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Sample records for amazonia reveals neotropical

  1. Biogeographic and diversification patterns of Neotropical Troidini butterflies (Papilionidae support a museum model of diversity dynamics for Amazonia

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    Condamine Fabien L

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The temporal and geographical diversification of Neotropical insects remains poorly understood because of the complex changes in geological and climatic conditions that occurred during the Cenozoic. To better understand extant patterns in Neotropical biodiversity, we investigated the evolutionary history of three Neotropical swallowtail Troidini genera (Papilionidae. First, DNA-based species delimitation analyses were conducted to assess species boundaries within Neotropical Troidini using an enlarged fragment of the standard barcode gene. Molecularly delineated species were then used to infer a time-calibrated species-level phylogeny based on a three-gene dataset and Bayesian dating analyses. The corresponding chronogram was used to explore their temporal and geographical diversification through distinct likelihood-based methods. Results The phylogeny for Neotropical Troidini was well resolved and strongly supported. Molecular dating and biogeographic analyses indicate that the extant lineages of Neotropical Troidini have a late Eocene (33–42 Ma origin in North America. Two independent lineages (Battus and Euryades + Parides reached South America via the GAARlandia temporary connection, and later became extinct in North America. They only began substantive diversification during the early Miocene in Amazonia. Macroevolutionary analysis supports the “museum model” of diversification, rather than Pleistocene refugia, as the best explanation for the diversification of these lineages. Conclusions This study demonstrates that: (i current Neotropical biodiversity may have originated ex situ; (ii the GAARlandia bridge was important in facilitating invasions of South America; (iii colonization of Amazonia initiated the crown diversification of these swallowtails; and (iv Amazonia is not only a species-rich region but also acted as a sanctuary for the dynamics of this diversity. In particular, Amazonia probably allowed

  2. Biogeographic and diversification patterns of Neotropical Troidini butterflies (Papilionidae) support a museum model of diversity dynamics for Amazonia.

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    Condamine, Fabien L; Silva-Brandão, Karina L; Kergoat, Gael J; Sperling, Felix A H

    2012-06-12

    The temporal and geographical diversification of Neotropical insects remains poorly understood because of the complex changes in geological and climatic conditions that occurred during the Cenozoic. To better understand extant patterns in Neotropical biodiversity, we investigated the evolutionary history of three Neotropical swallowtail Troidini genera (Papilionidae). First, DNA-based species delimitation analyses were conducted to assess species boundaries within Neotropical Troidini using an enlarged fragment of the standard barcode gene. Molecularly delineated species were then used to infer a time-calibrated species-level phylogeny based on a three-gene dataset and Bayesian dating analyses. The corresponding chronogram was used to explore their temporal and geographical diversification through distinct likelihood-based methods. The phylogeny for Neotropical Troidini was well resolved and strongly supported. Molecular dating and biogeographic analyses indicate that the extant lineages of Neotropical Troidini have a late Eocene (33-42 Ma) origin in North America. Two independent lineages (Battus and Euryades+Parides) reached South America via the GAARlandia temporary connection, and later became extinct in North America. They only began substantive diversification during the early Miocene in Amazonia. Macroevolutionary analysis supports the "museum model" of diversification, rather than Pleistocene refugia, as the best explanation for the diversification of these lineages. This study demonstrates that: (i) current Neotropical biodiversity may have originated ex situ; (ii) the GAARlandia bridge was important in facilitating invasions of South America; (iii) colonization of Amazonia initiated the crown diversification of these swallowtails; and (iv) Amazonia is not only a species-rich region but also acted as a sanctuary for the dynamics of this diversity. In particular, Amazonia probably allowed the persistence of old lineages and contributed to the steady

  3. Neotropics provide insights into the emergence of New World monkeys: New dental evidence from the late Oligocene of Peruvian Amazonia.

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    Marivaux, Laurent; Adnet, Sylvain; Altamirano-Sierra, Ali J; Boivin, Myriam; Pujos, François; Ramdarshan, Anusha; Salas-Gismondi, Rodolfo; Tejada-Lara, Julia V; Antoine, Pierre-Olivier

    2016-08-01

    Recent field efforts in Peruvian Amazonia (Contamana area, Loreto Department) have resulted in the discovery of a late Oligocene (ca. 26.5 Ma; Chambira Formation) fossil primate-bearing locality (CTA-61). In this paper, we analyze the primate material consisting of two isolated upper molars, the peculiar morphology of which allows us to describe a new medium-sized platyrrhine monkey: Canaanimico amazonensis gen. et sp. nov. In addition to the recent discovery of Perupithecus ucayaliensis, a primitive anthropoid taxon of African affinities from the alleged latest Eocene Santa Rosa locality (Peruvian Amazonia), the discovery of Canaanimico adds to the evidence that primates were well-established in the Amazonian Basin during the Paleogene. Our phylogenetic results based on dental evidence show that none of the early Miocene Patagonian taxa (Homunculus, Carlocebus, Soriacebus, Mazzonicebus, Dolichocebus, Tremacebus, and Chilecebus), the late Oligocene Bolivian Branisella, or the Peruvian Canaanimico, is nested within a crown platyrrhine clade. All these early taxa are closely related and considered here as stem Platyrrhini. Canaanimico is nested within the Patagonian Soriacebinae, and closely related to Soriacebus, thereby extending back the soriacebine lineage to 26.5 Ma. Given the limited dental evidence, it is difficult to assess if Canaanimico was engaged in a form of pitheciine-like seed predation as is observed in Soriacebus and Mazzonicebus, but dental microwear patterns recorded on one upper molar indicate that Canaanimico was possibly a fruit and hard-object eater. If Panamacebus, a recently discovered stem cebine from the early Miocene of Panama, indicates that the crown platyrrhine radiation was already well underway by the earliest Miocene, Canaanimico indicates in turn that the "homunculid" radiation (as a part of the stem radiation) was well underway by the late Oligocene. These new data suggest that the stem radiation likely occurred in the Neotropics

  4. Underestimation of species richness in neotropical frogs revealed by mtDNA analyses.

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    Antoine Fouquet

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Amphibians are rapidly vanishing. At the same time, it is most likely that the number of amphibian species is highly underestimated. Recent DNA barcoding work has attempted to define a threshold between intra- and inter-specific genetic distances to help identify candidate species. In groups with high extinction rates and poorly known species boundaries, like amphibians, such tools may provide a way to rapidly evaluate species richness.Here we analyse published and new 16S rDNA sequences from 60 frog species of Amazonia-Guianas to obtain a minimum estimate of the number of undescribed species in this region. We combined isolation by distance, phylogenetic analyses, and comparison of molecular distances to evaluate threshold values for the identification of candidate species among these frogs.In most cases, geographically distant populations belong to genetically highly distinct lineages that could be considered as candidate new species. This was not universal among the taxa studied and thus widespread species of Neotropical frogs really do exist, contrary to previous assumptions. Moreover, the many instances of paraphyly and the wide overlap between distributions of inter- and intra-specific distances reinforce the hypothesis that many cryptic species remain to be described. In our data set, pairwise genetic distances below 0.02 are strongly correlated with geographical distances. This correlation remains statistically significant until genetic distance is 0.05, with no such relation thereafter. This suggests that for higher distances allopatric and sympatric cryptic species prevail. Based on our analyses, we propose a more inclusive pairwise genetic distance of 0.03 between taxa to target lineages that could correspond to candidate species.Using this approach, we identify 129 candidate species, two-fold greater than the 60 species included in the current study. This leads to estimates of around 170 to 460 frog taxa unrecognized in Amazonia

  5. Study of morphological variation of northern Neotropical Ariidae reveals conservatism despite macrohabitat transitions.

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    Stange, Madlen; Aguirre-Fernández, Gabriel; Salzburger, Walter; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R

    2018-03-27

    Morphological convergence triggered by trophic adaptations is a common pattern in adaptive radiations. The study of shape variation in an evolutionary context is usually restricted to well-studied fish models. We take advantage of the recently revised systematics of New World Ariidae and investigate skull shape evolution in six genera of northern Neotropical Ariidae. They constitute a lineage that diversified in the marine habitat but repeatedly adapted to freshwater habitats. 3D geometric morphometrics was applied for the first time in catfish skulls and phylogenetically informed statistical analyses were performed to test for the impact of habitat on skull diversification after habitat transition in this lineage. We found that skull shape is conserved throughout phylogeny. A morphospace analysis revealed that freshwater and marine species occupy extreme ends of the first principal component axis and that they exhibit similar Procrustes variances. Yet freshwater species occupy the smallest shape space compared to marine and brackish species (based on partial disparity), and marine and freshwater species have the largest Procrustes distance to each other. We observed a single case of shape convergence as derived from 'C-metrics', which cannot be explained by the occupation of the same habitat. Although Ariidae occupy such a broad spectrum of different habitats from sea to freshwater, the morphospace analysis and analyses of shape and co-variation with habitat in a phylogenetic context shows that conservatism dominates skull shape evolution among ariid genera.

  6. Continental cichlid radiations: functional diversity reveals the role of changing ecological opportunity in the Neotropics.

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    Arbour, Jessica Hilary; López-Fernández, Hernán

    2016-08-17

    Adaptive radiations have been hypothesized to contribute broadly to the diversity of organisms. Models of adaptive radiation predict that ecological opportunity and ecological release, the availability of empty ecological niches and the response by adapting lineages to occupy them, respectively, drive patterns of phenotypic and lineage diversification. Adaptive radiations driven by 'ecological opportunity' are well established in island systems; it is less clear if ecological opportunity influences continent-wide diversification. We use Neotropical cichlid fishes to test if variation in rates of functional evolution is consistent with changing ecological opportunity. Across a functional morphological axis associated with ram-suction feeding traits, evolutionary rates declined through time as lineages diversified in South America. Evolutionary rates of ram-suction functional morphology also appear to have accelerated as cichlids colonized Central America and encountered renewed opportunity. Our results suggest that ecological opportunity may play an important role in shaping patterns of morphological diversity of even broadly distributed lineages like Neotropical cichlids. © 2016 The Author(s).

  7. Late quaternary dynamics in the Madeira river basin, southern Amazonia (Brazil, as revealed by paleomorphological analysis

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    Ericson H. Hayakawa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ancient drainage systems are being increasingly documented in the Amazon basin and their characterization is crucial for reconstructing fluvial evolution in this area. Fluvial morphologies, including elongate belts, are well preserved along the Madeira River. Digital Elevation Model from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission favored the detection of these features even where they are covered by dense rainforest. These paleomorphologies are attributed to the shifting position of past tributaries of the Madeira River through avulsions. These radial paleodrainage networks produced fan-shaped morphologies that resemble distributary megafans. Distinguishing avulsive tributary systems from distributary megafans in the sedimentary record is challenging. Madeira´s paleodrainage reveals the superposition of tributary channels formed by multiple avulsions within a given time period, rather than downstream bifurcation of coexisting channels. Channel avulsion in this Amazonian area during the late Quaternary is related to tectonics due to features as: (i straight lineaments coincident with fault directions; (ii northeastward tilting of the terrain with Quaternary strata; and (iii several drainage anomalies, including frequent orthogonal drainage inflections. These characteristics altogether lead to propose that the radial paleodrainage present at the Madeira River margin results from successive avulsions of tributary channels over time due to tectonics.

  8. Molecular data reveal complex hybridization and a cryptic species of neotropical wild cat.

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    Trigo, Tatiane C; Schneider, Alexsandra; de Oliveira, Tadeu G; Lehugeur, Livia M; Silveira, Leandro; Freitas, Thales R O; Eizirik, Eduardo

    2013-12-16

    Hybridization among animal species has recently become more recognized as an important phenomenon, especially in the context of recent radiations. Here we show that complex hybridization has led to contrasting patterns of genomic composition among closely related species of the Neotropical cat genus Leopardus. We show strong evidence of ancient hybridization and introgression between the pampas cat (L. colocolo) and northeastern populations of tigrina (L. tigrinus), leading to remarkable cytonuclear discordance in the latter. In contrast, southern tigrina populations show recent and continuing hybridization with Geoffroy's cat (L. geoffroyi), leading to extreme levels of interspecific admixture at their contact zone. Finally, we demonstrate that two seemingly continuous Brazilian tigrina populations show no evidence of ongoing gene flow between them, leading us to support their formal recognition as distinct species, namely L. tigrinus in the northeast and L. guttulus in the south. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Contrasting patterns of Andean diversification among three diverse clades of Neotropical clearwing butterflies.

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    Chazot, Nicolas; De-Silva, Donna Lisa; Willmott, Keith R; Freitas, André V L; Lamas, Gerardo; Mallet, James; Giraldo, Carlos E; Uribe, Sandra; Elias, Marianne

    2018-04-01

    The Neotropical region is the most biodiverse on Earth, in a large part due to the highly diverse tropical Andean biota. The Andes are a potentially important driver of diversification within the mountains and for neighboring regions. We compared the role of the Andes in diversification among three subtribes of Ithomiini butterflies endemic to the Neotropics, Dircennina, Oleriina, and Godyridina. The diversification patterns of Godyridina have been studied previously. Here, we generate the first time-calibrated phylogeny for the largest ithomiine subtribe, Dircennina, and we reanalyze a published phylogeny of Oleriina to test different biogeographic scenarios involving the Andes within an identical framework. We found common diversification patterns across the three subtribes, as well as major differences. In Dircennina and Oleriina, our results reveal a congruent pattern of diversification related to the Andes with an Andean origin, which contrasts with the Amazonian origin and multiple Andean colonizations of Godyridina. In each of the three subtribes, a clade diversified in the Northern Andes at a faster rate. Diversification within Amazonia occurred in Oleriina and Godyridina, while virtually no speciation occurred in Dircennina in this region. Dircennina was therefore characterized by higher diversification rates within the Andes compared to non-Andean regions, while in Oleriina and Godyridina, we found no difference between these regions. Our results and discussion highlight the importance of comparative approaches in biogeographic studies.

  10. [Geographic data for Neotropical bats (Chiroptera)].

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    Noguera-Urbano, Elkin A; Escalante, Tania

    2014-03-01

    The global effort to digitize biodiversity occurrence data from collections, museums and other institutions has stimulated the development of important tools to improve the knowledge and conservation of biodiversity. The Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) enables and opens access to biodiversity data of 321 million of records, from 379 host institutions. Neotropical bats are a highly diverse and specialized group, and the geographic information about them is increasing since few years ago, but there are a few reports about this topic. The aim of this study was to analyze the number of digital records in GBIF of Neotropical bats with distribution in 21 American countries, evaluating their nomenclatural and geographical consistence at scale of country. Moreover, we evaluated the gaps of information on 1 degrees latitude x 1 degrees longitude grids cells. There were over 1/2 million records, but 58% of them have no latitude and longitude data; and 52% full fit nomenclatural and geographic evaluation. We estimated that there are no records in 54% of the analyzed area; the principal gaps are in biodiversity hotspots like the Colombian and Brazilian Amazonia and Southern Venezuela. In conclusion, our study suggests that available data on GBIF have nomenclatural and geographic biases. GBIF data represent partially the bat species richness and the main gaps in information are in South America.

  11. Non–invasive sampling of endangered neotropical river otters reveals high levels of dispersion in the Lacantun River System of Chiapas, Mexico

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    Ortega, J.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Patterns of genetic dispersion, levels of population genetic structure, and movement of the neotropical river otter (Lontra longicaudis were investigated by screening eight polymorphic microsatellites from DNA extracted from fecal samples, collected in a hydrologic system of the Lacandon rainforest in Chiapas, Mexico. A total of 34 unique genotypes were detected from our surveys along six different rivers, and the effect of landscape genetic structure was studied. We recovered 16 of the 34 individuals in multiple rivers at multiple times. We found high levels of dispersion and low levels of genetic differentiation among otters from the six surveyed rivers (P > 0.05, except for the pairwise comparison among the Lacantún and José rivers (P < 0.05. We recommend that conservation management plans for the species consider the entire Lacantún River System and its tributaries as a single management unit to ensure the maintenance of current levels of population genetic diversity, because the population analyzed seems to follow a source–sink dynamic mainly determined by the existence of the major river.

  12. Droughts in Amazonia: Spatiotemporal Variability, Teleconnections, and Seasonal Predictions

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    Lima, Carlos H. R.; AghaKouchak, Amir

    2017-12-01

    Most Amazonia drought studies have focused on rainfall deficits and their impact on river discharges, while the analysis of other important driver variables, such as temperature and soil moisture, has attracted less attention. Here we try to better understand the spatiotemporal dynamics of Amazonia droughts and associated climate teleconnections as characterized by the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), which integrates information from rainfall deficit, temperature anomalies, and soil moisture capacity. The results reveal that Amazonia droughts are most related to one dominant pattern across the entire region, followed by two seesaw kind of patterns: north-south and east-west. The main two modes are correlated with sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the tropical Pacific and Atlantic oceans. The teleconnections associated with global SST are then used to build a seasonal forecast model for PDSI over Amazonia based on predictors obtained from a sparse canonical correlation analysis approach. A unique feature of the presented drought prediction method is using only a few number of predictors to avoid excessive noise in the predictor space. Cross-validated results show correlations between observed and predicted spatial average PDSI up to 0.60 and 0.45 for lead times of 5 and 9 months, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in the region that, based on cross-validation results, leads to appreciable forecast skills for lead times beyond 4 months. This is a step forward in better understanding the dynamics of Amazonia droughts and improving risk assessment and management, through improved drought forecasting.

  13. [Neotropical plant morphology].

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    Pérez-García, Blanca; Mendoza, Aniceto

    2002-01-01

    An analysis on plant morphology and the sources that are important to the morphologic interpretations is done. An additional analysis is presented on all published papers in this subject by the Revista de Biología Tropical since its foundation, as well as its contribution to the plant morphology development in the neotropics.

  14. Population history, phylogeography, and conservation genetics of the last Neotropical mega-herbivore, the lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris

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    de Thoisy Benoit

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the forces that shaped Neotropical diversity is central issue to explain tropical biodiversity and inform conservation action; yet few studies have examined large, widespread species. Lowland tapir (Tapirus terrrestris, Perissodactyla, Tapiridae is the largest Neotropical herbivore whose ancestors arrived in South America during the Great American Biotic Interchange. A Pleistocene diversification is inferred for the genus Tapirus from the fossil record, but only two species survived the Pleistocene megafauna extinction. Here, we investigate the history of lowland tapir as revealed by variation at the mitochondrial gene Cytochrome b, compare it to the fossil data, and explore mechanisms that could have shaped the observed structure of current populations. Results Separate methodological approaches found mutually exclusive divergence times for lowland tapir, either in the late or in the early Pleistocene, although a late Pleistocene divergence is more in tune with the fossil record. Bayesian analysis favored mountain tapir (T. pinchaque paraphyly in relation to lowland tapir over reciprocal monophyly, corroborating the inferences from the fossil data these species are sister taxa. A coalescent-based analysis rejected a null hypothesis of allopatric divergence, suggesting a complex history. Based on the geographic distribution of haplotypes we propose (i a central role for western Amazonia in tapir diversification, with a key role of the ecological gradient along the transition between Andean subcloud forests and Amazon lowland forest, and (ii that the Amazon river acted as an barrier to gene flow. Finally, the branching patterns and estimates based on nucleotide diversity indicate a population expansion after the Last Glacial Maximum. Conclusions This study is the first examining lowland tapir phylogeography. Climatic events at the end of the Pleistocene, parapatric speciation, divergence along the Andean foothill

  15. Population history, phylogeography, and conservation genetics of the last Neotropical mega-herbivore, the lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Thoisy, Benoit; da Silva, Anders Gonçalves; Ruiz-García, Manuel; Tapia, Andrés; Ramirez, Oswaldo; Arana, Margarita; Quse, Viviana; Paz-y-Miño, César; Tobler, Mathias; Pedraza, Carlos; Lavergne, Anne

    2010-09-14

    Understanding the forces that shaped Neotropical diversity is central issue to explain tropical biodiversity and inform conservation action; yet few studies have examined large, widespread species. Lowland tapir (Tapirus terrrestris, Perissodactyla, Tapiridae) is the largest Neotropical herbivore whose ancestors arrived in South America during the Great American Biotic Interchange. A Pleistocene diversification is inferred for the genus Tapirus from the fossil record, but only two species survived the Pleistocene megafauna extinction. Here, we investigate the history of lowland tapir as revealed by variation at the mitochondrial gene Cytochrome b, compare it to the fossil data, and explore mechanisms that could have shaped the observed structure of current populations. Separate methodological approaches found mutually exclusive divergence times for lowland tapir, either in the late or in the early Pleistocene, although a late Pleistocene divergence is more in tune with the fossil record. Bayesian analysis favored mountain tapir (T. pinchaque) paraphyly in relation to lowland tapir over reciprocal monophyly, corroborating the inferences from the fossil data these species are sister taxa. A coalescent-based analysis rejected a null hypothesis of allopatric divergence, suggesting a complex history. Based on the geographic distribution of haplotypes we propose (i) a central role for western Amazonia in tapir diversification, with a key role of the ecological gradient along the transition between Andean subcloud forests and Amazon lowland forest, and (ii) that the Amazon river acted as an barrier to gene flow. Finally, the branching patterns and estimates based on nucleotide diversity indicate a population expansion after the Last Glacial Maximum. This study is the first examining lowland tapir phylogeography. Climatic events at the end of the Pleistocene, parapatric speciation, divergence along the Andean foothill, and role of the Amazon river, have similarly shaped

  16. The neotropical species of Xanthopimpla Saussure (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae).

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    Gómez, Isrrael C; Sääksjärvi, Ilari E; Broad, Gavin R; Puhakka, Liisa; Castillo, Carol; Peña, Carlos; Pádua, Diego G

    2014-03-04

    Xanthopimpla Saussure, 1892 is one of the largest and best studied genera of the family Ichneumonidae. It is most species rich in the Oriental and Afrotropical regions with only a few species occurring in Central and South America. The present study reviews the Neotropical species of the genus including descriptions of four new species from Amazonia and Northeast South America. We define a new species group: the amazonica species-group, to accommodate the following five species: X. amazonica Gómez, Sääksjärvi & Veijalainen, X. guianensis Gómez & Sääksjärvi sp. n., X. jussilai Veijalainen, Sääksjärvi & Broad, X. pucallpensis Gómez & Sääksjärvi sp. n. and X. vidali Gómez sp. n. The aurita species-group, which had hitherto been regarded as the only species-group in the Neotropical region, is currently represented by five species: X. allpahuaya Gómez & Sääksjärvi sp. n., X. aurita Krieger, X. craspedoptera Krieger, X. rhabdomera Townes and X. spiloptera Krieger. The Andean species X. peruana Krieger is established as an unplaced species outside of the amazonica and aurita species-groups. A key to Neotropical species-groups and species of Xanthopimpla is provided. Xanthopimpla aurita is recorded for the first time from Ecuador and Colombia and its extensive distribution is discussed. Xanthopimpla amazonica, X. craspedoptera and X. jussilai are recorded for the first time from Brazil; X. amazonica is recorded for the first time from French Guiana; X. spiloptera is recorded for the first time from French Guiana and Peru, and X. rhabdomera is recorded for the first time from Peru. 

  17. The environment and the hydroelectric in Amazonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Rovere, E.L.

    1992-01-01

    Some aspects about social and environmental impacts due to the hydroelectric power plants constructed in Amazonia region are presented, including considerations of energy planning and management with international example. (C.G.C.)

  18. Two-year participatory monitoring of extractivism in Brazilian Amazonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cámara-Leret, Rodrigo; Newton, Peter; Hawes, Joseph

    basin of western Brazilian Amazonia. We discuss the most important extractive activities for ~100 households, how socio-economic factors influence NTFP extractive patterns across households, and the benefits and constraints of using participatory approaches to monitor extractivism in Amazonia....

  19. Greenhouse gases study in Amazonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Amelio, Monica Tais Siqueira

    2006-01-01

    The Amazon plays an important role on the global carbon cycle, as changing as carbon storage, since Amazon Basin is the biggest area of tropical forest, around 50% of global. Natural's process, deforestation, and use land are CO 2 sources. The Amazon forest is a significant source of N 2 O by soil process, and CH 4 by anaerobic process like flooded areas, rice cultures, and others sources. This project is part of the LBA project (Large-Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia), and this project is 'Vertical profiles of carbon dioxide and other trace gas species over the Amazon basin using small aircraft'. Since December 2000 vertical profiles of CO 2 , CH 4 , CO, H 2 , N 2 O and SF 6 have been measured above central Amazonia. The local sampling was over Tapajos National Forest, a primary forest in Para State, where had a CO 2 flux tower and an east impact area with sources like animals, rice cultivation, biomass burning, etc, to compare the influence of an impact area and a preserved area in the profiles. The Reserva Biologica de Cuieiras, at Amazon State, is the other studied place, where there already exists a CO 2 flux tower, and an east preserved area at this State, to compare with the Cuieiras. The sampling has been carried out on vertical profile from 1000 ft up to 12000 ft using a semi-automated sampling package developed at GMD/NOAA and a small aircraft. The analysis uses the MAGICC system (Multiple Analysis of Gases Influence Climate Change) which is installed at the Atmospheric Chemistry Laboratory (LQA) in IPEN (Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares). The results showed that all gases studied, except H 2 gas, has been following the global trend. At the Para State, for the studied years, the Amazonian Forest performed as small CO 2 sink. To compare Wet and Dry Seasons, subtracted the Ascension concentration values in the period to remove the global influence. So that, in the 2004 and 2005 wet seasons and 2004 dry season comparison it was

  20. The domestication of Amazonia before European conquest.

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    Clement, Charles R; Denevan, William M; Heckenberger, Michael J; Junqueira, André Braga; Neves, Eduardo G; Teixeira, Wenceslau G; Woods, William I

    2015-08-07

    During the twentieth century, Amazonia was widely regarded as relatively pristine nature, little impacted by human history. This view remains popular despite mounting evidence of substantial human influence over millennial scales across the region. Here, we review the evidence of an anthropogenic Amazonia in response to claims of sparse populations across broad portions of the region. Amazonia was a major centre of crop domestication, with at least 83 native species containing populations domesticated to some degree. Plant domestication occurs in domesticated landscapes, including highly modified Amazonian dark earths (ADEs) associated with large settled populations and that may cover greater than 0.1% of the region. Populations and food production expanded rapidly within land management systems in the mid-Holocene, and complex societies expanded in resource-rich areas creating domesticated landscapes with profound impacts on local and regional ecology. ADE food production projections support estimates of at least eight million people in 1492. By this time, highly diverse regional systems had developed across Amazonia where subsistence resources were created with plant and landscape domestication, including earthworks. This review argues that the Amazonian anthrome was no less socio-culturally diverse or populous than other tropical forested areas of the world prior to European conquest. © 2015 The Author(s).

  1. Miocene freshwater Mollusca from western Brazilian Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, F.P.; Ranzi, A.; Räsänen, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    Thirteen species of fossil molluscs are reported from the Solimões Formation of western Brazilian Amazonia. Based on mammalian chronology of the Solimões Formation and radiometric ages reported from coeval deposits in adjacent Peru, the age of the fauna is established as Late Miocene. The fauna

  2. Lizards of Brazilian Amazonia (Reptilia: Squamata)

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    Avila-Pires, T.C.S.

    1995-01-01

    Eighty-nine species of lizards, six of which polytypic (forming a total of 97 taxa), are presently known from Brazilian Amazonia. This number includes six species and one subspecies described as new to science in this paper: Stenocercus fimbriatus, Lepidoblepharis hoogmoedi, Leposoma osvaldoi, L.

  3. Phylogenetics of neotropical Platymiscium (Leguminosae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saslis-Lagoudakis, C. Haris; Chase, Mark W; Robinson, Daniel N

    2008-01-01

    Platymiscium is a neotropical legume genus of forest trees in the Pterocarpus clade of the pantropical "dalbergioid" clade. It comprises 19 species (29 taxa), distributed from Mexico to southern Brazil. This study presents a molecular phylogenetic analysis of Platymiscium and allies inferred from...

  4. Comparative Phylogeography of Neotropical Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    birds, butterflies, plants , soil type, and precipitation (Whitmore and Prance 1987); (C) study populations based largely on neo-tropical lowland...Caballero, A. 1994. Developments in the prediction of effective population size. Heredity 73:657- 679. Camargo, A., R. O. De Sa, and W. R. Heyer. 2006...157-183. Hamrick, J. L., and M. J. W. Godt. 1996. Effects of life history traits on genetic diversity in plant species. Philosophical Transactions Of

  5. Drug tourism or spiritual healing? Ayahuasca seekers in Amazonia.

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    Winkelman, Michael

    2005-06-01

    This research addresses the question of whether Westerners who seek traditional spiritual medicine known as ayahuasca can be best characterized as "drug tourists" or as people pursuing spiritual and therapeutic opportunities. Participants in an ayahuasca retreat in Amazonia were interviewed regarding their motivations for participation and the benefits they felt that they received. These findings from the interviews were organized to reveal common motivations and benefits. Contrary to the characterization as "drug tourists", the principal motivations can be characterized as: seeking spiritual relations and personal spiritual development; emotional healing; and the development of personal self-awareness, including contact with a sacred nature, God, spirits and plant and natural energies produced by the ayahuasca. The motivation and perceived benefits both point to transpersonal concerns, with the principal perceived benefits involving increased self awareness, insights and access to deeper levels of the self that enhanced personal development and the higher self, providing personal direction in life.

  6. Pervasive Rise of Small-scale Deforestation in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalamandeen, Michelle; Gloor, Emanuel; Mitchard, Edward; Quincey, Duncan; Ziv, Guy; Spracklen, Dominick; Spracklen, Benedict; Adami, Marcos; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Galbraith, David

    2018-01-25

    Understanding forest loss patterns in Amazonia, the Earth's largest rainforest region, is critical for effective forest conservation and management. Following the most detailed analysis to date, spanning the entire Amazon and extending over a 14-year period (2001-2014), we reveal significant shifts in deforestation dynamics of Amazonian forests. Firstly, hotspots of Amazonian forest loss are moving away from the southern Brazilian Amazon to Peru and Bolivia. Secondly, while the number of new large forest clearings (>50 ha) has declined significantly over time (46%), the number of new small clearings (<1 ha) increased by 34% between 2001-2007 and 2008-2014. Thirdly, we find that small-scale low-density forest loss expanded markedly in geographical extent during 2008-2014. This shift presents an important and alarming new challenge for forest conservation, despite reductions in overall deforestation rates.

  7. DNA fingerprinting validates seed dispersal curves from observational studies in the neotropical legume parkia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, Eckhard W; Lüttmann, Kathrin; Michalczyk, Inga M; Saboya, Pedro Pablo Pinedo; Ziegenhagen, Birgit; Bialozyt, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Determining the distances over which seeds are dispersed is a crucial component for examining spatial patterns of seed dispersal and their consequences for plant reproductive success and population structure. However, following the fate of individual seeds after removal from the source tree till deposition at a distant place is generally extremely difficult. Here we provide a comparison of observationally and genetically determined seed dispersal distances and dispersal curves in a Neotropical animal-plant system. In a field study on the dispersal of seeds of three Parkia (Fabaceae) species by two Neotropical primate species, Saguinus fuscicollis and Saguinus mystax, in Peruvian Amazonia, we observationally determined dispersal distances. These dispersal distances were then validated through DNA fingerprinting, by matching DNA from the maternally derived seed coat to DNA from potential source trees. We found that dispersal distances are strongly right-skewed, and that distributions obtained through observational and genetic methods and fitted distributions do not differ significantly from each other. Our study showed that seed dispersal distances can be reliably estimated through observational methods when a strict criterion for inclusion of seeds is observed. Furthermore, dispersal distances produced by the two primate species indicated that these primates fulfil one of the criteria for efficient seed dispersers. Finally, our study demonstrated that DNA extraction methods so far employed for temperate plant species can be successfully used for hard-seeded tropical plants.

  8. DNA Fingerprinting Validates Seed Dispersal Curves from Observational Studies in the Neotropical Legume Parkia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, Eckhard W.; Lüttmann, Kathrin; Michalczyk, Inga M.; Saboya, Pedro Pablo Pinedo; Ziegenhagen, Birgit; Bialozyt, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Background Determining the distances over which seeds are dispersed is a crucial component for examining spatial patterns of seed dispersal and their consequences for plant reproductive success and population structure. However, following the fate of individual seeds after removal from the source tree till deposition at a distant place is generally extremely difficult. Here we provide a comparison of observationally and genetically determined seed dispersal distances and dispersal curves in a Neotropical animal-plant system. Methodology/Principal Findings In a field study on the dispersal of seeds of three Parkia (Fabaceae) species by two Neotropical primate species, Saguinus fuscicollis and Saguinus mystax, in Peruvian Amazonia, we observationally determined dispersal distances. These dispersal distances were then validated through DNA fingerprinting, by matching DNA from the maternally derived seed coat to DNA from potential source trees. We found that dispersal distances are strongly right-skewed, and that distributions obtained through observational and genetic methods and fitted distributions do not differ significantly from each other. Conclusions/Significance Our study showed that seed dispersal distances can be reliably estimated through observational methods when a strict criterion for inclusion of seeds is observed. Furthermore, dispersal distances produced by the two primate species indicated that these primates fulfil one of the criteria for efficient seed dispersers. Finally, our study demonstrated that DNA extraction methods so far employed for temperate plant species can be successfully used for hard-seeded tropical plants. PMID:22514748

  9. Contribution of conservation genetics in assessing neotropical freshwater fish biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NM. Piorski

    Full Text Available Human activities have a considerable impact on hydrographic systems and fish fauna. The present review on conservation genetics of neotropical freshwater fish reveals that DNA analyses have been promoting increased knowledge on the genetic structure of fish species and their response to environmental changes. This knowledge is fundamental to the management of wild fish populations and the establishment of Evolutionary Significant Units capable of conserving genetic integrity. While population structuring can occur even in long-distance migratory fish, isolated populations can show reduced genetic variation and be at greater risk of extinction. Phylogeography and phylogeny have been powerful tools in understanding the evolution of fish populations, species and communities in distinct neotropic environments. Captive fish can be used to introduce new individuals and genes into the wild and their benefits and disadvantages can be monitored through genetic analysis. Understanding how fish biodiversity in neotropical freshwaters is generated and maintained is highly important, as these habitats are transformed by human development and fish communities are increasingly exploited as food sources to sustain a growing human population.

  10. Small farmers and deforestation in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brondízio, Eduardo S.; Cak, Anthony; Caldas, Marcellus M.; Mena, Carlos; Bilsborrow, Richard; Futemma, Celia T.; Ludewigs, Thomas; Moran, Emilio F.; Batistella, Mateus

    This chapter discusses the relationship between small farmers' land use and deforestation, with particular attention paid to the past 30 years of Amazonian colonization in Brazil and Ecuador. Our analysis calls attention to common features uniting different social groups as small farmers (e.g., social identity, access to land and resources, technology, market, and credit), as well as the variability between small farmers in terms of time in the region (from native populations to recent colonists), contribution to regional deforestation, types of land use systems. At a regional level, small farmers contribute to the majority of deforestation events, but are responsible for only a fraction of the total deforested area in Amazonia. We discuss three misconceptions that have been used to define small farmers and their contribution to the regional economy, development, and deforestation: (1) small farmers have backward land use systems associated with low productivity and extensive deforestation and subsistence production, (2) small farmers contribute to Amazonian deforestation as much as large farmers, and (3) small farmers, particularly colonist farmers, follow an inexorable path of deforestation unless curbed by government action. We conclude the chapter discussing their growing regional importance and the need for more inclusive public policies concerning infrastructure and services and valorization of resources produced in rural areas of Amazonia.

  11. Neogene climate evolution in Amazonia and the Brazilian Northeast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, C.; Bernardes-de-Oliveira, M.E.C.; Dino, R.; Garcia, M.J.; Antonioli, L.; da Costa Casado, F.; Hooghiemstra, H.; de Souza Carvalho, I.; Garcia, M.J.; Strohschoen, O.; Cunha Lana, C.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change follows from the interaction between global atmospheric and oceanic processes with regional processes. In this chapter we review which factors determined climate evolution in Amazonia and the Brazilian Northeast and present a recompilation of Neogene palynological and paleobotanical

  12. Carbon stock loss from deforestation through 2013 in Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Euler Melo; Yanai, Aurora M; Fonseca, Frederico O R; Fearnside, Philip Martin

    2015-03-01

    The largest carbon stock in tropical vegetation is in Brazilian Amazonia. In this ~5 million km(2) area, over 750,000 km(2) of forest and ~240,000 km(2) of nonforest vegetation types had been cleared through 2013. We estimate current carbon stocks and cumulative gross carbon loss from clearing of premodern vegetation in Brazil's 'Legal Amazonia' and 'Amazonia biome' regions. Biomass of 'premodern' vegetation (prior to major increases in disturbance beginning in the 1970s) was estimated by matching vegetation classes mapped at a scale of 1 : 250,000 and 29 biomass means from 41 published studies for vegetation types classified as forest (2317 1-ha plots) and as either nonforest or contact zones (1830 plots and subplots of varied size). Total biomass (above and below-ground, dry weight) underwent a gross reduction of 18.3% in Legal Amazonia (13.1 Pg C) and 16.7% in the Amazonia biome (11.2 Pg C) through 2013, excluding carbon loss from the effects of fragmentation, selective logging, fires, mortality induced by recent droughts and clearing of forest regrowth. In spite of the loss of carbon from clearing, large amounts of carbon were stored in stands of remaining vegetation in 2013, equivalent to 149 Mg C ha(-1) when weighted by the total area covered by each vegetation type in Legal Amazonia. Native vegetation in Legal Amazonia in 2013 originally contained 58.6 Pg C, while that in the Amazonia biome contained 56 Pg C. Emissions per unit area from clearing could potentially be larger in the future because previously cleared areas were mainly covered by vegetation with lower mean biomass than the remaining vegetation. Estimates of original biomass are essential for estimating losses to forest degradation. This study offers estimates of cumulative biomass loss, as well as estimates of premodern carbon stocks that have not been represented in recent estimates of deforestation impacts. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Pre-Columbian Earthworks in Coastal Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphen Rostain

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available As in other parts of Amazonia, pre-Columbian Indians have profoundly modified the coast of the Guianas. Between 650 and 1650 AD, Arauquinoid people occupied a territory that was approximately 600 km long and used the raised field technique intensively before the European conquest. They erected thousands of raised fields of various shapes, dug canals, ditches, and pathways, and built artificial mounds to establish their villages. All these earthworks changed forever the face of the coastal flooded savannas and their ecology. Such labor was probably organized under the leadership of a central authority: it seems that Arauquinoid societies were organized in a chiefdom system. Statistical calculations, based on the known surface area of raised fields and on their estimated productivity, suggest a population density of 50 to 100 inhabitants per km2. Pre-Columbian inhabitants of the Guianas coast carefully organized, managed and “anthropisized” their territory following a specific pattern.

  14. Within-canopy sesquiterpene ozonolysis in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, K.; YañEz Serrano, A.; Arneth, A.; Abrell, L.; Jardine, A.; van Haren, J.; Artaxo, P.; Rizzo, L. V.; Ishida, F. Y.; Karl, T.; Kesselmeier, J.; Saleska, S.; Huxman, T.

    2011-10-01

    Through rapid reactions with ozone, which can initiate the formation of secondary organic aerosols, the emission of sesquiterpenes from vegetation in Amazonia may have significant impacts on tropospheric chemistry and climate. Little is known, however, about sesquiterpene emissions, transport, and chemistry within plant canopies owing to analytical difficulties stemming from very low ambient concentrations, high reactivities, and sampling losses. Here, we present ambient sesquiterpene concentration measurements obtained during the 2010 dry season within and above a primary tropical forest canopy in Amazonia. We show that by peaking at night instead of during the day, and near the ground instead of within the canopy, sesquiterpene concentrations followed a pattern different from that of monoterpenes, suggesting that unlike monoterpene emissions, which are mainly light dependent, sesquiterpene emissions are mainly temperature dependent. In addition, we observed that sesquiterpene concentrations were inversely related with ozone (with respect to time of day and vertical concentration), suggesting that ambient concentrations are highly sensitive to ozone. These conclusions are supported by experiments in a tropical rain forest mesocosm, where little atmospheric oxidation occurs and sesquiterpene and monoterpene concentrations followed similar diurnal patterns. We estimate that the daytime dry season ozone flux of -0.6 to -1.5 nmol m-2 s-1 due to in-canopy sesquiterpene reactivity could account for 7%-28% of the net ozone flux. Our study provides experimental evidence that a large fraction of total plant sesquiterpene emissions (46%-61% by mass) undergo within-canopy ozonolysis, which may benefit plants by reducing ozone uptake and its associated oxidative damage.

  15. On the Relationship of Rainfall and Temperature across Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro Lima, C. H.; AghaKouchak, A.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme droughts in Amazonia seem to become more frequent and have been associated with local and global impacts on society and the ecosystem. The understanding of the dynamics and causes of Amazonia droughts have attracted some attention in the last years and pose several challenges for the scientific community. For instance, in previous work we have identified, based on empirical data, a compounding effect during Amazonia droughts: periods of low rainfall are always associated with positive anomalies of near surface air temperature. This inverse relationship of temperature and rainfall appears at multiple time scales and its intensity varies across Amazonia. To our knowledge, these findings have not been properly addressed in the literature, being not clear whether there is a causal relationship between these two variables, and in this case, which one leads the other one, or they are just responding to the same causal factor. Here we investigate the hypothesis that high temperatures during drought periods are a major response to an increase in the shortwave radiation (due to the lack of clouds) not compensating by an expected increase in the evapotranspiration from the rainforest. Our empirical analysis is based on observed series of daily temperature and rainfall over the Brazilian Amazonia and reanalysis data of cloud cover, outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and moisture fluxes. The ability of Global Circulation Models (GCMs) to reproduce such compounding effect is also investigated for the historical period and for future RCP scenarios of global climate change. Preliminary results show that this is a plausible hypothesis, despite the complexity of land-atmosphere processes of mass and energy fluxes in Amazonia. This work is a step forward in better understanding the compounding effects of rainfall and temperature on Amazonia droughts, and what changes one might expect in a future warming climate.

  16. The Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia: Analyzing Regional Land Use Change Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Keller; Maria Assunção Silva-Dias; Daniel C. Nepstad; Meinrat O. Andreae

    2004-01-01

    The Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) is a multi-disciplinary, multinational scientific project led by Brazil. LBA researchers seek to understand Amazonia in its global context especially with regard to regional and global climate. Current development activities in Amazonia including deforestation, logging, cattle ranching, and agriculture...

  17. Biogeochemistry and ecology of terrestrial ecosystems of Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhi, Yadvinder; Davidson, Eric A.

    The last decade of research associated with the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) has led to substantial advances in our understanding of the biogeochemistry and ecology of Amazonian forests and savannas, in particular in relation to the carbon cycle of Amazonia. In this chapter, we present a synthesis of results and ideas that are presented in more detail in subsequent chapters, drawing together evidence from studies of forest ecology, ecophysiology, trace gas fluxes and atmospheric flux towers, large-scale rainfall manipulation experiments and soil surveys, satellite remote sensing, and quantification of carbon and nutrient stocks and flows. The studies have demonstrated the variability of the functioning and biogeochemistry of Amazonian forests at a range of spatial and temporal scales, and they provide clues as to how Amazonia will respond to ongoing direct pressure and global atmospheric change. We conclude by highlighting key questions for the next decade of research to address.

  18. Environmental impact of geometric earthwork construction in pre-Columbian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, John Francis; Whitney, Bronwen S; Mayle, Francis E; Iriarte, José; Prümers, Heiko; Soto, J Daniel; Watling, Jennifer

    2014-07-22

    There is considerable controversy over whether pre-Columbian (pre-A.D. 1492) Amazonia was largely "pristine" and sparsely populated by slash-and-burn agriculturists, or instead a densely populated, domesticated landscape, heavily altered by extensive deforestation and anthropogenic burning. The discovery of hundreds of large geometric earthworks beneath intact rainforest across southern Amazonia challenges its status as a pristine landscape, and has been assumed to indicate extensive pre-Columbian deforestation by large populations. We tested these assumptions using coupled local- and regional-scale paleoecological records to reconstruct land use on an earthwork site in northeast Bolivia within the context of regional, climate-driven biome changes. This approach revealed evidence for an alternative scenario of Amazonian land use, which did not necessitate labor-intensive rainforest clearance for earthwork construction. Instead, we show that the inhabitants exploited a naturally open savanna landscape that they maintained around their settlement despite the climatically driven rainforest expansion that began ∼2,000 y ago across the region. Earthwork construction and agriculture on terra firme landscapes currently occupied by the seasonal rainforests of southern Amazonia may therefore not have necessitated large-scale deforestation using stone tools. This finding implies far less labor--and potentially lower population density--than previously supposed. Our findings demonstrate that current debates over the magnitude and nature of pre-Columbian Amazonian land use, and its impact on global biogeochemical cycling, are potentially flawed because they do not consider this land use in the context of climate-driven forest-savanna biome shifts through the mid-to-late Holocene.

  19. Catalogue of distribution of lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) from the Brazilian Amazonia. IV. Alopoglossidae, Gymnophthalmidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Júnior, Marco A; Amaral, Silvana

    2017-05-22

    We present distribution data of all Alopoglossidae and Gymnophthalmidae lizards known from the Brazilian Amazonia, totaling 54 species-level taxa, belonging to 17 genera and two families. This represents 22 more species-level taxa than previously reported. Data were based on 17,431 specimens deposited in three North American and eight Brazilian museums, including the main collections harboring Amazonian material. Most species (~80%) are endemic to Amazonia; non-endemic species are mainly associated with open vegetation (savanna) enclaves or open dry (semideciduous) forest in Amazonia, with a few exceptions. As a whole, seven taxa (including one species complex) are widespread in Amazonia, six are restricted to eastern Amazonia, seven to western Amazonia, two to southwestern Amazonia, 11 to southern Amazonia, 11 to northern Amazonia (either in part of it or widespread in the Guiana region), and six to the southern peripheral portion of Amazonia. Besides, four species present unique distributions. Considering this study and the other three catalogues of distribution of lizards already published, the total number of lizard species from Brazilian Amazonia increased from 97 to 142 species-level tava. It represents an increase of 45 species from the region since the last revision.

  20. Dynamics, patterns and causes of fires in Northwestern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenteras, Dolors; Retana, Javier

    2012-01-01

    According to recent studies, two widespread droughts occurred in the Amazon basin, one during 2005 and one during 2010. The drought increased the prevalence of climate-driven fires over most of the basin. Given the importance of human-atmosphere-vegetation interactions in tropical rainforests, these events have generated concerns over the vulnerability of this area to climate change. This paper focuses on one of the wettest areas of the basin, Northwestern Amazonia, where the interactions between the climate and fires are much weaker and where little is known about the anthropogenic drivers of fires. We have assessed the response of fires to climate over a ten-year period, and analysed the socio-economic and demographic determinants of fire occurrence. The patterns of fires and climate and their linkages in Northwestern Amazonia differ from the enhanced fire response to climate variation observed in the rest of Amazonia. The highest number of recorded fires in Northwestern Amazonia occurred in 2004 and 2007, and this did not coincide with the periods of extreme drought experienced in Amazonia in 2005 and 2010. Rather, during those years, Northwestern Amazonia experienced a relatively small numbers of fire hotspots. We have shown that fire occurrence correlated well with deforestation and was determined by anthropogenic drivers, mainly small-scale agriculture, cattle ranching (i.e., pastures) and active agricultural frontiers (including illegal crops). Thus, the particular climatic conditions for air convergence and rainfall created by proximity to the Andes, coupled with the presence of one of the most active colonisation fronts in the region, make this region differently affected by the general drought-induced fire patterns experienced by the rest of the Amazon. Moreover, the results suggest that, even in this wet region, humans are able to modify the frequency of fires and impact these historically well preserved forests.

  1. The mitogenome of Onchocerca volvulus from the Brazilian Amazonia focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James L Crainey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report here the first complete mitochondria genome of Onchocerca volvulus from a focus outside of Africa. An O. volvulus mitogenome from the Brazilian Amazonia focus was obtained using a combination of high-throughput and Sanger sequencing technologies. Comparisons made between this mitochondrial genome and publicly available mitochondrial sequences identified 46 variant nucleotide positions and suggested that our Brazilian mitogenome is more closely related to Cameroon-origin mitochondria than West African-origin mitochondria. As well as providing insights into the origins of Latin American onchocerciasis, the Brazilian Amazonia focus mitogenome may also have value as an epidemiological resource.

  2. Neotropical lowland forests along environmental gradients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toledo, M.

    2010-01-01

    Neotropical lowlands feature an extraordinary display of vegetation types. This is especially the case for Bolivia where three biogeographical regions, Amazonian, Brazilian-Paranaense and Gran Chaco meet in the lowland areas, providing thus an ideal setting to study vegetation-environment

  3. Special issue: Comparative biogeography of Neotropical primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch Alfaro, Jessica W; Cortés-Ortiz, Liliana; Di Fiore, Anthony; Boubli, Jean P

    2015-01-01

    New research presented in this special issue of Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution on the "Phylogeny and Biogeography of Neotropical Primates" greatly improves our understanding of the evolutionary history of the New World monkeys and provides insights into the multiple platyrrhine radiations, diversifications, extinctions, and recolonizations that have taken place over time and over space in the Neotropics. Here, we synthesize genetic and biogeographic research from the past several years to construct an overarching hypothesis for platyrrhine evolution. We also highlight continuing controversies in Neotropical primate biogeography, such as whether the location of origin of platyrrhines was Africa or Asia; whether Patagonian fossil primates are stem or crown platyrrhines; and whether cis- and trans-Andean Neotropical primates were subject to vicariance through Andes mountain building, or instead diversified through isolation in mountain valleys after skirting around the Andes on the northwestern coast of South America. We also consider the role of the Amazon River and its major tributaries in shaping platyrrhine biodiversity, and how and when primates from the Amazon reached the Atlantic Forest. A key focus is on primate colonizations and extirpations in Central America, the Andes, and the seasonally dry tropical forests and savannas (such as the Llanos, Caatinga, and Cerrado habitats), all ecosystems that have been understudied up until now for primates. We suggest that most primates currently inhabiting drier open habitats are relatively recent arrivals, having expanded from rainforest habitats in the Pleistocene. We point to the Pitheciidae as the taxonomic group most in need of further phylogenetic and biogeographic research. Additionally, genomic studies on the Platyrrhini are deeply needed and are expected to bring new surprises and insights to the field of Neotropical primate biogeography. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Astrocaryum (palmae in Amazonia a preliminary treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available ASTROCARYUM (PALMAE EN AMAZONIE. TRAITEMENT PRÉLIMINAIRE. Le genre Astrocaryum est composé de 24 espèces amazoniennes: cinq appartiennent au sous-genre Pleiogynanthus et 19 au sous-genre Monogynanthus (3 à la section Munbaca et 16 à la section Ayri. Une clé d’identification est proposée, ainsi que la description de chaque espèce, complétée par de nouvelles observations et suivie de notes sur la distribution géographique, l’écologie et les utilisations. Six espeses nouvelles sont décrites. ASTROCARYUM (PALMAE EN LA AMAZONIA. TRATAMIENTO PRELIMINAR. Astrocaryum consta de 24 especies amazónicas, 5 de las cuales pertenecen al subgénero Pleiogynanthus y 19 al subgénero Monogynanthus (3 a la sección Munbaca, 16 a la sección Ayri. Se presenta una clave para diferenciar las especies, y para cada una, su descripción con nuevos datos, así como notas sobre la distribución geográfica, la ecología y los usos. Se describen seis especies nuevas. In the Amazon, Astrocaryum includes 24 species of which five belong to the subgenus Pleiogynanthus and 19 to the subgenus Monogynanthus - three in the section Munbaca and 16 in the section Ayri. A key to these 24 species is presented followed by description based on new data, and notes on their distribution, ecology and uses. Six new species are described.

  5. Catalogue of distribution of lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) from the Brazilian Amazonia. III. Anguidae, Scincidae, Teiidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Júnior, Marco A; Amaral, Silvana

    2016-12-09

    We present distribution data of all Anguidae, Scincidae, and Teiidae lizards known from the Brazilian Amazonia, totaling 29 species-level taxa, belonging to 14 genera. This represents 11 more species-level taxa than previously reported for these families in this area. Data were based on literature and 46,806 specimens deposited in three North American and eight Brazilian museums, including the main collections harboring Amazonian material. Most species (~55%) are endemic to Amazonia. Except for Ameiva ameiva, that is present in several environments and domains, non-endemic species are either associated with open dry (semideciduous) forest or open vegetation (savanna) enclaves in Amazonia, occupying similar environments outside Amazonia, gallery forests within the Cerrado, or present disjunct populations in the Atlantic Forest. As a whole, six taxa are widespread in Amazonia, four are restricted to eastern Amazonia, four to western Amazonia, three to southwestern Amazonia, one to northern Amazonia, and seven to the southern peripheral portion of Amazonia. Besides, two species present apparently more restricted, unique distributions. Only three species have a distribution that is congruent with one of the areas of endemism (AE) recognized for other organisms (birds and primates), of which two occur in AE Guiana and one in AE Inambari.

  6. Paleoclimates of Amazonia: An ice-age view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bush, M.B.; De Oliveira, P.E.; Raczka, M.F.; Gosling, W.D.; Mayle, F.E.; McMichael, C.H.; Urrego, D.H.; de Souza Carvalho, I.; Garcia, M.J.; Cunha Lana, C.; Strohschoen Jr., O.

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of evidence points to climatic complexity during the Ice-Ages. Amazonia does not respond uniformly to modern climatic forcing, and the same was true of the past. Although some climatic forcings were probably expressed everywhere, they were manifested differently. Consequently, climate

  7. Evapotranspiration of deforested areas in central and southwestern Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randow, von R.C.S.; Randow, C.; Hutjes, R.W.A.; Tomasella, J.; Kruijt, B.

    2012-01-01

    Considering the high rates of evapotranspiration of Amazonian forests, understanding the impacts of deforestation on water loss rates is important for assessing those impacts on a regional and global scale. This paper quantifies evapotranspiration rates in two different pasture sites in Amazonia and

  8. Molluscan radiations and landscape evolution in Miocene Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, F.P.

    2008-01-01

    This PhD study aims to exploit the rich archive provided by the Miocene mollusc fauna of the Pebas Formation and other inland Miocene Amazonian formations to reconstruct landscape evolution and biotic development in lowland Amazonia during the Neogene. Over 160 samples from more than 70 Pebas

  9. Dental remains of cebid platyrrhines from the earliest late Miocene of Western Amazonia, Peru: Macroevolutionary implications on the extant capuchin and marmoset lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marivaux, Laurent; Adnet, Sylvain; Altamirano-Sierra, Ali J; Pujos, François; Ramdarshan, Anusha; Salas-Gismondi, Rodolfo; Tejada-Lara, Julia V; Antoine, Pierre-Olivier

    2016-11-01

    Undoubted fossil Cebidae have so far been primarily documented from the late middle Miocene of Colombia, the late Miocene of Brazilian Amazonia, the early Miocene of Peruvian Amazonia, and very recently from the earliest Miocene of Panama. The evolutionary history of cebids is far from being well-documented, with notably a complete blank in the record of callitrichine stem lineages until and after the late middle Miocene (Laventan SALMA). Further documenting their evolutionary history is therefore of primary importance. Recent field efforts in Peruvian Amazonia (Contamana area, Loreto Department) have allowed for the discovery of an early late Miocene (ca. 11 Ma; Mayoan SALMA) fossil primate-bearing locality (CTA-43; Pebas Formation). In this study, we analyze the primate material, which consists of five isolated teeth documenting two distinct Cebidae: Cebus sp., a medium-sized capuchin (Cebinae), and Cebuella sp., a tiny marmoset (Callitrichinae). Although limited, this new fossil material of platyrrhines contributes to documenting the post-Laventan evolutionary history of cebids, and besides testifies to the earliest occurrences of the modern Cebuella and Cebus/Sapajus lineages in the Neotropics. Regarding the evolutionary history of callitrichine marmosets, the discovery of an 11 Ma-old fossil representative of the modern Cebuella pushes back by at least 6 Ma the age of the Mico/Cebuella divergence currently proposed by molecular biologists (i.e., ca. 4.5 Ma). This also extends back to > 11 Ma BP the divergence between Callithrix and the common ancestor (CA) of Mico/Cebuella, as well as the divergence between the CA of marmosets and Callimico (Goeldi's callitrichine). This discovery from Peruvian Amazonia implies a deep evolutionary root of the Cebuella lineage in the northwestern part of South America (the modern western Amazon basin), slightly before the recession of the Pebas mega-wetland system (PMWS), ca. 10.5 Ma, and well-before the subsequent

  10. DNA barcoding and morphological identification of neotropical ichthyoplankton from the Upper Paraná and São Francisco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, R A; Sales, N G; Santos, G M; Santos, G B; Carvalho, D C

    2015-07-01

    The identification of fish larvae from two neotropical hydrographic basins using traditional morphological taxonomy and DNA barcoding revealed no conflicting results between the morphological and barcode identification of larvae. A lower rate (25%) of correct morphological identification of eggs as belonging to migratory or non-migratory species was achieved. Accurate identification of ichthyoplankton by DNA barcoding is an important tool for fish reproductive behaviour studies, correct estimation of biodiversity by detecting eggs from rare species, as well as defining environmental and management strategies for fish conservation in the neotropics. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  11. Neogene Amazonia: Introduction to the special issue Journal of South American Earth Sciences, New contributions on Neogene geography and depositional environments in Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, C.; Vonhof, H.B.

    2006-01-01

    The paleontological data presented in this special issue provide a new insight into species migration and radiation in Amazonia during the Miocene. At the time, Amazonia was characterized by a very extensive, long-lived, semi-isolated, freshwater wetland ecosystem that was supplied with water and

  12. Coleopterous galls from the Neotropical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cid Maia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Data on Neotropical coleopterous galls were compiled from the literature, which showed that 82 galls have so far been recorded among 77 plant species. The Fabaceae and Asteraceae plant families display the greatest richness in galls. Most galls are induced on stems or buds, while leaves constitute the second most attacked plant organ. Only 16 coleopteran gallers have been identified at the species level; most records are presented at the order level. The identified species belong to four families: Apionidae, Buprestidae, Curculionidae and Erirhinidae. The galls are found in Argentina, Brazil, Belize, Chile, Colombia (probably, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama and Venezuela. Eighteen species of Coleoptera are inquilines of galls and are associated with 18 plant species, most frequently with Asteraceae, Melastomataceae and Fabaceae. The inquilines were recorded mainly in leaf galls induced by Cecidomyiidae (Diptera. The identity of these weevils is poorly known. General data indicate a lack of taxonomic studies in the Neotropical region.

  13. Greenhouse gases study in Amazonia; Estudo de gases de efeito estufa na Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Amelio, Monica Tais Siqueira

    2006-07-01

    The Amazon plays an important role on the global carbon cycle, as changing as carbon storage, since Amazon Basin is the biggest area of tropical forest, around 50% of global. Natural's process, deforestation, and use land are CO{sub 2} sources. The Amazon forest is a significant source of N{sub 2}O by soil process, and CH{sub 4} by anaerobic process like flooded areas, rice cultures, and others sources. This project is part of the LBA project (Large-Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia), and this project is 'Vertical profiles of carbon dioxide and other trace gas species over the Amazon basin using small aircraft'. Since December 2000 vertical profiles of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO, H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O and SF{sub 6} have been measured above central Amazonia. The local sampling was over Tapajos National Forest, a primary forest in Para State, where had a CO{sub 2} flux tower and an east impact area with sources like animals, rice cultivation, biomass burning, etc, to compare the influence of an impact area and a preserved area in the profiles. The Reserva Biologica de Cuieiras, at Amazon State, is the other studied place, where there already exists a CO{sub 2} flux tower, and an east preserved area at this State, to compare with the Cuieiras. The sampling has been carried out on vertical profile from 1000 ft up to 12000 ft using a semi-automated sampling package developed at GMD/NOAA and a small aircraft. The analysis uses the MAGICC system (Multiple Analysis of Gases Influence Climate Change) which is installed at the Atmospheric Chemistry Laboratory (LQA) in IPEN (Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares). The results showed that all gases studied, except H{sub 2} gas, has been following the global trend. At the Para State, for the studied years, the Amazonian Forest performed as small CO{sub 2} sink. To compare Wet and Dry Seasons, subtracted the Ascension concentration values in the period to remove the global influence. So that

  14. Greenhouse gases study in Amazonia; Estudo de gases de efeito estufa na Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Amelio, Monica Tais Siqueira

    2006-07-01

    The Amazon plays an important role on the global carbon cycle, as changing as carbon storage, since Amazon Basin is the biggest area of tropical forest, around 50% of global. Natural's process, deforestation, and use land are CO{sub 2} sources. The Amazon forest is a significant source of N{sub 2}O by soil process, and CH{sub 4} by anaerobic process like flooded areas, rice cultures, and others sources. This project is part of the LBA project (Large-Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia), and this project is 'Vertical profiles of carbon dioxide and other trace gas species over the Amazon basin using small aircraft'. Since December 2000 vertical profiles of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO, H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O and SF{sub 6} have been measured above central Amazonia. The local sampling was over Tapajos National Forest, a primary forest in Para State, where had a CO{sub 2} flux tower and an east impact area with sources like animals, rice cultivation, biomass burning, etc, to compare the influence of an impact area and a preserved area in the profiles. The Reserva Biologica de Cuieiras, at Amazon State, is the other studied place, where there already exists a CO{sub 2} flux tower, and an east preserved area at this State, to compare with the Cuieiras. The sampling has been carried out on vertical profile from 1000 ft up to 12000 ft using a semi-automated sampling package developed at GMD/NOAA and a small aircraft. The analysis uses the MAGICC system (Multiple Analysis of Gases Influence Climate Change) which is installed at the Atmospheric Chemistry Laboratory (LQA) in IPEN (Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares). The results showed that all gases studied, except H{sub 2} gas, has been following the global trend. At the Para State, for the studied years, the Amazonian Forest performed as small CO{sub 2} sink. To compare Wet and Dry Seasons, subtracted the Ascension concentration values in the period to remove the global influence. So that, in the 2004 and

  15. Status and management of neotropical migratory birds: Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M.; Peter W. Stangel

    1993-01-01

    The future for neotropical migratory birds rests with our commitment and ability to provide them adequate habitat during all periods of their life cycle. Our commitment to this cause is apparent in the groundswell of interest in neotropical migrants and the many proactive and coopemtive partnerships resulting from the Partners in Flight - Aves de las Americas...

  16. Effects of temperate agriculture on neotropical migrant landbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas L. Rodenhouse; Louis B. Best; Raymond J. O' Connor; Eric K. Bollinger

    1993-01-01

    The ecology of Neotropical migrant landbirds in temperate farmland is reviewed to develop management recommendations for the conservation of migrants. Migrants constitute about 71% of bird species using farmland and 86% of bird species nesting there. The number and abundances of Neotropical migrants using farmland are greatest in uncultivated edges with trees and...

  17. Effects of experimental fuel additions on fire intensity and severity: unexpected carbon resilience of a neotropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brando, Paulo M; Oliveria-Santos, Claudinei; Rocha, Wanderley; Cury, Roberta; Coe, Michael T

    2016-07-01

    Global changes and associated droughts, heat waves, logging activities, and forest fragmentation may intensify fires in Amazonia by altering forest microclimate and fuel dynamics. To isolate the effects of fuel loads on fire behavior and fire-induced changes in forest carbon cycling, we manipulated fine fuel loads in a fire experiment located in southeast Amazonia. We predicted that a 50% increase in fine fuel loads would disproportionally increase fire intensity and severity (i.e., tree mortality and losses in carbon stocks) due to multiplicative effects of fine fuel loads on the rate of fire spread, fuel consumption, and burned area. The experiment followed a fully replicated randomized block design (N = 6) comprised of unburned control plots and burned plots that were treated with and without fine fuel additions. The fuel addition treatment significantly increased burned area (+22%) and consequently canopy openness (+10%), fine fuel combustion (+5%), and mortality of individuals ≥5 cm in diameter at breast height (dbh; +37%). Surprisingly, we observed nonsignificant effects of the fuel addition treatment on fireline intensity, and no significant differences among the three treatments for (i) mortality of large trees (≥30 cm dbh), (ii) aboveground forest carbon stocks, and (iii) soil respiration. It was also surprising that postfire tree growth and wood increment were higher in the burned plots treated with fuels than in the unburned control. These results suggest that (i) fine fuel load accumulation increases the likelihood of larger understory fires and (ii) single, low-intensity fires weakly influence carbon cycling of this primary neotropical forest, although delayed postfire mortality of large trees may lower carbon stocks over the long term. Overall, our findings indicate that increased fine fuel loads alone are unlikely to create threshold conditions for high-intensity, catastrophic fires during nondrought years. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. UNA NUEVA ESPECIE DE COSTUS (COSTACEAE DE LA AMAZONIA COLOMBIANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SALINAS NELSON

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describe e ilustra Costus fissicalyx N. R. Salinas, Clavijo & Betancur, una especienueva del sudeste de la Amazonia colombiana; además, se presenta información sobresus relaciones taxonómicas, distribución y hábitat. Costus fissicalyx se diferencia delas otras especies del género principalmente por la forma y el tipo de crecimientodel cáliz

  19. Age of depositional and weathering events in Central Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant'Anna, Lucy Gomes; Soares, Emílio Alberto do Amaral; Riccomini, Claudio; Tatumi, Sonia Hatsue; Yee, Marcio

    2017-08-01

    In the last three decades, several studies have been devoted to understanding the role of Late Pleistocene-Holocene climate changes in the Amazonia lowlands environment. However, most of these studies used data obtained from sedimentary deposits (lakes, swamps, and colluvium) located away from the central plain or on the edges of the Amazonia region. This article integrates optically stimulated luminescence and accelerated mass spectrometry 14C ages with sedimentological and geomorphological data obtained during this study or compiled from the literature for fluvial and lacustrine deposits of the central alluvial plain of the Solimões-Amazon River. The age data allow us to present a chronological framework for the Late Pleistocene-Holocene deposits and conclude that (i) the dryness of the LGM in central Amazonia lowlands is recorded by the formation of fluvial terraces and their weathering to pedogenic hematite between 25.3 ka and 17.7 ka; (ii) floodplain deposition was contemporaneous with terrace weathering and occurred in a context of decreased water volume in fluvial channels, lowering of river base level and sea level, and isostatic rebound of the continent; and (iii) lateral and mid-channel fluvial bars in the Solimões-Amazon River have a minimum age of 11.5 ± 1.5 ka, and their deposition responded to increased precipitation at the beginning of the Holocene.

  20. Las palmeras en los valles principales de la Amazonia peruana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available LES PALMIERS DES PRINCIPALES VALLEES DE L’AMAZONIE PERUVIENNE. La distribution géographique des espèces de palmiers de l’Amazonie péruvienne est présentée selon les principales vallées. Pour chaque affluent important est donnée la liste des espèces récoltées, et pour chaque espèce sont réunies les références des échantillons d’herbiers, collecteur(s et numéro de collection, ainsi que les herbiers de dépôt. Se presenta la distribución de las palmeras de la Amazonia en función de los valles principales. Por cada río de mayor importancia, se da la lista de las especies colectadas, las referencias de las muestras botánicas, colector(es y número de colección, y los herbarios de depósito de dichas muestras. PALMS OF THE MAJOR RIVER VALLEYS OF PERUVIAN AMAZONIA. Palm species distribution in Peruvian Amazonia is presented according to the major river valleys. The species collected are listed for each tributary valley. The collection references, collector(s and number of the specimen and the herbaria of deposit are given for each species.

  1. Catalogue of distribution of lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) from the Brazilian Amazonia. I. Dactyloidae, Hoplocercidae, Iguanidae, Leiosauridae, Polychrotidae, Tropiduridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Júnior, Marco A

    2015-07-08

    I present distribution data of all Dactyloidae, Hoplocercidae, Iguanidae, Leiosauridae, Polychrotidae and Tropiduridae lizards known from the Brazilian Amazonia, totaling 40 species-level taxa, belonging to 11 genera. This represents four more species-level taxa than previously reported for these families. Data were based on the direct examination of 41,243 specimens deposited in three North American and eight Brazilian musea, including the main collections harboring Amazonian material. Most species (62.5%) are endemic to the Amazonia; non-endemic species are mainly associated with open dry (semideciduous) forest or open vegetation (savanna) enclaves in Amazonia, with a few exceptions. As a whole, seven taxa are widespread in Amazonia, one is restricted to eastern Amazonia, three to western Amazonia, five to northern Amazonia (either in part of it or widespread in the Guiana region), two to northwestern Amazonia, one to southern Amazonia, nine to southwestern Amazonia, and seven to the southern peripheral portion of Amazonia. Five species have unique distributions and five species have a distribution that is congruent with one of the areas of endemism (AE) recognized for other organisms (birds and primates). The first herpetological gazetteer for the Brazilian Amazonia with about 3,600 georeferenced localities was also produced.

  2. Treetop shelter of a neotropical river otter cub (Lontra longicaudis - Carnivora: Mustelidae in an Amazonian flooded forest Abrigo em copa de árvore de filhote de lontra neotropical (Lontra longicaudis - Carnivora: Mustelidae em floresta inundável amazônica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Manuel Ribeiro Simões dos Santos

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The finding of a Neotropical river otter (Lontra longicaudis cub occupying a shelter in a hollowed treetop is reported. The observation was made in a seasonally flooded forest in Central Amazonia, during the high water peak of the annual inundation cycle. A literature review indicates that this is the first description of a shelter of the species, both in a hollowed tree and in Amazonia. This observation can indicate a strong relationship between the species' breeding cycle with the annual dynamics of Amazonian rivers. We discuss potential advantages and disadvantages of breeding when water level is high.É relatada a observação de um filhote de lontra (Lontra longicaudis ocupando um abrigo em uma cavidade na copa de uma árvore. A observação foi feita em uma floresta inundada na Amazônia Central, no pico de cheia do ciclo anual de inundação. A revisão da literatura revela que esta é a primeira descrição de um abrigo desta espécie em uma cavidade de árvore na natureza e na Amazônia. Tal observação pode indicar uma forte relação entre o ciclo reprodutivo da espécie e a dinâmica anual dos rios amazônicos. Discutimos vantagens e desvantagens potenciais da reprodução na época da cheia.

  3. New Odostomia species (Gastropoda, Heterobranchia, Pyramidellidae) from the Miocene Pebas Formation of Western Amazonia (Peru, Colombia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aartsen, van J.J.; Wesselingh, F.P.

    2000-01-01

    Odostomia nuttalli spec. nov. and O. coluhensis spec. nov. are described from the Miocene Pebas Formation of Peruvian and Columbian Amazonia. A third pyramidellid snail is also diagnosed. These species are indicators for marine influence in the late Middle to early Late Miocence of Western Amazonia.

  4. Long-distance calls in Neotropical primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Dilmar A.G.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-distance calls are widespread among primates. Several studies concentrate on such calls in just one or in few species, while few studies have treated more general trends within the order. The common features that usually characterize these vocalizations are related to long-distance propagation of sounds. The proposed functions of primate long-distance calls can be divided into extragroup and intragroup ones. Extragroup functions relate to mate defense, mate attraction or resource defense, while intragroup functions involve group coordination or alarm. Among Neotropical primates, several species perform long-distance calls that seem more related to intragroup coordination, markedly in atelines. Callitrichids present long-distance calls that are employed both in intragroup coordination and intergroup contests or spacing. Examples of extragroup directed long-distance calls are the duets of titi monkeys and the roars and barks of howler monkeys. Considerable complexity and gradation exist in the long-distance call repertoires of some Neotropical primates, and female long-distance calls are probably more important in non-duetting species than usually thought. Future research must focus on larger trends in the evolution of primate long-distance calls, including the phylogeny of calling repertoires and the relationships between form and function in these signals.

  5. Toxoplasma gondii in small neotropical wild felids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Alberto Cañon-Franco

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, studies on wildlife worldwide have discovered key epidemiological aspects of the sylvatic cycle of Toxoplasma gondii. However, despite the known role of wild felines as definitive hosts in the transmission and maintenance of this parasite, few studies have focused on the involvement of these animals. Brazil exhibits the largest number of wild felid species in the Americas, all of which have a critical conservation status. However, serological detections, epidemiological studies and some molecular characterizations of T. gondii have primarily used Neotropical felid populations that are maintained in captivity, which does not reflect the disease behavior in free-living conditions. A systematic review of the worldwide scientific literature was conducted focusing on toxoplasmosis in small Neotropical felids. This review covered a number of aspects, including the state of scientific research, parasite transmission in the wild, the genetic characteristics of isolates, the relationship between these genetic characteristics and the pathogenicity of the parasite, and the risk factors linked to conflicts with humans. The present review shows the relevance of studying these felid populations based on their frequent interactions with humans in peri-urban areas and the need for further comprehensive studies to establish the real significance of T. gondii in public and animal health in tropical and temperate regions.

  6. Molecular Phylogeny and Historical Biogeography of the Neotropical Swarm-Founding Social Wasp Genus Synoeca (Hymenoptera: Vespidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Rodolpho Santos Telles; Brady, Seán Gary; Carvalho, Antônio Freire; Del Lama, Marco Antonio; Costa, Marco Antônio

    2015-01-01

    The Neotropical Region harbors high biodiversity and many studies on mammals, reptiles, amphibians and avifauna have investigated the causes for this pattern. However, there is a paucity of such studies that focus on Neotropical insect groups. Synoeca de Saussure, 1852 is a Neotropical swarm-founding social wasp genus with five described species that is broadly and conspicuously distributed throughout the Neotropics. Here, we infer the phylogenetic relationships, diversification times, and historical biogeography of Synoeca species. We also investigate samples of the disjoint populations of S. septentrionalis that occur in both northwestern parts of South America through Central American and the Brazilian Atlantic rainforests. Our results showed that the interspecific relationships for Synoeca could be described as follows: (S. chalibea + S. virginea) + (S. cyanea + (S. septentrionalis/S. surinama)). Notably, samples of S. septentrionalis and S. surinama collected in the Atlantic Forest were interrelated and may be the result of incomplete lineage sorting and/or mitochondrial introgression among them. Our Bayesian divergence dating analysis revealed recent Plio-Pleistocene diversification in Synoeca. Moreover, our biogeographical analysis suggested an Amazonian origin of Synoeca, with three main dispersal events subsequently occurring during the Plio-Pleistocene. PMID:25738705

  7. Molecular phylogeny and historical biogeography of the neotropical swarm-founding social wasp genus Synoeca (Hymenoptera: Vespidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolpho Santos Telles Menezes

    Full Text Available The Neotropical Region harbors high biodiversity and many studies on mammals, reptiles, amphibians and avifauna have investigated the causes for this pattern. However, there is a paucity of such studies that focus on Neotropical insect groups. Synoeca de Saussure, 1852 is a Neotropical swarm-founding social wasp genus with five described species that is broadly and conspicuously distributed throughout the Neotropics. Here, we infer the phylogenetic relationships, diversification times, and historical biogeography of Synoeca species. We also investigate samples of the disjoint populations of S. septentrionalis that occur in both northwestern parts of South America through Central American and the Brazilian Atlantic rainforests. Our results showed that the interspecific relationships for Synoeca could be described as follows: (S. chalibea + S. virginea + (S. cyanea + (S. septentrionalis/S. surinama. Notably, samples of S. septentrionalis and S. surinama collected in the Atlantic Forest were interrelated and may be the result of incomplete lineage sorting and/or mitochondrial introgression among them. Our Bayesian divergence dating analysis revealed recent Plio-Pleistocene diversification in Synoeca. Moreover, our biogeographical analysis suggested an Amazonian origin of Synoeca, with three main dispersal events subsequently occurring during the Plio-Pleistocene.

  8. Treating leishmaniasis in Amazonia: A review of ethnomedicinal concepts and pharmaco-chemical analysis of traditional treatments to inspire modern phytotherapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odonne, Guillaume; Houël, Emeline; Bourdy, Geneviève; Stien, Didier

    2017-03-06

    Cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis are neglected tropical diseases that occur in all intertropical regions of the world. Amazonian populations have developed an abundant knowledge of the disease and its remedies. Therefore, we undertook to review traditional antileishmanial plants in Amazonia and have developed new tools to analyze this somewhat dispersed information. A literature review of traditional remedies for cutaneous/mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in the Amazon was conducted and the data obtained was used to calculate distribution indexes designed to highlight the most relevant uses in Amazonia. The cultural distribution index represents the distribution rate of a given taxon among different cultural groups and was calculated as the ratio of the number of groups using the taxon to the total number of groups cited. The geographical distribution index allowed us to quantify spatial distribution of a taxon's uses in Amazonia and was calculated geometrically by measuring the average distance between the points where uses have been reported and the barycenter of those points. The general distribution index was defined as an arithmetic combination of the previous two and provides information on both cultural and spatial criteria. 475 use reports, concerning 291 botanical species belonging to 83 families have been gathered depicted from 29 sources. Uses concern 34 cultural groups. While the use of some taxa appears to be Pan-Amazonian, some others are clearly restricted to small geographical regions. Particular attention has been paid to the recipes and beliefs surrounding treatments. Topical application of the remedies dominated the other means of administration and this deserves particular attention as the main treatments against Neotropical leishmaniasis are painful systemic injections. The data set was analyzed using the previously defined distribution indexes and the most relevant taxa were further discussed from a phytochemical and pharmacological point

  9. Eficiencia reproductiva de diferentes genotipos bovinos en la Amazonia Ecuatoriana

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz Naveda, N. R.; Castro Guamán, W. E.; Marin, P. R.; Universidad de Cuenca; Dirección de Investigación de la Universidad de Cuenca; DIUC

    2015-01-01

    Los problemas reproductivos en el centro de la Amazonia Ecuatoriana, están condicionados por un sin número de factores, que directa e indirectamente conspiran para mejorar los parámetros productivos de la zona. Las condiciones ambientales, el manejo, la falta de energía en la dieta, la salud, la infraestructura y los genotipos utilizados influyen para no lograr una eficiente reproducción Lopez et al., 2014). El anestro posparto es el principal factor que afecta negativamente el desempeño repr...

  10. Ozone concentrations in the Brazilian Amazonia during BASE-A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setzer, A.W.; Kirchhoff, V.W.J.H.; Pereira, M.C.

    1991-01-01

    During the Biomass Burning Airborne and Spaceborne Experiment--Amazonia, thermal images of fires were made with the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on board meteorological NOAA series satellites. The results of ozone measurements made on board the Brazilian Institute for Space Research (INPE) airplane during September of 1989 are presented and analyzed in relation to the temporal and geographical location of fires detected before and during the sampling. Results show that on a synoptic scale, concentrations of ozone rise sharply in regions of more intense burning

  11. Insecticidal defenses of Piperaceae from the neotropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, C B; Krishanmurty, H G; Chauret, D; Durst, T; Philogène, B J; Sánchez-Vindas, P; Hasbun, C; Poveda, L; San Román, L; Arnason, J T

    1995-06-01

    Insecticidal and growth-reducing properties of extracts of 14 species of American neotropical Piperaceae were investigated by inclusion in diets of a polyphagous lepidopteran, the European corn borer,Ostrinia nubilalis. Nutritional indices suggested most extracts acted by postdigestive toxicity.Piper aduncum, P. tuberculatum, andP. decurrens were among the most active species and were subjected to bioassay-guided isolation of the active components. Dillapiol was isolated from the active fraction ofP. aduncum, piperlonguminine was isolated fromP. tuberculatum, and a novel neolignan fromP. decurrens. The results support other studies on Asian and AfricanPiper species, which suggest that lignans and isobutyl amides are the active defence compounds in this family.

  12. Secondary Forests from Agricultural Abandonment in Amazonia 2000-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Ongoing negotiations to include reducing emissions from tropical deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) in a post-Kyoto climate agreement highlight the critical role of satellite data for accurate and transparent accounting of forest cover changes. In addition to deforestation and degradation, knowledge of secondary forest dynamics is essential for full carbon accounting under REDD+. Land abandonment to secondary forests also frames one of the key tradeoffs for agricultural production in tropical forest countries-whether to incentivize secondary forest growth (for carbon sequestration and biodiversity conservation) or low-carbon expansion of agriculture or biofuels production in areas of secondary forests. We examined patterns of land abandonment to secondary forest across the arc of deforestation in Brazil and Bolivia using time series of annual Landsat and MODIS data from 2000-2009. Rates of land abandonment to secondary forest during 2002-2006 were less than 5% of deforestation rates in these years. Small areas of new secondary forest were scattered across the entire arc of deforestation, rather than concentrated in any specific region of the basin. Taken together, our analysis of the satellite data record emphasizes the difficulties of addressing the pool of new secondary forests in the context of REDD+ in Amazonia. Due to the small total area of secondary forests, land sparing through agricultural intensification will be an important element of efforts to reduce deforestation rates under REDD+ while improving agricultural productivity in Amazonia.

  13. The expansion of intensive agriculture and ranching in Brazilian Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robert; DeFries, Ruth; del Carmen Vera-Diaz, Maria; Shimabukuro, Yosio; Venturieri, Adriano

    Agriculture in Amazonia has often provoked controversy, given the tremendous ecological value of the region's environment. First with ranching, and now with the soybean boom, tractors and cattle have marched across lands that for millennia supported only closed moist forest, resident ecosystems, and dispersed indigenous peoples. The present chapter considers this expansion, focusing on the Brazilian portion of the basin. Its premise is that effective Amazonian policy must be grounded on an understanding of the region's agriculture. The chapter pursues its objectives by first addressing the development initiatives that created the preconditions for Amazonia's current agricultural economy. The region is remote and has therefore required sustained government intervention to release its potential. The policy discussion is followed by descriptions of cattle ranching and soy farming. For each, market settings and trajectories of expansion are presented. Although these sectoral descriptions are data rich, they do not provide a conceptual framework for analyzing the environmental impacts of evolving market conditions. To accomplish this, the chapter invokes the classical land use model of von Thünen to explain Amazonian land cover dynamics in relation to soy-cattle linkages. It addresses these dynamics with remote sensing data from Mato Grosso, Pará, and Rondônia, and then discusses scenarios of agricultural advances on the forest. Conclusions follow, considering possible policy responses to deforestation, and the social context of agricultural intensification, with special attention to the issues of land tenure security and distributional equity.

  14. Modeling decay rates of dead wood in a neotropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hérault, Bruno; Beauchêne, Jacques; Muller, Félix; Wagner, Fabien; Baraloto, Christopher; Blanc, Lilian; Martin, Jean-Michel

    2010-09-01

    Variation of dead wood decay rates among tropical trees remains one source of uncertainty in global models of the carbon cycle. Taking advantage of a broad forest plot network surveyed for tree mortality over a 23-year period, we measured the remaining fraction of boles from 367 dead trees from 26 neotropical species widely varying in wood density (0.23-1.24 g cm(-3)) and tree circumference at death time (31.5-272.0 cm). We modeled decay rates within a Bayesian framework assuming a first order differential equation to model the decomposition process and tested for the effects of forest management (selective logging vs. unexploited), of mode of death (standing vs. downed) and of topographical levels (bottomlands vs. hillsides vs. hilltops) on wood decay rates. The general decay model predicts the observed remaining fraction of dead wood (R2 = 60%) with only two biological predictors: tree circumference at death time and wood specific density. Neither selective logging nor local topography had a differential effect on wood decay rates. Including the mode of death into the model revealed that standing dead trees decomposed faster than downed dead trees, but the gain of model accuracy remains rather marginal. Overall, these results suggest that the release of carbon from tropical dead trees to the atmosphere can be simply estimated using tree circumference at death time and wood density.

  15. Zebragryllus Desutter-Grandcolas & Cadena-Casteñada, n.gen. a new Gryllinae genus from Eastern and Western Amazonia, South America (Orthoptera, Grylloidea, Gryllidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desutter-Grandcolas, Laure; Cadena-Castañeda, Oscar J; Jaiswara, Ranjana; Anso, Jeremy

    2014-02-24

    We describe a new genus of grylline cricket, Zebragryllus Desutter-Grandcolas & Cadena-Casteñada n. gen., from the Neotropical Region, using characters of morphology and male genitalia; genitalic characters clearly show that Zebragryllus n. gen. is closely related to Anurogryllus Saussure, 1878. Six species are described as new to science, originax">ting from western (Peru, Colombia) and eastern (French Guiana) Amazonia: Zebragryllus fuscus Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., Z. guianensis Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., Z. intermedius Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., Zebragryllus nauta Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., Zebragryllus nouragui Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., and Zebragryllus wittoto Desutter-Grandcolas and Cadena-Casteñada, n. sp., type species of the genus. They are characterized by their size, coloration (shining black, most often with white patterns of coloration, hence the genus name), and male and female genitalia. The calling songs of Z. guianensis Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., Z. intermedius Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., Z. nouragui Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., and Z. wittoto Desutter-Grandcolas and Cadena-Casteñada, n. sp. are described. An identification key is proposed for both males and females.

  16. Temporal Dynamics of Reproduction of the Neotropical Fish, Crenicichla menezesi (Perciformes: Cichlidae

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    Andréa Soares de Araújo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive biology and the gonadal development cycle of the Neotropical cichlid fish, Crenicichla menezesi, is described. This species exhibits sexual dimorphism only during the spawning season. First sexual maturity of females is attained earlier than the males. Both macroscopic and histological investigations of ovaries and testes revealed four stages of gonadal maturation. Mean batch fecundity of females was 372 (±10,41 of mature oocytes. This species is a partial spawner, with an extended spawning period. Monthly values of GSI and the condition factor are negatively correlated during the gonadal development cycle of this species.

  17. Dissolved nutrient exports from natural and human-impacted Neotropical catchments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gücker, Björn; Silva, Ricky C. S.; Graeber, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Aim Neotropical biomes are highly threatened by land-use changes, but the catchment-wide biogeochemical effects are poorly understood. Here, we aim to compare exports of dissolved nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from natural and human-impacted catchments in the Neotropics. Location Neotropics. Me...

  18. Nuevas especies de Axonopus (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae de la Amazonia Colombiana

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    Giraldo Cañas Diego

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Axonopus, A. morronei (series Axonopus and A. zuloagae (series Barbigen are described. The new species are known only from the savannas and sandstone plateau of Colombian northwest Amazonia.Se describen dos nuevas especies de Axonopus, A. morronei y A. zuloagae, de las series Axonopus y Barbigeri, respectivamente. Las nuevas especies son conocidas únicamente de las sabanas y afloramientos rocosos de la Amazonia noroccidental colombiana.

  19. CHLOROCOCCALES DE LA AMAZONIA COLOMBIANA I: Chlorellaceae y Scenedesmaceae

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    ECHENIQUE RICARDO O.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo damos a conocer 41 taxones pertenecientes a las familias Chlorellaceaey Scenedesmaceae del orden Chlorococcales (Algae, Cholophyceae hallados entres cuencas de la Amazonia colombiana: Amazonas (Solimões, Putumayo (Içã yCaquetá (Japurá. Del total encontrado, 19 son nuevas citas para Colombia, nueveson nuevos registros para la cuenca en estudio y se propone una nueva entidadtaxonómica Tetraedron triangulare f. major Echenique nova forma. La mayor riquezase encontró en los lagos de inundación del río Amazonas, en particular en el lagoYahuarcaca que presenta amplio desarrollo de macrófitos y los mayores nivelestróficos de la región.

  20. Biomass resilience of Neotropical secondary forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorter, Lourens; Bongers, Frans; Aide, T Mitchell; Almeyda Zambrano, Angélica M; Balvanera, Patricia; Becknell, Justin M; Boukili, Vanessa; Brancalion, Pedro H S; Broadbent, Eben N; Chazdon, Robin L; Craven, Dylan; de Almeida-Cortez, Jarcilene S; Cabral, George A L; de Jong, Ben H J; Denslow, Julie S; Dent, Daisy H; DeWalt, Saara J; Dupuy, Juan M; Durán, Sandra M; Espírito-Santo, Mario M; Fandino, María C; César, Ricardo G; Hall, Jefferson S; Hernandez-Stefanoni, José Luis; Jakovac, Catarina C; Junqueira, André B; Kennard, Deborah; Letcher, Susan G; Licona, Juan-Carlos; Lohbeck, Madelon; Marín-Spiotta, Erika; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Massoca, Paulo; Meave, Jorge A; Mesquita, Rita; Mora, Francisco; Muñoz, Rodrigo; Muscarella, Robert; Nunes, Yule R F; Ochoa-Gaona, Susana; de Oliveira, Alexandre A; Orihuela-Belmonte, Edith; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Pérez-García, Eduardo A; Piotto, Daniel; Powers, Jennifer S; Rodríguez-Velázquez, Jorge; Romero-Pérez, I Eunice; Ruíz, Jorge; Saldarriaga, Juan G; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo; Schwartz, Naomi B; Steininger, Marc K; Swenson, Nathan G; Toledo, Marisol; Uriarte, Maria; van Breugel, Michiel; van der Wal, Hans; Veloso, Maria D M; Vester, Hans F M; Vicentini, Alberto; Vieira, Ima C G; Bentos, Tony Vizcarra; Williamson, G Bruce; Rozendaal, Danaë M A

    2016-02-11

    Land-use change occurs nowhere more rapidly than in the tropics, where the imbalance between deforestation and forest regrowth has large consequences for the global carbon cycle. However, considerable uncertainty remains about the rate of biomass recovery in secondary forests, and how these rates are influenced by climate, landscape, and prior land use. Here we analyse aboveground biomass recovery during secondary succession in 45 forest sites and about 1,500 forest plots covering the major environmental gradients in the Neotropics. The studied secondary forests are highly productive and resilient. Aboveground biomass recovery after 20 years was on average 122 megagrams per hectare (Mg ha(-1)), corresponding to a net carbon uptake of 3.05 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1), 11 times the uptake rate of old-growth forests. Aboveground biomass stocks took a median time of 66 years to recover to 90% of old-growth values. Aboveground biomass recovery after 20 years varied 11.3-fold (from 20 to 225 Mg ha(-1)) across sites, and this recovery increased with water availability (higher local rainfall and lower climatic water deficit). We present a biomass recovery map of Latin America, which illustrates geographical and climatic variation in carbon sequestration potential during forest regrowth. The map will support policies to minimize forest loss in areas where biomass resilience is naturally low (such as seasonally dry forest regions) and promote forest regeneration and restoration in humid tropical lowland areas with high biomass resilience.

  1. Phylogeny of Neotropical Cercosaura (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Carvajal, Omar; Lobos, Simón E; Venegas, Pablo J

    2015-12-01

    Among Neotropical lizards, the geographically widespread gymnophthalmid Cercosaura as currently defined includes lowland and highland taxa from Panama to Argentina, with some species occurring in the northern Andes. In this study we analyze three mitochondrial (12S, 16S, ND4) and one nuclear (c-mos) gene using Bayesian methods to clarify the phylogenetic relationships among most species of Cercosaura based on a well-supported phylogenetic hypothesis that also includes a large sample of other taxa within Cercosaurini. The phylogenetic tree obtained in this paper shows that Cercosaura as currently defined is not monophyletic. Two species from the northern Andes (C. dicra and C. vertebralis) are nested within Pholidobolus, which has been formerly recognized as a major radiation along the Andes of Ecuador and Colombia. Therefore, Cercosaura has probably not diversified in the northern Andes, although the phylogenetic position of C. hypnoides from the Andes of Colombia remains unknown. Tree topology and genetic distances support both recognition of C. ocellata bassleri as a distinct species, C. bassleri, and recognition of C. argula and C. oshaughnessyi as two different species. In the interest of promoting clarity and precision regarding the names of clades of gymnophthalmid lizards, we propose a phylogenetic definition of Cercosaura. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. USOS DE LAS PALMAS EN LA AMAZONIA COLOMBIANA

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    LAURA MESA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de obtener un diagnóstico del estado actual de conocimiento sobre usos de las palmas en la Amazonia colombiana, se revisaron las principales fuentes de información. Treinta y seis de las 41 etnias indígenas consideradas tuvieron registros de uso. Se registraron 82 especies de palmas usadas (78% de las potenciales y 165 usos distribuidos en ocho categorías; todos los usos se presentan de manera detallada en un catálogo. Las categorías de uso más importantes fueron: utensilios y herramientas, construcción, y alimentación humana. Las diez especies más importantes fueron Bactris gasipaes, Euterpe precatoria, Mauritia flexuosa, Oenocarpus bataua, Attalea maripa, Oenocarpus minor, Astrocaryum chambira, Iriartea deltoidea, Oenocarpus bacaba y Socratea exorrhiza; la mayoría de ellas también han sido registradas como las más importantes en otras partes del Neotrópico. No se encontró ninguna información sobre usos de palmas para varios grupos indígenas, especialmente para las etnias cocama, letuama, piaroa, pisamira y yurí, para las cuales se requieren investigaciones detalladas. Se concluye que a pesar de los vacíos de información, los resultados muestran que las palmas son un recurso muy importante con un gran potencial, y una pieza fundamental para la seguridad alimentaria y el desarrollo sustentable de la Amazonia colombiana. Sugerimos la inclusión de las especies más importantes en programas de manejo y agroforestales, al igual que la implementación y popularización de técnicas de cosecha no destructivas. Recomendamos además que las investigaciones futuras estén enfocadas en desarrollar estrategias de manejo que garanticen el uso sostenible de todas estas especies útiles.

  3. Marine intervals in Neogene fluvial deposits of western Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonstra, Melanie; Troelstra, Simon; Lammertsma, Emmy; Hoorn, Carina

    2014-05-01

    Amazonia is one of the most species rich areas on Earth, but this high diversity is not homogeneous over the entire region. Highest mammal and tree-alpha diversity is found in the fluvio-lacustrine Pebas system, a Neogene wetland associated with rapid radiation of species. The estuarine to marine origin of various modern Amazonian fish, plants, and invertebrates has been associated with past marine ingressions into this freshwater Pebas system. The exact nature and age of these invasions is, however, debated. Here we present new evidence from fluvial and fluvio-lacustrine deposits of Neogene age in southeast Colombia, that point to periods of widespread marine conditions in western Amazonia. Our evidence is based on an analysis of marine palynomorphs, such as organic linings of foraminifera and dinoflagellate cysts, present in dark sandy clay sediments that outcrop along the Caqueta and Amazon rivers. Characteristically, the foraminiferal linings can be assigned to three benthic morphotypes only, e.g. Ammonia, Elphidium and Trochammina. This low diversity assemblage is associated with estuarine/marginal marine conditions. No distinct marine elements such as shelf or planktonic species were encountered. The observed foraminiferal linings and dinocyst assemblages are typical for a (eutrophic) shallow marine environment, suggesting that the Pebas freshwater wetland system occasionally changed to (marginal) marine. Although some reworked elements are found, a typical Neogene dinocyst taxon is commonly found supporting in situ deposition. Sedimentological features typical for tidal conditions that are reported for sites in Peru and northeastern Brazil likely relate to these marine ingressions. Sea level changes as well as foreland basin development related to Andes formation may have facilitated the entry of marine water during the Neogene.

  4. Habitat shifts in the evolutionary history of a Neotropical flycatcher lineage from forest and open landscapes

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    Christidis Les

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the role ecological shifts play in the evolution of Neotropical radiations that have colonized a variety of environments. We here examine habitat shifts in the evolutionary history of Elaenia flycatchers, a Neotropical bird lineage that lives in a range of forest and open habitats. We evaluate phylogenetic relationships within the genus based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data, and then employ parsimony-based and Bayesian methods to reconstruct preferences for a number of habitat types and migratory behaviour throughout the evolutionary history of the genus. Using a molecular clock approach, we date the most important habitat shifts. Results Our analyses resolve phylogenetic relationships among Elaenia species and confirm several species associations predicted by morphology while furnishing support for other taxon placements that are in conflict with traditional classification, such as the elevation of various Elaenia taxa to species level. While savannah specialism is restricted to one basal clade within the genus, montane forest was invaded from open habitat only on a limited number of occasions. Riparian growth may have been favoured early on in the evolution of the main Elaenia clade and subsequently been deserted on several occasions. Austral long-distance migratory behaviour evolved on several occasions. Conclusion Ancestral reconstructions of habitat preferences reveal pronounced differences not only in the timing of the emergence of certain habitat preferences, but also in the frequency of habitat shifts. The early origin of savannah specialism in Elaenia highlights the importance of this habitat in Neotropical Pliocene and late Miocene biogeography. While forest in old mountain ranges such as the Tepuis and the Brazilian Shield was colonized early on, the most important colonization event of montane forest was in conjunction with Pliocene Andean uplift. Riparian habitats may have

  5. Seasonal variation of ozone deposition to a tropical rain forest in southwest Amazonia

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    U. Rummel

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Within the project EUropean Studies on Trace gases and Atmospheric CHemistry as a contribution to Large-scale Biosphere-atmosphere experiment in Amazonia (LBA-EUSTACH, we performed tower-based eddy covariance measurements of O3 flux above an Amazonian primary rain forest at the end of the wet and dry season. Ozone deposition revealed distinct seasonal differences in the magnitude and diel variation. In the wet season, the rain forest was an effective O3 sink with a mean daytime (midday maximum deposition velocity of 2.3 cm s−1, and a corresponding O3 flux of −11 nmol m−2 s−1. At the end of the dry season, the ozone mixing ratio was about four times higher (up to maximum values of 80 ppb than in the wet season, as a consequence of strong regional biomass burning activity. However, the typical maximum daytime deposition flux was very similar to the wet season. This results from a strong limitation of daytime O3 deposition due to reduced plant stomatal aperture as a response to large values of the specific humidity deficit. As a result, the average midday deposition velocity in the dry burning season was only 0.5 cm s−1. The large diel ozone variation caused large canopy storage effects that masked the true diel variation of ozone deposition mechanisms in the measured eddy covariance flux, and for which corrections had to be made. In general, stomatal aperture was sufficient to explain the largest part of daytime ozone deposition. However, during nighttime, chemical reaction with nitrogen monoxide (NO was found to contribute substantially to the O3 sink in the rain forest canopy. Further contributions were from non-stomatal plant uptake and other processes that could not be clearly identified.

    Measurements, made simultaneously on a 22 years old cattle pasture enabled the spatially and temporally direct comparison of O3

  6. A revision of Spondias L. (Anacardiaceae in the Neotropics

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    John D. Mitchell

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available As part of an ongoing study of Anacardiaceae subfamily Spondioideae, the ten native and one introduced species of Spondias in the Neotropics are revised. The genus is circumscribed. Three new species, S. admirabilis, S. expeditionaria, and S. globosa, are described and illustrated; a key to the taxa found in the Neotropics and distribution maps are provided. The Paleotropical species and allied genera are reviewed. Diagnostic character sets include leaf architecture, habit, flower morphology, and gross fruit morphology. Notes on the ecology and economic botany of the species are provided.

  7. Revision of the Neotropical Xanthandrus Verral (Diptera, Syrphidae

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    Borges Zuleica M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Neotropical genus Xanthandrus Verral, 1901 is revised. Six species are redescribed: X. bucephalus (Wiedemann, 1830, X. cubanus Fluke, 1936, X. mellinoides (Macquart, 1846, X. mexicanus Curran, 1930, X. nitidulus Fluke, 1937, and X. plaumanni Fluke, 1937. Three species are included based on original descriptions: X. flavomaculatus Shannon, 1927, X. palliatus (Fluke, 1945, and X. simplex (Loew, 1861. New synonyms proposed: Argentinomyia longicornis (Walker, 1837 = Xanthandrus biguttatus Hull, 1945 syn. nov., and Xanthandrus bucephalus (Wiedemann, 1830 = Melanostoma quadrinotata Bigot, 1884 syn. nov. Description of terminalia, a key for Neotropical species, and illustrations are also presented.

  8. Microbial diversity of an anoxic zone of a hydroelectric power station reservoir in Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graças, Diego A; Miranda, Paulo R; Baraúna, Rafael A; McCulloch, John A; Ghilardi, Rubens; Schneider, Maria Paula C; Silva, Artur

    2011-11-01

    Microbial diversity was evaluated in an anoxic zone of Tucuruí Hydroelectric Power Station reservoir in Brazilian Amazonia using a culture-independent approach by amplifying and sequencing fragments of the 16S rRNA gene using metagenomic DNA as a template. Samples obtained from the photic, aphotic (40 m) and sediment (60 m) layers were used to construct six 16S rDNA libraries containing a total of 1,152 clones. The sediment, aphotic and photic layers presented 64, 33 and 35 unique archaeal operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The estimated richness of these layers was evaluated to be 153, 106 and 79 archaeal OTUs, respectively, using the abundance-based coverage estimator (ACE) and 114, 83 and 77 OTUs using the Chao1 estimator. For bacterial sequences, 114, 69 and 57 OTUs were found in the sediment, aphotic and photic layers, which presented estimated richnesses of 1,414, 522 and 197 OTUs (ACE) and 1,059, 1,014 and 148 OTUs (Chao1), respectively. Phylogenetic analyses of the sequences obtained revealed a high richness of microorganisms which participate in the carbon cycle, namely, methanogenic archaea and methanotrophic proteobacteria. Most sequences obtained belong to non-culturable prokaryotes. The present study offers the first glimpse of the huge microbial diversity of an anoxic area of a man-made lacustrine environment in the tropics.

  9. Vocal ontogeny in neotropical singing mice (Scotinomys.

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    Polly Campbell

    Full Text Available Isolation calls produced by dependent young are a fundamental form of communication. For species in which vocal signals remain important to adult communication, the function and social context of vocal behavior changes dramatically with the onset of sexual maturity. The ontogenetic relationship between these distinct forms of acoustic communication is surprisingly under-studied. We conducted a detailed analysis of vocal development in sister species of Neotropical singing mice, Scotinomys teguina and S. xerampelinus. Adult singing mice are remarkable for their advertisement songs, rapidly articulated trills used in long-distance communication; the vocal behavior of pups was previously undescribed. We recorded 30 S. teguina and 15 S. xerampelinus pups daily, from birth to weaning; 23 S. teguina and 11 S. xerampelinus were recorded until sexual maturity. Like other rodent species with poikilothermic young, singing mice were highly vocal during the first weeks of life and stopped vocalizing before weaning. Production of first advertisement songs coincided with the onset of sexual maturity after a silent period of ≧2 weeks. Species differences in vocal behavior emerged early in ontogeny and notes that comprise adult song were produced from birth. However, the organization and relative abundance of distinct note types was very different between pups and adults. Notably, the structure, note repetition rate, and intra-individual repeatability of pup vocalizations did not become more adult-like with age; the highly stereotyped structure of adult song appeared de novo in the first songs of young adults. We conclude that, while the basic elements of adult song are available from birth, distinct selection pressures during maternal dependency, dispersal, and territorial establishment favor major shifts in the structure and prevalence of acoustic signals. This study provides insight into how an evolutionarily conserved form of acoustic signaling provides

  10. Countryside biogeography of Neotropical reptiles and amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendenhall, Chase D; Frishkoff, Luke O; Santos-Barrera, Georgina; Pacheco, Jesús; Mesfun, Eyobed; Mendoza Quijano, Fernando; Ehrlich, Paul R; Ceballos, Gerardo; Daily, Gretchen C; Pringle, Robert M

    2014-04-01

    The future of biodiversity and ecosystem services depends largely on the capacity of human-dominated ecosystems to support them, yet this capacity remains largely unknown. Using the framework of countryside biogeography, and working in the Las Cruces system of Coto Brus, Costa Rica, we assessed reptile and amphibian assemblages within four habitats that typify much of the Neotropics: sun coffee plantations (12 sites), pasture (12 sites), remnant forest elements (12 sites), and a larger, contiguous protected forest (3 sites in one forest). Through analysis of 1678 captures of 67 species, we draw four primary conclusions. First, we found that the majority of reptile (60%) and amphibian (70%) species in this study used an array of habitat types, including coffee plantations and actively grazed pastures. Second, we found that coffee plantations and pastures hosted rich, albeit different and less dense, reptile and amphibian biodiversity relative to the 326-ha Las Cruces Forest Reserve and neighboring forest elements. Third, we found that the small ribbons of "countryside forest elements" weaving through farmland collectively increased the effective size of a 326-ha local forest reserve 16-fold for reptiles and 14-fold for amphibians within our 236-km2 study area. Therefore, countryside forest elements, often too small for most remote sensing techniques to identify, are contributing -95% of the available habitat for forest-dependent reptiles and amphibians in our largely human-dominated study region. Fourth, we found large and pond-reproducing amphibians to prefer human-made habitats, whereas small, stream-reproducing, and directly developing species are more dependent on forest elements. Our investigation demonstrates that tropical farming landscapes can support substantial reptile and amphibian biodiversity. Our approach provides a framework for estimating the conservation value of the complex working landscapes that constitute roughly half of the global land surface

  11. Diversification in the northern neotropics: mitochondrial and nuclear DNA phylogeography of the iguana Ctenosaura pectinata and related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarza, Eugenia; Reynoso, Victor H; Emerson, Brent C

    2008-07-01

    While Quaternary climatic changes are considered by some to have been a major factor promoting speciation within the neotropics, others suggest that much of the neotropical species diversity originated before the Pleistocene. Using mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data, we evaluate the relative importance of Pleistocene and pre-Pleistocene events within the evolutionary history of the Mexican iguana Ctenosaura pectinata, and related species. Results support the existence of cryptic lineages with strong mitochondrial divergence (> 4%) among them. Some of these lineages form zones of secondary contact, with one of them hybridizing with C. hemilopha. Evolutionary network analyses reveal the oldest populations of C. pectinata to be those of the northern and southern Mexican coastal regions. Inland and mid-latitudinal coastal populations are younger in age as a consequence of a history of local extinction within these regions followed by re-colonization. Estimated divergence times suggest that C. pectinata originated during the Pliocene, whereas geographically distinct mitochondrial DNA lineages first started to diverge during the Pliocene, with subsequent divergence continuing through the Pleistocene. Our results highlight the influence of both Pliocene and Pleistocene events in shaping the geographical distribution of genetic variation within neotropical lowland organisms. Areas of high genetic diversity in southern Mexico were detected, this finding plus the high levels of genetic diversity within C. pectinata, have implications for the conservation of this threatened species.

  12. The consequences of pleistocene climate change on lowland neotropical vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Oliveira, P.E.; Colinvaux, P.A. (Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama City (Panama))

    1994-06-01

    Palynological reconstructions indicate that lowland tropical America was subject to intense cooling during the last ice-age. The descent of presently montane taxa into the lowlands of Amazonia and Minas Gerais indicate temperature depressions ranging from 5[degrees]C to 9[degrees]C cooler-than-present. The strengthened incursion of southerly airmasses caused a reassortment of vegetation throughout Amazonia. Presently allopatric species are found to have been sympatric as novel forest assemblages and formed and dissolved. Modest drying, perhaps a 20% reduction in precipitation, accounts for all the records that show a Pleistocene expansion of savanna. No evidence is found to support the fragmentation of Amazonian forests during glacial times, and the hypothesis of forest refuges as an explanation of tropical speciation is rejected on empirical grounds.

  13. Bats (Chiroptera: Noctilionoidea) Challenge a Recent Origin of Extant Neotropical Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Danny; Warsi, Omar M; Dávalos, Liliana M

    2016-05-01

    The mechanisms underlying the high extant biodiversity in the Neotropics have been controversial since the 19th century. Support for the influence of period-specific changes on diversification often rests on detecting more speciation events during a particular period. The timing of speciation events may reflect the influence of incomplete taxon sampling, protracted speciation, and null processes of lineage accumulation. Here we assess the influence of these factors on the timing of speciation with new multilocus data for New World noctilionoid bats (Chiroptera: Noctilionoidea). Biogeographic analyses revealed the importance of the Neotropics in noctilionoid diversification, and the critical role of dispersal. We detected no shift in speciation rate associated with the Quaternary or pre-Quaternary periods, and instead found an increase in speciation linked to the evolution of the subfamily Stenodermatinae (∼18 Ma). Simulations modeling constant speciation and extinction rates for the phylogeny systematically showed more speciation events in the Quaternary. Since recording more divergence events in the Quaternary can result from lineage accumulation, the age of extant sister species cannot be interpreted as supporting higher speciation rates during this period. Instead, analyzing the factors that influence speciation requires modeling lineage-specific traits and environmental, spatial, and ecological drivers of speciation. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Morphology and Efficiency of a Specialized Foraging Behavior, Sediment Sifting, in Neotropical Cichlid Fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Stuart; Watkins, Crystal; Honeycutt, Rodney L.; Winemiller, Kirk O.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding of relationships between morphology and ecological performance can help to reveal how natural selection drives biological diversification. We investigate relationships between feeding behavior, foraging performance and morphology within a diverse group of teleost fishes, and examine the extent to which associations can be explained by evolutionary relatedness. Morphological adaptation associated with sediment sifting was examined using a phylogenetic linear discriminant analysis on a set of ecomorphological traits from 27 species of Neotropical cichlids. For most sifting taxa, feeding behavior could be effectively predicted by a linear discriminant function of ecomorphology across multiple clades of sediment sifters, and this pattern could not be explained by shared evolutionary history alone. Additionally, we tested foraging efficiency in seven Neotropical cichlid species, five of which are specialized benthic feeders with differing head morphology. Efficiency was evaluated based on the degree to which invertebrate prey could be retrieved at different depths of sediment. Feeding performance was compared both with respect to feeding mode and species using a phylogenetic ANCOVA, with substrate depth as a covariate. Benthic foraging performance was constant across sediment depths in non-sifters but declined with depth in sifters. The non-sifting Hypsophrys used sweeping motions of the body and fins to excavate large pits to uncover prey; this tactic was more efficient for consuming deeply buried invertebrates than observed among sediment sifters. Findings indicate that similar feeding performance among sediment-sifting cichlids extracting invertebrate prey from shallow sediment layers reflects constraints associated with functional morphology and, to a lesser extent, phylogeny. PMID:24603485

  15. Morphology and efficiency of a specialized foraging behavior, sediment sifting, in neotropical cichlid fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Fernández, Hernán; Arbour, Jessica; Willis, Stuart; Watkins, Crystal; Honeycutt, Rodney L; Winemiller, Kirk O

    2014-01-01

    Understanding of relationships between morphology and ecological performance can help to reveal how natural selection drives biological diversification. We investigate relationships between feeding behavior, foraging performance and morphology within a diverse group of teleost fishes, and examine the extent to which associations can be explained by evolutionary relatedness. Morphological adaptation associated with sediment sifting was examined using a phylogenetic linear discriminant analysis on a set of ecomorphological traits from 27 species of Neotropical cichlids. For most sifting taxa, feeding behavior could be effectively predicted by a linear discriminant function of ecomorphology across multiple clades of sediment sifters, and this pattern could not be explained by shared evolutionary history alone. Additionally, we tested foraging efficiency in seven Neotropical cichlid species, five of which are specialized benthic feeders with differing head morphology. Efficiency was evaluated based on the degree to which invertebrate prey could be retrieved at different depths of sediment. Feeding performance was compared both with respect to feeding mode and species using a phylogenetic ANCOVA, with substrate depth as a covariate. Benthic foraging performance was constant across sediment depths in non-sifters but declined with depth in sifters. The non-sifting Hypsophrys used sweeping motions of the body and fins to excavate large pits to uncover prey; this tactic was more efficient for consuming deeply buried invertebrates than observed among sediment sifters. Findings indicate that similar feeding performance among sediment-sifting cichlids extracting invertebrate prey from shallow sediment layers reflects constraints associated with functional morphology and, to a lesser extent, phylogeny.

  16. DNA barcoding of freshwater ichthyoplankton in the Neotropics as a tool for ecological monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantine-Silva, W; Sofia, S H; Orsi, M L; Almeida, F S

    2015-09-01

    Quantifying and classifying ichthyoplankton is one of the most effective ways of monitoring the recruitment process in fishes. However, correctly identifying the fish based on morphological characters is extremely difficult, especially in the early stages of development. We examined ichthyoplankton from tributaries and reservoirs along the middle stretch of the Paranapanema River, one of the areas most impacted by hydroelectric projects in the Neotropics. Matching DNA sequences of the COI gene (628-648 bp) allowed us to identify 99.25% of 536 samples of eggs (293) and larvae (243) subjected to BOLD-IDS similarity analysis with a species-level threshold of 1.3%. The results revealed 37 species in 27 genera, 15 families and four orders, some 23.8% of documented fish species in the Paranapanema River. Molecular identification meant that we could include data from egg samples that accounted for about 30% of the species richness observed. The results in this study confirm the efficacy of DNA barcoding in identifying Neotropical ichthyoplankton and show how the data produced provide valuable information for preparing plans for conserving and managing inland waters. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Integrative taxonomy detects cryptic and overlooked fish species in a neotropical river basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Laís Carvalho; Pessali, Tiago Casarim; Sales, Naiara Guimarães; Pompeu, Paulo Santos; Carvalho, Daniel Cardoso

    2015-10-01

    The great freshwater fish diversity found in the neotropical region makes management and conservation actions challenging. Due to shortage of taxonomists and insufficient infrastructure to deal with such great biodiversity (i.e. taxonomic impediment), proposed remedies to accelerate species identification and descriptions include techniques that combine DNA-based identification and concise morphological description. The building of a DNA barcode reference database correlating meristic and genetic data was developed for 75 % of the Mucuri River basin's freshwater fish. We obtained a total of 141 DNA barcode sequences from 37 species belonging to 30 genera, 19 families, and 5 orders. Genetic distances within species, genera, and families were 0.74, 9.5, and 18.86 %, respectively. All species could be clearly identified by the DNA barcodes. Divergences between meristic morphological characteristics and DNA barcodes revealed two cryptic species among the Cyphocharax gilbert and Astyanax gr. bimaculatus specimens, and helped to identify two overlooked species within the Gymnotus and Astyanax taxa. Therefore, using a simplified model of neotropical biodiversity, we tested the efficiency of an integrative taxonomy approach for species discovery, identification of cryptic diversity, and accelerating biodiversity descriptions.

  18. Diversification of the Genus Anopheles and a Neotropical Clade from the Late Cretaceous.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas A Freitas

    Full Text Available The Anopheles genus is a member of the Culicidae family and consists of approximately 460 recognized species. The genus is composed of 7 subgenera with diverse geographical distributions. Despite its huge medical importance, a consensus has not been reached on the phylogenetic relationships among Anopheles subgenera. We assembled a comprehensive dataset comprising the COI, COII and 5.8S rRNA genes and used maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference to estimate the phylogeny and divergence times of six out of the seven Anopheles subgenera. Our analysis reveals a monophyletic group composed of the three exclusively Neotropical subgenera, Stethomyia, Kerteszia and Nyssorhynchus, which began to diversify in the Late Cretaceous, at approximately 90 Ma. The inferred age of the last common ancestor of the Anopheles genus was ca. 110 Ma. The monophyly of all Anopheles subgenera was supported, although we failed to recover a significant level of statistical support for the monophyly of the Anopheles genus. The ages of the last common ancestors of the Neotropical clade and the Anopheles and Cellia subgenera were inferred to be at the Late Cretaceous (ca. 90 Ma. Our analysis failed to statistically support the monophyly of the Anopheles genus because of an unresolved polytomy between Bironella and A. squamifemur.

  19. The role of indicator species: Neotropical migratory song birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore R. Simons; Kerry N. Rabenold; David A. Buehler; Jaime A. Collazo; Kathleen E. Franzreb

    1999-01-01

    Southern Appalachian forests support some of the richest avian diversity in North America, including some 75 species of Neotropical migrants, birds that perform the remarkable feat of making much of the Western Hemisphere their home. This diverse group includes the swallows, kingbirds, and other flycatchers that feed in the air on flying insects. The Eastern kingbird...

  20. Molecular phylogeny of Neotropical monogeneans (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea) from catfishes (Siluriformes)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mendoza-Palmero, Carlos Alonso; Blasco-Costa, I.; Scholz, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 8, MAR 18 2015 (2015), s. 164 ISSN 1756-3305 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Phylogeny * Monogenea * Dactylogyridae * Neotropical region * Diversity * Siluriformes * 28S rRNA Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2015

  1. A preliminary survey of foliar sclerenchyma in neotropical Loranthaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijt, J.; Lye, D.

    2005-01-01

    The foliar sclerenchyma of all genera of neotropical Loranthaceae is surveyed by means of cleared leaves, using selected species. Three general categories of sclerenchyma are recognized. Fibers may form discontinuous or continuous bundles associated with veins or, more rarely, occur as individual

  2. The neotropical genus Opeatocerata Melander (Díptera, Empididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth G. V. Smith

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The Neotropical empidid genus Opeatocerata Melander, hitherto known from only a sigle female from Mexico, is redefined in the light of new material, including males. Three new species are described and illustrated, a key provided and the presence of the genus now additionally established in Costa Rica, Panama, Bolivia, Ecuador, Trinidad and Brazil.

  3. Origin and management of neotropical cassava arthropod pests ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava, one of the worlds major food crops is grown throughout the tropical regions of the world. Cassava originated in the neotropics; it was introduced into West Africa from Brazil by slave traders in the 1500's, and taken to Asia during the 17th century. Consequently the greatest diversity of cassava pests, as well as their ...

  4. Hearing diversity in moths confronting a neotropical bat assemblage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobo-Cuan, Ariadna; Kössl, Manfred; Mora, Emanuel C

    2017-09-01

    The tympanal ear is an evolutionary acquisition which helps moths survive predation from bats. The greater diversity of bats and echolocation strategies in the Neotropics compared with temperate zones would be expected to impose different sensory requirements on the neotropical moths. However, even given some variability among moth assemblages, the frequencies of best hearing of moths from different climate zones studied to date have been roughly the same: between 20 and 60 kHz. We have analyzed the auditory characteristics of tympanate moths from Cuba, a neotropical island with high levels of bat diversity and a high incidence of echolocation frequencies above those commonly at the upper limit of moths' hearing sensitivity. Moths of the superfamilies Noctuoidea, Geometroidea and Pyraloidea were examined. Audiograms were determined by non-invasively measuring distortion-product otoacoustic emissions. We also quantified the frequency spectrum of the echolocation sounds to which this moth community is exposed. The hearing ranges of moths in our study showed best frequencies between 36 and 94 kHz. High sensitivity to frequencies above 50 kHz suggests that the auditory sensitivity of moths is suited to the sounds used by sympatric echolocating bat fauna. Biodiversity characterizes predators and prey in the Neotropics, but the bat-moth acoustic interaction keeps spectrally matched.

  5. Wood anatomy of the neotropical Sapotaceae. VII, Chrysophyllum

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. F. Kukachka

    1978-01-01

    In the neotropics, the genus Chrysophyllum consists of C. cainito and a number of species which have recently been assigned to the genus Cynodendron. Many taxonomists have not accepted the new genus Cynodendron and this is supported by the present study of the wood anatomy. In this restricted sense, Chrysophyllum consists of a group of closely related species that are...

  6. Wood anatomy of the neotropical Sapotaceae : XIV. Elaeoluma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohumil Francis Kukachka

    1980-01-01

    The genus Elaeoluma consists of three species distributed in the Amazon Basin, Surinam, Guyana, and Venezuela. The description presented here is based on E. glabrescens of the Amazon Basin. The wood is easily differentiated from all other neotropical Sapotaceae by its pale brown color, reticulate parenchyma, which is hardly discernable with a hand lens, and a low...

  7. Point Count Length and Detection of Forest Neotropical Migrant Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deanna K. Dawson; David R. Smith; Chandler S. Robbins

    1995-01-01

    Comparisons of bird abundances among years or among habitats assume that the rates at which birds are detected and counted are constant within species. We use point count data collected in forests of the Mid-Atlantic states to estimate detection probabilities for Neotropical migrant bird species as a function of count length. For some species, significant differences...

  8. The ecology of migrant birds: A neotropical perspective [book review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch

    1998-01-01

    Originally published by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in 1983 as Nearctic Avian Migrants in the Neotropics with coauthors Gene Morton, Tom Lovejoy, and Jim Ruos, the initial work has been considerably expanded, updated, and revised by John Rappole. Indeed, the revision warranted publication in Spanish in 1993 followed by further revision that resulted in this...

  9. Effects of pesticides and contaminants on neotropical migrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas W. Gard; Michael J. Hooper; Richard S. Bennett

    1993-01-01

    Many agricultural pesticides and industrial contaminants are capable of adversely affecting birds through direct effects such as elevated mortality rates and decreased reproductive success or indirectly by modifying habitat composition or food availability. Although neotropical migrants are potentially exposed to these contaminants on their breeding, migratory and...

  10. Management implications of cowbird parasitism on neotropical migrant songbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott K. Robinson; Joseph A. Grzybowski; Stephen I. Rothstein; Margaret C. Brittingham; Lisa J. Petit; Frank R. Thompson

    1993-01-01

    Populations of brood parasitic Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molofhrus afer) have increased to the point where they pose a potential threat to populations of many neotropical migrant songbirds. Because cowbirds mostly feed in short grass (e.g., pastures and lawns) or on bare ground (e.g., row crops), they benefit directly from human activities. Cowbirds...

  11. Population trends and management opportunities for neotropical migrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler S. Robbins; John. R. Sauer; Bruce G. Peterjohn

    1993-01-01

    The Breeding Bird Survey shows that certain Neotropical migrant songbird populations have been declining over the past 26 years. Among them are forest birds that require extensive forest on the breeding grounds and also forested habitats on tropical wintering grounds. Other species have shown significant declines only since the early 1980's. Birds with broader...

  12. Electric systems failures produced by CG lightning in Eastern Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Paes dos Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Operational records of power outages of the electric energy distribution systems in eastern Amazonia presented a large number of events attributed to lightning strikes, during the 2006 to 2009 period. The regional electricity concessionary data were compared to actual lightning observations made by SIPAM's LDN system, over two areas where operational sub systems of transmission lines are installed. Statistical relations were drawn between the monthly lightning occurrence density and the number of power outages of the electric systems for both areas studied. The results showed that, although with some delays between these variables peaks, the number of power disruptions has a tendency to follow the behavior of the lightning occurrence densities variations. The numerical correlations were positive and may be useful to the transmission lines maintenance crews at least for the Belém-Castanhal electricity distribution sub system. Evidence was found, that the SST's over certain areas of the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, influence convection over the area of interest, and may help to prognosticate the periods of intense electric storms, requiring repair readiness for the regional electric systems.

  13. Biome-Scale Forest Properties in Amazonia Based on Field and Satellite Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana O. Anderson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Amazonian forests are extremely heterogeneous at different spatial scales. This review intends to present the large-scale patterns of the ecosystem properties of Amazonia, and focuses on two parts of the main components of the net primary production: the long-lived carbon pools (wood and short-lived pools (leaves. First, the focus is on forest biophysical properties, and secondly, on the macro-scale leaf phenological patterns of these forests, looking at field measurements and bringing into discussion the recent findings derived from remote sensing dataset. Finally, I discuss the results of the three major droughts that hit Amazonia in the last 15 years. The panorama that emerges from this review suggests that slow growing forests in central and eastern Amazonia, where soils are poorer, have significantly higher above ground biomass and higher wood density, trees are higher and present lower proportions of large-leaved species than stands in northwest and southwest Amazonia. However, the opposite pattern is observed in relation to forest productivity and dynamism, which is higher in western Amazonia than in central and eastern forests. The spatial patterns on leaf phenology across Amazonia are less marked. Field data from different forest formations showed that new leaf production can be unrelated to climate seasonality, timed with radiation, timed with rainfall and/or river levels. Oppositely, satellite images exhibited a large-scale synchronized peak in new leaf production during the dry season. Satellite data and field measurements bring contrasting results for the 2005 drought. Discussions on data processing and filtering, aerosols effects and a combined analysis with field and satellite images are presented. It is suggested that to improve the understanding of the large-scale patterns on Amazonian forests, integrative analyses that combine new technologies in remote sensing and long-term field ecological data are imperative.

  14. Evidence for Widespread Associations between Neotropical Hymenopteran Insects and Actinobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernal Matarrita-Carranza

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The evolutionary success of hymenopteran insects has been associated with complex physiological and behavioral defense mechanisms against pathogens and parasites. Among these strategies are symbiotic associations between Hymenoptera and antibiotic-producing Actinobacteria, which provide protection to insect hosts. Herein, we examine associations between culturable Actinobacteria and 29 species of tropical hymenopteran insects that span five families, including Apidae (bees, Vespidae (wasps, and Formicidae (ants. In total, 197 Actinobacteria isolates were obtained from 22 of the 29 different insect species sampled. Through 16S rRNA gene sequences of 161 isolates, we show that 91% of the symbionts correspond to members of the genus Streptomyces with less common isolates belonging to Pseudonocardia and Amycolatopsis. Electron microscopy revealed the presence of filamentous bacteria with Streptomyces morphology in brood chambers of two different species of the eusocial wasps. Four fungal strains in the family Ophiocordycipitacea (Hypocreales known to be specialized insect parasites were also isolated. Bioassay challenges between the Actinobacteria and their possible targeted pathogenic antagonist (both obtained from the same insect at the genus or species level provide evidence that different Actinobacteria isolates produced antifungal activity, supporting the hypothesis of a defensive association between the insects and these microbe species. Finally, phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA and gyrB demonstrate the presence of five Streptomyces lineages associated with a broad range of insect species. Particularly our Clade I is of much interest as it is composed of one 16S rRNA phylotype repeatedly isolated from different insect groups in our sample. This phylotype corresponds to a previously described lineage of host-associated Streptomyces. These results suggest Streptomyces Clade I is a Hymenoptera host-associated lineage spanning several new insect

  15. Evidence for Widespread Associations between Neotropical Hymenopteran Insects and Actinobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matarrita-Carranza, Bernal; Moreira-Soto, Rolando D.; Murillo-Cruz, Catalina; Mora, Marielos; Currie, Cameron R.; Pinto-Tomas, Adrián A.

    2017-01-01

    The evolutionary success of hymenopteran insects has been associated with complex physiological and behavioral defense mechanisms against pathogens and parasites. Among these strategies are symbiotic associations between Hymenoptera and antibiotic-producing Actinobacteria, which provide protection to insect hosts. Herein, we examine associations between culturable Actinobacteria and 29 species of tropical hymenopteran insects that span five families, including Apidae (bees), Vespidae (wasps), and Formicidae (ants). In total, 197 Actinobacteria isolates were obtained from 22 of the 29 different insect species sampled. Through 16S rRNA gene sequences of 161 isolates, we show that 91% of the symbionts correspond to members of the genus Streptomyces with less common isolates belonging to Pseudonocardia and Amycolatopsis. Electron microscopy revealed the presence of filamentous bacteria with Streptomyces morphology in brood chambers of two different species of the eusocial wasps. Four fungal strains in the family Ophiocordycipitacea (Hypocreales) known to be specialized insect parasites were also isolated. Bioassay challenges between the Actinobacteria and their possible targeted pathogenic antagonist (both obtained from the same insect at the genus or species level) provide evidence that different Actinobacteria isolates produced antifungal activity, supporting the hypothesis of a defensive association between the insects and these microbe species. Finally, phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA and gyrB demonstrate the presence of five Streptomyces lineages associated with a broad range of insect species. Particularly our Clade I is of much interest as it is composed of one 16S rRNA phylotype repeatedly isolated from different insect groups in our sample. This phylotype corresponds to a previously described lineage of host-associated Streptomyces. These results suggest Streptomyces Clade I is a Hymenoptera host-associated lineage spanning several new insect taxa and

  16. Checklist of sea turtles endohelminth in Neotropical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werneck M. R.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a list of parasites described in sea turtles from the Neotropical region. Through the review of literature the occurrence of 79 taxa of helminthes parasites were observed, mostly consisting of the Phylum Platyhelminthes with 76 species distributed in 14 families and 2 families of the Phylum Nematoda within 3 species. Regarding the parasite records, the most studied host was the green turtle (Chelonia mydas followed by the hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata, olive ridley turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea, loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta and leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea. Overall helminths were reported in 12 countries and in the Caribbean Sea region. This checklist is the largest compilation of data on helminths found in sea turtles in the Neotropical region.

  17. Assembly and phylogenetic structure of Neotropical palm communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Svenning, J.-C.; Balslev, Henrik

    Diversity, composition and dynamics of Neotropical palm communities are receiving an increasing amount of attention due to their economic importance, but also because their high species richness and functional diversity render them valuable model systems for overall forest biodiversity. However......, to better understand these palm communities, it is crucial to gain insight into the mechanisms responsible for their assembly. These can be dispersal limitation, environmental filtering, or biotic interactions. If the degree of niche conservatism is known for a group of organisms, patterns of community...... an unspecific assumption of “general niche conservatism”, phylogenetic signal will be analysed for Neotropical palms. Moreover, as an example for evolutionary mechanisms disrupting phylogenetic signal, speciation modes will be examined in selected genera. With the combined results we aim to show the relative...

  18. Geochemical characterization of the largest upland lake of the Brazilian Amazonia: Impact of provenance and processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Prafulla Kumar; Guimarães, José Tasso Felix; Souza-Filho, Pedro Walfir Martins; da Silva, Marcio Sousa; Nascimento, Wilson, Júnior; Powell, Mike A.; Reis, Luiza Santos; Pessenda, Luiz Carlos Ruiz; Rodrigues, Tarcísio Magevski; da Silva, Delmo Fonseca; Costa, Vladimir Eliodoro

    2017-12-01

    Lake Três Irmãs (LTI), the largest upland lake in the Brazilian Amazonia, located in Serra dos Carajás, was characterized using multi-elemental and isotope geochemistry (δ13C and δ15N) to understand the significance of organic and inorganic sources, weathering and sedimentary processes on the distribution of elements in lake bottom (surficial) sediments. Carbon and nitrogen isotopes from sedimentary organic matter suggest C3 terrestrial plants (forests > canga vegetation), macrophytes and freshwater DOC as the main sources. Sediments are depleted in most of the major oxides (except Fe2O3 and P2O5) when compared to upper continental crust (UCC) and their spatial distribution is highly influenced by catchment lithology. Principal Component Analysis revealed that most of the trace elements (Ba, Sr, Rb, Sc, Th, U, Zr, Hf, Nb, Y, V, Cr, Ga, Co, Ni) and REEs are closely correlated with Al and Ti (PC1; Group-1), so their redistribution is less influenced by post-depositional process. This is due to their relative immobility and being hosted by Al-bearing minerals during laterization. High Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA), Mafic Index of Alteration (MIA) and Index of Laterization (IOL) values indicate intense chemical weathering at source areas, but the weathering transformation was better quantified by IOL. A-CN-K plot along with elemental ratios (Al/K, Ti/K, Ti/Zr, La/Al, Cr/Th, Co/Th, La/Sm, La/Gd, Zr/Y, and Eu/Eu*) as well as chondrite-normalized REE patterns show that the detritic sediments are mainly sourced from ferruginous laterites and soils in the catchment, which may have characteristics similar to mafic rocks.

  19. New Neotropical species of Prioninae and Cerambycinae (Cerambycidae)

    OpenAIRE

    GALILEO, Maria Helena M.; MARTINS, Ubirajara R.

    2010-01-01

    Novas espécies descritas: Hovorelus adiectus sp. nov. (Anacolini) da Costa Rica; Stenoeme aguilari sp. nov. do Paraguai e Placoeme wappesi sp. nov. da Bolívia (Oemini); da Bahia, Brasil: Coeloxestia spinosa sp. nov. (Cerambycini, Sphallotrichina); Stizocera debilis sp. nov., Anelaphus bravoi sp. nov. (Elaphidionini) e Chydarteres formosus sp. nov. (Trachyderini).New Neotropical species of Prioninae and Cerambycinae (Cerambycidae). New species described: Hovorelus adiectus sp. nov. (Anacolini)...

  20. DNA barcode detects high genetic structure within neotropical bird species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Sendra Tavares

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Towards lower latitudes the number of recognized species is not only higher, but also phylogeographic subdivision within species is more pronounced. Moreover, new genetically isolated populations are often described in recent phylogenies of Neotropical birds suggesting that the number of species in the region is underestimated. Previous COI barcoding of Argentinean bird species showed more complex patterns of regional divergence in the Neotropical than in the North American avifauna. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Here we analyzed 1,431 samples from 561 different species to extend the Neotropical bird barcode survey to lower latitudes, and detected even higher geographic structure within species than reported previously. About 93% (520 of the species were identified correctly from their DNA barcodes. The remaining 41 species were not monophyletic in their COI sequences because they shared barcode sequences with closely related species (N = 21 or contained very divergent clusters suggestive of putative new species embedded within the gene tree (N = 20. Deep intraspecific divergences overlapping with among-species differences were detected in 48 species, often with samples from large geographic areas and several including multiple subspecies. This strong population genetic structure often coincided with breaks between different ecoregions or areas of endemism. CONCLUSIONS: The taxonomic uncertainty associated with the high incidence of non-monophyletic species and discovery of putative species obscures studies of historical patterns of species diversification in the Neotropical region. We showed that COI barcodes are a valuable tool to indicate which taxa would benefit from more extensive taxonomic revisions with multilocus approaches. Moreover, our results support hypotheses that the megadiversity of birds in the region is associated with multiple geographic processes starting well before the Quaternary and extending to more recent

  1. Pterandra pyroidea: a case of pollination shift within Neotropical Malpighiaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappellari, Simone C.; Haleem, Muhammad A.; Marsaioli, Anita J.; Tidon, Rosana; Simpson, Beryl B.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Most Neotropical species of Malpighiaceae produce floral fatty oils in calyx glands to attract pollinating oil-collecting bees, which depend on this resource for reproduction. This specialized type of pollination system tends to be lost in members of the family that occur outside the geographic distribution (e.g. Africa) of Neotropical oil-collecting bees. This study focused on the pollination ecology, chemical ecology and reproductive biology of an oil flower species, Pterandra pyroidea (Malpighiaceae) from the Brazilian Cerrado. Populations of this species consist of plants with oil-secreting (glandular) flowers, plants with non-oil-secreting flowers (eglandular) or a mix of both plant types. This study specifically aims to clarify the role of eglandular morphs in this species. Methods Data on pollinators were recorded by in situ observations. Breeding system experiments were conducted by isolating inflorescences and by enzymatic reactions. Floral resources, pollen and floral oils offered by this species were analysed by staining and a combination of various spectroscopic methods. Key Results Eglandular flowers of P. pyroidea do not act as mimics of their oil-producing conspecifics to attract pollinators. Instead, both oil-producing and oil-free flowers depend on pollen-collecting bees for reproduction, and their main pollinators are bumble-bees. Floral oils produced by glandular flowers are less complex than those described in closely related genera. Conclusions Eglandular flowers represent a shift in the pollination system in which oil is being lost and pollen is becoming the main reward of P. pyroidea flowers. Pollination shifts of this kind have hitherto not been demonstrated empirically within Neotropical Malpighiaceae and this species exhibits an unusual transition from a specialized towards a generalized pollination system in an area considered the hotspot of oil-collecting bee diversity in the Neotropics. Transitions of this type

  2. WILD BEES (HYMENOPTERA: APOIDEA AS BIOINDICATORS IN THE NEOTROPICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Reyes-Novelo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present is a review about the use of wild bees as an indicator group in biodiversity and fragmentation studies. It describes the criteria used for the selection of bioindicator groups and it discusses the available information to evaluate if wild bees meet this criteria. The reviewed information suggests that wild bees comply with the requeriments for a suitable bioindicator group. Its use is recommended for Neotropical ecosystems.

  3. Distance decay of tree species similarity in protected areas on terra firme forests in Colombian Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duque, Á.; Phillips, J.F.; von Hildebrand, P.; Posada, C.A.; Prieto, A.; Rudas, A.; Suescún, M.; Stevenson, P.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the pattern of floristic similarity as a function of geographical distances and environmental variability in well-drained uplands (terra firme) in Colombian Amazonia. The study site comprised three National Natural Parks, Tinigua, Chiribiquete, and Amacayacu, located

  4. ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH IN THE LARGE-SCALE BIOSPHERE–ATMOSPHERE EXPERIMENT IN AMAZONIA: EARLY RESULTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Keller; A. Alencar; G. P. Asner; B. Braswell; M. Bustamente; E. Davidson; T. Feldpausch; E. Fern ndes; M. Goulden; P. Kabat; B. Kruijt; F. Luizao; S. Miller; D. Markewitz; A. D. Nobre; C. A. Nobre; N. Priante Filho; H. Rocha; P. Silva Dias; C von Randow; G. L. Vourlitis

    2004-01-01

    The Large-scale Biosphere–Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) is a multinational, interdisciplinary research program led by Brazil. Ecological studies in LBA focus on how tropical forest conversion, regrowth, and selective logging influence carbon storage, nutrient dynamics, trace gas fluxes, and the prospect for sustainable land use in the Amazon region. Early...

  5. Ecological research in the large-scale biosphere-atmosphere experiment in Amazonia: early results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keller, M.; Alencar, A.; Asner, G.P.; Braswell, B.; Bustamante, M.; Davidson, E.; Feldpausch, T.; Fernandes, E.; Goulden, M.; Kabat, P.; Kruijt, B.; Luizão, F.; Miller, S.; Markewitz, D.; Nobre, A.D.; Nobre, C.A.; Priante Filho, N.; Rocha, da H.; Silva Dias, P.; Randow, von C.; Vourlitis, G.L.

    2004-01-01

    The Large-scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) is a multinational, interdisciplinary research program led by Brazil. Ecological studies in LBA focus on how tropical forest conversion, regrowth, and selective logging influence carbon storage,. nutrient dynamics, trace gas fluxes,

  6. An illustrated key to nymphs of Perlidae (Insecta, Plecoptera genera in Central Amazonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamada Neusa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available An illustrated key to nymphs of Perlidae collected in streams of Central Amazonia, Brazil is provided. Three genera are reported for this region: Macrogynoplax Enderlein, Anacroneuria Klapálek and Enderleina Jewett. Additional diagnostic characters are provided for Enderleina nymphs.

  7. Estimates of the height of the boundary layer using SODAR and rawinsoundings in Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisch, G [Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco (IAE/CTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, 12228-904 (Brazil); Santos, L A R dos [Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia (INMET), BrasIlia, 70680-900 (Brazil)], E-mail: gfisch@iae.cta.br, E-mail: landre@inmet.gov.br

    2008-05-01

    During the LBA campaign in Amazonia 2002, simultaneous measurements were made of the boundary layer using different instruments (rawinsoundings and SODAR). The profiles of potential temperature and humidity were used to estimates the height of the boundary layer using 3 different techniques. The SODAR's measurements did not capture the shallow morning boundary layer observed at the profiles.

  8. The Amazonian Craton and its influence on past fluvial systems (Mesozoic-Cenozoic, Amazonia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, C.; Roddaz, M.; Dino, R.; Soares, E.; Uba, C.; Ochoa-Lozano, D.; Mapes, R.; Hoorn, C.; Wesselingh, F.P.

    2010-01-01

    The Amazonian Craton is an old geological feature of Archaean/Proterozoic age that has determined the character of fluvial systems in Amazonia throughout most of its past. This situation radically changed during the Cenozoic, when uplift of the Andes reshaped the relief and drainage patterns of

  9. Amazon forest dynamics under changing abiotic conditions in the early Miocene (Colombian Amazonia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salamanca Villegas, S.; van Soelen, E.; Teunissen van Manen, M.L.; Flantua, S.G.A.; Santos, R.V.; Roddaz, M.; Dantas, E.L.; van Loon, E.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Kim, J.-H.; Hoorn, C.

    2016-01-01

    Aim We analysed in detail a past marine incursion event in north-westernAmazonia and measured its effect on the forest composition. We also deter-mined the sediment provenance in the ?uvio-estuarine system and recon-structed the overall ?oral composition of the Amazon lowland forest duringthe

  10. Species richness and distribution of understorey bryophytes in different forest types in Colombian Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benavides, J.C.; Duque, A.J.; Duivenvoorden, J.F.; Cleef, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    The first bryophyte survey results from Colombian Amazonia are presented. Bryophyte species, differentiated into mosses and liverworts, and further into four life-form classes, were sampled in 0.1-ha plots. These plots were distributed over four landscape units in the middle Caquetá area:

  11. Amazon forest dynamics under changing abiotic conditions in the early Miocene (Colombian Amazonia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salamanca, S.; van Soelen, E.E.; Teunissen van Manen, Milan L.; Flantua, Suzette G.A.; Ventura Santos, Roberto; Roddaz, M.; Dantas, Elton Luiz; van Loon, Emiel; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Kim, J.H.; Hoorn, Carina

    2016-01-01

    Aim We analysed in detail a past marine incursion event in north-western Amazonia and measured its effect on the forest composition. We also determined the sediment provenance in the fluvio-estuarine system and reconstructed the overall floral composition of the Amazon lowland forest during the

  12. Miocene fish faunas from the northwestern Amazonia basin (Colombia, Peru, Brazil) with evidence of marine incursions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monsch, KA

    1998-01-01

    New evidence indicates marine influences during the Miocene in the northwestern Amazonia basin. This is the first major survey of the ichthyofauna from this area in the Miocene. Fossil fish remains from taxa such as the Dasyatoidea, Myliobatoidea, Characiformes, Siluriformes and Sciaenidae are

  13. Modeling fire-driven deforestation potential in Amazonia under current and projected climate conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Page, Y.; van der Werf, G.R.; Morton, D.C.; Pereira, J.M.C.

    2010-01-01

    Fire is a widely used tool to prepare deforested areas for agricultural use in Amazonia. Deforestation is currently concentrated in seasonal forest types along the arc of deforestation, where dry-season conditions facilitate burning of clear-felled vegetation. Interior Amazon forests, however, are

  14. Carbon replacement and stability changes in short-term silvo-pastoralo experiments in Colombian Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosquera Vidal, O.; Buurman, P.; Ramirez, B.L.; Amezquita, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    There is little information on the effects of land use change on soil Carbon stocks in Colombian Amazonia. Such information would be needed to assess the impact of this area on the global C cycle and the sustainability of agricultural systems that are replacing native forest. The aim of this study

  15. Allometry of a neotropical palm, Euterpe edulis Mart. Alometria de uma palmeira Neotropical, Euterpe edulis Mart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana F. Alves

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The stem allometry (stem diameter vs. tree height of a Neotropical palm (Euterpe edulis found in rain and seasonal forest of Southeastern Brazil was examined. Observed height-diameter relationships along the stem (diameter at ground level, (dgl, and diameter at breast height (dbh were compared to three theoretical stability mechanical models: elastic similarity, stress similarity and geometric similarity. Slopes of log-transformed height-diameter relationships did not lie near those predicted by any stability mechanical models. Significant differences in stem allometry were found when comparing dgl to dbh, suggesting greater increase in dbh with height. The relationship between stability safety factor (SSF and palm height showed that both dgl and dbh were found to be above McMahon's theoretical buckling limit for dicotyledonous trees, but some individuals approached this limit in relation to dbh. Despite displaying a similar decreasing pattern of SSF with height, differences found in SSF along the stem - greater SSF for dgl when compared to dbh - indicate that the risk of mechanism failure in palms depends upon the size and varies along the stem. Distinct allometric relationships along the stem obtained for Euterpe edulis may be reflecting possible differences in stem design and growth strategies.Neste trabalho foram analisadas as relações entre o diâmetro e a altura de uma palmeira Neotropical (Euterpe edulis comum na Floresta Atlântica do SE do Brasil. As relações observadas entre a altura e o diâmetro ao longo do estipe (diâmetro ao nível do solo (DAS, e diâmetro ao nível do peito (DAP foram comparadas a três modelos teóricos de estabilidade mecânica: similaridade elástica, similaridade de estresse e similaridade geométrica. As inclinações das regressões altura-diâmetro não se ajustaram a nenhum dos modelos de estabilidade mecânica. Diferenças significativas na alometria do estipe foram encontradas comparando-se as rela

  16. Wildlife survey and monitoring in the Sky Island Region with an emphasis on neotropical felids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergio Avila-Villegas; Jessica Lamberton-Moreno

    2013-01-01

    The Sky Island region of southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico consists of isolated mountain ranges separated by deserts and grasslands. It mixes elements from five major ecosystems: the Rocky Mountains, Sierra Madre Occidental, the Sonoran and Chihuahuan deserts and the Neotropics. Here some Neotropical species reach their northern ranges, such as jaguars...

  17. Status of neotropical migrant landbirds in the Midwest: identifying species of management concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank R. Thompson; Stephen J. Lewis; Janet D. Green; David N. Ewert

    1993-01-01

    We ranked species of neotropical migrant landbirds by decreasing management concern for their viability in the Midwest. This was part of a coordinated effort by regional working groups of the Partners In Flight Program, an interagency program for the conservation of neotropical migratory birds (NTMBs). Species were ranked by seven criteria, developed by working group...

  18. USDA Forest Service goals and programs for monitoring neotropical migratory birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia Manley

    1993-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service (USFS) developed goals, objectives, and guidelines for monitoring neotropical migratory birds (NTMB) on National Forest System lands in response to the Neotropical Migratory Bird Conservation Program Partners in Flight. A USFS task group developed a hierarchical monitoring framework designed to define priorities for type of monitoring data....

  19. Hornborg, A. & Hill, J. D. (eds. 2011. Ethnicity in Ancient Amazonia: Reconstructing Past Identities from Archaeology, Linguistics and Ethnohistory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil Riris

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Book review: Hornborg, A. & Hill, J. D. (eds. 2011. 'Ethnicity in Ancient Amazonia:' 'Reconstructing Past Identities from Archaeology, Linguistics and Ethnohistory.' Boulder: University Press of Colorado, £60

  20. LBA-ECO LC-04 Satellite/Census-Based 5-Minute Land Use Data, Amazonia: 1980 and 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains 5-minute land use maps for agricultural activity in Amazonia. The data set was produced by the statistical fusion of agricultural census data...

  1. Morphology and efficiency of a specialized foraging behavior, sediment sifting, in neotropical cichlid fishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán López-Fernández

    Full Text Available Understanding of relationships between morphology and ecological performance can help to reveal how natural selection drives biological diversification. We investigate relationships between feeding behavior, foraging performance and morphology within a diverse group of teleost fishes, and examine the extent to which associations can be explained by evolutionary relatedness. Morphological adaptation associated with sediment sifting was examined using a phylogenetic linear discriminant analysis on a set of ecomorphological traits from 27 species of Neotropical cichlids. For most sifting taxa, feeding behavior could be effectively predicted by a linear discriminant function of ecomorphology across multiple clades of sediment sifters, and this pattern could not be explained by shared evolutionary history alone. Additionally, we tested foraging efficiency in seven Neotropical cichlid species, five of which are specialized benthic feeders with differing head morphology. Efficiency was evaluated based on the degree to which invertebrate prey could be retrieved at different depths of sediment. Feeding performance was compared both with respect to feeding mode and species using a phylogenetic ANCOVA, with substrate depth as a covariate. Benthic foraging performance was constant across sediment depths in non-sifters but declined with depth in sifters. The non-sifting Hypsophrys used sweeping motions of the body and fins to excavate large pits to uncover prey; this tactic was more efficient for consuming deeply buried invertebrates than observed among sediment sifters. Findings indicate that similar feeding performance among sediment-sifting cichlids extracting invertebrate prey from shallow sediment layers reflects constraints associated with functional morphology and, to a lesser extent, phylogeny.

  2. Time Resolved Measurements of Primary Biogenic Aerosol Particles in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollny, A. G.; Garland, R.; Pöschl, U.

    2009-04-01

    Biogenic aerosols are ubiquitous in the Earth's atmosphere and they influence atmospheric chemistry and physics, the biosphere, climate, and public health. They play an important role in the spread of biological organisms and reproductive materials, and they can cause or enhance human, animal, and plant diseases. Moreover, they influence the Earth's energy budget by scattering and absorbing radiation, and they can initiate the formation of clouds and precipitation as cloud condensation and ice nuclei. The composition, abundance, and origin of biogenic aerosol particles and components are, however, still not well understood and poorly quantified. Prominent examples of primary biogenic aerosol particles, which are directly emitted from the biosphere to the atmosphere, are pollen, bacteria, fungal spores, viruses, and fragments of animals and plants. During the Amazonian Aerosol Characterization Experiment (AMAZE-08) a large number of aerosol and gas-phase measurements were taken on a remote site close to Manaus, Brazil, during a period of five weeks in February and March 2008. This presented study is focused on data from an ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UVAPS, TSI inc.) that has been deployed for the first time in Amazonia. In this instrument, particle counting and aerodynamic sizing over the range of 0.5-20 µm are complemented by the measurement of UV fluorescence at 355 nm (excitation) and 420-575 nm (emission), respectively. Fluorescence at these wavelengths is characteristic for reduced pyridine nucleotides (e.g., NAD(P)H) and for riboflavin, which are specific for living cells. Thus particles exhibiting fluorescence signals can be regarded as "viable aerosols" or "fluorescent bioparticles" (FBAP), and their concentration can be considered as lower limit for the actual abundance of primary biogenic aerosol particles. Data from the UVAPS were averaged over 5 minute time intervals. The presence of bioparticles in the observed size range has been

  3. Impact of Biomass Burning Aerosols on the Biosphere over Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavelle, F.; Haywood, J.; Mercado, L.; Folberth, G.; Bellouin, N.

    2014-12-01

    Biomass burning (BB) smoke from deforestation and the burning of agricultural waste emit a complex cocktail of aerosol particles and gases. BB emissions show a regional hotspot over South America on the edges of Amazonia. These major perturbations and impacts on surface temperature, surface fluxes, chemistry, radiation, rainfall, may have significant consequent impacts on the Amazon rainforest, the largest and most productive carbon store on the planet. There is therefore potential for very significant interaction and interplay between aerosols, clouds, radiation and the biosphere in the region. Terrestrial carbon production (i.e. photosynthesis) is intimately tied to the supply of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR - i.e. wavelengths between 300-690 nm). PAR in sufficient intensity and duration is critical for plant growth. However, if a decrease in total radiation is accompanied by an increase in the component of diffuse radiation, plant productivity may increase due to higher light use efficiency per unit of PAR and less photosynthetic saturation. This effect, sometimes referred as diffuse light fertilization effect, could have increased the global land carbon sink by approximately one quarter during the global dimming period and is expected to be a least as important locally. By directly interacting with radiation, BB aerosols significantly reduce the total amount of PAR available to plant canopies. In addition, BB aerosols also play a centre role in cloud formation because they provide the necessary cloud condensation nuclei, hence indirectly altering the water cycle and the components and quantity of PAR. In this presentation, we use the recent observations from the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) to explore the impact of radiation changes on the carbon cycle in the Amazon region caused by BB emissions. A parameterisation of the impact of diffuse and direct radiation upon photosynthesis rates and net primary productivity in the

  4. Continuous soil carbon storage of old permanent pastures in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Clément; Fontaine, Sébastien; Klumpp, Katja; Picon-Cochard, Catherine; Grise, Marcia Mascarenhas; Dezécache, Camille; Ponchant, Lise; Freycon, Vincent; Blanc, Lilian; Bonal, Damien; Burban, Benoit; Soussana, Jean-François; Blanfort, Vincent

    2017-08-01

    Amazonian forests continuously accumulate carbon (C) in biomass and in soil, representing a carbon sink of 0.42-0.65 GtC yr -1 . In recent decades, more than 15% of Amazonian forests have been converted into pastures, resulting in net C emissions (~200 tC ha -1 ) due to biomass burning and litter mineralization in the first years after deforestation. However, little is known about the capacity of tropical pastures to restore a C sink. Our study shows in French Amazonia that the C storage observed in native forest can be partly restored in old (≥24 year) tropical pastures managed with a low stocking rate (±1 LSU ha -1 ) and without the use of fire since their establishment. A unique combination of a large chronosequence study and eddy covariance measurements showed that pastures stored between -1.27 ± 0.37 and -5.31 ± 2.08 tC ha -1  yr -1 while the nearby native forest stored -3.31 ± 0.44 tC ha -1  yr -1 . This carbon is mainly sequestered in the humus of deep soil layers (20-100 cm), whereas no C storage was observed in the 0- to 20-cm layer. C storage in C4 tropical pasture is associated with the installation and development of C3 species, which increase either the input of N to the ecosystem or the C:N ratio of soil organic matter. Efforts to curb deforestation remain an obvious priority to preserve forest C stocks and biodiversity. However, our results show that if sustainable management is applied in tropical pastures coming from deforestation (avoiding fires and overgrazing, using a grazing rotation plan and a mixture of C3 and C4 species), they can ensure a continuous C storage, thereby adding to the current C sink of Amazonian forests. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Brazilian Amazonia Deforestation Detection Using Spatio-Temporal Scan Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, C. A. O.; Santos, N. T.; Carneiro, A. P. S.; Balieiro, A. A. S.

    2012-07-01

    The spatio-temporal models, developed for analyses of diseases, can also be used for others fields of study, including concerns about forest and deforestation. The aim of this paper is to quantitatively check priority areas in order to combat deforestation on the Amazon forest, using the space-time scan statistic. The study area location is at the south of the Amazonas State and cover around 297.183 kilometre squares, including the municipality of Boca do Acre, Labrea, Canutama, Humaita, Manicore, Novo Aripuana e Apui County on the north region of Brazil. This area has showed a significant change for land cover, which has increased the number of deforestation's alerts. Therefore this situation becomes a concern and gets more investigation, trying to stop factors that increase the number of cases in the area. The methodology includes the location and year that deforestation's alert occurred. These deforestation's alerts are mapped by the DETER (Detection System of Deforestation in Real Time in Amazonia), which is carry out by the Brazilian Space Agency (INPE). The software SatScanTM v7.0 was used in order to define space-time permutation scan statistic for detection of deforestation cases. The outcome of this experiment shows an efficient model to detect space-time clusters of deforestation's alerts. The model was efficient to detect the location, the size, the order and characteristics about activities at the end of the experiments. Two clusters were considered actives and kept actives up to the end of the study. These clusters are located in Canutama and Lábrea County. This quantitative spatial modelling of deforestation warnings allowed: firstly, identifying actives clustering of deforestation, in which the environment government official are able to concentrate their actions; secondly, identifying historic clustering of deforestation, in which the environment government official are able to monitoring in order to avoid them to became actives again; and finally

  6. BRAZILIAN AMAZONIA DEFORESTATION DETECTION USING SPATIO-TEMPORAL SCAN STATISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. O. Vieira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The spatio-temporal models, developed for analyses of diseases, can also be used for others fields of study, including concerns about forest and deforestation. The aim of this paper is to quantitatively check priority areas in order to combat deforestation on the Amazon forest, using the space-time scan statistic. The study area location is at the south of the Amazonas State and cover around 297.183 kilometre squares, including the municipality of Boca do Acre, Labrea, Canutama, Humaita, Manicore, Novo Aripuana e Apui County on the north region of Brazil. This area has showed a significant change for land cover, which has increased the number of deforestation's alerts. Therefore this situation becomes a concern and gets more investigation, trying to stop factors that increase the number of cases in the area. The methodology includes the location and year that deforestation’s alert occurred. These deforestation's alerts are mapped by the DETER (Detection System of Deforestation in Real Time in Amazonia, which is carry out by the Brazilian Space Agency (INPE. The software SatScanTM v7.0 was used in order to define space-time permutation scan statistic for detection of deforestation cases. The outcome of this experiment shows an efficient model to detect space-time clusters of deforestation’s alerts. The model was efficient to detect the location, the size, the order and characteristics about activities at the end of the experiments. Two clusters were considered actives and kept actives up to the end of the study. These clusters are located in Canutama and Lábrea County. This quantitative spatial modelling of deforestation warnings allowed: firstly, identifying actives clustering of deforestation, in which the environment government official are able to concentrate their actions; secondly, identifying historic clustering of deforestation, in which the environment government official are able to monitoring in order to avoid them to became

  7. Trypanosoma cruzi infection in neotropical wild carnivores (Mammalia: Carnivora: at the top of the T. cruzi transmission chain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Lopes Rocha

    Full Text Available Little is known on the role played by Neotropical wild carnivores in the Trypanosoma cruzi transmission cycles. We investigated T. cruzi infection in wild carnivores from three sites in Brazil through parasitological and serological tests. The seven carnivore species examined were infected by T. cruzi, but high parasitemias detectable by hemoculture were found only in two Procyonidae species. Genotyping by Mini-exon gene, PCR-RFLP (1f8/Akw21I and kDNA genomic targets revealed that the raccoon (Procyon cancrivorus harbored TcI and the coatis (Nasua nasua harbored TcI, TcII, TcIII-IV and Trypanosoma rangeli, in single and mixed infections, besides four T. cruzi isolates that displayed odd band patterns in the Mini-exon assay. These findings corroborate the coati can be a bioaccumulator of T. cruzi Discrete Typing Units (DTU and may act as a transmission hub, a connection point joining sylvatic transmission cycles within terrestrial and arboreal mammals and vectors. Also, the odd band patterns observed in coatis' isolates reinforce that T. cruzi diversity might be much higher than currently acknowledged. Additionally, we assembled our data with T. cruzi infection on Neotropical carnivores' literature records to provide a comprehensive analysis of the infection patterns among distinct carnivore species, especially considering their ecological traits and phylogeny. Altogether, fifteen Neotropical carnivore species were found naturally infected by T. cruzi. Species diet was associated with T. cruzi infection rates, supporting the hypothesis that predator-prey links are important mechanisms for T. cruzi maintenance and dispersion in the wild. Distinct T. cruzi infection patterns across carnivore species and study sites were notable. Musteloidea species consistently exhibit high parasitemias in different studies which indicate their high infectivity potential. Mesocarnivores that feed on both invertebrates and mammals, including the coati, a host that

  8. A Review of Neotropical Myxomycetes (1828-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lado, Carlos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A synthesis of the accumulated knowledge on myxomycetes recorded from the Neotropical region is presented in this paper. The biodiversity of these microorganisms in the Neotropics has been underestimated, and this paper shows that half the known species in the world have been recorded from the region. The monograph by M.L. Farr, for the series Flora Neotropica, published in 1976, has been taken as a baseline. The records produced after this date, some older obscure records, and data from recently published catalogues, monographs and other papers have been incorporated. The information is presented in a table format by species and countries. Species names are listed with synonyms that have been used in Neotropical literature and nomenclature has been updated. A comprehensive list of references by country has been included. A characteristic assemblage of myxomycetes from the Neotropics has been identified. The richness of myxobiota in different countries has been evaluated, and gaps in current information and unexplored areas have become evident from the results. Use of the compiled information to direct conservation plans, and to serve as a starting point to establish and develop future strategies for the study of myxomycetes in this area of the world, is discussed. The importance of prioritizing this research on microorganismal biodiversity, in view of accelerated habitat destruction, is stressed.Se realiza una síntesis sobre el conocimiento actual de los Myxomycetes en el Neotrópico. La biodiversidad de estos microorganismos en la región neotropical ha sido subestimada, pero este trabajo demuestra que la mitad de las especies conocidas en el mundo se han citado de esta región. La monografía que M.L. Farr publicó en 1976, para la serie Flora Neotrópica, se ha tomado como punto de partida para la realización de este trabajo. A ella se han incorporado las citas publicadas después de esta fecha, algunas más antiguas pero raras, y datos de

  9. Soil and vegetation carbon stocks in Brazilian Western Amazonia: relationships and ecological implications for natural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, C E G R; do Amaral, E F; de Mendonça, B A F; Oliveira, H; Lani, J L; Costa, L M; Fernandes Filho, E I

    2008-05-01

    The relationships between soils attributes, soil carbon stocks and vegetation carbon stocks are poorly know in Amazonia, even at regional scale. In this paper, we used the large and reliable soil database from Western Amazonia obtained from the RADAMBRASIL project and recent estimates of vegetation biomass to investigate some environmental relationships, quantifying C stocks of intact ecosystem in Western Amazonia. The results allowed separating the western Amazonia into 6 sectors, called pedo-zones: Roraima, Rio Negro Basin, Tertiary Plateaux of the Amazon, Javari-Juruá-Purus lowland, Acre Basin and Rondonia uplands. The highest C stock for the whole soil is observed in the Acre and in the Rio Negro sectors. In the former, this is due to the high nutrient status and high clay activity, whereas in the latter, it is attributed to a downward carbon movement attributed to widespread podzolization and arenization, forming spodic horizons. The youthful nature of shallow soils of the Javari-Juruá-Purus lowlands, associated with high Al, results in a high phytomass C/soil C ratio. A similar trend was observed for the shallow soils from the Roraima and Rondonia highlands. A consistent east-west decline in biomass carbon in the Rio Negro Basin sector is associated with increasing rainfall and higher sand amounts. It is related to lesser C protection and greater C loss of sandy soils, subjected to active chemical leaching and widespread podzolization. Also, these soils possess lower cation exchangeable capacity and lower water retention capacity. Zones where deeply weathered Latosols dominate have a overall pattern of high C sequestration, and greater than the shallower soils from the upper Amazon, west of Madeira and Negro rivers. This was attributed to deeper incorporation of carbon in these clayey and highly pedo-bioturbated soils. The results highlight the urgent need for refining soil data at an appropriate scale for C stocks calculations purposes in Amazonia. There

  10. Psittacid herpesviruses associated with mucosal papillomas in neotropical parrots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Styles, Darrel K.; Tomaszewski, Elizabeth K.; Jaeger, Laurie A.; Phalen, David N.

    2004-01-01

    Mucosal papillomas are relatively common lesions in several species of captive neotropical parrots. They cause considerable morbidity and in some cases, result in mortality. Previous efforts to identify papillomavirus DNA and proteins in these lesions have been largely unsuccessful. In contrast, increasing evidence suggests that mucosal papillomas may contain psittacid herpesviruses (PsHVs). In this study, 41 papillomas from 30 neotropical parrots were examined by PCR with PsHV-specific primers. All 41 papillomas were found to contain PsHV DNA. This 100% prevalence of PsHV infection in the papilloma population was found to be significantly higher than PsHV infection prevalence observed in other surveys of captive parrots. PsHV genotypes 1, 2, and 3, but not 4 were found in these lesions. Psittacus erithacus papillomavirus DNA and finch papillomavirus DNA were not found in the papillomas. A papilloma from a hyacinth macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) was found to contain cells that had immunoreactivity to antiserum made to the common antigenic region of human papillomavirus (HPV) L1 major capsid protein. However, four other mucosal papillomas were negative for this immunoreactivity, and negative control tissues from a parrot embryo showed a similar staining pattern to that seen in the cloaca papilloma of the hyacinth macaw, strongly suggesting that the staining seen in hyacinth macaw papilloma was nonspecific. Based on these findings, it was concluded that specific genotypes of PsHV play a direct role in the development of mucosal papillomas of neotropical parrots and there is no evidence to suggest the concurrent presence of a papillomavirus in these lesions

  11. Molecular Ecological Insights into Neotropical Bird-Tick Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew J; Esser, Helen J; Loaiza, Jose R; Herre, Edward Allen; Aguilar, Celestino; Quintero, Diomedes; Alvarez, Eric; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2016-01-01

    In the tropics, ticks parasitize many classes of vertebrate hosts. However, because many tropical tick species are only identifiable in the adult stage, and these adults usually parasitize mammals, most attention on the ecology of tick-host interactions has focused on mammalian hosts. In contrast, immature Neotropical ticks are often found on wild birds, yet difficulties in identifying immatures hinder studies of birds' role in tropical tick ecology and tick-borne disease transmission. In Panama, we found immature ticks on 227 out of 3,498 individually-sampled birds representing 93 host species (24% of the bird species sampled, and 13% of the Panamanian land bird fauna). Tick parasitism rates did not vary with rainfall or temperature, but did vary significantly with several host ecological traits. Likewise, Neotropical-Nearctic migratory birds were significantly less likely to be infested than resident species. Using a molecular library developed from morphologically-identified adult ticks specifically for this study, we identified eleven tick species parasitizing birds, indicating that a substantial portion of the Panamanian avian species pool is parasitized by a diversity of tick species. Tick species that most commonly parasitized birds had the widest diversity of avian hosts, suggesting that immature tick species are opportunistic bird parasites. Although certain avian ecological traits are positively associated with parasitism, we found no evidence that individual tick species show specificity to particular avian host ecological traits. Finally, our data suggest that the four principal vectors of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in the Neotropics rarely, if ever, parasitize Panamanian birds. However, other tick species that harbor newly-discovered rickettsial parasites of unknown pathogenicity are frequently found on these birds. Given our discovery of broad interaction between Panamanian tick and avian biodiversity, future work on tick ecology and the dynamics of

  12. Molecular Ecological Insights into Neotropical Bird-Tick Interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Miller

    Full Text Available In the tropics, ticks parasitize many classes of vertebrate hosts. However, because many tropical tick species are only identifiable in the adult stage, and these adults usually parasitize mammals, most attention on the ecology of tick-host interactions has focused on mammalian hosts. In contrast, immature Neotropical ticks are often found on wild birds, yet difficulties in identifying immatures hinder studies of birds' role in tropical tick ecology and tick-borne disease transmission. In Panama, we found immature ticks on 227 out of 3,498 individually-sampled birds representing 93 host species (24% of the bird species sampled, and 13% of the Panamanian land bird fauna. Tick parasitism rates did not vary with rainfall or temperature, but did vary significantly with several host ecological traits. Likewise, Neotropical-Nearctic migratory birds were significantly less likely to be infested than resident species. Using a molecular library developed from morphologically-identified adult ticks specifically for this study, we identified eleven tick species parasitizing birds, indicating that a substantial portion of the Panamanian avian species pool is parasitized by a diversity of tick species. Tick species that most commonly parasitized birds had the widest diversity of avian hosts, suggesting that immature tick species are opportunistic bird parasites. Although certain avian ecological traits are positively associated with parasitism, we found no evidence that individual tick species show specificity to particular avian host ecological traits. Finally, our data suggest that the four principal vectors of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in the Neotropics rarely, if ever, parasitize Panamanian birds. However, other tick species that harbor newly-discovered rickettsial parasites of unknown pathogenicity are frequently found on these birds. Given our discovery of broad interaction between Panamanian tick and avian biodiversity, future work on tick ecology

  13. The origin and distribution of neotropical species of Campylopus

    OpenAIRE

    Frahm, Jan-Peter

    1990-01-01

    Of the 65 species of Campylopus known from tropical America, 33 are andine in distribution, 16 are found only in SE Brazil, 8 have wide ranges through Central and South America, 3 species are disjunct in SE-North America and Brazil, 3 are confined to the Caribbean and one species belongs to the circum-pacific and one to the tethyan element. For different parts of the Neotropics, the composition of phytogeographical elements is calculated. For the first time, bryophyte distributions are compar...

  14. Edaphic and light conditions of sympatric plant morphotypes in western Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julissa Roncal

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Here I present a dataset of edaphic and light conditions associated with the occurrence of sympatric morphotypes of Geonoma macrostachys (Arecaceae/Palmae, a candidate case study from Amazonia hypothesized to have evolved under ecological speciation. Transects were established in three lowland rainforests in Peru, and the abundance of each local morphotype of this species was recorded in a total area of 4.95 hectares. Composite soil samples and hemispherical photographs were taken along the transects were the species occurred to obtain information on soil nutrients, soil texture, and indirect measurements of light availability. The raw and summary tables disclose the characteristics of each study site and habitats within them, which could be useful to soil scientists, ecologists, and conservationists engaged in similar research activities or meta-analyses in Amazonia.

  15. A new species of phlebotomine, Trichophoromyia adelsonsouzai (Diptera: Psychodidae of Brazilian Amazonia

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    Thiago Vasconcelos dos Santos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The phlebotomine sandfly Trichophoromyia adelsonsouzai sp. nov. is described and illustrated based on the male and female morphological characteristics of specimens collected at Km 27 of the Trans-Amazonian Highway, municipality of Vitória do Xingu, state of Pará, Brazilian Amazonia. This is an area subject to the direct influence of Belo Monte hydroelectric system. With the description of this new species the number of Trichophoromyia sandflies recorded in Brazil is increased to 20.

  16. The Roles and Movements of Actors in the Deforestation of Brazilian Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Philip M. Fearnside

    2008-01-01

    Containing the advance of deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia requires understanding the roles and movements of the actors involved. The importance of different actors varies widely among locations within the region, and also evolves at any particular site over the course of frontier establishment and consolidation. Landless migrants have significant roles in clearing the land they occupy and in motivating landholders to clear as a defense against invasion or expropriation. Colonists in offic...

  17. IKONOS imagery for the Large Scale Biosphere–Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    George Hurtt; Xiangming Xiao; Michael Keller; Michael Palace; Gregory P. Asner; Rob Braswell; Brond& #305; Eduardo S. zio; Manoel Cardoso; Claudio J.R. Carvalho; Matthew G. Fearon; Liane Guild; Steve Hagen; Scott Hetrick; Berrien Moore III; Carlos Nobre; Jane M. Read; S& aacute; Tatiana NO-VALUE; Annette Schloss; George Vourlitis; Albertus J. Wickel

    2003-01-01

    The LBA-ECO program is one of several international research components under the Brazilian-led Large Scale Biosphere–Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA). The field-oriented research activities of this study are organized along transects and include a set of primary field sites, where the major objective is to study land-use change and ecosystem dynamics, and a...

  18. Molecular composition of organic aerosols in central Amazonia: an ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry study

    OpenAIRE

    Kourtchev, I; Godoi, RHM; Connors, S; Levine, JG; Archibald, AT; Godoi, AFL; Paralovo, SL; Barbosa, CGG; Souza, RAF; Manzi, AO; Seco, R; Sjostedt, S; Park, J-H; Guenther, A; Kim, S

    2016-01-01

    The Amazon Basin plays key role in atmospheric chemistry, biodiversity and climate change. In this study we applied nanoelectrospray (nanoESI) ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHRMS) for the analysis of the organic fraction of PM$_{2.5}$ aerosol samples collected during dry and wet seasons at a site in central Amazonia receiving background air masses, biomass burning and urban pollution. Comprehensive mass spectral data evaluation methods (e.g. Kendrick mass defect, Van Krevelen diagr...

  19. Bryophyte diversity patterns in flooded and tierra firme forests in the Araracuara Region, Colombian Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Benavides, Juan C.; Idarraga, Alvaro; Alvarez, Esteban

    2004-01-01

    We investigated patterns of bryophyte species richness and composition in two forest types of Colombian Amazonia, non-flooded tierra firme forest and floodplain forest of the Caquetá River. A total of 109 bryophyte species were recorded from 14 0.2 ha plots. Bryophyte life forms and habitats were analyzed, including the canopy and epiphylls. Bryophyte species did not show significant differences between landscapes but mosses and liverworts were different and with opposite responses balancing ...

  20. Size distribution and hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles from dry-season biomass burning in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rissler

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol particle number size distributions and hygroscopic properties were measured at a pasture site in the southwestern Amazon region (Rondonia. The measurements were performed 11 September-14 November 2002 as part of LBA-SMOCC (Large scale Biosphere atmosphere experiment in Amazonia - SMOke aerosols, Clouds, rainfall and Climate, and cover the later part of the dry season (with heavy biomass burning, a transition period, and the onset of the wet period. Particle number size distributions were measured with a DMPS (Differential Mobility Particle Sizer, 3-850nm and an APS (Aerodynamic Particle Sizer, extending the distributions up to 3.3 µm in diameter. An H-TDMA (Hygroscopic Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer measured the hygroscopic diameter growth factors (Gf at 90% relative humidity (RH, for particles with dry diameters (dp between 20-440 nm, and at several occasions RH scans (30-90% RH were performed for 165nm particles. These data provide the most extensive characterization of Amazonian biomass burning aerosol, with respect to particle number size distributions and hygroscopic properties, presented until now. The evolution of the convective boundary layer over the course of the day causes a distinct diel variation in the aerosol physical properties, which was used to get information about the properties of the aerosol at higher altitudes. The number size distributions averaged over the three defined time periods showed three modes; a nucleation mode with geometrical median diameters (GMD of ~12 nm, an Aitken mode (GMD=61-92 nm and an accumulation mode (GMD=128-190 nm. The two larger modes were shifted towards larger GMD with increasing influence from biomass burning. The hygroscopic growth at 90% RH revealed a somewhat external mixture with two groups of particles; here denoted nearly hydrophobic (Gf~1.09 for 100 nm particles and moderately hygroscopic (Gf~1.26. While the hygroscopic growth factors were surprisingly similar over the

  1. Mayaro virus infection in amazonia: a multimodel inference approach to risk factor assessment.

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    Fernando Abad-Franch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Arboviral diseases are major global public health threats. Yet, our understanding of infection risk factors is, with a few exceptions, considerably limited. A crucial shortcoming is the widespread use of analytical methods generally not suited for observational data--particularly null hypothesis-testing (NHT and step-wise regression (SWR. Using Mayaro virus (MAYV as a case study, here we compare information theory-based multimodel inference (MMI with conventional analyses for arboviral infection risk factor assessment. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional survey of anti-MAYV antibodies revealed 44% prevalence (n = 270 subjects in a central Amazon rural settlement. NHT suggested that residents of village-like household clusters and those using closed toilet/latrines were at higher risk, while living in non-village-like areas, using bednets, and owning fowl, pigs or dogs were protective. The "minimum adequate" SWR model retained only residence area and bednet use. Using MMI, we identified relevant covariates, quantified their relative importance, and estimated effect-sizes (β ± SE on which to base inference. Residence area (β(Village  =  2.93 ± 0.41; β(Upland = -0.56 ± 0.33, β(Riverbanks  =  -2.37 ± 0.55 and bednet use (β = -0.95 ± 0.28 were the most important factors, followed by crop-plot ownership (β  =  0.39 ± 0.22 and regular use of a closed toilet/latrine (β = 0.19 ± 0.13; domestic animals had insignificant protective effects and were relatively unimportant. The SWR model ranked fifth among the 128 models in the final MMI set. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our analyses illustrate how MMI can enhance inference on infection risk factors when compared with NHT or SWR. MMI indicates that forest crop-plot workers are likely exposed to typical MAYV cycles maintained by diurnal, forest dwelling vectors; however, MAYV might also be circulating in nocturnal, domestic-peridomestic cycles

  2. Taxonomy and phenotypic relationships of the Anastrepha fraterculus complex in the Mesoamerican and Pacific Neotropical dominions (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ortiz, Vicente; Canal, Nelson A.; Salas, Juan O. Tigrero; Ruíz-Hurtado, Freddy M.; Dzul-Cauich, José F.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Previous morphometric studies based on linear measurements of female structures of the aculeus, mesonotum, and wing revealed the existence of seven morphotypes within the Anastrepha fraterculus cryptic species complex along the Neotropical Region. The current research followed linear and geometric morphometric approaches in 40 population samples of the nominal species Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) spread throughout the Meso-American and Pacific Neotropical dominions (including Mexico, Central America, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru). The goals were to explore the phenotypic relationships of the morphotypes in these biogeographical areas; evaluate the reliability of procedures used for delimitation of morphotypes; and describe their current distribution. Findings determined that morphotypes previously recognized via the linear morphometrics were also supported by geometric morphometrics of the wing shape. In addition, we found an eighth morphotype inhabiting the highlands of Ecuador and Peru. Morphotypes are related into three natural phenotypic groups nominated as Mesoamerican-Caribbean lineage, Andean lineage, and Brazilian lineage. The hypothesis that lineages are not directly related to each other is discussed, supported by their large morphological divergence and endemicity in these three well-defined biogeographic areas. In addition, this hypothesis of the non-monophyly of the Anastrepha fraterculus complex is also supported by evidence from other authors based on molecular studies and the strong reproductive isolation between morphs from different lineages. PMID:26798256

  3. Is the Karyotype of Neotropical Boid Snakes Really Conserved? Cytotaxonomy, Chromosomal Rearrangements and Karyotype Organization in the Boidae Family.

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    Patrik F Viana

    Full Text Available Boids are primitive snakes from a basal lineage that is widely distributed in Neotropical region. Many of these species are both morphologically and biogeographically divergent, and the relationship among some species remains uncertain even with evolutionary and phylogenetic studies being proposed for the group. For a better understanding of the evolutionary relationship between these snakes, we cytogenetically analysed 7 species and 3 subspecies of Neotropical snakes from the Boidae family using different chromosomal markers. The karyotypes of Boa constrictor occidentalis, Corallus hortulanus, Eunectes notaeus, Epicrates cenchria and Epicrates assisi are presented here for the first time with the redescriptions of the karyotypes of Boa constrictor constrictor, B. c. amarali, Eunectes murinus and Epicrates crassus. The three subspecies of Boa, two species of Eunectes and three species of Epicrates exhibit 2n = 36 chromosomes. In contrast, C. hortulanus presented a totally different karyotype composition for the Boidae family, showing 2n = 40 chromosomes with a greater number of macrochromosomes. Furthermore, chromosomal mapping of telomeric sequences revealed the presence of interstitial telomeric sites (ITSs on many chromosomes in addition to the terminal markings on all chromosomes of all taxa analysed, with the exception of E. notaeus. Thus, we demonstrate that the karyotypes of these snakes are not as highly conserved as previously thought. Moreover, we provide an overview of the current cytotaxonomy of the group.

  4. New Pesticidal Diterpenoids from Vellozia gigantea (Velloziaceae, an Endemic Neotropical Plant Living in the Endangered Brazilian Biome Rupestrian Grasslands

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    Mariana C. Ferreira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vellozia gigantea is a rare, ancient, and endemic neotropical plant present in the Brazilian Rupestrian grasslands. The dichloromethane extract of V. gigantea adventitious roots was phytotoxic against Lactuca sativa, Agrostis stolonifera, and Lemna paucicostata, and showed larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti. Phytotoxicity bioassay-directed fractionation of the extract revealed one new isopimaradiene, 8(9,15-isopimaradien-1,3,7,11-tetraone, and three new cleistanthane diterpenoids, 7-oxo-8,11,13-cleistanthatrien-3-ol, 3,20-epoxy-7-oxo-8,11,13-cleistanthatrien-3-ol, and 20-nor-3,7-dioxo-1,8,11,13-cleistanthatetraen-10-ol. These new structures are proposed based on interpretation of 1H, 13C, COSY, NOESY, HSQC, and HMBC NMR data. 8(9,15-isopimaradien-1,3,7,11-tetraone was especially phytotoxic with an IC50 value (30 μM comparable to those of commercial herbicides clomazone, EPTC, and naptalam. In addition, 7-oxo-8,11,13-cleistanthatrien-3-ol provided 100% mortality at a concentration of 125 ppm against one-day-old Ae. aegypti larvae. Our results show that ancient and unique plants, like the endangered narrowly endemic neotropical species V. gigantea present in the Rupestrian grasslands, should also be protected because they can be sources of new bioactive compounds.

  5. Neotropical peatland methane emissions along a vegetation and biogeochemical gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winton, R Scott; Flanagan, Neal; Richardson, Curtis J

    2017-01-01

    Tropical wetlands are thought to be the most important source of interannual variability in atmospheric methane (CH4) concentrations, yet sparse data prevents them from being incorporated into Earth system models. This problem is particularly pronounced in the neotropics where bottom-up models based on water table depth are incongruent with top-down inversion models suggesting unaccounted sinks or sources of CH4. The newly documented vast areas of peatlands in the Amazon basin may account for an important unrecognized CH4 source, but the hydrologic and biogeochemical controls of CH4 dynamics from these systems remain poorly understood. We studied three zones of a peatland in Madre de Dios, Peru, to test whether CH4 emissions and pore water concentrations varied with vegetation community, soil chemistry and proximity to groundwater sources. We found that the open-canopy herbaceous zone emitted roughly one-third as much CH4 as the Mauritia flexuosa palm-dominated areas (4.7 ± 0.9 and 14.0 ± 2.4 mg CH4 m-2 h-1, respectively). Emissions decreased with distance from groundwater discharge across the three sampling sites, and tracked changes in soil carbon chemistry, especially increased soil phenolics. Based on all available data, we calculate that neotropical peatlands contribute emissions of 43 ± 11.9 Tg CH4 y-1, however this estimate is subject to geographic bias and will need revision once additional studies are published.

  6. Neotropical peatland methane emissions along a vegetation and biogeochemical gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Scott Winton

    Full Text Available Tropical wetlands are thought to be the most important source of interannual variability in atmospheric methane (CH4 concentrations, yet sparse data prevents them from being incorporated into Earth system models. This problem is particularly pronounced in the neotropics where bottom-up models based on water table depth are incongruent with top-down inversion models suggesting unaccounted sinks or sources of CH4. The newly documented vast areas of peatlands in the Amazon basin may account for an important unrecognized CH4 source, but the hydrologic and biogeochemical controls of CH4 dynamics from these systems remain poorly understood. We studied three zones of a peatland in Madre de Dios, Peru, to test whether CH4 emissions and pore water concentrations varied with vegetation community, soil chemistry and proximity to groundwater sources. We found that the open-canopy herbaceous zone emitted roughly one-third as much CH4 as the Mauritia flexuosa palm-dominated areas (4.7 ± 0.9 and 14.0 ± 2.4 mg CH4 m-2 h-1, respectively. Emissions decreased with distance from groundwater discharge across the three sampling sites, and tracked changes in soil carbon chemistry, especially increased soil phenolics. Based on all available data, we calculate that neotropical peatlands contribute emissions of 43 ± 11.9 Tg CH4 y-1, however this estimate is subject to geographic bias and will need revision once additional studies are published.

  7. Floral structure in the neotropical palm genus Chamaedorea (Arecoideae, Arecaceae

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    Stauffer, Fred W.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Male and female floral structure has been studied in 28 species of Chamaedorea, the largest palm genus present in the Neotropics. The taxa investigated represent all subgenera according to the most recent taxonomic revision of the group. Morphological, histological and cytological features that are known to be of importance for interactions with visiting insects were studied and their putative role in protecting the flowering parts assessed. The taxonomic distribution of selected characters is in some cases congruent with relationships inferred by recently published molecular studies within the group.Se ha estudiado la estructura de las flores masculinas y femeninas en 28 especies de Chamaedorea, el género de palmas con mayor número de especies en la región neotropical. Los táxones investigados representan a todos los subgéneros contemplados en la más reciente revisión taxonómica del grupo. Se han estudiado los caracteres morfológicos, histológicos y citológicos de mayor importancia en cuanto a la visita de insectos y se ha examinado su rol dentro de la protección de los órganos florales. La distribución taxonómica de caracteres seleccionados ha demostrado, en algunos casos, ser congruente con las relaciones inferidas por los más recientes estudios moleculares que incluyen al grupo.

  8. Essential Oils from Neotropical Piper Species and Their Biological Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Trindade, Rafaela; Alves, Nayara Sabrina; Figueiredo, Pablo Luís; Maia, José Guilherme S.; Setzer, William N.

    2017-01-01

    The Piper genus is the most representative of the Piperaceae reaching around 2000 species distributed in the pantropical region. In the Neotropics, its species are represented by herbs, shrubs, and lianas, which are used in traditional medicine to prepare teas and infusions. Its essential oils (EOs) present high yield and are chemically constituted by complex mixtures or the predominance of main volatile constituents. The chemical composition of Piper EOs displays interspecific or intraspecific variations, according to the site of collection or seasonality. The main volatile compounds identified in Piper EOs are monoterpenes hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpenoids, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated sesquiterpenoids and large amounts of phenylpropanoids. In this review, we are reporting the biological potential of Piper EOs from the Neotropical region. There are many reports of Piper EOs as antimicrobial agents (fungi and bacteria), antiprotozoal (Leishmania spp., Plasmodium spp., and Trypanosoma spp.), acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activity against different tumor cells lines (breast, leukemia, melanoma, gastric, among others). These studies can contribute to the rational and economic exploration of Piper species, once they have been identified as potent natural and alternative sources to treat human diseases. PMID:29240662

  9. TUCUNARELLA N. GEN. AND OTHER DACTYLOGYRIDS (MONOGENOIDEA) FROM CICHLID FISH (PERCIFORMES) FROM PERUVIAN AMAZONIA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F.; Scholz, Tomáš; Rozkošná, Petra

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 96, č. 3 (2010), s. 491-498 ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : NEOTROPICAL MONOGENEA * ANCYROCEPHALINAE * PROPOSAL * GILLS * TREMATODES * TELEOSTEI Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.208, year: 2010

  10. Effects of reduced impact logging on bat biodiversity in terra firme forest of lowland Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan Castro-Arellanos; Steven J. Presley; Luis Nelio Saldanha; Michael R. Willig; Joseph M. Wunderle Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Timber harvest is one of the main causes of degradation of Amazonian tropical forests, where bats represent important components of biodiversity. In addition, bats may represent keystone taxa in the Neotropics, as they are primary agents of pollination and seed dispersal for many pioneer plants. We assessed the impact of low harvest (18m3/ha),...

  11. Hydro-climate and ecological behaviour of the drought of Amazonia in 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, J A; Nobre, C A; Tomasella, J; Cardoso, M F; Oyama, M D

    2008-05-27

    In 2005, southwestern Amazonia experienced the effects of an intense drought that affected life and biodiversity. Several major tributaries as well as parts of the main river itself contained only a fraction of their normal volumes of water, and lakes were drying up. The consequences for local people, animals and the forest itself are impossible to estimate now, but they are likely to be serious. The analyses indicate that the drought was manifested as weak peak river season during autumn to winter as a consequence of a weak summertime season in southwestern Amazonia; the winter season was also accompanied by rainfall that sometimes reached 25% of the climatic value, being anomalously warm and dry and helping in the propagation of fires. Analyses of climatic and hydrological records in Amazonia suggest a broad consensus that the 2005 drought was linked not to El Niño as with most previous droughts in the Amazon, but to warming sea surface temperatures in the tropical North Atlantic Ocean.

  12. Forest productivity and water stress in Amazonia: observations from GOSAT chlorophyll fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Eun; Frankenberg, Christian; van der Tol, Christiaan; Berry, Joseph A; Guanter, Luis; Boyce, C Kevin; Fisher, Joshua B; Morrow, Eric; Worden, John R; Asefi, Salvi; Badgley, Grayson; Saatchi, Sassan

    2013-06-22

    It is unclear to what extent seasonal water stress impacts on plant productivity over Amazonia. Using new Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) satellite measurements of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence, we show that midday fluorescence varies with water availability, both of which decrease in the dry season over Amazonian regions with substantial dry season length, suggesting a parallel decrease in gross primary production (GPP). Using additional SeaWinds Scatterometer onboard QuikSCAT satellite measurements of canopy water content, we found a concomitant decrease in daily storage of canopy water content within branches and leaves during the dry season, supporting our conclusion. A large part (r(2) = 0.75) of the variance in observed monthly midday fluorescence from GOSAT is explained by water stress over moderately stressed evergreen forests over Amazonia, which is reproduced by model simulations that include a full physiological representation of photosynthesis and fluorescence. The strong relationship between GOSAT and model fluorescence (r(2) = 0.79) was obtained using a fixed leaf area index, indicating that GPP changes are more related to environmental conditions than chlorophyll contents. When the dry season extended to drought in 2010 over Amazonia, midday basin-wide GPP was reduced by 15 per cent compared with 2009.

  13. Fenologia de Cornops aquaticum (Orthoptera: Acrididae associado a Eichhornia crassipes (Pontederiaceae em um Lago de Várzea na Amazônia Central, Brasil Phenology of Cornops aquaticum (Orthoptera: Acrididae associated with Eichhornia crassipes (Pontederiaceae in a Floodplain Lake in Central Amazonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Elias Braga

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O gafanhoto Neotropical Cornops aquaticum (Bruner vive associado às macrófitas da família Pontederiaceae da qual se alimenta. Nos lagos da Amazônia Central, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms (mururé ou aguapé é considerada a planta hospedeira de maior importante para este gafanhoto. Esse trabalho teve o objetivo de realizar um estudo fenológico de adultos e ninfas desse gafanhoto em associação a sua planta hospedeira, frente ao regime hidrológico da Amazônia Central. Tal estudo foi realizado entre os meses de abril de 2006 a agosto de 2007 no Lago Camaleão (03º17'05"S 60º11'11"W, na várzea da Amazônia Central. Para isso, utilizou-se uma rede entomológica (70 cm de diâmetro adaptada para a captura dos gafanhotos. Onde foram capturados 850 exemplares (296 adultos e 554 ninfas. Observou-se que a abundância e a biomassa de adultos e de ninfas de C. aquaticum, bem como de sua macrófita hospedeira, estão relacionados com a oscilação sazonal do nível do rio (pulso de inundação.La tucura Neotropical, Cornops aquaticum (Bruner, vive asociada a las macrófitas de la familia Pontederiaceae, de las cuales se alimenta. En los lagos de la Amazonia Central, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms (camalote o aguape constituye la planta huésped más importante de esta tucura. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la fenología de los adultos y las ninfas de C. aquaticum en los camalotales de E. crassipes, en relación al régimen hidrológico de la Amazonia Central. Los muestreos se realizaron entre los meses de abril de 2006 a agosto de 2007, en el Lago Camaleón (03º17'05"S 60º 11 '11 "O en la Várzea de la Amazonia Central. Los individuos fueron capturados desde una embarcación a motor, utilizando una red entomológica de 70 cm de diámetro. Durante este estudio, se capturaron un total de 850 ejemplares (296 adultos y 554 ninfas. Se observó que la abundancia y la biomasa de los adultos y de las ninfas de C. aquaticum, así como

  14. Subsocial Neotropical Doryphorini (Chrysomelidae, Chrysomelinae: new observations on behavior, host plants and systematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald M. Windsor

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A summary of literature, documented observations and field studies finds evidence that mothers actively defend offspring in at least eight species and three genera of Neotropical Chrysomelinae associated with two host plant families. Reports on three Doryphora species reveal that all are oviparous and feed on vines in the Apocyanaceae. Mothers in the two subsocial species defend eggs and larvae by straddling, blocking access at the petiole and greeting potential predators with leaf-shaking and jerky advances. A less aggressive form of maternal care is found in two Platyphora and four Proseicela species associated with Solanaceae, shrubs and small trees. For these and other morphologically similar taxa associated with Solanaceae, genetic distances support morphology-based taxonomy at the species level, reveal one new species, but raise questions regarding boundaries separating genera. We urge continued study of these magnificent insects, their enemies and their defenses, both behavioral and chemical, especially in forests along the eastern versant of the Central and South American cordillera.

  15. A molecular phylogeny of Amazona: implications for Neotropical parrot biogeography, taxonomy, and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russello, Michael A; Amato, George

    2004-02-01

    Amazon parrots (Genus Amazona) are among the most recognizable and imperiled of all birds. Several hypotheses regarding the evolutionary history of Amazona are investigated using a combined phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequence data from six partitions including mitochondrial (COI, 12S, and 16S) and nuclear (beta-fibint7, RP40, and TROP) regions. The results demonstrate that Amazona is not monophyletic with respect to the placement of the Yellow-faced parrot (Amazona xanthops), as first implied by. In addition, the analysis corroborates previous studies suggesting a Neotropical short-tailed parrot genus as sister to Amazona. At a finer level, the phylogeny resolves the Greater Antillean endemic species as constituting a monophyletic group, including the Central American Amazona albifrons, while further revealing a paraphyletic history for the extant Amazon species of the Lesser Antilles. The reconstructed phylogeny provides further insights into the mainland sources of the Antillean Amazona, reveals areas of taxonomic uncertainty within the genus, and presents historical information that may be included in conservation priority-setting for Amazon parrots.

  16. Stability and generalization in seed dispersal networks: a case study of frugivorous fish in Neotropical wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Sandra Bibiana; Arujo, Joisiane K; Penha, Jerry; Nunes da Cunha, Catia; Bobier, Karen E; Anderson, Jill T

    2016-08-31

    When species within guilds perform similar ecological roles, functional redundancy can buffer ecosystems against species loss. Using data on the frequency of interactions between fish and fruit, we assessed whether co-occurring frugivores provide redundant seed dispersal services in three species-rich Neotropical wetlands. Our study revealed that frugivorous fishes have generalized diets; however, large-bodied fishes had greater seed dispersal breadth than small species, in some cases, providing seed dispersal services not achieved by smaller fish species. As overfishing disproportionately affects big fishes, the extirpation of these species could cause larger secondary extinctions of plant species than the loss of small specialist frugivores. To evaluate the consequences of frugivore specialization for network stability, we extracted data from 39 published seed dispersal networks of frugivorous birds, mammals and fish (our networks) across ecosystems. Our analysis of interaction frequencies revealed low frugivore specialization and lower nestedness than analyses based on binary data (presence-absence of interactions). In that case, ecosystems may be resilient to loss of any given frugivore. However, robustness to frugivore extinction declines with specialization, such that networks composed primarily of specialist frugivores are highly susceptible to the loss of generalists. In contrast with analyses of binary data, recently developed algorithms capable of modelling interaction strengths provide opportunities to enhance our understanding of complex ecological networks by accounting for heterogeneity of frugivore-fruit interactions. © 2016 The Author(s).

  17. Fungos anamorfos (hyphomycetes da Floresta Nacional de Caxiuanã, Pará, Brasil: novos registros para o Neotrópico Anamorphic fungi (hyphomycetes from Caxiuanã National Forest, Pará, Brazil: new records for the Neotropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Santana Monteiro

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Os hifomicetos são importantes decompositores e recicladores da matéria orgânica morta no ambiente e podem ser importantes patógenos de plantas e animais. Como parte do inventário da diversidade dos fungos sobre palmeiras da Amazônia Oriental, no sítio do Programa de Biodiversidade da Amazônia (PPBIO, na Floresta Nacional de Caxiuanã, Pará, foram identificados cinco novos registros de hifomicetos para o Neotrópico: Camposporium fusisporum Whitton, McKenzie & Hyde; Cylindrocarpon curtum Bugnicourt; Minimidochium microsporum Matsush.; Sporidesmiella aspera Kuthub. & Nawawi; Sporidesmium ghanaense M.B. Ellis. Stachybotrys theobromae Hansf. é citado pela primeira vez para o Brasil.The hyphomycetes are important decomposers and recyclers of dead organic matter in the environment and may be important pathogens of plants and animals. As part of the diversity inventory of palm-tree fungi from Eastern Amazonia, in Caxiuanã National Forest, Pará, five new records of hyphomycetes for the Neotropics were found: Camposporium fusisporum Whitton, McKenzie & Hyde; Cylindrocarpon curtum Bugnicourt; Minimidochium microsporum Matsush.; Sporidesmiella aspera Kuthub. & Nawawi; Sporidesmium ghanaense M.B. Ellis. Stachybotrys theobromae Hansf. is cited for the first time for Brazil.

  18. Rove beetles (Coleoptera Staphylilnidae) in neotropical riverine landscapes: characterising their distribution.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutierrez Chacon, C.; Del Carmen Zuniga, M.; van Bodegom, P.M.; Chara, J.; Giraldo, L.M.

    2009-01-01

    1. The diversity and ecology of Staphylinidae in the Neotropical region has been poorly investigated, especially in riverine landscapes where these beetles are among the dominant organisms. Therefore, the relation between the occurrence of Staphylinidae and environmental variables was investigated

  19. Morphological variability and distribution of the exotic Asian Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides (Copepoda: Cyclopoida: in the Neotropical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Suárez-Morales

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available From a series of biological samples collected from different freshwater environments in Costa Rica, Central America, the exotic Asian cyclopoid Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides Harada, 1931 was identified. We analyzed the morphology and appendage ornamentation of different Neotropical populations of this species, including specimens from Honduras, southeastern Mexico, and Costa Rica. We also examined Asian specimens from Taiwan, Indonesia, Vietnam, and Thailand, and performed a comparison of the Neotropical and Asian populations including a Principal Component Analysis (PCA. The Neotropical and Asian specimens show subtle morphological variations in the antennules, antennae, mandibles, swimming legs 1-4, and fifth legs. Some characters in the Neotropical group appear to diverge from the Asian pattern and the PCA indicated that intercontinental populations of M. thermocyclopoides are far from being homogeneous. These intra-specific differences are described to expand the known morphological range of this species and to provide the first comparative analysis of an exotic copepod in the Americas. Our analysis suggests that the geographic isolation of the American populations and the subtle morphological divergences with respect to the Asian patterns could be related to speciation processes in the Neotropical region, but also intra-Asian differences are reported. In the Neotropical region this species appears to be restricted to southeastern Mexico, Central America, and one Caribbean island; its potential as biological control of mosquito might enhance its spread in the region.

  20. Body size diversity and frequency distributions of Neotropical cichlid fishes (Cichliformes: Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E Steele

    Full Text Available Body size is an important correlate of life history, ecology and distribution of species. Despite this, very little is known about body size evolution in fishes, particularly freshwater fishes of the Neotropics where species and body size diversity are relatively high. Phylogenetic history and body size data were used to explore body size frequency distributions in Neotropical cichlids, a broadly distributed and ecologically diverse group of fishes that is highly representative of body size diversity in Neotropical freshwater fishes. We test for divergence, phylogenetic autocorrelation and among-clade partitioning of body size space. Neotropical cichlids show low phylogenetic autocorrelation and divergence within and among taxonomic levels. Three distinct regions of body size space were identified from body size frequency distributions at various taxonomic levels corresponding to subclades of the most diverse tribe, Geophagini. These regions suggest that lineages may be evolving towards particular size optima that may be tied to specific ecological roles. The diversification of Geophagini appears to constrain the evolution of body size among other Neotropical cichlid lineages; non-Geophagini clades show lower species-richness in body size regions shared with Geophagini. Neotropical cichlid genera show less divergence and extreme body size than expected within and among tribes. Body size divergence among species may instead be present or linked to ecology at the community assembly scale.

  1. Comparative phylogeography: concepts, methods and general patterns in neotropical birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbelaez Cortes, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the patterns and processes involved in intraspecific lineages diversification in time and space is the aim of phylogeography. The comparison of those phylogeographic patterns among co-distributed species shows insights of a community history. Here I review the concepts and methodologies of comparative phylogeography, an active research field that has heterogeneous analytical methods. In order to present a framework for phylogeography in the neotropics, I comment the general phylogeographic patterns of the birds from this region. this review is based on more than 100 studies conducted during the last 25 years and indicate that despite different co-distributed species seem to share some points in their phylogeographic pattern they have idiosyncratic aspects, indicating an unique history for each one.

  2. Conservation challenges for the Austral and Neotropical America section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Gerardo; Vale, Mariana M; Bonacic, Cristian; Calvo-Alvarado, Julio; List, Rurik; Bynum, Nora; Medellín, Rodrigo A; Simonetti, Javier A; Rodríguez, Jon Paul

    2009-08-01

    The Austral and Neotropical America (ANA) section of the Society for Conservation Biology includes a vast territory with some of the largest relatively pristine ecosystems in the world. With more than 573 million people, the economic growth of the region still depends strongly on natural resource exploitation and still has high rates of environmental degradation and biodiversity loss. A survey among the ANA section membership, with more than 700 members, including most of the section's prominent ecologists and conservationists, indicates that lack of capacity building for conservation, corruption, and threats such as deforestation and illegal trade of species, are among the most urgent problems that need to be addressed to improve conservation in the region. There are, however, strong universities and ecology groups taking the lead in environmental research and conservation, a most important issue to enhance the ability of the region to solve conservation and development conflicts.

  3. Some Possible Cases of Escape Mimicry in Neotropical Butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, C E G; Freitas, A V L

    2014-10-01

    The possibility that escape or evasive mimicry evolved in butterflies and other prey insects in a similar fashion to classical Batesian and Müllerian mimicry has long been advanced in the literature. However, there is a general disagreement among lepidopterists and evolutionary biologists on whether or not escape mimicry exists, as well as in which mimicry rings this form of mimicry has evolved. Here, we review some purported cases of escape mimicry in Neotropical butterflies and suggest new mimicry rings involving several species of Archaeoprepona, Prepona, and Doxocopa (the "bright blue bands" ring) and species of Colobura and Hypna (the "creamy bands" ring) where the palatability of butterflies, their ability to escape predator attacks, geographic distribution, relative abundance, and co-occurrence in the same habitats strongly suggest that escape mimicry is involved. In addition, we also indicate other butterfly taxa whose similarities of coloration patterns could be due to escape mimicry and would constitute important case studies for future investigation.

  4. Pre-Columbian agricultural landscapes, ecosystem engineers, and self-organized patchiness in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKey, Doyle; Rostain, Stéphen; Iriarte, José; Glaser, Bruno; Birk, Jago Jonathan; Holst, Irene; Renard, Delphine

    2010-04-27

    The scale and nature of pre-Columbian human impacts in Amazonia are currently hotly debated. Whereas pre-Columbian people dramatically changed the distribution and abundance of species and habitats in some parts of Amazonia, their impact in other parts is less clear. Pioneer research asked whether their effects reached even further, changing how ecosystems function, but few in-depth studies have examined mechanisms underpinning the resilience of these modifications. Combining archeology, archeobotany, paleoecology, soil science, ecology, and aerial imagery, we show that pre-Columbian farmers of the Guianas coast constructed large raised-field complexes, growing on them crops including maize, manioc, and squash. Farmers created physical and biogeochemical heterogeneity in flat, marshy environments by constructing raised fields. When these fields were later abandoned, the mosaic of well-drained islands in the flooded matrix set in motion self-organizing processes driven by ecosystem engineers (ants, termites, earthworms, and woody plants) that occur preferentially on abandoned raised fields. Today, feedbacks generated by these ecosystem engineers maintain the human-initiated concentration of resources in these structures. Engineer organisms transport materials to abandoned raised fields and modify the structure and composition of their soils, reducing erodibility. The profound alteration of ecosystem functioning in these landscapes coconstructed by humans and nature has important implications for understanding Amazonian history and biodiversity. Furthermore, these landscapes show how sustainability of food-production systems can be enhanced by engineering into them follows that maintain ecosystem services and biodiversity. Like anthropogenic dark earths in forested Amazonia, these self-organizing ecosystems illustrate the ecological complexity of the legacy of pre-Columbian land use.

  5. Food niche overlap between two sympatric leaf-litter frog species from Central Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Talione Sabagh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We studied the feeding habits and similarities in the diet of two sympatric and syntopic Amazonian frog species, Anomaloglossus stepheni (Aromobatidae and Leptodactylus andreae (Leptodactylidae in a forested area in Central Amazonia. The breadth of the trophic niche of these species was 5.89 and 3.75, respectively, and approximately 85% of their diets were similar. Ants were main food item in the diets of both frog species. The coexistence between these frog species may be facilitated by the significant differences in the size of their mouths. This difference allows them to consume preys items of different sizes.

  6. 'Formidable contagion': epidemics, work and recruitment in Colonial Amazonia (1660-1750).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambouleyron, Rafael; Barbosa, Benedito Costa; Bombardi, Fernanda Aires; Sousa, Claudia Rocha de

    2011-12-01

    The text analyzes the extent to which smallpox and measles epidemics provoked transformations in the ways in which workforces were acquired and used in colonial Amazonia from the mid-seventeenth to mid-eighteenth century, with an increase in slave raids on the indigenous population and the attempt to organize a trade route in African slaves to the region. It also explores how indigenous mortality rates at the end of the seventeenth century led to a concern with the region's defence and prompted the recruitment of soldiers from the Madeira islands.

  7. Anuran amphibians of the urban region of Altamira (Oriental Amazonia, state of Pará, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Bezerra Barros

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to take stock of the species of anurans in three localities of the urban region of Altamira, a municipal district in the west of the state of Pará (Oriental Amazonia. Collections were made between January and June of 2004. Fifteen species were recorded during the study. The family Hylidae was the most represented, with eight species. The data was compatible with the degree of conservation of the collection areas. The necessity of making new fauna inventories in all Brazilian biomes is of extreme urgency, particularly in the Amazon, given its vast extension and lack of inventories.

  8. Niche differentiation among neotropical soldierless soil-feeding termites revealed by stable isotope ratios

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bourguignon, T.; Šobotník, Jan; Lepoint, G.; Martin, J. M.; Roisin, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 10 (2009), s. 2038-2043 ISSN 0038-0717 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Anoplotermes * Termitidae * Isoptera * resource partitioning Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.978, year: 2009

  9. Vegetation changes and human impact inferred from an oxbow lake in southwestern Amazonia, Brazil since the 19th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Zorro, Paula A.; Enters, Dirk; Hermanowski, Barbara; da Costa, Marcondes Lima; Behling, Hermann

    2015-10-01

    Pollen and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) analyses from a 272 cm-long sediment core of Lago Amapá, an oxbow lake in western Amazonia, reveal the first palaeoecological investigation of late Holocene sediments in Acre state, Brazil. Radiocarbon dating of older sediments failed due to re-deposition of organic material but a historical map suggests that lacustrine deposition started at 1900 AD. We detected two periods of changes in sediment and vegetation, dominated by pioneer taxa especially Cecropia. The first period around 1900 AD is documenting an initial oxbow lake, with regular fluvial input (high Ti) and low accumulation of organic matter (low inc/coh ratio). During that period Andean pollen taxa originating from Peruvian Andean headwaters were deposited. A fully lacustrine phase started about 1950 AD and is characterized by prolonged periods of stagnant water (low Fe/Mn ratio). The increase of pioneer taxa, sedimentation rates and a reduction of most of the XRF element counts point to a period during which Lago Amapá was a more isolated lake which was flooded only during exceptional severe flood events and is catching mainly anthropogenic disturbances. The extensive human influence during this period was assumed by 1) the high occurrence of pioneer taxa and the absence of charcoal which could indicate changes in vegetation possibly as a result of logging, 2) the Ca and Ti/K ratio which reflect changes to a local sediment source, and 3) comparison of Landsat images from the last 30 years which shows broad changes in vegetation cover and land transformation in the peripheral areas of the oxbow lake.

  10. High-resolution mitochondrial DNA analysis sheds light on human diversity, cultural interactions, and population mobility in Northwestern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Leonardo; Barbieri, Chiara; Barreto, Guillermo; Stoneking, Mark; Pakendorf, Brigitte

    2018-02-01

    Northwestern Amazonia (NWA) is a center of high linguistic and cultural diversity. Several language families and linguistic isolates occur in this region, as well as different subsistence patterns, with some groups being foragers and others agriculturalists. In addition, speakers of Eastern Tukanoan languages are known for practicing linguistic exogamy, a marriage system in which partners are taken from different language groups. In this study, we use high-resolution mitochondrial DNA sequencing to investigate the impact of this linguistic and cultural diversity on the genetic relationships and population structure of NWA groups. We collected saliva samples from individuals representing 40 different NWA ethnolinguistic groups and sequenced 439 complete mitochondrial genomes to an average coverage of 1,030×. The mtDNA data revealed that NWA populations have high genetic diversity with extensive sharing of haplotypes among groups. Moreover, groups who practice linguistic exogamy have higher genetic diversity, while the foraging Nukak have lower genetic diversity. We also find that rivers play a more important role than either geography or language affiliation in structuring the genetic relationships of populations. Contrary to the view of NWA as a pristine area inhabited by small human populations living in isolation, our data support a view of high diversity and contact among different ethnolinguistic groups, with movement along rivers probably facilitating this contact. Additionally, we provide evidence for the impact of cultural practices, such as linguistic exogamy, on patterns of genetic variation. Overall, this study provides new data and insights into a remote and little-studied region of the world. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Neotropical dry forest wildlife water hole use and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Vaughan

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Selected wildlife species diurnal use of a natural water hole (QD and an artificial water hole (AW were studied during 1990 dry season at Guanacaste Conservation Area, Costa Rica. In total, 919 individuals (six mammal and one game bird species consumed water from QD, while 713 individuals (four mammal species consumed water from AW. Estimated daily water consumption by selected wildlife species was 29.7 l at QD and 27.3 l at AW. Estimated 24-h water consumed by all wildlife species or evaporated was 44.6 l at QD and 41.1 l at AW. This resulted from summing: a water consumed by studied species, b estimated 24-hour water consumed by other wildlife (QD = 14.85 l, AW = 13.65 l and c daily water evaporation (QD = 0.04 l, AW = 0.10 l. During a 120-day dry season, AW required about 4 932 l of water from the park administration. Management implications for neotropical dry forest water holes are discussed.Se estudió el uso diurno de un ojo de agua natural (QD y otro artificial (AW a finales de la época seca de 1990 en el Area de Conservacion de Guanacaste, Costa Rica. En total 919 individuos (seis especies de mamíferos y una de ave cinegética consumieron agua de QD y 713 individuos (cuatro especies de mamíferos de AQ. Se estimó que en un dia, las especies de vida silvestre estudiados tomaron 29.7 l y 27.3 l de agua de QD y AW, respectivamente. El total de agua consumido o evaporado de cada ojo de agua durante 24-horas fue estimado en 44.6 l en QD y 41.1 l en AW, con base en: a agua bebida durante 12 h por las especies seleccionadas, b agua bebida por todos los otros individuos durante 24 h (QD = 14.85 l, AW = 13.65 l y c evaporación diaria (QD = 0.04 l, AW = 0.01 l. Para abastecer AW durante una epoca seca de 120 días, la administración del parque debe proveer 4 932 l de agua. Se discute las implicaciones de manejo en las regiones de bosque seco neotropical.

  12. Remote sensing of selective logging in Amazonia Assessing limitations based on detailed field observations, Landsat ETM+, and textural analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory P. Asner; Michael Keller; Rodrigo Pereira; Johan C. Zweede

    2002-01-01

    We combined a detailed field study of forest canopy damage with calibrated Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) reflectance data and texture analysis to assess the sensitivity of basic broadband optical remote sensing to selective logging in Amazonia. Our field study encompassed measurements of ground damage and canopy gap fractions along a chronosequence of...

  13. Interpreting seasonal changes in the carbon balance of southern Amazonia using measurements of XCO2 and chlorophyll fluorescence from GOSAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parazoo, Nicholas C.; Bowman, Kevin; Frankenberg, Christian; Lee, Jung-Eun; Fisher, Joshua B.; Worden, John; Jones, Dylan B. A.; Berry, Joseph; Collatz, G. James; Baker, Ian T.; Jung, Martin; Liu, Junjie; Osterman, Gregory; O'Dell, Chris; Sparks, Athena; Butz, Andre; Guerlet, Sandrine; Yoshida, Yukio; Chen, Huilin; Gerbig, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Amazon forests exert a major influence on the global carbon cycle, but quantifying the impact is complicated by diverse landscapes and sparse data. Here we examine seasonal carbon balance in southern Amazonia using new measurements of column-averaged dry air mole fraction of CO2 (XCO2) and solar

  14. The snakes of the genus Atractus Wagler (Reptilia: Squamata: Colubridae) from the Manaus region, central Amazonia, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins, M.; Oliveira, M.E.

    1993-01-01

    Taxonomic and natural history data are presented on eight species of Atractus from the Manaus region, central Amazonia, Brazil, namely: A. alphonsehogei, A. latifrons, A, major, A. poeppigi, A. schach, A. snethlageae, A. torquatus, and A. trilineatus. Four of these species are recorded for the first

  15. Leporinus trimaculatus, a new species from Amazonia, Brazil, and redescription of the sympatric Leporinus aripuanaensis (Pisces, Characiformes, Anostomidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garavello, Julio Cesar; Santos, dos Geraldo Mendes

    1992-01-01

    Leporinus trimaculatus n.sp. is described, and Leporinus aripuanaensis Garavello & Santos, 1981 is redescribed, both from the Aripuanã river basin, Mato Grosso state, Amazonia, Brazil. A colour pattern of two, three or more dark brown blotches on the lateral sides of the body in both species

  16. Paleocene wind-dispersed fruits and seeds from Colombia and their implications for early Neotropical rainforests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrera Fabiany

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Extant Neotropical rainforests are well known for their remarkable diversity of fruit and seed types. Biotic agents disperse most of these disseminules, whereas wind dispersal is less common. Although wind-dispersed fruits and seeds are greatly overshadowed in closed rainforests, many important families in the Neotropics (e.g., Bignoniaceae, Fabaceae, Malvaceae, Orchidaceae, Sapindaceae show numerous morphological adaptations for anemochory (i.e. wings, accessory hairs. Most of these living groups have high to moderate levels of plant diversity in the upper levels of the canopy. Little is known about the fossil record of wind-dispersed fruits and seeds in the Neotropics. Six new species of disseminules with varied adaptations for wind dispersal are documented here. These fossils, representing extinct genera of Ulmaceae, Malvaceae, and some uncertain families, indicate that wind-dispersed fruit and seed syndromes were already common in the Neotropics by the Paleocene, coinciding with the early development of multistratal rainforests. Although the major families known to include most of the wind-dispersed disseminules in extant rainforests are still missing from the Paleogene fossil record of South and Central America, the new fossils imply that anemochory was a relatively important product and/or mechanism of plant evolution and diversification in early Neotropical rainforests.

  17. Evaluating the effect of nutrient redistribution by animals on the phosphorus cycle of lowland Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Buendía

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P availability decreases with soil age and potentially limits the productivity of ecosystems growing on old and weathered soils. Despite growing on ancient soils, ecosystems of lowland Amazonia are highly productive and are among the most biodiverse on Earth. P eroded and weathered in the Andes is transported by the rivers and deposited in floodplains of the lowland Amazon basin creating hotspots of P fertility. We hypothesize that animals feeding on vegetation and detritus in these hotspots may redistribute P to P-depleted areas, thus contributing to dissipate the P gradient across the landscape. Using a mathematical model, we show that animal-driven spatial redistribution of P from rivers to land and from seasonally flooded to terra firme (upland ecosystems may sustain the P cycle of Amazonian lowlands. Our results show how P imported to land by terrestrial piscivores in combination with spatial redistribution of herbivores and detritivores can significantly enhance the P content in terra firme ecosystems, thereby highlighting the importance of food webs for the biogeochemical cycling of Amazonia.

  18. Understorey fire frequency and the fate of burned forests in southern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, D C; Le Page, Y; DeFries, R; Collatz, G J; Hurtt, G C

    2013-06-05

    Recent drought events underscore the vulnerability of Amazon forests to understorey fires. The long-term impact of fires on biodiversity and forest carbon stocks depends on the frequency of fire damages and deforestation rates of burned forests. Here, we characterized the spatial and temporal dynamics of understorey fires (1999-2010) and deforestation (2001-2010) in southern Amazonia using new satellite-based estimates of annual fire activity (greater than 50 ha) and deforestation (greater than 10 ha). Understorey forest fires burned more than 85 500 km(2) between 1999 and 2010 (2.8% of all forests). Forests that burned more than once accounted for 16 per cent of all understorey fires. Repeated fire activity was concentrated in Mato Grosso and eastern Pará, whereas single fires were widespread across the arc of deforestation. Routine fire activity in Mato Grosso coincided with annual periods of low night-time relative humidity, suggesting a strong climate control on both single and repeated fires. Understorey fires occurred in regions with active deforestation, yet the interannual variability of fire and deforestation were uncorrelated, and only 2.6 per cent of forests that burned between 1999 and 2008 were deforested for agricultural use by 2010. Evidence from the past decade suggests that future projections of frontier landscapes in Amazonia should separately consider economic drivers to project future deforestation and climate to project fire risk.

  19. Use of MODIS Sensor Images Combined with Reanalysis Products to Retrieve Net Radiation in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Gabriel; Brunsell, Nathaniel A.; Moraes, Elisabete C.; Bertani, Gabriel; dos Santos, Thiago V.; Shimabukuro, Yosio E.; Aragão, Luiz E. O. C.

    2016-01-01

    In the Amazon region, the estimation of radiation fluxes through remote sensing techniques is hindered by the lack of ground measurements required as input in the models, as well as the difficulty to obtain cloud-free images. Here, we assess an approach to estimate net radiation (Rn) and its components under all-sky conditions for the Amazon region through the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) model utilizing only remote sensing and reanalysis data. The study period comprised six years, between January 2001–December 2006, and images from MODIS sensor aboard the Terra satellite and GLDAS reanalysis products were utilized. The estimates were evaluated with flux tower measurements within the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) project. Comparison between estimates obtained by the proposed method and observations from LBA towers showed errors between 12.5% and 16.4% and 11.3% and 15.9% for instantaneous and daily Rn, respectively. Our approach was adequate to minimize the problem related to strong cloudiness over the region and allowed to map consistently the spatial distribution of net radiation components in Amazonia. We conclude that the integration of reanalysis products and satellite data, eliminating the need for surface measurements as input model, was a useful proposition for the spatialization of the radiation fluxes in the Amazon region, which may serve as input information needed by algorithms that aim to determine evapotranspiration, the most important component of the Amazon hydrological balance. PMID:27347957

  20. Use of MODIS Sensor Images Combined with Reanalysis Products to Retrieve Net Radiation in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Gabriel; Brunsell, Nathaniel A; Moraes, Elisabete C; Bertani, Gabriel; Dos Santos, Thiago V; Shimabukuro, Yosio E; Aragão, Luiz E O C

    2016-06-24

    In the Amazon region, the estimation of radiation fluxes through remote sensing techniques is hindered by the lack of ground measurements required as input in the models, as well as the difficulty to obtain cloud-free images. Here, we assess an approach to estimate net radiation (Rn) and its components under all-sky conditions for the Amazon region through the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) model utilizing only remote sensing and reanalysis data. The study period comprised six years, between January 2001-December 2006, and images from MODIS sensor aboard the Terra satellite and GLDAS reanalysis products were utilized. The estimates were evaluated with flux tower measurements within the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) project. Comparison between estimates obtained by the proposed method and observations from LBA towers showed errors between 12.5% and 16.4% and 11.3% and 15.9% for instantaneous and daily Rn, respectively. Our approach was adequate to minimize the problem related to strong cloudiness over the region and allowed to map consistently the spatial distribution of net radiation components in Amazonia. We conclude that the integration of reanalysis products and satellite data, eliminating the need for surface measurements as input model, was a useful proposition for the spatialization of the radiation fluxes in the Amazon region, which may serve as input information needed by algorithms that aim to determine evapotranspiration, the most important component of the Amazon hydrological balance.

  1. Fire as a Factor of Variation of Soil Respiration in Amazonia of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, L.; Kruijt, B.

    2007-05-01

    Severe changes are affecting the role of Amazonia in the Earth system. One of these possible effects could be the modification of the relevance of soil in the carbon cycle. In this sense, fire is an important factor for mobilizing C from the soil to the atmosphere, mainly as CO2. This could have an important effect in the global warming. Our proposal will evaluate the variation of the soil respiration related to the seasonality and the fire effects on soils in the Amazonia of Peru and Brasil. In experimental parcels of four locations of Peru with different vegetation cover (forest and pasture), we will measure soil respiration along with the organic carbon and the microbial biomass of soils during campaigns of wet and dry seasons, with complementary measurements of soil temperature, water and nutrient content. Also, we will reproduce a fire experiment simulating local activity of "slash and burn" to evaluate fire effects. Measurements will be taken after the soil cooled and 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 days after the fire. Additionally, the carbon stock of the subparcels will be evaluated. Evaluation of the variations of CO2 fluxes and the capacity of adaptation to fire and water content will be done through the comparisons of the different locations, type of soils and concentration of available N as an indicator of nutrient content.

  2. Dynamic Mesoscale Land-Atmosphere Feedbacks in Fragmented Forests in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, D.; Baidya Roy, S.

    2011-12-01

    This paper investigates land-atmosphere feedbacks in disturbed rainforests of Amazonia. Deforestation along the rapidly expanding highways and road network has created the unique fishbone land cover pattern in Rondonia, a state in southwestern Amazonia. Numerical experiments and observations show that sharp gradients in land cover due to the fishbone heterogeneity triggers mesoscale circulations. These circulations significantly change the spatial pattern of local hydrometeorology, especially convection, clouds and precipitation. The primary research question now is can these changes in local hydrometeorology affect vegetation growth in the clearings. If so, that would be a clear indication that land-atmosphere feedbacks can affect vegetation recovery in fragmented forests. A computationally-efficient modeling tool consisting of a mesoscale atmospheric model dynamically coupled with a plant growth model has been specifically developed to identify the atmospheric feedback pathways. Preliminary experiments focus on the seasonal-scale feedbacks during the dry season. Results show that temperature, incoming shortwave and precipitation are the three primary drivers through which the feedbacks operate. Increasing temperature increases respiratory losses generating a positive feedback. Increased cloud cover reduces incoming PAR and photosynthesis, resulting in a positive feedback. Increased precipitation reduces water stress and promotes growth resulting in a negative feedback. The net effect is a combination of these 3 feedback loops. These findings can significantly improve our understanding of ecosystem resiliency in disturbed tropical forests.

  3. Economically important species dominate aboveground carbon storage in forests of southwestern Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Galia Selaya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tree species in tropical forests provide economically important goods and ecosystem services. In submontane forests of southwestern Amazonia, we investigated the degree to which tree species important for subsistence and trade contribute to aboveground carbon storage (AGC. We used 41 1-hectare plots to determine the species abundance, basal area, and AGC of stems > 10 cm diameter at breast height (dbh. Economically important taxa were classified using ethnobotanical studies and according to their stem density. These taxa (n = 263 accounted for 45% of total stems, 53% of total basal area, and 56% of total AGC, significantly more than taxa with minor or unknown uses (Welch test at p 40 cm and few stems in regeneration classes of dbh < 10 to 20 cm (e.g., Bertholletia excelsa, Cariniana spp., Cedrelinga spp., Ceiba spp., Dipteryx spp., whereas dominant Tetragastris spp., and Pseudolmedia spp. had most stems in low diameter classes and a median diameter of < 30 cm. Bertholletia excelsa, with 1.5 stems per hectare, showed the highest basal area of any species and accounted for 9% of AGC (11 Mg/ha, twice that of the second-ranking species. Our study shows that economic importance and carbon stocks in trees are closely linked in southwestern Amazonia. Unplanned harvests can disrupt synergistic dual roles altering carbon stocks temporally or permanently. Precautionary measures based on species ecology, demography, and regeneration traits should be at the forefront of REDD+ to reconcile maximum harvesting limits, biodiversity conservation, and sustainable forest management.

  4. Land-use in Amazonia and the Cerrado of Brazil: State of Knowledge and GIS Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepstad, Daniel C.

    1997-01-01

    We have assembled datasets to strengthen the LargeScale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA). These datasets can now be accessed through the Woods Hole Research Center homepage (www.whrc.org), and will soon be linked to the Pre-LBA homepages of the Brazilian Space Research Institute's Center for Weather and Climate Prediction (Instituto de Pesquisas Espaciais, Centro de Previsao de Tempo e Estudos Climaticos, INPE/CPTEC) and through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Distributed Active Archive Center (ORNL/DMC). Some of the datasets that we are making available involved new field research and/or the digitization of data available in Brazilian government agencies. For example, during the grant period we conducted interviews at 1,100 sawmills across Amazonia to determine their production of sawn timber, and their harvest intensities. These data provide the basis for the first quantitative assessment of the area of forest affected each year by selective logging (Nepstad et al, submitted to Nature). We digitized the locations of all of the rural households in the State of Para that have been mapped by the Brazilian malaria combat agency (SUCAM). We also mapped and digitized areas of deforestation in the state of Tocantins, which is comprised largely of savanna (cerrado), an ecosystem that has been routinely excluded from deforestation mapping exercises.

  5. Sources of water vapor to economically relevant regions in Amazonia and the effect of deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, G. F.; Fontes, V. C.

    2017-12-01

    The Amazon rain forest helps regulate the regional humid climate. Understanding the effects of Amazon deforestation is important to preserve not only the climate, but also economic activities that depend on it, in particular, agricultural productivity and hydropower generation. This study calculates the source of water vapor contributing to the precipitation on economically relevant regions in Amazonia according to different scenarios of deforestation. These regions include the state of Mato Grosso, which produces about 9% of the global soybean production, and the basins of the Xingu and Madeira, with infrastructure under construction that will be capable to generate 20% of the electrical energy produced in Brazil. The results show that changes in rainfall after deforestation are stronger in regions nearest to the ocean and indicate the importance of the continental water vapor source to the precipitation over southern Amazonia. In the two more continental regions (Madeira and Mato Grosso), decreases in the source of water vapor in one region were offset by increases in contributions from other continental regions, whereas in the Xingu basin, which is closer to the ocean, this mechanism did not occur. As a conclusion, the geographic location of the region is an important determinant of the resiliency of the regional climate to deforestation-induced regional climate change. The more continental the geographic location, the less climate changes after deforestation.

  6. Geostationary satellite estimation of biomass burning in Amazonia during BASE-A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzel, W.P.; Cutrim, E.C.; Prins, E.M.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter presents the results of using Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Visible Infrared Spin Scan Radiometer Atmospheric Sounder (VAS) infrared window (3.9 and 11.2 microns) data to monitor biomass burning several times per day in Amazonia. The technique of Matson and Dozier using two window channels was adapted to GOES VAS infrared data to estimate the size and temperature of fires associated with deforestation in the vicinity of Alta Floresta, Brazil, during the Biomass Burning Airborne and Spaceborne Experiment - Amazonia (BASE-A). Although VAS data do not offer the spatial resolution available with AVHRR data 97 km versus 1 km, respectively, this decreased resolution does not seem to hinder the ability of the VAS instrument to detect fires; in some cases it proves to be advantageous in that saturation does not occur as often. VAS visible data are additionally helpful in verifying that the hot spots sensed in the infrared are actually related to fires. Furthermore, the fire plumes can be tracked in time to determine their motion and extent. In this way, the GOES satellite offers a unique ability to monitor diurnal variations in fire activity and transport of related aerosols

  7. Outstanding insecurities concerning the use of an Ov16-based ELISA in the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Luiz Bessa Luz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In a recent issue of Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, published in Rio de Janeiro in February 2014 (109: 87-92, Adami et al. have published a survey reporting Mansonella parasite prevalence in the Amazon Region. This report makes a useful contribution to the existing knowledge of filarial parasite distribution within the Amazon area, parasite prevalence rates in relation to age and occupation and provides observations on the possible clinical impact of Mansonella ozzardi. Their publication also provides an account of what appears to be a novel ELISA that has recently been used in the Simuliidae and Onchocerciasis Laboratory of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We are concerned that the publication of this ELISA may have created an excessively positive impression of the effectiveness of the onchocerciasis recrudescence serological surveillance tools that are presently available for use in the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus. In this letter we have, thus, sought to highlight some of the limitations of this ELISA and suggest how continuing insecurities concerning the detection of antibodies to Onchocerca volvulus within the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus might be minimised.

  8. Arsenic, manganese and aluminum contamination in groundwater resources of Western Amazonia (Peru).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Meyer, Caroline M C; Rodríguez, Juan M; Carpio, Edward A; García, Pilar A; Stengel, Caroline; Berg, Michael

    2017-12-31

    This paper presents a first integrated survey on the occurrence and distribution of geogenic contaminants in groundwater resources of Western Amazonia in Peru. An increasing number of groundwater wells have been constructed for drinking water purposes in the last decades; however, the chemical quality of the groundwater resources in the Amazon region is poorly studied. We collected groundwater from the regions of Iquitos and Pucallpa to analyze the hydrochemical characteristics, including trace elements. The source aquifer of each well was determined by interpretation of the available geological information, which identified four different aquifer types with distinct hydrochemical properties. The majority of the wells in two of the aquifer types tap groundwater enriched in aluminum, arsenic, or manganese at levels harmful to human health. Holocene alluvial aquifers along the main Amazon tributaries with anoxic, near pH-neutral groundwater contained high concentrations of arsenic (up to 700μg/L) and manganese (up to 4mg/L). Around Iquitos, the acidic groundwater (4.2≤pH≤5.5) from unconfined aquifers composed of pure sand had dissolved aluminum concentrations of up to 3.3mg/L. Groundwater from older or deeper aquifers generally was of good chemical quality. The high concentrations of toxic elements highlight the urgent need to assess the groundwater quality throughout Western Amazonia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluating the effect of nutrient redistribution by animals on the phosphorus cycle of lowland Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buendía, Corina; Kleidon, Axel; Manzoni, Stefano; Reu, Björn; Porporato, Amilcare

    2018-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) availability decreases with soil age and potentially limits the productivity of ecosystems growing on old and weathered soils. Despite growing on ancient soils, ecosystems of lowland Amazonia are highly productive and are among the most biodiverse on Earth. P eroded and weathered in the Andes is transported by the rivers and deposited in floodplains of the lowland Amazon basin creating hotspots of P fertility. We hypothesize that animals feeding on vegetation and detritus in these hotspots may redistribute P to P-depleted areas, thus contributing to dissipate the P gradient across the landscape. Using a mathematical model, we show that animal-driven spatial redistribution of P from rivers to land and from seasonally flooded to terra firme (upland) ecosystems may sustain the P cycle of Amazonian lowlands. Our results show how P imported to land by terrestrial piscivores in combination with spatial redistribution of herbivores and detritivores can significantly enhance the P content in terra firme ecosystems, thereby highlighting the importance of food webs for the biogeochemical cycling of Amazonia.

  10. Genetic Diversity and Phylogenetic Relationships of Coevolving Symbiont-Harboring Insect Trypanosomatids, and Their Neotropical Dispersal by Invader African Blowflies (Calliphoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcilla C. Borghesan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study is about the inter- and intra-specific genetic diversity of trypanosomatids of the genus Angomonas, and their association with Calliphoridae (blowflies in Neotropical and Afrotropical regions. Microscopic examination of 3,900 flies of various families, mostly Calliphoridae, revealed that 31% of them harbored trypanosomatids. Small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA barcoding showed that Angomonas predominated (46% over the other common trypanosomatids of blowflies of genera Herpetomonas and Wallacemonas. Among Angomonas spp., A. deanei was much more common than the two-other species, A. desouzai and A. ambiguus. Phylogenetic analyses based on SSU rRNA, glycosomal glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH and internal transcribed spacer rDNA (ITS rDNA sequences revealed a marked genetic diversity within A. deanei, which comprised four infraspecific genotypes (Dea1–Dea4, and four corresponding symbiont genotypes (Kcr1–Kcr4. Host and symbiont phylogenies were highly congruent corroborating their co-divergence, consistent with host-symbiont interdependent metabolism and symbiont reduced genomes shaped by a long coevolutionary history. We compared the diversity of Angomonas/symbionts from three genera of blowflies, Lucilia, Chrysomya and Cochliomyia. A. deanei, A. desouzai, and A. ambiguus were found in the three genera of blowflies in South America. In Africa, A. deanei and A. ambiguus were identified in Chrysomya. The absence of A. desouzai in Africa and its presence in Neotropical Cochliomyia and Lucilia suggests parasite spillback of A. desouzai into Chrysomya, which was most likely introduced four decades ago from Africa into the Neotropic. The absence of correlation between parasite diversity and geographic and genetic distances, with identical genotypes of A. deanei found in the Neotropic and Afrotropic, is consistent with disjunct distribution due to the recent human-mediated transoceanic dispersal of Angomonas by Chrysomya. This

  11. Long-term carbon loss in fragmented Neotropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pütz, Sandro; Groeneveld, Jürgen; Henle, Klaus; Knogge, Christoph; Martensen, Alexandre Camargo; Metz, Markus; Metzger, Jean Paul; Ribeiro, Milton Cezar; de Paula, Mateus Dantas; Huth, Andreas

    2014-10-07

    Tropical forests play an important role in the global carbon cycle, as they store a large amount of carbon (C). Tropical forest deforestation has been identified as a major source of CO2 emissions, though biomass loss due to fragmentation--the creation of additional forest edges--has been largely overlooked as an additional CO2 source. Here, through the combination of remote sensing and knowledge on ecological processes, we present long-term carbon loss estimates due to fragmentation of Neotropical forests: within 10 years the Brazilian Atlantic Forest has lost 69 (±14) Tg C, and the Amazon 599 (±120) Tg C due to fragmentation alone. For all tropical forests, we estimate emissions up to 0.2 Pg C y(-1) or 9 to 24% of the annual global C loss due to deforestation. In conclusion, tropical forest fragmentation increases carbon loss and should be accounted for when attempting to understand the role of vegetation in the global carbon balance.

  12. Edible Neotropical Blueberries: Antioxidant and Compositional Fingerprint Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    DASTMALCHI, KEYVAN; FLORES, GEMA; PETROVA, VANYA; PEDRAZA-PEÑALOSA, PAOLA; KENNELLY, EDWARD J.

    2012-01-01

    Edible blueberry species are well recognized for their potential health benefits. Ericaceae fruits including the North American highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) and five less common edible blueberry relatives from the New World tropics, Anthopterus wardii Ball, Cavendishia grandifolia Hoerld, Macleania coccoloboides A. C. Sm., Sphyrospermum buxifolium Poepp. & Endl., and Sphyrospermum cordifolium Benth, were investigated for their antioxidant properties and phenolic profiles. The Neotropical berries C. grandifolia and A. wardii exhibited significantly higher DPPH• and ABTS•+ scavenging and iron chelation activities than V. corymbosum. Total phenolic content and HPLC-PDA compositional fingerprint analyses were also carried out. Significant correlations were observed among total phenolic contents, DPPH• and ABTS•+ scavenging, and iron chelation activities. Using HPLC-PDA, the phenolic constituents in the berries were identified as chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, hyperoside, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, isoorientin, isovitexin, orientin and vitexin. Principal components analysis reduced the dimensions of antioxidant and total phenolic data to two components, which accounted for 95% of total variation among the six fruits. Each fruit species formed its own cluster, and therefore the antioxidant profile of each species was shown to be distinct. PMID:21391608

  13. Unveiling the Hidden Bat Diversity of a Neotropical Montane Forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloriana Chaverri

    Full Text Available Mountain environments, characterized by high levels of endemism, are at risk of experiencing significant biodiversity loss due to current trends in global warming. While many acknowledge their importance and vulnerability, these ecosystems still remain poorly studied, particularly for taxa that are difficult to sample such as bats. Aiming to estimate the amount of cryptic diversity among bats of a Neotropical montane cloud forest in Talamanca Range-south-east Central America-, we performed a 15-night sampling campaign, which resulted in 90 captured bats belonging to 8 species. We sequenced their mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI and screened their inter- and intraspecific genetic variation. Phylogenetic relations with conspecifics and closely related species from other geographic regions were established using Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian inference methods, as well as median-joining haplotype networks. Mitochondrial lineages highly divergent from hitherto characterized populations (> 9% COI dissimilarity were found in Myotis oxyotus and Hylonycteris underwoodi. Sturnira burtonlimi and M. keaysi also showed distinct mitochondrial structure with sibling species and/or populations. These results suggest that mountains in the region hold a high degree of endemicity potential that has previously been ignored in bats. They also warn of the high extinction risk montane bats may be facing due to climatic change, particularly in isolated mountain systems like Talamanca Range.

  14. Yeasts dominate soil fungal communities in three lowland Neotropical rainforests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunthorn, Micah; Kauserud, Håvard; Bass, David; Mayor, Jordan; Mahé, Frédéric

    2017-10-01

    Forest soils typically harbour a vast diversity of fungi, but are usually dominated by filamentous (hyphae-forming) taxa. Compared to temperate and boreal forests, though, we have limited knowledge about the fungal diversity in tropical rainforest soils. Here we show, by environmental metabarcoding of soil samples collected in three Neotropical rainforests, that Yeasts dominate the fungal communities in terms of the number of sequencing reads and OTUs. These unicellular forms are commonly found in aquatic environments, and their hyperdiversity may be the result of frequent inundation combined with numerous aquatic microenvironments in these rainforests. Other fungi that are frequent in aquatic environments, such as the abundant Chytridiomycotina, were also detected. While there was low similarity in OTU composition within and between the three rainforests, the fungal communities in Central America were more similar to each other than the communities in South America, reflecting a general biogeographic pattern also seen in animals, plants and protists. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Biometry of neotropical invertebrates inhabiting floodplain rivers: unraveling bionomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia Zilli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Currently, it is widely recognized that invertebrates play key roles in neotropical floodplains and in many other environments worldwide. However, little information has been published concerning their biometry, in spite that it represents an essential tool for many different studies. Here, we provided length-mass and length-length relationships by fitting the linearized model (log10 Y = log10a + b log10 X and several mean biomass ratios ± SE for bivalves, gastropods, quironomids, ephemeropterans, oligochaetes and hirudineans. We measured, weighed, oven dried and incinerated to ashes specimens collected from 2005 to 2014 in the Paraná River, Argentina. The lineal equations had fit levels higher than 75% in most of the significant regressions. Hence, when slopes were compared, differences raised from ontogeny and phylogeny of taxa. Additionally, slopes resulted different from constants of other regions, types of environments and climates. In addition, organic matter ratios resulted significantly different among invertebrates according to their feeding types. The equations and ratios that we provided will facilitate future research on life history, productivity and energy transference in the food webs of invertebrates inhabiting floodplain wetlands and can be used as tools for planning management strategies and in restoration projects of aquatic environments.

  16. Complementary roles of two resilient neotropical mammalian seed dispersers

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Adriana; Morris, Rebecca J.; Lewis, Owen T.; Mikich, Sandra B.

    2018-04-01

    Capuchin monkeys (Cebus spp. and Sapajus spp.) and coatis (Nasua spp.) coexist in most neotropical forests, including small forest remnants. Both capuchins and coatis eat fruit and disperse seeds, but little is known about whether their roles in seed dispersal are redundant or complementary. We compiled 49 studies from the literature on feeding by capuchins and/or coatis, of which 19 were comprehensive enough for our analyses. We determined the relative importance of fruit eating to each species and compared their diets. Additionally, we analysed the structure of three fruit-frugivore networks built with both animal groups and the fruits they eat and evaluated whether fruit traits influenced the network topology. Fruits represented the largest part of capuchin and coati diets, even though coatis have been known for their opportunistic and generalist diets. Capuchins and coatis also exhibited similar general diet parameters (niche breadth and trophic diversity). The three networks exhibited high connectance values and variable niche overlap. A Multiple Correspondence Analysis, failed to detect any trait or trait combination related to food use. In conclusion, capuchins and coatis both have generalist diets; they feed on many different species of fruits and exhibit important complementarity as seed dispersers. Both are likely to be particularly important seed dispersers in disturbed and fragmented forests.

  17. Landscape matrix mediates occupancy dynamics of Neotropical avian insectivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Christina M.; Campbell Grant, Evan H.; Neel, Maile C.; Fagan, William F.; Marpa, Peter P.

    2011-01-01

    In addition to patch-level attributes (i.e., area and isolation), the nature of land cover between habitat patches (the matrix) may drive colonization and extinction dynamics in fragmented landscapes. Despite a long-standing recognition of matrix effects in fragmented systems, an understanding of the relative impacts of different types of land cover on patterns and dynamics of species occurrence remains limited. We employed multi-season occupancy models to determine the relative influence of patch area, patch isolation, within-patch vegetation structure, and landscape matrix on occupancy dynamics of nine Neotropical nsectivorous birds in 99 forest patches embedded in four matrix types (agriculture, suburban evelopment, bauxite mining, and forest) in central Jamaica. We found that within-patch vegetation structure and the matrix type between patches were more important than patch area and patch isolation in determining local colonization and local extinction probabilities, and that the effects of patch area, isolation, and vegetation structure on occupancy dynamics tended to be matrix and species dependent. Across the avian community, the landscape matrix influenced local extinction more than local colonization, indicating that extinction processes, rather than movement, likely drive interspecific differences in occupancy dynamics. These findings lend crucial empirical support to the hypothesis that species occupancy dynamics in fragmented systems may depend greatly upon the landscape context.

  18. Adaptive evolution of facial colour patterns in Neotropical primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Sharlene E; Lynch Alfaro, Jessica; Alfaro, Michael E

    2012-06-07

    The rich diversity of primate faces has interested naturalists for over a century. Researchers have long proposed that social behaviours have shaped the evolution of primate facial diversity. However, the primate face constitutes a unique structure where the diverse and potentially competing functions of communication, ecology and physiology intersect, and the major determinants of facial diversity remain poorly understood. Here, we provide the first evidence for an adaptive role of facial colour patterns and pigmentation within Neotropical primates. Consistent with the hypothesis that facial patterns function in communication and species recognition, we find that species living in smaller groups and in sympatry with a higher number of congener species have evolved more complex patterns of facial colour. The evolution of facial pigmentation and hair length is linked to ecological factors, and ecogeographical rules related to UV radiation and thermoregulation are met by some facial regions. Our results demonstrate the interaction of behavioural and ecological factors in shaping one of the most outstanding facial diversities of any mammalian lineage.

  19. Revision of the Neotropical genus Protoconnus Franz (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Scydmaeninae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    JaŁoszyŃski, PaweŁ

    2018-03-07

    The Neotropical genus Protoconnus Franz, belonging to the tribe Glandulariini, is revised. Protoconnus is redefined based on detailed morphological study, and all known species are revised, including 10 originally placed in Protoconnus, one transferred from Euconnus, and 14 described as new. The following species are treated: P. andicola Franz (Peru), P. peruensis Franz (Peru), P. minutus Franz (Peru), P. minutissimus Franz (Peru), P. venezolanus Franz (Venezuela), P. araguanus Franz (Venezuela), P. bolivianus Franz (Bolivia), P. comarapae Franz (Bolivia), P. robustus Franz (Bolivia), P. paraguayanus Franz (Paraguay), P. princeps (Franz), comb. n. (ex Euconnus) (Peru), P. quillabambanus sp. n. (Peru), P. ecuadoranus sp. n. (Ecuador), P. napoanus sp. n. (Ecuador), P. magnus sp. n. (Ecuador), P. impressifrons sp. n. (Bolivia), P. angustus sp. n. (Bolivia), P. acutus sp. n. (Bolivia), P. tunarianus sp. n. (Bolivia), P. apaapa sp. n. (Bolivia), P. maximus sp. n. (Costa Rica), P. minusculus sp. n. (Costa Rica), P. costaricanus sp. n. (Costa Rica), P. inexpectatus sp. n. (Costa Rica), and P. volcanbaru sp. n. (Panama). Lectotypes are designated for P. andicola and P. peruensis.

  20. Ant species confer different partner benefits on two neotropical myrmecophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederickson, Megan E

    2005-04-01

    The dynamics of mutualistic interactions involving more than a single pair of species depend on the relative costs and benefits of interaction among alternative partners. The neotropical myrmecophytes Cordia nodosa and Duroia hirsuta associate with several species of obligately symbiotic ants. I compared the ant partners of Cordia and Duroia with respect to two benefits known to be important in ant-myrmecophyte interactions: protection against herbivores provided by ants, and protection against encroaching vegetation provided by ants. Azteca spp., Myrmelachista schumanni, and Allomerus octoarticulatus demerarae ants all provide the leaves of Cordia and Duroia some protection against herbivores. However, Azteca and Allomerus provide more protection than does Myrmelachista to the leaves of their host plants. Although Allomerus protects the leaves of its hosts, plants occupied by Allomerus suffer more attacks by herbivores to their stems than do plants occupied by other ants. Relative to Azteca or Allomerus, Myrmelachista ants provide better protection against encroaching vegetation, increasing canopy openness over their host plants. These differences in benefits among the ant partners of Cordia and Duroia are reflected in the effect of each ant species on host plant size, growth rate, and reproduction. The results of this study show how mutualistic ant partners can differ with respect to both the magnitude and type of benefits they provide to the same species of myrmecophytic host.

  1. Discovery or Extinction of New Scleroderma Species in Amazonia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuri G Baseia

    Full Text Available The Amazon Forest is a hotspot of biodiversity harboring an unknown number of undescribed taxa. Inventory studies are urgent, mainly in the areas most endangered by human activities such as extensive dam construction, where species could be in risk of extinction before being described and named. In 2015, intensive studies performed in a few locations in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest revealed three new species of the genus Scleroderma: S. anomalosporum, S. camassuense and S. duckei. The two first species were located in one of the many areas flooded by construction of hydroelectric dams throughout the Amazon; and the third in the Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke, a protected reverse by the INPA. The species were identified through morphology and molecular analyses of barcoding sequences (Internal Transcribed Spacer nrDNA. Scleroderma anomalosporum is characterized mainly by the smooth spores under LM in mature basidiomata (under SEM with small, unevenly distributed granules, a characteristic not observed in other species of the genus, the large size of the basidiomata, up to 120 mm diameter, and the stelliform dehiscence; S. camassuense mainly by the irregular to stellate dehiscence, the subreticulated spores and the bright sulfur-yellow colour, and Scleroderma duckei mainly by the verrucose exoperidium, stelliform dehiscence, and verrucose spores. Description, illustration and affinities with other species of the genus are provided.

  2. Neotropical species of Meteorus Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Meteorinae) parasitizing Arctiinae (Lepidoptera: Noctuoidea: Erebidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Helmuth; Shaw, Scott R

    2014-03-17

    Three new species of Meteorus parasitoids of Arctiinae are described: Meteorus anuae n. sp., M. juliae n. sp. and M. mirandae n. sp. The first biological record for M. cecavorum Aguirre & Shaw as well as its cocoon description is reported. A comprehensive key for the Neotropical Meteorus attacking Arctiinae is provided. A total of nine Meteorus species have been reared from Arctiinae in the Neotropical Region. Six of them are gregarious and three solitary. The biological information about host and food plants concurs with the hypothesis of specialist parasitoids preferring "nasty" caterpillars.

  3. New species and geographical records of dactylogyrids (Monogenea) of catfish (Siluriformes) from the Peruvian Amazonia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mendoza-Palmero, Carlos Alonso; Scholz, Tomáš; Mendoza-Franco, E. F.; Kuchta, Roman

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 98, č. 3 (2012), s. 484-497 ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522; GA ČR GBP505/12/G112; GA ČR GD206/09/H026 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : PARANA RIVER FLOODPLAIN * DEMIDOSPERMUS DACTYLOGYRIDAE * NEOTROPICAL MONOGENEA * ALINEMA-AMAZONICUM * TAPEWORMS CESTODA * GEN N * ANCYROCEPHALINAE * FISHES * BRAZIL * GILLS Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.321, year: 2012 http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1645/GE-2941.1

  4. Multi year aerosol characterization in the tropical Andes and in adjacent Amazonia using AERONET measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ramírez, Daniel; Andrade-Flores, Marcos; Eck, Thomas F.; Stein, Ariel F.; O'Neill, Norman T.; Lyamani, Hassan; Gassó, Santiago; Whiteman, David N.; Veselovskii, Igor; Velarde, Fernando; Alados-Arboledas, L.

    2017-10-01

    This work focuses on the analysis of columnar aerosol properties in the complex geophysical tropical region of South America within 10-20° South and 50-70° West. The region is quite varied and encompasses a significant part of Amazonia (lowlands) as well as high mountains in the Andes (highlands,∼4000 m a.s.l.). Several AERONET stations were included to study the aerosol optical characteristics of the lowlands (Rio Branco, Ji Parana and Cuiaba in Brazil and Santa Cruz in Bolivia) and the highlands (La Paz, Bolivia) during the 2000-2014 period. Biomass-burning is by far the most important source of aerosol in the lowlands, particularly during the dry season (August-October). Multi-annual variability was investigated and showed very strong burning activity in 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2010. This resulted in smoke characterized by correspondingly strong, above-average AODs (aerosol optical depths) and homogeneous single scattering albedo (SSA) across all the stations (∼0.93). For other years, however, SSA differences arise between the northern stations (Rio Branco and Ji Parana) with SSAs of ∼0.95 and the southern stations (Cuiaba and Santa Cruz) with lower SSAs of ∼0.85. Such differences are explained by the different types of vegetation burned in the two different regions. In the highlands, however, the transport of biomass burning smoke is found to be sporadic in nature. This sporadicity results in highly variable indicators of aerosol load and type (Angstrom exponent and fine mode fraction) with moderately significant increases in both. Regional dust and local pollution are the background aerosol in this highland region, whose elevation places it close to the free troposphere. Transported smoke particles were generally found to be more optical absorbing than in the lowlands: the hypothesis to explain this is the significantly higher amount of water vapor in Amazonia relative to the high mountain areas. The air-mass transport to La Paz was investigated using

  5. Biological responses of Neotropical freshwater fish Lophiosilurus alexandri exposed to ammonia and nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos Silva, Márcio José; da Costa, Franklin Fernando Batista; Leme, Fabiola Paes; Takata, Rodrigo; Costa, Deliane Cristina; Mattioli, Cristiano Campos; Luz, Ronald Kennedy; Miranda-Filho, Kleber Campos

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to elucidate the responses of the Neotropical fish Lophiosilurus alexandri exposed to ammonia and nitrite, following a period of recovering. Acute toxicity tests lasted 96h, subchronic toxicity tests lasted eight days and the detoxification trial lasted four days. Groups of 12 juveniles were maintained in 90-L tanks and treated with increasing concentrations of ammonia and nitrite, except during the recovery test. All treatments were performed with two replicates. The median lethal concentrations (LC 50 ) of 24, 48, 72 and 96h were estimated at 30.12; 24.35; 19.24 and 18.68mg·L -1 TA-N; 5.37; 4.57; 3.75 and 3.66mg·L -1 NH 3 -N and 20.37; 7.78; 7.09 and 5.86mg·L -1 NO 2 - -N, respectively. The NO 2 - caused significant decrease in hematocrit and increase in the urea levels during short-term exposure, with recovery of homeostasis after the subchronic and detox period. Acute exposure to ammonia increased the enzyme profile of transaminases, glucose and urea. Urea concentration remained high in the subchronic and detox tests. Histopathologies were observed in animals exposed to ammonia in both toxicity tests. It was highlighted detachment of epithelium, hyperemia and necrosis in the gills. Exposure to NO 2 - caused epithelium detachment and aneurysm. Vacuolization and swelling of hepatocytes were the most common injury for both nitrogenous compounds. We concluded that the L. alexandri has moderate tolerance to ammonia and nitrite. The recovery period revealed remedial response to ammonia and nitrite exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. REDESCRIPTION OF SCIADOCEPHALUS MEGALODISCUS DIESING, 1850, ONE THE EARLIEST DIVERGING NEOTROPICAL FISH TAPEWORMS (CESTODA: PROTEOCEPHALIDAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Tomáš; de Chambrier, Alain

    2018-06-04

    The tapeworm Sciadocephalus megalodiscus Diesing, 1850 (Cestoda: Proteocephalidae) is redescribed based on newly collected specimens parasitizing tucunare peacock bass, Cichla monoculus Agassiz, 1831 (Perciformes: Cichlidae), in the Peruvian Amazon. Even though this cestode was redescribed 2 decades ago by Rego et al. (1999), that redescription did not report some of the unique features of this species. The most unusual characteristics of the species are: (i) peculiar formation of the uterus, with fast formation of numerous, tightly packed diverticula protruding ventrally and dorsally, with simultaneous disintegration of the ovary and vitelline follicles in the first pregravid proglottids; (ii) inverted umbrella-shaped scolex with a well-developed apical sucker; (iii) a large-sized, follicular (grape cluster-like) ovary, which occupies most of the central (median) third of proglottids, with the ovarian isthmus situated almost equatorially; (iv) regular alternation of genital pores; (v) a well-developed internal seminal vesicle; and (vi) a small-sized strobila (shorter than 6 mm) consisting of few proglottids (15-20). Preliminary molecular data reveal S. megalodiscus to be most closely related to Cichlidocestus gillesi, the type species of the recently erected Cichlidocestus de Chambrier, Pinacho-Pinacho, Hernández-Orts and Scholz, 2017. Species of both genera parasitize Neotropical cichlids and are unique among all proteocephalids in the shape and position of the ovary. They also share other morphological characteristics unusual among other proteocephalids and thus these two genera can be considered good candidates to be placed in a new, higher-level taxon such as separate subfamily or even family when a new, more natural classification of the Proteocephalidae is proposed.

  7. Cryptic species? Patterns of maternal and paternal gene flow in eight neotropical bats.

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    Elizabeth L Clare

    Full Text Available Levels of sequence divergence at mitochondrial loci are frequently used in phylogeographic analysis and species delimitation though single marker systems cannot assess bi-parental gene flow. In this investigation I compare the phylogeographic patterns revealed through the maternally inherited mitochondrial COI region and the paternally inherited 7(th intron region of the Dby gene on the Y-chromosome in eight common Neotropical bat species. These species are diverse and include members of two families from the feeding guilds of sanguivores, nectarivores, frugivores, carnivores and insectivores. In each case, the currently recognized taxon is comprised of distinct, substantially divergent intraspecific mitochondrial lineages suggesting cryptic species complexes. In Chrotopterus auritus, and Saccopteryx bilineata I observed congruent patterns of divergence in both genetic regions suggesting a cessation of gene flow between intraspecific groups. This evidence supports the existence of cryptic species complexes which meet the criteria of the genetic species concept. In Glossophaga soricina two intraspecific groups with largely sympatric South American ranges show evidence for incomplete lineage sorting or frequent hybridization while a third group with a Central American distribution appears to diverge congruently at both loci suggesting speciation. Within Desmodus rotundus and Trachops cirrhosus the paternally inherited region was monomorphic and thus does not support or refute the potential for cryptic speciation. In Uroderma bilobatum, Micronycteris megalotis and Platyrrhinus helleri the gene regions show conflicting patterns of divergence and I cannot exclude ongoing gene flow between intraspecific groups. This analysis provides a comprehensive comparison across taxa and employs both maternally and paternally inherited gene regions to validate patterns of gene flow. I present evidence for previously unrecognized species meeting the criteria of

  8. Palm utilization and management in Asia: examples for the neotropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1992-01-01

    productos comestibles de 61 especies de palmas asiáticas. A partir de estos ejemplos, se hacen sugerencias para el manejo y la valorización de las palmas neotropicales, a fin de incrementar el suministro de alimentos y de otros productos útiles. Asia is endowed with the world’s greatest palm biodiversity, and also possesses the highest diversity of palm utilization. Palms have a long history of management for both subsistence and commercial products, many of which are deeply embedded in local cultures. In Asia, traditional technologies of exploiting wild and semi-wild palm populations, as well as processing techniques associated with many of the palm products, are generally more advanced than in the Neotropics. Native Asian palms currently provide significant quantities of food, beverage, fiber, rattan, construction material and other products. This article surveys edible products from 61 Asian palm species. Using these examples from Asia, suggestions are made as to how Neotropical palms could be managed and valorized for food and other useful products.

  9. Neotropical bats: estimating species diversity with DNA barcodes.

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    Elizabeth L Clare

    Full Text Available DNA barcoding using the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (COI is frequently employed as an efficient method of species identification in animal life and may also be used to estimate species richness, particularly in understudied faunas. Despite numerous past demonstrations of the efficiency of this technique, few studies have attempted to employ DNA barcoding methodologies on a large geographic scale, particularly within tropical regions. In this study we survey current and potential species diversity using DNA barcodes with a collection of more than 9000 individuals from 163 species of Neotropical bats (order Chiroptera. This represents one of the largest surveys to employ this strategy on any animal group and is certainly the largest to date for land vertebrates. Our analysis documents the utility of this tool over great geographic distances and across extraordinarily diverse habitats. Among the 163 included species 98.8% possessed distinct sets of COI haplotypes making them easily recognizable at this locus. We detected only a single case of shared haplotypes. Intraspecific diversity in the region was high among currently recognized species (mean of 1.38%, range 0-11.79% with respect to birds, though comparable to other bat assemblages. In 44 of 163 cases, well-supported, distinct intraspecific lineages were identified which may suggest the presence of cryptic species though mean and maximum intraspecific divergence were not good predictors of their presence. In all cases, intraspecific lineages require additional investigation using complementary molecular techniques and additional characters such as morphology and acoustic data. Our analysis provides strong support for the continued assembly of DNA barcoding libraries and ongoing taxonomic investigation of bats.

  10. Phyllostomid bat occurrence in successional stages of neotropical dry forests.

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    Luis Daniel Avila-Cabadilla

    Full Text Available Tropical dry forests (TDFs are highly endangered tropical ecosystems being replaced by a complex mosaic of patches of different successional stages, agricultural fields and pasturelands. In this context, it is urgent to understand how taxa playing critical ecosystem roles respond to habitat modification. Because Phyllostomid bats provide important ecosystem services (e.g. facilitate gene flow among plant populations and promote forest regeneration, in this study we aimed to identify potential patterns on their response to TDF transformation in sites representing four different successional stages (initial, early, intermediate and late in three Neotropical regions: México, Venezuela and Brazil. We evaluated bat occurrence at the species, ensemble (abundance and assemblage level (species richness and composition, guild composition. We also evaluated how bat occurrence was modulated by the marked seasonality of TDFs. In general, we found high seasonal and regional specificities in phyllostomid occurrence, driven by specificities at species and guild levels. For example, highest frugivore abundance occurred in the early stage of the moistest TDF, while highest nectarivore abundance occurred in the same stage of the driest TDF. The high regional specificity of phyllostomid responses could arise from: (1 the distinctive environmental conditions of each region, (2 the specific behavior and ecological requirements of the regional bat species, (3 the composition, structure and phenological patterns of plant assemblages in the different stages, and (4 the regional landscape composition and configuration. We conclude that, in tropical seasonal environments, it is imperative to perform long-term studies considering seasonal variations in environmental conditions and plant phenology, as well as the role of landscape attributes. This approach will allow us to identify potential patterns in bat responses to habitat modification, which constitute an invaluable

  11. Phyllostomid Bat Occurrence in Successional Stages of Neotropical Dry Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Cabadilla, Luis Daniel; Stoner, Kathryn Elizabeth; Nassar, Jafet M.; Espírito-Santo, Mario M.; Alvarez-Añorve, Mariana Yolotl; Aranguren, Carla I.; Henry, Mickael; González-Carcacía, José A.; Dolabela Falcão, Luiz A.; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Gerardo Arturo

    2014-01-01

    Tropical dry forests (TDFs) are highly endangered tropical ecosystems being replaced by a complex mosaic of patches of different successional stages, agricultural fields and pasturelands. In this context, it is urgent to understand how taxa playing critical ecosystem roles respond to habitat modification. Because Phyllostomid bats provide important ecosystem services (e.g. facilitate gene flow among plant populations and promote forest regeneration), in this study we aimed to identify potential patterns on their response to TDF transformation in sites representing four different successional stages (initial, early, intermediate and late) in three Neotropical regions: México, Venezuela and Brazil. We evaluated bat occurrence at the species, ensemble (abundance) and assemblage level (species richness and composition, guild composition). We also evaluated how bat occurrence was modulated by the marked seasonality of TDFs. In general, we found high seasonal and regional specificities in phyllostomid occurrence, driven by specificities at species and guild levels. For example, highest frugivore abundance occurred in the early stage of the moistest TDF, while highest nectarivore abundance occurred in the same stage of the driest TDF. The high regional specificity of phyllostomid responses could arise from: (1) the distinctive environmental conditions of each region, (2) the specific behavior and ecological requirements of the regional bat species, (3) the composition, structure and phenological patterns of plant assemblages in the different stages, and (4) the regional landscape composition and configuration. We conclude that, in tropical seasonal environments, it is imperative to perform long-term studies considering seasonal variations in environmental conditions and plant phenology, as well as the role of landscape attributes. This approach will allow us to identify potential patterns in bat responses to habitat modification, which constitute an invaluable tool for

  12. A new species of Scinax from the Purus-Madeira interfluve, Brazilian Amazonia (Anura, Hylidae

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    Miquéias Ferrão

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A new tree frog species of the genus Scinax from the interfluve between the Purus and Madeira rivers, Brazilian Amazonia, is described and illustrated. The new species is diagnosed by medium body size, snout truncate in dorsal view, ulnar and tarsal tubercles absent, nuptial pads poorly developed, skin on dorsum shagreen, dorsum light brown with dark brown spots and markings, white groin with black spots, anterior and posterior surfaces of thighs black, and iris bright orange. The advertisement call consists of a single short note, with 16−18 pulses and dominant frequency at 1572−1594 Hz. Tadpoles are characterized by body ovoid in dorsal view and triangular in lateral view, tail higher than body, oral disc located anteroventrally and laterally emarginated, dorsum of body uniformly grey-brown with dark brown eye-snout stripe in preservative, fins translucent with small to large irregular diffuse dark brown spots.

  13. Impact of the Education Continues in Teachers of the UNAE Amazonia, Equator

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    Madelin Rodríguez Rensoli

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study is to socialize the research results obtained in the evaluation of attitudes, values and emotional states in teachers who went through the Continued Education Program developed by UNAE Amazonia. Semantic Differential Tables (TDS were used to identify the positive changes that were taking place in them during the implementation of innovative methodological strategies in teaching and learning. To achieve a positive change of the teacher to be involved in processes of changes in their pedagogical practice implied a permanent accompaniment in the identification of the problems that were faced, as well as in the design and implementation of alternative solutions according to the requirements of the new Curriculum oriented by the Ministry of Education in the country.

  14. Heterotrophic components of soil respiration in pastures and forests in southwestern Amazonia, Acre, Brazil

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    Eric Atlas Davidson

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present data on soil microbial biomass and heterotrophic respiration in pastures, mature and secondary forests, in order to elucidate their contribution to total CO2 flux from soil to atmosphere. The research was conducted in Southwestern Amazonia, Acre State, Brazil. Microbial biomass was estimated using a variation of the traditional fumigation-extraction method and heterotrophic respiration was measured using respirometry flasks attached to an infrared gas analyzer. Soil microbial biomass and heterotrophic respiration did not differ statistically among pastures, mature and secondary forests. These laboratory results indicate that higher CO2 fluxes from pasture soils measured in situ are probably due to higher root respiration by pasture grasses.

  15. Deforestation and climate feedbacks threaten the ecological integrity of south-southeastern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Michael T; Marthews, Toby R; Costa, Marcos Heil; Galbraith, David R; Greenglass, Nora L; Imbuzeiro, Hewlley M A; Levine, Naomi M; Malhi, Yadvinder; Moorcroft, Paul R; Muza, Michel Nobre; Powell, Thomas L; Saleska, Scott R; Solorzano, Luis A; Wang, Jingfeng

    2013-06-05

    A mosaic of protected areas, including indigenous lands, sustainable-use production forests and reserves and strictly protected forests is the cornerstone of conservation in the Amazon, with almost 50 per cent of the region now protected. However, recent research indicates that isolation from direct deforestation or degradation may not be sufficient to maintain the ecological integrity of Amazon forests over the next several decades. Large-scale changes in fire and drought regimes occurring as a result of deforestation and greenhouse gas increases may result in forest degradation, regardless of protected status. How severe or widespread these feedbacks will be is uncertain, but the arc of deforestation in south-southeastern Amazonia appears to be particularly vulnerable owing to high current deforestation rates and ecological sensitivity to climate change. Maintaining forest ecosystem integrity may require significant strengthening of forest conservation on private property, which can in part be accomplished by leveraging existing policy mechanisms.

  16. Evaluating the impact of distance measures on deforestation simulations in the fluvial landscapes of amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, Maria; Maeda, Eduardo Eiji; Toivonen, Tuuli

    2014-10-01

    Land use and land cover change (LUCC) models frequently employ different accessibility measures as a proxy for human influence on land change processes. Here, we simulate deforestation in Peruvian Amazonia and evaluate different accessibility measures as LUCC model inputs. We demonstrate how the selection, and different combinations, of accessibility measures impact simulation results. Out of the individual measures, time distance to market center catches the essential aspects of accessibility in our study area. The most accurate simulation is achieved when time distance to market center is used in association with distance to transport network and additional landscape variables. Although traditional Euclidean measures result in clearly lower simulation accuracy when used separately, the combination of two complementary Euclidean measures enhances simulation accuracy significantly. Our results highlight the need for site and context sensitive selection of accessibility variables. More sophisticated accessibility measures can potentially improve LUCC models' spatial accuracy, which often remains low.

  17. Widespread Forest Vertebrate Extinctions Induced by a Mega Hydroelectric Dam in Lowland Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchimol, Maíra; Peres, Carlos A

    2015-01-01

    Mega hydropower projects in tropical forests pose a major emergent threat to terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity worldwide. Despite the unprecedented number of existing, under-construction and planned hydroelectric dams in lowland tropical forests, long-term effects on biodiversity have yet to be evaluated. We examine how medium and large-bodied assemblages of terrestrial and arboreal vertebrates (including 35 mammal, bird and tortoise species) responded to the drastic 26-year post-isolation history of archipelagic alteration in landscape structure and habitat quality in a major hydroelectric reservoir of Central Amazonia. The Balbina Hydroelectric Dam inundated 3,129 km2 of primary forests, simultaneously isolating 3,546 land-bridge islands. We conducted intensive biodiversity surveys at 37 of those islands and three adjacent continuous forests using a combination of four survey techniques, and detected strong forest habitat area effects in explaining patterns of vertebrate extinction. Beyond clear area effects, edge-mediated surface fire disturbance was the most important additional driver of species loss, particularly in islands smaller than 10 ha. Based on species-area models, we predict that only 0.7% of all islands now harbor a species-rich vertebrate assemblage consisting of ≥80% of all species. We highlight the colossal erosion in vertebrate diversity driven by a man-made dam and show that the biodiversity impacts of mega dams in lowland tropical forest regions have been severely overlooked. The geopolitical strategy to deploy many more large hydropower infrastructure projects in regions like lowland Amazonia should be urgently reassessed, and we strongly advise that long-term biodiversity impacts should be explicitly included in pre-approval environmental impact assessments.

  18. Widespread Forest Vertebrate Extinctions Induced by a Mega Hydroelectric Dam in Lowland Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Benchimol

    Full Text Available Mega hydropower projects in tropical forests pose a major emergent threat to terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity worldwide. Despite the unprecedented number of existing, under-construction and planned hydroelectric dams in lowland tropical forests, long-term effects on biodiversity have yet to be evaluated. We examine how medium and large-bodied assemblages of terrestrial and arboreal vertebrates (including 35 mammal, bird and tortoise species responded to the drastic 26-year post-isolation history of archipelagic alteration in landscape structure and habitat quality in a major hydroelectric reservoir of Central Amazonia. The Balbina Hydroelectric Dam inundated 3,129 km2 of primary forests, simultaneously isolating 3,546 land-bridge islands. We conducted intensive biodiversity surveys at 37 of those islands and three adjacent continuous forests using a combination of four survey techniques, and detected strong forest habitat area effects in explaining patterns of vertebrate extinction. Beyond clear area effects, edge-mediated surface fire disturbance was the most important additional driver of species loss, particularly in islands smaller than 10 ha. Based on species-area models, we predict that only 0.7% of all islands now harbor a species-rich vertebrate assemblage consisting of ≥80% of all species. We highlight the colossal erosion in vertebrate diversity driven by a man-made dam and show that the biodiversity impacts of mega dams in lowland tropical forest regions have been severely overlooked. The geopolitical strategy to deploy many more large hydropower infrastructure projects in regions like lowland Amazonia should be urgently reassessed, and we strongly advise that long-term biodiversity impacts should be explicitly included in pre-approval environmental impact assessments.

  19. Effects of reduced-impact logging on fish assemblages in central Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Murilo S; Magnusson, William E; Zuanon, Jansen

    2010-02-01

    In Amazonia reduced-impact logging, which is meant to reduce environmental disturbance by controlling stem-fall directions and minimizing construction of access roads, has been applied to large areas containing thousands of streams. We investigated the effects of reduced-impact logging on environmental variables and the composition of fish in forest streams in a commercial logging concession in central Amazonia, Amazonas State, Brazil. To evaluate short-term effects, we sampled 11 streams before and after logging in one harvest area. We evaluated medium-term effects by comparing streams in 11 harvest areas logged 1-8 years before the study with control streams in adjacent areas. Each sampling unit was a 50-m stream section. The tetras Pyrrhulina brevis and Hemigrammus cf. pretoensis had higher abundances in plots logged > or =3 years before compared with plots logged fish composition did not differ two months before and immediately after reduced-impact logging. Temperature and pH varied before and after logging, but those differences were compatible with normal seasonal variation. In the medium term, temperature and cover of logs were lower in logged plots. Differences in ordination scores on the basis of relative fish abundance between streams in control and logged areas changed with time since logging, mainly because some common species increased in abundance after logging. There was no evidence of species loss from the logging concession, but differences in log cover and ordination scores derived from relative abundance of fish species persisted even after 8 years. For Amazonian streams, reduced-impact logging appears to be a viable alternative to clear-cut practices, which severely affect aquatic communities. Nevertheless, detailed studies are necessary to evaluated subtle long-term effects.

  20. Interactions between rainfall, deforestation and fires during recent years in the Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragão, Luiz Eduardo O C; Malhi, Yadvinder; Barbier, Nicolas; Lima, Andre; Shimabukuro, Yosio; Anderson, Liana; Saatchi, Sassan

    2008-05-27

    Understanding the interplay between climate and land-use dynamics is a fundamental concern for assessing the vulnerability of Amazonia to climate change. In this study, we analyse satellite-derived monthly and annual time series of rainfall, fires and deforestation to explicitly quantify the seasonal patterns and relationships between these three variables, with a particular focus on the Amazonian drought of 2005. Our results demonstrate a marked seasonality with one peak per year for all variables analysed, except deforestation. For the annual cycle, we found correlations above 90% with a time lag between variables. Deforestation and fires reach the highest values three and six months, respectively, after the peak of the rainy season. The cumulative number of hot pixels was linearly related to the size of the area deforested annually from 1998 to 2004 (r2=0.84, p=0.004). During the 2005 drought, the number of hot pixels increased 43% in relation to the expected value for a similar deforested area (approx. 19000km2). We demonstrated that anthropogenic forcing, such as land-use change, is decisive in determining the seasonality and annual patterns of fire occurrence. Moreover, droughts can significantly increase the number of fires in the region even with decreased deforestation rates. We may expect that the ongoing deforestation, currently based on slash and burn procedures, and the use of fires for land management in Amazonia will intensify the impact of droughts associated with natural climate variability or human-induced climate change and, therefore, a large area of forest edge will be under increased risk of fires.

  1. The diversity and biogeography of late Pleistocene birds from the lowland Neotropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steadman, David W.; Oswald, Jessica A.; Rincón, Ascanio D.

    2015-05-01

    The Neotropical lowlands sustain the world's richest bird communities, yet little that we know about their history is based on paleontology. Fossils afford a way to investigate distributional shifts in individual species, and thus improve our understanding of long-term change in Neotropical bird communities. We report a species-rich avian fossil sample from a late Pleistocene tar seep (Mene de Inciarte) in northwestern Venezuela. A mere 175 identified fossils from Mene de Inciarte represent 73 species of birds, among which six are extinct, and eight others no longer occur within 100 km. These 14 species consist mainly of ducks (Anatidae), snipe (Scolopacidae), vultures/condors (Vulturidae), hawks/eagles (Accipitridae), and blackbirds (Icteridae). Neotropical bird communities were richer in the late Pleistocene than today; their considerable extinction may be related to collapse of the large mammal fauna at that time. The species assemblage at Mene de Inciarte suggests that biogeographic patterns, even at continental scales, have been remarkably labile over short geological time frames. Mene de Inciarte is but one of 300 + tar seeps in Venezuela, only two of which have been explored for fossils. We may be on the cusp of an exciting new era of avian paleontology in the Neotropics.

  2. High abundance of neotropical drosophilids (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in four cultivated areas of central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerich, Pp; Valadão, H; Silva, Jrvp; Tidon, R

    2012-04-01

    The drosophilid assemblages of four cultivated areas (soy, bean, corn, and orange plantations) grown in the core of the Neotropical region were analyzed by comparing their abundances and compositions. The collections, which were gathered using 38 banana traps, captured 12,560 drosophilids, including nine Neotropical and six exotic species. Most of the flies were collected in the bean (43%) and soy (42%) fields. The composition and relative abundance of species also varied among cultivated areas, with orange orchards presenting the highest relative abundance of exotics due to the dominance of the Afrotropical Zaprionus indianus (Gupta). Crop plantations were dominated by a Neotropical species, Drosophila cardini (Sturtevant), which has been shown to be well adapted to dry and disturbed environments. We discuss the drosophilid assemblages of the cultivated areas, comparing them with assemblages from neighbor urban and natural environments. The low drosophilid richness found in this study is similar to the richness found in urban environments and lower than the drosophilid richness of forests, supporting a pattern already known for other taxa. The high abundance of drosophilids in cultivated areas, as well as the dominance of a Neotropical species (D. cardini) in the crop assemblages, was a surprising result.

  3. Stopover ecology of neotropical migrants in central Veracruz, México

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernesto Ruelas Inzunza; Stephen W. Hoffman; Laurie J. Goodrich

    2005-01-01

    Available information on the ecology of neotropical migrants during the winter season and especially during migration is far behind the existing knowledge of birds during the breeding season. This paper presents a stopover ecology case study. We document the occurrence of species, outline the prevailing weather patterns during spring and fall migration seasons, and...

  4. Effects of livestock grazing on neotropical migratory landbirds in western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl E. Bock; Victoria A. Saab; Terrell D. Rich; David S. Dobkin

    1993-01-01

    Livestock grazing is a widespread and important influence on neotropical migratory birds in four major ecosystems in western North America: grasslands of the Great Plains and Southwest, riparian woodlands, Intermountain shrubsteppe, and open coniferous forests. We have reviewed available literature on avian responses to grazing in these habitats. Among 35 plains...

  5. Using landscape metrics to model source habitat for Neotropical migrants in the midwestern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter T. Fauth; Eric J. Gustafson; Kerry N. Rabenold

    2000-01-01

    Size of a forest patch is a useful predictor of density and reproductive success of Neotropical migratory birds in much of eastern North America. Within these forested landscapes, large forest tracts appear to be sources-fragments in which surpluses of offspring are produced and can potentially colonize new fragments including woodlot sinks where reproduction fails to...

  6. A taxonomic revision of the Neotropical poison frog genus Ranitomeya (Amphibia: Dendrobatidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, J.L.; Twomey, E.; Amézquita, A.; Souza, M.B.; Caldwell, J.P.; Lötters, S.; May, R.; Melo-Sampaio, P.R.; Mejía-Vargas, D.; Perez-Peña, P.; Pepper, M.; Poelman, E.H.; Sanchez-Rodriguez, M.; Summers, K.

    2011-01-01

    The Neotropical poison frog genus Ranitomeya is revised, resulting in one new genus, one new species, five synonymies and one species classified as nomen dubium. We present an expanded molecular phylogeny that contains 235 terminals, 104 of which are new to this study. Notable additions to this

  7. The species of the Neotropical genus Fractipons Townes, 1970 (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Cryptinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordera, Santiago; González-Moreno, Alejandra

    2011-01-19

    In this paper, two new species of the Neotropical genus Fractipons Townes, 1970 (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) are described. A new diagnosis for the genus, a re-description of Fractipons cincticornis Townes, 1970 and a key to known species are provided. New distribution records for the genus now include Argentina, Costa Rica, Panama and Peru.

  8. Distributional patterns of the Neotropical genus Thecomyia Perty (Diptera, Sciomyzidae and phylogenetic support

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    Amanda Ciprandi Pires

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Distributional patterns of the Neotropical genus Thecomyia Perty (Diptera, Sciomyzidae and phylogenetic support. The distributional pattern of the genus Thecomyia Perty, 1833 was defined using panbiogeographic tools, and analyzed based on the phylogeny of the group. This study sought to establish biogeographical homologies in the Neotropical region between different species of the genus, based on their distribution pattern and later corroboration through its phylogeny. Eight individual tracks and 16 generalized tracks were identified, established along nearly the entire swath of the Neotropics. Individual tracks are the basic units of a panbiogeographic study, and correspond to the hypothesis of minimum distribution of the organisms involved. The generalized tracks, obtained from the spatial congruence between two or more individual tracks, are important in the identification of smaller areas of endemism. Thus, we found evidence from the generalized tracks in support of previous classification for the Neotropical region. The Amazon domain is indicated as an area of outstanding importance in the diversification of the group, by the confluence of generalized tracks and biogeographic nodes in the region. Most of the generalized tracks and biogeographical nodes were congruent with the phylogenetic hypothesis of the genus, indicating support of the primary biogeographical homologies originally defined by the track analysis.

  9. Descriptions of two new species of Sphenorhina (Hemiptera, Cercopidae, Tomaspidinae from the Neotropical region

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    Andressa Paladini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Description of two new species of Sphenorhina (Hemiptera, Cercopidae, Tomaspidinae from the Neotropical region. Two new species of Sphenorhina Amyot & Serville, S. pseudoboliviana SP. NOV: from Bolivia and S. plata SP. NOV: from Argentina are described and illustrated.

  10. Interspecific competition, predation, and the coexistence of three closely related neotropical armoured catfishes (Siluriformes - Callichthyidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, J.H.A.

    1995-01-01

    Tropical ecosystems are renowned for their high biodiversity with many closely related species living together. Alpha diversity of tropical freshwater fishes is also extremely high, as exemplified by the cichlid fauna of the Great African lakes and the neotropical characins. Since

  11. New taxa, including three new genera show uniqueness of Neotropical Nepticulidae (Lepidoptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieukerken, van E.J.; Doorenweerd, C.; Nishida, K.; Snyers, C.

    2016-01-01

    After finding distinct clades in a molecular phylogeny for Nepticulidae that could not be placed in any known genera and discovering clear apomorphic characters that define these clades, as well as a number of Neotropical species that could be placed in known genera but were undescribed, three new

  12. Do birds select habitat or food resources? Nearctic-neotropic migrants in northeastern Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jared D. Wolfe; Matthew D. Johnson; C. John Ralph; R. Mark Brigham

    2014-01-01

    Nearctic-neotropic migrant birds need to replenish energy reserves during stopover periods to successfully complete their semiannual movements. In this study we used linear models to examine the habitat use of 11 migrant species in northeastern Costa Rica to better understand the influence of food and structural resources on the presence of birds during stopover...

  13. An interactive database for setting conservation priorities for western neotropical migrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael F. Carter; Keith Barker

    1993-01-01

    We develop and explain a species ranking system for the states and physiographic regions of the Neotropical Migratory Bird Conservation Program's West Working Group. The ranking criteria attempt to measure characteristics of species which make them vulnerable to extirpation, as well as assess the relative importance of different geographic and/or political areas...

  14. The specimens of Parulidae from the Neotropics in the collection of the Zoological Museum Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, Tineke G.

    1992-01-01

    The Parulidae form a group of little dainty birds with slender bills consisting of 126 species. The family is confined to the New World, the largest number of species and genera being found in North and Central America. Neotropical material of 35 species is represented in the collection of the

  15. An illustrated key to Neotropical species of the genus Meteorus Haliday ( Hymenoptera , Braconidae , Euphorinae )

    OpenAIRE

    Aguirre, Helmuth; de Almeida, Luis Felipe; Shaw, Scott Richard; Sarmiento, Carlos E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A comprehensive key for 75 species of Meteorus distributed across 15 Neotropical countries is presented. Eleven new species from Bolivia, Costa Rica and Ecuador are described: Meteorus albistigma , Meteorus carolae , Meteorus eurysaccavorus , Meteorus fallacavus , Meteorus flavistigma , Meteorus haimowitzi , Meteorus magnoculus , Meteorus martinezi , Meteorus microcavus , Meteorus noctuivorus and Meteorus orion . Expanded range distributions are recorded for Meteorus andreae , Meteor...

  16. Atlantic forests to the all Americas: Biogeographical history and divergence times of Neotropical Ficus (Moraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Anderson Ferreira Pinto; Rønsted, Nina; Bruun-Lund, Sam; Pereira, Rodrigo Augusto Santinelo; Paganucci de Queiroz, Luciano

    2018-05-01

    Ficus (Moraceae) is well diversified in the Neotropics with two lineages inhabiting the wet forests of this region. The hemiepiphytes of section Americanae are the most diversified with c. 120 species, whereas section Pharmacosycea includes about 20 species mostly with a terrestrial habit. To reconstruct the biogeographical history and diversification of Ficus in the Americas, we produced a dated Bayesian phylogenetic hypothesis of Neotropical Ficus including two thirds of the species sequenced for five nuclear regions (At103, ETS, G3pdh, ITS/5.8S and Tpi). Ancestral range was estimated using all models available in Biogeobears and Binary State Speciation and Extinction analysis was used to evaluate the role of the initial habit and propagule size in diversification. The phylogenetic analyses resolved both Neotropical sections as monophyletic but the internal relationships between species in section Americanae remain unclear. Ficus started their diversification in the Neotropics between the Oligocene and Miocene. The genus experienced two bursts of diversification: in the middle Miocene and the Pliocene. Colonization events from the Amazon to adjacent areas coincide with the end of the Pebas system (10 Mya) and the connection of landmasses. Divergence of endemic species in the Atlantic forest is inferred to have happened after its isolation and the opening and consolidation of the Cerrado. Our results suggest a complex diversification in the Atlantic forest differing between postulated refuges and more instable areas in the South distribution of the forest. Finally the selection for initial hemiepiphytic habit and small to medium propagule size influenced the diversification and current distribution of the species at Neotropical forests marked by the historical instability and long-distance dispersal. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Temporal dynamics and leaf trait variability in Neotropical dry forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesketh, Michael Sean

    This thesis explores the variability of leaf traits resulting from changes in season, ecosystem successional stage, and site characteristics. In chapter two, I present a review of the use of remote sensing analysis for the evaluation of Neotropical dry forests. Here, I stress the conclusion, drawn from studies on land cover characterization, biodiversity assessment, and evaluation of forest structural characteristics, that addressing temporal variability in spectral properties is an essential element in the monitoring of these ecosystems. Chapter three describes the effect of wet-dry seasonality on spectral classification of tree and liana species. Highly accurate classification (> 80%) was possible using data from either the wet or dry season. However, this accuracy decreased by a factor of ten when data from the wet season was classified using an algorithm trained on the dry, or vice versa. I also address the potential creation of a spectral taxonomy of species, but found that any clustering based on spectral properties resulted in markedly different arrangements in the wet and dry seasons. In chapter 4, I address the variation present in both physical and spectral leaf traits according to changes in forest successional stage at dry forest sites in Mexico and Costa Rica. I found significant differences in leaf traits between successional stages, but more strongly so in Costa Rica. This variability deceased the accuracy of spectral classification of tree species by a factor of four when classifying data using an algorithm trained on a different successional stage. Chapter 5 shows the influence of seasonality and succession on trait variability in Mexico. Differences in leaf traits between successional stages were found to be greater during the dry season, but were sufficient in both seasons to negatively influence spectral classification of tree species. Throughout this thesis, I show clear and unambiguous evidence of the variability of key physical and spectral

  18. Selectivity of fish ladders: a bottleneck in Neotropical fish movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Sérgio Agostinho

    Full Text Available Although dozens of fish ladders have been constructed at dams of Brazilian reservoirs, there are few studies evaluating their efficiency as a tool for the conservation of Neotropical ichthyofauna, especially for migratory species. Therefore, the present study evaluated the selectivity of the species that entered and ascended the fish ladder located next to Lajeado Dam (Luis Eduardo Magalhães Hydroelectric Power Plant on the Tocantins River. Samples were taken monthly from November, 2002 through October, 2003, in the resting pools of the ladder, using cast nets, and in the downstream stretch, using gillnets. The selectivity of the ladder in attracting fish was evaluated by comparing the occurrence, relative abundance, dominance and the congruence of abundance ranks of migratory and non-migratory species in the ladder and in the stretch of river immediately downstream. Species richness and fish abundance in the resting pools were used to evaluate selectivity along the ladder. The effects on selectivity by temporal variations in water level downriver and maximum flow velocity in the fish ladder were also analyzed. Out of the 130 species recorded downriver, 62.3% were caught in the ladder, and migratory species were clearly favored. However, more than 2/3 of the catch belonged to only three species (Rhaphiodon vulpinus, Psectrogaster amazonica and Oxydoras niger. Although the majority of the species that entered the ladder were able to reach its top, there was a sharp reduction in abundance of individuals towards the top. Temporal variations in the water level below the dam influenced richness and abundance of fish concentrated downstream and in the ladder, with lower values during periods of low water. In the ladder, a maximum flow velocity of 2.3 m/s, although also selective, proved to be more appropriate for fish ascension than a velocity of 2.8 m/s. It was concluded that the entry and ascension of the fish in the ladder were not congruent with

  19. Maximizing Amazonia's Ecosystem Services: Juggling the potential for carbon storage, agricultural yield and biodiversity in the Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, C. S.; Foley, J. A.; Gerber, J. S.; Polasky, S.

    2011-12-01

    The Amazon is not only an exceptionally biodiverse and carbon-rich tract of tropical forest, it is also a case study in land use change. Over the next forty years it will continue to experience pressure from an urbanizing and increasingly affluent populace: under a business-as-usual scenario, global cropland, pasture and biofuels systems will carry on expanding, while the Amazon's carbon storage potential will likely become another viable revenue source under REDD+. Balancing those competing land use pressures ought also take into account Amazonia's high - but heterogeneous - biodiversity. Knowing where Amazonia has opportunities to make efficient or optimal trade offs between carbon storage, agricultural production and biodiversity can allow policymakers to direct or influence LUC drivers. This analysis uses a spatially-explicit model that takes climate and management into account to quantify the potential agricultural yield of both the Amazon's most important agricultural commodities - sugar, soy and maize - as well as several that are going to come into increasing prominence, including palm oil. In addition, it maps the potential for carbon to be stored in forest biomass and relative species richness across Amazonia. We then compare carbon storage, agricultural yield and species richness and identify areas where efficient trade offs occur between food, carbon, and biodiversity - three critical ecosystem goods and services provided by the world's largest tropical forest.

  20. New phytotoxic diterpenoids from Vellozia gigantea (Velloziaceae), an endemic neotropical plant living in the endangered Brazilian biome Rupestrian grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellozia gigantea is a rare, ancient and endemic neotropical plant present in the Brazilian Rupestrian grasslands. The dichloromethane extract of V. gigantea adventitious roots was phytotoxic against Lactuca sativa, Agrostis stolonifera and Lemna paucicostata, and showed larvicidal activity against ...

  1. Review of the Neotropical species of the family Pterophoridae, part I: Ochyroticinae, Deuterocopinae, Pterophorinae (Platyptiliini, Exelastini, Oxyptilini) (Lepidoptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielis, C.

    2006-01-01

    The Pterophoridae (Ochyroticinae, Deuterocopinae, Pterophorinae (Tribus: Platyptiliini, Exelastini, Oxyptilini)) species of the Neotropical fauna are reviewed. The species are redescribed. Moths are illustrated in colour for the first time, their genitalia are illustrated in line drawings. The

  2. A Miocene hyperdiverse crocodylian community reveals peculiar trophic dynamics in proto-Amazonian mega-wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Gismondi, Rodolfo; Flynn, John J; Baby, Patrice; Tejada-Lara, Julia V; Wesselingh, Frank P; Antoine, Pierre-Olivier

    2015-04-07

    Amazonia contains one of the world's richest biotas, but origins of this diversity remain obscure. Onset of the Amazon River drainage at approximately 10.5 Ma represented a major shift in Neotropical ecosystems, and proto-Amazonian biotas just prior to this pivotal episode are integral to understanding origins of Amazonian biodiversity, yet vertebrate fossil evidence is extraordinarily rare. Two new species-rich bonebeds from late Middle Miocene proto-Amazonian deposits of northeastern Peru document the same hyperdiverse assemblage of seven co-occurring crocodylian species. Besides the large-bodied Purussaurus and Mourasuchus, all other crocodylians are new taxa, including a stem caiman-Gnatusuchus pebasensis-bearing a massive shovel-shaped mandible, procumbent anterior and globular posterior teeth, and a mammal-like diastema. This unusual species is an extreme exemplar of a radiation of small caimans with crushing dentitions recording peculiar feeding strategies correlated with a peak in proto-Amazonian molluscan diversity and abundance. These faunas evolved within dysoxic marshes and swamps of the long-lived Pebas Mega-Wetland System and declined with inception of the transcontinental Amazon drainage, favouring diversification of longirostrine crocodylians and more modern generalist-feeding caimans. The rise and demise of distinctive, highly productive aquatic ecosystems substantially influenced evolution of Amazonian biodiversity hotspots of crocodylians and other organisms throughout the Neogene. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  3. A Miocene hyperdiverse crocodylian community reveals peculiar trophic dynamics in proto-Amazonian mega-wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Gismondi, Rodolfo; Flynn, John J.; Baby, Patrice; Tejada-Lara, Julia V.; Wesselingh, Frank P.; Antoine, Pierre-Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Amazonia contains one of the world's richest biotas, but origins of this diversity remain obscure. Onset of the Amazon River drainage at approximately 10.5 Ma represented a major shift in Neotropical ecosystems, and proto-Amazonian biotas just prior to this pivotal episode are integral to understanding origins of Amazonian biodiversity, yet vertebrate fossil evidence is extraordinarily rare. Two new species-rich bonebeds from late Middle Miocene proto-Amazonian deposits of northeastern Peru document the same hyperdiverse assemblage of seven co-occurring crocodylian species. Besides the large-bodied Purussaurus and Mourasuchus, all other crocodylians are new taxa, including a stem caiman—Gnatusuchus pebasensis—bearing a massive shovel-shaped mandible, procumbent anterior and globular posterior teeth, and a mammal-like diastema. This unusual species is an extreme exemplar of a radiation of small caimans with crushing dentitions recording peculiar feeding strategies correlated with a peak in proto-Amazonian molluscan diversity and abundance. These faunas evolved within dysoxic marshes and swamps of the long-lived Pebas Mega-Wetland System and declined with inception of the transcontinental Amazon drainage, favouring diversification of longirostrine crocodylians and more modern generalist-feeding caimans. The rise and demise of distinctive, highly productive aquatic ecosystems substantially influenced evolution of Amazonian biodiversity hotspots of crocodylians and other organisms throughout the Neogene. PMID:25716785

  4. Extreme seasonal droughts and floods in Amazonia: causes, trends and impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    J. A. Marengo * and J. C. Espinoza** * Centro Nacional de Monitoramento e Alerta de Desastres Naturais, Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação, Sao Paulo, Brazil ** Subdirección de Ciencias de la Atmósfera e Hidrósfera (SCAH), Instituto Geofísico del Perú, Lima, Peru This paper reviews recent progress in the study and understanding of extreme seasonal events in the Amazon region, focusing on drought and floods. The review includes a history of droughts and floods in the past, in the present and some discussions on future extremes in the context of climate change and its impacts on the Amazon region. Several extreme hydrological events, some of them characterized as 'once in a century', have been reported in the Amazon region during the last decade. While abundant rainfall in various sectors of the basin has determined extreme floods along the river's main stem in 1953, 1989, 1999, 2009, 2012-2015, deficient rainfall in 1912, 1926, 1963, 1980, 1983, 1995, 1997, 1998, 2005 and 2010 has caused anomalously low river levels, and an increase in the risk and number of fires in the region, with consequences for humans. This is consistent with changes in the variability of the hydrometeorology of the basin and suggests that extreme hydrological events have been more frequent in the last two decades. Some of these intense/reduced rainfalls and subsequent floods/droughts were associated (but not exclusively) with La Niña/El Niño events. In addition, moisture transport anomalies from the tropical Atlantic into Amazonia, and from northern to southern Amazonia alter the water cycle in the region year-to-year. We also assess the impacts of such extremes on natural and human systems in the region, considering ecological, economic and societal impacts in urban and rural areas, particularly during the recent decades. In the context of the future climate change, studies show a large range of uncertainty, but suggest that drought might intensify through the 21st

  5. Epidemiology of Disappearing Plasmodium vivax Malaria: A Case Study in Rural Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Nathália F.; Batista, Camilla L.; Bastos, Melissa da Silva; Nicolete, Vanessa C.; Fontoura, Pablo S.; Gonçalves, Raquel M.; Viana, Susana Ariane S.; Menezes, Maria José; Scopel, Kézia Katiani G.; Cavasini, Carlos E.; Malafronte, Rosely dos Santos; da Silva-Nunes, Mônica; Vinetz, Joseph M.; Castro, Márcia C.; Ferreira, Marcelo U.

    2014-01-01

    Background New frontier settlements across the Amazon Basin pose a major challenge for malaria elimination in Brazil. Here we describe the epidemiology of malaria during the early phases of occupation of farming settlements in Remansinho area, Brazilian Amazonia. We examine the relative contribution of low-density and asymptomatic parasitemias to the overall Plasmodium vivax burden over a period of declining transmission and discuss potential hurdles for malaria elimination in Remansinho and similar settings. Methods Eight community-wide cross-sectional surveys, involving 584 subjects, were carried out in Remansinho over 3 years and complemented by active and passive surveillance of febrile illnesses between the surveys. We used quantitative PCR to detect low-density asexual parasitemias and gametocytemias missed by conventional microscopy. Mixed-effects multiple logistic regression models were used to characterize independent risk factors for P. vivax infection and disease. Principal Findings/Conclusions P. vivax prevalence decreased from 23.8% (March–April 2010) to 3.0% (April–May 2013), with no P. falciparum infections diagnosed after March–April 2011. Although migrants from malaria-free areas were at increased risk of malaria, their odds of having P. vivax infection and disease decreased by 2–3% with each year of residence in Amazonia. Several findings indicate that low-density and asymptomatic P. vivax parasitemias may complicate residual malaria elimination in Remansinho: (a) the proportion of subpatent infections (i.e. missed by microscopy) increased from 43.8% to 73.1% as P. vivax transmission declined; (b) most (56.6%) P. vivax infections were asymptomatic and 32.8% of them were both subpatent and asymptomatic; (c) asymptomatic parasite carriers accounted for 54.4% of the total P. vivax biomass in the host population; (d) over 90% subpatent and asymptomatic P. vivax had PCR-detectable gametocytemias; and (e) few (17.0%) asymptomatic and subpatent P

  6. Land cover change interacts with drought severity to change fire regimes in Western Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Vélez, Víctor H; Uriarte, María; DeFries, Ruth; Pinedo-Vásquez, Miguel; Fernandes, Katia; Ceccato, Pietro; Baethgen, Walter; Padoch, Christine

    Fire is becoming a pervasive driver of environmental change in Amazonia and is expected to intensify, given projected reductions in precipitation and forest cover. Understanding of the influence of post-deforestation land cover change on fires in Amazonia is limited, even though fires in cleared lands constitute a threat for ecosystems, agriculture, and human health. We used MODIS satellite data to map burned areas annually between 2001 and 2010. We then combined these maps with land cover and climate information to understand the influence of land cover change in cleared lands and dry-season severity on fire occurrence and spread in a focus area in the Peruvian Amazon. Fire occurrence, quantified as the probability of burning of individual 232-m spatial resolution MODIS pixels, was modeled as a function of the area of land cover types within each pixel, drought severity, and distance to roads. Fire spread, quantified as the number of pixels burned in 3 × 3 pixel windows around each focal burned pixel, was modeled as a function of land cover configuration and area, dry-season severity, and distance to roads. We found that vegetation regrowth and oil palm expansion are significantly correlated with fire occurrence, but that the magnitude and sign of the correlation depend on drought severity, successional stage of regrowing vegetation, and oil palm age. Burning probability increased with the area of nondegraded pastures, fallow, and young oil palm and decreased with larger extents of degraded pastures, secondary forests, and adult oil palm plantations. Drought severity had the strongest influence on fire occurrence, overriding the effectiveness of secondary forests, but not of adult plantations, to reduce fire occurrence in severely dry years. Overall, irregular and scattered land cover patches reduced fire spread but irregular and dispersed fallows and secondary forests increased fire spread during dry years. Results underscore the importance of land cover

  7. A technique for extraction and Thin Layer Chromatography visualization of fecal bile acids applied to neotropical felid scats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Virginia Cazón Narvaez

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Fecal bile acid patterns have been used successfully to identify scats. Neotropical felid scats are capable of this biochemical identification because they present low concentrations of plant pigments that would interfere in fecal bile acids detection. However, neotropical felid scats have poor quantities of bile acids, so we developed in this work a proper technique for their extraction, visualization and determination. Twenty eighth feces of seven different felid species, collected from Zoological and Wildlife Parks, were dried and pulverized. The procedure for analyzing feces is : Take one g of pulverized feces and shake for 3 hr at room temperature in 20 ml benzene : methanol; filter and evaporate to 5 ml. Spot on TLC plate and develop in toluene :acetic acid:water. Dry and visualize with anisaldehyde. Field collected scats could be identified by the bile acids pattern revealed by this specific technique and ,then, used as a source of information for distribution, density and food habits studies.Los patrones de ácidos biliares fecales han sido utilizados satisfactoriamente para identificar heces. Las heces de félidos neotropicales son propicias para ser identificadas bioquímicamente, ya que contienen baja concentración de pigmentos vegetales que pudieran interferir en la detección de ácidos biliares. Sin embargo los ácidos biliares se encuentran en bajas concentraciones en las heces, por lo cual desarrollamos en este trabajo una técnica apropiada para su extracción, visualización y determinación. Veintiocho heces de diferentes félidos recolectadas de Zoológicos y Estaciones de Fauna Silvestre fueron secadas y pulverizadas. El procedimiento para analizar las heces es : Tomar un gramo de feca pulverizada y agitar en 20 ml de benceno :metanol a temperatura ambiente durante 3 hr ; luego filtrar y evaporar hasta 5 ml. Sembrar en placa de TLC y desarrollar en tolueno :ác. acético :agua. Secar y revelar con anisaldehído. Las heces

  8. Atractiellomycetes belonging to the ‘rust’ lineage (Pucciniomycotina) form mycorrhizae with terrestrial and epiphytic neotropical orchids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottke, Ingrid; Suárez, Juan Pablo; Herrera, Paulo; Cruz, Dario; Bauer, Robert; Haug, Ingeborg; Garnica, Sigisfredo

    2010-01-01

    Distinctive groups of fungi are involved in the diverse mycorrhizal associations of land plants. All previously known mycorrhiza-forming Basidiomycota associated with trees, ericads, liverworts or orchids are hosted in Agaricomycetes, Agaricomycotina. Here we demonstrate for the first time that Atractiellomycetes, members of the ‘rust’ lineage (Pucciniomycotina), are mycobionts of orchids. The mycobionts of 103 terrestrial and epiphytic orchid individuals, sampled in the tropical mountain rainforest of Southern Ecuador, were identified by sequencing the whole ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region and part of 28S rDNA. Mycorrhizae of 13 orchid individuals were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. Simple septal pores and symplechosomes in the hyphal coils of mycorrhizae from four orchid individuals indicated members of Atractiellomycetes. Molecular phylogeny of sequences from mycobionts of 32 orchid individuals out of 103 samples confirmed Atractiellomycetes and the placement in Pucciniomycotina, previously known to comprise only parasitic and saprophytic fungi. Thus, our finding reveals these fungi, frequently associated to neotropical orchids, as the most basal living basidiomycetes involved in mycorrhizal associations of land plants. PMID:20007181

  9. The role of fragmentation and landscape changes in the ecological release of common nest predators in the Neotropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael V. Cove

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Loss of large mammalian carnivores may allow smaller mesopredators to become abundant and threaten other community members. There is considerable debate about mesopredator release and the role that other potential factors such as landscape variables and human alterations to land cover lead to increased mesopredator abundance. We used camera traps to detect four mesopredators (tayra, Eira barbara; white-nosed coati, Nasua narica; northern raccoon, Procyon lotor; and common opossum, Didelphis opossum in a biological corridor in Costa Rica to estimate habitat covariates that influenced the species’ detection and occurrence. We selected these mesopredators because as semi-arboreal species they might be common nest predators, posing a serious threat to resident and migratory songbirds. Pineapple production had a pronounced positive effect on the detectability of tayras, while forest cover had a negative effect on the detection of coatis. This suggests that abundance might be elevated due to the availability of agricultural food resources and foraging activities are concentrated in forest fragments and pineapple edge habitats. Raccoon and opossum models exhibited little influence on detection from habitat covariates. Occurrence models did not suggest any significant factors influencing site use by nest predators, revealing that all four species are habitat generalists adapted to co-existing in human altered landscapes. Furthermore, fragmentation and land cover changes may predispose nesting birds, herpetofauna, and small mammals to heightened predation risk by mesopredators in the Neotropics.

  10. Description of novel microsatellite loci in the Neotropical fish Prochilodus argenteus and cross-amplification in P. costatus and P. lineatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna C.D.R. Barbosa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Prochilodus is one of the most important fish resources of South America, in addition to the important role it plays in nutrient cycling of Neotropical rivers. In the present study, we describe the isolation and characterization of nine novel microsatellite loci in Prochilodus argenteus. The number of alleles per polymorphic locus varied from 5 (Par76 to 21 (Par85, revealing a total of 116 alleles. The values of observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.629 (Par69 to 0.926 (Par85 and Par86 and from 0.643 (Par66 to 0.931 (Par80, respectively. Furthermore, the ability of these and other previously described microsatellite markers to amplify orthologous loci was tested in two related species, Prochilodus costatus and Prochilodus lineatus. These loci will be useful for studies of population genetic structure in this group of fishes, and in aiding future genetic mapping studies of P. argenteus.

  11. Reservoirs and human well being: new challenges for evaluating impacts and benefits in the neotropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JG. Tundisi

    Full Text Available As in many other continents, neotropical ecosystems are impacted by the construction of reservoirs. These artificial ecosystems change considerably the natural terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and their biodiversity. The multiple uses of reservoirs promote benefits for the human beings in terms of economic development, income, jobs and employment. Services of reservoirs are important assets for the regional ecosystem. Evaluation of ecosystem services produced by artificial reservoirs, are new challenges to the understanding of the cost/benefit relationships of reservoir construction in the neotropics. Regulating and other services promoted by reservoirs lead to new trends for "green technology" and the implementation of ecohydrological and ecotechnological developments. This approach can be utilized with better success as a substitute for the usual impact/benefit evaluation of the reservoirs. Better and diversified services can be achieved with "green technology" applied to the construction.

  12. Range expansion of the invasive insect Greenidea (Trichosiphon) psidii (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in the Neotropical Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culik, M P; Ventura, J A; Dos S Martins, D

    2016-01-01

    Greenidea psidii is an invasive insect from Asia that feeds on a diverse variety of agriculturally and environmentally important plant species. As an essential component of research necessary for development of a better understanding of biodiversity and its conservation, this study documents a major recent expansion in range of G. psidii in the Neotropics to the region of the tropical restinga ecosystem of Brazil, where it was found infesting guava (Psidium guajava) and jabuticaba (Plinia cauliflora). A summary of information on the geographic distribution, host plants, identification, and potential natural enemies of G. psidii that may be useful for integrated management of this pest in the Neotropical Region and other areas where this invasive insect has recently become established and is likely to further spread is also provided.

  13. Pleistocene climate changes shaped the population structure of Partamona seridoensis (Apidae, Meliponini, an endemic stingless bee from the Neotropical dry forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elder Assis Miranda

    Full Text Available Partamona seridoensis is an endemic stingless bee from the Caatinga, a Neotropical dry forest in northeastern Brazil. Like other stingless bees, this species plays an important ecological role as a pollinator. The aim of the present study was to investigate the genetic structure and evolutionary history of P. seridoensis across its current geographic range. Workers from 84 nests from 17 localities were analyzed for COI and Cytb genic regions. The population structure tests (Bayesian phylogenetic inference, AMOVA and haplotype network consistently characterized two haplogroups (northwestern and eastern, with little gene flow between them, generating a high differentiation between them as well as among the populations within each haplogroup. The Mantel test revealed no isolation by distance. No evidence of a potential geographic barrier in the present that could explain the diversification between the P. seridoensis haplogroups was found. However, Pleistocene climatic changes may explain this differentiation, since the initial time for the P. seridoensis lineages diversification took place during the mid-Pleistocene, specifically the interglacial period, when the biota is presumed to have been more associated with dry conditions and had more restricted, fragmented geographical distribution. This event may have driven diversification by isolating the two haplogroups. Otherwise, the climatic changes in the late Pleistocene must not have drastically affected the population dynamics of P. seridoensis, since the Bayesian Skyline Plot did not reveal any substantial fluctuation in effective population size in either haplogroup. Considering its importance and the fact that it is an endemic bee from a very threatened Neotropical dry forest, the results herein could be useful to the development of conservation strategies for P. seridoensis.

  14. Pleistocene climate changes shaped the population structure of Partamona seridoensis (Apidae, Meliponini), an endemic stingless bee from the Neotropical dry forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Elder Assis; Ferreira, Kátia Maria; Carvalho, Airton Torres; Martins, Celso Feitosa; Fernandes, Carlo Rivero; Del Lama, Marco Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Partamona seridoensis is an endemic stingless bee from the Caatinga, a Neotropical dry forest in northeastern Brazil. Like other stingless bees, this species plays an important ecological role as a pollinator. The aim of the present study was to investigate the genetic structure and evolutionary history of P. seridoensis across its current geographic range. Workers from 84 nests from 17 localities were analyzed for COI and Cytb genic regions. The population structure tests (Bayesian phylogenetic inference, AMOVA and haplotype network) consistently characterized two haplogroups (northwestern and eastern), with little gene flow between them, generating a high differentiation between them as well as among the populations within each haplogroup. The Mantel test revealed no isolation by distance. No evidence of a potential geographic barrier in the present that could explain the diversification between the P. seridoensis haplogroups was found. However, Pleistocene climatic changes may explain this differentiation, since the initial time for the P. seridoensis lineages diversification took place during the mid-Pleistocene, specifically the interglacial period, when the biota is presumed to have been more associated with dry conditions and had more restricted, fragmented geographical distribution. This event may have driven diversification by isolating the two haplogroups. Otherwise, the climatic changes in the late Pleistocene must not have drastically affected the population dynamics of P. seridoensis, since the Bayesian Skyline Plot did not reveal any substantial fluctuation in effective population size in either haplogroup. Considering its importance and the fact that it is an endemic bee from a very threatened Neotropical dry forest, the results herein could be useful to the development of conservation strategies for P. seridoensis.

  15. Functional diversity of bacterial genes associated with aromatic hydrocarbon degradation in anthropogenic dark earth of Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Gomes Germano

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the catabolic gene diversity for the bacterial degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons in anthropogenic dark earth of Amazonia (ADE and their biochar (BC. Functional diversity analyses in ADE soils can provide information on how adaptive microorganisms may influence the fertility of soils and what is their involvement in biogeochemical cycles. For this, clone libraries containing the gene encoding for the alpha subunit of aromatic ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases (α-ARHD bacterial gene were constructed, totaling 800 clones. These libraries were prepared from samples of an ADE soil under two different land uses, located at the Caldeirão Experimental Station - secondary forest (SF and agriculture (AG -, and the biochar (SF_BC and AG_BC, respectively. Heterogeneity estimates indicated greater diversity in BC libraries; and Venn diagrams showed more unique operational protein clusters (OPC in the SF_BC library than the ADE soil, which indicates that specific metabolic processes may occur in biochar. Phylogenetic analysis showed unidentified dioxygenases in ADE soils. Libraries containing functional gene encoding for the alpha subunit of the aromatic ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases (ARHD gene from biochar show higher diversity indices than those of ADE under secondary forest and agriculture.

  16. Dietary practices and nutritional status of 0-24-month-old children from Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, T G; Baraldi, L G; Muniz, P T; Cardoso, M A

    2009-12-01

    To assess the nutritional status and dietary practices of 0-24-month-old children living in Brazilian Amazonia. Cross-sectional study. Information on children's dietary intakes was obtained from diet history data. Weight and length were measured for anthropometric evaluation. Fe status was assessed using fasting venous blood samples; Hb, serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor concentrations were measured. The towns of Assis Brasil and Acrelândia in the state of Acre, north-west Brazil. A total of sixty-nine randomly selected 0-24-month-old children. Of these children, 40.3 % were anaemic, 63.1 % were Fe-deficient, 28.1 % had Fe-deficiency anaemia and 11.6 % were stunted. Breast-feeding was initiated by 97.1 % of mothers, followed by early feeding with complementary foods. The dietary pattern reflected a high intake of carbohydrate-rich foods and cow's milk, with irregular intakes of fruit, vegetables and meat. All infants and 92.3 % of toddlers were at risk of inadequate Fe intakes. Fe from animal foods contributed on average 0.5 % and 14.3 % to total dietary Fe intake among infants and toddlers, respectively. Poor nutritional status and inadequate feeding practices in this study population reinforce the importance of exclusive breast-feeding during the first 6 months of life. Greater emphasis is required to improve the bioavailability of dietary Fe during complementary feeding practices.

  17. Environmental Costs of Government-Sponsored Agrarian Settlements in Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Maurício; Peres, Carlos A

    2015-01-01

    Brazil has presided over the most comprehensive agrarian reform frontier colonization program on Earth, in which ~1.2 million settlers have been translocated by successive governments since the 1970's, mostly into forested hinterlands of Brazilian Amazonia. These settlements encompass 5.3% of this ~5 million km2 region, but have contributed with 13.5% of all land conversion into agropastoral land uses. The Brazilian Federal Agrarian Agency (INCRA) has repeatedly claimed that deforestation in these areas largely predates the sanctioned arrival of new settlers. Here, we quantify rates of natural vegetation conversion across 1911 agrarian settlements allocated to 568 Amazonian counties and compare fire incidence and deforestation rates before and after the official occupation of settlements by migrant farmers. The timing and spatial distribution of deforestation and fires in our analysis provides irrefutable chronological and spatially explicit evidence of agropastoral conversion both inside and immediately outside agrarian settlements over the last decade. Deforestation rates are strongly related to local human population density and road access to regional markets. Agrarian settlements consistently accelerated rates of deforestation and fires, compared to neighboring areas outside settlements, but within the same counties. Relocated smallholders allocated to forest areas undoubtedly operate as pivotal agents of deforestation, and most of the forest clearance occurs in the aftermath of government-induced migration.

  18. The trophic role of microbial loop in an Amazonia central floodplain lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caraballo, Pedro; Forsberg, Bruce R; Leite, Rosseval G

    2012-01-01

    In order to evaluate the role of heterotrophic bacteria on carbon flow in food chains of an Amazonian floodplain lake, monthly collections of these organisms were made during the hydrological year from December 2007 to November 2008. Littoral, pelagic, and aquatic macrophyte regions of the Catalao Lake in central Amazonia were sampled and bacteria were multiplied in vitro, using dissolved organic carbon (COD) of each one of the regions studied as a substrate. The bacterial biomass obtained was used for stable isotope analyses of carbon and nitrogen. These data were confronted with COD values of the four hydrological periods of the lake (dry, rising, flood and fall). In general, it was found that the main source of carbon for heterotrophic bacteria was that of C4 origin, which presented a minimum contribution of 75% of bacterial biomass, to the extent that the bacteria D13C average value -17.72 Per Mille ± 2.25 was comparing this value with the D13C of zooplankton in the same period (-33.04 Per Mille ± 3.81) permit concludes that the contribution of heterotrophic bacteria in the carbon flow to higher trophic levels in the Catalao lake is minimal.

  19. Population Development of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Landrace Bean Varieties Occurring in Southwestern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, L M; Araújo, A E F; Santos, A C V; Santos, V B; Sousa, A H

    2016-02-01

    The common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris (L.), is one of the most important sources of protein worldwide, and Latin America is one of the recognized centers of diversity of this species. However, storage of this product after harvest is not feasible because of bruchid attacks. This study determined the accumulated normalized rate of emergence and the daily emergence rate of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae:Bruchinae) in five landrace varieties of common bean (BRL 01, SNA 01, RDR 01, RBC 01, and RBC 13) that occurin southwestern Amazonia. These varieties were selected for this study because they are well-distributed throughout the Amazonian communities. Beans of each variety were infested with 50 unsexed adults, and the insects were removed 13 d after beginning the bioassays. The adult progeny obtained from the feeding substrate were counted and removed every other day after the first emergence, until the end of the emergence period. Differences were observed in the calculated rates of development; however, the time required for development and emergence of the insects was independent. Of the five varieties of bean investigated, we observed that the RDR 01, BRL 01, and SNA 01 cultivars are resistant to Z. subfasciatus; the results indicate that the use of these three varieties can reduce problems associated with bruchid attacks and enable storage of the product after harvesting.

  20. [The fleas of mammals from the Ucayali River basin (the Peruvian Amazonia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darskaia, N F; Malygin, V M

    1996-01-01

    The material collected from 57 specimens of 9 mammalian species in two localities of the Peruvian Amazonia includes 212 specimens of fleas belonging to four species (Polygenis klagesi, Ropalopsyllus lugubris, Rh. australis and Rothschildopsylla noctilionis). This is the first record of fleas in the Ucayali River basin. The majority of flea specimens were collected form three morphologically similar but karyotypically and electrophoretically distinct species of spiny rats of the genus Proechimys. These fleas belong to the species P. klagesi. The subspecies P. k. samuelis was collected from 32-chromosome spiny rats nearby Pucallpa (8 degrees 22' S, 74 degrees 43' W), whereas in the locality nearby the village Jenaro Errera (4 degrees 52' S, 73 degrees 39' W) only the nominative subspecies P. k. klagesi were collected from all three species of spiny rats. Other species of fleas have relatively less abundance. Six fleas Rh. l. lugubris were found on one specimen of Cuniculus paca; a single Rh. australis--on one specimen of Myoprocta pratti; and a single R. noctilionis--on one specimen of Eptesicus brasiliensis.

  1. Structuring of Milk Production Basins: Comparison between Brazilian Amazonia and Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Poccard Chapuis

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In Brazilian Amazonia, structuring of dairy basins is progressing fast. In Mali, these processes are not engaged, although the activity of cattle keeping is ancient and currently thriving. This difference covers essential stakes: fight against poverty, food production in the face of the demographic challenge, current debates on the theories of the development. The comparative analysis is based on a diachronic model of the successive phases of structuring of the Amazonian dairy basins. This model is then applied to dairy dynamics in Mali to identify blockages in the structuring of basins. Six phases are highlighted in the Amazonian model, from subsistence consumption of raw milk to basin specialization and establishment of an industrial monopoly. The application in Mali shows that the initial situations are similar (territory constraints. But two essential mechanisms are not working: transportation of finished products to distant markets, and fresh milk collection extended beyond the boundaries of the direct sale to urban consumers. These two aspects, essential to ensure the flow upstream and downstream of the products, address the question of dairy unit location as well as the distribution organization in Bamako. In spite of the limits of the comparative analysis, the model shows that the keys to a positive evolution in Mali are more to be found at the industry and distribution levels than at the production level. Public actions (State and collectivities could focus on these two points, notably through training activities and credit policies.

  2. Brazil nut harvesting in Peruvian Amazonia from the perspective of ecosystem services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risto Kalliola

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil nuts are harvested from the primary rainforests in the Amazonian lowlands as a direct form of sustainably using the region’s biological resources. We analyze the ecological economics of Brazil nut production in the Peruvian region of Madre de Dios where nut extraction occurs on hundreds of small-holder concessions operating under long-term agreements. This activity sustains locally important economies that suffer from small volumes and high seasonality. The size and the remoteness of the NTFP concession determine much of its profitability to concessionaires. Seasonality of the harvest generates short-term income peaks for the majority of collectors. The fragility of the Brazil nut economy in the region is compounded by volatile market prices and the overall development pressures in Amazonia, which usually involve deforestation. Although the current regulatory mechanisms in Peru encourage long-term Brazil nut production in concessions, the income level is seldom high enough to help concession-owners to rise from poverty. Auxiliary financial support based on compensations for the non-valued ecosystem services provided by the forest-covered Brazil nut concessions could change the picture. Funds for these could come from international instruments like those of carbon emission control or debt for nature swaps. Green marketing could be developed to consider payments supporting ecosystem values as well as mechanisms supporting indigenous communities working with Brazil nuts. Appropriate indicators are needed to optimize those management, policy and trading conditions that best help to preserve the invaluable ecosystem functions and services.

  3. Late Quaternary landscape evolution of northeastern Amazonia from pollen and diatom records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DARCILÉA F. CASTRO

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to reconstruct the Late Pleistocene-Holocene floristic composition in an area of the northern Brazilian Amazonia, comparing the results with other Amazonian localities in order to discuss the factors that have influenced phytophysiognomic changes over this time period. The work in eastern Marajó Island at the mouth of the Amazonas River was approached based on analysis of 98 pollen and diatom samples from core data distributed along a proximal to distal transect of a paleoestuarine system. The results indicated high concentration of Rhizophora, associated with arboreal pollen grains typical of the modern Amazonian rainforest during the last 40,000 cal yrs BP. Pollen composition also included wetland herbs. Diatoms were dominated by marine and fresh water taxa. Wetland forest, mangrove and, subordinately herbs remained constant during most of the latest Pleistocene-early/middle Holocene. At 5,000 cal yrs BP, there was a distinguished change from forest and mangrove to wet grassland savanna due to sea level fluctuation. As marine influence decreased, the estuary gave rise to fresh water lacustrine and swamp environments, with establishment of herbaceous campos. A main conclusion from this study is that solely the occurrence of herbaceous savanna can not be used as a definitive indicator of past dry climates in Amazonian areas.

  4. Megafans and Trumpeter Bird Biodiversity-Psophia Phylogeography and Landscape Evolution in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Justin

    2014-01-01

    Based on geomorphic character and mapped geology, geologists have interpreted the landscape surrounding the Andes Mountains as becoming progressively younger to the East. These sedimentary materials filled the late Miocene swampland that formerly occupied central and western Amazonia. Apart from the ancient landscapes of the Guiana Highlands (top right, figure 1a), Zone Ac is the oldest, followed by Zone Aw, within which megafan Jw is older than megafan Je (figure 1a). DNA-based paleogeography of the trumpeters shows that younger clades diverge from parent lineages with increasing distance from the Andes chain. Thus, Psophia napensis diverges from the P. crepitans parent, and P. ochroptera diverges from P. napensis. The P. ochroptera population is confined solely to the Je megafan (figure 1a). The same trend is seen on the south side of the Amazon depression. Since the timing of the events seems to be of exactly the same order [post-Miocene for the land surfaces and trumpeter divergence within the last 3 million years (figure 1d)], it seems reasonable to think that the megafans provided the substrate on which new bird lineages could speciate. Such physical controls of evolution are becoming more important in the understanding of biodiversity.

  5. The distribution and amount of carbon in the largest peatland complex in Amazonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draper, Frederick C; Baker, Timothy R; Roucoux, Katherine H; Lawson, Ian T; Mitchard, Edward T A; Honorio Coronado, Euridice N; Zaráte, Ricardo; Lähteenoja, Outi; Torres Montenegro, Luis; Valderrama Sandoval, Elvis

    2014-01-01

    Peatlands in Amazonian Peru are known to store large quantities of carbon, but there is high uncertainty in the spatial extent and total carbon stocks of these ecosystems. Here, we use a multi-sensor (Landsat, ALOS PALSAR and SRTM) remote sensing approach, together with field data including 24 forest census plots and 218 peat thickness measurements, to map the distribution of peatland vegetation types and calculate the combined above- and below-ground carbon stock of peatland ecosystems in the Pastaza-Marañon foreland basin in Peru. We find that peatlands cover 35 600 ± 2133 km 2 and contain 3.14 (0.44–8.15) Pg C. Variation in peat thickness and bulk density are the most important sources of uncertainty in these values. One particular ecosystem type, peatland pole forest, is found to be the most carbon-dense ecosystem yet identified in Amazonia (1391 ± 710 Mg C ha −1 ). The novel approach of combining optical and radar remote sensing with above- and below-ground carbon inventories is recommended for developing regional carbon estimates for tropical peatlands globally. Finally, we suggest that Amazonian peatlands should be a priority for research and conservation before the developing regional infrastructure causes an acceleration in the exploitation and degradation of these ecosystems. (letter)

  6. Allometry and growth of six tree species in a terra firme forest in colombian amazonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraldo Pamplona Wilson A; Dairon, Alvaro; Cardenas Montoya J, Duque

    2011-01-01

    In this study carried out in the Amacayacu National Park in the Colombian Amazonia, we assessed the allometric relationship among different tree structural variables and the growth in diameter and biomass of six species classified according to their wood specific gravity. The tree species chosen were Eschweilera rufolia, Eschweilera itayensis, Conceveiba guianensis, Otoba parvifolia, Pseudolmedia laevis, and Apeiba aspera. The dbh was the most important structural explanatory variable. Regarding the total height dbh model, the allometric coefficient b changed between species showing a trend to increase, and thus a taper decrease, proportional to. There were o significant differences in diameter growth between species (P=0.119, F=1.80) or functional groups (P=0.153, F= 1.19). Likewise, biomass growth did not show significant differences neither between species (P=0.0784, F=2.05) nor functional groups (P=0.0711, F=2.71). However, there was a positive trend between and diameter growth and a negative one between and biomass growth. The results of this study suggest that this forest is recovering in biomass at a constant rate independent of the patch age, which emphasizes on the importance of pioneer species and gap formation on the carbon dynamics and the species coexistence in Amazonian tierra firme forests.

  7. Environmental changes in the western Amazonia: morphological framework, geochemistry, palynology and radiocarbon dating data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horbe, Adriana M.C.; Behling, Hermann; Nogueira, Afonso C.R.; Mapes, Russell

    2011-01-01

    The sediments from the Coari lake, a 'terra firme' lake sculpted into Plio-Pleistocene deposits, and the Acara lake, a flooding-type lake developed on Quaternary sediments in the flood plain of the mid-Solimoes river, in the western Amazonia, Brazil, were studied to investigate the environmental condition of their developing. This study includes mineral composition, geochemistry, Pb isotope, palinology, radiocarbon-age and morphological framework of the lakes obtained from SRTM satellite images. The geological and the environmental conditions in the two lakes are highly variable and suggest that their evolution reflect autogenic processes under humid rain forest condition. Although kaolinite, quartz, muscovite, illite, and smectite are the main minerals in both lakes, the geochemistry indicates distinct source, the Acara lake sediments have higher concentrations of Al 2 O 3 , Fe 2 O 3 , Fe O, Ca O, K 2 O, Mg O, Na 2 O, P 2 O 5 , Ba, V, Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb, Sr, Li, Y and La and have more radiogenic Pb than the Coari lake sediments. The radiocarbon ages suggest that at 10160 yr BP the Coari lake started to be developed due to avulsion of the Solimoes river, and the Acara lake was formed by the meander abandonment of Solimoes river retaining its grass dominated shore at ca. 3710 yr BP. (author)

  8. Regional-Scale Drivers of Forest Structure and Function in Northwestern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Mark A.; Asner, Gregory P.; Anderson, Christopher B.; Martin, Roberta E.; Knapp, David E.; Tupayachi, Raul; Perez, Eneas; Elespuru, Nydia; Alonso, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Field studies in Amazonia have found a relationship at continental scales between soil fertility and broad trends in forest structure and function. Little is known at regional scales, however, about how discrete patterns in forest structure or functional attributes map onto underlying edaphic or geological patterns. We collected airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data and VSWIR (Visible to Shortwave Infrared) imaging spectroscopy measurements over 600 km2 of northwestern Amazonian lowland forests. We also established 83 inventories of plant species composition and soil properties, distributed between two widespread geological formations. Using these data, we mapped forest structure and canopy reflectance, and compared them to patterns in plant species composition, soils, and underlying geology. We found that variations in soils and species composition explained up to 70% of variation in canopy height, and corresponded to profound changes in forest vertical profiles. We further found that soils and plant species composition explained more than 90% of the variation in canopy reflectance as measured by imaging spectroscopy, indicating edaphic and compositional control of canopy chemical properties. We last found that soils explained between 30% and 70% of the variation in gap frequency in these forests, depending on the height threshold used to define gaps. Our findings indicate that a relatively small number of edaphic and compositional variables, corresponding to underlying geology, may be responsible for variations in canopy structure and chemistry over large expanses of Amazonian forest. PMID:25793602

  9. Chemical characterization of ancient pottery from the southwest Amazonia using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Patricia R.; Munita, Casimiro S.; Neves, Eduardo G.; Zimpel, Carlos A.; Universidade de Sao Paulo

    2017-01-01

    The analyzes carried out in this work aims to contribute to the discussion about the ceramic objects founded in Monte Castelo's sambaqui located at Southwest Amazonia. The first study accomplished by Miller in 1980 suggests that this archaeological site is inserted in the old contexts of production of ceramics in the Amazon. Until today, there are not any physical and chemical analysis studies in this ceramics and this kind of studies may help archaeological studies performed at the sambaqui. With this purpose, this work presents a preliminary study of chemical characterization of eighty-seven ceramic samples using the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). The analyzed elements were: As, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Sm, U, Yb, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, Rb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th. With the purpose to study the similarity/dissimilarity between the samples cluster and discriminant analysis were used. The results showed the existence of three different chemical groups that are in agreement with the archaeological studies made by Miller which found a sequence of cultural development, with three main occupational components whose dating ranging from 8.400 to 4.000 b.P. In this way, the results of this work are in agreement with miller's studies and suggest Bacabal's phase as the oldest ceramist culture in the Southwest of the Amazon. (author)

  10. Lipid Oxidation Inhibitory Effects and Phenolic Composition of Aqueous Extracts from Medicinal Plants of Colombian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ignacio Ruiz-Sanz

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Diverse plants of ethnobotanic interest in Amazonia are commonly used in traditional medicine. We determined the antioxidant potential against lipid peroxidation, the antimicrobial activity, and the polyphenol composition of several Amazonian plants (Brownea rosademonte, Piper glandulosissimum, Piper krukoffii, Piper putumayoense, Solanum grandiflorum, and Vismia baccifera. Extracts from the plant leaf, bark, and stem were prepared as aqueous infusions, as used in folk medicine, and added to rat liver microsomes exposed to iron. The polyphenolic composition was detected by reverse-phase HPLC coupled to diode-array detector and MS/MS analysis. The antimicrobial activity was tested by the spot-on-a-lawn method against several indicator microorganisms. All the extracts inhibited lipid oxidation, except the P. glandulosissimum stem. The plant extracts exhibiting high antioxidant potential (V. baccifera and B. rosademonte contained high levels of flavanols (particularly, catechin and epicatechin. By contrast, S. grandiflorum leaf, which exhibited very low antioxidant activity, was rich in hydroxycinnamic acids. None of the extracts showed antimicrobial activity. This study demonstrates for the first time the presence of bioactive polyphenolic compounds in several Amazonian plants, and highlights the importance of flavanols as major phenolic contributors to antioxidant activity.

  11. Environmental Costs of Government-Sponsored Agrarian Settlements in Brazilian Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Brazil has presided over the most comprehensive agrarian reform frontier colonization program on Earth, in which ~1.2 million settlers have been translocated by successive governments since the 1970’s, mostly into forested hinterlands of Brazilian Amazonia. These settlements encompass 5.3% of this ~5 million km2 region, but have contributed with 13.5% of all land conversion into agropastoral land uses. The Brazilian Federal Agrarian Agency (INCRA) has repeatedly claimed that deforestation in these areas largely predates the sanctioned arrival of new settlers. Here, we quantify rates of natural vegetation conversion across 1911 agrarian settlements allocated to 568 Amazonian counties and compare fire incidence and deforestation rates before and after the official occupation of settlements by migrant farmers. The timing and spatial distribution of deforestation and fires in our analysis provides irrefutable chronological and spatially explicit evidence of agropastoral conversion both inside and immediately outside agrarian settlements over the last decade. Deforestation rates are strongly related to local human population density and road access to regional markets. Agrarian settlements consistently accelerated rates of deforestation and fires, compared to neighboring areas outside settlements, but within the same counties. Relocated smallholders allocated to forest areas undoubtedly operate as pivotal agents of deforestation, and most of the forest clearance occurs in the aftermath of government-induced migration. PMID:26247467

  12. Open access to information bridges science and development in Amazonia: lessons of the SIAMAZONIA service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalliola, Risto; Toivonen, Tuuli; Miyakawa, Victor; Mavila, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    Access to and availability of accurate information has often been stated to play an important role in sustainable environmental management. There is a growing trend of setting up internet-based information services to support the availability of relevant information. The current initiatives that aim to facilitate such information sharing through the web are still, however, often premature and unable to ensure constant flow of data from producers to users. We examine these common challenges by using as an example a network-based facility of biodiversity and environmental information about the Peruvian Amazon region called SIAMAZONIA. Launched in 2001, the service includes data provided by 13 different nodes. The experiences of this initiative have been both encouraging and confusing. A good professional level has been reached, but participation by large information holders is impeded. Participation is obviously considered an additional task rather than an attractive option for enhanced performance at the individual or institutional levels. This dilemma reflects a genuine problem in the modern scientific community, which still lacks agreed ways to reward those who share their data and results through the web. If these problems are solved, internet-based information sharing may become a vital resource for environmental management in Amazonia and also elsewhere

  13. Regional-scale drivers of forest structure and function in northwestern Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Higgins

    Full Text Available Field studies in Amazonia have found a relationship at continental scales between soil fertility and broad trends in forest structure and function. Little is known at regional scales, however, about how discrete patterns in forest structure or functional attributes map onto underlying edaphic or geological patterns. We collected airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging data and VSWIR (Visible to Shortwave Infrared imaging spectroscopy measurements over 600 km2 of northwestern Amazonian lowland forests. We also established 83 inventories of plant species composition and soil properties, distributed between two widespread geological formations. Using these data, we mapped forest structure and canopy reflectance, and compared them to patterns in plant species composition, soils, and underlying geology. We found that variations in soils and species composition explained up to 70% of variation in canopy height, and corresponded to profound changes in forest vertical profiles. We further found that soils and plant species composition explained more than 90% of the variation in canopy reflectance as measured by imaging spectroscopy, indicating edaphic and compositional control of canopy chemical properties. We last found that soils explained between 30% and 70% of the variation in gap frequency in these forests, depending on the height threshold used to define gaps. Our findings indicate that a relatively small number of edaphic and compositional variables, corresponding to underlying geology, may be responsible for variations in canopy structure and chemistry over large expanses of Amazonian forest.

  14. Urban Forest and Rural Cities: Multi-sited Households, Consumption Patterns, and Forest Resources in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Padoch

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In much of the Amazon Basin, approximately 70% of the population lives in urban areas and urbanward migration continues. Based on data collected over more than a decade in two long-settled regions of Amazonia, we find that rural-urban migration in the region is an extended and complex process. Like recent rural-urban migrants worldwide, Amazonian migrants, although they may be counted as urban residents, are often not absent from rural areas but remain members of multi-sited households and continue to participate in rural-urban networks and in rural land-use decisions. Our research indicates that, despite their general poverty, these migrants have affected urban markets for both food and construction materials. We present two cases: that of açaí palm fruit in the estuary of the Amazon and of cheap construction timbers in the Peruvian Amazon. We find that many new Amazonian rural-urban migrants have maintained some important rural patterns of both consumption and knowledge. Through their consumer behavior, they are affecting the areal extent of forests; in the two floodplain regions discussed, tree cover is increasing. We also find changes in forest composition, reflecting the persistence of rural consumption patterns in cities resulting in increased demand for and production of açaí and cheap timber species.

  15. Chemical characterization of ancient pottery from the southwest Amazonia using neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Patricia R.; Munita, Casimiro S.; Neves, Eduardo G.; Zimpel, Carlos A., E-mail: camunita@ipen.br, E-mail: edgneves@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Universidade de Sao Paulo (MAE/USP), SP (Brazil). Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia

    2017-11-01

    The analyzes carried out in this work aims to contribute to the discussion about the ceramic objects founded in Monte Castelo's sambaqui located at Southwest Amazonia. The first study accomplished by Miller in 1980 suggests that this archaeological site is inserted in the old contexts of production of ceramics in the Amazon. Until today, there are not any physical and chemical analysis studies in this ceramics and this kind of studies may help archaeological studies performed at the sambaqui. With this purpose, this work presents a preliminary study of chemical characterization of eighty-seven ceramic samples using the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). The analyzed elements were: As, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Sm, U, Yb, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, Rb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th. With the purpose to study the similarity/dissimilarity between the samples cluster and discriminant analysis were used. The results showed the existence of three different chemical groups that are in agreement with the archaeological studies made by Miller which found a sequence of cultural development, with three main occupational components whose dating ranging from 8.400 to 4.000 b.P. In this way, the results of this work are in agreement with miller's studies and suggest Bacabal's phase as the oldest ceramist culture in the Southwest of the Amazon. (author)

  16. Open access to information bridges science and development in Amazonia: lessons of the SIAMAZONIA service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalliola, Risto [Department of Geography, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Toivonen, Tuuli [Department of Geography, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Miyakawa, Victor; Mavila, Manuel [Instituto de Investigaciones de la AmazonIa Peruana, Apartado Postal 784, Iquitos (Peru)

    2008-07-15

    Access to and availability of accurate information has often been stated to play an important role in sustainable environmental management. There is a growing trend of setting up internet-based information services to support the availability of relevant information. The current initiatives that aim to facilitate such information sharing through the web are still, however, often premature and unable to ensure constant flow of data from producers to users. We examine these common challenges by using as an example a network-based facility of biodiversity and environmental information about the Peruvian Amazon region called SIAMAZONIA. Launched in 2001, the service includes data provided by 13 different nodes. The experiences of this initiative have been both encouraging and confusing. A good professional level has been reached, but participation by large information holders is impeded. Participation is obviously considered an additional task rather than an attractive option for enhanced performance at the individual or institutional levels. This dilemma reflects a genuine problem in the modern scientific community, which still lacks agreed ways to reward those who share their data and results through the web. If these problems are solved, internet-based information sharing may become a vital resource for environmental management in Amazonia and also elsewhere.

  17. The spatial distribution of Hymenoptera parasitoids in a forest reserve in Central Amazonia, Manaus, AM, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RB. Querino

    Full Text Available Parasitoids are of great importance to forest ecosystems due to their ecological role in the regulation of the population of other insects. The species richness and abundance of parasitoids in the forest canopy and understory, both on the borders and in the interior of a tropical forest reserve in Central Amazonia were investigated. For a 12-month period, specimen collections were made every 15 days from suspended traps placed in the forest canopy and in the understory strata, both on the border and in the interior of forest areas. A total of 12,835 Hymenoptera parasitoids from 23 families were acquired. Braconidae, Diapriidae, Mymaridae, Eulophidae, and Scelionidae were the most represented in the area and strata samples. The results indicate that there were no significant differences in the species richness or abundance of Hymenoptera between the forest borders and the inner forest. The data does show that the presence of Hymenoptera is significantly greater in the understory in both the border and interior areas than in the canopy (vertical stratification. Aphelinidae and Ceraphronidae were significantly associated with the inner forest, while the other seven families with the border of the reserve. The abundance of Hymenoptera parasitoids presented seasonal variations during the year related to the rainy and dry seasons.

  18. Juvenile tree growth correlates with photosynthesis and leaf phosphorus content in central Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Antonio Marenco

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Light and soil water availability may limit carbon uptake of trees in tropical rainforests. The objective of this work was to determine how photosynthetic traits of juvenile trees respond to variations in rainfall seasonality, leaf nutrient content, and opening of the forest canopy. The correlation between leaf nutrient content and annual growth rate of saplings was also assessed. In a terra firme rainforest of the central Amazon, leaf nutrient content and gas exchange parameters were measured in five sapling tree species in the dry and rainy season of 2008. Sapling growth was measured in 2008 and 2009. Rainfall seasonality led to variations in soil water content, but it did not affect leaf gas exchange parameters. Subtle changes in the canopy opening affected CO2 saturated photosynthesis (A pot, p = 0.04. Although A pot was affected by leaf nutrient content (as follows: P > Mg > Ca > N > K, the relative growth rate of saplings correlated solely with leaf P content (r = 0.52, p = 0.003. At present, reduction in soil water content during the dry season does not seem to be strong enough to cause any effect on photosynthesis of saplings in central Amazonia. This study shows that leaf P content is positively correlated with sapling growth in the central Amazon. Therefore, the positive effect of atmospheric CO2 fertilization on long-term tree growth will depend on the ability of trees to absorb additional amount of P

  19. Terrestrial mammal assemblages in protected and human impacted areas in Northern Brazilian Amazonia

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    Rodolfo Burgos de Luna

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mammal communities in the vicinity of human settlements are often subject to subsistence hunting and retaliatory killings. We used fourteen digital camera traps equipped with infrared triggers to sample the medium-sized and large mammal communities for ca. 34 (±1.64 days per site. Diversity was measured as both Shannon entropy and Fager´s number of moves (NMS, and dominance was quantified using the Berger-Parker index. We used Kruskall-Wallis tests to investigate if there were statistically significant differences in richness, diversity and dominance among the sites. At an overall sampling effort of 1,946 trap days we recorded 216 independent observations of a total of 20 species belonging to 17 genera and 15 families. Richness and diversity appeared to be determined by forest structure, since, independent of the level of human impact, the richest areas were those closest to the ombrophilous forests of southern Guyana shield, closest to central Amazonia, whereas the poorest were at those sites closest to the vegetation mosaics of central Guyana shield. The disappearance of Tayassu pecari from the impacted areas as well as higher relative abundances in the protected areas, albeit not significant, foresees a possible bleak future for the mammalian assemblages in the near future.

  20. Neotropical fish-fruit interactions: eco-evolutionary dynamics and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Sandra Bibiana; Costa-Pereira, Raul; Fleming, Theodore; Goulding, Michael; Anderson, Jill T

    2015-11-01

    Frugivorous fish play a prominent role in seed dispersal and reproductive dynamics of plant communities in riparian and floodplain habitats of tropical regions worldwide. In Neotropical wetlands, many plant species have fleshy fruits and synchronize their fruiting with the flood season, when fruit-eating fish forage in forest and savannahs for periods of up to 7 months. We conducted a comprehensive analysis to examine the evolutionary origin of fish-fruit interactions, describe fruit traits associated with seed dispersal and seed predation, and assess the influence of fish size on the effectiveness of seed dispersal by fish (ichthyochory). To date, 62 studies have documented 566 species of fruits and seeds from 82 plant families in the diets of 69 Neotropical fish species. Fish interactions with flowering plants are likely to be as old as 70 million years in the Neotropics, pre-dating most modern bird-fruit and mammal-fruit interactions, and contributing to long-distance seed dispersal and possibly the radiation of early angiosperms. Ichthyochory occurs across the angiosperm phylogeny, and is more frequent among advanced eudicots. Numerous fish species are capable of dispersing small seeds, but only a limited number of species can disperse large seeds. The size of dispersed seeds and the probability of seed dispersal both increase with fish size. Large-bodied species are the most effective seed dispersal agents and remain the primary target of fishing activities in the Neotropics. Thus, conservation efforts should focus on these species to ensure continuity of plant recruitment dynamics and maintenance of plant diversity in riparian and floodplain ecosystems. © 2015 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  1. First Record of Scirtidae (Coleoptera Associated With Decaying Carcasses in the Neotropical Region

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    Rodrigo Farias

    2013-07-01

    Resumo. Durante um estudo de dois anos da entomofauna associada a carcaças de suínos em um remanescente de Mata Atlântica em João Pessoa, PB, Brasil, foram coletados 127 indivíduos de Scirtes sp. Este é o primeiro registro de exemplares da família Scirtidae associados a carcaças na região Neotropical.

  2. Phytogeography and conservation of neotropical dry forest with emphasis on Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Banda Rodriguez, Karina Paola

    2017-01-01

    Dry forest is one of the most threatened tropical forests in the world. Human impact has caused its massive transformation but conservation of dry forest has often been neglected across Latin America. In Colombia, less than 10% of the original extension of dry forest remains. This thesis studies the phytogeography of neotropical dry forest and its relevance for conservation using data from 1602 tree species inventories made in dry forests across Latin America and the Caribbean ...

  3. New species and records of Zavreliella Kieffer, 1920 from Neotropical region (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusari, Lívia Maria; Pinho, Luiz Carlos; Lamas, Carlos José Einicker

    2017-01-19

    A new species of Zavreliella Kieffer, Zavreliella kambeba sp. n., is described, based on male adults collected in the Amazon rainforest, Brazil. Further seven Zavreliella species are recorded for new localities in Brazil, with the first Neotropical record of Z. marmorata (van der Wulp). The genus Zavreliella is now composed of 15 species, of which adult males are reviewed in a key to their identification.

  4. Recent origin and rapid speciation of Neotropical orchids in the world's richest plant biodiversity hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Escobar, Oscar Alejandro; Chomicki, Guillaume; Condamine, Fabien L; Karremans, Adam P; Bogarín, Diego; Matzke, Nicholas J; Silvestro, Daniele; Antonelli, Alexandre

    2017-07-01

    The Andean mountains of South America are the most species-rich biodiversity hotspot worldwide with c. 15% of the world's plant species, in only 1% of the world's land surface. Orchids are a key element of the Andean flora, and one of the most prominent components of the Neotropical epiphyte diversity, yet very little is known about their origin and diversification. We address this knowledge gap by inferring the biogeographical history and diversification dynamics of the two largest Neotropical orchid groups (Cymbidieae and Pleurothallidinae), using two unparalleled, densely sampled orchid phylogenies (including more than 400 newly generated DNA sequences), comparative phylogenetic methods, geological and biological datasets. We find that the majority of Andean orchid lineages only originated in the last 20-15 million yr. Andean lineages are derived from lowland Amazonian ancestors, with additional contributions from Central America and the Antilles. Species diversification is correlated with Andean orogeny, and multiple migrations and recolonizations across the Andes indicate that mountains do not constrain orchid dispersal over long timescales. Our study sheds new light on the timing and geography of a major Neotropical diversification, and suggests that mountain uplift promotes species diversification across all elevational zones. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. Hyporheic invertebrate assemblages at reach scale in a Neotropical stream in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugnai, R; Messana, G; Di Lorenzo, T

    2015-11-01

    In the Neotropical Region, information concerning hyporheic communities is virtually non-existent. We carried out a sampling survey in the hyporheic zone of the Tijuca River, in the Tijuca National Park, located in the urban area of the city of Rio de Janeiro. Biological samples from the hyporheic zone were collected in three different stream reaches, in June 2012. The main objectives were: 1) to describe the structure of invertebrate assemblages in the hyporheic zone of a neotropical stream; 2) to apply a reach-scale approach in order to investigate spatial patterns of the hyporheic assemblages in relation to hydrology, depth and microhabitat typology. A total of 1460 individuals were collected and identified in 31 taxa belonging to Nematoda, Annelida, Crustacea, Hydrachnidia and Insecta. The class Insecta dominated the upper layer of the hyporheic zone. Copepods were the most abundant taxon among crustaceans and occurred mostly in the upwelling areas of the reaches. The results of this study represent one of the few contributions so far about hyporheic invertebrate assemblages of the Neotropical Region.

  6. Neotropical coastal lagoons: an appraisal of their biodiversity, functioning, threats and conservation management

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    FA. Esteves

    Full Text Available Neotropical coastal lagoons (NCL are human-dominated ecosystems. Their distribution along densely populated coastal areas of developing countries makes these systems among the most threatened in the world. Here, we summarize some aspects of the causes and consequences of NCL biodiversity, their functioning, their importance to the surrounding populations, their fragility, and their responses to local and global anthropogenic impacts and the challenges that Neotropical countries face in conserving these systems. Although still scarce and geographically concentrated, a growing body of studies has shown that NCLs are physiographically diversified systems, which harbor a considerable and particular proportion of the Neotropical inland aquatic biodiversity. Despite the fact that coastal lagoons are ecotones that are intricately connected to surrounding environments, they develop mechanisms for structural and functional regulation, which confer to these systems higher productivity and carrying capacities than surrounding ecosystems. Such traits attract residential developments and subsidize local traditional populations with important economic and aesthetic ecosystem revenues such as fisheries and scenic beauty. However, the disorganized human occupation around NCLs are causing profound impacts such as eutrophication, salinization, exotic species introduction, as well as other effects, which are ultimately imposing major habitat degradations and biodiversity extirpations in NCLs. We argue that interdisciplinary conservation strategies, which integrate scientific expertise, government officials, private companies and the general public, are the most likely to overcome the geographic and economic obstacles to NCL conservation.

  7. A novel molecular marker for the study of Neotropical cichlid phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrin, T M C; Gasques, L S; Prioli, S M A P; Prioli, A J

    2015-12-22

    The use of molecular markers has contributed to phylogeny and to the reconstruction of species' evolutionary history. Each region of the genome has different evolution rates, which may or may not identify phylogenetic signal at different levels. Therefore, it is important to assess new molecular markers that can be used for phylogenetic reconstruction. Regions that may be associated with species characteristics and are subject to selective pressure, such as opsin genes, which encode proteins related to the visual system and are widely expressed by Cichlidae family members, are interesting. Our aim was to identify a new nuclear molecular marker that could establish the phylogeny of Neotropical cichlids and is potentially correlated with the visual system. We used Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood analysis to support the use of the nuclear opsin LWS gene in the phylogeny of eight Neotropical cichlid species. Their use concatenated to the mitochondrial gene COI was also tested. The LWS gene fragment comprised the exon 2-4 region, including the introns. The LWS gene provided good support for both analyses up to the genus level, distinguishing the studied species, and when concatenated to the COI gene, there was a good support up to the species level. Another benefit of utilizing this region, is that some polymorphisms are associated with changes in spectral properties of the LWS opsin protein, which constitutes the visual pigment that absorbs red light. Thus, utilization of this gene as a molecular marker to study the phylogeny of Neotropical cichlids is promising.

  8. Ecological adaptation of wild peach palm, its in situ conservation and deforestation-mediated extinction in southern Brazilian Amazonia.

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    Charles R Clement

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Arc of Fire across southern Amazonia seasonally attracts worldwide attention as forests are cut and burned for agricultural expansion. These forests contain numerous wild relatives of native South American crops, such as peach palm. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our prospecting expeditions examined critical areas for wild peach palm in the Arc of Fire in Mato Grosso, Pará, Maranhão and Tocantins, as well as areas not previously examined in Amazonas and Amapá states. Recent digitization of the RADAM Brasil project permitted comparison among RADAM's parataxonomists' observations, previous botanical collections and our prospecting. Mapping on soils and vegetation types enabled us to hypothesize a set of ecological preferences. Wild peach palm is best adapted to Ultisols (Acrisols in open forests across the Arc of Fire and westward into the more humid western Amazonia. Populations are generally small (fewer than 10 plants on slopes above watercourses. In northern Mato Grosso and southern Pará soybean fields and pastures now occupy numerous areas where RADAM identified wild peach palm. The controversial BR-163 Highway is already eroding wild peach palm as deforestation expands. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Many of these populations are now isolated by increasing forest fragmentation, which will lead to decreased reproduction via inbreeding depression and eventual extinction even without complete deforestation. Federal conservation areas are less numerous in the Arc of Fire than in other parts of Brazilian Amazonia, although there are indigenous lands; these conservation areas contain viable populations of wild peach palm and require better protection than they are currently receiving. Ex situ conservation of these populations is not viable given the relative lack of importance of domesticated peach palm and the difficulty of maintaining even economically interesting genetic resources.

  9. Prediction of rainfall anomalies during the dry to wet transition season over the Southern Amazonia using machine learning tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, X.; Zhang, K.; Zhuang, Y.; Fu, R.; Hong, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Seasonal prediction of rainfall during the dry-to-wet transition season in austral spring (September-November) over southern Amazonia is central for improving planting crops and fire mitigation in that region. Previous studies have identified the key large-scale atmospheric dynamic and thermodynamics pre-conditions during the dry season (June-August) that influence the rainfall anomalies during the dry to wet transition season over Southern Amazonia. Based on these key pre-conditions during dry season, we have evaluated several statistical models and developed a Neural Network based statistical prediction system to predict rainfall during the dry to wet transition for Southern Amazonia (5-15°S, 50-70°W). Multivariate Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) Analysis is applied to the following four fields during JJA from the ECMWF Reanalysis (ERA-Interim) spanning from year 1979 to 2015: geopotential height at 200 hPa, surface relative humidity, convective inhibition energy (CIN) index and convective available potential energy (CAPE), to filter out noise and highlight the most coherent spatial and temporal variations. The first 10 EOF modes are retained for inputs to the statistical models, accounting for at least 70% of the total variance in the predictor fields. We have tested several linear and non-linear statistical methods. While the regularized Ridge Regression and Lasso Regression can generally capture the spatial pattern and magnitude of rainfall anomalies, we found that that Neural Network performs best with an accuracy greater than 80%, as expected from the non-linear dependence of the rainfall on the large-scale atmospheric thermodynamic conditions and circulation. Further tests of various prediction skill metrics and hindcasts also suggest this Neural Network prediction approach can significantly improve seasonal prediction skill than the dynamic predictions and regression based statistical predictions. Thus, this statistical prediction system could have

  10. Ecological adaptation of wild peach palm, its in situ conservation and deforestation-mediated extinction in southern Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Charles R; Santos, Ronaldo P; Desmouliere, Sylvain J M; Ferreira, Evandro J L; Neto, João Tomé Farias

    2009-01-01

    The Arc of Fire across southern Amazonia seasonally attracts worldwide attention as forests are cut and burned for agricultural expansion. These forests contain numerous wild relatives of native South American crops, such as peach palm. Our prospecting expeditions examined critical areas for wild peach palm in the Arc of Fire in Mato Grosso, Pará, Maranhão and Tocantins, as well as areas not previously examined in Amazonas and Amapá states. Recent digitization of the RADAM Brasil project permitted comparison among RADAM's parataxonomists' observations, previous botanical collections and our prospecting. Mapping on soils and vegetation types enabled us to hypothesize a set of ecological preferences. Wild peach palm is best adapted to Ultisols (Acrisols) in open forests across the Arc of Fire and westward into the more humid western Amazonia. Populations are generally small (fewer than 10 plants) on slopes above watercourses. In northern Mato Grosso and southern Pará soybean fields and pastures now occupy numerous areas where RADAM identified wild peach palm. The controversial BR-163 Highway is already eroding wild peach palm as deforestation expands. Many of these populations are now isolated by increasing forest fragmentation, which will lead to decreased reproduction via inbreeding depression and eventual extinction even without complete deforestation. Federal conservation areas are less numerous in the Arc of Fire than in other parts of Brazilian Amazonia, although there are indigenous lands; these conservation areas contain viable populations of wild peach palm and require better protection than they are currently receiving. Ex situ conservation of these populations is not viable given the relative lack of importance of domesticated peach palm and the difficulty of maintaining even economically interesting genetic resources.

  11. Application of the Forhyd model to simulate net precipitation and intercepted water evaporation in forest canopies in Colombian amazonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tellez Guio, Patricia; Boschell Villamarin, Francisco; Tobon Marin, Conrado

    2005-01-01

    Hydrologic simulation is a technique, which allows us to understand the relationships among hydrological, biological and ecological variables in an ecosystem. In this research, the FORHYD model is used to simulate the net precipitation and the water intercepted by the canopies of a mature forest, a 30-year old secondary forest, an 18-year old secondary forest, a 5-year old secondary forest, and a shifting cultivation plot, all located in Colombia's amazonia. The model calculates the water budget of the canopy by using the precipitation rates, canopy drainage and evaporation of the water intercepted by the canopy. This paper is the second one in a series of papers reporting the results of the research on the simulation of the hydrological fluxes in three different land use types of Colombian amazonia. The research was carried out in middle Caqueta of Colombian amazonia (northwest amazon basin). The FORHYD model was calibrated and validated by using field observations of the climate, net precipitation (PT), thoughtful (TH) and stem flow (ST), which were monitored during a period of 15 months from March 2001 to June 2002. These observations were used as both input variables and diagnostic variables to probe the model's precision to simulate field observations. Results showed that FORHYD simulates with a good precision the net precipitation and the evaporation of the water intercepted by the canopy. However, the model's precision depends on a good parameterization, which in turn depends on a good database of field observations. The model is a good tool for simulating the hydrological cycle and can be used to simulate critical scenarios of climate variability

  12. Preservación ambiental de la amazonia colombiana: retos para la política fiscal

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Azuero; Jorge Armando Rodríguez

    2016-01-01

    Este artículo explora los retos encarados por la política fiscal en la preservación de la Amazonia colombiana. Se discuten algunos sesgos en contra del gasto público ambiental y se examinan las modalidades de financiación de la función estatal de protección del ambiente en la región. Los autores arguyen que muchas de las herramientas fiscales empleadas en Colombia para el efecto generan incentivos contrarios a los objetivos de conservación. Además de que las externalidades ambientales rebasan...

  13. Ocurrencia de hongos formadores de micorriza arbuscular asociados a ají (Capsicum sp.) en la Amazonia colombiana

    OpenAIRE

    Cardona, Gladys; Peña-Venegas, Clara Patricia; arcos, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    Capsicum sp. es una especie nativa de América de gran importancia por su diversidad de usos. La Amazonia colombiana es considerada uno de los centros de origen y alberga una gran riqueza de morfoespecies. A pesar de su importancia para el crecimiento y supervivencia de plantas bajo condiciones limitantes de nutrientes, son escasos los trabajos relacionados con la dinámica de los hongos formadores de micorriza arbuscular (HFMA) en Capsicum. Se estudió la ocurrencia de HFMA, a partir de colecta...

  14. Biogeographical patterns of Myrcia s.l. (Myrtaceae) and their correlation with geological and climatic history in the Neotropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Matheus Fortes; Lucas, Eve; Sano, Paulo Takeo; Buerki, Sven; Staggemeier, Vanessa Graziele; Forest, Félix

    2017-03-01

    Many recent studies discuss the influence of climatic and geological events in the evolution of Neotropical biota by correlating these events with dated phylogenetic hypotheses. Myrtaceae is one of the most diverse Neotropical groups and it therefore a good proxy of plant diversity in the region. However, biogeographic studies on Neotropical Myrtaceae are still very limited. Myrcia s.l. is an informal group comprising three accepted genera (Calyptranthes, Marlierea and Myrcia) making up the second largest Neotropical group of Myrtaceae, totalling about 700 species distributed in nine subgroups. Exclusively Neotropical, the group occurs along the whole of the Neotropics with diversity centres in the Caribbean, the Guiana Highlands and the central-eastern Brazil. This study aims to identify the time and place of divergence of Myrcia s.l. lineages, to examine the correlation in light of geological and climatic events in the Neotropics, and to explore relationships among Neotropical biogeographic areas. A dated phylogenetic hypothesis was produced using BEAST and calibrated by placing Paleomyrtinaea princetonensis (56Ma) at the root of the tree; biogeographic analysis used the DEC model with dispersal probabilities between areas based on distance and floristic affinities. Myrcia s.l. originated in the Montane Atlantic Forest between the end of Eocene and early Miocene and this region acted as a secondary cradle for several lineages during the evolution of this group. The Caribbean region was important in the diversification of the Calyptranthes clade while the Guayana shield appears as ancestral area for an older subgroup of Myrcia s.l. The Amazon Forest has relatively low diversity of Myrcia s.l. species but appears to have been important in the initial biogeographic history of old lineages. Lowland Atlantic Forest has high species diversity but species rich lineages did not originate in the area. Diversification of most subgroups of Myrcia s.l. occurred throughout

  15. High Species Richness of Scinax Treefrogs (Hylidae in a Threatened Amazonian Landscape Revealed by an Integrative Approach.

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    Miquéias Ferrão

    Full Text Available Rising habitat loss is one of the main drivers of the global amphibian decline. Nevertheless, knowledge of amphibian diversity needed for effective habitat protection is still highly inadequate in remote tropical regions, the greater part of the Amazonia. In this study we integrated molecular, morphological and bioacoustic evidence to evaluate the species richness of the treefrogs genus Scinax over a 1000 km transect across rainforest of the Purus-Madeira interfluve, and along the east bank of the upper Madeira river, Brazilian Amazonia. Analysis revealed that 82% of the regional species richness of Scinax is still undescribed; two nominal species, seven confirmed candidate species, two unconfirmed candidate species, and one deep conspecific lineage were detected in the study area. DNA barcoding based analysis of the 16s rRNA gene indicates possible existence of three discrete species groups within the genus Scinax, in addition to the already-known S. rostratus species Group. Quantifying and characterizing the number of undescribed Scinax taxa on a regional scale, we provide a framework for future taxonomic study in Amazonia. These findings indicate that the level to which Amazonian anura species richness has been underestimated is far greater than expected. Consequently, special attention should be paid both to taxonomic studies and protection of the still-neglected Amazonian Scinax treefrogs.

  16. Selection, diversity and evolutionary patterns of the MHC class II DAB in free-ranging Neotropical marsupials

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    Otten Celine

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on the genetic architecture and diversity of the MHC has focused mainly on eutherian mammals, birds and fish. So far, studies on model marsupials used in laboratory investigations indicated very little or even no variation in MHC class II genes. However, natural levels of diversity and selection are unknown in marsupials as studies on wild populations are virtually absent. We used two endemic South American mouse opossums, Gracilinanus microtarsus and Marmosops incanus, to investigate characteristic features of MHC selection. This study is the first investigation of MHC selection in free-ranging Neotropical marsupials. In addition, the evolutionary history of MHC lineages within the group of marsupials was examined. Results G. microtarsus showed extensive levels of MHC diversity within and among individuals as 47 MHC-DAB alleles and high levels of sequence divergence were detected at a minimum of four loci. Positively selected codon sites were identified, of which most were congruent with human antigen binding sites. The diversity in M. incanus was rather low with only eight observed alleles at presumably two loci. However, these alleles also revealed high sequence divergence. Again, positive selection was identified on specific codon sites, all congruent with human ABS and with positively selected sites observed in G. microtarsus. In a phylogenetic comparison alleles of M. incanus interspersed widely within alleles of G. microtarsus with four alleles being present in both species. Conclusion Our investigations revealed extensive MHC class II polymorphism in a natural marsupial population, contrary to previous assumptions. Furthermore, our study confirms for the first time in marsupials the presence of three characteristic features common at MHC loci of eutherian mammals, birds and fish: large allelic sequence divergence, positive selection on specific sites and trans-specific polymorphism.

  17. Synergistic impacts of deforestation, climate change and fire on the future biomes distribution in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, G.; Cardoso, M. F.; Nobre, C. A.; Salazar, L. F.

    2013-05-01

    Several studies indicate future increase of environmental risks for the ecosystems in the Amazon region as a result of climate and land-use change, and their synergistic interactions. Modeling studies (e.g. Oyama and Nobre 2004, Salazar et al. 2007, Malhi et al. 2008) project rapid and irreversible replacement of forests by savannas with large-scale losses of biodiversity and livelihoods for people in the region. This process is referred to as the Amazon Dieback, where accelerated plant mortality due to environmental changes lead to forest collapse and savannas expansion after "tipping points" in climate and land surface changes are achieved. In this study we performed new analyses to quantify how deforestation, climate change and fire may combine to affect the distribution of major biomes in Amazonia. Changes in land use consider deforestation scenarios of 0%, 20%, 40%, and 50% (Sampaio et al., 2007), with and without fires (Cardoso et al., 2008), under the two greenhouse gases scenarios B1 and A2 and three "representative concentration pathways" (RCPs): 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5, for years 2015-2034 and 2040-2059 ("2025" and "2050" time-slices), from IPCC AR4 and CMIP5. The results show that the area affected in scenarios A2 and RCP 8.5 is larger than in the climate scenario B1 and RCP 2.6, and in both cases the effect is progressively higher in time. Most important changes occur in the East and South of the Amazon, with replacement of tropical forest by seasonal forest and savanna. The effect of fire in this region is important in all scenarios. The Northwest Amazon presents the smallest changes in the area of tropical forest, indicating that even for substantial land-use modifications and global climate change, the resulting atmospheric conditions would still support tropical forest in the region. In summary, we conclude that the synergistic combination of deforestation, climate change resulting from global warming, and the potential for higher fire occurrence may lead

  18. Impacts of Amazonia biomass burning aerosols assessed from short-range weather forecasts

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    S. R. Kolusu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The direct radiative impacts of biomass burning aerosols (BBA on meteorology are investigated using short-range forecasts from the Met Office Unified Model (MetUM over South America during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA. The impacts are evaluated using a set of three simulations: (i no aerosols, (ii with monthly mean aerosol climatologies and (iii with prognostic aerosols modelled using the Coupled Large-scale Aerosol Simulator for Studies In Climate (CLASSIC scheme. Comparison with observations show that the prognostic CLASSIC scheme provides the best representation of BBA. The impacts of BBA are quantified over central and southern Amazonia from the first and second day of 2-day forecasts during 14 September–3 October 2012. On average, during the first day of the forecast, including prognostic BBA reduces the clear-sky net radiation at the surface by 15 ± 1 W m−2 and reduces net top-of-atmosphere (TOA radiation by 8 ± 1 W m−2, with a direct atmospheric warming of 7 ± 1 W m−2. BBA-induced reductions in all-sky radiation are smaller in magnitude: 9.0 ± 1 W m−2 at the surface and 4.0 ± 1 W m−2 at TOA. In this modelling study the BBA therefore exert an overall cooling influence on the Earth–atmosphere system, although some levels of the atmosphere are directly warmed by the absorption of solar radiation. Due to the reduction of net radiative flux at the surface, the mean 2 m air temperature is reduced by around 0.1 ± 0.02 °C. The BBA also cools the boundary layer (BL but warms air above by around 0.2 °C due to the absorption of shortwave radiation. The overall impact is to reduce the BL depth by around 19 ± 8 m. These differences in heating lead to a more anticyclonic circulation at 700 hPa, with winds changing by around 0.6 m s−1. Inclusion of climatological or prognostic BBA in the MetUM makes a small but significant improvement in forecasts of temperature and relative humidity, but improvements were

  19. How the fluctuations of water levels affect populations of invasive bivalve Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774 in a Neotropical reservoir?

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    LRP. Paschoal

    Full Text Available Corbicula fluminea is an invasive bivalve responsible for several environmental and financial problems around the globe. Despite the invasive potential of this species, it suffers certain restrictions in lentic environments due to natural phenomena that significantly affect its population structure (e.g. water column fluctuation and sunlight exposure. The present study addresses how temporal decline of the water level in a Neotropical reservoir and exposure to sunlight affect the population structure of C. fluminea. Samplings were carried out twice in the reservoir of Furnas Hydroelectric Power Station (HPS (Minas Gerais, Brazil, in 2011 and 2012. Population density, spatial distribution and mean shell length of C. fluminea were estimated for each year after sampling in 51 quadrats (0.0625m2 placed on three transects at different distances along the reservoir margins (0, 10 and 20 m from a fixed-point. We observed a predominance of C. fluminea in both years, with a simultaneous gradual decrease in density and richness of native species in the sampling area. Significant differences in density of C. fluminea were registered at different distances from the margin, and are related to the temporal variability of physical conditions of the sediment and water in these environments. We also registered a trend toward an increase in the density and aggregation of C. fluminea as we moved away from the margin, due to the greater stability of these areas (>10 m. The mean shell length of C. fluminea showed significant difference between the distinct distances from the margin and during the years, as well as the interaction of these factors (Distances vs.Years. These results were associated with the reproductive and invasive capacity of this species. This study reveals that these temporal events (especially water column fluctuation may cause alterations in density, spatial distribution and mean shell length of C. fluminea and the composition of the native

  20. Fish Consumption during Pregnancy, Mercury Transfer, and Birth Weight along the Madeira River Basin in Amazonia

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    Renata S. Leão

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Birth weight can be a predictor of maternal health issues related to nutrition and environmental contaminants. Total hair mercury (HHg concentration was studied as an indicator of both fish consumption and methylmercury exposure in mothers (and newborns living in selected low income areas of the Madeira River basin, Amazonia, Brazil. This cohort study (n = 1,433 consisted of traditional riverines (n = 396, riverines who had moved to urban (n = 676 and rural (n = 67 settings, and tin miner settlers (n = 294. Median maternal HHg was significantly different (p = 0.00001 between riverine (12.1 µg·g−1, rural (7.82 µg·g−1, urban (5.4 µg·g−1, and tin miner (4.5 µg·g−1 groups studied. The same trend (of medians was observed for newborns’ HHg which also showed significant differences between riverine (3.0 µg·g−1, rural (2.0 µg·g−1, urban (1.5 µg·g−1, and tin miner (0.8 µg·g−1 groups. The correlation between maternal and newborn HHg was statistically significant in the riverine (r = 0.8952; p = 0.0001, urban (r = 0.6744; p = 0.0001, and rural (r = 0.8416; p = 0.0001 groups but not in the mother-infant pairs in the tin miner group (r = 0.0638; p = 0.2752. Birth weight was significantly different among groups but did not show a pattern consistent with that of fish consumption (and HHg. A multiple regression analysis showed that only family income and gestational age had a significant impact on birth weight. Conclusions: Maternal HHg is an important biomarker of maternal fish consumption and of methylmercury exposure during pregnancy. However, in these Amazonian groups, only maternal education and gestational age seemed to affect birth weight positively.

  1. Dark Earths and manioc cultivation in Central Amazonia: a window on pre-Columbian agricultural systems?

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    James A. Fraser

    Full Text Available Many commentators highlight the fertility of Anthropogenic Dark Earths (ADE, emphasizing their potential for sustainable agriculture. Some scholars believe that terra mulata (the less fertile, more extensive form of ADE was created by means of agricultural practices used by large settled populations of pre-Columbian farmers. But what was it that these Amerindian farmers were growing? Until recently, scholarly consensus held that manioc does not perform well on ADE. New research on the middle Madeira River is showing, however, that this consensus was premature. In this region, the most common crop in ADE fields is bitter manioc. Farmers there have various landraces of manioc that they believe yield particularly well on ADE, and logically plant more of these varieties on ADE. Aspects of the behaviour and perception of manioc cultivation among 52 farmers at the community of Barro Alto were measured quantitatively on four terra firme soil types (Terra Preta, Terra Mulata, Oxisols and Ultisols. These farmers plant different configurations of landraces in different soils, according to their perception of the suitability of particular landraces and their characteristics to certain soil types and successional processes. This, in turn, shapes selective pressures on these varieties, as new genetic material incorporated from volunteer seedlings is more likely to contain traits present in the most prevalent landrace(s in each soil type. Owing to localized population pressure at Barro Alto, manioc is under more intensive cultivation systems, with shorter cropping periods (5-10 months and shorter fallow periods (1-2 years. The outcome of these processes is different co-evolutionary dynamics on ADE as opposed to non-anthropogenic soils. Further anthropological study of manioc swiddening in one of the richest agricultural environments in Amazonia can fill a gap in the literature, thus opening an additional window on the pre-Columbian period.

  2. Dark Earths and manioc cultivation in Central Amazonia: a window on pre-Columbian agricultural systems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Fraser

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Many commentators highlight the fertility of Anthropogenic Dark Earths (ADE, emphasizing their potential for sustainable agriculture. Some scholars believe that terra mulata (the less fertile, more extensive form of ADE was created by means of agricultural practices used by large settled populations of pre-Columbian farmers. But what was it that these Amerindian farmers were growing? Until recently, scholarly consensus held that manioc does not perform well on ADE. New research on the middle Madeira River is showing, however, that this consensus was premature. In this region, the most common crop in ADE fields is bitter manioc. Farmers there have various landraces of manioc that they believe yield particularly well on ADE, and logically plant more of these varieties on ADE. Aspects of the behaviour and perception of manioc cultivation among 52 farmers at the community of Barro Alto were measured quantitatively on four terra firme soil types (Terra Preta, Terra Mulata, Oxisols and Ultisols. These farmers plant different configurations of landraces in different soils, according to their perception of the suitability of particular landraces and their characteristics to certain soil types and successional processes.This, in turn, shapes selective pressures on these varieties, as new genetic material incorporated from volunteer seedlings is more likely to contain traits present in the most prevalent landrace(s in each soil type. Owing to localized population pressure at Barro Alto, manioc is under more intensive cultivation systems, with shorter cropping periods (5-10 months and shorter fallow periods (1-2 years. The outcome of these processes is different co-evolutionary dynamics on ADE as opposed to non-anthropogenic soils. Further anthropological study of manioc swiddening in one of the richest agricultural environments in Amazonia can fill a gap in the literature, thus opening an additional window on the pre-Columbian period.

  3. Meso-scale effects of tropical deforestation in Amazonia: preparatory LBA modelling studies

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    A. J. Dolman

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available As part of the preparation for the Large-Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia, a meso-scale modelling study was executed to highlight deficiencies in the current understanding of land surface atmosphere interaction at local to sub-continental scales in the dry season. Meso-scale models were run in 1-D and 3-D mode for the area of Rondonia State, Brazil. The important conclusions are that without calibration it is difficult to model the energy partitioning of pasture; modelling that of forest is easier due to the absence of a strong moisture deficit signal. The simulation of the boundary layer above forest is good, above deforested areas (pasture poor. The models' underestimate of the temperature of the boundary layer is likely to be caused by the neglect of the radiative effects of aerosols caused by biomass burning, but other factors such as lack of sufficient entrainment in the model at the mixed layer top may also contribute. The Andes generate patterns of subsidence and gravity waves, the effects of which are felt far into the Rondonian area The results show that the picture presented by GCM modelling studies may need to be balanced by an increased understanding of what happens at the meso-scale. The results are used to identify key measurements for the LBA atmospheric meso-scale campaign needed to improve the model simulations. Similar modelling studies are proposed for the wet season in Rondonia, when convection plays a major role.Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (aerosols and particles; biosphere-atmosphere interactions · Meterology and atmospheric dynamics (mesoscale meterology

  4. Global warming and climate change in Amazonia: Climate-vegetation feedback and impacts on water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, José; Nobre, Carlos A.; Betts, Richard A.; Cox, Peter M.; Sampaio, Gilvan; Salazar, Luis

    This chapter constitutes an updated review of long-term climate variability and change in the Amazon region, based on observational data spanning more than 50 years of records and on climate-change modeling studies. We start with the early experiments on Amazon deforestation in the late 1970s, and the evolution of these experiments to the latest studies on greenhouse gases emission scenarios and land use changes until the end of the twenty-first century. The "Amazon dieback" simulated by the HadCM3 model occurs after a "tipping point" of CO2 concentration and warming. Experiments on Amazon deforestation and change of climate suggest that once a critical deforestation threshold (or tipping point) of 40-50% forest loss is reached in eastern Amazonia, climate would change in a way which is dangerous for the remaining forest. This may favor a collapse of the tropical forest, with a substitution of the forest by savanna-type vegetation. The concept of "dangerous climate change," as a climate change, which induces positive feedback, which accelerate the change, is strongly linked to the occurrence of tipping points, and it can be explained as the presence of feedback between climate change and the carbon cycle, particularly involving a weakening of the current terrestrial carbon sink and a possible reversal from a sink (as in present climate) to a source by the year 2050. We must, therefore, currently consider the drying simulated by the Hadley Centre model(s) as having a finite probability under global warming, with a potentially enormous impact, but with some degree of uncertainty.

  5. DISTRIBUTION OF ORGANIC CARBON IN DIFFERENT SOIL FRACTIONS IN ECOSYSTEMS OF CENTRAL AMAZONIA

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    Jean Dalmo de Oliveira Marques

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Organic matter plays an important role in many soil properties, and for that reason it is necessary to identify management systems which maintain or increase its concentrations. The aim of the present study was to determine the quality and quantity of organic C in different compartments of the soil fraction in different Amazonian ecosystems. The soil organic matter (FSOM was fractionated and soil C stocks were estimated in primary forest (PF, pasture (P, secondary succession (SS and an agroforestry system (AFS. Samples were collected at the depths 0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-40, 40-60, 60-80, 80-100, 100-160, and 160-200 cm. Densimetric and particle size analysis methods were used for FSOM, obtaining the following fractions: FLF (free light fraction, IALF (intra-aggregate light fraction, F-sand (sand fraction, F-clay (clay fraction and F-silt (silt fraction. The 0-5 cm layer contains 60 % of soil C, which is associated with the FLF. The F-clay was responsible for 70 % of C retained in the 0-200 cm depth. There was a 12.7 g kg-1 C gain in the FLF from PF to SS, and a 4.4 g kg-1 C gain from PF to AFS, showing that SS and AFS areas recover soil organic C, constituting feasible C-recovery alternatives for degraded and intensively farmed soils in Amazonia. The greatest total stocks of carbon in soil fractions were, in decreasing order: (101.3 Mg ha-1 of C - AFS > (98.4 Mg ha-1 of C - FP > (92.9 Mg ha-1 of C - SS > (64.0 Mg ha-1 of C - P. The forms of land use in the Amazon influence C distribution in soil fractions, resulting in short- or long-term changes.

  6. Increased Wildfire Risk Driven by Climate and Development Interactions in the Bolivian Chiquitania, Southern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devisscher, Tahia; Anderson, Liana O; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Galván, Luis; Malhi, Yadvinder

    2016-01-01

    Wildfires are becoming increasingly dominant in tropical landscapes due to reinforcing feedbacks between land cover change and more severe dry conditions. This study focused on the Bolivian Chiquitania, a region located at the southern edge of Amazonia. The extensive, unique and well-conserved tropical dry forest in this region is susceptible to wildfires due to a marked seasonality. We used a novel approach to assess fire risk at the regional level driven by different development trajectories interacting with changing climatic conditions. Possible future risk scenarios were simulated using maximum entropy modelling with presence-only data, combining land cover, anthropogenic and climatic variables. We found that important determinants of fire risk in the region are distance to roads, recent deforestation and density of human settlements. Severely dry conditions alone increased the area of high fire risk by 69%, affecting all categories of land use and land cover. Interactions between extreme dry conditions and rapid frontier expansion further increased fire risk, resulting in potential biomass loss of 2.44±0.8 Tg in high risk area, about 1.8 times higher than the estimates for the 2010 drought. These interactions showed particularly high fire risk in land used for 'extensive cattle ranching', 'agro-silvopastoral use' and 'intensive cattle ranching and agriculture'. These findings have serious implications for subsistence activities and the economy in the Chiquitania, which greatly depend on the forestry, agriculture and livestock sectors. Results are particularly concerning if considering the current development policies promoting frontier expansion. Departmental protected areas inhibited wildfires when strategically established in areas of high risk, even under drought conditions. However, further research is needed to assess their effectiveness accounting for more specific contextual factors. This novel and simple modelling approach can inform fire and land

  7. Increased Wildfire Risk Driven by Climate and Development Interactions in the Bolivian Chiquitania, Southern Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahia Devisscher

    Full Text Available Wildfires are becoming increasingly dominant in tropical landscapes due to reinforcing feedbacks between land cover change and more severe dry conditions. This study focused on the Bolivian Chiquitania, a region located at the southern edge of Amazonia. The extensive, unique and well-conserved tropical dry forest in this region is susceptible to wildfires due to a marked seasonality. We used a novel approach to assess fire risk at the regional level driven by different development trajectories interacting with changing climatic conditions. Possible future risk scenarios were simulated using maximum entropy modelling with presence-only data, combining land cover, anthropogenic and climatic variables. We found that important determinants of fire risk in the region are distance to roads, recent deforestation and density of human settlements. Severely dry conditions alone increased the area of high fire risk by 69%, affecting all categories of land use and land cover. Interactions between extreme dry conditions and rapid frontier expansion further increased fire risk, resulting in potential biomass loss of 2.44±0.8 Tg in high risk area, about 1.8 times higher than the estimates for the 2010 drought. These interactions showed particularly high fire risk in land used for 'extensive cattle ranching', 'agro-silvopastoral use' and 'intensive cattle ranching and agriculture'. These findings have serious implications for subsistence activities and the economy in the Chiquitania, which greatly depend on the forestry, agriculture and livestock sectors. Results are particularly concerning if considering the current development policies promoting frontier expansion. Departmental protected areas inhibited wildfires when strategically established in areas of high risk, even under drought conditions. However, further research is needed to assess their effectiveness accounting for more specific contextual factors. This novel and simple modelling approach can

  8. The costs of evaluating species densities and composition of snakes to assess development impacts in amazonia.

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    Rafael de Fraga

    Full Text Available Studies leading to decision-making for environmental licensing often fail to provide accurate estimates of diversity. Measures of snake diversity are regularly obtained to assess development impacts in the rainforests of the Amazon Basin, but this taxonomic group may be subject to poor detection probabilities. Recently, the Brazilian government tried to standardize sampling designs by the implementation of a system (RAPELD to quantify biological diversity using spatially-standardized sampling units. Consistency in sampling design allows the detection probabilities to be compared among taxa, and sampling effort and associated cost to be evaluated. The cost effectiveness of detecting snakes has received no attention in Amazonia. Here we tested the effects of reducing sampling effort on estimates of species densities and assemblage composition. We identified snakes in seven plot systems, each standardised with 14 plots. The 250 m long centre line of each plot followed an altitudinal contour. Surveys were repeated four times in each plot and detection probabilities were estimated for the 41 species encountered. Reducing the number of observations, or the size of the sampling modules, caused significant loss of information on species densities and local patterns of variation in assemblage composition. We estimated the cost to find a snake as $ 120 U.S., but general linear models indicated the possibility of identifying differences in assemblage composition for half the overall survey costs. Decisions to reduce sampling effort depend on the importance of lost information to target-issues, and may not be the preferred option if there is the potential for identifying individual snake species requiring specific conservation actions. However, in most studies of human disturbance on species assemblages, it is likely to be more cost-effective to focus on other groups of organisms with higher detection probabilities.

  9. Meso-scale effects of tropical deforestation in Amazonia: preparatory LBA modelling studies

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    A. J. Dolman

    Full Text Available As part of the preparation for the Large-Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia, a meso-scale modelling study was executed to highlight deficiencies in the current understanding of land surface atmosphere interaction at local to sub-continental scales in the dry season. Meso-scale models were run in 1-D and 3-D mode for the area of Rondonia State, Brazil. The important conclusions are that without calibration it is difficult to model the energy partitioning of pasture; modelling that of forest is easier due to the absence of a strong moisture deficit signal. The simulation of the boundary layer above forest is good, above deforested areas (pasture poor. The models' underestimate of the temperature of the boundary layer is likely to be caused by the neglect of the radiative effects of aerosols caused by biomass burning, but other factors such as lack of sufficient entrainment in the model at the mixed layer top may also contribute. The Andes generate patterns of subsidence and gravity waves, the effects of which are felt far into the Rondonian area The results show that the picture presented by GCM modelling studies may need to be balanced by an increased understanding of what happens at the meso-scale. The results are used to identify key measurements for the LBA atmospheric meso-scale campaign needed to improve the model simulations. Similar modelling studies are proposed for the wet season in Rondonia, when convection plays a major role.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (aerosols and particles; biosphere-atmosphere interactions · Meterology and atmospheric dynamics (mesoscale meterology

  10. Las palmas entre los grupos cazadores-recolectores de la Amazonia Colombiana

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    Morcote Ríos Gaspar

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available We compare past and present systems of management of palms in the Colombian Amazon, based on archaeological studies of preceramic groups in the middle Caquetá region and ethnographic research on the nomadic Nukak people, who inhabit northeastern Guaviare department. Astrocaryum aculeatum, Attalea maripe, Mauritia flexuosa, Oenocarpus bataua, Oenocarpus bacaba y Oenocarpus mapora, have been used from the early Holocene through the present time. Among these, Oenocarpus bataua has remained the most important food species. We conclude that one of the mananging strategies of the tropical rain forest is the simultaneous improvement of ecological units, especially in the tertiary sedimentary plains, and that such management probably has a long history in the region.Se presenta una comparación sobre el manejo de las palmas en la Amazonia Colombiana, basado en los resultados de un estudio arqueológico de grupos precerámicos en la región del Medio Caquetá y uno etnográfico del pueblo nómada Nukak que habita la zona nororiental del departamento del Guaviare. Se encontró que Astrocaryum aculeatum, A ttalea maripa, Mauritia flexuosa, Oenocarpus bataua, Oenocarpus bacaba y Oenocarpus mapora son algunas de las palmas usadas desde el Holoceno temprano hasta el presente. Entre estas Oenocarpus bataua es la especie más importante como fuente de alimento. Así mismo, se concluye que una de las estrategias de manejo en el bosque húmedo tropical es el aprovechamiento simultáneo de diferentes unidades ecológicas, con predominio del plano sedimentario terciario. Es probable que este tipo de manejo tenga en la región una larga historia.

  11. A 6900-year history of landscape modification by humans in lowland Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, M. B.; Correa-Metrio, A.; McMichael, C. H.; Sully, S.; Shadik, C. R.; Valencia, B. G.; Guilderson, T.; Steinitz-Kannan, M.; Overpeck, J. T.

    2016-06-01

    A sedimentary record from the Peruvian Amazon provided evidence of climate and vegetation change for the last 6900 years. Piston cores collected from the center of Lake Sauce, a 20 m deep lake at 600 m elevation, were 19.7 m in length. The fossil pollen record showed a continuously forested catchment within the period of the record, although substantial changes in forest composition were apparent. Fossil charcoal, found throughout the record, was probably associated with humans setting fires. Two fires, at c. 6700 cal BP and 4270 cal BP, appear to have been stand-replacing events possibly associated with megadroughts. The fire event at 4270 cal BP followed a drought that caused lowered lake levels for several centuries. The successional trajectories of forest recovery following these large fires were prolonged by smaller fire events. Fossil pollen of Zea mays (cultivated maize) provided evidence of agricultural activity at the site since c. 6320 cal BP. About 5150 years ago, the lake deepened and started to deposit laminated sediments. Maize agriculture reached a peak of intensity between c. 3380 and 700 cal BP. Fossil diatom data provided a proxy for lake nutrient status and productivity, both of which peaked during the period of maize cultivation. A marked change in land use was evident after c. 700 cal BP when maize agriculture was apparently abandoned at this site. Iriartea, a hyperdominant of riparian settings in western Amazonia, increased in abundance within the last 1100 years, but declined markedly at c. 1070 cal BP and again between c. 80 and -10 cal BP.

  12. The stratigraphy and regional structure of Miocene deposits in western Amazonia (Peru, Colombia and Brazil), with implications for late Neogene landscape evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, F.P.; Hoorn, M.C.; Guerrero, J.; Räsänen, M.E.; Romero Pittmann, L.; Salo, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    A biozonation based on molluscs is proposed for Miocene deposits of western Amazonia (Peru, Colombia and Brazil), commonly referred to as the Pebas Formation. The new zonation refines existing pollen zonations and provides a key for the quick assessment of the stratigraphic position of Neogene

  13. Carbon and nutrient stocks of three Fabaceae trees used for forest restoration and subjected to fertilization in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaquetti, Roberto K; Gonçalves, José Francisco C

    2017-01-01

    Amazonia is crucial to global carbon cycle. Deforestation continues to be one of the main causes of the release of C into the atmosphere, but forest restoration plantations can reverse this scenario. However, there is still diffuse information about the C and nutrient stocks in the vegetation biomass. We investigated the carbon and nutrient stocks of Fabaceae trees (Inga edulis, Schizolobium amazonicum and Dipteryx odorata) subjected to fertilization treatments (T1 - no fertilization; T2 - chemical; T3 - organic; and T4 - organic and chemical fertilization) in a degraded area of the Balbina Hydroelectric Dam, AM - Brazil. As an early successional species, I. edulis stocked more C and nutrients than the other two species independent of the fertilization treatment, and S. amazonicum stocked more C than D. odorata under T1 and T4. The mixed species plantation had the potential to stock 4.1 Mg C ha-1 year-1, while I. edulis alone could stock 9.4 Mg C ha-1 year-1. Mixing species that rapidly assimilate C and are of significant ecological and commercial value (e.g., Fabaceae trees) represents a good way to restore degraded areas. Our results suggest that the tested species be used for forest restoration in Amazonia.

  14. High genetic diversity among and within bitter manioc varieties cultivated in different soil types in Central Amazonia

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    Alessandro Alves-Pereira

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although manioc is well adapted to nutrient-poor Oxisols of Amazonia, ethnobotanical observations show that bitter manioc is also frequently cultivated in the highly fertile soils of the floodplains and Amazonian dark earths (ADE along the middle Madeira River. Because different sets of varieties are grown in each soil type, and there are agronomic similarities between ADE and floodplain varieties, it was hypothesized that varieties grown in ADE and floodplain were more closely related to each other than either is to varieties grown in Oxisols. We tested this hypothesis evaluating the intra-varietal genetic diversity and the genetic relationships among manioc varieties commonly cultivated in Oxisols, ADE and floodplain soils. Genetic results did not agree with ethnobotanical expectation, since the relationships between varieties were variable and most individuals of varieties with the same vernacular name, but grown in ADE and floodplain, were distinct. Although the same vernacular name could not always be associated with genetic similarities, there is still a great amount of variation among the varieties. Many ecological and genetic processes may explain the high genetic diversity and differentiation found for bitter manioc varieties, but all contribute to the maintenance and amplification of genetic diversity within the manioc in Central Amazonia.

  15. Carbon and nutrient stocks of three Fabaceae trees used for forest restoration and subjected to fertilization in Amazonia

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    ROBERTO K. JAQUETTI

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Amazonia is crucial to global carbon cycle. Deforestation continues to be one of the main causes of the release of C into the atmosphere, but forest restoration plantations can reverse this scenario. However, there is still diffuse information about the C and nutrient stocks in the vegetation biomass. We investigated the carbon and nutrient stocks of Fabaceae trees (Inga edulis, Schizolobium amazonicum and Dipteryx odorata subjected to fertilization treatments (T1 - no fertilization; T2 - chemical; T3 - organic; and T4 - organic and chemical fertilization in a degraded area of the Balbina Hydroelectric Dam, AM - Brazil. As an early successional species, I. edulis stocked more C and nutrients than the other two species independent of the fertilization treatment, and S. amazonicum stocked more C than D. odorata under T1 and T4. The mixed species plantation had the potential to stock 4.1 Mg C ha-1 year-1, while I. edulis alone could stock 9.4 Mg C ha-1 year-1. Mixing species that rapidly assimilate C and are of significant ecological and commercial value (e.g., Fabaceae trees represents a good way to restore degraded areas. Our results suggest that the tested species be used for forest restoration in Amazonia.

  16. Soil-vegetation relationships on a banded ironstone 'island', Carajás Plateau, Brazilian Eastern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Jaquelina A; Schaefer, Carlos E G R; Ferreira Júnior, Walnir G; Neri, Andreza V; Correa, Guilherme R; Enright, Neal J

    2015-01-01

    Vegetation and soil properties of an iron-rich canga (laterite) island on the largest outcrop of banded-iron formation in Serra de Carajás (eastern Amazonia, Brazil) were studied along a topographic gradient (738-762 m asl), and analyzed to test the hypothesis that soil chemical and physical attributes play a key role in the structure and floristic composition of these plant communities. Soil and vegetation were sampled in eight replicate plots within each of the four vegetation types. Surface (0-10 cm) soil samples from each plot were analyzed for basic cations, N, P and plant species density for all species was recorded. CCA ordination analysis showed a strong separation between forest and non-forest sites on the first axis, and between herbaceous and shrubby campo rupestre on the second axis. The four vegetation types shared few plant species, which was attributed to their distinctive soil environments and filtering of their constituent species by chemical, physical and hydrological constraints. Thus, we can infer that Edaphic (pedological) factors are crucial in explaining the types and distributions of campo rupestre vegetation associated with ferruginous ironstone uplands (Canga) in Carajás, eastern Amazonia, therefore the soil properties are the main drivers of vegetation composition and structure on these ironstone islands.

  17. Co-Evolution and Bio-Social Construction: The Kichwa Agroforestry Systems (Chakras in the Ecuadorian Amazonia

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    Daniel Coq-Huelva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Polycultured agrarian systems in Ecuadorian Amazonia (also called chakras or swollen gardens are characterised by a market-oriented crop for the generation of monetary income, for example, cocoa, other agricultural products (e.g., banana and cassava, and livestock for family farm consumption. Moreover, a chakra is an outstanding example of agroforestry production, in which ecological, social and economic elements co-evolve from a set of close and strong connections. In this context, the conservation and transformation of their biological subsystems can be understood as the result of complex interactions between anthropogenic and non-anthropogenic factors. In turn, such interactions are essential to provide food and monetary income to the indigenous community. Relevant agency capabilities exist that could cause an agroforestry system to take a different path of co-evolution, that is, towards greater or lesser sustainability associated with different levels of complexity. In conclusion, chakras have key ecological features that can mitigate the impact of human population growth in Amazonia. Additionally, chakras have their own processes of social self-regulation which enhance the possibilities of adaptation of Kichwa communities to changing environmental conditions, being essential elements in local food sovereignty, equitable gender relations and the respect of ancestral wisdom.

  18. Tiempos afroindígenas en la Amazonia brasileña. Primera mitad del siglo XIX

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    Ruiz-Peinado Alonso, José Luis

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available During the first half of the nineteenth century, the Brazilian Amazonia was marked by extraordinary political-military instability: its belated support of Brazil’s independence (1823, the discussion on slavery and the explosion of the Cabanagem. During this period the leading figures were not only the Portuguese-Brazilian political elites, but also the different groups of fugitive slaves and natives who operated along the vast and complicated border areas, alert to revolutionary ideas coming from abroad, and who played an essential role in the construction of the specificity of northern Brazil.

    La Amazonia brasileña durante la primera mitad del siglo XIX estuvo marcada por una extraordinaria inestabilidad político-militar. Su adhesión tardía a la independencia de Brasil (1823, el debate sobre la esclavitud y la explosión de la Cabanagem fueron procesos que tuvieron como protagonistas no sólo a las elites políticas lusobrasileñas, sino también a diferentes grupos cimarrones e indígenas que actuaban desde amplios e intrincados espacios de frontera, atentos a las ideas revolucionarias que provenían del exterior y que jugaron un papel fundamental en la construcción de la especificidad del norte de Brasil.

  19. Novas espécies de Prioninae e de Cerambycinae (Cerambycidae da Região Neotropical New Neotropical species of Prioninae and Cerambycinae (Cerambycidae

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    Maria Helena M. Galileo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Novas espécies descritas: Hovorelus adiectus sp. nov. (Anacolini da Costa Rica; Stenoeme aguilari sp. nov. do Paraguai e Placoeme wappesi sp. nov. da Bolívia (Oemini; da Bahia, Brasil: Coeloxestia spinosa sp. nov. (Cerambycini, Sphallotrichina; Stizocera debilis sp. nov., Anelaphus bravoi sp. nov. (Elaphidionini e Chydarteres formosus sp. nov. (Trachyderini.New Neotropical species of Prioninae and Cerambycinae (Cerambycidae. New species described: Hovorelus adiectus sp. nov. (Anacolini from Costa Rica; Stenoeme aguilari sp. nov. from Paraguai and Placoeme wappesi sp. nov. from Bolivia (Oemini; from Bahia, Brazil: Coeloxestia spinosa sp. nov. (Cerambycini, Sphallotrichina, Stizocera debilis sp. nov., Anelaphus bravoi sp. nov. (Elaphidionini and Chydarteres formosus sp. nov. (Trachyderini.

  20. Notes on Neotropical Eumeninae, with the description of a new species of Pachodynerus de Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae

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    Marcel Gustavo Hermes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Notes on Neotropical Eumeninae, with the description of a new species of Pachodynerus de Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae. Taxonomic information on Neotropical Eumeninae is provided. A new species, Pachodynerus fessatus sp. nov. is described from southeastern São Paulo, Brazil. Additional material of Pachodynerus sericeus (Fox was examined, representing the first further specimens after the original description and including the previously unknown male. The examination of new material of the genus Stenonartonia adds some new distribution records and shows some previously unrecorded individual variation for some species. The males of Stenonartonia guaraya Garcete-Barrett and Stenonartonia rejectoides Garcete-Barrett are described for the first time.

  1. Large-scale phylogeography of the disjunct Neotropical tree species Schizolobium parahyba (Fabaceae-Caesalpinioideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchetto-Zolet, Andreia C; Cruz, Fernanda; Vendramin, Giovanni G; Simon, Marcelo F; Salgueiro, Fabiano; Margis-Pinheiro, Marcia; Margis, Rogerio

    2012-10-01

    Neotropical rainforests exhibit high levels of endemism and diversity. Although the evolutionary genetics of plant diversification has garnered increased interest, phylogeographic studies of widely distributed species remain scarce. Here we describe chloroplast and nuclear variation patterns in Schizolobium parahyba (Fabaceae), a widespread tree in Neotropical rainforests that harbor two varieties with a disjunct distribution. Chloroplast and nuclear sequence analyses yielded 21 and 4 haplotypes, respectively. Two genetic diversity centers that correlate with the two known varieties were identified: the Southeastern Atlantic forest and the Amazonian basin. In contrast, the populations from southern and northeastern Atlantic forests and Andean-Central American forests exhibited low levels of genetic diversity and divergent haplotypes, likely related to historical processes that impact the flora and fauna in these regions, such as a founder's effect after dispersion and demographic expansion. Phylogeographic and demographic patterns suggest that episodes of genetic isolation and dispersal events have shaped the evolutionary history for this species, and different patterns have guided the evolution of S. parahyba. Moreover, the results of this study suggest that the dry corridor formed by Cerrado and Caatinga ecoregions and the Andean uplift acted as barriers to this species' gene flow, a picture that may be generalized to most of the plant biodiversity tropical woodlands and forests. These results also reinforce the importance of evaluating multiple genetic markers for a more comprehensive understanding of population structure and history. Our results provide insight into the conservation efforts and ongoing work on the genetics of population divergence and speciation in these Neotropical rainforests. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The hyporheic zone and its functions: revision and research status in Neotropical regions

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    R Mugnai

    Full Text Available AbstractThe hyporheic zone (HZ, as the connecting ecotone between surface- and groundwater, is functionally part of both fluvial and groundwater ecosystems. Its hydrological, chemical, biological and metabolic features are specific of this zone, not belonging truly neither to surface- nor to groundwater. Exchanges of water, nutrients, and organic matter occur in response to variations in discharge and bed topography and porosity. Dynamic gradients exist at all scales and vary temporally. Across all scales, the functional significance of the HZ relates to its activity and connection with the surface stream. The HZ is a relatively rich environment and almost all invertebrate groups have colonized this habitat. This fauna, so-called hyporheos, is composed of species typical from interstitial environment, and also of benthic epigean and phreatic species. The hyporheic microbiocenose consists in bacteria, archaea, protozoa and fungi. The HZ provides several ecosystem services, playing a pivotal role in mediating exchange processes, including both matter and energy, between surface and subterranean ecosystems, functioning as regulator of water flow, benthic invertebrates refuge and place of storage, source and transformation of organic matter. The hyporheic zone is one of the most threatened aquatic environments, being strongly influenced by human activities, and the least protected by legislation worldwide. Its maintenance and conservation is compelling in order to preserve the ecological interconnectivity among the three spatial dimensions of the aquatic environment. Although several researchers addressed the importance of the hyporheic zone early, and most contemporary stream ecosystem models explicitly include it, very little is known about the HZ of Neotropical regions. From a biological standpoint, hyporheos fauna in Neotropical regions are still largely underestimated. This review focuses on a brief presentation of the hyporheic zone and its

  3. The hyporheic zone and its functions: revision and research status in Neotropical regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugnai, R; Messana, G; Di Lorenzo, T

    2015-08-01

    The hyporheic zone (HZ), as the connecting ecotone between surface- and groundwater, is functionally part of both fluvial and groundwater ecosystems. Its hydrological, chemical, biological and metabolic features are specific of this zone, not belonging truly neither to surface- nor to groundwater. Exchanges of water, nutrients, and organic matter occur in response to variations in discharge and bed topography and porosity. Dynamic gradients exist at all scales and vary temporally. Across all scales, the functional significance of the HZ relates to its activity and connection with the surface stream. The HZ is a relatively rich environment and almost all invertebrate groups have colonized this habitat. This fauna, so-called hyporheos, is composed of species typical from interstitial environment, and also of benthic epigean and phreatic species. The hyporheic microbiocenose consists in bacteria, archaea, protozoa and fungi. The HZ provides several ecosystem services, playing a pivotal role in mediating exchange processes, including both matter and energy, between surface and subterranean ecosystems, functioning as regulator of water flow, benthic invertebrates refuge and place of storage, source and transformation of organic matter. The hyporheic zone is one of the most threatened aquatic environments, being strongly influenced by human activities, and the least protected by legislation worldwide. Its maintenance and conservation is compelling in order to preserve the ecological interconnectivity among the three spatial dimensions of the aquatic environment. Although several researchers addressed the importance of the hyporheic zone early, and most contemporary stream ecosystem models explicitly include it, very little is known about the HZ of Neotropical regions. From a biological standpoint, hyporheos fauna in Neotropical regions are still largely underestimated. This review focuses on a brief presentation of the hyporheic zone and its functions and significance as

  4. New taxa, including three new genera show uniqueness of Neotropical Nepticulidae (Lepidoptera

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    Erik van Nieukerken

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available After finding distinct clades in a molecular phylogeny for Nepticulidae that could not be placed in any known genera and discovering clear apomorphic characters that define these clades, as well as a number of Neotropical species that could be placed in known genera but were undescribed, three new genera and nine new species are here described from the Neotropics: Stigmella gallicola van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n. reared from galls on Hampea appendiculata (Malvaceae in Costa Rica, representing the first example of a gall making Stigmella; S. schinivora van Nieukerken, sp. n. reared from leafmines on Schinus terebinthifolia (Anacardiaceae in Argentina, Misiones; S. costaricensis van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n. and S. intronia van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n. each from a single specimen collected the same night in Costa Rica, Parque Nacional Chirripó; S. molinensis van Nieukerken & Snyers, sp. n. reared from leafmines on Salix humboldtiana, Peru, Lima, the first Neotropical species of the Stigmella salicis group sensu stricto; Ozadelpha van Nieukerken, gen. n. with type species O. conostegiae van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n., reared from leafmines on Conostegia oerstediana (Melastomataceae from Costa Rica; Neotrifurcula van Nieukerken, gen. n. with type species N. gielisorum van Nieukerken, sp. n. from Chile; Hesperolyra van Nieukerken, gen. n.. with type species Fomoria diskusi Puplesis & Robinson, 2000; Hesperolyra saopaulensis van Nieukerken, sp. n., reared from an unidentified Myrtaceae, Sao Paulo, Brasil; and Acalyptris janzeni van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n. from Costa Rica, Guanacaste. Five new combinations are made: Ozadelpha ovata (Puplesis & Robinson, 2000, comb. n. and Ozadelpha guajavae (Puplesis & Diškus, 2002, comb. n., Hesperolyra diskusi (Puplesis & Robinson, 2000, comb. n., Hesperolyra molybditis (Zeller, 1877, comb. n. and Hesperolyra repanda (Puplesis & Diškus, 2002, comb. n. Three specimens are briefly described, but

  5. New taxa, including three new genera show uniqueness of Neotropical Nepticulidae (Lepidoptera)

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    van Nieukerken, Erik J.; Doorenweerd, Camiel; Nishida, Kenji; Snyers, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Abstract After finding distinct clades in a molecular phylogeny for Nepticulidae that could not be placed in any known genera and discovering clear apomorphic characters that define these clades, as well as a number of Neotropical species that could be placed in known genera but were undescribed, three new genera and nine new species are here described from the Neotropics: Stigmella gallicola van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n. reared from galls on Hampea appendiculata (Malvaceae) in Costa Rica, representing the first example of a gall making Stigmella; Stigmella schinivora van Nieukerken, sp. n. reared from leafmines on Schinus terebinthifolia (Anacardiaceae) in Argentina, Misiones; Stigmella costaricensis van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n. and Stigmella intronia van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n. each from a single specimen collected the same night in Costa Rica, Parque Nacional Chirripó; Stigmella molinensis van Nieukerken & Snyers, sp. n. reared from leafmines on Salix humboldtiana, Peru, Lima, the first Neotropical species of the Stigmella salicis group sensu stricto; Ozadelpha van Nieukerken, gen. n. with type species Ozadelpha conostegiae van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n., reared from leafmines on Conostegia oerstediana (Melastomataceae) from Costa Rica; Neotrifurcula van Nieukerken, gen. n. with type species Neotrifurcula gielisorum van Nieukerken, sp. n. from Chile; Hesperolyra van Nieukerken, gen. n.. with type species Fomoria diskusi Puplesis & Robinson, 2000; Hesperolyra saopaulensis van Nieukerken, sp. n., reared from an unidentified Myrtaceae, Sao Paulo, Brasil; and Acalyptris janzeni van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n. from Costa Rica, Guanacaste. Five new combinations are made: Ozadelpha ovata (Puplesis & Robinson, 2000), comb. n. and Ozadelpha guajavae (Puplesis & Diškus, 2002), comb. n., Hesperolyra diskusi (Puplesis & Robinson, 2000), comb. n., Hesperolyra molybditis (Zeller, 1877), comb. n. and Hesperolyra repanda (Puplesis & Diškus, 2002), comb. n

  6. Molecular systematic and historical biogeography of the armored Neotropical catfishes Hypoptopomatinae and Neoplecostominae (Siluriformes: Loricariidae).

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    Chiachio, Márcio Cesar; Oliveira, Claudio; Montoya-Burgos, Juan I

    2008-11-01

    The Neotropics possess the greatest freshwater fish diversity of the world, rendering the study of their evolutionary history extremely challenging. Loricariidae catfishes are one of the most diverse components of the Neotropical ichthyofauna and despite a long history of classification, major issues still need elucidation. Based on a nuclear gene, we present a robust phylogeny of two former loricariid subfamilies: Hypoptopomatinae and Neoplecostominae. Our results show that Neoplecostominae is nested within Hypoptopomatinae, and is the sister group to the former Otothyrini tribe. According to our results, supplemented by morphological observations, we erect two new subfamilies, the Otothyrinae and a new Hypoptopomatinae, and modify the Neoplecostominae by including the genus Pseudotocinclus. The uncovered evolutionary relationships allow a detailed analysis of their historical biogeography. We tested two Dispersal-Extinction-Cladogenesis models for inferring the distribution range evolution of the new subfamilies, and show that the model having no constrains performs better than a model constraining long-range dispersal. The Maximum Likelihood reconstructions of ancestral ranges showed a marked division between the Amazonian origin of the Hypoptopomatinae and the eastern coastal Brazil+Upper Paraná origin of the Neoplecostominae and Otothyrinae. Markedly few instances of dispersal across the border separating the Amazon basin and the Paraná-Paraguay+eastern coastal Brazil+Uruguay were reconstructed. This result is in clear contrast with the historical biogeography of many Neotropical fishes, including other Loricariidae. Part of the dispersal limitation may be explained by divergent ecological specialization: lowland rivers versus mountain streams habitats. Moreover, because most species of the new subfamilies are small, we hypothesize that body size-related effects might limit their dispersal, like predation and energetic cost to migration. Finally

  7. [New species, newly used names and new ranges of tree ferns (Filicales: Cyatheaceae) in the Neotropics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Alvarado, A F

    2001-06-01

    Two new species are described for the Neotropics, four species are newly accepted, and four species and one variety are reported. The new species are: Cyathea grayumii A. Rojas and C. panamensis A. Rojas. Cyathea alfonsiana L. D. Gómez, C. holdridgeana Nisman & L. D. Gómez, C. onusta H. Christ and C. squarrosa (Rosenst.) Domin are recognized; Cnemidaria coclena Stolze, Cyathea andina (H. Karst.) Domin, C. caracasana var. meridensis (H. Karst.) R. M. Tryon, C. macrosora (Baker) Domin and C. pseudonanna (L. D. Gómez) Lellinger are reported from Costa Rica and Panama.

  8. Differential Responses of Neotropical Mountain Forests to Climate Change during the Last Millenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Rangel, B. L.; Olvera Vargas, M.

    2013-05-01

    The long-term perspective in the conservation of mountain ecosystems using palaeoecological and paleoclimatological techniques are providing with crucial information for the understanding of the temporal range and variability of ecological pattern and processes. This perception is contributing with means to anticipate future conditions of these ecosystems, especially their response to climate change. Neotropical mountain forests, created by a particular geological and climatic history in the Americas, represent one of the most distinctive ecosystems in the tropics which are constantly subject to disturbances included climate change. Mexico due to its geographical location between the convergence of temperate and tropical elements, its diverse physiography and climatic heterogeneity, contains neotropical ecosystems with high biodiversity and endemicity whose structure and taxonomical composition have changed along centurial to millennial scales. Different neotropical forests expand along the mountain chains of Mexico with particular responses along spatial and temporal scales. Therefore in order to capture these scales at fine resolution, sedimentary sequences from forest hollows were retrieved from three forest at different altitudes within 10 km; Pine forest (PF), Transitional forest (TF) and Cloud forest (CF). Ordination techniques were used to relate changes in vegetation with the environment every ~60 years. The three forests experience the effect of the dry stage ~AD 800-1200 related to the Medieval Warm Period reported for several regions of the world. CF contracted, PF expanded while the TF evolved from CF to a community dominated by dry-resistant epiphytes. Dry periods in PF and TF overlapped with the increase in fire occurrences while a dissimilar pattern took place in CF. Maize, Asteraceae and Poaceae were higher during dry intervals while epiphytes decreased. A humid period ~1200-1450 AD was associated with an expansion and a high taxa turnover in CF

  9. Adventive Vertebrates and Historical Ecology in the Pre-Columbian Neotropics

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    Peter W. Stahl

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The arrival of Europeans in the Western Hemisphere (ca. AD 1500 is generally used as a convenient reference point for signaling the early appearance of invasive faunas. Although use of this date embraces an implicit belief in benign landscape management by pre-Columbian inhabitants of the Americas, substantial evidence for the anthropogenic movement of domesticated, wild, and synanthropic vertebrates throughout the Neotropics suggests that it may be an exaggerated and erroneous reference point for the aims of ecological restoration and biological conservation.

  10. Stage description, new combination and new records of Neotropical Brachycercinae (Ephemeroptera: Caenidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeli, Kamila Batista; Salles, Frederico Falcão; Paresque, Roberta; Molineri, Carlos; Lima, Lucas Ramos Costa

    2016-03-08

    We present taxonomic contributions and new records for Neotropical Brachycercinae based on material from Brazil. We performed a phylogenetic analysis in order to test the relationship between Alloretochus Sun & McCafferty, 2008 and Latineosus Sun & Mc- Cafferty, 2008, and Alloretochus sigillatus was recovered in the Latineosus clade. Therefore, we propose a new combination, Latineosus sigillatus comb. n. The nymph of Latineosus sigillatus is described and is associated with imago through molecular tools. Moreover, Alloretochus peruanicus (Soldán, 1986) is reported for the first time from Brazil.

  11. Mites of the genus Neharpyrhynchus Fain (Acariformes, Harpirhynchidae from Neotropical birds

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    Andre Bochkov

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of parasitic mites of the genus Neharpyrhynchus Fain (Acariformes, Harpirhynchidae are described from Neotropical birds, N. chlorospingus sp. n. from Chlorospingus pileatus (Passeriformes, Emberizidae from Costa Rica, N. mironovi sp. n. from Dacnys cayana (Passeriformes, Thraupidae and N. tangara sp. n. from Tangara cayana (Thraupidae both from Brazil. Neharpyrhynchus trochilinus (Fain is recorded from 3 new hosts of the family Trochilidae (Apodiformes, Panterpe insignis and Eugenes fulgens from Costa Rica, and Amazilia lactea from Brazil. Emended diagnosis of the genus and a key to species are provided; all records of Neharpyrhynchus species are summarized.

  12. An illustrated key to Neotropical species of the genus Meteorus Haliday (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Euphorinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Helmuth; de Almeida, Luis Felipe; Shaw, Scott Richard; Sarmiento, Carlos E

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive key for 75 species of Meteorus distributed across 15 Neotropical countries is presented. Eleven new species from Bolivia, Costa Rica and Ecuador are described: Meteorusalbistigma, Meteoruscarolae, Meteoruseurysaccavorus, Meteorusfallacavus, Meteorusflavistigma, Meteorushaimowitzi, Meteorusmagnoculus, Meteorusmartinezi, Meteorusmicrocavus, Meteorusnoctuivorus and Meteorusorion. Expanded range distributions are recorded for Meteorusandreae, Meteorusfarallonensis, Meteorusguineverae, Meteorusjerodi, Meteoruskraussi, Meteoruspapiliovorus and Meteorusquimbayensis. The host of Meteorusjerodi is reported for the first time: a noctuid larva feeding on Asteraceae. Meteoruspapiliovorus is recorded attacking Papilionidae larvae in Ecuador, therefore displaying a similar host family preference as formerly documented from Costa Rica and Colombia.

  13. Identification of Plasmodium spp. in Neotropical primates of Maranhense Amazon in Northeast Brazil.

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    Mayra Araguaia Pereira Figueiredo

    Full Text Available In the Brazilian Amazon region, malaria caused by Plasmodium malariae is considered to be a zoonosis because of cross-transfer of the parasite between humans and Neotropical primates. To contribute information on this issue, we investigated occurrences of natural infection with Plasmodium sp. among Neotropical primates in the Maranhense Amazon (Amazon region of the state of Maranhão, in the northeastern region of Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 161 Neotropical primates of six species that were caught in an environmental reserve (Sítio Aguahy and from captive primates (CETAS-Wildlife Screening Center, municipality of São Luís, in Maranhão. Plasmodium sp. was diagnosed based on light microscopy, PCR, qPCR and LAMP for amplification of the 18S rRNA gene. Serum samples were also assayed by means of indirect immunofluorescence for IgG antibodies against P. malariae/P. brasilianum, P. falciparum and P. berghei. Parasites were detected through light microscopy on five slides from captive primates (four Sapajus spp. and one Callithrix jacchus. In the molecular tests, 34.16% (55/161 and 29.81% (48/161 of the animals sampled were positive in the qPCR and PCR assays, respectively. In the PCR, 47/48 animals were positive for P. malariae/P. brasilianum; of these, eight were free-living primates and 39 from CETAS, São Luís. One sample showed a band in the genus-specific reaction, but not in the second PCR reaction. Anti-P. malariae/P. brasilianum IgG antibodies were detected in four serum samples from Sapajus spp. in captivity. In this study, circulation of P. malariae/P. brasilianum in Neotropical primates was confirmed, with low levels of parasitemia and low levels of antibodies. The importance of these animals as reservoirs of human malaria in the region studied is still unknown. This scenario has an impact on control and elimination of malaria in this region.

  14. Spatio-temporal structure and influence of environmental parameters on the Tipuloidea (Insecta: Diptera) assemblage of Neotropical salt marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Lucas; Carrasco, Daiane; Proietti, Maíra

    2017-10-01

    Estuaries and salt marshes are important coastal ecosystems that present unique characteristics in terms of nutrient cycling, salinity, habitats, flora and fauna. Despite their ecological importance, there is scarce knowledge on the occupation, distribution and ecology of insects, including Tipuloidea, in these environments. This study aimed to evaluate the composition, seasonality and effect of abiotic factors on the abundance, diversity and structure of a Tipuloidea assemblage at the Patos Lagoon salt marshes, located at the south of the Neotropical region. We sampled crane-flies from three zones along the estuary by installing two Malaise traps at the low and high vegetation strata of each zone. Sampling was conducted uninterruptedly every fifteen days between August/2015 and July/2016, and collected insects were identified morphologically based on specific literature. 5248 crane-flies were identified covering six species and twenty-five morphospecies. Abundance and frenquency of occurrence of species revealed a gap in the presence of constant species at the middle estuary. Dicranomyia, Gonomyia, Teucholabis and Zelandotipula species were additional (accessory) species only in the upper estuary, while Symplecta cana only in the lower estuary. This shows that different species prefer distinct points along the estuary. Higher abundance of crane-flies was correlated with elevated temperature and humidity. Symplecta pilipes was an exception, presenting increase in abundance under lower temperatures. Seasonal change in Tipuloidea species composition was observed, with higher evenness of Dicranomyia, Geranomyia, Rhipidia domestica and Symplecta cana (15-20%) during summer, and dominance of Symplecta pilipes in winter (80%). The gap at the middle estuary can possibly be due to stress caused by large fluctuations in salinity in the zone. In addition, the seasonal differences can have significant ecological consequences such as the modification of the Tipuloid species

  15. Phospholipase A1-based cross-reactivity among venoms of clinically relevant Hymenoptera from Neotropical and temperate regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Riverol, Amilcar; Fernandes, Luís Gustavo Romani; Musacchio Lasa, Alexis; Dos Santos-Pinto, José Roberto Aparecido; Moitinho Abram, Débora; Izuka Moraes, Gabriel Hideki; Jabs, Frederic; Miehe, Michaela; Seismman, Henning; Palma, Mario Sergio; de Lima Zollner, Ricardo; Spillner, Edzard; Brochetto-Braga, Márcia Regina

    2018-01-01

    Molecular cross-reactivity caused by allergen homology or cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs) is a major challenge for diagnosis and immunotherapy of insect venom allergy. Venom phospholipases A1 (PLA1s) are classical, mostly non-glycosylated wasp and ant allergens that provide diagnostic benefit for differentiation of genuine sensitizations from cross-reactivity. As CCD-free molecules, venom PLA1s are not causative for CCD-based cross-reactivity. Little is known however about the protein-based cross-reactivity of PLA1 within vespid species. Here, we address PLA1-based cross-reactivity among ten clinically relevant Hymenoptera venoms from Neotropical and temperate regions including Polybia paulista (paulistinha) venom and Vespula vulgaris (yellow jacket) venom. In order to evaluate cross-reactivity, sera of mice sensitized with recombinant PLA1 (rPoly p 1) from P. paulista wasp venom were used. Pronounced IgE and IgG based cross-reactivity was detected for wasp venoms regardless the geographical region of origin. The cross-reactivity correlated well with the identity of the primary sequence and 3-D models of PLA1 proteins. In contrast, these mice sera showed no reaction with honeybee (HBV) and fire ant venom. Furthermore, sera from patients monosensitized to HBV and fire ants did not recognize the rPoly p 1 in immunoblotting. Our findings reveal the presence of conserved epitopes in the PLA1s from several clinically relevant wasps as major cause of PLA1-based in vitro cross-reactivity. These findings emphasize the limitations but also the potential of PLA1-based HVA diagnostics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. New species of titi monkey, genus Callicebus Thomas, 1903 (Primates, Pitheciidae, from Southern Amazonia, Brazil

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    Julio César Dalponte

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Callicebus is one of the most diverse Neotropical primate groups, with 31 recognized species. However, large knowledge gaps still exist regarding the diversity of this genus. Such gaps are gradually being filled due to recent intensification of sampling efforts. Several geographic distributions have been better delimited, and six new species have been described in the last 15 years. The goal of the present study is to describe a new species of Callicebus belonging to the Callicebus moloch species group, recently discovered in an area previously considered to be part of the geographic distribution of C. cinerascens. Data collection was conducted through direct observations, specimen collection and interviews with local residents during four expeditions. Specimens were deposited in the mammalian collection of the Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi.. For a comparative evaluation, we examined specimens of the other species of the Callicebus moloch species group, especially the geographically neighboring forms, C. bernhardi and C. cinerascens. We examined 10 chromatic characters of the fur. In addition to body mass, we verified the conventional external variables and 26 craniometric variables. The new species differs from all other Amazonian Callicebus by an exclusive combination of characters, being easily distinguished by the light gray line of the forehead, dark ocher sideburns and throat, dark gray portions of the torso and flanks, and uniformly orange tail. The geographic distribution of the new species is limited by the Roosevelt and Aripuanã rivers, in the states of Mato Grosso and Amazonas, Brazil. Approximately 25% (1,246.382 ha of this area falls within conservation areas, with five areas of sustainable use (746,818 ha and three of integral protection (499,564 ha. Furthermore, a considerable portion of the distribution area is located within indigenous lands (1,555.116 ha - 32%. Therefore, 57% (2,801.498 ha of the occurrence area of

  17. Anthropogenic Emissions Change the Amount and Composition of Organic PM1 in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sá, S. S.; Palm, B. B.; Campuzano Jost, P.; Day, D. A.; Hu, W.; Isaacman-VanWertz, G. A.; Yee, L.; Wernis, R. A.; Thalman, R.; Brito, J.; Carbone, S.; Artaxo, P.; Goldstein, A. H.; Manzi, A. O.; Souza, R. A. F. D.; Wang, J.; Alexander, M. L. L.; Jimenez, J. L.; Martin, S. T.

    2017-12-01

    processes. Results suggest that polluted conditions are associated with higher organic mass concentrations, with certain pathways being favored to the detriment of others. This analysis and results represent a step toward the goal of improving the understanding of anthropogenic influences on the production of PM1 in Amazonia.

  18. Regional N2O fluxes in Amazonia derived from aircraft vertical profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amelio, M. T. S.; Gatti, L. V.; Miller, J. B.; Tans, P.

    2009-11-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is the third most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas. Globally, the main sources of N2O are nitrification and denitrification in soils. About two thirds of the soil emissions occur in the tropics and approximately 20% originate in wet rainforest ecosystems, like the Amazon forest. The work presented here involves aircraft vertical profiles of N2O from the surface to 4 km over two sites in the Eastern and Central Amazon: Tapajós National Forest (SAN) and Cuieiras Biologic Reserve (MAN), and the estimation of N2O fluxes for regions upwind of these sites. To our knowledge, these regional scale N2O measurements in Amazonia are unique and represent a new approach to looking regional scale emissions. The fluxes upwind of MAN exhibited little seasonality, and the annual mean was 2.1±1.0 mg N2O m-2 day-1, higher than that for fluxes upwind of SAN, which averaged 1.5±1.6 mg N2O m-2 day-1. The higher rainfall around the MAN site could explain the higher N2O emissions, as a result of increased soil moisture accelerating microbial nitrification and denitrification processes. For fluxes from the coast to SAN seasonality is present for all years, with high fluxes in the months of March through May, and in November through December. The first peak of N2O flux is strongly associated with the wet season. The second peak of high N2O flux recorded at SAN occurs during the dry season and can not be easily explained. However, about half of the dry season profiles exhibit significant correlations with CO, indicating a larger than expected source of N2O from biomass burning. The average CO:N2O ratio for all profiles sampled during the dry season is 94±77 mol CO:mol N2O and suggests a larger biomass burning contribution to the global N2O budget than previously reported.

  19. Hair mercury (signature of fish consumption) and cardiovascular risk in Munduruku and Kayabi Indians of Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dórea, José G; de Souza, Jurandir R; Rodrigues, Patricia; Ferrari, Iris; Barbosa, Antonio C

    2005-02-01

    Fish is an important natural resource in the diet of inhabitants of the Amazon rain forest and a marker of its consumption (hair Hg) was used to compare selected cardiovascular risk parameters between tribes of Eastern Amazonia. Three Munduruku (Terra Preta, Kaburua, Cururu) villages and one Kayabi village at the banks of head rivers (Tapajos, Tropas, Kabitutu, Cururu, Curuzinho, Teles Pires) of the Tapajos Basin were studied in relation to fish Hg concentrations, mercury in hair (fish consumption) and erythrocytes, body mass index (height/weight, kg/cm2), and blood pressure. The mean fish Hg concentrations were higher in predatory (578.6 ng/g) than in nonpredatory species (52.8 ng/g). Overall only 26% of fish Hg concentrations were above 500 ng/g, and only 11% were above 1000 ng/g. There was no systematic trend in fish Hg concentrations from rivers with a history of gold-mining activities. The biomarker of fish consumption (hair Hg) was significantly associated with erythrocyte-Hg (r=0.5181; P=0.0001) and was significantly higher in Kayabi (12.7 microg/g) than in the Munduruku (3.4 microg/g). Biomarker-assessed fish consumption rate was higher in the Kayabi (110 g/day) than in the Munduruku villages (30 g/day). Although no significant differences in body mass index (BMI) were observed between tribes, there was a trend of lower increase in blood pressure with age among the higher fish consumers (Kayabi). Summary clinical evaluation did not detect neurologic complaints compatible with Hg intoxication (paraparesis, numbness, tremor, balancing failure), but endemic tropical diseases such as clinical history of malaria showed a high prevalence (55.4%). Fish is an abundant natural resource, important in the Indian diet, that has been historically consumed without perceived problems and can easily be traced through hair Hg. The exposure to freshwater fish monomethyl mercury is less of an issue than endemic infectious diseases such as malaria and lack of basic medical

  20. Measuring local depletion of terrestrial game vertebrates by central-place hunters in rural Amazonia.

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    Mark I Abrahams

    Full Text Available The degree to which terrestrial vertebrate populations are depleted in tropical forests occupied by human communities has been the subject of an intense polarising debate that has important conservation implications. Conservation ecologists and practitioners are divided over the extent to which community-based subsistence offtake is compatible with ecologically functional populations of tropical forest game species. To quantify depletion envelopes of forest vertebrates around human communities, we deployed a total of 383 camera trap stations and 78 quantitative interviews to survey the peri-community areas controlled by 60 semi-subsistence communities over a combined area of over 3.2 million hectares in the Médio Juruá and Uatumã regions of Central-Western Brazilian Amazonia. Our results largely conform with prior evidence that hunting large-bodied vertebrates reduces wildlife populations near settlements, such that they are only found at a distance to settlements where they are hunted less frequently. Camera trap data suggest that a select few harvest-sensitive species, including lowland tapir, are either repelled or depleted by human communities. Nocturnal and cathemeral species were detected relatively more frequently in disturbed areas close to communities, but individual species did not necessarily shift their activity patterns. Group biomass of all species was depressed in the wider neighbourhood of urban areas rather than communities. Interview data suggest that species traits, especially group size and body mass, mediate these relationships. Large-bodied, large-group-living species are detected farther from communities as reported by experienced informants. Long-established communities in our study regions have not "emptied" the surrounding forest. Low human population density and low hunting offtake due to abundant sources of alternative aquatic protein, suggest that these communities represent a best-case scenario for sustainable

  1. Measuring local depletion of terrestrial game vertebrates by central-place hunters in rural Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Carlos A.; Costa, Hugo C. M.

    2017-01-01

    The degree to which terrestrial vertebrate populations are depleted in tropical forests occupied by human communities has been the subject of an intense polarising debate that has important conservation implications. Conservation ecologists and practitioners are divided over the extent to which community-based subsistence offtake is compatible with ecologically functional populations of tropical forest game species. To quantify depletion envelopes of forest vertebrates around human communities, we deployed a total of 383 camera trap stations and 78 quantitative interviews to survey the peri-community areas controlled by 60 semi-subsistence communities over a combined area of over 3.2 million hectares in the Médio Juruá and Uatumã regions of Central-Western Brazilian Amazonia. Our results largely conform with prior evidence that hunting large-bodied vertebrates reduces wildlife populations near settlements, such that they are only found at a distance to settlements where they are hunted less frequently. Camera trap data suggest that a select few harvest-sensitive species, including lowland tapir, are either repelled or depleted by human communities. Nocturnal and cathemeral species were detected relatively more frequently in disturbed areas close to communities, but individual species did not necessarily shift their activity patterns. Group biomass of all species was depressed in the wider neighbourhood of urban areas rather than communities. Interview data suggest that species traits, especially group size and body mass, mediate these relationships. Large-bodied, large-group-living species are detected farther from communities as reported by experienced informants. Long-established communities in our study regions have not “emptied” the surrounding forest. Low human population density and low hunting offtake due to abundant sources of alternative aquatic protein, suggest that these communities represent a best-case scenario for sustainable hunting of

  2. The Roles and Movements of Actors in the Deforestation of Brazilian Amazonia

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    Philip M. Fearnside

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Containing the advance of deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia requires understanding the roles and movements of the actors involved. The importance of different actors varies widely among locations within the region, and also evolves at any particular site over the course of frontier establishment and consolidation. Landless migrants have significant roles in clearing the land they occupy and in motivating landholders to clear as a defense against invasion or expropriation. Colonists in official settlements and other small farmers also are responsible for substantial amounts of clearing, but ranchers constitute the largest component of the region's clearing. This group is most responsive to macroeconomic changes affecting such factors as commodity prices, and also receives substantial subsidies. Ulterior motives, such as land speculation and money laundering, also affect this group. Drug trafficking and money laundering represent strong forces in some areas and help spread deforestation where it would be unprofitable based only on the legitimate economy. Goldminers increase the population in distant areas and subsequently enter the ranks of other groups. Work as laborers or debt slaves provides an important entry to the region for poor migrants from northeast Brazil, providing cheap labor to large ranches and a large source of entrants to other groups, such as landless farmers and colonists. Capitalized farmers, including agribusiness for soy production, have tremendous impact in certain areas, such as Mato Grosso. This group responds to commodity markets and provides justification for major infrastructure projects. Landgrabbers, or grileiros, are important in entering public land and beginning the process of deforestation and transfer of land to subsequent groups of actors. These include sawmill owners and loggers, who play an important role in generating funds for clearing by other groups, ranging from landless migrants to large ranchers. They

  3. Trabajo y relaciones laborales en los enclaves minero-metalúrgicos de la Amazonia

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    Josep Pont Vidal

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:  Labour and labour relations in the enclaves of metallurgical mining in the AmazonThis article is based upon an empirical study of  life and labour conditions in the metallurgical  mining enclaves of the eastern Amazon region.  From the perspective of civil society (associations  of workers, labour conditions are analysed according to interviews with workers and their  family members given outside the work sphere.  Using the method based on ‘grounded theory’, and specifically on the qualitative analysis of  theorization, a scheme of two levels has been  made: the ‘situational activity’ and the ‘subjectivization of the activity’. The first level, the ‘situational activity’, is centred in the sphere of the  organizations of workers and their perceptions  and strategies for action. The second level, the  ‘subjective of the activity’, addresses the subjective interpretations adopted by workers and their  families. Resumen:Este escrito se basa en un estudio empírico de las  condiciones de vida y relaciones laborales en los  enclaves minero-metalúrgicos de la Amazonia  oriental. En él se analizan las condiciones laborales desde la perspectiva de la sociedad civil (asociaciones de trabajadores, recurriendo para ello a  entrevistas con trabajadores y sus familias fuera  del ambiente de trabajo. A partir del método basado en la teorización anclada, y específicamente  en el denominado análisis cualitativo de teorización, se ha confeccionado un esquema de dos  niveles: la ‘actividad situacional’, y la ‘subjetivización de la actividad’. El primer nivel -la ‘actividad situacional’- se centra en la esfera de las  organizaciones de trabajadores y sus ideas y estrategias de acción. El segundo nivel -la ‘subjetivización de la actividad’- trata las interpretaciones  subjetivas adoptadas por los trabajadores y sus  familias.

  4. Leptoglossus lonchoides Allen (Heteroptera, Coreidae), causente de la caida de los frutos de Bactris gasipaes (Palmae) en la Amazonia central

    OpenAIRE

    Couturier, Guy; Clement, C.R.; Viana Filho, P.

    1991-01-01

    #Leptoglossus lonchoïdes$ Allen (Heteroptera Coreidae) provoque la chute des fruits de #Bactris gasipaes$ HBK (Palmae) en Amazonie centrale. Les plantations de "pejibaye", #B.gasipaes$, un palmier neotropical domestiqué, souffrent d'importantes chutes de jeunes fruits en Amazonie centrale (Manaus, Amazonas, Brésil), dues en partie, peut-être principalement, à la punaise #L. lonchoïdes$. Dans cet article, on évalue l'importance économique des dégâts et on décrit l'insecte. (Résumé d'auteur)...

  5. Araucnephia iberaensis n. sp., a Neotropical Black Fly with a Peculiar Distribution (Diptera-Simuliidae

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    S Coscarón

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Araucnephia Wygodzinsky & Coscarón is a Neotropical black fly genus in which only one species from Central Chile is known. Another species has now been found in Corrientes province on the eastern side of the Iberá tropical swamps of Argentina, on the western border of the mountainous region of southern Brazil. This new species, A. iberaensis, is herein described and illustrated and information on its bionomics is recorded. It is an interesting species because previous to its discovery no black fly genus or subgenus from Central Chile region has been found in tropical areas, because these two regions are separated by the Monte and Pampas realms. Similarly, no Brazilian genus or subgenus has crossed the Andes mountains to Chile. A comparison with other Neotropical, Nearctic, Ethiopian (Afrotropical and Australian Prosimuliini (sensu Crosskey & Howard showed Araucnephia to be a valid taxon most closely related to Araucnephioides (sympatric in Chile. Araucnephia also shows great affinities with Lutzsimulium from Southeast Brazil and Argentina and Paracnephia from South Africa.

  6. Phylogenomics and species delimitation of a complex radiation of Neotropical suboscine birds (Pachyramphus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musher, Lukas J; Cracraft, Joel

    2018-01-01

    Phylogeographic studies within the Neotropics continue to uncover hidden diversity, the extent of which remains poorly known. In birds, molecular studies are producing evidence that species-level diversity is substantially underestimated. Many avian taxa comprise large complexes of subspecies that often represent species-level taxa by various criteria. One such group of Neotropical suboscine birds, the becards (Pachyramphus), ranges from Argentina through northern Mexico. Their taxonomic limits have been complex and controversial as the genus has bounced around a number of suboscine families. Additionally, the phylogenetic relationships within Pachyramphus are unresolved due to insufficient sampling of taxa and populations across species' ranges. We used target capture of ultraconserved elements for 62 individuals representing 42 taxa, and sequenced two mitochondrial genes and two nuclear introns covering 265 individuals of 51 taxa, including all recognized species, resulting in the most densely and completely sampled phylogenetic hypothesis for Pachyramphus to date. We delimited species using a traditional taxonomic approach and then tested them under a Bayesian multi-species coalescent framework. In doing so, we provide evidence for multiple young, previously undetected evolutionary lineages within Pachyramphus. Deep, well-supported branches and a high number of intraspecific lineages across the tree suggest that at least 50% of species diversity may be unrecognized. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Microsatellite Loci for Orthophytum ophiuroides (Bromelioideae, Bromeliaceae Species Adapted to Neotropical Rock Outcrops

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    Felipe Aoki-Gonçalves

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed for Orthophytum ophiuroides, a rupicolous bromeliad species endemic to neotropical rocky fields. These microsatellite loci will be used to investigate population differentiation and species cohesion in such fragmented environments. The loci were tested for cross-amplification in related bromeliad species. Methods and Results: Eleven polymorphic microsatellite markers were isolated and characterized from an enriched library of O. ophiuroides. The loci were tested on 42 individuals from two populations of this species. The number of alleles per locus ranged from three to nine and the expected and observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.167 to 0.870 and from 0.369 to 0.958, respectively. Seven loci successfully amplified in other related bromeliad species. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the microsatellite loci developed here will be useful to assess genetic diversity and gene flow in O. ophiuroides for the investigation of population differentiation and species cohesion in neotropical mountainous habitats.

  8. Are Isomeric Alkenes Used in Species Recognition among Neo-Tropical Stingless Bees (Melipona Spp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stephen J; Shemilt, Sue; da S Lima, Cândida B; de Carvalho, Carlos A L

    2017-12-01

    Our understanding of the role of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC) in recognition is based largely on temperate ant species and honey bees. The stingless bees remain relatively poorly studied, despite being the largest group of eusocial bees, comprising more than 400 species in some 60 genera. The Meliponini and Apini diverged between 80-130 Myr B.P. so the evolutionary trajectories that shaped the chemical communication systems in ants, honeybees and stingless bees may be very different. The aim of this study was to study if a unique species CHC signal existed in Neotropical stingless bees, as has been shown for many temperate species, and what compounds are involved. This was achieved by collecting CHC data from 24 colonies belonging to six species of Melipona from North-Eastern Brazil and comparing the results with previously published CHC studies on Melipona. We found that each of the eleven Melipona species studied so far each produced a unique species CHC signal based around their alkene isomer production. A remarkable number of alkene isomers, up to 25 in M. asilvai, indicated the diversification of alkene positional isomers among the stingless bees. The only other group to have really diversified in alkene isomer production are the primitively eusocial Bumblebees (Bombus spp), which are the sister group of the stingless bees. Furthermore, among the eleven Neotropical Melipona species we could detect no effect of the environment on the proportion of alkane production as has been suggested for some other species.

  9. Genetic and metabolic biodiversity of Trichoderma from Colombia and adjacent neotropic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyos-Carvajal, Lilliana; Orduz, Sergio; Bissett, John

    2009-09-01

    The genus Trichoderma has been studied for production of enzymes and other metabolites, as well as for exploitation as effective biological control agents. The biodiversity of Trichoderma has seen relatively limited study over much of the neotropical region. In the current study we assess the biodiversity of 183 isolates from Mexico, Guatemala, Panama, Ecuador, Peru, Brazil and Colombia, using morphological, metabolic and genetic approaches. A comparatively high diversity of species was found, comprising 29 taxa: Trichoderma asperellum (60 isolates), Trichoderma atroviride (3), Trichoderma brevicompactum (5), Trichoderma crassum (3), Trichoderma erinaceum (3), Trichoderma gamsii (2), Trichoderma hamatum (2), Trichoderma harzianum (49), Trichoderma koningiopsis (6), Trichoderma longibrachiatum (3), Trichoderma ovalisporum (1), Trichoderma pubescens (2), Trichoderma rossicum (4), Trichoderma spirale (1), Trichoderma tomentosum (3), Trichoderma virens (8), Trichoderma viridescens (7) and Hypocrea jecorina (3) (anamorph: Trichoderma reesei), along with 11 currently undescribed species. T. asperellum was the prevalent species and was represented by two distinct genotypes with different metabolic profiles and habitat preferences. The second predominant species, T. harzianum, was represented by three distinct genotypes. The addition of 11 currently undescribed species is evidence of the considerable unresolved biodiversity of Trichoderma in neotropical regions. Sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS) of the ribosomal repeat could not differentiate some species, and taken alone gave several misidentifications in part due to the presence of nonorthologous copies of the ITS in some isolates.

  10. A new genus and species of Neotropical Nemobiinae (Insecta: Orthoptera: Grylloidea: Trigonidiidae: Nemobiinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, Fabiene Maria DE; Pereira, Marcelo Ribeiro; Rodrigues, Geanne Carla Ripani; Sperber, Carlos Frankl

    2017-06-09

    A new genus and a new species of Neotropical cricket is described: Pepoapua cariacica n. gen., n. sp., occurring in four Atlantic Forest remnants in the states of Bahia and Espírito Santo, Brazil. This new genus is morphologically similar in external characteristics, both male and female genitalia, with two other Neotropical genera of Nemobiinae: Amanayara and Kevanemobius. The combination of the external morphological characteristics, along with male genitalia, characterize a new genus through combination of the following characters: (i) males and females with morphologically similar tegmina; (ii) tegmina reduced, not reaching half of the second abdominal segment; (iii) dorsal field of the tegmina with parallel veins, without stridulatory vein or any specialized area for sound production; (iv) tibia of the first pair of legs without tympanum; (v) tibia of the third pair of legs with seven dorsal spurs, four inner and three outer, the proximo-dorsal inner spur reduced in size and the disto-dorsal inner spur without glandular aspect; (vi) ovipositor with distal portion of the dorsal and ventral valves serrated; (vii) male genitalia without evident bristles or sensillas; (viii) pseudepiphallic median lobe presenting apical and ventral projections.

  11. Edible species of the fungal genus hebeloma and two neotropical pines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, V.C.; Moreno, J.P.; Lizaola, R.Q.; Moreno, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Mexico has one of the largest diversities of pines and ectomycorrhizal fungi known world-wide. Therefore, describingnative ectomycorrizal species from the country associated with pines is important because of their biotechnological potential in the forestry and food sectors. Worldwide, Hebeloma has generally been considered a genus of poisonous ectomycorrhizal fungi. However, interestingly, in central Mexico there is a complex of under-studied Hebeloma species which are used as food in large quantities and have a great economic and social importance. Three edible species of Hebeloma widely marketed in the country were identified: Hebeloma alpinum, H. mesophaeum and H. leucosarx with scanning electron microscopy on the basis of different ornamentation patterns in the spores of these species. Synthesis was carried out by inoculating two Neotropical pines with sporomes of the three described Hebeloma species. To achieve this, inoculated pines were kept in greenhouse conditions during one year. A characteristic morphotype for each fungal species was observed and it is described here. The first known description of the morphotype of Hebeloma alpinum with pines is presented. This seminal work gives a tool to identify the morphotypes produced by the main edible ectomycorrhizal species of Hebeloma marketed in Mexico, with biotechnological potential to inoculate pines used in reforestation programmes in Neotropical areas. (author)

  12. A key and checklist to the Neotropical forensically important "Little House Flies" (Diptera: Fanniidae

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    Diana Grisales

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Fanniidae (Insecta: Diptera is a relatively small family (ca. 350 spp. with five genera, of which Fannia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 and Euryomma Stein, 1899 have Neotropical distributions. Some of these species are almost always found in forensic studies. Forensically relevant species have been neglected, despite recent forensic studies that suggest their importance for estimating post-mortem interval (PMI. Thus, current and updated keys to identify adults or larvae on carcasses are unavailable for the most important species. While immature stages are important in estimating PMI, evidence suggests that adults (Fanniidae as well as other families may also be useful for this purpose. Here we provide a key to males of the species of Fanniidae (found on corpses and other decomposing organic matter with a checklist of species that have been used in forensics in the Neotropical region. The key comprises all 38 species of Fannia and Euryomma that have already been successfully used in forensics, and species that are potentially useful for estimating PMI. These records were found after reviews of the literature and data from entomological collections. Photographs and illustrations of the main characters in the key are provided.

  13. Diversification of the silverspot butterflies (Nymphalidae) in the Neotropics inferred from multi-locus DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massardo, Darli; Fornel, Rodrigo; Kronforst, Marcus; Gonçalves, Gislene Lopes; Moreira, Gilson Rudinei Pires

    2015-01-01

    The tribe Heliconiini (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) is a diverse group of butterflies distributed throughout the Neotropics, which has been studied extensively, in particular the genus Heliconius. However, most of the other lineages, such as Dione, which are less diverse and considered basal within the group, have received little attention. Basic information, such as species limits and geographical distributions remain uncertain for this genus. Here we used multilocus DNA sequence data and the geographical distribution analysis across the entire range of Dione in the Neotropical region in order to make inferences on the evolutionary history of this poorly explored lineage. Bayesian time-tree reconstruction allows inferring two major diversification events in this tribe around 25mya. Lineages thought to be ancient, such as Dione and Agraulis, are as recent as Heliconius. Dione formed a monophyletic clade, sister to the genus Agraulis. Dione juno, D. glycera and D. moneta were reciprocally monophyletic and formed genetic clusters, with the first two more close related than each other in relation to the third. Divergence time estimates support the hypothesis that speciation in Dione coincided with both the rise of Passifloraceae (the host plants) and the uplift of the Andes. Since the sister species D. glycera and D. moneta are specialized feeders on passion-vine lineages that are endemic to areas located either within or adjacent to the Andes, we inferred that they co-speciated with their host plants during this vicariant event. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Molecular phylogeny of Neotropical bioluminescent beetles (Coleoptera: Elateroidea) in southern and central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, D T; Arnoldi, F G C; Rosa, S P; Viviani, V R

    2014-08-01

    Bioluminescence in beetles is found mainly in the Elateroidea superfamily (Elateridae, Lampyridae and Phengodidae). The Neotropical region accounts for the richest diversity of bioluminescent species in the world with about 500 described species, most occurring in the Amazon, Atlantic rainforest and Cerrado (savanna) ecosystems in Brazil. The origin and evolution of bioluminescence, as well as the taxonomic status of several Neotropical taxa in these families remains unclear. In order to contribute to a better understanding of the phylogeny and evolution of bioluminescent Elateroidea we sequenced and analyzed sequences of mitochondrial NADH2 and the nuclear 28S genes and of the cloned luciferase sequences of Brazilian species belonging to the following genera: (Lampyridae) Macrolampis, Photuris, Amydetes, Bicellonycha, Aspisoma, Lucidota, Cratomorphus; (Elateridae) Conoderus, Pyrophorus, Hapsodrilus, Pyrearinus, Fulgeochlizus; and (Phengodidae) Pseudophengodes, Phrixothrix, Euryopa and Brasilocerus. Our study supports a closer phylogenetic relationship between Elateridae and Phengodidae as other molecular studies, in contrast with previous morphologic and molecular studies that clustered Lampyridae/Phengodidae. Molecular data also supported division of the Phengodinae subfamily into the tribes Phengodini and Mastinocerini. The position of the genus Amydetes supports the status of the Amydetinae as a subfamily. The genus Euryopa is included in the Mastinocerini tribe within the Phengodinae/Phengodidae. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Molecular detection of viral agents in free-ranging and captive neotropical felids in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Mariana M; Taniwaki, Sueli A; de Barros, Iracema N; Brandão, Paulo E; Catão-Dias, José L; Cavalcanti, Sandra; Cullen, Laury; Filoni, Claudia; Jácomo, Anah T de Almeida; Jorge, Rodrigo S P; Silva, Nairléia Dos Santos; Silveira, Leandro; Ferreira Neto, José S

    2017-09-01

    We describe molecular testing for felid alphaherpesvirus 1 (FHV-1), carnivore protoparvovirus 1 (CPPV-1), feline calicivirus (FCV), alphacoronavirus 1 (feline coronavirus [FCoV]), feline leukemia virus (FeLV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and canine distemper virus (CDV) in whole blood samples of 109 free-ranging and 68 captive neotropical felids from Brazil. Samples from 2 jaguars ( Panthera onca) and 1 oncilla ( Leopardus tigrinus) were positive for FHV-1; 2 jaguars, 1 puma ( Puma concolor), and 1 jaguarundi ( Herpairulus yagouaroundi) tested positive for CPPV-1; and 1 puma was positive for FIV. Based on comparison of 103 nucleotides of the UL24-UL25 gene, the FHV-1 sequences were 99-100% similar to the FHV-1 strain of domestic cats. Nucleotide sequences of CPPV-1 were closely related to sequences detected in other wild carnivores, comparing 294 nucleotides of the VP1 gene. The FIV nucleotide sequence detected in the free-ranging puma, based on comparison of 444 nucleotides of the pol gene, grouped with other lentiviruses described in pumas, and had 82.4% identity with a free-ranging puma from Yellowstone Park and 79.5% with a captive puma from Brazil. Our data document the circulation of FHV-1, CPPV-1, and FIV in neotropical felids in Brazil.

  16. Toward reliable estimates of seed removal by small mammals and birds in the Neotropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AV. Christianini

    Full Text Available Birds are often considered seed predators of less importance when compared to rodents or granivorous ants in studies of seed predation using selective exclosures. However, it is possible that the role of granivorous birds interacting with seeds on the floor of Neotropical forests is being underestimated, if the selective exclosures designed to allow exclusive access to small rodents do not work properly in the Neotropics. We used an experimental approach to evaluate whether birds could remove seeds from selective exclosures designed to allow exclusive access to rodents. We compared seed removal from two paired treatments in the field: an open treatment (control allowing the access to all vertebrates, and a selective exclosure treatment, where seeds were placed under a cage staked to the ground and covered on top and on the laterals by wire mesh of varying sizes. Treatments were placed in the center of a sand quadrat in order to record the visit of vertebrates from their footprints. Although the selective exclosures are used to tell apart the small mammal seed removal from that of other animals, birds could persistently remove seeds from selective exclosures. Thus, the role of birds interacting with seeds on the floor of tropical forests may be underestimated for some plant species, due to an artifact of the exclosure method employed. Exclosures of 40 x 40 x 40 cm should be efficient to deter the removal of seeds by birds, allowing the consumption of the seeds by small mammals at the same time.

  17. Immune-related effects from predation risk in Neotropical blue-black grassquits (Volatinia jacarina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, João V O; Maia, Maya R; Manica, Lilian T; Macedo, Regina H

    2014-11-01

    Predation is a major force shaping natural history traits of birds because of their vulnerability during nesting and higher visibility during diurnal activities. For most birds in the Neotropics, predation is the major cause of nest failure due to the region's high diversity and abundance of predators. The blue-black grassquit (Volatinia jacarina), similarly to other small passerines in the savanna region of central Brazil, suffers extremely high rates of nest predation. Additionally, males may be particularly vulnerable to predators since they are very conspicuous when executing courtship displays. We assessed some of the non-lethal costs of predation risk on this species by comparing physiological and morphological parameters of birds exposed to predator vocalizations with that of control subjects exposed to non-predator vocalizations. Birds exposed to the predator vocalizations exhibited an immune-related reaction (changes in their H/L ratio), but no changes were observed in other biological parameters measured. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neotropical Behaviour. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Delimitation of some neotropical laccate Ganoderma (Ganodermataceae): molecular phylogeny and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lima Júnior, Nelson Correia; Baptista Gibertone, Tatiana; Malosso, Elaine

    2014-09-01

    Ganoderma includes species of great economic and ecological importance, but taxonomists judge the current nomenclatural situation as chaotic and poorly studied in the neotropics. From this perspective, phylogenetic analyses inferred from ribosomal DNA sequences have aided the clarification of the genus status. In this study, 14 specimens of Ganoderma and two of Tomophagus collected in Brazil were used for DNA extraction, amplification and sequencing of the ITS and LSU regions (rDNA). The phylogenetic delimitation of six neotropical taxa (G. chalceum, G. multiplicatum, G. orbiforme, G. parvulum, G. aff. oerstedtii and Tomophagus colossus) was determined based on these Brazilian specimens and found to be distinct from the laccate Ganoderma from Asia, Europe, North America and from some specimens from Argentina. Phylogenetic reconstructions confirmed that the laccate Ganoderna is distinct from Tomophagus, although they belong to the same group. The use of taxonomic synonyms Ganoderma subamboinense for G. multiplicatumnz, G. boninense for G. orbiforme and G. chalceum for G. cupreum was not confirmed. However, Ganoderma parvulum was confirmed as the correct name for specimens called G. stipitatu. Furthermore, the name G. hucidumn should be used only for European species. The use of valid published names is proposed according to the specimen geographical distribution, their morphological characteristics and rDNA analysis. 1208. Epub 2014 September 01.

  19. Revisiting adaptations of neotropical katydids (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) to gleaning bat predation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Hofstede, Hannah; Voigt-Heucke, Silke; Lang, Alexander; Römer, Heinrich; Page, Rachel; Faure, Paul; Dechmann, Dina

    2017-01-01

    All animals have defenses against predators, but assessing the effectiveness of such traits is challenging. Neotropical katydids (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) are an abundant, ubiquitous, and diverse group of large insects eaten by a variety of predators, including substrate-gleaning bats. Gleaning bats capture food from surfaces and usually use prey-generated sounds to detect and locate prey. A number of Neotropical katydid signaling traits, such as the emission of ultrasonic frequencies, substrate vibration communication, infrequent calling, and ultrasound-evoked song cessation are thought to have evolved as defenses against substrate-gleaning bats. We collected insect remains from hairy big-eared bat ( Micronycteris hirsuta ) roosts in Panama. We identified insect remains to order, species, or genus and quantified the proportion of prey with defenses against predatory bats based on defenses described in the literature. Most remains were from katydids and half of those were from species with documented defenses against substrate-gleaning bats. Many culled remains were from insects that do not emit mate-calling songs (e.g. beetles, dragonflies, cockroaches, and female katydids), indicating that eavesdropping on prey signals is not the only prey-finding strategy used by this bat. Our results show that substrate-gleaning bats can occasionally overcome katydid defenses.

  20. Predominance of self-compatibility in hummingbird-pollinated plants in the Neotropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolowski, Marina; Saad, Carolina Farias; Ashman, Tia-Lynn; Freitas, Leandro

    2013-01-01

    Both plant traits and plant-pollinator interactions are thought to influence plant mating systems. For hummingbird-pollinated plants, foraging strategy (territorial or traplining) is also expected to influence plant mating. We hypothesize that the traplining behavior of hermits promotes outcrossing, whereas the behavior of non-hermits favours self-incompatibility. Thus, selection is expected to maintain self-incompatibility in plants pollinated by non-hermits. We explore the incidence of self-incompatibility in Neotropical hummingbird-pollinated plants and its association with hummingbird behavior and plant traits. We conducted a literature review (56 species) and performed hand-pollination experiments in 27 hummingbird-pollinated plants in an Atlantic rainforest. We found that self-incompatibility (measured as hummingbird-pollinated plants. The interaction of hummingbird and habit type affected ISI, as did phylogenetic relationships. Specifically, herbs pollinated by non-hermits had higher ISI than woody plants pollinated by non-hermits, and herbs pollinated by both hermits and non-hermits. For the Atlantic rainforest plant guild, 30 % of the species were self-incompatible. ISI was higher in herbs than in woody species and increased with plant aggregation but was not dependent on foraging behavior, plant density, or floral display. Although hummingbirds differ in their foraging strategies, these behavioral differences seem to have only a minor influence on the incidence of self-incompatibility. Phylogenetic relatedness seems to be the strongest determinant of mating system in Neotropical hummingbird-pollinated plants.

  1. Leucophora Satellite Flies (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) as Nest Parasites of Sweat Bees (Hymenoptera: Halictidae) in the Neotropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polidori, C; Michelsen, V; Nieves-Aldrey, J L

    2015-08-01

    The biology of the 10 species of Leucophora (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) recorded in the Neotropics remains unknown. The large majority of the studied species so far are kleptoparasites of bees and wasps. Here, we report the first observations of Leucophora andicola (Bigot) and Leucophora peullae (Malloch) visiting the nests of ground-nesting sweat bees Corynura (Hymenoptera: Halictidae) in Chilean Patagonia. Females of both species perch on small stones or sticks within a dense nest aggregation of the bees and then track pollen-loaded bees in flight with great precision, eventually following them into their nests. The overall behavior closely resembles that observed for many other species of the genus. Excavations of some bee nests returned only two dipteran puparia, possibly of Leucophora, suggesting a low parasitism rate. One male of L. peullae was also collected at the bee aggregation. This is the first report of host association for any Leucophora from the Neotropics and the first report of any anthomyiid fly associated with augochlorine bees.

  2. Regional endemism and cryptic species revealed by molecular and morphological analysis of a widespread species of Neotropical catfish.

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, A P; Bermingham, E

    2000-01-01

    The lower Central American landscape was fully emergent approximately three million years ago, an event which marked the beginning of the Great American biotic interchange. Freshwater fishes participated in the biotic interchange. Because primary freshwater fishes are restricted to freshwater, they provide an excellent system for investigating the interplay of historical and recent processes on the assembly, structure and diversity of the regions' aquatic ecosystems. We focused on examining t...

  3. Feeding ecology and phylogenetic structure of a complex neotropical termite assemblage, revealed by nitrogen stable isotope ratios

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bourguignon, T.; Šobotník, Jan; Lepoint, G.; Martin, J. M.; Hardy, O. J.; Dejean, A.; Roisin, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 2 (2011), s. 261-269 ISSN 0307-6946 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : diet diversity * feeding groups * Isoptera * phylogenetic autocorrelation Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.995, year: 2011

  4. Mitochondrial and chemical profiles reveal a new genus and species of Neotropical termite with snapping soldiers, Palmitermes impostor (Termitidae : Termitinae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hellemans, S.; Bourguignon, T.; Kyjaková, Pavlína; Hanus, Robert; Roisin, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 4 (2017), s. 394-405 ISSN 1445-5226 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-25354P Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : cuticular hydrocarbons * French Guiana * Isoptera * mitochondrial genome * Palmitermes * Termitinae Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Biodiversity conservation Impact factor: 2.172, year: 2016

  5. Interoceanic occurrence of species of Aristocleidus Mueller, 1936 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) parasitizing the gills of gerreid fishes in the Neotropics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F.; Violante-González, J.; Roche, D. G.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 3 (2009), s. 703-708 ISSN 0932-0113 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Neotropics * Gerreidae * Aristocleidus * Diapterus * Gerres * host specificity * Isthmus of Panama Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.721, year: 2009

  6. Phylogenetic analysis of Attalea (Arecaceae): insights on the historical biogeography of a recently diversified Neotropical plant group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical Abstract Here we present a dated phylogenetic tree of the neotropical palm genus Attalea (Arecaceae). We used six orthologs from the nuclear WRKY gene family across 98 accessions to address relationships among species and biogeographic hypotheses. Here we found that the formerly recognized...

  7. Antioxidant and metabolite profiling of North American and neotropical blueberries using LC-TOF-MS and multivariate analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chunhui; Dastmalchi, Keyvan; Flores, Gema; Wu, Shi-Biao; Pedraza-Peñalosa, Paola; Long, Chunlin; Kennelly, Edward J

    2013-04-10

    There are many neotropical blueberries, and recent studies have shown that some have even stronger antioxidant activity than the well-known edible North American blueberries. Antioxidant marker compounds were predicted by applying multivariate statistics to data from LC-TOF-MS analysis and antioxidant assays of 3 North American blueberry species (Vaccinium corymbosum, Vaccinium angustifolium, and a defined mixture of Vaccinium virgatum with V. corymbosum) and 12 neotropical blueberry species (Anthopterus wardii, Cavendishia grandifolia, Cavendishia isernii, Ceratostema silvicola, Disterigma rimbachii, Macleania coccoloboides, Macleania cordifolia, Macleania rupestris, Satyria boliviana, Sphyrospermum buxifolium, Sphyrospermum cordifolium, and Sphyrospermum ellipticum). Fourteen antioxidant markers were detected, and 12 of these, including 7 anthocyanins, 3 flavonols, 1 hydroxycinnamic acid, and 1 iridoid glycoside, were identified. This application of multivariate analysis to bioactivity and mass data can be used for identification of pharmacologically active natural products and may help to determine which neotropical blueberry species will be prioritized for agricultural development. Also, the compositional differences between North American and neotropical blueberries were determined by chemometric analysis, and 44 marker compounds including 16 anthocyanins, 15 flavonoids, 7 hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, 5 triterpene glycosides, and 1 iridoid glycoside were identified.

  8. MoSI (Monitoreo de Sobrevivencia Invernal): assessing habitat-specific overwintering survival of neotropical migratory landbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    David F. DeSante; T. Scott Sillett; Rodney B. Siegel; James F. Saracco; Claudia A. Romo de Vivar Alvarez; Salvadora Morales; Alexis Cerezo; Danielle R. Kaschube; Manuel Grosselet; Borja Mila

    2005-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that population declines in many Neotropical-wintering migratory landbird species are caused by habitat loss and degradation on their wintering grounds. Such habitat loss and degradation can lower overwintering survival rates and cause surviving birds to leave their wintering grounds in poor physical condition, leading to high mortality during...

  9. A revision of the Neotropical genus Paraberismyia Woodley (Diptera, Stratiomyidae, Beridinae with three new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Woodley

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Neotropical genus Paraberismyia Woodley, 1995, is revised. Three new species, P. chiapas sp. n., P.mathisi sp. n., and P. triunfo sp. n. are described, alltype localities in Chiapas, Mexico. A key to the four known species is provided.

  10. Movement patterns of three arboreal primates in a Neotropical moist forest explained by LiDAR-estimated canopy structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McLean, Kevin A.; Trainor, Anne M.; Asner, Gregory P.; Crofoot, Margaret C.; Hopkins, Mariah E.; Campbell, Christina J.; Martin, Roberta E.; Knapp, David E.; Jansen, Patrick A.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Many arboreal mammals in Neotropical forests are important seed dispersers that influence the spatial patterns of tree regeneration via their movement patterns, which in turn are determined by the canopy structure of the forest itself. However, the relationship between arboreal mammal

  11. Microbial Diversity in Cerrado Biome (Neotropical Savanna Soils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alinne Pereira de Castro

    Full Text Available The Cerrado, the largest savanna region in South America, is located in central Brazil. Cerrado physiognomies, which range from savanna grasslands to forest formations, combined with the highly weathered, acidic clay Cerrado soils form a unique ecoregion. In this study, high-throughput sequencing of ribosomal RNA genes was combined with shotgun metagenomic analysis to explore the taxonomic composition and potential functions of soil microbial communities in four different vegetation physiognomies during both dry and rainy seasons. Our results showed that changes in bacterial, archaeal, and fungal community structures in cerrado denso, cerrado sensu stricto, campo sujo, and gallery forest soils strongly correlated with seasonal patterns of soil water uptake. The relative abundance of AD3, WPS-2, Planctomycetes, Thermoprotei, and Glomeromycota typically decreased in the rainy season, whereas the relative abundance of Proteobacteria and Ascomycota increased. In addition, analysis of shotgun metagenomic data revealed a significant increase in the relative abundance of genes associated with iron acquisition and metabolism, dormancy, and sporulation during the dry season, and an increase in the relative abundance of genes related to respiration and DNA and protein metabolism during the rainy season. These gene functional categories are associated with adaptation to water stress. Our results further the understanding of how tropical savanna soil microbial communities may be influenced by vegetation covering and temporal variations in soil moisture.

  12. Evidence for the exchange of blood parasites between North America and the Neotropics in blue-winged teal (Anas discors)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Andy M.; Reed, John; Walther, Patrick; Link, Paul; Schmutz, Joel A.; Douglas, David C.; Stallknecht, David E.; Soos, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Blue-winged teal (Anas discors) are abundant, small-bodied dabbling ducks that breed throughout the prairies of the northcentral USA and central Canada and that winter in the southern USA and northern Neotropics. Given the migratory tendencies of this species, it is plausible that blue-winged teal may disperse avian pathogens, such as parasites causing avian malaria, between spatially distant areas. To test the hypothesis that blue-winged teal play a role in the exchange of blood parasites between North America and areas further south, we collected information on migratory tendencies of this species and sampled birds at spatially distant areas during breeding and non-breeding periods to diagnose and genetically characterize parasitic infections. Using a combination of band recovery data, satellite telemetry, molecular diagnostics, and genetic analyses, we found evidence for (1) migratory connectivity of blue-winged teal between our sampling locations in the Canadian prairies and along the US Gulf Coast with areas throughout the northern Neotropics, (2) parasite acquisition at both breeding and non-breeding areas, (3) infection of blue-winged teal sampled in Canada and the USA withPlasmodium parasite lineages associated with the Neotropics, and (4) infection of blue-winged teal with parasites that were genetically related to those previously reported in waterfowl in both North America and South America. Collectively, our results suggest that blue-winged teal likely play a role in the dispersal of blood parasites between the Neotropics and North America, and therefore, the targeting of this species in surveillance programs for the early detection of Neotropical-origin avian pathogens in the USA may be informative.

  13. Convergent Adaptations: Bitter Manioc Cultivation Systems in Fertile Anthropogenic Dark Earths and Floodplain Soils in Central Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, James Angus; Alves-Pereira, Alessandro; Junqueira, André Braga; Peroni, Nivaldo; Clement, Charles Roland

    2012-01-01

    Shifting cultivation in the humid tropics is incredibly diverse, yet research tends to focus on one type: long-fallow shifting cultivation. While it is a typical adaptation to the highly-weathered nutrient-poor soils of the Amazonian terra firme, fertile environments in the region offer opportunities for agricultural intensification. We hypothesized that Amazonian people have developed divergent bitter manioc cultivation systems as adaptations to the properties of different soils. We compared bitter manioc cultivation in two nutrient-rich and two nutrient-poor soils, along the middle Madeira River in Central Amazonia. We interviewed 249 farmers in 6 localities, sampled their manioc fields, and carried out genetic analysis of bitter manioc landraces. While cultivation in the two richer soils at different localities was characterized by fast-maturing, low-starch manioc landraces, with shorter cropping periods and shorter fallows, the predominant manioc landraces in these soils were generally not genetically similar. Rather, predominant landraces in each of these two fertile soils have emerged from separate selective trajectories which produced landraces that converged for fast-maturing low-starch traits adapted to intensified swidden systems in fertile soils. This contrasts with the more extensive cultivation systems found in the two poorer soils at different localities, characterized by the prevalence of slow-maturing high-starch landraces, longer cropping periods and longer fallows, typical of previous studies. Farmers plant different assemblages of bitter manioc landraces in different soils and the most popular landraces were shown to exhibit significantly different yields when planted in different soils. Farmers have selected different sets of landraces with different perceived agronomic characteristics, along with different fallow lengths, as adaptations to the specific properties of each agroecological micro-environment. These findings open up new avenues for

  14. Convergent adaptations: bitter manioc cultivation systems in fertile anthropogenic dark earths and floodplain soils in Central Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Angus Fraser

    Full Text Available Shifting cultivation in the humid tropics is incredibly diverse, yet research tends to focus on one type: long-fallow shifting cultivation. While it is a typical adaptation to the highly-weathered nutrient-poor soils of the Amazonian terra firme, fertile environments in the region offer opportunities for agricultural intensification. We hypothesized that Amazonian people have developed divergent bitter manioc cultivation systems as adaptations to the properties of different soils. We compared bitter manioc cultivation in two nutrient-rich and two nutrient-poor soils, along the middle Madeira River in Central Amazonia. We interviewed 249 farmers in 6 localities, sampled their manioc fields, and carried out genetic analysis of bitter manioc landraces. While cultivation in the two richer soils at different localities was characterized by fast-maturing, low-starch manioc landraces, with shorter cropping periods and shorter fallows, the predominant manioc landraces in these soils were generally not genetically similar. Rather, predominant landraces in each of these two fertile soils have emerged from separate selective trajectories which produced landraces that converged for fast-maturing low-starch traits adapted to intensified swidden systems in fertile soils. This contrasts with the more extensive cultivation systems found in the two poorer soils at different localities, characterized by the prevalence of slow-maturing high-starch landraces, longer cropping periods and longer fallows, typical of previous studies. Farmers plant different assemblages of bitter manioc landraces in different soils and the most popular landraces were shown to exhibit significantly different yields when planted in different soils. Farmers have selected different sets of landraces with different perceived agronomic characteristics, along with different fallow lengths, as adaptations to the specific properties of each agroecological micro-environment. These findings open

  15. [Distribution patterns of canopy and understory tree species at local scale in a Tierra Firme forest, the Colombian Amazonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto-Silva, Juan Sebastian; López, Dairon Cárdenas; Montoya, Alvaro Javier Duque

    2014-03-01

    The effect of environmental variation on the structure of tree communities in tropical forests is still under debate. There is evidence that in landscapes like Tierra Firme forest, where the environmental gradient decreases at a local level, the effect of soil on the distribution patterns of plant species is minimal, happens to be random or is due to biological processes. In contrast, in studies with different kinds of plants from tropical forests, a greater effect on floristic composition of varying soil and topography has been reported. To assess this, the current study was carried out in a permanent plot of ten hectares in the Amacayacu National Park, Colombian Amazonia. To run the analysis, floristic and environmental variations were obtained according to tree species abundance categories and growth forms. In order to quantify the role played by both environmental filtering and dispersal limitation, the variation of the spatial configuration was included. We used Detrended Correspondence Analysis and Canonical Correspondence Analysis, followed by a variation partitioning, to analyze the species distribution patterns. The spatial template was evaluated using the Principal Coordinates of Neighbor Matrix method. We recorded 14 074 individuals from 1 053 species and 80 families. The most abundant families were Myristicaceae, Moraceae, Meliaceae, Arecaceae and Lecythidaceae, coinciding with other studies from Northwest Amazonia. Beta diversity was relatively low within the plot. Soils were very poor, had high aluminum concentration and were predominantly clayey. The floristic differences explained along the ten hectares plot were mainly associated to biological processes, such as dispersal limitation. The largest proportion of community variation in our dataset was unexplained by either environmental or spatial data. In conclusion, these results support random processes as the major drivers of the spatial variation of tree species at a local scale on Tierra Firme

  16. Biodiversidad en espacios productivos y los aspectos sociales de las comunidades ribereñas de la Amazonia Occidental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williane Maria de Oliveira Martins

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Los sistemas agrícolas ribereño representan una alternativa de producción sustentable para las comunidades tradicionales de la Amazonia, especialmente en cuanto a la diversidad de productos y la generación de ingresos. Por lo tanto, teniendo en cuenta las funciones ecológicas y sociales el propósito de este estudio fue analizar las áreas productivas y aspectos etnosociais de las comunidades ribereñas de la lejano Amazonia Occidental, Acre, Brasil. La recolección de datos se realizó a través de entrevistas participativas, formales e inductivo después de un cuestionario semi-estructurado. Toda la información recogida se transfiere a una base de datos electrónica, que sistematizado y procesado. Los sistemas agrícolas en estas comunidades son los cultivos y quintales. Los cultivos tienen una especie agrodiversidad en la misma zona, el producto principal es el cultivo de la yuca. Los quintales tienen arreglos espaciales de especies frutales, medicinales y sobre todo los cultivos de hortalizas. Así, tanto los astilleros como los claros son responsables de la sostenibilidad de las familias ribereñas de esta comunidad, sirviendo de subsistencia y asistencia económica.Por otra parte, se trata de ser una alternativa adaptada a las condiciones de los ecosistemas agrícolas llanura de inundación en la región.

  17. Season-modulated responses of Neotropical bats to forest fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Diogo F; Rocha, Ricardo; López-Baucells, Adrià; Farneda, Fábio Z; Carreiras, João M B; Palmeirim, Jorge M; Meyer, Christoph F J

    2017-06-01

    Seasonality causes fluctuations in resource availability, affecting the presence and abundance of animal species. The impacts of these oscillations on wildlife populations can be exacerbated by habitat fragmentation. We assessed differences in bat species abundance between the wet and dry season in a fragmented landscape in the Central Amazon characterized by primary forest fragments embedded in a secondary forest matrix. We also evaluated whether the relative importance of local vegetation structure versus landscape characteristics (composition and configuration) in shaping bat abundance patterns varied between seasons. Our working hypotheses were that abundance responses are species as well as season specific, and that in the wet season, local vegetation structure is a stronger determinant of bat abundance than landscape-scale attributes. Generalized linear mixed-effects models in combination with hierarchical partitioning revealed that relationships between species abundances and local vegetation structure and landscape characteristics were both season specific and scale dependent. Overall, landscape characteristics were more important than local vegetation characteristics, suggesting that landscape structure is likely to play an even more important role in landscapes with higher fragment-matrix contrast. Responses varied between frugivores and animalivores. In the dry season, frugivores responded more to compositional metrics, whereas during the wet season, local and configurational metrics were more important. Animalivores showed similar patterns in both seasons, responding to the same group of metrics in both seasons. Differences in responses likely reflect seasonal differences in the phenology of flowering and fruiting between primary and secondary forests, which affected the foraging behavior and habitat use of bats. Management actions should encompass multiscale approaches to account for the idiosyncratic responses of species to seasonal variation in

  18. Reflexões sobre água de abastecimento e saúde pública: um estudo de caso na Amazônia brasileira Considerations about water supply and public health: a case study in the Brazilian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Luiz Giatti

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Embora a Amazônia ostente grandioso patrimônio ambiental e abundância de recursos hídricos, é na região Norte do Brasil, contida neste notável bioma, que se verificam os piores índices de acesso a serviços de saneamento e respectivos indicadores de saúde pública. Por meio de estudo de caso efetuado na cidade de São Gabriel da Cachoeira, localizada à noroeste do Estado do Amazonas, com aproximadamente 18.000 habitantes e substancial parcela de população indígena, verificou-se a complexidade de fatores relacionados ao provimento de água e à melhoria da saúde pública para núcleos urbanos da Amazônia. A ausência de políticas concisas, as peculiaridades ambientais, as dificuldades logísticas e financeiras somam-se a questões socioculturais, a aspectos migratórios e a processo de urbanização desordenada, associada a impactos ambientais. Para melhoria da saúde pública nessas circunstâncias torna-se necessária uma abordagem interdisciplinar, que possibilite a gestão dos recursos hídricos, a implementação de saneamento básico e, não obstante, a promoção de adesão dos habitantes.Even though Amazonia displays magnificent environmental heritage and abundance of water resources, it is exactly in the Brazilian northern region, contained in this remarkable biome, that the worst indices of access to sanitation services and respective public health indicators are found. A case study carried out in the town of São Gabriel da Cachoeira, located to the northwest in the State of Amazonas, with nearly 18,000 inhabitants, a large portion of whom are Indians, revealed a complexity of factors related to water supply and public health improvement for urban centers in Amazonia. Lack of proper policies, environmental peculiarities, logistic and financial difficulties, are added to socio-cultural matters, migratory processes, and unorganized urbanization associated with environmental impacts. In order to improve the public health

  19. Seasonality of isoprenoid emissions from a primary rainforest in central Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Alves

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Tropical rainforests are an important source of isoprenoid and other volatile organic compound (VOC emissions to the atmosphere. The seasonal variation of these compounds is however still poorly understood. In this study, vertical profiles of mixing ratios of isoprene, total monoterpenes and total sesquiterpenes, were measured within and above the canopy, in a primary rainforest in central Amazonia, using a proton transfer reaction – mass spectrometer (PTR-MS. Fluxes of these compounds from the canopy into the atmosphere were estimated from PTR-MS measurements by using an inverse Lagrangian transport model. Measurements were carried out continuously from September 2010 to January 2011, encompassing the dry and wet seasons. Mixing ratios were higher during the dry (isoprene – 2.68 ± 0.9 ppbv, total monoterpenes – 0.67 ± 0.3 ppbv; total sesquiterpenes – 0.09 ± 0.07 ppbv than the wet season (isoprene – 1.66 ± 0.9 ppbv, total monoterpenes – 0.47 ± 0.2 ppbv; total sesquiterpenes – 0.03 ± 0.02 ppbv for all compounds. Ambient air temperature and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR behaved similarly. Daytime isoprene and total monoterpene mixing ratios were highest within the canopy, rather than near the ground or above the canopy. By comparison, daytime total sesquiterpene mixing ratios were highest near the ground. Daytime fluxes varied significantly between seasons for all compounds. The maximums for isoprene (2.53 ± 0.5 µmol m−2 h−1 and total monoterpenes (1.77 ± 0.05 µmol m−2 h−1 were observed in the late dry season, whereas the maximum for total sesquiterpenes was found during the dry-to-wet transition season (0.77 ± 0.1 µmol m−2 h−1. These flux estimates suggest that the canopy is the main source of isoprenoids emitted into the atmosphere for all seasons. However, uncertainties in turbulence parameterization near the ground could affect estimates of fluxes that come from the ground. Leaf

  20. Seasonality of isoprenoid emissions from a primary rainforest in central Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Eliane G.; Jardine, Kolby; Tota, Julio; Jardine, Angela; Yãnez-Serrano, Ana Maria; Karl, Thomas; Tavares, Julia; Nelson, Bruce; Gu, Dasa; Stavrakou, Trissevgeni; Martin, Scot; Artaxo, Paulo; Manzi, Antonio; Guenther, Alex

    2016-03-01

    Tropical rainforests are an important source of isoprenoid and other volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions to the atmosphere. The seasonal variation of these compounds is however still poorly understood. In this study, vertical profiles of mixing ratios of isoprene, total monoterpenes and total sesquiterpenes, were measured within and above the canopy, in a primary rainforest in central Amazonia, using a proton transfer reaction - mass spectrometer (PTR-MS). Fluxes of these compounds from the canopy into the atmosphere were estimated from PTR-MS measurements by using an inverse Lagrangian transport model. Measurements were carried out continuously from September 2010 to January 2011, encompassing the dry and wet seasons. Mixing ratios were higher during the dry (isoprene - 2.68 ± 0.9 ppbv, total monoterpenes - 0.67 ± 0.3 ppbv; total sesquiterpenes - 0.09 ± 0.07 ppbv) than the wet season (isoprene - 1.66 ± 0.9 ppbv, total monoterpenes - 0.47 ± 0.2 ppbv; total sesquiterpenes - 0.03 ± 0.02 ppbv) for all compounds. Ambient air temperature and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) behaved similarly. Daytime isoprene and total monoterpene mixing ratios were highest within the canopy, rather than near the ground or above the canopy. By comparison, daytime total sesquiterpene mixing ratios were highest near the ground. Daytime fluxes varied significantly between seasons for all compounds. The maximums for isoprene (2.53 ± 0.5 µmol m-2 h-1) and total monoterpenes (1.77 ± 0.05 µmol m-2 h-1) were observed in the late dry season, whereas the maximum for total sesquiterpenes was found during the dry-to-wet transition season (0.77 ± 0.1 µmol m-2 h-1). These flux estimates suggest that the canopy is the main source of isoprenoids emitted into the atmosphere for all seasons. However, uncertainties in turbulence parameterization near the ground could affect estimates of fluxes that come from the ground. Leaf phenology seemed to be an important driver of seasonal

  1. Vegetation and hydrology changes in Eastern Amazonia inferred from a pollen record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro B. de Toledo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Pollen, charcoal, and C14 analyses were performed on a sediment core obtained from Lake Tapera (Amapá to provide the palaeoenvironmental history of this part of Amazonia. A multivariate analysis technique, Detrended Correspondence Analysis, was applied to the pollen data to improve visualization of sample distribution and similarity. A sedimentary hiatus lasting 5,500 years was identified in the Lake Tapera. Because the timing of the hiatus overlapped with the highest Holocene sea-level, which would have increased the local water table preventing the lake from drying out, it is clear that sea-level was not important in maintaining the lake level. Lake Tapera probably depended on riverine flood waters, and the sedimentary gap was caused by reduced Amazon River discharge, due to an extremely dry period in the Andes (8,000-5,000 years BP, when precipitation levels markedly decreased. The lack of Andean pollen (river transported in the record after this event supports this interpretation. The pollen analysis shows that when sedimentation resumed in 1,620 cal. years BP, the vegetation around the lake was changed from forest into savanna. This record demonstrates the need to improve our understanding of climate changes and their associated impacts on vegetation dynamics.Análises de pólen, carvões e datações C foram conduzidas em um testemunho coletado no lago Tapera (Amapá com o objetivo de interpretar a história paleoambiental desta parte da Amazônia. Uma das técnicas de análises multivariadas, Análise de Correspondência Destendenciada (DCA, foi utilizada a fim de melhor visualizar a distribuição e similaridade das amostras. Foi identificado um hiato sedimentar com duração de 5.500 anos no lago Tapera. Como o hiato ocorreu simultaneamente ao nível do mar mais alto do Holoceno, o que deveria ter aumentado o lençol freático, impedindo assim o lago de secar, é evidente que variações do nível do mar não foram importantes na

  2. Mathematics revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Elizabeth

    1979-01-01

    Mathematics Revealed focuses on the principles, processes, operations, and exercises in mathematics.The book first offers information on whole numbers, fractions, and decimals and percents. Discussions focus on measuring length, percent, decimals, numbers as products, addition and subtraction of fractions, mixed numbers and ratios, division of fractions, addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. The text then examines positive and negative numbers and powers and computation. Topics include division and averages, multiplication, ratios, and measurements, scientific notation and estim

  3. First record of the neotropical otter Lontra longicaudis annectens (Carnivora, Mustelidae in the estuary Boca Negra, Jalisco, Mexico: an approach to understanding its diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Uribe, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The first record of the neotropical otter Lontra longicaudis annectens in the estuary Boca Negra, Jalisco, Mexico is presented. It includes relevant information about its diet and a photograph in its natural habitat is showed.

  4. Food niche overlap among neotropical frugivorous bats in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E Lopez

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Food habits of 15 species of frugivorous bats were studied at La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. Eight hundred and fifty-four (854 fecal samples and 169 samples from fruit parts and seeds discarded by bats beneath feeding roosts were analyzed. During eight months of study, 47 fruit species consumed by bats were identified. Five plant genera (Cecropia, Ficus, Piper, Solanum, and Vismia constituted 85% of all plants found in fecal samples. Feeding niche breadth differed significantly among the six most common species of frugivorous bats (Artibeus jamaicensis, Carollia sowelli, C. castanea, C. perspicillata, Dermanura sp., and Glossophaga commissarisi. All species, except for Dermanura sp., showed a diet dominated by one or two plant species. This suggests a pattern of resource partitioning at a generic level, in which Carollia consumed mainly Piper, Artibeus consumed Ficus and Cecropia, and Glossophaga consumed Vismia. Cluster analysis revealed higher values of food niche overlap in congeneric species than among species of different genera. Results show that if food is a limiting factor, mechanisms other than trophic selection must reduce interspecific interference or competition for food in this frugivorous bat guild. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (1: 301-313. Epub 2007 March. 31.Estudiamos los hábitos alimentarios de 15 especies de murciélagos frugívoros en la Estación Biológica La Selva. Se analizó 854 muestras de heces y 169 muestras de restos de frutos y semillas en comederos. Durante ocho meses de estudio, se identificó 47 especies de frutos, que fueron consumidos por los murciélagos. Cinco géneros de plantas (Cecropia, Ficus, Piper, Solanum y Vismia constituyeron el 85% de los hallazgos en las muestras de heces y los comederos. La amplitud de nicho trófico difirió significativamente entre las seis especies de murciélagos frugívoros más frecuentemente capturados (Artibeus jamaicensis, Carollia sowelli, C. castanea, C. perspicillata

  5. First typology of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) systems in Colombian Amazonia, based on tree species richness, canopy structure and light availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez Salazar, Juan Carlos; Ngo Bieng, Marie Ange; Melgarejo, Luz Marina; Di Rienzo, Julio A; Casanoves, Fernando

    2018-01-01

    We present a typology of cacao agroforest systems in Colombian Amazonia. These systems had yet to be described in the literature, especially their potential in terms of biodiversity conservation. The systems studied are located in a post-conflict area, and a deforestation front in Colombian Amazonia. Cacao cropping systems are of key importance in Colombia: cacao plays a prime role in post conflict resolution, as cacao is a legal crop to replace illegal crops; cacao agroforests are expected to be a sustainable practice, promoting forest-friendly land use. We worked in 50 x 2000 m2 agroforest plots, in Colombian Amazonia. A cluster analysis was used to build a typology based on 28 variables characterised in each plot, and related to diversity, composition, spatial structure and light availability for the cacao trees. We included variables related to light availability to evaluate the amount of transmitted radiation to the cacao trees in each type, and its suitability for cacao ecophysiological development. We identified 4 types of cacao agroforests based on differences concerning tree species diversity and the impact of canopy spatial structure on light availability for the cacao trees in the understorey. We found 127 tree species in the dataset, with some exclusive species in each type. We also found that 3 out of the 4 types identified displayed an erosion of tree species diversity. This reduction in shade tree species may have been linked to the desire to reduce shade, but we also found that all the types described were compatible with good ecophysiological development of the cacao trees. Cacao agroforest systems may actually be achieving biodiversity conservation goals in Colombian Amazonia. One challenging prospect will be to monitor and encourage the conservation of tree species diversity in cacao agroforest systems during the development of these cropping systems, as a form of forest-friendly management enhancing sustainable peace building in Colombia.

  6. First typology of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) systems in Colombian Amazonia, based on tree species richness, canopy structure and light availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez Salazar, Juan Carlos; Melgarejo, Luz Marina; Di Rienzo, Julio A.; Casanoves, Fernando

    2018-01-01

    Aim and background We present a typology of cacao agroforest systems in Colombian Amazonia. These systems had yet to be described in the literature, especially their potential in terms of biodiversity conservation. The systems studied are located in a post-conflict area, and a deforestation front in Colombian Amazonia. Cacao cropping systems are of key importance in Colombia: cacao plays a prime role in post conflict resolution, as cacao is a legal crop to replace illegal crops; cacao agroforests are expected to be a sustainable practice, promoting forest-friendly land use. Material and methods We worked in 50 x 2000 m2 agroforest plots, in Colombian Amazonia. A cluster analysis was used to build a typology based on 28 variables characterised in each plot, and related to diversity, composition, spatial structure and light availability for the cacao trees. We included variables related to light availability to evaluate the amount of transmitted radiation to the cacao trees in each type, and its suitability for cacao ecophysiological development. Main results We identified 4 types of cacao agroforests based on differences concerning tree species diversity and the impact of canopy spatial structure on light availability for the cacao trees in the understorey. We found 127 tree species in the dataset, with some exclusive species in each type. We also found that 3 out of the 4 types identified displayed an erosion of tree species diversity. This reduction in shade tree species may have been linked to the desire to reduce shade, but we also found that all the types described were compatible with good ecophysiological development of the cacao trees. Main conclusions and prospects Cacao agroforest systems may actually be achieving biodiversity conservation goals in Colombian Amazonia. One challenging prospect will be to monitor and encourage the conservation of tree species diversity in cacao agroforest systems during the development of these cropping systems, as a form of

  7. First typology of cacao (Theobroma cacao L. systems in Colombian Amazonia, based on tree species richness, canopy structure and light availability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Suárez Salazar

    Full Text Available We present a typology of cacao agroforest systems in Colombian Amazonia. These systems had yet to be described in the literature, especially their potential in terms of biodiversity conservation. The systems studied are located in a post-conflict area, and a deforestation front in Colombian Amazonia. Cacao cropping systems are of key importance in Colombia: cacao plays a prime role in post conflict resolution, as cacao is a legal crop to replace illegal crops; cacao agroforests are expected to be a sustainable practice, promoting forest-friendly land use.We worked in 50 x 2000 m2 agroforest plots, in Colombian Amazonia. A cluster analysis was used to build a typology based on 28 variables characterised in each plot, and related to diversity, composition, spatial structure and light availability for the cacao trees. We included variables related to light availability to evaluate the amount of transmitted radiation to the cacao trees in each type, and its suitability for cacao ecophysiological development.We identified 4 types of cacao agroforests based on differences concerning tree species diversity and the impact of canopy spatial structure on light availability for the cacao trees in the understorey. We found 127 tree species in the dataset, with some exclusive species in each type. We also found that 3 out of the 4 types identified displayed an erosion of tree species diversity. This reduction in shade tree species may have been linked to the desire to reduce shade, but we also found that all the types described were compatible with good ecophysiological development of the cacao trees.Cacao agroforest systems may actually be achieving biodiversity conservation goals in Colombian Amazonia. One challenging prospect will be to monitor and encourage the conservation of tree species diversity in cacao agroforest systems during the development of these cropping systems, as a form of forest-friendly management enhancing sustainable peace building in

  8. New species of Ameloblastella Kritsky, Mendoza-Franco & Scholz, 2000 and Cosmetocleithrum Kritsky, Thatcher & Boeger, 1986 (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) infecting the gills of catfishes (Siluriformes) from the Peruvian Amazonia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mendoza-Franco, E. F.; Mendoza-Palmero, C. A.; Scholz, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 9 (2016), s. 847-862 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : neotropical Monogenea * Ancyrocephalinae * Pimelodidae * redescription * proposal * Brazil Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.181, year: 2016

  9. Ulcerative and granulomatous enteritis associated with Molineus torulosus parasitism in neotropical primates

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    Max Bruno Magno Bacalhao

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This paper reports eleven cases of ulcerative and granulomatous enteritis associated with Molineus torulosus parasitism in different species of neotropical primates of the Sapajus genus. All of the affected monkeys had been apprehended by the environmental police and were being treated in a rehabilitation center for wild animals. The clinical history was weight loss and debility. During the necropsy, several nodules were found on the duodenum and proximal jejunum wall, with ulcers on the adjacent intestinal mucosa, including the nodules in the pancreas of four monkeys. Histologically, eosinophilic granulomas were observed in the small intestine, associated with fibrosis, eggs and adult models of Trichostrongylidae, etiology consistent with Molineus torulosus. This study describes the first cases of parasitism in Sapajus flavius, a species previously considered extinct, but recently rediscovered, and presents the occurrence of M. torulosus in two other species, Sapajus libidinosus and Sapajus apella.

  10. Three new species and reassessment of the rare Neotropical ant genus Leptanilloides (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Leptanilloidinae

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    Marek Borowiec

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe three new species of the Neotropical ant genus Leptanilloides: L. gracilis sp. n. based on workers from Mexico and Guatemala, L. erinys sp. n. based on workers and a gyne from Ecuador, and L. femoralis sp. n. based on workers from Venezuela. The description of L. gracilis is a northern extension of the known range of the genus, now numbering eleven described species. We also describe and discuss three unassociated male morphotypes from Central America. We report the occurrence of a metatibial gland in Leptanilloides and a fused promesonotal connection (suture in some species. We provide a modified, detailed diagnosis of the genus and a revised key to the worker caste of the known species.

  11. Habitat constraints on the distribution of passerine residents and neotropical migrants in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, C.S.; Dowell, B.A.; Dawson, D.K.

    1994-01-01

    With continuing tropical deforestation, there is increased concern for birds that depend on forest habitats in Latin America. During the past 10 northern winters, we have conducted quantitative studies of habitat use by wintering migrant songbirds and by residents in the Greater Antilles, Mexico, Central America, and northern South America. Many migrants, but few residents, winter in forest fragments and in certain arboreal agricultural habitats (citrus, cacao, shade coffee). Many other agricultural habitats (sun coffee, mango, commercial banana plantations, and heavily grazed pasture) are avoided by most birds. Some species, such as thrushes and ground-feeding warblers, depend on closed-canopy forest. Some, such as Northern Waterthrush (Seiurus noveboracensis) and Prothonotary Warbler (Protonotaria citrea), winter primarily in mangroves or other swamp forests. The majority of neotropical migrant passerines winter in forest fragments and certain agricultural habitats, as well as mature forest; but many resident species, especially suboscines (Furnariidae, Dendrocolaptidae, Formicariidae, Papridae), are heavily impacted by loss and fragmentation of the forest.

  12. Paternal Effort in Relation to Acoustically Mediated Mate Choice in a Neotropical Frog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettitt, Beth Ann

    One aspect of communication not normally considered in studies of anuran amphibians involves the extent to which acoustic signals indicate the quality of parental care a male provides. My research examined this question in the golden rocket frog (Anomaloglossus beebei), a Neotropical dendrobatid that exhibits acoustically mediated mate choice and biparental care. I investigated the function of the male advertisement call of A. beebei in the context of female mate choice by testing the predictions of four hypotheses that have been proposed to explain the relationship between mate signals and male parental care quality. In addition, I conducted a series of studies on acoustic variability, female preferences for advertisement call traits and the importance of male parental care on offspring survival.

  13. Passeriformes: nest predators and prey in a Neotropical Savannah in Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo F. França

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The identification of predators of birds' nests, crucial to a better understanding of predator-prey interactions, remains poorly known. Here we provide evidence that birds, and especially passerines, may depredate birds' nests in the Cerrado (Neotropical Savannah of Central Brazil. Data was collected primarily in a Conservation Unit (Estação Ecológica de Águas Emendadas during the breeding season, between 2003 and 2007. We report and discuss details on 14 events of nest predation, 12 of which by passerines, mostly by curl-crested jays - Cyanocorax cristatellus (Temminck, 1823. The results of our study suggest that the role of birds as nest predators in the Cerrado has been underestimated and needs to be further investigated.

  14. Plant diversity patterns in neotropical dry forests and their conservation implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda-R, Karina; Delgado-Salinas, Alfonso; Dexter, Kyle G; Linares-Palomino, Reynaldo; Oliveira-Filho, Ary; Prado, Darién; Pullan, Martin; Quintana, Catalina; Riina, Ricarda; Rodríguez M, Gina M; Weintritt, Julia; Acevedo-Rodríguez, Pedro; Adarve, Juan; Álvarez, Esteban; Aranguren B, Anairamiz; Arteaga, Julián Camilo; Aymard, Gerardo; Castaño, Alejandro; Ceballos-Mago, Natalia; Cogollo, Álvaro; Cuadros, Hermes; Delgado, Freddy; Devia, Wilson; Dueñas, Hilda; Fajardo, Laurie; Fernández, Ángel; Fernández, Miller Ángel; Franklin, Janet; Freid, Ethan H; Galetti, Luciano A; Gonto, Reina; González-M, Roy; Graveson, Roger; Helmer, Eileen H; Idárraga, Álvaro; López, René; Marcano-Vega, Humfredo; Martínez, Olga G; Maturo, Hernán M; McDonald, Morag; McLaren, Kurt; Melo, Omar; Mijares, Francisco; Mogni, Virginia; Molina, Diego; Moreno, Natalia Del Pilar; Nassar, Jafet M; Neves, Danilo M; Oakley, Luis J; Oatham, Michael; Olvera-Luna, Alma Rosa; Pezzini, Flávia F; Dominguez, Orlando Joel Reyes; Ríos, María Elvira; Rivera, Orlando; Rodríguez, Nelly; Rojas, Alicia; Särkinen, Tiina; Sánchez, Roberto; Smith, Melvin; Vargas, Carlos; Villanueva, Boris; Pennington, R Toby

    2016-09-23

    Seasonally dry tropical forests are distributed across Latin America and the Caribbean and are highly threatened, with less than 10% of their original extent remaining in many countries. Using 835 inventories covering 4660 species of woody plants, we show marked floristic turnover among inventories and regions, which may be higher than in other neotropical biomes, such as savanna. Such high floristic turnover indicates that numerous conservation areas across many countries will be needed to protect the full diversity of tropical dry forests. Our results provide a scientific framework within which national decision-makers can contextualize the floristic significance of their dry forest at a regional and continental scale. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. Morphogenia: a new genus of the Neotropical tribe Jubini (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Pselaphinae) from the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    A new genus and species of the large Neotropical pselaphine tribe Jubini is described from Manaus, Brazil, based on material preserved in the Natural History Museum, London. Morphogenia struhli gen. et sp. n. represents the possible sister taxon of the abundant and speciose genus Barrojuba Park, sharing with it the putatively derived condition of anterolaterally shifted vertexal foveae, producing a smoothly convex vertex devoid of fovea or sulci. However, unlike Barrojuba, Morphogenia retains a plesiomorphic antebasal sulcus on the pronotum in both sexes, and additionally lacks elaborate abdominal fovea-like pockets and teeth on the lateral margins of the pronotum that are typical of Barrojuba. The genus is also unusual among jubine genera in lacking the characteristic V- or Y-shaped gular carina. In contrast to the commonly-collected Barrojuba, specimens of Morphogenia are absent in extensive jubine collections housed in museums in the United States, indicating that the new taxon may be relatively scarce or localised.

  16. An illustrated key to Neotropical species of the genus Meteorus Haliday (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Euphorinae

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    Helmuth Aguirre

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive key for 75 species of Meteorus distributed across 15 Neotropical countries is presented. Eleven new species from Bolivia, Costa Rica and Ecuador are described: M. albistigma, M. carolae, M. eurysaccavorus, M. fallacavus, M. flavistigma, M. haimowitzi, M. magnoculus, M. martinezi, M. microcavus, M. noctuivorus and M. orion. Expanded range distributions are recorded for M. andreae, M. farallonensis, M. guineverae, M. jerodi, M. kraussi, M. papiliovorus and M. quimbayensis. The host of M. jerodi is reported for the first time: a noctuid larva feeding on Asteraceae. Meteorus papiliovorus is recorded attacking Papilionidae larvae in Ecuador, therefore displaying a similar host family preference as formerly documented from Costa Rica and Colombia.

  17. Cross-amplification and characterization of microsatellite loci for the Neotropical orchid genus Epidendrum

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    Fábio Pinheiro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we tested the cross-amplification of 33 microsatellite loci previously developed for two closely related Neotropical orchid genera (Epidendrum and Laelia. A set of ten loci were polymorphic across five examined species (20 individuals each with 2 to 15 alleles per locus. The mean expected and observed heterozygosity (average across species ranged from 0.34 to 0.82 and from 0.27 to 0.85, respectively. In addition we tested all loci in 35 species representative of the genus Epidendrum. Of these, 26 loci showed successful amplification. Cross-application of these loci represent a potential source of co-dominant markers for evolutionary, ecological and conservation studies in this important orchid genus.

  18. On Neotropical Merophysiinae with descriptions of a new genus and new species (Coleoptera, Endomychidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriaga-Varela, Emmanuel; Tomaszewska, Wioletta; Huo, Lizhi; Seidel, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Intensive survey of museum collections and new field collecting resulted in discovery of six new, closely related species of the Neotropical Merophysiinae. A new species of the genus Lycoperdinella Champion, L. boliviensis sp. n., from Bolivia and Brazil, and five new species from Mexico for which a new genus is proposed here as Rueckeria gen. n.: R. inecol (type species), R. nigrileonis, R. ocelotl, R. puma, R. skelleyi spp. n., have been discovered. Lycoperdinella, Rueckeria gen. n., L. subcaeca Champion and all new species are diagnosed, described, and illustrated. Keys to the species of Lycoperdinella and Rueckeria and a distribution map are provided. A lectotype of Lycoperdinella subcaeca Champion, 1913 is designated. Molecular barcodes of three new species of Rueckeria are provided in order to help with the identification of these taxa. PMID:29674866

  19. Neotropical Siluriformes as a Model for Insights on Determining Biodiversity of Animal Groups.

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    Renata Rúbia Ota

    Full Text Available We performed an analysis of the descriptions of new species of Neotropical Siluriformes (catfishes to estimate the number of new species that remain to be described for a complete knowledge on biodiversity of this order, to verify the effectiveness of taxonomic support, and to identify trends and present relevant information for future policies. We conducted a literature review of species descriptions between January 1990 and August 2014. The following metadata were recorded from each article: year of publication, number of species, journal and impact factor, family(s of the described species, number of authors, age of the authors and coauthors, country of the first author's institution and ecoregion of the type-locality. From accumulation of descriptions, we built an estimate model for number of species remaining to be described. We found 595 described species in 402 articles. The data demonstrated that there has been an increased understanding of the diversity of Siluriformes over the last 25 years in the Neotropical region, although 35% of the species still remain to be described. The model estimated that with the current trends and incentives, the biodiversity will be known in almost seven decades. We have reinforced the idea that greater joint efforts should be made by society and the scientific community to obtain this knowledge in a shorter period of time through enhanced programs for promoting science, training and the advancement of professionals before undiscovered species become extinct. The model built in this study can be used for similar estimates of other groups of animals.

  20. Landscape Use and Co-Occurrence Patterns of Neotropical Spotted Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy-Reis, Mariana B.; Nichols, James D.; Chiarello, Adriano G.; Ribeiro, Milton Cezar; Setz, Eleonore Z. F.

    2017-01-01

    Small felids influence ecosystem dynamics through prey and plant population changes. Although most of these species are threatened, they are accorded one of the lowest research efforts of all felids, and we lack basic information about them. Many felids occur in sympatry, where intraguild competition is frequent. Therefore, assessing the role of interspecific interactions along with the relative importance of landscape characteristics is necessary to understand how these species co-occur in space. Here, we selected three morphologically similar and closely related species of small Neotropical cats to evaluate the roles of interspecific interactions, geomorphometry, environmental, and anthropogenic landscape characteristics on their habitat use. We collected data with camera trapping and scat sampling in a large protected Atlantic forest remnant (35,000 ha). Throughout occupancy modeling we investigated whether these species occur together more or less frequently than would be expected by chance, while dealing with imperfect detection and incorporating possible habitat preferences into the models. We used occupancy as a measure of their habitat use. Although intraguild competition can be an important determinant of carnivore assemblages, in our system, we did not find evidence that one species affects the habitat use of the other. Evidence suggested that proximity to the nature reserve (a more protected area) was a more important driver of Neotropical spotted cats’ occurrence than interspecific interactions or geomorphometry and environmental landscape characteristics—even though our entire study area is under some type of protection. This suggests that small felids can be sensitive to the area protection status, emphasizing the importance of maintaining and creating reserves and other areas with elevated protection for the proper management and conservation of the group. PMID:28052073

  1. Canopy area of large trees explains aboveground biomass variations across neotropical forest landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Victoria; Saatchi, Sassan; Clark, David B.; Keller, Michael; Vincent, Grégoire; Ferraz, António; Espírito-Santo, Fernando; d'Oliveira, Marcus V. N.; Kaki, Dahlia; Chave, Jérôme

    2018-06-01

    Large tropical trees store significant amounts of carbon in woody components and their distribution plays an important role in forest carbon stocks and dynamics. Here, we explore the properties of a new lidar-derived index, the large tree canopy area (LCA) defined as the area occupied by canopy above a reference height. We hypothesize that this simple measure of forest structure representing the crown area of large canopy trees could consistently explain the landscape variations in forest volume and aboveground biomass (AGB) across a range of climate and edaphic conditions. To test this hypothesis, we assembled a unique dataset of high-resolution airborne light detection and ranging (lidar) and ground inventory data in nine undisturbed old-growth Neotropical forests, of which four had plots large enough (1 ha) to calibrate our model. We found that the LCA for trees greater than 27 m (˜ 25-30 m) in height and at least 100 m2 crown size in a unit area (1 ha), explains more than 75 % of total forest volume variations, irrespective of the forest biogeographic conditions. When weighted by average wood density of the stand, LCA can be used as an unbiased estimator of AGB across sites (R2 = 0.78, RMSE = 46.02 Mg ha-1, bias = -0.63 Mg ha-1). Unlike other lidar-derived metrics with complex nonlinear relations to biomass, the relationship between LCA and AGB is linear and remains unique across forest types. A comparison with tree inventories across the study sites indicates that LCA correlates best with the crown area (or basal area) of trees with diameter greater than 50 cm. The spatial invariance of the LCA-AGB relationship across the Neotropics suggests a remarkable regularity of forest structure across the landscape and a new technique for systematic monitoring of large trees for their contribution to AGB and changes associated with selective logging, tree mortality and other types of tropical forest disturbance and dynamics.

  2. Body Size Adaptations to Altitudinal Climatic Variation in Neotropical Grasshoppers of the Genus Sphenarium (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Altitudinal clines in body size can result from the effects of natural and sexual selection on growth rates and developing times in seasonal environments. Short growing and reproductive seasons constrain the body size that adults can attain and their reproductive success. Little is known about the effects of altitudinal climatic variation on the diversification of Neotropical insects. In central Mexico, in addition to altitude, highly heterogeneous topography generates diverse climates that can occur even at the same latitude. Altitudinal variation and heterogeneous topography open an opportunity to test the relative impact of climatic variation on body size adaptations. In this study, we investigated the relationship between altitudinal climatic variation and body size, and the divergence rates of sexual size dimorphism (SSD) in Neotropical grasshoppers of the genus Sphenarium using a phylogenetic comparative approach. In order to distinguish the relative impact of natural and sexual selection on the diversification of the group, we also tracked the altitudinal distribution of the species and trends of both body size and SSD on the phylogeny of Sphenarium. The correlative evidence suggests no relationship between altitude and body size. However, larger species were associated with places having a warmer winter season in which the temporal window for development and reproduction can be longer. Nonetheless, the largest species were also associated with highly seasonal environments. Moreover, large body size and high levels of SSD have evolved independently several times throughout the history of the group and male body size has experienced a greater evolutionary divergence than females. These lines of evidence suggest that natural selection, associated with seasonality and sexual selection, on maturation time and body size could have enhanced the diversification of this insect group. PMID:26684616

  3. Nitrogen use strategies of seedlings from neotropical tree species of distinct successional groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Halley Caixeta; da Silva, Ligia Maria Inocêncio; de Freitas, Letícia Dias; Debiasi, Tatiane Viegas; Marchiori, Nidia Mara; Aidar, Marcos Pereira Marinho; Bianchini, Edmilson; Pimenta, José Antonio; Stolf-Moreira, Renata

    2017-05-01

    Few studies have analyzed the strategies of neotropical tree seedlings for absorbing, translocating and assimilating the nitrogen. Here, we compared the nitrogen use strategies of seedlings from six tree species that are native to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and that belong to different successional groups: Trema micrantha, Heliocarpus popayanensis and Cecropia pachystachya (pioneers), Cariniana estrellensis, Eugenia brasiliensis and Guarea kunthiana (non-pioneers). The effects of cultivating seedlings with nitrate or ammonium on the growth, physiology and nitrogen metabolism were analyzed. Nitrate-grown pioneer species had much higher leaf nitrate reductase activity than non-pioneer ones, but non-pioneer seedlings were also able to use nitrate as a nitrogen source. In addition to this remarkable difference between the groups in the capacity for leaf nitrate assimilation, substantial variations in the nitrogen use strategies were observed within the successional classes. Differently from the other non-pioneers, the canopy species C. estrellensis seemed to assimilate nitrate mainly in the leaves. Morphophysiological analyses showed a gradient of ammonium toxicity response, with E. brasiliensis as the most tolerant species, and T. micrantha and H. popayanensis as the most sensitive ones. Guarea kunthiana showed a relatively low tolerance to ammonium and an unusual high translocation of this cation in the xylem sap. In contrast to the other pioneers, C. pachystachya had a high plasticity in the use of nitrogen sources. Overall, these results suggest that nitrogen use strategies of neotropical tree seedlings were not determined solely by their successional position. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. The effects of soils and soil stay on the egg morphology of Neotropical Eulimnadia (Branchiopoda: Limnadiidae

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    Nicolas Rabet

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studying the species distribution of Limnadiidae, a family of crustaceans, in environments favourable to their growth and reproduction is made difficult by their extremely short life cycle and the transient existence of adult forms. However, the eggs of these branchiopods are highly resistant to environmental extremes and persist in the soil of humidified and dried pools. We therefore studied the capacity to detect populations of Limnadiidae and identify them at the species level using egg morphology. We investigated influences of pool sediments on Eulimnadia (clam shrimp egg morphology and asked whether we could rely on this morphology after various lengths of time in the soil to recognise species. We studied sediment collected from temporary pools in four Neotropical areas: Minas Gerais and Bahia (Brazil, French Guiana, and Martinique. These samples represented diverse geographical regions and climates and allowed us to study the four most widely distributed Eulimnadia species in the Neotropics: E. colombiensis, E. cylindrova, E. geayi, and E. magdalensis. Our results indicated that soil abrasion is superficial and does not affect the general shape of the eggs (cylindrical or spherical. However, details of egg ornamentation can be severely affected by the combined effects of erosion and filling with sediments, which can lead to difficulties in species identification. In the particular case of the spherical eggs of E. magdalensis, this species cannot be unequivocally identified without clean eggs collected from adults after breeding or from eggs recently deposited in the field. This work and the investigative methods described herein should facilitate identification of Eulimnadia species and promote further study of Limnadiidae crustaceans in the field.

  5. Conservation value and permeability of neotropical oil palm landscapes for orchid bees.

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    George Livingston

    Full Text Available The proliferation of oil palm plantations has led to dramatic changes in tropical landscapes across the globe. However, relatively little is known about the effects of oil palm expansion on biodiversity, especially in key ecosystem-service providing organisms like pollinators. Rapid land use change is exacerbated by limited knowledge of the mechanisms causing biodiversity decline in the tropics, particularly those involving landscape features. We examined these mechanisms by undertaking a survey of orchid bees, a well-known group of Neotropical pollinators, across forest and oil palm plantations in Costa Rica. We used chemical baits to survey the community in four regions: continuous forest sites, oil palm sites immediately adjacent to forest, oil palm sites 2 km from forest, and oil palm sites greater than 5 km from forest. We found that although orchid bees are present in all environments, orchid bee communities diverged across the gradient, and community richness, abundance, and similarity to forest declined as distance from forest increased. In addition, mean phylogenetic distance of the orchid bee community declined and was more clustered in oil palm. Community traits also differed with individuals in oil palm having shorter average tongue length and larger average geographic range size than those in the forest. Our results indicate two key features about Neotropical landscapes that contain oil palm: 1 oil palm is selectively permeable to orchid bees and 2 orchid bee communities in oil palm have distinct phylogenetic and trait structure compared to communities in forest. These results suggest that conservation and management efforts in oil palm-cultivating regions should focus on landscape features.

  6. Vector-borne transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi among captive Neotropical primates in a Brazilian zoo.

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    Minuzzi-Souza, Thaís Tâmara Castro; Nitz, Nadjar; Knox, Monique Britto; Reis, Filipe; Hagström, Luciana; Cuba, César A Cuba; Hecht, Mariana Machado; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    2016-01-26

    Neotropical primates are important sylvatic hosts of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease. Infection is often subclinical, but severe disease has been described in both free-ranging and captive primates. Panstrongylus megistus, a major T. cruzi vector, was found infesting a small-primate unit at Brasília zoo (ZooB), Brazil. ZooB lies close to a gallery-forest patch where T. cruzi circulates naturally. Here, we combine parasitological and molecular methods to investigate a focus of T. cruzi infection involving triatomine bugs and Neotropical primates at a zoo located in the Brazilian Savannah. We assessed T. cruzi infection in vectors using optical microscopy (n = 34) and nested PCR (n = 50). We used quantitative PCR (qPCR) to examine blood samples from 26 primates and necropsy samples from two primates that died during the study. We determined parasite lineages in five vectors and two primates by comparing glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (G6pi) gene sequences. Trypanosoma cruzi was found in 44 vectors and 17 primates (six genera and eight species); one Mico chrysoleucus and one Saguinus niger had high parasitaemias. Trypanosoma cruzi DNA was detected in three primates born to qPCR-negative mothers at ZooB and in the two dead specimens. One Callithrix geoffroyi became qPCR-positive over a two-year follow-up. All G6pi sequences matched T. cruzi lineage TcI. Our findings strongly suggest vector-borne T. cruzi transmission within a small-primate unit at ZooB - with vectors, and perhaps also parasites, presumably coming from nearby gallery forest. Periodic checks for vectors and parasites would help eliminate T. cruzi transmission foci in captive-animal facilities. This should be of special importance for captive-breeding programs involving endangered mammals, and would reduce the risk of accidental T. cruzi transmission to keepers and veterinarians.

  7. Feeding ecology of Auchenipterichthys longimanus (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae in a riparian flooded forest of Eastern Amazonia, Brazil

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    Tiago Magalhães da Silva Freitas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Feeding habits of the midnight catfish Auchenipterichthys longimanus collected in rivers of the Caxiuanã National Forest (Eastern Amazonia, Brazil were investigated through the different hydrological periods (dry, filing, flood and drawdown. A total of 589 specimens were collected throughout seven samplings between July 2008 and July 2009, of which 74 were young males, 177 adult males, 89 young females and 249 adult females. The diet composition (Alimentary index - Ai% was analyzed by a non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS and by the analysis of similarity (ANOSIM, which included 37 items grouped into nine categories (Aquatic insects, Other aquatic invertebrates, Arthropods fragment, Fish, Plant fragment, Seeds, Terrestrial insects, Other terrestrial invertebrates, and Terrestrial vertebrates. We also calculated the niche breadth (Levins index and the repletion index (RI%. Differences in the diet composition between hydrological seasons were registered, primarily on diet composition between dry and flood season, but changes related with sex and maturity were not observed. The midnight catfish showed more specialists feeder habit in the flood period (March 2009 and more generalist habits in the dry season (November 2008. The amount of food eaten by A. longimanus based on repletion index (RI%, did not differ significantly from sex and maturity. However, we evidenced differences in RI% when comparing the studied months. These results provide important biological information about the trophic ecology of auchenipterids fish. In view of the higher occurrence of allochthonous items, this research also underpins the importance of riparian forests as critical environments in the maintenance and conservation of wild populations of fish in the Amazon basin.Neste estudo foram investigados os hábitos alimentares do bagre Auchenipterichthys longimanus coletados em rios da Floresta Nacional de Caxiuanã (Amazônia Oriental, Brasil ao longo de diferentes

  8. The complete mitochondrial genome of the threatened Neotropical catfish Lophiosilurus alexandri (Silurifomes: Pseudopimelodidae and phylogenomic analysis indicate monophyly of Pimelodoidea

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    Daniel Cardoso Carvalho

    Full Text Available Abstract Lophiosilurus alexandri is an endemic catfish from the São Francisco River Basin (Brazil popularly known as pacamã, which has economic potential for aquaculture farming. The mitochondrial genome was sequenced for the threatened Neotropical catfish L. alexandri. Assembly into scaffolds using MIRA and MITObim software produced the whole, circularized mitochondrial genome, which comprises 16,445 bp and presents the typical gene arrangement of Teleostei mitochondria. A phylogenomic analysis was performed after the concatenation of all proteins obtained from whole mitogenomes of 20 Siluriformes and two outgroups. The results confirmed the monophyly of nine families of catfishes and also clustered L. alexandri as a sister group to the family Pimelodidae, thus confirming the monophyly of the superfamily Pimelodoidea. This is the first mitochondrial phylogenomics study for Pimelodoidea and the first mitogenome described for the Pseudopimelodidae family, representing an important resource for phylogeography, evolutionary biology, and conservation genetics studies in Neotropical fishes.

  9. Revealing Rembrandt

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    Andrew J Parker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The power and significance of artwork in shaping human cognition is self-evident. The starting point for our empirical investigations is the view that the task of neuroscience is to integrate itself with other forms of knowledge, rather than to seek to supplant them. In our recent work, we examined a particular aspect of the appreciation of artwork using present-day functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Our results emphasised the continuity between viewing artwork and other human cognitive activities. We also showed that appreciation of a particular aspect of artwork, namely authenticity, depends upon the co-ordinated activity between the brain regions involved in multiple decision making and those responsible for processing visual information. The findings about brain function probably have no specific consequences for understanding how people respond to the art of Rembrandt in comparison with their response to other artworks. However, the use of images of Rembrandt’s portraits, his most intimate and personal works, clearly had a significant impact upon our viewers, even though they have been spatially confined to the interior of an MRI scanner at the time of viewing. Neuroscientific studies of humans viewing artwork have the capacity to reveal the diversity of human cognitive responses that may be induced by external advice or context as people view artwork in a variety of frameworks and settings.

  10. Polyphyly of the hawk genera Leucopternis and Buteogallus (Aves, Accipitridae): multiple habitat shifts during the Neotropical buteonine diversification

    OpenAIRE

    do Amaral, Fabio S Raposo; Miller, Matthew J; Silveira, Luís Fábio; Bermingham, Eldredge; Wajntal, Anita

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background The family Accipitridae (hawks, eagles and Old World vultures) represents a large radiation of predatory birds with an almost global distribution, although most species of this family occur in the Neotropics. Despite great morphological and ecological diversity, the evolutionary relationships in the family have been poorly explored at all taxonomic levels. Using sequences from four mitochondrial genes (12S, ATP8, ATP6, and ND6), we reconstructed the phylogeny of the Neotro...

  11. Optical and geometrical properties of cirrus clouds in Amazonia derived from 1 year of ground-based lidar measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Diego A.; Barja, Boris; Barbosa, Henrique M. J.; Seifert, Patric; Baars, Holger; Pauliquevis, Theotonio; Artaxo, Paulo

    2017-03-01

    Cirrus clouds cover a large fraction of tropical latitudes and play an important role in Earth's radiation budget. Their optical properties, altitude, vertical and horizontal coverage control their radiative forcing, and hence detailed cirrus measurements at different geographical locations are of utmost importance. Studies reporting cirrus properties over tropical rain forests like the Amazon, however, are scarce. Studies with satellite profilers do not give information on the diurnal cycle, and the satellite imagers do not report on the cloud vertical structure. At the same time, ground-based lidar studies are restricted to a few case studies. In this paper, we derive the first comprehensive statistics of optical and geometrical properties of upper-tropospheric cirrus clouds in Amazonia. We used 1 year (July 2011 to June 2012) of ground-based lidar atmospheric observations north of Manaus, Brazil. This dataset was processed by an automatic cloud detection and optical properties retrieval algorithm. Upper-tropospheric cirrus clouds were observed more frequently than reported previously for tropical regions. The frequency of occurrence was found to be as high as 88 % during the wet season and not lower than 50 % during the dry season. The diurnal cycle shows a minimum around local noon and maximum during late afternoon, associated with the diurnal cycle of precipitation. The mean values of cirrus cloud top and base heights, cloud thickness, and cloud optical depth were 14.3 ± 1.9 (SD) km, 12.9 ± 2.2 km, 1.4 ± 1.1 km, and 0.25 ± 0.46, respectively. Cirrus clouds were found at temperatures down to -90 °C. Frequently cirrus were observed within the tropical tropopause layer (TTL), which are likely associated to slow mesoscale uplifting or to the remnants of overshooting convection. The vertical distribution was not uniform, and thin and subvisible cirrus occurred more frequently closer to the tropopause. The mean lidar ratio was 23.3 ± 8.0 sr. However, for

  12. CRECIMIENTO DEL MAÍZ EN VERTISOLES CON ALTO ALUMINIO EN LA BAIXADA MARANHENSE PRE-AMAZONIA, BRASIL

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    Alessandro Costa da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Crecimiento del maíz en vertisoles con alto aluminio en la Baixada Maranhense pre-Amazonia, Brasil. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el crecimiento del maíz en suelos con alto contenido de aluminio. Se midió el efecto del Al3+ en raíces y la cantidad de materia seca (raíz, hoja y tallo de maíz. Se efectuó la caracterización físico-química de cuatro muestras de suelo con alto aluminio colectadas del horizonte Ap, en tres municipios de la región conocida como Baixada Maranhense (Pre-Amazonia, Brasil: Santa Rita (SR, Arari (AR y Vitoria do Mearim (VM y un testigo colectado en el municipio de São Luís, Área del Núcleo de Tecnología Rural (T. El estudio, ejecutado en 2009, se llevó a cabo en invernadero y se utilizó 2 dm3 de suelo por maceta. Asimismo las muestras fueron divididas en muestras con y sin fertilización. La variación en la longitud de la raíz y de materia seca de las hojas difirió significativamente entre tratados con y sin fertilizante, excepto en la muestra de la localidad T. La producción de materia seca de raíz, tallo y hoja fue mayor en todos los suelos cuando se fertilizó. El suelo testigo también superó a todos los demás en cuanto a producción de materia seca en la raíz, posiblemente como resultado de una menor cantidad de Al3+ (1,2 cmolc/dm3 en comparación con los suelos SR, AR y VM (6,8; 8,0 y 7,0 cmolc/dm3 respectivamente. Se concluye la fertilización reduce el efecto detrimental del aluminio en la producción de maíz en la Baixada Maranhense.

  13. Sexual Success after Stress? Imidacloprid-Induced Hormesis in Males of the Neotropical Stink Bug Euschistus heros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddi, Khalid; Mendes, Marcos V.; Lino-Neto, José; Freitas, Hemerson L.; Guedes, Raul Narciso C.; Oliveira, Eugênio E.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental stress in newly-emerged adult insects can have dramatic consequences on their life traits (e.g., dispersion, survival and reproduction) as adults. For instance, insects sublethally exposed to environmental stressors (e.g., insecticides) can gain fitness benefits as a result of hormesis (i.e., benefits of low doses of compounds that would be toxic at higher doses). Here, we experimentally tested whether sublethal exposure to the insecticide imidacloprid would hormetically affect the sexual fitness of newly-emerged adults of the Neotropical brown stink bug Euschistus heros (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), which is the most abundant and prevalent insect pest in Neotropical soybean fields. We evaluated the sexual fitness of four couple combinations: unexposed couples, exposed females, exposed males, and exposed couples. Sublethal exposure to dry residues (i.e., contact) of imidacloprid (at 1% of recommended field rate) did not affect insect survival, but led to higher mating frequencies when at least one member of the couple was exposed. However, the average mating duration was shortened when only females were exposed to imidacloprid. Moreover, exposed males showed higher locomotory (walking) activity, lower respiration rates and induced higher fecundity rates when mated to unexposed females. Although the reproductive tracts of exposed males did not differ morphometrically from unexposed males, their accessory glands exhibited positive reactions for acidic and basic contents. Our findings suggest that males of the Neotropical brown stink bug hormetically increase their sexual fitness when cued by impending insecticidal stress in early adulthood. PMID:27284906

  14. Sexual Success after Stress? Imidacloprid-Induced Hormesis in Males of the Neotropical Stink Bug Euschistus heros.

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    Khalid Haddi

    Full Text Available Environmental stress in newly-emerged adult insects can have dramatic consequences on their life traits (e.g., dispersion, survival and reproduction as adults. For instance, insects sublethally exposed to environmental stressors (e.g., insecticides can gain fitness benefits as a result of hormesis (i.e., benefits of low doses of compounds that would be toxic at higher doses. Here, we experimentally tested whether sublethal exposure to the insecticide imidacloprid would hormetically affect the sexual fitness of newly-emerged adults of the Neotropical brown stink bug Euschistus heros (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae, which is the most abundant and prevalent insect pest in Neotropical soybean fields. We evaluated the sexual fitness of four couple combinations: unexposed couples, exposed females, exposed males, and exposed couples. Sublethal exposure to dry residues (i.e., contact of imidacloprid (at 1% of recommended field rate did not affect insect survival, but led to higher mating frequencies when at least one member of the couple was exposed. However, the average mating duration was shortened when only females were exposed to imidacloprid. Moreover, exposed males showed higher locomotory (walking activity, lower respiration rates and induced higher fecundity rates when mated to unexposed females. Although the reproductive tracts of exposed males did not differ morphometrically from unexposed males, their accessory glands exhibited positive reactions for acidic and basic contents. Our findings suggest that males of the Neotropical brown stink bug hormetically increase their sexual fitness when cued by impending insecticidal stress in early adulthood.

  15. Neogene-dominated diversification in neotropical montane lichens: dating divergence events in the lichen-forming fungal genus Oropogon (Parmeliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, Steven D; Esslinger, Theodore L; Lumbsch, H Thorsten

    2012-11-01

    Diversification in neotropical regions has been attributed to both Tertiary geological events and Pleistocene climatic fluctuations. However, the timing and processes driving speciation in these regions remain unexplored in many important groups. Here, we address the timing of diversification in the neotropical lichenized fungal genus Oropogon (Ascomycota) and assess traditional species boundaries. We analyzed sequence data from three loci to assess phenotypically circumscribed Oropogon species from the Oaxacan Highlands, Mexico. We provide a comparison of dated divergence estimates between concatenated gene trees and a calibrated multilocus species-tree using substitution rates for two DNA regions. We also compare estimates from a data set excluding ambiguously aligned regions and a data set including the hyper-variable regions in two ribosomal markers. Phylogenetic reconstructions were characterized by well-supported monophyletic clades corresponding to traditionally circumscribed species, with the exception of a single taxon. Divergence estimates indicate that most diversification of the sampled Oropogon species occurred throughout the Oligocene and Miocene, although diversification of a single closely related clade appears to have occurred during the late Pliocene and into the Pleistocene. Divergence estimates calculated from a data set with ambiguously aligned regions removed were much more recent than those from the full data set. Overall, our analyses place the majority of divergence events of Oropogon species from the Oaxacan Highlands within the Neogene and provide strong evidence that climatic changes during the Pleistocene were not a major factor driving speciation in the lichenized genus Oropogon in neotropical highlands.

  16. Extant diversity and estimated number of Gracillariidae (Lepidoptera species yet to be discovered in the Neotropical region

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    Rosângela Brito

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Gracillariidae (Lepidoptera are commonly known by the leaf miner habit found in the larval stage of most species. By using worldwide, public databases on species diversity and DNA sequences available for extant gracillariid species, we determined changes in the rate of taxonomic species descriptions through time, mapped their spatial distributions, examined their phylogenetic diversification, and estimated the number of species yet to be described for the family in the Neotropics. We recovered 185 species, a number that is smaller than that found in any other biogeographic region. However, it was estimated that at least 3875 additional species remain to be described in the region. Phylogenetic diversification showed a pattern of expanding diversity. A few entomologists have been involved with gracillariid taxonomy in the Neotropics, having 39% of the species been described by a single taxonomist. In most of such cases, descriptions were based on the adults only. A few species have been described from biomes known to have some of the greatest diversity on earth, such as the Atlantic Forest. Thus, such a scenario results from low sampling and scarce taxonomic activity that has prevailed for this family of moths in the Neotropics. It may also be associated with their small body size and to the fact that gracillariids do not seem to be attracted to light traps as much as other moths, which make their collection and identification by non experts difficult. We also suggested scientific and political actions that could be adopted to overcome such an unfavorable scenario.

  17. Adaptive landscape and functional diversity of Neotropical cichlids: implications for the ecology and evolution of Cichlinae (Cichlidae; Cichliformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbour, J H; López-Fernández, H

    2014-11-01

    Morphological, lineage and ecological diversity can vary substantially even among closely related lineages. Factors that influence morphological diversification, especially in functionally relevant traits, can help to explain the modern distribution of disparity across phylogenies and communities. Multivariate axes of feeding functional morphology from 75 species of Neotropical cichlid and a stepwise-AIC algorithm were used to estimate the adaptive landscape of functional morphospace in Cichlinae. Adaptive landscape complexity and convergence, as well as the functional diversity of Cichlinae, were compared with expectations under null evolutionary models. Neotropical cichlid feeding function varied primarily between traits associated with ram feeding vs. suction feeding/biting and secondarily with oral jaw muscle size and pharyngeal crushing capacity. The number of changes in selective regimes and the amount of convergence between lineages was higher than expected under a null model of evolution, but convergence was not higher than expected under a similarly complex adaptive landscape. Functional disparity was compatible with an adaptive landscape model, whereas the distribution of evolutionary change through morphospace corresponded with a process of evolution towards a single adaptive peak. The continentally distributed Neotropical cichlids have evolved relatively rapidly towards a number of adaptive peaks in functional trait space. Selection in Cichlinae functional morphospace is more complex than expected under null evolutionary models. The complexity of selective constraints in feeding morphology has likely been a significant contributor to the diversity of feeding ecology in this clade. © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  18. Santarém, entre la Amazonia de los ríos y la Amazonia de las carreteras Santarém, entre l’Amazonie des fleuves et l’Amazonie des routes

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    Ruben Valbuena

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available La gran región septentrional de Brasil, la Amazonia, que por varios siglos ha representado un enorme vacío y una potencial fuente de riqueza, ha sido objeto durante el último medio siglo de un acelerado proceso de ocupación y puesta en explotación de forma intensiva. Una dinámica de apropiación apreciable, especialmente, en las tres últimas décadas, cuando la materialización de la red terrestre que ha articulado la margen derecha del gran río facilitó la incursión de los recursos humanos y financieros en el hinterland amazónico.Una red que ha reestructurado el espacio regional, al que daba sentido la malla fluvial y la débil red de lugares, configurada por los núcleos de población surgidos en las orillas de los cauces. Santarém, una ciudad histórica con una localización estratégica entre los dos mayores centros urbanos amazónicos, ha sido palco de enormes transformaciones desde la construcción de las carreteras, pues ligada mediante la Cuibá-Santarém al Centro Oeste de Brasil y a través de la Transamazônica al Nordeste brasileño y a la Amazonia Occidental ha pasado a desempeñar un importante papel como nexo articulador en la región Norte. Al mismo tiempo, se erige como el principal asentamiento humano de esta vasta región central, dirigiendo un proceso emergente de construcción regional.La grande région septentrionale du Brésil, l'Amazonie, qui durant plusieurs siècles n’a représenté qu’un énorme vide et une source de richesse potentielle, a fait l'objet pendant le dernier demi-siècle d'un processus accéléré d’occupation et d’une mise en exploitation intensive. Une forte dynamique d'appropriation a facilité l'incursion de nouvelles ressources humaines et financières dans l’hinterland amazonien, spécialement au cours des trois dernières décennies, quand la réalisation d’un réseau terrestre a articulé la rive droite de la grande rivière.Ce réseau a restructuré l'espace r

  19. Chemical composition of the fruit mesocarp of three peach palm (Bactris gasipaes) populations grown in central Amazonia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuyama, Lúcia K O; Aguiar, Jaime P L; Yuyama, Kaoru; Clement, Charles R; Macedo, Sonja H M; Fávaro, Deborah I T; Afonso, Claudia; Vasconcellos, Marina B A; Pimentel, Sabria A; Badolato, Elsa S G; Vannucchi, Helio

    2003-01-01

    The percent composition, soluble and insoluble food fibers, oil fatty acids and minerals were determined in the mesocarp of fruits of three peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) populations grown in Central Amazonia, Brazil. Amino acids were also determined in one of the populations. The mean protein levels ranged from 1.8 to 2.7%, lipid levels ranged from 3.5 to 11.1%, the nitrogen free fraction ranged from 24.3 to 35%, food fiber ranged from 5.2% to 8.7%, and energy ranged from 179.1 to 207.4 kcal%. All essential, as well as non-essential, amino acids were present, with tryptophan and methionine presenting the lowest mean concentrations. The mono-unsaturated oleic acid predominated in the oil, ranging from 42.8 to 60.8%, and palmitic acid was the most abundant saturated fatty acid, ranging from 24.1 to 42.3%. Among the essential fatty acids, linoleic acid was the most abundant, with a maximum of 5.4% in Pampa-8. The most important mineral elements were potassium, selenium and chromium, respectively corresponding to 12%, 9% and 9% of daily recommended allowances. Considering the nutritional potential of the fruit, we suggest its more frequent incorporation into the diet of the Amazonian population.

  20. The significance of marine microfossils for paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the Solimões Formation (Miocene), western Amazonia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhares, Ana Paula; Gaia, Valber do Carmo de Souza; Ramos, Maria Inês Feijó

    2017-11-01

    Micropalaeontological studies of borehole cores 1AS-7D-AM and 1AS-8-AM, from Atalaia do Norte, Amazonas state, Brazil, support previous evidence for Miocene marine ingressions in Western Amazonia. Three marine incursion events are recorded: the first in the Early/early Middle Miocene (in both cores), the second in the late Middle/early Late Miocene (1AS-8-AM), and the third in the Late Miocene (1AS-7D-AM). The first event is characterized by exclusively mangrove taxa, and the last two present a mixture of marine, fresh, and brackish water taxa. However, at the end of the third event an increase of fluvial influence is demonstrated by the predominance of freshwater taxa. These marine incursions reached the study area through narrow and geographically limited connections, controlled by the tectonic setting, at a time between the Early/early Middle Miocene and late Middle/Late Miocene. Thereafter, fluvial conditions were reestablished before Pliocene times.

  1. Alluvial plain dynamics and human occupation in SW Amazonia during the Holocene: A paleosol-based reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Umberto; Rodrigues, Leonor; Veit, Heinz

    2018-01-01

    The present study reconstructs Holocene fluvial dynamics in the southern Amazonian foreland basin through the analysis of 36 stratigraphic profiles taken along a 300 km long transect across the Llanos de Moxos (LM), in the Bolivian Amazon. Based on 50 radiocarbon ages from paleosols intercalated with fluvial sediments, the most important changes in floodplain dynamics on a millennial scale are reconstructed and the links between pre-Columbian cultural processes and environmental change in the region explored. Results show that the frequency of river avulsions and crevasses, as inferred from the number and age of the cored paleosols, is stable from 8k cal. yrs BP to 4k cal. yrs BP and increases significantly from 4k to 2k cal. yrs BP, following the strengthening of el Niño/la Niña cycle and an increase in average precipitation. Fluvial activity then decreases and reaches its minimum after 2k cal BP. A comparison between the stratigraphic record and the archaeological record shows a match between periods of landscape stability in SW Amazonia (low river activity) and periods of pre-Columbian human occupation. The first Amazonians lived in the LM until 4k yrs. BP, when an abrupt increase in the frequency of river avulsions and crevasses forced the abandonment of the region. After two thousand years of archaeological hiatus, which matches the period of highest river activity in the region, agriculturists reoccupied the Bolivian Amazon.

  2. A Spatial Probit Econometric Model of Land Change: The Case of Infrastructure Development in Western Amazonia, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arima, E. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Tropical forests are now at the center stage of climate mitigation policies worldwide given their roles as sources of carbon emissions resulting from deforestation and forest degradation. Although the international community has created mechanisms such as REDD+ to reduce those emissions, developing tropical countries continue to invest in infrastructure development in an effort to spur economic growth. Construction of roads in particular is known to be an important driver of deforestation. This article simulates the impact of road construction on deforestation in Western Amazonia, Peru, and quantifies the amount of carbon emissions associated with projected deforestation. To accomplish this objective, the article adopts a Bayesian probit land change model in which spatial dependencies are defined between regions or groups of pixels instead of between individual pixels, thereby reducing computational requirements. It also compares and contrasts the patterns of deforestation predicted by both spatial and non-spatial probit models. The spatial model replicates complex patterns of deforestation whereas the non-spatial model fails to do so. In terms of policy, both models suggest that road construction will increase deforestation by a modest amount, between 200–300 km2. This translates into aboveground carbon emissions of 1.36 and 1.85 x 106 tons. However, recent introduction of palm oil in the region serves as a cautionary example that the models may be underestimating the impact of roads. PMID:27010739

  3. Diversity and abundance of primates and their threats in the interfluvium of the Napo and Putumayo rivers, Peruvian Amazonia

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    Rolando Aquino

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the northeastern Peruvian Amazonia remain areas with scarce information on primates, one of them being the interfluvium between the Napo and Putumayo rivers. This lack of information motivated us to conduct a study to determine the diversity and abundance of primates within the area, as well as to identify the threats, which inhibit these primate species populations. For this purpose, we conducted transect censuses in three sampling sites in October 2007, September 2013 and November 2014. In 1040 km of transect walks we observed 308 groups of nine primate species, the most common being Leontocebus nigricollis (109 groups and the rarest being Alouatta seniculus (16 groups. Smaller groups of Lagothrix lagothricha lagothricha (8-11 individuals and A. seniculus (3-5 individuals were observed in Tamboryacu, a majorly disturbed sampling site. Likewise, the lowest population densities estimated for L. l. lagothricha and A. seniculus corresponded to this same sampling site with 3.8 indiv. /km2 and 1.6 indiv. /km2, respectively, while for the remaining species there were no major differences among the sampling sites. Among the activities, hunting and logging are the predominant threats responsible for the scarce populations of A. seniculus and l. l. lagothricha, mainly in the Napo River Basin.

  4. Ecofunctional Traits and Biomass Production in Leguminous Tree Species under Fertilization Treatments during Forest Restoration in Amazonia

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    Roberto K. Jaquetti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Choosing the correct species and fertilization treatments is a determining factor in the success of forest restoration. Methods: A field study was conducted in a degraded area near the Balbina hydroelectric dam in Amazonas State (AM, Brazil, to evaluate two hypotheses: (i leguminous tree species exhibit differences in growth, leaf nutrient content, and photosynthetic nutrient use efficiencies; and (ii differences in these characteristics depend on the fertilization treatments to which the species have been subjected. Dipteryx odorata, Inga edulis and Schizolobium amazonicum were subjected to the following treatments: (T1 unfertilized control; (T2 post-planting chemical fertilization; (T3 post-planting organic fertilization and (T4 combined chemical and organic post-planting fertilization. Results: In general, I. edulis had the highest absolute growth rate of biomass under all of the fertilization treatments. I. edulis and S. amazonicum showed the highest growth rates under the T4 treatment. D. odorata showed the greatest responses under the T2 and T4 treatments. Native leguminous trees with higher photosynthetic performance and better nutrient use efficiency exhibited greater growth and biomass production. Conclusion: The results suggest that an adequate balance between leguminous species selection and fertilization will aid in the success of forest restoration in Amazonia.

  5. A Spatial Probit Econometric Model of Land Change: The Case of Infrastructure Development in Western Amazonia, Peru.

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    E Y Arima

    Full Text Available Tropical forests are now at the center stage of climate mitigation policies worldwide given their roles as sources of carbon emissions resulting from deforestation and forest degradation. Although the international community has created mechanisms such as REDD+ to reduce those emissions, developing tropical countries continue to invest in infrastructure development in an effort to spur economic growth. Construction of roads in particular is known to be an important driver of deforestation. This article simulates the impact of road construction on deforestation in Western Amazonia, Peru, and quantifies the amount of carbon emissions associated with projected deforestation. To accomplish this objective, the article adopts a Bayesian probit land change model in which spatial dependencies are defined between regions or groups of pixels instead of between individual pixels, thereby reducing computational requirements. It also compares and contrasts the patterns of deforestation predicted by both spatial and non-spatial probit models. The spatial model replicates complex patterns of deforestation whereas the non-spatial model fails to do so. In terms of policy, both models suggest that road construction will increase deforestation by a modest amount, between 200-300 km2. This translates into aboveground carbon emissions of 1.36 and 1.85 x 106 tons. However, recent introduction of palm oil in the region serves as a cautionary example that the models may be underestimating the impact of roads.

  6. Reproducing the organic matter model of anthropogenic dark earth of Amazonia and testing the ecotoxicity of functionalized charcoal compounds

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    Carolina Rodrigues Linhares

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to obtain organic compounds similar to the ones found in the organic matter of anthropogenic dark earth of Amazonia (ADE using a chemical functionalization procedure on activated charcoal, as well as to determine their ecotoxicity. Based on the study of the organic matter from ADE, an organic model was proposed and an attempt to reproduce it was described. Activated charcoal was oxidized with the use of sodium hypochlorite at different concentrations. Nuclear magnetic resonance was performed to verify if the spectra of the obtained products were similar to the ones of humic acids from ADE. The similarity between spectra indicated that the obtained products were polycondensed aromatic structures with carboxyl groups: a soil amendment that can contribute to soil fertility and to its sustainable use. An ecotoxicological test with Daphnia similis was performed on the more soluble fraction (fulvic acids of the produced soil amendment. Aryl chloride was formed during the synthesis of the organic compounds from activated charcoal functionalization and partially removed through a purification process. However, it is probable that some aryl chloride remained in the final product, since the ecotoxicological test indicated that the chemical functionalized soil amendment is moderately toxic.

  7. Territorio y Poder: La reivindicación territorial de los indígenas de la amazonia boliviana

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    Gabriela Canedo Vásquez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available El artículo pretende mostrar la centralidad que tiene el territorio y la demanda territorial para los grupos indígenas de la amazonia boliviana. El territorio tiene un papel importante en la reproducción cultural y en la organización política. La investigación se llevó a cabo en la provincia Mojos del departamento del Beni, y muestra que el manejo territorial itinerante y la percepción del territorio que tenían los grupos indígenas se ha transformado a partir del marco estatal –concretamente desde la ley INRA–. Hoy en día los indígenas demandan títulos de propiedad de los espacios ocupados, ante el avasallamiento de los blancos/karayanas. Es así que aquella concepción ilimitada del territorio, propio de los pueblos panindios, se ha transformado, pues en la actualidad los indígenas perciben un territorio limitado, cercado por propiedades privadas. Sin embargo, el territorio al convertirse en una de las demandas centrales de la organización indígena, es el elemento que les permite posicionarse políticamente en un escenario local y nacional.

  8. A Spatial Probit Econometric Model of Land Change: The Case of Infrastructure Development in Western Amazonia, Peru.

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    Arima, E Y

    2016-01-01

    Tropical forests are now at the center stage of climate mitigation policies worldwide given their roles as sources of carbon emissions resulting from deforestation and forest degradation. Although the international community has created mechanisms such as REDD+ to reduce those emissions, developing tropical countries continue to invest in infrastructure development in an effort to spur economic growth. Construction of roads in particular is known to be an important driver of deforestation. This article simulates the impact of road construction on deforestation in Western Amazonia, Peru, and quantifies the amount of carbon emissions associated with projected deforestation. To accomplish this objective, the article adopts a Bayesian probit land change model in which spatial dependencies are defined between regions or groups of pixels instead of between individual pixels, thereby reducing computational requirements. It also compares and contrasts the patterns of deforestation predicted by both spatial and non-spatial probit models. The spatial model replicates complex patterns of deforestation whereas the non-spatial model fails to do so. In terms of policy, both models suggest that road construction will increase deforestation by a modest amount, between 200-300 km2. This translates into aboveground carbon emissions of 1.36 and 1.85 x 106 tons. However, recent introduction of palm oil in the region serves as a cautionary example that the models may be underestimating the impact of roads.

  9. Deforestation drivers in Southwest Amazonia: Comparing smallholder farmers in Iñapari, Peru, and Assis Brasil, Brazil

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    Almeyda Zambrano Angelica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Broad interpretation of land use and forest cover studies has been limited by the biophysical and socio-economic uniqueness of the landscapes in which they are carried out and by the multiple temporal and spatial scales of the underlying processes. We coupled a land cover change approach with a political ecology framework to interpret trends in multi-temporal remote sensing of forest cover change and socio-economic surveys with smallholders in the towns of Iñapari, Peru and Assis Brasil, Brazil in southwest Amazonia. These adjacent towns have similar biogeophysical conditions, but have undergone differing development approaches, and are both presently undergoing infrastructure development for the new Interoceanic highway. Results show that forest cover patterns observed in these two towns cannot be accounted for using single land use drivers. Rather, deforestation patterns result from interactions of national and regional policies affecting financial credit and road infrastructure, along with local processes of market integration and household resources. Based on our results we develop recommendations to minimise deforestation in the study area. Our findings are relevant for the sustainability of land use in the Amazon, in particular for regions undergoing large-scale infrastructure development projects.

  10. Continental-scale patterns and climatic drivers of fruiting phenology: A quantitative Neotropical review

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    Mendoza, Irene; Peres, Carlos A.; Morellato, Leonor Patrícia C.

    2017-01-01

    Changes in the life cycle of organisms (i.e. phenology) are one of the most widely used early-warning indicators of climate change, yet this remains poorly understood throughout the tropics. We exhaustively reviewed any published and unpublished study on fruiting phenology carried out at the community level in the American tropics and subtropics (latitudinal range: 26°N-26°S) to (1) provide a comprehensive overview of the current status of fruiting phenology research throughout the Neotropics; (2) unravel the climatic factors that have been widely reported as drivers of fruiting phenology; and (3) provide a preliminary assessment of the potential phenological responses of plants under future climatic scenarios. Despite the large number of phenological datasets uncovered (218), our review shows that their geographic distribution is very uneven and insufficient for the large surface of the Neotropics ( 1 dataset per 78,000 km2). Phenological research is concentrated in few areas with many studies (state of São Paulo, Brazil, and Costa Rica), whereas vast regions elsewhere are entirely unstudied. Sampling effort in fruiting phenology studies was generally low: the majority of datasets targeted fewer than 100 plant species (71%), lasted 2 years or less (72%), and only 10.4% monitored > 15 individuals per species. We uncovered only 10 sites with ten or more years of phenological monitoring. The ratio of numbers of species sampled to overall estimates of plant species richness was wholly insufficient for highly diverse vegetation types such as tropical rainforest, seasonal forest and cerrado, and only slightly more robust for less diverse vegetation types, such as deserts, arid shrublands and open grassy savannas. Most plausible drivers of phenology extracted from these datasets were environmental (78.5%), whereas biotic drivers were rare (6%). Among climatic factors, rainfall was explicitly included in 73.4% of cases, followed by air temperature (19.3%). Other

  11. Polyphyly of the hawk genera Leucopternis and Buteogallus (Aves, Accipitridae): multiple habitat shifts during the Neotropical buteonine diversification.

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    Amaral, Fabio S Raposo do; Miller, Matthew J; Silveira, Luís Fábio; Bermingham, Eldredge; Wajntal, Anita

    2006-02-07

    The family Accipitridae (hawks, eagles and Old World vultures) represents a large radiation of predatory birds with an almost global distribution, although most species of this family occur in the Neotropics. Despite great morphological and ecological diversity, the evolutionary relationships in the family have been poorly explored at all taxonomic levels. Using sequences from four mitochondrial genes (12S, ATP8, ATP6, and ND6), we reconstructed the phylogeny of the Neotropical forest hawk genus Leucopternis and most of the allied genera of Neotropical buteonines. Our goals were to infer the evolutionary relationships among species of Leucopternis, estimate their relationships to other buteonine genera, evaluate the phylogenetic significance of the white and black plumage patterns common to most Leucopternis species, and assess general patterns of diversification of the group with respect to species' affiliations with Neotropical regions and habitats. Our molecular phylogeny for the genus Leucopternis and its allies disagrees sharply with traditional taxonomic arrangements for the group, and we present new hypotheses of relationships for a number of species. The mtDNA phylogenetic trees derived from analysis of the combined data posit a polyphyletic relationship among species of Leucopternis, Buteogallus and Buteo. Three highly supported clades containing Leucopternis species were recovered in our phylogenetic reconstructions. The first clade consisted of the sister pairs L. lacernulatus and Buteogallus meridionalis, and Buteogallus urubitinga and Harpyhaliaetus coronatus, in addition to L. schistaceus and L. plumbeus. The second clade included the sister pair Leucopternis albicollis and L. occidentalis as well as L. polionotus. The third lineage comprised the sister pair L. melanops and L. kuhli, in addition to L. semiplumbeus and Buteo buteo. According to our results, the white and black plumage patterns have evolved at least twice in the group. Furthermore

  12. Polyphyly of the hawk genera Leucopternis and Buteogallus (Aves, Accipitridae: multiple habitat shifts during the Neotropical buteonine diversification

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    Bermingham Eldredge

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family Accipitridae (hawks, eagles and Old World vultures represents a large radiation of predatory birds with an almost global distribution, although most species of this family occur in the Neotropics. Despite great morphological and ecological diversity, the evolutionary relationships in the family have been poorly explored at all taxonomic levels. Using sequences from four mitochondrial genes (12S, ATP8, ATP6, and ND6, we reconstructed the phylogeny of the Neotropical forest hawk genus Leucopternis and most of the allied genera of Neotropical buteonines. Our goals were to infer the evolutionary relationships among species of Leucopternis, estimate their relationships to other buteonine genera, evaluate the phylogenetic significance of the white and black plumage patterns common to most Leucopternis species, and assess general patterns of diversification of the group with respect to species' affiliations with Neotropical regions and habitats. Results Our molecular phylogeny for the genus Leucopternis and its allies disagrees sharply with traditional taxonomic arrangements for the group, and we present new hypotheses of relationships for a number of species. The mtDNA phylogenetic trees derived from analysis of the combined data posit a polyphyletic relationship among species of Leucopternis, Buteogallus and Buteo. Three highly supported clades containing Leucopternis species were recovered in our phylogenetic reconstructions. The first clade consisted of the sister pairs L. lacernulatus and Buteogallus meridionalis, and Buteogallus urubitinga and Harpyhaliaetus coronatus, in addition to L. schistaceus and L. plumbeus. The second clade included the sister pair Leucopternis albicollis and L. occidentalis as well as L. polionotus. The third lineage comprised the sister pair L. melanops and L. kuhli, in addition to L. semiplumbeus and Buteo buteo. According to our results, the white and black plumage patterns have evolved

  13. Environmental enrichment for neotropical primates in captivity Enriquecimento ambiental para primatas neotropicais em cativeiro

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    Vanner Boere

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Captivity is an extreme non-natural environment for primates. The success of a breeding colony depends of management and veterinarian procedures which must rely on the knowledge of primates' behavioral needs. Environmental enrichment consists of a series of procedures that improve the quality of life of captive animals by meeting their ethological needs. Enrichment can reduce stress, while increasing animal well being in captivity. Suitable ethical conditions, incidences of behavioral disorders, minimal clinical interventions, low mortality, higher reproduction rates and cost/benefit relationship, reflect directly on the quality of captive breeding colonies. Anthropoids like Neotropical primates possess complex neural structures and relate, in a sophisticated manner, to the environment. This review reports important experiences on enrichment procedures for Neotropical primates and the physiological events which could explain improvement of animal well-being.Cativeiro é um ambiente de extremos não naturais para primatas. O sucesso de uma criação de primatas depende do manejo e de procedimentos veterinários que devem considerar as necessidades etológicas dos animais cativos. Enriquecimento ambiental é um conjunto de técnicas que modificam o ambiente, resultando em uma melhora na qualidade de vida dos animais, ao satisfazer as suas necessidades comportamentais. O enriquecimento pode diminuir o estresse e melhorar o bem-estar. Primatas neotropicais se caracterizam por complexas estruturas neurais e se relacionam de maneira sofisticada com o ambiente. O enriquecimento ambiental pode aumentar a qualidade de uma criação ao adequar o manejo a padrões éticos aceitáveis, estimular o repertório normal do comportamento, diminuir a casuística clínica, diminuir a mortalidade, incrementar a taxa reprodutiva e maximizar a relação custo/benefício em uma criação. Esta revisão relata experiências relevantes nos procedimentos de

  14. Comparing hair-morphology and molecular methods to identify fecal samples from Neotropical felids.

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    Carlos C Alberts

    Full Text Available To avoid certain problems encountered with more-traditional and invasive methods in behavioral-ecology studies of mammalian predators, such as felids, molecular approaches have been employed to identify feces found in the field. However, this method requires a complete molecular biology laboratory, and usually also requires very fresh fecal samples to avoid DNA degradation. Both conditions are normally absent in the field. To address these difficulties, identification based on morphological characters (length, color, banding, scales and medullar patterns of hairs found in feces could be employed as an alternative. In this study we constructed a morphological identification key for guard hairs of eight Neotropical felids (jaguar, oncilla, Geoffroy's cat, margay, ocelot, Pampas cat, puma and jaguarundi and compared its efficiency to that of a molecular identification method, using the ATP6 region as a marker. For this molecular approach, we simulated some field conditions by postponing sample-conservation procedures. A blind test of the identification key obtained a nearly 70% overall success rate, which we considered equivalent to or better than the results of some molecular methods (probably due to DNA degradation found in other studies. The jaguar, puma and jaguarundi could be unequivocally discriminated from any other Neotropical felid. On a scale ranging from inadequate to excellent, the key proved poor only for the margay, with only 30% of its hairs successfully identified using this key; and have intermediate success rates for the remaining species, the oncilla, Geoffroy's cat, ocelot and Pampas cat, were intermediate. Complementary information about the known distributions of felid populations may be necessary to substantially improve the results obtained with the key. Our own molecular results were even better, since all blind-tested samples were correctly identified. Part of these identifications were made from samples kept in suboptimal

  15. Mapping invasive species and spectral mixture relationships with neotropical woody formations in southeastern Brazil

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    Amaral, Cibele H.; Roberts, Dar A.; Almeida, Teodoro I. R.; Souza Filho, Carlos R.

    2015-10-01

    Biological invasion substantially contributes to the increasing extinction rates of native vegetative species. The remote detection and mapping of invasive species is critical for environmental monitoring. This study aims to assess the performance of a Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA) applied to imaging spectroscopy data for mapping Dendrocalamus sp. (bamboo) and Pinus elliottii L. (slash pine), which are invasive plant species, in a Brazilian neotropical landscape within the tropical Brazilian savanna biome. The work also investigates the spectral mixture between these exotic species and the native woody formations, including woodland savanna, submontane and alluvial seasonal semideciduous forests (SSF). Visible to Shortwave Infrared (VSWIR) imaging spectroscopy data at one-meter spatial resolution were atmospherically corrected and subset into the different spectral ranges (VIS-NIR1: 530-919 nm; and NIR2-SWIR: 1141-2352 nm). The data were further normalized via continuum removal (CR). Multiple endmember selection methods, including Interactive Endmember Selection (IES), Endmember average root mean square error (EAR), Minimum average spectral angle (MASA) and Count-based (CoB) (collectively called EMC), were employed to create endmember libraries for the targeted vegetation classes. The performance of the MESMA was assessed at the pixel and crown scales. Statistically significant differences (α = 0.05) were observed between overall accuracies that were obtained at various spectral ranges. The infrared region (IR) was critical for detecting the vegetation classes using spectral data. The invasive species endmembers exhibited spectral patterns in the IR that were not observed in the native formations. Bamboo was characterized as having a high green vegetation (GV) fraction, lower non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV) and a low shade fraction, while pine exhibited higher NPV and shade fractions. The invasive species showed a statistically

  16. New molecular identifiers for Simulium limbatum and Simulium incrustatum s.l. and the detection of genetic substructure with potential implications for onchocerciasis epidemiology in the Amazonia focus of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, Priscila A; Crainey, James L; Almeida, Tatiana P; Shelley, Anthony J; Luz, Sergio L B

    2013-08-01

    The Amazonia onchocerciasis focus of southern Venezuela and northern Brazil is the larger of the two remaining Latin American onchocerciasis foci where disease transmission still occurs and is often regarded as the most challenging of all the Latin American foci to eliminate onchocerciasis. The site is home to a population of over 20,000 semi-nomadic, hunter-gatherer Yanomami people and is made-up of a mosaic of rainforest and savannah ecologies, which are influenced by the area's undulating terrain and rich geological diversity. At least six blackfly vectors have been implicated in onchocerciasis transmission in this focus; however, because of the difficulty in their routine identification the relative importance of each has been obscured. Simulium limbatum and Simulium incrustatum s.l. have both been recorded as vectors in the Amazonia focus, but they are difficult to discriminate morphologically and thus the ecological range of these species, and indeed the presence of S. limbatum in the Amazonia focus at all, have remained controversial. In the work described here, we report 15 S. incrustatum s.l. CO1 sequences and 27 S. limbatum sequences obtained from field-caught adult female blackflies collected from forest and savannah localities, inside and just outside the Amazonia focus. Phylogenetic analysis with the sequences generated in this study, showed that both the S. limbatum and the S. incrustatum s.l. CO1 sequences obtained (even from specimens living in sympatry) all fell into discrete species-specific bootstrap-supported monophyletic groups and thus confirmed the utility of the CO1 gene for identifying both these species inside the Amazonia focus. As the S. limbatum-exclusive cluster included CO1 sequences obtained from forest-caught and morphologically identified specimens these results provide the clearest evidence yet of the presence of S. limbatum inside the Amazonia focus. The question, however, of whether S. limbatum is actually a vector in the focus

  17. Revisão do gênero neotropical Xeropigo (Araneae,Corinnidae, Corinninae Revision of the neotropical genus Xeropigo (Araneae, Corinnidae, Corinninae

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    Danni Roberto Santos De Souza

    Full Text Available O gênero Xeropigo O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1882 é revisado, com a proposição de sete novas espécies neotropicais: X. candango, sobre machos e fêmeas de Brasília, Distrito Federal e Goiás, Brasil; X. rheimsae, machos de Goiás, Brasil; X. camilae, sobre machos e fêmeas do norte e centro-oeste do Brasil; X. cotijuba, machos e fêmeas da Guiana e do norte e centro-oeste do Brasil; X. pachitea, machos e fêmeas de Huánuco e Cajamarca, Peru; X. perene, fêmeas de Junin e Loreto, Peru; X. brescoviti, machos de Beni, Bolívia. As espécies previamente conhecidas, X. tridentiger (Pickard-Cambridge, 1869, a espécie-tipo, descrita da Ilha de Santa Helena, Oceano Atlântico, mas também conhecida das Américas do Sul e Central, e X. smedigari (Caporiacco, 1955 do norte da Venezuela e Trinidad, são re-diagnosticadas. Novos registros, ilustrações de X. tridentiger e chave para todas as espécies conhecidas são fornecidos.The genus Xeropigo O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1882 is revised, with the proposition of seven neotropical new species: X. candango, based in males and females from Brasília, Distrito Federal and Goiás, Brazil; X. rheimsae, males from Goiás, Brazil; X. camilae, males and females from north and middle west Brazil; X. cotijuba, males and females from Guiana and north and middle west Brazil; X. pachitea, males and females from Huánuco and Cajamarca, Peru; X. perene, females from Junin and Loreto, Peru; X. brescoviti, males from Beni, Bolivia. The previously known species, X. tridentiger (Pickard-Cambridge, 1869, the type-species, described from Santa Helena Island, Atlantic Ocean, but also known from South and Central Americas, and X. smedigari (Caporiacco, 1955 from north Venezuela and Trinidad, are rediagnosed. New records and illustrations of X. tridentiger and a key for all known species are given.

  18. Ostracods biostratigraphy of the Oligocene-Miocene carbonate platform in the Northeastern Amazonia coast and its correlation with the Caribbean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Anna Andressa Evangelista; Nogueira, Afonso César Rodrigues

    2017-12-01

    Oligocene-Miocene ostracods biozones are proposed for the ∼65 m-thick platform carbonate succession exposed in the Northeastern Amazonia coast, Brazil. Previous biostratigraphic studies based on planktonic foraminifera, nannofossils and palynomorphs are poorly age constrained and have hindered the correlation with other units of the Atlantic Equatorial margin. Tectonic stability of the Northeastern Amazonia coast during Neogene, associated with reduced riverine inflow and continuous sea level rise, allowed the establishment of lagoon/mangroves, tidal channel and shallow platform settings favoring massive proliferation of benthic ostracods. The recurrence of these depositional systems along of entire Oligocene-Miocene succession contributed mainly for the preservation of typical assemblages of lagoonal ostracods. Among thirty-two ostracods genera identified, the most of them are generally polyhalines associated with a mesohaline genus as Perissocytheridea. Rare ostracods genera typical of offshore zone indicate limited oceanic connection with lagoon. Additionally, the rare presence of Cyprideis indicates a relatively stable salinity degree suggesting change in the lagoon dynamic until estuarine conditions. The ostracods comprise more than 100 species, ranging from Upper Oligocene to Lower Miocene with five index species correspondent to a single zone called the Cytherella stainforthi Zone that was subdivided in four sub-biozones: 1) Jugosocythereis pannosa, 2) Quadracythere brachypygaia, 3) Triebelina crumena and 4) Neocaudites macertus. This new zonation was calibrated with the Blow's and Wade's planktonic foraminifers zones (N.3 to N.7 zones corresponding to O6 to M4b of Wade) and with van den Bold's zonation in the Neogene Caribbean region. Ostracod assemblages described here provide an excellent biostragraphic framework for local, intrabasinal and regional correlation for the Oligocene-Miocene deposits of the Northeastern Amazonia coast and Caribbean regions

  19. Chronology of deep nodes in the neotropical primate phylogeny: insights from mitochondrial genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrago, Carlos G; Menezes, Albert N; Moreira, Miguel A M; Pissinatti, Alcides; Seuánez, Hector N

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of Neotropical Primates (NP) is permeated by factors associated with the pattern of diversification and the biogeography of the major lineages. These questions can be better understood by providing a robust estimate of the chronological scenario of NP evolution, a reason why molecular dating methods have been widely applied. One aspect of especial interest is the timing of diversification of the major NP lineages (pitheciids, atelids and cebids), which may have resulted from rapid episodes of adaptive radiation, a question that requires NP divergence time estimates with accurate statistical certainty. In this study, we evaluated the primate timescale focused on the age of nodes of NP radiation. We investigated the performance of complete primate mitochondrial genomes as traditional molecular markers of primate evolution and further including original mitochondrial data from the endangered muriqui, Brachyteles arachnoides (Accession No. JX262672). Comparisons of the age estimates at NP nodes based on mitochondrial genomes with those obtained from a nuclear supermatrix showed similar degrees of uncertainty. Further molecular data and more informative calibration priors are required for a more precise understanding of the early NP diversification.

  20. Chronology of deep nodes in the neotropical primate phylogeny: insights from mitochondrial genomes.

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    Carlos G Schrago

    Full Text Available The evolution of Neotropical Primates (NP is permeated by factors associated with the pattern of diversification and the biogeography of the major lineages. These questions can be better understood by providing a robust estimate of the chronological scenario of NP evolution, a reason why molecular dating methods have been widely applied. One aspect of especial interest is the timing of diversification of the major NP lineages (pitheciids, atelids and cebids, which may have resulted from rapid episodes of adaptive radiation, a question that requires NP divergence time estimates with accurate statistical certainty. In this study, we evaluated the primate timescale focused on the age of nodes of NP radiation. We investigated the performance of complete primate mitochondrial genomes as traditional molecular markers of primate evolution and further including original mitochondrial data from the endangered muriqui, Brachyteles arachnoides (Accession No. JX262672. Comparisons of the age estimates at NP nodes based on mitochondrial genomes with those obtained from a nuclear supermatrix showed similar degrees of uncertainty. Further molecular data and more informative calibration priors are required for a more precise understanding of the early NP diversification.

  1. Body Size, Fecundity, and Sexual Size Dimorphism in the Neotropical Cricket Macroanaxipha macilenta (Saussure) (Orthoptera: Gryllidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueva Del Castillo, R

    2015-04-01

    Body size is directly or indirectly correlated with fitness. Body size, which conveys maximal fitness, often differs between sexes. Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) evolves because body size tends to be related to reproductive success through different pathways in males and females. In general, female insects are larger than males, suggesting that natural selection for high female fecundity could be stronger than sexual selection in males. I assessed the role of body size and fecundity in SSD in the Neotropical cricket Macroanaxipha macilenta (Saussure). This species shows a SSD bias toward males. Females did not present a correlation between number of eggs and body size. Nonetheless, there were fluctuations in the number of eggs carried by females during the sampling period, and the size of females that were collected carrying eggs was larger than that of females collected with no eggs. Since mating induces vitellogenesis in some cricket species, differences in female body size might suggest male mate choice. Sexual selection in the body size of males of M. macilenta may possibly be stronger than the selection of female fecundity. Even so, no mating behavior was observed during the field observations, including audible male calling or courtship songs, yet males may produce ultrasonic calls due to their size. If female body size in M. macilenta is not directly related to fecundity, the lack of a correlated response to selection on female body size could represent an alternate evolutionary pathway in the evolution of body size and SSD in insects.

  2. Swimming with multiple propulsors: measurement and comparison of swimming gaits in three species of neotropical cichlids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feilich, Kara L

    2017-11-15

    Comparative studies of fish swimming have been limited by the lack of quantitative definitions of fish gaits. Traditionally, steady swimming gaits have been defined categorically by the fin or region of the body that is used as the main propulsor and named after major fish clades (e.g. carangiform, anguilliform, balistiform, labriform). This method of categorization is limited by the lack of explicit measurements, the inability to incorporate contributions of multiple propulsors and the inability to compare gaits across different categories. I propose an alternative framework for the definition and comparison of fish gaits based on the propulsive contribution of each structure (body and/or fin) being used as a propulsor relative to locomotor output, and demonstrate the effectiveness of this framework by comparing three species of neotropical cichlids with different body shapes. This approach is modular with respect to the number of propulsors considered, flexible with respect to the definition of the propulsive inputs and the locomotor output of interest, and designed explicitly to handle combinations of propulsors. Using this approach, gait can be defined as a trajectory through propulsive space, and gait transitions can be defined as discontinuities in the gait trajectory. By measuring and defining gait in this way, patterns of clustering corresponding to existing categorical definitions of gait may emerge, and gaits can be rigorously compared across categories. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Chironomidae larvae (Diptera) of Neotropical floodplain: overlap niche in different habitats.

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    Butakka, C M M; Ragonha, F H; Takeda, A M

    2014-05-01

    The niche overlap between trophic groups of Chironomidae larvae in different habitats was observed between trophic groups and between different environments in Neotropical floodplain. For the evaluation we used the index of niche overlap (CXY) and analysis of trophic networks, both from the types and amount of food items identified in the larval alimentary canal. In all environments, the larvae fed on mainly organic matter such as plants fragments and algae, but there were many omnivore larvae. Species that have high values of food items occurred in diverse environments as generalists with great overlap niche and those with a low amount of food items with less overlap niche were classified as specialists. The largest number of trophic niche overlap was observed among collector-gatherers in connected floodplain lakes. The lower values of index niche overlap were predators. The similarity in the diet of different taxa in the same niche does not necessarily imply competition between them, but coexistence when the food resource is not scarce in the environment even in partially overlapping niches.

  4. Effect of land use on the composition, diversity and abundance of insects drifting in neotropical streams

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    B. C. G. Gimenez

    Full Text Available Abstract Streams may exhibit differences in community structure of invertebrate drift, which may be a reflex of variation in environmental factors, able to change in conditions of anthropogenic interventions. The aim of this study was to analyze the composition, diversity and abundance of insects drifting in two neotropical streams under different land use and to identify the environmental factors involved in determining such patterns. 54 taxa of aquatic insects were identified in urban and rural streams. The results indicated significant differences in species composition due to the replacement of specialist species by generalist species in the urban stream. Higher diversity of taxa was recorded in the rural stream, with high levels of dissolved oxygen and high water flow, which favored the occurrence of sensitive groups to environmental disturbances, such as Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera and Coleoptera taxa, that living mainly in clean and well oxygenated waters. On the other hand, a higher density of insects drifting, especially Chironomidae, was observed in the urban stream, where high values of pH, electrical conductivity and nitrogen were observed. These larvae are able to explore a wide range of environmental conditions, owing to their great capacity for physiological adaptation. Despite observing the expected patterns, there were no significant differences between streams for the diversity and abundance of species. Thus, the species composition can be considered as the best predictor of impacts on the drifting insect community.

  5. Ecological implications of floods on the parasite communities of two freshwater catfishes in a Neotropical floodplain.

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    Yamada, Priscilla de Oliveira Fadel; Yamada, Fabio Hideki; da Silva, Reinaldo José; Anjos, Luciano Alves Dos

    2017-06-01

    The parasite communities of two freshwater catfishes (Auchenipterus osteomystax and Trachelyopterus galeatus) were analyzed during the dry and rainy seasons in a Neotropical floodplain. The nature of river-floodplain systems places specific demands on parasite community structure, due to changes in the host environment. It was therefore hypothesized that flood conditions lead to an increase in the richness and abundance of fish parasites in the rainy season at the mouth of Aguapeí River floodplain. The Auchenipterus osteomystax parasite community was richer (11 vs. eight) in species than T. galeatus, although the latter exhibited a greater parasite burden (F1,108 = 126.99, PFlood conditions during the rainy season caused a change in the composition and structure of the parasitic communities. The results corroborate the hypothesis that floods are one of the most significant influences on shaping the parasite communities of fish in floodplains. Our greatest concern is the reduction these dynamics and effects bring about on local biota and, consequently, in host-parasite interaction. We would therefore like to take this opportunity to warn environmental agencies and hydroelectric companies about the importance of the conservation of the diversity of this location.

  6. Development of a benthic multimetric index for biomonitoring of a neotropical watershed

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    WR. Ferreira

    Full Text Available Biotic indices are important tools for evaluating water quality in Biomonitoring Programmes of river basins. The objective of this study was to develop a Benthic Multimetric Index (BMI to evaluate the water quality in a neotropical catchment in southeastern Brazil. Thirty metrics were evaluated and six were selected to calculate the BMI: family richness, % Oligochaeta, % Chironomidae + Oligochaeta (% CHOL, % EPT (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera, % Collector-gatherers, and BMWP-CETEC biotic index. Sampling was carried in triplicate at 21 sampling sites (8 in the river channel and 13 in the tributaries during 4 annual collecting trips from June 2004 to November 2007, making a total of 945 samples. Scores (5, 3 or 1 were attributed to each chosen metric and were added up to establish the water quality criteria (a score of 6-12 - poor; 13-18 - intermediate; 19-24 - good; and 25-30 - very good water quality. Our results indicated that 48% of the sampling sites analysed in the catchment basin presented very good water quality, 14% good quality, 19% regular, and 19% poor water quality. This methodology proved to be an efficient tool for evaluating water quality in the Biomonitoring Programme of the Velhas River basin, and that it may serve to evaluate water quality in other river basins in South America.

  7. Vector soup: high-throughput identification of Neotropical phlebotomine sand flies using metabarcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocher, Arthur; Gantier, Jean-Charles; Gaborit, Pascal; Zinger, Lucie; Holota, Helene; Valiere, Sophie; Dusfour, Isabelle; Girod, Romain; Bañuls, Anne-Laure; Murienne, Jerome

    2017-03-01

    Phlebotomine sand flies are haematophagous dipterans of primary medical importance. They represent the only proven vectors of leishmaniasis worldwide and are involved in the transmission of various other pathogens. Studying the ecology of sand flies is crucial to understand the epidemiology of leishmaniasis and further control this disease. A major limitation in this regard is that traditional morphological-based methods for sand fly species identifications are time-consuming and require taxonomic expertise. DNA metabarcoding holds great promise in overcoming this issue by allowing the identification of multiple species from a single bulk sample. Here, we assessed the reliability of a short insect metabarcode located in the mitochondrial 16S rRNA for the identification of Neotropical sand flies, and constructed a reference database for 40 species found in French Guiana. Then, we conducted a metabarcoding experiment on sand flies mixtures of known content and showed that the method allows an accurate identification of specimens in pools. Finally, we applied metabarcoding to field samples caught in a 1-ha forest plot in French Guiana. Besides providing reliable molecular data for species-level assignations of phlebotomine sand flies, our study proves the efficiency of metabarcoding based on the mitochondrial 16S rRNA for studying sand fly diversity from bulk samples. The application of this high-throughput identification procedure to field samples can provide great opportunities for vector monitoring and eco-epidemiological studies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Why the short face? Developmental disintegration of the neurocranium drives convergent evolution in neotropical electric fishes.

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    Evans, Kory M; Waltz, Brandon; Tagliacollo, Victor; Chakrabarty, Prosanta; Albert, James S

    2017-03-01

    Convergent evolution is widely viewed as strong evidence for the influence of natural selection on the origin of phenotypic design. However, the emerging evo-devo synthesis has highlighted other processes that may bias and direct phenotypic evolution in the presence of environmental and genetic variation. Developmental biases on the production of phenotypic variation may channel the evolution of convergent forms by limiting the range of phenotypes produced during ontogeny. Here, we study the evolution and convergence of brachycephalic and dolichocephalic skull shapes among 133 species of Neotropical electric fishes (Gymnotiformes: Teleostei) and identify potential developmental biases on phenotypic evolution. We plot the ontogenetic trajectories of neurocranial phenotypes in 17 species and document developmental modularity between the face and braincase regions of the skull. We recover a significant relationship between developmental covariation and relative skull length and a significant relationship between developmental covariation and ontogenetic disparity. We demonstrate that modularity and integration bias the production of phenotypes along the brachycephalic and dolichocephalic skull axis and contribute to multiple, independent evolutionary transformations to highly brachycephalic and dolichocephalic skull morphologies.

  9. An Initial Classification of Neotropical Water Mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia Based on Habitat Preferences

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    Hugo R. Fernández

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Existing classifications of benthic and interstitial freshwater invertebrates are described and discussed. A classification is proposed for southern neotropical (south of latitude S 15 water mites in relation to their life style and habitat preferences. The classification includes planktonic, superficial, benthic, thermal, and subterranean forms. The diversity of the Hydrachnidia family and genera (22 families, 97 genera, and 521 species is then analyzed using the new classification. Ubiquitous stygobites deserve special consideration because they move through ecotone zones and tolerate extreme conditions. Water mite communities from a north-western Argentinean stream were first described using a surber net and consequently considered as benthic. Nineteen Hydrachnidia species (from benthic to stygobite were collected and classified. The vertical distribution observed during the year confirmed the permanent presence of benthic Hydrachnidia, even during the first flood, which is of special importance in running waters. The functional classification we propose will facilitate comparison of fauna from different areas that have different faunistic composition but may have similar functional distribution.

  10. Interspecific geographic range size-body size relationship and the diversification dynamics of Neotropical furnariid birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inostroza-Michael, Oscar; Hernández, Cristián E; Rodríguez-Serrano, Enrique; Avaria-Llautureo, Jorge; Rivadeneira, Marcelo M

    2018-05-01

    Among the earliest macroecological patterns documented, is the range and body size relationship, characterized by a minimum geographic range size imposed by the species' body size. This boundary for the geographic range size increases linearly with body size and has been proposed to have implications in lineages evolution and conservation. Nevertheless, the macroevolutionary processes involved in the origin of this boundary and its consequences on lineage diversification have been poorly explored. We evaluate the macroevolutionary consequences of the difference (hereafter the distance) between the observed and the minimum range sizes required by the species' body size, to untangle its role on the diversification of a Neotropical species-rich bird clade using trait-dependent diversification models. We show that speciation rate is a positive hump-shaped function of the distance to the lower boundary. The species with highest and lowest distances to minimum range size had lower speciation rates, while species close to medium distances values had the highest speciation rates. Further, our results suggest that the distance to the minimum range size is a macroevolutionary constraint that affects the diversification process responsible for the origin of this macroecological pattern in a more complex way than previously envisioned. © 2018 The Author(s). Evolution © 2018 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  11. Diversity and associations between Drosophilidae (Diptera species and Basidiomycetes in a Neotropical forest

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    FELIPE B. VALER

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Drosophilidae is one of the most representative families of insects that occurs in fungal fruiting bodies of Basidiomycetes; however, the diversity and community structure of mycophagous Drosophilidae in the Neotropical region is poorly known. The aims of the present study were to describe the diversity of mycophagous Drosophilidae and to investigate its colonization of fungal hosts in a forest of southern Brazil. From 120 fungal samples (patches of mushrooms of 17 Basidiomycetes genera, flies were recorded emerging from 70 samples and collected in adult stages of 25 fungal samples, for a total of 4897 drosophilids belonging to 31 species and 5 genera. Drosophila Fallén was the most species-rich genus, whereas Hirtodrosophila Duda was the dominant genus. Studies performed in the Holarctic region indicate that mycophagous drosophilid have generalist habits; however, our results showed that most drosophilids use fewer than two fungal hosts, and most species of Hirtodrosophila and Leucophenga were restricted to abundant fungal species, suggesting a specialization for these resources. The most specialized fauna emerged from Auricularia, which was the most frequent fungal genus in our collection, and this result supports the assumption that specialization depends on the availability of fungal resources over time.

  12. Insect-plant interactions: new pathways to a better comprehension of ecological communities in Neotropical savannas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del-Claro, Kleber; Torezan-Silingardi, Helena M

    2009-01-01

    The causal mechanisms shaping and structuring ecological communities are among the most important themes in ecology. The study of insect-plant interactions in trophic nets is pointed out as basic to improve our knowledge on this issue. The cerrado tropical savanna, although extremely diverse, distributed in more than 20% of the Brazilian territory and filled up with rich examples of multitrophic interactions, is underexplored in terms of biodiversity interaction. Here, this ecosystem is suggested as valuable to the study of insect-plant interactions whose understanding can throw a new light at the ecological communities' theory. Three distinct systems: extrafloral nectary plants or trophobiont herbivores and the associated ant fauna; floral herbivores-predators-pollinators; and plants-forest engineers and associated fauna, will serve as examples to illustrate promising new pathways in cerrado. The aim of this brief text is to instigate young researchers, mainly entomologists, to initiate more elaborated field work, including experimental manipulations in multitrophic systems, to explore in an interactive way the structure that maintain preserved viable communities in the Neotropical savanna.

  13. Genetic diversity of neotropical Myotis (chiroptera: vespertilionidae with an emphasis on South American species.

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    Roxanne J Larsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cryptic morphological variation in the Chiropteran genus Myotis limits the understanding of species boundaries and species richness within the genus. Several authors have suggested that it is likely there are unrecognized species-level lineages of Myotis in the Neotropics. This study provides an assessment of the diversity in New World Myotis by analyzing cytochrome-b gene variation from an expansive sample ranging throughout North, Central, and South America. We provide baseline genetic data for researchers investigating phylogeographic and phylogenetic patterns of Myotis in these regions, with an emphasis on South America. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cytochrome-b sequences were generated and phylogenetically analyzed from 215 specimens, providing DNA sequence data for the most species of New World Myotis to date. Based on genetic data in our sample, and on comparisons with available DNA sequence data from GenBank, we estimate the number of species-level genetic lineages in South America alone to be at least 18, rather than the 15 species currently recognized. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide evidence that the perception of lower species richness in South American Myotis is largely due to a combination of cryptic morphological variation and insufficient sampling coverage in genetic-based systematic studies. A more accurate assessment of the level of diversity and species richness in New World Myotis is not only helpful for delimiting species boundaries, but also for understanding evolutionary processes within this globally distributed bat genus.

  14. Space Use and Movement of a Neotropical Top Predator: The Endangered Jaguar.

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    Ronaldo G Morato

    Full Text Available Accurately estimating home range and understanding movement behavior can provide important information on ecological processes. Advances in data collection and analysis have improved our ability to estimate home range and movement parameters, both of which have the potential to impact species conservation. Fitting continuous-time movement model to data and incorporating the autocorrelated kernel density estimator (AKDE, we investigated range residency of forty-four jaguars fit with GPS collars across five biomes in Brazil and Argentina. We assessed home range and movement parameters of range resident animals and compared AKDE estimates with kernel density estimates (KDE. We accounted for differential space use and movement among individuals, sex, region, and habitat quality. Thirty-three (80% of collared jaguars were range resident. Home range estimates using AKDE were 1.02 to 4.80 times larger than KDE estimates that did not consider autocorrelation. Males exhibited larger home ranges, more directional movement paths, and a trend towards larger distances traveled per day. Jaguars with the largest home ranges occupied the Atlantic Forest, a biome with high levels of deforestation and high human population density. Our results fill a gap in the knowledge of the species' ecology with an aim towards better conservation of this endangered/critically endangered carnivore-the top predator in the Neotropics.

  15. Measures of the constitutive immune system are linked to diet and roosting habits of neotropical bats.

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    Karin Schneeberger

    Full Text Available Ecological and social factors are central in the emergence and transmission of infectious diseases, thus bearing the potential for shaping a species' immune functions. Although previous studies demonstrated a link between social factors and the cellular immune system for captive mammals, it is yet poorly understood how ecological factors are connected with the different branches of the immune system in wild populations. Here, we tested how variation in aspects of the constitutive cellular and humoral immune system of free ranging bats is associated with two ecological factors that likely influence the putative risk of species to become infected by parasites and pathogens: diet and shelter. We found that white blood cell counts of 24 syntopic Neotropical bat species varied with the species' diet and body mass. Bats that included at least partially vertebrates in their diet exhibited the highest white blood cell counts, followed by phytophagous and insectivorous species, which is in agreement with the assumption that the immune system varies with the pathogen transmission risk of a trophic level. The soluble part of the constitutive immune response, assessed by an in vitro bacterial killing assay, decreased with increasing roost permanence. Our results suggest that the ecology is an important factor in the evolution of the immune system in bats and probably also other mammals.

  16. Survey of feline leukemia virus and feline coronaviruses in captive neotropical wild felids from Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimaraes, Ana M S; Brandão, Paulo E; de Moraes, Wanderlei; Cubas, Zalmir S; Santos, Leonilda C; Villarreal, Laura Y B; Robes, Rogério R; Coelho, Fabiana M; Resende, Mauricio; Santos, Renata C F; Oliveira, Rosangela C; Yamaguti, Mauricio; Marques, Lucas M; Neto, Renata L; Buzinhani, Melissa; Marques, Regina; Messick, Joanne B; Biondo, Alexander W; Timenetsky, Jorge

    2009-06-01

    A total of 57 captive neotropical felids (one Leopardus geoffroyi, 14 Leopardus pardalis, 17 Leopardus wiedii, 22 Leopardus tigrinus, and three Puma yagouaroundi) from the Itaipu Binacional Wildlife Research Center (Refúgio Bela Vista, Southern Brazil) were anesthetized for blood collection. Feces samples were available for 44 animals, including one L. geoffroyi, eight L. pardalis, 14 L. wiedii, 20 L. tigrinus, and one P. yagouaroundi. Total DNA and RNA were extracted from blood and feces, respectively, using commercial kits. Blood DNA samples were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) proviral DNA, whereas reverse transcriptase-PCR was run on fecal samples for detection of coronavirus RNA. None of the samples were positive for coronaviruses. A male L. pardalis and a female L. tigrinus were positive for FeLV proviral DNA, and identities of PCR products were confirmed by sequencing. This is the first evidence of FeLV proviral DNA in these species in Southern Brazil.

  17. Metacommunity versus biogeography: a case study of two groups of neotropical vegetation-dwelling arthropods.

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    Thiago Gonçalves-Souza

    Full Text Available Biogeography and metacommunity ecology provide two different perspectives on species diversity. Both are spatial in nature but their spatial scales do not necessarily match. With recent boom of metacommunity studies, we see an increasing need for clear discrimination of spatial scales relevant for both perspectives. This discrimination is a necessary prerequisite for improved understanding of ecological phenomena across scales. Here we provide a case study to illustrate some spatial scale-dependent concepts in recent metacommunity studies and identify potential pitfalls. We presented here the diversity patterns of Neotropical lepidopterans and spiders viewed both from metacommunity and biogeographical perspectives. Specifically, we investigated how the relative importance of niche- and dispersal-based processes for community assembly change at two spatial scales: metacommunity scale, i.e. within a locality, and biogeographical scale, i.e. among localities widely scattered along a macroclimatic gradient. As expected, niche-based processes dominated the community assembly at metacommunity scale, while dispersal-based processes played a major role at biogeographical scale for both taxonomical groups. However, we also observed small but significant spatial effects at metacommunity scale and environmental effects at biogeographical scale. We also observed differences in diversity patterns between the two taxonomical groups corresponding to differences in their dispersal modes. Our results thus support the idea of continuity of processes interactively shaping diversity patterns across scales and emphasize the necessity of integration of metacommunity and biogeographical perspectives.

  18. Modeling habitat suitability of the invasive clam Corbicula fluminea in a Neotropical shallow lagoon, southern Brazil

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    T. C. L. Silveira

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to model the habitat suitability for an invasive clam Corbicula fluminea in a coastal shallow lagoon in the southern Neotropical region (–30.22, –50.55. The lagoon (19km2, maximum deep 2.5m was sampled with an Ekman dredge in an orthogonal matrix comprising 84 points. At each sampling point, were obtained environmental descriptors as depth, organic matter content (OMC, average granulometry (Avgran, and the percentage of sand (Pcsand. Prediction performance of Generalized Linear Models (GLM, Generalized Additive Models (GAM and Boosted Regression Tree (BRT were compared. Also, niche overlapping with other native clam species (Castalia martensi, Neocorbicula limosa and Anodontites trapesialis was examined. A BRT model with 1400 trees was selected as the best model, with cross-validated correlation of 0.82. The relative contributions of predictors were Pcsand-42.6%, OMC-35.8%, Avgran-10.9% and Depth-10.8%. Were identified that C. fluminea occur mainly in sandy sediments with few organic matter, in shallow areas nor by the shore. The PCA showed a wide niche overlap with the native clam species C. martensi, N. limosa and A. trapesialis.

  19. Climatic changes can drive the loss of genetic diversity in a Neotropical savanna tree species.

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    Lima, Jacqueline S; Ballesteros-Mejia, Liliana; Lima-Ribeiro, Matheus S; Collevatti, Rosane G

    2017-11-01

    The high rates of future climatic changes, compared with the rates reported for past changes, may hamper species adaptation to new climates or the tracking of suitable conditions, resulting in significant loss of genetic diversity. Trees are dominant species in many biomes and because they are long-lived, they may not be able to cope with ongoing climatic changes. Here, we coupled ecological niche modelling (ENM) and genetic simulations to forecast the effects of climatic changes on the genetic diversity and the structure of genetic clusters. Genetic simulations were conditioned to climatic variables and restricted to plant dispersal and establishment. We used a Neotropical savanna tree as species model that shows a preference for hot and drier climates, but with low temperature seasonality. The ENM predicts a decreasing range size along the more severe future climatic scenario. Additionally, genetic diversity and allelic richness also decrease with range retraction and climatic genetic clusters are lost for both future scenarios, which will lead genetic variability to homogenize throughout the landscape. Besides, climatic genetic clusters will spatially reconfigure on the landscape following displacements of climatic conditions. Our findings indicate that climate change effects will challenge population adaptation to new environmental conditions because of the displacement of genetic ancestry clusters from their optimal conditions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Strong spatial structure, Pliocene diversification and cryptic diversity in the Neotropical dry forest spider Sicarius cariri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhaes, Ivan L F; Oliveira, Ubirajara; Santos, Fabrício R; Vidigal, Teofânia H D A; Brescovit, Antonio D; Santos, Adalberto J

    2014-11-01

    The Brazilian Caatinga is part of the seasonally dry tropical forests, a vegetation type disjunctly distributed throughout the Neotropics. It has been suggested that during Pleistocene glacial periods, these dry forests had a continuous distribution, so that these climatic shifts may have acted as important driving forces of the Caatinga biota diversification. To address how these events affected the distribution of a dry forest species, we chose Sicarius cariri, a spider endemic to the Caatinga, as a model. We studied the phylogeography of one mitochondrial and one nuclear gene and reconstructed the paleodistribution of the species using modelling algorithms. We found two allopatric and deeply divergent clades within S. cariri, suggesting that this species as currently recognized might consist of more than one independently evolving lineage. Sicarius cariri populations are highly structured, with low haplotype sharing among localities, high fixation index and isolation by distance. Models of paleodistribution, Bayesian reconstructions and coalescent simulations suggest that this species experienced a reduction in its population size during glacial periods, rather than the expansion expected by previous hypotheses on the paleodistribution of dry forest taxa. In addition to that, major splits of intraspecific lineages of S. cariri took place in the Pliocene. Taken together, these results indicate S. cariri has a complex diversification history dating back to the Tertiary, suggesting the history of dry forest taxa may be significantly older than previously thought. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Host conservatism, geography, and elevation in the evolution of a Neotropical moth radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahner, Joshua P; Forister, Matthew L; Parchman, Thomas L; Smilanich, Angela M; Miller, James S; Wilson, Joseph S; Walla, Thomas R; Tepe, Eric J; Richards, Lora A; Quijano-Abril, Mario Alberto; Glassmire, Andrea E; Dyer, Lee A

    2017-12-01

    The origins of evolutionary radiations are often traced to the colonization of novel adaptive zones, including unoccupied habitats or unutilized resources. For herbivorous insects, the predominant mechanism of diversification is typically assumed to be a shift onto a novel lineage of host plants. However, other drivers of diversification are important in shaping evolutionary history, especially for groups residing in regions with complex geological histories. We evaluated the contributions of shifts in host plant clade, bioregion, and elevation to diversification in Eois (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), a hyper-diverse genus of moths found throughout the Neotropics. Relationships among 107 taxa were reconstructed using one mitochondrial and two nuclear genes. In addition, we used a genotyping-by-sequencing approach to generate 4641 SNPs for 137 taxa. Both datasets yielded similar phylogenetic histories, with relationships structured by host plant clade, bioregion, and elevation. While diversification of basal lineages often coincided with host clade shifts, more recent speciation events were more typically associated with shifts across bioregions or elevational gradients. Overall, patterns of diversification in Eois are consistent with the perspective that shifts across multiple adaptive zones synergistically drive diversification in hyper-diverse lineages. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  2. Life-history variation of a neotropical thrush challenges food limitation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, V.; Llambias, P.E.; Martin, T.E.

    2005-01-01

    Since David Lack first proposed that birds rear as many young as they can nourish, food limitation has been accepted as the primary explanation for variation in clutch size and other life-history traits in birds. The importance of food limitation in life-history variation, however, was recently questioned on theoretical grounds. Here, we show that clutch size differences between two populations of a neotropical thrush were contrary to expectations under Lack's food limitation hypothesis. Larger clutch sizes were found in a population with higher nestling starvation rate (i.e. greater food limitation). We experimentally equalized clutches between populations to verify this difference in food limitation. Our experiment confirmed greater food limitation in the population with larger mean clutch size. In addition, incubation bout length and nestling growth rate were also contrary to predictions of food limitation theory. Our results demonstrate the inability of food limitation to explain differences in several life-history traits: clutch size, incubation behaviour, parental feeding rate and nestling growth rate. These life-history traits were better explained by inter-population differences in nest predation rates. Food limitation may be less important to life history evolution in birds than suggested by traditional theory. ?? 2005 The Royal Society.

  3. Development of the digestive system in larvae of the Neotropical fish Prochilodus argenteus (Characiformes, Prochilodontidae

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    Alcione Eneida Santos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of the digestive system in larvae of the Neotropical fish P. argenteus was analyzed histologically. On the 3rd day after hatching, the digestive system comprised oropharyngeal cavity, esophagus and simple undifferentiated tube. Since secreting cells, positive to Alcian Blue (AB, were found in the esophagus, digestive activity in the initial phase had occurred. On the 18 and 28th days after hatching, the esophagus was positive for AB and Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS stain. The stomach was fully differentiated, with the cardiac, fundic and pyloric regions. Different regions of the epithelium were characterized by basic and acidic secreting cells (AB and PAS positive. On the 18 and 28th days after hatching, the intestine was long, coiled and divided into proximal, middle and distal segments with pyloric ceca. Secreting cells in different regions of the gut were either positive or negative for AB and PAS. Results showed that larvae of P. argenteus exhibited digestive activity on the third day after hatching, with fully differentiated stomach and intestines on the 18 and 28th days and their different regions featuring secreting cells.

  4. Phylogenomics and evolution of floral traits in the Neotropical tribe Malmeeae (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, J C; Chatrou, L W; Mello-Silva, R; Rudall, P J; Sajo, M G

    2018-01-01

    Androdioecy is the rarest sexual system among plants. The majority of androdioecious species are herbaceous plants that have evolved from dioecious ancestors. Nevertheless, some woody and androdioecious plants have hermaphrodite ancestors, as in the Annonaceae, where androdioecious genera have arisen several times in different lineages. The majority of androdioecious species of Annonaceae belong to the Neotropical tribe Malmeeae. In addition to these species, Pseudoxandra spiritus-sancti was recently confirmed to be androdioecious. Here, we describe the morphology of male and bisexual flowers of Pseudoxandra spiritus-sancti, and investigate the evolution of androdioecy in Malmeeae. The phylogeny of tribe Malmeeae was reconstructed using Bayesian inference, maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood of 32 taxa, using DNA sequences of 66 molecular markers of the chloroplast genome, sequenced by next generation sequencing. The reconstruction of ancestral states was performed for characters associated with sexual systems and floral morphology. The phylogenetic analyses reconstructed three main groups in Malmeeae, (Malmea (Cremastosperma, Pseudoxandra)) sister to the rest of the tribe, and (Unonopsis (Bocageopsis, Onychopetalum)) sister to (Mosannona, Ephedranthus, Klarobelia, Oxandra, Pseudephedranthus fragrans, Pseudomalmea, Ruizodendron ovale). Hermaphroditism is plesiomorphic in the tribe, with four independent evolutions of androdieocy, which represents a synapomorphy of two groups, one that includes three genera and 14 species, the other with a single genus of seven species. Male flowers are unisexual from inception and bisexual flowers possess staminodes and functional stamens. Pseudoxandra spiritus-sancti is structurally androdioecious. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Space Use and Movement of a Neotropical Top Predator: The Endangered Jaguar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morato, Ronaldo G; Stabach, Jared A; Fleming, Chris H; Calabrese, Justin M; De Paula, Rogério C; Ferraz, Kátia M P M; Kantek, Daniel L Z; Miyazaki, Selma S; Pereira, Thadeu D C; Araujo, Gediendson R; Paviolo, Agustin; De Angelo, Carlos; Di Bitetti, Mario S; Cruz, Paula; Lima, Fernando; Cullen, Laury; Sana, Denis A; Ramalho, Emiliano E; Carvalho, Marina M; Soares, Fábio H S; Zimbres, Barbara; Silva, Marina X; Moraes, Marcela D F; Vogliotti, Alexandre; May, Joares A; Haberfeld, Mario; Rampim, Lilian; Sartorello, Leonardo; Ribeiro, Milton C; Leimgruber, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Accurately estimating home range and understanding movement behavior can provide important information on ecological processes. Advances in data collection and analysis have improved our ability to estimate home range and movement parameters, both of which have the potential to impact species conservation. Fitting continuous-time movement model to data and incorporating the autocorrelated kernel density estimator (AKDE), we investigated range residency of forty-four jaguars fit with GPS collars across five biomes in Brazil and Argentina. We assessed home range and movement parameters of range resident animals and compared AKDE estimates with kernel density estimates (KDE). We accounted for differential space use and movement among individuals, sex, region, and habitat quality. Thirty-three (80%) of collared jaguars were range resident. Home range estimates using AKDE were 1.02 to 4.80 times larger than KDE estimates that did not consider autocorrelation. Males exhibited larger home ranges, more directional movement paths, and a trend towards larger distances traveled per day. Jaguars with the largest home ranges occupied the Atlantic Forest, a biome with high levels of deforestation and high human population density. Our results fill a gap in the knowledge of the species' ecology with an aim towards better conservation of this endangered/critically endangered carnivore-the top predator in the Neotropics.

  6. Protocol for isolation of Moniliophthora roreri (Cif and Par Evans et al. from cacao fruits cv. `National' in the Ecuadorian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Carrera-Sánchez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Moniliophthora roreri is a pathogen of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. that causes high economic losses in Ecuador. This paper is intended to present a protocol for the isolation of the pathogen from cocoa fruits cv. `National', showing signs and symptoms of disease. The fruits were collected on farms of Napo (Ecuador. By wet chamber, it was able to induce profusely, sporulation on the surface of selected lesions. The isolations were performed from conidia directly located on the surface of fruits with brown powdery appearance. Isolation procedures and suggested of possible applications are presented.   Key words: amazonia, basidiomycetes, fungi, moniliasis, Theobroma cacao L.

  7. Estimación de la oferta de frutos en el gradiente vertical de un bosque del medio Caquetá, Amazonia colombiana

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolás Castaño Arbleda; Julio Betancur Betancur

    2004-01-01

    Durante el año 2001 se estimó la oferta de frutos en un bosque de tierra firme de la Amazonia colombiana. Se muestrearon siete parcelas de 50 x 50 m cada una (1,75 ha), en las que se censaron todos los individuos fructificados. En total se encontraron 1.154 individuos en fruto, correspondientes a 196 especies y 57 familias. En cada ciclo de muestreo  se produjeron en promedio 15.212 frutos/ha y 16,1 kg/ha de peso seco de la cosecha. Para estimar la fructificación de cada especie y familia se ...

  8. Chagas disease and globalization of the Amazon La enfermedad de Chagas y la globalización de la Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Briceño-León

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of autochthonous cases of Chagas disease in the Amazon since the 1970s has led to fear that the disease may become a new public health problem in the region. This transformation in the disease's epidemiological pattern in the Amazon can be explained by environmental and social changes in the last 30 years. The current article draws on the sociological theory of perverse effects to explain these changes as the unwanted result of the shift from the "inward" development model prevailing until the 1970s to the "outward" model that we know as globalization, oriented by industrial forces and international trade. The current article highlights the implementation of five new patterns in agriculture, cattle-raising, mining, lumbering, and urban occupation that have generated changes in the environment and the traditional indigenous habitat and have led to migratory flows, deforestation, sedentary living, the presence of domestic animals, and changes in the habitat that facilitate colonization of human dwellings by vectors and the domestic and work-related transmission of the disease. The expansion of Chagas disease is thus a perverse effect of the globalization process in the Amazon.El incremento de casos autóctonos de la enfermedad de Chagas en la Amazonia a partir de los años setenta hace temer que pueda convertirse en un novedoso problema de salud pública en la región. Este cambio del patrón epidemiológico de la enfermedad en la región amazónica debe ser explicado por las transformaciones ambientales y sociales que han ocurrido en los pasados treinta años. Este artículo utiliza la teoría sociológica de los efectos perversos para explicar esos cambios como el resultado indeseado del cambio de modelo de desarrollo "hacia adentro", que había existido hasta los años setenta, por otro "hacia fuera" que está orientado por las fuerzas de la producción y el comercio internacional que conocemos como globalización. El art

  9. Produção de serrapilheira no Cerrado e Floresta de Transição Amazônia-Cerrado do Centro-Oeste Brasileiro Litterfall production in the Brazilian mid-western Amazonia-Cerrado transition forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos José da Silva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo verificar a variação da produção de serrapilheira de diferentes biomas: Cerrado (com as fitofisionomias Cerrado sensu stricto e Cerradão e Floresta de Transição Amazônia-Cerrado, em clima tropical. Para a determinação da produção de serrapilheira foram utilizados coletores de tela em náilon. Dados micrometereológicos foram coletados nas áreas de estudo. A produção de serrapilheira nos dois biomas mostrou acentuada sazonalidade, com as maiores produções ocorrendo durante a estação seca e menor durante a estação chuvosa. A maior produção de serrapilheira ocorreu na Floresta de Transição, seguida do bioma Cerrado. A fração de folhas foi mais representativa do que as frações de galhos, flores, frutos em ambas as áreas estudadas.The objective of the present work was to verify the variation of litterfall production of different biomass: a cerrado ("savanna" with vegetation types Cerrado sensu stricto ("orchard-like vegetation" and Cerradão ("woodland-like vegetation" and Amazonia-Cerrado transition forest in a tropical climate. To determine the litterfall production, we used nylon screen traps. Micrometereologic data was collected in both areas of study. The litterfall in two biomass revealed themselves as seasonal, with the highest productions occurring during the dry season and the lowest during the wet. The biggest litterfall occurred in the Transition Forest, followed by the Cerrado biome. Leaf fraction was more representative than twigs, flowers, fruits in both areas studied.

  10. Anaplasma marginale infection in cattle from south-western Amazonia Infecção por Anaplasma marginale em bovinos na Amazônia Sul Ocidental, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Gatto Brito

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study provides the first epidemiological data regarding infection by Anaplasma marginale in cattle reared in south-western Brazilian Amazonia. One simple procedure was adapted for the extraction of DNA from blood clots collected in seven microregions of Rondônia State and two mesoregions of Acre State. PCR method was used to asses the frequency of A. marginale infections in 4 to12-month-old cattle. The cattle infection was investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR using the specific primer "msp5" for A. marginale. The DNA amplifications revealed that the mean frequency of A. marginale infection was 98.6% (1,627/1,650 in samples from Rondonia, and 92.87% (208/225 in samples from Acre. The high frequency of A. marginale infections in 4 to 12-month-old cattle indicate a situation of enzootic stability in the studied areas and are comparable to those detected by immunodiagnosis in different endemic regions in Brazil. The DNA extraction of clotted blood method described here can be used for epidemiological studies on anaplasmosis and other bovine hemoparasites.O presente estudo fornece os primeiros dados epidemiológicos relativos a infecção por Anaplasma marginale em bovinos criados na Amazônia Sul Ocidental brasileira. Foi adaptado um procedimento simples para a extração de DNA a partir de coágulos sanguíneos coletados em sete microrregiões do estado de Rondônia e duas mesoregiões do estado do Acre. A técnica da reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR foi aplicada para avaliar a freqüência da infecção por A. marginale em bovinos com idade entre 4 e 12 meses. Após a extração do DNA de cada amostra, a infecção nos bovinos foi investigada pela amplificação do gene "msp5" de A. marginale. As técnicas de amplificação do DNA revelaram que a freqüência de infecção por A. marginale foi de 98,6% (1.627/1.650 nas amostras provenientes de Rondônia e de 92,87% (208/225 nas amostras do Acre. A alta freqüência da

  11. Sequential Management of Commercial Rosewood (Aniba rosaeodora Ducke Plantations in Central Amazonia: Seeking Sustainable Models for Essential Oil Production