the essential aspects of accessibilit...

  15. A comparative study of the soil solution chemistry of two Amazonian forest soils (Central Amazonia, Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    CORNU, S.; Ambrosi, J.P.; Lucas, Y.; Fevrier, D.

    1997-01-01

    Analyses of the chemical composition of rapidly percolating soil water were used to study the genesis of a shallow podzol in a Campinarana forest and a clayey ferralsol from a typical rainforest located in North Manaus (Amazonia, Brazil). The samples were collected in lysimeters and analysed for Ca2+, Na+, K+, NH4+, SO42-, NO3-, Fe, Si, and Al. A large percentage of the nutrients was recycled in the upper 4...

  16. Airborne measurements of trace gas and aerosol particle emissions from biomass burning in Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Guyon, P; Frank, G. P.; M. Welling; D. Chand; Artaxo, P.; L. Rizzo; Nishioka, G.; Kolle, O.; Fritsch, H.; Silva Dias, M. A. F.; L. V. Gatti; Cordova, A. M.; Andreae, M.O.

    2005-01-01

    As part of the LBA-SMOCC (Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia – Smoke, Aerosols, Clouds, Rainfall, and Climate) 2002 campaign, we studied the emission of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and aerosol particles from Amazonian deforestation fires using an instrumented aircraft. Emission ratios for aerosol number (CN) relative to CO (ERCN/CO) fell in the range 14–32 cm-3&nbs...

  17. Diversity of forage system work and adoption of intensive techniques in dairy cattle farms of Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    HOSTIOU, Nathalie; Dedieu, Benoit

    2009-01-01

    Forest ecosystems of Brazilian Amazonia are cleared to allow livestock production. Deforestation contributes significantly to climate change and losses of biodiversity. Degradation by scrubs reduces pasture productivity after a few years, thus leading farmers to deforest new areas. For this reason, sustaining cultivated pastures is of major importance for cattle farms. Intensive pasture management techniques have been proposed to the farmers, with little success so far. Our hypothesis is that...

  18. Environmental Costs of Government-Sponsored Agrarian Settlements in Brazilian Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Maurício; Peres, Carlos A.

    2015-01-01

    Brazil has presided over the most comprehensive agrarian reform frontier colonization program on Earth, in which ~1.2 million settlers have been translocated by successive governments since the 1970’s, mostly into forested hinterlands of Brazilian Amazonia. These settlements encompass 5.3% of this ~5 million km2 region, but have contributed with 13.5% of all land conversion into agropastoral land uses. The Brazilian Federal Agrarian Agency (INCRA) has repeatedly claimed that deforestation in ...

  19. Vegetation and hydrology changes in Eastern Amazonia inferred from a pollen record

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro B. de Toledo; Mark B Bush

    2008-01-01

    Pollen, charcoal, and C14 analyses were performed on a sediment core obtained from Lake Tapera (Amapá) to provide the palaeoenvironmental history of this part of Amazonia. A multivariate analysis technique, Detrended Correspondence Analysis, was applied to the pollen data to improve visualization of sample distribution and similarity. A sedimentary hiatus lasting 5,500 years was identified in the Lake Tapera. Because the timing of the hiatus overlapped with the highest Holocene sea-level, whi...

  20. CARNE DE MONTE Y CONSUMO DE FAUNA SILVESTRE EN LA ORINOQUIA Y AMAZONIA ( COLOMBIA Y VENEZUELA)

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Este taller regional estuvo dirigido al tema de carne de monte, consumo de fauna silvestre y procesos alternativos (cría de animales en cautiverio y piscicultura extensiva, entre otros), como elementos que aportan a la seguridad alimentaria de las comunidades locales (rurales e indígenas) en la Orinoquia y Amazonia (Colombia -­ Venezuela). Este evento tuvo como antecedente tres talleres realizados desde 2009 (talleres II, III, IV) y reuniones de expertos llevadas a cabo en 2002 para actual...

  1. Poverty and environment in Amazonia: a specific challenge for joint implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitschein, T.A.; Schreiber, V. [Federal University of Para (Brazil). Program Poverty and Environment in Amazonia

    1998-08-01

    The largest continuous tropical forest is found in Amazonia. Its destruction by burning for cattle pastures and subsistence agriculture contributes to the increases in concentrations of CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere and at the same time exhausts the extraordinary biodiversity of this region. In this sense, global ecological problems such as the greenhouse effect and genetic erosion and the future modes of development in Amazonia represent the same side of a coin. This means that the elaboration and implementation of strategies that understand the value of joint implementation as an indispensable element to reverse the tendencies of devastation which are underway in the regional context are required. It is from this principle that the Program Poverty and Environment in Amazonia of the Federal University of Para has been working since its creation in 1992. Through this approach, encroachment on primary forest areas is avoided, while agroforestry systems restore degraded areas in a manner which mimics the natural regeneration of the forest, enriched with species which produce natural products with potential for industrial use. (author)

  2. The large-scale biosphere-atmosphere experiment in Amazonia: Analyzing regional land use change effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Michael; Silva-Dias, Maria Assunção; Nepstad, Daniel C.; Silva-Andreae, Meinrat O.

    The Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) is a multi-disciplinary, multinational scientific project led by Brazil. LBA researchers seek to understand Amazonia in its global context especially with regard to regional and global climate. Current development activities in Amazonia including deforestation, logging, cattle ranching, and agriculture significantly perturb regional and global carbon budgets and the atmospheric radiation budget through both greenhouse gas inputs and the increase in atmospheric particulates generated by fires. The Brazilian Amazon currently releases about 0.2 Pg-C to the atmosphere each year as a result of net deforestation. Logging and forest fire activity are poorly quantified but certainly increase this amount by more than 10%. Fires associated with land management activities generate smoke that leads to heating of the lower atmosphere, decreases in overall cloudiness, increases in cloud lifetimes, and the suppression of rainfall. There are considerable uncertainties associated with our understanding of smoke effects. Present development trends point to agricultural intensification in the Brazilian Amazon. This intensification and the associated generation of wealth present an opportunity to enhance governance on the frontier and to minimize the damaging effects of fires.

  3. Simulation of rainfall anomalies leading to the 2005 drought in Amazonia using the CLARIS LPB regional climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, J.; Chou, S.; Mourao, C.; Solman, S.; Sanchez, E.; Samuelsson, P.; da Rocha, R. P.; Li, L.; Pessacg, N.; Remedio, A. R. C.; Carril, A. F.; F Cavalcanti, I.; Jacob, D.

    2013-12-01

    The meteorological characteristics of the drought of 2005 in Amazonia, one of the most severe in the last 100 years were assessed using a suite of seven regional models obtained from the CLARIS LPB project. The models were forced with the ERA-Interim reanalyses as boundary conditions. We used a combination of rainfall and temperature observations and the low-level circulation and evaporation fields from the reanalyses to determine the climatic and meteorological characteristics of this particular drought. The models reproduce in some degree the observed annual cycle of precipitation and the geographical distribution of negative rainfall anomalies during the summer months of 2005. With respect to the evolution of rainfall during 2004-2006, some of the models were able to simulate the negative rainfall departures during early summer of 2005 (December 2004 to February 2005). The interannual variability of rainfall anomalies for both austral summer and fall over northern and southern Amazonia show a large spread among models, with some of them capable of reproducing the 2005 observed negative rainfall departures (four out of seven models in southern Amazonia during DJF). In comparison, all models simulated the observed southern Amazonia negative rainfall and positive air temperature anomalies during the El Nino-related drought in 1998. The spatial structure of the simulated rainfall and temperature anomalies in DJF and MAM 2005 shows biases that are different among models. While some models simulated the observed negative rainfall anomalies over parts of western and southern Amazonia during DJF, others simulated positive rainfall departures over central Amazonia. The simulated circulation patterns indicate a weaker northeasterly flow from the tropical North Atlantic into Amazonia, and reduced flows from southern Amazonia into the La Plata basin in DJF, which is consistent with observations. In general, we can say that in some degree the regional models are able to

  4. Cloud condensation nuclei in pristine tropical rainforest air of Amazonia:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunthe, S. S.

    2009-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particles serving as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) are key elements of the hydrological cycle and climate. We have measured and characterized CCN at water vapor supersaturations in the range of S = 0.10-0.82% in pristine tropical rainforest air during the AMAZE-08 campaign in central Amazonia. The effective hygroscopicity parameters describing the influence of chemical composition on the CCN activity of aerosol particles varied in the range of ΰ = 0.05-0.45. The overall median value of ΰ ? 0.15 was only half of the value typically observed for continental aerosols in other regions of the world. Aitken mode particles were less hygroscopic than accumulation mode particles (ΰ ? 0.1 at D ? 50 nm; ΰ ? 0.2 at D ? 200 nm). The CCN measurement results were fully consistent with aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS) data, which showed that the organic mass fraction (Xm,org) was on average as high as ~90% in the Aitken mode (D ? 100 nm) and decreased with increasing particle diameter in the accumulation mode (~80% at D ? 200 nm). The ΰ values exhibited a close linear correlation with Xm,org and extrapolation yielded the following effective hygroscopicity parameters for organic and inorganic particle components: ΰorg ? 0.1 which is consistent with laboratory measurements of secondary organic aerosols and ΰinorg ? 0.6 which is characteristic for ammonium sulfate and related salts. Both the size-dependence and the temporal variability of effective particle hygroscopicity could be parameterized as a function of AMS-based organic and inorganic mass fractions (ΰp = 0.1 Xm,org + 0.6Xm,inorg), and the CCN number concentrations predicted with ΰp were in fair agreement with the measurement results. The median CCN number concentrations at S = 0.1-0.82% ranged from NCCN,0.10 ? 30 cm-3to NCCN,0.82 ? 150 cm-3, the median concentration of aerosol particles larger than 30 nm was NCN,30 ? 180 cm-3, and the corresponding integral CCN efficiencies

  5. The Miocene Cyprideis species flock (Ostracoda; Crustacea) of western Amazonia (Solimões Formation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Martin; Ramos, Maria Ines F.; Piller, Werner E.

    2015-04-01

    The Miocene mega-wetland of western Amazonia holds a diverse, largely endemic aquatic invertebrate fauna (e.g., molluscs, ostracods). Among ostracods, the genus Cyprideis experienced a remarkable radiation. Micropalaeontologic investigations of a 400-m-long sediment core (~62 km SW Benjamin Constant, Amazonia, Brazil) permitted a taxonomic revision of about two-thirds of hitherto described Cyprideis species. Ostracod index species enabled a biostratigraphic allocation of the well succession to the Cyprideis minipunctata to Cyprideis cyrtoma biozones (late middle to early late Miocene age). The current study underlines once more Cyprideis' remarkable capability to produce species flocks and western Amazonian Cyprideis comply with the criteria of a species flock: i) endemicity: up to now not a single species is recorded in adjacent areas; ii) monophyly: although hardly verifiable to date and probably Amazonian Cyprideis is not monophyletic s.str., several closely related, quite rapidly evolving species are proved; iii) speciosity: due to the present study, 30 formally described species exist; several further species, left in open nomenclature, are recorded in the literature, which strongly hints to a much higher, still unrecorded species richness; iv) ecological diversity: based on rare sedimentologic cross-references, ecological diversity within a highly structured wetland is possible; the current results demonstrate the sympatric occurrence of up to 12 Cyprideis species, which may indicate adaptations to different microhabitats; v) habitat dominance: regularly Cyprideis holds more than >90 % in western Amazonian ostracod assemblages during the early and middle Miocene. Explanations for this extreme habitat monopolisation are still arguable and touch the highly disputed question about the nature of western Amazonia's environments during the Miocene. It seems, however, evident that a strictly actualistic approach to endemic Neogene Amazonian biota is highly

  6. Environmental impact of geometric earthwork construction in pre-Columbian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, John Francis; Whitney, Bronwen S; Mayle, Francis E; Iriarte, José; Prümers, Heiko; Soto, J Daniel; Watling, Jennifer

    2014-07-22

    There is considerable controversy over whether pre-Columbian (pre-A.D. 1492) Amazonia was largely "pristine" and sparsely populated by slash-and-burn agriculturists, or instead a densely populated, domesticated landscape, heavily altered by extensive deforestation and anthropogenic burning. The discovery of hundreds of large geometric earthworks beneath intact rainforest across southern Amazonia challenges its status as a pristine landscape, and has been assumed to indicate extensive pre-Columbian deforestation by large populations. We tested these assumptions using coupled local- and regional-scale paleoecological records to reconstruct land use on an earthwork site in northeast Bolivia within the context of regional, climate-driven biome changes. This approach revealed evidence for an alternative scenario of Amazonian land use, which did not necessitate labor-intensive rainforest clearance for earthwork construction. Instead, we show that the inhabitants exploited a naturally open savanna landscape that they maintained around their settlement despite the climatically driven rainforest expansion that began ∼2,000 y ago across the region. Earthwork construction and agriculture on terra firme landscapes currently occupied by the seasonal rainforests of southern Amazonia may therefore not have necessitated large-scale deforestation using stone tools. This finding implies far less labor--and potentially lower population density--than previously supposed. Our findings demonstrate that current debates over the magnitude and nature of pre-Columbian Amazonian land use, and its impact on global biogeochemical cycling, are potentially flawed because they do not consider this land use in the context of climate-driven forest-savanna biome shifts through the mid-to-late Holocene. PMID:25002502

  7. New species and geographical records of dactylogyrids (Monogenea) of catfish (Siluriformes) from the Peruvian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Palmero, Carlos A; Scholz, Tomáš; Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Kuchta, Roman

    2012-06-01

    Three new species of gill monogeneans (Dactylogyridae: Ancyrocephalinae) are described from siluriform catfish from Iquitos, Peru: Demidospermus mortenthaleri n. sp. from Brachyplatystoma juruense (Boulenger), Demidospermus brevicirrus n. sp. from Pimelodus sp., and Aphanoblastella aurorae n. sp. from Goeldiella eques (Müller & Troschel). Demidospermus mortenthaleri is characterized by a male copulatory organ (MCO) with a small loop at its middle portion; 2 types of hooks, of which pairs 5 and 6 are longer than the remaining hooks; a proximal subunit round and highly depressed thumb; and a sclerotized vagina with a round pad at the vaginal aperture. Demidospermus brevicirrus is distinguished from other congeners by the presence of a short, straight, and robust MCO and boot-shaped accessory piece with a hooked projection directed posteriorly. Aphanoblastella aurorae is the only species of the genus that possesses an arrow-shaped sclerotized vagina and a medial process on the dorsal bar. Another 6 dactylogyrids described previously are recorded for the first time from the Peruvian Amazonia: Cosmetocleithrum bulbocirrus Kritsky, Thatcher and Boeger, 1986 ; Vancleaveus fungulus Kritsky, Thatcher and Boeger, 1986 ; V. janauacaensis Kritsky, Thatcher and Boeger, 1986 ; V. platyrhynchi Kritsky, Thatcher and Boeger, 1986 ; Unilatus unilatus Mizelle and Kritsky, 1967 ; and U. brittani Mizelle, Kritsky and Crane, 1968 . Based on observations of specimens collected in the Peruvian Amazonia, new morphological data for these species are provided. Comparison of new specimens of U. unilatus and U. brittani with those of Unilatus brevispinus Suriano, 1985 and Unilatus longispinus Suriano, 1985 , both originally described from Brazil, has shown that they are conspecific. Therefore, the latter species were synonymized with U. unilatus and U. brittani , respectively. In addition, 56 undescribed monogeneans found in catfish from the Peruvian Amazonia, some of them probably belonging

  8. Isolation of yellow fever virus from nulliparous Haemagogus (Haemagogus) janthinomys in eastern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondet, B; Vasconcelos, P F C; Travassos da Rosa, A P A; Travassos da Rosa, E S; Rodrigues, S G; Travassos Rosa, J F S; Bicout, D J

    2002-01-01

    In 1998, an epizootic of yellow fever (YF) killed many howler monkeys (Alouatta spp.) in eastern Amazonia near the city of Altamira. An infection level with YF virus of approximately 3.6% was determined from analysis of 456 females of Haemagogus janthinomys Dyar, the main enzootic YF vector in South America. One month later, a second study of 164 females captured in the same place led to infection levels of 0.8% for parous and 2.9% for nulliparous females. These results lead to the conclusion that vertical transmission, one of the key elements in the epidemiology of YF, occurs in South America as it does in Africa. PMID:12656130

  9. Anuran amphibians of the urban region of Altamira (Oriental Amazonia), state of Pará, Brazil.

    OpenAIRE

    Flávio Bezerra Barros; Sílvia Renata Knispel

    2009-01-01

    The present study aimed to take stock of the species of anurans in three localities of the urban region of Altamira, a municipal district in the west of the state of Pará (Oriental Amazonia). Collections were made between January and June of 2004. Fifteen species were recorded during the study. The family Hylidae was the most represented, with eight species. The data was compatible with the degree of conservation of the collection areas. The necessity of making new fauna inventories in all Br...

  10. Anuran amphibians of the urban region of Altamira (Oriental Amazonia, state of Pará, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Bezerra Barros

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to take stock of the species of anurans in three localities of the urban region of Altamira, a municipal district in the west of the state of Pará (Oriental Amazonia. Collections were made between January and June of 2004. Fifteen species were recorded during the study. The family Hylidae was the most represented, with eight species. The data was compatible with the degree of conservation of the collection areas. The necessity of making new fauna inventories in all Brazilian biomes is of extreme urgency, particularly in the Amazon, given its vast extension and lack of inventories.

  11. Leptophlebiidae (Ephemeroptera) da Amazônia brasileira Leptophlebiidae (Ephemeroptera) from brazilian Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Maria José do Nascimento Lopes; José Moacir Ferreira Ribeiro; Douglas Fernando Peiró

    2007-01-01

    Na Amazônia brasileira são registradas dezenove espécies de Leptophlebiidae, distribuídas em dez gêneros. Neste trabalho é apresentada uma lista de todos os gêneros de Leptophlebiidae ocorrentes na Região Neotropical, o numero de espécies de cada gênero no Brasil e um catálogo das espécies registradas na Amazônia brasileira.Brazilian Amazonia has nineteen registered species of Leptophlebiidae, distributed in ten genera. In this work a list of all genera of Leptophlebiidae from the Neotropical...

  12. Meso-scale effects of tropical deforestation in Amazonia: preparatory LBA modelling studies

    OpenAIRE

    Dolman, A. J.; M. A. Silva Dias; J.-C. Calvet; Ashby, M.; A. S. Tahara; C. Delire; Kabat, P.; Fisch, G. A.; Nobre, C.A.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the preparation for the Large-Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia, a meso-scale modelling study was executed to highlight deficiencies in the current understanding of land surface atmosphere interaction at local to sub-continental scales in the dry season. Meso-scale models were run in 1-D and 3-D mode for the area of Rondonia State, Brazil. The important conclusions are that without calibration it is difficult to model the energy partitioning of pasture; modelling th...

  13. Interpreting seasonal changes in the carbon balance of southern Amazonia using measurements of XCO2 and chlorophyll fluorescence from GOSAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parazoo, Nicholas C.; Bowman, Kevin; Frankenberg, Christian; Lee, Jung-Eun; Fisher, Joshua B.; Worden, John; Jones, Dylan B. A.; Berry, Joseph; Collatz, G. James; Baker, Ian T.; Jung, Martin; Liu, Junjie; Osterman, Gregory; O'Dell, Chris; Sparks, Athena; Butz, Andre; Guerlet, Sandrine; Yoshida, Yukio; Chen, Huilin; Gerbig, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Amazon forests exert a major influence on the global carbon cycle, but quantifying the impact is complicated by diverse landscapes and sparse data. Here we examine seasonal carbon balance in southern Amazonia using new measurements of column-averaged dry air mole fraction of CO2 (XCO2) and solar ind

  14. Insectos de la "una de gato" (Uncaria guianenesis y U. tomentosa : Rubiaceae), planta medical de la Amazonia peruana

    OpenAIRE

    Vasquez B., J.; Mejia, K.; Couturier, Guy

    1996-01-01

    Two species of #Rubiaceae$ known as "una de gato", vernaculate name, are medicinal plants very used in the Peruvian Amazonia. Its excessive exploitation in the natural environment has made its cultivation necessary. Different species of phytophagous insects have been observed on "una de gato" in an experimental plantation in Iquitos, Peru. (Résumé d'auteur)

  15. Evidences for a Paleocene marine incursion in southern Amazonia (Madre de Dios Sub-Andean Zone, Peru)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louterbach, M.; Roddaz, M.; Bailleul, J.; Antoine, P. O.; Adnet, S.; Kim, J. H.; van Soelen, E.; Parra, F.; Gérard, J.; Calderon, Y.; Gagnaison, C.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Baby, P.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents new biostratigraphic dating, facies analysis, organic geochemical data and Nd-Sr isotopic provenance from five outcrops of southern Amazonia (MD-85, MD-177 MD-184, MD-255 and MD-256) to document for the first time the presence of a shallow marine ingression in the Paleocene of

  16. Evidences for a Paleocene marine incursion in southern Amazonia (Madre de Dios Sub-Andean Zone, Peru)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louterbach, M.; Roddaz, M.; Bailleul, J.; Antoine, P.O.; Adnet, S.; Kim, J.H.; van Soelen, E.E.; Parra, F.; Gérard, J.; Calderon, Y.; Gagnaison, C.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Baby, P.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents new biostratigraphic dating, facies analysis, organic geochemical data and Nd–Sr isotopic provenance from five outcrops of southern Amazonia (MD-85, MD-177 MD-184, MD-255 and MD-256) to document for the first time the presence of a shallow marine ingression in the Paleocene of

  17. Land-use in Amazonia and the Cerrado of Brazil: State of Knowledge and GIS Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepstad, Daniel C.

    1997-01-01

    We have assembled datasets to strengthen the LargeScale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA). These datasets can now be accessed through the Woods Hole Research Center homepage (www.whrc.org), and will soon be linked to the Pre-LBA homepages of the Brazilian Space Research Institute's Center for Weather and Climate Prediction (Instituto de Pesquisas Espaciais, Centro de Previsao de Tempo e Estudos Climaticos, INPE/CPTEC) and through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Distributed Active Archive Center (ORNL/DMC). Some of the datasets that we are making available involved new field research and/or the digitization of data available in Brazilian government agencies. For example, during the grant period we conducted interviews at 1,100 sawmills across Amazonia to determine their production of sawn timber, and their harvest intensities. These data provide the basis for the first quantitative assessment of the area of forest affected each year by selective logging (Nepstad et al, submitted to Nature). We digitized the locations of all of the rural households in the State of Para that have been mapped by the Brazilian malaria combat agency (SUCAM). We also mapped and digitized areas of deforestation in the state of Tocantins, which is comprised largely of savanna (cerrado), an ecosystem that has been routinely excluded from deforestation mapping exercises.

  18. The Cotingo Dam as a Test of Brazil's System for Evaluating Proposed Developments in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnside; Barbosa

    1996-09-01

    The proposed Cotingo Dam in Brazil's far northern state of Roraima is examined with the objective of drawing lessons for Brazil's system of evaluating environmental, social, and financial consequences of development decisions. The Cotingo Dam illustrates the difficulty of translating into practice the principles of economic and environmental assessment. Examination of the financial arguments for the Cotingo Dam indicates that justifications in this sphere are insufficient to explain why the project is favored over other alternatives and points to political factors as the best explanation of the project's high priority. Strong pressure from political and entrepreneurial interest groups almost invariably dominates decision making in Amazonia. The analysis indicates the inherent tendency of the present system to produce decisions in favor of large construction projects at the expense of the environment and local peoples. The requirements intended to assure proper weight for these concerns, such as the report on environmental impacts (RIMA) and the public hearing, fail to serve this role. Cotingo also provides a test case for constitutional protections restricting construction of dams in indigenous lands.KEY WORDS: Hydroelectric dams; Amazonia; Indigenous peoples; Brazil; Roraima PMID:8703102

  19. Early and middle holocene hunter-gatherer occupations in western Amazonia: the hidden shell middens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Lombardo

    Full Text Available We report on previously unknown early archaeological sites in the Bolivian lowlands, demonstrating for the first time early and middle Holocene human presence in western Amazonia. Multidisciplinary research in forest islands situated in seasonally-inundated savannahs has revealed stratified shell middens produced by human foragers as early as 10,000 years ago, making them the oldest archaeological sites in the region. The absence of stone resources and partial burial by recent alluvial sediments has meant that these kinds of deposits have, until now, remained unidentified. We conducted core sampling, archaeological excavations and an interdisciplinary study of the stratigraphy and recovered materials from three shell midden mounds. Based on multiple lines of evidence, including radiocarbon dating, sedimentary proxies (elements, steroids and black carbon, micromorphology and faunal analysis, we demonstrate the anthropogenic origin and antiquity of these sites. In a tropical and geomorphologically active landscape often considered challenging both for early human occupation and for the preservation of hunter-gatherer sites, the newly discovered shell middens provide evidence for early to middle Holocene occupation and illustrate the potential for identifying and interpreting early open-air archaeological sites in western Amazonia. The existence of early hunter-gatherer sites in the Bolivian lowlands sheds new light on the region's past and offers a new context within which the late Holocene "Earthmovers" of the Llanos de Moxos could have emerged.

  20. Pre-Columbian Floristic Legacies in Modern Homegardens of Central Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Juliana; Lima, Helena P.; Baccaro, Fabricio B.; Kinupp, Valdely F.; Shepard, Glenn H.; Clement, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    Historical ecologists have demonstrated legacy effects in apparently wild landscapes in Europe, North America, Mesoamerica, Amazonia, Africa and Oceania. People live and farm in archaeological sites today in many parts of the world, but nobody has looked for the legacies of past human occupations in the most dynamic areas in these sites: homegardens. Here we show that the useful flora of modern homegardens is partially a legacy of pre-Columbian occupations in Central Amazonia: the more complex the archaeological context, the more variable the floristic composition of useful native plants in homegardens cultivated there today. Species diversity was 10% higher in homegardens situated in multi-occupational archaeological contexts compared with homegardens situated in single-occupational ones. Species heterogeneity (β-diversity) among archaeological contexts was similar for the whole set of species, but markedly different when only native Amazonian species were included, suggesting the influence of pre-conquest indigenous occupations on current homegarden species composition. Our findings show that the legacy of pre-Columbian occupations is visible in the most dynamic of all agroecosystems, adding another dimension to the human footprint in the Amazonian landscape. PMID:26030879

  1. Outstanding insecurities concerning the use of an Ov16-based ELISA in the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Sérgio Luiz Bessa; Crainey, James Lee; Shelley, Anthony John; Rubio, Miguel

    2014-07-01

    In a recent issue of Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, published in Rio de Janeiro in February 2014 (109: 87-92), Adami et al. have published a survey reporting Mansonella parasite prevalence in the Amazon Region. This report makes a useful contribution to the existing knowledge of filarial parasite distribution within the Amazon area, parasite prevalence rates in relation to age and occupation and provides observations on the possible clinical impact of Mansonella ozzardi. Their publication also provides an account of what appears to be a novel ELISA that has recently been used in the Simuliidae and Onchocerciasis Laboratory of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We are concerned that the publication of this ELISA may have created an excessively positive impression of the effectiveness of the onchocerciasis recrudescence serological surveillance tools that are presently available for use in the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus. In this letter we have, thus, sought to highlight some of the limitations of this ELISA and suggest how continuing insecurities concerning the detection of antibodies to Onchocerca volvulus within the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus might be minimised. PMID:25075790

  2. Outstanding insecurities concerning the use of an Ov16-based ELISA in the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Luiz Bessa Luz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In a recent issue of Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, published in Rio de Janeiro in February 2014 (109: 87-92, Adami et al. have published a survey reporting Mansonella parasite prevalence in the Amazon Region. This report makes a useful contribution to the existing knowledge of filarial parasite distribution within the Amazon area, parasite prevalence rates in relation to age and occupation and provides observations on the possible clinical impact of Mansonella ozzardi. Their publication also provides an account of what appears to be a novel ELISA that has recently been used in the Simuliidae and Onchocerciasis Laboratory of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We are concerned that the publication of this ELISA may have created an excessively positive impression of the effectiveness of the onchocerciasis recrudescence serological surveillance tools that are presently available for use in the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus. In this letter we have, thus, sought to highlight some of the limitations of this ELISA and suggest how continuing insecurities concerning the detection of antibodies to Onchocerca volvulus within the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus might be minimised.

  3. Pre-Columbian floristic legacies in modern homegardens of Central Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Juliana; Lima, Helena P; Baccaro, Fabricio B; Kinupp, Valdely F; Shepard, Glenn H; Clement, Charles R

    2015-01-01

    Historical ecologists have demonstrated legacy effects in apparently wild landscapes in Europe, North America, Mesoamerica, Amazonia, Africa and Oceania. People live and farm in archaeological sites today in many parts of the world, but nobody has looked for the legacies of past human occupations in the most dynamic areas in these sites: homegardens. Here we show that the useful flora of modern homegardens is partially a legacy of pre-Columbian occupations in Central Amazonia: the more complex the archaeological context, the more variable the floristic composition of useful native plants in homegardens cultivated there today. Species diversity was 10% higher in homegardens situated in multi-occupational archaeological contexts compared with homegardens situated in single-occupational ones. Species heterogeneity (β-diversity) among archaeological contexts was similar for the whole set of species, but markedly different when only native Amazonian species were included, suggesting the influence of pre-conquest indigenous occupations on current homegarden species composition. Our findings show that the legacy of pre-Columbian occupations is visible in the most dynamic of all agroecosystems, adding another dimension to the human footprint in the Amazonian landscape. PMID:26030879

  4. Long term measurements of the elemental composition and optical properties of aerosols in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arana A. A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aerosols are being collected and analyzed for trace elements in two sites in Amazonia since January 2008. On eof the site, Manaus is located in a very pristine area in Central Amazonia. The site is nt affected directly by any urban plume for thousands of kilometers. A second site is located in Porto Velho, in a region with heavy land use change and deforestation. Optical properties (light scattering ad absorption are also being measured in order to study the climatic impact of aerosols. It was observed a clear seasonal pattern for both sites, with higher concentrations in the dry season. But the difference in seasonal concentrations observed for Porto Velho is much larger due to stronger anthropogenic influences. In Manaus during the wet season, very low concentrations of heavy metals, maybe the smallest measured in continental regions are reported. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF was used to separate the different aerosol components. In general, for fine and coarse mode and wet and dry season, 3 aerosol components could be observed: 1 Natural biogenic aerosol; 2 biomass burning component; 3 Soil dust both locally and long range transported Sahara dust

  5. Understorey fire frequency and the fate of burned forests in southern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, D C; Le Page, Y; DeFries, R; Collatz, G J; Hurtt, G C

    2013-06-01

    Recent drought events underscore the vulnerability of Amazon forests to understorey fires. The long-term impact of fires on biodiversity and forest carbon stocks depends on the frequency of fire damages and deforestation rates of burned forests. Here, we characterized the spatial and temporal dynamics of understorey fires (1999-2010) and deforestation (2001-2010) in southern Amazonia using new satellite-based estimates of annual fire activity (greater than 50 ha) and deforestation (greater than 10 ha). Understorey forest fires burned more than 85 500 km(2) between 1999 and 2010 (2.8% of all forests). Forests that burned more than once accounted for 16 per cent of all understorey fires. Repeated fire activity was concentrated in Mato Grosso and eastern Pará, whereas single fires were widespread across the arc of deforestation. Routine fire activity in Mato Grosso coincided with annual periods of low night-time relative humidity, suggesting a strong climate control on both single and repeated fires. Understorey fires occurred in regions with active deforestation, yet the interannual variability of fire and deforestation were uncorrelated, and only 2.6 per cent of forests that burned between 1999 and 2008 were deforested for agricultural use by 2010. Evidence from the past decade suggests that future projections of frontier landscapes in Amazonia should separately consider economic drivers to project future deforestation and climate to project fire risk. PMID:23610169

  6. Geostationary satellite estimation of biomass burning in Amazonia during BASE-A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter presents the results of using Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Visible Infrared Spin Scan Radiometer Atmospheric Sounder (VAS) infrared window (3.9 and 11.2 microns) data to monitor biomass burning several times per day in Amazonia. The technique of Matson and Dozier using two window channels was adapted to GOES VAS infrared data to estimate the size and temperature of fires associated with deforestation in the vicinity of Alta Floresta, Brazil, during the Biomass Burning Airborne and Spaceborne Experiment - Amazonia (BASE-A). Although VAS data do not offer the spatial resolution available with AVHRR data 97 km versus 1 km, respectively, this decreased resolution does not seem to hinder the ability of the VAS instrument to detect fires; in some cases it proves to be advantageous in that saturation does not occur as often. VAS visible data are additionally helpful in verifying that the hot spots sensed in the infrared are actually related to fires. Furthermore, the fire plumes can be tracked in time to determine their motion and extent. In this way, the GOES satellite offers a unique ability to monitor diurnal variations in fire activity and transport of related aerosols

  7. Use of MODIS Sensor Images Combined with Reanalysis Products to Retrieve Net Radiation in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Gabriel; Brunsell, Nathaniel A; Moraes, Elisabete C; Bertani, Gabriel; Dos Santos, Thiago V; Shimabukuro, Yosio E; Aragão, Luiz E O C

    2016-01-01

    In the Amazon region, the estimation of radiation fluxes through remote sensing techniques is hindered by the lack of ground measurements required as input in the models, as well as the difficulty to obtain cloud-free images. Here, we assess an approach to estimate net radiation (Rn) and its components under all-sky conditions for the Amazon region through the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) model utilizing only remote sensing and reanalysis data. The study period comprised six years, between January 2001-December 2006, and images from MODIS sensor aboard the Terra satellite and GLDAS reanalysis products were utilized. The estimates were evaluated with flux tower measurements within the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) project. Comparison between estimates obtained by the proposed method and observations from LBA towers showed errors between 12.5% and 16.4% and 11.3% and 15.9% for instantaneous and daily Rn, respectively. Our approach was adequate to minimize the problem related to strong cloudiness over the region and allowed to map consistently the spatial distribution of net radiation components in Amazonia. We conclude that the integration of reanalysis products and satellite data, eliminating the need for surface measurements as input model, was a useful proposition for the spatialization of the radiation fluxes in the Amazon region, which may serve as input information needed by algorithms that aim to determine evapotranspiration, the most important component of the Amazon hydrological balance. PMID:27347957

  8. Large-scale expansion of agriculture in Amazonia may be a no-win scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using simplified climate and land-use models, we evaluated primary forests’ carbon storage and soybean and pasture productivity in the Brazilian Legal Amazon under several scenarios of deforestation and increased CO2. The four scenarios for the year 2050 that we analyzed consider (1) radiative effects of increased CO2, (2) radiative and physiological effects of increased CO2, (3) effects of land-use changes on the regional climate and (4) radiative and physiological effects of increased CO2 plus land-use climate feedbacks. Under current conditions, means for aboveground forest live biomass (AGB), soybean yield and pasture yield are 179 Mg-C ha−1, 2.7 Mg-grains ha−1 and 16.2 Mg-dry mass ha−1 yr−1, respectively. Our results indicate that expansion of agriculture in Amazonia may be a no-win scenario: in addition to reductions in carbon storage due to deforestation, total agriculture output may either increase much less than proportionally to the potential expansion in agricultural area, or even decrease, as a consequence of climate feedbacks from changes in land use. These climate feedbacks, usually ignored in previous studies, impose a reduction in precipitation that would lead agriculture expansion in Amazonia to become self-defeating: the more agriculture expands, the less productive it becomes. (letter)

  9. Do the recent severe droughts in the Amazonia have the same period of length?

    CERN Document Server

    Zou, Yong; Sampaio, Gilvan; Mário, Antônio; Kurths, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new measure based on drought period length to assess the temporal difference between the recent two severe droughts of 2005 and 2010 in the Amazonia. The sensitivity of the measure is demonstrated by disclosing the distinct spatial responding mechanisms of the Northeastern and Southwestern Amazon (NA, SA) to the surrounding sea surface temperature (SST) variabilities. The Pacific and Atlantic oceans have different roles on the precipitation patterns in Amazonia. More specifically, the very dry periods in the NA are influenced by El Ni\\~no events, while the very dry periods in the SA are affected by the anomalously warming of the SST in the North Atlantic. We show convincingly that the drought 2005 hit SA, which is caused by the North Atlantic only. There are two phases in the drought 2010: (i) it was started in the NA in August 2009 affected by the El Ni\\~no event, and (ii) later shifted the center of action to SA resulted from anomalously high SST in North Atlantic, which further intensifies the...

  10. Use of MODIS Sensor Images Combined with Reanalysis Products to Retrieve Net Radiation in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Gabriel; Brunsell, Nathaniel A.; Moraes, Elisabete C.; Bertani, Gabriel; dos Santos, Thiago V.; Shimabukuro, Yosio E.; Aragão, Luiz E. O. C.

    2016-01-01

    In the Amazon region, the estimation of radiation fluxes through remote sensing techniques is hindered by the lack of ground measurements required as input in the models, as well as the difficulty to obtain cloud-free images. Here, we assess an approach to estimate net radiation (Rn) and its components under all-sky conditions for the Amazon region through the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) model utilizing only remote sensing and reanalysis data. The study period comprised six years, between January 2001–December 2006, and images from MODIS sensor aboard the Terra satellite and GLDAS reanalysis products were utilized. The estimates were evaluated with flux tower measurements within the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) project. Comparison between estimates obtained by the proposed method and observations from LBA towers showed errors between 12.5% and 16.4% and 11.3% and 15.9% for instantaneous and daily Rn, respectively. Our approach was adequate to minimize the problem related to strong cloudiness over the region and allowed to map consistently the spatial distribution of net radiation components in Amazonia. We conclude that the integration of reanalysis products and satellite data, eliminating the need for surface measurements as input model, was a useful proposition for the spatialization of the radiation fluxes in the Amazon region, which may serve as input information needed by algorithms that aim to determine evapotranspiration, the most important component of the Amazon hydrological balance. PMID:27347957

  11. A palaeobiogeographic model for biotic diversification within Amazonia over the past three million years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas, Camila C.; Aleixo, Alexandre; Nogueira, Afonso C. R.; Miyaki, Cristina Y.; Cracraft, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain high species diversity in Amazonia, but few generalizations have emerged. In part, this has arisen from the scarcity of rigorous tests for mechanisms promoting speciation, and from major uncertainties about palaeogeographic events and their spatial and temporal associations with diversification. Here, we investigate the environmental history of Amazonia using a phylogenetic and biogeographic analysis of trumpeters (Aves: Psophia), which are represented by species in each of the vertebrate areas of endemism. Their relationships reveal an unforeseen ‘complete’ time-slice of Amazonian diversification over the past 3.0 Myr. We employ this temporally calibrated phylogeny to test competing palaeogeographic hypotheses. Our results are consistent with the establishment of the current Amazonian drainage system at approximately 3.0–2.0 Ma and predict the temporal pattern of major river formation over Plio-Pleistocene times. We propose a palaeobiogeographic model for the last 3.0 Myr of Amazonian history that has implications for understanding patterns of endemism, the temporal history of Amazonian diversification and mechanisms promoting speciation. The history of Psophia, in combination with new geological evidence, provides the strongest direct evidence supporting a role for river dynamics in Amazonian diversification, and the absence of such a role for glacial climate cycles and refugia. PMID:21795268

  12. Global warming in Amazonia: impacts and Mitigation Aquecimento Global na Amazônia: impactos e Mitigação

    OpenAIRE

    Philip Martin Fearnside

    2009-01-01

    Global warming has potentially catastrophic impacts in Amazonia, while at the same time maintenance of the Amazon forest offers one of the most valuable and cost-effective options for mitigating climate change. We know that the El Niño phenomenon, caused by temperature oscillations of surface water in the Pacific, has serious impacts in Amazonia, causing droughts and forest fires (as in 1997-1998). Temperature oscillations in the Atlantic also provoke severe droughts (as in 2005). We also kno...

  13. The Greatest Legacy of the Large Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA): A Bibliometric Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Large Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) is an international continental scale effort led by Brazil to understand how land use change and climate change affects the role of Amazonia in the Earth system. During the first decade of studies (1998-2007), LBA researchers generated new understanding of Amazonia and published over 1000 papers. However, most LBA participants agree that training and education of a large cohort of scientists, especially students from Brazil, was the greatest contribution of LBA. I analyzed bibliographic data from the NASA supported component project known as LBA-ECO. This component covered a large cross-section of the LBA subject areas highlighting land use and land cover change, carbon cycling, nutrient cycling and other aspects of terrestrial and aquatic ecology. I reviewed the complete bibliography of peer-reviewed papers reported by LBA-ECO researchers (http://www.lbaeco.org/cgi-bin/web/investigations/lbaeco_refs.pl). The researchers reported 691 contributions from 1996 through 2013 of which 24 were theses that were removed them from further analysis. Of 667 papers and book chapters, I tallied the first authors separating categories for Brazilians, all students, and Brazilian students. Numerically, LBA-ECO production of papers peaked in 2004. Publication by Brazilians, students, and Brazilian students generally followed the same pattern as publication in general. However, student and Brazilian student contributions as first authors showed clearly increasing proportions of the papers from project initiation through peak publication. Brazilian student participation as first authors averaged more than 20% of all publications from 2003 to 2010 and more than half of all student publications had Brazilians as first authors. Foreign researchers, some initially reluctant to invest in Brazilian students, almost universally adapted the belief that the greatest legacy of LBA would be the contribution to building a cadre of

  14. Diet of a free-ranging group of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) in eastern Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Eldianne M; Ferrari, Stephen F

    2003-01-01

    The feeding behaviour of free-ranging Saimiri sciureus was monitored over a 6-month period in eastern Brazilian Amazonia. Behavioural data were collected in scan samples (7-9 days per month), and fruit and arthropod availability were recorded monthly. A total of 3,546 feeding records were collected, divided between reproductive plant parts (55.1%) and arthropods (44.9%). The majority of identified prey were orthopterans and lepidopterans, and 10 of the 23 plant species exploited were Leguminosae and Sapotaceae. The diet varied progressively between August (20.0% plant, 80.0% animal) and January (79.7% plant, 20.3% animal). This shift accompanied an increase in the number of fruiting trees and evidence of declining arthropod availability. This included a marked reduction in foraging success and increasing consumption of immature prey. Overall, the data indicate that Amazonian squirrel monkeys may be relatively frugivorous during periods when prey is scarce. PMID:12826734

  15. Deforestation and climate feedbacks threaten the ecological integrity of south-southeastern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Michael T; Marthews, Toby R; Costa, Marcos Heil; Galbraith, David R; Greenglass, Nora L; Imbuzeiro, Hewlley M A; Levine, Naomi M; Malhi, Yadvinder; Moorcroft, Paul R; Muza, Michel Nobre; Powell, Thomas L; Saleska, Scott R; Solorzano, Luis A; Wang, Jingfeng

    2013-06-01

    A mosaic of protected areas, including indigenous lands, sustainable-use production forests and reserves and strictly protected forests is the cornerstone of conservation in the Amazon, with almost 50 per cent of the region now protected. However, recent research indicates that isolation from direct deforestation or degradation may not be sufficient to maintain the ecological integrity of Amazon forests over the next several decades. Large-scale changes in fire and drought regimes occurring as a result of deforestation and greenhouse gas increases may result in forest degradation, regardless of protected status. How severe or widespread these feedbacks will be is uncertain, but the arc of deforestation in south-southeastern Amazonia appears to be particularly vulnerable owing to high current deforestation rates and ecological sensitivity to climate change. Maintaining forest ecosystem integrity may require significant strengthening of forest conservation on private property, which can in part be accomplished by leveraging existing policy mechanisms. PMID:23610166

  16. Evaluating the impact of distance measures on deforestation simulations in the fluvial landscapes of amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, Maria; Maeda, Eduardo Eiji; Toivonen, Tuuli

    2014-10-01

    Land use and land cover change (LUCC) models frequently employ different accessibility measures as a proxy for human influence on land change processes. Here, we simulate deforestation in Peruvian Amazonia and evaluate different accessibility measures as LUCC model inputs. We demonstrate how the selection, and different combinations, of accessibility measures impact simulation results. Out of the individual measures, time distance to market center catches the essential aspects of accessibility in our study area. The most accurate simulation is achieved when time distance to market center is used in association with distance to transport network and additional landscape variables. Although traditional Euclidean measures result in clearly lower simulation accuracy when used separately, the combination of two complementary Euclidean measures enhances simulation accuracy significantly. Our results highlight the need for site and context sensitive selection of accessibility variables. More sophisticated accessibility measures can potentially improve LUCC models' spatial accuracy, which often remains low. PMID:24165869

  17. Rhodnius barretti, a new species of Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae from western Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Abad-Franch

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhodnius barretti , a new triatomine species, is described based on adult specimens collected in rainforest environments within the Napo ecoregion of western Amazonia (Colombia and Ecuador. R. barretti resembles Rhodnius robustus s.l. , but mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences reveal that it is a strongly divergent member of the “robustus lineage”, i.e., basal to the clade encompassing Rhodnius nasutus , Rhodnius neglectus , Rhodnius prolixus and five members of the R. robustus species complex. Morphometric analyses also reveal consistent divergence from R. robustus s.l. , including head and, as previously shown, wing shape and the length ratios of some anatomical structures. R. barretti occurs, often at high densities, in Attalea butyracea and Oenocarpus bataua palms. It is strikingly aggressive and adults may invade houses flying from peridomestic palms. R. barretti must therefore be regarded as a potential Trypanosoma cruzi vector in the Napo ecoregion, where Chagas disease is endemic.

  18. Forest Fires in Southwestern Amazonia During 2005: Extent and Distribution in Eastern Acre State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I.; Moulard, E. M.; Nakamura, J.; Schroeder, W.; Maldonado, M.; Vasconcelos, S. S.; Selhorst, D.

    2007-05-01

    The extended drought in western Amazonia during 2005 provided the conditions for wild fires that spread in old- growth rain forests and cleared areas of the contiguous areas of Madre de Dios, Peru, Acre, Brazil, and Pando, Bolivia, collectively known as the MAP Region. The greatest extent of the wild fires occurred in eastern Acre State with 60,000 km2 of diverse land uses that range from intensely occupied colonization areas, large cattle ranches, extractive and biological reserves and indigenous areas. At the request of the Public Ministry of Acre and other government agencies we analyzed Landsat 5 and CBERS 2 imagery for forests with canopies affected by fires, using visual interpretation and manual digitalization of polygons. Accuracy assessment was done with 180 aerial photos. The total area of forest with canopies affected by fires was 267,000 ha, roughly five times recent annual deforestation rates for Acre State. Omission and commission errors were 28% and 2%, respectively. Burn scars in non-forest areas were determined using ASTER and CBERS 2 imagery via supervised classification. Total open area with burn scars was 203,000 ha. The total of open area and forests affected by fires exceeded 470,000 ha due to three factors: (1) some images used did not include the last weeks of burning; (2) ground fires in forests that did not affect the canopy and therefore were not detected; and (3) concern of the interpreters to avoid commission errors. Of the twelve municipalities of eastern Acre, most affected were Acrelandia, Placido de Castro, Epitaciolandia with >31%, >19% and >17% of the municipality affected, respectively). The largest impact, >114,000 ha, occurred in the Rio Branco Municipality. Similar patterns of burning occurred in Pando and in Madre de Dios. The environmental, social and economic disaster that these fires produced may be a harbinger of future impacts in southwestern Amazonia if current climate predictions prove to be correct.

  19. Variation in photosynthetic and nonphotosynthetic vegetation along edaphic and compositional gradients in northwestern Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Higgins

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tropical forests vary substantially in aboveground properties such as canopy height, canopy structure, and plant species composition, corresponding to underlying variations in soils and geology. Forest properties are often difficult to detect and map in the field, however, due to the remoteness and inaccessibility of these forests. Spectral mixture analysis of Landsat imagery allows mapping of photosynthetic and nonphotosynthetic vegetation quantities (PV and NPV, corresponding to biophysical properties such as canopy openness, forest productivity, and disturbance. Spectral unmixing has been used for applications ranging from deforestation monitoring to identifying burn scars from past fires, but little is known about variations in PV and NPV in intact rainforest. Here we use spectral unmixing of Landsat imagery to map PV and NPV in northern Amazonia, and to test their relationship to soils and plant species composition. To do this we sampled 117 sites crossing a geological boundary in northwestern Amazonia for soil cation concentrations and plant species composition. We then used the Carnegie Landsat Analysis System to map PV and NPV for these sites from multiple dates of Landsat imagery. We found that soil cation concentrations and plant species composition consistently explain a majority of the variation in remotely sensed PV and NPV values. After combining PV and NPV into a single variable (PV-NPV, we determined that the influence of soil properties on canopy properties was inseparable from the influence of plant species composition. In all cases, patterns in PV and NPV corresponded to underlying geological patterns. Our findings suggest that geology and soils regulate canopy PV and NPV values in intact tropical forest, possibly through changes in plant species composition.

  20. Influence of Peruvian flat-subduction dynamics on the evolution of western Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakin, Caroline M.; Lithgow-Bertelloni, Carolina; Dávila, Federico M.

    2014-10-01

    Convection in the Earth's mantle is mainly driven by cold, dense subducting slabs, but relatively little is known about how 3D variations in slab morphology and buoyancy affect mantle flow or how the surface above deforms in response (i.e. dynamic topography). We investigate this problem by studying the dynamics of an active region of flat-slab subduction located in Peru in South America. Here the slab geometry is well known, based on the regional seismicity, and we have observations from the local geological record to validate our models. Of particular interest is the widespread subsidence and deposition of the Solimões Formation across western Amazonia that coincided with the development of the Peruvian flat-slab during the Mid-Late Miocene. This formation covers an extensive area from the foredeep to the Purus Arch located ∼2000 km away from the trench. Close to the Andes the preservation of several kilometers of sedimentary thicknesses can be easily accounted for by flexure. Based on an estimate of the Andean loading we predict 2.8 to 3.6 km of accommodation space that spans 100 km. The spatial and temporal history of the Solimões Formation however, particularly the thick distal foreland accumulations up to 1.2 km deep, can only be matched with the addition of a longer-wavelength dynamic source of topography. Following the transition from normal to flat subduction, we predict over 1 km of dynamic subsidence (∼1500 km wide) that propagates over 1000 km away from the trench, tracking the subduction leading edge. This is followed by a pulse of dynamic uplift over the flat segment behind it. We therefore propose that a combination of uplift, flexure and dynamic topography during slab flattening in Peru is responsible for the sedimentation history and landscape evolution of western Amazonia that eventually led to the configuration of the Amazon Drainage Basin we know today.

  1. Prehistorically modified soils of central Amazonia: a model for sustainable agriculture in the twenty-first century

    OpenAIRE

    Glaser, Bruno

    2006-01-01

    Terra Preta soils of central Amazonia exhibit approximately three times more soil organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorus and 70 times more charcoal compared to adjacent infertile soils. The Terra Preta soils were generated by pre-Columbian native populations by chance or intentionally adding large amounts of charred residues (charcoal), organic wastes, excrements and bones. In this paper, it is argued that generating new Terra Preta sites (‘Terra Preta nova’) could be the basis for sustainab...

  2. Biogeographic and diversification patterns of Neotropical Troidini butterflies (Papilionidae support a museum model of diversity dynamics for Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Condamine Fabien L

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The temporal and geographical diversification of Neotropical insects remains poorly understood because of the complex changes in geological and climatic conditions that occurred during the Cenozoic. To better understand extant patterns in Neotropical biodiversity, we investigated the evolutionary history of three Neotropical swallowtail Troidini genera (Papilionidae. First, DNA-based species delimitation analyses were conducted to assess species boundaries within Neotropical Troidini using an enlarged fragment of the standard barcode gene. Molecularly delineated species were then used to infer a time-calibrated species-level phylogeny based on a three-gene dataset and Bayesian dating analyses. The corresponding chronogram was used to explore their temporal and geographical diversification through distinct likelihood-based methods. Results The phylogeny for Neotropical Troidini was well resolved and strongly supported. Molecular dating and biogeographic analyses indicate that the extant lineages of Neotropical Troidini have a late Eocene (33–42 Ma origin in North America. Two independent lineages (Battus and Euryades + Parides reached South America via the GAARlandia temporary connection, and later became extinct in North America. They only began substantive diversification during the early Miocene in Amazonia. Macroevolutionary analysis supports the “museum model” of diversification, rather than Pleistocene refugia, as the best explanation for the diversification of these lineages. Conclusions This study demonstrates that: (i current Neotropical biodiversity may have originated ex situ; (ii the GAARlandia bridge was important in facilitating invasions of South America; (iii colonization of Amazonia initiated the crown diversification of these swallowtails; and (iv Amazonia is not only a species-rich region but also acted as a sanctuary for the dynamics of this diversity. In particular, Amazonia probably allowed

  3. Mapping hydrological environments in central Amazonia: ground validation and surface model based on SRTM DEM data corrected for deforestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Moulatlet

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important freely available digital elevation models (DEMs for Amazonia is the one obtained by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM. However, since SRTM tends to represent the vegetation surface instead of the ground surface, the broad use of SRTM DEM as a framework for terrain description in Amazonia is hampered by the presence of deforested areas. We present here two datasets: (1 a deforestation-corrected SRTM DEM for the interfluve between the Purus and Madeira rivers, in central Amazonia, which passed through a careful identification of different environments and has deforestation features corrected by a new method of increasing pixel values of the DEM; and (2 a set of eighteen hydrological-topographic descriptors based on the corrected SRTM DEM. The hydrological-topographic description was generated by the Height Above the Nearest Drainage (HAND algorithm, which normalizes the terrain elevation (a.s.l. by the elevation of the nearest hydrologically connected drainage. The validation of the HAND dataset was done by in situ hydrological description of 110 km of walking trails also available in this dataset. The new SRTM DEM expands the applicability of SRTM data for landscape modelling; and the datasets of hydrological features based on topographic modelling is undoubtedly appropriate for ecological modelling and an important contribution for environmental mapping of Amazonia. The deforestation-corrected SRTM DEM is available at http://ppbio.inpa.gov.br/knb/metacat/naman.318.3/ppbio; the polygons selected for deforestation correction are available at http://ppbio.inpa.gov.br/knb/metacat/naman.317.3/ppbio; the set of hydrological-topographic descriptors is available at http://ppbio.inpa.gov.br/knb/metacat/naman.544.2/ppbio; and the environmental description of access trails is available at http://ppbio.inpa.gov.br/knb/metacat/naman.541.2/ppbio.

  4. Disentangling the contribution of multiple land covers to fire‐mediated carbon emissions in Amazonia during the 2010 drought

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Liana; Aragão, Luiz; Gloor, Emanuel; Saatchi, Sassan; Malhi, Yadvinder; Barlow, Bernard Josiah; De Berenguer Cesar, Erika

    2015-01-01

    In less than 15 years, the Amazon region experienced three major droughts. Links between droughts and fires have been demonstrated for the 1997/1998, 2005, and 2010 droughts. In 2010, emissions of 510 ± 120 Tg C were associated to fire alone in Amazonia. Existing approaches have, however, not yet disentangled the proportional contribution of multiple land cover sources to this total. We develop a novel integration of multisensor and multitemporal satellite-derived data on land cover, active f...

  5. Ecological Adaptation of Wild Peach Palm, Its In Situ Conservation and Deforestation-Mediated Extinction in Southern Brazilian Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Charles R. Clement; Ronaldo P. Santos; Desmouliere, Sylvain J. M.; Ferreira, Evandro J. L.; Neto, João Tomé Farias

    2009-01-01

    Background The Arc of Fire across southern Amazonia seasonally attracts worldwide attention as forests are cut and burned for agricultural expansion. These forests contain numerous wild relatives of native South American crops, such as peach palm. Methodology/Principal Findings Our prospecting expeditions examined critical areas for wild peach palm in the Arc of Fire in Mato Grosso, Pará, Maranhão and Tocantins, as well as areas not previously examined in Amazonas and Amapá states. Recent dig...

  6. Landscape Dynamics in Northwestern Amazonia: An Assessment of Pastures, Fire and Illicit Crops as Drivers of Tropical Deforestation

    OpenAIRE

    Dolors Armenteras; Nelly Rodríguez; Javier Retana

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have identified drivers of deforestation throughout the tropics and, in most cases, have recognised differences in the level of threat. However, only a few have also looked at the temporal and spatial dynamics by which those drivers act, which is critical for assessing the conservation of biodiversity as well as for landscape planning. In this study, we analyse land cover change between 2000 and 2009 in north-western Colombian Amazonia to identify the interactions between the use...

  7. Reproducing the organic matter model of anthropogenic dark earth of Amazonia and testing the ecotoxicity of functionalized charcoal compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Rodrigues Linhares; Jasmin Lemke; Ruben Auccaise; Daniele Avilez Duó; Roberta Lourenço Ziolli; Witold Kwapinski; Etelvino Henrique Novotny

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to obtain organic compounds similar to the ones found in the organic matter of anthropogenic dark earth of Amazonia (ADE) using a chemical functionalization procedure on activated charcoal, as well as to determine their ecotoxicity. Based on the study of the organic matter from ADE, an organic model was proposed and an attempt to reproduce it was described. Activated charcoal was oxidized with the use of sodium hypochlorite at different concentrations. Nuclear m...

  8. Aerosol and precipitation chemistry in a remote site in Central Amazonia: the role of biogenic contribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pauliquevis

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A long-term (2–3 years measurement of aerosol and precipitation chemistry was carried out in a remote site in Central Amazonia, Balbina, (1°55' S, 59°29' W, 174 m above sea level, about 200 km north of Manaus city. Aerosols were sampled using stacked filter units (SFU, which separate fine (d<2.5 μm and coarse mode (2.5 μm10 concentration during the wet season. Natural biogenic aerosol also dominates the fine mode in the wet season, with very low concentrations (average 2.2 μg/m3. Large-scale transport of smoke from biomass burning was the second most important contribution, reaching 77% of fine mode particulate mass during the dry season. Soil dust was responsible by a minor fraction of the aerosol mass (less than 17%. Rainwater chemistry was controlled by biogenic emissions. The volume-weighted mean (VWM pH was 4.90. The most important contribution to acidity was weak organic acids. The organic acidity was predominantly associated with the presence of acetic acid, instead of formic acid which is more often observed in pristine tropical areas. Deposition rates for major species did not differ significantly between dry and wet season, except for NH4+ and acetate, which had smaller deposition rates during dry season. While biomass burning emissions were clearly identified in the aerosol component, it was not possible to discern any presence of biomass burning emissions in rainwater chemistry. The long-range transport of sea salt and biogenic particles was observed both in

  9. Seasonality of Isoprenoid Vertical Gradient Within a Primary Rainforest in Central Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, E. G.; Jardine, K.; Tota, J.; Jardine, A. B.; Yanez-Serrano, A. M.; Karl, T.; Guenther, A. B.; Tavares, J. V.; Nelson, B. W.

    2014-12-01

    Vertical mixing ratio gradients of isoprene, total monoterpenes (TMt) and total sesquiterpenes (TSt) were quantified, within and above the canopy, in a primary rainforest in central Amazonia , using a Proton Transfer Reaction - Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS). We also estimated the fluxes of these compounds from the canopy into the atmosphere. Measurements were carried out from the dry season (Sept/2010) to the wet season (Jan/2011), continuously. All compound mixing ratios were higher during the dry season than during the wet season; the same behavior was observed for ambient air temperature and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Isoprene and TMt mixing ratios were higher within the canopy as compared to near the ground and above the canopy. Daytime TSt mixing ratios were higher near the ground than within and above the canopy. Isoprene and TMt had a diurnal cycle similar to diurnal cycles of air temperature and PAR suggesting that the emission of these compounds are light dependent and stimulated by increasing temperature. However, this same behavior was not observed for TSt. This is probably due to the fact that sesquiterpene emissions are not strongly light dependent; the ozonolysis of sesquiterpenes during daytime could reduce ambient sesquiterpene concentrations; and a less turbulent atmospheric boundary layer during nighttime could make the mixing ratio of sesquiterpenes higher near the surface at nighttime. Daytime flux estimations also presented seasonal variation for the fluxes of all compounds, such that fluxes of: isoprene ranged from 0.4 to 1.5 mg m-2 h-1, TMt ranged from 0.2 to 0.8 mg m-2 h-1, and TSt ranged from 0.1 to 0.25 mg m-2 h-1, being the highest end during the dry season. These flux estimations suggested that the canopy could be the main source of those compounds for the atmosphere for all seasons. Our results provide the first in situ observations of seasonal mixing ratio gradients of isoprenoids in central Amazonia, and suggest that some

  10. Human Strategies for Coping with El Nino Related Drought in Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, E.F. [Anthropological Center for Training in Global Environmental Change ACT, Indiana University, Bloomington (United States); Adams, R. [Center for the Study of Population, Institutions, and Environmental Change CIPEC, Indiana University, Bloomington (United States); Bakoyema, B.; Fiorini, S.T. [Anthropology Department, Indiana University, Bloomington (United States); Boucek, B. [Geography Department, Indiana University, Bloomington (United States)

    2006-08-15

    This article reports on findings of a research project examining farmers' coping strategies in the Brazilian Amazon in response to El Nino related weather events. We examine the extent of vulnerability of small and large farmers to these events in a tropical rainforest environment. Little attention has been given to the impact of ENSO events in Amazonia, despite evidence for devastating fires during ENSOs. Although we found a range of locally developed forecasting techniques and coping mechanisms, farmers have sustained significant losses, and we suggest that increased access to scientific forecasts would greatly enhance the ability of the farmers in our study area to cope with El Nino related weather events. In Amazonia the El Nino phase of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) climate pattern leads to an extended period of reduced rainfall (Hobbs et al., 1998). This period of reduced rainfall can result in significant agricultural losses for farmers and ranchers in the area and in increased forest flammability. We have found that the majority of our study population uses several methods of forecasting, coping with, and adapting to drought events - and they recognize the economic losses they can experience and the loss of forests through the accidental spread of fire. The poorest farmers in our study area experience El Nino related drought events as a serious threat to their livelihoods. Their vulnerability is heightened during extreme climate events and our observations revealed that all of the farmers in our study would benefit from increased availability of improved forecast information relevant to their locality and their current farming strategies. This paper examines the availability and use of forecasts, the occurrence of accidental fires and techniques to prevent fire related losses, and the coping mechanisms for dealing with El Nino related drought in the agricultural regions surrounding the cities of Altamira and Santarem, in Para State, Brazil

  11. Extreme seasonal droughts and floods in Amazonia: causes, trends and impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    J. A. Marengo * and J. C. Espinoza** * Centro Nacional de Monitoramento e Alerta de Desastres Naturais, Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação, Sao Paulo, Brazil ** Subdirección de Ciencias de la Atmósfera e Hidrósfera (SCAH), Instituto Geofísico del Perú, Lima, Peru This paper reviews recent progress in the study and understanding of extreme seasonal events in the Amazon region, focusing on drought and floods. The review includes a history of droughts and floods in the past, in the present and some discussions on future extremes in the context of climate change and its impacts on the Amazon region. Several extreme hydrological events, some of them characterized as 'once in a century', have been reported in the Amazon region during the last decade. While abundant rainfall in various sectors of the basin has determined extreme floods along the river's main stem in 1953, 1989, 1999, 2009, 2012-2015, deficient rainfall in 1912, 1926, 1963, 1980, 1983, 1995, 1997, 1998, 2005 and 2010 has caused anomalously low river levels, and an increase in the risk and number of fires in the region, with consequences for humans. This is consistent with changes in the variability of the hydrometeorology of the basin and suggests that extreme hydrological events have been more frequent in the last two decades. Some of these intense/reduced rainfalls and subsequent floods/droughts were associated (but not exclusively) with La Niña/El Niño events. In addition, moisture transport anomalies from the tropical Atlantic into Amazonia, and from northern to southern Amazonia alter the water cycle in the region year-to-year. We also assess the impacts of such extremes on natural and human systems in the region, considering ecological, economic and societal impacts in urban and rural areas, particularly during the recent decades. In the context of the future climate change, studies show a large range of uncertainty, but suggest that drought might intensify through the 21st

  12. Regional-scale drivers of forest structure and function in northwestern Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Higgins

    Full Text Available Field studies in Amazonia have found a relationship at continental scales between soil fertility and broad trends in forest structure and function. Little is known at regional scales, however, about how discrete patterns in forest structure or functional attributes map onto underlying edaphic or geological patterns. We collected airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging data and VSWIR (Visible to Shortwave Infrared imaging spectroscopy measurements over 600 km2 of northwestern Amazonian lowland forests. We also established 83 inventories of plant species composition and soil properties, distributed between two widespread geological formations. Using these data, we mapped forest structure and canopy reflectance, and compared them to patterns in plant species composition, soils, and underlying geology. We found that variations in soils and species composition explained up to 70% of variation in canopy height, and corresponded to profound changes in forest vertical profiles. We further found that soils and plant species composition explained more than 90% of the variation in canopy reflectance as measured by imaging spectroscopy, indicating edaphic and compositional control of canopy chemical properties. We last found that soils explained between 30% and 70% of the variation in gap frequency in these forests, depending on the height threshold used to define gaps. Our findings indicate that a relatively small number of edaphic and compositional variables, corresponding to underlying geology, may be responsible for variations in canopy structure and chemistry over large expanses of Amazonian forest.

  13. Lipid Oxidation Inhibitory Effects and Phenolic Composition of Aqueous Extracts from Medicinal Plants of Colombian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ignacio Ruiz-Sanz

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Diverse plants of ethnobotanic interest in Amazonia are commonly used in traditional medicine. We determined the antioxidant potential against lipid peroxidation, the antimicrobial activity, and the polyphenol composition of several Amazonian plants (Brownea rosademonte, Piper glandulosissimum, Piper krukoffii, Piper putumayoense, Solanum grandiflorum, and Vismia baccifera. Extracts from the plant leaf, bark, and stem were prepared as aqueous infusions, as used in folk medicine, and added to rat liver microsomes exposed to iron. The polyphenolic composition was detected by reverse-phase HPLC coupled to diode-array detector and MS/MS analysis. The antimicrobial activity was tested by the spot-on-a-lawn method against several indicator microorganisms. All the extracts inhibited lipid oxidation, except the P. glandulosissimum stem. The plant extracts exhibiting high antioxidant potential (V. baccifera and B. rosademonte contained high levels of flavanols (particularly, catechin and epicatechin. By contrast, S. grandiflorum leaf, which exhibited very low antioxidant activity, was rich in hydroxycinnamic acids. None of the extracts showed antimicrobial activity. This study demonstrates for the first time the presence of bioactive polyphenolic compounds in several Amazonian plants, and highlights the importance of flavanols as major phenolic contributors to antioxidant activity.

  14. Tersilochinae of Western Amazonia (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). Genus Stethantyx Townes, part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaim, Andrey I; Sääksjärvi, Ilari E; Bordera, Santiago

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we describe four new species of Stethantyx Townes (Ichneumonidae: Tersilochinae) from Ecuador and Peru characterized by the fore wing with first and second abscissae of radius meeting at right angle: S. erwini Khalaim & Sääksjärvi, sp. nov., S. radiata Khalaim & Sääksjärvi, sp. nov., S. rufispa Khalaim & Bordera, sp. nov. and S. undulata Khalaim & Sääksjärvi, sp. nov. Second part of the key to species of Stethantyx occurring in Western Amazonia is given. Additionally, S. altamira Khalaim & Broad and S. aprica Khalaim & Broad are recorded from South America for the first time, and new data on distribution of S. alajuela Khalaim & Broad, S. amazonica Khalaim & Sääksjärvi, S. heredia Kha-laim & Broad, S. orellana Khalaim & Sääksjärvi, S. sinuata Khalaim & Sääksjärvi and S. trepida Khalaim & Sääksjärvi in South America are provided. Male of S. orellana is recorded for the first time. PMID:26249980

  15. Environmental changes in the western Amazonia: morphological framework, geochemistry, palynology and radiocarbon dating data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horbe, Adriana M.C., E-mail: ahorbe@ufam.edu.b [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Dept. de Geociencias; Behling, Hermann [Georg August Universitaet Goettingen (Germany). Albrecht von Haller Institut fuer Pflanzenwissenschaften. Abteilung fuer Palynologie und Klimadynamik; Nogueira, Afonso C.R. [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias; Mapes, Russell [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States). Dept. of Geological Science

    2011-09-15

    The sediments from the Coari lake, a 'terra firme' lake sculpted into Plio-Pleistocene deposits, and the Acara lake, a flooding-type lake developed on Quaternary sediments in the flood plain of the mid-Solimoes river, in the western Amazonia, Brazil, were studied to investigate the environmental condition of their developing. This study includes mineral composition, geochemistry, Pb isotope, palynology, radiocarbon-age and morphological framework of the lakes obtained from SRTM satellite images. The geological and the environmental conditions in the two lakes are highly variable and suggest that their evolution reflect autogenic processes under humid rain forest condition. Although kaolinite, quartz, muscovite, illite, and smectite are the main minerals in both lakes, the geochemistry indicates distinct source, the Acara lake sediments have higher concentrations of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, FeO, CaO, K{sub 2}O, MgO, Na{sub 2}O, P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, Ba, V, Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb, Sr, Li, Y and La and have more radiogenic Pb than the Coari lake sediments. The radiocarbon ages suggest that at 10160 yr BP the Coari lake started to be developed due to avulsion of the Solimoes river, and the Acara lake was formed by the meander abandonment of Solimoes river retaining its grass dominated shore at ca. 3710 yr BP. (author)

  16. Late Miocene sedimentary environments in south-western Amazonia (Solimões Formation; Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Martin; Piller, Werner E.; Ramos, Maria Ines; Douglas da Silva Paz, Jackson

    2011-08-01

    In Miocene times a vast wetland existed in Western Amazonia. Whereas the general development of this amazing ecosystem is well established, many questions remain open on sedimentary environments, stratigraphical correlations as well as its palaeogeographical configuration. Several outcrops located in a barely studied region around Eirunepé (SW Amazonas state, Brazil) were investigated to obtain basic sedimentological data. The observed deposits belong to the upper part of the Solimões Formation and are biostratigraphically dated to the Late Miocene. Vertically as well as laterally highly variable fine-grained clastic successions were recorded. Based on the lithofacies assemblages, these sediments represent fluvial deposits, possibly of an anastomosing river system. Sand bodies formed within active channels and dominant overbank fines are described (levees, crevasse splays/channels/deltas, abandoned channels, backswamps, floodplain paleosols). Lacustrine environments are restricted to local floodplain ponds/lakes. The mollusc and ostracod content as well as very light δ18O and δ13C values, measured on ostracod valves, refer to exclusively freshwater conditions. Based on palaeontological and geological results the existence of a long-lived lake (“Lake Pebas”) or any influx of marine waters can be excluded for that region during the Late Miocene.

  17. Modeling small watersheds in Brazilian Amazonia with shuttle radar topographic mission-90 m data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeriano, Márcio M.; Kuplich, Tatiana M.; Storino, Moisés; Amaral, Benedito D.; Mendes, Jaime N.; Lima, Dayson J.

    2006-10-01

    This work presents a methodology for the refinement of shuttle radar topographic mission (SRTM-90 m) data available for South America to enable detailed watershed studies in Amazonia. The original data were pre-processed to properly map detailed low-order drainage features and allowed digital estimates of morphometric variables. Spatial-resolution refinement (3″ to 1″, or ˜90 to ˜30 m) through data kriging was found to be an interesting solution to construct digital elevation models (DEMs) with more adequate presentation of landforms than the original data. The refinement of spatial resolution by kriging interpolation overcame the main constraints for drainage modeling with original SRTM-90 m, such as spatial randomness, artifacts and unrealistic presentation due to pixel size. Kriging with a Gaussian semivariogram model caused a smoothing of the resulting DEM, but the main features for drainage modeling were preserved. Canopy effects on the modeled surface represented the main remaining limitation for terrain analysis after pre-processing. Data regarding a small watershed in Amazonas (˜38 km 2), Brazil, were evaluated through visualization techniques, morphometric analyses and plot diagrams of the results. The data showed limitations for use in the original form, but could be applied for watershed modeling at relatively detailed scales after the described pre-processing.

  18. Megafans and Trumpeter Bird Biodiversity-Psophia Phylogeography and Landscape Evolution in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Justin

    2014-01-01

    Based on geomorphic character and mapped geology, geologists have interpreted the landscape surrounding the Andes Mountains as becoming progressively younger to the East. These sedimentary materials filled the late Miocene swampland that formerly occupied central and western Amazonia. Apart from the ancient landscapes of the Guiana Highlands (top right, figure 1a), Zone Ac is the oldest, followed by Zone Aw, within which megafan Jw is older than megafan Je (figure 1a). DNA-based paleogeography of the trumpeters shows that younger clades diverge from parent lineages with increasing distance from the Andes chain. Thus, Psophia napensis diverges from the P. crepitans parent, and P. ochroptera diverges from P. napensis. The P. ochroptera population is confined solely to the Je megafan (figure 1a). The same trend is seen on the south side of the Amazon depression. Since the timing of the events seems to be of exactly the same order [post-Miocene for the land surfaces and trumpeter divergence within the last 3 million years (figure 1d)], it seems reasonable to think that the megafans provided the substrate on which new bird lineages could speciate. Such physical controls of evolution are becoming more important in the understanding of biodiversity.

  19. The legacy of the Pleistocene megafauna extinctions on nutrient availability in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Christopher E.; Wolf, Adam; Malhi, Yadvinder

    2013-09-01

    In the late Pleistocene, 97 genera of large animals went extinct, concentrated in the Americas and Australia. These extinctions had significant effects on ecosystem structure, seed dispersal and land surface albedo. However, the impact of this dramatic extinction on ecosystem nutrient biogeochemistry, through the lateral transport of dung and bodies, has never been explored. Here we analyse this process using a novel mathematical framework that analyses this lateral transport as a diffusion-like process, and we demonstrate that large animals play a disproportionately large role in the horizontal transfer of nutrients across landscapes. For example, we estimate that the extinction of the Amazonian megafauna decreased the lateral flux of the limiting nutrient phosphorus by more than 98%, with similar, though less extreme, decreases in all continents outside of Africa. This resulted in strong decreases in phosphorus availability in eastern Amazonia away from fertile floodplains, a decline which may still be ongoing. The current P limitation in the Amazon basin may be partially a relic of an ecosystem without the functional connectivity it once had. We argue that the Pleistocene megafauna extinctions resulted in large and ongoing disruptions to terrestrial biogeochemical cycling at continental scales and increased nutrient heterogeneity globally.

  20. Biomass estimation of Triplectides egleri Sattler (Trichoptera, Leptoceridae in a stream at Ducke Reserve, Central Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Gomes de Brito

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Biomass is a fundamental measure for understanding the structure and functioning (e.g. fluxes of energy and nutrients in the food chain of aquatic ecosystems. We aim to provide predictive models to estimate the biomass of Triplectides egleri Sattler, 1963, in a stream in Central Amazonia, based on body and case dimensions. We used body length, head-capsule width, interocular distance and case length and width to derive biomass estimations. Linear, exponential and power regression models were used to assess the relationship between biomass and body or case dimensions. All regression models used in the biomass estimation of T. egleri were significant. The best fit between biomass and body or case dimensions was obtained using the power model, followed by the exponential and linear models. Body length provided the best estimate of biomass. However, the dimensions of sclerotized structures (interocular distance and head-capsule width also provided good biomass predictions, and may be useful in estimating biomass of preserved and/or damaged material. Case width was the dimension of the case that provided the best estimate of biomass. Despite the low relation, case width may be useful in studies that require low stress on individuals.

  1. Environmental changes in the western Amazonia: morphological framework, geochemistry, palynology and radiocarbon dating data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sediments from the Coari lake, a 'terra firme' lake sculpted into Plio-Pleistocene deposits, and the Acara lake, a flooding-type lake developed on Quaternary sediments in the flood plain of the mid-Solimoes river, in the western Amazonia, Brazil, were studied to investigate the environmental condition of their developing. This study includes mineral composition, geochemistry, Pb isotope, palinology, radiocarbon-age and morphological framework of the lakes obtained from SRTM satellite images. The geological and the environmental conditions in the two lakes are highly variable and suggest that their evolution reflect autogenic processes under humid rain forest condition. Although kaolinite, quartz, muscovite, illite, and smectite are the main minerals in both lakes, the geochemistry indicates distinct source, the Acara lake sediments have higher concentrations of Al2O3, Fe2O3, Fe O, Ca O, K2O, Mg O, Na2O, P2O5, Ba, V, Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb, Sr, Li, Y and La and have more radiogenic Pb than the Coari lake sediments. The radiocarbon ages suggest that at 10160 yr BP the Coari lake started to be developed due to avulsion of the Solimoes river, and the Acara lake was formed by the meander abandonment of Solimoes river retaining its grass dominated shore at ca. 3710 yr BP. (author)

  2. Environmental changes in the western Amazonia: morphological framework, geochemistry, palynology and radiocarbon dating data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sediments from the Coari lake, a 'terra firme' lake sculpted into Plio-Pleistocene deposits, and the Acara lake, a flooding-type lake developed on Quaternary sediments in the flood plain of the mid-Solimoes river, in the western Amazonia, Brazil, were studied to investigate the environmental condition of their developing. This study includes mineral composition, geochemistry, Pb isotope, palynology, radiocarbon-age and morphological framework of the lakes obtained from SRTM satellite images. The geological and the environmental conditions in the two lakes are highly variable and suggest that their evolution reflect autogenic processes under humid rain forest condition. Although kaolinite, quartz, muscovite, illite, and smectite are the main minerals in both lakes, the geochemistry indicates distinct source, the Acara lake sediments have higher concentrations of Al2O3, Fe2O3, FeO, CaO, K2O, MgO, Na2O, P2O5, Ba, V, Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb, Sr, Li, Y and La and have more radiogenic Pb than the Coari lake sediments. The radiocarbon ages suggest that at 10160 yr BP the Coari lake started to be developed due to avulsion of the Solimoes river, and the Acara lake was formed by the meander abandonment of Solimoes river retaining its grass dominated shore at ca. 3710 yr BP. (author)

  3. Responses of Aquatic Saproxylic Macroinvertebrates to Reduced-Impact Logging in Central Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, F O; Escarpinati, S C; Valente-Neto, F; Hamada, N

    2015-08-01

    Reduced-impact logging (RIL) is an alternative land use because it reduces damage to forest cover in comparison with clear-cut practices. However, management practices adopted in RIL can affect wood availability and, consequently, fauna associated with dead wood during part of their life cycle (saproxylic). In this study, we evaluated whether aquatic saproxylic macroinvertebrates are affected by reduced-impact logging in Central Amazonia. We selected six streams in areas under reduced-impacted logging and six in primary forest areas and collected submerged woody debris. We did not find any differences in water pH, conductivity, and wood availability between reduced-impacted forest and primary forest streams. We found 248 saproxylic aquatic macroinvertebrates belonging to 37 taxa. We found five wood specialist (Dryops, Lutrochus, Stenochironomus, Oukuriella, and Endotribelos) and 32 generalists, totalling 98 and 150 individuals, respectively. In general, our results show that reduced-impact logging does not affect richness, abundance, and composition of saproxylic macroinvertebrates. The main explanation for this pattern is that management practices do not change important macroinvertebrate niche dimensions, including wood availability and the water's chemical and physical variables. Thus, controlled logging, such as applied in the area of the Central Amazonian streams studied, opens a new prospect for insect conservation and commercial exploitation of wood, which is not possible when clear-cut practices are adopted. PMID:26174960

  4. Open access to information bridges science and development in Amazonia: lessons of the SIAMAZONIA service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Access to and availability of accurate information has often been stated to play an important role in sustainable environmental management. There is a growing trend of setting up internet-based information services to support the availability of relevant information. The current initiatives that aim to facilitate such information sharing through the web are still, however, often premature and unable to ensure constant flow of data from producers to users. We examine these common challenges by using as an example a network-based facility of biodiversity and environmental information about the Peruvian Amazon region called SIAMAZONIA. Launched in 2001, the service includes data provided by 13 different nodes. The experiences of this initiative have been both encouraging and confusing. A good professional level has been reached, but participation by large information holders is impeded. Participation is obviously considered an additional task rather than an attractive option for enhanced performance at the individual or institutional levels. This dilemma reflects a genuine problem in the modern scientific community, which still lacks agreed ways to reward those who share their data and results through the web. If these problems are solved, internet-based information sharing may become a vital resource for environmental management in Amazonia and also elsewhere

  5. Vegetation and hydrology changes in Eastern Amazonia inferred from a pollen record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Mauro B de; Bush, Mark B

    2008-03-01

    Pollen, charcoal, and C14 analyses were performed on a sediment core obtained from Lake Tapera (Amapá) to provide the palaeoenvironmental history of this part of Amazonia. A multivariate analysis technique, Detrended Correspondence Analysis, was applied to the pollen data to improve visualization of sample distribution and similarity. A sedimentary hiatus lasting 5,500 years was identified in the Lake Tapera. Because the timing of the hiatus overlapped with the highest Holocene sea-level, which would have increased the local water table preventing the lake from drying out, it is clear that sea-level was not important in maintaining the lake level. Lake Tapera probably depended on riverine flood waters, and the sedimentary gap was caused by reduced Amazon River discharge, due to an extremely dry period in the Andes (8,000-5,000 years BP), when precipitation levels markedly decreased. The lack of Andean pollen (river transported) in the record after this event supports this interpretation. The pollen analysis shows that when sedimentation resumed in 1,620 cal. years BP, the vegetation around the lake was changed from forest into savanna. This record demonstrates the need to improve our understanding of climate changes and their associated impacts on vegetation dynamics. PMID:18345387

  6. Tropical Continental Convection (Amazonia and the North American Monsoon): Unique Observations from GPS Meteorological Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    The complex interactions/feedbacks between water vapor fields and deep atmospheric convection remain one of the outstanding problems in Tropical Meteorology. The lack of high spatial/temporal resolution, all-weather observations in the Tropics has hampered progress. In this talk, we present results employing GPS meteorology from two topographically/climatologically unique Tropical Continental regimes: Central Amazonia and the Sierra Madre Occidental of Mexico. Specifically, we presents results on the shallow-to-deep convective transition from both regimes in addition to employing water vapor convergence as a proxy variable for convective intensity. Results from both convective regimes reveal an approximately 4-hour timescale of intense water vapor convergence associated with the transition from shallow to deep precipitating convection. This water vapor convergence time scale provides a useful metric for both high resolution and global climate models to replicate. Furthermore, we examime convective intensity from both regimes (defined utilizing lightning data, cloud top temperature or precipitation), which is also characterized by the time-rate-of-change of precipitable water vapor. The relationship between the time-rate-of-change of precipitable water vapor and convective intensity is positive, however, with a large amount spread in the data and some dependence on the regime and topography.

  7. Polyspecific associations between squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) and other primates in eastern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Tatyana; Ferrari, Stephen F; Lopes, Maria Aparecida

    2011-11-01

    One of the most common types of polyspecific association observed in Neotropical primate communities is that between squirrel monkeys (Saimiri) and capuchins (Cebus). The present study focused on association patterns in two Saimiri sciureus groups in eastern Brazilian Amazonia, between March and October, 2009. The associations were analyzed in terms of the species involved, the degree of association, and niche breadth and overlap. The study involved two S. sciureus groups (B4 and GI) on the right and left bank of the Tocantins River, respectively, within the area of the Tucuruí reservoir in southeastern Pará. Relations between species were classified as associations (individuals within 50 m and moving in the same direction), and encounters (individuals within 50 m and no coordinated movement). Group B4 was in association with Cebus apella during 100% of monitoring, and with Chiropotes satanas in 20.2%. By contrast, Group GI associated with Cebus 54.8% of the time, and with Chiropotes utahickae 2.5%. Encounters with Alouatta belzebul and Saguinus niger were recorded at both sites, with Aotus azarae and Dasyprocta prymnolopha at B4, and with Callicebus moloch, Dasyproct aleporina, Mazama gouazoubira, and Nasua nasua at GI. Overall, Saimiri had a broader niche than Cebus in terms of vertical spacing and diet, but not for substrate use. This pattern did not appear to be affected by association. While group GI spent significantly (P foraging patterns at the two sites, and the varying potential benefits of association for Saimiri. PMID:21809365

  8. Environmental Costs of Government-Sponsored Agrarian Settlements in Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Maurício; Peres, Carlos A

    2015-01-01

    Brazil has presided over the most comprehensive agrarian reform frontier colonization program on Earth, in which ~1.2 million settlers have been translocated by successive governments since the 1970's, mostly into forested hinterlands of Brazilian Amazonia. These settlements encompass 5.3% of this ~5 million km2 region, but have contributed with 13.5% of all land conversion into agropastoral land uses. The Brazilian Federal Agrarian Agency (INCRA) has repeatedly claimed that deforestation in these areas largely predates the sanctioned arrival of new settlers. Here, we quantify rates of natural vegetation conversion across 1911 agrarian settlements allocated to 568 Amazonian counties and compare fire incidence and deforestation rates before and after the official occupation of settlements by migrant farmers. The timing and spatial distribution of deforestation and fires in our analysis provides irrefutable chronological and spatially explicit evidence of agropastoral conversion both inside and immediately outside agrarian settlements over the last decade. Deforestation rates are strongly related to local human population density and road access to regional markets. Agrarian settlements consistently accelerated rates of deforestation and fires, compared to neighboring areas outside settlements, but within the same counties. Relocated smallholders allocated to forest areas undoubtedly operate as pivotal agents of deforestation, and most of the forest clearance occurs in the aftermath of government-induced migration. PMID:26247467

  9. Environmental Costs of Government-Sponsored Agrarian Settlements in Brazilian Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Schneider

    Full Text Available Brazil has presided over the most comprehensive agrarian reform frontier colonization program on Earth, in which ~1.2 million settlers have been translocated by successive governments since the 1970's, mostly into forested hinterlands of Brazilian Amazonia. These settlements encompass 5.3% of this ~5 million km2 region, but have contributed with 13.5% of all land conversion into agropastoral land uses. The Brazilian Federal Agrarian Agency (INCRA has repeatedly claimed that deforestation in these areas largely predates the sanctioned arrival of new settlers. Here, we quantify rates of natural vegetation conversion across 1911 agrarian settlements allocated to 568 Amazonian counties and compare fire incidence and deforestation rates before and after the official occupation of settlements by migrant farmers. The timing and spatial distribution of deforestation and fires in our analysis provides irrefutable chronological and spatially explicit evidence of agropastoral conversion both inside and immediately outside agrarian settlements over the last decade. Deforestation rates are strongly related to local human population density and road access to regional markets. Agrarian settlements consistently accelerated rates of deforestation and fires, compared to neighboring areas outside settlements, but within the same counties. Relocated smallholders allocated to forest areas undoubtedly operate as pivotal agents of deforestation, and most of the forest clearance occurs in the aftermath of government-induced migration.

  10. Meso-scale effects of tropical deforestation in Amazonia: preparatory LBA modelling studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolman, A.J.; Ashby, M.; Kabat, P. [DLO, Wageningen (Netherlands). Winand Staring Centre; Silva Dias, M.A. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil); Calvet, J.-C.; Delire, C. [Centre National de Recherches Meteorologiques, 31 - Toulouse (France); Tahara, A.S.; Nobre, C.A. [INPE/CPTEC, Cachoeira Paulista (Brazil). Centro de Previsao de Tempo e Estidps Climaticos; Fisch, G.A. [Centro Tecnico Aerospacial, Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil)

    1999-08-01

    As part of the preparation for the large-scale biosphere atmosphere experiment in amazonia, a mesoscale modelling study was executed to highlight deficiencies in the current understanding of land surface atmosphere interaction at local to subcontinental scales in the dry season. Mesoscale models were run in 1D and 3D mode for the area of Rondonia State, Brazil. The important conclusions are that without calibration it is difficult to model the energy partitioning of pasture; modelling that of forest is easier due to the absence of a strong moisture deficit signal. The simulation of the boundary layer above forest is good, above deforested areas (pasture) poor. The models` underestimate of the temperature of the boundary layer is likely to be caused by the neglect of the radiative effects of aerosols caused by biomass burning, but other factors such as lack of sufficient entrainment in the model at the mixed layer top may also contribute. The Andes generate patterns of subsidence and gravity waves, the effects of which are felt far into the Rondonian area. The results show that the picture presented by GCM modelling studies may need to be balanced by an increased understanding of what happens at the mesoscale. The results are used to identify key measurements for the LBA atmospheric mesoscale campaign needed to improve the model simulations. Similar modelling studies are proposed for the wet season in Rondonia, when convection plays a major role. (orig.) 39 refs.

  11. Urban Forest and Rural Cities: Multi-sited Households, Consumption Patterns, and Forest Resources in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin R. Sears

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In much of the Amazon Basin, approximately 70% of the population lives in urban areas and urbanward migration continues. Based on data collected over more than a decade in two long-settled regions of Amazonia, we find that rural–urban migration in the region is an extended and complex process. Like recent rural–urban migrants worldwide, Amazonian migrants, although they may be counted as urban residents, are often not absent from rural areas but remain members of multi-sited households and continue to participate in rural–urban networks and in rural land-use decisions. Our research indicates that, despite their general poverty, these migrants have affected urban markets for both food and construction materials. We present two cases: that of açaí palm fruit in the estuary of the Amazon and of cheap construction timbers in the Peruvian Amazon. We find that many new Amazonian rural–urban migrants have maintained some important rural patterns of both consumption and knowledge. Through their consumer behavior, they are affecting the areal extent of forests; in the two floodplain regions discussed, tree cover is increasing. We also find changes in forest composition, reflecting the persistence of rural consumption patterns in cities resulting in increased demand for and production of açaí and cheap timber species.

  12. Brazil nut harvesting in Peruvian Amazonia from the perspective of ecosystem services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risto Kalliola

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil nuts are harvested from the primary rainforests in the Amazonian lowlands as a direct form of sustainably using the region’s biological resources. We analyze the ecological economics of Brazil nut production in the Peruvian region of Madre de Dios where nut extraction occurs on hundreds of small-holder concessions operating under long-term agreements. This activity sustains locally important economies that suffer from small volumes and high seasonality. The size and the remoteness of the NTFP concession determine much of its profitability to concessionaires. Seasonality of the harvest generates short-term income peaks for the majority of collectors. The fragility of the Brazil nut economy in the region is compounded by volatile market prices and the overall development pressures in Amazonia, which usually involve deforestation. Although the current regulatory mechanisms in Peru encourage long-term Brazil nut production in concessions, the income level is seldom high enough to help concession-owners to rise from poverty. Auxiliary financial support based on compensations for the non-valued ecosystem services provided by the forest-covered Brazil nut concessions could change the picture. Funds for these could come from international instruments like those of carbon emission control or debt for nature swaps. Green marketing could be developed to consider payments supporting ecosystem values as well as mechanisms supporting indigenous communities working with Brazil nuts. Appropriate indicators are needed to optimize those management, policy and trading conditions that best help to preserve the invaluable ecosystem functions and services.

  13. The distribution and amount of carbon in the largest peatland complex in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Frederick C.; Roucoux, Katherine H.; Lawson, Ian T.; Mitchard, Edward T. A.; Honorio Coronado, Euridice N.; Lähteenoja, Outi; Torres Montenegro, Luis; Valderrama Sandoval, Elvis; Zaráte, Ricardo; Baker, Timothy R.

    2014-12-01

    Peatlands in Amazonian Peru are known to store large quantities of carbon, but there is high uncertainty in the spatial extent and total carbon stocks of these ecosystems. Here, we use a multi-sensor (Landsat, ALOS PALSAR and SRTM) remote sensing approach, together with field data including 24 forest census plots and 218 peat thickness measurements, to map the distribution of peatland vegetation types and calculate the combined above- and below-ground carbon stock of peatland ecosystems in the Pastaza-Marañon foreland basin in Peru. We find that peatlands cover 35 600 ± 2133 km2 and contain 3.14 (0.44-8.15) Pg C. Variation in peat thickness and bulk density are the most important sources of uncertainty in these values. One particular ecosystem type, peatland pole forest, is found to be the most carbon-dense ecosystem yet identified in Amazonia (1391 ± 710 Mg C ha-1). The novel approach of combining optical and radar remote sensing with above- and below-ground carbon inventories is recommended for developing regional carbon estimates for tropical peatlands globally. Finally, we suggest that Amazonian peatlands should be a priority for research and conservation before the developing regional infrastructure causes an acceleration in the exploitation and degradation of these ecosystems.

  14. The distribution and amount of carbon in the largest peatland complex in Amazonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peatlands in Amazonian Peru are known to store large quantities of carbon, but there is high uncertainty in the spatial extent and total carbon stocks of these ecosystems. Here, we use a multi-sensor (Landsat, ALOS PALSAR and SRTM) remote sensing approach, together with field data including 24 forest census plots and 218 peat thickness measurements, to map the distribution of peatland vegetation types and calculate the combined above- and below-ground carbon stock of peatland ecosystems in the Pastaza-Marañon foreland basin in Peru. We find that peatlands cover 35 600 ± 2133 km2 and contain 3.14 (0.44–8.15) Pg C. Variation in peat thickness and bulk density are the most important sources of uncertainty in these values. One particular ecosystem type, peatland pole forest, is found to be the most carbon-dense ecosystem yet identified in Amazonia (1391 ± 710 Mg C ha−1). The novel approach of combining optical and radar remote sensing with above- and below-ground carbon inventories is recommended for developing regional carbon estimates for tropical peatlands globally. Finally, we suggest that Amazonian peatlands should be a priority for research and conservation before the developing regional infrastructure causes an acceleration in the exploitation and degradation of these ecosystems. (letter)

  15. The trophic role of microbial loop in an Amazonia central floodplain lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to evaluate the role of heterotrophic bacteria on carbon flow in food chains of an Amazonian floodplain lake, monthly collections of these organisms were made during the hydrological year from December 2007 to November 2008. Littoral, pelagic, and aquatic macrophyte regions of the Catalao Lake in central Amazonia were sampled and bacteria were multiplied in vitro, using dissolved organic carbon (COD) of each one of the regions studied as a substrate. The bacterial biomass obtained was used for stable isotope analyses of carbon and nitrogen. These data were confronted with COD values of the four hydrological periods of the lake (dry, rising, flood and fall). In general, it was found that the main source of carbon for heterotrophic bacteria was that of C4 origin, which presented a minimum contribution of 75% of bacterial biomass, to the extent that the bacteria D13C average value -17.72 Per Mille ± 2.25 was comparing this value with the D13C of zooplankton in the same period (-33.04 Per Mille ± 3.81) permit concludes that the contribution of heterotrophic bacteria in the carbon flow to higher trophic levels in the Catalao lake is minimal.

  16. Party size and diet of syntopic atelids (Ateles chamek and Lagothrix cana) in Southwestern Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, S; Ferrari, S F

    2001-01-01

    Syntopic Alouatta seniculus, Ateles chamek and Lagothrix cana (Atelidae) were studied in southwestern Amazonia. Primate populations were first surveyed, and then the party size, diet and vertical spacing were monitored over a 5-month period. Atelids accounted for more than half the survey sightings and Lagothrix was the most abundant. Party sizes recorded for both Alouatta and Lagothrix during monitoring were significantly larger than those recorded during surveys, but no such difference was found for Ateles. Monitored parties were significantly larger in Lagothrix in comparison with either Alouatta or Ateles, as were groups of Ateles in comparison with Alouatta. Mean party size in Ateles decreased progressively during the course of the study, from 8.9 +/- 3.4 in June to 3.9 +/- 2.3 in October. Moraceae was the most important dietary resource for Ateles and Lagothrix, in terms of both feeding records and number of species exploited. There was considerable overlap in the plant taxa exploited, but some notable differences, such as the exclusive use of Hymenaea courbaril (Caesalpinaceae) by Lagothrix and of Euterpe precatoria (Arecaceae) by Ateles. As at other sites in the region, Ateles occupied significantly higher forest strata in comparison with Lagothrix. Despite the preliminary nature of the study, the results indicate a number of ecological differences between species that undoubtedly play an important role in niche separation. PMID:11713409

  17. Juvenile tree growth correlates with photosynthesis and leaf phosphorus content in central Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Antonio Marenco

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Light and soil water availability may limit carbon uptake of trees in tropical rainforests. The objective of this work was to determine how photosynthetic traits of juvenile trees respond to variations in rainfall seasonality, leaf nutrient content, and opening of the forest canopy. The correlation between leaf nutrient content and annual growth rate of saplings was also assessed. In a terra firme rainforest of the central Amazon, leaf nutrient content and gas exchange parameters were measured in five sapling tree species in the dry and rainy season of 2008. Sapling growth was measured in 2008 and 2009. Rainfall seasonality led to variations in soil water content, but it did not affect leaf gas exchange parameters. Subtle changes in the canopy opening affected CO2 saturated photosynthesis (A pot, p = 0.04. Although A pot was affected by leaf nutrient content (as follows: P > Mg > Ca > N > K, the relative growth rate of saplings correlated solely with leaf P content (r = 0.52, p = 0.003. At present, reduction in soil water content during the dry season does not seem to be strong enough to cause any effect on photosynthesis of saplings in central Amazonia. This study shows that leaf P content is positively correlated with sapling growth in the central Amazon. Therefore, the positive effect of atmospheric CO2 fertilization on long-term tree growth will depend on the ability of trees to absorb additional amount of P

  18. Open access to information bridges science and development in Amazonia: lessons of the SIAMAZONIA service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalliola, Risto; Toivonen, Tuuli; Miyakawa, Victor; Mavila, Manuel

    2008-07-01

    Access to and availability of accurate information has often been stated to play an important role in sustainable environmental management. There is a growing trend of setting up internet-based information services to support the availability of relevant information. The current initiatives that aim to facilitate such information sharing through the web are still, however, often premature and unable to ensure constant flow of data from producers to users. We examine these common challenges by using as an example a network-based facility of biodiversity and environmental information about the Peruvian Amazon region called SIAMAZONIA. Launched in 2001, the service includes data provided by 13 different nodes. The experiences of this initiative have been both encouraging and confusing. A good professional level has been reached, but participation by large information holders is impeded. Participation is obviously considered an additional task rather than an attractive option for enhanced performance at the individual or institutional levels. This dilemma reflects a genuine problem in the modern scientific community, which still lacks agreed ways to reward those who share their data and results through the web. If these problems are solved, internet-based information sharing may become a vital resource for environmental management in Amazonia and also elsewhere.

  19. The Cotingo Dam as a test of Brazil's system for evaluating proposed developments in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnside, Philip M.; Barbosa, Reinaldo Imbrozio

    1996-09-01

    The proposed Cotingo Dam in Brazil's far northern state of Roraima is examined with the objective of drawing lessons for Brazil's system of evaluating environmental, social, and financial consequences of development decisions. The Cotingo Dam illustrates the difficulty of translating into practice the principles of economic and environmental assessment. Examination of the financial arguments for the Cotingo Dam indicates that justifications in this sphere are insufficient to explain why the project is favored over other alternatives and points to political factors as the best explanation of the project's high priority. Strong pressure from political and entrepreneurial interest groups almost invariably dominates decision making in Amazonia. The analysis indicates the inherent tendency of the present system to produce decisions in favor of large construction projects at the expense of the environment and local peoples. The requirements intended to assure proper weight for these concerns, such as the report on environmental impacts (RIMA) and the public hearing, fail to serve this role. Cotingo also provides a test case for constitutional protections restricting construction of dams in indigenous lands.

  20. Ecological adaptation of wild peach palm, its in situ conservation and deforestation-mediated extinction in southern Brazilian Amazonia.

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    Charles R Clement

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Arc of Fire across southern Amazonia seasonally attracts worldwide attention as forests are cut and burned for agricultural expansion. These forests contain numerous wild relatives of native South American crops, such as peach palm. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our prospecting expeditions examined critical areas for wild peach palm in the Arc of Fire in Mato Grosso, Pará, Maranhão and Tocantins, as well as areas not previously examined in Amazonas and Amapá states. Recent digitization of the RADAM Brasil project permitted comparison among RADAM's parataxonomists' observations, previous botanical collections and our prospecting. Mapping on soils and vegetation types enabled us to hypothesize a set of ecological preferences. Wild peach palm is best adapted to Ultisols (Acrisols in open forests across the Arc of Fire and westward into the more humid western Amazonia. Populations are generally small (fewer than 10 plants on slopes above watercourses. In northern Mato Grosso and southern Pará soybean fields and pastures now occupy numerous areas where RADAM identified wild peach palm. The controversial BR-163 Highway is already eroding wild peach palm as deforestation expands. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Many of these populations are now isolated by increasing forest fragmentation, which will lead to decreased reproduction via inbreeding depression and eventual extinction even without complete deforestation. Federal conservation areas are less numerous in the Arc of Fire than in other parts of Brazilian Amazonia, although there are indigenous lands; these conservation areas contain viable populations of wild peach palm and require better protection than they are currently receiving. Ex situ conservation of these populations is not viable given the relative lack of importance of domesticated peach palm and the difficulty of maintaining even economically interesting genetic resources.

  1. Límites a la autonomía indígena en la Amazonia colombiana

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    François Correa Rubio

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available En las últimas tres décadas, la imagen del Estado sobre la Amazonia se ha transformado. De considerarla como una región que solo producía gastos al erario público, las prospecciones minero-energéticas demuestran la presencia de recursos ávidamente demandados por el mercado mundial que aclimatará la política de reprimarización de la economía y la privatización de los procesos extractivos, en manos de empresas transnacionales, amparado en la propiedad estatal del subsuelo y en el de interés nacional con respecto a sus bienes. Paradójicamente, durante el mismo periodo, las normas nacionales e internacionales han reconocido la autonomía de los indígenas, como un derecho fundamental, que promovió su reorganización, bajo una entidad panétnica, con vínculosnacionales e internacionales, que participa de escenarios de concertación política con el Estado, en defensa de sus derechos colectivos, articulándolos con reivindicaciones popularesregionales. Aunque la autonomía no se restringe al control territorial, como siempre ocurre con las economías de enclave, su oneroso impacto se descargará sobre el territorioy sus pobladores, que en la Amazonia incluye más del 60 % de los grupos indígenas del país. Este artículo introduce la tensión sobre las expectativas y el reciente impacto de las políticas de intervención del Estado en la Amazonia y el proceso de reorganización del movimiento indígena. 

  2. On the ability of a global atmospheric inversion to constrain variations of CO2 fluxes over Amazonia

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    L. Molina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The exchanges of carbon, water, and energy between the atmosphere and the Amazon Basin have global implications for current and future climate. Here, the global atmospheric inversion system of the Monitoring of Atmospheric Composition and Climate service (MACC was used to further study the seasonal and interannual variations of biogenic CO2 fluxes in Amazonia. The system assimilated surface measurements of atmospheric CO2 mole fractions made over more than 100 sites over the globe into an atmospheric transport model. This study added four surface stations located in tropical South America, a region poorly covered by CO2 observations. The estimates of net ecosystem exchange (NEE optimized by the inversion were compared to independent estimates of NEE upscaled from eddy-covariance flux measurements in Amazonia, and against reports on the seasonal and interannual variations of the land sink in South America from the scientific literature. We focused on the impact of the interannual variation of the strong droughts in 2005 and 2010 (due to severe and longer-than-usual dry seasons, and of the extreme rainfall conditions registered in 2009. The spatial variations of the seasonal and interannual variability of optimized NEE were also investigated. While the inversion supported the assumption of strong spatial heterogeneity of these variations, the results revealed critical limitations that prevent global inversion frameworks from capturing the data-driven seasonal patterns of fluxes across Amazonia. In particular, it highlighted issues due to the configuration of the observation network in South America and the lack of continuity of the measurements. However, some robust patterns from the inversion seemed consistent with the abnormal moisture conditions in 2009.

  3. Territorio y Poder: La reivindicación territorial de los indígenas de la amazonia boliviana

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela Canedo Vásquez

    2011-01-01

    El artículo pretende mostrar la centralidad que tiene el territorio y la demanda territorial para los grupos indígenas de la amazonia boliviana. El territorio tiene un papel importante en la reproducción cultural y en la organización política. La investigación se llevó a cabo en la provincia Mojos del departamento del Beni, y muestra que el manejo territorial itinerante y la percepción del territorio que tenían los grupos indígenas se ha transformado a partir del marco estatal –concretamente ...

  4. Estructura poblacional de la palma iriartea deltoidea, en un bosque de tierra firme de la amazonia colombiana

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo de esta investigación fue caracterizar la densidad y la estructura poblacional de la palma bombona Iriartea deltoidea en un bosque de tierra firme de la zona sur del Parque Nacional Natural Amacayacu, en la Amazonia Colombiana. En seis parcelas de 1 ha y 90 transectos de 50 x 1 m, se censaron todos los individuos de la especie. Para cada individuo, se registró la altura del tallo, el estado morfológico de las hojas (i.e. hojas enteras, hojas divididas, forma de las pinnas), la for...

  5. REDVET y RECVET están disponibles desde la biblioteca de la Universidad de la Amazonia

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    Veterinaria.org

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLos artículos publicados en REDVET y en RECVET son inmediatamente accesibles desde la Biblioteca de la Universidad de la Amazonia, con sede en Florencia, Caquetá, Colombia, Suramérica, donde las dos revistas científicas editadas por Veterinaria Organización aparece en el área de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia junto a la Bases de datos bibliográficas de la Biblioteca Agropecuaria de Colombia (BAC del Centro Internacional de Agricultura tropical (CIAT y la Biblioteca de la FAO (Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Agricultura y la Alimentación.

  6. Dissolved inorganic carbon and pCO2 in two small streams draining different soil types in Southwestern Amazonia, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Eliete dos Santos Sousa, Cleber Ibraim Salimon, Reynaldo Luiz Victoria, Alex Vladimir Krusche, Simone Rebecca Alin, Nei Kavaguichi Leite

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) andpCO2 concentrations in two third order streams in southwestern Amazonia, Brazil. From May2004 to June 2005 water dissolved oxygen, pH, electrical conductivity, temperature weremeasured to stream water chemical and physical description. DIC and pCO2 measurementswere made by headspace extraction and gas samples for pCO2 and DIC extractions were runon an infrared gas analyzer (IRGA, LI-COR Instruments model LI-8...

  7. Synergistic impacts of deforestation, climate change and fire on the future biomes distribution in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, G.; Cardoso, M. F.; Nobre, C. A.; Salazar, L. F.

    2013-05-01

    Several studies indicate future increase of environmental risks for the ecosystems in the Amazon region as a result of climate and land-use change, and their synergistic interactions. Modeling studies (e.g. Oyama and Nobre 2004, Salazar et al. 2007, Malhi et al. 2008) project rapid and irreversible replacement of forests by savannas with large-scale losses of biodiversity and livelihoods for people in the region. This process is referred to as the Amazon Dieback, where accelerated plant mortality due to environmental changes lead to forest collapse and savannas expansion after "tipping points" in climate and land surface changes are achieved. In this study we performed new analyses to quantify how deforestation, climate change and fire may combine to affect the distribution of major biomes in Amazonia. Changes in land use consider deforestation scenarios of 0%, 20%, 40%, and 50% (Sampaio et al., 2007), with and without fires (Cardoso et al., 2008), under the two greenhouse gases scenarios B1 and A2 and three "representative concentration pathways" (RCPs): 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5, for years 2015-2034 and 2040-2059 ("2025" and "2050" time-slices), from IPCC AR4 and CMIP5. The results show that the area affected in scenarios A2 and RCP 8.5 is larger than in the climate scenario B1 and RCP 2.6, and in both cases the effect is progressively higher in time. Most important changes occur in the East and South of the Amazon, with replacement of tropical forest by seasonal forest and savanna. The effect of fire in this region is important in all scenarios. The Northwest Amazon presents the smallest changes in the area of tropical forest, indicating that even for substantial land-use modifications and global climate change, the resulting atmospheric conditions would still support tropical forest in the region. In summary, we conclude that the synergistic combination of deforestation, climate change resulting from global warming, and the potential for higher fire occurrence may lead

  8. Impacts of Amazonia biomass burning aerosols assessed from short-range weather forecasts

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    S. R. Kolusu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The direct radiative impacts of biomass burning aerosols (BBA on meteorology are investigated using short-range forecasts from the Met Office Unified Model (MetUM over South America during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA. The impacts are evaluated using a set of three simulations: (i no aerosols, (ii with monthly mean aerosol climatologies and (iii with prognostic aerosols modelled using the Coupled Large-scale Aerosol Simulator for Studies In Climate (CLASSIC scheme. Comparison with observations show that the prognostic CLASSIC scheme provides the best representation of BBA. The impacts of BBA are quantified over central and southern Amazonia from the first and second day of 2-day forecasts during 14 September–3 October 2012. On average, during the first day of the forecast, including prognostic BBA reduces the clear-sky net radiation at the surface by 15 ± 1 W m−2 and reduces net top-of-atmosphere (TOA radiation by 8 ± 1 W m−2, with a direct atmospheric warming of 7 ± 1 W m−2. BBA-induced reductions in all-sky radiation are smaller in magnitude: 9.0 ± 1 W m−2 at the surface and 4.0 ± 1 W m−2 at TOA. In this modelling study the BBA therefore exert an overall cooling influence on the Earth–atmosphere system, although some levels of the atmosphere are directly warmed by the absorption of solar radiation. Due to the reduction of net radiative flux at the surface, the mean 2 m air temperature is reduced by around 0.1 ± 0.02 °C. The BBA also cools the boundary layer (BL but warms air above by around 0.2 °C due to the absorption of shortwave radiation. The overall impact is to reduce the BL depth by around 19 ± 8 m. These differences in heating lead to a more anticyclonic circulation at 700 hPa, with winds changing by around 0.6 m s−1. Inclusion of climatological or prognostic BBA in the MetUM makes a small but significant improvement in forecasts of temperature and relative humidity, but improvements were

  9. Impacts of Amazonia biomass burning aerosols assessed from short-range weather forecasts

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    S. R. Kolusu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The direct radiative impacts of Biomass Burning Aerosols (BBA on meteorology are investigated using short-range forecasts from the Met Office Unified Model (MetUM over South America during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA. The impacts are evaluated using a set of three simulations: (i no aerosols, (ii with monthly mean aerosol climatologies and (iii with prognostic aerosols modelled using the Coupled Large-scale Aerosol Simulator for Studies in Climate (CLASSIC scheme. Comparison with observations show that the prognostic CLASSIC scheme provides the best representation of BBA. The impacts of BBA are quantified over central and southern Amazonia from the first and second day of two day forecasts during 14 September–03 October 2012. On average, during the first day of the forecast, including prognostic BBA reduces the clear-sky net radiation at the surface by 15 ± 1 W m−2, and reduces net TOA radiation by 8 ± 1 W m−2, with a direct atmospheric warming of 7 ± 1 W m−2. BBA-induced reductions in all-sky radiation are smaller in magnitude: 9.0 ± 1 W m−2 at the surface and 4.0 ± 1 W m−2 at TOA. In this modelling study the BBA therefore exert an overall cooling influence on the Earth–atmosphere system, although some levels of the atmosphere are directly warmed by the absorption of solar radiation. Due to the reduction of net radiative flux at the surface the mean 2 m air temperature is reduced by around 0.1 ± 0.02 °C. The BBA also cools the boundary layer (BL but warms air above by around 0.2 °C due to the absorption of shortwave radiation. The overall impact is to reduce the BL depth by around 19 ± 8 m. These differences in heating lead to a more anticyclonic circulation at 700 hPa, with winds changing by around 0.6 m s−1. Inclusion of BBA in the MetUM significantly improves forecasts of temperature and relative humidity, but effects were small compared with model error and differences between effects from

  10. DISTRIBUTION OF ORGANIC CARBON IN DIFFERENT SOIL FRACTIONS IN ECOSYSTEMS OF CENTRAL AMAZONIA

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    Jean Dalmo de Oliveira Marques

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Organic matter plays an important role in many soil properties, and for that reason it is necessary to identify management systems which maintain or increase its concentrations. The aim of the present study was to determine the quality and quantity of organic C in different compartments of the soil fraction in different Amazonian ecosystems. The soil organic matter (FSOM was fractionated and soil C stocks were estimated in primary forest (PF, pasture (P, secondary succession (SS and an agroforestry system (AFS. Samples were collected at the depths 0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-40, 40-60, 60-80, 80-100, 100-160, and 160-200 cm. Densimetric and particle size analysis methods were used for FSOM, obtaining the following fractions: FLF (free light fraction, IALF (intra-aggregate light fraction, F-sand (sand fraction, F-clay (clay fraction and F-silt (silt fraction. The 0-5 cm layer contains 60 % of soil C, which is associated with the FLF. The F-clay was responsible for 70 % of C retained in the 0-200 cm depth. There was a 12.7 g kg-1 C gain in the FLF from PF to SS, and a 4.4 g kg-1 C gain from PF to AFS, showing that SS and AFS areas recover soil organic C, constituting feasible C-recovery alternatives for degraded and intensively farmed soils in Amazonia. The greatest total stocks of carbon in soil fractions were, in decreasing order: (101.3 Mg ha-1 of C - AFS > (98.4 Mg ha-1 of C - FP > (92.9 Mg ha-1 of C - SS > (64.0 Mg ha-1 of C - P. The forms of land use in the Amazon influence C distribution in soil fractions, resulting in short- or long-term changes.

  11. Sources and sinks of trace gases in Amazonia and the Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, M. M. C.; Keller, M.; Silva, D. A.

    Data for trace gas fluxes (NOx, N2O, and CH4) from the Amazon and cerrado region are presented with focus on the processes of production and consumption of these trace gases in soils and how they may be changed because of land use changes in both regions. Fluxes are controlled by seasonality, soil moisture, soil texture, topography, and fine-root dynamics. Compared to Amazonian forests where the rapid cycling of nitrogen supports large emissions of N2O, nitrification rates and soil emissions of N oxide gases in the cerrado region are very low. Several studies report CH4 consumption during both wet and dry seasons in forest soils, but there is occasionally net production of CH4 during the wet season. A few studies suggest an unknown source of CH4 from upland forests. As with N oxide emissions, there are few data on CH4 emissions from cerrado soils, but CH4 consumption occurs during both wet and dry seasons. Clearing natural vegetation, burning, fertilization of agricultural lands, intensive cattle ranching, and increasing dominance by legume species in areas under secondary succession after land conversion have all been identified as causes of increasing N2O and NO emissions from tropical regions. Large uncertainties remain for regional estimates of trace gas fluxes. Improvement of models for the N oxides and CH4 fluxes for Amazonia and the cerrado still depends upon gathering more data from sites more widely distributed across two vast biomes and more importantly on basic theory about the controls of emissions from the ecosystem to the atmosphere.

  12. The Challenges from Extreme Climate Events for Sustainable Development in Amazonia: the Acre State Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, M. D. N. M.

    2015-12-01

    In the past ten years Acre State, located in Brazil´s southwestern Amazonia, has confronted sequential and severe extreme events in the form of droughts and floods. In particular, the droughts and forest fires of 2005 and 2010, the 2012 flood within Acre, the 2014 flood of the Madeira River which isolated Acre for two months from southern Brazil, and the most severe flooding throughout the state in 2015 shook the resilience of Acrean society. The accumulated costs of these events since 2005 have exceeded 300 million dollars. For the last 17 years, successive state administrations have been implementing a socio-environmental model of development that strives to link sustainable economic production with environmental conservation, particularly for small communities. In this context, extreme climate events have interfered significantly with this model, increasing the risks of failure. The impacts caused by these events on development in the state have been exacerbated by: a) limitations in monitoring; b) extreme events outside of Acre territory (Madeira River Flood) affecting transportation systems; c) absence of reliable information for decision-making; and d) bureaucratic and judicial impediments. Our experience in these events have led to the following needs for scientific input to reduce the risk of disasters: 1) better monitoring and forecasting of deforestation, fires, and hydro-meteorological variables; 2) ways to increase risk perception in communities; 3) approaches to involve more effectively local and regional populations in the response to disasters; 4) more accurate measurements of the economic and social damages caused by these disasters. We must improve adaptation to and mitigation of current and future extreme climate events and implement a robust civil defense, adequate to these new challenges.

  13. The costs of evaluating species densities and composition of snakes to assess development impacts in amazonia.

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    Rafael de Fraga

    Full Text Available Studies leading to decision-making for environmental licensing often fail to provide accurate estimates of diversity. Measures of snake diversity are regularly obtained to assess development impacts in the rainforests of the Amazon Basin, but this taxonomic group may be subject to poor detection probabilities. Recently, the Brazilian government tried to standardize sampling designs by the implementation of a system (RAPELD to quantify biological diversity using spatially-standardized sampling units. Consistency in sampling design allows the detection probabilities to be compared among taxa, and sampling effort and associated cost to be evaluated. The cost effectiveness of detecting snakes has received no attention in Amazonia. Here we tested the effects of reducing sampling effort on estimates of species densities and assemblage composition. We identified snakes in seven plot systems, each standardised with 14 plots. The 250 m long centre line of each plot followed an altitudinal contour. Surveys were repeated four times in each plot and detection probabilities were estimated for the 41 species encountered. Reducing the number of observations, or the size of the sampling modules, caused significant loss of information on species densities and local patterns of variation in assemblage composition. We estimated the cost to find a snake as $ 120 U.S., but general linear models indicated the possibility of identifying differences in assemblage composition for half the overall survey costs. Decisions to reduce sampling effort depend on the importance of lost information to target-issues, and may not be the preferred option if there is the potential for identifying individual snake species requiring specific conservation actions. However, in most studies of human disturbance on species assemblages, it is likely to be more cost-effective to focus on other groups of organisms with higher detection probabilities.

  14. Global warming and climate change in Amazonia: Climate-vegetation feedback and impacts on water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, José; Nobre, Carlos A.; Betts, Richard A.; Cox, Peter M.; Sampaio, Gilvan; Salazar, Luis

    This chapter constitutes an updated review of long-term climate variability and change in the Amazon region, based on observational data spanning more than 50 years of records and on climate-change modeling studies. We start with the early experiments on Amazon deforestation in the late 1970s, and the evolution of these experiments to the latest studies on greenhouse gases emission scenarios and land use changes until the end of the twenty-first century. The "Amazon dieback" simulated by the HadCM3 model occurs after a "tipping point" of CO2 concentration and warming. Experiments on Amazon deforestation and change of climate suggest that once a critical deforestation threshold (or tipping point) of 40-50% forest loss is reached in eastern Amazonia, climate would change in a way which is dangerous for the remaining forest. This may favor a collapse of the tropical forest, with a substitution of the forest by savanna-type vegetation. The concept of "dangerous climate change," as a climate change, which induces positive feedback, which accelerate the change, is strongly linked to the occurrence of tipping points, and it can be explained as the presence of feedback between climate change and the carbon cycle, particularly involving a weakening of the current terrestrial carbon sink and a possible reversal from a sink (as in present climate) to a source by the year 2050. We must, therefore, currently consider the drying simulated by the Hadley Centre model(s) as having a finite probability under global warming, with a potentially enormous impact, but with some degree of uncertainty.

  15. The Temporal Scale of Holocene Climatic Variability: From the Galapagos to Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, M. B.; Restrepo, A.; Correa, A.; Ford, R.; Valencia, B.; Gosling, W.; Silman, M.; Conroy, J.; Overpeck, J. T.

    2006-12-01

    High-resolution lake cores from the Andes and Amazonian lowlands of W. South America and the Galapagos Islands provide new insights into the Holocene climate history of this region and its interactions with Pacific climate drivers. Our data reveal that a major drought event reported broadly from the Andes and Amazonia in the early to mid-Holocene is actually a complex series of droughts with wet interludes. These results suggest strong climatic instability prior to c. 5600 cal. yr BP. Establishment of wetter conditions at our Andean study site at c. 5600 cal. yr BP correspond to the start of Quinoa cultivation. A similar pattern of higher lake levels coinciding with the local spread of agriculture is also evident in the lowlands. Within an overall pattern of progressively wetter conditions over the last 4000 years there are periods of pronounced climatic instability (drought and flood). Fossil pollen, charcoal, sediment color, and carbon content identify periods of peak erosion between c. 900 and 1100 cal. yr BP. On the Galapagos Islands, a subdecadally resolved analysis of fossil pollen provides a striking pattern of climatic change and human-induced alteration of the landscape. Prior to the period of transforming human activity, the fossil pollen record contains a multidecadal oscillation, with wavlet analysis evealing a quasi- periodicty of c. 60 years. Andean pollen are readily identifible in the Galapagos record and transport of mainland pollen to the islands has varied markedly within the past millennium. These multiproxy records reveal the dynamic nature of Holocene climates in the tropics and the impact those changes have had on people and landscapes.

  16. Allocating logging rights in Peruvian Amazonia--does it matter to be local?

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    Matti Salo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The fate of tropical forests is a global concern, yet many far-reaching decisions affecting forest resources are made locally. We explore allocation of logging rights using a case study from Loreto, Peruvian Amazonia, where millions of hectares of tropical rainforest were offered for concession in a competitive tendering process that addressed issues related to locality. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: After briefly presenting the study area and the tendering process, we identify and define local and non-local actors taking part in the concession process. We then analyse their tenders, results of the tendering, and attributes of the concession areas. Our results show that there was more offer than demand for concession land in the tendering. The number of tenders the concession areas received was related to their size and geographic location in relation to the major cities, but not to their estimated timber volumes or median distances from transport routes. Small and Loreto-based actors offered lower yearly area-based fees compared to larger ones, but the offers did not significantly affect the results of the tenders. Local experience in the form of logging history or residence near the solicited concession areas, as well as being registered in the region of Loreto, improved the success of the tenders. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The allocation process left a considerable number of forest areas under the management of small and local actors, and if Peru is to reach its goal of zero deforestation rate by safeguarding 75 per cent of its forests by 2020, the small and the local actors need to be integrated to the forest regime as important constituents of its legitimacy.

  17. Regional N2O fluxes in Amazonia derived from aircraft vertical profiles

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    P. Tans

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Nitrous oxide (N2O is the third most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas. Globally, the main sources of N2O are nitrification and denitrification in soils. About two thirds of the soil emissions occur in the tropics and approximately 20% originate in wet rainforest ecosystems, like the Amazon forest. The work presented here involves aircraft vertical profiles of N2O from the surface to 4 km over two sites in the Eastern and Central Amazon: Tapajós National Forest (SAN and Cuieiras Biologic Reserve (MAN, and the estimation of N2O fluxes for regions upwind of these sites. To our knowledge, these regional scale N2O measurements in Amazonia are unique and represent a new approach to looking regional scale emissions. The fluxes upwind of MAN exhibited little seasonality, and the annual mean was 2.1±1.0 mg N2O m−2 day−1, higher than that for fluxes upwind of SAN, which averaged 1.5±1.6 mg N2O m−2 day−1. The higher rainfall around the MAN site could explain the higher N2O emissions. For fluxes from the coast to SAN seasonality is present for all years, with high fluxes in the months of March through May, and in November through December. The first peak of N2O flux is strongly associated with the wet season. The second peak of high N2O flux recorded at SAN occurs during the dry season and can not be easily explained. However, about half of the dry season profiles exhibit significant correlations with CO, indicating a larger than expected source of N2O from biomass burning. The average CO:N2O ratio for all profiles sampled during the dry season is 94±77 mol CO:mol N2O and suggests a larger biomass burning contribution to the global N2O budget than previously reported.

  18. Meso-scale effects of tropical deforestation in Amazonia: preparatory LBA modelling studies

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    A. J. Dolman

    Full Text Available As part of the preparation for the Large-Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia, a meso-scale modelling study was executed to highlight deficiencies in the current understanding of land surface atmosphere interaction at local to sub-continental scales in the dry season. Meso-scale models were run in 1-D and 3-D mode for the area of Rondonia State, Brazil. The important conclusions are that without calibration it is difficult to model the energy partitioning of pasture; modelling that of forest is easier due to the absence of a strong moisture deficit signal. The simulation of the boundary layer above forest is good, above deforested areas (pasture poor. The models' underestimate of the temperature of the boundary layer is likely to be caused by the neglect of the radiative effects of aerosols caused by biomass burning, but other factors such as lack of sufficient entrainment in the model at the mixed layer top may also contribute. The Andes generate patterns of subsidence and gravity waves, the effects of which are felt far into the Rondonian area The results show that the picture presented by GCM modelling studies may need to be balanced by an increased understanding of what happens at the meso-scale. The results are used to identify key measurements for the LBA atmospheric meso-scale campaign needed to improve the model simulations. Similar modelling studies are proposed for the wet season in Rondonia, when convection plays a major role.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (aerosols and particles; biosphere-atmosphere interactions · Meterology and atmospheric dynamics (mesoscale meterology

  19. Fish Consumption during Pregnancy, Mercury Transfer, and Birth Weight along the Madeira River Basin in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata S. Leão

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Birth weight can be a predictor of maternal health issues related to nutrition and environmental contaminants. Total hair mercury (HHg concentration was studied as an indicator of both fish consumption and methylmercury exposure in mothers (and newborns living in selected low income areas of the Madeira River basin, Amazonia, Brazil. This cohort study (n = 1,433 consisted of traditional riverines (n = 396, riverines who had moved to urban (n = 676 and rural (n = 67 settings, and tin miner settlers (n = 294. Median maternal HHg was significantly different (p = 0.00001 between riverine (12.1 µg·g−1, rural (7.82 µg·g−1, urban (5.4 µg·g−1, and tin miner (4.5 µg·g−1 groups studied. The same trend (of medians was observed for newborns’ HHg which also showed significant differences between riverine (3.0 µg·g−1, rural (2.0 µg·g−1, urban (1.5 µg·g−1, and tin miner (0.8 µg·g−1 groups. The correlation between maternal and newborn HHg was statistically significant in the riverine (r = 0.8952; p = 0.0001, urban (r = 0.6744; p = 0.0001, and rural (r = 0.8416; p = 0.0001 groups but not in the mother-infant pairs in the tin miner group (r = 0.0638; p = 0.2752. Birth weight was significantly different among groups but did not show a pattern consistent with that of fish consumption (and HHg. A multiple regression analysis showed that only family income and gestational age had a significant impact on birth weight. Conclusions: Maternal HHg is an important biomarker of maternal fish consumption and of methylmercury exposure during pregnancy. However, in these Amazonian groups, only maternal education and gestational age seemed to affect birth weight positively.

  20. CO2 and CO emission rates from three forest fire controlled experiments in Western Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, J. A., Jr.; Amaral, S. S.; Costa, M. A. M.; Soares Neto, T. G.; Veras, C. A. G.; Costa, F. S.; van Leeuwen, T. T.; Krieger Filho, G. C.; Tourigny, E.; Forti, M. C.; Fostier, A. H.; Siqueira, M. B.; Santos, J. C.; Lima, B. A.; Cascão, P.; Ortega, G.; Frade, E. F., Jr.

    2016-06-01

    Forests represent an important role in the control of atmospheric emissions through carbon capture. However, in forest fires, the carbon stored during photosynthesis is released into the atmosphere. The carbon quantification, in forest burning, is important for the development of measures for its control. The aim of this study was to quantify CO2 and CO emissions of forest fires in Western Amazonia. In this paper, results are described of forest fire experiments conducted in Cruzeiro do Sul and Rio Branco, state of Acre, and Candeias do Jamari, state of Rondônia, Brazil. These cities are located in the Western portion of the Brazilian Amazon region. The biomass content per hectare, in the virgin forest, was measured by indirect methods using formulas with parameters of forest inventories in the central hectare of the test site. The combustion completeness was estimated by randomly selecting 10% of the total logs and twelve 2 × 2 m2 areas along three transects and examining their consumption rates by the fire. The logs were used to determine the combustion completeness of the larger materials (characteristic diameters larger than 10 cm) and the 2 × 2 m2 areas to determine the combustion completeness of small-size materials (those with characteristic diameters lower than 10 cm) and the. The overall biomass consumption by fire was estimated to be 40.0%, 41.2% and 26.2%, in Cruzeiro do Sul, Rio Branco and Candeias do Jamari, respectively. Considering that the combustion gases of carbon in open fires contain approximately 90.0% of CO2 and 10.0% of CO in volumetric basis, the average emission rates of these gases by the burning process, in the three sites, were estimated as 191 ± 46.7 t ha-1 and 13.5 ± 3.3 t ha-1, respectively.

  1. Ecological speciation in the tropics: insights from comparative genetic studies in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheregaray, Luciano B; Cooke, Georgina M; Chao, Ning L; Landguth, Erin L

    2014-01-01

    Evolution creates and sustains biodiversity via adaptive changes in ecologically relevant traits. Ecologically mediated selection contributes to genetic divergence both in the presence or absence of geographic isolation between populations, and is considered an important driver of speciation. Indeed, the genetics of ecological speciation is becoming increasingly studied across a variety of taxa and environments. In this paper we review the literature of ecological speciation in the tropics. We report on low research productivity in tropical ecosystems and discuss reasons accounting for the rarity of studies. We argue for research programs that simultaneously address biogeographical and taxonomic questions in the tropics, while effectively assessing relationships between reproductive isolation and ecological divergence. To contribute toward this goal, we propose a new framework for ecological speciation that integrates information from phylogenetics, phylogeography, population genomics, and simulations in evolutionary landscape genetics (ELG). We introduce components of the framework, describe ELG simulations (a largely unexplored approach in ecological speciation), and discuss design and experimental feasibility within the context of tropical research. We then use published genetic datasets from populations of five codistributed Amazonian fish species to assess the performance of the framework in studies of tropical speciation. We suggest that these approaches can assist in distinguishing the relative contribution of natural selection from biogeographic history in the origin of biodiversity, even in complex ecosystems such as Amazonia. We also discuss on how to assess ecological speciation using ELG simulations that include selection. These integrative frameworks have considerable potential to enhance conservation management in biodiversity rich ecosystems and to complement historical biogeographic and evolutionary studies of tropical biotas. PMID:25653668

  2. A 6900-year history of landscape modification by humans in lowland Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, M. B.; Correa-Metrio, A.; McMichael, C. H.; Sully, S.; Shadik, C. R.; Valencia, B. G.; Guilderson, T.; Steinitz-Kannan, M.; Overpeck, J. T.

    2016-06-01

    A sedimentary record from the Peruvian Amazon provided evidence of climate and vegetation change for the last 6900 years. Piston cores collected from the center of Lake Sauce, a 20 m deep lake at 600 m elevation, were 19.7 m in length. The fossil pollen record showed a continuously forested catchment within the period of the record, although substantial changes in forest composition were apparent. Fossil charcoal, found throughout the record, was probably associated with humans setting fires. Two fires, at c. 6700 cal BP and 4270 cal BP, appear to have been stand-replacing events possibly associated with megadroughts. The fire event at 4270 cal BP followed a drought that caused lowered lake levels for several centuries. The successional trajectories of forest recovery following these large fires were prolonged by smaller fire events. Fossil pollen of Zea mays (cultivated maize) provided evidence of agricultural activity at the site since c. 6320 cal BP. About 5150 years ago, the lake deepened and started to deposit laminated sediments. Maize agriculture reached a peak of intensity between c. 3380 and 700 cal BP. Fossil diatom data provided a proxy for lake nutrient status and productivity, both of which peaked during the period of maize cultivation. A marked change in land use was evident after c. 700 cal BP when maize agriculture was apparently abandoned at this site. Iriartea, a hyperdominant of riparian settings in western Amazonia, increased in abundance within the last 1100 years, but declined markedly at c. 1070 cal BP and again between c. 80 and -10 cal BP.

  3. Annual and interannual variability of forest fires in South America and their temporal scaling in Amazonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigating the dynamics of forest fires in time is a challenge for environmental sciences, due to their close relation to land use and land change and their connections with the earth's climate through land surface-atmosphere feedbacks, as well as interannual variability associated with ENSO. By means of the ATSR world fire atlas data set (ESA, Europe), pertaining to the GOFC/GOLD-Fire program (monitoring and mapping implementation team), we quantify the annual and interannual variability of forest fires in South America (in three zones: Amazonia, river of La Plata and Colombo Venezuelan plain) on annual and interannual time scales, and the properties of temporary scaling of registered forest fires in the river basin of the Amazon River are quantified for the period 1997-2003. The fires in South America exhibit a noticeable annual cycle that is associated with the annual cycle of precipitations in each zone of study. The effect of the two phases of phenomenon ENSO is demonstrated, with greater fire incidence during El Nino and diminution during La Nina. The power law that relates the area to the fire frequency (fire surface versus number of events) exhibits three zones of scaling such that fires of 1 km2 or less (θ = 0,4253, R2 0,9701), between 1 - 20 km2 θ - 1,1972, R2 = 0,9893), and between 20 km2 - 232 km2 (θ = 2,7354, R2 - 0,9396). The results reveal that the temporary evolution of forest fires in a site can be modeled like a fractal process of long-term memory, with exponents of scaling between 2,199 (log time vr log factor Fano (t) and 2,2476 (Log Time vr log factor Allan (t)

  4. Characterization of HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B in western Brazilian Amazonia

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    Flamir da Silva Victoria

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted with 55 patients native from western Brazilian Amazonia, who were HBV-DNA positive after seroconversion of HBeAg. It is a descriptive case study, with the patients separated into two groups: with hepatitis and without hepatitis on histological examination. The aim of the present study was to describe the clinical and molecular characteristics of patients who are chronic carriers of HBsAg. The prevalence of hepatitis was 63.64%, with a predominance of males (41.82% and a mean age of 42.5 years, occurring mostly in natives of the southeast sub-region (32.73%. Time was a variable proportional to the course of the disease and the most frequent symptoms were: dyspepsia, asthenia and loss of libido with the majority of the patients having history of prior contact with HBV or positive family history. Splenomegalia was the most frequent sign (40%. Among the tests, platelet count, serum albumin and prothrombin activity were significant in the diagnosis of hepatitis. Alpha-fetoprotein was greater in patients with hepatitis, and hepatocellular carcinoma was detected in 3.63% of the patients with hepatic cirrhosis. Three types of HBV genotypes were diagnosed: A, D and F in the samples amplified for gene S. Genotype A (AA was observed in 54.54% of the cases with hepatitis, in contrast to other studies showing the predominance of genotype F in this region. We observed mutations in 36.36%, with a predominance of the mutations in the core promoter region (31.81%, due to the greater prevalence of genotype A in this study.

  5. Tucunarella n. Gen. and other dactylogyrids (Monogenoidea) from cichlid fish (Perciformes) from Peruvian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Scholz, T; Rozkosná, P

    2010-06-01

    During parasitological research on cichlid fish from the tributaries of the Amazon River around Iquitos, Peru, the following gill monogenoidean species were found: Tucunarella cichlae n. gen. and n. sp. from Cichla monoculus Spix and Agassiz; Gussevia alioides Kritsky, Thatcher, and Boeger, 1986 from Heros severus Heckel; Gussevia asota Kritsky, Thatcher, and Boeger, 1989 from Astronotus ocellatus (Agassiz); Gussevia disparoides Kritsky, Thatcher, and Boeger, 1986 from H. severus (all new geographical records) and Cichlasoma amazonarum Kullander (new host record); Gussevia longihaptor (Mizelle and Kritsky, 1969) Kritsky, Thatcher, and Boeger, 1986 and Gussevia undulata Kritsky, Thatcher, and Boeger, 1986 from C. monoculus ; Sciadicleithrum satanopercae Yamada, Takemoto, Bellay, and Pavanelli, 2008 from Satanoperca jurupari Heckel; and Sciadicleithrum variabilum (Mizelle and Kritsky, 1969) Kritsky, Thatcher, and Boeger, 1989 from C. amazonarum (new host and geographical records). Tucunarella n. gen. is proposed to accommodate a new species, Tucunarella cichlae , which is its type and only known species in the genus. The new genus is characterized by, besides a very large body size (about 1.5 mm vs. much less than 1 mm in other ancyrocephaline genera in Amazonia), a thickened tegument, 1 pair of eyes, overlapping gonads (testis dorsal to the germarium), nonarticulated male copulatory organ (MCO) and accessory piece, a coiled (counterclockwise) MCO, a dextral vaginal aperture, a haptor armed with 2 pairs of anchors (each with broad base and subequal roots, which are marginally folded), and dorsal and ventral bars and 14 hooks with protruding blunt thumbs and 2 different shapes (slender vs. slightly expanded shanks). Illustrations and data on morphological and biometric variability of individual species from different hosts are provided. The present data provide evidence of a relatively wide host specificity of gill monogenoideans parasitic in South American cichlids

  6. The stratigraphy and regional structure of Miocene deposits in western Amazonia (Peru, Colombia and Brazil), with implications for late Neogene landscape evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, F.P.; Hoorn, M.C.; Guerrero, J.; Räsänen, M.E.; Romero Pittmann, L.; Salo, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    A biozonation based on molluscs is proposed for Miocene deposits of western Amazonia (Peru, Colombia and Brazil), commonly referred to as the Pebas Formation. The new zonation refines existing pollen zonations and provides a key for the quick assessment of the stratigraphic position of Neogene depos

  7. Learning to Question: The Roles of Multiple Hypotheses, Successive Approximations, Balloons and Toilet Paper in University Science Programs of Southwestern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I. Foster

    2008-01-01

    Learning to question is essential for determining pathways of conservation and development in southwestern Amazonia during a time of rapid global environmental change. Teaching such an approach in graduate science programs in regional universities can be done using play-acting and simulation exercises. Multiple working hypotheses help students…

  8. Agricultura en Amazonia: Crecimiento con Abundancia de Recursos Naturales en una Región Periférica Agricultura en Amazonia: Crecimiento con Abundancia de Recursos Naturales en una Región Periférica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve C. Kyle

    1990-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows how lack of competitiveness for commercial agriculture in Amazonia makes difficult the attraction or retention of mobile factors (capital and labor generating a state of continuous scarcity for these factors. It is also shown that policies attempting to regain equilibrium in factor proportions like capital subsidies or colonization programs are ineffective. Finally, it is shown that attempts to maximize the return on scarce factors lead to overutilization of natural resource and environmental degradation. Although global price incentives policies can help, technical progress is the important variable for the long run sustainability of agriculture in Amazonia. Agricultura en Amazonia: Crecimiento con Abundancia de Recursos Naturales en una Región Periférica

  9. Hair mercury (signature of fish consumption) and cardiovascular risk in Munduruku and Kayabi Indians of Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dórea, José G; de Souza, Jurandir R; Rodrigues, Patricia; Ferrari, Iris; Barbosa, Antonio C

    2005-02-01

    Fish is an important natural resource in the diet of inhabitants of the Amazon rain forest and a marker of its consumption (hair Hg) was used to compare selected cardiovascular risk parameters between tribes of Eastern Amazonia. Three Munduruku (Terra Preta, Kaburua, Cururu) villages and one Kayabi village at the banks of head rivers (Tapajos, Tropas, Kabitutu, Cururu, Curuzinho, Teles Pires) of the Tapajos Basin were studied in relation to fish Hg concentrations, mercury in hair (fish consumption) and erythrocytes, body mass index (height/weight, kg/cm2), and blood pressure. The mean fish Hg concentrations were higher in predatory (578.6 ng/g) than in nonpredatory species (52.8 ng/g). Overall only 26% of fish Hg concentrations were above 500 ng/g, and only 11% were above 1000 ng/g. There was no systematic trend in fish Hg concentrations from rivers with a history of gold-mining activities. The biomarker of fish consumption (hair Hg) was significantly associated with erythrocyte-Hg (r=0.5181; P=0.0001) and was significantly higher in Kayabi (12.7 microg/g) than in the Munduruku (3.4 microg/g). Biomarker-assessed fish consumption rate was higher in the Kayabi (110 g/day) than in the Munduruku villages (30 g/day). Although no significant differences in body mass index (BMI) were observed between tribes, there was a trend of lower increase in blood pressure with age among the higher fish consumers (Kayabi). Summary clinical evaluation did not detect neurologic complaints compatible with Hg intoxication (paraparesis, numbness, tremor, balancing failure), but endemic tropical diseases such as clinical history of malaria showed a high prevalence (55.4%). Fish is an abundant natural resource, important in the Indian diet, that has been historically consumed without perceived problems and can easily be traced through hair Hg. The exposure to freshwater fish monomethyl mercury is less of an issue than endemic infectious diseases such as malaria and lack of basic medical

  10. Leaf Wax δ13C Varies with Elevation in the Peruvian Andes and Western Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, M. S.; Feakins, S. J.; Ponton, C.; Peters, T.; West, A. J.; Galy, V.; Bentley, L. P.; Salinas, N.; Shenkin, A.; Martin, R.; Asner, G. P.; Malhi, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Plant leaf wax carbon isotopic composition (δ13Cwax) reflects the net isotopic effects associated with diffusion into the leaf, fixation of carbon by Rubisco and biosynthesis of individual leaf wax biochemicals. As declining pCO2 with elevation affects the first two fractionations, we expect to find an isotopic gradient in δ13Cwax, if the fractionation of leaf wax biosynthesis is constant. To test this, we report δ13Cwax values from 500 samples of leaves collected by tree-climbers from the upper canopy from 9 forest-inventory plots spanning a 3.5km elevation transect in the Peruvian Andes and western Amazonia during the CHAMBASA field campaign. These samples provide a unique opportunity to study the relationship between δ13Cwax and pCO2 in diverse species across this remote tropical montane forest and lowland rainforest. The very wet climate throughout (2-5 m rainfall per year) minimizes fractionation effects due to stomatal restrictions (i.e. water use efficiency) that may be an important factor elsewhere. Preliminary results show δ13Cwax values on average increase with elevation by ~1.5‰/km, a trend consistent with bulk plant δ13C in previous studies. The mean epsilon between bulk and C29 n-alkane is -7.3±2.2‰. Inter-sample differences are large on the order of 10‰. Shaded leaves and understory leaves are found to be depleted relative to sunlit leaves, presumably due to a lower photosynthetic rate and use of respired CO2 in the understory. C29 n-alkanes are on average ~2.5‰ more depleted than C30 n-alkanoic acids, indicating fractionation during selective decarboxylation. We further compare results from plants with soil and river sediments to provide insights into how leaf wax signals are archived in soils and exported from the landscape. We find a ~1.4‰/km gradient in forest soils similar to plants. We observe a ~2‰ offset between C29 n-alkane in plant leaves and in soils across the elevation profile, which is likely a signal of degradation

  11. Weather and climate impacts of biomass burning aerosols during the dry season in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolusu, Seshagirirao; Marsham, John; Spracklen, Dominic; Parker, Douglas; Dalvi, Mohit; Johnson, Ben; Mann, Graham

    2016-04-01

    Amazonia is a major global source of biomass burning aerosols (BBA) with impacts on weather and climate. BBA can be represented in weather models, with satellite-observed fires used to provide emissions fields, but such emissions normally require tuning to give realistic aerosol fields in models. Here, we investigate the two-way coupling between BBA and regional weather during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field campaign, using both a set of short-range (2-day) forecasts and nested 20-day runs with the Met Office Unified Model (MetUM). Short-range forecasts with parametrised convection show that BBA exert an overall cooling influence on the Earth-atmosphere system, although some levels of the atmosphere are directly warmed by the absorption of solar radiation: BBA reduce the clear-sky net radiation at the surface by 15 ± 1 W m‑2 and reduces net top-of-atmosphere radiation by 8 ± 1 W m‑2, with a direct atmospheric warming of 7 ± 1 W m‑2. BBA-induced reductions in all-sky radiation are smaller in magnitude, but of the same sign. The differences in heating induced by BBA lead to a more anticyclonic circulation at 700 hPa. BBA cools the boundary layer, but warms air above, reducing the BL depth by around 19 m. Locally, on a 150 km scale, changes in precipitation reach around 4 mm day‑1 due to changes in the location of convection, with BBA leading to fewer rain events that are more intense, which may be linked to the BBA changing the vertical profile of stability in the lower atmosphere. The localised changes in rainfall tend to average out to give a 5 % (0.06 mm day‑1) decrease in total precipitation, but the change in regional water budget is dominated by decreased evapotranspiration from the reduced net surface fluxes (0.2 to 0.3 mm day‑1). The results show that although including BBA either prognostoically, or through a climatology, improves forecasts, but differences between the impacts of prognostic and climatological aerosol

  12. Airborne measurements of trace gas and aerosol particle emissions from biomass burning in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Guyon

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available As part of the LBA-SMOCC (Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia – Smoke, Aerosols, Clouds, Rainfall, and Climate 2002 campaign, we studied the emission of carbon monoxide (CO, carbon dioxide (CO2, and aerosol particles from Amazonian deforestation fires using an instrumented aircraft. Emission ratios for aerosol number (CN relative to CO (ERCN/CO fell in the range 14–32 cm-3 ppb-1 for most of the time, in agreement with values usually found from tropical savanna fires. The number of particles emitted per amount biomass burned was found to be dependant on the fire condition (combustion efficiency. Variability in the ERCN/CO between fires was similar to the variability caused by variations in combustion behavior within each individual fire. This was confirmed by observations of CO-to-CO2 emission ratios (ERCO/CO2, which stretched across the same wide range of values for individual fires as for all the fires observed during the sampling campaign, indicating that flaming and smoldering phases are present simultaneously in deforestation fires. Emission factors (EF for CO and aerosol particles were computed and a correction was applied for the residual smoldering combustion (RSC fraction of emissions that are not sampled by the aircraft. The correction, previously unpublished for tropical deforestation fires, suggested an EF about one and a half to twice as large for these species. Vertical transport of biomass-burning plumes from the boundary layer (BL to the cloud detrainment layer (CDL and the free troposphere (FT was found to be a very common phenomenon. We observed a 20% loss in particle number as a result of this vertical transport and subsequent cloud processing, attributable to in-cloud coagulation. This small loss fraction suggests that this mode of transport is very efficient in terms of particle numbers and occurs mostly via non

  13. Airborne measurements of trace gas and aerosol particle emissions from biomass burning in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Guyon

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of the LBA-SMOCC (Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia - Smoke, Aerosols, Clouds, Rainfall, and Climate 2002 campaign, we studied the emission of carbon monoxide (CO, carbon dioxide (CO2, and aerosol particles from Amazonian deforestation fires using an instrumented aircraft. Emission ratios for aerosol number (CN relative to CO (ERCN/CO fell in the range 14-32 cm-3 ppb-1 in most of the investigated smoke plumes. Particle number emission ratios have to our knowledge not been previously measured in tropical deforestation fires, but our results are in agreement with values usually found from tropical savanna fires. The number of particles emitted per amount biomass burned was found to be dependent on the fire conditions (combustion efficiency. Variability in ERCN/CO between fires was similar to the variability caused by variations in combustion behavior within each individual fire. This was confirmed by observations of CO-to-CO2 emission ratios (ERCO/CO2, which stretched across the same wide range of values for individual fires as for all the fires observed during the sampling campaign, reflecting the fact that flaming and smoldering phases are present simultaneously in deforestation fires. Emission factors (EF for CO and aerosol particles were computed and a correction was applied for the residual smoldering combustion (RSC fraction of emissions that are not sampled by the aircraft, which increased the EF by a factor of 1.5-2.1. Vertical transport of smoke from the boundary layer (BL to the cloud detrainment layer (CDL and the free troposphere (FT was found to be a very common phenomenon. We observed a 20% loss in particle number as a result of this vertical transport and subsequent cloud processing, attributable to in-cloud coagulation. This small loss fraction suggests that this mode of transport is very efficient in terms of particle numbers and occurs mostly via non-precipitating clouds. The detrained aerosol

  14. Trabajo y relaciones laborales en los enclaves minero-metalúrgicos de la Amazonia

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    Josep Pont Vidal

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:  Labour and labour relations in the enclaves of metallurgical mining in the AmazonThis article is based upon an empirical study of  life and labour conditions in the metallurgical  mining enclaves of the eastern Amazon region.  From the perspective of civil society (associations  of workers, labour conditions are analysed according to interviews with workers and their  family members given outside the work sphere.  Using the method based on ‘grounded theory’, and specifically on the qualitative analysis of  theorization, a scheme of two levels has been  made: the ‘situational activity’ and the ‘subjectivization of the activity’. The first level, the ‘situational activity’, is centred in the sphere of the  organizations of workers and their perceptions  and strategies for action. The second level, the  ‘subjective of the activity’, addresses the subjective interpretations adopted by workers and their  families. Resumen:Este escrito se basa en un estudio empírico de las  condiciones de vida y relaciones laborales en los  enclaves minero-metalúrgicos de la Amazonia  oriental. En él se analizan las condiciones laborales desde la perspectiva de la sociedad civil (asociaciones de trabajadores, recurriendo para ello a  entrevistas con trabajadores y sus familias fuera  del ambiente de trabajo. A partir del método basado en la teorización anclada, y específicamente  en el denominado análisis cualitativo de teorización, se ha confeccionado un esquema de dos  niveles: la ‘actividad situacional’, y la ‘subjetivización de la actividad’. El primer nivel -la ‘actividad situacional’- se centra en la esfera de las  organizaciones de trabajadores y sus ideas y estrategias de acción. El segundo nivel -la ‘subjetivización de la actividad’- trata las interpretaciones  subjetivas adoptadas por los trabajadores y sus  familias. 

  15. Trabajo y relaciones laborales en los enclaves minero-metalúrgicos de la Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Pont Vidal

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:  Labour and labour relations in the enclaves of metallurgical mining in the AmazonThis article is based upon an empirical study of  life and labour conditions in the metallurgical  mining enclaves of the eastern Amazon region.  From the perspective of civil society (associations  of workers, labour conditions are analysed according to interviews with workers and their  family members given outside the work sphere.  Using the method based on ‘grounded theory’, and specifically on the qualitative analysis of  theorization, a scheme of two levels has been  made: the ‘situational activity’ and the ‘subjectivization of the activity’. The first level, the ‘situational activity’, is centred in the sphere of the  organizations of workers and their perceptions  and strategies for action. The second level, the  ‘subjective of the activity’, addresses the subjective interpretations adopted by workers and their  families. Resumen:Este escrito se basa en un estudio empírico de las  condiciones de vida y relaciones laborales en los  enclaves minero-metalúrgicos de la Amazonia  oriental. En él se analizan las condiciones laborales desde la perspectiva de la sociedad civil (asociaciones de trabajadores, recurriendo para ello a  entrevistas con trabajadores y sus familias fuera  del ambiente de trabajo. A partir del método basado en la teorización anclada, y específicamente  en el denominado análisis cualitativo de teorización, se ha confeccionado un esquema de dos  niveles: la ‘actividad situacional’, y la ‘subjetivización de la actividad’. El primer nivel -la ‘actividad situacional’- se centra en la esfera de las  organizaciones de trabajadores y sus ideas y estrategias de acción. El segundo nivel -la ‘subjetivización de la actividad’- trata las interpretaciones  subjetivas adoptadas por los trabajadores y sus  familias.

  16. The Roles and Movements of Actors in the Deforestation of Brazilian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip M. Fearnside

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Containing the advance of deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia requires understanding the roles and movements of the actors involved. The importance of different actors varies widely among locations within the region, and also evolves at any particular site over the course of frontier establishment and consolidation. Landless migrants have significant roles in clearing the land they occupy and in motivating landholders to clear as a defense against invasion or expropriation. Colonists in official settlements and other small farmers also are responsible for substantial amounts of clearing, but ranchers constitute the largest component of the region's clearing. This group is most responsive to macroeconomic changes affecting such factors as commodity prices, and also receives substantial subsidies. Ulterior motives, such as land speculation and money laundering, also affect this group. Drug trafficking and money laundering represent strong forces in some areas and help spread deforestation where it would be unprofitable based only on the legitimate economy. Goldminers increase the population in distant areas and subsequently enter the ranks of other groups. Work as laborers or debt slaves provides an important entry to the region for poor migrants from northeast Brazil, providing cheap labor to large ranches and a large source of entrants to other groups, such as landless farmers and colonists. Capitalized farmers, including agribusiness for soy production, have tremendous impact in certain areas, such as Mato Grosso. This group responds to commodity markets and provides justification for major infrastructure projects. Landgrabbers, or grileiros, are important in entering public land and beginning the process of deforestation and transfer of land to subsequent groups of actors. These include sawmill owners and loggers, who play an important role in generating funds for clearing by other groups, ranging from landless migrants to large ranchers. They

  17. Long term measurements of aerosol optical properties at a primary forest site in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Rizzo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A long term experiment was conducted in a primary forest area in Amazonia, with continuous in-situ measurements of aerosol optical properties between February 2008 and April 2011, comprising, to our knowledge, the longest database ever in the Amazon Basin. Two major classes of aerosol particles, with significantly different optical properties were identified: coarse mode predominant biogenic aerosols in the wet season (January–June, naturally released by the forest metabolism, and fine mode dominated biomass burning aerosols in the dry season (July–December, transported from regional fires. Dry particle median scattering coefficients at the wavelength of 550 nm increased from 6.3 Mm−1 to 22 Mm−1, whereas absorption at 637 nm increased from 0.5 Mm−1 to 2.8 Mm−1 from wet to dry season. Most of the scattering in the dry season was attributed to the predominance of fine mode (PM2 particles (40–80% of PM10 mass, while the enhanced absorption coefficients are attributed to the presence of light absorbing aerosols from biomass burning. As both scattering and absorption increased in the dry season, the single scattering albedo (SSA did not show a significant seasonal variability, in average 0.86 ± 0.08 at 637 nm for dry aerosols. Measured particle optical properties were used to estimate the aerosol forcing efficiency at the top of the atmosphere. Results indicate that in this primary forest site the radiative balance was dominated by the cloud cover, particularly in the wet season. Due to the high cloud fractions, the aerosol forcing efficiency absolute values were below −3.5 W m−2 in 70% of the wet season days and in 46% of the dry season days. Besides the seasonal variation, the influence of out-of-Basin aerosol sources was observed occasionally. Periods of influence of the Manaus urban plume were detected, characterized by a consistent increase on particle scattering (factor 2.5 and absorption coefficients (factor 5. Episodes of

  18. Aerosol and precipitation chemistry measurements in a remote site in Central Amazonia: the role of biogenic contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauliquevis, T.; Lara, L. L.; Antunes, M. L.; Artaxo, P.

    2012-06-01

    In this analysis a 3.5 years data set of aerosol and precipitation chemistry, obtained in a remote site in Central Amazonia (Balbina, (1°55' S, 59°29' W, 174 m a.s.l.), about 200 km north of Manaus) is discussed. Aerosols were sampled using stacked filter units (SFU), which separate fine (d responsible for a minor fraction of the aerosol mass (less than 17%). Sudden increases in the concentration of elements as Al, Ti and Fe were also observed, both in fine and coarse mode (mostly during the April-may months), which we attribute to episodes of Saharan dust transport. During the dry periods, a significant contribution to the fine aerosols loading was observed, due to the large-scale transport of smoke from biomass burning in other portions of the Amazon basin. This contribution is associated with the enhancement of the concentration of S, K, Zn and BCE. Chlorine, which is commonly associated to sea salt and also to biomass burning emissions, presented higher concentration not only during the dry season but also for the April-June months, due to the establishment of more favorable meteorological conditions to the transport of Atlantic air masses to Central Amazonia. The chemical composition of rainwater was similar to those ones observed in other remote sites in tropical forests. The volume-weighted mean (VWM) pH was 4.90. The most important contribution to acidity was from weak organic acids. The organic acidity was predominantly associated with the presence of acetic acid instead of formic acid, which is more often observed in pristine tropical areas. Wet deposition rates for major species did not differ significantly between dry and wet season, except for NH4+, citrate and acetate, which had smaller deposition rates during dry season. While biomass burning emissions were clearly identified in the aerosol component, it did not present a clear signature in rainwater. The biogenic component and the long-range transport of sea salt were observed both in aerosols and

  19. Recent Extremes of Drought and Flooding in Amazonia in the context of long term climate variability: Vulnerabilities and Human Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, J. A.; Borma, L. S.; Rodriguez, D. A.; Pinho, P.; Soares, W. R.; Alves, L. M.

    2013-12-01

    The present study focuses on the analyses of extreme drought and flooding situations in Amazonia, using level/discharge data from some rivers in the Amazon region as indicators of impacts. The last 10 years have featured various 'once in a century' droughts and floods in the Amazon basin, which have affected human and natural systems in the region. We assess a history of such hazards based on river data, and discuss some of the observed impacts in terms of vulnerability of human and natural systems, as well as some of adaptation strategies implemented by regional and local governments to cope with them. A critical perspective of mitigation of drought and flood policies in Amazonia suggests that they have been mostly ineffective in reducing vulnerability for the majority of the population. The last seven years have featured severe droughts and floods in Amazonia, with some of these events being characterized at the time as 'once-in-a-century' seasonal extremes. Most of these events were classified as such using river data statistics. Flood and drought hazards represent the integrated impacts due to changes in rainfall across the basin. The record flooding in the Amazon in 2012 surpassed the previous record extreme of 2009, and river levels during the droughts of 2005 and 2010 were among the lowest during the last 40 years. Droughts and floods, part of the natural climate variability inthose regions, have occurred in the past and will continue to occur in the future. The inhabitants of the region are well adapted to this hydrological interannual dynamics and, over time, have been able to develop their livelihood strategies in an 'optimum manner'. Hydrological extremes affect not only human activities and economy but also ecosystems, with large potential impacts on regional biogeochemical and carbon cycles, particularly during droughts due to forest fires and biomass burning. Various studies have shown that interannual variability of rainfall and river levels in the

  20. Morphological characterization of Eustrongylides sp. larvae (Nematoda, Dioctophymatoidea) parasite of Rhinella marina (Amphibia: Bufonidae) from Eastern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos; Melo, Caroline do Socorro Barros; Nascimento, Luciana de Cássia Silva do; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; Furtado, Adriano Penha; Santos, Jeannie Nascimento Dos

    2016-06-01

    Absctract Eustrongylides spp. nematodes have birds as final hosts and uses other vertebrates as intermediate/paratenic host (fish, amphibians and reptiles) and have zoonotic potential. In amphibians, the larvae may be located in the subcutaneous tissues, liver and mesentery, between the muscle fibres, especially in the lower limbs. Rhinella marina, which is widely observed in Brazil, has exhibited complex diversity in its helminth fauna, reflecting the unique habitat of the Amazon biome. For the first time, this study describes the morphological aspects of third-stage larvae of Eustrongylides sp. in Rhinella marina from Santa Cruz do Ararí, Marajó Archipelago, Eastern Amazonia, using light and scanning electron microscopy. PMID:27334826

  1. Disentangling the contribution of multiple land covers to fire-mediated carbon emissions in Amazonia during the 2010 drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Liana Oighenstein; Aragão, Luiz E. O. C.; Gloor, Manuel; Arai, Egídio; Adami, Marcos; Saatchi, Sassan S.; Malhi, Yadvinder; Shimabukuro, Yosio E.; Barlow, Jos; Berenguer, Erika; Duarte, Valdete

    2015-10-01

    In less than 15 years, the Amazon region experienced three major droughts. Links between droughts and fires have been demonstrated for the 1997/1998, 2005, and 2010 droughts. In 2010, emissions of 510 ± 120 Tg C were associated to fire alone in Amazonia. Existing approaches have, however, not yet disentangled the proportional contribution of multiple land cover sources to this total. We develop a novel integration of multisensor and multitemporal satellite-derived data on land cover, active fires, and burned area and an empirical model of fire-induced biomass loss to quantify the extent of burned areas and resulting biomass loss for multiple land covers in Mato Grosso (MT) state, southern Amazonia—the 2010 drought most impacted region. We show that 10.77% (96,855 km2) of MT burned. We estimated a gross carbon emission of 56.21 ± 22.5 Tg C from direct combustion of biomass, with an additional 29.4 ± 10 Tg C committed to be emitted in the following years due to dead wood decay. It is estimated that old-growth forest fires in the whole Brazilian Legal Amazon (BLA) have contributed to 14.81 Tg of C (11.75 Tg C to 17.87 Tg C) emissions to the atmosphere during the 2010 fire season, with an affected area of 27,555 km2. Total C loss from the 2010 fires in MT state and old-growth forest fires in the BLA represent, respectively, 77% (47% to 107%) and 86% (68.2% to 103%) of Brazil's National Plan on Climate Change annual target for Amazonia C emission reductions from deforestation.

  2. Evolution of a Quaternary paleoria (Southwest Amazonia) and its impact on the distribution of modern vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertani, T. C.; Rossetti, D.; Hayakawa, E. H.

    2012-12-01

    Fluvial rias and patches of open vegetation in sharp contrast with dense tropical forest are among the most remarkable features in many areas of the Amazonian lowlands. These features occupy large areas and often display similar geometry and dimensions, especially when located nearby main river courses. The fluvial rias in the Amazonas basin have been described as lakes formed by the impoundment of tributary rivers in their lower courses due to increased aggradation. The origin of this kind of lake has been related to post-glacial eustatic variations, although neotectonic influence has also been considered an important control of the contemporary conformation observed for these Amazonian lakes. Groups of fluvial rias do follow the basin's superimposed axis, and are not randomly located, as opposed to erosive lakes within the floodplains. In addition, open vegetation patches within the Amazonas basin have been, in general, related to Pleistocene climatic oscillations or edaphic variations resulting from geological and geomorphological processes. However, a few of these patches have geometry and dimensions conforming to many modern fluvial rias of the Amazonian region, leading to hypothesize an origin potentially related to this landform. Studies integrating geological and remote sensing data for different Amazonian areas have suggested changes in fluvial sedimentary dynamics during the late Quaternary as the key for the establishment of many patches of open vegetation. Morphostructural evidence also has been used to relate frequent changes in the river systems to fault reactivations. The purpose of this work is to present the results of an interdisciplinary investigation including remote sensing, sedimentology, radiocarbon chronology δ13C, δ15N, and C/N from a landform related to the infill of a paleoria of the Madeira River in southwestern Amazonia. The results of this investigation revealed a sedimentary succession displaying ages between 21,547 - 22,285 cal

  3. Vegetation and hydrology changes in Eastern Amazonia inferred from a pollen record

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    Mauro B. de Toledo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Pollen, charcoal, and C14 analyses were performed on a sediment core obtained from Lake Tapera (Amapá to provide the palaeoenvironmental history of this part of Amazonia. A multivariate analysis technique, Detrended Correspondence Analysis, was applied to the pollen data to improve visualization of sample distribution and similarity. A sedimentary hiatus lasting 5,500 years was identified in the Lake Tapera. Because the timing of the hiatus overlapped with the highest Holocene sea-level, which would have increased the local water table preventing the lake from drying out, it is clear that sea-level was not important in maintaining the lake level. Lake Tapera probably depended on riverine flood waters, and the sedimentary gap was caused by reduced Amazon River discharge, due to an extremely dry period in the Andes (8,000-5,000 years BP, when precipitation levels markedly decreased. The lack of Andean pollen (river transported in the record after this event supports this interpretation. The pollen analysis shows that when sedimentation resumed in 1,620 cal. years BP, the vegetation around the lake was changed from forest into savanna. This record demonstrates the need to improve our understanding of climate changes and their associated impacts on vegetation dynamics.Análises de pólen, carvões e datações C foram conduzidas em um testemunho coletado no lago Tapera (Amapá com o objetivo de interpretar a história paleoambiental desta parte da Amazônia. Uma das técnicas de análises multivariadas, Análise de Correspondência Destendenciada (DCA, foi utilizada a fim de melhor visualizar a distribuição e similaridade das amostras. Foi identificado um hiato sedimentar com duração de 5.500 anos no lago Tapera. Como o hiato ocorreu simultaneamente ao nível do mar mais alto do Holoceno, o que deveria ter aumentado o lençol freático, impedindo assim o lago de secar, é evidente que variações do nível do mar não foram importantes na

  4. Seasonality of isoprenoid emissions from a primary rainforest in central Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Eliane G.; Jardine, Kolby; Tota, Julio; Jardine, Angela; Yãnez-Serrano, Ana Maria; Karl, Thomas; Tavares, Julia; Nelson, Bruce; Gu, Dasa; Stavrakou, Trissevgeni; Martin, Scot; Artaxo, Paulo; Manzi, Antonio; Guenther, Alex

    2016-03-01

    Tropical rainforests are an important source of isoprenoid and other volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions to the atmosphere. The seasonal variation of these compounds is however still poorly understood. In this study, vertical profiles of mixing ratios of isoprene, total monoterpenes and total sesquiterpenes, were measured within and above the canopy, in a primary rainforest in central Amazonia, using a proton transfer reaction - mass spectrometer (PTR-MS). Fluxes of these compounds from the canopy into the atmosphere were estimated from PTR-MS measurements by using an inverse Lagrangian transport model. Measurements were carried out continuously from September 2010 to January 2011, encompassing the dry and wet seasons. Mixing ratios were higher during the dry (isoprene - 2.68 ± 0.9 ppbv, total monoterpenes - 0.67 ± 0.3 ppbv; total sesquiterpenes - 0.09 ± 0.07 ppbv) than the wet season (isoprene - 1.66 ± 0.9 ppbv, total monoterpenes - 0.47 ± 0.2 ppbv; total sesquiterpenes - 0.03 ± 0.02 ppbv) for all compounds. Ambient air temperature and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) behaved similarly. Daytime isoprene and total monoterpene mixing ratios were highest within the canopy, rather than near the ground or above the canopy. By comparison, daytime total sesquiterpene mixing ratios were highest near the ground. Daytime fluxes varied significantly between seasons for all compounds. The maximums for isoprene (2.53 ± 0.5 µmol m-2 h-1) and total monoterpenes (1.77 ± 0.05 µmol m-2 h-1) were observed in the late dry season, whereas the maximum for total sesquiterpenes was found during the dry-to-wet transition season (0.77 ± 0.1 µmol m-2 h-1). These flux estimates suggest that the canopy is the main source of isoprenoids emitted into the atmosphere for all seasons. However, uncertainties in turbulence parameterization near the ground could affect estimates of fluxes that come from the ground. Leaf phenology seemed to be an important driver of seasonal

  5. VILLAGE’S HERDS: INVESTIGATING THE INTRODUCTION OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS AND PATTERNS OF ANIMAL HUSBANDRY AMONG INDIGENOUS PEOPLES IN AMAZONIA (RONDÔNIA)

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Ferreira Vander Velden

    2011-01-01

    This paper discuss the introduction of European domestic animals in indigenous villages in the Amazon, with particular stress on groups in Rondonia, specially the Karitiana, a Tupi-Arikém-speaking people that lives in the north of that state. In what concerns the history of Brazilian territorial conquest, marked by the ‘frentes pastoris’’ great narrative, and the present expansion – material and also ideological – of husbandry throughout Amazonia, this article points to many questions about t...

  6. Payments for ecosystem services in Amazonia. The challenge of land use heterogeneity in agricultural frontiers near Cruzeiro do Sul (Acre, Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Eloy, L.; Méral, Philippe; Ludewigs, T.; Pinheiro, G. T.; Singer, B

    2012-01-01

    Amazonia became a target area for Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) initiatives in deforestation. We analysed the implementation of a PES scheme in Acre (Brazil) by taking into account land use heterogeneity in an agricultural frontier. Justified by the modernisation of deforestation control policies, the programme promotes agricultural intensification through fire-free practices. In this way, the PES tends to focus on long-established settlements, where farmers are wealthier and the lands...

  7. Aerosol and precipitation chemistry measurements in a remote site in Central Amazonia: the role of biogenic contribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pauliquevis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this analysis a 3.5 years data set of aerosol and precipitation chemistry, obtained in a remote site in Central Amazonia (Balbina, (1°55' S, 59°29' W, 174 m a.s.l., about 200 km north of Manaus is discussed. Aerosols were sampled using stacked filter units (SFU, which separate fine (d < 2.5 μm and coarse mode (2.5 μm < d < 10.0 μm aerosol particles. Filters were analyzed for particulate mass (PM, Equivalent Black Carbon (BCE and elemental composition by Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE. Rainwater samples were collected using a wet-only sampler and samples were analyzed for pH and ionic composition, which was determined using ionic chromatography (IC. Natural sources dominated the aerosol mass during the wet season, when it was predominantly of natural biogenic origin mostly in the coarse mode, which comprised up to 81% of PM10. Biogenic aerosol from both primary emissions and secondary organic aerosol dominates the fine mode in the wet season, with very low concentrations (average 2.2 μg m-3. Soil dust was responsible for a minor fraction of the aerosol mass (less than 17%. Sudden increases in the concentration of elements as Al, Ti and Fe were also observed, both in fine and coarse mode (mostly during the April-may months, which we attribute to episodes of Saharan dust transport. During the dry periods, a significant contribution to the fine aerosols loading was observed, due to the large-scale transport of smoke from biomass burning in other portions of the Amazon basin. This contribution is associated with the enhancement of the concentration of S, K, Zn and BCE. Chlorine, which is commonly associated to sea salt and also to biomass burning emissions, presented higher concentration not only during the dry season but also for the April–June months, due to the establishment of more favorable meteorological conditions to the transport of Atlantic air masses to Central

  8. Feeding ecology of Auchenipterichthys longimanus (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae in a riparian flooded forest of Eastern Amazonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Magalhães da Silva Freitas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Feeding habits of the midnight catfish Auchenipterichthys longimanus collected in rivers of the Caxiuanã National Forest (Eastern Amazonia, Brazil were investigated through the different hydrological periods (dry, filing, flood and drawdown. A total of 589 specimens were collected throughout seven samplings between July 2008 and July 2009, of which 74 were young males, 177 adult males, 89 young females and 249 adult females. The diet composition (Alimentary index - Ai% was analyzed by a non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS and by the analysis of similarity (ANOSIM, which included 37 items grouped into nine categories (Aquatic insects, Other aquatic invertebrates, Arthropods fragment, Fish, Plant fragment, Seeds, Terrestrial insects, Other terrestrial invertebrates, and Terrestrial vertebrates. We also calculated the niche breadth (Levins index and the repletion index (RI%. Differences in the diet composition between hydrological seasons were registered, primarily on diet composition between dry and flood season, but changes related with sex and maturity were not observed. The midnight catfish showed more specialists feeder habit in the flood period (March 2009 and more generalist habits in the dry season (November 2008. The amount of food eaten by A. longimanus based on repletion index (RI%, did not differ significantly from sex and maturity. However, we evidenced differences in RI% when comparing the studied months. These results provide important biological information about the trophic ecology of auchenipterids fish. In view of the higher occurrence of allochthonous items, this research also underpins the importance of riparian forests as critical environments in the maintenance and conservation of wild populations of fish in the Amazon basin.Neste estudo foram investigados os hábitos alimentares do bagre Auchenipterichthys longimanus coletados em rios da Floresta Nacional de Caxiuanã (Amazônia Oriental, Brasil ao longo de diferentes

  9. Santarém, entre la Amazonia de los ríos y la Amazonia de las carreteras Santarém, entre l’Amazonie des fleuves et l’Amazonie des routes

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    Ruben Valbuena

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available La gran región septentrional de Brasil, la Amazonia, que por varios siglos ha representado un enorme vacío y una potencial fuente de riqueza, ha sido objeto durante el último medio siglo de un acelerado proceso de ocupación y puesta en explotación de forma intensiva. Una dinámica de apropiación apreciable, especialmente, en las tres últimas décadas, cuando la materialización de la red terrestre que ha articulado la margen derecha del gran río facilitó la incursión de los recursos humanos y financieros en el hinterland amazónico.Una red que ha reestructurado el espacio regional, al que daba sentido la malla fluvial y la débil red de lugares, configurada por los núcleos de población surgidos en las orillas de los cauces. Santarém, una ciudad histórica con una localización estratégica entre los dos mayores centros urbanos amazónicos, ha sido palco de enormes transformaciones desde la construcción de las carreteras, pues ligada mediante la Cuibá-Santarém al Centro Oeste de Brasil y a través de la Transamazônica al Nordeste brasileño y a la Amazonia Occidental ha pasado a desempeñar un importante papel como nexo articulador en la región Norte. Al mismo tiempo, se erige como el principal asentamiento humano de esta vasta región central, dirigiendo un proceso emergente de construcción regional.La grande région septentrionale du Brésil, l'Amazonie, qui durant plusieurs siècles n’a représenté qu’un énorme vide et une source de richesse potentielle, a fait l'objet pendant le dernier demi-siècle d'un processus accéléré d’occupation et d’une mise en exploitation intensive. Une forte dynamique d'appropriation a facilité l'incursion de nouvelles ressources humaines et financières dans l’hinterland amazonien, spécialement au cours des trois dernières décennies, quand la réalisation d’un réseau terrestre a articulé la rive droite de la grande rivière.Ce réseau a restructuré l'espace r

  10. Tropical Forest Backscatter Anomaly Evident in SeaWinds Scatterometer Morning Overpass Data During 2005 Drought in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolking, S. E.; Milliman, T.; Palace, M. W.; Wisser, D.; Lammers, R. B.; Fahnestock, M. A.

    2010-12-01

    A severe drought occurred in many portions of Amazonia in the dry season (June-September) of 2005. We analyzed ten years (7/99-10/09) of SeaWinds active microwave Ku-band backscatter data collected over the Amazon Basin, developing a monthly climatology and monthly anomalies from that climatology in an effort to detect landscape responses to this drought. We compared these to seasonal accumulating water deficit anomalies generated using Tropical Rainfall Monitoring Mission (TRMM) precipitation data (1999-2009) and 100 mm/mo evapotranspirative demand as a water deficit threshold. There was significant interannual variability in monthly mean backscatter only for ascending (early morning) overpass data, and little interannual variability in monthly mean backscatter for descending (late afternoon) overpass data. Strong negative anomalies in both ascending-overpass backscatter and accumulating water deficit developed during July-October 2005, centered on the southwestern Amazon Basin (Acre and western Amazonas states in Brazil; Madre de Dios state in Peru; Pando state in Bolivia). During the 2005 drought, there was a strong spatial correlation between morning overpass backscatter anomalies and water deficit anomalies. We hypothesize that as the drought persisted over several months, the forest canopy was increasingly unable to recover full leaf moisture content over night, and the early morning overpass backscatter data became anomalously low. This is the first reporting of tropical wet forest seasonal drought detection by active microwave scatterometry.

  11. Prehistorically modified soils of central Amazonia: a model for sustainable agriculture in the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Bruno

    2007-02-28

    Terra Preta soils of central Amazonia exhibit approximately three times more soil organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorus and 70 times more charcoal compared to adjacent infertile soils. The Terra Preta soils were generated by pre-Columbian native populations by chance or intentionally adding large amounts of charred residues (charcoal), organic wastes, excrements and bones. In this paper, it is argued that generating new Terra Preta sites ('Terra Preta nova') could be the basis for sustainable agriculture in the twenty-first century to produce food for billions of people, and could lead to attaining three Millennium Development Goals: (i) to combat desertification, (ii) to sequester atmospheric CO2 in the long term, and (iii) to maintain biodiversity hotspots such as tropical rainforests. Therefore, large-scale generation and utilization of Terra Preta soils would decrease the pressure on primary forests that are being extensively cleared for agricultural use with only limited fertility and sustainability and, hence, only providing a limited time for cropping. This would maintain biodiversity while mitigating both land degradation and climate change. However, it should not be overlooked that the infertility of most tropical soils (and associated low population density) is what could have prevented tropical forests undergoing large-scale clearance for agriculture. Increased fertility may increase the populations supported by shifting cultivation, thereby maintaining and increasing pressure on forests. PMID:17255028

  12. A Spatial Probit Econometric Model of Land Change: The Case of Infrastructure Development in Western Amazonia, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arima, E. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Tropical forests are now at the center stage of climate mitigation policies worldwide given their roles as sources of carbon emissions resulting from deforestation and forest degradation. Although the international community has created mechanisms such as REDD+ to reduce those emissions, developing tropical countries continue to invest in infrastructure development in an effort to spur economic growth. Construction of roads in particular is known to be an important driver of deforestation. This article simulates the impact of road construction on deforestation in Western Amazonia, Peru, and quantifies the amount of carbon emissions associated with projected deforestation. To accomplish this objective, the article adopts a Bayesian probit land change model in which spatial dependencies are defined between regions or groups of pixels instead of between individual pixels, thereby reducing computational requirements. It also compares and contrasts the patterns of deforestation predicted by both spatial and non-spatial probit models. The spatial model replicates complex patterns of deforestation whereas the non-spatial model fails to do so. In terms of policy, both models suggest that road construction will increase deforestation by a modest amount, between 200–300 km2. This translates into aboveground carbon emissions of 1.36 and 1.85 x 106 tons. However, recent introduction of palm oil in the region serves as a cautionary example that the models may be underestimating the impact of roads. PMID:27010739

  13. Loss of nutrients from terrestrial ecosystems to streams and the atmosphere following land use change in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Eric A.; Neill, Christopher; Krusche, Alex V.; Ballester, Victoria V. R.; Markewitz, Daniel; Figueiredo, Ricardo de O.

    Rates of deforestation in the Amazon region have been accelerating, but the quantity and timing of nutrient losses from forested and deforested ecosystems are poorly understood. This paper investigates the broad variation in soil properties of the Amazon Basin as they influence transfers of plant nutrients from the terrestrial biosphere to the atmosphere and the aquatic biosphere. The dominant lowland soils are highly weathered Oxisols and Ultisols, but significant areas of Alfisols also exist, resulting in a wide range of weatherable primary minerals. Despite this considerable variation among Amazonian soils, a common feature in most mature lowland Amazonian forests is a conservative P cycle and excess N availability. In cattle pastures and secondary forests, however, low rates of internal terrestrial N cycling, low N export to streams, and low gaseous N emissions from soils are common, due to significant previous losses of N through repeated fire. Export of P to streams may increase or remain nearly undetectable after forest-to-pasture conversion, depending on soil type. Oxisols exhibit very low P export, whereas increased P export to pasture streams has been observed in Ultisols of western Amazonia. Calcium is mostly retained in terrestrial ecosystems following deforestation, although increased inputs to streams can be detected when background fluxes are naturally low. Because soil mineralogy and soil texture are both variable and important, the effects of land-use change on nutrient export to aquatic ecosystems and to the atmosphere must be understood within the context of varying soil properties across the Amazon Basin.

  14. Deforestation drivers in Southwest Amazonia: Comparing smallholder farmers in Iñapari, Peru, and Assis Brasil, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeyda Zambrano Angelica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Broad interpretation of land use and forest cover studies has been limited by the biophysical and socio-economic uniqueness of the landscapes in which they are carried out and by the multiple temporal and spatial scales of the underlying processes. We coupled a land cover change approach with a political ecology framework to interpret trends in multi-temporal remote sensing of forest cover change and socio-economic surveys with smallholders in the towns of Iñapari, Peru and Assis Brasil, Brazil in southwest Amazonia. These adjacent towns have similar biogeophysical conditions, but have undergone differing development approaches, and are both presently undergoing infrastructure development for the new Interoceanic highway. Results show that forest cover patterns observed in these two towns cannot be accounted for using single land use drivers. Rather, deforestation patterns result from interactions of national and regional policies affecting financial credit and road infrastructure, along with local processes of market integration and household resources. Based on our results we develop recommendations to minimise deforestation in the study area. Our findings are relevant for the sustainability of land use in the Amazon, in particular for regions undergoing large-scale infrastructure development projects.

  15. Distribution and abundance of white-fronted spider monkeys, Ateles belzebuth (Atelidae), and threats to their survival in Peruvian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Rolando; Cornejo, Fanny M; Pezo, Etersit; Heymann, Eckhard W

    2013-01-01

    The white-fronted spider monkey, Ateles belzebuth, is listed as 'Endangered' according to the IUCN classification. In Peru it is found in the departments of Loreto, San Martín, Amazonas and Cajamarca, but detailed data on its geographic distribution, population densities and conservation status are scarce. In order to obtain such information, we conducted transect censuses on the Río Aushiri and Río San Antonio (right bank of Río Napo), and between the Río Curaray and the Río Arabela and Río Nashiño, respectively, and made additional explorations on the northern and southern banks of the Río Marañón. We obtained 48 sightings along 761 km of census transect. Group size and population densities were lower in an area with high hunting pressure compared to areas with medium or low hunting pressure. Besides hunting, increasing deforestation is a major threat to the survival of A. belzebuth in Peruvian Amazonia. PMID:23296267

  16. Activity patterns and diet of the howler monkey Alouatta belzebul in areas of logged and unlogged forest in Eastern Amazonia

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    Pinto, A. C. B.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This work compared the activity patterns and diet of a group of Alouatta belzebul in areas of logged and unlogged forest in eastern Amazonia. An instantaneous scan sampling procedure was used for the behavioral study (9.3 ± 1.9 complete observation days/month from February to November 2000. Fruit availability was estimated monthly. Activity budgets were not significantly different between sites. Rest was the predominant activity in both sites (53.6 % and 48.7 %, respectively. Average daily path length was 683.5 ± 215.1 m (n = 93, and the home range was 17.8 ha, including 7 ha in unlogged forest and 10.8 ha in the logged forest. Neither fruit availability nor diet varied significantly between sites. The diet was predominantly folivorous (43.4 % and 46.6 % in unlogged and logged forest, respectively and frugivorous (43.9 % and 42.8 %. The spatial use by the group was positively related to fruit sources. This study documented the ability of a ranging group of A. belzebul to survive in a habitat influenced by reduced impact logging without dramatically influencing its activity patterns and diet

  17. Ecofunctional Traits and Biomass Production in Leguminous Tree Species under Fertilization Treatments during Forest Restoration in Amazonia

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    Roberto K. Jaquetti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Choosing the correct species and fertilization treatments is a determining factor in the success of forest restoration. Methods: A field study was conducted in a degraded area near the Balbina hydroelectric dam in Amazonas State (AM, Brazil, to evaluate two hypotheses: (i leguminous tree species exhibit differences in growth, leaf nutrient content, and photosynthetic nutrient use efficiencies; and (ii differences in these characteristics depend on the fertilization treatments to which the species have been subjected. Dipteryx odorata, Inga edulis and Schizolobium amazonicum were subjected to the following treatments: (T1 unfertilized control; (T2 post-planting chemical fertilization; (T3 post-planting organic fertilization and (T4 combined chemical and organic post-planting fertilization. Results: In general, I. edulis had the highest absolute growth rate of biomass under all of the fertilization treatments. I. edulis and S. amazonicum showed the highest growth rates under the T4 treatment. D. odorata showed the greatest responses under the T2 and T4 treatments. Native leguminous trees with higher photosynthetic performance and better nutrient use efficiency exhibited greater growth and biomass production. Conclusion: The results suggest that an adequate balance between leguminous species selection and fertilization will aid in the success of forest restoration in Amazonia.

  18. A Spatial Probit Econometric Model of Land Change: The Case of Infrastructure Development in Western Amazonia, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arima, E Y

    2016-01-01

    Tropical forests are now at the center stage of climate mitigation policies worldwide given their roles as sources of carbon emissions resulting from deforestation and forest degradation. Although the international community has created mechanisms such as REDD+ to reduce those emissions, developing tropical countries continue to invest in infrastructure development in an effort to spur economic growth. Construction of roads in particular is known to be an important driver of deforestation. This article simulates the impact of road construction on deforestation in Western Amazonia, Peru, and quantifies the amount of carbon emissions associated with projected deforestation. To accomplish this objective, the article adopts a Bayesian probit land change model in which spatial dependencies are defined between regions or groups of pixels instead of between individual pixels, thereby reducing computational requirements. It also compares and contrasts the patterns of deforestation predicted by both spatial and non-spatial probit models. The spatial model replicates complex patterns of deforestation whereas the non-spatial model fails to do so. In terms of policy, both models suggest that road construction will increase deforestation by a modest amount, between 200-300 km2. This translates into aboveground carbon emissions of 1.36 and 1.85 x 106 tons. However, recent introduction of palm oil in the region serves as a cautionary example that the models may be underestimating the impact of roads. PMID:27010739

  19. A Spatial Probit Econometric Model of Land Change: The Case of Infrastructure Development in Western Amazonia, Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Y Arima

    Full Text Available Tropical forests are now at the center stage of climate mitigation policies worldwide given their roles as sources of carbon emissions resulting from deforestation and forest degradation. Although the international community has created mechanisms such as REDD+ to reduce those emissions, developing tropical countries continue to invest in infrastructure development in an effort to spur economic growth. Construction of roads in particular is known to be an important driver of deforestation. This article simulates the impact of road construction on deforestation in Western Amazonia, Peru, and quantifies the amount of carbon emissions associated with projected deforestation. To accomplish this objective, the article adopts a Bayesian probit land change model in which spatial dependencies are defined between regions or groups of pixels instead of between individual pixels, thereby reducing computational requirements. It also compares and contrasts the patterns of deforestation predicted by both spatial and non-spatial probit models. The spatial model replicates complex patterns of deforestation whereas the non-spatial model fails to do so. In terms of policy, both models suggest that road construction will increase deforestation by a modest amount, between 200-300 km2. This translates into aboveground carbon emissions of 1.36 and 1.85 x 106 tons. However, recent introduction of palm oil in the region serves as a cautionary example that the models may be underestimating the impact of roads.

  20. Mass-spectrometric identification of primary biological particle markers and application to pristine submicron aerosol measurements in Amazonia

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    J. Schneider

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The detection of primary biological material in submicron aerosol by means of thermal desorption/electron impact ionization aerosol mass spectrometry was investigated. Mass spectra of amino acids, carbohydrates, small peptides, and proteins, all of which are key building blocks of biological particles, were recorded in laboratory experiments. Several characteristic marker fragments were identified. The intensity of the marker signals relative to the total organic mass spectrum allows for an estimation of the content of primary biological material in ambient organic aerosol. The developed method was applied to mass spectra recorded during AMAZE-08, a field campaign conducted in the pristine rainforest of the central Amazon Basin, Brazil, during the wet season of February and March 2008. The low abundance of identified marker fragments places upper limits of 7.5% for amino acids and 5.6% for carbohydrates on the contribution of primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP to the submicron organic aerosol mass concentration during this time period. Upper limits for the absolute submicron concentrations for both compound classes range from 0.01 to 0.1 μg m−3. Carbohydrates and proteins (composed of amino acids make up for about two thirds of the dry mass of a biological cell. Thus, our findings suggest an upper limit for the PBAP mass fraction of about 20% to the submicron organic aerosol measured in Amazonia during AMAZE-08.

  1. Reproducing the organic matter model of anthropogenic dark earth of Amazonia and testing the ecotoxicity of functionalized charcoal compounds

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    Carolina Rodrigues Linhares

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to obtain organic compounds similar to the ones found in the organic matter of anthropogenic dark earth of Amazonia (ADE using a chemical functionalization procedure on activated charcoal, as well as to determine their ecotoxicity. Based on the study of the organic matter from ADE, an organic model was proposed and an attempt to reproduce it was described. Activated charcoal was oxidized with the use of sodium hypochlorite at different concentrations. Nuclear magnetic resonance was performed to verify if the spectra of the obtained products were similar to the ones of humic acids from ADE. The similarity between spectra indicated that the obtained products were polycondensed aromatic structures with carboxyl groups: a soil amendment that can contribute to soil fertility and to its sustainable use. An ecotoxicological test with Daphnia similis was performed on the more soluble fraction (fulvic acids of the produced soil amendment. Aryl chloride was formed during the synthesis of the organic compounds from activated charcoal functionalization and partially removed through a purification process. However, it is probable that some aryl chloride remained in the final product, since the ecotoxicological test indicated that the chemical functionalized soil amendment is moderately toxic.

  2. Chemical composition of the fruit mesocarp of three peach palm (Bactris gasipaes) populations grown in central Amazonia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuyama, Lúcia K O; Aguiar, Jaime P L; Yuyama, Kaoru; Clement, Charles R; Macedo, Sonja H M; Fávaro, Deborah I T; Afonso, Claudia; Vasconcellos, Marina B A; Pimentel, Sabria A; Badolato, Elsa S G; Vannucchi, Helio

    2003-01-01

    The percent composition, soluble and insoluble food fibers, oil fatty acids and minerals were determined in the mesocarp of fruits of three peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) populations grown in Central Amazonia, Brazil. Amino acids were also determined in one of the populations. The mean protein levels ranged from 1.8 to 2.7%, lipid levels ranged from 3.5 to 11.1%, the nitrogen free fraction ranged from 24.3 to 35%, food fiber ranged from 5.2% to 8.7%, and energy ranged from 179.1 to 207.4 kcal%. All essential, as well as non-essential, amino acids were present, with tryptophan and methionine presenting the lowest mean concentrations. The mono-unsaturated oleic acid predominated in the oil, ranging from 42.8 to 60.8%, and palmitic acid was the most abundant saturated fatty acid, ranging from 24.1 to 42.3%. Among the essential fatty acids, linoleic acid was the most abundant, with a maximum of 5.4% in Pampa-8. The most important mineral elements were potassium, selenium and chromium, respectively corresponding to 12%, 9% and 9% of daily recommended allowances. Considering the nutritional potential of the fruit, we suggest its more frequent incorporation into the diet of the Amazonian population. PMID:12701237

  3. New molecular identifiers for Simulium limbatum and Simulium incrustatum s.l. and the detection of genetic substructure with potential implications for onchocerciasis epidemiology in the Amazonia focus of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, Priscila A; Crainey, James L; Almeida, Tatiana P; Shelley, Anthony J; Luz, Sergio L B

    2013-08-01

    The Amazonia onchocerciasis focus of southern Venezuela and northern Brazil is the larger of the two remaining Latin American onchocerciasis foci where disease transmission still occurs and is often regarded as the most challenging of all the Latin American foci to eliminate onchocerciasis. The site is home to a population of over 20,000 semi-nomadic, hunter-gatherer Yanomami people and is made-up of a mosaic of rainforest and savannah ecologies, which are influenced by the area's undulating terrain and rich geological diversity. At least six blackfly vectors have been implicated in onchocerciasis transmission in this focus; however, because of the difficulty in their routine identification the relative importance of each has been obscured. Simulium limbatum and Simulium incrustatum s.l. have both been recorded as vectors in the Amazonia focus, but they are difficult to discriminate morphologically and thus the ecological range of these species, and indeed the presence of S. limbatum in the Amazonia focus at all, have remained controversial. In the work described here, we report 15 S. incrustatum s.l. CO1 sequences and 27 S. limbatum sequences obtained from field-caught adult female blackflies collected from forest and savannah localities, inside and just outside the Amazonia focus. Phylogenetic analysis with the sequences generated in this study, showed that both the S. limbatum and the S. incrustatum s.l. CO1 sequences obtained (even from specimens living in sympatry) all fell into discrete species-specific bootstrap-supported monophyletic groups and thus confirmed the utility of the CO1 gene for identifying both these species inside the Amazonia focus. As the S. limbatum-exclusive cluster included CO1 sequences obtained from forest-caught and morphologically identified specimens these results provide the clearest evidence yet of the presence of S. limbatum inside the Amazonia focus. The question, however, of whether S. limbatum is actually a vector in the focus

  4. From Amazonia to the Atlantic forest: molecular phylogeny of Phyzelaphryninae frogs reveals unexpected diversity and a striking biogeographic pattern emphasizing conservation challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouquet, Antoine; Loebmann, Daniel; Castroviejo-Fisher, Santiago; Padial, José M; Orrico, Victor G D; Lyra, Mariana L; Roberto, Igor Joventino; Kok, Philippe J R; Haddad, Célio F B; Rodrigues, Miguel T

    2012-11-01

    Documenting the Neotropical amphibian diversity has become a major challenge facing the threat of global climate change and the pace of environmental alteration. Recent molecular phylogenetic studies have revealed that the actual number of species in South American tropical forests is largely underestimated, but also that many lineages are millions of years old. The genera Phyzelaphryne (1 sp.) and Adelophryne (6 spp.), which compose the subfamily Phyzelaphryninae, include poorly documented, secretive, and minute frogs with an unusual distribution pattern that encompasses the biotic disjunction between Amazonia and the Atlantic forest. We generated >5.8 kb sequence data from six markers for all seven nominal species of the subfamily as well as for newly discovered populations in order to (1) test the monophyly of Phyzelaphryninae, Adelophryne and Phyzelaphryne, (2) estimate species diversity within the subfamily, and (3) investigate their historical biogeography and diversification. Phylogenetic reconstruction confirmed the monophyly of each group and revealed deep subdivisions within Adelophryne and Phyzelaphryne, with three major clades in Adelophryne located in northern Amazonia, northern Atlantic forest and southern Atlantic forest. Our results suggest that the actual number of species in Phyzelaphryninae is, at least, twice the currently recognized species diversity, with almost every geographically isolated population representing an anciently divergent candidate species. Such results highlight the challenges for conservation, especially in the northern Atlantic forest where it is still degraded at a fast pace. Molecular dating revealed that Phyzelaphryninae originated in Amazonia and dispersed during early Miocene to the Atlantic forest. The two Atlantic forest clades of Adelophryne started to diversify some 7 Ma minimum, while the northern Amazonian Adelophryne diversified much earlier, some 13 Ma minimum. This striking biogeographic pattern coincides with

  5. Dissolved inorganic carbon and pCO2 in two small streams draining different soil types in Southwestern Amazonia, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Simone Rebecca Alin; Alex Vladimir Krusche; Reynaldo Luiz Victoria; Cleber Ibraim Salimon; Eliete dos Santos Sousa; Nei Kavaguichi Leite

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and pCO2 concentrations in two third order streams in southwestern Amazonia, Brazil. From May 2004 to June 2005 water dissolved oxygen, pH, electrical conductivity, temperature were measured to stream water chemical and physical description. DIC and pCO2 measurements were made by headspace extraction and gas samples for pCO2 and DIC extractions were run on an infrared gas analyzer (IRGA, LI-COR Instruments model...

  6. Chagas disease and globalization of the Amazon La enfermedad de Chagas y la globalización de la Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Briceño-León

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of autochthonous cases of Chagas disease in the Amazon since the 1970s has led to fear that the disease may become a new public health problem in the region. This transformation in the disease's epidemiological pattern in the Amazon can be explained by environmental and social changes in the last 30 years. The current article draws on the sociological theory of perverse effects to explain these changes as the unwanted result of the shift from the "inward" development model prevailing until the 1970s to the "outward" model that we know as globalization, oriented by industrial forces and international trade. The current article highlights the implementation of five new patterns in agriculture, cattle-raising, mining, lumbering, and urban occupation that have generated changes in the environment and the traditional indigenous habitat and have led to migratory flows, deforestation, sedentary living, the presence of domestic animals, and changes in the habitat that facilitate colonization of human dwellings by vectors and the domestic and work-related transmission of the disease. The expansion of Chagas disease is thus a perverse effect of the globalization process in the Amazon.El incremento de casos autóctonos de la enfermedad de Chagas en la Amazonia a partir de los años setenta hace temer que pueda convertirse en un novedoso problema de salud pública en la región. Este cambio del patrón epidemiológico de la enfermedad en la región amazónica debe ser explicado por las transformaciones ambientales y sociales que han ocurrido en los pasados treinta años. Este artículo utiliza la teoría sociológica de los efectos perversos para explicar esos cambios como el resultado indeseado del cambio de modelo de desarrollo "hacia adentro", que había existido hasta los años setenta, por otro "hacia fuera" que está orientado por las fuerzas de la producción y el comercio internacional que conocemos como globalización. El art

  7. Water-soluble organic compounds in biomass burning aerosols over Amazonia1. Characterization by NMR and GC-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Bim; Mayol-Bracero, Olga L.; Guyon, Pascal; Roberts, Gregory C.; Decesari, Stefano; Facchini, M. Cristina; Artaxo, Paulo; Maenhaut, Willy; Köll, Peter; Andreae, Meinrat O.

    2002-09-01

    As part of the European contribution to the Large-Scale Atmosphere-Biosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA-EUSTACH), aerosols were sampled at representative pasture and primary rainforest sites in Rondônia, Brazil, during the 1999 ``burning season'' and dry-to-wet season transition (September-October). Water-soluble organic compounds (WSOCs) within the samples were characterized using a combination of 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy for chemical functional group analysis, and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) for identification and quantification of individual low-molecular-weight compounds. The 1H NMR analysis indicates that WSOCs are predominantly aliphatic or oxygenated aliphatic compounds (alcohols, carboxylic acids, etc.), with a minor content of aromatic rings carrying carboxylic and phenolic groups. Levoglucosan (1,6-anhydro-β-D-glucose), a well-known cellulose combustion product, was the most abundant individual compound identified by GC-MS (0.04-6.90 μg m-3), accounting for 1-6% of the total carbon (TC) and 2-8% of the water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC). Other anhydrosugars, produced by hemicellulose breakdown, were detected in much smaller amounts, in addition to series of acids, hydroxyacids, oxoacids, and polyalcohols (altogether 2-5% of TC, 3-6% of WSOC). Most correlated well with organic carbon, black carbon, and potassium, indicating biomass burning to be the major source. A series of sugar alcohols (mannitol, arabitol, erythritol) and sugars (glucose, fructose, mannose, galactose, sucrose, trehalose) were identified as part of the natural background aerosol and are probably derived from airborne microbes and other biogenic material. The bulk of the WSOCs (86-91% WSOC) eluded analysis by GC-MS and may be predominantly high-molecular weight in nature.

  8. Activity budget, diet, and use of space by two groups of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) in eastern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Tatyana; Ferrari, Stephen F; Lopes, Maria Aparecida

    2013-07-01

    Squirrel monkeys (Saimiri spp.) are widely distributed in the Amazon basin. This study describes the ecological and behavioral patterns of two social groups of S. sciureus in forests adjacent to the Tucuruí hydroelectric reservoir in eastern Amazonia, including range size, activity budgets, and composition of the diet. The groups were monitored at Base 4 (group B4) and Germoplasma Island (group GI). Quantitative behavioral data were collected using instantaneous scan sampling to record behavior, substrate use, and height. Home ranges were delimited using a GPS to determine group position after each 50 m of movement. Home ranges were 75.0 ha for group B4 (39 members) and 77.5 ha for group GI (32 members). The use of vertical strata was well defined, with a marked preference for the middle and lower levels of the canopy. The activity budgets of both groups were typical of those of other squirrel monkeys and were dominated by foraging (B4 = 48.7 %; GI = 49.6 %), moving (both groups 28.9 %), and feeding (B4 = 14.6 %; GI = 12.4 %). Resting was rare (B4 = 3.5 %; GI = 2.6 %) and less common than social behavior (B4 = 4.3 %; GI = 6.4 %). The diet of both groups was dominated by plant material (B4 = 70.7 % of feeding records; GI = 71.4 %), which is in contrast with the more insectivorous diets recorded for Saimiri at other sites. Group GI spent more time foraging during the dry season, whereas group B4 spent more time in the rainy season when the consumption of fruit increased (significantly, in the case of group GI). The less insectivorous diet of these groups may be due to a number of factors, including the unique habitat configuration at the site and reduced hydrological stress due to the proximity of the reservoir. PMID:23546826

  9. Landscape dynamics in northwestern Amazonia: an assessment of pastures, fire and illicit crops as drivers of tropical deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenteras, Dolors; Rodríguez, Nelly; Retana, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have identified drivers of deforestation throughout the tropics and, in most cases, have recognised differences in the level of threat. However, only a few have also looked at the temporal and spatial dynamics by which those drivers act, which is critical for assessing the conservation of biodiversity as well as for landscape planning. In this study, we analyse land cover change between 2000 and 2009 in north-western Colombian Amazonia to identify the interactions between the use of fire, cultivation of illicit crops and establishment of pastures, and their impacts on the loss of forest in the region. Yearly analyses were undertaken at randomly selected sample areas to quantify the average areas of transition of land cover types under different landscape compositions: forest-dominated mosaics, pasture mosaics, fire mosaics, and illicit crop mosaics. Our results indicate that despite the fact that forest areas were well-preserved, deforestation occurred at a low annual rate (0.06%). Conversion to pasture was the main factor responsible for forest loss (the area of pastures tripled within forest mosaics over 8 years), and this process was independent of the landscape matrix in which the forests were located. In fire mosaics, burning is a common tool for forest clearing and conversion to pasture. Thus, forests in fire mosaics were highly disturbed and frequently transformed from primary to secondary forests. The use of fire for illicit cropping was not detected, partly due to the small size of common illicit crops. Forest regeneration from pastures and secondary vegetation was observed in areas with large amounts of natural forest. Overall, assuming the continuation of the observed pasture conversion trend and the use of forest fire, we suggest that our results should be incorporated into a spatially explicit and integrated decision support tool to target and focus land-planning activities and policies. PMID:23382890

  10. Combined effects of deforestation and doubled atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations on the climate of Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, M.H.; Foley, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    It is generally expected that the Amazon basin will experience at least two major environmental changes during the next few decades and centuries: (1) increasing areas of forest will be converted to pasture and cropland, and (2) concentrations of atmospheric CO{sub 2} will continue to rise. In this study, the authors use the National Center for Atmospheric Research GENESIS atmospheric general circulation model, coupled to the Integrated Biosphere Simulator, to determine the combined effects of large-scale deforestation and increased CO{sub 2} concentrations (including both physiological and radiative effects) on Amazonian climate. In these simulations, deforestation decreases basin-average precipitation by 0.73 mm day{sup {minus}1} over the basin, as a consequence of the general reduction in vertical motion above the deforested area (although there are some small regions with increased vertical motion). The overall effect of doubled CO{sub 2} concentrations in Amazonia is an increase in basin-average precipitation of 0.28 mm day{sup {minus}1}. The combined effect of deforestation and doubled CO{sub 2}, including the interactions among the processes, is a decrease in the basin-average precipitation of 0.42 mm day{sup {minus}1}. While the effects of deforestation and increasing CO{sub 2} concentrations on precipitation tend to counteract one another, both processes work to warm the Amazon basin. The effect of deforestation and increasing CO{sub 2} concentrations both tent to increase surface temperature, mainly because of decreases in evapotranspiration and the radiative effect of CO{sub 2}. The combined effect of deforestation and doubled CO{sub 2}, including the interactions among the processes, increases the basin-average temperature by roughly 3.5 C.

  11. Landscape dynamics in northwestern Amazonia: an assessment of pastures, fire and illicit crops as drivers of tropical deforestation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolors Armenteras

    Full Text Available Many studies have identified drivers of deforestation throughout the tropics and, in most cases, have recognised differences in the level of threat. However, only a few have also looked at the temporal and spatial dynamics by which those drivers act, which is critical for assessing the conservation of biodiversity as well as for landscape planning. In this study, we analyse land cover change between 2000 and 2009 in north-western Colombian Amazonia to identify the interactions between the use of fire, cultivation of illicit crops and establishment of pastures, and their impacts on the loss of forest in the region. Yearly analyses were undertaken at randomly selected sample areas to quantify the average areas of transition of land cover types under different landscape compositions: forest-dominated mosaics, pasture mosaics, fire mosaics, and illicit crop mosaics. Our results indicate that despite the fact that forest areas were well-preserved, deforestation occurred at a low annual rate (0.06%. Conversion to pasture was the main factor responsible for forest loss (the area of pastures tripled within forest mosaics over 8 years, and this process was independent of the landscape matrix in which the forests were located. In fire mosaics, burning is a common tool for forest clearing and conversion to pasture. Thus, forests in fire mosaics were highly disturbed and frequently transformed from primary to secondary forests. The use of fire for illicit cropping was not detected, partly due to the small size of common illicit crops. Forest regeneration from pastures and secondary vegetation was observed in areas with large amounts of natural forest. Overall, assuming the continuation of the observed pasture conversion trend and the use of forest fire, we suggest that our results should be incorporated into a spatially explicit and integrated decision support tool to target and focus land-planning activities and policies.

  12. Desmatamento na Amazônia: dinâmica, impactos e controle Deforestation in Amazonia: dynamics, impacts and control

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    Philip M. Fearnside

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O desmatamento na Amazônia procede a um alto ritmo por várias razões, muitas das quais dependem de decisões do governo. O desmatamento leva à perda de serviços ambientais, que têm um valor maior que os usos pouco sustentáveis que substituem a floresta. Estes serviços incluem a manutenção da biodiversidade, da ciclagem de água e dos estoques de carbono que evitam o agravamento do efeito estufa. Retroalimentações entre as mudanças climáticas e a floresta, por meio de processos tais como os incêndios florestais, a mortalidade de árvores por seca e calor e a liberação de estoques de carbono no solo, representam ameaças para o clima, a floresta e a população brasileira. Eventos recentes indicam que o desmatamento pode ser controlado, tendo a vontade política, pois os processos subjacentes dependem de decisões humanas.Deforestation in Amazonia proceeds at a rapid rate for various reasons, many of which depend on government decisions. Deforestation causes losses of environmental services that are more valuable than the short-lived uses that replace the forest. These services include maintenance of biodiversity, of water cycling and of the stocks of carbon that avoid further intensification of the greenhouse effect. Feedbacks between climatic changes and the forest through such processes as forest fires, tree mortality from drought and heat and the release of carbon stocks in the soil represent dangers for the climate, the forest and the Brazilian population. Recent events indicate that deforestation can be controlled, given the political will, because the underlying processes depend on human decisions.

  13. Influence of landscape heterogeneity on spatial patterns of wood productivity, wood specific density and above ground biomass in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, L. O.; Malhi, Y.; Ladle, R. J.; Aragão, L. E. O. C.; Shimabukuro, Y.; Phillips, O. L.; Baker, T.; Costa, A. C. L.; Espejo, J. S.; Higuchi, N.; Laurance, W. F.; López-González, G.; Monteagudo, A.; Núñez-Vargas, P.; Peacock, J.; Quesada, C. A.; Almeida, S.

    2009-09-01

    Long-term studies using the RAINFOR network of forest plots have generated significant insights into the spatial and temporal dynamics of forest carbon cycling in Amazonia. In this work, we map and explore the landscape context of several major RAINFOR plot clusters using Landsat ETM+ satellite data. In particular, we explore how representative the plots are of their landscape context, and test whether bias in plot location within landscapes may be influencing the regional mean values obtained for important forest biophysical parameters. Specifically, we evaluate whether the regional variations in wood productivity, wood specific density and above ground biomass derived from the RAINFOR network could be driven by systematic and unintentional biases in plot location. Remote sensing data covering 45 field plots were aggregated to generate landscape maps to identify the specific physiognomy of the plots. In the Landsat ETM+ data, it was possible to spectrally differentiate three types of terra firme forest, three types of forests over Paleovarzea geomorphologycal formation, two types of bamboo-dominated forest, palm forest, Heliconia monodominant vegetation, swamp forest, disturbed forests and land use areas. Overall, the plots were generally representative of the forest physiognomies in the landscape in which they are located. Furthermore, the analysis supports the observed regional trends in those important forest parameters. This study demonstrates the utility of landscape scale analysis of forest physiognomies for validating and supporting the finds of plot based studies. Moreover, the more precise geolocation of many key RAINFOR plot clusters achieved during this research provides important contextual information for studies employing the RAINFOR database.

  14. Influence of landscape heterogeneity on spatial patterns of wood productivity, wood specific density and above ground biomass in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. O. Anderson

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Long-term studies using the RAINFOR network of forest plots have generated significant insights into the spatial and temporal dynamics of forest carbon cycling in Amazonia. In this work, we map and explore the landscape context of several major RAINFOR plot clusters using Landsat ETM+ satellite data. In particular, we explore how representative the plots are of their landscape context, and test whether bias in plot location within landscapes may be influencing the regional mean values obtained for important forest biophysical parameters. Specifically, we evaluate whether the regional variations in wood productivity, wood specific density and above ground biomass derived from the RAINFOR network could be driven by systematic and unintentional biases in plot location. Remote sensing data covering 45 field plots were aggregated to generate landscape maps to identify the specific physiognomy of the plots. In the Landsat ETM+ data, it was possible to spectrally differentiate three types of terra firme forest, three types of forests over Paleovarzea geomorphologycal formation, two types of bamboo-dominated forest, palm forest, Heliconia monodominant vegetation, swamp forest, disturbed forests and land use areas. Overall, the plots were generally representative of the forest physiognomies in the landscape in which they are located. Furthermore, the analysis supports the observed regional trends in those important forest parameters. This study demonstrates the utility of landscape scale analysis of forest physiognomies for validating and supporting the finds of plot based studies. Moreover, the more precise geolocation of many key RAINFOR plot clusters achieved during this research provides important contextual information for studies employing the RAINFOR database.

  15. Influence of landscape heterogeneity on spatial patterns of wood productivity, wood specific density and above ground biomass in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. O. Anderson

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Long-term studies using the RAINFOR network of forest plots have generated significant insights into the spatial and temporal dynamics of forest carbon cycling in Amazonia. In this work, we map and explore the landscape context of several major RAINFOR plot clusters using Landsat ETM+ satellite data. In particular, we explore how representative the plots are of their landscape context, and test whether bias in plot location within landscapes may be influencing the regional mean values obtained for important forest biophysical parameters. Specifically, we evaluate whether the regional variations in wood productivity, wood specific density and above ground biomass derived from the RAINFOR network could be driven by systematic and unintentional biases in plot location. Remote sensing data covering 45 field plots were aggregated to generate landscape maps to identify the specific physiognomy of the plots. In the Landsat ETM+ data, it was possible to spectrally differentiate three types of terra firme forest, three types of alluvial terrain forest, two types of bamboo-dominated forest, palm forest, Heliconia monodominant vegetation, swamp forest, disturbed forests and land use areas. Overall, the plots were generally representative of the forest physiognomies in the landscape in which they are located. Furthermore, the analysis supports the observed regional trends in those important forest parameters. This study demonstrates the utility of landscape scale analysis of forest physiognomies for validating and supporting the finds of plot based studies. Moreover, the more precise geolocation of many key RAINFOR plot clusters achieved during this research provides important contextual information for studies employing the RAINFOR database.

  16. Papel trófico del microbial loop en un lago de inundación en la Amazonia Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caraballo Gracia Pedro

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de evaluar la participación de las bacterias heterotróficas en el flujo de carbono en la cadena trófica de un lago de inundación amazónico, colectas mensuales de estos microorganismos fueron realizadas durante el año hidrológico de diciembre de 2007 hasta noviembre de 2008, en las regiones litoral, pelágica y de macrófitas acuáticas del lago Catalão, en la Amazonia Central brasilera. Las bacterias fueron multiplicadas in vitro, usando como sustrato el carbono orgánico disuelto (COD del lago en cada una de las regiones estudiadas, para posterior análisis de la abundancia de isotopos estables de carbono y nitrógeno. Estos datos fueron confrontados con los valores de COD de los cuatro periodos limnológicos del lago (seca, inundación, llena y bajada de aguas. En general se encontró que la fuente principal de carbono de las bacterias heterotróficas fue aquella de origen C4, que presentó un aporte mínimo de 75%, en la medida en que el δ13C de las bacterias presentó valor medio de -17,72‰ ± 2,25. Confrontando ese valor, con el δ13C del zooplancton en el mismo período (-33,04‰±3,81 se concluye que el aporte de las bacterias heterotróficas al flujo de carbono hacia niveles tróficos superiores en el lago estudiado es mínimo.

  17. a New Site at Central Amazonia Dedicated to Long Term Cloud Properties Observations - Description, First Results and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauliquevis, T.; Barbosa, H. M.; Adams, D. K.; Artaxo, P.; Cirino, G. G.; Barja Gonzalez, B.; Correia, A. L.; Gomes, H. B.; Gouveia, D. A.; Padua, M. B.; Rosario, N. M. E. D.; Souza, R. A. F. D.; Nascimento dos Santos, R. M.; Sapucci, L.; Portela, B. T.

    2014-12-01

    Amazon basin during the wet season is one of the few places on Earth where "natural atmosphere", as it is expected to be in pre-industrial era, can be observed. Atmosphere in clean Amazonia can be regarded as a baseline state of tropical atmosphere. Its hydrological cycle is extreme active, as well as its convection. Several scientific questions with respect to convection remain unclear. Diurnal cycle of convection is far from adequately represented in numeric models. Precipitation typically occurs in models in the first few hours in the morning, whereas actual rain occurs mostly in the early afternoon. Convection parameterizations lack the ability to represent it adequately due to the models coarse resolution of parameterizations compared to the spatial scale of shallow convection. An adequate comprehension of shallow to deep convection transition is critical to improve convection representation in models. To reach this goal, long term measurements that could characterize clouds and convection diurnal cycle are fundamental. The implementation of ACONVEX (Atmospheric CONVection EXperiment) site, situated 50 km upwind from the megacity of Manaus ( -2.894263S°, -59.971452W) aims to fill the existent gap in long term measurements. It is designed to make measurements for more than 10 yrs, and characterize cloud properties in a climatological perspective. The site started its operation in August, 2011, initially with the Raman Lidar. Present time instrumentation set comprises: 1) UV Lidar Raman, 2) CIMEL Sunphotometer, 3) MultiFilter shadow band Radiometer (MFR), 4) GNSS/GPS Receiver, 5) Vertical Pointing Radar, 6) Disdrometer, 7) Ceilometer, 8) Met station. Two sky imagers and a microwave radiometer are about to be operated and will be able to derive 1) Cloud Cover, 2) Cloud Top and Cloud Base Heights, 3) Liquid Water Content, 4) Integrated Precipitable Water, 5) PBL Height, 6) Rain Rate (vertical profile and at surface). In this poster we discuss the site in more

  18. Distribution of throughfall and stemflow in multi-strata agroforestry, perennial monoculture, fallow and primary forest in central Amazonia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroth, Götz; Ferreira da Silva, Luciana; Wolf, Marc-Andree; Geraldes Teixeira, Wenceslau; Zech, Wolfgang

    1999-07-01

    The partitioning of rain water into throughfall, stemflow and interception loss when passing through plant canopies depends on properties of the respective plant species, such as leaf area and branch angles. In heterogeneous vegetation, such as tropical forest or polycultural systems, the presence of different plant species may consequently result in a mosaic of situations with respect to quantity and quality of water inputs into the soil. As these processes influence not only the water availability for the plants, but also water infiltration and nutrient leaching, the understanding of plant effects on the repartitioning of rain water may help in the optimization of land use systems and management practices. We measured throughfall and stemflow in a perennial polyculture (multi-strata agroforestry), monocultures of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes) for fruit and for palmito, a monoculture of cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum), spontaneous fallow and primary forest during one year in central Amazonia, Brazil. The effect on rain water partitioning was measured separately for four useful tree species in the polyculture and for two tree species in the primary forest. Throughfall at two stem distances, and stemflow, differed significantly between tree species, resulting in pronounced spatial patterns of water input into the soil in the polyculture system. For two tree species, peach palm for fruit (Bactris gasipaes) and Brazil nut trees (Bertholletia excelsa), the water input into the soil near the stem was significantly higher than the open-area rainfall. This could lead to increased nutrient leaching when fertilizer is applied close to the stem of these trees. In the primary forest, such spatial patterns could also be detected, with significantly higher water input near a palm (Oenocarpus bacaba) than near a dicotyledonous tree species (Eschweilera sp.). Interception losses were 6·4% in the polyculture, 13·9 and 12·3% in the peach palm monocultures for fruit and for

  19. Leaf gas exchange and carbohydrates in tropical trees differing in successional status in two light environments in central Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marenco, R A; de C Gonçalves, J F; Vieira, G

    2001-12-01

    Monoculture and mixed stands of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) and tonka bean (Dipteryx odorata Willd.) trees were established on degraded land in central Amazonia to compare leaf gas exchange parameters between plants grown in sunlight in an open field and in shade beneath a balsa wood (Ochroma pyramidale Cav.) canopy. Shading increased specific leaf area by about 50% in both species. Shading reduced height and diameter growth of S. macrophylla, whereas it increased these parameters for D. odorata. Light-saturated photosynthesis (Amax), stomatal conductance (gs) and transpiration (E) were higher in S. macrophylla than in D. odorata. In S. macrophylla, Amax was higher in sun leaves (12.9 +/- 0.9 micromol m-2 s-1) than in shade leaves (10.2 +/- 1.0 micromol m-2 s-1), whereas light environment had no significant effect on Amax of D. odorata. In both species, CO2-saturated photosynthesis (Apot) was higher in sun leaves (22 +/- 1.4 micromol m-2 s-1) than in shade leaves (17-20 +/- 0.8 micromol m-2 s-1). Stomatal conductance and E increased in sun leaves of S. macrophylla by 45 and 38%, respectively, whereas light environment did not affect gs and E of D. odorata. Photorespiration rates (Pr) varied from 28 to 36% of net photosynthesis (A) at ambient atmospheric CO2 concentration (Ca) but declined to around 7% of A at higher Ca. Leaf dark respiration (Rd) and the CO2 compensation point (Gamma) were lower in shade-grown plants than in open-grown plants. Compared with shade-grown plants, total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) concentrations increased by 56% in S. macrophylla and by 30% in D. odorata in the open field. Leaf nitrogen (NL) concentrations were higher in open-grown plants than in shade-grown plants of both species, and TNC and NL concentrations were negatively correlated (r = -0.77). High TNC accumulation in S. macrophylla in the open field suggests that photosynthesis is unlikely to be growth-limiting at this site. We conclude that photosynthetic

  20. Crecimiento del maíz en vertisoles con alto aluminio en la Baixada Maranhense pre-Amazonia, Brasil.

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    Alessandro Costa-da Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el crecimiento del maíz en suelos con alto contenido de aluminio. Se midió el efecto del Al3+ en raíces y la cantidad de materia seca (raíz, hoja y tallo de maíz. Se efectuó la caracterización físico-química de cuatro muestras de suelo con alto aluminio colectadas del horizonte Ap, en tres municipios de la región conocida como Baixada Maranhense (Pre-Amazonia, Brasil: Santa Rita (SR, Arari (AR y Vitoria do Mearim (VM y un testigo colectado en el municipio de São Luís, Área del Núcleo de Tecnología Rural (T. El estudio, ejecutado en 2009, se llevó a cabo en invernadero y se utilizó 2 dm3 de suelo por maceta. Asimismo las muestras fueron divididas en muestras con y sin fertilización. La variación en la longitud de la raíz y de materia seca de las hojas difirió significativamente entre tratados con y sin fertilizante, excepto en la muestra de la localidad T. La producción de materia seca de raíz, tallo y hoja fue mayor en todos los suelos cuando se fertilizó. El suelo testigo también superó a todos los demás en cuanto a producción de materia seca en la raíz, posiblemente como resultado de una menor cantidad de Al3+ (1,2 cmolc/dm3 en comparación con los suelos SR, AR y VM (6,8; 8,0 y 7,0 cmolc/dm3 respectivamente. Se concluye la fertilización reduce el efecto detrimental del aluminio en la producción de maíz en la Baixada Maranhense.

  1. Combined impacts due to deforestation and the forest fires in the Amazonia and the global climate change on the future climate of South America: a modelling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, G. S.; Cardoso, M. F.; Sanches, M. B.; Alexandre, F. F.

    2014-12-01

    Since the late 1980s a large number of numerical experiments with atmospheric general circulation models has been used to assess the impacts of deforestation on global and regional climate, and one of the main motivations is the Amazon rainforest. In the same way, in the last decade several studies have shown that a higher concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere could lead changes in climate in the Amazon region. In this study we performed new analyses to quantify how deforestation, fire and the increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration may combine to affect the climate in Amazonia during this century. For the projection of land use was considered a spatially explicit land use scenario from Aguiar et al. (2013). The scenario was built using LuccME generic modelling framework and the potential of change considering the proximity to previously deforested areas and also spatial drivers (roads and protected areas). In order to quantify the response of Brazilian Earth System Model, with INLAND-IBIS surface model, to climate change, deforestation and forest fire we performed a suite of simulations in two main categories: 1) the model was running under historical and RCP8.5 greenhouse gas concentration, and 2) the model was forced by the same configuration in 1 but also considering the effects of deforestation and forest fire in Amazon. In summary, the most important changes occur in the East/Northeast and South of the Amazonia and are more evident when are considered all effects (climate change, deforestation and fire). The results show warmer near-surface air temperature in all cases compared to the control case. This relative warming of the deforested land surface is consistent with the reduction in evapotranspiration, the lower leaf area and the lower surface roughness length. There is a reduction in annual precipitation in both cases mainly over eastern/northeastern Amazonia. The reduction in precipitation occurs mainly during the dry season (June-November) in both

  2. Public health assessment for Wheeling Disposal Service Company Landfill, Amazonia, Andrew County, Missouri, Region 7, CERCLIS number MOD000830554. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-25

    The Wheeling Disposal Service Company, Inc., (Wheeling Disposal) site is a closed municipal and industrial waste landfill, approximately 1 mile southeast of Amazonia, Andrew County, Missouri. On-site shallow groundwater is contaminated with Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) (methylene chloride, carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene) and metals; however, no one is using that water for potable purposes at present. Isolated farm houses are situated in the vicinity of the site, but the houses that would most likely be affected are connected to the public water system. From the information reviewed, DOH concludes that the Wheeling Disposal site currently poses no apparent public health hazard. No exposures are known to be occurring at this time. Potential exposure pathways have been identified, but remedial actions eliminated them.

  3. Método para la detección de cambios del Paisaje en la amazonia con base en Sensores remotos

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas, Sergio Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Esta investigación tuvo por objeto generar un método para la detección de cambios del paisaje en la Amazonia con base en sensores remotos, para lo cual se tomaron dos áreas de estudio: una de baja y otra de alta intervención. Se evaluaron tres métodos: pos-clasificación, correlación y diferencia normalizada. los resultados mostraron que el método pos-clasificación empleando imágenes ópticas y de radar fusionadas por el algoritmo HPF y clasificadas por el método de máxima verosimil...

  4. VILLAGE’S HERDS: INVESTIGATING THE INTRODUCTION OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS AND PATTERNS OF ANIMAL HUSBANDRY AMONG INDIGENOUS PEOPLES IN AMAZONIA (RONDÔNIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Ferreira Vander Velden

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discuss the introduction of European domestic animals in indigenous villages in the Amazon, with particular stress on groups in Rondonia, specially the Karitiana, a Tupi-Arikém-speaking people that lives in the north of that state. In what concerns the history of Brazilian territorial conquest, marked by the ‘frentes pastoris’’ great narrative, and the present expansion – material and also ideological – of husbandry throughout Amazonia, this article points to many questions about the position of these animals – above all cattle – in indigenous peoples’ symbolical and material universes. Suggests new investigative possibilities, that inquires not only implemented experiences with animal husbandry in indigenous villages, but also desires and projects designed to future implementations.

  5. Spatial variability of the direct radiative forcing of biomass burning aerosols and the effects of land use change in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. T. Sena

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the Amazonian shortwave radiative budget over cloud-free conditions after considering three aspects of deforestation: (i the emission of aerosols from biomass burning due to forest fires; (ii changes in surface albedo after deforestation; and (iii modifications in the column water vapour amount over deforested areas. Simultaneous Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES shortwave fluxes and aerosol optical depth (AOD retrievals from the Moderate Resolution Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MODIS were analysed during the peak of the biomass burning seasons (August and September from 2000 to 2009. A discrete-ordinate radiative transfer (DISORT code was used to extend instantaneous remote sensing radiative forcing assessments into 24-h averages.

    The mean direct radiative forcing of aerosols at the top of the atmosphere (TOA during the biomass burning season for the 10-yr studied period was −5.6 ± 1.7 W m−2. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of the direct radiative forcing of aerosols over Amazonia was obtained for the biomass burning season of each year. It was observed that for high AOD (larger than 1 at 550 nm the maximum daily direct aerosol radiative forcing at the TOA may be as high as −20 W m−2 locally. The surface reflectance plays a major role in the aerosol direct radiative effect. The study of the effects of biomass burning aerosols over different surface types shows that the direct radiative forcing is systematically more negative over forest than over savannah-like covered areas. Values of −15.7 ± 2.4 W m−2τ550 nm and −9.3 ± 1.7 W m−2τ550 nm were calculated for the mean daily aerosol forcing efficiencies over forest and savannah-like vegetation respectively. The overall mean annual land use change radiative forcing due to deforestation over the state of Rondônia, Brazil, was determined as −7.3 ± 0.9 W m

  6. Numerical analysis of palynological data from Neogene fluvial sediments as evidence for rainforest dynamics in western Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamanca, Sonia; van Manen, Milan; Hoorn, Carina

    2014-05-01

    Deep-time records that give an insight into the composition and dynamics of the ancestral Amazon rain forest are rare. Yet to understand the modern biodiversity patterns it is important to untangle the long-term evolution of this forest. Sampling Neogene strata requires drilling operations or complex fieldwork along the rivers where outcrops generally are small. In the nineties an exceptionally good exposure of fluvial sediments of early Miocene age (17.7-16.1 Ma) was documented near the island of Mariñame (Caquetá River, Colombian Amazonia) (Hoorn, 1994). This 60 m sediment succession consists of quartz-rich sands with a circa 10 m black, sandy clay intercalation. Palynomorphs are well preserved in these organic-rich clays and palynological analysis indicated high pollen diversity and changes in composition following changes in the sedimentary environment and water composition (see van Soelen et al., this session). A numerical analysis in R (2013) of the existing data, using a number of multivariate and other statistical techniques now shows a gradient of change in the composition of the Miocene palynological assemblages. Non-metric-multidimensional scaling using distance matrixes (Oksanen, 2012) and their visualizations in correlograms (Friendly, 2002) indicate that the regional (palm) swamp forests of Mauritiides franciscoi (Mauritia), frequently found together with other palms such as Psilamonocolpites amazonicus (Euterpe?) and Psilamonocolpites rinconii, were affected by a marine incursion. The latter is suggested by the change of composition and the presence of estuarine elements such as Zonocostites ramonae (Rhizophora), foraminifer linings and dinoflagellate cysts, which became common during the marine event. In the older part of the section, and at the top, Rhoipites guianensis (Sterculiaceae/Tiliaceae) is quite abundant, in contrast with the relatively low abundance of M. franciscoi. The numerical analysis allowed us to: a) group the pollen data into 3

  7. Alterations in Amazonia - AMAZALERT

    OpenAIRE

    Kruijt, B.; Nobre, C.

    2012-01-01

    An international collaboration of scientists and researchers is embarking on AMAZALERT – an ambitious project which is investigating critical feedbacks between climate and long-term land use change in the Amazon. Drs Bart Kruijt and Carlos Nobre are the coordinators and were interviewed for an article in the International Innovation Journal. International Innovation is the leading global dissemination resource for the wider scientific, technology and research communities, dedicated to dissemi...

  8. Productos del mercado artesanal en la ciudad de Leticia (Amazonia colombiana elaborados con especies de bosques de Mauritia flexuosa L.f.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Lorena Franco Arango

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Los productos forestales no maderables (PFNMs han tomado fuerza como alternativa para la conservación de ecosistemas y la generación de ingresos económicos en las poblaciones asociadas. Se presenta un mayor interés sobre los productos que provienen de bosques oligárquicos (poco diversos y con alta densidad relativa, especialmente los dominados por palmas, como por ejemplo los bosques de Mauritia flexuosa (aguajales, cananguchales o buritizales. En el mercado artesanal de Leticia (Amazonia colombiana se identificaron 68 productos provenientes de nueve especies de plantas del canaguchal, teniendo las palmas (Astrocaryum chambira, Euterpe precatoria, M. flexuosa, Oenocarpus bataua y Socratea exorrhiza el mayor potencial comercial. Los productos más frecuentes fueron las mochilas de fibras de A. chambira (chambira y los precios de venta más altos correspondieron a las esculturas de Brosimum rubescens (palo de sangre. No existen estadísticas oficiales de este mercado, ni entes del Estado que regulen y orienten la producción y comercialización de los productos que se extraen del bosque. No obstante, los PFNMs representan una alternativa para diversificar las oportunidades productivas de los pobladores de la región.

  9. Simulating deforestation and carbon loss in Amazonia: impacts in Brazil's Roraima state from reconstructing Highway BR-319 (Manaus-Porto Velho).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barni, Paulo Eduardo; Fearnside, Philip Martin; Graça, Paulo Maurício Lima de Alencastro

    2015-02-01

    Reconstruction of Highway BR-319 (Manaus-Porto Velho) would allow for access from the "arc of deforestation" in the southern part of Brazil's Amazon region to vast blocks of forests in central and northern Amazonia. Building roads is known to be a major driver of deforestation, allowing entry of squatters, and other actors. Rather than deforestation along the highway route, here we consider the road's potential for stimulating deforestation in a separate location, approximately 550 km north of BR-319's endpoint in Manaus. Reconstructing BR-319 has great potential impact to start a new wave of migration to this remote region. The southern portion of the state of Roraima, the focus of our study, is already connected to Manaus by Highway BR-174. We modeled deforestation in southern Roraima and simulated carbon emissions between 2007 and 2030 under four scenarios. Simulations used the AGROECO model in DINAMICA-EGO © software. Two scenarios were considered with reconstruction of BR-319 and two without this road connection. For each of the two possibilities regarding BR-319, simulations were developed for (1) a "conservation" (CONSERV) scenario that assumes the creation of a series of protected areas, and (2) a "business-as-usual" (BAU) scenario that assumes no additional protected areas. Results show that by 2030, with BR-319 rebuilt, deforestation carbon emissions would increase between 19% (CONSERV) and 42% (BAU) over and above those corresponding to no-road scenarios. PMID:25472831

  10. Diversity and three-dimensional structures of the alpha Mcr of the methanogenic Archaea from the anoxic region of Tucuruí Lake, in Eastern Brazilian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Bessa Santana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Methanogenic archaeans are organisms of considerable ecological and biotechnological interest that produce methane through a restricted metabolic pathway, which culminates in the reaction catalyzed by the Methyl-coenzyme M reductase (Mcr enzyme, and results in the release of methane. Using a metagenomic approach, the gene of the a subunit of mcr (mcrα was isolated from sediment sample from an anoxic zone, rich in decomposing organic material, obtained from the Tucuruí hydroelectric dam reservoir in eastern Brazilian Amazonia. The partial nucleotide sequences obtained were 83 to 95% similar to those available in databases, indicating a low diversity of archaeans in the reservoir. Two orders were identified -the Methanomicrobiales, and a unique Operational Taxonomic Unit (OTU forming a clade with the Methanosarcinales according to low bootstrap values. Homology modeling was used to determine the three-dimensional (3D structures, for this the partial nucleotide sequence of the mcrα were isolated and translated on their partial amino acid sequences. The 3D structures of the archaean mcrα observed in the present study varied little, and presented approximately 70% identity in comparison with the mcrα of Methanopyrus klanderi. The results demonstrated that the community of methanogenic archaeans of the anoxic C1 region of the Tucurui reservoir is relatively homogeneous.

  11. Diagnóstico actitudinal hacia la conservación ambiental en estudiantes de la Universidad Nacional de la Amazonia Peruana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Guimet

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudio descriptivo no experimental, que tuvo como objetivo principal, encontrar las diferencias en las actitudes hacia la conservación ambiental entre los estudiantes de la Facultad de Ingeniería Química de la Universidad Nacional de la Amazonia Peruana; según el nivel de estudios, sexo, edad cronológica y el lugar de residencia; la población estuvo conformada por 189 estudiantes y se trabajó con una muestra de 111 estudiantes; la técnica utilizada para recolección de datos fue la encuesta, utilizando como instrumento la escala tipo Likert; los resultados mostraron que en la variable nivel de estudios los estudiantes del III nivel ocuparon el primer lugar, mostrando mejores actitudes y último lugar lo ocupó el V nivel; con respecto a la variable sexo, se encontraron diferencias a favor del sexo masculino; en la variable edad cronológica puede decirse que las actitudes de los estudiantes mayores  ocuparon el primer lugar, seguido de los más jóvenes y finalizando con los estudiantes  del grupo intermedio; así mismo se hallaron diferencias actitudinales entre los estudiantes de los cuatro distrito, como lugar de residencia. La variable nivel de estudios, parece no tener un papel distintivo en las actitudes hacia la conservación ambiental.

  12. Floristic, edaphic and structural characteristics of flooded and unflooded forests in the lower Rio Purús region of central Amazonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haugaasen Torbjørn

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite a natural history interest in the early 1900s, relatively little ecological research has been carried out in the Rio Purús basin of central Amazonia, Brazil. Here we describe a new study area in the region of Lago Uauaçú with an emphasis on the climate, forest structure and composition, and soil characteristics between adjacent unflooded (terra firme and seasonally inundated forests; situated within both the white-water (várzea and black-water (igapó drainage systems that dominate the landscape. The climate was found to be typical of that of the central Amazon. Várzea forest soils had high concentrations of nutrients, while terra firme and igapó soils were comparatively nutrient-poor. Terra firme forests were the most floristically diverse forest type, whereas várzea was intermediate, and igapó the most species-poor. The Lecythidaceae was the most important family in terra firme while the Euphorbiaceae was the most important in both várzea and igapó. There were significant differences between forest types in terms of number of saplings, canopy cover and understorey density. In contrasting our results with other published information, we conclude that the Lago Uauaçú region consists of a typical central Amazonian forest macro-mosaic, but is a unique area with high conservation value due to the intimate juxtaposition of terra firme, várzea and igapó forests.

  13. Description and phylogenetic relationships of a new genus and two new species of lizards from Brazilian Amazonia, with nomenclatural comments on the taxonomy of Gymnophthalmidae (Reptilia: Squamata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colli, Guarino R; Hoogmoed, Marinus S; Cannatella, David C; Cassimiro, José; Gomes, Jerriane Oliveira; Ghellere, José Mário; Gomes, Jerriane Oliveira; Ghellere, José Mário; Nunes, Pedro M Sales; Pellegrino, Kátia C M; Salerno, Patricia; Souza, Sergio Marques De; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut

    2015-01-01

    We describe a new genus and two new species of gymnophthalmid lizards based on specimens collected from Brazilian Amazonia, mostly in the "arc of deforestation". The new genus is easily distinguished from other Gymnophthalmidae by having very wide, smooth, and imbricate nuchals, arranged in two longitudinal and 6-10 transverse rows from nape to brachium level, followed by much narrower, strongly keeled, lanceolate, and mucronate scales. It also differs from all other Gymnophthalmidae, except Iphisa, by the presence of two longitudinal rows of ventrals. The new genus differs from Iphisa by having two pairs of enlarged chinshields (one in Iphisa); posterior dorsal scales lanceolate, strongly keeled and not arranged in longitudinal rows (dorsals broad, smooth and forming two longitudinal rows), and lateral scales keeled (smooth). Maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses based on morphological and molecular data indicate the new species form a clade that is most closely related to Iphisa. We also address several nomenclatural issues and present a revised classification of Gymnophthalmidae. PMID:26623733

  14. Zebragryllus Desutter-Grandcolas & Cadena-Casteñada, n.gen. a new Gryllinae genus from Eastern and Western Amazonia, South America (Orthoptera, Grylloidea, Gryllidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desutter-Grandcolas, Laure; Cadena-Castañeda, Oscar J; Jaiswara, Ranjana; Anso, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new genus of grylline cricket, Zebragryllus Desutter-Grandcolas & Cadena-Casteñada n. gen., from the Neotropical Region, using characters of morphology and male genitalia; genitalic characters clearly show that Zebragryllus n. gen. is closely related to Anurogryllus Saussure, 1878. Six species are described as new to science, originating from western (Peru, Colombia) and eastern (French Guiana) Amazonia: Zebragryllus fuscus Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., Z. guianensis Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., Z. intermedius Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., Zebragryllus nauta Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., Zebragryllus nouragui Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., and Zebragryllus wittoto Desutter-Grandcolas and Cadena-Casteñada, n. sp., type species of the genus. They are characterized by their size, coloration (shining black, most often with white patterns of coloration, hence the genus name), and male and female genitalia. The calling songs of Z. guianensis Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., Z. intermedius Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., Z. nouragui Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., and Z. wittoto Desutter-Grandcolas and Cadena-Casteñada, n. sp. are described. An identification key is proposed for both males and females. PMID:24871163

  15. Bases científicas para contribuir a la gestión de la pesquería comercial de bagres (familia pimelodidae) en la Amazonia colombiana y sus zonas de frontera

    OpenAIRE

    Agudelo Córdoba, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    Los peces son uno de los principales recursos alimenticios, culturales y económicos en la Amazonia, importantes para la seguridad alimentaria de los núcleos familiares ribereños como en la generación de ingreso a quienes dependen económicamente de la extracción de este recurso natural. Esta tesis doctoral, se ha enfocado en analizar variables biológicas y pesqueras en varios bagres de la familia Pimelodidae, así como el componente humano y económico de esta actividad en la frontera en Colomb...

  16. Pueblos de tradición nómada de la Amazonia y la Orinoquía: Aprendizajes y proyecciones para afrontar el futuro. Memorias de un encuentro

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Recopilación de las memorias del “Encuentro de pueblos de tradición nómada de la Amazonia y la Orinoquía. Aprendizajes y proyecciones para afrontar el futuro, realizado en San José del Guaviare (Departamento del Guaviare, Colombia), los días 2 y 3 de julio de 2009. Dicho Encuentro fue organizado y convocado por la Alcaldía de San José del Guaviare, la Defensoría del Pueblo seccional Guaviare, el Sistema de Naciones Unidas en Colombia, a través de ACNUR, OACNUDH, OCHA y PNUD, y la Universidad ...

  17. Wild pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes Kunth var. chichagui in Southeastern Amazonia Pupunha brava (Bactris gasipaes Kunth var. chichagui no sudeste da Amazônia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista F. da Silva

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The geographical distribution and morpho-genetic variation of wild and domesticated populations of a crop species are essential information for identifying a center of origin. The pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes Kunth is the only domesticated neotropical palm, whose starchy-oily fruits are subsistence products and whose heart-of-palm is an expanding agribusiness. The origin of pejibaye is unresolved, but probably will be found in the distribution of type 1 B. gasipaes var. chichagui in southwestern Amazonia. A new area of occurrence of this type is reported around São Felix do Xingu, Pará, Brazil, 52°41' W 6°34' S, about 600 km northeast of the eastern-most known population, in central Mato Grosso, Brazil. The plants of this population are slightly less robust than other type 1 plants and have small fruit bunches (60-70 fruit, small fruit (0.45 g and 10 by 9 mm and seed (0.23 g and 6.5 by 7.4 mm, all smaller than previous descriptions. Although this find is disjunct from earlier reports, it is unlikely that other populations are absent between it and central Mato Grosso, expanding type 1 var. chichagui's distribution by 30% and redefining it as a typical element of the transition between humid and semi-humid forests across southern Amazonia, rather than an Andean element expanding into the region.As distribuições geográfica e da variação morfo-genética de populações silvestres e cultivadas de espécies agrícolas são informações essenciais para identificar o centro de origem de um cultivo. A pupunha (Bactris gasipaes Kunth é a única palmeira domesticada nos Neotrópicos, cujos frutos amidosos e oleosos são produtos de subsistência e cujo palmito é um agronegócio em expansão. A origem da pupunha é desconhecida, mas provavelmente pode ser encontrada na distribuição de B. gasipaes var. chichagui do tipo 1, até agora encontrado apenas no sudoeste da Amazônia. Uma nova área de ocorrência deste tipo foi encontrada ao redor de

  18. Cloud condensation nuclei in pristine tropical rainforest air of Amazonia: size-resolved measurements and modeling of atmospheric aerosol composition and CCN activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunthe, S. S.; King, S. M.; Rose, D.; Chen, Q.; Roldin, P.; Farmer, D. K.; Jimenez, J. L.; Artaxo, P.; Andreae, M. O.; Martin, S. T.; Pöschl, U.

    2009-10-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particles serving as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) are key elements of the hydrological cycle and climate. We have measured and characterized CCN at water vapor supersaturations in the range of S=0.10-0.82% in pristine tropical rainforest air during the AMAZE-08 campaign in central Amazonia. The effective hygroscopicity parameters describing the influence of chemical composition on the CCN activity of aerosol particles varied in the range of κ≍0.1-0.4 (0.16±0.06 arithmetic mean and standard deviation). The overall median value of κ≍0.15 was by a factor of two lower than the values typically observed for continental aerosols in other regions of the world. Aitken mode particles were less hygroscopic than accumulation mode particles (κ≍0.1 at D≍50 nm; κ≍0.2 at D≍200 nm), which is in agreement with earlier hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (H-TDMA) studies. The CCN measurement results are consistent with aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS) data, showing that the organic mass fraction (forg) was on average as high as ~90% in the Aitken mode (D≤100 nm) and decreased with increasing particle diameter in the accumulation mode (~80% at D≍200 nm). The κ values exhibited a negative linear correlation with forg (R2=0.81), and extrapolation yielded the following effective hygroscopicity parameters for organic and inorganic particle components: κorg≍0.1 which can be regarded as the effective hygroscopicity of biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and κinorg≍0.6 which is characteristic for ammonium sulfate and related salts. Both the size dependence and the temporal variability of effective particle hygroscopicity could be parameterized as a function of AMS-based organic and inorganic mass fractions (κp=κorg×forg +κinorg×finorg). The CCN number concentrations predicted with κp were in fair agreement with the measurement results (~20% average deviation). The median CCN number concentrations at S=0

  19. Low-Cost Evaluation of EO-1 Hyperion and ALI for Detection and Biophysical Characterization of Forest Logging in Amazonia (NCC5-481)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asner, Gregory P.; Keller, Michael M.; Silva, Jose Natalino; Zweede, Johan C.; Pereira, Rodrigo, Jr.

    2002-01-01

    quantify both the presence and degree of structural disturbance caused by various logging regimes. Our quantitative assessment of Hyperion hyperspectral and ALI multi-spectral data for the detection and structural characterization of selective logging in Amazonia will benefit from data collected through an ongoing project run by the Tropical Forest Foundation, within which we have developed a study of the canopy and landscape biophysics of conventional and reduced-impact logging. We will add to our base of forest structural information in concert with an EO-1 overpass. Using a photon transport model inversion technique that accounts for non-linear mixing of the four biogeophysical indicators, we will estimate these parameters across a gradient of selective logging intensity provided by conventional and reduced impact logging sites. We will also compare our physical ly-based approach to both conventional (e.g., NDVI) and novel (e.g., SWIR-channel) vegetation indices as well as to linear mixture modeling methods. We will cross-compare these approaches using Hyperion and ALI imagers to determine the strengths and limitations of these two sensors for applications of forest biophysics. This effort will yield the first physical ly-based, quantitative analysis of the detection and intensity of selective logging in Amazonia, comparing hyperspectral and improved multi-spectral approaches as well as inverse modeling, linear mixture modeling, and vegetation index techniques.

  20. Tectonic control on the stratigraphic framework of Late Pleistocene and Holocene deposits in Marajó Island, State of Pará, eastern Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilce F. Rossetti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The traditional view that the Brazilian Amazonia is located in a tectonically stable area since the Cretaceous is changing in front of the increasing documentation of fault reactivations even during the Holocene. How the sedimentary record has responded to these events is an issue that remains to be approached with basis on field data. This work focuses on the stratigraphic correlation of late Quaternary deposits from eastern Marajó Island, with the goal of demonstrating the role of fault reactivation on the origin and preservation of these deposits. Despite the location in a stable platform of a continental passive margin, three studied stratigraphic units display significant vertical offsets that define two depocenters that are better explained through tectonic displacements. This interpretation is reinforced by several morphostructural features related to faults that occur between the studied drills. Without the influence of tectonics, sediment preservation in this characteristically low-lying terrain would have been negligible. The results of the present work motivate to look for other tectonically-influenced areas in Amazonia, which similarly might have acted as sites for sediment accommodation during the late Quaternary. These sedimentary records have great potential to be the source of valuable information for reconstructing Quaternary geological events in Northern Brazil.A visão tradicional de que a Amazônia brasileira localiza-se em ma área tectonicamente estável desde o Cretáceo está mudando perante a crescente documentação de reativações de falha, até mesmo durante o Holoceno. Como o registro sedimentar respondeu a esses eventos é um tema que permanece por ser abordado com base em dados de campo. Este trabalho enfatiza a correlação estratigráfica de depósitos quaternários tardios no leste da Ilha do Marajó, com o objetivo de demonstrar a importância de reativações de falha na origem e preservação desses dep

  1. Object-based classification of vegetation and terrain topography in Southwestern Amazonia (Brazil) as a tool for detecting ancient fluvial geomorphic features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertani, Thiago de Castilho; Rossetti, Dilce de Fátima; Albuquerque, Paulo Cesar Gurgel

    2013-10-01

    Reconstructing the evolution of large tropical fluvial systems over the geological time is challenging, particularly in areas such as the Amazonian lowlands where basic geological and geomorphological data are still scarce relatively to the large dimension of the region. In such areas, remote sensing data are useful for detecting ancient morphological features that may reveal past fluvial dynamics. In this study, we explored object-based image analysis (OBIA) in the Madeira-Purus interfluve, Southwestern Brazilian Amazonia, integrating geospatial data including Landsat satellite multispectral images, the digital elevation model (DEM) acquired during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), and stream channels digitized from topographic maps. This approach provided the basis to categorize automatically classes with contrasting vegetation and/or topographic characteristics within the dense tropical forest over an extensive and relatively flat forested area. The main goal was to use these classes as a surrogate for the recognition of ancient geomorphic features consisting mainly of paleochannels that may help reconstructing fluvial history in space and time. Landsat optical images with stream vector were appropriate to classify open vegetation areas that grow over paleochannels, but failed to identify these objects when they were located over forested areas. However, the digital elevation model (DEM) derived from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) was successful to detect these objects even in forested areas. Topographic survey undertaken in the field increased the classification reliability by demonstrating true terrain variations along transects measured across the paleochannels. Based on this technique, networks of dendritic paleochannels were mapped and related to ancient tributaries of the Madeira River that had their courses flowing opposite to main modern streams. This denotes a significant change in fluvial dynamics over time, most likely

  2. Nodulation of legumes, nitrogenase activity of roots and occurrence of nitrogen-fixing Azospirillum spp. In representative soils of central Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sylvester-Bradley, R.; De Oliverira, L.A.; De Podesta Filho, J.A.; St. John, T.V.

    1980-12-01

    Leguminosae do not predominate in the Brazilian Amazon rain forest, although they are among the five best represented families. Plant roots from various soils were examined for the presence of nodules, acetylene-reducing activity and N/sub 2/-fixing Azospirillum spp. Abundant nodulation was found in black earth (''terra preta dos indios'') and in one case on sandy soil under campinarana vegetation along a tributary of the upper Rio Negro. In sandy latosol some nodules occurred in secondary forest and fewer in primary forest. Legumes in disturbed clayey or sandy latosol showed more frequent nodulation. Primary forest on alluvial (''varzea'') soil, and in Bahia coastal rain forest on sandy latosol and Erythrina glauca used for shading cacao plantations were abundantly nodulated. Acetylene reduction assays showed no, or very little, nitrogenase activity of roots from primary or secondary forest on clayey latosol near Manaus. Nodulated roots from secondary forest on sandy latosol showed acetylene-reducing activity. High rates of acetylene reduction were observed in nodulated roots of primary forest on alluvial ''varzea'' soil. Root samples showed ethylene absorption in controls without acetylene which might interfere with the results of acetylene reduction tests. The incidence of Azospirillum was also higher in black earth than the other soils examined, and in soils with higher pH. The hypothesis that Azospirillum is associated with Trema micantha roots was refuted. Roots and soils collected under cultivated grasses showed a higher incidence of Azospirillum when fertilized with phosphorus and lime. Results indicate that nitrogen fixation did occur in association with roots in some soils, but not with roots of primary or secondary forest on clayey latosol in the vicinity of Manaus, which is the most common soil in Central Amazonia. The possible reasons for this are discussed.

  3. Anthropogenic landscape in southeastern Amazonia: contemporary impacts of low-intensity harvesting and dispersal of Brazil nuts by the Kayapo Indigenous people.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Beatriz N Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Brazil nut, the Bertholletia excelsa seed, is one of the most important non-timber forest products in the Amazon Forest and the livelihoods of thousands of traditional Amazonian families depend on its commercialization. B. excelsa has been frequently cited as an indicator of anthropogenic forests and there is strong evidence that past human management has significantly contributed to its present distribution across the Amazon, suggesting that low levels of harvesting may play a positive role in B. excelsa recruitment. Here, we evaluate the effects of Brazil nut harvesting by the Kayapó Indigenous people of southeastern Amazonia on seedling recruitment in 20 B. excelsa groves subjected to different harvesting intensities, and investigated if management by harvesters influences patterns of B. excelsa distribution. The number of years of low-intensity Brazil nut harvesting by the Kayapó over the past two decades was positively related to B. excelsa seedling density in groves. One of the mechanisms behind the higher seedling density in harvested sites seems to be seed dispersal by harvesters along trails. The Kayapó also intentionally plant B. excelsa seeds and seedlings across their territories. Our results show not only that low-intensity Brazil nut harvesting by the Kayapó people does not reduce recruitment of seedlings, but that harvesting and/or associated activities conducted by traditional harvesters may benefit B. excelsa beyond grove borders. Our study supports the hypothesis that B. excelsa dispersal throughout the Amazon was, at least in part, influenced by indigenous groups, and strongly suggests that current human management contributes to the maintenance and formation of B. excelsa groves. We suggest that changes in Brazil nut management practices by traditional people to prevent harvesting impacts may be unnecessary and even counterproductive in many areas, and should be carefully evaluated before implementation.

  4. Los pueblos indígenas de la Amazonia Peruana y el uso político de los medios de comunicación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar ESPINOSA

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Este artículo trata sobre el uso político de los medios de comunicación (radio, televisión e Internet por parte de los pueblos indígenas de la Amazonia Peruana. En particular, analiza la utilización que el pueblo Shipibo ha hecho de la radio en el proceso de construcción de su identidad étnica y en la creación de sus organizaciones políticas representativas; el tipo de vinculación de los pueblos Ashaninka y Aguaruna, el estado y la televisión sobre todo en la redefinición del concepto de identidad nacional en el contexto de diferentes conflictos armados, y finalmente, se presenta el uso de Internet por el pueblo Ashaninka.El objetivo principal del articulo es mostrar como el empleo de los medios de comunicación permite a las comunidades indígenas hacerse más visibles y actuar políticamente en distintos espacios públicos.ABSTRACT: This article deals with the political use of the means of communication (radio, tv, Internet by the indigenous peoples of the Peruvian Amazonas. In particular, it analyzes the use made by the Shipibo people of the radio in the construction of their ethnic identity and the creation of representative political organization; the links among the Ashaninka and Aguaruna peoples, the state and the tv in the redefinition of the national identity in the context of armed conflicts, and finally, it presents the use of Internet by Ashaninka people.This article aims at showing that the use of mass media allows indigenous groups to become more visible and to act in different political scenarios.

  5. The dynamic variability of dissolved and particulate organic matter and nutrients in a changing tropical rainforest: First results from a new geochemical program in northern Amazonia, Guyana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, R.; Bovolo, I.; Parkin, G.; Wagner, T.

    2010-12-01

    Current knowledge suggests that the two largest threats to ecosystems are changes in land use and climate variability. Focussing on the tropics, these changes put an immediate threat on the health and fate of rainforest ecosystems. It has been shown for Amazonia that natural seasonal variability when linked to transitional periods of extreme weather events, can trigger an almost instantaneous and large increase in the release of nutrients and carbon from soils into rivers driven by variation in precipitation (Raymond, 2005; Mayorga et al., 2005). A new hydrology and climate monitoring program at the Iwokrama International Centre for Rainforest Conservation and Development in Guyana will investigate the ability of the rainforest and its soils to generate, store and recycle carbon, nutrients and water over a multi-year period; and to address the issue of the forests response to combined natural and anthropogenic induced change. It is important to establish the range of variability between wet and dry seasons, thereby characterising the current state of the forest and how it responds to external forcing. A detailed understanding of the quality and cycling of key soil properties, including carbon and nutrients, is critical to assess the status and potential change of forest vegetation and ecosystems. Comparisons of the processes and impacts of natural climate variability and forestry activity in pristine and sustainably used forest areas will be made. We introduce the conceptual strategy and experimental design of the new research program and present first geochemical results based on field work in March and July 2010 comparing dry and wet seasons. The preliminary analyses of elemental and spectrophotometric (UV-absorbance) data generated from top soil, river water and river bed sediments from the Burro Burro River transect through pristine and managed forest will be presented. The data will be used to assess the nature and variability of low and high molecular

  6. Close evolutionary affinities between freshwater corbulid bivalves from the Neogene of western Amazonia and Paleogene of the northern Great Plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Laurie C.; Hartman, Joseph H.; Wesselingh, Frank

    2006-03-01

    Freshwater corbulid bivalves found in Miocene deposits of western Amazonia have been considered products of an endemic radiation of a marine clade within the large lacustrine system occupying the region at that time. Our reexamination of Paleocene freshwater corbulids of the Tongue River Formation of western North Dakota and eastern Montana, however, extends the stratigraphic and geographic range of three Amazonian taxa— Pachydon, Ostomya, and Anticorbula—to the Paleocene of the northern Great Plains of the United States. Both Paleocene and Miocene freshwater corbulid taxa occur in large freshwater systems with an intermittent marine connection. To test the phylogenetic relationships of one particularly widespread Paleocene species ( Pachydon mactriformis), we conducted cladistic analyses using maximum parsimony and heuristic searches of matrices of conchologic characters. Seven species of Pachydon and Pebasia dispar from the western Amazonian Neogene, Pachydon mactriformis from the Paleocene of North Dakota, representative species of eight neotropical marine corbulid genera, and three additional corbulid taxa were included. Corbula was the outgroup. All analyses produced similar regions of stability within trees. One such area is a Pachydon crown group that includes P. mactriformis, indicating that Paleocene and Miocene Pachydon are not convergent. Our results also indicate that Pachydon does not represent a separate basal radiation within the family. However, we have not resolved a robust sister clade relationship for the Pachydon crown group. Two Amazonian Neogene taxa do not fall within the Pachydon crown group, and their phylogenetic position is not resolved. At this time, we do not have sufficient evidence to refine the definitions of Pachydon and Pachydontinae as monophyletic clades. Although we have evidence that three genera of corbulid bivalves ( Pachydon, Ostomya, and Anticorbula) in the Pebas Formation are not endemic and have long geologic

  7. Local perceptions as a guide for the sustainable management of natural resources: empirical evidence from a small-scale society in Bolivian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Fernández-Llamazares

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Research on natural resource management suggests that local perceptions form the basis upon which many small-scale societies monitor availability and change in the stock of common-pool natural resources. In contrast, this literature debates whether local perceptions can be effective in guiding the sustainable management of natural resources. With empirical evidence on this matter still highly limited, we explored the role of local perceptions as drivers of harvesting and management behavior in a small-scale society in Bolivian Amazonia. We conducted structured interviews to capture local perceptions of availability and change in the stock of thatch palm (Geonoma deversa among the Tsimane', an indigenous society of foragers-horticulturalists (n = 296 adults in 13 villages. We analyzed whether perceptions of availability match estimates of abundance obtained from ecological data and whether differences in perception help to explain harvesting behavior and local management of thatch palm. Perceptions of availability of G. deversa are highly contingent upon the social, economic, and cultural conditions within which the Tsimane' have experienced changes in the availability of the resource, thus giving a better reflection of the historical, rather than of the ecological, dimensions of the changes undergone. Although local perceptions might fall short in precision when scrutinized from an ecological standpoint, their importance in informing sustainable management should not be underestimated. Our findings show that most of the harvesting and management actions that the Tsimane' undertake are, at least partially, shaped by their local perceptions. This paper contributes to the broader literature on natural resource management by providing empirical evidence of the critical role of local perceptions in promoting collective responses for the sustainable management of natural resources.

  8. Chaves de identificação de larvas para famílias e gêneros de Trichoptera (Insecta) da Amazônia Central, Brasil Identification key to families and genera of larvae of Trichoptera from Central Amazonia, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Maria Oliveira Pes; Neusa Hamada; Jorge Luiz Nessimian

    2005-01-01

    Chaves de identificação de larvas aos níveis de família e gênero de Trichoptera da Amazônia Central são apresentadas.Keys for identification of larvae to families and genera of Trichoptera of Central Amazonia are presented.

  9. A review of green- and blue-water resources and their trade-offs for future agricultural production in the Amazon Basin: what could irrigated agriculture mean for Amazonia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathuillière, Michael J.; Coe, Michael T.; Johnson, Mark S.

    2016-06-01

    The Amazon Basin is a region of global importance for the carbon and hydrological cycles, a biodiversity hotspot, and a potential centre for future economic development. The region is also a major source of water vapour recycled into continental precipitation through evapotranspiration processes. This review applies an ecohydrological approach to Amazonia's water cycle by looking at contributions of water resources in the context of future agricultural production. At present, agriculture in the region is primarily rain-fed and relies almost exclusively on green-water resources (soil moisture regenerated by precipitation). Future agricultural development, however, will likely follow pathways that include irrigation from blue-water sources (surface water and groundwater) as insurance from variability in precipitation. In this review, we first provide an updated summary of the green-blue ecohydrological framework before describing past trends in Amazonia's water resources within the context of land use and land cover change. We then describe green- and blue-water trade-offs in light of future agricultural production and potential irrigation to assess costs and benefits to terrestrial ecosystems, particularly land and biodiversity protection, and regional precipitation recycling. Management of green water is needed, particularly at the agricultural frontier located in the headwaters of major tributaries to the Amazon River, and home to key downstream blue-water users and ecosystem services, including domestic and industrial users, as well as aquatic ecosystems.

  10. Trying to Learn Lessons for Response to Extreme Events: Paradigm Shifts Affecting Civil Defense in the Trinational Region of Southwestern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, G. L. P.

    2015-12-01

    The last ten years have seen several extreme climate events in southwestern Amazonia with historic impacts. The City of Rio Branco, Capital of Acre, Brazil´s westernmost State, suffered its seventh consecutive annual flooding and its worst in March 2015. The city of Tarauacá, also in Acre, registered 12 flooding events between November 2014 and April 2015. The most recent flood of the trinational Acre River in 2015 set historic records for flood stage and number of displaced persons in Cobija, the Capital of Pando, Bolivia. From February to April 2014, floods of the Madeira River disrupted the one highway between Acre and southern Brazil. Puerto Maldonado, the capital in Madre de Dios Region of Peru had its worst flood in 50 years during 2014. In 2005 and 2010, prolonged droughts combined with ignition sources resulted in tens to hundreds of thousands of hectares of fire-damaged rainforests in the Madre de Dios, Acre and Pando (MAP) Region. The Civil Defenses in these three contiguous political units faced several abrupt paradigm shifts that affected their responses: 1) The drought of 2005 showed dramatically that regional rainforests do burn; 2) The recent flooding history, particularly in 2012 and 2015, demolished the cultural icon of a nine-year recurrence interval; 3) What happens outside your territory can be devastating. The Madeira River flood impeded an estimated 200 million dollars from circulating in Acre; 4) The past can be a terrible guide. For Cobija and Rio Branco, the 2015 flood was on the order of a meter higher than any other. Many home dwellers did not evacuate in time because they used past floods as a guide; 5) A collapse in communication - cell phones, land lines, and Internet - can get worse. In 2012, such a collapse occurred in two border towns for 5 days, yet in 2015 it lasted more than 11 days. Research is needed to address how institutions linked to Civil Defense can shift paradigms in time to be more effective.

  11. New tools and insights to assist with the molecular identification of Simulium guianense s.l., main Onchocerca volvulus vector within the highland areas of the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crainey, James L; Mattos-Glória, Aline; Hamada, Neusa; Luz, Sérgio L B

    2014-03-01

    Following the success of the Onchocerciasis Elimination Programme for the Americas (OEPA), there is now just one Latin American onchocerciasis focus where onchocerciasis transmission is described as 'on-going:' the Amazonia Onchocerciasis focus. In the hyperendemic highland areas of the Amazonia focus, Simulium guianense s.l. Wise are the most important vectors of the disease. Populations of S. guianense s.l. are, however, known to vary in their cytogenetics and in a range of behaviours, including in their biting habits. In the hypoendemic lowland areas of the Amazonia focus, for example, S. guianense s.l. are generally regarded as zoophilic and consequently unimportant to disease transmission. Robust tools, to discriminate among various populations of S. guianense s.l. have, however, not yet been developed. In the work reported here, we have assessed the utility of a ribosomal DNA sequence fragment spanning the nuclear ribosomal ITS-1, ITS-2 and 5.8S sequence regions and a ∼850 nucleotide portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase gene (CO1) for species-level identification and for resolving the within species substructuring. We report here how we have generated 78 CO1 sequences from a rich set of both zoophilic and anthropophilic populations of S. guianense s.l. that were collected from eight sites that are broadly distributed across Brazil. Consistent with previous findings, our analysis supports the genetic isolation of Simulium litobranchium from S. guianense s.l. In contrast with previous findings, however, our results did not provide support for the divergence of the two species prior to the radiation of S. guianense s.l. In our analysis of the S. guianense s.l. ribosomal DNA sequence trace files we generated, we provide clear evidence of multiple within-specimen single nucleotide polymorphisms and indels suggesting that S. guianense s.l. ribosomal DNA is not a good target for conventional DNA barcoding. This is the first report of S. guianense s

  12. Global warming in Amazonia: impacts and Mitigation Aquecimento Global na Amazônia: impactos e Mitigação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Martin Fearnside

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Global warming has potentially catastrophic impacts in Amazonia, while at the same time maintenance of the Amazon forest offers one of the most valuable and cost-effective options for mitigating climate change. We know that the El Niño phenomenon, caused by temperature oscillations of surface water in the Pacific, has serious impacts in Amazonia, causing droughts and forest fires (as in 1997-1998. Temperature oscillations in the Atlantic also provoke severe droughts (as in 2005. We also know that Amazonian trees die both from fires and from water stress under hot, dry conditions. In addition, water recycled through the forest provides rainfall that maintains climatic conditions appropriate for tropical forest, especially in the dry season. What we need to know quickly, through intensified research, includes progress in representing El Niño and the Atlantic oscillations in climatic models, representation of biotic feedbacks in models used for decision-making about global warming, and narrowing the range of estimating climate sensitivity to reduce uncertainty about the probability of very severe impacts. Items that need to be negotiated include the definition of "dangerous" climate change, with the corresponding maximum levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Mitigation of global warming must include maintaining the Amazon forest, which has benefits for combating global warming from two separate roles: cutting the flow the emissions of carbon each year from the rapid pace of deforestation, and avoiding emission of the stock of carbon in the remaining forest that can be released by various ways, including climate change itself. Barriers to rewarding forest maintenance include the need for financial rewards for both of these roles. Other needs are for continued reduction of uncertainty regarding emissions and deforestation processes, as well as agreement on the basis of carbon accounting. As one of the countries most subject to impacts of

  13. Variación florística de especies arbóreas a escala local en un bosque de tierra firme en la Amazonia colombiana Floristic variation of canopy tree species at a local scale on tierra firme forests in colombian Amazonia

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    Juan Sebastian Barreto Silva

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se llevó a cabo en cinco hectáreas de una parcela permanente establecida en el Parque Nacional Amacayacu, Amazonia colombiana. En éste, se evaluó el efecto de la variación ambiental y la configuración espacial sobre los patrones florísticos de las especies arbóreas (DAP>10 cm a escala local en un bosque de tierra firme. Se estudió la variación florística y ambiental en cuadrantes de 20x20 m. Adicionalmente, se consideraron diferentes categorías de abundancia (total, alta, media y baja. Se utilizó el Análisis de Correspondencia Linealizado y el Análisis de Correspondencia Canónica, seguido de una partición de la variación, para cuantificar la magnitud a la cual el ambiente y la limitación en dispersión determinan la variación florística. La fracción espacial, representando procesos de autocorrelación como la limitación en dispersión, se analizó mediante dos métodos: Asumiendo un polinomio de tercer grado y por el método de Coordenadas Principales de Matrices Vecinas (PCNM. La diversidad beta de la parcela fue baja. El PCNM aparece como el método de análisis más apropiado para estudios a esta escala. Las diferencias florísticas explicadas a lo largo de la parcela de 5-ha fueron principalmente asociadas con procesos biológicos como la limitación en dispersión. La mayor parte de la variación florística, no obstante, no fue explicada por las variables ambientales o espaciales consideradas. En conclusión, estos resultados sugieren que procesos aleatorios son determinantes esenciales de la variación espacial de las especies arbóreas a escala local en tierra firme en los bosques en el Parque Nacional Amacayacu.This study was carried out in a 5-ha permanent plot established in the Amacayacu National Park, Colombian Amazonia. We assessed the extent at which floristic patterns of tree species were determined by either the environmental variation or the spatial configuration in tierra firme

  14. Strengthening Adaptation to Extreme Climate Events in Southwestern Amazonia: an Example from the Trinational Acre River Basin in the Madre de Dios/Peru - Acre/Brazil - Pando/Bolivia (MAP) Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I. F.

    2015-12-01

    Southwestern Amazonia, where Bolivia, Brazil and Peru meet, faces numerous challenges to the sustainable utilization of land and water resources as the region experiences rapid population and economic growth, expanding agriculture, transportation and energy sectors, along with frequent flooding and droughts. It is also predicted to be one of the most susceptible areas for climate change in the coming decade. The Acre River Basin, one of the few trinational basins in Amazonia, lies at the center of the Madre de Dios Region (Peru), Acre State (Brazil) and Pando Department (Bolivia) or MAP Region. It covers approximately 7,500 km2 and its inhabitants range from indigenous groups avoiding contact with industrial society to more than 60,000 dwellers of a binational urban center. The basin incorporates most the challenges facing the region and this paper discusses steps underway to address the basin's vulnerability to climate-related threats. A trinational group of professionals used GIS databases and local knowledge to classify these threats and possible societal responses. To prioritize threats and to propose responses, this group adapted a method proposed by the Queensland Climate Change Centre of Excellence of Australia to develop climate risk matrices for assessing impacts, adaptation, risk and vulnerability. The three priority climate variables were prolonged and more frequent droughts, more intense flooding, and more days with temperatures > 35oC. The final matrix proposed two areas of concentration - 1) Reduce the vulnerability of communities to hydro-meteorological extreme events and 2) Protect and restore ecosystems that maintain critical water-related resources with actions in public policy, capacity-building, and immediate activities. These results are being incorporated into the Amazon Project of the Global Environment Fund of the United Nations Environment Program, administered by the Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization (ACTO).

  15. Imaginaire acoustique et apprentissage d’une ontologie animiste Acoustic imagination and the learning of an animistic ontologyThe case of the Quechua of Peruvian Amazonia

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    Andréa-Luz Gutierrez Choquevilca

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cet article examine le rôle de l’imitation sonore au sein des pratiques et des représentations de la chasse et de la maladie chez les Quechua d’Amazonie (Pastaza, Pérou. L’analyse se fonde sur un ensemble de récits qui mettent en scène une interaction avec les « maîtres du gibier » dans un contexte ordinaire ou rituel. Partant de la description des techniques de chasse au leurre, l’auteur montre la pertinence d’un mode de communication fondé sur la simulation sonore au sein des interactions contrôlées et incontrôlées avec les entités tutélaires du gibier (récits d’initiation cynégétique ou biographies de rencontre d’esprit. Après avoir montré la cohérence de ce schéma dans la sphère de la praxis cynégétique, l’auteur explore un cas de maladie infantile shinkurana, dans lequel l’usage du « masque sonore » et les mécanismes de « voix citées » jouent un rôle clef dans le processus d’attribution d’une « agentivit�� » aux entités pathogènes. L’article analyse ainsi le phénomène de l’imitation sonore comme une stratégie perceptive et cognitive efficace, massivement mobilisée dans un contexte d’apprentissage et de validation des représentations animistes.This article examines the role of sound imitation in the practice and representation of hunting and sickness among the Quechua of Amazonia (Pastaza, Peru. The analysis is based on a set of stories that presents an interaction with “masters of game” in an ordinary or ritual context. Beginning with a description of lure hunting techniques, the author shows the relevance of a communication mode based on sound simulation in controlled and uncontrolled interactions with entities protective of game (stories of hunting initiation or accounts of spirit encounters. After having demonstrated the consistency of this pattern in the sphere of hunting praxis, the author explores a case of infant sickness shinkurana, in which

  16. Indicadores de sustentabilidade ambiental e de saúde na Amazônia Legal, Brasil Environmental sustainability and health indicators in the Legal Amazonia, Brazil

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    Carlos Machado de Freitas

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Entre os desafios atuais para a Saúde Pública está o de estruturar sistemas de indicadores que permitam monitorar as condições e tendências da sustentabilidade ambiental e de saúde. Neste artigo procuramos enfrentar esse desafio tendo como foco de análise os estados integrantes da Macrorregião Amazônia Legal, que desde a segunda metade do século XX vem sofrendo intensos processos de mudanças sócio-econômicas, ambientais, de saúde e bem-estar. Para a reunião e análise do conjunto de indicadores adotamos o modelo Forças Motrizes, Pressão, Situação, Exposição, Efeito e Ação (FMPSEEA proposto pela Organização Mundial da Saúde. Os resultados demonstram que, ao mesmo tempo em que as forças motrizes e pressões vêm contribuindo para o crescimento econômico e populacional, resultando em melhoras de indicadores tradicionais de saúde (redução da mortalidade infantil e aumento da expectativa de vida, são grandes as desigualdades sociais e econômicas e a sobreposição dos impactos na saúde da população, em um quadro bastante heterogêneo. Além disso, a situação ambiental também aponta para um modelo de desenvolvimento insustentável para as gerações presentes e futuras, exigindo respostas dos setores ambientais e de saúde à altura dos desafios colocados na atualidade.One of the challenges for public health is to build systems of indicators that allow monitoring current conditions and trends in environmental and health sustainability. This article focuses on the Legal Amazonia macro-region, which has undergone profound socioeconomic, environmental, and health changes since the mid-20th century. The conceptual framework adopted here was the model entitled Driving Forces, Pressures, State, Exposure, Effects, and Action (DPSEEA proposed by the World Health Organization and adopted for environmental health surveillance by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The results show that numerous motor forces and pressures

  17. A novel methodology using MODIS and CERES for assessing the daily radiative forcing of smoke aerosols in large scale over the Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sena, E. T.; Artaxo, P.

    2014-12-01

    A new methodology was developed for obtaining daily retrievals of the direct radiative forcing of aerosols (24h-DARF) at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) using satellite remote sensing. For that, simultaneous CERES (Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System) shortwave flux at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Spectroradiometer) aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrievals were used. This methodology is applied over a large region of Brazilian Amazonia. We focused our studies on the peak of the biomass burning season (August to September) from 2000 to 2009 to analyse the impact of forest smoke on the radiation balance. To assess the spatial distribution of the DARF, background scenes without biomass burning impacts, were defined as scenes with MODIS AOD code SBDART (Santa Barbara DISORT Radiative Transfer model) was used to expand instantaneous DARFs to 24 h averages. With this methodology it is possible to assess the DARF both at large scale and at high temporal resolution. This new methodology also showed to be more robust, because it considerably reduces statistical sources of uncertainties in the estimates of the DARF, when compared to previous assessments of the DARF using satellite remote sensing. The spatial distribution of the 24h-DARF shows that, for some cases, the mean 24h-DARF presents local values as high as -30 W m-2. The temporal variability of the 24h-DARF along the biomass burning season was also studied and showed large intraseasonal and interannual variability. In an attempt to validate the radiative forcing obtained in this work using CERES and MODIS, those results were compared to coincident AERONET ground based estimates of the DARF. This analysis showed that CERES-MODIS and AERONET 24h-DARF are related as DARFCERES-MODIS24 h = (1.07 ± 0.04)DARFAERONET24 h -(0.0 ± 0.6). This is a significant result, considering that the 24h-DARF retrievals were obtained by applying completely different methodologies, and using different

  18. Using termite nests as a source of organic matter in agrosilvicultural production systems in Amazonia Uso de ninhos de cupin como fonte de matéria orgânica em sistemas de produção agrosilviculturais na Amazônia

    OpenAIRE

    L. S. Batalha; D. F. da Silva Filho; C. Martius

    1995-01-01

    The growth of two annual crops, okra (Abelmoschus escutentus) and egg-plant (Solatium melongena) and one perennial crop, andiroba (Carapa guianensis, a native forest tree of Amazonia) under different treatments with organic manure derived from termite nest material of wood-feeding Nasutitermes species was tested (randomized block design). The use of 25-100 g of nest material gave no significant increase in okra productivity, and 25-200 g gave no significant response in andiroba. The combined ...

  19. Cloud condensation nuclei in pristine tropical rainforest air of Amazonia: size-resolved measurements and modeling of atmospheric aerosol composition and CCN activity

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    S. S. Gunthe

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric aerosol particles serving as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN are key elements of the hydrological cycle and climate. We have measured and characterized CCN at water vapor supersaturations in the range of S=0.10–0.82% in pristine tropical rainforest air during the AMAZE-08 campaign in central Amazonia. The effective hygroscopicity parameters describing the influence of chemical composition on the CCN activity of aerosol particles varied in the range of κ=0.05–0.45. The overall median value of κ≈0.15 was only half of the value typically observed for continental aerosols in other regions of the world. Aitken mode particles were less hygroscopic than accumulation mode particles (κ≈0.1 at D≈50 nm; κ≈0.2 at D≈200 nm.

    The CCN measurement results were fully consistent with aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS data, which showed that the organic mass fraction (Xm,org was on average as high as ~90% in the Aitken mode (D≤100 nm and decreased with increasing particle diameter in the accumulation mode (~80% at D≈200 nm. The κ values exhibited a close linear correlation with Xm,org and extrapolation yielded the following effective hygroscopicity parameters for organic and inorganic particle components: κorg≈0.1 which is consistent with laboratory measurements of secondary organic aerosols and κinorg≈0.6 which is characteristic for ammonium sulfate and related salts. Both the size-dependence and the temporal variability of effective particle hygroscopicity could be parameterized as a function of AMS-based organic and inorganic mass fractions (κp=0.1 Xm,org+0.6 Xm,inorg, and the CCN number concentrations predicted with κp were in fair agreement with the measurement results. The median CCN number concentrations at S=0.1–0.82% ranged from

  20. The inclusion of electric power and the challenge of sustainability in remote inland areas of the Amazon; A inclusao eletrica e o desafio da sustentabilidade nas areas remotas do interior da Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcante, Andreia Santos; Cartaxo, Elizabeth Ferreira [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (NIEMA/UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Energia, Meio Ambiente e Agua

    2008-07-01

    This article brings some reflections on the National Program of Universalization of the Access and Use of the Electric Energy, Luz para Todos, in areas as the Amazonia. This Program when implanting and executing the actions characterized the Brazilian state in way uniform, disrespecting the particularity and diversity of the Amazon region. This attitude has not met of the goals foreseen for the electrification of the Amazonian, evidencing thus, that the geographic, cultural and social multiplicities of climates and characteristics constitute great obstacles for the implantation of homogeneous politics. This, for certain, demonstrates that the potential of development of each region has differentiated dynamic, which would have to influence and to direct the formularization of politics. It characterizes this proposal bold and ambitious of the Federal Government from carried through empirical experience in an Amazonian community, Terra Preta do Limao, located in the city of Barreirinha. In this way, given referring to the organizational structure, the situation of job and income, to the access the social goods and services and the productive occupational vocation of this population bring answers on the impacts of the program in the improvement of the quality of life of this social segment. Moreover, it presents indications of that the resources destined to the implantation of the program, make impracticable, for its high cost, other social priorities. Although the electric energy is essential for the economic progress of a country, the expansion of its services to the necessary society to be seen in accord with sustainable criteria, of form to prevent the exploration and high consumption of the natural resources and the wastefulness of energy. With this reading, the work if considers to show to the incoherencies of the Program in the State of Amazon, evidencing the obstacles for the reach of the goals traced for the State. Therefore, considering what the Amazonia

  1. Occurrence of filamentous fungi in Simulium goeldii Cerqueira & Nunes de Mello (diptera: simuliidae) larvae in central Amazonia, Brazil Ocorrência de fungos filamentosos associados a larvas de Simulium goeldii Cerqueira & Nunes de Mello da Amazônia Central, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Quézia Ribeiro Fonseca; Maria Inez de Moura Sarquis; Neusa Hamada; Yamile Benaion Alencar

    2008-01-01

    The family Simuliidae is the host of simbiontes fungi that inhabit the digestive tracts of arthropods. This paper reports the presence of fungi in Simulium goeldii Cerqueira & Nunes de Mello larvae in Amazonia. We observed that the larvae are a good component of aquatic systems to isolate filamentous fungi.A família Simuliidae é hospedeira de fungos simbiontes que habitam o trato digestivo de artrópodos. Este estudo reporta a presença de fungos em larvas de Simulium goeldii Cerqueira & Nunes ...

  2. PAPEL TRÓFICO DEL MICROBIAL LOOP EN UN LAGO DE INUNDACIÓN EN LA AMAZONÍA CENTRAL The Trophic Role of Microbial Loop in an Amazonia Central Floodplain Lake

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    PEDRO CARABALLO

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de evaluar la participación de bacterias heterotróficas en el flujo de carbono en la cadena trófica de un lago de inundación amazónico, recolectas mensuales de estos microorganismos fueron realizadas durante el año hidrológico de diciembre de 2007 hasta noviembre de 2008, en las regiones litoral, pelágica y de macrófitas acuáticas del lago Catalão, en la Amazonia central brasilera. Las bacterias fueron multiplicadas in vitro, usando como sustrato carbono orgánico disuelto (COD del lago en cada una de las regiones estudiadas, para posterior análisis de la abundancia de isotopos estables de carbono y nitrógeno. Estos datos fueron confrontados con los valores de COD de los cuatro periodos limnológicos del lago (seca, inundación, llena y bajada de aguas. En general se encontró que la fuente principal de carbono de las bacterias heterotróficas fue aquella de origen C4, que presentó un aporte mínimo de 75%, en la medida en que el d13C de las bacterias presentó valor medio de -17,72‰ ± 2,25. Confrontando ese valor, con el d13C del zooplancton en el mismo período (- 33,04‰ ± 3,81 se concluye que el aporte de las bacterias heterotróficas al flujo de carbono hacia niveles tróficos superiores en el lago estudiado es mínimo.In order to evaluate the role of heterotrophic bacteria on carbon flow in food chains of an Amazonian floodplain lake, monthly collections of these organisms were made during the hydrological year from December 2007 to November 2008. Littoral, pelagic, and aquatic macrophyte regions of the Catalão Lake in Central Amazonia were sampled and bacteria were multiplied in vitro, using dissolved organic carbon (COD of each one of the regions studied as a substrate. The bacterial biomass obtained was used for stable isotope analyses of carbon and nitrogen. These data were confronted with COD values of the four hydrological periods of the lake (dry, rising, flood and fall. In general, it was found

  3. Enzimas hidrolíticas extracelulares de isolados de rizóbia nativos da Amazônia Central, Amazonas, Brasil Extracellular hydrolytic enzymes in indigenous strains of rhizobia in Central Amazonia, Amazonas, Brazil

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    Arlem Nascimento de Oliveira

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A associação rizóbia x leguminosa contribui para enriquecer o solo com nitrogênio por meio da fixação biológica. Entretanto, pouco se conhece a respeito do perfil enzimático desses microrganismos. Nesse contexto, a presente investigação propõe avaliar a produção de enzimas hidrolíticas extracelulares por isolados de rizóbia nativos da Amazônia Central. Essa triagem constitui o primeiro passo na seleção de microrganismos nativos que são potencialmente exploráveis como produtores de enzimas. Foram testados 67 isolados nativos de rizóbia para as atividades amilolítica, celulolítica, lactolítica, lipolítica, pectinolítica e proteolítica, em meio YMA modificado. A atividade ureolítica foi detectada em meio ágar-uréia. As bactérias isoladas dos nódulos de feijão caupi mostraram maior capacidade em produzir enzimas do que os isolados bacterianos de soja. De todas as enzimas hidrolíticas avaliadas, apenas a pectinase não foi detectada neste estudo. Amilase (32,8%, protease (28,4%, urease (20,9% e carboximetilcelulase (9,0% foram as enzimas mais freqüentes produzidas pelos isolados. Neste trabalho, apenas as enzimas amilase e protease variaram significativamente entre os isolados de rizóbia. Os isolados INPA R-926 e INPA R-915 exibiram os maiores índices amilolíticos (IE = 3,1 e proteolíticos (IE = 6,6, respectivamente. Este estudo revelou alguns isolados de rizóbia nativos da Amazônia Central como fontes promissoras de enzimas de importância industrial para uso biotecnológico.Legumes enrich the soil by contributing nitrogen through symbiotic biological nitrogen fixation by rhizobia bacteria. However, very little is known about the extracellular enzymatic profile of these microorganisms. In this context, the production of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes by indigenous strains of rhizobia in Central Amazonia was evaluated. This screening constitutes the first step in selecting indigenous microorganisms that are

  4. Ethnoveterinary knowledge of the inhabitants of Marajó Island, Eastern Amazonia, Brazil Conhecimento etnoveterinário dos habitantes da Ilha de Marajó, Amazônia Oriental, Brasil

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    Maria Vivina Barros Monteiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been ethnoveterinary reports from around the world investigating plant usage in therapeutic protocols; however, there is no information regarding the ethnoveterinary practices in Brazilian Amazonia. The objective of this work was to register and document the ethnoveterinary knowledge of the inhabitants of the Island of Marajó, eastern Amazonia, Brazil. In the study, interviews were conducted with 50 individuals, with the application of semi-structured questionnaires that were quantitatively analyzed using descriptive statistic methods of frequency distribution. Use-value was calculated to determine the most important species. Samples of plants that were reported to have medicinal value were collected and identified by botanical classification. Fifty plants, distributed among 48 genera and 34 families, were indicated for 21 different medicinal uses. The family Asteraceae had the largest number of reported species; Carapa guianensis Aubl., Copaifera martii Hayne, Crescentia cujete L., Caesalpinia ferrea Mart., Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Jatropha curcas L. and Momordica charantia L. were species with highest use- value. The plant parts that were more commonly utilized for the preparation of ethnoveterinary medicines were the leaves (56%, bark (18%, roots (14%, seeds (14% and fruit (8%. With regard to usage, tea was reported as a usage method by 56% of the informants; most preparations (90.9% utilized only a single plant. In addition to medicinal plants, informants reported using products of animal and mineral origin. The present study contributed to the construction of an inventory of Marajó Island's ethnoveterinary plants, which might be the basis for future scientific validation studies.Em várias partes do mundo existem relatos etnoveterinários sobre a utilização de plantas em protocolos terapêuticos, entretanto não existem informações disponíveis sobre a etnoveterinária praticada na Amazônia brasileira. Desta forma

  5. REE, Y, Nb, U, and Th contents and tetrad effect in zircon from a magmatic-hydrothermal F-rich system of Sn-rare metal-cryolite mineralized granites from the Pitinga Mine, Amazonia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, Lauro V. S.; Formoso, Milton L. L.; Jarvis, Kym; Oliveira, Leondres; Bastos Neto, Artur C.; Fontana, Eduardo

    2012-02-01

    The geochemistry of zircon from the granites that host the Sn-Rare-Metal-cryolite deposit of Pitinga Mine in northern Brazil, Amazonia, is discussed based on data obtained by LA-ICP-MS. The ore deposit is one of the largest in the world and is related with F-rich A-type granite intrusions of 1822 ± 2 Ma. REE, Y, U, Th, Nb, Ta, Pb, and Hf contents were determined in zircon grains from the albite-bearing facies that contains the ore deposit and from less evolved facies composed of amphibole-biotite and biotite granites. The trace-element contents of zircon were compared to those of their host rocks and the calculated zircon/rock ratios are like the values of zircon/melt partition coefficients for natural granitic compositions. The concentrations found for all analysed elements are highly variable, even for determinations made in the same grain. However, the average contents and patterns are like those of typical magmatic zircon and can indicate the composition of the melts from which they were crystallized. The interpretation of trace element contents in the zircon grains suggests that: (i) in the albite-bearing facies, zircon crystallized after the volatile phase exsolution and shows typical geochemical features such as: Th/U ratios from 1 to 10, Y/Ho is lower than 20, Sm/Nd ratios are generally higher than 0.5, Nb/Y is higher than 0.08, and Hf is over 2 wt%; (ii) M-type tetrad effects were produced in the REE patterns of most differentiated melts by F-complex stabilization, and were preserved in some zircon grains; (iii) ore deposition in the Pitinga mine initiated in the late stages of magmatic crystallization mainly following resurgent boiling. The trace element contents of zircon are particularly relevant for provenance studies if mineral/melt partition coefficients are taken into account, so that the approximate trace element pattern of their igneous source can be estimated. The geochemistry of trace elements in zircon, in spite of the wide range of contents

  6. Notas sobre a composição arbóreo-arbustiva de uma fisionomia das savanas de Roraima, Amazônia Brasileira Notes on the woody composition of a vegetation physionomy of the Roraima's savannas, Brazilian Amazonia

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    Reinaldo Imbrozio Barbosa

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um inventário florístico das espécies arbóreo-arbustivas presentes em uma das unidades de vegetação que compõem a paisagem de savanas do Estado de Roraima, extremo norte da Amazônia brasileira. Esta unidade é caracterizada por ser densamente colonizada por ninhos do cupim Cornitermes ovatus Emerson. Foram observadas 29 espécies (15 famílias botânicas em três localidades utilizadas para a amostragem. O total de espécies, por localidade, variou de 12 a 20. As espécies mais abundantes foram Byrsonima verbascifolia (L. DC. e Mimosa microcephala Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd. (subarbustivas, Byrsonima cf. intermedia A. Juss. e Randia formosa (Jack. K. Schum. (arbustivas e, Byrsonima crassifolia (L. H.B.K. e Curatella americana L. (arbóreas. Oito espécies são comuns às três localidades. A diversidade medida pelo Índice de Shannon (H' foi baixa para todos os locais amostrados (A floristic inventory of woody species was carried out in one of the vegetation units that compose the savannas landscape of the Roraima State, northernmost of Brazilian Amazonia. This unit is characterized by dense colonization of nests of termites Cornitermes ovatus Emerson. Twenty nine woody species were observed (15 botany families in three localities used for sampling. The total of species varied from 12 to 20 by locality. The most abundant species were Byrsonima verbascifolia (L. DC. and Mimosa microcephala Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd. (dwarf shrubs, Byrsonima cf. intermedia A. Juss. and Randia formosa (Jack. K. Schum. (shrubby and, Byrsonima crassifolia (L. H.B.K. and Curatella americana L. (arboreal. Eight species are common to all localities. Diversity measured by the Index of Shannon (H' was low for all the areas sampled (<0.90 indicating high specimens concentration in few species. The Index of Sørensen indicated similarities (± 0.60 among studied areas, suggesting a group of landscapes with common plant diversity, representing a same

  7. Modelagem da interceptação na Floresta Nacional de Caxiuanã, no Leste da Amazônia Modelling of interception by Caxiuanã National Forest, in the Eastern Amazonia

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    Leidiane Leão de Oliveira

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado na Estação Cientifica Ferreira Penna, na Floresta Nacional de Caxiuanã, Melgaço, Pará, Brasil (01º 42' 30"S; 51º 31' 45"W; 60 m altitude no Leste da Amazônia. É uma área com floresta de terra firme, vegetação densa e dossel com altura média de 35 m e algumas árvores emergentes acima de 50 m, e densidade variando de 450 a 550 árvores por hectare. Os objetivos foram de quantificar as estimativas da interceptação por modelagens numéricas, no período de março a dezembro de 2004. A interceptação obtida nas medidas de campo foi de 248 mm, correspondendo a 21,5% da precipitação total incidente acima do dossel de 1.153,4 mm. As estimativas de interceptação foram simuladas com bom nível de eficiência, utilizando os modelos de Rutter e Gash. O modelo de Gash superestimou a interceptação em 17,3% (42,8 mm do total acumulado, enquanto o modelo de Rutter superestimou em apenas 0,5% (1,1 mm do total acumulado da interceptação.The present work was carried out in the Ferreira Penna Scientific Station, at the Caxiuanã National Forest in Melgaço, Pará, Brazil (01º 42' 30" S; 51º 31'45" W; 60 m of altitude in the EasternAmazonia. It is an upland forest area with closed vegetation, 35 m average canopy high, some emergent trees with 50 m high and species density between 450 and 550 plants per hectare. The objective was to compare the estimations of rainfall interception using two numerical models, for the period from March to December of 2004. The measured rainfall interception was 248 mm corresponding to 21.5% of total precipitation (1,153.4 mm above canopy. The rainfall interception was simulated, by Rutter's and Gash's models, at good level of accuracy. The Gash model overestimated the interception by 17.3% (42.8 mm, while the Rutter model overestimated by only 0.5% (1.1 mm of the observed interception.

  8. Padrões de distribuição geográfica e relações taxonômicas de algumas Crotonoideae (Euphorbiaceae da Amazônia Patterns of geographic distribution and taxonomic relationships of some Crotonoideae (Euphorbiaceae of Amazonia

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    Ricardo de S Secco

    1990-07-01

    Full Text Available Os padrões de distribuição geográfica e as relações taxonómicas das espécies de Sandwithia, Anomalocalyx, Sagotia, Dodecastigma, Pausandra e Pogonophora são apresentados e discutidos. Neste grupo de Euphorbiaceae encontra-se genero que não era referido para o Brasil; genero disjunto entre Brasil e o oeste da Africa; espécies amplamente distribuídas entre a Amazónia, Nordeste e o Leste do Brasil; espécies polimórficas e espécies de distribuição restrita, entre outras situações. Alguns padrões de distribuição aqui apresentados fornecem evidências sobre o paralelismo da flora amazônico-nordestina, as relações entre as floras da América do Sul e África e, possivelmente, sobre o isolamento de espécies durante o Pleistoceno. O trabalho pretende fornecer dados de fitogeografia e taxonomía, para subsidiar estudos de especiação, delimitação taxonómica de espécies, diversidade de espécies amazônicas e à moderna classificação da família Euphorbiaceae.The patterns of geographic distribution and taxonomic relations of the species in the genera Sandwithia, Anomalocalyx, Sagotia, Dodecastigma, Pausandra and Pogonophora are presented and discussed. This Euphorbiaceae group contains one genus that was formerly unreported in Brazil; another that is disjunct between Brazil and West Africa; one species widely distributed in Amazonia, northeast and eastern Brazil; another with a limited distribution; and another that is polymorphic. Some of the distribution patterns presented here indicate strong ties between the floras of Amazonia and northeastern Brazil, relations between the floras of South America and Africa and, possibly, evidence of species isolation in Amazonia during the Pleistocene. This article provides a summary of the author's recent research in phytogeography and taxonomy, which serves as a foundation for studies of speciation, taxonomic limits of species, diversity of species in the Amazon and Northeast Brazil

  9. Use of AFLPS to distinguish landraces of pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes in brazilian Amazonia Uso de AFLPS para discriminar raças primitivas de pupunha (Bactris gasipaes na Amazônia brasileira

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    Charles R. Clement

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the first inhabitants of western Amazonia domesticated pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes Kunth, Palmae or peach palm for its fruits, today it is widely planted for its heart-of-palm. Like other domesticates, pejibaye presents a complex hierarchy of landraces developed before the conquest of the Americas. The existence of three landraces (Pará, Solimões, Putumayo was proposed along the Amazonas and Solimões Rivers, Brazil, based on morphological characteristics. There are some questions remaining about the intermediate landrace being an artifact of the morphometric analysis. AFLPs were used to evaluate the relationships among samples of these putative landraces. DNA was extracted from 99 plants representing 13 populations maintained in the Pejibaye Germplasm Bank, Manaus, AM; six primer combinations generated 245 markers via PCR, which were scored in an ABI Prism 310 sequencer and analyzed with GeneScan Software; Jaccard similarities were estimated and a dendrogram was generated with UPGMA. Two groups of plants were observed in the dendrogram instead of three, and were similar at 0.795. Each group contained two subgroups, similar at 0.815. One group (n=41 contained 73% Pará landrace plants, with one subgroup (n=22 containing 91% Pará, and the other (n=19 containing 53% Pará. The other group (n=58 contained 53% Solimões and 40% Putumayo landrace plants, with one subgroup (n=21 containing 52% Solimões and 43% Putumayo, and the other (n=35 containing 57% Solimões and 37% Putumayo. The first group confirmed the Pará landrace. The second group suggested that the Solimões landrace does not exist, but that the Putumayo landrace extends along the Solimões River to Central Amazonia.Os primeiros povos da Amazônia ocidental domesticaram a pupunha (Bactris gasipaes Kunth, Palmae por seu fruto, embora hoje seja muito plantada por seu palmito. Como outros cultivos domesticados, a pupunha apresenta uma hierarquia complexa de raças primitivas

  10. Occurrence of filamentous fungi in Simulium goeldii Cerqueira & Nunes de Mello (diptera: simuliidae larvae in central Amazonia, Brazil Ocorrência de fungos filamentosos associados a larvas de Simulium goeldii Cerqueira & Nunes de Mello da Amazônia Central, Brasil

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    Quézia Ribeiro Fonseca

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The family Simuliidae is the host of simbiontes fungi that inhabit the digestive tracts of arthropods. This paper reports the presence of fungi in Simulium goeldii Cerqueira & Nunes de Mello larvae in Amazonia. We observed that the larvae are a good component of aquatic systems to isolate filamentous fungi.A família Simuliidae é hospedeira de fungos simbiontes que habitam o trato digestivo de artrópodos. Este estudo reporta a presença de fungos em larvas de Simulium goeldii Cerqueira & Nunes de Mello da Amazônia. Foi observado que as larvas são bons componentes do sistema aquático para isolar fungos filamentosos.

  11. Características hidrológicas do solo saturado na Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke - Amazônia central Hydrological characterists of the satured soil in the Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve - central Amazonia

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    Juan Daniel Villacis Fajardo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, investigaram-se a porosidade e condutividade hidráulica da zona saturada do solo, buscando entender como essas variáveis físicas afetam os processos hidrológicos em uma área de floresta primária, sob pressão urbana, na Amazônia central. O experimento foi realizado na Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke, localizada ao norte da cidade de Manaus, AM. No igarapé Bolívia foi instalado um posto fluviométrico (régua linimétrica e linígrafo; no local, foram instalados quatro piezômetros na zona ripária, perpendicular ao curso do igarapé. A porosidade variou no perfil do solo, alcançando valores acima de 0,40 cm³/cm³. Os valores médios de condutividade hidráulica saturada ou infiltração básica (K foram elevados e variaram de 89,5 ± 12,8 a 279,5 ± 9,0 mm/h. O nível d'água no igarapé oscilou entre 65 e 141 cm, no período de observação (novembro de 2005 a outubro de 2007. O piezômetro da camada profunda do solo, distante do curso d'água, variou entre 166,2 e 304,9 cm. As condutividades hidráulicas do solo saturado foram maiores nos pontos mais distantes do curso d'água, tanto na camada superficial quanto na profunda, determinando o comportamento hidrológico do lençol freático no local.This study investigated the porosity and the hydraulic conductivity on the saturated zone of the soil trying to understand how these physical variables affect the hydrological processes, in an area of primary forest under urban pressure, in Central Amazonia. The experiment was carried out in the Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve, located on the north of the city of Manaus - AM. One water measurement station (water level scale was installed in the Igarapé Bolívia and four piezometers were installed in the site, the latter on the riparian zone, perpendicular to the course of the stream. The porosity varied in the soil profile, reaching values above 0.40 cm³/cm³. The mean values for the saturated hydraulic conductivity or basic

  12. Variabilidade espacial de propriedades químicas do solo e da produtividade de citros na Amazônia Oriental Spatial variability of soil chemical properties and yield of citrus orchards in Eastern Amazonia

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    Paulo C. G. Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Propôs-se, com este trabalho, avaliar a variabilidade espacial da concentração de macronutrientes em laranjeiras e no solo, correlacionando-as com a produtividade e o tamanho dos frutos. O estudo foi realizado em um pomar de laranjas "Pêra-Rio" implantado em um Argissolo Amarelo de textura média, localizado no município de Capitão Poço, PA. Para a análise foliar selecionaram-se 120 plantas e se coletaram as 3ª e 4ª folhas dos ramos, no perímetro médio da altura da copa, abrangendo todos os quadrantes, totalizando 50 folhas por planta. A coleta de solo foi realizada na camada de 0-20 cm de profundidade, considerando-se a projeção da copa em todos os quadrantes. Os dados foram submetidos a análises de geoestatística. Através dos mapas de krigagem foi possível determinar as áreas com alta e baixa variabilidade, o que permitiu concluir que os mapas de produtividade e de tamanho de fruto mostraram alta variabilidade espacial, com uma produção variando de 11,25 a 80,8 kg planta-1; o tamanho médio dos frutos apresentou tendência de variabilidade, seguindo as linhas de plantio, causado, provavelmente, pelo sistema de alternância de capinas; o tamanho dos frutos variou de 42 a 78 mm e a produtividade não foi influenciada pelo tamanho do fruto e, sim, pelo número de frutos por planta.The spatial variability of macronutrient content was analyzed in an orange orchard (cv. "Pera Rio", set up in a typic Hapludalf soil. The correlation between yield and fruit size was determined. The experimental area was located at Capitão Poço, in the eastern part of Amazonia region, Pará State. Leaf analysis was performed in 120 plants and the leaves of third and fouth branches were collected in all quadrants, totalizing 50 leaf samples for each plant. The soil was sampled at 0-20 cm depth below the crop canopy, in accordance to leaf sampling location. Leaf and soil data variability were measured with geoestatistics technique and the orchard

  13. Biomassa acima do solo de um ecossistema de "campina" em Roraima, norte da Amazônia brasileira Aboveground biomass of a "campina" ecosystem in Roraima, Northern of Brazilian Amazonia

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    Reinaldo Imbrozio Barbosa

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi estimada a biomassa (viva + morta acima do solo de um ecossistema de "campina" localizado em Roraima, norte da Amazônia brasileira. A biomassa foi determinada a partir de um inventário fitossociológico (1 ha amostral e distribuída em dois estratos: (1 gramíneo-lenhoso, composto de "ervas + liquens" (Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Eriocaulaceae, Cladonia spp, Bromeliaceae, plântulas, "litter" fino e grosso e, (2 arbóreo-arbustivo, composto por árvores e arbustos. O estrato gramíneo-lenhoso foi estimado pelo método direto (corte e pesagem através de 10 quadras de 1m², aproveitando os transectos do inventário. O estrato arbóreo-arbustivo foi estimado pelo método indireto com o corte de 98 indivíduos de diferentes espécies e diâmetros. Foi gerado um modelo para expressar a relação entre a biomassa seca total (kg, a circunferência de base (cm e a altura total (m para os indivíduos deste estrato. A equação foi aplicada nos 3.966 indivíduos.ha-1 observados no inventário. A biomassa total foi estimada em 15,91 t.ha-1, sendo 2,20 ± 0,23 t.ha-1 (13,8% do estrato gramíneo-lenhoso e 13,70 ± 7,13 t.ha-1 (86,2% do arbóreo-arbustivo. A espécie arbórea de maior biomassa foi Humiria balsamifera (Aubl. St. Hill. (8,43 t.ha-1, seguida de Pagamea guianensis Aubl. (1,14 t.ha-1. Estes resultados são importantes para refinar os cálculos de emissão de gases do efeito estufa pela queima e decomposição da biomassa acima do solo em ecossistemas de campinas na Amazônia.The aboveground biomass of a "campina" ecosystem was estimated in Roraima, in the northern portion of Brazilian Amazonia. The biomass was determined from a phytosociological inventory (1 ha and distributed between two categories: (1 grassy-woody, composed of "herbs+lichens" (Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Eriocaulaceae, Cladonia spp, Bromeliaceae, seedlings, fine and coarse litter and, (2 woody, composed of trees and bushes. The grassy-woody category was estimated by the direct method

  14. Contribuição para o conhecimento da taxonomia, ecologia e fitogeografia de Briófitas da Amazônia Oriental Contribution to the taxonomy, ecology and phytogeographical knowledge of Bryophytes from Eastern Amazonia

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    Lisi Dámaris Pereira Alvarenga

    2009-09-01

    liverworts were collected in non-flooded forest (terra firme, flooded forest (várzea and igapó, secondary forest and savanna ecosystems. They were analyzed for composition, richness and diversity. One thousand eighty one occurrences of 120 Bryophytes species (79 liverworts and 41 mosses were recorded; and among them eight liverworts are new references from the state of Pará. The richest and most frequently encountered families were Lejeuneaceae (58 spp., Calymperaceae (13 spp., Sematophyllaceae (9 spp. and Plagiochilaceae (7 spp.. The most representative communities were the epiphytic (97 species/ 565 occurrences and epixylic (65 spp./ 242 ocurr., followed by foliicolous (27 spp./ 174 ocurr. and terricolous (15 spp./ 96 ocurr.; and the richest and most diverse ecosystem was the terra firme forest. The composition analysis of the surveyed substrates showed a gradual inversion in the richness ratio between liverworts/mosses, where the liverworts were strongly dominant in leaves, slightly dominant in live and dead trunks and the mosses were dominant in the others substrates. The results of this study, like the new references, contribute for understanding patterns of richness and diversity in Amazonia and increase the bryophyte flora of Pará.

  15. Morphometric patterns and preferential uses of Capsicum peppers in the State of Roraima, Brazilian Amazonia Padrões morfométricos e usos preferenciais de pimentas Capsicum spp. em Roraima, Amazônia Brasileira

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    Reinaldo I Barbosa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to study distinctions in the morphology of the pepper fruits (Capsicum spp., Solanaceae used by indigenous (living in traditional villages and non-indigenous groups (originated from migration and colonization, with or without miscegenation, living on non-indigenous lands in the State of Roraima, Northern Brazilian Amazonia. In this sense, we used a database with 182 subsamples of Capsicum spp. Accessions were collected at 39 sites (14 indigenous and 25 non-indigenous, which were characterized additionally in relation to the predominant phytophysiognomy (savanna or forest and home zone (rural or urban. We found morphological differences in pepper fruits related to both phytophysiognomy and home zone of the collecting site, but not to ethnical origin. We believe those differences are more related to the inherent crop practices, which suffer strong environmental influence, than to user preference. Both indigenous and non-indigenous groups preferred morphotypes from C. chinense and C. frutescens, which have small and highly pungent fruits. Nevertheless, fruit color was not important. These morphotypes are used by both indigenous and non-indigenous users for preparing sauce and jiquitaia (pepper powder. We suggested 'cultural adherence' as the reason for the common preferred use of peppers by both ethnical groups analyzed in Roraima.O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar distinções no padrão morfológico de frutos de pimentas do gênero Capsicum spp. (Solanaceae utilizados por grupos tradicionais indígenas (vivendo em aldeias e não-indígenas (derivado da migração/colonização, contendo ou não miscigenação, situados fora de áreas indígenas, em Roraima, norte da Amazônia brasileira. Para tanto foi utilizado um banco de dados com 182 subamostras de Capsicum spp. coletadas em 39 localidades daquele estado (14 indígenas e 25 não-indígenas. As localidades foram caracterizadas também por tipos fitofision

  16. Social wasps of two wetland ecosystems in brazilian Amazonia (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae Vespas sociais de duas áreas úmidas na Amazônia brasileira (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae

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    Orlando Tobias Silveira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In Brazilian Amazonia, 20 genera and more than 200 species of polistine wasps are recorded. Local faunas with 70 to 80 species are usually found in non floodable forest environments. However, a variety of wetlands exist in the region, the most expressive in surface area being varzea systems. In this paper, information is presented on polistines from two areas of wetlands in the Brazilian states of Amazonas and Amapá. These are reciprocally compared and also with nearby terra firme locations. Collecting methods consisted of active search for nests, handnetting and automatic trapping of individuals. Forty-six species of 15 genera were collected in Mamirauá, AM, most being widespread common wasps. However, five species deserve special mention in virtue of rarity and/or restricted distribution: Metapolybia rufata, Chartergellus nigerrimus, Chartergellus punctatior, Clypearia duckei, and Clypearia weyrauchi. In Região dos Lagos, AP, 31 species of 9 genera were collected, nearly all being common species with the exception of some Polistes, like P. goeldi and P. occipitalis. Even though less rich than vespid faunas from terra firme habitats, the Mamirauá fauna proved to be quite expressive considering limitations imposed by the hydrological regime. In Região dos Lagos, however, the very low diversity found was below the worst expectations. The virtual absence of otherwise common species in environments like tidal varzea forests along Araguari River is truly remarkable. The causes of low diversity are probably related to isolation and relative immaturity of the region, allied to strong degradation of forested habitats.Vinte gêneros e mais de 200 espécies de vespas sociais são registrados na Amazônia brasileira. Faunas locais com 70 a 80 espécies são usualmente encontradas em florestas não inundáveis. Entretanto, uma grande variedade de áreas úmidas existe na região, com destaque para os sistemas de várzea. Neste artigo, apresentamos

  17. Florística e fitossociologia de uma floresta de vertente na Amazônia Central, Amazonas, Brasil Floristic and phytosociology of a slope forest in Central Amazonia, Amazonas, Brazil

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    Arlem Nascimento de Oliveira

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo florístico e fitossociológico de árvores, palmeiras e lianas com diâmetro à altura do peito (DAP >10 cm, em uma floresta de vertente na Amazônia Central (2º35'45" S e 60º12'40" W, foi realizado empregando-se 20 parcelas de 50 x 10 m, distribuídas em dois transectos paralelos de 500 x 10 m. Foram registrados 771 indivíduos, pertencentes a 50 famílias, 120 gêneros e 239 espécies. Das espécies amostradas, 44% são "localmente raras". Sapotaceae, Lecythidaceae, Fabaceae, Caesalpiniaceae e Chrysobalanaceae constituíram as cinco famílias com maior riqueza de espécies e número de indivíduos. Dos 771 indivíduos amostrados, mais de 65% apresentaram DAP > 20 cm. As espécies Eschweilera bracteosa e Protium apiculatum apresentaram os maiores valores de IVI. Cerca de 83% das espécies encontram-se distribuídas aleatoriamente no hectare amostrado. O índice de diversidade Shannon-Wiener foi de 5,01 nats.indivíduo-1, com uniformidade de 0,91, valores altos no contexto de levantamentos semelhantes na região. A heterogeneidade edáfica e topográfica da área, as taxas de recrutamento de novos indivíduos e de espécies "localmente raras" à comunidade local, podem ter contribuído para as altas dissimilaridade (36,2% e diversidade florísticas documentadas neste estudo.The floristic and phytosociological study of trees, palms and lianas with diameter at breast height (DBH >10 cm in a forest slope in Central Amazonia (2º35'45 "S and 60º12'40" W was carried out using 20 plots of 50 x 10 m, distributed in two parallel transects of 500 x 10 m. A total of 771 plants were registered, belonging to 50 families, 120 genera and 239 species. Of the sampled species, 44% are locally rare. Families with the most species and number of individuals were Sapotaceae, Lecythidaceae, Fabaceae, Caesalpiniaceae and Chrysobalanaceae. More than 65% of the sampled plants had DBH > 20 cm. Eschweilera bracteosa and Protium apiculatum were the most

  18. Peach palm core collection in Brazilian Amazonia

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    Michelly de Cristo-Araújo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Peach palm Active Germplasm Bank has abundant genetic diversity in its holdings. Because it is a live collection, maintenance, characterization and evaluation are expensive, restricting its use. One way to promote more efficient use is to create a Core Collection, a set of accessions with at least 70% of the genetic diversity of the full collection with minimal repetition. The available geographic, molecular marker (RAPD and morphometric information was systematized and the populations were stratified into wild and domesticated. The Core Collection consists of 10% of the entire collection: 31 accessions of landraces, 5 accessions of non-designated populations and 4 accessions of wild populations. The Core has 92% of the molecular polymorphism and 95% of the heterozygosity of the full collection, with minimal divergence between them by molecular variance. The Core is already receiving priority maintenance, which will contribute to long term conservation

  19. Amazonia: Burning and global climate impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, humans have been playing a major role in reducing the natural forest cover in the tropics through different forms of slash and burn. The most serious destruction, it is said, is occurring in the Amazon, which is the largest expanse of tropical forest remaining on the planet. This chapter reviews briefly the causes and the extent of Amazonian deforestation and focuses on its global and local climate impacts. In addition, the effects of loss of diversity and need to preserve Indian cultures and societies are briefly discussed

  20. Deforestation in Amazonia impacts riverine carbon dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langerwisch, F.; Walz, A.; Rammig, A.; Tietjen, B.; Thonicke, K.; Cramer, W.

    2015-10-01

    Fluxes of organic and inorganic carbon within the Amazon basin are considerably controlled by annual flooding, which triggers the export of terrigenous organic material to the river and ultimately to the Atlantic Ocean. The amount of carbon imported to the river and the further conversion, transport and export of it, depend on terrestrial productivity and discharge, as well as temperature and atmospheric CO2. Both terrestrial productivity and discharge are influenced by climate and land use change. To assess the impact of these changes on the riverine carbon dynamics, the coupled model system of LPJmL and RivCM (Langerwisch et al., 2015) has been used. Vegetation dynamics (in LPJmL) as well as export and conversion of terrigenous carbon to and within the river (RivCM) are included. The model system has been applied for the years 1901 to 2099 under two deforestation scenarios and with climate forcing of three SRES emission scenarios, each for five climate models. The results suggest that, following deforestation, riverine particulate and dissolved organic carbon will strongly decrease by up to 90 % until the end of the current century. In parallel, discharge increases, leading to roughly unchanged net carbon transport during the first decades of the century, as long as a sufficient area is still forested. During the following decades the amount of transported carbon will decrease drastically. In contrast to the riverine organic carbon, the amount of riverine inorganic carbon is only determined by climate change forcing, namely increased temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentration. Mainly due to the higher atmospheric CO2 it leads to an increase in riverine inorganic carbon by up to 20 % (SRES A2). The changes in riverine carbon fluxes have direct effects on the export of carbon, either to the atmosphere via outgassing, or to the Atlantic Ocean via discharge. Basin-wide the outgassed carbon will increase slightly, but can be regionally reduced by up to 60 % due to deforestation. The discharge of organic carbon to the ocean will be reduced by about 40 % under the most severe deforestation and climate change scenario. The changes would have local and regional consequences on the carbon balance and habitat characteristics in the Amazon basin itself but also in the adjacent Atlantic Ocean.

  1. Deforestation in Amazonia impacts riverine carbon dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    F. Langerwisch; Walz, A; A. Rammig; Tietjen, B.; Thonicke, K.; Cramer, W.

    2015-01-01

    Fluxes of organic and inorganic carbon within the Amazon basin are considerably controlled by annual flooding, which triggers the export of terrigenous organic material to the river and ultimately to the Atlantic Ocean. The amount of carbon imported to the river and the further conversion, transport and export of it, depend on terrestrial productivity and discharge, as well as temperature and atmospheric CO2. Both terrestrial productivity and discharge are influenced by climate and l...

  2. A AMAZONIA E O MERCADO DE CARBONO

    OpenAIRE

    Lamarca Junior, Mariano Rua; Chalita, Marie Anne Najm; Godoy, Amalia Maria Goldberg; Silva, Cesar Roberto Leite da

    2008-01-01

    A Amazônia tem um destacado papel na crise ambiental global uma vez que, no Brasil, há mais emissões de carbono por o desmatamento e queimadas do que pela queima de combustíveis de origem fóssil. Para discutir a problemática e a importância da inserção da Amazônia no mercado de carbono, parte-se dos processos de ocupação e uso dos recursos naturais da floresta e das contradições na formulação das políticas para a região. Com base nos conceitos de direitos de propriedade, direitos econômicos e...

  3. Peach palm core collection in Brazilian Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Michelly de Cristo-Araújo; Doriane Picanço Rodrigues; Spartaco Astolfi-Filho; Clement, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    The Peach palm Active Germplasm Bank has abundant genetic diversity in its holdings. Because it is a live collection, maintenance, characterization and evaluation are expensive, restricting its use. One way to promote more efficient use is to create a Core Collection, a set of accessions with at least 70% of the genetic diversity of the full collection with minimal repetition. The available geographic, molecular marker (RAPD) and morphometric information was systematized and the popu...

  4. Micorrizas arbusculares del sur de la Amazonia colombiana y su relación con algunos factores fisicoquímicos y biológicos del suelo Micorrizas arbusculares no sul da Amazônia colombiana e sua relação com algumos fatores fisicoquímicos e biológicos do solo

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    Clara Patricia Peña-Venegas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de micorrizas arbusculares en la vegetación de la Amazonia mejora la nutrición de las plantas en suelos de baja fertilidad. Este trabajo evaluó la presencia natural de hongos micorrícicos de tipo arbuscular (HMA en suelos ácidos de textura franco-arcillosa a arcillosa del sur de la Amazonia colombiana bajo bosque, rastrojo joven, y praderas establecidas, a dos profundidades diferentes. Fue estudiada la presencia de HMA (riqueza y abundancia de esporas relacionado con la acidez, la capacidad de intercambio catiónico, el carbono orgánico, el fósforo total, las fracciones de fósforo soluble y fijado al aluminio, hierro y calcio, y el ADN total del suelo. Se detectaron diferencias significativas, en el contenido de ADN total y el número de esporas respecto a la profundidad de muestreo. El pH presentó un efecto significativo sobre el contenido de ADN y el número de esporas de HMA. El contenido de ADN en el suelo se vio afectado por las concentraciones de fosfatos de aluminio, mientras la esporulación de HMA fue afectada por las concentraciones de fosfatos de hierro del suelo. Así, el número de esporas de HMA en suelos de la Amazonia se ve afectada por la profundidad, el pH y por el tipo de fosfatos minerales presentes.A presença das micorrizas arbusculares na vegetação da Amazônia pode incrementar a nutrição das plantas nos solos com baixa fertilidade. Neste estudo foi avaliada a ocorrência natural de fungos formadores de micorriza arbuscular (MA em solos ácidos de textura argilosa no sul da Amazônia colombiana, considerando-se nas coberturas de floresta nativa, floresta secundaria jovem, e pastagens estabelecidas e duas profundidades. Foi estudada a ocorrência das MA (riqueza e abundância de esporos com relação à: acidez, capacidade de troca de cátions, carbono orgânico, fósforo total, frações de fósforo solúvel, frações fixadas ao alumínio, ferro e cálcio e DNA total do solo. Quanto

  5. Estudio de los estados larvales de la ictiofauna en la zona de Puerto Nariño, Amazonia Colombiana, durante el período de aguas ascendentes (2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutiérrez Espinosa Mónica Andrea

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizó taxonómicamente las larvas de peces de la zona de Puerto Nariño (Amazonia colombiana durante el período de aguas ascendentes 2003 (enero a marzo, además se hizo un acercamiento a la dinámica ecológica de la reproducción de los peces a partir de las larvas capturadas. Los muestreos se realizaron con una jama de mano de 80 x 40 cm con marco de hierro y con una malla de anjeo con orificio de 1,5 mm instalada en la proa de una lancha, en siete diferentes localidades con tipo de aguas diferentes (río Amazonas, río Loreto Yacu, caño Zancudillo, lago El Sapo, lago El Correo, lago Tarapoto, caño Igarapé Uassú. Se colectaron 6.492 larvas y juveniles de peces, correspondientes a cinco órdenes (Characiformes, Siluriformes, Perciformes, Clupeiformes y Gymnotiformes y 15 familias. Se identificaron taxonómicamente y se describieron 56 morfoespecies de larvas de peces, de las cuales solo el 23,2% fueron a nivel específico, cifra alta si se tiene en cuenta la falta de información bibliográfica al respecto. La identificación taxonómica fue complicada; sin embargo, la presencia y ausencia de ciertos caracteres como: aletas, barbicelos, escamas y caracteres merísticos como: número de miómeros, número de radios permitió llegar en algunos casos a nivel taxonómico de familia y género. A nivel de orden la identificación fue relativamente fácil especialmente en estados avanzados de desarrollo. A nivel de familia fue un poco más complicado, especialmente en la familia Characidae, pues la similitud en estados tempranos de desarrollo es muy grande. El orden más abundante fue Characiformes (84,9%, seguido por Siluriformes (12,1%, los órdenes Perciformes, Clupeiformes y Gymnotiformes presentaron el 3% de la abundancia. Las familias más abundantes fueron Characidae, Serrasalmidae y Curimatidae, que se caracterizan por realizar migraciones reproductivas especialmente durante el período de aguas
    ascendentes, asegurando que

  6. Using termite nests as a source of organic matter in agrosilvicultural production systems in Amazonia Uso de ninhos de cupin como fonte de matéria orgânica em sistemas de produção agrosilviculturais na Amazônia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Batalha

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available The growth of two annual crops, okra (Abelmoschus escutentus and egg-plant (Solatium melongena and one perennial crop, andiroba (Carapa guianensis, a native forest tree of Amazonia under different treatments with organic manure derived from termite nest material of wood-feeding Nasutitermes species was tested (randomized block design. The use of 25-100 g of nest material gave no significant increase in okra productivity, and 25-200 g gave no significant response in andiroba. The combined use of NPK with 200 g of nest material gave a significant higher production in egg-plant (total number and total fresh weight of fruits when compared to the control (without fertilizer and to the treatment with NPK only.The results suggest the possibility to use termite nest material to enhance crop production in Amazonia, particularly in combination with low amounts of mineral fertilizer. Research lines for further investigations are outlined.Foi avaliado crescimento de duas espécies agriculturais anuais, quiabo (Abelmoschus esculentus e berinjela (Solatium melongena, e de uma espécie perene, andiroba (Carapa guianensis, uma árvore nativa da Amazônia sob diferentes tratamentos com matéria orgânica derivada de material de cupinzeiro de espécies xilófagas de Nasutitermes (desenho de bloco randomizado. O uso de 25-100 g de material de termiteiro não levou a um incremento significativo da produtividade em quiabo, e 25-200 g não resultou numa resposta significativa em andiroba. O uso combinado de NPK com 200 g de ninho de cupim resultou numa produção significantemente maior em S. melongena (número total e peso fresco total de frutos se comparado com o controle (sem fertilizante nenhum e com o tratamento de NPK apenas. Os resultados sugerem a possibilidade de usar material de cupinzeiro para melhorara produção agrossilvicultural na Amazônia, especialmente em combinação com pequenas quantidades de fertilizante mineral Linhas de pesquisa para futuras

  7. RICE CULTIVATION IN AN EBBTIDE SYSTEM IN THE MARANHÃO LOWLANDS, SOUTHEASTERN PERIPHERY OF AMAZONIA A CULTURA DO ARROZ EM SISTEMA DE VAZANTE NA BAIXADA MARANHENSE, PERIFERIA DO SUDESTE DA AMAZÔNIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelino Silva Farias Filho

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Agricultural production in the Maranhão State, southeastern periphery of Amazonia, Brazil, is predominantly smallholder-based and uses slash-and-burn technology. Nevertheless, other environmentally less aggressive land use systems are also relevant for food production, especially the so-called ebbtide system, in the Maranhão lowlands. This paper describes and evaluates ebbtide production, within the landless settlement project “Diamante Negro/Jutaí”, located in Monção and Igarapé do Meio, municipalities of the Maranhão lowlands. Our farmer-based assessment consisted of interviews with 14 farmers and in loco observations. Furthermore, an agroecological assessment was conducted, based on participative field experimentation, with 15 local farmers. The main factors causing rice productivity losses are related to hydric stress situations and rodents (Arvicola sapidus. The productivity and milling yield of improved rice varieties did not differ statistically.

     

    KEY-WORDS: Rice; Maranhão lowlands; smallholder agriculture; ebbtide production.

  1. PV-hybrid village power systems in Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, C.L.; Taylor, R.W. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Ribeiro, C.M. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energie Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    The Brazilian Amazon region is an ideal location for isolated mini-grid systems. Hundreds of diesel systems have been installed to supply electricity to this sparsely populated region. However, the availability of renewable energy resources makes the Amazon well-suited to renewable energy systems. This paper describes the technical aspects of two hybrid systems being installed in this region through the cooperative effort of multiple partners: U.S. Department of Energy, through NREL, and Brazilian CEPEL/Eletrobras and state electric utilities.

  2. LAND REFORM AND DEFORESTATION IN THE BRAZILIAN AMAZONIA

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio ARAUJO; Bonjean, Catherine Araujo; Combes, Jean Louis; Motel, Pascal Combes; Reis, Eustaquio Jose

    2008-01-01

    No processo de reforma agrária brasileiro é comum a redistribuição de terra ocorrer por meio de invasões das grandes proprieades pelos sem terra. Esse mecanismo introduz insegurança no direito de propriedade fundiária e, na Regîão Amazônica, tem como consequência o excesso de desflorestamento. Esse trabalho utiliza um jogo não-cooperativo para mostrar que as interações estratégicas entre proprietários e posseiros em um contexto instittucional onde as florestas naturais são consideradas como r...

  3. Temporal variability of forest fires in eastern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Ane; Asner, Gregory P; Knapp, David; Zarin, Daniel

    2011-10-01

    Widespread occurrence of fires in Amazonian forests is known to be associated with extreme droughts, but historical data on the location and extent of forest fires are fundamental to determining the degree to which climate conditions and droughts have affected fire occurrence in the region. We used remote sensing to derive a 23-year time series of annual landscape-level burn scars in a fragmented forest of the eastern Amazon. Our burn scar data set is based on a new routine developed for the Carnegie Landsat Analysis System (CLAS), called CLAS-BURN, to calculate a physically based burn scar index (BSI) with an overall accuracy of 93% (Kappa coefficient 0.84). This index uses sub-pixel cover fractions of photosynthetic vegetation, non-photosynthetic vegetation, and shade/burn scar spectral end members. From 23 consecutive Landsat images processed with the CLAS-BURN algorithm, we quantified fire frequencies, the variation in fire return intervals, and rates of conversion of burned forest to other land uses in a 32 400 km2 area. From 1983 to 2007, 15% of the forest burned; 38% of these burned forests were subsequently deforested, representing 19% of the area cleared during the period of observation. While 72% of the fire-affected forest burned only once during the 23-year study period, 20% burned twice, 6% burned three times, and 2% burned four or more times, with the maximum of seven times. These frequencies suggest that the current fire return interval is 5-11 times more frequent than the estimated natural fire regime. Our results also quantify the substantial influence of climate and extreme droughts caused by a strong El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on the extent and likelihood of returning forest fires mainly in fragmented landscapes. These results are an important indication of the role of future warmer climate and deforestation in enhancing emissions from more frequently burned forests in the Amazon. PMID:22073631

  4. Digital Natives' Learning and Teaching: the Amazonia Serious Game Scenario

    OpenAIRE

    Di Loreto, Ines; Gouaich, Abdelkader; Hervouet, Fabien; Dalichoux, Guillaume; Foucher, Alexandre; Patramol, Panupat; Cerri, Stefano A.

    2009-01-01

    Prensky's talk about Digital Natives and Digital Immigrants is often used as a milestone for the field of study addressing this "new generation" of users. However, when talking about Digital Natives the general attitude is to think of them simply as students and not as perspective teachers. This is, in our opinion, a lost opportunity: their way of studying and doing things at present will influence the way they will work in their future workplaces. When they will assume, for example, the role...

  5. Use of LANDSAT data to monitor pasture project in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Dossantos, A. P.; Novo, E. M. L. D. M.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. No differences were found between acreage evaluation by visual and automatic interpretation of LANDSAT images. It was necessary to interpret both channels 5 and 7 to exactly outline the deforested areas. Channel 7 was necessary for the identification of deforested areas in the presence of recently grown natural vegetation, and channel 5 was necessary to identify the deforested areas in the cerrado regions. Automatic interpretation permitted the discrimination between areas with predominant grass coverage and recently grown natural vegetation.

  6. La Historia, los Antropólogos y la Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Pineda Camacho

    2005-01-01

    Colombia’s anthropology of the Amazon, like the other Latin American anthropologists of the rain forest, was concerned whit developing a historical vision of the place, complementing in this way other metropolitan perspectives on basin that were centered, whit few exceptions, around a synchronic perspective. Understanding such situation demanded from them not only the explorations of oral traditions, but also conceiving the anthropology of the Amazon as a historical anthropology of the Andes,...

  7. La Historia, los Antropólogos y la Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Pineda Camacho

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Colombia’s anthropology of the Amazon, like the other Latin American anthropologists of the rain forest, was concerned whit developing a historical vision of the place, complementing in this way other metropolitan perspectives on basin that were centered, whit few exceptions, around a synchronic perspective. Understanding such situation demanded from them not only the explorations of oral traditions, but also conceiving the anthropology of the Amazon as a historical anthropology of the Andes, from India and in the context of the certain metropolitan anthropologies.

  8. Seasonal fluctuation of riverine navigation and accessibility in Western Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Tenkanen, Henrikki Toivo Olavi; Salonen, Maria; Lattu, Matti Petteri; Toivonen, Tuuli Kaarina

    2015-01-01

    Accessibility and transportation possibilities are key factors influencing societal conditions and land use patterns in rural areas. Thus, information on the spatial patterns of accessibility and transportation can be of paramount importance in understanding regional differences in development, human livelihood and land use patterns. Analysing spatio-temporal transportation patterns is particularly challenging in areas where everyday transportation is based on unscheduled public transportatio...

  9. Pyomyositis in the upper Negro river basin, Brazilian Amazonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borges, Alvaro Humberto Diniz; Faragher, Brian; Lalloo, David G

    2012-01-01

    Pyomyositis remains poorly documented in tropical Latin America. We therefore performed a retrospective review of cases admitted to a hospital in the upper Negro river basin during 2002-2006. Seasonality was assessed by the cosinor model and independent predictors of outcome were identified by lo...

  10. El uso de la Ayahuasca en la Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Trujillo, Edwin; Frausin Bustamante, Gina; Correa, Marco; Trujillo, William

    2010-01-01

    The yagé is a hallucinogenic plant (Banisteriopsis caapi) widely distributed in Colombia, Perú, Ecuador, Venezuela, Brazil and Bolivia, of which gets ready a drink (Ayahuasca) consumed from immemorial times inside an indigenous ritual context. Their preparation it is usually made with the bark of B. caapi, but in occasions additive are used, as the oco-yaje leaves or chagropanga (Diplopterys cabrerana: Malpighiaceae) and chacruna (Psychotria viridis: Rubiaceae), with the purpose of changing t...

  11. Amerindian agriculture in an urbanising Amazonia (Rio Negro, Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Emperaire, Laure; Eloy, L.

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the transformations undergone by indigenous agricultural systems in periurban areas of the Rio Negro (Amazonas, Brazil). Rather than losing their characteristics, these systems have basically been transposed from a forest context to periurban areas, maintaining multi-plot cultivation, dynamic management of agrobiodiversity and traditional knowledge. But this agriculture is confronted by the values of modernity embedded in urban agriculture. The recognition of the ecologi...

  12. Notas sobre aves de la amazonia y orinoquia colombianas

    OpenAIRE

    Borrero H., José Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a report is given concerning the distribution of some birds in the Colombian Amazonian and Orinoco drainages; also, some previous identifications are amended having at the present time more and better material recently collected and better facilities for studying. In addition, five new species. are recorded for the first time in the fauna of these regions and four new species and subespecies are added to the previous known list of Colombian birds.

  13. Predicting Fire Susceptibility in the Forests of Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepstad, Daniel C.; Brown, I. Foster; Setzer, Alberto

    2000-01-01

    Although fire is the single greatest threat to the ecological integrity of Amazon forests, our ability to predict the occurrence of Amazon forest fires is rudimentary. Part of the difficulty encountered in making such predictions is the remarkable capacity of Amazon forests to tolerate drought by tapping moisture stored in deep soil. These forests can avoid drought-induced leaf shedding by withdrawing moisture to depths of 8 meters and more. Hence, the absorption of deep soil moisture allows these forests to maintain their leaf canopies following droughts of several months duration, thereby maintaining the deep shade and high relative humidity of the forest interior that prevents these ecosystems from burning. But the drought- and fire-avoidance that is conferred by this deep-rooting phenomenon is not unlimited. During successive years of drought, such as those provoked by El Nino episodes, deep soil moisture can be depleted, and drought-induced leaf shedding begins. The goal of this project was to incorporate this knowledge of Amazon forest fire ecology into a predictive model of forest flammability.

  14. Greenhouse gas contributions from deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Each year's clearing of forest and savanna in the Brazilian Amazon is now contributing to the atmosphere 270 x 106 MT of carbon. This figure is almost 3 times as much as Brazil's use of fossil fuels. The fate of this biomass carbon and its contribution to the greenhouse effect is discussed in this chapter

  15. Circulatory disease mortality rates in the elderly and exposure to PM2.5 generated by biomass burning in the Brazilian Amazon in 2005 Mortalidad por enfermedades cardiovasculares en los ancianos y la exposición a PM2,5 como resultado de la quema en la Amazonia brasileña en 2005 Mortalidade por doenças circulatórias na população idosa e exposição a PM2,5 em decorrência das queimadas na Amazônia brasileira em 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Ignotti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the association between the exposure to fine particulate matter and circulatory disease mortality rates in the elderly living in the Brazilian Amazon. An ecological study of circulatory disease, acute myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular disease mortality rates in micro areas of the Brazilian Amazon was carried out. The environmental exposure indicator used was percentage hours of PM2.5 concentrations > 25µg/m³ divided by the total number of estimated hours of PM2.5 in 2005. The association between exposure and circulatory disease mortality rates was strongest in the oldest age group. No significant statistical association was found between cerebrovascular disease mortality rates and exposure. Circulatory disease mortality rates in the elderly living in the Amazon have been influenced by atmospheric pollution from emissions caused by forest fires.El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la asociación entre la exposición a las partículas finas, con tasas de mortalidad por enfermedades cardiovasculares en los ancianos en la Amazonia brasileña. Se trata de un estudio ecológico de las tasas de mortalidad por enfermedades cardiovasculares, el infarto agudo de miocardio y enfermedades cerebrovasculares en las microrregiones brasileñas de la Amazonia. El indicador de la exposición ambiental fue estimado como un porcentaje de horas de PM2,5 > 25µg/m³, dividido por el número total de horas estimado de PM2,5 en 2005. La asociación del indicador de exposición con las tasas de mortalidad para las enfermedades circulatorias fue mayor en el grupo de mayor edad. La tasa de mortalidad por enfermedad cerebrovascular no se asoció con el indicador de exposición. Las enfermedades cardiovasculares en los ancianos que viven en la Amazonia han sido influenciadas por la contaminación atmosférica, causada por las emisiones de los incendios.O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a associação da exposição ao

  16. Aspectos florísticos e ecológicos de grandes lianas em três ambientes florestais de terra firme na Amazônia Central Floristic and ecological aspects of large lianas from three forest environments on terra firme in Central Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlem Nascimento de Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    dois primeiros índices de diversidade em relação ao baixio.Lianas, or woody vines, are a significant component of most tropical forests. To investigate the floristic and ecological aspects of large lianas from three forest environments on terra firme in Central Amazonia (2º35' S and 60º12' W 20 plots of 50 m x 10 m were placed in each of the forest environments (plateau forest, slope forest and sandbank forest and all lianas with diameter at breast height (DBH > 10 cm were measured. In terra firme plateau forest 17 individuals were sampled, belonging to nine families, ten genera and thirteen species. Fabaceae and Combretaceae were the most species-rich families, representing together over 46% of all samples. The species with highest importance values (IV were Doliocarpus brevipedicellatus Garcke (IV = 58.21 and Abuta candollei Triana & Planch. (IV = 33.28. A total of twelve individuals, belonging to four families, four genera and eight species were registered in terra firme slope forest. In this forest environment, Caesalpiniaceae was the most species-rich family, with 38% of the identified species. Abuta rufescens Aubl. (IV = 102.08 and Bauhinia alata Ducke (IV = 65.80 were the liana species with highest importance values. In terra firme sandbank forest four individuals were registered, belonging to four families, four genera and four liana species. In the three forest environments, seven liana individuals reached over 20 cm of DBH. The floristic similarity among terra firme forest environment was relatively low for species, with the least floristic dissimilarity between terra firme slope forest and sandbank forest (Is = 0.17. In this study, according to Shannon-Wiener, Simpson's and Fisher's alpha diversity indices, the terra firme plateau forest was more diversified in large liana species.

  17. Abundance of two Dendrocincla woodcreepers (aves: Dendrocolaptidae in relation to forest structure in Central Amazonia O uso do habitat por duas espécies de arapaçus Dendrocincla (aves: Dendrocolaptidae em relação a estrutura da floresta na Amazônia Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Cintra

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have been conducted to verify how the structure of the forest affects the occurence and abundance of neotropical birds. Our research was undertaken between January 2002 and July 2004 at the Reserva Ducke, near Manaus (02º55',03º01'S; 59º53',59º59'W in central Amazonia, to verify how the forest structure affects the occurrence and abundance of two bird species: the Plain-brown Woodcreeper Dendrocincla fuliginosa and the White-chinned Woodcreeper Dendrocincla merula. Bird species occurrence was recorded using lines of 20 mist-nets (one sample unit, along 51 1-km transects distributed along 9 pararel 8 km trails covering an area of 6400 ha. Along these transects, we placed 50 x 50m plots where we recorded forest structure components (tree abundance, canopy openness, leaf litter, standing dead trees, logs, proximity to streams, and altitude. We then related these variables to bird occurence and abundance using multiple logistic and multiple linear regression models, respectively. We found that D. fuliginosa frequently used plateau areas; being more abundant in areas with more trees. On the other hand, D. merula occurred more frequently and was more abundant in areas with low tree abundance. Our results suggest that although both species overlap in the reserve (both were recorded in at least 68% of the sampled sites, they differ in the way they use the forest microhabitats. Therefore, local variation in the forest structure may contribute to the coexistence of congeneric species and may help to maintain local alpha diversity.Em florestas neotropicais, poucos estudos tem sido conduzidos para verificar como a estrutura da floresta afeta o uso desse ambiente por aves. Este estudo foi realizado entre Janeiro de 2002 e Julho de 2004 na Reserva Ducke próximo a Manaus (02º55',03º01'S; 59º53',59º59'W, para verificar como a estrutura da floresta afeta a ocorrência e abundância de duas espécies de aves: o Arapaçu-pardo, Dendrocincla

  18. Prevalência de excesso de peso e fatores associados em adolescentes de escolas privadas de região urbana na Amazônia Prevalencia de exceso de peso y factores asociados en adolescentes de escuelas privadas de región urbana en Amazonia Prevalence of excess weight and associated factors in adolescents of private schools of an Amazonic urban area, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laércio M. Silva Júnior

    2012-06-01

    was higher at 14 years (40% in both genders. In the multivariate analysis, adjusted for age and gender, more than two hours in the computer per day and a sedentary lifestyle were associated with excess weight. CONCLUSIONS: Excess weight is a serious public health problem in high school students from private institutions of an urban area of the Amazonia Region. The promotion of physical activity and the reduction of time in the computer should be considered as strategies to improve the health of adolescents.

  19. The challenges of sustainable rural electrification in isolated communities of the Amazonia; Os desafios da eletrificacao rural sustentavel em comunidades isoladas da Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Rubem Cesar Rodrigues; Bacellar, Atlas Augusto; Seye, Omar; Goncalves, Cristiano; Cunha, Yasmine dos Santos Ribeiro; Souza, Fernando Cesar Rodrigues; Mota, Sheila Cordeiro; Sardinha, Marcia Drumond; Cunha, Priscila de Sa Leitao; Albuquerque, Felipe Oliveira; Costa, Whillison Bentes da; Silveira Junior, Wellyghan Assis [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Centro de Desenvolvimento Energetico Amazonico

    2008-07-01

    In this article some important elements are discussed in the challenge to make possible the isolated of the Amazon electric supply in maintainable bases. The discussion is made fundamentally starting from the experience lived in the project 'Model for Electric Power Enterprise in Isolated Communities in the Amazon - NERAM', financed by the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development - CNPq in the extent of the program 'Luz para Todos', being implemented by the Amazonian Center of Energy Development - CDEAM of Amazon Federal University - UFAM. The reading of the problem is focused in two aspects considered fundamental for the discussion, which they are: the generation of income and the generation, distribution and electric power sale. (author)

  20. Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Forest Edge Dynamics in South Western Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, I.; Cochrane, M. A.; Roberts, D. A.; Soares, J. V.

    2008-12-01

    Beyond removing forest, deforestation in the Amazon creates a lot of forest edges. These edges change the microclimate and ecosystem dynamics of the remaining tropical rain forests, contributing directly to forest degradation in the Amazon. Edge-induced changes such as tree mortality and fire vulnerability occur as a function of distance from edges and time since forest fragmentation. New edges are created and older edges are eliminated constantly as deforestation advances. However, Amazon forest edge dynamics over time and space are not well understood. We need to improve our knowledge about forest edge dynamics in order to estimate the actual amount of forest degradation caused by forest fragmentation. In this study, we performed deep spatio-temporal analyses of forest fragmentation for Rondônia, in the southwestern Amazon, using a multitemporal Landsat dataset (1984-2005). Our goals were to: 1) calculate erosion/persistence of forest edges; 2) detect edge age-composition of all forest edges and; 3) estimate total degraded forest area due to forest edge effects. Two counties of different stages of deforestation were selected. Campo Novo de Rondônia (early stage) and Ouro Preto (final stage). Overall, more than 50% of forest edges were eliminated in the first four years, while only 20% of edges survived more than 10 years after edge creation. The composition of edge-ages differs according to the stage of deforestation. Between 2001 and 2005, nearly 60% of forest edges in recently developed Campo Novo de Rondônia were 0-4 years old, with only 20% > 10 years old. Conversely, in the old frontier Ouro Preto region, only 23% of forest edges were 0-4 years old and 50% were > 10 years old. These results suggest that high edge erosion rates in the years following edge creation may cause many edges disappear before they experience the complete process of edge-induced changes such as biomass collapse, potentially reducing the estimated impact of existing forest edges on the remaining forests.

  1. Population Dynamics of Lepidoptera Pests in Eucalyptus urophylla Plantations in the Brazilian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cola Zanuncio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Forestry companies study the population dynamics of insect pests in Integrated Pest Management for cost effectiveness. The objective of this study was to obtain qualitative and quantitative information on population fluctuation of the Lepidopteran defoliators of Eucalyptus urophylla plants in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest. In all, 402 species were collected, of which 10 were primary pests, nine were secondary pests, and the remaining bore no definite relevance to eucalyptus. Primary pests formed a low percentage of the total species, although they recorded a high percentage of the total number of individuals. The abundance of secondary pests, except in Caracuru, was less than 150 specimens annually. Primary pests showed higher population peaks during periods of low precipitation. The small number of species and the high abundance of primary and secondary pests could be due to the availability of food, or a deficiency in natural biological control. This suggests the possibilities of population outbreaks in the eucalyptus plantations. The period of highest occurrence for insect species in these crops must be identified so that suitable strategies can be developed for Integrated Pest Management.

  2. Potencial dendrocronológico de árboles de la Amazonia colombiana

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera Builes, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    Dendrocronología en los trópicos: pasado, presente y futuro. Resumen La dendrocronología es la ciencia que estudia los anillos de crecimiento en la madera de los árboles. A pesar de que la existencia de anillos anuales en árboles tropicales ha sido puesta en duda por algunos investigadores, hoy en día existen investigaciones dendrocronológicas en casi todos los climas en los cuales pueden crecer los árboles tropicales, desde el nivel del mar hasta el límite de la vegetación arbórea a má...

  3. The soil hydrologic response to forest regrowth: a case study from southwestern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godsey, Sarah; Elsenbeer, Helmut

    2002-05-01

    As a large and dynamic land-use category, tropical secondary forests may affect climate, soils, and hydrology in a manner different from primary forests or agricultural areas. We investigated the saturated hydraulic conductivity Ksat of a Kandiudult under different land uses in Rondonia, Brazil. We measured Ksat at four depths (12·5, 20, 30 and 50 cm) under (a) primary forest, (b) a former banana-cacao plantation (SF1), and (c) an abandoned pasture (SF2). At 12·5 cm, all three land uses differ significantly ( = 0·1), but not at the 20 and 30 cm depths. At 50 cm, Ksat was significantly greater in the former pasture than in other land uses. Lateral subsurface flow is expected during intense rainfall (about 30 times per year) at 30 cm depth in SF1 and at 50 cm depth in the forest, whereas the relatively low permeability at shallow 12·5 cm in the SF2 may result not only in lateral subsurface flow, but also saturation overland flow. For modelling purposes, recovering systems seem to have Ksat values distinct from primary forest at shallow depths, whereas at deeper layers (>20 cm) they may be considered similar to forests.

  4. PEDO-TRANSFER FUNCTIONS FOR ESTIMATING SOIL BULK DENSITY IN CENTRAL AMAZONIA

    OpenAIRE

    Henrique Seixas Barros; Philip Martin Fearnside

    2015-01-01

    Under field conditions in the Amazon forest, soil bulk density is difficult to measure. Rigorous methodological criteria must be applied to obtain reliable inventories of C stocks and soil nutrients, making this process expensive and sometimes unfeasible. This study aimed to generate models to estimate soil bulk density based on parameters that can be easily and reliably measured in the field and that are available in many soil-related inventories. Stepwise regression models to predict bulk d...

  5. Applying DEM-SRTM for reconstructing a late Quaternary paleodrainage in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Ericson H.; Rossetti, Dilce F.; Valeriano, Márcio M.

    2010-08-01

    Remote sensing is a particularly invaluable tool that has helped the detection of paleomorphologies produced by river dislocation in a variety of landscapes, which has contributed in reconstructing the geological evolution of many fluvial systems. This technique might provide useful information to discuss the evolution of large fluvial systems, in special those located in areas of difficult access where the acquisition of field data is difficult. Application of remote sensing for paleodrainage characterization in densely vegetated tropical areas is scarce in the literature. This work records processing of the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) derived from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), which succeeded in revealing an ancient drainage complex of the Madeira River, one of the main Amazonas tributaries, where other remote sensing products failed the detection. Analysis of this paleodrainage and of its modern counterpart within the geological framework available for this region leads to propose that activity along pre-existent faults during the latest Quaternary would have promoted the southeastward dislocation of a nearly 200 km long segment of the Madeira River. During this process, an impressive paleodrainage network was left behind, which was only able to be detected using the DEM-SRTM. Application of this technique might be of great help to the detection of paleodrainage morphologies in densely vegetated areas similar to the Amazonas lowland. The dynamics of channel migration in this and many other large scale tropical river systems might benefit from the investigation based on data derived from DEM-SRTM.

  6. CO2 flux spatial variability in a tropical reservoir in the Central Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, R. A. S. D.; do Vale, R. S.; Tota, J.; Miller, S. D.; Ferreira, R. B., Jr.; Alves, E. G.; Batalha, S. S. A.; Souza, R. A. F. D.

    2014-12-01

    The carbon budget over water surfaces in the Amazon has an important role in the total budget of this greenhouse gas a regional and global scale. However, more accurate estimates of the spatial and temporal distribution of the CO2 flux over those water surfaces are still required. In this context, this study aims to understand the spatial distribution of CO2 flux in the Balbina hydroelectric reservoir, located at Presidente Figueiredo city, Amazonas, Brazil. The floating chamber method was used to measure and calculate the CO2 flux. This method coup a chamber of known volume with an infrared gas analyzer (LiCor, LI-840A). Measurements were performed at 1 Hz during 20-30 minutes at 5 different points of the reservoir, four upstream (two near the edge and two in the middle) and one downstream of the dam. At all locations the surface water was supersaturated in pCO2 and fluxes were from the water to the atmosphere. The maximum CO2 flux observed was 1.2 μmol m-2 s-1 at the center point of the reservoir upstream the dam. The minimum CO2 flux was 0.05 μmol m-2 s-1, observed near the edge on the upstream side of the dam. On average, CO2 fluxes were larger downstream of the dam, 0.7 μmol m-2 s-1, compared to upstream, 0.45 μmol m-2 s-1. This pattern is consistent with that found in previous studies at this site using other flux estimation methods, and is consistent with turbulent mixing promoted by the water turbine. However, the mean CO2 flux for all measured points using the chambers, 0.47 μmol m-2 s-1, was much lower than those previously found using other methods. The reason for the difference between methods is unclear. In situ deployment of multiple flux estimation methods would be valuable, as would longer periods of measurements.

  7. Uncitermes almeriae, a new termite species from Amazonia (Isoptera, Termitidae, Syntermitinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Carrijo, Tiago F.; Paulo Constantini, Joice; Scheffrahn, Rudolf H.

    2016-01-01

    The Neotropical termite genus Uncitermes Rocha & Cancello, 2012 was known from a single species, U. teevani (Emerson, 1925). In this paper a new species, Uncitermes almeriae sp. n., is described and illustrated from worker and soldier castes, along with observations on the Uncitermes nest. A distribution map with the occurrences of both species is presented. The new species is distinguished from its congener by the presence of short bristles covering the head capsule and frontal tube.

  8. New species and geographical records of dactylogyrids (Monogenea) of catfish (Siluriformes) from the Peruvian Amazonia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mendoza-Palmero, Carlos Alonso; Scholz, Tomáš; Mendoza-Franco, E. F.; Kuchta, Roman

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 98, č. 3 (2012), s. 484-497. ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522; GA ČR GBP505/12/G112; GA ČR GD206/09/H026 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : PARANA RIVER FLOODPLAIN * DEMIDOSPERMUS DACTYLOGYRIDAE * NEOTROPICAL MONOGENEA * ALINEMA-AMAZONICUM * TAPEWORMS CESTODA * GEN N * ANCYROCEPHALINAE * FISHES * BRAZIL * GILLS Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.321, year: 2012 http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1645/GE-2941.1

  9. Variability of carbon and water fluxes following climate extremes over a tropical forest in southwestern Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Zeri

    Full Text Available The carbon and water cycles for a southwestern Amazonian forest site were investigated using the longest time series of fluxes of CO2 and water vapor ever reported for this site. The period from 2004 to 2010 included two severe droughts (2005 and 2010 and a flooding year (2009. The effects of such climate extremes were detected in annual sums of fluxes as well as in other components of the carbon and water cycles, such as gross primary production and water use efficiency. Gap-filling and flux-partitioning were applied in order to fill gaps due to missing data, and errors analysis made it possible to infer the uncertainty on the carbon balance. Overall, the site was found to have a net carbon uptake of ≈5 t C ha(-1 year(-1, but the effects of the drought of 2005 were still noticed in 2006, when the climate disturbance caused the site to become a net source of carbon to the atmosphere. Different regions of the Amazon forest might respond differently to climate extremes due to differences in dry season length, annual precipitation, species compositions, albedo and soil type. Longer time series of fluxes measured over several locations are required to better characterize the effects of climate anomalies on the carbon and water balances for the whole Amazon region. Such valuable datasets can also be used to calibrate biogeochemical models and infer on future scenarios of the Amazon forest carbon balance under the influence of climate change.

  10. Sustainability with an Ethical Aim: Lessons from an American Nun in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaree, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Research Topic: An exploration into human imagination, ethical aim and action are the progenitors for reconciliation between humans and their environment. This study of two successful projects in Brazil provides an example of working toward a balance between human endeavors and sustainable environments. This inquiry is an exploration that…

  11. Uncitermes almeriae, a new termite species from Amazonia (Isoptera, Termitidae, Syntermitinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrijo, Tiago F; Constantini, Joice P; Scheffrahn, Rudolf H

    2016-01-01

    The Neotropical termite genus Uncitermes Rocha & Cancello, 2012 was known from a single species, Uncitermes teevani (Emerson, 1925). In this paper a new species, Uncitermes almeriae sp. n., is described and illustrated from worker and soldier castes, along with observations on the Uncitermes nest. A distribution map with the occurrences of both species is presented. The new species is distinguished from its congener by the presence of short bristles covering the head capsule and frontal tube. PMID:27408564

  12. Cytotaxonomy of Simulium cauchense Floch & Abonnenc and Simulium quadrifidum Lutz (Diptera: Simuliidae in Brazilian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Adriana Alvan-Aguilar

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Simulium cauchense Floch & Abonnenc and Simulium quadrifidum Lutz are widely distributed in the Amazon region and are morphologically similar at the larval and pupal stages. Chromosomally, these species are readily distinguished by the position of the nucleolar organizer, which is in the short arm of chromosome I in S. cauchense and in the long arm of chromosomes III in S. quadrifidum. They also differ by three fixed inversions. Sex chromosomes are undifferentiated in both species. Chromosomal resolution of the two species allowed us to evaluate four structural features previously used as diagnostic aids at the larval stage. Characters that distinguish larvae of the two species are the number of branches and branching patterns of the dorsal abdominal setae and the dark band on each primary fan. Branching patterns of the gill histoblasts were often diagnostic, with S. quadrifidum exhibiting more proximal branching and S. cauchense more distal branching. Sites where both species occurred sometimes had larvae with one petiole branching proximally and the other distally; in these cases examination of the chromosomes permitted assignment of the specimen to species. Pigmentation patterns of larvae, on the other hand, are highly variable. Color typically is sex linked in both species.

  13. Influence of soil texture on carbon dynamics and storage potential in tropical forest soils of Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Telles, Everaldo de Carvalho Conceicao; Camargo, Plinio Barbosa; Luiz A Martinelli; Trumbore, Susan E.; da Costa, Enir Salazar; Santos, Joaquim; Higuchi, Niro; de Oliveira, Raimundo Cosme

    2003-01-01

    Stable and radiocarbon isotopes were used to investigate the role of soil clay content in the storage and dynamics of soil carbon in tropical forest soils. Organic matter in clay-rich Oxisols and Ultisols contains at least two distinct components: (1) material with light δ13C signatures and turnover times of decades or less; and (2) clay-associated, 13C-enriched, carbon with turnover times of decades at the surface to millennia at depths >20 cm. Soil texture, in this case clay content, exerts...

  14. Influence of soil texture on carbon dynamics and storage potential in tropical forest soils of Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Telles, E.; de Camargo, P.; Martinelli, L.; Trumbore, S.; Da Costa, E; Santos, J.; N. Higuchi; de Oliveira, R.

    2003-01-01

    [1] Stable and radiocarbon isotopes were used to investigate the role of soil clay content in the storage and dynamics of soil carbon in tropical forest soils. Organic matter in clay-rich Oxisols and Ultisols contains at least two distinct components: ( 1) material with light delta(13)C signatures and turnover times of decades or less; and ( 2) clay-associated, C-13-enriched, carbon with turnover times of decades at the surface to millennia at depths > 20 cm. Soil texture, in this case clay c...

  15. PEDO-TRANSFER FUNCTIONS FOR ESTIMATING SOIL BULK DENSITY IN CENTRAL AMAZONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Seixas Barros

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Under field conditions in the Amazon forest, soil bulk density is difficult to measure. Rigorous methodological criteria must be applied to obtain reliable inventories of C stocks and soil nutrients, making this process expensive and sometimes unfeasible. This study aimed to generate models to estimate soil bulk density based on parameters that can be easily and reliably measured in the field and that are available in many soil-related inventories. Stepwise regression models to predict bulk density were developed using data on soil C content, clay content and pH in water from 140 permanent plots in terra firme (upland forests near Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil. The model results were interpreted according to the coefficient of determination (R2 and Akaike information criterion (AIC and were validated with a dataset consisting of 125 plots different from those used to generate the models. The model with best performance in estimating soil bulk density under the conditions of this study included clay content and pH in water as independent variables and had R2 = 0.73 and AIC = -250.29. The performance of this model for predicting soil density was compared with that of models from the literature. The results showed that the locally calibrated equation was the most accurate for estimating soil bulk density for upland forests in the Manaus region.

  16. Envia garciai, a new genus and species of mygalomorph spiders (Araneae, Microstigmatidae from Brazilian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ott Ricardo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Envia, comprising only the new species Envia garciai, is proposed. These small mygalomorph spiders were abundantly collected in soil cores and litter samples in primary rain forests near Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil.

  17. Sharpilosentis peruviensis n. g., n. sp. (Acanthocephala: Diplosentidae) from freshwater catfishes (Siluriformes) in the Amazonia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lisitsyna, O.; Scholz, Tomáš; Kuchta, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 2 (2015), s. 147-155. ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : fishes * Palaecanthocephala * SEM Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.336, year: 2014

  18. 'invisible' DOM in hourly-resolved headwater river records from Northern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, R.; Bovolo, C.; Spencer, R. G.; Hernes, P. J.; Tipping, E.; Vieth-Hillebrand, A.; Chappell, N.; Lewis-Franklin, A.; Parkin, G.; Wagner, T.

    2012-12-01

    Global river networks annually process ~3 billion tonnes of organic carbon but only ~17% reaches the ocean. These estimates suggest rivers are not mere transportation pipes but biogeochemical reactors. Inland waters are therefore fundamental to the understanding of carbon and nutrient interactions between land and ocean. Within these global estimates, tropical rivers contribute ~two-thirds of the global dissolved organic matter flux to the ocean. Recent studies suggest that up to 50% of the CO2 outgassed from tropical rivers is derived from terrestrial organic matter and that the terrestrial-aquatic interface in river headwaters are hotspots of biochemical activity. However, to date, most tropical riverine studies focus on the main river stem or mouth and therefore the dynamics of tropical headwater organic matter cycling within the global carbon cycle are unknown. We present a geochemical and hydrological time-series (sub-hourly resolution) of river water DOC concentration, source and composition from a pristine lowland rainforest headwater of the Burro Burro River, a tributary of the Essequibo River, the 3rd largest river in S. America. We show that during and after a rainstorm event, DOC concentrations increase an order of magnitude (10 to 114mg/L) in less than 30 mins, far exceeding the entire seasonal DOC range measured in 2010 and 2011 (17-28mg/L). The source (δ13C-DOC) of DOC during the rainstorm event changes from microbial/aquatic (-21.9‰ to -25.7‰) at low/intermediate DOC concentration to C3 vegetation supply (-26.8‰ to -30.3‰) during peak DOC flushing. First radiocarbon data shows that riverine DOC is relatively young (106.8-110.9 %modern), however, tropical soils suggest a potential for organic matter to be preserved (360-1200 BP). The fundamental relationship between DOC and coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM), measured as UV absorbance (SUVA254), holds only for low riverine DOC concentrations with proportionally high lignin contribution, whereas high levels in DOC are not explained by humic substances. Size exclusion chromatography confirms that the DOM pool is divided into two main fractions, humic substances and 'invisible' DOM, or 'iDOM'. The latter group includes non UV-absorbing organic compounds of mono- and oligosaccharides, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and amino sugars. Our new records from Guyana show that whilst lignin phenols are present and closely track the UV absorbance (R2 = 0.97), it is iDOM that dominates the total DOC pool at peak concentrations (up to 84%). Notably, iDOM is still found in the main Burro Burro River (20-40%), indicating that iDOM has some potential to survive transport downstream. The results suggest that DOC could be significantly underestimated in tropical systems due to the observed decoupling of DOC, water colour (CDOM) and river flux related to large amounts of iDOM entering the river during rainstorm events and wet seasons. Furthermore, given that headwaters represent roughly 50-85% of the total area of tropical river catchments, it is likely that iDOM is a significant component of the terrestrial carbon and nutrient cycles. It is therefore necessary to conduct further field studies that will produce high resolution (temporal and spatial) geochemical records from a large number of tropical systems to better quantify the role of tropical inland waters in carbon and nutrient cycling.

  19. The presence of antibodies for hepatitis a virus in amazonia Didelphis marsupialis (Vertebrata, Marsupialia)

    OpenAIRE

    Manoel do Carmo P Soares; Gilberta Bensabath; Amélia P. A. Travassos da Rosa

    1987-01-01

    Anti-HAV was detected by enzyme - immunoassay in sera collected from 6 (18,75%) of 32 Didelphis marsupialis trapped in the Amazon region. No anti-HAV were found in the sera from 136 other wild animals, including small rodents, reptiles and other marsupials.

  20. Geographic distribution of isolated indigenous societies in Amazonia and the efficacy of indigenous territories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Dylan C; Walker, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    The headwaters of the Amazon Basin harbor most of the world's last indigenous peoples who have limited contact with encroaching colonists. Knowledge of the geographic distribution of these isolated groups is essential to assist with the development of immediate protections for vulnerable indigenous settlements. We used remote sensing to document the locations of 28 isolated villages within the four Brazilian states of Acre, Amazonas, Roraima, and Rondônia. The sites were confirmed during previous over-flights and by image evidence of thatched-roof houses; they are estimated to host over 1,700 individuals. Locational data were used to train maximum entropy models that identified landscape and anthropogenic features associated with the occurrence of isolated indigenous villages, including elevation, proximity to streams of five different orders, proximity to roads and settlements, proximity to recent deforestation, and vegetation cover type. Isolated villages were identified at mid elevations, within 20 km of the tops of watersheds and at greater distances from existing roads and trails. We further used model results, combined with boundaries of the existing indigenous territory system that is designed to protect indigenous lands, to assess the efficacy of the existing protected area network for isolated peoples. Results indicate that existing indigenous territories encompass all of the villages we identified, and 50% of the areas with high predicted probabilities of isolated village occurrence. Our results are intended to help inform policies that can mitigate against future external threats to isolated peoples. PMID:25970612

  1. Family Life Cycle and Deforestation in Amazonia: Combining Remotely Sensed Information with Primary Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, M.; Walker, R. T.; Shirota, R.; Perz, S.; Skole, D.

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the relationships between the socio-demographic characteristics of small settlers in the Brazilian Amazon and the life cycle hypothesis in the process of deforestation. The analysis was conducted combining remote sensing and geographic data with primary data of 153 small settlers along the TransAmazon Highway. Regression analyses and spatial autocorrelation tests were conducted. The results from the empirical model indicate that socio-demographic characteristics of households as well as institutional and market factors, affect the land use decision. Although remotely sensed information is not very popular among Brazilian social scientists, these results confirm that they can be very useful for this kind of study. Furthermore, the research presented by this paper strongly indicates that family and socio-demographic data, as well as market data, may result in misspecification problems. The same applies to models that do not incorporate spatial analysis.

  2. Spatially complex land change: The Indirect effect of Brazil's agricultural sector on land use in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Peter D; Walker, Robert T; Arima, Eugenio Y

    2014-11-01

    Soybean farming has brought economic development to parts of South America, as well as environmental hopes and concerns. A substantial hope resides in the decoupling of Brazil's agricultural sector from deforestation in the Amazon region, in which case expansive agriculture need not imply forest degradation. However, concerns have also been voiced about the potential indirect effects of agriculture. This article addresses these indirect effects forthe case of the Brazilian Amazon since 2002. Our work finds that as much as thirty-two percent of deforestation, or the loss of more than 30,000 km(2) of Amazon forest, is attributable, indirectly, to Brazil's soybean sector. However, we also observe that the magnitude of the indirect impact of the agriculture sector on forest loss in the Amazon has declined markedly since 2006. We also find a shift in the underlying causes of indirect land use change in the Amazon, and suggest that land appreciation in agricultural regions has supplanted farm expansions as a source of indirect land use change. Our results are broadly congruent with recent work recognizing the success of policy changes in mitigating the impact of soybean expansion on forest loss in the Amazon. However, they also caution that the soybean sector may continue to incentivize land clearings through its impact on regional land markets. PMID:25492993

  3. Is the seasonal forest more vulnerable to drought effects in tropical Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, L.; Saatchi, S. S.; Yang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies have found that the seasonal forests in semi-arid region are more susceptible to severe drought events and the persistent effect of these climate extremes can last for 2 to 4 years. However, the Amazonian forests, where the plant available water is often abundant, seasonal forests are considered more drought-tolerant as water deficits coincide with seasonal peaks of solar radiation. But the interactions between climate and anthropogenic changes have made the scenario of these forests in the "arc of deforestation" complicated. The tight coupling between extreme droughts and fire intensity can cause widespread fire-induced tree mortality across southeastern Amazon forests. The legacy effects of droughts, as well as the frequent revisit of these extremes in the recent decade (e.g. the 2005 and 2010 Amazon droughts) have made the projection of forest recovery unclear. In this study, we use satellite proxies of canopy structure, skin temperature and water content from observations of MODIS NIR reflectance, land surface temperature and QSCAT radar backscatter to define the seasonality in the Amazonian forests. It is further calibrated using the measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence from GOSAT, terrestrial water storage from GRACE, as well as the structural metrics from GLAS waveforms. We delineate the post-drought effects of Amazon forests using seasonality-derived phenological regions. The results are expected to have a better understanding of the inter-annual variation of forest seasonality under the influence of both climate extremes and human-induced changes.

  4. Geographic distribution of isolated indigenous societies in Amazonia and the efficacy of indigenous territories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan C Kesler

    Full Text Available The headwaters of the Amazon Basin harbor most of the world's last indigenous peoples who have limited contact with encroaching colonists. Knowledge of the geographic distribution of these isolated groups is essential to assist with the development of immediate protections for vulnerable indigenous settlements. We used remote sensing to document the locations of 28 isolated villages within the four Brazilian states of Acre, Amazonas, Roraima, and Rondônia. The sites were confirmed during previous over-flights and by image evidence of thatched-roof houses; they are estimated to host over 1,700 individuals. Locational data were used to train maximum entropy models that identified landscape and anthropogenic features associated with the occurrence of isolated indigenous villages, including elevation, proximity to streams of five different orders, proximity to roads and settlements, proximity to recent deforestation, and vegetation cover type. Isolated villages were identified at mid elevations, within 20 km of the tops of watersheds and at greater distances from existing roads and trails. We further used model results, combined with boundaries of the existing indigenous territory system that is designed to protect indigenous lands, to assess the efficacy of the existing protected area network for isolated peoples. Results indicate that existing indigenous territories encompass all of the villages we identified, and 50% of the areas with high predicted probabilities of isolated village occurrence. Our results are intended to help inform policies that can mitigate against future external threats to isolated peoples.

  5. The Sustainability Challenges of Indigenous territories in Brazil’s Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Le Tourneau, François-Michel

    2015-01-01

    The overall context of Indigenous peoples in the Brazilian Amazon has changeddramatically since the 1980s. After the adoption of the 1988 constitution, large tracts ofIndigenous lands have been recognized, which now cover more than 21% of theBrazilian Amazon. Well conserved for the most part, they play a key role in deterringdeforestation and in climate change mitigation, while also undergoing drastic economicand social changes. There are many factors challenging the sustainability of Indigen...

  6. Nitrous oxide fluxes and nitrogen cycling along a pasture chronosequence in Central Amazonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Wick

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied nitrous oxide (N2O fluxes and soil nitrogen (N cycling following forest conversion to pasture in the central Amazon near Santarém, Pará, Brazil. Two undisturbed forest sites and 27 pasture sites of 0.5 to 60 years were sampled once each during wet and dry seasons. In addition to soil-atmosphere fluxes of N2O we measured 27 soil chemical, soil microbiological and soil physical variables. Soil N2O fluxes were higher in the wet season than in the dry season. Fluxes of N2O from forest soils always exceeded fluxes from pasture soils and showed no consistent trend with pasture age. At our forest sites, nitrate was the dominant form of inorganic N both during wet and dry season. At our pasture sites nitrate generally dominated the inorganic N pools during the wet season and ammonium dominated during the dry season. Net mineralization and nitrification rates displayed large variations. During the dry season net immobilization of N was observed in some pastures. Compared to forest sites, young pasture sites (≤2 years had low microbial biomass N and protease activities. Protease activity and microbial biomass N peaked in pastures of intermediate age (4 to 8 years followed by consistently lower values in older pasture (10 to 60 years. The C/N ratio of litter was low at the forest sites (~25 and rapidly increased with pasture age reaching values of 60-70 at pastures of 15 years and older. Nitrous oxide emissions at our sites were controlled by C and N availability and soil aeration. Fluxes of N2O were negatively correlated to leaf litter C/N ratio, NH4+-N and the ratio of NO3--N to the sum of NO3--N + NH4+-N (indicators of N availability, and methane fluxes and bulk density (indicators of soil aeration status during the wet season. During the dry season fluxes of N2O were positively correlated to microbial biomass N, β-glucosidase activity, total inorganic N stocks and NH4+-N. In our study region, pastures of all age emitted less N2O than old-growth forests, because of a progressive decline in N availability with pasture age combined with strongly anaerobic conditions in some pastures during the wet season.

  7. Visual assessment of soil structure quality in an agroextractivist system in Southeastern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernanda Simões da Silva, Laura; Stuchi Boschi, Raquel; Ortega Gomes, Matheus; Cooper, Miguel

    2016-04-01

    Soil structure is considered a key factor in the functioning of soil, affecting its ability to support plant and animal life, and moderate environmental quality. Numerous methods are available to evaluate soil structure based on physical, chemical and biological indicators. Among the physical indicators, the attributes most commonly used are soil bulk density, porosity, soil resistance to penetration, tensile strength of aggregates, soil water infiltration, and available water. However, these methods are expensive and generally time costly for sampling and laboratorial procedures. Recently, evaluations using qualitative and semi-quantitative indicators of soil structure quality have gained importance. Among these methods, the method known as Visual Evaluation of Soil Structure (VESS) (Ball et al., 2007; Guimarães et al., 2011) can supply this necessity in temperate and tropical regions. The study area is located in the Piranheira Praialta Agroextrativist Settlement Project in the county of Nova Ipixuna, Pará, Brazil. Two toposequences were chosen, one under native forest and the other under pasture. Pits were opened in different landscape positions (upslope, midslope and downslope) for soil morphological, micromorphological and physical characterization. The use of the soil visual evaluation method (SVE) consisted in collecting an undisturbed soil sample of approximately 25 cm in length, 20 cm in width and 10 cm in depth. 12 soil samples were taken for each land use. The samples were manually fragmented, respecting the fracture planes between the aggregates. The SVE was done comparing the fragmented sample with a visual chart and scores were given to the soil structure. The categories that define the soil structure quality (Qe) vary from 1 to 5. Lower scores mean better soil structure. The final score calculation was done using the classification key of Ball et al. (2007) adapted by Guimarães (2011). A change in soil structure was observed between forest and pasture. The presence of layers of different depths, and size and shape of aggregates resulted in a lower Qe in the forest soils (Qe= 2,04 ±0,4), followed by the pasture (Qe= 3,09 ± 1,3). These results indicate certain degradation in the soil structure in the pasture. The variability of the soil structure in the forest samples was lower. The pasture samples presented a worse soil structure when compared to the forest, although their Qe values can be considered good.

  8. Variation in forest structure and carbon dynamics in tropical rain forests of Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, S.; Selhorst, D.; Hutyra, L.; da Silva, R.; Camargo, P.; Chambers, J. Q.; Brown, I. F.; Higuchi, N.; Dos Santos, J.; Martinelli, L. A.; Trumbore, S.

    2002-12-01

    A better understanding of the variations in the dynamics and structure of trees in tropical forests is necessary for predicting the potential for these ecosystems to lose or store carbon. Data from forest inventory plotsshow large differences in forest structure, biomass, and tree growth rates among plots in three location. The number of stems (g.t. 10cm diameter)per hectare is higher in the Manaus site (626 ha-1) than in the Rio Branco (466 ha-1) or Santrem (460 ha-1) sites. Stocks of C in above-ground biomass in the three areas were 180.1 (Manaus), 122.1 (Rio Branco), and 140.6 (Santarem) MgC ha-1. Estimates of mean annual accumulation of C in living trees based on monthly dendrometer band measurements ranged from 1.6 (Manaus), 2.5 (Rio Branco), to 2.8 (Santarem) MgC ha-1 yr-1. Our results showed marked seasonality to growth, with highest growth rates in the wet and lowest rates in the dry season. This effect was most pronounced for trees with diameter g. t. 50cm. Comparing the three areas investigated suggests that forests experiencing a longer dry season have larger annual diameter growth increments for individual trees, and more of the forest biomass in the largest trees.

  9. Decay of interspecific avian flock networks along a disturbance gradient in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokross, Karl; Ryder, Thomas B; Côrtes, Marina Corrêa; Wolfe, Jared D; Stouffer, Philip C

    2014-02-01

    Our understanding of how anthropogenic habitat change shapes species interactions is in its infancy. This is in large part because analytical approaches such as network theory have only recently been applied to characterize complex community dynamics. Network models are a powerful tool for quantifying how ecological interactions are affected by habitat modification because they provide metrics that quantify community structure and function. Here, we examine how large-scale habitat alteration has affected ecological interactions among mixed-species flocking birds in Amazonian rainforest. These flocks provide a model system for investigating how habitat heterogeneity influences non-trophic interactions and the subsequent social structure of forest-dependent mixed-species bird flocks. We analyse 21 flock interaction networks throughout a mosaic of primary forest, fragments of varying sizes and secondary forest (SF) at the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project in central Amazonian Brazil. Habitat type had a strong effect on network structure at the levels of both species and flock. Frequency of associations among species, as summarized by weighted degree, declined with increasing levels of forest fragmentation and SF. At the flock level, clustering coefficients and overall attendance positively correlated with mean vegetation height, indicating a strong effect of habitat structure on flock cohesion and stability. Prior research has shown that trophic interactions are often resilient to large-scale changes in habitat structure because species are ecologically redundant. By contrast, our results suggest that behavioural interactions and the structure of non-trophic networks are highly sensitive to environmental change. Thus, a more nuanced, system-by-system approach may be needed when thinking about the resiliency of ecological networks. PMID:24335983

  10. Little effects of reduced-impact logging on insect communities in eastern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Denis Silva; Calvão, Lenize Batista; de Assis Montag, Luciano Fogaça; Juen, Leandro; De Marco, Paulo

    2016-07-01

    Selective logging has become a major source of threats to tropical forest, bringing challenges for both ecologists and managers to develop low-impact forestry. Reduced-impact logging (RIL) is a prominent activity accounting for such forestry practices to prevent strong forest disturbances. Our aims were to evaluate the effects of RIL on insect communities of forested streams from Eastern Amazon and to test the hypothesis of negative effects of RIL on species richness, abundance, and functional feeding groups of aquatic insect assemblages. Neither of the evaluated metrics of the studied assemblages were negatively affected by RIL. Environmental metrics, such as substrate heterogeneity, woody canopy cover, and hill slope height, varied more among RIL streams than in reference streams, indicating a gradient according to logging impacts, and are suitable candidates to monitor RIL impacts in Amazonian streams. In addition, the PHI index also varied among REF and RIL, according to age class and year of logging, which could reflect trends to recover the forest structure after logging in a time frame of only 10 years. We conclude that RIL impacts have not had detrimental impacts on insect communities, but have changed little of the environmental conditions, especially of the riparian vegetation around streams. PMID:27353133

  11. On Munduruku, a new Theraphosid genus from Oriental Amazonia (Araneae, Mygalomorphae

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    Laura T. Miglio

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Munduruku gen. nov. is proposed for the type species Munduruku bicoloratum sp. nov., from Juruti and Santarém, Pará, Brazil. The main diagnostic character of Munduruku gen. nov. is the presence of a subapical, lanceolate keel on the male palpal bulb, which is unique among the basal taxa of Theraphosinae with type III-IV urticating setae. The female spermathecae consist of two spheroid receptacles with funnel-shaped necks, each of which bears a sclerotized area. In both sexes, the abdomen is remarkably patterned, an uncommon feature in adults of New World theraphosids. Both the bulbus lanceolate keel and the abdominal color pattern are hypothesized as synapomorphies of the genus.

  12. Analysis of Edge Effects on Fragmented Forests Using Forest Inventories in Southwestern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, I.; Silva, S.; Cochrane, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Deforestation fragments contiguous forests into smaller and smaller pieces, inducing ecological and biological changes in forest ecosystems. Edge effects are spatial and temporal phenomena. The effects of forest fragmentation vary primarily as functions of edge penetration distance, spatial arrangements and time of persistence of forest edges. Across varying penetration distances in a forest edge, numerous changes occur including elevated tree mortality and canopy desiccation, changes in forest structure and species composition, alternation of hydrological and carbon cycles. We analyzed the effects of edge penetration distance and time of persistence of forest edges on forest biophysical characteristics based upon more than thirty 500m transects over highly fragmented forests in Acre, the southwestern Amazon. Spatial variability of tree data (diameter at breast height - DBH, above ground biomass, tree density, species composition and population) was measured along a penetration distance of 500m from forest edges. Different edge age classes (1-5yr, 6-10yr, > 10yr) and edge penetration distances were identified based upon a Landsat time-series analysis. The number of individual plants with DBH > 10cm tends to be greater near edge (largest in the first 100m), while larger biomass amounts are found at > 300m distance. The impact of penetration distance on biomass, however, is not statistically significant. In terms of the distribution of DBHs, while smaller trees with DBH DBH trees tend to increase after 300m penetration distance. The effect of edge persistence period (edge age) is not significant for both the number of individual plants as well as the biomass, however it is more pronounced on secondary species' biomass such as Cecrcopia sp and bamboo, which increase as edges persist longer.

  13. Rizosferas de árvores acumuladoras de fósforo na Amazonia Brasileira

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    Patrícia Chaves de Oliveira

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Rhizosphere of tress that accumulate phosphorus in the Brazilian Amazon. Objective. With the purpose of knowing the strategiesof tolerance of two phosphorus-accumulating species (Neea macrophylla and Cecropia palmate and a non-accumulating species(Casearia arborea to phosphorus-deficient soils, we characterized the rhizosphere of these species using a multivariate analysis andcorrelation matrices in relation to the concentrations of organic phosphorus, available phosphorus, soil organic carbon, organic carbonfrom microbial biomass, acid phosphatase enzyme activity, and root infection by mycorrhizal fungi. Materials and methods. Theresearch was carried out in the Igarapé-Açú town, state of Pará, Brazil in secondary forests with five years of regeneration, where theparameters above mentioned were monitored. Results. Results did not reveal significant differences between the species depending onthe characteristics of the soil next to the rhizospheres, suggesting homogeneous conditions. The enzymatic activity was slightly higherin the species with less potential in accumulating P (Casearia arborea suggesting that efficiency in P use is not determined by theenzymatic activity. Conclusions. Neea macrophylla presented a slightly higher number of mycorrhizal root infections in comparisonto the other species, indicating that this could be a tolerance strategy in those environments, while in Cecropia palmata and Caseariaarborea it seems that enzymatic activity is the strategy employed.

  14. Fraccionamiento e interesterificacion del aceite de palma (Elaeis guineensis cultivado en la amazonia peruana

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    Mancini Filho, Jorge

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the physical and chemical characteristics of the fruit of the oily palm coming from the river basin of the Manití (Region Loreto - Peru were studied. Also, the fractionation of the palm oil and the interesterification of mixtures of palm oil/estearin was carried out. Physico- chemical properties of the crude oil and of the products obtained and fatty acids were analysed by gas chromatography. The level of saturated fatty acids increased from 51,17% in the palm oil to 54,31% in the stearin. The best products for the food industry were the interesterified samples as they had melting points close to 37 °C.En el presente trabajo se realizó el estudio de las características físicas y químicas del fruto de la palma aceitera procedente de la cuenca del Manití. (Región Loreto - Perú. Del mismo modo se realizó el fraccionamiento e interesterificación de las mezclas de aceite de palma y estearina en las proporciones. Sobre el aceite crudo y los productos se determinaron las propiedades físico-químicos y análisis de ácidos grasos mediante la cromatografía gaseosa. El aceite de palma presenta una concentración de ácido grasos saturados de 51,17% y cuando fraccionado a 25 °C, este se incrementa en la estearina a 54,31%. Los mejores productos para la industria de alimentos son las mezclas interesterificadas de estearina tanto sola como con sus mezclas con aceite de palma, dado que presentan puntos de fusión próximos a 37 °C.

  15. Labrets: Piercing and Stretching on the Northwest Coast and in Amazonia

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    Jenny Reddish

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the practice of piercing and stretching the lip in order to accommodate a labret in two regions: the North American Northwest Coast (with historical examples from Tlingit and Haida groups and lowland South America (utilizing ethnographic writings on Suya and Kayapo communities. Drawing on the recent ‘sensorial turn’ within anthropology, I suggest an approach which goes beyond considerations of the symbolism of body ornaments and analyses how the infliction of pain they involve can be manipulated to serve social ends at a local level. Also discussed is the use of labrets within global ‘mediascapes’ (Appadurai 1996 by Kayapo and Northwest Coast groups in the context of self-representation and the politicization of ‘culture’ (Wright 1998.

  16. Oxygen Isotopes in Tree Rings: A 345 Year Record of Precipitation in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, H. S.; Baker, P. A.; Evans, M. N.

    2008-12-01

    The Amazon basin is one of the world's key centers of atmospheric convection and acts as an engine for global hydrologic circulation. Despite its importance, a paucity of high resolution climate data exists for this region, in large part due to a poor instrumental record. The oxygen isotopic measurement of meteoric water has been used extensively to reconstruct past temperatures derived from ice cores, corals, and tree rings but is only recently recognized as a precipitation proxy in the tropics. Here we present a continuous, highly resolved (intra-annual), 345 year oxygen isotopic record from the Madre de Dios department in Southeastern Peru. Using tropical hardwood species Dipteryx micrantha, we present oxygen (and carbon) isotopic data from digested tree ring cellulose. We also present some of the first intra-annual (early wood versus late wood) isotopic data on this old growth tropical species. We demonstrate the utility of Amazon tropical tree rings to accurately record rainfall. We also identify that this meteoric water was delivered to the region via the South American Low-level Jet (SALLJ), which develops over the Atlantic and is the major water source during the South American Summer Monsoon.

  17. The presence of antibodies for hepatitis a virus in amazonia Didelphis marsupialis (Vertebrata, Marsupialia

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    Manoel do Carmo P. Soares

    1987-04-01

    Full Text Available Anti-HAV was detected by enzyme - immunoassay in sera collected from 6 (18,75% of 32 Didelphis marsupialis trapped in the Amazon region. No anti-HAV were found in the sera from 136 other wild animals, including small rodents, reptiles and other marsupials.

  18. Traduction d’extraits de Amazonia / Amazonie de Michał Walczak

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    Cécile Bocianowski

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available PrésentationMichał Walczak(1979 compte parmi les jeunes auteurs dramatiques polonais dont les pièces sont le plus volontiers montées aujourd'hui. Originaire de Sanok, il commence des études d'économie puis change de voie et entre à l'Académie Théâtrale de Varsovie pour y étudier la mise en scène et la théâtrologie. Il remporte son premier succès en tant qu'auteur avec Piaskownica (Le Bac à sable, pièce publiée en 2002 dans la revue Dialog puis montée l’année suivante à Wałbrzych. Il s'agit ...

  19. Floristic composition and community structure of epiphytic angiosperms in a terra firme forest in central Amazonia

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    Mariana Victória Irume

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This survey aimed to describe the floristic composition and structure of the epiphytic community occurring in a terra firme forest in the city of Coari, Brazil, in the Amazon region. Data collection was performed with a 1.5 ha plot method, with which upland, slope and lowland habitats were sampled. All angiosperm epiphytes and their host plants (diameter at breast height > 10 cm were sampled. We recorded 3.528 individuals in 13 families, 48 genera and 164 species. Araceae was the most prevalent family with regard to the importance value and stood out in all related parameters, followed by Bromeliaceae, Cyclanthaceae and Orchidaceae. The species with the highest epiphytic importance values were Guzmania lingulata (L. Mez. and Philodendron linnaei Kunth. The predominant life form was hemiepiphytic. Estimated floristic diversity was 3.2 (H'. The studied epiphytic community was distributed among 727 host plants belonging to 40 families, 123 genera and 324 species. One individual of Guarea convergens T.D. Penn. was the host with the highest richness and abundance of epiphytes. Stems/trunks of host plants were the most colonized segments, and the most favorable habitat for epiphytism was the lowlands, where 84.1% of species and 48.2% of epiphytic specimens were observed.

  20. Conservation of freshwater turtles in Amazonia:retrospective and future prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aderson de Souza Alcântara

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to discuss the current status of conservation of freshwater turtles of the Amazon and the absence of the genus Podocnemis the Official List of Species of Brazilian Fauna Threatened with Extinction. Amazonian turtles are used as food by indigenous people and fisherman communities. However, fishing of adult females, uncontrolled egg collecting, habitat degradation and trafficking in wildlife have caused the decline of these populations. Nevertheless, Podocnemis expansa and Podocnemis unifilis were not included in the Brazil’s official list of animals threatened. Therefore, the turtles remain at great risk, due to the intense pressure that they are suffering. It is recommended that the criteria and the conservation status are reviewed including those animals in the category of vulnerable and to ensure a thorough review and modification in the current Brazilian law to be covered studies and management of turtles for subsistence, respecting and adding value to way of life of Amazonian peoples.

  1. Fire-related carbon emissions from land use transitions in southern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFries, R. S.; Morton, D. C.; van der Werf, G. R.; Giglio, L.; Collatz, G. J.; Randerson, J. T.; Houghton, R. A.; Kasibhatla, P. K.; Shimabukuro, Y.

    2008-11-01

    Various land-use transitions in the tropics contribute to atmospheric carbon emissions, including forest conversion for small-scale farming, cattle ranching, and production of commodities such as soya and palm oil. These transitions involve fire as an effective and inexpensive means for clearing. We applied the DECAF (DEforestation CArbon Fluxes) model to Mato Grosso, Brazil to estimate fire emissions from various land-use transitions during 2001-2005. Fires associated with deforestation contributed 67 Tg C/yr (17 and 50 Tg C/yr from conversion to cropland and pasture, respectively), while conversion of savannas and existing cattle pasture to cropland contributed 17 Tg C/yr and pasture maintenance fires 6 Tg C/yr. Large clearings (>100 ha/yr) contributed 67% of emissions but comprised only 10% of deforestation events. From a policy perspective, results imply that intensification of agricultural production on already-cleared land and policies to discourage large clearings would reduce the major sources of emissions from fires in this region.

  2. NEW LIPASE-PRODUCERS MICROORGANISMS FROM PERUVIAN AMAZONIA WHICH HYDROLYZE PALM OIL AND DERIVATIVES

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    Roxana Trujillo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Two yeasts: Cryptococcus uchicensis TMY9 and Pichia uchicensis TMY10 and one fungus Verticillium tingalensis TMFMB are described for the first time as lipase producer microorganisms. The strains have been isolated after an ecological screening in a palm oil industry. The yeasts- C. uchicensis and Pichia uchicensis - mainly produce extracellular lipases as active as those produced by traditional lipase producing microorganisms. The extracellular lipases are active in the hydrolysis of crude palm oil and its industrial derivatives. Contrarily in the isolated fungus, the lipase mainly remains bonded to biomass. In all cases, greater hydrolytic activities are observed in the hydrolysis of palm olein and super-olein than with saturated substrates as stearine. P. uchicensis lipase shows moderated selectivity versus saturated acid triglycerides compared to substrates with high proportion of oleic acid (olein or superolein. The opposite behavior is observed with C. uchicensis and fungal lipases. P. uchicensis produces a more active crude lipase than C. uchicensis with lower biomass production. The kinetic runs performed with crude yeast lipases suggest a three steps mechanism where the high penetration of lipase in the fat gouts favors the hydrolysis.

  3. Small-scale tourism development in Brazilian Amazonia: The creation of a ‘tourist bubble’

    OpenAIRE

    Mirjam A.F. Ros-Tonen; Anna Flora Werneck

    2009-01-01

    In Brazil, tourism is promoted as a means of generating employment, tax revenues, foreign exchange and investments in infrastructure. The Amazon region is thereby primarily marketed as a ‘green’ destination. One such a destination is the village of Alter do Chão in the municipality of Santarém in the state of Pará, where tourism has expanded rapidly during the past decade. Looking at the main characteristics of tourism in the study area and the actors involved, the authors show that the notio...

  4. PLANTAS MEDICINALES UTILIZADAS POR TRES COMUNIDADES INDÍGENAS EN EL NOROCCIDENTE DE LA AMAZONIA (COLOMBIA

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    William Trujillo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Usando entrevistas semiestructuradas y el índice de importancia relativa (IR, este trabajo documenta las plantas medicinales versátiles o de mayor importancia cultural en tres resguardos indígenas (emberá-katío, coreguaje y uitoto ubicadas en el piedemonte y planicie amazónica del departamento del Caquetá, Colombia. También se registran los usos medicinales y la parte de la planta más usada. En total se registraron 122 especies medicinales (94 géneros en 56 familias; Piperaceae fue la familia con el mayor número de especies (13, seguida por Gesneriaceae y Fabaceae con seis especies cada una. Solamente ocho especies fueron usadas entre dos comunidades, pero ninguna por las tres. La parte de la planta usada con mayor frecuencia en las tres comunidades fue la hoja, empleada en un total de 87 preparaciones medicinales utilizando 70 especies. Los cuatro sistemas corporales con mayor número de especies empleadas y número de tratamientos terapéuticos fueron los siguientes: enfermedades de la piel y tejidos subcutáneos, aflicciones y dolores no definidos, enfermedades infecciosas y parasitarias y enfermedades del sistema digestivo. Aproximadamente la mitad de las especies registradas son usadas para tratar fiebres, diarreas, problemas de hongos, mordeduras de serpientes, parásitos internos e inflamaciones. El 11% de las especies registradas (14 especies en 12 géneros y 12 familias fueron versátiles en relación a su uso (IR ≥ 1.0; el árbol nativo Rauvolfia leptophylla (Apocynaceae y la planta herbácea  introducida a América, Kalanchoe pinnata (Crassulaceae, tuvieron los valores de IR más altos (2.0 y 1.6. También se registran algunos síndromes de filiación cultural y se discute la importancia de estas plantas medicinales en el tratamiento de enfermedades comunes de estas comunidades con acceso limitado a centros de salud del gobierno.

  5. Variability of Carbon and Water Fluxes Following Climate Extremes over a Tropical Forest in Southwestern Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Zeri, Marcelo; Sá, Leonardo D. A.; Antônio O. Manzi; Araújo, Alessandro C.; Aguiar, Renata G.; von Randow, Celso; Sampaio, Gilvan; Fernando L. Cardoso; Nobre, Carlos A.

    2014-01-01

    The carbon and water cycles for a southwestern Amazonian forest site were investigated using the longest time series of fluxes of CO2 and water vapor ever reported for this site. The period from 2004 to 2010 included two severe droughts (2005 and 2010) and a flooding year (2009). The effects of such climate extremes were detected in annual sums of fluxes as well as in other components of the carbon and water cycles, such as gross primary production and water use efficiency. Gap-filling and fl...

  6. Variability of carbon and water fluxes following climate extremes over a tropical forest in southwestern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeri, Marcelo; Sá, Leonardo D A; Manzi, Antônio O; Araújo, Alessandro C; Aguiar, Renata G; von Randow, Celso; Sampaio, Gilvan; Cardoso, Fernando L; Nobre, Carlos A

    2014-01-01

    The carbon and water cycles for a southwestern Amazonian forest site were investigated using the longest time series of fluxes of CO2 and water vapor ever reported for this site. The period from 2004 to 2010 included two severe droughts (2005 and 2010) and a flooding year (2009). The effects of such climate extremes were detected in annual sums of fluxes as well as in other components of the carbon and water cycles, such as gross primary production and water use efficiency. Gap-filling and flux-partitioning were applied in order to fill gaps due to missing data, and errors analysis made it possible to infer the uncertainty on the carbon balance. Overall, the site was found to have a net carbon uptake of ≈5 t C ha(-1) year(-1), but the effects of the drought of 2005 were still noticed in 2006, when the climate disturbance caused the site to become a net source of carbon to the atmosphere. Different regions of the Amazon forest might respond differently to climate extremes due to differences in dry season length, annual precipitation, species compositions, albedo and soil type. Longer time series of fluxes measured over several locations are required to better characterize the effects of climate anomalies on the carbon and water balances for the whole Amazon region. Such valuable datasets can also be used to calibrate biogeochemical models and infer on future scenarios of the Amazon forest carbon balance under the influence of climate change. PMID:24558378

  7. Medio siglo de desarrollo en la Amazonia: ¿existen esperanzas para su desarrollo sustentable?

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    Marc J. Dourojeanni

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available A DESTRUIÇÃO DOS recursos naturais da Amazônia continua aumentando, especialmente o desmatamento, apesar de a retórica dos últimos 50 anos ter mudado de conquista e exploração para desenvolvimento sustentável. Entretanto, mudanças positivas são percebidas, ainda que pequenas: o crescimento da participação popular nas decisões; o Tratado de Cooperação Amazônica, que começa a dar resultados práticos; o interesse internacional melhor orientado; existem experiências bem-sucedidas e melhor documentadas sobre desenvolvimento sustentável; e muitos dos antigos mitos sobre a realidade amazônica estão sendo abandonados. O crescimento da população urbana é uma das principais mudanças percebidas. Hoje, mais de 60% de sua população é urbana e tem grande influência nas decisões políticas, ainda que não necessariamente favorável para o desenvolvimento sustentável. Neste trabalho explora-se algumas das razões pelas quais o desenvolvimento amazônico não é sustentável: entre outras, um paradigma de desenvolvimento sustentável mal definido, a persistente deficiência na identificação dos atores amazônicos e na solução de seus conflitos no planejamento regional, a fragilidade crescente das instituições públicas, a aplicação do simples crescimento econômico como estratégia dominante de desenvolvimento, o limitado acesso à educação, a desordem social. Duas ações estratégicas, que não constituem novidade, são consideradas essenciais para mudar gradativamente o padrão do desenvolvimento na região: a intensificação do uso da terra e a elevação da produtividade nas áreas já desmatadas (acima de 100 milhões de hectares na Amazônia produzem pouco ou nada; a avaliação e o pagamento em escala nacional e internacional dos serviços ambientais fornecidos pela floresta. Esses dois requisitos deverão ser acompanhados pela adoção outras estratégias bem conhecidas, como o manejo sustentável da floresta natural, o reflorestamento de áreas desmatadas não-aproveitáveis na agricultura, estabelecimento de áreas protegidas efetivamente manejadas, entre várias mais.AMAZON NATURAL resources destruction trends continues to increase, especially deforestation, despite changes in rethoric that during the last 50 years moved from conquest and exploitation to sustainable development. However, a few positive changes are noticeable: Amazon people's participation in decision making increased, the Amazon Treaty is starting to produce practical results, the international concerns are better oriented, there are more and better documented success stories to replicate and, several pervasive and prejudicial myths about the Amazon are being lost. Urban population growth is one of the principal changes in the Amazon. Over 60% of the Amazon population are urban and its influence in policy making is very high and not necessarily favorable to sustainable development. In this paper are explored some of the reasons for which development is not sustainable in the Amazon: a sustainable development paradigm ill defined and poorly understood, a persistent lack of identification of actors and their conflicts in most planning exercises, growing fragility of states to organize and provide the rules of the game for development and, of course, the application of the economic growth as dominant strategy combined with lack of education and social order, corruption and other associated evils, are briefly discussed. Two strategic actions, that are not new, are considered central to gradually change the pattern of development in the Amazon: intensification of the use of the land and productivity elevation in already deforested areas (well over 100 million hectares that currently produce very little or nothing; the valuation and payment, at national and international scale, of the environmental services of the forests. These two central requirements are coupled by several other well-known and complementary possibilities such as natural forest management; establishment and management of protected areas, redefinition of success indicators for the Amazon, ecotourism etc. Education, information and participation are essential to allow democracy to play its role in sustainable development.

  8. Decay of interspecific avian flock networks along a disturbance gradient in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokross, Karl; Ryder, Thomas B.; Côrtes, Marina Corrêa; Wolfe, Jared D.; Stouffer, Philip C

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of how anthropogenic habitat change shapes species interactions is in its infancy. This is in large part because analytical approaches such as network theory have only recently been applied to characterize complex community dynamics. Network models are a powerful tool for quantifying how ecological interactions are affected by habitat modification because they provide metrics that quantify community structure and function. Here, we examine how large-scale habitat alteration has affected ecological interactions among mixed-species flocking birds in Amazonian rainforest. These flocks provide a model system for investigating how habitat heterogeneity influences non-trophic interactions and the subsequent social structure of forest-dependent mixed-species bird flocks. We analyse 21 flock interaction networks throughout a mosaic of primary forest, fragments of varying sizes and secondary forest (SF) at the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project in central Amazonian Brazil. Habitat type had a strong effect on network structure at the levels of both species and flock. Frequency of associations among species, as summarized by weighted degree, declined with increasing levels of forest fragmentation and SF. At the flock level, clustering coefficients and overall attendance positively correlated with mean vegetation height, indicating a strong effect of habitat structure on flock cohesion and stability. Prior research has shown that trophic interactions are often resilient to large-scale changes in habitat structure because species are ecologically redundant. By contrast, our results suggest that behavioural interactions and the structure of non-trophic networks are highly sensitive to environmental change. Thus, a more nuanced, system-by-system approach may be needed when thinking about the resiliency of ecological networks. PMID:24335983

  9. New species and records of Neotrichia (Trichoptera: Hydroptilidae from Central Amazonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan P. M. Santos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Twelve new species of Neotrichia Morton, 1905 from state of Amazonas, Brazil are described and illustrated: N. gilmari sp. nov., N. djalmasantosi sp. nov., N. bellinii sp. nov., N. orlandoi sp. nov., N. niltonsantosi sp. nov., N. zitoi sp. nov., N. didii sp. nov., N. vavai sp. nov., N. garrinchai sp. nov., N. zagalloi sp. nov., N. pelei sp. nov., and N. feolai sp. nov. Neotrichia gilmari sp. nov. can be recognized by elongate and bifid processes on posterodorsal margin of segment IX; Neotrichia djalmasantosi sp. nov. is distinguished from N. colmillosa Harris, 1990 by the posteromesal margin of the segment IX produced into two long lobes in lateral view; N. bellinii sp. nov. differs from N. yanomonoa Harris & Davenport, 1992 by subgenital plate divided apically and with long lateral processes; N. orlandoi sp. nov. is distinguished from N. cuernuda Harris, 1990 by short inner portion of the inferior appendages and by phallus with stout apical hook; N. niltonsantosi sp. nov. is characterized by phallus with two short acute apical processes and a stout subapical spine; N. zitoi sp. nov. differs from other species particularly by phallic apex membranous and with flattened process; N. didii sp. nov. is somewhat similar to N. orlandoi sp. nov., but can be distinguished by stout posterolateral process of segment IX posteriorly directed and the paramere extending anteriorly; N. vavai sp. nov. is easily distinguished from other species of Neotrichia by the chelate processes on posterolateral margins of the segment IX; N. garrinchai sp. nov. can be recognized by asymmetrical posterolateral processes on segment IX and by long subgenital plate; N. zagalloi sp. nov. resembles N. dientera Harris, 1990, but can be easily recognized by broad, quadrangular inferior appendages with two excisions on apical margin and by phallic apex flattened and narrowing apically; N. pelei sp. nov. is characterized by narrow subgenital plate and by phallus apically with three lobes and a sclerotized hook; Neotrichia feolai sp. nov. is distinguished from N. biuncifera Flint, 1974 by phallus with only one apical process. In addition, N. browni Harris, 1990 and N. colmillosa Harris, 1990 are recorded from Brazil for the first time. With these new species and the new records, 26 species are now known from Brazil.

  10. Xylosandrus compactus (Coleoptera : Scolytidae) nueva plaga del "camu camu" (Myrciaria dubia, Myrtaceae), en la Amazonia Peruana

    OpenAIRE

    Couturier, Guy; Tanchiva, E.

    1991-01-01

    #Myrciaria dubia$ H.B.K. est un arbuste fruitier amazonien qui est cultivé dans plusieurs instituts de recherche amazoniens à des fins d'amélioration culturale. Ses insectes ravageurs sont peu connus. Dans les pépinières d'Iquitos les plants sont attaqués par un scolyte, Ipinae, #Xylosandrus compactus$ Eichhoff, qui provoque des pertes importantes. (Résumé d'auteur)

  11. Brazil nut stock and harvesting at different spatial scales in southeastern Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, M.B.N.; Jorozolimski, A.; Robert, Pascale de; Magnusson, W.E.

    2014-01-01

    Evaluations of the effects of non-timber forest product (NTFP) extractive industries by traditional communities have focused on local effects, but effective conservation of species often requires evaluation at wider scales that can only be efficiently undertaken with the use of remote sensing. Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa seed) is one of the most important NTFP in the Amazon basin and has received considerable attention from researchers aiming to guarantee its sustainability. However, mos...

  12. The primate community of Cachoeira (Brazilian Amazonia: a model to decipher ecological partitioning among extinct species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anusha Ramdarshan

    Full Text Available Dental microwear analysis is conducted on a community of platyrrhine primates from South America. This analysis focuses on the primate community of Cachoeira Porteira (Para, Brazil, in which seven sympatric species occur: Alouatta seniculus, Ateles paniscus, Cebus apella, Chiropotes satanas, Pithecia Pithecia, Saguinus midas, and Saimiri sciureus. Shearing quotients are also calculated for each taxon of this primate community. Dental microwear results indicate significant differences between taxa, but are somewhat insufficient when it comes to discriminating between ecologically similar taxa. The primates of Cachoeira Porteira all incorporate a certain amount of fruit in their diet, entailing a definite amount of inter-specific competition as they must share food resources. Alouatta is the most folivorous taxon of this community, which is corroborated by dental microwear analysis. Ateles, although of a similar size to Alouatta, limits inter-specific competition by incorporating more fruit in its diet. Cebus has a very diverse omnivorous diet, which is highlighted in this study, as it compares to both fruit and leaf eating taxa. In some cases, microwear results need to be supplemented by other methods. For example, dental microwear seems insufficient to distinguish between Pithecia and Chiropotes, which eat foods with similar physical properties. However, other methods (i.e. shearing quotients and body mass provide enough complimentary information to be able to highlight differences between the two taxa. On the other hand, dental microwear can highlight differences between primates which have similar diets, such as Saimiri and Saguinus. In this case, differences could be due to other exogenous factors.

  13. The Primate Community of Cachoeira (Brazilian Amazonia): A Model to Decipher Ecological Partitioning among Extinct Species

    OpenAIRE

    Anusha Ramdarshan; Thomas Alloing-Séguier; Gildas Merceron; Laurent Marivaux

    2011-01-01

    International audience Dental microwear analysis is conducted on a community of platyrrhine primates from South America. This analysis focuses on the primate community of Cachoeira Porteira (Para, Brazil), in which seven sympatric species occur: Alouatta seniculus, Ateles paniscus, Cebus apella, Chiropotes satanas, Pithecia Pithecia, Saguinus midas, and Saimiri sciureus. Shearing quotients are also calculated for each taxon of this primate community. Dental microwear results indicate signi...

  14. Deforestation and climate feedbacks threaten the ecological integrity of south–southeastern Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Coe, Michael T.; Toby R. Marthews; Costa, Marcos Heil; David R. Galbraith; Greenglass, Nora L.; Imbuzeiro, Hewlley M. A.; Levine, Naomi M.; Malhi, Yadvinder; Moorcroft, Paul R.; Muza, Michel Nobre; Powell, Thomas L.; Saleska, Scott R.; Solorzano, Luis A.; Wang, Jingfeng

    2013-01-01

    A mosaic of protected areas, including indigenous lands, sustainable-use production forests and reserves and strictly protected forests is the cornerstone of conservation in the Amazon, with almost 50 per cent of the region now protected. However, recent research indicates that isolation from direct deforestation or degradation may not be sufficient to maintain the ecological integrity of Amazon forests over the next several decades. Large-scale changes in fire and drought regimes occurring a...

  15. Fire-Related Carbon Emissions from Land Use Transitions in Southern Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Fries, De, R.S.; D. C. Morton; Werf, van der, W.; Giglio, L.; J. T. Randerson; Collatz, G.J.; Houghton, R. A.; P. S. Kasibhatla; Y. Shimabukuro

    2008-01-01

    Various land-use transitions in the tropics contribute to atmospheric carbon emissions, including forest conversion for small-scale farming, cattle ranching, and production of commodities such as soya and palm oil. These transitions involve fire as an effective and inexpensive means for clearing. We applied the DECAF (DEforestation CArbon Fluxes) model to Mato Grosso, Brazil to estimate fire emissions from various land-use transitions during 2001–2005. Fires associated with deforestation cont...

  16. Variation in photosynthetic and nonphotosynthetic vegetation along edaphic and compositional gradients in northwestern Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Higgins; G. P. Asner; Perez, E.; N. Elespuru; Alonso, A

    2014-01-01

    Tropical forests vary substantially in aboveground properties such as canopy height, canopy structure, and plant species composition, corresponding to underlying variations in soils and geology. Forest properties are often difficult to detect and map in the field, however, due to the remoteness and inaccessibility of these forests. Spectral mixture analysis of Landsat imagery allows mapping of photosynthetic and nonphotosynthetic vegetation quantities (PV and NPV), correspon...

  17. Variation in photosynthetic and nonphotosynthetic vegetation along edaphic and compositional gradients in northwestern Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Higgins; G. P. Asner; Perez, E.; N. Elespuru; Alonso, A

    2014-01-01

    Tropical forests vary substantially in aboveground properties such as canopy height, canopy structure, and plant species composition, corresponding to underlying variations in soils and geology. Forest properties are often difficult to detect and map in the field, however, due to the remoteness and inaccessibility of these forests. Spectral mixture analysis of Landsat imagery allows mapping of photosynthetic and nonphotosynthetic vegetation quantities (PV and NPV), co...

  18. Deforestation offsets water balance changes due to climate variability in the Xingu River in eastern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panday, Prajjwal K.; Coe, Michael T.; Macedo, Marcia N.; Lefebvre, Paul; Castanho, Andrea D. de Almeida

    2015-04-01

    Deforestation reduced forest cover in Brazil's Xingu River Basin (XB; area: 510,000 km2) from 90% of the basin in the 1970s to 75% in the 2000s. Such large-scale land cover changes can substantially alter regional water budgets, but their influence can be difficult to isolate from that of natural climate variability. In this study, we estimate changes to the XB water balance from the 1970s to the 2000s due to climate variations and deforestation, using a combination of long-term observations of rainfall and discharge; satellite-based estimates of evapotranspiration (MODIS) and surface water storage (GRACE); and numerical modeling estimates (IBIS) of water budget components (evapotranspiration, soil moisture, and discharge). Model simulations over this period suggest that climate variations alone accounted for a -82 mm decrease (mean per unit area) in annual discharge (-14%, from 8190 m3 s-1 to 7806 m3 s-1), due to a -2% decrease in precipitation and +3% increase in evapotranspiration. Deforestation alone caused a +34 mm increase in annual discharge (+6%), as a result of a -3% decrease in evapotranspiration and +1% increase in soil moisture across the XB. Climate variability and land cover change thus had opposite effects on the XB water balance, with climate effects masking deforestation-induced changes to the water budget. Protected areas, which cover 55% of the basin, have helped to mitigate the effects of past deforestation on water recycling in the Xingu. However, our results suggest that continued deforestation outside protected areas could trigger changes of sufficient magnitude to offset climate variability.

  19. Better RED than dead: paying the people for environmental services in Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    The introduction of payments for environmental services (PES) offers an opportunity for traditional and indigenous populations to be compensated for contributing to carbon sequestration in meeting the challenge of ameliorating global warming. As one mechanism among several for promoting biodiversity conservation and sustainable development, pro-poor PES initiatives could eventually be incorporated into an international post-Koyoto framework to encourage reduced emissions from deforestation. B...

  20. Mayaro Virus Infection in Amazonia: A Multimodel Inference Approach to Risk Factor Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Abad-Franch, Fernando; Gustavo H Grimmer; Vanessa S de Paula; Figueiredo, Luiz T. M.; Braga, Wornei S. M.; Luz, Sérgio L. B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Arboviral diseases are major global public health threats. Yet, our understanding of infection risk factors is, with a few exceptions, considerably limited. A crucial shortcoming is the widespread use of analytical methods generally not suited for observational data – particularly null hypothesis-testing (NHT) and step-wise regression (SWR). Using Mayaro virus (MAYV) as a case study, here we compare information theory-based multimodel inference (MMI) with conventional analyses for ...

  1. Biodiversity and endemism of the western Amazonia land snails Megalobulimus and Systrophia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Ramírez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work we performed a biogeographic study of two genera of Amazonian land snails, Megalobulimus (Strophocheilidae and Systrophia (Scolodontidae. We used samples from different regions of the Peruvian Amazon, as well as bibliographic information. We analyzed both nuclear (5.8S-ITS2-28S rRNA and mitochondrial (16S rRNA genes to reconstruct phylogenies and obtain hypotheses concerning the evolutionary relationships among Amazonian genera and other species with global distribution. The nuclear phylogeny allowed us to determine the evolutionary position of both genera, and the mitochondrial phylogeny permitted the differentiation of species at the intrageneric level. We found that Megalobulimus clustered with the non-achatinoid clade within Stylommatophora, as expected, but its relationship to family Acavidae could not be demonstrated. Systrophia did not cluster with any of the two established clades, but formed a basal one within Stylommatophora. The mitochondrial gene 16S rRNA allowed us to differentiate Megalobulimus species, and performed well for DNA barcoding of these edible snails. Biogeographical analysis revealed several endemic species in the Peruvian Amazon within both genera, highlighting the Chanchamayo and Inambari biogeographic units.

  2. Small-scale Tourism Development in Brazilian Amazonia: The Creation of a ‘Tourist Bubble’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam A.F. Ros-Tonen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, tourism is promoted as a means of generating employment, tax revenues, foreign exchange and investments in infrastructure. The Amazon region is thereby primarily marketed as a ‘green’ destination. One such a destination is the village of Alter do Chão in the municipality of Santarém in the state of Pará, where tourism has expanded rapidly during the past decade. Looking at the main characteristics of tourism in the study area and the actors involved, the authors show that the notion of a ‘tourist bubble’, which was developed for large-scale enclave-like resorts, may apply equally to a small-scale destination. First, it is in the sense of abstracting from historical and cultural contexts in relation to the antecedents of the local population and by commercializing the local Sairé festival as ‘staged authenticity’. Second, a ‘tourist bubble’ is emerging as a result of increasing physical and functional segregation of tourism and residential areas. As far as the local population is concerned, the creation of the ‘bubble’ primarily represents new economic opportunities. However, the introduction of ‘invented traditions’ is also easily adopted because it fits in with the ongoing ethnic reclassification process in Brazil among culturally fragmented populations in search for their ‘roots’ and lost rights. The authors conclude that in order to fully understand the complexity and dynamics of cultural and economic transformations following tourism development, it is necessary to also look beyond the ‘tourist bubble’.Resumen: El desarrollo turístico de pequeña escala en la Amazonía brasileña: la creación de una ‘burbuja turística’En Brasil, los gobiernos en todos niveles están promoviendo el turismo para generar empleo, impuestos, divisas e inversiones en infraestructura. La región amazónica brasileña está siendo comercializada como un destino ‘verde’. La aldea de Alter do Chão en la municipalidad de Santarém al oeste del estado del Pará, donde el turismo se ha expandido rápidamente en la última década, es un ejemplo de tal destino. Analizando las características del turismo en el área de estudio y los actores involucrados, las autoras muestran que la noción de ‘burbuja turística’ se aplica tanto a destinos turísticos de pequeña escala como a complejos tipo enclave a gran escala. Primero, porque en la comercialización del festival de Sairé se abstraen los contextos históricos y culturales propios de la población local. En segundo lugar porque la intensificación de la segregación física y funcional entre las áreas turísticas y residenciales ha provocado una ‘burbuja turística’, aumentando los precios de terrenos residenciales en el centro de la villa. En lo que concierne a la población local, estos desarrollos representan nuevas oportunidades económicas. Sin embargo, las ‘tradiciones inventadas’ son fácilmente adoptadas porque coinciden con el proceso de reclasificación étnica actualmente en curso en Brasil entre grupos de la población socialmente fragmentados y a la búsqueda de sus ‘raíces’ y derechos perdidos. Se describen varios otros efectos, como las consecuencias positivas y negativas en las esferas ambientales, económicas y sociales. Aunque la balanza del desarrollo del turismo en la aldea es positiva en la percepción de los habitantes locales, más expansión engendra el riesgo de degradación ambiental irreversible y la exclusión de los inmigrantes pobres de comunidades vecinas que buscan empleo relacionado con el turismo. Los autores concluyen que para comprender cabalmente la complejidad y dinámica de las transformaciones culturales y económicas del desarrollo del turismo, es necesario mirar más allá de la ‘burbuja turística’.

  3. Electrolytic hydrogen produced steel instead of charcoal produced steel in the Brazilian Amazonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From approximately 200 million TOE (tons of oil equivalent) of total energy consumption in Brazil in 1990, 40 million TOE (20%) comes from firewood utilization. The iron and steel industries consume one half of the full amount of utilized wood in Brazil, in the form of charcoal. It is proposed in this study that a part of the iron and steel which is produced in the Amazonian region, is to be produced through utilization of hydrogen, which can be produced by water electrolysis using available hydroelectricity from the Program Grande Carajas. 1 fig., 1 tab., 8 refs

  4. Cross-cultural evidence of cognitive adaptations for social exchange among the Shiwiar of Ecuadorian Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Sugiyama, Lawrence S.; Tooby, John; Cosmides, Leda

    2002-01-01

    On the basis of evolutionary game theory, it was hypothesized that humans have an evolved cognitive specialization for reasoning about social exchange, including a subroutine for detecting cheaters. This hypothesis led to a specific prediction: Although humans are known to be poor at detecting potential violations of conditional rules in general, they should nevertheless detect them easily when the rule involves social exchange and looking for violations corresponds to looking for cheaters. T...

  5. Influence of Peruvian flat-subduction dynamics on the evolution of western Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Eakin, C M; Lithgow-Bertelloni, C.; Davila, F. M.

    2014-01-01

    Convection in the Earth's mantle is mainly driven by cold, dense subducting slabs, but relatively little is known about how 3D variations in slab morphology and buoyancy affect mantle flow or how the surface above deforms in response (i.e. dynamic topography). We investigate this problem by studying the dynamics of an active region of flat-slab subduction located in Peru in South America. Here the slab geometry is well known, based on the regional seismicity, and we have observations from the...

  6. New land use scenarios for the Brazilian Amazonia: how to reach a sustainable future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, A. P. D.; Vieira, I.; Toledo, P.; Araujo, R.; Coelho, A.; Pinho, P.; Assis, T.; Dalla-Nora, E. L.; Kawakami Savaget, E.; Batistella, M.

    2014-12-01

    Following an intense deforestation process initiated in the 1960s, clear-cut deforestation rates in the Brazilian Amazon have decreased significantly since 2004. A convergence of conditions contributed to this, including the creation of protected areas, the use of effective monitoring and control systems, and credit restriction mechanisms. Although regional social indicators have also slightly improved, society remains unequal and violent, both in urban and rural areas. Furthermore, the combined results of the fall of deforestation and the increased economic importance of the agribusiness sector have led to the political weakening of the so-called socio-environmental model. Thus, the current situation indicates a future of low (clear-cut) carbon emissions and low social conditions. On the other hand, other threats remain, including forest degradation derived from illegal logging and forest fires. There is also considerable uncertainty about the fate of the remaining forest areas as multiple forces can contribute to the return of high deforestation, including the rapidly expanding global markets for agricultural commodities, large-scale transportation and energy infrastructure projects, and weak institutions. We present the results of a participatory scenario process, in which we discussed the future of the region until 2050 combining normative and exploratory approaches. We include an ideal "Sustainability" scenario (Scenario A) in which we envision major socioeconomic, institutional and environmental achievements. Scenario B stays in the "Middle of the road", in which the society maintains some of the positive environmental trends of the last decade, but not reversing the structural situation of social inequities. Scenario C is a pessimistic vision, named "Fragmentation" with high deforestation rates and low social development. The goal of the work was twofold: (a) to propose a method to enrich the discussion among different private and governmental stakeholders on how to build a trajectory towards sustainability; (b) to support the parameterization of spatially-explicit LUCC models in the scope of the AMAZALERT project.

  7. Diet, activity and reproduction of bat species (Mammalia, Chiroptera in Central Amazonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Bernard

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The diet, activity and reproductive patterns of several species of bats were investigated in primary forests of Central Amazon. Between August 1996 and August 1997, using mist nets set both at canopy and understorey levels, 936 bats, belonging to 51 species, 31 genera and 6 families were captured. Fecal samples from 35 species were examined, with four food categories and 25 food items identified. Time of captures indicate a wide variation, but the major part of the species presented a peak of activity around the first hour after sunset. Three reproductive peaks were observed: October-November; January-February; and July-August, but reproductive patterns varied among the families. The structure of the bat fauna in Manaus is similar to other sites in the Amazon and Central America, the main common points being: a a high diversity of bat species, usually more than 40 species representing 6-8 families; b 3-4 very common and geographically widespread species; c most species are represented by a few captures; d frugivorous species dominate the fauna and insectivorous species are less often captured; and e most species cluster in 2-3 guilds, dominated by small (< 12 g species.

  8. Diet, activity and reproduction of bat species (Mammalia, Chiroptera) in Central Amazonia, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Enrico Bernard

    2002-01-01

    The diet, activity and reproductive patterns of several species of bats were investigated in primary forests of Central Amazon. Between August 1996 and August 1997, using mist nets set both at canopy and understorey levels, 936 bats, belonging to 51 species, 31 genera and 6 families were captured. Fecal samples from 35 species were examined, with four food categories and 25 food items identified. Time of captures indicate a wide variation, but the major part of the species presented a peak of...

  9. C storage in Amazonia pastures, effects of age, climate and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpp, Katja; Stahl, Clement; Blanfort, Vincent; Fontaine, Sebstien; Burban, Benoit; Darsonville, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    The Amazonian region is one of the major C storing areas, with 36-60% of ecosystem C being stored in forest soils. During last decades, more than 15% of Amazonian tropical forest has been converted to pastures. A number of studies provide evidence that soil C stocks of topsoil (0-20 cm) can be higher in grasslands than in native forests after more than 20 years after conversion (e.g. Don et al 2011). As for younger pastures (agricultural practices, influencing their carbon balance, in interaction with climate effect. In the past 10 years two major droughts (in 2005 and 2010 [2]) were reported for the Amazonian area. A better insight on effects of climatic variability and agricultural management on carbon storage is, thus, valuable to improve/maintain C storage of pastures in tropical regions. Here we like to assess whether tropical permanent pastures i) can restore soil C stocks after deforestation; ii) and to what extend and iii) which role play management practices with respect to climate variability to maintain a recurrent C storage. To establish reliable estimates of soil C storage in Amazonian region, the net C balance of pastures and native forests was quantified by two independent and complementary studies in French Guiana: a chronosequence study including a soil inventory of soil C stocks (0-100 cm depth) in 24 pastures of various ages (i.e. 0 to 42 yrs after deforestation) and 4 native forests, and 5 years of eddy covariance flux measurements (EC) for a young intensively used pasture (established in 2008) and an old extensively used pasture (established in 1978). Chronosequence provided evidence that soil of old pastures have a higher soil C stock than the native forests. This was confirmed by EC-measurements, showing a higher carbon storage potential of the old pasture compared to young pasture. Concerning grassland management and climate, the carbon balance of the old pasture was less affected by the dry season than the young pasture, supposedly due to a higher vegetation density and diversity (C3, C4 and legumes) preventing from soil drying and enabling the vegetation to maintain a photosynthetic activity. [1] Pan, Y., et al 2011, Science. 333, 988-993. [2] Lewis, S. L., et al 2010, Science, 331.6017.

  10. Preliminary Compositional Evidence of Provenance of Ceramics from Hatahara Archaeological Site, Central Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Nunes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred twenty four ceramic fragments and six clay samples from the Hatahara archaeological site in Amazonas state, Brazil, were analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis, INAA, to determine the concentration of twenty chemical elements: Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Rb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb, and Zn. The dataset was submitted to multivariate statistical analysis. The classification was done by cluster analysis and discriminant analysis. The results demonstrated the occurrence of four different groups of ceramics, which represent three archaeological phases: Paredão, Manacapuru, and Guarita. This data is consistent with previous traditional petrographic examination of the ceramic samples. Based on probability measures, the great majority of the ceramics are considered to be local in origin.

  11. Mercury in soils and sediments from gold mining liabilities in Southern Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Wasserman

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The 1980-1990 Amazonian gold rush left an enormous liability that increasingly has been substituted by developing fish aquaculture. This work aimed at the identification of the mercury levels in the environment, associated with fish farms located in the North of Mato Grosso State, Southern Amazon. Sediment and soil samples were analyzed for total organic carbon and total mercury. Results indicate that the chemical characteristics of the sediment largely depend on the management procedures of the fish pond (liming, fish food used and fish population. The soils presented relatively low concentrations when compared with other data from the literature.

  12. Trade-offs among forest value components in community forests of southwestern Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Baraloto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary conservation interventions must balance potential trade-offs between multiple ecosystem services. In tropical forests, much attention has focused on the extent to which carbon-based conservation provided by REDD+ policies can also mitigate biodiversity conservation. In the nearly one-third of tropical forests that are community owned or managed, conservation strategies must also balance the multiple uses of forest products that support local livelihoods. Although much discussion has focused on policy options, little empirical evidence exists to evaluate the potential for trade-offs among different tropical forest value components. We assessed multiple components of forest value, including tree diversity, carbon stocks, and both timber and nontimber forest product resources, in forest communities across the trinational frontier of Brazil, Peru, and Bolivia. We installed 69 0.5-ha vegetation plots in local communities, and we characterized 15 components of forest value for each plot. Principal components analyses revealed two major axes of forest value, the first of which defined a trade-off between diversity of woody plant communities (taxonomic and functional versus aboveground biomass and standing timber volume. The second axis described abundance of commercial species, with strong positive loadings for density of timber and nontimber forest products, including Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa and copaiba oil (Copaifera spp.. The observed trade-off between different components of forest value suggests a potential for management conflicts prioritizing biodiversity conservation versus carbon stocks in the region. We discuss the potential for integrative indices of forest value for tropical forest conservation.

  13. Is Amazon nut certification a solution for increased smallholder empowerment in Peruvian Amazonia?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Quaedvlieg; M. García Roca; M.A.F. Ros-Tonen

    2014-01-01

    The certification of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) was introduced in the early 2000s as a means of promoting sustainable community forestry and smallholders' access to profitable niche markets. Several studies have been carried out to analyze the success of smallholder certification, with a foc

  14. Soil macroinvertebrate communities and ecosystem services in deforested landscapes of Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Marichal, R.; Grimaldi, Michel; Feijoo, A. M.; Oszwaldd, J.; Praxedes, C.; Cobo, D. H. R.; Hurtado, M. D.; Desjardins, Thierry; da Silva, M. L.; Costag, L. G. D.; Miranda, I.S.; Oliveira, M. N. D.; Brown, G G; Tselouiko, S.; Martins, M.B

    2014-01-01

    Land use changes in the Amazon region strongly impact soil macroinvertebrate communities, which are recognized as major drivers of soil functions (Lavelle et aL, 2006). To explore these relations, we tested the hypotheses that (i) soil macrofauna communities respond to landscape changes and (ii) soil macrofauna and ecosystem services are linked. We conducted a survey of macrofauna communities and indicators of ecosystem services at 270 sites in southern Colombia (department of Caqueta) and no...

  15. Continental-scale patterns of canopy tree composition and function across Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Steege, Hans; Pitman, Nigel C. A.; Phillips, Oliver L.; Chave, Jerome; Sabatier, Daniel; Duque, Alvaro; Molino, Jean-François; Prévost, Marie-Françoise; Spichiger, Rodolphe; Castellanos, Hernán; von Hildebrand, Patricio; Vásquez, Rodolfo

    2006-09-01

    The world's greatest terrestrial stores of biodiversity and carbon are found in the forests of northern South America, where large-scale biogeographic patterns and processes have recently begun to be described. Seven of the nine countries with territory in the Amazon basin and the Guiana shield have carried out large-scale forest inventories, but such massive data sets have been little exploited by tropical plant ecologists. Although forest inventories often lack the species-level identifications favoured by tropical plant ecologists, their consistency of measurement and vast spatial coverage make them ideally suited for numerical analyses at large scales, and a valuable resource to describe the still poorly understood spatial variation of biomass, diversity, community composition and forest functioning across the South American tropics. Here we show, by using the seven forest inventories complemented with trait and inventory data collected elsewhere, two dominant gradients in tree composition and function across the Amazon, one paralleling a major gradient in soil fertility and the other paralleling a gradient in dry season length. The data set also indicates that the dominance of Fabaceae in the Guiana shield is not necessarily the result of root adaptations to poor soils (nodulation or ectomycorrhizal associations) but perhaps also the result of their remarkably high seed mass there as a potential adaptation to low rates of disturbance.

  16. Recovery of energy, water and carbon exchange in degraded forests in eastern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbore, Susan; Brando, Paulo; Oliveira dos Santos, Claudinei; Silvério, Divino; Coe, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Large regions in the state of Mato Grosso in Brazil have been deforested and converted to pasture and soy agriculture. In addition to deforestation, remnant forests in the region are degraded by repeated fire and edge related effects. We are combining eddy covariance with other measures to study the impact of these changes in land cover on energy, water and carbon balance, in a region that sits at the ecotone between continuous forest and savanna. The degraded forest plot is part of a multi-year experimental fire treatment and had experienced large-scale mortality in the years prior to tower installation. Leaf area was strongly reduced in degraded forest, but surprisingly latent energy fluxes nearly equaled those in the intact forest. Carbon uptake rates in the intact forest exceeded those in the degraded forest, though not when expressed on a leaf-area basis. Overall, these results corroborate those found in experimentally logged tropical forest showing rapid recovery of fluxes, despite losses of biomass. Compared to both forests, the soy field reflected more incoming energy, and lost a greater proportion of absorbed radiation as sensible rather than latent heat.

  17. Spatially complex land change: The Indirect effect of Brazil's agricultural sector on land use in Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, Peter D.; Walker, Robert T.; Arima, Eugenio Y.

    2014-01-01

    Soybean farming has brought economic development to parts of South America, as well as environmental hopes and concerns. A substantial hope resides in the decoupling of Brazil's agricultural sector from deforestation in the Amazon region, in which case expansive agriculture need not imply forest degradation. However, concerns have also been voiced about the potential indirect effects of agriculture. This article addresses these indirect effects forthe case of the Brazilian Amazon since 2002. ...

  18. The Primate Community of Cachoeira (Brazilian Amazonia): A Model to Decipher Ecological Partitioning among Extinct Species

    OpenAIRE

    Ramdarshan, Anusha; Alloing-Seguier, Thomas; Merceron, Gildas; Marivaux, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Dental microwear analysis is conducted on a community of platyrrhine primates from South America. This analysis focuses on the primate community of Cachoeira Porteira (Para, Brazil), in which seven sympatric species occur: Alouatta seniculus, Ateles paniscus, Cebus apella, Chiropotes satanas, Pithecia Pithecia, Saguinus midas, and Saimiri sciureus. Shearing quotients are also calculated for each taxon of this primate community. Dental microwear results indicate significant differences between...

  19. Medio siglo de desarrollo en la Amazonia: ¿existen esperanzas para su desarrollo sustentable?

    OpenAIRE

    Marc J. Dourojeanni

    1998-01-01

    A DESTRUIÇÃO DOS recursos naturais da Amazônia continua aumentando, especialmente o desmatamento, apesar de a retórica dos últimos 50 anos ter mudado de conquista e exploração para desenvolvimento sustentável. Entretanto, mudanças positivas são percebidas, ainda que pequenas: o crescimento da participação popular nas decisões; o Tratado de Cooperação Amazônica, que começa a dar resultados práticos; o interesse internacional melhor orientado; existem experiências bem-sucedidas e melhor documen...

  20. Quality of life of caregivers of children with cerebral palsy of South Western Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo de Souza Moretti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the quality of life of caregivers of children with cerebral palsy attended in the Association of Parents and Friends of Exceptional Children (APAE, in Rio Branco-AC,in South Western Amazon, Brazil. Methods: This qualitative and exploratory study was held at an APAE facility in Rio Branco-AC with twelve caregivers. The study included caregivers of children with clinical diagnosis of cerebral palsy confirmed by medical report. Data collection was performed from September to October 2010 with a semi-structured interview, using a socioeconomic file and a questionnaire consisting of questions based on the WorldHealth Organization Quality of Life-100 instrument, all interviews being audio-recorded and verbatim transcribed for further analysis and interpretation. Results: The results indicate that the psychological health and level of independence are the most compromised, considering that the caregivers dedicate their lives for taking care of the children since their birth, what leads them to be overloaded, not only physically but also psychologically, dueto the impairment of the child. Conclusion: The quality of life of caregivers of children with cerebral palsy can be seen as unsatisfactory, especially regarding psychological aspects andlevel of independence.

  1. The primate community of Cachoeira (Brazilian Amazonia): a model to decipher ecological partitioning among extinct species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdarshan, Anusha; Alloing-Séguier, Thomas; Merceron, Gildas; Marivaux, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Dental microwear analysis is conducted on a community of platyrrhine primates from South America. This analysis focuses on the primate community of Cachoeira Porteira (Para, Brazil), in which seven sympatric species occur: Alouatta seniculus, Ateles paniscus, Cebus apella, Chiropotes satanas, Pithecia Pithecia, Saguinus midas, and Saimiri sciureus. Shearing quotients are also calculated for each taxon of this primate community. Dental microwear results indicate significant differences between taxa, but are somewhat insufficient when it comes to discriminating between ecologically similar taxa. The primates of Cachoeira Porteira all incorporate a certain amount of fruit in their diet, entailing a definite amount of inter-specific competition as they must share food resources. Alouatta is the most folivorous taxon of this community, which is corroborated by dental microwear analysis. Ateles, although of a similar size to Alouatta, limits inter-specific competition by incorporating more fruit in its diet. Cebus has a very diverse omnivorous diet, which is highlighted in this study, as it compares to both fruit and leaf eating taxa. In some cases, microwear results need to be supplemented by other methods. For example, dental microwear seems insufficient to distinguish between Pithecia and Chiropotes, which eat foods with similar physical properties. However, other methods (i.e. shearing quotients and body mass) provide enough complimentary information to be able to highlight differences between the two taxa. On the other hand, dental microwear can highlight differences between primates which have similar diets, such as Saimiri and Saguinus. In this case, differences could be due to other exogenous factors. PMID:22076156

  2. Effects of future land use on biogeography of aquatic ecosystems of Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, E. A.; Coe, M. T.; Foley, J. A.; Costa, M. H.

    2006-12-01

    Amazonian ecosystems provide key ecosystem services, such as regulating the amount and timing of water and carbon flows through the Amazon Basin. Land use in these ecosystems affects regional water balance, which in turn affects biogeography of aquatic ecosystems, including wetlands and floodplains. We combined a hydrological model (Terrestrial Hydrology Model with Biogeochemistry, THMB), remote sensing observations (Hess et al. 2003), and empirical data to identify the distribution of aquatic biogeographic types throughout the central Amazon basin over time. We explored how future land-use scenarios for the Amazon Basin through 2030 (Soares-Filho et al. 2004) would modify the spatial and temporal patterns of aquatic ecosystems as compared to a baseline of natural potential vegetation cover under historical climate variability for the 20th century. We calibrated monthly simulation results with remotely sensed observations of flooded area and extent of different wetland categories for high and low water periods over a 1.7 million sq. km region of the central Amazon. Two additional dimensions of floodplain biogeography (river size and color) were added to provide insight into the geographic distribution of key ecosystem types and their flooding seasonality. For historical conditions, the model results reproduced regional differences in seasonal flood extent and timing north and south of the Amazon mainstem, reflecting the dominant climatic regimes. Black-water streams and medium-sized rivers, followed by large white-water rivers, were the most extensive types across the study region. However much of the black water was in areas likely to be influenced by white-water rivers while flooded. The monthly extent of flooded areas dominated by woody vegetation was consistently more strongly seasonal than non-woody areas. Also, the extent of flooding in muddy and semi-muddy rivers and floodplains tended to be more highly seasonal than in black- and clear-water areas. We discuss our efforts to use our simulation results to extrapolate and bound estimates and patterns of aquatic ecosystem extent in the Amazon River system under future land-use scenarios. Regional flooding variability has disproportionate effects on different ecosystem types, suggesting that persistent, long-term changes to flooding regimes may have long-lasting consequences for floodplain vegetation, wildlife, and human residents.

  3. Growth, leaf and stomatal traits of crabwood (Carapa guianensis Aubl. in central Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angelo Branco Camargo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Crabwood (Carapa guianensis Aubl. is a fast growing tree species with many uses among Amazonian local communities. The main objective of this study was to assess the effect of seasonal rainfall pattern on growth rates, and seasonal and diurnal changes in leaf gas exchange and leaf water potential (ΨL in crabwood. To assess the effect of rainfall seasonality on growth and physiological leaf traits an experiment was conducted in Manaus, AM (03º 05' 30" S, 59º 59' 35" S. In this experiment, six 6-m tall plants were used to assess photosynthetic traits and ΨL. In a second experiment the effect of growth irradiance on stomatal density (S D, size (S S and leaf thickness was assessed in 0.8-m tall saplings. Stomatal conductance (g s and light-saturated photosynthesis (Amax were higher in the wet season, and between 09:00 and 15:00 h. However, no effect of rainfall seasonality was found on ΨL and potential photosynthesis (CO2-saturated. ΨL declined from -0.3 MPa early in the morning to -0.75 MPa after midday. It increased in the afternoon but did not reach full recovery at sunset. Growth rates of crabwood were high, and similar in both seasons (2 mm month-1. Leaf thickness and S D were 19% and 47% higher in sun than in shade plants, whereas the opposite was true for S S. We conclude that ΨL greatly affects carbon assimilation of crabwood by reducing g s at noon, although this effect is not reflected on growth rates indicating that other factors offset the effect of g s on Amax.

  4. Inter-site variation in allometry and wood density of Goupia glabra Aubl. in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siliprandi, N C; Nogueira, E M; Toledo, J J; Fearnside, P M; Nascimento, H E M

    2016-02-01

    The present study aims to compare the allometry and wood density of Goupia glabra Aubl. (Goupiaceae) in two different terra-firme sites in Amazonian forest. A total of 65 trees ≥ 10 cm DBH was sampled in both sites, with 39 trees in Nova Olinda do Norte (NOlinda, near the Amazon River) and 29 trees in Apuí (near the southern edge of the Amazon forest). Except for the relationship between DBH (diameter at breast height) and Ht (total height), allometric relationships for G.glabra differed significantly between sites. Apuí had lower intercept and greater slope for log10 (DBH) versus log10 (Hs - stem height), and, conversely, greater intercept and lower slope for log10 (DBH) versus log10 (Ch - crown height). The slope differed significantly between the sites for DBH versus Cd (crown diameter), with greater slope found for NOlinda. Mean basic wood density in Apuí was 8.8% lower than in NOlinda. Our findings highlight the variation in adaptive strategy of G. glabra due to environmental differences between sites. This is probably because of different canopy-understory light gradients, which result in differentiation of resource allocation between vertical and horizontal growth, which, in turn, affects mechanical support related to wood density. We also hypothesize that differences in soil fertility and disturbance regimes between sites may act concomitantly with light. PMID:26909641

  5. Ecological speciation in the tropics: insights from comparative genetic studies in Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Beheregaray, Luciano B.; Cooke, Georgina M.; Chao, Ning L.; Landguth, Erin L.

    2015-01-01

    Evolution creates and sustains biodiversity via adaptive changes in ecologically relevant traits. Ecologically mediated selection contributes to genetic divergence both in the presence or absence of geographic isolation between populations, and is considered an important driver of speciation. Indeed, the genetics of ecological speciation is becoming increasingly studied across a variety of taxa and environments. In this paper we review the literature of ecological speciation in the tropics. W...

  6. Science for the Poor: How One Woman Challenged Researchers, Ranchers, and Loggers in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Shanley

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In the lower Tocantins region of Brazil, one Amazonian woman questioned why scientists publish principally for elite audiences. Her experience suggests that the impact may be enhanced by also sharing data with people who depend upon forest goods. Having defended her family homestead near the city of Cameta against loggers in the late 1980s, Glória Gaia became interested in strengthening the information base of other villagers so that they would not lose their forests for meager sums. She challenged scientists to defy norms such as extracting data without giving back to rural villagers and publishing primarily for the privileged. Working with researchers, she helped them to publish an illustrated manual of the ecology, economics, management, and cultural importance of key Amazonian forest species. With and without funds or a formal project, she traveled by foot and boat to remote villages to disseminate the book. Using data, stories, and song, she brought cautionary messages to villages about the impacts of logging on livelihoods. She also brought locally useful processing techniques regarding medicinal plants, fruit, and tree oils. Her holistic teachings challenged traditional forestry to include the management of fruits, fibers, and medicines. A new version of the book, requested by the government of Brazil, contains the contributions of 90 leading Brazilian and international scientists and local people. Glória Gaia's story raises the questions: Who is science for and how can science reach disenfranchised populations? Lessons for scientists and practitioners from Glória's story include: broadening the range of products from research to reach local people, complementing local ecological knowledge with scientific data, sharing precautionary data demonstrating trends, and involving women and marginalized people in the research and outreach process.

  7. TIPNIS y Amazonia: Contradicciones en la agenda ecológica de Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Calla Ortega

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:The ecological agenda of the government of Evo Morales shows great contradictions. In international meetings it presents itself as the radical defender of the environmental rights of the Latin American peoples. In its own country, it pursues developmentalist policies which are based on the extraction of natural resources. This policy is causing large conflicts within the country. The most striking has been over the construction of a highway through the national park of TIPNIS. The contradiction between its in-ternational position and internal policies, which are far less green, is causing severe damage to the credibility of the Morales government, within and outside the country.Resumen:La agenda ecológica del gobierno de Evo Morales demuestra grandes contradicciones. En los encuentros internacionales se presen-ta como un defensor radical de los derechos ecológicos de los pueblos latinoamericanos. En su propio país está persiguiendo un pro-yecto desarrollista basado en la extracción de recursos nacionales. Esta política está causando grandes conflictos dentro del país. La más llamativa ha sido sobre la construc-ción de una autopista por el parque nacional del TIPNIS. La contradicción entre su pos-tura internacional y una política mucho me-nos verde al interior está dañando aguda-mente la credibilidad del gobierno de Mora-les dentro y fuera del país.

  8. TIPNIS y Amazonia: Contradicciones en la agenda ecológica de Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Calla Ortega

    2012-01-01

    Abstract:The ecological agenda of the government of Evo Morales shows great contradictions. In international meetings it presents itself as the radical defender of the environmental rights of the Latin American peoples. In its own country, it pursues developmentalist policies which are based on the extraction of natural resources. This policy is causing large conflicts within the country. The most striking has been over the construction of a highway through the national park of TIPNIS. The co...

  9. Paleovegetation Simulations of Lowland Amazonia and Implications for Neotropical Allopatry and Speciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowling, Sharon A.; Maslin, Mark A.; Sykes, Martin T.

    2001-03-01

    Paleovegetation modeling simulations of the lowland Amazon basin were made to assess the relative importance of glacial climate and atmospheric CO2 for altering vegetation type and structure, as well as to explore the potential physiological mechanisms underlying these ecosystem-level responses. Modeling results support the view that widespread invasion of grasslands into the Amazon lowlands during the last glaciation was not likely. Glacial cooling was probably responsible for maintaining glacial forest cover via its effects in reducing photorespiration and decreasing evapotranspiration, which collectively improve plant carbon and water relations. Modeling results confirm that leaf area index (LAI), a common proxy for canopy density, is highly sensitive to independent and interactive changes in climate and low concentration of atmospheric CO2, and the results show considerable region-to-region variation during the last glaciation. Heterogeneous variations in glacial vegetation LAI may have promoted allopatric speciation by geographically isolating species (called vicariance) in the forest (sub)canopy. The proposed vicariance hypothesis incorporating spatial variations in canopy density conforms to many of the essential tenets addressed by previous neotropical speciation models, but also helps to overcome some of their inconsistencies.

  10. Trade-offs among forest value components in community forests of southwestern Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Baraloto; Paula Alverga; Sufer Baéz Quispe; Grenville Barnes; Nino Bejar Chura; Izaias Brasil da Silva; Wendeson Castro; Harrison da Souza; Iracema de Souza Moll; Jim del Alcazar Chilo; Hugo Duenas Linares; Jorge Garate Quispe; Dean Kenji; Herison Medeiros; Skya Murphy

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary conservation interventions must balance potential trade-offs between multiple ecosystem services. In tropical forests, much attention has focused on the extent to which carbon-based conservation provided by REDD+ policies can also mitigate biodiversity conservation. In the nearly one-third of tropical forests that are community owned or managed, conservation strategies must also balance the multiple uses of forest products that support local livelihoods. Although much discussion ...

  11. The status of Simulium oyapockense and S. limbatum as vectors of human onchocerciasis in Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelley, A J; Dias, A P; Moraes, M A; Procunier, W S

    1987-07-01

    In an attempt to explain the current distribution of onchocerciasis in the forests of northern Brazil (Moraes et al., 1979, 1986), and its potential for dispersal to other areas, this study compares the vector status of Simulium oyapockense Floch and Abonnenc, 1946 in both a hypoendemic and an onchocerciasis free area with that of S. limbatum Knab, 1915 in the latter area. Both species allowed the full development of Onchocerca volvulus (Leuckart) to the infective L3 stage after experimental infection with microfilariae. Their vector competence was significantly lower than for other efficient vector species in South America and Africa because of the lethal effect of the cibarial armature on ingested microfilariae. The low vector capacity of S. oyapockense, together with the low prevalence and intensity of infection of O. volvulus, probably explains why onchocerciasis has not significantly increased in intensity over the last 10 years in the hypoendemic part of the Amazonian focus. Omnipresence of both vector species in the adjacent savanna region, however, could facilitate the spread of onchocerciasis if human population movements continue from the hyperendemic part of the onchocerciasis focus. PMID:2979535

  12. New species of titi monkey, genus Callicebus Thomas, 1903 (Primates, Pitheciidae, from Southern Amazonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Dalponte

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Callicebus is one of the most diverse Neotropical primate groups, with 31 recognized species. However, large knowledge gaps still exist regarding the diversity of this genus. Such gaps are gradually being filled due to recent intensification of sampling efforts. Several geographic distributions have been better delimited, and six new species have been described in the last 15 years. The goal of the present study is to describe a new species of Callicebus belonging to the Callicebus moloch species group, recently discovered in an area previously considered to be part of the geographic distribution of C. cinerascens. Data collection was conducted through direct observations, specimen collection and interviews with local residents during four expeditions. Specimens were deposited in the mammalian collection of the Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi.. For a comparative evaluation, we examined specimens of the other species of the Callicebus moloch species group, especially the geographically neighboring forms, C. bernhardi and C. cinerascens. We examined 10 chromatic characters of the fur. In addition to body mass, we verified the conventional external variables and 26 craniometric variables. The new species differs from all other Amazonian Callicebus by an exclusive combination of characters, being easily distinguished by the light gray line of the forehead, dark ocher sideburns and throat, dark gray portions of the torso and flanks, and uniformly orange tail. The geographic distribution of the new species is limited by the Roosevelt and Aripuanã rivers, in the states of Mato Grosso and Amazonas, Brazil. Approximately 25% (1,246.382 ha of this area falls within conservation areas, with five areas of sustainable use (746,818 ha and three of integral protection (499,564 ha. Furthermore, a considerable portion of the distribution area is located within indigenous lands (1,555.116 ha - 32%. Therefore, 57% (2,801.498 ha of the occurrence area of the new species falls within protected areas.

  13. Deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia: The effect of population and land tenure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LANDSAT data for 1978 and 1988-1991 indicate that by 1991 the area of forest cleared had reached 426 000 km2 (10.5% of the 4 million km2 originally forested portion of Brazil's 5 million km2 Legal Amazon Region). Over the 1978-1988 period, forest was lost at a rate of 22 000 km2/yr (including hydroelectric flooding), while the rate was 19 000 km2/yr for 1988-1989, 14 000 km2/yr for 1989-1990 and 11 000 km2/yr for 1990-1991. The reduction in the rate since 1987 has mostly been due to Brazil's economic recession rather than to any policy changes. The number of properties censused in each size class explains 74% of the variation in deforestation rate among the 9 Amazonian states. Multiple regressions indicate that 30% of the clearing in 1991 can be attributed to small farmers (properties <100 ha in area), and the remaining 70% to either medium or large ranchers. The social cost of reducing deforestation rates would therefore be much less than is implied by frequent pronouncements that blame 'poverty' for environmental problems in the region. 46 refs, 4 figs, 5 tabs

  14. Atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOC) at a remote tropical forest site in central Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessermeier, J.; Kuhn, U.; Wolf, A.; Andreae, P.; Ciccioli, P.; Brancaleoni, E.; Frattoni, M.; Ganzeveld, L.N.; Guenther, J.; Greenberg, J.P.; Castro Vasconcellos, De P.; Tavares, T.; Artaxo, P.

    2000-01-01

    According to recent assessments, tropical woodlands contribute about half of all global natural non-methane volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. Large uncertainties exist especially about fluxes of compounds other than isoprene and monoterpenes. During the Large-Scale Biosphere/Atmosphere Expe

  15. Los insectos plaga de las Myrtaceae frutales en Pucallpa, Amazonia peruana

    OpenAIRE

    Couturier, Guy; Quinonez R., L.; Gonzalez R., I.; Riva R., R.; Young R., F.

    1996-01-01

    During two series of observations realized in the Pucallpa region, Peru in 1994 and 1995, some species of insect pests have been observed on cultivated trees of #Eugenia stipitata$ ("araza"), #Myrciaria dubia$ ("camu-camu") and #Myrciaria uniflora ("pitanga") belonging to the family #Myrtaceae$. #Anastrepha sororcula$ Zucchi and #Pseudoparlatoria turgida$ Ferris are reported for the first time in Peru. (Résumé d'auteur)

  16. Who is Amazonia? The ‘salt of the matter’ for indigenous sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckenberger, Michael

    2013-12-01

    The recent article ‘Ash salts and bodily affects: Witoto environmental knowledge as sexual education’ (Echeverri and Román-Jitdutjaãno 2013 Environ. Res. Lett. 8 015008) considers indigenous people and their distinctive knowledge systems in the western Amazon. These complex systems provide richly detailed practical knowledge about life in these tropical forests, which today many see as well populated and rich in cultural heritage. Through a careful analysis of ash salts and salt-making and the technologies and bodily affects associated with it, the authors suggest native Amazonian peoples see environmental knowledge not in terms of natural resources but instead how they interact with and produce human bodies in social networks, as a form of sexual education and, by extension, public health. It also highlights the critical importance of social relations as part of research, and the politics of nature, with important implications for contemporary debate and research on biodiversity, sustainability, climate change and human rights, specifically what types of agreements are entailed in scientific research that is not only robust but socially responsible.

  17. Links between land use change and recent dry season droughts in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, J.; Medvigy, D.

    2012-12-01

    The Amazon region experienced catastrophic and unusually severe droughts in 2005 and 2010. These two droughts were phenomenologically different from the other, more common, El Niño-related droughts. Whereas El Niño-related droughts mostly affect the eastern and south-eastern parts of the region during the wet season (December-March), the droughts of 2005 and 2010 were most severe during the dry season (June-August) and affected the southern and western parts of the Amazon. A global warming driven mechanism has been suggested for these droughts wherein decreased moisture transport into the basin during the dry season is caused by anomalously high tropical north Atlantic SSTs, which weaken the northern hemisphere Hadley cell. But the facts that dry season droughts have been historically rare in this region and that the 2005 and 2010 droughts were strongest around locations of recent land use change activity suggest that deforestation may be contributing to this inter-annual variability in precipitation. This study addresses this research question by numerically modeling the 2005 and 2010 drought events for two land use scenarios, one of which (Deforested or DEF) represents the current state of land use in the Amazon and the other (Pristine Forest or PRF) represents a scenario of no deforestation. A variable resolution GCM, the Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Model (OLAM), is used to model these events. Land surface processes and soil moisture during the drought period are simulated using the Land Ecosystem Atmosphere Feedback model. The state of land cover in the Amazon in the two drought years is obtained from satellite-based land cover maps. The land grid has a variable resolution ranging from ≈75km in the South American sector to ≈200km elsewhere. This variable-resolution approach helps resolve topographic features and the medium-to-large scale land use patches in the Amazon area. The atmospheric runs are forced by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration weekly sea-surface temperature data. Soil moisture initial conditions were obtained from 8-year spin-ups for DEF and PRF. Then, ensembles of 18 month simulations were carried out, starting in June of 2004 and 2009. The ensembles consisted of 5 runs for each of the DEF and PRF experiments and are designed to reduce the effects of natural climate variability on the model results. Results are analyzed to test whether the intensity of the droughts, as measured by a water deficit index like maximum climatological water deficit (MCWD), increases from the PRF to the DEF case. An analysis of the statistical differences between the values of various meteorological and hydrological variables as obtained from the two land use scenarios will be presented. Thus this study will help both qualify and quantify the extent to which land use change can intensify a drought event.

  18. Spatial heterogeneity of malaria in Indian reserves of Southwestern Amazonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Ricardo

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria constitutes a major cause of morbidity in the Brazilian Amazon where an estimated 6 million people are considered at high risk of transmission. Indigenous peoples in the Amazon are particularly vulnerable to potentially epidemic disease such as malaria; notwithstanding, very little is known about the epidemiology of malaria in Indian reservations of the region. The aim of this paper is to present a spatial analysis of malaria cases over a four-year time period (2003–2006 among indigenous peoples of the Brazilian State of Rondônia, southwestern Amazon, by using passive morbidity data (results from Giemsa-stained thick blood smears gathered from the National Malaria Epidemiologic Surveillance System databank. Results A total of 4,160 cases of malaria were recorded in 14 Indian reserves in the State of Rondônia between 2003 and 2006. In six reservations no cases of malaria were reported in the period. Overall, P. vivax accounted for 76.18 of malaria cases reported in the indigenous population of Rondônia. The P. vivax/P. falciparum ratio for the period was 3.78. Two reserves accounted for over half of the cases reported for the total indigenous population in the period – Roosevelt and Pacaas Novas – with a total of 1,646 (39.57% and 1,145 (27.52% cases, respectively. Kernel mapping of malaria mean Annual Parasite Index – API according to indigenous reserves and environmental zones revealed a heterogeneous pattern of disease distribution, with one clear area of high risk of transmission comprising reservations of west Rondônia along the Guaporé-Madeira River basins, and another high risk area to the east, on the Roosevelt reserve. Conclusion By means of kernel mapping, it was shown that malaria risk varies widely between Indian reserves and environmental zones defined on the basis of predominant ecologic characteristics and land use patterns observed in the southwestern Brazilian Amazon. The geographical approach in this paper helped to determine where the greatest needs lie for more intensively focused malaria control activities in Indian reserves in the region. It also provided a reference to assess the effectiveness of control measures that have been put in place by Brazilian public health authorities.

  19. Spatial heterogeneity of malaria in Indian reserves of Southwestern Amazonia, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Santos Ricardo; Escobar Ana; de Oliveira Maurício VG; Souza-Santos Reinaldo; Coimbra Carlos EA

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Malaria constitutes a major cause of morbidity in the Brazilian Amazon where an estimated 6 million people are considered at high risk of transmission. Indigenous peoples in the Amazon are particularly vulnerable to potentially epidemic disease such as malaria; notwithstanding, very little is known about the epidemiology of malaria in Indian reservations of the region. The aim of this paper is to present a spatial analysis of malaria cases over a four-year time period (200...

  20. Oenocarpus bataua Mart. (Arecaceae) : rediscovering a source of high oleic vegetable oil from Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Montufar, R.; Laffargue, Andreina; Pintaud, Jean-Christophe; Hamon, Serge; Avallone, Sylvie; Dussert, Stéphane

    2010-01-01

    The fatty acid (FA) composition of Oenocarpus bataua oil from 38 samples collected over a large geographical range (i.e. French Guiana and Peru) was analyzed. Fifteen fatty acids were obtained from the mesocarp of this palm species. Oleic (72.7%) and palmitic (18.1%) acids were the predominant FAs. Minor FAs were cis-vaccenic acid (2.3%), linoleic acid (1.9%), stearic acid (1.7%), palmitoleic (0.9%) and alpha-linolenic acid (0.8%). The mean lipid content of the dry mesocarp was 51.6%. The O. ...

  1. TUCUNARELLA N. GEN. AND OTHER DACTYLOGYRIDS (MONOGENOIDEA) FROM CICHLID FISH (PERCIFORMES) FROM PERUVIAN AMAZONIA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F.; Scholz, Tomáš; Rozkošná, Petra

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 96, č. 3 (2010), s. 491-498. ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : NEOTROPICAL MONOGENEA * ANCYROCEPHALINAE * PROPOSAL * GILLS * TREMATODES * TELEOSTEI Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.208, year: 2010

  2. Epidemiologia das infecções diarréicas entre populações indígenas da Amazonia Epidemiology of diarrhea infection among indian populations of Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre C. Linhares

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Enteropatógenos bacterianos, viróticos e parasitários têm sido associados freqüentemente a processos gastrintestinais entre indígenas da Amazônia. Entre os índios Parakanã, registrou-se freqüência da ordem de 4% para Shigella flexneri. Por outro lado, taxas de soroprevalência de 98% para a toxina lábil de E. coli foram assinaladas no seio dos Menkrangnotí, Parakanã, Xikrín e Asuriní. Revelaram-se expressivos reservatórios de Salmonella sp. os edentados (63% de positívidade e os marsupiais (20%. Cepas de Shigella disenteriae foram detectadas em 4,2% de 40 índios Suruí avaliados, enquanto entre os Karitiána, isolaram-se, a partir de 85 coproculturas, uma amostra de Shigella boydii e 11 de E. coli. Os rotavírus se constituíram no agente causai do episódio epidêmico explosivo que acometeu os Tiriyó, em julho-agosto de 1977. Utilizando-se a contra-imuno-eletro-osmoforese, detectaram-se 25,6% de soroconversões, com base no exame de 127 amostras pareadas. O sorotipo I de Birmingham caracterizou-se como o agente causai da epidemia que abrangeu, pelo menos, 80% da população sob risco: crianças e velhos foram os mais atingidos. Estudos soroepidemiológicos empreendidos em 13 comunidades indígenas da região amazônica denotaram elevadas taxas de soropositividade (maiores de 50% para rotavírus, em termos gerais, conquanto os Parakanã Novo se tenham revelado não-imunes a esses agentes. O gradativo aumento na freqüência de anticorpos com a idade sugere persistência dos rotavírus nessas comunidades. Ainda, o registro de resultados positivos em crianças de baixa idade sugere o caráter endêmico das infecções. Expressivas taxas de positividade quanto à presença de anticorpos para rotavírus foram detectadas entre os Suruí (67,8% e os Karitiána (77,4%. Enteroparasitas de importância médica também foram detectados. S. stercoralis, Giardia lamblia e Entamoeba hystolitica foram assinaladas, entre os Suruí, em freqüências de 33,3%, 3,3,% e 0,8%, respectivamente. Esses mesmos patógenos foram detectados em freqüências, por ordem, de 3,9%, 12,7% e 8,8% ao exame de amostras fecais oriundas dos Pacaánova. Elevada taxa de Entamoeba hystolitica, cerca de 40%, foi observada entre os Yanomámi. As precárias condições de saneamento em que vivem essas populações, os hábitos inadequados de higiene e possível existência de reservatórios silvestres de enteropatógenos são alguns dos fatores que concorrem para o panorama descrito. Especial atenção merece ser dirigida, presentemente, às chances de propagação da cólera entre os silvícolas amazônicos.Bacteria, viruses and parasites have frequently been associated with gastroenteritis among Amerindians living in the Amazon region. Shigella flexneri has been found in 4% of diarrhoeic specimens collected from Parakanã Indians. In addition, antibodies to the E. coli labile toxin have been detected in 98% of Indians belonging to the Menkrangnotí, Parakanã, Xikrín and Asuriní communities. Both wild edemata and marsupials seem to be important Salmonella sp. reservoirs as studies have demonstrated the occurrence of infection in 63% and 20% of them, respectively. Shigella disenteriae has been isolated from 4.2% of Suruí Amerinds. Among the Kantiána, Shigella boydii (one isolate and E. coli (11 isolates were recovered from 85 specimens processed for bacterial enteropathogens. Rotaviruses were the causative agent of an extensive outbreak of diarrhoea among the Tiriyó, in July-August, 1977. By using the counter-immune-electro-osmophoresis, seroconversions were detected in 25.6 % of paired (pre- and post-epidemic serum samples. Birmingham serotype I was identified as the causative agent of the outbreak, which affected at least 80% of the population at risk: the clinical attack rates were more prominent among both young children and the elderly. Studies on the prevalence of rotavirus antibody among 13 Indian communities in the Amazon region yielded, in general, positivity rates greater than 50%. However, the Parakanã Novo were found to be non-immune to rotaviruses. The increasing rates of seropositivity with age suggest the persistence of rotaviruses in these communities; in addition, high rates of positivity among young children suggest that rotavirus infection may be endemic. Both Suruí and Karitiána were found to have high prevalence rates of rotavirus antibody: 67.8 and 77.4, respectively. Wild marsupials may possibly play a role in the transmission of rotaviruses among Indians. Parasites have also been associated with gastrointestinal disease among Indians in the Amazon region. S. stercoralis and Entamoeba hystolitica have been detected among the Suruí in frequencies of 33.3%, 3.3% and 0.8%, respectively. Among the Pacaánova the same parasites have been recorded in frequencies of 3.9%, 12.7% and 8.8%, respectively. Entamoeba hystolitica was found in 40% of the Yanomámi The poor sanitation conditions and hygiene practices, as well as the possibility of the contact of Indians with wild reservoirs, account for the spread of enteropathogens within these communities in the Amazon region. Special precautions should be currently taken with respect to the possibility of the introduction of cholera among these Amerindians.

  3. Factors that characterize the process of implantation of photovoltaic solar systems in the energy supplying for remote regions from Amazonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work demonstrates that not any changes in the traditional work procedures has ben introduced, as a result of the application of the photovoltaic system technology, in the high Solimoes river region. The work also shows that the lighting systems have been handled and incorporated to the various routines, specifically those connected to the religion and formal education practices, and the social structure of the community families. A great influence of the radio communication is considered as a contribution for surmounting the natural barriers involving the region represented by the communities, with emphasis on the use for the commerce, health and communitary interchanges processes

  4. Seasonal changes in the gonadossomatic index, allometric condition factor and sex ratio of an auchenipterid catfish from eastern Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Magalhães da Silva Freitas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the seasonal pattern of the gonadosomatic index (GSI, condition factor (K, and sex ratio in the catfish Auchenipterichthys longimanus (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae as an approach to identify its reproductive period. A total of 589 A. longimanus specimens (251 males and 338 females were captured in the rivers of the Caxiuanã National Forest, in the Brazilian state of Pará, between July, 2008 and July, 2009. Among the male specimens, 171 were classified as adults and 80 as juveniles, while there were 249 adults and 89 juvenile females. Using a sinusoidal equation, analysis of the GSI revealed a reproductive asynchrony between the genders, with males attaining their highest GSI values in January, while females peaked in March. For males, the sinusoidal regression for GSI values was significant only when used the complete data set (P=0.001, wears no trend was identified for bimonthly means (P=0.136. For females, by contrast, significant values were obtained for both the complete data set (P=0.012 and bimonthly GSI means (P=0.026. For the condition factor, the sinusoidal equation returned significant seasonal variation in both raw data (P=0.02 and with mean values (P=0.00 for males, but only with raw data for females (P=0.04, which appears to reflect variation in the energy budget between genders. With regard to the sex ratio, more reproductive females were captured than males in January and March, 2009, which suggests a pattern of segregation related to the reproductive process. These parameters are fundamental to the assessment, protection, and management of natural fish stocks, as well as providing guidelines for the development of conservation strategies.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar alterações sazonais no índice gonadossomático (IGS%, fator de condição (K e proporção sexual, a fim de determinar o período de atividade reprodutiva do bagre Auchenipterichthys longimanus (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae, a partir da análise de exemplares coletados em igarapés da Floresta Nacional de Caxiuanã, estado do Pará, Brasil. Através de coletas bimestrais entre julho de 2008 e julho de 2009, foram capturados 589 exemplares de A. longimanus, sendo 251 machos e 338 fêmeas. Dentre os machos, 171 exemplares foram classificados como adultos e 80 foram jovens, e dentre as fêmeas, 249 eram adultas e 89 jovens. Por meio do estabelecimento de uma equação senoidal, a análise do IGS% evidenciou uma assincronia reprodutiva entre os sexos, pois os machos obtiveram maiores valores de IGS% em janeiro e as fêmeas apresentaram seu pico em março. Para os valores de IGS% de machos, a equação senoide mostrou-se significante somente para os valores brutos (P=0,001, sendo não identificada uma tendência com os valores médios do IGS% (P=0,136. Para as fêmeas, os valores de significância da equação senoide para o IGS% foram obtidos tanto para os dados brutos (P=0,012 quanto para os dados médios (P=0,026. Para o Fator de Condição, a equação senoide demonstrou variação nos valores brutos e médios de machos adultos (P=0,02 e P=0,00, respectivamente e nos valores brutos de fêmeas (P=0,04, refletindo diferenças nos padrões de investimento energético entre os sexos. Em relação à proporção sexual, foi observada uma maior frequência de capturas de fêmeas reprodutivas em relação aos machos nos meses de Janeiro e Março de 2009, sugerindo um padrão de segregação sexual com fins reprodutivos. Esses parâmetros são fundamentais na avaliação, conservação e manejo dos estoques naturais de peixes, assim como para subsidiar estratégias e procedimentos para a preservação e conservação da ictiofauna.

  5. Seasonal changes in the gonadossomatic index, allometric condition factor and sex ratio of an auchenipterid catfish from eastern Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Tiago Magalhães da Silva Freitas; Vitor Hudson da Consolação Almeida; Luciano Fogaça de Assis Montag; Rossineide Martins da Rocha; Nelson Ferreira Fontoura

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the seasonal pattern of the gonadosomatic index (GSI), condition factor (K), and sex ratio in the catfish Auchenipterichthys longimanus (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae) as an approach to identify its reproductive period. A total of 589 A. longimanus specimens (251 males and 338 females) were captured in the rivers of the Caxiuanã National Forest, in the Brazilian state of Pará, between July, 2008 and July, 2009. Among the male specimens, 171 were cl...

  6. Forest-related partnerships in Brazilian Amazonia: There is more to sustainable forest management than reduced impact logging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ros-Tonen, M.A.F.; Andel, T.; Morsello, C.; Otsuki, K.; Rosendo, S.

    2008-01-01

    There is more to sustainable forest management than reduced impact logging. Partnerships between multiple actors are needed in order to create the institutional context for good forest governance and sustainable forest management and stimulate the necessary local community involvement. The idea behi

  7. Cloud life cycle investigated via high resolution and full microphysics simulations in the surroundings of Manaus, Central Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauliquevis, T.; Gomes, H. B.; Barbosa, H. M.

    2014-12-01

    In this study we evaluate the skill of WRF model to simulate the actual diurnal cycle of convection in the Amazon basin. Models tipically are not capable to simulate the well documented cycle of 1) shallow cumulus in the morning; 2) towering process around noon; 3) shallow-to-deep convection and rain around 14h (LT). The fail in models is explained by the typical size of shallow cumulus (~0.5 - 2.0 km) and the coarse resolution of models using convection parameterisation (> 20 km). In this study we employed high spatial resolution (Dx = 0.625 km) to reach the shallow cumulus scale. . The simulations corresponds to a dynamical downscaling of ERA-Interim from 25 to 28 February 2013 with 40 vertical levels, 30 minutes outputs,and three nested grids (10 km, 2.5 km, 0.625 km). Improved vegetation (USGS + PROVEG), albedo and greenfrac (computed from MODIS-NDVI + LEAF-2 land surface parameterization), as well as pseudo analysis of soil moisture were used as input data sets, resulting in more realistic precipitation fields when compared to observations in sensitivity tests. Convective parameterization was switched off for the 2.5/0.625 km grids, where cloud formation was solely resolved by the microphysics module (WSM6 scheme, which provided better results). Results showed a significant improved capability of the model to simulate diurnal cycle. Shallow cumulus begin to appear in the first hours in the morning. They were followed by a towering process that culminates with precipitation in the early afternoon, which is a behavior well described by observations but rarely obtained in models. Rain volumes were also realistic (~20 mm for single events) when compared to typical events during the period, which is in the core of the wet season. Cloud fields evolution also differed with respect to Amazonas River bank, which is a clear evidence of the interaction between river breeze and large scale circulation.

  8. 'Acompañarnos contentos con la familia' : unidad, diferencia y conflicto entre los Nükak (Amazonia colombiana)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franky Calvo, C.E.

    2011-01-01

    The Nükak are a people of hunters and gatherers in the Colombian Amazon who call themselves Nükak baka', which can be translated as ‘the true people’. More than a name, this denomination designates a shared moral and political project that enables this people to reproduc

  9. 'Acompañarnos contentos con la familia' : unidad, diferencia y conflicto entre los Nükak (Amazonia colombiana)

    OpenAIRE

    Franky Calvo, C.E.

    2011-01-01

    The Nükak are a people of hunters and gatherers in the Colombian Amazon who call themselves Nükak baka', which can be translated as ‘the true people’. More than a name, this denomination designates a shared moral and political project that enables this people to reproduce themselves materially and socially, to guide their individual conduct, to perpetuate and fertilize the cosmos and to steer their relationships with the other peoples of the universe. In this sense t...

  10. Oil and gas projects in Amazon: an environmental challenge; Projetos de petroleo e gas na Amazonia: um desafio ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taam, Mauricio [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Cabral, Nelson [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Regional Norte SMS ; Cardoso, Vanderlei [TRANSPETRO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Gerencia de Seguranca, Meio Ambiente e Saude

    2004-07-01

    In the heart of the Amazon forest, some 600 km from the city of Manaus, the Brazilian Oil Company - PETROBRAS - is developing the 'URUCU PROJECT'. Consisting on 3 oil and gas production fields and 3 natural gas processing plant, 2 huge pipelines crossing the dense Amazon forest and its rivers and going towards COARI - the Fluvial Terminal of Solimoes river. Then, vessels and ferries, loads LGN to the north region and oil to feed the Manaus refinery plant. In a near future natural gas pipelines will connect COARI to Manaus and URUCU to Porto Velho. The whole project will allow energy supply to the less developed and isolated region of Brazil, and brings relief for the local population, but represents one of the biggest challenges for the oil and gas industry in terms of environmental sustainability for projects in very sensitive areas. The paper concludes that it is viable to face such a challenges counting on an Environmental Management System tailored to fit the region peculiarities, including a high level of Preparedness and Response for oil incidents, and last but never least assuming a respectful attitude towards the Amazon and its people. (author)

  11. Beta diversity of frogs in the forests of New Guinea, Amazonia and Europe: contrasting tropical and temperate communities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dahl, C.; Novotný, Vojtěch; Moravec, J.; Richards, S. J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 5 (2009), s. 896-904. ISSN 0305-0270 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Grant ostatní: US National Science Foundation(US) DEB0211591; US National Science Foundation(US) DEB0445213; UK Darwin Initiative for the Survival of Species(GB) 14/054; Ministerstvo kultury(CZ) MKM00002327201 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : alpha diversity * amphibians * biodiversity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 4.087, year: 2009

  12. Transfer of mercury and methylmercury along macroinvertebrate food chains in a floodplain lake of the Beni River, Bolivian Amazonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have evaluated the mercury and methylmercury transfers to and within the macroinvertebrate communities of a floodplain lake of the Beni River basin, Bolivia, during three hydrological seasons and in two habitats (open water and vegetation belt). Using the stable isotopes δ13C and δ15N, six trophic chains were identified during a previous study. Four are based on only one source: seston, organic matter from the bottom sediment, periphyton and macrophytes. Two are based on mixed sources (seston and periphyton in one case, periphyton and macrophytes in the other). During sampling, we found only one taxon that had surface sediment organic matter as food source and very few taxa whose trophic source was constituted by macrophytes. The periphyton was the most important source during all seasons; it produced the longest chain, with three trophic positions. Whatever the season and trophic source, all collected macroinvertebrates contained methyl mercury and the latter was biomagnified in all trophic chains that we identified. The biomagnification of methylmercury through invertebrate trophic chains accurately reflected the existence and length of these chains. Biomagnification was virtually non-existent in the sediment-based chain, low and restricted to the dry season in the macrophyte-based chain. It was significant in the seston-based chain, but limited by the existence of only two trophic levels and restricted to the wet season. Finally, it was very effective in the periphyton-based chain, which offers the highest rate of contamination of the source but, above all, the largest number of trophic levels.

  13. Dissolved CO2 in small catchment streams of eastern Amazonia: A minor pathway of terrestrial carbon loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Eric A.; Figueiredo, Ricardo O.; Markewitz, Daniel; Aufdenkampe, Anthony K.

    2010-12-01

    Production of carbon dioxide (CO2) in soils can lead to supersaturation of dissolved free CO2 (pCO2) in groundwater, which later evades to the atmosphere as groundwater enters streams and rivers. This process could be a significant pathway for return of terrestrially fixed C to the atmosphere. We measured pCO2 monthly over two years at multiple stations along three streams from their headwaters in remnant mature forests through multiple land covers in Pará, Brazil. The pCO2 averaged 19,000 μatm in headwaters and decreased to about 4,500 μatm downstream. Similar values were measured in headwaters of two small pristine mature forest catchments. Two approaches were used to estimate groundwater pCO2 evasion: assuming that headwater pCO2 measurements reflected incoming groundwater pCO2 or that all entering stream water was in equilibrium with previously measured deep soil CO2. With these assumptions, losses from the terrestrial environment through aquatic evasion of pCO2 would be 0.02-0.15 Mg C ha-1 of land area yr-1, which is about 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than annual estimates of soil respiration and net primary productivity. However, downstream pCO2 values that appear to be in quasi-steady state indicate contributions from other C sources, such as aquatic primary production, soil erosion, dissolved organic matter, or litter inputs from streamside vegetation. Hence, lateral pCO2 loss from groundwater to streams is minor for most of the terrestrial ecosystems of this region, although C loss to streams could be significant for net terrestrial budgets in riparian ecosystems or areas experiencing erosion.

  14. Cuerpos, Cadáveres y Comida: Canibalismo, Comensalidad y Organización Social enla Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Vacas Mora.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo revisa briefy los debates académicos más recientes sobre la antropofagia amazónica intentar marco de esa práctica en un contexto más amplio que proporciona un sentido de la actividad de fesh humanos de comer, un fondo que lleva la semiótica de la discusión más allá de lo sensible y que se traslada entre las formas simbólicas de construcción social. Las obras canibalismo amazónico en diferentes niveles, haciendo posible una forma concreta de construcción de identidad, las relaciones de depredación sociocosmical y una forma specifc de generar, fortalecer y mantener el parentesco y los lazos familiares.

  15. Transfer of mercury and methylmercury along macroinvertebrate food chains in a floodplain lake of the Beni River, Bolivian Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, Carlos Israel, E-mail: camoar6088@gmail.com [Instituto de Ecologia, Unidad de Limnologia, UMSA, Casilla postal 10077, La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement IRD, Casilla postal 9214, La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); CONICET-Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, Miguel Lillo 205, 4 000, Tucuman (Argentina); Gibon, Francois-Marie [Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement IRD, Casilla postal 9214, La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); IRD, UMR BOREA, Museum national d' Histoire Naturelle MNHN, Case postale 26, 75231, Paris cedex 05 (France); Duprey, Jean-Louis [Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement IRD, Casilla postal 9214, La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Dominguez, Eduardo [CONICET-Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, Miguel Lillo 205, 4 000, Tucuman (Argentina); Guimaraes, Jean-Remy D. [Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Bloco G-CCS, Rio de Janeiro, CEP 21949-900 (Brazil); Roulet, Marc [Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement IRD, Casilla postal 9214, La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of)

    2010-07-15

    We have evaluated the mercury and methylmercury transfers to and within the macroinvertebrate communities of a floodplain lake of the Beni River basin, Bolivia, during three hydrological seasons and in two habitats (open water and vegetation belt). Using the stable isotopes {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 15}N, six trophic chains were identified during a previous study. Four are based on only one source: seston, organic matter from the bottom sediment, periphyton and macrophytes. Two are based on mixed sources (seston and periphyton in one case, periphyton and macrophytes in the other). During sampling, we found only one taxon that had surface sediment organic matter as food source and very few taxa whose trophic source was constituted by macrophytes. The periphyton was the most important source during all seasons; it produced the longest chain, with three trophic positions. Whatever the season and trophic source, all collected macroinvertebrates contained methyl mercury and the latter was biomagnified in all trophic chains that we identified. The biomagnification of methylmercury through invertebrate trophic chains accurately reflected the existence and length of these chains. Biomagnification was virtually non-existent in the sediment-based chain, low and restricted to the dry season in the macrophyte-based chain. It was significant in the seston-based chain, but limited by the existence of only two trophic levels and restricted to the wet season. Finally, it was very effective in the periphyton-based chain, which offers the highest rate of contamination of the source but, above all, the largest number of trophic levels.

  16. Chagas disease and globalization of the Amazon La enfermedad de Chagas y la globalización de la Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Briceño-León

    2007-01-01

    The increasing number of autochthonous cases of Chagas disease in the Amazon since the 1970s has led to fear that the disease may become a new public health problem in the region. This transformation in the disease's epidemiological pattern in the Amazon can be explained by environmental and social changes in the last 30 years. The current article draws on the sociological theory of perverse effects to explain these changes as the unwanted result of the shift from the "inward" development mod...

  17. Implications of long-term land-use change for the hydrology and solute budgets of small catchments in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germer, Sonja; Neill, Christopher; Vetter, Tobias; Chaves, Joaquín; Krusche, Alex V.; Elsenbeer, Helmut

    2009-01-01

    SummaryThe replacement of undisturbed tropical forest with cattle pasture has the potential to greatly modify the hydrology of small watersheds and the fluxes of solutes. We examined the fluxes of water, Cl -, NO3--N, SO42--S, NH4+-N, Na +, K +, Mg 2+ and Ca 2+ in different flow paths in ˜1 ha catchments of undisturbed open tropical rainforest and a 20 year-old pasture established from forest in the southwestern Brazilian Amazon state of Rondônia. Storm flow discharge was 18% of incident rainfall in pasture, but only 1% in forest. Quickflow predominated over baseflow in both catchments and in both wet and dry seasons. In the pasture, groundwater and quickflow were important flow paths for the export of all solutes. In the forest, quickflow was important for NO3--N export, but all other solutes were exported primarily by groundwater outflow. Both catchments were sinks for SO42--S and Ca 2+, and sources of Na +. The pasture catchment also lost K + and Mg 2+ because of higher overland flow frequency and volume and to cattle excrement. These results show that forest clearing dramatically influences small watershed hydrology by increasing quickflow and water export to streams. They also indicate that tropical forest watersheds are highly conservative for most solutes but that pastures continue to lose important cations even decades after deforestation and pasture establishment.

  18. Physical, chemical, and biological properties of soil under soybean cultivation and at an adjacent rainforest in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy Patrick Beldini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Land-use change in the Amazon basin has occurred at an accelerated pace during the last decade, and it is important that the effects induced by these changes on soil properties are better understood. This study investigated the chemical, physical, and biological properties of soil in a field under cultivation of soy and rice, and at an adjacent primary rain forest. Increases in soil bulk density, exchangeable cations and pH were observed in the soy field soil. In the primary forest, soil microbial biomass and basal respiration rates were higher, and the microbial community was metabolically more efficient. The sum of basal respiration across the A, AB and BA horizons on a mass per area basis ranged from 7.31 to 10.05 Mg CO2-C ha-1yr-1, thus yielding estimates for total soil respiration between 9.6 and 15.5 Mg CO2-C ha-1yr-1 across sites and seasons. These estimates are in good agreement with literature values for Amazonian ecosystems. The estimates of heterotrophic respiration made in this study help to further constrain the estimates of autotrophic soil respiration and will be useful for monitoring the effects of future land-use in Amazonian ecosystems.

  19. Mansonella ozzardi (Nematoda: Onchocercidae in the riverine population of the Tefé River, State of Amazonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Fernandes Medeiros

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study assessed the prevalence of Mansonella ozzardi in riverine communities of the Tefé River, Amazonas, Brazil. Methods: The prevalence of M. ozzardi was estimated by microscopic examination of thick blood smears. Results: The M. ozzardi prevalence rate was 6.3% (19/300. Filarial infection was found in 8 of the 11 communities surveyed, with prevalence rates varying from 2.5% to 22.2%. Conclusions: Tefé is a region of oil and natural gas exploration, in which there is a high turnover of workers. Migration patterns may facilitate the dissemination of mansonelliasis to other regions.

  20. "Land-Cover Conversion in Amazonia, The Role of ENV" Ironment and Substrate composition in Modifying SOI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Dar A.; Chadwick, Oliver A.; Batista, Getulio T.

    2003-01-01

    LBA research from the first phase of LBA focused on three broad categories: 1) mapping land cover and quantifying rates of change, persistence of pasture, and area of recovering forest; 2) evaluating the role of environmental factors and land-use history on soil biogeochemistry; and 3) quantifying the natural and human controls on stream nutrient concentrations. The focus of the research was regional, concentrating primarily in the state of RondBnia, but also included land-cover mapping in the vicinity of Maraba, Para, and Manaus, Amazonas. Remote sensing analysis utilized Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Multispectral Scanner (MS S) data to map historical patterns of land-cover change. Specific questions addressed by the remote sensing component of the research included: 1) what is the areal extent of dominant land-cover classes? 2) what are the rates of change of dominant land cover through processes of deforestation, disturbance and regeneration? and 3) what are the dynamic properties of each class that characterize temporal variability, duration, and frequency of repeat disturbance? Biogeochemical analysis focused on natural variability and impacts of land-use/land-cover changes on soil and stream biogeochemical properties at the regional scale. An emphasis was given to specific soil properties considered to be primary limiting factors regionally, including phosphorus, nitrogen, base cations and cation-exchange properties. Stream sampling emphasized the relative effects of the rates and timing of land-cover change on stream nutrients, demonstrating that vegetation conversion alone does not impact nutrients as much as subsequent land use and urbanization.

  1. A Spatial Probit Econometric Model of Land Change: The Case of Infrastructure Development in Western Amazonia, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Arima, E. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Tropical forests are now at the center stage of climate mitigation policies worldwide given their roles as sources of carbon emissions resulting from deforestation and forest degradation. Although the international community has created mechanisms such as REDD+ to reduce those emissions, developing tropical countries continue to invest in infrastructure development in an effort to spur economic growth. Construction of roads in particular is known to be an important driver of deforestation. Th...

  2. Desmatamento na Amazônia: dinâmica, impactos e controle Deforestation in Amazonia: dynamics, impacts and control

    OpenAIRE

    Philip M. Fearnside

    2006-01-01

    O desmatamento na Amazônia procede a um alto ritmo por várias razões, muitas das quais dependem de decisões do governo. O desmatamento leva à perda de serviços ambientais, que têm um valor maior que os usos pouco sustentáveis que substituem a floresta. Estes serviços incluem a manutenção da biodiversidade, da ciclagem de água e dos estoques de carbono que evitam o agravamento do efeito estufa. Retroalimentações entre as mudanças climáticas e a floresta, por meio de processos tais como os incê...

  3. Os processos de desenvolvimento e desmatamento da Amazônia The process of development and deforestation in Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Rodolfo Coelho Prates; Carlos José Caetano Bacha

    2011-01-01

    Este artigo analisa - com base na revisão da literatura existente e por meio da análise de dados secundários, realizando uma análise histórica desde a Colonização Portuguesa - as etapas de desenvolvimento da Região Amazônica e sua associação com a prática do desmatamento, destacando as políticas públicas que fomentaram o desenvolvimento da região e o atual avanço de sistemas produtivos orientados pelo estímulo econômico. Demonstra-se que o desenvolvimento populacional e econômico da Amazônia,...

  4. Os processos de desenvolvimento e desmatamento da Amazônia The process of development and deforestation in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Coelho Prates

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa - com base na revisão da literatura existente e por meio da análise de dados secundários, realizando uma análise histórica desde a Colonização Portuguesa - as etapas de desenvolvimento da Região Amazônica e sua associação com a prática do desmatamento, destacando as políticas públicas que fomentaram o desenvolvimento da região e o atual avanço de sistemas produtivos orientados pelo estímulo econômico. Demonstra-se que o desenvolvimento populacional e econômico da Amazônia, citados como as principais causas do desmatamento e estimulados, em boa parte, por políticas econômicas, é um processo desuniforme no tempo e no espaço, gerando o desmatamento desigual entre os estados que compõem essa região e dentro de cada estado.Basing on the literature review and on published dataset and following the time chronology of the events since the Portuguese colonization, this paper analyzes the stages of Amazonian region development and its impacts on deforestation, highlighting the policies addressing to foster the Amazon's development and the current stage of economic activities. The population growth and the economic activities, pointed out as the main causes of the Amazonian deforestation and stimulated by economic policies, have been unequally developed inside the Amazonian region, generating the unequal deforestation process among the Amazonian states and inside each state.

  5. Notes for a comparison of the projects of development poles in the brazilian Amazonia and the argentinean Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Pérez Álvarez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we try to draw lines of comparison between the processes of development plans of subsidized industrial, installing by the National State in two big regions of Latin America: the brazilian Amazon and the argentinean Patagonia. We discussed the notion of development, debating against the equalization which was built between this concept and the growth. For this, we performed a reading of the development plans in its structural dimension, also entering the field of social and political struggles, covering for this a large and complex historical period.

  6. Trypanosoma cruzi IV causing outbreaks of acute Chagas disease and infections by different haplotypes in the Western Brazilian Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuelton Marcelo Monteiro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chagas disease is an emergent tropical disease in the Brazilian Amazon Region, with an increasing number of cases in recent decades. In this region, the sylvatic cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission, which constitutes a reservoir of parasites that might be associated with specific molecular, epidemiological and clinical traits, has been little explored. The objective of this work is to genetically characterize stocks of T. cruzi from human cases, triatomines and reservoir mammals in the State of Amazonas, in the Western Brazilian Amazon. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed 96 T. cruzi samples from four municipalities in distant locations of the State of Amazonas. Molecular characterization of isolated parasites from cultures in LIT medium or directly from vectors or whole human blood was performed by PCR of the non-transcribed spacer of the mini-exon and of the 24 S alfa ribosomal RNA gene, RFLP and sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII gene, and by sequencing of the glucose-phosphate isomerase gene. The T. cruzi parasites from two outbreaks of acute disease were all typed as TcIV. One of the outbreaks was triggered by several haplotypes of the same DTU. TcIV also occurred in isolated cases and in Rhodnius robustus. Incongruence between mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenies is likely to be indicative of historical genetic exchange events resulting in mitochondrial introgression between TcIII and TcIV DTUs from Western Brazilian Amazon. TcI predominated among triatomines and was the unique DTU infecting marsupials. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: DTU TcIV, rarely associated with human Chagas disease in other areas of the Amazon basin, is the major strain responsible for the human infections in the Western Brazilian Amazon, occurring in outbreaks as single or mixed infections by different haplotypes.

  7. Deforestation drivers in Southwest Amazonia: Comparing smallholder farmers in Iñapari, Peru, and Assis Brasil, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Almeyda Zambrano Angelica; Broadbent Eben; Schmink Marianne; Perz Stephen; Asner Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Broad interpretation of land use and forest cover studies has been limited by the biophysical and socio-economic uniqueness of the landscapes in which they are carried out and by the multiple temporal and spatial scales of the underlying processes. We coupled a land cover change approach with a political ecology framework to interpret trends in multi-temporal remote sensing of forest cover change and socio-economic surveys with smallholders in the towns of Iñapari, Peru and Assis Brasil,...

  8. Inventario de la flora del campus de la Universidad de la Amazonia, municipio de Florencia (Caquetá - Colombia).

    OpenAIRE

    Correa, Marco; Trujillo, Edwin; Frausin Bustamante, Gina

    2005-01-01

    The checklist of the plants from the campus of the University of the Amazonía, Florencia, Caquetá, Colombia includes 214 species of vascular plants belonging to 179 genera and 73 families. The families with the most number of species are Fabaceae (19) and Poaceae (10). The wooden species comprise 25.2% of the total, the shrubs 17.2%, grasses 43.9%, epiphytes (including hemiepiphytes) 7.9%, palms 2.3%, vines 2.3%, and hemiparasites 0.9%. The census carried out for trees and bushes yield a tota...

  9. Resilience of a cerradão subjected to intermediate disturbance in the Cerrado-Amazonia transition, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Hur Marimon-Junior

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the hypothesis that remnant forests in small protected areas may be resilient to intermediate disturbances. We analyzed the diameter and height distributions of the tree community in a typical cerradão (14°42’02.3”S and 52°21’02.6”W and determined which species were most abundant, sampling at two- to three-year intervals over eight years. In 2002, 2005, 2008 and 2010, we measured all live trees with a diameter ≥ 5 cm at 0.3 m above ground in 50 plots of 10 x 10 m. Although significant variation was observed in the density of the trees and the distributions of their diameters and heights, the community maintained the “reverse-J” and unimodal patterns for these distributions, respectively. These results indicate continuous recruitment and little change in the structure of the community over the study period, supporting our hypothesis. Three different patterns of diametric distribution were observed among the analyzed species, likely reflecting different forest occupation strategies. Hirtella glandulosa was the speciesmost able to exploit its environment, as it possessed the greatest overall abundance and was represented by individuals in all diameter classes.

  10. An Integrated Greenhouse Gas Assessment of an Alternative to Slash-and-Burn Agriculture in Eastern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, E. A.; Sá, T. D.; Carvalho, C. J.; Figueiredo, R. D.; Kato, M. D.; Kato, O. R.; Ishida, F. Y.

    2007-12-01

    Fires set for slash-and-burn agriculture contribute to the current unsustainable accumulation of atmospheric greenhouse gases, and they also deplete the soil of essential nutrients, which compromises agricultural sustainability at local scales. Integrated assessments of greenhouse gas emissions have compared intensive cropping systems in industrialized countries, but such assessments have not been applied to common cropping systems of smallholder farmers in developing countries. We report an integrated assessment of greenhouse gas emissions in slash-and-burn agriculture and an alternative chop-and-mulch system in the Amazon Basin. The soil consumed atmospheric methane under slash-and-burn treatment and became a net emitter of methane to the atmosphere under the mulch treatment. Mulching also caused about a 50 percent increase in soil emissions of nitric oxide and nitrous oxide and required use of fertilizer and fuel for farm machinery. Despite these significantly higher emissions of greenhouse gases during the cropping phase under the alternative chop- and-mulch system, calculated pyrogenic emissions in the slash-and-burn system were much larger, especially for methane. The global warming potential CO2-equivalent emissions calculated for the entire crop cycles were at least five times lower in chop-and-mulch compared to slash-and-burn and were dominated by differences in methane emissions. The crop yields were similar for the two systems. While economic and logistical considerations remain to be worked out for alternatives to slash-and-burn, these results demonstrate a potential "win-win" strategy for maintaining soil fertility and reducing net greenhouse gas emissions, thus simultaneously contributing to sustainability at both spatial scales.

  11. Growth and market integration in Amazonia: a comparison of growth indicators between Shuar, Shiwiar, and nonindigenous school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Aaron D; Pryor, George; Pozo, José; Tiwia, Washington; Sugiyama, Lawrence S

    2009-01-01

    We describe and compare the growth of three groups of juveniles, aged 0-18, who experience different degrees of market integration and acculturation in the Ecuadorian Amazon. These include 1,384 indigenous Shuar from the Upano Valley of Ecuador and surrounding areas, 570 nonindigenous colono (or colonist) children from the same area, and 42 Shiwiar from the interior of Ecuador. We use differences between these populations in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) z-scores to assess the effects of changing subsistence patterns on Shuar growth and nutrition. Although, for all three groups, mean height-for-age z-scores were negative, Shuar z-scores were significantly lower than either colono or Shiwiar z-scores. Mean weight-for-age z-scores were also negative for Shuar and colono juveniles, while mean BMI-for-age and weight-for-height z-scores were greater than zero for all three groups. Using NHANES standards, 41% of male and 38% of female Shuar were classified as stunted, versus 16% of male and 20% of female colonos. Compared to Shuar, colonos were three times less likely to be stunted (OR = 0.33, P Shuar growth and nutrition. PMID:18949770

  12. Growth and market integration in Amazonia: A comparison of growth indicators between Shaur, Shiwiar, and Nonindigenous school children

    OpenAIRE

    Blackwell, AD; Pryor, G; Pozo, J.; Tiwia, W; Sugiyama, LS

    2009-01-01

    We describe and compare the growth of three groups of juveniles, aged 0-18, who experience different degrees of market integration and acculturation in the Ecuadorian Amazon. These include 1,384 indigenous Shuar from the Upano Valley of Ecuador and surrounding areas, 570 nonindigenous colono (or colonist) children from the same area, and 42 Shiwiar from the interior of Ecuador. We use differences between these populations in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) z-scores t...

  13. Asentamientos informales en la Amazonia. Estudio de caso San Vicente del Caguán 1995 – 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Díaz, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    El presente trabajo de investigación se realizó en los asentamientos informales Ciudad Bolívar, El Mirador y La Libertad en el municipio de San Vicente del Caguán, departamento del Caquetá – Colombia. Permite revaluar el concepto de asentamiento informal y los factores que inciden en su orígenes, los indicadores utilizados para la medición de la pobreza y las políticas de orden local y nacional que se formulan en los centros de poder y de toma de decisiones, pero que desconocen las caracterís...

  14. The nature of aquatic landscapes in the Miocene of western Amazonia: an integrated palaeontological and geochemical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, F.P.; Kaandorp, R.J.G.; Vonhof, H.B.; Räsänen, M.E.; Renema, W.; Gingras, M.

    2006-01-01

    The Miocene Pebas Formation from the section Santa Rosa de Pichana (Loreto, Peru) was investigated using a combination of analyses of sedimentary facies, molluscan communities and taphonomy, and stable isotopes of both entire shells and growth bands in bivalves. Three sequences, comprising a success

  15. Patterns of mineral lick visitation by spider monkeys and howler monkeys in Amazonia: are licks perceived as risky areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Andres; Galvis, Nelson; Fleming, Erin; Di Fiore, Anthony

    2011-04-01

    Mineral licks--also known as "salados," "saladeros," or "collpas"--are specific sites in tropical and temperate ecosystems where a large diversity of mammals and birds come regularly to feed on soil. Although the reasons for vertebrate geophagy are not completely understood, animals are argued to obtain a variety of nutritional and health benefits from the ingestion of soil at mineral licks. We studied the temporal patterns of mineral lick use by white-bellied spider monkey (Ateles belzebuth) and red howler monkey (Alouatta seniculus) in a lowland rain forest in Amazonian Ecuador. Using camera and video traps at four different mineral licks, combined with behavioral follows of one group of spider monkeys, we documented rates of mineral lick visitation by both primate species and the relative frequency and intensity of mineral lick use by spider monkeys. On the basis of 1,612 days and 888 nights of mineral lick monitoring, we found that A. belzebuth and A. seniculus both visit mineral licks frequently throughout the year (on average ∼14% of days for both species), and mineral lick visitation was influenced by short-term environmental conditions (e.g. sunny and dry weather). For spider monkeys, the area surrounding the lick was also the most frequently and most intensively used region within the group's home range. The fact that spider monkeys spent long periods at the lick area before coming to the ground to obtain soil, and the fact that both species visited the lick preferentially during dry sunny conditions (when predator detectability is presumed to be relatively high) and visited simultaneously more often than expected by chance, together suggest that licks are indeed perceived as risky areas by these primates. We suggest that howler and spider monkeys employ behavioral strategies aimed at minimizing the probability of predation while visiting the forest floor at risky mineral lick sites. PMID:21328597

  16. History of natural resource use and environmental impacts in an interfluvial upland forest area in western Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Siren

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Much of the research done on environmental impacts by Amazonian indigenous peoples in the past focus on certain areas where archaeological remains are particularly abundant, such as the Amazon River estuary, the seasonally inundated floodplain of the lower Amazon, and various sites in the forest-savannah mosaic of the southern Amazon The environmental history of interfluvial upland areas has received less attention. This study reconstructed the history of human use of natural resources in an upland area of 1400 km2 surrounding the indigenous Kichwa community of Sarayaku in the Ecuadorian Amazon, based on oral history elicited from local elders as well as historical source documents and some modern scientific studies. Although data is scarce, one can conclude that the impacts of humans on the environment have varied in time and space in quite intricate ways. Hunting has affected, and continues affecting, basically the whole study area, but it is now more concentrated in space than what it has probably ever been before. Also forest clearing has become more concentrated in space but, in addition, it has gone from affecting only hilltops forests to affecting alluvial plains as well as hilltops and, lately, also the slopes of the hills.

  17. Composition, abundance and aspects of temporal variation in the distribution of Anopheles species in an area of Eastern Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ledayane Mayana Costa Barbosa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The diverse and complex environmental conditions of the Amazon Basin favor the breeding and development of Anopheles species. This study aimed to describe the composition, abundance and temporal frequency of Anopheles species and to correlate these factors with precipitation, temperature and relative humidity. Methods The study was conducted in the District of Coração, State of Amapá, Brazil. Samples were collected monthly during three consecutive nights, from 6:00 PM to 10:00 PM, from December 2010 to November 2011. In addition, four 12-hour collections (i.e., 6:00 PM to 6:00 AM were performed during this period. Results A total of 1,230 Anopheles specimens were collected. In the monthly collections, Anopheles darlingi was the predominant species, followed by An. braziliensis and An. albitarsis s.l., whereas An. darlingi, An. peryassui and An. braziliensis were the most frequent species collected in the 12-hour collections. The greatest number of anophelines was collected in September (the dry season. The highest frequency of anophelines was observed for An. darlingi during September, when there were the least rainfalls of the year, along with lower relative humidity and higher temperatures. There was little variation in the abundance of this species in other months, with the exception of slight increases in February, July and August. Conclusions The major malaria vectors, An. darlingi and An. albitarsis s.l. (likely An. marajoara, were the most abundant species collected in the study area. Consequently, prevention and control measures should be taken to prevent malaria outbreaks in the District of Coração.

  18. Quantitative ethnobotany of palms in northwestern South America: a comparative analysis in Amazonia, Andes and Chocó

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cámara-Leret, Rodrigo

    This Doctoral Thesis is the result of an interdisciplinary work between 2010-2014 to document and analyze the use patterns and traditional knowledge of palms (Arecaceae) in northwestern South America. The work is based on field data collected over 18 months in four countries (Colombia, Ecuador......, Peru and Bolivia), three ecoregions (Amazon, Andes, Chocó), three human groups (indigenous, mestizos, afro-americans), 55 Amerindian groups, 68 communities and 2201 informants. Altogether, 140 useful palm species, 2262 different uses and 87,886 use records were found. The Doctoral student conducted...... fieldwork collected more information than the existing literature on most of the analyzed scales, and represents the first empirical evidence that ethnobotanical knowledge is poorly documented in northwestern South America. Given our findings, we hope to stimulate the formulation of plans to systematically...

  19. Chloroplast DNA Microsatellites Reveal Contrasting Phylogeographic Structure in Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King, Meliaceae) from Amazonia and Central America

    OpenAIRE

    Maristerra R. Lemes; Dick, Christopher W; Navarro, Carlos; Lowe, Andrew J.; Cavers, Stephen; Gribel, Rogerio

    2010-01-01

    Big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) is one of the most valuable and overharvested timber trees of tropical America. A description of the organization of genetic variation across its broad range would be useful for management of genetic diversity and for understanding its demographic history. Here we report on a phylogeographic analysis of mahogany based on six polymorphic cpDNA simple sequence repeat loci (cpSSRs) genotyped in 16 populations distributed across the Brazilian Amazon and M...

  20. An experimental test of density- and distant-dependent recruitment of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) in southeastern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norghauer, Julian M; Malcolm, Jay R; Zimmerman, Barbara L; Felfili, Jeanine M

    2006-06-01

    According to the Janzen-Connell model, high mortality of seeds and seedlings in proximity to conspecific adults can help maintain species diversity in tropical forests. Using a natural population of big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King), we tested the model's mechanism by examining seed predation and juvenile recruitment in the forest understory and in treefall gaps in the vicinity of both isolated and clumped adults. We used tethered seeds placed in three types of exclosure plots: (1) complete access to seeds, (2) semi-access (access by small-sized seed predators) and (3) no access (all mammals excluded). Exclosure treatments were applied within the understory (both near and far from adults) and in gaps at eight fruiting adults in the late dry season (2001) and scored ten months later. Significantly more seeds were removed in canopy gaps near clumped adults than at isolated adults; otherwise, none of the treatment factors significantly influenced seed predation. In contrast, understory juvenile recruitment was significantly enhanced by distance from adults and was twice as high at isolated than clumped adults, providing novel support for the Janzen-Connell mechanism. No-access exclosures protected significantly more seeds than semi- and full-access exclosures, implicating small mammals in seed losses. Across the eight trees, juvenile recruitment in the no-access exclosures decreased significantly with conspecific adult densities, implicating non-mammalian density-responsive factor(s) in mortality following germination; likely a known specialist invertebrate herbivore. When all treatments were combined, conspecific adult basal area and total DBH explained 72 and 90% of variation in overall juvenile recruitment, respectively. Collectively, these results indicate that Janzen-Connell effects can operate in S. macrophylla, especially during the seed-to-seedling transition, and will likely reduce recruitment in areas of high conspecific densities. They also suggest that further research into the causes of density-dependence in tropical trees should investigate mortality agents following germination. PMID:16534591

  1. Ecological responses to el Niño-induced surface fires in central Brazilian Amazonia: management implications for flammable tropical forests.

    OpenAIRE

    Barlow, Jos; Peres, Carlos A.

    2004-01-01

    Over the past 20 years the combined effects of El Niño-induced droughts and land-use change have dramatically increased the frequency of fire in humid tropical forests. Despite the potential for rapid ecosystem alteration and the current prevalence of wildfire disturbance, the consequences of such fires for tropical forest biodiversity remain poorly understood. We provide a pan-tropical review of the current state of knowledge of these fires, and include data from a study in a seasonally dry ...

  2. BÚSQUEDA DE PRINCIPIOS ACTIVOS ANTIPARASITARIOS EN PLANTAS DE USO TRADICIONAL DE LA AMAZONIA PERUANA. ESPECIAL ENFASIS EN ALCALOIDES INDOLICOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latenia Ruiz Mesía

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A fin de evaluar el potencial antimalárico de remedios tradicionales utilizadas en el Perú por las poblaciones indígenas y mestizas del río Nanay en Loreto, fueron entrevistados sobre el uso medicina tradicional para el tratamiento de la malaria. La encuesta se llevó a cabo en seis pueblos y llevaron a la recolección de 59 plantas. 35 extracciones hidro-alcohólico se realizaron en las 21 plantas más citadas. A continuación se ensayaron los extractos para la actividad antiplasmodial in vitro sobre cepa resistente a la cloroquina de Plasmodium falciparum (FCR-3, y también se realizó la prueba de inhibición de ferriprotoporfirina con el fin de asumir propiedades farmacológicas. Los extractos de 9 plantas, en veintiún evaluados, mostraron una actividad antiplasmodial interesante  (IC50 <10 µg/ml y 16 extractos resultaron activos en la prueba de inhibición de la ferriprotoporfirina. Cinco alcaloides oxindólicos y dos alcaloides de tipo plumerano subtipo haplophitina, fueron aislados de plantas medicinales: Aspidosperma rigidum y A. schultesii. Uno de estos compuestos se identificó como un confórmero rotámero transoide de la 18-Oxo-O-metilaspidoalbina que no se describió anteriormente, también fueron determinada la actividad antiparasitaria de los compuestos contra Trypanosoma cruzi y Leishmania infantum.

  3. - Formação e manejo de pastagens na Amazônia do Brasil (Establishment and management of pastures in Brazilian´s Amazonia)

    OpenAIRE

    Newton de Lucena Costa; Cláudio Ramalho Townsend; João Avelar Magalhães; Valdinei Tadeu Paulino; Ricardo Gomes de Araújo Pereira

    2006-01-01

    En Amazonía de Basil, la mayor parte de la alimentación animal se basa en el uso de pastos y forrajes, lo cual determina que sea necesario tener un buen conocimiento de los diferentes sistemas de manejo y utilización de éstos si se quiere alcanzar la mayor producción animal por unidad de área. El manejo de praderas tiene como objetivo esencial el de obtener una mayor producción y productividad animal mediante la utilización racional de los pastos en su mejor estado nutricional, con un rendim...

  4. Use and knowledge of the razor-billed curassow pauxi tuberosa (spix, 1825 (galliformes, cracidae by a riverine community of the oriental amazonia, brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Henrique M

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the Amazonian basin, the human populations that traditionally inhabit the forest use its natural resources in various ways. One example is the local fauna which, among several other uses, is an important source of protein. The general aim of our study was to investigate the importance of hunting to the lives of the Amazonian riverine communities and to identify the multiple uses and knowledge about the hunted animals. In this article we focused the study on the razor-billed curassow Pauxi tuberosa, a Cracidae of significant value to the studied community. The investigation was conducted in the "Riozinho do Anfrísio Extractive Reserve", a Brazilian Conservation Unit located at the Altamira municipality, in the state of Pará. We used an ethnoecological approach, which included participant observation and semi-structured interviews. Our results show that the razor-billed curassow is used by the "Riozinho do Anfrísio" local population mainly as food, but it also fulfils secondary functions, with the feathers being used as a domestic tool and as magic-religious symbol, some organs as traditional medicine, and some chicks even being raised as pets. Our study also revealed that the traditional ecological knowledge of the riverines about their environment is considerably large, and that the local biodiversity provides various ecosystem services.

  5. Use and knowledge of the razor-billed curassow pauxi tuberosa (spix, 1825) (galliformes, cracidae) by a riverine community of the oriental amazonia, brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Flávio B; Pereira, Henrique M; Vicente, Luís

    2011-01-01

    In the Amazonian basin, the human populations that traditionally inhabit the forest use its natural resources in various ways. One example is the local fauna which, among several other uses, is an important source of protein. The general aim of our study was to investigate the importance of hunting to the lives of the Amazonian riverine communities and to identify the multiple uses and knowledge about the hunted animals. In this article we focused the study on the razor-billed curassow Pauxi tuberosa, a Cracidae of significant value to the studied community. The investigation was conducted in the "Riozinho do Anfrísio Extractive Reserve", a Brazilian Conservation Unit located at the Altamira municipality, in the state of Pará. We used an ethnoecological approach, which included participant observation and semi-structured interviews. Our results show that the razor-billed curassow is used by the "Riozinho do Anfrísio" local population mainly as food, but it also fulfils secondary functions, with the feathers being used as a domestic tool and as magic-religious symbol, some organs as traditional medicine, and some chicks even being raised as pets. Our study also revealed that the traditional ecological knowledge of the riverines about their environment is considerably large, and that the local biodiversity provides various ecosystem services. PMID:21194497

  6. State of the scientific knowledge on properties and genesis of Anthropogenic Dark Earths in Central Amazonia (terra preta de Índio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Bruno; Birk, Jago Jonathan

    2012-04-01

    Tropical rainforests are highly important for the global climate regulation and for global biodiversity. However, these ecosystems are characterized by nutrient-poor and highly weathered soils and by high turnover rates of organic matter. Thus, they are fragile ecosystems prone to loss of ecosystem services when anthropogenically disturbed. Currently, the major threat to these ecosystems is deforestation leading to irreversible destruction of rainforests. Surprising and not expected is that within these ecosystems small patches of highly fertile soils occur which are known as Anthropogenic Dark Earths or terra preta de Índio (terra preta). These soils exhibit high nutrient and soil organic matter stocks and allow sustainable agriculture. Frequent occurrence of pot-sherds of pre-Columbian origin and further evidence for settlement activities clearly demonstrate that terra preta is of anthropogenic origin. In recent years, the terra preta phenomenon has gained increasing interest because it is assumed that terra preta could act as a model for promoting sustainable agricultural practices in the humid tropics and because terra preta is an example for long-term CO2 sequestration into terrestrial ecosystems with additional positive benefits for ecosystem services. These potentials of terra preta initiated a great number of studies but also stimulated fantasy about their genesis. Therefore, the aim of this review is to summarize the scientific knowledge about terra preta properties and to discuss their genesis. From our own and literature data it is evident that terra preta is the product of inorganic [e.g. ash, bones (esp. fish)] and organic (e.g. biomass wastes, manure, excrements, urine, and biochar) amendments to infertile Ferralsols. These ingredients were microbially metabolized and stabilized by humification in soil, fungi playing a bigger role in this process compared to bacteria in surrounding ecosystems. Biochar is a key component for this process due to its stability and its enrichment in terra preta. It is still unclear if terra preta was produced intentionally or un-intentionally. In addition, it is unclear how much time was needed after the disposal of the materials mentioned above to develop a terra preta. Further research is highly desired to investigate these latter two issues.

  7. NEW SPECIES OF DEMIDOSPERMUS (MONOGENEA: DACTYLOGYRIDAE) OF PIMELODID CATFISH (SILURIFORMES) FROM PERUVIAN AMAZONIA AND THE REASSIGNMENT OF UROCLEIDOIDES LEBEDEVI KRITSKY AND THATCHER, 1976

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mendoza-Palmero, Carlos Alonso; Scholz, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 4 (2011), s. 586-592. ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522; GA ČR GD206/09/H026 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : BRAZIL * ANCYROCEPHALINAE * TELEOSTEI * FISHES * GILLS Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.405, year: 2011

  8. A new species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) from the freshwater fish (red piranha) Pygocentrus nattereri Kner (Characidae) in Amazonia, Brazil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cárdenas, M. Q.; Moravec, František; Fernandes, B. M. M.; Morais, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 2 (2012), s. 137-144. ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Philometra * Pygocentrus * Brazil Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.260, year: 2012 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11230-012-9377-4

  9. Ethnomethodology as an emic guide to cultural systems: the case of the insects and the Kayapó Indians of Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darrell A. Posey

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to briefly summarize the taxonomic features of the folk entomological classification system of the Kayapó Indians of Central Brazil. The folk system shows a correlation with scientific taxonomies, especially at levels of Class, Order and Family. Several morphological continua os "sequences" are evident and within these are found additional sub-groupings called "complexes". Of particular interest is the sequence labeled "ñy", which is analogous to the scientific Orders of Isoptera and Hymenoptera. Patterns for these groupings reflect important social and cultural values and are indicative of the significance of social insects (bees, ants, wasps and termites in the Kayapó belief system. It is suggested that taxonomic systems are guides to culturally significant domains and point to underlying social and cultural patterns. These patterns are reified by mythology and oral tradition, being encoded as recurring symbolic forms with natural prototypes. Thus an ethnomethodology to determine folk classification systems offers an emic approach to the investigation of cultures and reveals the inter-relationships between cognitive systems, mythology, ceremony, and natural symbols.

  10. Applicability of laws and regulations of the Brazilian power sector in the Western Amazon; Aplicabilidade das leis e normas do setor eletrico brasileiro nos estados da Amazonia Ocidental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valois, I.M. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Fac. de Tecnologia], E-mail: ivalois@ufam.edu.br; Cartaxo, E.F. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (NIEMA/UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Fac. de Tecnologia. Nucleo de Energia, Meio Ambiente e Agua], E-mail: ecartaxo@ufam.edu.br

    2009-07-01

    This analysis is developed within a broad context that is characterized by efficient use of electricity in a region environmentally and socially diverse. It considers that energy efficiency is required throughout the process from generation to power consumption, resulting in an interdisciplinary view of the problems reported here. With this guiding principle, the article analyzes the crises of electricity and makes a historical account of some important legal provisions to the environmental and social problems of the state. It assumes that the applicability of the Electric Sector Legislation, in Amazon, becomes inadequate, once in the depopulated endless area, the solutions do not come, simply, by modern technologies where either the traditional ones have place. Studies carried out by the Federal University of Amazonas bring subsidies to the analysis, which aims to create a forum for discussion about the practice of treating as equal parts of deep diversity. (author)

  11. The genus Perissocytheridea Stephenson, 1938 (Crustacea: Ostracoda) and evidence of brackish water facies along the Oligo-Miocene, Pirabas Formation, eastern Amazonia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista Nogueira, Anna Andressa; Ramos, Maria Inês Feijó

    2016-01-01

    Perissocytheridea Stephenson is characteristic of brackish water facies. In 57 samples from the Upper Oligocene to Lower Miocene, from five localities, Pirabas Formation, Pará State, Brazil eleven species have been identified. Among these species, four are new reports: Perissocytheridea punctoreticulata n. sp., Perissocytheridea largulateralis n. sp., Perissocytheridea colini n. sp. and Perissocytheridea pirabensis n. sp.; five species in open nomenclature: Perissocytheridea sp. 1, P. sp. 2, P. sp. 3, P. sp. 4, and P. sp. 5 and two species left in "aff." abbreviation: Perissocytheridea aff. Perissocytheridea pumila and Perissocytheridea aff. Perissocytheridea brachyforma subsp. excavata. The distributional pattern of the Perissocytheridea combined with the occurrence of foraminifera Elphidium and Ammonia in the studied sections supports the presence of the brackish water facies to the respective layers. Their quantitative variation through the studied sections indicate more than one phase of salinity reduction (about >5 and genus has a wide paleobiogeographical occurrence and stratigraphic distribution ranging from the Cretaceous to Recent, and already been recorded in the northern of South America, especially in the Neogene of Solimões Basin, but this is the first report of a neotropical genus to the Oligo-Miocene deposits of Pirabas Formation, northern Brazilian Coast, Pará State.

  12. Des sons et des esprits-maîtres en Amazonie amérindienne Sounds and master-spirits in native Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Chaumeil

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Partant d’un examen comparatif des terminologies concernant la notion d’esprits-maîtres et l’agentivité dans diverses régions des basses terres amazoniennes, l’article s’attache ensuite à décrire plus précisément les formes particulières — essentiellement sonores — de communication et de contrôle des esprits chez les Yagua de l’Amazonie péruvienne. Cet examen permet de saisir l’importance du champ sonore et de la maîtrise des sons dans ces cultures comme l’un des éléments constitutifs des formes de contrôle et de communication avec les non-humains.Beginning with a comparative examination of terminology related to the notion of master-spirits and agency in diverse regions of the Amazonian lowlands, the article then attempts to more precisely describe the particular, essentially sonorous forms of spirit communication and control used among the Yagua of the Peruvian Amazon. This examination enables an understanding of how the sound field and sound mastering are important elements constituting forms of control and forms of communication with non-humans.

  13. Mercado de terras e trajetórias tecnológicas na Amazônia Land market and technological trajectories in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Assis Costa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A dinâmica da economia rural na Amazônia tem sido observada através do fenômeno do desmatamento e avaliada basicamente pelos riscos ambientais e desigualdades distributivas a ela associadas. Este artigo indica possibilidades de mudanças ao mesmo tempo que demonstra os obstáculos a superar. Partindo da observação da economia agrária da região como totalidade em movimento, situa os fundamentos dessa evolução em seis trajetórias tecnológicas, explicitando as assimetrias de capacidade demonstradas entre as mesmas no contexto de suas relações com as instituições presentes. Entre estas, dispensa foco especial nas mediações que garantem a produção e o mercado de terras em relação ao qual indica providências de política que o contenha em dois momentos: no seu processo de produção, momento da transformação do ativo específico "Florestas Originárias" em "Terras com Mata" e no momento da legitimação do produto final em "Terras de Pasto" e "Terras para Lavoura".The dynamics of the rural economy in the Amazon has been observed through the phenomenon of deforestation and evaluated primarily by environmental risks and inequalities in distribution. The article indicates possibilities of change and, at the same time, demonstrates the obstacles to overcome. Starting from the observation of the agrarian economy of the region as a totality in motion, it establishes the foundation of the development on six technological trajectories, explaining the asymmetries of capacity between them in the context of their relations with institutions. Among these, special focus is led to the mediations that ensure production and land market. Regarding the latter, the article indicates policy measures to constrain it.

  14. Anthropogenic landscape in southeastern Amazonia : contemporary impacts of low-intensity harvesting and dispersal of Brazil nuts by the Kayapo indigenous people

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Maria Beatriz N.; Jerozolimski, Adriano; Robert, Pascale de; Salles, Nilson V.; Kayapó, Biribiri; Pimentel, Tania P.; Magnusson, William E.

    2014-01-01

    Brazil nut, the Bertholletia excelsa seed, is one of the most important non-timber forest products in the Amazon Forest and the livelihoods of thousands of traditional Amazonian families depend on its commercialization. B. excelsa has been frequently cited as an indicator of anthropogenic forests and there is strong evidence that past human management has significantly contributed to its present distribution across the Amazon, suggesting that low levels of harvesting may play a positive role ...

  15. The inspection of equipment in the Amazon region: from ACFM to electronic PIG in Urucu; A inspecao de equipamentos na Amazonia: do ACFM ao pig instrumentado em Urucu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mac-Culloch, Joao Nazareth Lafayette de Mello [PETROBRAS S.A., Salvador, BA (Brazil). Exploracao e Producao. Unidade de Servicos de Sondagem Auto-Elevatoria; Beuren, Jair; Quadrado, Flavio Emir; Dunham, Paulo Cezar da Costa Lino [PETROBRAS S.A., Manaus, AM (Brazil). Exploracao e Producao. Unidade de Negocio da Bacia do Solimoes

    2003-07-01

    This paper presents the historical evolution of the activity of equipment inspection of the PETROBRAS/UN-BSOL, in which the developments of a motivation program of the personnel from the effort developed for the certification of inspectors since the techniques more known most modern for the examination of installations and equipment was of great importance. PETROBRAS was introduced in the ACFM by TSC-Technical Software Consultants, during NDT (Non Destructive Test) Congress in 1994. PETROBRAS/UN-BSOL was the first unit to acquire the last equipment, called Amigo. In 2002 has qualified three professionals to ACFM level I. Nowadays, five inspectors level I and one level II and the technique has been used through inspections in several equipment with very well satisfactory. The Duto de Coleta de oleo de LUC de 10in and the Duto de Coleta de gas de LUC de 14in had been inspected with the PIG using the technique of Magnetic flux leakage (MFL), being that in the first one it was used Quantitative Smart PIG (High Resolution) and in as it was used Qualitative Smart PIG (Low Resolution). The results show that, despite the raised cost of the High Resolution PIG, this still is indicated for in-line inspection of pipelines of the UN-BSOL. (author)

  16. Study for the energization of isolated community in the Amazon - Canaa Micro Hydropower Project; Estudo para a energizacao de comunidade isolada na Amazonia - Projeto Microcentral Canaa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiago Filho, Geraldo Lucio; Lemos, Helmo; Nogueira, Fabio Jose Horta [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Recursos Naturais. Centro Nacional de Referencias em PCH' s], Emails: tiago@unifei.edu.br, helmo@unifei.edu.br, fabioh@unifei.edu.br

    2006-07-01

    The initiatives for electrification of remote communities have proven, so far, to difficult economic sustainability, with high rates of discontinuation of service and low quality of electricity provided. Another important aspect of these initiatives is great difficulty for the energy supply in these communities. The program 'Luz para Todos' (Light for All), launched by federal government in 2002, is an alternative that aims to universalize the service of electricity in all throughout the country, mainly of small isolated communities by giving them access to development due to the arrival of energy. One of these communities who will benefit from the program is the Community settlement of Nova Canaa, located in Pimenta Bueno in the State of Rondonia in the Amazon region. It will be met 55 families who never had access to a power quality and continuous supply. The relevance of this project is expressed by the possibility of replication of its management model for other communities in the country, contributing to the improvement of quality of life, poverty reduction and rural exodus. (author)

  17. Xingu Project - Integrating Land Use Planning and Water Governance in Amazonia: Towards Improved Freshwater Security in the Agricultural Frontier of Mato Grosso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krusche, A. V.; Ballester, M. V.; Neill, C.; Elsenbeer, H.; Johnson, M. S.; Coe, M. T.; Garavello, M.; Molina, S. G.; Empinotti, V.; Reichardt, F.; Deegan, L.; Harris, L.

    2014-12-01

    The main goal of this project is to identify how impacts from land conversion, cropland expansion and intensification of both crop and animal production interact to affect regional evapotranspiration, rainfall generation, river flooding, and water quality and stream habitats, allowing us to identify thresholds of change that will endanger agricultural production, livelihoods of non-agricultural settlers and the region's new urban population and infrastructure. We will survey the effects of this on (1) soybean farmers, (2) cattle ranchers, (3) small-scale farm families, (4) rural non-agriculturists, including fishers, and (5) urban residents and map their roles as stakeholders. We will also conduct current water use surveys among the different stakeholder groups, accompanied by questions on desired aspects for future freshwater security to identify targets for desirable outcomes of water governance strategies. These targets, together with the information on land use drivers, water quantity and quality and predicted scenarios for global changes will be incorporated into a fully integrated and interactive geospatially oriented socio-ecological model that can serve as framework for future water governance that enhances Freshwater Security in such systems. This is an international cooperation initiative lead by Brazil and with the participation of Canada, Germany and United States of America.

  18. Os impactos da organização do ambiente institucional no desenvolvimento do arranjo produtivo local do município de Parintins na Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Augusto Ramalho de Souza

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to discuss the organization and characterization of the institutional environment in the development of APL tour of Parintins in Amazonas. To develop the research, the methodology has a qualitative approach, and as a method of content analysis procedure. 10 questionnaires were applied with the managers of the leading institutions in the arrangement. Regionalization Project in Tourism, Parintins is inserted in the Southern Sateré / Tucandeira - Roadmap Boi Bumba festival. This demonstrates the high potential for tourism that has Parintins, depending on the linkage of the various players identified. Through research we can see that the institutional apparatus in the region is relatively developed, but still with little transfer of information between the agents and the lack of cooperative actions focused on developing the Local Productive Arrangement.

  19. Throughfall and temporal trends of rainfall redistribution in an open tropical rainforest, south-western Amazonia (Rondônia, Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germer, S.; Elsenbeer, H.; Moraes, J. M.

    2006-06-01

    Throughfall volumes and incident rainfall were measured between 23 August and 2 December 2004 as well as from 6 January to 15 April 2005 for individual rain events of differing intensities and magnitudes in an open tropical rainforest in Rondônia, Brazil. Temporal patterns of throughfall spatial variability were examined. Estimated interception was compared to modeled interception obtained by applying the revised Gash model in order to identify sources of throughfall variability in open tropical rainforests. Gross precipitation of 97 events amounted to 1309 mm, 89±5.6% (S.E.) of which reached the forest floor as throughfall. The redistribution of water within the canopy was highly variable in time, which we attribute to the high density of babassu palms (Orbignya phalerata), their seasonal leaf growth, and their conducive morphology. We identified a 10-min rainfall intensity threshold of 30 mmh-1 above which interception was highly variable. This variability is amplified by funneling and shading effects of palms. This interaction between a rainfall variable and vegetation characteristics is relevant for understanding the hydrology of all tropical rainforests with a high palm density.

  20. Throughfall and temporal trends of rainfall redistribution in an open tropical rainforest, south-western Amazonia (Rondônia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Germer

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Throughfall volumes and incident rainfall were measured between 23 August and 2 December 2004 as well as from 6 January to 15 April 2005 for individual rain events of differing intensities and magnitudes in an open tropical rainforest in Rondônia, Brazil. Temporal patterns of throughfall spatial variability were examined. Estimated interception losses were compared to modeled interception losses obtained by applying the revised Gash model in order to identify sources of throughfall variability in open tropical rainforests.

    Gross precipitation of 97 events amounted to 1309 mm, 89±5.6% (S.E. of which reached the forest floor as throughfall. The redistribution of water within the canopy was highly variable in time, which we attribute to the high density of babassu palms (Orbignya phalerata, their seasonal leaf growth, and their conducive morphology. We identified a 10-min rainfall intensity threshold of 30 mm h−1 above which interception losses were highly variable. This variability is amplified by funneling and shading effects of palms. This interaction between a rainfall variable and vegetation characteristics is relevant for understanding the hydrology of all tropical rainforests with a high palm density.