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Sample records for amazonas state venezuela

  1. Paca (Agouti paca and Agouti (Dasyprocta spp. - Minili-vestock Production in the Amazonas State of Venezuela : 1. Biology

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    Govoni, G.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In response to increasing human population pressure in the Amazonas State of Venezuela greater attention is being given to the "minilivestock" production of the wild rodents paca (Agouti paca, and agouti (Dasyprocta spp as sources of food and income and to reduce the risk of their possible extinction. In preparation for the increased farming of these rodents, this paper reviews published material on their characteristics, distribution, habitat, conservation status, behaviour, reproductive parameters and nutrition. It is concluded that the two rodents paca and agouti, have characteristics that justify greater investment in their domestication and farmed production, although and behavioural issues and reproductive limits need further research.

  2. Geologic map of the Venezuela part of the Puerto Ayacucho 2 degrees x 3 degrees Quadrangle, Amazonas Federal Territory, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Jeffrey C.; Olmore, Steven D.; Mendoza, Vicente; García, Andrés; Rendon, Ines; Estanga, Yasmin; Rincon, Haydee; Martinez, Felix; Lugo, Elis; Rivero, Nelson; Schruben, Paul G.

    1994-01-01

    This map is one of a series of 1:500,000-scale maps that, along with several other products, stems from a cooperative agreement between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Corporacion Venezolana de Guayana, Tecnica Minera, C.A. (TECMIN), a Venezuelan Government-owned mining and mineral exploration company. The agreement covered cooperative work carried out in the Precambrian Shield of southern Venezuela during 1987-1991 and included a geologic and mineral resource inventory, technology transfer, and scientific training (Wynn and others, in press). The Precambrian Guayana Shield (Escudo de Guyana, not to be confused with the neighboring country of Guyana) includes some of the oldest known rocks in the world (Mendoza, 1977) and also covers parts of neighboring Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana, Columbia, and Brazil. In Venezuela, it underlies most of Bolivar state and all of the Amazonas Federal Territory (see index map).

  3. Epidemiology of infectious meningitis in the State of Amazonas, Brazil

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    Maria das Graças Gomes Saraiva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In the State of Amazonas, particularly in the capital Manaus, meningitis has affected populations of different cultures and social strata over the years. Bacterial meningitis is caused by several different species and represents a major issue of public health importance. The present study reports the meningitis case numbers with different etiologies in Amazonas from January 1976 to December 2012. METHODS: Since the 1970s, the (currently named Tropical Medicine Foundation of Doutor Heitor Vieira Dourado [Fundação de Medicina Tropical Doutor Heitor Vieira Dourado (FMT-HVD] has remained a reference center in Amazonas for the treatment of meningitis through the diagnosis and notification of cases and the confirmation of such cases using specific laboratory tests. RESULTS: The foundation has achieved coverage of over 90% of the state medical records for many years. Between 1990 and 2012, meningitis cases caused by Haemophilus influenzae decreased with the introduction of the H. influenzae vaccine. Meningococcal disease previously had a higher frequency of serogroup B disease, but starting in 2008, the detection of serogroup C increased gradually and has outpaced the detection of serogroup B. Recently, surveillance has improved the etiological definition of viral meningitis at FMT-HVD, with enteroviruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV and varicella zoster virus (VZV prevailing in this group of pathogens. With the advent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, cryptococcal meningitis has become an important disease in Amazonas. Additionally, infectious meningitis is an important burden in the State of Amazonas. CONCLUSIONS: Changes in the epidemiological profile for the different etiology-defined cases are the result of continuous epidemiological surveillance and laboratory capacity improvements and control measures, such as Haemophilus influenzae vaccination.

  4. Malaria in Sucre State, Venezuela

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    Robert H. Zimmerman

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The author reviews the malaria research program in Sucre State, Venezuela, taking an ecosystem approach. The goal was to determine which methods could have been introduced at the onset that would have made the study more ecological and interdisciplinary. Neither an ecosystem approach nor integrated disease control were in place at the time of the study. This study began to introduce an ecosystem approach when two contrasting ecosystems in Sucre State were selected for study and vector control methods were implemented based on research results. The need to have a health policy in place with an eco-health approach is crucial to the success of research and control. The review suggests that sustainability is low when not all the stakeholders are involved in the design and implementation of the research and control strategy development. The lack of community involvement makes sustainability doubtful. The author concludes that there were two interdependent challenges for malaria control: development of an ecosystem approach for malaria research and control, and the implementation of an integrated disease control strategy, with malaria as one of the important health issues.O autor faz uma revisão do programa de pesquisa sobre malária no Estado de Sucre, Venezuela, à luz de uma abordagem ecossistêmica. O objetivo era determinar quais métodos poderiam ter sido introduzidos no início do estudo para torná-lo mais ecológico e interdisciplinar. A fase inicial do estudo não incluía uma abordagem ecossistêmica ou controle integrado da doença, que só foram incorporados quando dois ecossistemas contrastantes no Estado de Sucre foram selecionados para pesquisa, junto com um método de controle de vetores com base nos resultados. Uma política de saúde bem-definida com uma abordagem ecossistêmica é crucial para o sucesso de uma estratégia de pesquisa e controle. Esta revisão sugere que a sustentabilidade é baixa se todos os atores não estiverem

  5. Temporal distribution of tuberculosis in the State of Amazonas, Brazil

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    Marlucia da Silva Garrido

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is one of the infectious diseases that contributes most to the morbidity and mortality of millions of people worldwide. Brazil is one of 22 countries that accounts for 80% of the tuberculosis global burden. The highest incidence rates in Brazil occur in the States of Amazonas and Rio de Janeiro. The aim of this study was to describe the temporal distribution of TB in the State of Amazonas. Between 2001 and 2011, 28,198 cases of tuberculosis were reported in Amazonas, distributed among 62 municipalities, with the capital Manaus reporting the highest (68.7% concentration of cases. Tuberculosis was more prevalent among males (59.3% aged 15 to 34 years old (45.5%, whose race/color was predominantly pardo (64.7% and who had pulmonary TB (84.3%. During this period, 81 cases of multidrug-resistant TB were registered, of which the highest concentration was reported from 2008 onward (p = 0.002. The municipalities with the largest numbers of indigenous individuals affected were São Gabriel da Cachoeira (93%, Itamarati (78.1%, and Santa Isabel do Rio Negro (70.1%. The future outlook for this region includes strengthening the TB control at the primary care level, by expanding diagnostic capabilities, access to treatment, research projects developed in collaboration with the Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado Tropical Medicine Foundation .;Fundação de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado (FMT-HVD.; and financing institutions, such as the project for the expansion of the Clinical Research Center and the creation of a hospital ward for individuals with transmissible respiratory diseases, including TB.

  6. Mortality Predictors in Patients with Severe Dengue in the State of Amazonas, Brazil

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    Pinto, Rosemary Costa; de Castro, Daniel Barros; de Albuquerque, Bernardino Cláudio; Sampaio, Vanderson de Souza; dos Passos, Ricardo Augusto; da Costa, Cristiano Fernandes; Sadahiro, Megumi; Braga, José Ueleres

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is a major public health problem in tropical and subtropical areas worldwide. There is a lack of information on the risk factors for death due to severe dengue fever in developing countries, including Brazil where the state of Amazonas is located. This knowledge is important for decision making and the implementation of effective measures for patient care. This study aimed to identify factors associated with death among patients with severe dengue, in Amazonas from 2001 to 2013. We conducted a retrospective cohort study based on secondary data from the epidemiological surveillance of dengue provided by the Fundação de Vigilância em Saúde do Amazonas, FVS (Health Surveillance Foundation) of the Secretaria de Saúde do Amazonas, SUSAM (Health Secretariat of the State of Amazonas). Data on dengue cases were obtained from the SINAN (Notifiable Diseases Information System) and SIM (Mortality Information System) databases. We selected cases of severe dengue with laboratory confirmation, including dengue-related deaths of residents in the state of Amazonas from January 1, 2001, to December 31, 2013. The explanatory variables analyzed were sex, age, level of education, spontaneous hemorrhagic manifestations, plasma extravasation and platelet count. Patients who died due to severe dengue had more hematuria, gastrointestinal bleeding, and thrombocytopenia than the survivors. Considering the simultaneous effects of demographic and clinical characteristics with a multiple logistic regression model, it was observed that the factors associated with death were age >55 years (odds ratio [OR] 4.98), gastrointestinal bleeding (OR 10.26), hematuria (OR 5.07), and thrombocytopenia (OR 2.55). Gastrointestinal bleeding was the clinical sign most strongly associated with death, followed by hematuria and age >55 years. The study results showed that the best predictor of death from severe dengue is based on the characteristic of age >55 years, together with the clinical signs of

  7. The paleozoic of Amazonas basin south edge: Tapajos river, Para state; O paleozoico da borda sul da bacia do Amazonas: rio Tapajos, estado do Para

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    Matsuda, Nilo Siguehiko [Petrobras E e P, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Exploracao. Estratigrafia e Sedimentologia Geologia Aplicada a Exploracao], E-mail: nilo@petrobras.com.br; Winter, Wilson Rubem [Petrobras, Campoas dos Goytacases, RJ (Brazil). Exploracao. Sedimentologia e Estratigrafia], E-mail: winter@petrobras.com.br; Wanderley Filho, Joaquim Ribeiro; Cacela, Alessandra Suzely Moda [Petrobras, Manaus, AM (Brazil). Exploracao. Unidade de Operacoes de Exploracao e Producao da Amazonia], Emails: jwand@petrobras.com.br, alessandra.suzely@petrobras.com.br

    2009-11-15

    The intracratonic Amazonas Basin covers an area close to 500.000km{sup 2} shared between the Amazonas and Para states. The phanerozoic stratigraphic framework is up to 6.000m thick and may be subdivided into two, first order depositional sequences: the Paleozoic sequence, intruded by diabase dikes and sills and the Mesozoic-Cenozoic sequence. Analyzing the stratigraphic framework, the great tectonic influence on the basin development can be appreciated. The mainly NW-SE structural directions of the basement, which mark the boundaries of the geochronological provinces of the Amazonas, are clearly identified along the Tapajos River. The Paleozoic sequence outcrops on the southern border of the Amazonas Basin embraces potential source rocks, reservoirs and seal rocks. They can be subdivided in three, second order sequences, limited by regional unconformities, as: the Ordovician/Devonian, which corresponds to the Pitinga lithostratigraphic formation; the Devonian-Tournaisian, which corresponds to the Maecuru, Erere, Barreirinha and Curiri formations and, the Pensylvanian-Permian that are represented by the Monte Alegre and Itaituba formations. This field trip guide presents these classic lithostratigraphic outcrop units, together with a brief sedimentological description and an analysis of their positioning related to sequence stratigraphical concepts. (author)

  8. The environmental and social impact of electric energy generation in villages and states of the interior of Amazonas state, Brazil; O impacto socio-ambiental da geracao de energia eletrica nas vilas e municipios do interior do estado do Amazonas

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    Teixeira, Andre Frazao; Cavaliero, Carla Kazue Nakao [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos

    2004-07-01

    The interior of the State of Amazonas is nowadays socio and economically stagnant in consequence of various structural problems. The lack of a reliable source of electricity in these areas is one of these problems, and it has been causing several environment and social problems for the local population. To show, in a historic context, the consequences of this scenario to the country side of the State of Amazonas, is the goal of this article. (author)

  9. HIV/AIDS epidemic in the State of Amazonas: characteristics and trends from 2001 to 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Romina do Socorro Marques de Oliveira; Adele Schwartz Benzaken; Valeria Saraceni; Meritxell Sabidó

    2015-01-01

    A scoping review was conducted to describe the epidemiological characteristics of the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic in the State of Amazonas, Brazil, from 2001 to 2012, and temporary patterns were estimated from surveillance data. The results suggest that in its third decade, the Amazon HIV/AIDS epidemic is far from being stabilized and displays rising AIDS incidence and mortality rates and late diagnoses. The data suggest that AIDS cases ...

  10. Progression of the load of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases in the State of Amazonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Marilaine; Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Moura, Marco Antonio Saboia; Santos, Eyde Cristianne Saraiva; Saraceni, Valéria; Saraiva, Maria Graças Gomes

    2015-01-01

    In the State of Amazonas, Brazil, urban expansion together with precarious basic sanitation conditions and human settlement on river banks has contributed to the persistence of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases. Time series of the recorded cases of cholera, typhoid fever, hepatitis A and leptospirosis are described, using data from different levels of the surveillance systems. The sources for intestinal parasitosis prevalence data (non-compulsory reporting in Brazil) were Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE), Literatura Latino-Americana (LILACS) and the annals of major scientific meetings. Relevant papers and abstracts in all languages were accessed by two independent reviewers. The references cited by each relevant paper were scrutinized to locate additional papers. Despite its initial dissemination across the entire State of Amazonas, cholera was controlled in 1998. The magnitude of typhoid fever has decreased; however, a pattern characterized by eventual outbreaks still remains. Leptospirosis is an increasing cause of concern in association with the annual floods. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites is high regardless of the municipality and the characteristics of areas and populations. The incidence of hepatitis A has decreased over the past decade. A comparison of older and recent surveys shows that the prevalence of intestinal parasitic diseases has remained constant. The load of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases ranks high among the health problems present in the State of Amazonas. Interventions aiming at basic sanitation and vaccination for hepatitis A were formulated and implemented, but assessment of their effectiveness in the targeted populations is still needed.

  11. Ginandromorfo de Arsenura armida (Cramer de Querari, São Gabriel da Cachoeira, Amazonas, Brasil (Lepidoptera, Saturniidae, Arsenurinae Gynandromorph of Arsenura armida (Cramer from Querari, São Gabriel da Cachoeira, Amazonas State, Brazil (Lepidoptera, Saturniidae, Arsenurinae

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    Catarina da Silva Motta

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of a rare ginandromorph specimen of Saturniidae collected in the State of Amazonas, Brazil is reported. This is the first unique deposit of a gynandromorph in the Collection of the National Institute for Amazonian Research.

  12. Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    This discussion of Venezuela reviews the following: the history of the country's demographic situation; the government's overall approach to population problems; statistical systems and development planning; institutional arrangements for the integration of population within development planning; the government's view of the importance of population policy in realizing development objectives; population size, growth, and natural increase; morbidity and mortality; fertility; international migration; and spatial distribution. Over the 1920-1961 period Venezuela's level of fertility was high and continued to rise gradually. The crude birth rate was around 40.0/1000 population in 1920, 44.0/1000 in 1950, and 45.0/1000 in 1961, and thereafter began to decline, dropping to a level of 38.4/1000 by 1971. During the same period, mortality underwent a steady decline, with the crude death rate falling from 30.0/1000 population in 1920 to 13.7 in 1950, 7.4 in 1961, and to 6.6 by 1971. Venezuela's government has no policy of intervention to modify fertility or population growth but has relied primarily on the benefits of rapid economic growth to achieve a rate of demographic growth that is compatible with its development objectives. Since 1920, 7 modern censuses have been conducted. The most recent census was in 1971. The registration data are classified as incomplete. Multiround sample household surveys were conducted in 1976-1977 and 1978. The government has not established a special unit for population policies. It assigned this function to the Central Planning Agency in 1975. The government has not announced a comprehensive population policy, but it has been moving in the direction of formulating more comprehensive policies in 2 areas of concern--international migration and spatial distribution. The government considers the current rate of population growth to be satisfactory despite the fact that it is rather high by Latin American standards. The government also considers

  13. Progression of the load of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases in the State of Amazonas

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    Marilaine Martins

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the State of Amazonas, Brazil, urban expansion together with precarious basic sanitation conditions and human settlement on river banks has contributed to the persistence of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases. Time series of the recorded cases of cholera, typhoid fever, hepatitis A and leptospirosis are described, using data from different levels of the surveillance systems. The sources for intestinal parasitosis prevalence data (non-compulsory reporting in Brazil were Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE, Literatura Latino-Americana (LILACS and the annals of major scientific meetings. Relevant papers and abstracts in all languages were accessed by two independent reviewers. The references cited by each relevant paper were scrutinized to locate additional papers. Despite its initial dissemination across the entire State of Amazonas, cholera was controlled in 1998. The magnitude of typhoid fever has decreased; however, a pattern characterized by eventual outbreaks still remains. Leptospirosis is an increasing cause of concern in association with the annual floods. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites is high regardless of the municipality and the characteristics of areas and populations. The incidence of hepatitis A has decreased over the past decade. A comparison of older and recent surveys shows that the prevalence of intestinal parasitic diseases has remained constant. The load of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases ranks high among the health problems present in the State of Amazonas. Interventions aiming at basic sanitation and vaccination for hepatitis A were formulated and implemented, but assessment of their effectiveness in the targeted populations is still needed.

  14. Description of a new species of Psathyromyia Barreto (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae from Amazonas state, Brazil

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    Veracilda Ribeiro Alves

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTA new species of phlebotomine sand fly is described and illustrated based on the male and female morphological characters of specimens collected from Tefé and Coari municipalities, Amazonas state. The phlebotomine sand flies were collected with CDC light traps used as aspirators at the base of tree trunks. Both male and female specimens collected in Tefé municipality were first identified as Psathyromyia souzacastroi. After the analysis of the holotype of Pa. souzacastroi deposited in Smithsonian Institute/Walter Reed Biosystematics Unit, it was observed that the morphotypes collected in Tefé municipality belong to a distinct species, which characterization is here presented.

  15. Lymnaea columella: two new Brazilian localities in the states of Amazonas and Bahia

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    W. Lobato Paraense

    1986-03-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of Lymnaea columella is recorded in Tefé, Amazonas state, where it was found together with Drepanotrema anatinum, Physa marmorata and pomacea sp. L. columella was also collected in Salvador, Bahia state, at the dique do Tororó, an urban lake formely mentioned (as "lac Baril" by Moricand (1853 as a breeding-place of Biomphalaria glabrata, Drepanotrema cimex, D. depressissimum, Pomacea lineata, P. decussata and Ancylus moricandi. The four first-mentioned species, as well as physa cubensis and Hemisinus brasiliensis, were also collected now. This is the first record of a lymnaeid in the Northeastern region of Brazil.É registrada a ocorrência de Lymnaea columella em Tefé, Estado do Amazonas, onde foi encontrada juntamente com Physa marmorata e Pomacea sp. L. columella foi também coletada em Salvador, Estado da Bahia, no Dique do Tororó, lago urbano antes mencionado por Moricand (1853 como criadouro de Biomphalaria glabrata, Drepanotrema cimex, D. depressissimum, Pomacea lineata, P. decussata e Ancylus moricandi. As quatro primeiras espécies mencionadas, assim como Physa cubensis e Hemisinus brasiliensis, também foram agora coletadas. Este é o primeiro registro de um limneídeo na região Nordeste do Brasil

  16. Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in urban rainforest fragments, Manaus -- Amazonas State, Brazil.

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    da Rocha, Liliane Coelho; de Freitas, Rui Alves; Franco, Antonia Maria Ramos

    2013-05-01

    The non-flooded upland rainforest fragment in the Federal University of Amazonas Campus is considered one of the world's largest urban tropical woodland areas and Brazil's second largest one in an urban setting. It is located in the city of Manaus, State of Amazonas at 03° 04' 34″ S, 59° 57' 30″ W, in an area covering nearly 800 hectares. Forty-one (41) sand fly species belonging to genus Lutzomyia were found attaining a total of 4662 specimens collected. Lutzomyia umbratilis was the dominant species at all heights, followed by Lutzomyia anduzei and Lutzomyia claustrei. The fauna alpha diversity index showed to be 6.4, which is not much lower than that reported for areas of continuous forest in this Amazonian region. This data provides additional evidence on Phlebotomine sand flies found to transmit Leishmania and other trypanosomatids to humans and other animals circulating in this area. This is the first study being reported on sand flies collected in an urban rainforest fragment in Amazonia.

  17. Sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae from Central Amazonia and four new records for the Amazonas state, Brazil

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    Veracilda R. Alves

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sand flies from Central Amazonia and four new records for the Amazonas state, Brazil. A survey was conducted in May and June 2008 to study the fauna of insects in Central Amazonia, Brazil. As part of the survey, we report here that sixty species of phlebotomine were identified, totaling 13,712 specimens from 13 genera. The collection sites were located at the border between the states of Pará and Amazonas, comprising three municipalities from the Amazonas state (Borba, Maués, and Nhamundá. Malaise, CDC and Shannon traps were used to collect the insects. Most of the sand flies were collected by CDC traps (89.5%, while Malaise and Shannon traps collected 7% and 3.5%, respectively. The most abundant genera, representing 97.1% of the total sand flies identified were: Trichopygomyia Barretto, 1962 (47.6%, Psathyromyia Barretto, 1962 (17.9%, Psychodopygus Mangabeira, 1941 (17.5% and Trichophoromyia Barretto, 1962 (14.3%. The genera with the largest number of species identified were: Psychodopygus (14, Psathyromyia (10, Evandromyia Mangabeira, 1941 (7, Trichophoromyia (5 and Trichopygomyia (5. The most abundant species was Trichopygomyia trichopyga (Floch & Abonnenc, 1945, which represented 29% of the total sand flies identified. Here we also report new records for four species in the Amazonas state: Ps. complexus (Mangabeira, 1941, Ps. llanosmartinsi Fraiha & Ward, 1980, Ty. pinna (Feliciangeli, Ramirez-Pérez & Ramirez, 1989, and Th. readyi (Ryan, 1986. The results of this study provide new, additional information on the distribution of sand flies in the Amazon and increase the number of species in the Amazonas state from 127 to 131.

  18. Situação das indústrias madeireiras do Estado do Amazonas em 2000 Lumber industries situation in 2000 in Amazonas State

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    José Ricardo Araújo Lima

    2005-06-01

    industries of the State of Amazonas to better understand the processes of production, industrialization and commercialization, and evaluate their influence on the sustainability of tropical forests. This information is very important in order to establish forest policies for the region. After defining the main forest industry (producers of lumber, plywood and veneer zones of the State, data were collected directly from the forest industries as well as from IBAMA, SUFRAMA, SEFAZ and IBGE. Manaus, Itacoatiara, Manacapuru and Parintins were the main municipalities of sawn products; and Manaus and Itacoatiara for plywood and veneer. Questionnaires and interviews were used to collect information such as main tree species, transformation productivity, origin of raw material, transportation, personnel qualification and training, and exportation. In 2000, the annual roundwood production in the State of Amazonas was 323,400m³ (divided equally among sawmill and plywood and veneer industries. More than 50 different tree species are used in the Amazonas sawmills; but only 16 represent 80% of the total volume. Plywood and veneer industries use 17 tree species. Louro inhamui, angelim pedra, amapá, assacu and maçaranduba are the main species for sawmills; while muiratinga, sumaúma, copaíba, assacu and amapá for plywood and veneer industries.

  19. Radon Concentration in the Cataniapo-Autana River Basin, Amazonas State, Venezuela

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    Sajo-Bohus, L.; Greaves, E. D.; Alvarez, H.; Liendo, J.; Vásquez, G.

    2007-10-01

    Radon activity concentration is measured in rivers of the Autana-Cataniapo hydrologic basin. The region experiments mining and it is forecasted that the basin will be perturbed. Radon activity monitoring is one of the methods to measure environmental changes. Values of radon concentration in water range between 0.4 and 30 Bq L-1.

  20. Isolation of Bacillus thuringiensis from the state of Amazonas, in Brazil, and screening against Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae

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    Joelma Soares-da-Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the use of Bacillus thuringiensis isolated in the state of Amazonas, in Brazil, for the biological control of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. From 25 soil samples collected in nine municipalities, 484 bacterial colonies were obtained, 57 (11.78% of which were identified as B. thuringiensis. Six isolates, IBt-03, IBt-06, IBt-07, IBt-28, IBt-30, and BtAM-27 showed insecticidal activity, and only BtAM-27 presents the five genes investigated cry4Aa, cry4Ba, cry10Aa, cry11Aa, and cry11Ba. The IBt-07 and IBt- 28, with lower LC50 values, showed equal toxicity compared to the standards. The isolates of B. thuringiensis from Amazonas constitute potential new means of biological control for A. aegypti, because of their larvicidal activity and the possibility that they may also contain new combinations of toxins.

  1. Serological evidence of hantavirus infection in rural and urban regions in the state of Amazonas, Brazil

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    João Bosco Lima Gimaque

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Hantavirus disease is caused by the hantavirus, which is an RNA virus belonging to the family Bunyaviridae. Hantavirus disease is an anthropozoonotic infection transmitted through the inhalation of aerosols from the excreta of hantavirus-infected rodents. In the county of Itacoatiara in the state of Amazonas (AM, Brazil, the first human cases of hantavirus pulmonary and cardiovascular syndrome were described in July 2004. These first cases were followed by two fatal cases, one in the municipality of Maués in 2005 and another in Itacoatiara in 2007. In this study, we investigated the antibody levels to hantavirus in a population of 1,731 individuals from four different counties of AM. Sera were tested by IgG/IgM- enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay using a recombinant nucleocapsid protein of the Araraquara hantavirus as an antigen. Ten sera were IgG positive to hantavirus (0.6%. Among the positive sera, 0.8% (1/122, 0.4% (1/256, 0.2% (1/556 and 0.9% (7/797 were from Atalaia do Norte, Careiro Castanho, Itacoatiara and Lábrea, respectively. None of the sera in this survey were IgM-positive. Because these counties are distributed in different areas of AM, we can assume that infected individuals are found throughout the entire state, which suggests that hantavirus disease could be a local emerging health problem.

  2. Distribution of dengue vectors in neighborhoods with different urbanization types of Manaus, state of Amazonas, Brazil

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    Claudia M Ríos-Velásquez

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are vectors of dengue viruses, which cause endemic disease in the city of Manaus, capital of the state of Amazonas, Brazil. More than 53 thousand cases have been registered in this city since the first epidemic in 1998. We evaluated the hypothesis that different ecological conditions result in different patterns of vector infestation in Manaus, by measuring the infestation level in four neighborhoods with different urbanization patterns, during the rainy (April, dry (August, and transitional (November seasons. Ae. aegypti predominated throughout the study areas and sampling periods, representing 86% of all specimens collected in oviposition traps. High frequencies of houses positive for both species were observed in all studied sites, with Ae. aegypti present in more than 84% of the houses in all seasons. Ae. albopictus, on the other hand, showed more spatial and temporal variation in abundance. We found no association between infestation level and house traits. This study highlights the homogeneity of dengue vector distribution in Manaus.

  3. Characterization and genesis of waterfalls of the Presidente Figueiredo region, Northeast State of Amazonas, Brazil

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    NOGUEIRA AFONSO C. R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The waterfalls of the Presidente Figueiredo municipality represent a fascinating natural scenery of northeast state of Amazonas, northern Brazil. The falls, generally less than 10m high, are developed on siliciclastic rocks of the Nhamundá (Lower Silurian, and Manacapuru (Upper Silurian - Lower Devonian formations. Morphological and structural analyses of these features indicate that most of them originated through Quaternary neotectonics and are installed in NE-trending normal fault escarpments. Waterfalls also developed within pseudokarstic features, but are less frequent. The origin of the Presidente Figueiredo waterfalls probably goes back to the Neogene, when the region was submitted to laterization processes associated with a humid climate and a dense rainforest. These conditions favored the development of caves in quartzarenites of the Nhamundá Formation. During the Quaternary, the region was subjected to NE-trending normal faulting which displaced laterite layers, rivers and streams giving rise to waterfalls. These climatic and tectonic phenomena promoted intense relief dissection, as indicated by fault escarpment retreat and cave dismantlement, responsible for the present-day morphologic configuration.

  4. HIV/AIDS epidemic in the State of Amazonas: characteristics and trends from 2001 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Romina do Socorro Marques de; Benzaken, Adele Schwartz; Saraceni, Valeria; Sabidó, Meritxell

    2015-01-01

    A scoping review was conducted to describe the epidemiological characteristics of the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic in the State of Amazonas, Brazil, from 2001 to 2012, and temporary patterns were estimated from surveillance data. The results suggest that in its third decade, the Amazon HIV/AIDS epidemic is far from being stabilized and displays rising AIDS incidence and mortality rates and late diagnoses. The data suggest that AIDS cases are hitting mostly young adults and have recently shifted toward men, both homosexual and heterosexual. AIDS cases among the indigenous people have remained stable and low. However, the epidemic has disseminated to the interior of the state, which adds difficulties to its control, given the geographical isolation, logistical barriers, and culturally and ethnically diverse population. Antiretroviral (ARV) therapy has been decentralized, but peripheral ARV services are still insufficient and too distant from people who need them. Recently, the expansion of point-of-care (POC) rapid HIV testing has been contributing to overcoming logistical barriers. Other new POC devices, such as the PIMA CD4 analyzer, will bring the laboratory to the patient. AIDS uniquely coexists with other tropical infections, sharing their epidemiological profiles. The increased demand for HIV/AIDS care services can only be satisfied through increased decentralization to peripheral health units, which can also naturally integrate care with other tropical infections and can promote a shift from vertical to integrated programming. Future challenges involve building surveillance data on HIV case notification and covering the spectrum of engagement in care, including adherence to treatment and follow-up loss.

  5. HIV/AIDS epidemic in the State of Amazonas: characteristics and trends from 2001 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina do Socorro Marques de Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A scoping review was conducted to describe the epidemiological characteristics of the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS epidemic in the State of Amazonas, Brazil, from 2001 to 2012, and temporary patterns were estimated from surveillance data. The results suggest that in its third decade, the Amazon HIV/AIDS epidemic is far from being stabilized and displays rising AIDS incidence and mortality rates and late diagnoses. The data suggest that AIDS cases are hitting mostly young adults and have recently shifted toward men, both homosexual and heterosexual. AIDS cases among the indigenous people have remained stable and low. However, the epidemic has disseminated to the interior of the state, which adds difficulties to its control, given the geographical isolation, logistical barriers, and culturally and ethnically diverse population. Antiretroviral (ARV therapy has been decentralized, but peripheral ARV services are still insufficient and too distant from people who need them. Recently, the expansion of point-of-care (POC rapid HIV testing has been contributing to overcoming logistical barriers. Other new POC devices, such as the PIMA CD4 analyzer, will bring the laboratory to the patient. AIDS uniquely coexists with other tropical infections, sharing their epidemiological profiles. The increased demand for HIV/AIDS care services can only be satisfied through increased decentralization to peripheral health units, which can also naturally integrate care with other tropical infections and can promote a shift from vertical to integrated programming. Future challenges involve building surveillance data on HIV case notification and covering the spectrum of engagement in care, including adherence to treatment and follow-up loss.

  6. New Records of Social Wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae, Polistinae in Amazonas State, Brazil

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    Alexandre Somavilla

    2013-07-01

    Resumo. Nesse trabalho registramos a ocorrência de Clypearia apicipennis (Spinola, 1851, Leipomeles pusilla (Ducke, 1904, Metapolybia nigra Richards, 1978, Parachartergus richardsi Willink, 1951 e Pseudopolybia langi Bequaert, 1944 pela primeira vez no estado do Amazonas e incluímos notas de distribuição.

  7. Operation of the ELETRONORTE hydrothermal systems: Amazonas, Rondonia and Amapa States and Tucurui Hydroelectric Power Plant, focusing the El Nino phenomenon; Operacao dos sistemas hidrotermicos da ELETRONORTE: Amazonas, Rondonia, Amapa e Usina Hidroeletrica de Tucurui, enfocando o fenomeno El Nino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costalonga, Isabela dos Reis; Ferreira, Vania Maria [Centrais Eletricas do Norte do Brasil S.A. (ELETRONORTE), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)]. E-mail: ceon@eln.gov.br

    1998-07-01

    This work presents an analysis of the ELETRONORTE hydrothermal systems in the States of Amazonas, Rondonia and Amapa and the Tucurui HPP Interconnected System. The analysis ranges from the whole year of 1997 to September 1998, considering the strong influence of the El Nino phenomenon, initiated on April 1997, on the flows affluent to the reservoirs of Balbina, Samuel, Coaracy Nunes and Tucurui Hydroelectric Power Plants.

  8. Decapod crustaceans used as food by the Yanomami Indians of the Balawa-ú village, State of Amazonas, Brazil Crustáceos decápodos usados na alimentação pelos índios Yanomami da aldeia de Balawa-ú, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil

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    Célio Magalhães

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Yanomami are a group of South American Indians that live in the rainforest along the borderlands of Brazil and Venezuela. They depend on hunting, gardening and wild food for survival; crustaceans are a highly prized food item in their diet. Taxonomical and ethnozoological aspects of the Yanomami Indians of the Balawa-ú village, state of Amazonas, Brazil, related to the crustaceans are described. Information and specimens were obtained from August to December, 2003. Interviews were conducted with residents of the village and focused on questions about species exploited, indigenous names, modes of capture and use of the species. One shrimp species of the family Palaemonidae (Macrobrachium brasiliense and two crab species of Trichodactylidae (Sylviocarcinus pictus, Valdivia serrata as well as two of Pseudothelphusidae (Fredius fittkaui, F. platyacanthus were recorded. The indigenous names applied to these species are: shuhu, for shrimp, oko and peimatherimi for each of the two pseudothelphusid crabs, and hesiki tôtôrema for both trichodactylid crabs.Os Yanomami são um grupo de índios que habitam a floresta tropical úmida ao longo da fronteira entre Brasil e Venezuela. Eles dependem da caça, da agricultura e da coleta de produtos da floresta para a sua sobrevivência, sendo os crustáceos um dos itens alimentares mais apreciados. São descritos aspectos taxonômicos e etnozoológicos dos índios Yanomami da aldeia de Balawa-ú, no estado do Amazonas, Brasil, relacionados aos crustáceos. Informações e espécimes foram coletados de agosto a dezembro de 2003. Foram realizadas entrevistas com habitantes da aldeia com enfoque nas espécies exploradas, nomes indígenas, modos de captura e utilização. Foram registradas uma espécie de camarão da família Palaemonidae (Macrobrachium brasiliense, duas espécies de caranguejos da família Trichodactylidae (Sylviocarcinus pictus, Valdivia serrata e duas da família Pseudothelphusidae (Fredius

  9. Malaria in the State of Amazonas: a typical Brazilian tropical disease influenced by waves of economic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Vanderson Souza; Siqueira, André Machado; Alecrim, Maria das Graças Costa; Mourão, Maria Paula Gomes; Marchesini, Paola Barbosa; Albuquerque, Bernardino Cláudio; Nascimento, Joabi; Figueira, Élder Augusto Guimarães; Alecrim, Wilson Duarte; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães

    2015-01-01

    In Brazil, more than 99% of malaria cases are reported in the Amazon, and the State of Amazonas accounts for 40% of this total. However, the accumulated experience and challenges in controlling malaria in this region in recent decades have not been reported. Throughout the first economic cycle during the rubber boom (1879 to 1912), malaria was recorded in the entire state, with the highest incidence in the villages near the Madeira River in the Southern part of the State of Amazonas. In the 1970s, during the second economic development cycle, the economy turned to the industrial sector and demanded a large labor force, resulting in a large migratory influx to the capital Manaus. Over time, a gradual increase in malaria transmission was observed in peri-urban areas. In the 1990s, the stimulation of agroforestry, particularly fish farming, led to the formation of permanent Anopheline breeding sites and increased malaria in settlements. The estimation of environmental impacts and the planning of measures to mitigate them, as seen in the construction of the Coari-Manaus gas pipeline, proved effective. Considering the changes occurred since the Amsterdam Conference in 1992, disease control has been based on early diagnosis and treatment, but the development of parasites that are resistant to major antimalarial drugs in Brazilian Amazon has posed a new challenge. Despite the decreased lethality and the gradual decrease in the number of malaria cases, disease elimination, which should be associated with government programs for economic development in the region, continues to be a challenge.

  10. Malaria in the State of Amazonas: a typical Brazilian tropical disease influenced by waves of economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderson Souza Sampaio

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, more than 99% of malaria cases are reported in the Amazon, and the State of Amazonas accounts for 40% of this total. However, the accumulated experience and challenges in controlling malaria in this region in recent decades have not been reported. Throughout the first economic cycle during the rubber boom (1879 to 1912, malaria was recorded in the entire state, with the highest incidence in the villages near the Madeira River in the Southern part of the State of Amazonas. In the 1970s, during the second economic development cycle, the economy turned to the industrial sector and demanded a large labor force, resulting in a large migratory influx to the capital Manaus. Over time, a gradual increase in malaria transmission was observed in peri-urban areas. In the 1990s, the stimulation of agroforestry, particularly fish farming, led to the formation of permanent Anopheline breeding sites and increased malaria in settlements. The estimation of environmental impacts and the planning of measures to mitigate them, as seen in the construction of the Coari-Manaus gas pipeline, proved effective. Considering the changes occurred since the Amsterdam Conference in 1992, disease control has been based on early diagnosis and treatment, but the development of parasites that are resistant to major antimalarial drugs in Brazilian Amazon has posed a new challenge. Despite the decreased lethality and the gradual decrease in the number of malaria cases, disease elimination, which should be associated with government programs for economic development in the region, continues to be a challenge.

  11. Diversity and distribution of sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae in a military area in the state of Amazonas, Brazil

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    Luís Henrique Monteiro Gomes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the distribution, ecotopes and fauna diversity of sandflies captured in five training bases on a military reserve in Manaus, state of Amazonas (AM. A total of 10,762 specimens were collected, which were distributed among 58 species, with the highest number recorded at Base Instruction 1 (BI1. A higher rate of species richness was found at the Base Instruction Boina Rajada and low levels of diversity associated with a high abundance index with the clear dominance of Lutzomyia umbratilis, Lutzomyia ruii and Lutzomyia anduzei were found at BI1. The abundance of Lu. umbratilis raises the possibility of outbreaks of American cutaneous leishmaniasis by the main vector of the disease in AM.

  12. Microbial diversity of soils on the banks of the Solimões and Negro rivers, state of Amazonas, Brazil

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    Ellen Karla Nobre dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of bacterial diversity in soils along the banks of the Solimões and Negro rivers, state of Amazonas, Brazil, was by partial sequencing of the genes codifying the rDNA16S region. Diversity of operational taxonomic units (OTU and of the divergent sequences obtained were applied in comparative analysis of microbiological diversity in the two environments, based on richness estimators and OTU diversity indices. The higher OTU diversity in the Solimões was based on the higher number of parameters that evoke this. The interaction between the nucleotide sequences of bacteria inhabiting the two riverine environments indicated that the two microrganism communities are similar in composition.

  13. Distribution of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtypes in the State of Amazonas, Brazil, and subtype C identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, L.K.H. [Departamento de Parasitologia, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Kashima, S.; Amarante, M.F.C.; Haddad, R.; Rodrigues, E.S. [Laboratório de Biologia Molecular, Hemocentro de Ribeirão Preto, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Silva, K.L.T.; Lima, T.A.; Castro, D.B.; Brito, F.C.; Almeida, E.G. [Diretoria de Ensino e Pesquisa,Fundação de Hematologia e Hemoterapia do Amazonas, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Covas, D.T. [Laboratório de Biologia Molecular, Hemocentro de Ribeirão Preto, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Malheiro, A. [Departamento de Parasitologia, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Diretoria de Ensino e Pesquisa,Fundação de Hematologia e Hemoterapia do Amazonas, Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2012-01-20

    Few studies have reported the molecular epidemiological characterization of HIV-1 in the Northern region of Brazil. The present study reports the molecular and epidemiological characterization of 31 HIV-1 isolates from blood donors from the State of Amazonas who donated blood between April 2006 and March 2007. Serum/plasma samples from all donors were screened for HIV antibodies by ELISA and the results confirmed by Western blot analysis. Genomic DNA was extracted from the buffy coat using the Super Quik-Gene-DNA Isolation kit. Nested PCR was performed on the env, gag, and pol regions of HIV-1 using the Gene Amp PCR System 9700. Sequencing reactions were performed using the inner PCR primers and the DYEnamic™ ET Dye Terminator Kit, and phylogenetic analysis was performed using the gag, pol, and env gene sequences. We collected samples from 31 blood donors who tested positive for HIV-1 in confirmatory experiments. The male:female ratio of blood donors was 3.4:1, and the mean age was 32.4 years (range: 19 to 61 years). Phylogenetic analysis showed that subtype B is the most prevalent among Northern Brazilian HIV-1-seropositive blood donors. One HIV-1 subtype C and one circulating recombinant form (CRF-BF) of HIV-1 were identified in the State of Amazonas. This is the first study showing the occurrence of a possible “homogenous” subtype C in this region of Brazil. This finding could contribute to a better characterization of the HIV-1 strains that circulate in the country. Key words: HIV-1; Subtypes; Phylogenetic analysis; Blood donors; Molecular and epidemiological characterization.

  14. Leptohyphidae (Insecta, Ephemeroptera do estado do Amazonas, Brasil: novos registros, nova combinação, nova espécie e chave de identificação para estágios ninfais Leptohyphidae (Insecta, Ephemeroptera of Amazonas state, Brazil: new records, new combination, new species and identification key for nymphal stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enide Luciana Lima Belmont

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Leptohyphidae (Insecta, Ephemeroptera do Estado do Amazonas, Brasil: novos registros, nova combinação, nova espécie e chave de identificação para estágios ninfais. Os seguintes gêneros de Leptohyphidae ocorrem no estado do Amazonas: Amanahyphes Salles & Molineri, Leptohyphes Eaton, Tricorythodes Ulmer e Tricorythopsis Traver. A distribuição das espécies de Leptohyphidae no Estado do Amazonas é apresentada. Uma espécie nova, Tricorythodes yapekuna sp. nov., é descrita e pode ser diferenciada de outros Tricorythodes pelas (1 garras tarsais com um par de dentículos submarginais e sem dentículos marginais; (2 palpo maxilar biarticulado; (3 brânquia opercular uniformemente preta com exceção da margem apical; (4 fórmula branquial 2/3/3/3/2; e (5 margem lateral do abdome expandida nos segmentos III_VI. Uma combinação nova, Tricorythopsis rondoniensis (Dias, Cruz & Ferreira, 2009 comb. nov., é proposta e constitui o primeiro registro dessa espécie para o Estado do Amazonas. Uma chave dicotômica ilustrada para identificar ninfas de gêneros e espécies ocorrentes no Amazonas também é apresentada.Leptohyphidae (Insecta, Ephemeroptera of Amazonas state, Brazil: new records, new combination, new species and identification key for nymphal stages. The following genera of Leptohyphidae occur in the Amazonas state: Amanahyphes Salles & Molineri, Leptohyphes Eaton, Tricorythodes Ulmer and Tricorythopsis Traver. Distribution of Leptohyphidae species in Amazonas state is presented. A new species, Tricorythodes yapekuna sp. nov., is described and can be distinguished from other Tricorythodes by: (1 tarsal claws with pair of submarginal denticles and no marginal denticles; (2 bi-articulated maxillary palp; (3 opercular gill black except on apical margin; (4 gill formula 2/3/3/3/2; and (5 expanded lateral abdominal margin of segments III_VI. The new combination, Tricorythopsis rondoniensis (Dias, Cruz & Ferreira, 2009 comb. nov., is proposed

  15. Sandfly fauna of endemic leishmaniasis foci in Anzoátegui State, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, R; Jorquera, A; De Sousa, L; Ledezma, E; Devera, R

    2002-01-01

    A census of the sandfly fauna was undertaken in 1993-98 in 5 endemic leishmaniasis foci situated at different altitudes in Anzoátegui State, Venezuela. From the 17 species of Lutzomyia identified, we believe that Lu. ovallesi, Lu. panamensis and Lu. gomezi are the probable vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis, while Lu. evansi might transmit visceral leishmaniasis.

  16. Modelo Crosscultural de Pasantias para Lideres de la Educacion: Cooperacion entre Estados Unidos y Venezuela (Designing an Effective School Administrator Internship Program: United States and Venezuela Cooperation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Ana Gil; Thompson, Eugene W.

    A model was developed of an internship program designed to give valuable cross-cultural experience to school administrators in training at universities in the United States and Venezuela. A naturalistic approach was used to develop the model. Leading school administrators and educational leadership theorists in both countries were interviewed by…

  17. Mortality by suicide: a focus on municipalities with a high proportion of self-reported indigenous people in the state of Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesem Douglas Yamall Orellana

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze mortality rates and to describe the demographic and epidemiological characteristics of suicides recorded in the state of Amazonas. Methods: A descriptive and retrospective study has been carried out with emphasis on municipalities, which have shown, simultaneously, a high mortality rates and a high proportion of self-reported indigenous population, based on 2005 - 2009 data as provided by the Informatics Department of the Unified National Health System. Results: Among the general population of the state of Amazonas, the mortality rate, by suicide, of 4.2/100.000 inhabitants has been reported, similar to that of Manaus (4.6/100.000 inhabitants. In contrast, at Tabatinga (25.2/100.000 inhabitants, at São Gabriel da Cachoeira (27.6/100.000 inhabitants and at Santa Isabel do Rio Negro (36.4/100.000 inhabitants, municipalities, where the proportion of self-reported indigenous population is high, besides the taxes being notably higher, it was observed that most of the suicides has occurred among men; among young men aged between 15 - 24 years; at home; by hanging; during "weekend" and among the indigenous population. Discussion: Our findings have unveiled that suicide comes forth as a serious public health issue in some municipalities in the state of Amazonas, further indicating that the event occurs within very specific contexts, and that the dimension and the magnitude of the problem can be even more serious among populations or in territories exclusively inhabited by indigenous people.

  18. Estimation of electric power generation using coal from the fruit peel of cupuassu in Amazonas State, Brazil; Estimativa de geracao de energia eletrica utilizando o carvao da casca do fruto do cupuacuzeiro no estado do Amazonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Antonio Cleuder Lima da [Manaus Energia S/A., Manaus, AM (Brazil); Santos, Eyde Cristiane Saraiva dos [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (FCA/UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias. Dept. de Engenharia Agricola e Solos], e-mail: eyde_cristianne@yahoo.com.br

    2008-07-01

    The application of the charcoal of agroforestry residue for the generation of electric energy, for being renewable power plant and possessing technology for application, comes being evidenced. In this research the potential of generation of electric energy was estimated, in the main producing cities of the State of Amazonas of the fruit of the cupuacuzeiro (Theobroma grandiflorum Wild. Ex. Spreng. Shum.), using the rind carbonized in technology of gasification, substitution of diesel. The charcoal of the rind of the fruit of the cupuacuzeiro presents to be able calorific next to the one to the deriving coal of the wood. Known the annual production of each one the cities, the amount and the cost of production of the generated electric energy, determined in this research, it justifies the exploitation of this residue, for having economic advantages, when comparative with the tariff of the adopted electric energy in the region for the concessionaire. (author)

  19. The unsustainability of the implantation of the 'Luz para todos' programme in the Amazonas state; A (in)sustentabilidade da implantacao do programa Luz para Todos no estado do Amazonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcante, Andreia Santos; Cartaxo, Elizabeth Ferreira [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This article brings to discuss the policy of universalization of the supply of electrical energy 'Luz para todos' showing the significance of this proposal of the government, in a short time, bring electricity to more than 10 million people who still live in the darkness. It features the efficiency of this action of the government from the reality experienced in the context Amazon, which show a framework for various characteristics and natural, cultural and focused on the issue geospatial. This involves understanding the multitude of climates and geographical characteristics, cultural and social constitute major obstacles for the implementation of policies homogeneous, demonstrating that the potential for development of each region has different dynamics, which should influence in the formulation of policies. While electricity is essential for the economic progress of a country, the expansion of its services to society must be viewed with great discretion, in order to prevent the exploitation and consumption exacerbated of natural resources and waste of energy. With this reading, the work he proposes to show the inconsistencies of the program in the state of Amazonas, on presentation of data from the Companhia Energetica do Amazonas (CEAM), showing thus obstacles to the achievement of the goals outlined in the State. Considering the environmental importance that the Amazon represents for Brazil and for the world, emerges is the need for a differentiated look for the region, taking into account their unique reality. It is believed that is the acceptance of their characteristics that we can really promote a development that is sustainable for the Amazon. (author)

  20. [Sandfly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a focus of American cutaneous leishmaniasis on the urban periphery of Manaus, State of Amazonas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Maria das Graças Vale; Fé, Nelson Ferreira; Marcião, Alexandre Herculano Ribera; Silva, Ana Paula Thome; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Guerra, Jorge Augusto de Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    From August 2001 to July 2002, sand flies were collected from the bases of trees and, using CDC and Disney traps, from areas surrounding homes and forested areas in the São João community, on the urban periphery of Manaus, State of Amazonas. 4,104 specimens belonging to four subtribes, 13 genera and 49 species of the Phlebotominae subfamily were collected. The subtribe Psychodopygina predominated, with 3,403 (83%) specimens, especially of Nyssomyia umbratilis, Nyssomyia anduzei, Trichophoromyia eurypyga, Bichromomyia olmeca nociva and Bichromomyia flaviscutellata. The occurrences of Nyssomyia umbratilis and Nyssomyia anduzei, which have been incriminated as vectors for Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis, and of Bichromomyia flaviscutellata and Bichromomyia olmeca nociva, for Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis, indicate that there is a risk of infection for people living in this area. Most (98.5%) of the sand flies were caught in the forested area. Nyssomyia anduzei and Bichromomyia olmeca nociva were collected from areas surrounding homes. The richness of vector species for Leishmania in this area shows the need for constant entomological surveillance.

  1. The Role of Inflammatory, Anti-Inflammatory, and Regulatory Cytokines in Patients Infected with Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Amazonas State, Brazil

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    Thaís Tibery Espir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors discuss in this paper the role of inflammatory, anti-inflammatory, and regulatory cytokines in patients infected with different species of Leishmania in Amazonas State, Brazil. A comparative analysis was made of serum concentrations of these cytokines in the peripheral blood of 33 patients infected with cutaneous leishmaniasis. The isolates were identified as Leishmania guyanensis, L. naiffi, and L. amazonensis. Most (64% of the patients were male ranging in age from 18 to 58 years. Protein expression profiles of IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-17 cytokines were shown to vary significantly between infected and noninfected (control group individuals and according to the Leishmania species. Infection caused by L. guyanensis accounted for 73% of the cases and patients with this parasite also showed higher concentrations of IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-17 when compared to infection by L. amazonensis. Patients with infection caused by L. naiffi showed higher concentration of the cytokines analyzed when compared to uninfected patients; however, there was no statistically significant difference with the other species analyzed.

  2. Screening of Amazonian plants from the Adolpho Ducke forest reserve, Manaus, state of Amazonas, Brazil, for antimicrobial activity

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    Ana Lúcia Basílio Carneiro

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Tropical forests are species-rich reserves for the discovery and development of antimicrobial drugs. The aim of this work is to investigate the in vitro antimicrobial potential of Amazon plants found within the National Institute on Amazon Research's Adolpho Ducke forest reserve, located in Manaus, state of Amazonas, Brazil. 75 methanol, chloroform and water extracts representing 12 plant species were tested for antimicrobial activity towards strains of Mycobacterium smegmatis, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus oralis, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans using the gel-diffusion method. Active extracts were further evaluated to establish minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC and antimicrobial profiles using bioautography on normal-phase thin-layer chromatography plates. Diclinanona calycina presented extracts with good antimicrobial activity and S. oralis and M. smegmatis were the most sensitive bacteria. D. calycina and Lacmellea gracilis presented extracts with the lowest MIC (48.8 µg/ml. D. calycina methanol and chloroform leaf extracts presented the best overall antimicrobial activity. All test organisms were sensitive to D. calycina branch chloroform extract in the bioautography assay. This is the first evaluation of the biological activity of these plant species and significant in vitro antimicrobial activity was detected in extracts and components from two species, D. calycina and L. gracilis.

  3. Venezuelas Pursuit of Caribbean Basin Interests: Implications for United States National Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    planning by the Lusinchi government, and upon whether the market price of petroleum drops no lower than the U.S. $28 per barrel to which it fell in...neutralizing the cazador units. The United States also should keep abreast of any Venezuelan plans to create a conven- tional rapid deployment force that could...Before additional initiatives could be undertaken, Venezuela’s Social Democrats ( Accion 0 Democratica) were ousted from power by the reactionary military

  4. Arboviral diseases in the Western Brazilian Amazon: a perspective and analysis from a tertiary health & research center in Manaus, State of Amazonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourão, Maria Paula Gomes; Bastos, Michele de Souza; Figueiredo, Regina Maria Pinto de; Gimaque, João Bosco de Lima; Alves, Valquíria do Carmo Rodrigues; Saraiva, Maria das Graças Gomes; Figueiredo, Mário Luis Garcia; Ramasawmy, Rajendranath; Nogueira, Maurício Lacerda; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    2015-01-01

    The Fundação de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado (FMT-HVD), located in Manaus, the capital of the State of Amazonas (Western Brazilian Amazon), is a pioneering institution in this region regarding the syndromic surveillance of acute febrile illness, including arboviral infections. Based on the data from patients at the FMT-HVD, we have detected recurrent outbreaks in Manaus by the four dengue serotypes in the past 15 years, with increasing severity of the disease. This endemicity has culminated in the simultaneous circulation of all four serotypes in 2011, the first time this has been reported in Brazil. Between 1996 and 2009, 42 cases of yellow fever (YF) were registered in the State of Amazonas, and 71.4% (30/42) were fatal. Since 2010, no cases have been reported. Because the introduction of the yellow fever virus into a large city such as Manaus, which is widely infested by Aedes mosquitoes, may pose a real risk of a yellow fever outbreak, efforts to maintain an appropriate immunization policy for the populace are critical. Manaus has also suffered silent outbreaks of Mayaro and Oropouche fevers lately, most of which were misdiagnosed as dengue fever. The tropical conditions of the State of Amazonas favor the existence of other arboviruses capable of producing human disease. Under this real threat, represented by at least 4 arboviruses producing human infections in Manaus and in other neighboring countries, it is important to develop an efficient public health surveillance strategy, including laboratories that are able to make proper diagnoses of arboviruses.

  5. Arboviral diseases in the Western Brazilian Amazon: a perspective and analysis from a tertiary health & research center in Manaus, State of Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Paula Gomes Mourão

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Fundação de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado (FMT-HVD, located in Manaus, the capital of the State of Amazonas (Western Brazilian Amazon, is a pioneering institution in this region regarding the syndromic surveillance of acute febrile illness, including arboviral infections. Based on the data from patients at the FMT-HVD, we have detected recurrent outbreaks in Manaus by the four dengue serotypes in the past 15 years, with increasing severity of the disease. This endemicity has culminated in the simultaneous circulation of all four serotypes in 2011, the first time this has been reported in Brazil. Between 1996 and 2009, 42 cases of yellow fever (YF were registered in the State of Amazonas, and 71.4% (30/42 were fatal. Since 2010, no cases have been reported. Because the introduction of the yellow fever virus into a large city such as Manaus, which is widely infested by Aedes mosquitoes, may pose a real risk of a yellow fever outbreak, efforts to maintain an appropriate immunization policy for the populace are critical. Manaus has also suffered silent outbreaks of Mayaro and Oropouche fevers lately, most of which were misdiagnosed as dengue fever. The tropical conditions of the State of Amazonas favor the existence of other arboviruses capable of producing human disease. Under this real threat, represented by at least 4 arboviruses producing human infections in Manaus and in other neighboring countries, it is important to develop an efficient public health surveillance strategy, including laboratories that are able to make proper diagnoses of arboviruses.

  6. Tuberculose na população indígena de São Gabriel da Cachoeira, Amazonas, Brasil Tuberculosis among the indian population in São Gabriel da Cachoeira, Amazonas State, Brazil

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    Antônio Levino

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available O estudo descreve a situação da tuberculose no Município de São Gabriel da Cachoeira, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil, no período de 1997 a 2002. Este município de população predominantemente indígena constitui uma importante noso-área da Amazônia para o problema da tuberculose, cuja magnitude se expressa por intermédio do coeficiente 2,4 vezes mais elevado que a média estadual e até quatro vezes mais que a média nacional. Análises estatísticas utilizadas para avaliar a tendência em relação à associação com a idade, o sexo e a forma clínica revelaram diferenças no comportamento da endemia, quando comparados os coeficientes de incidência entre os casos de procedência urbana e rural. As taxas padronizadas mostraram a população masculina com uma incidência mais elevada que a feminina nas duas áreas de residência. A faixa etária mais atingida foi acima de 50 anos, porém a proporção de menores de 15 anos se mostrou acima dos valores esperados na população geral do país, além de apresentar diferentes níveis de gravidade nas subáreas rurais estudadas. Os achados indicam que esta situação pode ser explicada pelas desigualdades, sobretudo, relativas à acessibilidade aos serviços de saúde que, contraditoriamente, parecem menos resolutivos na área urbana.This study describes the tuberculosis situation in São Gabriel da Cachoeira, Amazonas State, Brazil, from 1997 to 2002. The county, which has a predominantly Indian population, is a relevant tuberculosis area in Amazonas, since the infection rate is 2.4 to 4 times that of the overall State and national rates. The statistical analyses used to assess its association with age, gender, and clinical form showed differences in the endemic behavior, comparing the urban and rural incidence rates. Males had higher standardized incidence rates than females in both the urban and rural areas. The most heavily affected age group was greater than 50 years, but the rate among

  7. Fontes de resistência à murcha bacteriana em germoplasma de Capsicum spp. do estado do Amazonas Sources of resistance against bacterial wilt in Capsicum spp. germoplasm of the Amazonas state

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    Liane Cristine Rebouças Demosthenes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A murcha bacteriana, causada por Ralstonia solanacearum, é uma das doenças mais importantes do gênero Capsicum no Brasil. No Amazonas, as condições de elevada temperatura e umidade favorecem o desenvolvimento da doença. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resistência à murcha bacteriana de germoplasma, selvagem e comercial, de Capsicum spp. Foram avaliados 22 acessos de Capsicum em casa de vegetação. A inoculação foi feita mediante ferimento das raízes, seguido de adição no solo, ao redor das plantas, de suspensão bacteriana na concentração de 10(8 ufc mL-1. A avaliação foi feita diariamente a partir do quarto dia após a inoculação, em função desenvolvimento dos sintomas. A partir das médias de progresso dos sintomas foi construída a área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPD, e os dados submetidos ao teste de Scott-Knott ao nível de 5% de probabilidade, utilizando o programa estatístico SAEG 9.1. Foram selecionados os acessos 30, 20 e 17, da espécie C. chinense, como resistentes à murcha bacteriana para ensaios futuros em programas de melhoramento genético.The bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the most important in the genus Capsicum in Brazil. In the state of Amazonas, high temperatures and humidity favor the development of the disease. The objective of this work was to evaluate resistance in germoplasm of wild and commercial Capsicum spp. to bacterial wilt. Twenty two accesses of Capsicum spp. were evaluated in greenhouse conditions. The inoculation was made by means of wounds in the roots, followed by addition of bacterial suspension in the concentration of 10(8 ufc ml-1 in the soil, around the plants. Plant evaluation was made daily after the fourth day of the inoculation (DAI considering the symptoms progress. From the average progress of symptoms was constructed the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC, and the data submitted to the Scott-Knott test at 5% of

  8. [Case reports of drug-induced liver injury in a reference hospital of Zulia state, Venezuela].

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    Mengual-Moreno, Edgardo; Lizarzábal-García, Maribel; Ruiz-Soler, María; Silva-Suarez, Niniveth; Andrade-Bellido, Raúl; Lucena-González, Maribel; Bessone, Fernando; Hernández, Nelia; Sánchez, Adriana; Medina-Cáliz, Inmaculada

    2015-03-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with varied geographical differences. The aim of this prospective, descriptive, cross-sectional study was to identify and characterize cases of DILI in a hospital of Zulia state, Venezuela. Thirteen patients with a presumptive diagnosis of DILI attended by the Department of Gastroenterology, Hospital Universitario, Zulia state, Venezuela, from December-2012 to December-2013 were studied. Ibuprofen (n = 3; 23.1%), acetaminophen (n = 3; 23.1), isoniazid (n = 2; 15.4%) and Herbalife products (n = 2; 15.4%) were the main drugs involved with DILI. Acetaminophen and ibuprofen showed a mixed pattern of liver injury (n = 3; 23.1%) and isoniazid presented a hepatocellular pattern (n = 2; 15.4%). The CIOMS/RUCAMS allowed the identification of possible (n = 7; 53.9%), probable (n = 4; 30.8%) and highly-probable cases (n = 2; 15.4%) of DILI. Amoxicillin/clavulanate, isoniazid, isotretinoin, methotrexate and Herbalife nutritional products were implicated as highly-probable and probable agents. The highest percentage of DILI corresponded to mild cases that recovered after the discontinuation of the agent involved (n = 9; 69.3%). The consumption of Herbalife botanical products is associated with probable causality and fatality (n = 1; 7.7%). In conclusion, the frequency of DILI cases controlled by the Department of Gastroenterology of the Hospital Universitario of Maracaibo was low, being ibuprofen, acetaminophen, isoniazid and products Herbalife the products most commonly involved. It is recommended to continue with the prospective registration of cases, with an extended follow up monitoring period and to facilitate the incorporation of other hospitals in the Zulia State and Venezuela.

  9. Migração transfronteiriça na Venezuela

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    Francilene Rodrigues

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available AS ZONAS fronteiriças são zonas de empréstimos e apropriações culturais e, por isso, um lugar privilegiado para a compreensão do fenômeno migratório internacional. O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar alguns aspectos do processo de deslocamentos transfronteiriços no norte do Brasil, no município de Pacaraima (Estado de Roraima e na fronteira sul da Venezuela, no município de Gran Sabana (Estado Bolívar, e, ao mesmo tempo, apontar as tendências e reflexos nas configurações socioculturais nessas zonas de contato. Nessa fronteira Brasil-Venezuela, podemos afirmar que o trânsito maior é de brasileiros para a Venezuela e para a Guiana, em decorrência das possibilidades de atuarem nas atividades de mineração, no comércio local e no setor de transportes, além das atividades ilegais, como tráfico de mulheres, contrabando de combustível e câmbio ilegal de moeda. Apresenta-se, no entanto, uma nova tendência que é a imigração de estrangeiros de outros países do continente, tais como peruanos e colombianos. Esses migrantes transfronteiriços percorrem os países fronteiriços em itinerários cuja porta de entrada é a Venezuela e a Guiana, mas também o Estado do Amazonas.BORDER zones are zones of cultural lending, borrowing and appropriation, and, therefore, a privileged vantage point for understanding the phenomenon of international migration. This essay attempts to examine certain aspects of the transborder dislocation process in northern Brazil (the city of Pacaraima, state of Roraima and in southern Venezuela (the city of Gran Sabana, state of Bolívar, and point out its trends and reflections on the sociocultural makeup of those contact zones. In this Brazil-Venezuela border, the largest movement is clearly that of Brazilians going into Venezuela and Guyana in search of job opportunities in mining, local business and transportation, not to mention illegal activities such as the traffic of women, fuel smuggling and

  10. Pennsylvanian mixed plataform deposits of the Amazonas Basin, Uruará region, state of Pará

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    Pedro Augusto Santos da Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Carbonate rocks are widely reported in the west and center-west regions of the state of Pará, south edge of the Amazon Basin, corresponding to the Neocarboniferous period. These deposits are included in the Pennsylvanian-Permian sequence, corresponding to a second order super sequence represented by the Tapajós Group. The Itaituba Formation corresponds to the transgressive portion preceding the expressive continentalization and formation of Pangaea. The unit consists of fossiliferous carbonates, cross-stratified sandstones and subordinate shales and evaporites, associated with coastal marine environments. Nineteen facies and microfacies were grouped into five facies associations corresponding to tidal flat deposits (FA1, tidal channel (FA2, lagoon (FA3, bioclastic bar (FA4 and outer platform (FA5. The FA1 comprises cycles of subaerial exposure with formation of mud cracks and subaqueous deposition, composed of dolomitic breccia, laminated fine dolostone and terrigenous dolomudstone, separated by a layer of pyritic massive sandstone and thin dolomite silicified. The FA2 is composed of fine sandstone with cross rolling straight base and pelitic coating on the sets with synsedimentary faulting, siltstones cross-lamination with a predominance of mud and synsedimentary faulting, marl with cross-lamination and cross-bedded coarse sandstones with politic coating on the sets. The FA3 consists of massive reddish siltstones, mudstones fossiliferous, brachiopods floatstone and black shale massive with pyrite. The FA4 is mainly represented by fossiliferous oolitic grainstone and grainstone with terrigenous with abundant fossils of brachiopods, echinoderms, bivalves, mollusks, and secondly by arthropods, bryozoans and foraminifera. The FA5 is associated with a platform, composed of fossiliferous wackestone, fossiliferous wackestone with terrigenous and massive mudstone. The fossiliferous assembly is represented by foraminifera, brachiopods, bivalves and

  11. [Prevalence of Blastocystis hominis among food handlers from Caroni municipality, Bolivar State, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requena, Ixora; Hernández, Yessica; Ramsay, Mario; Salazar, Carmen; Devera, Rodolfo

    2003-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of Blastocystis hominis infection in a random sample of apparently healthy food handlers. A total of 415 individuals attending the Manoa Urban Outpatient Clinic (Caroní Municipality, Bolívar State, Venezuela) in the Adult Hygiene Program and who requested health certification to work as food handlers were studied. Stool samples obtained by spontaneous evacuation were examined by direct microscopy and the Willis concentration method. A total of 150 individuals were infected (36.14%), 107 (25.78%) of whom with B. hominis. There was no difference between males and females (p > 0.05), but there was a significant difference between ages (chi(2) = 12.17; g.l. = 4), with infection more frequent between 18 and 27 years. In 71.02% of the cases, B. hominis was the only parasite. Giardia lamblia was the parasite most frequently associated with B. hominis (2.41%). In the majority (85%) of infected individuals, less than five microorganisms per microscopic field were observed. We conclude that B. hominis is a frequent intestinal parasite among food handlers in Caroní Municipality, Bolivar State, Venezuela.

  12. Simultaneous circulation of all four dengue serotypes in Manaus, State of Amazonas, Brazil in 2011

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    Michele de Souza Bastos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Manaus, the capital city of the state of Amazon with nearly 2 million inhabitants, is located in the middle of the Amazon rain forest and has suffered dengue outbreaks since 1998. METHODS: In this study, blood samples were investigated using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, aimed at identifying dengue virus serotypes. RESULTS: Acute phase sera from 432 patients were tested for the presence of dengue virus. Out of the 432 patients, 137 (31.3% were found to be positive. All the four dengue virus serotypes were observed. CONCLUSIONS: The simultaneous circulation of the four dengue serotypes is described for the first time in Manaus and in Brazil.

  13. MONOPOLY AND OLIGOPOLY: CAUSES OF ENTERPRISES CLOSED IN VENEZUELA. A CASE STUDY IN THE ZULIA STATE.GROUP SIDEPRO.

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    Javier Agostini

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The economy has been impacted because of the monopoly and oligopoly Venezuela markets. This study analyzes the causes of the closure of the main company producing pipes for the oil industry in Zulia State.(Group SIDERPRO It is a research field, documentary and descriptive. The information was collected on experiences arising in the process of expropriation and recovery. As a result evidence of the need to propose a macroeconomic planning and control allowing to speed recovery of closed industrial parks and Venezuela recovery process model.

  14. Venezuela’s Potential Threat to the United States’ National Security: An Analysis of the Conflictual Inter-Country Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-07

    State run oil company, Petróleos de Venezuela ( PDVSA ), is in a chaotic turmoil. “ PDVSA has become far more poorly managed since a strike two years ago...corruption, PDVSA oil production is declining which requires private companies to make up more of the oil supply. 25 However, Venezuela current economy

  15. Prevalencia de Fasciola hepatica en ganadería de altura en Bailadores Mérida, Venezuela (Prevalence of Fasciola hepatica in dairy cattle of Bailadores, State of Mérida, Venezuela

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    José Gauta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa fasciolosis bovina es una enfermedad de importancia en Venezuela. Por denuncias de productores de la zona sobre numerosos decomisos de hígados y disminución de la producción, el objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la prevalencia de Fasciola hepatica en ganado lechero de Bailadores (Mérida, Venezuela en base a análisis coprológico.SummaryBovine fasciolosis is one of the most important parasitic diseases on Venezuela. Attending to the claim of farmers in the Andean zone about the high levels of infected livers detected at the slaughterhouse and milk production decrease, the aim of this work was to determine prevalence of Fasciola hepatica in dairy cattle of Bailadores, State of Mérida, Venezuela.

  16. The generation of electric power in a model of endogenous development: possible solutions for isolated communities in the Amazonas State, Brazil; A geracao de energia eletrica em um modelo de desenvolvimento endogeno: possiveis solucoes para as comunidades isoladas do interior do estado do Amazonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Andre Frazao; Cavaliero, Carla Kazue Nakao [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2006-07-01

    This work was developed to fit the generation of electric energy for the isolated communities of the interior of the Amazonas State in a context of endogenous development. A regional development is proposed, with the inclusion of the generation of electric energy for these communities in a context of development, rather than the isolated form proposed in the federal government electrification program of 'Luz Para Todos' (Light For All). (author)

  17. Morbidade da doença de Chagas em pacientes autóctones da microrregião do Rio Negro, Estado do Amazonas Morbidity of Chagas disease among autochthonous patients from the Rio Negro microregion, State of Amazonas

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    Lucia Maria Brum-Soares

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Foi realizado um estudo soroepidemiológico e clínico em 152 indivíduos residentes no município de Barcelos, Estado do Amazonas. Avaliou-se a soroprevalência da infecção chagásica e a morbidade da doença de Chagas. MÉTODOS: Os testes sorológicos foram a imunofluorescência indireta, ELISA convencional e recombinante e o Tesa-blot. Foram considerados soropositivos 38 pacientes, duvidosos 31 e soronegativos negativos 83. Os 38 casos soropositivos foram pareados com 38 controles soronegativos da mesma idade, sexo e submetidos à avaliação epidemiológica, clínica, eletro e ecocardiográfica, sendo que, 29 pares fizeram exame radiológico do esôfago. RESULTADOS: A soropositividade foi 19,9 vezes mais frequente nos trabalhadores do extrativismo em geral e 10,4 vezes mais frequente no extrativismo da piaçaba. Aplicou-se o teste de reconhecimento com o vetor local do gênero Rhodnius e 86,7% dos pacientes soropositivos o reconheceram, enquanto somente 34,2% dos soronegativos o fizeram. O ECG mostrou-se alterado em 36,8% nos soropositivos e em 21,5% nos soronegativos, enquanto o ecocardiograma mostrou alterações em 31,6% nos soropositivos e 18,4% nos soronegativos. Precordialgia e palpitações foram mais frequentes nos soropositivos. O estudo clínico do aparelho digestivo e radiológico do esôfago não mostrou alterações significativas. CONCLUSÕES. A doença de Chagas na região estudada pode ser considerada uma doença ocupacional.INTRODUCTION: A seroepidemiological and clinical study was conducted on 152 autochthonous individuals living in the district of Barcelos, State of Amazonas, to evaluate the seroprevalence of Chagas infection and morbidity of Chagas disease. METHODS: The serological tests used were indirect immunofluorescence, conventional and recombinant ELISA and immunoblot (Tesa-blot. Thirty-eight patients were considered seropositive; 31 were considered serodoubtful; and 83 were considered seronegative

  18. Perfil nosológico de centro de referência em dermatologia no estado do Amazonas - Brasil Nosological profile in a dermatology referral center in the state of Amazonas -Brazil

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    Adriana Andrade Raposo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: As doenças de pele estão associadas a alta morbidade, baixa mortalidade e baixa proporção de hospitalização. Entretanto, podem causar considerável interferência no bem-estar físico e emocional do indivíduo. Várias delas atingem grandes contingentes populacionais, havendo necessidade de intervenções específicas para seu controle. OBJETIVO: Descrever a frequência das dermatoses diagnosticadas em serviço de dermatologia na cidade de Manaus, capital do estado do Amazonas. MÉTODOS: Coletaram-se dados registrados sobre sexo, idade, procedência e diagnósticos referentes à primeira consulta dos pacientes atendidos entre janeiro de 2000 e dezembro de 2007. RESULTADOS: Das 56.024 consultas registradas, obtiveram-se 56.720 diagnósticos dermatológicos, sendo mais comuns as doenças sexualmente transmissíveis (25,12%, as dermatoses alérgicas (14,03%, as dermatoses não especificadas (13,01%, a hanseníase (6,34% e acne, seborreia e afins (5,05%. A frequência foi semelhante para ambos os sexos, a faixa etária de 20-29 anos foi predominante e Manaus foi a procedência mais referida. CONCLUSÕES: O padrão das doenças cutâneas identificadas neste estudo pode servir como linha de base para que gestores do sistema de saúde da região desenvolvam estratégias de prevenção e controle das dermatoses mais comuns, com ênfase nas doenças sexualmente transmissíveis, doenças cutâneas alérgicas, hanseníase e acneBACKGROUNDS: Fundaments: Skin diseases are associated wih high morbidity, low mortality and low rate of hospitalization. However, they can cause considerable interference in physical and emotional well-being of the individual. Several of them reach large population, requiring specific interventions for their control. OBJECTIVE: To describe the frequency of skin disease diagnosed in the dermatology service in Manaus, capital of Amazonas State. METHODS: We collected data on registered sex, age, origin and

  19. Phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae from Lábrea, state of Amazonas, Brazil, with a description of Evandromyia (Aldamyia apurinan Shimabukuro, Figueira & Silva, sp. nov.

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    Elder Augusto Guimarães Figueira

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available An entomological survey was conducted from July-December 2009 and September-December 2010, as part of the epidemiological monitoring of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL in the municipality of Lábrea, state of Amazonas (AM, Brazil. Sandflies were collected using CDC light traps installed in intra and peridomiciliary locations, as well as the border of forested areas around houses where autochthonous cases of ACL were recorded. A total of 510 sandflies belonging to 26 species were collected. The most abundant species was Nyssomyia antunesi (44.5% followed by Evandromyia walkeri (10.6% and Micropygomyia rorotaensis (9.8%. Here we also describe Evandromyia (Aldamyia apurinan sp. nov. and report new records for Trichophoromyia flochi and Evandromyia sipani in AM and Brazil, respectively. Our results describe the composition of the sandfly fauna in the south of AM and suggest Ny. antunesi as the putative vector in the transmission of Leishmania in this area of the Amazon Region.

  20. [Human fasciolosis in Mara municipality, Zulia state. Venezuela: prevalence and asociated factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freites, Azael; Colmenares, Cecilia; Alarcón-Noya, Belkisyolé; García, María Eugenia; Díaz-Suárez, Odelis

    2009-12-01

    In Venezuela, human Fasciolosis shows a low frequency. However, Mara Municipality is a highly endemic region for bovine fasciolosis and there are no reports of this parasite infection in humans. To determine the prevalence and associated factors to human fasciolosis in Mara municipality - Zulia state, a total of 51 blood and stool samples were collected. Serums were tested by ELISA and Western Blot (WB) assays, with excretion-secretion antigens of Fasciola hepatica (AFhES). The serum samples that resulted positive by these assays were tested by ELISA IgG anti Toxocara sp, Toxoplasma gondii and cysticerosis. Stool samples were concentrated by the Ritchie and rapid sedimentation techniques. Two serum samples were reactive to ELISA AFhES (3.9%) and these did not recognize the specific molecules of WB-AFhES detected by serum from patients with an absolutely demonstrated infection. Both participants were not positive to IgG anti Toxocara sp, Toxoplasma gondii, cysticerosis, and stool samples of these were negative to intestinal parasites. The general prevalence of intestinal parasites was 52.9% (27/51), being protozoa more frequent than helminthes. No Fasciola eggs were found. The two positives participants had in common that both had worked as fresh pasture cutters. These results suggest that the population had been in contact with F. hepatica, with no active infection because of the lack of specific molecules recognition and the absence of eggs in stool samples. Human fasciolosis has a low frequency in Venezuela and is underestimated and underrecognized by health workers and the general population.

  1. Breeding sites of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) and efficiency of extraction techniques for immature stages in terra-firme forest in Amazonas State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Ronildo Baiatone; de Queiroz, Raul Guerra; Barrett, Toby Vincent

    2011-06-01

    Information on natural breeding sites of phlebotomine sand flies is scanty, due to the difficulties of isolation of immatures from the soil where they occur. The present study investigated breeding sites in several microhabitats in a "terra-firme" forest in Pitinga, Amazonas State, Brazil. Results on the efficacy of different extraction techniques used for isolating sand flies, and the temperature and the pH of the samples collected, are presented. Samples of soil and organic matter from different microhabitats, processed by floatation-sieving, direct examination, Berlese-Tullgren, and emergence cages, revealed, for the first time in Amazonas, breeding sites in five microhabitats (tree bases, unsheltered forest floor, soil from under fallen logs, soil from under roots, and palm-tree bases). Overall, 138 immatures and 29 newly emerged adults were recovered from these microhabitats. The abundance of immatures in samples close to tree bases was significantly higher than in more open sites not adjacent to tree bases. Floatation-sieving and direct examination were the most effective techniques for immature extraction and survival, respectively. Eleven species of the genus Lutzomyia s.l. were identified, with Lutzomyia monstruosa (Floch & Abonnenc) and Lutzomyia georgii Freitas & Barrett being the most abundant. Differences in the specific composition and relative abundance of the immature and adult sand flies on tree bases suggest that breeding sites may be distant from resting or aggregation sites of adults. The pH, which revealed a slightly acidic soil, as well as the temperature, did not show any significant correlation with the number of immature sand flies collected.

  2. Plantas daninhas hospedeiras alternativas de Colletotrichum guaranicola em cultivos de guaraná no Estado do Amazonas Alternative host weeds of Colletotrichum guaranicola in guarana crops in the State Amazonas

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    L.J. Miléo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available As plantas daninhas reduzem a produção de sementes de guaraná e podem hospedar microrganismos patogênicos, tornando-se potenciais fontes de inóculo. Este trabalho identificou espécies de plantas daninhas colonizadas pelo fungo Colletotrichum guaranicola em cultivos de guaranazeiro em quatro municípios do Estado do Amazonas. As plantas daninhas foram identificadas e a presença do fungo foi verificada por meio de isolamentos feitos a partir de fragmentos de folhas lesionadas. As espécies colonizadas por C. guaranicola foram Bidens bipinnata, Chloris sp., Clidemia capitellata, Cyperus flavus, Elephantopus scaber, Euphorbia brasiliensis, Hemidiodia sp., Hyptis lantanifolia, Paspalum conjugatum, Physalis angulata e Synedrella nodiflora, as quais podem representar uma fonte de inóculo do patógeno, além das plantas de guaraná. A diversidade de plantas daninhas, em cultivos de guaranazeiro, reforça a importância de estabelecer práticas de manejo dessas plantas, principalmente em Maués, onde ocorreu maior colonização das espécies de plantas daninhas pelo fungo.Weed infestation may reduce grain guarana crops yield and host plant pathogens becoming potential inoculum sources. This research identified weed species colonized by the fungus Colletotrichum guaranicola in the guarana crop in four counties in the state of Amazon. The weeds were identified fungi presence was observed by isolation from leaf fragments of leaves injured by the fungi. The weed species colonized by Colletotrichum guaranicola were Bidens bipinnata, Chloris sp., Clidemia capitellata, Cyperus flavus, Elephantopus scaber, Euphorbia brasiliensis, Hemidiodia sp., Hyptis lantanifolia, Paspalum conjugatum, Physalis angulata and Synedrella nodiflora,that may represent a strong potential of plant pathogen inoculum, along with the guarana plants. Weed diversity in guarana crop shows the importance of establishing management practices to control these weeds, mainly in the Maues

  3. Yoduria en escolares y embarazadas del estado Trujillo, Venezuela 2007-2008 Urinary Iodine in school children and pregnant women of Trujillo state, Venezuela 2007-2008

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    L Caballero

    2011-10-01

    iodine deficiency in school children and pregnant women of Trujillo State, in the Andean region of Venezuela. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional survey of 400 school children aged 7-14 years and 300 pregnant women. Random urine samples were collected and analyzed for urinary iodine by Sandell-Kolthoff reaction. The criteria suggested by WHO to indicate iodine deficiency were applied. Results: Median urinary iodine for school children was 175 μg/L; and 6,25 % of children had urinary iodine concentrations below 50 μg/L. Median urinary iodine for pregnant women was 228 μg/L; and 25 % of pregnant women had urinary iodine concentrations below 150 μg/L. Conclusions: On the basis of the WHO criteria, the iodine intake in school children and pregnant women in Trujillo State, Venezuela, is adequate.

  4. Estudio seroepidemiologico de la amibiasis en una comunidad del estado Zulia, Venezuela A seroepidemiological study of amebiasis in a community of Zulia State, Venezuela

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    Leonor Chacin-Bonilla

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio seroepidemiologico de amibiasis en una comunidad de bajas condiciones socioeconómicas del Municipio Mara, Estado Zulia, Venezuela. Se estudiaron 283 individuos cuyas edades fluctuaron de 2 a 53 años. Se obtuvieron muestras de sueros, las cuales se examinaron con la prueba de hemaglutinación indirecta de KESSEL et al., según una modificación de MILGRAM et al. Se utilizó antígeno amibiano obtenido de cultivos axénicos de la raza HK9 de E. histolytica. La tasa de seropositividad obtenida fué de 46.6%; la mayoría de los reactores tenía títulos bajos y no presentaba signos de amibiasis. El porcentaje de seropositividad aumentó con la edad. Los resultados sugieren una alta endemicidad de la infección en esta comunidad, ocurriendo la transmisión con mucha mayor frecuencia que la amibiasis invasiva.In the present evaluation, a community of low socioeconomical conditions from Zulia State, Venezuela, was analyzed for the prevalence of antibodies to E. histolytica. Two hundred and eighty three serum samples were collected and examined by the indirect hemagglutination test according to a microtiter modification of the KESSEL and LEWIS method, as used by MILGRAM et al. Antigen prepared from axenically-grown. E. histolytica strain HK9 in Diamond's medium was used. The seropositivity rate obtained was 46.6% and the frequency of positive cases was dependent on age. The antibody profiles obtained suggest a high endemicity for this parasitic infection in the area studied, with a much higher level of transmission than invasive amebiasis.

  5. The policy process in a petro-state. An analysis of PDVSA's (Petroleos de Venezuela SA's) internationalisation strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baena, C.E. [Instituto de Estudios Superiores de Administracion, Caracas (Venezuela)

    1999-07-01

    Venezuela offers a unique case and fertile ground for the study of oil policy-making processes. In the specialised literature very little attention has been paid to the nature and operations of multinationals from developing countries. By analysing Petroleos de Venezuela SA's (PDVSA's) internationalisation policy, this unique book explores the difficulties encountered by a major state oil enterprise in its efforts to grow beyond national borders. This informative study focuses on the impact of democratic bargaining on the process of oil policy-making in Venezuela, stressing the constraints posed by politics on PDVSA's efforts to expand its foreign operations. (author)

  6. Venezuela’s Changing Foreign Policy Towards the United States: A Holistic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-12-01

    Economic Indicators, 1995-2000”, http://www.latin- focus.com/countries/venezuela/venindex.htm [12 Feb 2001]. 58 Ministerio de Finanza de Venezuela website...Plinio, “Un Foro Con Orejas de Lobo”, Analitica.com, http://www.analitica.com/va/ internacionales /opinion/7811628.asp, [02 Dec 2001]. 60 Gonzalez...Analitica.com, accessed online at: http://www.analitica.com/va/ internacionales /opinion/7811628 .asp, [02 Dec 2001]. “Proyecto de Ley Habilitante

  7. [Trichogramma species (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) parasitoids of Lepidopteran eggs in Lara State, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, José; Vásquez, Carlos; Pérez B, Nieves L; Valera, Neicy; Ríos, Yolmar; Arrieche, Norayda; Querino, Ranyse B

    2007-01-01

    This work was conducted to determine the occurrence of Trichogramma wasp species in Lara State, Venezuela. Lepidopteran egg samples collected from various crop leaves were observed daily under laboratory conditions for emergence of Trichogramma species adult wasps. Trichogramma were also obtained from traps containing eggs from the hosts Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) and Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). In the laboratory, specimens of Trichogramma species were mounted on microscope slides to show male genitalia and other morphological characters used for its identification. Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman y Platner emerged from S. frugiperda eggs collected in a cornfield at La Palomera, Humocaro Alto and at El Parchal, Humocaro Bajo, Municipio Morán. T. atopovirilia also emerged from S. frugiperda eggs collected in a cornfield at Sabana Grande and from S. cerealella eggs used as traps in a pepper culture at Tintinal, Municipio Andrés Eloy Blanco. T. exiguum Pinto y Platner emerged from S. frugiperda eggs used as traps or collected in cornfield at Totumito and at La Palomera, Humocaro Alto. T. pretiosum Riley emerged from Phthorimaea operculella Zeller eggs collected on stored potatoes at Monte Carmelo, Sanare. The identification of Trichogramma species in Lara State would be useful in the development of biological control programs for lepidopteran pests.

  8. [Mosquito fauna (Diptera:Culicidae) from Falcon State, Venezuela. I. New records and current checklist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, J C; Bastidas, R J; Zavala, Y

    1994-01-01

    A total of 16 new species records of Culicidae from Falcon State was collected at the "Juan Crisostomo Falcon National Park" (Sierra de San Luis), Natural Monument "Cerro Santa Ana", Coro, and La Vela. Species of Sabethini, Culicini and Toxorhynchitini Tribes were found in natural breeding sites (Phytotelmata), with special occurrence in plants belonging to Tillandsia, Vriesea, Guzmania, Aechmea (Bromelianceae), Heliconia (Heliconiaceae), Calathea (Marantaceae) and Colocasia (Araceae). Aedini and Mansonini were collected only as adults. A specie of Culex (Carrollia) was collected from an artificial container. The Culicidae species belong to 6 genera out of the 23 genera reported from Venezuela (Culex, Wyeomyia, Johnbelkinia, Aedes, Psorophora, Mansonia and Coquillettidia) and to 5 Tribes out of the 9 present in the country. The Aedini, Sabethini and Culicini Tribes were richer in species with 5, 4 and 4 species, respectively, than the Mansonini (2 species) and Toxorhynchitini (1 species) Tribes. We discuss some bioecological aspects regarding the 16 new-species records in Falcon State and give a checklist of the mosquito species previously reported in the literature.

  9. [Cryptosporidium sp infections and other intestinal parasites in food handlers from Zulia state, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freites, Azael; Colmenares, Deisy; Pérez, Marly; García, María; Díaz de Suárez, Odelis

    2009-03-01

    Cryptosporidiosis in food handlers from Venezuela is unknown, being this an important public health problem in immunosuppressed patients. To determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium sp and other intestinal parasites in food handlers from Zulia State, one hundred nineteen fecal samples were evaluated by wet mount, concentrated according to Ritchie and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining. Fourteen (11.8%) were positive for Cryptosporidium sp and associated with other protozoosis (P < 0.05), being most frequent Endolimax nana (42.9%). The general prevalence of the intestinal parasitism was 48.7%, emphasizing E. nana (41.2%), followed by Blastocystis hominis (38.7%) and Entamoeba coli (17.6%). The most frequent pathogenic protozoa was Giardia lamblia (13.4%), followed by the complex Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (9.2%). 4.1% were positive for intestinal helminthes. The infection by Cryptosporidium sp is frequent in food handlers from Zulia State. Given to the results of this investigation and the nonexistence of studies in this population, is necessary to deepen in the impact of this parasitism in food handlers and the consumers of their products.

  10. [Epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases in the mine area of Las Claritas, Bolivar State, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-O, N; Rodríguez-Acosta, A

    2000-06-01

    The primordial objective of this study was to carry out an epidemiological analysis of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) in terms of sensed morbidity and real morbidity in the mining region of "Las Claritas", Bolivar State, Venezuela, during the third trimester of 1998. The epidemiological characteristics of time, people and place are interlaced, giving a relationship included within the Epidemiological Triad, that represents this work's conceptual framework; defining both, the determinant and the conditioning factors of the presence of STDs in the zone. The clinical interrogatory was partially steered towards the participant's sensed morbidity. A mostly feminine population is described (65%), with a low scholarly level in the general population and a high index of foreigners among the evaluated patients; with 48.72% of stable unions in the interviewees. From 166 evaluated patients, 27.70% referred to have had some STD episode, being syphilis and blenorrhagia the most frequently reported. In the survey, there was a general hush concerning the presence of STDs; but, key informants such as the medicine retailers, revealed a higher presence of these diseases, which are wrongly treated by automedication. These are important results, since they let opened a space for the epidemiological evaluation in the zone, in the various health, sanitary, environmental and social aspects and mainly, by the individual's quality of life expectations.

  11. Study of the associated factors risks in specialist library in Lara state, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leomar Montilla Peña

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Presented are the results of a study on the risk factors associated to a specialized library in Lara State, Venezuela. The objective of this research was to analyze the risk factors that may represent sources of hazards in all elements of the organization of information. The research is descriptive, field and quasi-experimental. Was performed identification the of risk factors and risk quantification was performed by the probability (frequency and intensity (severity that can produce the harmful effects. The results indicate that 25 of the 32 analyzed risk factors may be related to the element of information sources, also in the same way 12 of the 32 may be associated risk factors with human talent element, 12 of the 32 risk factors with user element, 12 of the 32 risk factors with the building element and 10 of the 32 risk factors with the equipments element. The study conclusions show that the risk factors that require further attention and priority, are: relative humidity (risk value 45, dust (risk value 45 and technical cleaning preventive (risk value 15.

  12. Steinernema goweni n. sp. (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae), a new entomopathogenic nematode from Zulia State, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San-Blas, Ernesto; Morales-Montero, Patricia; Portillo, Edgar; Nermuť, Jiří; Puza, Vladimir

    2016-01-21

    A nematode from the genus Steinernema was isolated in Zulia state (North-western, Venezuela). Morphological, morphometric and molecular studies indicated that this nematode belongs to the "bicornutum" group and is described herein as Steinernema goweni n. sp. Steinernema goweni n. sp. is characterised by morphometrics of its infective juveniles, with body length 640 (531-719) µm, pharynx length of 119 (109-126) µm, tail of 67 (59-89) µm, c ratio = 9 (6-11) and E% = 77 (48-94). First generation male specimens can be recognised by the shape and size of spicules (55 (50-57) µm long) and gubernaculum (35 (30-40) µm long), and %D value 42 (28-59), which is at the lower limit within the "bicornutum" group. The number of genital papillae in males is also distinctive for S. goweni n. sp. presenting up to 27 (13 pairs + 1) papillae in 15% of specimens. The phasmids can be seen in scanning electron microscopy in all stages, characters not previously reported within the "bicornutum" group. Phylogenetic analyses of the "bicornutum" group based on both ITS and D2D3 regions showed a clear separation of S. goweni n. sp. from the other species. In both analyses S. goweni n. sp. formed a strongly supported group of American species.

  13. [High prevalence of Cyclospora cayetanensis among indigenous people in Bolivar State, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devera, Rodolfo; Blanco, Ytalia; Cabello, Eva

    2005-01-01

    The intestinal coccidioses caused by Cryptosporidium parvum, Isospora belli, and Cyclospora cayetanensis are parasitoses of major medical importance, but many epidemiological aspects of these infections are still unknown in Bolívar State, Venezuela. To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and especially of intestinal coccidiosis, an indigenous population in San Antonio de Morichal was evaluated from July 2003 to April 2004. Stool samples obtained by spontaneous evacuation were preserved in potassium dichromate 2.5% and examined by the formalin-ether concentration method and Kinyoun staining. Of the 160 indigenous people examined, 92.5% (148 cases) were infected. Entamoeba coli (58.8%), Ascaris lumbricoides (38.8%), and Giardia lamblia (18.8%) were the most prevalent intestinal parasites. Coccidiosis prevalence was 13.1%, and cyclosporiasis was the most prevalent with 11.9% (19 cases). One subject with C. parvum oocysts and another with I. belli oocysts were diagnosed. There was no difference according to sex (p > 0.05) and age (chi2 = 5.6; f.g. = 6) among individuals infected with C. cayetanensis. Of these, two cases had only diarrhea. In conclusion, a high prevalence of intestinal coccidiosis infection was found among indigenous people from this community, with C. cayetanensis as the most prevalent infection.

  14. Meningoencephalitis by Naegleria fowleri: epidemiological study in Anzoategui state, Venezuela Meningoencefalite por Naegleria fowleri: estudo epidemiológico no Estado de Anzoategui, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julman R. Cermeño

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A case of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis produced by Naegleria fowleri was diagnosed in the Independencia county of Anzoategui State, Venezuela. This case motivated the realization of the present epidemiological study with the aim of identifying free-living amoebae in this area. Representative water samples were taken and physicochemical and microbiologic analyses were carried out. Trophozoites and cysts of Naegleria spp, were detected in 44.4% (n=4. An excellent concordance was found among the observations of free-living amoebae in smears and those of monoxenic cultures in non nourishing agar with Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kappa=1; p= 0.003. A variable load of aerobic mesophils was obtained. Moulds and yeast averages presented 3.0 CFU/ml (SD± 2.0 and 102.9 CFU/ml (SD± 32.2, respectively. One hundred per cent of the samples presented a most probable number of total and fecal coliforms of 240,000 NMP/100mL. Naegleria spp was present in waters of the Independence county of Anzoategui state, which constitutes a risk for people that use these sources.Um caso de meningoencefalite amebiana primária, causada por Naegleria fowleri, foi diagnosticada no município de Independência no Estado de Anzoategui, Venezuela. Este caso motivou a realização deste estudo epidemiológico com o objetivo de identificar amebas de vida livre nessa área. Foram colhidas amostras representativas de água e realizadas análises fisicoquímicas e microbiológicas. Trofozoítos e cistos de Naegleria spp foram detectados em 44,4% (n=4. Verificou-se excelente concordância entre a observação das amebas de vida livre em esfregaços e aquelas de culturas monoxênicas em ágar não nutriente com Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kappa=1; p=0,003. Obteve-se uma carga variável de microrganismos mesófilos aeróbicos. As médias de mofos e leveduras foram de 3,0 CFU/ml (SD+2,0 e 102,9 CFU/ml(SD+32,2, respectivamente. Cem por cento das amostras apresentaram um número maior prov

  15. Observações sobre a ocorrência de Mosca-Negra-dos-Citros, Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby, 1915 (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aleyrodidae no estado do Amazonas Observation on the occurrence of the citrus blackfly Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby, 1915 (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aleyrodidae in the Amazonas state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Ronchi-Teles

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A mosca-negra-dos-citros (Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby é uma importante praga dos citros de origem asiática. Foi detectada no Brasil pela primeira vez em Belém-PA em 2001. Este trabalho tem como objetivo registrar a ocorrência de mosca-negra-dos-citros no estado do Amazonas, sua distribuição geográfica e estudos de biologia em condições de laboratório. A mosca-negra encontra-se atualmente disseminada em mais da metade dos municípios paraenses. No Amazonas foi detectada em junho de 2004 em Manaus e atualmente encontra-se disseminada em toda a área urbana deste município, ocorrendo também em Itacoatiara, Rio Preto da Eva e Iranduba. Em observações feitas em condições de laboratório em Manaus-AM, foi verificado que o ciclo de ovo-adulto foi de 71,76±2,07 dias, caracterizando como uma espécie multivoltina.The citrus blackfly Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby, pest of citrus in Asian is considered important pest. It was detected for the first time in Belém, PA in 2001. The objective of this work was to report occurrence of the citrus blackfly in Amazon state. Nowadays is found in the majority of the oriental amazon counties. In Manaus, Amazonas was detected in June 2004, actually disseminated in the urban area and in Itacoatiara, Rio Preto da Eva and Iranduba counties. In observations in laboratory in Manaus-AM, was verified that the egg-adult cycle belonged to 71,76±2,07 days, characterizing as a multivoltin species.

  16. Frequency of human leukocyte antigen (hla in patients with malaria and in the general population of Humaitá county, Amazonas state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingos Alves Meira

    1987-09-01

    Full Text Available In August 1983,85 inhabitants of the municipality of Humaitá, Amazonas State, Brazil were studied to determine the prevalence of antigens to HLA-A, -B, -C and DR. Thirty-eight were sick with malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum. All subjects were examined for splenomegaly, blood parasitaemia and antibodies to malaria. They constituted three groups: 1 25 subjects native to the Amazon region who had never had malaria; 2 38 Amazonian subjects who had malaria in the past or currently had an infection; 3 22 patients with malaria who had acquired the infection in the Amazon Region but came from other regions of Brazil. Blood was taken from each person, the lymphocytes were separated and typed by the test of microlymphocytotoxicity. There was a high frequency of antigens that could not be identified in the groups studied which suggests the existence of a homozygote or phenotype not identified in the population. There was a high frequency of the phenotype Ag(W24 (44.7% in group 2 when compared with group 1 (32% or group 3 (9%. Also the individuals in group 2 showed an elevated frequency of antigen DR(480% when compared with group 1 (36.6% or group 3 (16.6%. These observations suggest the possibility of a genetic susceptibility to malaria among Amazonian residents and indicate a necessity for more extensive studies of the frequency of HLA antigens among inhabitants of this endemic malarial zone.

  17. [Vertebrate mortality in the Guanare-Guanarito road, Portuguesa state, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seijas, Andrés Eloy; Araujo-Quintero, Alexis; Velásquez, Nadines

    2013-12-01

    Roads directly or indirectly affect the structure, dynamics and function of ecosystems that they traverse. Most studies on the effect of roads on wildlife focus on the evaluation of mortality of vertebrates by vehicle collisions. Despite the extensive road network that exists in Venezuela, studies of wildlife mortality in them are scarce. In this paper, we analyzed the temporal and spatial pattern of vertebrate's collisions along the road Guanare-Guanarito, in Portuguesa state. We travelled 26 times between these towns (74 km) to localize dead vertebrates, at a speed of 50-60km/h. of those trips were conducted from March 13 to October 26, 2010, and 10 additional trips from December 7, 2009 to December 14, 2010; these ones, with the aim to include months and seasons that were insufficiently sampled during the first period. The elapsed time between trips varied from 14 to 37 days. The total distance traveled was 1 924 km. Dead animals found amounted 464 individuals, 66 of them were birds (25 identified species), 130 mammals (15 species) and 268 reptiles (18 species). The species with the highest number of individuals were the snake Leptodeira annulata (n=119), the oppossum Didelphis marsupialis (n=39) and the spectacled caiman Caiman crocodilus (n=33). Excluding domestic animals, the rate of road-killed vertebrates was 0.2282 indiv./km, a figure 28.3% higher than previous studies in the same road. Changes in the relative number of collisions for some species, respect to the numbers reported 20 years ago, were linked to the increase in traffic flow and changes in land use. Road segments with collision rates higher than expected by chance were identified. Collition by cars may be the principal cause of mortality for species like the tamandua (Tamandua tetradactyla) and the giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), the last considered a vulnerable species. Some basic measures are proposed to reduce wildlife mortality on the road.

  18. Floristic and physiognomic characteristics of disturbed thorny xerophytic scrubland in Punta de Piedras, Miranda Municipality, Zulia State, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Vera, Antonio; Martínez, Maritza; Ayala, Yin; Montes, Sadieth; González, Anderson

    2013-01-01

    We determined the floristic and physiognomic aspects of disturbed thorny xerophytic scrubland in Punta de Piedras, Miranda Municipality, Zulia State, Venezuela. Botanical sampling was done twice monthly (November 2005-June 2006), in both rainy and dry seasons, for a total of 16 samples. The sampling was done in 10 vegetation patches, in an average area of 718,2 ± 706,24 m2, and adjacent graminoid floristic components were identified using three 400 m2 (20 x 20 m) plots, divided into 4 subplot...

  19. Análise de rendimento cárneo das principais espécies de peixes comercializadas no Estado do Amazonas, Brasil Meat yield analysis of the major fish species commercialized in the state of Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Fábio Lopes de Souza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A possibilidade do aproveitamento integral dos recursos pesqueiros tem produzido diversas pesquisas sobre os aspectos tecnológicos e nutricionais, objetivando estimular a exploração comercial de várias espécies, bem como oferecer suporte para a implantação de indústrias na região. O presente trabalho determinou o rendimento cárneo de dez espécies com maior volume de desembarque no estado do Amazonas, visando fornecer dados mais recentes para a indústria de beneficiamento de pescado. As espécies foram selecionadas segundo dados estatísticos do IBAMA e coletadas em dois períodos sazonais (cheia e seca, no município de Manacapuru-AM. No período da cheia, os percentuais médios de rendimento das espécies atingiram 69,4% de corpo limpo, 38,4% de filé com pele e 30,7% de filé sem pele, cortes preferenciais para comercialização. Na seca estes valores foram de 69%; 37,6%; 29,5%, respectivamente. As dez espécies de peixes amazônicos estudadas apresentaram bom rendimento cárneo, com potencial para uso em diversos procedimentos tecnológicos.The possibility of whole use of fishery resources has led institutions and researchers to establish permanent studies on technological and nutritional aspects, aiming to stimulate commercial exploitation as well as to support the setting up industries in the region, that can make products of excellent quality based on regional fishes. This study determined the meat yield of ten species with the highest fish landing volume in Amazonas, aiming to provide more recent data for the fish processing industry. The species were selected according to data of IBAMA and collected in two seasons (flood and drought, in the municipality of Manacapuru-AM. In the flood period, the average yield reached 69.4% for gutted body, 38.4% for fillets with skin, and 30.7% for skinless fillets, which are the favored commercial cuts. In the drought period, data showed 69%, 37.6%, and 29.5% respectively. The analyses

  20. Molecular Detection of Leishmania in Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) Collected in the Caititu Indigenous Reserve of the Municipality of Lábrea, State of Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, T R R; Assis, M D G; Freire, M P; Rego, F D; Gontijo, C M F; Shimabukuro, P H F

    2014-11-01

    Phlebotominae sand flies are of medical importance because they are vectors of human pathogens, such as protozoa of the genus Leishmania Ross, etiological agent of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL). In Lábrea, a municipality in the state of Amazonas, Brazil, ACL is primarily associated with subsistence activities, such as collection and extraction of forest products, undertaken by both indigenous and nonindigenous people. Data on ACL in indigenous populations are scarce, such that there is little information on the identity of the etiologic agent(s), reservoir host(s) and insect vector(s). The aim of this work was to study the sand fly fauna collected during an 8-d surveillance of different habitats in the Indigenous Reserve Caititu, Lábrea. In total, 1,267 sand flies were collected in different habitats for eight consecutive days, of which 819 (64.6%) were females and 448 (35.4%) males, from 10 genera and 32 species. The most abundant genera were Psychodopygus (34.3%), Trichophoromyia (22.9%), and Nyssomyia (15.3%). The most abundant species were Trichophoromyia ubiquitalis (Mangabeira) (n = 235, 18.5%), Psychodopygus davisi (Root) (n = 228, 18.0%) and Nyssomyia antunesi (Coutinho) (n = 135, 10.7%). Direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction products demonstrated the presence of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis and Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in the following species of sand flies: Evandromyia apurinan (Shimabukuro, Silveira, & Silva), Nyssomyia umbratilis (Ward & Fraiha), Nyssomyia yuilli yuilli (Young & Porter), Ps. davisi, Sciopemyia servulolimai (Damasceno & Causey), and Th. ubiquitalis. The presence of natural infection by Leishmania detected in the sand fly species investigated in this study suggests their possible role in the transmission cycle of ACL in the studied area.

  1. Electric power and traditional communities in the state of Amazonas: learning from the experience of the Roque Community in the Middle Jurua extractive reserve; Energia eletrica e as populacoes tradicionais do Estado do Amazonas: aprendizados a partir da experiencia na Comunidade do Roque na Reserva Extrativista do Medio Jurua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Celia Salama

    2010-09-15

    This work aims to bring new ideas for expanding access to electricity services to traditional communities in the state of Amazonas including strategies for income generation and improvement of local living conditions. To this end, the main achievements in the community of Roque in the implementation of the project Vegetable Oil for Electricity Generation and Valuation of Biodiversity in Isolated Communities of Extractive Reserve in the Middle Jurua, Carauari, Amazon state were identified and evaluated. Based on the results, a proposal for planning electrification works is formulated that takes into account local knowledge on socioeconomic and environmental conditions. In order to be implemented, such a proposal will require an improvement of the existing regulatory system and the establishment of partnerships or institutional articulation with broad stake holder involvement, including representatives of communities and local power utilities. (author)

  2. Frequency of human leukocyte antigen (hla in patients with malaria and in the general population of Humaitá county, Amazonas state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingos Alves Meira

    1987-09-01

    Full Text Available In August 1983,85 inhabitants of the municipality of Humaitá, Amazonas State, Brazil were studied to determine the prevalence of antigens to HLA-A, -B, -C and DR. Thirty-eight were sick with malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum. All subjects were examined for splenomegaly, blood parasitaemia and antibodies to malaria. They constituted three groups: 1 25 subjects native to the Amazon region who had never had malaria; 2 38 Amazonian subjects who had malaria in the past or currently had an infection; 3 22 patients with malaria who had acquired the infection in the Amazon Region but came from other regions of Brazil. Blood was taken from each person, the lymphocytes were separated and typed by the test of microlymphocytotoxicity. There was a high frequency of antigens that could not be identified in the groups studied which suggests the existence of a homozygote or phenotype not identified in the population. There was a high frequency of the phenotype Ag(W24 (44.7% in group 2 when compared with group 1 (32% or group 3 (9%. Also the individuals in group 2 showed an elevated frequency of antigen DR(480% when compared with group 1 (36.6% or group 3 (16.6%. These observations suggest the possibility of a genetic susceptibility to malaria among Amazonian residents and indicate a necessity for more extensive studies of the frequency of HLA antigens among inhabitants of this endemic malarial zone.Em agosto de 1983 foram observados 85 habitantes do Município de Humaitá, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil, com a finalidade de estudar a prevalência dos antígenos de HLA -A, -B, -C e DR, dentre os quais 38 eram doentes com malária causada pelo Plasmodium falciparum Todos eles foram examinados para avaliação de esplenomegalia, exame parasitológico de sangue e pesquisa de anticorpos de malária. Foram constituídos três grupos: (I 25 indivíduos nascidos na região Amazônica que nunca tiveram malária; (II 38 indivíduos naturais da Amazônia que tinham sido

  3. The first report of Tityus (Scorpiones: Buthidae in Anzoátegui State, Venezuela: a new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Quiroga

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Tityus gonzalespongai n. sp. is a species endemic to the high mountains of Anzoátegui State, Venezuela. It is found between 1,600 and 2,200 m in ''La Laguna'' mountain. Its habitat includes the area of ''Bosque Húmedo Montano Bajo'' with the type of vegetation of ''Bosque Ombrófilo Montano Siempreverde'' (''Bosques Nublados Costeros'' that includes the ''Subpáramos Arbustivos''. It is distinguished from other Tityus species (T. caripitensis, T. monaguensis, and T. nororientalis by the following characteristics: 1- the disposition of the trichobothria in the pedipalps; 2- ventral keels of the caudal segments of the metasoma (segment II, double and parallel in the proximal two thirds, then convergent and finally divergent in the base; segments III and IV, double and parallel in the basal third, then convergent in a single keel that divides in the base; 3- the number of lines of denticles of the movable finger of the right pedipalp (male = 14; female = 14; 4- pectineous teeth (right/left: male = 15/15: female = 16/15; 5- color: movable and fixed fingers dark brown; prosoma and metasoma, ochre; caudal segment IV, slightly darker than the previous ones; V and the telson, dark brown. T. gonzalespongai belongs to the ''androcottoides'' group and presents a marked sexual dimorphism. It is the first species of the Tityus genus described and reported in Anzoátegui State, expanding this taxa distribution in Venezuela.

  4. High occurrence of Acanthamoeba genotype T4 in soil sources from Bolívar State, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Carolina; Reyes-Batlle, María; Hernán, Aurora; Rojas, Elsy; Pérez, Gladymar; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Sifaoui, Ines; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Piñero, José E; Valladares, Basilio; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2016-09-01

    Pathogenic strains of Acanthamoeba are causative agents of keratitis and encephalitis that often may end fatal in humans and other animals. In the present study, twenty-seven soil samples were collected in the Bolivar State in Venezuela and checked for the presence of Acanthamoeba. Samples were cultivated onto 2% non-nutrient agar plates seeded with a layer of heat killed E. coli. Amplification by PCR and sequencing of the DF3 region of the 18S rDNA of Acanthamoeba was carried out in order to confirm morphological identification of the amoebae. Furthermore, Acanthamoeba spp. was isolated from 51.8% of soil samples. Sequencing of the DF3 region of the 18S rDNA resulted in the identification of genotype T4 in all samples. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of genotype T4 in soil sources from Venezuela. Further studies should be carried out in this State and in the country in order to determine the current occurrence of Acanthamoeba in Venezuelan environments.

  5. Larva of Palaemnema brasiliensis Machado (Odonata: Platystictidae), from Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiss, Ulisses Gaspar; Hamada, Neusa

    2016-02-09

    The larva of Palaemnema brasiliensis Machado, 2009 is described and illustrated based on last-instar larvae and exuviae of reared larvae collected in a blackwater stream in Barcelos and Presidente Figueiredo municipalities, Amazonas state, Brazil. The larva of P. brasiliensis can be distinguished from the two South American species of the genus with described larvae (P. clementia Selys and P. mutans Calvert), mainly by presence of a single obtuse cusp on the labial palp, the presence and configuration of setae in the caudal lamellae, and the proportional length of terminal filaments of the caudal lamellae. The family is recorded here for the first time in Brazilian state of Amazonas.

  6. Comportamento de atributos físicos de um Latossolo Amarelo sob agroecossistemas do Amazonas Changes in physical attributes of a Yellow Latosol under agroecossystems in Amazonas State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zigomar M. Souza

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O desmatamento da floresta tropical da Amazônia e a utilização do solo para fins agrícolas potencializam sua degradação física, química e biológica, quando realizados de forma inadequada. Este estudo teve o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de sistemas de uso e manejo de um Latossolo Amarelo, muito argiloso, mediante avaliações de atributos físicos determinados nas profundidades de 0,0-0,2 e 0,2-0,4 m, em área da Universidade do Amazonas, Manaus (AM. Os sistemas de uso e manejo foram: milho, laranja, pupunha, guaraná, pastagem, capoeira e floresta. Nos sistemas com milho, laranja, pupunha e pastagem, foram realizados o desmatamento, a queima e as operações de preparo e cultivo mecanizados. Foram avaliados a composição granulométrica, o grau de floculação da argila, o teor de matéria orgânica, a densidade de partículas, a densidade do solo, a porosidade total, a macro e microporosidade, e a infiltrações inicial e básica. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições. Os agroecossistemas, em ordem crescente: capoeira, guaraná, milho, laranja, pupunha e pastagem induziram uma degradação dos atributos físicos do solo cultivado em relação ao de floresta, quantificada pelos maiores valores de densidade do solo e menores de macroporosidade, infiltração de água e matéria orgânica.The Amazon tropical forest deforestation and the agricultural use of soils can lead to soil physical, chemical and biological degradation. This study evaluated land use and tillage systems in Yellow Latosol, very clayey, by physical attributes determinated in 0.0-0.2 and 0.2-0.4 m depths, in Universidade do Amazonas, Manaus (AM. The land used and tillage systems were: corn, orange, peach palm, guarana, pasture, capoeira and forest. Deforestation, slash-burning and mechanizated operation of tillage and manage were used on corn, orange, peach palm and pasture systems. Soil properties (particle size, clay

  7. Scorpion poisoning in the Acosta and Caripe Counties of Monagas State, Venezuela. part 1: characterization of some epidemiological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sousa L; Parrilla; Tillero; Valdiviezo; Ledezma; Jorquera; Quiroga

    1997-01-01

    Scorpion poisoning was surveyed in Acosta and Caripe counties, located in the Turimiquire subregion of Monagas State, Venezuela, aiming to expand information on stings by characterizing some epidemiological aspects. From 1987 to 1993, 298 cases of scorpion stings were recorded in Acosta and Caripe counties. Acosta had 212 cases, with an annual incidence rate of 18.3 (cases per 10,000 inhabitants) and a period median incidence rate of 128 . The scorpion poisoning index is 4.18 times greater in Acosta than in Caripe, confirming the former as a hyperendemic zone for this type of injury, with a phenomenon of cyclical temporal fluctuations and an upward trend. This area is infested with scorpions of the genus Tityus. Our results show that the region surveyed in Monagas State is endemic for scorpion stings, posing a major public health problem.

  8. Scorpion poisoning in the Acosta and Caripe Counties of Monagas State, Venezuela. part 1: characterization of some epidemiological aspects

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    De Sousa Leonardo

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion poisoning was surveyed in Acosta and Caripe counties, located in the Turimiquire subregion of Monagas State, Venezuela, aiming to expand information on stings by characterizing some epidemiological aspects. From 1987 to 1993, 298 cases of scorpion stings were recorded in Acosta and Caripe counties. Acosta had 212 cases, with an annual incidence rate of 18.3‰(cases per 10,000 inhabitants and a period median incidence rate of 128‰. The scorpion poisoning index is 4.18 times greater in Acosta than in Caripe, confirming the former as a hyperendemic zone for this type of injury, with a phenomenon of cyclical temporal fluctuations and an upward trend. This area is infested with scorpions of the genus Tityus. Our results show that the region surveyed in Monagas State is endemic for scorpion stings, posing a major public health problem.

  9. A new cryptic species of lizard (Sauria: Teiidae: Gymnophthalmus) from Venezuela

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.; Cole, C.J.; Ayarzaguena, J.

    1992-01-01

    Gymnophthalmus cryptus spec. nov. is described and illustrated on the basis of males and females collected in the Territorio Federal Amazonas, southern Venezuela. Some details on ecology and distribution are also presented. The females of G. cryptus are very similar to the unisexual Gymnophthalmus u

  10. Sharing in God's Mission: The Evangelical Pentecostal Union of Venezuela and The Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) in the United States 1960-1980

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvarez, C.E.

    2006-01-01

    The Evangelical Pentecostal Union of Venezuela (UEPV), an autonomous pentecostal denomination, and the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) in the United States, a Mainline Protestant denomination, established an ecumenical partnership in 1963 that remains a positive force today. These two denomi

  11. Aspectos epidemiológicos e clínicos dos acidentes ofídicos ocorridos nos municípios do Estado do Amazonas Epidemiological and clinical aspects of snake accidentes in the municipalities of the State of Amazonas, Brazil

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    Célio Campos Borges

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available No Amazonas, o acidente ofídico é um problema de saúde pública pouco conhecido. Por este motivo, foi realizado um estudo descritivo dos acidentes ofídicos atendidos nas Unidades de Saúde de 34 municípios, um distrito e dois pelotões de fronteira do Estado do Amazonas. As características mais comuns encontradas dentre os pacientes foram: agricultor (50,4%, do sexo masculino (81,3%, em idade produtiva (72,1%, picado no membro inferior (88,5%, por jararaca (48,6% ou surucucu (46,8%, na zona rural de seu município (70,2% e que só recebeu atendimento médico em tempo superior a seis horas, após acidente (57,3%. As manifestações locais mais freqüentes foram: edema (76,9%, dor (68,7%, eritema (10,2% e hemorragia (9,3%. Hemorragia (18,8% foi a manifestação sistêmica mais freqüente. O antiveneno foi administrado em apenas 65,9% dos pacientes. A via mais utilizada foi a endovenosa (52,3%, sendo relevante o uso de vias não mais recomendadas (47,7%. O antiveneno administrado, na maioria dos pacientes, foi o antibotrópico (66,7%. As complicações mais freqüentes foram abcesso (13,7%, necrose (12,3%, infecção secundária (8,3%, insuficiência renal (2,5% e gangrena (2,5%. Os procedimentos médicos mais usados para o tratamento das complicações foram: drenagem (52,6%, debridamento (28,9%, amputação (10,5%, limpeza cirúrgica (5,3% e diálise peritoneal (2,6%. A letalidade foi de 1%.In the State of Amazonas, accidents with snakes are a public health problem. For this reasons, the objective of this work was to carry out a descriptive study of the snake accidents attended in the health units of 34 municipalities, one district and two border platoons in the State of Amazonas. The characteristics most commonly observed among those involved in snake accidents were: farmers (50.4%, male (81.3%, belonging to the working age-group (72.1%, bitten on an upper limb (88.5% by a "jararaca" (48.6% or a "surucucu" (46.8% in the rural part of the

  12. Estudo sobre malária e parasitoses intestinais em indígenas da tribo Nadëb-Maku, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil A study of malaria and intestinal parasites among the Nadëb-Maku Indians of Amazonas State-Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odair Genaro

    1984-04-01

    Full Text Available Em março de 1983 detectou-se uma epidemia de malária por Plasmodium falciparum na tribu indígena Nadëb-Maku localizada às margens do Rio Uneiuxi, alto Rio Negro, no Estado do Amazonas (Brasil. Foram obtidas e examinadas para hematozoários amostras de sangue periférico de 76 indígenas. Vinte e sete (35,5% dessas amostras estavam positivas para plasmódios. A infecção malárica foi tratada com Fansidar® (pirimetamina + sulfadoxina, mefloquina e/ou primaquina. A única espécie de anofelino coletada na aldeia durante o período da epidemia foi Anopheles mediopunctatus. Amostras de fezes obtidas de 49 indígenas foram examinadas para parasitas intestinais e 100% delas estavam positivas. A maioria dos indígenas estavam parasitada por mais de uma espécie de parasita.In March, 1983, a falciparum malaria outbreak occurred in the Nadëb-Maku Indian tribe in Amazonas State, Brazil. Seventy six blood samples were obtained and examined for hematozoa with 27 (35.5% positive for Plasmodium falciparum. Malaria infections were treated with Fansidar® (Pyrimethamine plus sulfadoxine, mefloquine and/or primaquine. The only Anopheles species collected in the Indian tribe during the outbreak period was Anopheles mediopunctatus. All 49 stool samples obtained from the Indians were positive when examined for intestinal parasites.

  13. Cotton Rats (Sigmodon hispidus and Black Rats (Rattus rattus as Possible Reservoirs of Leishmania spp. in Lara State, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Lima Hector

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 519 wild animals belonging to eleven species were collected during a two year study in a cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic area in Venezuela (La Matica, Lara State. The animals were captured in home-made Tomahawk-like traps baited with maize, bananas or other available local fruits, and parasites were isolated from 27 specimens. Two different species were found naturally infected with flagellates, i.e., cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus and black rats (Rattus rattus. Characterization of the parasites using PCR, kDNA restriction pattern and hybridization with species-specific probes revealed the presence of Leishmania (L. mexicana in three of the black rats and Leishmania (V. braziliensis in two others. The latter species was also identified in the single positive specimen of S. hispidus. The results suggested both species of animals as possible reservoirs of Leishmania sp.

  14. Estudo da demanda ambulatorial da clínica de odontologia da Universidade do Estado do Amazonas The study of de ambulatory demand of de dental clinic of State University of Amazonas

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    Emílio Carlos Sponchiado Júnior

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a demanda ambulatorial da Clínica de Odontologia da Universidade do Estado do Amazonas (UEA. Foram entrevistados cem pacientes em tratamento na disciplina de semiologia; por meio de um questionário, foram coletados os dados demográficos e o perfil socioeconômico e por meio de exame clínico foram obtidos o perfil nosológico e o perfil da pressão arterial e das perdas dentais. Os resultados evidenciaram que 52% dos pacientes eram do sexo feminino, com idade predominante entre 20 e 29 anos; 48,3% com o segundo grau incompleto e 60,8% com renda mensal maior que cinco salários mínimos. Quanto à perda dental, os dentes mais acometidos foram os primeiros molares; 29% perderam o primeiro molar superior e 45%, o inferior. O perfil nosológico mais encontrado foi de 31,3% para tratamentos na área de dentística restauradora, seguida de 21% de periodontia e 19% de cirurgia. Apenas um paciente apresentava hipertensão. Concluí-se que a população predominantemente atendida foi de mulheres de classe média baixa, com nível médio de instrução e quadro odontológico precário, evidenciando muitas perdas dentais e necessitando mais de tratamentos reabilitadores do que os preventivos. Com a maior compreensão da realidade dos usuários da clínica odontológica da UEA, será possível melhorar o planejamento do atendimento e das ações para promoção de saúde.The objective of this study was to evaluate the demand of the clinic of Dentistry of UEA. One hundred patients who were being treated in the discipline of Semiology answered a questionnaire that collected data on demographic and socio-economic profile. The clinical examination showed the nosologic profile, the blood pressure and dental losses profile. Results showed that 52% of patients were female, aged between 20 and 29 years, 48.3% with the incomplete high school and 60.8% with monthly income greater than five minimum wages. As for dental loss

  15. China Strengthens Energy Cooperation with Venezuela

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Deliang

    2005-01-01

    @@ Venezuela is the 5th biggest oil export country in the world, and a member of OPEC. With rich reserves of crude oil, its average daily oil output reached 3.1 million barrels in 2004. Venezuela's state oil company Petroleos de Venezuela SA (PDVSA), the biggest oil company in South America, launched its China representative office in Beijing on 22 Aug. Ma Fucai, Vice Director of the State Energy Leading Group Office, and Rafael Ramrez,Minister of the Energy and Oil Ministry of Republic of Venezuela, attended the opening ceremony.

  16. Cerambycidae (Coleoptera coletados na Venezuela na copa de Matayba (Sapindaceae e Vochysia (Vochysiaceae

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    Ubirajara R. Martins

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Cerambycidae coletados em Surumoni, Amazonas, Venezuela, com o auxílio de uma grua, por armadilha de interceptação de vôo e armadilha luminosa nas copas de Matayba guianensis Aubl e Vochysia sp. resultaram em novos registros para 14 espécies e descrição de quatro novas: Erythropterus urucuri sp. nov. (Heteropsini, Eriphus ruBELLus sp. nov. (Trachyderini, Lissonotus kuaiuba sp. nov. (Lissonotini e Acyphoderes itaiuba sp. nov. (Rhinotragini.Cerambycidae (Coleoptera collected in Venezuela at the canopy of Matayba (Sapindaceae and Vochysia (Vochysiaceae. Cerambycidae collected in Surumoni, Amazonas, Venezuela, with help of a crane, made with interception and light traps in the canopy of Matayba guianensis Aubl and Vochysia sp. resulted in new records for 14 species and descriptions of four new species: Erythropterus urucuri sp. nov. (Heteropsini, Eriphus ruBELLus sp. nov. (Trachyderini, Lissonotus kuaiuba sp. nov. (Lissonotini and Acyphoderes itaiuba sp. nov. (Rhinotragini.

  17. New records of Mansonella ozzardi: a parasite that is spreading from the state of Amazonas to previously uninfected areas of the state of Acre in the Purus River region

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    Yara Leite Adami

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Mansonella ozzardi infections are common in the riverside communities along the Solimões, Negro and Purus Rivers in the state of Amazonas (AM. However, little is known about the presence of this parasite in communities located in regions bordering AM and the state of Acre. The prevalence rate of M. ozzardi infections was determined in blood samples from volunteers according to the Knott method. A total of 355 volunteers from six riverine communities were enrolled in the study and 65 (18.3% were found to be infected with M. ozzardi. As expected, most of the infections (25% occurred in individuals involved in agriculture, cattle rearing and fishing and an age/sex group analysis revealed that the prevalence increased beginning in the 40-50-years-of-age group and reached 33% in both sexes in individuals over 50 years of age. Based on the described symptomatology, articular pain and headache were found to be significantly higher among infected individuals (56 and 65% prevalence, respectively, p < 0.05. Sera from volunteers were subjected to ELISA using a cocktail of recombinant proteins from Onchocerca volvulus to evaluate the specificity of the test in an endemic M. ozzardi region. No cross-reactions between M. ozzardi-infected individuals and recombinant O. volvulus proteins were detected, thus providing information on the secure use of this particular cocktail in areas where these parasites are sympatric.

  18. A conservação do papagaio-da-cara-roxa (Amazona brasiliensis no estado do Paraná: uma experiência de Educação Ambiental no ensino formal Conservation of the red-tailed-parrot (Amazona brasiliensis in the northern coast of Paraná State: an Environmental Education experience for formal school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Caro Carrillo

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, avaliou-se a experiência de Educação Ambiental do "Projeto de Conservação do Papagaio-da-Cara-Roxa (Amazona brasiliensis", no ensinoformal, realizado pela Sociedade de Pesquisa em Vida Selvagem e Educação Ambiental (SPVS, no litoral norte do Estado do Paraná. A experiência teve o intuito de fomentar, tanto no corpo docente quando no corpo discente, a discussão sobre valores e princípios que norteiam as relações homem/natureza, desenvolvendo-se, assim, uma interação mais responsável com o meio ambiente. Foram desenvolvidos módulos-educativos sobre o papagaio-da-cara-roxa e seu ambiente, direcionados a 795 estudantes do ensino fundamental, nos Municípios de Paranaguá e Guaraqueçaba. Para analisar a eficácia das atividades, os estudantes responderam a testes antes e depois do processo educativo que mediram mudanças obtidas com relação ao incremento de conhecimento, postura e valorização do papagaio-da-cara-roxa e de seu ambiente. Os resultados indicaram que a utilização do exemplo de uma espécie, ameaçada de extinção e que ocorre próximo às comunidades envolvidas no processo de conservação, serviu de base para a associação do tema específico para com uma realidade ambiental mais ampla e contextualizada localmente.The utilization of a flag-species in environmental education can be an important strategy to discuss the interrelations between the species, their habitats, and man. The red-tailed-parrot (Amazona brasiliensis, is endemic in the Atlantic Rainforest and is threatened with extinction. This work aims to analyze the environmental education experience of the project "Conservation of the red-tailed-parrot (Amazona brasiliensis", together with formal teaching, held by the Society for Wildlife Research and Environmental Education (SPVS, in the northern coast of Paraná State. The objective of this work was to promote a teaching method among students and teachers that contextualizes the

  19. Eight new species of Oragua Melichar, 1926 (Insecta: Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) from Amazonas State, Brazil, with description of the female terminalia of Oragua jurua Young, 1977, and new records for the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camisão, Beatriz M; Cavichioli, Rodney R; Takiya, Daniela M

    2014-01-01

    The thirty known species of Oragua are distributed from southern Mexico to Argentina. Seventeen species are recorded from Brazil, but only O. elegantula Young, 1977, O. insipida Young, 1977, and O. jurua Young, 1977 are recorded from Amazonas State. Oragua partitula (Jacobi, 1905) is herein firstly recorded from Brazil, ocurring in Amazonas State. The aim of the study was to describe eight new species of Oragua, to provide a key to males of the species of the genus that are recorded from Amazonas State and to study in detail the female terminalia of these new species. Also, the female of O. jurua Young, 1977 is herein described for the first time. Oragua alerochae sp. nov. has the external color pattern similar to O. bifasciata Cavichioli, 2000, however, the head is darker, the forewings are paler and the stripes are thinner, aedeagus is much more curved with long apical processes, and apex of paraphyses rami are curved. Oragua aurantimaculata sp. nov. is similar externally to O. elegantula and Oragua jau sp. nov. as they share the body brown with three orange maculae on crown and orange maculae on forewings, but it has the aedeagus with shaft enlarged medially with a pair of apical processes curved anteriorly and connective more slender. Oragua bella sp. nov. is dark with orange spots, aedeagus with basal elongated processes extending to the apex of the pygofer, with the basal portion enlarged and narrowing toward the apex. Oragua copiosa sp. nov. is dark with small pale dots all over the body, paraphyses rami are slender and their apices expanded, and styles with hooked apex, extending posteriorly beyond the connective apex. Oragua gracilenta sp. nov. has the external color similar to O. galerula, but it can be distinguished by the brown ground color, absence of two maculae near median line just before posterior margin on pronotum and apex of rami of paraphyses bifurcate and not truncate. Oragua jau sp. nov. has the external color similar to O. elegantula, but

  20. Fauna de flebotomíneos (Diptera: Psychodidae em um foco de leishmaniose tegumentar americana na área periurbana de Manaus, Estado do Amazonas Sandfly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae in a focus of American cutaneous leishmaniasis on the urban periphery of Manaus, State of Amazonas

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    Maria das Graças Vale Barbosa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available No período de agosto de 2001 a julho de 2002, usando armadilhas CDC e Disney, realizaram-se coletas de flebotomíneos, na base de árvores no peridomicílio e nas matas da Comunidade São João, área periurbana de Manaus, Amazonas. Foram capturados 4.104 espécimes, pertencentes a quatro subtribos, 13 gêneros e 49 espécies da subfamília Phlebotominae. Predominou a subtribo Psychodopygina com 3.403 (83% espécimes, destacando-se Nyssomyia umbratilis, Nyssomyia anduzei, Trichophoromyia eurypyga, Bichromomyia olmeca nociva e Bichromomyia flaviscutellata. O registro de Nyssomyia umbratilis e Nyssomyia anduzei, incriminadas como vetoras de Leishmania (Viannia guyanensis, e de Bichromomyia flaviscutellata e Bichromomyia olmeca nociva, de Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis, indicam risco de infecção para os moradores da área. A grande maioria (98,5% dos flebotomíneos foi capturada na área de mata. Nyssomyia anduzei e Bichromomyia olmeca nociva foram coletadas no peridomicílio. A riqueza de espécies vetoras de Leishmania nessa área revela a necessidade de uma vigilância entomológica constante.From August 2001 to July 2002, sand flies were collected from the bases of trees and, using CDC and Disney traps, from areas surrounding homes and forested areas in the São João community, on the urban periphery of Manaus, State of Amazonas. 4,104 specimens belonging to four subtribes, 13 genera and 49 species of the Phlebotominae subfamily were collected. The subtribe Psychodopygina predominated, with 3,403 (83% specimens, especially of Nyssomyia umbratilis, Nyssomyia anduzei, Trichophoromyia eurypyga, Bichromomyia olmeca nociva and Bichromomyia flaviscutellata. The occurrences of Nyssomyia umbratilis and Nyssomyia anduzei, which have been incriminated as vectors for Leishmania (Viannia guyanensis, and of Bichromomyia flaviscutellata and Bichromomyia olmeca nociva, for Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis, indicate that there is a risk of infection

  1. Estudo das parasitoses intestinais e da infecção chagásica no Município de Novo Airão, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil Cross-sectional study of intestinal parasites and Chagas' disease in the Municipality of Novo Airão, State of Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio N. Boia

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo seccional descritivo em uma amostra sistemática por conglomerado de uma em cada dez famílias residentes na sede do Município de Novo Airão, na meso-região norte do Estado do Amazonas, a 250 quilômetros de Manaus por via fluvial. De cada um dos residentes nos 89 domicílios da amostra foram solicitadas fezes para exame pelos métodos de sedimentação de Lutz e pelo Baermann-Moraes-Coutinho e colhido sangue por punção venosa para testes de ELISA e imunofluorescência para pesquisa de anticorpos anti-Trypanosoma cruzi. O exame de 316 amostras de fezes mostrou 87,6% com um ou mais parasitos: 35,1% com Ascaris lumbricoides, 29,1% com Entamoeba histolytica, 17,4% com Giardia lamblia e outros parasitos com menor prevalência. Estes resultados foram correlacionados com a falta de saneamento e de suprimento de água tratada. De 346 soros examinados 16 (4,6% foram reativos para anticorpos anti-Trypanosoma cruzi, mas somente em três deles houve correlação entre este resultado e o contacto das pessoas com triatomíneos silvestres, conhecidos localmente como "piolho da piaçava".A cross-sectional study was performed on the residents of one in every ten households in the town of Novo Airão, in the northern meso-region of the State of Amazonas, 250 kilometers from Manaus by riverboat. A family cluster sample of 89 dwellings was studied. A stool sample was requested from each of the inhabitants for examination using the Lutz sedimentation and Baermann-Moraes-Coutinho techniques, and blood was taken by venous puncture for Trypanosoma cruzi ELISA antibody testing and immunofluorescence. From a total of 316 stool samples, 87.6% had one or more parasites: Ascaris lumbricoides (35.1%, Entamoeba histolytica (29.1%, Giardia lamblia (17.4%, and other parasites with lower prevalence rates. These results were directly correlated with lack of sanitation and clean water supply. Of the 346 sera examined, 16 (4.6% were reactive to T

  2. "É muito dificultoso!": etnografia dos cuidados a pacientes com hipertensão e/ou diabetes na atenção básica, em Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil "It sure ain't easy!": an ethnographic study of primary health care for patients with hypertension and/or diabetes in Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Loiola Ponte de Souza

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O texto analisa os resultados de pesquisa avaliativa da Atenção Básica à Saúde do paciente com hipertensão e/ou diabetes em Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil. A abordagem etnográfica utilizou, como categorias analíticas centrais, o acesso aos serviços e a integralidade do cuidado, comparando-se as práticas sanitárias desenvolvidas em unidade do Programa Saúde da Família (PSF e em unidade básica de saúde não-PSF. A facilitação do acesso à unidade de saúde da família implantada em comunidade carente é limitada pela precariedade de infra-estrutura urbana do seu entorno. A unidade básica de saúde tem, nas grandes distâncias, a sua principal barreira de acesso. A inexistência de sistema de referência entre os distintos níveis de complexidade compromete o acesso dos pacientes a exames e especialistas. O cuidado oferecido nas duas unidades é restrito às queixas físicas passíveis de abordagem farmacológica, comprometendo a integralidade. Há baixa capacidade de escuta dos profissionais para problemas distintos do foco da ação programática. Destacam-se as potencialidades da utilização da etnografia na pesquisa avaliativa de sistemas e serviços de saúde.This paper analyzes the results of an evaluative study in the city of Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil, on primary health care for patients with hypertension and/or diabetes. The ethnographic approach used access to services and comprehensiveness of health care as core analytical categories, comparing the health practices developed by Family Health Program (FHP units with traditional non-FHP primary care units. Access to family health care units in low-income communities is limited by the precarious surrounding urban infrastructure. The main barrier to access to primary care units is distance. The lack of a referral system between the various levels of complexity jeopardizes patients' access to tests and specialists. The care supplied by the two units is limited to patient

  3. Ocorrência da Mansonella ozzardi (Nematoda, Onchocercidae em comunidades ribeirinhas do rio Purus, Município de Boca do Acre, Amazonas, Brasil Occurrence of Mansonella ozzardi (Nematoda, Onchocercidae in riverine communities of the Purus river, Boca do Acre municipality, Amazonas State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Fernandes Medeiros

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve o objetivo de estimar as prevalências de Mansonella ozzardi e calcular taxa de infecção parasitária nos simulídeos. O trabalho foi realizado em comunidades ribeirinhas do rio Purus, Boca do Acre, Amazonas, Brasil. As prevalências foram obtidas por meio do método de gota espessa de sangue obtido por porção digital. Os simulídeos coletados foram dissecados para estimar a taxa de infecção parasitária. A prevalência de M. ozzardi foi de 27,3% (282/77. Foram observadas maiores prevalências nos homens (31,97% que nas mulheres (22,22%, nos agricultores (48% e nos indivíduos entre: 38-47 (60%, 48-57 (66,66% e 58-67 (75%. A microfilaremia foi maior nos indivíduos entre 58-67 anos (média = 58,41mf/40µL, sexo masculino (41,44mf/40µL e nos agricultores (49,94mf/40µL. Somente o simulídeo Cerqueirellum amazonicum foi encontrado infectado com taxa de infecção parasitária de 0,98%.The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of Mansonella ozzardi and calculate the parasitic infection rate in simuliid blackflies. The research was conducted in communities on the Purus River, Boca do Acre municipality, Amazonas State, Brazil. Prevalence was measured using the thick smear method. Captured blackflies were dissected to verify the parasitic infection rate. M. ozzardi prevalence was 27.30% (77/282. The study showed higher prevalence in men (31.97% than women (22.22%, farmers (48.99%, and individuals in the 38-47 (60.00%, 48-57 (66.66%, and 58-67-year age brackets (75.00%. Microfilaremia was higher in individuals 58 to 67 years of age (average= 58.41mf/40µl, men (41.44mf/40µl, and farmers (49.94mf/40µl. Only the simuliid Cerqueirellum amazonicum was found infected with a parasitic infection rate of 0.98%.

  4. Estado de conocimiento de las concentraciones de cadmio, mercurio y plomo en organismos acuáticos de Venezuela - Current state of knowledge of the concentrations of cadmium, mercury and lead from aquatic organisms of Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salazar Lugo, Raquel

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEn Venezuela, la contaminación por metales pesados está relacionadacon el desarrollo de la industria siderúrgica y petrolera, así como a la explotación indiscriminada de otros metales como el oro. Está bastante documentada la contaminación del lago de Maracaibo dado al desarrollo en sus cercanías de actividades urbanas, industriales, mineras y agropecuarias; del lago de Valencia, del río Tuy, Orinoco y Manzanares, entre otros En este trabajo se revisa el estado de conocimiento, en los últimos 10 años, de la concentración de plomo, cadmio y mercurio en especies acuáticas de diferentes áreas del País.SummaryContamination due to trace metals in Venezuela is related withindiscriminate exploitation of metals like gold, transport of river runoff, oil and siderurgica industries and urban zones. The Tuy, Orinoco, Tigre, Manzanares rivers and others basins as Valencia and Maracaibo lakes has been reported as polluted for many years. In this work, we reviewed the state of knowledge, in the last 10 years, of metals concentrations specially lead, cadmium and mercury, in aquatic species from diverse areas of country.

  5. [Social stratification and nutritional anthropometry in children under 15 years old La Escalera, Lara State, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Villanueva, Mario; Dellán-Rodríguez, Graciela; Papale-Centofanti, Jham; Rodríguez, Dioslibeth; Mendoza, Norelis; Berné, Yelitza

    2007-09-01

    Malnutrition is a public health problem for underdeveloped countries. From the 852 million of undernourished estimated by FAO between 2000 and 2002, 815 million belonged to underdeveloped countries, 28 million to countries in transition and 9 million to developed countries. Malnutrition in Venezuela had a 6% raise between 2000 and 2002, when it went from 11% to 17%. This work was done with children under 15 years old from La Escalera, using classic indicators and their combination, relating them with socioeconomic conditions, through the NBI and Graffar Méndez Castellano methods, as to consider the population nutritional profile. The higher prevalence corresponded to normal nutritional values, which oscillated between 55,7% and 80,7% in the 7-14 years old group and the 2-6 years old group, respectively. Malnutrition was found in the under 2 years old group and 7-14 years old group, with values ranging between 12,5 and 41,0% respectively. The least prevalence was found for excess malnutrition. 100% of the families in this study are poor, according to NBI; although the Graffar Mendez Castellano method established that poverty was about 60%, while 40% belonged to a medium-low status. Relating nutritional diagnosis with social stratification and the mother's educational level, three patterns were observed: III, IV and V, prevailing normal diagnosis, followed by malnutrition by deficit and malnutrition by excess, respectively. The predominating mother's educational level corresponded to incomplete high school, followed by analphabetism and the least prevalent has complete basic elementary education. It should be noted that the nutrition deficit was inversely related to the socioeconomic stratification and the mother's educational level.

  6. Venezuela and China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Oscar Garcia

    2016-01-01

    draws on this context of 'interdependent hegemony' to explore the existing relationship between Venezuela, as a swing state, and China, as one of the Big Three global powers. Particularly, I focus on Venezuelan efforts to develop, at the domestic and regional level, a counterhegemonic political project...... against the US and how China is considered a valuable ally to acquire more independence. However, this situation of interdependence can paradoxically lead to a new kind of dependence, in this case on China. To analyze these relations, I propose a conceptual framework consisting of three dimensions: 1...... of a political and economic model which can inspire or be followed by other countries. Although China's influence and increasing power in Venezuela is unquestionable in economic terms, the Venezuelan government uses its agreements with China strategically to legitimate its policies, in the name of a South...

  7. Venezuela: A petro-state using renewable energies. A contribution to the global debate about new renewable energies for electricity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massabie, G.

    2008-07-01

    In spite of the economic role of oil, Venezuela has started developing hydroelectricity since the 1950s. At present, the country is trying to introduce additional renewable energy sources (RES) but still has to overcome a series of hurdles in order to deploy them. Unlike other developing countries, oil countries such as Venezuela do not lack financial means and sometimes show a tendency to solve problems by using money when other approaches could be more helpful. The main goal of this qualitative, comparative policy analysis is to find out whether the availability of oil revenues restraints or favors the adoption of RES. Based on the rentier state theory, German Massabie examines the reasons why Petro states try to dispose of their natural wealth to take advantage of non-conventional energy sources. He analyses and interprets primary and secondary data collected in Germany and in Venezuela and draws on interviews with Venezuelan experts, policy makers, and key actors. The study allows a look beyond laws, development programs, and official statements. (orig.)

  8. Employment and income generation within the framework of the 'Luz para todos' program in the State of Amazonas, Brazil; Geracao de emprego e renda no ambito do programa Luz para Todos no estado do Amazonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Rubem Cesar Rodrigues; Moraes, Betsy Eddy Praia; Souza, Cristiane Daliassi Ramos de [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Centro de Desenvolvimento Energetico Amazonico

    2008-07-01

    The low level of the electric demand to be accomplished in the isolated Amazon communities, associated to the low purchasing power of those populations and the high costs for electrification of these, they impose the implementation of concrete actions of generation of job and income when it intend to assure the universalization of the electric power service in isolated Amazon communities, as ir the case of the program 'Luz para Todos'. The present article shows that is being developed by the committee state manager of the program 'Luz para Todos' in the amazon state, demonstrating that it is possible to assure good results since the effective involvement of several agents is made possible. (author)

  9. [Detection and differentiation of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar by polymerase chain reaction in a community in Zulia State, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, Zulbey; Bracho, Angela; Calchi, Marinella; Díaz, Iris; Acurero, Ellen; Maldonado, Adriana; Chourio, Glenis; Arráiz, Nailet; Corzo, Gilbert

    2009-01-01

    Differential identification of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar is essential for both appropriate patient treatment and epidemiological purposes. To determine the prevalence of these amoeba infections in Santa Rosa de Agua (Maracaibo, Zulia State, Venezuela), a PCR assay using specific primers for each species was standardized and applied. 204 stool samples were analyzed through direct microscopic examination with SSF (0.85%) and lugol, formol-ether concentration, and PCR. Under direct microscopy, 42 individuals (20.58%) presented the E. histolytica/E. dispar complex. Meanwhile PCR showed 47 positive cases for these amoebas: 22 E. histolytica (10.78%), 16 E. dispar (7.84%), and 9 (4.41%) mixed infections. There was no significant difference in the presence of E. histolytica and/or E. dispar according to either gender or age. There were no cases of these amoebas in children under 2 years of age. Observed frequency of E. histolytica (31/204) shows the endemic nature of amoeba infection in this community.

  10. [Malaria and pregnancy. San Isidro parish, municipality Sifontes, state of Bolívar, Venezuela, 2005-2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Elisbeth; López, Egleé; Ache, Alberto

    2009-12-01

    Malaria in pregnancy constitutes a world-wide public health problem. With the objective of studying malaria in pregnancy, a cross-sectional, descriptive epidemiological study was carried out on 449 women, in mining areas of the San Isidro parish, municipality Sifontes, state of Bolívar, Venezuela, during 2005-2006. The Malaria incidence in pregnant women was 27.4%: 87% for Plasmodium vivax, 12.2% Plasmodium falciparum and 0.8% mixed infections. These infections appeared mainly during the second trimester (41.5%). Of the women studied, 71.5% presented symptoms and 26.2% had anemia. A higher proportion of abortions occurred among infected mothers with Plasmodium vivax (3/5); and there were 3.3% low-birth-weight neonates. A case of placental malaria (0.8%) for Plasmodium vivax was registered. An association was observed between mothers receiving chemoprophylaxis and the adequate weight of newborns (chi2 = 41 23gl. p < 0.0001), independently of the regularity of treatment. It is concluded that the routine administration of antimalarial quimioprophilaxis against P. vivax to pregnant women, could be justified in endemic areas. It is advisable to establish the routine diagnosis and opportune treatment during the prenatal practice in the transmission areas of malaria.

  11. Morphometric evidence for a possible role of Rhodnius prolixus from palm trees in house re-infestation in the State of Barinas (Venezuela).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliciangeli, M Dora; Sanchez-Martin, Maria; Marrero, Rosalba; Davies, Clive; Dujardin, Jean-Pierre

    2007-02-01

    The main vector of Chagas disease in Venezuela is Rhodnius prolixus. Specimens of Rhodnius sp., identified elsewhere as R. prolixus by molecular tools, were collected in Barinas State (Venezuela) before insecticide application, and compared by morphometric techniques with post-spraying, re-infesting insects after control. Geometric morphometry was applied, allowing separate analyses of shape and size. The idea of a single species sharing silvatic and domestic/peri-domestic ecotopes was supported, suggesting new evolutionary scenarios for the controversial R. prolixus origins. The same data allowed to understand the possible mechanisms of villages re-infestation after a control campaign, either recolonization by local recovery of survivors or re-infestation by external migrants. Both mechanisms were apparent. Although shape properties could distinguish very close subpopulations such as insects from houses and insects from peri-domestic shelters, they were unable to identify the insects from palm trees as a distinct subpopulation. This strongly suggested that human environment could receive immigrants from palm trees. The pattern of size variation supported the hypothesis of a one-way exchange from silvatic to human environments, but did not support the reverse movement. Thus, morphometric data indicated that a silvatic population of the local vector is probably responsible for re-infesting villages after insecticide application, and they also pointed to the existence of re-infestation by local recovery of survivors. According to this interpretation, new epidemiological scenarios must be considered to improve Chagas disease control in Venezuela.

  12. en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan R. Brewer Carías

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La Constitución de Venezuela, en la cual se establecen las regulaciones fundamentales relativas a la justicia constitucional y, en particular, a la Jurisdicción Constitucional, regula sólo dos supuestos, tanto en materia de control difuso como de control concentrado de la constitucionalidad de las leyes, en los cuales los jueces están autorizados para actuar de oficio. Sin embargo, mediante la jurisprudencia constitucional y en la Ley Orgánica del Tribunal Supremo de Justicia de 2004, sin fundamento constitucional alguno se han dispuesto poderes de control constitucional de oficio, en algunos casos, en forma ilimitada. Este trabajo tiene por objeto analizar todos estos supuestos.

  13. Prevalencia de Blastocystis hominis en vendedores ambulantes de comida del municipio Caroní, Estado Bolívar, Venezuela Prevalence of Blastocystis hominis among food handlers from Caroni municipality, Bolivar State, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ixora Requena

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Para determinar la prevalencia de Blastocystis hominis en una muestra de vendedores ambulantes de comida, aparentemente sanos, se realizó un estudio seccional con 415 personas que acudieron al Ambulatorio Urbano tipo III "Manoa" (Municipio Caroní, Estado Bolívar, Venezuela, Programa de Higiene del Adulto, a solicitar el certificado de salud para trabajar como vendedores de comida. Una muestra de heces obtenida por evacuación espontánea fue analizada mediante la técnica de examen directo y método de concentración de Willis. Se encontraron 150 personas parasitadas (36,14%, de ellas 107 (25,78% con B. hominis. No se observó predilección por el sexo (p > 0,05, pero sí con relación a la edad, siendo las personas de 18 a 27 años las más afectados (ji² = 12,17; g.l. = 4. En el 71,02% de los casos se encontró como parásito único y en 28,98% de los casos asociados a otros parásitos, siendo el más frecuentemente asociado Giardia lamblia (2,41%. En la mayoría de las personas parasitadas (85% el protozoario se observó en un número menor de cinco células por campo. Se concluye que B. hominis es un parásito frecuente en manipuladores de alimentos del Municipio Caroní, Estado Bolívar, Venezuela.A cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of Blastocystis hominis infection in a random sample of apparently healthy food handlers. A total of 415 individuals attending the Manoa Urban Outpatient Clinic (Caroní Municipality, Bolívar State, Venezuela in the Adult Hygiene Program and who requested health certification to work as food handlers were studied. Stool samples obtained by spontaneous evacuation were examined by direct microscopy and the Willis concentration method. A total of 150 individuals were infected (36.14%, 107 (25.78% of whom with B. hominis. There was no difference between males and females (p > 0.05, but there was a significant difference between ages (chi² = 12.17; g.l. = 4, with infection more

  14. Ecoturismo: etnodesenvolvimento e inclusão social no Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivani Ferreira de Faria

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The tourism which is practiced in the State of Amazonas (Brazil is an international tourism. The great majority of the touristic infra-structure belongs to regional political oligarchies and to foreign undertakers/corporations that aim at immediate gain and capital accumulation, regarding the traditional populations (natives and river-bank inhabitants as cheap labour, excluding them of all and any process of planning and/or management of the (ecotouristic activities. This research analyses the forms of insertion of the traditional populations in the existing ecotouristic activities and their perceptions about these activities. It also discusses the conceptions of ecotourism, native ecotourism, native tourism, ethnic tourism and ethnotourism and points out the proceeding for the planning of ecotourism in Amazonas

  15. Mercury and methylmercury concentration assessment in children's hair from Manaus, Amazonas state, Brazil Avaliação da concentração de mercúrio e metilmercúrio em cabelo de crianças de Manaus, estado do Amazonas, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana A. Farias

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated Hg and MeHg content in hair samples of 201 children 2 to 7 years old, living in six neighborhoods of the city of Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil. In general, the total Hg and MeHg median ranges in hair were similar (0.91 to 1.71 mg kg-1 except for the São Jose neighborhood, which was lower (0.16 mg kg-1. De spite the fact that the Manaus population consumes fish as part of the normal dietary intake, the Hg hair levels were below the level for an adult population not exposed to mercury (2.0 mg kg-1. These data were compared to demographic, socioeconomic information and eating habits of the families that took part in the study. The results were also compared to other published data from the Amazon region, other regions of Brazil and other countries. Future studies to set Hg and MeHg levels in hair of children in Brazil should take into account and assess the diversity of the country, mainly in terms of eating habits, socio-economic and cultural aspects.O presente estudo avaliou o teor de Hg e MeHg em amostras de cabelo de 201 crianças de 2 aos 7 anos de idade, residentes em seis bairros da cidade de Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil. Em geral, o teor de Hg total e MeHg em cabelo foram semelhantes (medianas de 0,91 a 1,71 mg kg-1, exceto para o bairro São José, que foi menor (0,16 mg kg-1. Apesar da população de Manaus consumir peixe como parte da dieta normal, os níveis de Hg nos cabelos ficaram abaixo do nível para uma população adulta não exposta ao mercúrio (2,0 mg kg-1. Esses dados foram comparados com informações demográficas, socioeconômicas e hábitos alimentares das famílias que participaram do estudo. Os resultados também foram comparados com outros dados publicados da Amazônia, outras regiões do Brasil e outros países. Futuros estudos para definir os níveis de Hg total e MeHg no cabelo das crianças brasileiras deverão considerar e avaliar a diversidade do país, principalmente em termos de h

  16. A Miocene molluscan faunule from Caucagua (Miranda State, Venezuela), with the description of a new species of Tryonia (Mollusca, Gastropoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, F.P.; Macsotay, O.

    2006-01-01

    A molluscan faunule from the Miocene Cumaca Formation of the western margin of the Tuy Basin (Venezuela) is described. The fauna yields two species of freshwater snails and a single terrestrial snail species. Tryonia vivasi nov. spec. is described from the fauna, and its biogeographical significance

  17. ASSESSING PREFERENCES FOR COMPENSATION PACKAGES USING THE DISCRETE CHOICE METHOD: THE CASE OF THE BOLSA FLORESTA PROGRAM IN AMAZONAS, BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    ESSAM YASSIN MOHAMMED; INA PORRAS; MARYANNE GRIEG-GRAN; LUIZA LIMA; AFRIANO SOARES; JOÃO TEZZA NETO; VIRGILIO VIANA

    2013-01-01

    Natural ecosystems, including forest ecosystems, continue to be degraded or converted at an alarming rate. To complement or substitute regulatory approaches to ecosystem management, market-based instruments such as "payments for ecosystem services" (PES) have been introduced and are gaining popularity. One of the prominent PES schemes in the world is the Bolsa Floresta Program (BFP) in the State of Amazonas, Brazil. The BFP was established by the Government of the State of Amazonas through it...

  18. en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Caraballo Vivas

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Nos proponemos esbozar los escenarios de gobernabilidad e ingobernabilidad de la democracia en Venezuela a partir del rol cumplido positiva o negativamente por los partidos políticos. Abordamos la cuestión de la crisis de gobernabilidad como un fenómeno complejo. La ingobernabilidad se presenta como una crisis básicamente como crisis de legitimidad, crisis, de conducción política y crisis del Estado, es decir no se logra conformar un ambiente y escenario definido por la legitimidad y eficiencia que conlleva a un deterioro del sistema político a causa de la disfunción de los partidos como productores de representación y gobernabilidad en la sociedad venezolana a finales de los años ochenta. Finalmente analizamos el agotamiento del bipartidismo y la llegada del fenómeno Chávez y naturalmente la persistencia antes y ahora de indicadores de ingobernabilidad democrática.

  19. Dosimetry of radon, thorium and their progenies in the environment of a chemistry lab and crude in Zulia State, Venezuela; Dosimetria de radon, toron y sus progenies en el entorno de un laboratorio de quimica y crudo en el Estado Zulia, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda, L.; Viloria, T., E-mail: lendavaI22@hotmail.com, E-mail: lpineda@fing.luz.edu.ve, E-mail: tviloria63@yahoo.es [Universidad del Zulia, Maracaibo (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). Departamento de Fisica; Palacios, D.; Sajo-Bohus, L., E-mail: sajobohus@gmail.com, E-mail: sanjuro.perdomo@gmail.com [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    The main objective of this study was to estimate the dose rate of inhalation and the annual contribution of effective dose in the mixed field of radon and thoron in the environment of laboratory chemicals and oil from Zulia State, Venezuela, due to manipulation and storage of oil samples and water production.

  20. [Presence of urban rabies in Zulia State, Venezuela. Years 1996-2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Belkis; Panunzio, Amelia; Larreal, Yraima; Leal, Jenith; Villarroel, Francis; Parra, Irene; Velasco, Doris; Prieto, Yelitza

    2008-12-01

    Rabies is a zoonotic viral disease and in Zulia State, it constitutes a public health problem of a high social impact, due to the report of cases in human beings. In this study, the presence of urban rabies was determined in Zulia's State and its distribution was identified according to municipalities and affected species during 1996-2006. In the scope of a descriptive study, a documented revision of Zulia's State Zoonosis Regional Coordination registries for the period in study was carried out. A total occurrence of 1.033 rabies cases was observed, 1.017 were in animals and 16 in human beings. The biggest incidences were for Maracaibo (31.40%) and San Francisco (15.68%) municipalities. The type of predominant rabies was the urban one; the principal reservoir and transmitter was the canine one (91.60%). Of the reported cases in human beings, the biggest incidence was in in Maracaibo Municipality (37.5%) and the most affected age group was <15 years (81.2%). A low percentage in the coverage of vaccination was presented (33%). A high incidence of rabies is demonstrated in Zulia's State in spite of this being a preventable immune disease. A positive correlation was determined between the number of admissions and cases (rs=0.948 P<0.01). It is necessary to implement an effective control of the sources of infection and to support a minimal coverage of vaccination of 80% in canines and furthermore, to implement community education programs, to diminish the risk of infection and the occurrence of cases.

  1. Ptosis Palpebral in a Urban Area named: December 5. Paez Municipality, Portuguesa State. Venezuela 2007.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenis López León

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A descriptive longitudinal prospective study was made in the Urban Area named December 5 of Páez Municipality, Portuguesa State, in The Venezuela’s Republic, including only the period since September 4 to December 11, 2007 with the objective to define the clinical epidemiological state of Ptosis Palpebral in the Region mentioned. The universe was conformed by 7000 patients of all ages, being a sample of 60 ill persons, for obtaining the information a structural interview was used made by the authors, having productiveness the use of Ophthalmology clinical backgrounds of each person; the obtaining data were introduced in a Pentium IV computer by means of EPINFO Program to calculate them. The female sex was the one that predominate, and it happens the same wit the skin colour (not white finding the ages between 21 and 41 years as high frequency. The moderate ptosis was the most usual, predominating the unilaterals and from etiological point of view: The acquires; obtaining the traumatics the highest incidence within them; resulting ametropias as the ocular pathologies more notables in studied patients and a considerable number of them were tributary of the surgical treatment even though the latest diagnostic, that´s why a previous detection is imposed of the referred entity, helping to improve your Qualitiy Life and reincorporating to your society .

  2. [Diatoms from Unare and Píritu Lagoons, Anzoátegui state, Venezuela. Subclass Bacillariophycidae D. G. Mann ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subero-Pino, Sonia S; Diaz-Ramos, José R; Sanchez-Suarez, Isaac G; Ferraz-Reyes, Elvira

    2002-01-01

    The diatom flora of Unare and Píritu Lagoons, Venezuela, comprises freshwater, estuarine and marine organisms. In this paper, 15 species of diatoms belonging to the subclass Bacillariophyceae D.G. Mann are described. Water samples from Unare and Píritu lagoons (Venezuela) were collected from November 1988 to July 1989. Samples were fixed with neutral formaldehyde (10%) and were examined under phase contrast microscopy. Species under study were Dictyoneis marginata (Lewis) Cleve, Cymbella affinis (Kützing) Cleve, Cymbella sp., Achnanthes brevipes var. intermedia (Kützing) Cleve, Lyrella irroratoides (Hustedt) Mann, Navicula carinifera (Grunow) Peragallo, Navicula liber (W. Smith) Peragallo, Navicula vacillans (Schmidt) Peragallo, Navicula sp, Amphora crassa var. campechiana Grunow, Amphora decussata Grunow, Caloneis powelli (Lewis) Cholnoky, Tryblionella acuta (Cleve) Mann in Round et al., Tryblionella apiculata Gregory, Surirella febigerii Lewis.

  3. Natural hazards on alluvial fans: the debris flow and flash flood disaster of December 1999, Vargas state, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Matthew C.; Wieczorek, Gerald F.; Eaton, L.S.; Torres-Sierra, Heriberto; Sylva, Walter F.

    2001-01-01

    Large populations live on or near alluvial fans in locations such as Los Angeles, California, Salt Lake City, Utah, Denver, Colorado, and lesser known areas such as Sarno, Italy, and Vargas, Venezuela. Debris flows and flash floods occur episodically in these alluvial fan environments, and place many communities at high risk during intense and prolonged rainfall. In December 1999, rainstorms induced thousands of landslides along the Cordillera de la Costa, Vargas, Venezuela. Rainfall accumulation of 293 mm during the first 2 weeks of December was followed by an additional 911 mm of rainfall on December 14 through 16. Debris flows and floods inundated coastal communities resulting in a catastrophic death toll of as many as 30,000 people. Flash floods and debris flows caused severe property destruction on alluvial fans at the mouths of the coastal mountain drainage network. In time scales spanning thousands of years, the alluvial fans along this Caribbean coastline are dynamic zones of high geomorphic activity. Because most of the coastal zone in Vargas consists of steep mountain fronts that rise abruptly from the Caribbean Sea, the alluvial fans provide practically the only flat areas upon which to build. Rebuilding and reoccupation of these areas requires careful determination of hazard zones to avoid future loss of life and property. KEY TERMS: Debris flows, flash floods, alluvial fans, natural hazards, landslides, Venezuela

  4. Papagaio-de-peito-roxo Amazona vinacea (Kuhl (Aves: Psittacidae no norte do Espírito Santo: redescoberta e conservação Vinaceous Amazon Amazona vinacea (Kuhl (Aves: Psittacidae in the northern region of Espirito Santo state, southeastern Brazil: rediscovery and conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas A. Carrara

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Amazona vinacea (Kuhl, 1820 é uma espécie endêmica da Mata Atlântica e ameaçada de extinção no Brasil e no mundo. Não existem relatos recentes de sua presença na porção setentrional de sua distribuição ao norte do estado do Rio de Janeiro. O último é datado provavelmente de 1991, tendo sido considerado extinto ao norte do Espírito Santo. O presente trabalho noticia a redescoberta da espécie em Alto Rio Novo, noroeste do Espírito Santo, divisa com Minas Gerais. Foram registrados bandos em duas localidades em dezembro de 2005, sendo o maior deles composto por 28 indivíduos. Durante os registros foi observado A. vinacea se alimentando de Anadenanthera sp. (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae, uma nova fonte alimentar para a espécie. Os registros históricos mais recentes para a região citam localidades com distância inferior a 35 km dos atuais registros, reforçando a importância local. No entanto, a degradação ambiental e a captura ilegal representam obstáculos à conservação da espécie nesta região. Em dezembro de 2002 foi criado o Parque Nacional dos Pontões Capixabas, primeira Unidade de Conservação na porção serrana do norte do Espírito Santo. Uma das áreas históricas da espécie está incluída em seus limites e um dos locais onde foi agora redescoberto fica a cerca de 10 km de distância da borda do parque. Essa Unidade de Conservação é essencial à proteção de trechos nativos da Mata Atlântica e conseqüentemente do papagaio-de-peito-roxo. Além de medidas conservacionistas, a aquisição de informações sobre as populações de A. vinacea no noroeste do Espírito Santo e leste de Minas Gerais torna-se indispensável para a proposição de medidas de manejo capazes de reverter o grave quadro atual, objetivando viabilizar a permanência de populações na região mais setentrional da distribuição conhecida atualmente para a espécie.Endemic of the Atlantic Forest, Amazona vinacea (Kuhl, 1820 is listed as

  5. Muertes bajo sospecha: Investigación sobre el número de fallecidos en el desastre del estado Vargas, Venezuela, en 1999 Deaths under suspicion: Investigation on the number of deaths in the Vargas state disaster, Venezuela, in 1999

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    R. Altez

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available El desastre ocurrido en diciembre de 1999 en el estado Vargas, Venezuela, dio la vuelta al mundo como noticia espectacular, en donde el número de fallecidos siempre osciló entre decenas de miles. Muchas de estas cifras fueron el resultado de declaraciones inexpertas o irresponsables, desde las cuales se nubló toda posibilidad de precisión al respecto, contribuyendo con ello a que la noción sobre aquel evento alimentara la imaginería y no la interpretación. Este trabajo se concentró en la sistematización de la información existente en los servicios forenses que intervinieron en el levantamiento de los cadáveres, así como en otras instancias vinculadas al caso, acompañando los razonamientos con aproximaciones cualitativas a la zona del desastre. Los resultados ofrecidos a la vuelta de esta investigación, no sólo discuten las cifras ofrecidas desde aquel momento, sino que también evidencian la problemática resultante de la no aplicación de metodologías eficaces para el trato de cadáveres en desastres con muertes masivas, demostrando, del mismo modo, la necesidad de desarrollar investigaciones formales sobre casos similares.The disaster happened in December of 1999 in the Vargas state, Venezuela, run around the world like spectacular news, in which the number of deceases always oscillated between tens of thousands. Many of these numbers were the result of inexpert or irresponsible declarations, from which all possibility of precision became cloudy on the matter, contributing with it to that the notion on that event fed suppositions and not interpretations. This work are focused in the systematization of the existing information in the forensic offices that took part in the rise of corpses, as well as other instances to the case, accompanying the reasoning with qualitative approaches to the disaster zone. The results offered around this investigation, not only discuss the numbers offered from that moment, but that also demonstrate

  6. Segurança/insegurança alimentar em famílias urbanas e rurais no estado do Amazonas: I. validação de metodologia e de instrumento de coleta de informação Nutritional security/insecurity in urban and rural families of Amazonas state: validation of methodology and of information collecting instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia K. O. Yuyama

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo validou a metodologia e o instrumento de coleta de informação para análise da segurança/insegurança alimentar, em famílias urbanas e rurais no estado do Amazonas conforme o proposto pelo USDA (Departamento de Agricultura dos Estados Unidos. Valendo-se de amostra intencional de domicílios, selecionadas para representar estratos sociais diferentes foram computadas 194 famílias sendo 174 com crianças na área urbana de Manaus, envolvendo os seguintes bairros: Jesus me Deu, Novo Israel, Cidade Nova, Coroado e Conjunto Petro. Na área rural foram entrevistadas 209 famílias ribeirinhas e destas 131 com crianças, distribuídas entre os Municípios de Iranduba e Manacapuru. A validação final do questionário (Consistência interna global deu-se por meio da comparação dos níveis de segurança e insegurança alimentar, com os estratos definidos dos indicadores sociais e de consumo. Pode-se concluir que os grupos com maior insegurança alimentar foram os situados em estratos sociais mais baixos e de baixo consumo de alimentos sensíveis a estas condições. O instrumento de coleta apresentou alta validade e consistência interna.The present study validates the methodology and the information collecting instrument for analysis of nutritional security/insecurity on the urban and rural family level, proposed by the USDA (United States Department of Agriculture. An intentional sample of domiciles was selected to represent different social strata, 194 families were enrolled in urban Manaus, of which 174 had children, in the following neighborhoods: Jesus me Deu, Nova Israel, Cidade Nova, Coroado and Conj. Petro. In the rural area between the municipalities of Iranduba and Manacapuru, 209 riparian families were interviewed, and of these 131 had children. The final validation of the questionnaire (global internal consistency was made by comparing, the levels of nutritional security/insecurity, with the defined social strata and

  7. International Commercial Arbitration in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena P. Ermakova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the above article author describes evolution of legal regulation of international commercial arbitration in Venezuela. Author cites statistics of arbitration centers in Venezuela activities. In past two decades many Latin American countries have reformed their arbitration law. In an effort to modernize its arbitral institutions several Latin American countries adopted Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration of the UN Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL. In addition, many Latin American countries have adopted the monistic system. Author pays detailed attention to this issue, discusses concept of a monistic system - a system in which a unique set of rules governs both domestic and international arbitration. Author argues that legal system of Venezuela fits this definition. Venezuelan law on arbitration in 1998 makes no distinction between domestic and international arbitration. Arbitration was included in judicial system under the Constitution of Venezuela of the 1999. Art. 258 of the Venezuelan Constitution states that arbitration, conciliation and mediation are alternative ways of resolving disputes.

  8. Investigación de trihalometanos en agua potable del Estado Carabobo, Venezuela Trihalomethanes in the drinking water of Carabobo State, Venezuela

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    A. Sarmiento

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: La desinfección del agua con cloro en las plantas de potabilización da lugar a la formación de trihalometanos (THM. Estos compuestos están asociados a efectos adversos para la salud. En este estudio se determinó la concentración de THM en el agua para consumo humano suministrada por las redes de distribución de los dos principales sistemas de potabilización de agua del Estado Carabobo, la planta Alejo Zuloaga y el embalse Pao-Cachinche que forman el Sistema Regional del Centro I (SRC-I y la planta Lucio Baldo Soules y el embalse Pao-La Balsa que forman el Sistema Regional del Centro II (SRC-II. Métodos: Se analizaron un total de 144 muestras recolectadas durante 6 muestreos que se realizaron durante los años 2000 y 2001. La concentración de THM se determinó por cromatografía de gases, mediante la técnica de headspace. Se determinaron las concentraciones para los siguientes THM: cloroformo (CHCl3, bromoformo (CHBr3, dibromoclorometano (CHBr2Cl y diclorobromometano (CHCl2Br. Resultados: La concentración de THM totales estuvo entre 47,84 y 93,23 μg/l. El CHCl3 fue el compuesto predominante, representando el 83% de total de THM para el SRC-I y el 82% en el SRC-II. Se encontró que las concentraciones de THM totales en el SRC-I (Red Baja y Red San Diego son significativamente superiores (p Objective: Disinfection of water with chlorine in water treatment plants leads to the formation of trihalomethanes (THMs. These compounds are associated with adverse health effects. The aim of this study was to analyze THM concentrations in the water provided for human consumption in the two main water treatment systems of Carabobo State: the Alejo Zuloaga plant and the Pao-Cachinche reservoir, which form the Central Regional System I (CRS I, and the Lucio Baldo Soules plant and the Pao-La Balsa reservoir, which form the Central Regional System II (CRS II. Methods: We analyzed 144 water samples collected in 6 samplings carried out in 2000

  9. The Chavez Challenge: Venezuela, The United States and the Geo-Politics of Post-Cold War Inter-American Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    A. RELATIONS BETWEEN THE U.S. AND VENEZUELA........................53 B. THE FUTURE OF VENEZUELA (WHAT DOES POST- FUJIMORI PERÚ TEACH US...highly critical perspective of the Bush administration, William Leogrande argues that due to the distraction of the Global War on Terror , President...of democracy after Fujimori in Perú will be used to evaluate possible scenarios in a post- Chávez Venezuela. The chapter will conclude with some

  10. Validación de "infarto de miocardio" como causa de muerte en certificados de defunción, Barquisimeto, Estado Lara, Venezuela Validation of "myocardial infarction" as cause of death on death certificates in Barquisimeto, Lara state, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Granero

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Las tasas de mortalidad por cardiopatía isquémica (CI han sido utilizadas ampliamente en el diagnóstico de la salud cardiovascular de regiones y países. Sin embargo, su validez ha sido cuestionada fundamentalmente por lo que le da origen: el certificado de defunción (CDD. El presente estudio tiene el objetivo de establecer la validez del diagnóstico "infarto de miocardio (IM" como causa de muerte en los CDD de muertes intra-hospitalarias en la ciudad de Barquisimeto, Estado Lara, Venezuela. Entre julio de 1991 y junio de 1992, se identificaron todos los CDD con las características mencionadas, se trató de ubicar la historia clínica correspondiente a cada caso y cualquier otra información clínica pertinente. Se registraron 247 CDD elegibles y se ubicó información clínica adecuada en 136 casos (55%. Aplicando los criterios del Proyecto MONICA, se encontraron M-definitivo en 62 casos (45,6%, IM-probable en 31 casos (22,8% y No-IM en 43 casos (31,6%. Los resultados indican que existe un sobre registro de casos de muerte por IM del 32% (intervalo de confianza del 95% = 23,8-39,4. A la luz de estos resultados es necesario estudiar los factores que inciden en la exactitud de los diagnósticos IM en los CDD. Con esto tendríamos elementos para revisar las normas y los procedimientos empleados en la producción y manejo de los CDD, así como preparar un programa de educación para mejorar la precisión de los mismos.Death rates due to Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD are widely used to assess regional and national cardiovascular health status. However, their validity is questionable, essentially because they are based on death certificates (DCs. The present study was conducted in the Greater Metropolitan Area of Barquisimeto (Lara State, Venezuela, from June 1991 to July 1992. The purpose was to establish the validity of the diagnosis of myocardial infarction in DCs of intrahospital deaths. Efforts were made to locate all clinical charts and any

  11. Elevada prevalencia de Cyclospora cayetanensis en indígenas del estado Bolívar, Venezuela High prevalence of Cyclospora cayetanensis among indigenous people in Bolivar State, Venezuela

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    Rodolfo Devera

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad las coccidiosis intestinales causadas por Cryptosporidium parvum, Isospora belli y Cyclospora cayetanensis constituyen parasitosis de gran importancia médica, sin embargo, en el Estado Bolívar, Venezuela, se desconocen muchos aspectos epidemiológicos de estas infecciones. Entre julio de 2003 y abril de 2004 fue evaluada la población indígena San Antonio de Morichal con el objetivo de determinar la prevalencia de coccidiosis intestinales. Las muestras fecales obtenidas por evacuación espontánea fueron preservadas en dicromato de potasio 2,5% y posteriormente examinadas mediante la técnica de concentración con formol-éter y coloración de Kinyoun. De los 160 indígenas evaluados, el 92,5% (148 casos estaba parasitado. Entamoeba coli (58,8%, Ascaris lumbricoides (38,8% y Giardia lamblia (18,8% fueron los más comunes. La prevalencia de coccidiosis intestinal fue de 13,1%, siendo la cyclosporiosis la más importante con 11,9% (19 casos. Solamente se diagnosticó un caso con ooquistes de C. parvum (0,6% y otro con I. belli (0,6%. No hubo diferencias en cuanto al sexo (p > 0,05 y la edad (c2 = 5,6; g.l: 6 de los habitantes infectados con C. cayetanensis. De los infectados con C. cayetanensis únicamente dos tenían diarrea. En conclusión, se determinó una prevalencia elevada de coccidiosis intestinal en habitantes de la comunidad indígena evaluada, siendo la infección por C. cayetanensis las más prevalente.The intestinal coccidioses caused by Cryptosporidium parvum, Isospora belli, and Cyclospora cayetanensis are parasitoses of major medical importance, but many epidemiological aspects of these infections are still unknown in Bolívar State, Venezuela. To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and especially of intestinal coccidiosis, an indigenous population in San Antonio de Morichal was evaluated from July 2003 to April 2004. Stool samples obtained by spontaneous evacuation were preserved in potassium

  12. Diagnosis of malaria by acridine orange fluorescent microscopy in an endemic area of Venezuela

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    Irene Bosch

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescent (acridine orange microscopical examination of capillary centrifuged blood (quantitative buffy coat [QBC®] analysis and Giemsa stained thick blood smears (GTS were compared for diagnosis of malaria in blood specimens from adults living in malaria transmission areas of the States of Bolivar and Amazonas in southeastern and south Venezuela, respectively. Of a total of 198 GTS examined, 95 subjects (48% showed parasitaemia. Among the 95 blood films with a positive GTS, 94 were judged positive by the QBC. However, positive QBC tubes were found in 29 out of 103 blood specimens with a negative GTS. Thus, relative to a GTS standard, the sensitivity and specificity of the QBC-test was 99.2% and 72%, respectively. Young trophozoites of Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum could not be distinguished with certainty. It is confirmed that the QBC offers many advantages compared with the standard diagnosis of malaria parasites, specifically in the speed of staining and ease of interpretation. However, in places where P. falciparum and P. vivax occur, species and stage differentiation should be confirmed with the GTS.

  13. Protozoários e metazoários parasitos do cardinal Paracheirodon axelrodi Schultz, 1956 (Characidae, peixe ornamental proveniente de exportador de Manaus, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i1.872 Protozoan and metazoan parasites of the cardinal Paracheirodon axelrodi Schultz, 1956 (Characidae, ornamental fish from Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i1.872

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    Maria Leonora Silva Brito

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Os estudos sobre a parasitofauna de peixes ornamentais cultivados são de grande relevância para o conhecimento das espécies de parasitos, permitindo interferência em sua proliferação para evitar epizootias e, consequentemente, perdas econômicas na criação. O presente estudo investigou a prevalência e intensidade de parasitos protozoários e metazoários em cardinal Paracheirodon axelrodi (N = 89, mantidos em tanques de um exportador de Manaus, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil. Dos espécimes de P. axelrodi necropsiados, 65,2% (N = 58 estavam parasitados pelos Protozoa Piscinoodinium pillulare (3,4% e Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (7,9%, Monogenoidea Gyrodactylus sp. (42,7%, Nematoda Procamallanus sp. (23,6% e Trematoda (1,1%. Gyrodactylus sp. e Procamallanus sp., porém, foram os parasitos de maior prevalência e intensidade. Apesar da elevada prevalência de parasitismo em P. axelrodi durante a sua permanência no exportador, a intensidade de protozoários e metazoários foi baixa pelo manejo profilático nos tanques. Os resultados demonstram que os cuidados com tratamento e profilaxia são de extrema importância na aquicultura de peixes ornamentais.Studies regarding parasites fauna in farmed ornamental fish are of great relevance for knowledge of the parasites species, allowing interference in their proliferation to avoid epizooties and consequently, economical losses. This study was designed to investigate the protozoan and metazoan parasites prevalence and intensity on cardinal Paracheirodon axelrodi, maintained in tanks of an exporter from Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil. On necropsy 65.2% of P. axelrodi were found parasitized by Piscinoodium pillulare, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Protozoa, Gyrodactylus sp. (Monogenoidea, Procamallanus sp. (Nematoda and Trematoda. Gyrodactylus sp. (42.7% and Procamallanus sp. (23.6% were the parasites of greatest prevalence, and protozoan I. multifiliis was the parasite of greatest mean intensity (4

  14. Série de casos agudos de doença de Chagas atendidos num serviço terciário de Manaus, Estado do Amazonas, de 1980 a 2006 Series of acute Chagas' disease cases attended at a tertiary-level clinic in Manaus, State of Amazonas, from 1980 to 2006

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    Wuelton Marcelo Monteiro

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A doença de Chagas é um problema emergente e negligenciado na Região Amazônica. MÉTODOS: Descreve-se uma série de casos agudos autóctones de doença de Chagas atendidos na Fundação de Medicina Tropical do Amazonas, Manaus, de 1980 a 2006. RESULTADOS: Registraram-se 29 casos, sendo 19 do sexo masculino e 10 casos do sexo feminino. Quinze eram casos isolados e 14 provenientes de surtos. Os sinais/sintomas mais freqüentes foram febre, fadiga, cefaléia, mialgia, calafrios, palidez, dispnéia e edema de face e de membros inferiores. Não foi registrado nenhum óbito. CONCLUSÕES: A doença incidiu com frequência em jovens. Os métodos parasitológicos mostraram elevada sensibilidade.INTRODUCTION: Chagas disease is an emerging and neglected problem in the Brazilian Amazon region. METHODS: This study describes a series of acute autochthonous cases of Chagas disease that were attended at the Tropical Medicine Foundation of Amazonas, Manaus, between 1980 and 2006. RESULTS: Twenty-nine cases were recorded: 19 (65.5% were male and 10 (34.5% cases were female. Fifteen (51.7% were isolated cases and 14 (48.3% were from outbreaks. The commonest signs and symptoms were fever, fatigue, headache, myalgia, chills, pallor, dyspnea and edema of the face and lower limbs. No deaths were recorded. CONCLUSIONS: The disease occurred frequently among young people. The parasitological methods showed high sensitivity.

  15. Perfil demográfico dos Hupd'äh, povo Maku da região do Alto Rio Negro, Amazonas (2000-2003 Perfil demográfico de los Hupd'äh, pueblo Maku de la región del Alto Rio Negro, Amazonas (2000-2003 Demographic profile of the Hupd'äh, a Maku people living the Upper Rio Negro Region, State of Amazonas, Brazil (2000-2003

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    Marina Machado

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Os Hupd'äh são um povo de língua Maku, habitante da região do Alto Rio Negro, Amazonas, Brasil. Lideranças indígenas, antropólogos, missionários e profissionais de saúde afirmam que eles estariam vivendo em condições de saúde precárias, com alta mortalidade geral e infantil. A partir de dados provenientes do Distrito Especial Indígena do Rio Negro - DSEI-RN, da Funasa/MS, para o período 2000-2003, foi realizado um estudo descritivo para avaliar o perfil demográfico e conhecer melhor essa população, contribuindo para a implementação de políticas públicas que lhe favoreçam e para os debates em antropologia, demografia e saúde indígena. A população de 1.487 indivíduos, em 2003, cresceu 8,4% ao ano no período estudado. Sua composição por idade e sexo indica concentração de jovens (44,9% com menos de 15 anos, além da predominância de população do sexo masculino. A taxa bruta de natalidade (TBN média do período foi de 33,4 nascimentos por mil habitantes, a de fecundidade total (TFT correspondeu a 3,4 filhos por mulher, a de mortalidade (TBM foi de 10 óbitos por mil habitantes e a de mortalidade infantil (TMI chegou a 116,3 óbitos por mil nascimentos. O aperfeiçoamento da coleta de informações, o elevado crescimento vegetativo e a intensa mobilidade espacial dos Hupd'äh poderiam explicar o alto ritmo de crescimento verificado entre 2000 e 2003.Los Hupd'äh son un pueblo de lengua Maku, habitante de la región del Alto Río Negro, Amazonas, Brasil. Liderazgos indígenas, antropólogos, misionarios y profesionales de la salud, afirman que estarían viviendo en condiciones de salud precarias, con alta mortalidad general e infantil. A partir de datos provenientes del Distrito Especial Indígena del Río Negro - DSEI-RN, de la Funasa/MS, para el período 2000-2003, fue realizado un estudio descriptivo para evaluar el perfil demográfico y conocer mejor esta población, contribuyendo con la implementación de pol

  16. Molecular characterization of Salmonella strains in individuals with acute diarrhea syndrome in the State of Sucre, Venezuela

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    Hectorina Rodulfo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION:In Venezuela, acute diarrheic syndrome (ADS is a primary cause of morbi-mortality, often involving the Salmonella genus. Salmonella infections are associated with acute gastroenteritis, one of the most common alimentary intoxications, and caused by the consumption of contaminated water and food, especially meat. METHODS: Conventional and molecular methods were used to detect Salmonella strains from 330 fecal samples from individuals of different ages and both sexes with ADS. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used for the molecular characterization of Salmonella, using invA, sefA, and fliC genes for the identification of this genus and the serotypes Enteritidis and Typhimurium, respectively. RESULTS: The highest frequency of individuals with ADS was found in children 0-2 years old (39.4%, and the overall frequency of positive coprocultures was 76.9%. A total of 14 (4.2% strains were biochemically and immunologically identified as Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica, of which 7 were classified as belonging to the Enteritidis serotype, 4 to the Typhimurium serotype, and 3 to other serotypes. The S. enterica strains were distributed more frequently in the age groups 3-4 and 9-10 years old. CONCLUSIONS: The molecular characterization method used proved to be highly specific for the typing of S. enterica strains using DNA extracted from both the isolated colonies and selective enrichment broths directly inoculated with fecal samples, thus representing a complementary tool for the detection and identification of ADS-causing bacteria.

  17. Aspectos clínico-epidemiológicos sobre pediculosis capitis en arenales, Estado Falcón, Venezuela Clinical and epidemiological aspects on pediculosis capitis in, Falcon State, Venezuela

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    D Cazorla PerfettI

    2012-03-01

    ón fueron: jugar en piso de tierra (OR = 2,20; p = 0,012 y lavarse el cabello ≥2 /semana (OR = 1,01; p = 0,002. A la luz de los resultados obtenidos, es recomendable mejorar las condiciones socio-sanitarias del sector y mantener campañas de promoción y educación para la salud.The human pediculosis capitis is a scalp and hair infestation caused by head lice Pediculus humanus capitis, which may result in bacterial secondary infections by intense scratching as well as anemia, anxiety and embarassment which are increased by children' exclusion from school under "no-nit" policy. From March to July 2011, a cross-sectional study was designed to determine the prevalence and clinical and epidemiological profiles of head lice infestation among 199 (79 males and 120 females inhabitants of all age groups (0-75 years; ± D.S= 21.28 ± 17 of a rural and small town Arenales, from the semiarid region of Falcon state, north-western Venezuela.The diagnosis of head lice infestation was made by clinical naked eye inspection of scalp and hair for the presence of adult lice, nymphal stage, or eggs (nit by line-toothed head lice comb. Lice was cleared and mounted in Hoyer’s medium for microscopic observation. All individuals were evaluated by physical examinationand a detailed, structured questionnaire. The overall prevalence of head lice infestation was 10.10% (20/199. The prevalence of infestation was significantly higher in girls (90% than in boys (10% [Odds Ratio (OR = 3.04; p = 0.01] and school-aged children (OR= 1.02;p=0,015; with hair length >3cm (OR = 2,44; p = 0.004 and lissotrichic type (OR = 2.25; p = 0.02, (OR= 2.25; 0.98 - 5.18, however, these were not significantly different among races or hair colours (P > 0.05. 65% of the individuals had only nits with 1 up to 64 per individuals, found between 0.1 and 9 cm from scalp on all anatomical regions of the head, and having school-aged children the higher ectoparasitic loads. Among clinical signs and symptoms, head pruritus (6

  18. Elevada prevalencia de Cyclospora cayetanensis en indígenas del estado Bolívar, Venezuela High prevalence of Cyclospora cayetanensis among indigenous people in Bolivar State, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Rodolfo Devera; Ytalia Blanco; Eva Cabello

    2005-01-01

    En la actualidad las coccidiosis intestinales causadas por Cryptosporidium parvum, Isospora belli y Cyclospora cayetanensis constituyen parasitosis de gran importancia médica, sin embargo, en el Estado Bolívar, Venezuela, se desconocen muchos aspectos epidemiológicos de estas infecciones. Entre julio de 2003 y abril de 2004 fue evaluada la población indígena San Antonio de Morichal con el objetivo de determinar la prevalencia de coccidiosis intestinales. Las muestras fecales obtenidas por eva...

  19. [Immigration to Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picouet, M; Pellegrino, A; Papail, J

    1986-11-01

    Immigration to Venezuela is examined using census data with the focus on the period 1971-1981. A brief overview of trends since the beginning of the twentieth century is first presented. The analysis indicates that "immigration to Venezuela is clearly of a short-term nature. Flows follow job opportunities and adjust to the labour market and to the financial capacity of the exchange market. The large increase of migratory movements to Venezuela in the 1970's is characterized by a diversification of their places of origin and by a greater instability. To a large extent, the migrants are illegal, especially those coming from Colombia and the Caribbean islands. Because of the crisis of the early 1980's, which is now worsened by the down trend of both oil prices and the U.S. dollar, Venezuela has become less attractive to immigrants, particularly from neighbouring countries." The authors observe that migrants in Venezuela are not well integrated and may depart, disrupting the labor supply in certain technical and specialized occupations (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA)

  20. Mercury resistance in bacterial strains isolated from tailing ponds in a gold mining area near El Callao (Bolívar State, Venezuela).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, María Mercedes; Carrero, Pablo; Castro, David; Yarzábal, Luis Andrés

    2007-02-01

    Bacterial resistance to mercury (Hg) was investigated in strains isolated from Hg-contaminated tailing ponds located in the gold mining area of El Callao (Bolívar State, Venezuela). High frequencies of resistance were detected to both inorganic-Hg and organomercurials among these strains. A broad range of resistance levels was observed when determining minimal inhibitory concentrations of Hg(2+). Some strains were able to grow in liquid medium containing 25 muM: Hg(2+), whereas others grew at 300 muM: Hg(2+). Of 190 Hg-resistant strains tested, 58.2% were additionally shown to be resistant to ampicillin (40 mg/L), 33.3% to chloramphenicol (30 mg/L), 24.9% to streptomycin (30 mg/L), 23.3% to tetracycline (30 mg/L), and 1.6% to kanamycin (30 mg/L). Furthermore, we found that 20% of the Hg-resistant strains were simultaneously resistant to as many as four of these antibiotics, at the concentrations tested. The presence of large plasmids in 62.9% of 53 Hg-resistant strains screened prompted us to investigate the horizontal transfer of resistance determinants. Mating experiments were performed using Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa as recipient strains. The results obtained confirmed that indigenous Hg-resistant bacteria colonizing the tailing ponds can effectively transfer the phenotype to potentially pathogenic species.

  1. SEASONAL VARIATION OF AVIFAUNAL COMPOSITION AND COMMUNITIES IN FOOTHILL GALLERY FOREST FRAGMENTS IN THE MANZANARES RIVER MEDIUM BASIN, STATE OF SUCRE, VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marín-Espinoza, Gedio

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the seasonal variation of avifaunal composition and structural community in foothill gallery forest fragments in the Manzanares river medium basin, state of Sucre, Venezuela, at two sectors: Guaranache-Cancamure (GC y Tataracual-Cangrejal (TC, during february-may (dry period and june-november (rainy period. Birds samples were taken monthly by point counts and mist-nets. Correlation analysis and non parametric tests were estimated to examine differences among seasonal periods. 73 species were recorded and were grouped into 7 feeding guilds. Mean diversity of both periods was high but no significant; although dry period diversity was moderately higher than rainy period. Richness and diversity showed no significant differences among periods, neither showed significant correlation with rainy levels. Occurrence frequency showed unusual > eventual > habitual > prevalent species pattern. Complementary index showed a substantial mean similarity monthly (67%. For both methods species cumulative curves displayed similar growing patterns. Insectivores and frugivores-insectivores were the most diverse feeding guilds. Amazilia tobaci obtained the highest specific importance index. Pitangus sulphuratus was the most persistent species. Community dynamic of avifauna of these riparian landscape would seem be influenced primarily to a suitable resources availability because to vertical and horizontal floristic heterogeneity. Conservation plans for medium basin of Manzanares river should take into account regular deforestation activities, particularly periodic and uncontrolled burnings, which likely would affect more adversely species associated with understory habitats.

  2. Non-genetic factors affecting calving interval and weaning weight in a buffalo herd located in well drained savannas, Guárico state, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Martínez

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The main focus of this research was to evaluate non-genetic factors affecting calving interval (CI and weaning weight (WW on a buffalo herd located in well drained savannas of Guárico state, Venezuela. The study involved records (1997-2001 related to monthly frequency of calving (n=486; calving interval (n=365 and weaning weight (n=376. Data analysis included year and calving season, calf sex, cow age and the interactions for CI. For WW, age at weaning was also included in the statistical analysis. Results revealed significant differences for calving distribution per year (P≤0.05 associated with year-on-year climatic factor changes and progressive herd stabilization. CI averaged 378 ± 1.8 (X – ± S.E. days, with a coefficient of variation (CV of 7.3% and a significant effect of calving month (P ≤ 0.05. CI frequency distribution for herd showed 75% cows lower than 400 days. Female age at calving was not significant (linear or quadratic due it was a young herd, with less than 2.6% animals older than 11 years. WW averaged 130.4±1.9 kg and CV of 24.4%; age to weaning 238.7±3.2 days, with calving month and age to weaning showing significant effect, while the weight average daily gain was 128g per animal. These findings suggest buffalo’s productive and reproductive potential under tropical conditions.

  3. Characterization of the mineral phosphate-solubilizing activity of Pantoea agglomerans MMB051 isolated from an iron-rich soil in southeastern Venezuela (Bolívar State).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulbarán, Miguel; Pérez, Elizabeth; Ball, María M; Bahsas, Alí; Yarzábal, Luis Andrés

    2009-04-01

    The mineral phosphate-solubilizing (MPS) activity of a Pantoea agglomerans strain, namely MMB051, isolated from an iron-rich, acidic soil near Ciudad Piar (Bolívar State, Venezuela), was characterized on a chemically defined medium (NBRIP). Various insoluble inorganic phosphates, including tri-calcium phosphate [Ca(3)(PO(4))(2)], iron phosphate (FePO(4)), aluminum phosphate (AlPO(4)), and Rock Phosphate (RP) were tested as sole sources of P for bacterial growth. Solubilization of Ca(3)(PO(4))(2) was very efficient and depended on acidification of the external milieu when MMB051 cells were grown in the presence of glucose. This was also the case when RP was used as the sole P source. On the other hand, the solubilization efficiency toward more insoluble mineral phosphates (FePO(4) and AlPO(4)) was shown to be very low. Even though gluconic acid (GA) was detected on culture supernatants of strain MMB051, a consequence of the direct oxidation pathway of glucose, inorganic-P solubilization seemed also to be related to other processes dependent on active cell growth. Among these, proton release by ammonium (NH(4)(+) ) fixation appeared to be of paramount importance to explain inorganic-P solubilization mediated by strain MMB051. On the contrary, the presence of nitrate (NO(3)(-) ) salts as the sole N source affected negatively the ability of MMB051 cells to solubilize inorganic P.

  4. Uma proposta de avaliação integrada de risco do uso de agrotóxicos no estado do Amazonas, Brasil A proposal for integrated risk assessment of pesticide use in Amazon State, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Viviana Waichman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante os últimos 30 anos, o aumento da população humana no Amazonas introduziu a necessidade de produção adicional de alimentos e levou o governo do estado a desenvolver programas para aumentar e melhorar a produção agrícola. A produção de hortaliças não tradicionais apresentou vários problemas desconhecidos para os agricultores da região, uma vez que estas culturas não são bem adaptadas às condições locais. A suscetibilidade a insetos, fungos e outras pragas, e a competição com vegetação nativa vem forçando os agricultores a usar intensivamente os agrotóxicos. Os agricultores não estavam preparados para o uso adequado desta tecnologia ignorando os riscos dos agrotóxicos para saúde humana e o ambiente. Os agricultores não usam equipamento de proteção individual, porque é caro, desconfortável e inadequado para o clima quente da região. A falta treinamento e o escasso conhecimento sobre os perigos dos agrotóxicos contribuem para a manipulação incorreta durante a preparação, aplicação e disposição das embalagens vazias. Nestas condições, a exposição dos agricultores, suas famílias, consumidores e ambiente é alta. Como um primeiro passo para o entendimento deste problema e a proposição de soluções é proposta a realização de uma avaliação integrada de risco. As três fases do processo, formulação de problema, avaliação da exposição, e caracterização de risco são detalhadas. Programas de educação, treinamento e informação fazem parte das estratégias para a redução do risco do uso de agrotóxicos permitindo o desenvolvimento de uma agricultura ambientalmente sustentável.During the last 30 years, the increase of the human population in the Amazon introduced the need for additional food production and caused the state government to implement programs to increase and improve agricultural production. The production of nontraditional crops introduced several problems unknown to

  5. Doenças exantemáticas e primeira epidemia de dengue ocorrida em Manaus, Amazonas, no período de 1998-1999 Exanthematous diseases and the first epidemic of dengue to occur in Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil, during 1998-1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Maria Pinto De Figueiredo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Em 1998, a Fundação de Medicina Tropical/Instituto de Medicina Tropical do Amazonas implementou o sistema de vigilância para síndromes febris agudas indiferenciadas, com o propósito de manter vigilância ativa e passiva na Amazônia Ocidental, Brasil, permitindo identificar e diagnosticar os agentes etiológicos causadores de febres agudas. O diagnóstico foi realizado através de estudos sorológicos para a detecção de anticorpos IgM, utilizando-se técnicas de ELISA (Enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay e kits ELISA comerciais. Foram analisadas 8.557 amostras de soros de pacientes com suspeita clínica de dengue, 40% dos soros foram ELISA positivos para o vírus da dengue e 26% dos soros foram ELISA positivos para outras doenças exantemáticas virais como rubéola, sarampo, parvovírus, oropouche e mayaro.In 1998, the FMT/IMT-AM foundation implemented the surveillance system to diagnose acute undifferentiated febrile syndromes, with the objective of active and passive surveillance in Brazilian western Amazonian rainforest to identify and diagnose the etiologic agents of acute fever. The diagnoses were performed using serological tests to detect IgM antibodies by ELISA (Enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay CDC/OPAS or using commercial kits. A total of 8,557 serum samples obtained from patients with clinical suspicion of dengue virus were analyzed. ELISA positive reaction to dengue virus was presented by 40% of the serum samples and 26% of the serum samples had positive ELISA reactions to other exanthematous viral diseases, such as rubella, measles, parvovirus, Oropouche virus and Mayaro virus.

  6. A Study of Venezuela’s Internal and External Threat and the United States Security Assistance Program in the Build-Up and Modernization of Her Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    to this threat by creating her own "Comision para el Desarrollo .• 99 .°mWhI ° del Sur de Venezuela (CODESUR)" - Commission for the Development of...Management, WPAFB OH, 3 January 1984. 17. Diccionario Enciclopedico Abreviado. Espasa-Calpe, S.A. Madrid, Spain, 941-971, 197. 18. Denton, Charles F

  7. Descripción del macho y de la hembra de Lutzomyia larensis n.sp. (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae del estado Lara, Venezuela Descrição do macho e da fêmea de Lutzomyia larensis n.sp. (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae do Estado Lara, Venezuela Description of the male and female of Lutzomyia larensis n.sp. (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae from State of Lara, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrado Arredondo C.

    1987-09-01

    Full Text Available Es dada la descripción del macho y de la hembra de una nueva espécie de flebotomíneo recolectado en tronco de árboles en el Parque Nacional de Yacambú, Estado Lara, Venezuela. La nueva espécie pertenece al subgénero Helcocyrtomyia, Barrto, 1962 o al grupo vexator, série peruensis de Theodor (1965 y de Young & Fairchild (1974. El macho se identifica por la presséncia de 5 espinos en el dististilo y por el mechón de cerdas largas en el basistilo, implantadas en tubérculos gruesos y queratinizados. La hembra a la vez presenta armadura dl cibário con 4 dientes largos y una espermateca segmentada semejante a las de otras espécies de la série peruensis.É apresentada a descrição do macho e da fêmea de uma nova espécie de flebotomíneo coletado em tronco de árvore no Parque Nacional de Yacambú, Estado Lara, Venezuela. A nova espécie pertence ao subgênero Helcocyrtomyia, Barretto, 1962, ou grupo vexator, série peruensis de Theodor (1965 e de Young & Fairchild (1974. O macho da nova espécie apresenta cinco espinhos no dististilo e no basistilo um grupo de cerdas longas, implantadas em tubérculos fortes e queratinizados e a fêmea mostra quatro dentes horizontais no cibário e espermatecas segmentadas, semelhantes ao de outras espécies da série peruiensis.A description is given of both the male and female of a new species of phlebotomine sandfly cought in tree trunks in yacambú Nacional Park, State of Lara, Venezuela. The new species belongs to the subgenus Helcocyrtomyia, Barretto 1962 or group vexator, series peruensis of Theodor (1965 and of Young and Fairchild (1974. The male is characterized by the presence of 5 spines on the dististyle and a basal patch of long bristles on the basistyle, implanted on queratinized, strong tubercules. Female presents cibarial armature with 4 large teeth, and a segmental spermatheca similar to another species of the series peruensis.

  8. ANÁLISIS BIOGEOGRÁFICO DE LOS PECES CHARACIFORMES DE VENEZUELA Biogeographic Analysis of the Characiformes Fishes of Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA BONILLA RIVERO

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un análisis biogeográfico basado en los peces Characiformes de Venezuela con el objetivo de explorar la importancia relativa de los procesos que han contribuido con el establecimiento de los patrones de distribución actuales de la ictiofauna continental venezolana. La información geográfica y filogenética disponible se analizó siguiendo los métodos de Análisis de Parsimonia de Endemismos (PAE y Análisis de Parsimonia de Brooks (BPA. El PAE señaló fundamentalmente a los Llanos Occidentales y el sur del Amazonas como áreas de endemismo. El BPA realizado con la información filogenética de siete géneros mostró un patrón generalizado con los clados (Caribe + Maracaibo y ((((Río Negro+Orinoco + Paria + Valencia + Cuyuní, donde se destaca un evento de dispersión desde la cuenca del río Negro hacia el río Orinoco. Los resultados de ambos métodos biogeográficos indican que la región de los llanos - amazonas, donde se conjugó la biota del incipiente Orinoco con la biota amazónica, contiene el mayor número de especies, las áreas de endemismo mejor sustentadas, así como distintos eventos de especiación y posterior dispersión hacia otras regiones. La biota de la región nortecostera del país parece más bien gobernada por procesos de especiación vicariante de carácter puntual por el aislamiento histórico de sus drenajes.Based on the information available on fishes of the order Characiformes of Venezuela a biogeographical analysis was performed to explore the relative importance of the processes that may have contributed to the establishment of current distribution patterns of the Venezuelan continental ichthyofauna. Geographic and phylogenetic information available for this group of fishes was analyzed by Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity (PAE and Brooks Parsimony Analysis (BPA. PAE uncovered the western plains and southern Amazonas as areas of endemism. BPA, using the phylogenetic information of seven genera

  9. Limnological characterization of floodplain lakes in Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve, Central Amazon (Amazonas State, Brazil Caracterização limnológica dos lagos da planície de inundação na Reserva de Desenvolvimento Sustentável Mamirauá, Amazônia Central (Estado do Amazonas, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Gomes Affonso

    2011-03-01

    em 2009, e água baixa em 2008, 2009 e 2010; RESULTADOS: Os resultados mostraram que as variáveis medidas possuem uma alta variabilidade nos corpos d'água na região de estudo: a entre as fases da hidrógrafas; b entre os rios principais; e c entre as margens opostas do Rio Japurá, mostrando a importância do pulso de inundação na variação dos parâmetros físicos e químicos e ainda a em relação ao rio principal de alimentação; CONCLUSÕES: O monitoramento dos parâmetros físicos e químicos em Mamirauá servirá como futura referência para comparação com outras regiões menos preservadas, como o Baixo Amazonas, e ainda como linha de base para modelos sobre efeitos das mudanças climáticas e influências antropogênicas no ecossistema aquático Amazônico.

  10. HYDROCARBONS RESERVES IN VENEZUELA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, D.J.

    2007-07-01

    Venezuela is an important player in the energy world, because of its hydrocarbons reserves. The process for calculating oil and associated gas reserves is described bearing in mind that 90% of the gas reserves of Venezuela are associated to oil. Likewise, an analysis is made of the oil reserves figures from 1975 to 2003. Reference is also made to inconsistencies found by international experts and the explanations offered in this respect by the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET) and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) regarding the changes that took place in the 1980s. In turn, Hubbert's Law is explained to determine peak production of conventional oil that a reservoir or field will reach, as well as its relationship with remaining reserves. Emphasis is placed on the interest of the United Nations on this topic. The reserves of associated gas are presented along with their relationship with the different crude oils that are produced and with injected gas, as well as with respect to the possible changes that would take place in the latter if oil reserves are revised. Some recommendations are submitted so that the MENPET starts preparing the pertinent policies ruling reserves. (auth)

  11. Briófitas de Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil Bryophytes from Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Yano

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram listadas 74 espécies de briófitas para a cidade de Manaus, Amazonas, sendo 41 espécies de musgos distribuídos em 24 gêneros e 15 famílias e 33 hepáticas em 17 gêneros e sete famílias. Destas, 17 espécies de briófitas são ocorrências novas para Manaus e para o estado do Amazonas. T. ligulaefolium (Bartr. Buck é uma ocorrência nova para o Brasil. São apresentadas associações com outras briófitas e comparação com outras espécies urbanas.This survey lists 74 species of bryophytes from Manaus, Amazonas, namely, 41 species of mosses distributed in 24 genera and 15 families and 33 liverworts in 17 genera and seven families, of which, 17 species are new occurrences to Manaus. T. Ligulaefolium (Bartr. Buck is new occurrence to Brazil. Associations with other bryophytes and comparison with other regions are presented.

  12. DIVERSIDAD MITOCONDRIAL EN EL NOR-OCCIDENTE DE VENEZUELA. IMPLICACIONES PARA PROBABLES RUTAS MIGRATORIAS PREHISPÁNICAS Mitochondrial diversity in Northwest Venezuela. Implications for probable prehispanic migratory routes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DINORAH CASTRO DE GUERRA

    Full Text Available La utilidad del ADN mitocondrial (ADNmt para determinar afinidad genética entre grupos indígenas contemporáneos e inferir sobre migraciones, ha sido demostrada; pero la imposibilidad de estudiar grupos prehispánicos extintos, limita las inferencias sobre migraciones en esa época. El mestizaje en poblaciones neoamericanas ha sido caracterizado por uniones entre hombres europeos y mujeres indígenas, permitiendo detectar en la población contemporánea haplogrupos mitocondriales amerindios que informan sobre poblaciones extintas. Para conocer los linajes femeninos en el occidente de Venezuela, se estudiaron los haplogrupos del ADNmt a partir de RFLP, en una muestra de 193 individuos con antepasados procedentes del occidente de Venezuela, 81 del Estado Lara (Barquisimeto y 112 de tres pueblos del Estado Falcón (Macu-quita=25, Macanillas=29 y Churuguara=58. Se comparó la distribución de haplogrupos entre las poblaciones y se estimó el mestizaje por línea femenina en ellas. Se comparó la distribución de cuatro haplogrupos indígenas con otras regiones de América. Se observa que en las cuatro poblaciones predominan haplogrupos amerindios, seguidos de los africanos. Al comparar la fracción indígena con el resto de América encontramos que Macanillas, Lara y Churuguara se asemejan a grupos de Amazonas y Suramérica, mientras que Macuquita a Aruba. Esto sugiere una diversidad genética importante en esa zona como probable ruta de paso hacia el sur y el Caribe; además refleja vínculos genéticos importantes entre grupos prehispánicos de Aruba y los de la Península de Paraguaná. Evidencias arqueológicas soportan estos postulados. Se recomienda aumentar la muestra y realizar análisis de secuencias para un nivel mayor de precisión.Mitocondrial DNA (mtDNA has been widely used to study genetic relationships between contemporary Amerindian groups and to infer ancestral migration movements; however inferences about migration routes of

  13. Alta prevalencia de la infección por el virus de hepatitis B en la comunidad indígena Japreira, Estado Zulia, Venezuela High prevalence of hepatitis B infection in Amerindians in Japreira, Zulia State, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Monsalve-Castillo

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A fin de conocer la prevalencia de la infección por el virus de hepatitis B (VHB en la comunidad indígena Japreira, Venezuela, y determinar las pautas de su adquisición en función de la edad y sexo, se seleccionaron 149 individuos de un total de 300. Se detectó por métodos serológicos la presencia de anticuerpos totales del VHB (anti-HBc total, y en las positivas se investigó la presencia del antígeno de superficie (HBsAg y del antígeno "e" del VHB (HBeAg. La prevalencia de anti-HBc total fue de 72,9% en el sexo femenino y 81,1% en el masculino, la prevalencia de HBsAg fue elevada (61,1% en el sexo masculino, sólo cuatro de los portadores de HBsAg fueron positivos para HBeAg. Los resultados obtenidos indican un grado elevado de endemia para esta infección y que su diseminación comienza a temprana edad. El factor involucrado en la adquisición y diseminación del virus seria la vía sexual. Hacinamiento, contacto intercorpóreo con fluidos biológicos, prácticas sociales, y características de la cepa viral circulante podrían estar involucradas en la alta cronicidad observada en la comunidad indígena Japreira.The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV infection in the Japreira indigenous community, Venezuela, and its relationship to age and gender. An intentional, non-probabilistic sample of 149 individuals was selected from a total of 300. All samples were studied for the presence of total HBV antibodies (total anti-HBc, and the positive samples were tested for HBV surface and "e" antigens (HBsAg, HBeAg. Overall prevalence rates of total anti-HBc were 72.9% in females and 81.1% in males. The highest prevalence of HBsAg was observed in males 26-35 years of age. Only four of the 44 HBsAg carriers were positive for HBeAg. The results showed a high endemic HBV infection rate and indicated that its spread begins at early ages. Sexual transmission may be the main route for spread of the virus

  14. Area Handbook Series: Venezuela; A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    to sign a revised Acta. The Contradora process was effectively superseded by direct negoti- ations among the Central American states. encomienda -A...131 203, 206 Central Bank of Venezuela (BCV), cocoa (see also cacao), 94; boom, 3; un- 36-37, 85, 99; interest rate policies of, der encomienda system...211 ment budget, 196; stability of, 196; un- Costa Rica, 185 der trienio, 180 cotton: under encomienda system, 82; as ex- defense spending, 195-9t

  15. Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and rheumatic disease in the Warao, Kari'ña, and Chaima indigenous populations of Monagas State, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados, Ysabel; Rosillo, Celenia; Cedeño, Ligia; Martínez, Yanira; Sánchez, Gloris; López, Geovalis; Pérez, Fernando; Martínez, Damarys; Maestre, Gabriela; Berbin, Sol; Chacón, Rosa; Stekman, Iván; Valls, Evart; Peláez-Ballestas, Ingris

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and rheumatic diseases in the Warao, Kari'ña, and Chaima indigenous populations of Monagas State, Venezuela. A cross-sectional, analytical, community-based study was conducted in 1537 indigenous subjects ≥18 years old (38.6 % male, mean age 41.4 ± 17.5 years). The cross-culturally validated Community Oriented Program for the Control of Rheumatic Diseases (COPCORD) diagnostic questionnaire was applied. Subjects with a positive COPCORD diagnosis (either historic or current pain) were evaluated by primary care physicians and rheumatologists. A descriptive analysis was performed and comparisons made using analysis of variance and the chi-square test. Pain in the last 7 days was reported by 32.9 %, with pain intensity, according to a Likert-type scale [no pain, 195 (38.5 %); minimal pain, 231 (45.6 %); strong pain, 68 (13.4 %); intense pain, 5 (0.9 %)], 38.0 % reported historical pain, and 641 (41.7 %) had either historic or current pain. Of the COPCORD-positive subjects, pain most frequently occurred in the knee, back, and hands. Musculoskeletal and rheumatic diseases included osteoarthritis (14.1 %), back pain (12.4 %), rheumatic regional pain syndromes (RRPS) (9.7 %), undifferentiated arthritis (1.5 %), rheumatoid arthritis (1.1 %), and fibromyalgia (0.5 %). Chaima (18.3 %) and Kari'ña (15.6 %) subjects had a high prevalence of osteoarthritis, and Warao subjects had a high prevalence of low back pain (13.8 %). The prevalence of RRPS was high in all three ethnic groups. The Chaima group had the highest prevalence of rheumatic diseases, with 2.0 % having rheumatoid arthritis. This study provides useful information for health care policy-making in indigenous communities.

  16. Geochemical signatures of bedded cherts of the upper La Luna Formation in Táchira State, western Venezuela: Assessing material provenance and paleodepositional setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbán, G.; Martínez, M.; Márquez, G.; Rey, O.; Escobar, M.; Esquinas, N.

    2017-01-01

    Here we undertook an inorganic geochemical study of Cenomanian-Campanian bedded cherts (the Táchira Ftanita Member of the La Luna Formation) in the western region of the Táchira State, Venezuela. The aim of this study was to determine the paleo-oceanographic and paleo-environmental conditions that governed the deposition of chert beds and put forward a sedimentation model for the Táchira Ftanita Member in the study area. Seventy-two chert samples were collected and trace/rare earth elements (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Rb, Cs, Th, U, Y, Co, and Sc) and major/trace elements (SiO2, TiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, MgO, CaO, Na2O, K2O, P2O5, Mn, Ba, Sr, Cr, Ni, and V) were determined by ICP-MS and ICP-OES, respectively. On the basis of the stratigraphic abundance and distribution of relatively immobile elements, as well as the distribution of rare earth elements, we established that the detrital sediments associated with the sequences studied have matching characteristics with distinct continental materials, with an intermediate composition, thus pointing to the Guayana Massif as the main source of sediments. In addition, we also determined the influence of hydrothermal input on the chemical composition of some cherts from La Molina Mine. On the basis of geochemistry, we found a biological influence regarding the uptake of dissolved silica for forming chert beds. The application of parameters for relatively immobile elements allowed us to establish a still proximal continental-margin (hemipelagic) for most samples from the Zorca River and a continental-margin for almost all the cherts from the Delicias-Villa Páez section and the remaining samples from La Molina Mine. Finally, we propose that the rhythmicity that accompanies the sequence of bedded cherts is related to changes in the intensity of upwelling patterns of water and/or to variability in the supply of silica dissolved in the Táchira sub-basin.

  17. [Hand injuries in workers on the eastern shore of Marcaibo Lake in the state of Zulia, Venezuela, 1986-1993].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirit-Urbina, Yadira; Fernández-D'Pool, Janice; Lubo-Palma, Adonías

    2002-06-01

    In order to analyze the frequency, injury rate and cause of on site accidents to the hands of workers on the east coast of lake of Maracaibo in Zulia State, data was obtained from the accident reports registered with the Venezuelan Institute of Social Security. An occupational hand injury was defined as a traumatic injury to the hands, fingers or wrists that occurred while the employee was at work; that resulted from a single exposure to a hazardous agent. The following variables were analyzed: age, severity, economic activity, material agent, mechanic cause, type of injury, type of accident and unsafe action. The frequency rate was used to analyze the annual accident rate. During the period under study 2.456 injuries to the hand were registered, representing 36% of the total injuries reported; 95% were light injuries, 5% incapacitating and two cases resulted in the death of the worker. 72% of the injuries were located in the fingers, 22% in the hands and 6% in the wrists. The greatest frequency of injuries were found in the economic activity in mines and quarries with a rate of 123.1 per thousand. The age group most affected was of 20-29 years (42%), Wounds or contusions and crushings were the injuries most commonly reported, in 39% and 36% of the cases respectively. The main type of injuries were caused by run over, running into or blow from objects. The principal agents causing injuries were materials, substances and radiations in 45% of the cases. It is concluded that the hand injury rate is very high in the exploitation of mines and quarries and represents the main cause of worker's disability.

  18. Experimental and natural infection of Simulium sanchezi by Mansonella ozzardi in the Middle Orinoco region of Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarzábal, L; Basáñez, M G; Ramírez-Pérez, J; Ramírez, A; Botto, C; Yarzábal, A

    1985-01-01

    Experimental and natural infections of Simulium sanchezi by Mansonella ozzardi were studied in the area of Síquita, Territorio Federal Amazonas, Venezuela. The microfilariae developed synchronously in the blackflies, reaching stage L3 in seven to eight days at temperatures between 23 degrees and 27 degrees C. Larvae in different stages of development, including infective forms, were found in 0.6% of 662 unfed wild-caught females. These results confirm that simuliids are the main vectors of M. ozzardi in the American continent.

  19. The costs of REDD: lessons from Amazonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, Virgilio M.; Ribenboim, Gabriel [Amazonas Sustainable Foundation (Brazil); Mea, Rosana Della [Rainforest Concern (Brazil); Grieg-Gran, Maryanne

    2009-11-15

    Reducing tropical deforestation is a major climate and development issue: forest clearing is responsible for roughly a fifth of greenhouse gas emissions, and the forest-dependent poor number over a billion. In the runup to the Copenhagen climate summit, REDD – reducing emissions from deforestation and (forest) degradation by providing incentives to tropical forest countries – has been touted as one of the most cost-effective mitigation mechanisms on the table. But the benefits would be only temporary if forests saved today are cleared once incentives cease. Would the expense of maintaining such incentives over decades raise the price to uncompetitive levels? A forest reserve in Amazonas, Brazil, offers some of the first real-world data on the costs of REDD. Even with pessimistic assumptions about future pressures, the project's carbon cuts look highly affordable.

  20. A historical overview of leprosy epidemiology and control activities in Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Cunha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Leprosy is an ancient infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. According to comparative genomics studies, this disease originated in Eastern Africa or the Near East and spread with successive human migrations. The Europeans and North Africans introduced leprosy into West Africa and the Americas within the past 500 years. In Brazil, this disease arrived with the colonizers who disembarked at the first colonies, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador and Recife, at the end of the sixteenth century, after which it was spread to the other states. In 1854, the first leprosy cases were identified in State of Amazonas in the north of Brazil. The increasing number of leprosy cases and the need for treatment and disease control led to the creation of places to isolate patients, known as leprosaria. One of them, Colonia Antônio Aleixo was built in Amazonas in 1956 according to the most advanced recommendations for isolation at that time and was deactivated in 1979. The history of the Alfredo da Matta Center (AMC, which was the first leprosy dispensary created in 1955, parallels the history of leprosy in the state. Over the years, the AMC has become one of the best training centers for leprosy, general dermatology and sexually transmitted diseases in Brazil. In addition to being responsible for leprosy control programs in the state, the AMC has carried out training programs on leprosy diagnosis and treatment for health professionals in Manaus and other municipalities of the state, aiming to increase the coverage of leprosy control activities. This paper provides a historical overview of leprosy in State of Amazonas, which is an endemic state in Brazil.

  1. A survey of selected parasitic and viral pathogens in four species of Mexican parrots, Amazona autumnalis, Amazona oratrix, Amazona viridigenalis, and Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Elizabeth Gordon; Montiel-Parra, Griselda; Pérez, Tila Maria

    2005-06-01

    Isolated populations of four species of Mexican parrots were sampled for evidence of selected pathogens of concern in birds originating in Latin America. Data were collected between June and September 1997, and ectoparasite collection was repeated with Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha in September 2000. Serum samples from nine Amazona oratrix, 10 Amazona viridigenalis, 6 Amazona autumnalis, and 25 R. pachyrhyncha chicks were screened for neutralizing antibodies to psittacid herpesvirus and avian influenza and for antibodies to paramyxovirus serotypes 1 and 3. Chicks were also examined visually for fecal parasites and ectoparasites. All serologic and fecal parasite tests were negative. Ectoparasites included ticks, Ixodidae; mites, Ornithonyssus sylviarum; fleas, Psyttopsylla mexicana; lice, Paragoniocotes mexicanus, Heteromenopon sp., and Psittacobrosus sp.; and bugs, Ornithocoris sp. This study provides baseline information to guide future health studies.

  2. Venezuela y el Caribe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Cardozo de da Silva

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Venezuela es uno de los principales actores económicos de América Latina, de allí la importancia de conocer las características de su política exterior. Los desarreglos de la política exterior hacia el caribe pueden ser resueltos si se les comprende en su dimensión local y global. En este sentido es necesario avanzar del espacio "inter-societal" de la preocupación estrictamente comercial a los espacios culturales y de cooperación técnica.

  3. O Cone do Amazonas, bacia da Foz do Amazonas: uma nova discussão The Amazon Fan, Foz do Amazonas basin: a new discussion

    OpenAIRE

    Gil César Rocha de Carvalho; Caroline Janette Souza Gomes; Marcelo Augusto Martins Neto

    2011-01-01

    O Cone do Amazonas, situado na porção profunda da bacia da Foz do Amazonas, Margem Equatorial Brasileira, constitui um dos maiores leques submarinos do mundo. É caracterizado por processos de argilocinese e pela presença de um sistema de falhas distensivo e compressivo conectado entre si por um descolamento basal. Nesse trabalho, re-examinaram-se seis linhas sísmicas de reflexão com o objetivo de contribuir para um melhor conhecimento da tectônica gravitacional, de idade controversa. A aná...

  4. Os sistemas agroflorestais como alternativa de sustentabilidade em ecossistemas de várzea no Amazonas The Agroforestry systems as an alternative of sustainable land use in várzea (floodplain ecosystems in Amazon State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albejamere Pereira de Castro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Os sistemas agroflorestais (SAFs representam uma alternativa agroecológica de produção, sob regime sustentável, para os agricultores familiares na várzea dos Rios Solimões/Amazonas, principalmente no que se refere ao manejo florestal, à diversidade de produtos e à geração de renda. Diante disso, o objetivo deste trabalho foi compreender as diferentes formas de apropriação e de manejo dos recursos naturais através dos SAFs, nos subsistemas roça, sítio e lagos, como componente para a sustentabilidade dos agricultores familiares da localidade Costa da Terra Nova, município do Careiro da Várzea, Amazonas. O método empregado foi o Estudo de Caso com aplicação de questionários, entrevistas e observação participante. A produção familiar na Costa da Terra Nova é representada pelos SAFs, constituído pelos os subsistemas: roça quintal e lago, que proporcionam produtos tanto para subsistência quanto para comercialização local, e estabelecendo a agricultura como fundamental atividade na localidade. O principal produto para comercialização é obtido das hortaliças cultivadas na época da vazante no subsistema roça nas comunidades São Francisco e Nossa Senhora da Conceição; e do extrativismo pesqueiro no subsistema lago, na época da cheia, principalmente na comunidade São José. A criação de animal se dá no subsistema sítio e é apenas para subsistência, sendo as aves e os suínos os principais animais domésticos criados nas três comunidades. Portanto os SAFs tradicionais, constituídos pelos subsistemas, roça, sitio e lago, são responsáveis pela sustentabilidade socioeconômica da localidade pesquisada, servindo, como alternativa agrícola melhor adaptada às condições locais das áreas de várzea na Amazônia.The Agroforest Systems (SAF's presents an agro ecological alternative of production under sustainable basis for the families farmers, in the várzea (floodplain of the Solimões/Amazonas Rivers

  5. Can Venezuela's oil sector endure Chavez' ambitions any longer?; Kan Venezuela's oliesector Chavez' ambities nog langer dragen?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honkoop, J.

    2009-07-15

    The author describes the decline of Venezuela's oil industry as well as President Chavez' reaction to Venezuela's budgetary crisis. Politicization, falling investment and the obligation to take upon itself a plethora of social spending have left national oil company Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A. unable to produce efficiently and maintain production levels. Falling oil production and lower oil prices have in turn left president Hugo Chavez unable to spread the wealth to Venezuela's poor and he is searching desperately for ways to extract yet more from Venezuela's dysfunctional economy. As funds run out, Venezuela's expensive foreign policy, supporting regional allies, in particular Cuba, and seeking to export anywhere but the United States, proves overly expensive. Venezuela's impoverished masses, still supportive of Chavez during February's elections, may become less so as funds for social programmes run out. For Chavez it is a time for making choices... otherwise the people of Venezuela will choose for him. [Dutch] De auteur beschrijft de teruggang van de olie-industrie van Venezuela en de reacties van president Chavez op de budgettaire crisis in Venezuela. Politisering, dalende investeringen en de verplichtingen m.b.t. de overvloed aan sociale uitgaven zorgen er voor dat de nationale oliemaatschappij Petroleos de Venezuela niet in staat is om efficient te produceren en de productie op peil te houden. Dalende olie-productie en lagere olieprijzen zorgen er ook voor dat de president niet in staat is om de rijkdom te verdelen over de armen in Venezuela. Hij is op zoek naar manieren om meer te halen uit de slecht functionerende economie. Zijn dure buitenlandse Venezuela beleid, onder meer door ondersteuning van regionale bondgenoten, in het bijzonder Cuba, en het zoeken naar export mogelijkheden, behalve naar de USA, pakt fiancieel gezien slecht uit. De verarmde massa's van Venezuela steunden Chavez nog in de verkiezingen in

  6. Apheresis activity in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltiel, Christiane

    2005-07-01

    Interest for apheresis activity has been growing in Venezuela. In 1976 there were only a few devices; in 2003, 80 apheresis machines performed 27,675 donor apheresis procedures and 547 therapeutic procedures countrywide. We report the activity at the Metropolitan Blood Bank (the largest one of the country) in the period 1999-2003: 597 therapeutic procedures were performed in 171 patients, during 212 crisis episodes. The average age was 38 +/- 16 years, 65% male and 35% female. Most of the therapeutic procedures were therapeutic plasma exchange for hematology diseases (mainly thrombotic thrombocitopenic purpura and hemophilia inhibitors), including 184 therapeutic procedures with the Autopheresis-C (Baxter Healthcare Corp., Deerfield, IL). Most common adverse effects (3.9%) were hypotension and allergic reactions to the plasma.

  7. [Demographic profile of Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, I

    1984-04-01

    Sources of demographic data for Venezuela include 11 population censuses conducted between 1873-1981, birth and death registration statistics, and the household sample survey. The average annual rate of population growth increase from 2.8% between 1920-40 to 3-4% thereafter. The population at the 1961 census was 7.52 million. According to preliminary data from the 1981 census, the population of 14.57 million is growing at an annual rate of 2.8%. 41.2% of the population is under 15 years old, implying a huge demand for educational and health services, housing and employment. The dependency rate in 1980 was 81.3% for the country as a whole, 100.4% in rural areas, and 76.0% in urban areas. The young age structure means that the population will continue to grow even if natality rates decline. The crude natality rate was estimated at 47.3/1000 for 1950-55, 36.0 for 1970-75, and 32.9 for 1980-85. Some rural areas still have natality rates of over 47/1000. The total fertility rate declined from 6.5 in 1950-55 to 4.1 in 1980-85. The decline in the natality rate reflects improving quality of life, availability of family planning services, urbanization, and access of women to productive activities and educational centers. The mortality rate was 12.3/1000 in 1950-55, 9.1 in 1960-65, in 1970-75, and has been estimated at 5.5 for 1980-85. Some rural areas have mortality rates of 8.1. The infant mortality rate was 50.2/1000 in 1971 and 34.3 in 1980. Life expectancy at birth is about 69 years. During the 1920s, Venezuela unerwent expansion in infrastructure and technological utilization, generating rapid urbanization. 39.2% of the population was urban in 1941, compared to 78.8% in 1980. The significance of urbanization in Venezuela is due to the rapidity as well as the diffusion of the process. The household sample survey for the 2nd half of 1980 indicated a total of 8.16 million employed and an activity rate of 32.1% overall, 46.4% for males and 17.7% for females. The

  8. Employment Problems Associated with the Accelerated Delivery of the F-16 to the Republic of Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    consisting of 20 states, two federal territories (Territorio Delta Amacuro and Territorio Amazonas ), 72 Caribbean islands administered as dependencies, and a...additions/modifications needed 64:1.14). Battery Shop. A deluge shower, sink, floor drain, exhaust fan , and eye wash fountain needed to be added -’ (64

  9. Mochima, estado Sucre (Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Elisa Requena Mago

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En tiempos de recesión, los expertos nos bombardean con cifras relacionadas a la caída del producto interno bruto, al desempleo, entre otras. Dada la situación que presenta hoy en día Venezuela, aunado a la alta inflación y la devaluación de la moneda; el escenario resulta bastante complicado para el consumidor y las empresas proveedoras de bienes y servicios. En este sentido, las PyMES turísticas de Mochima, ubicadas en el Estado Sucre, Venezuela, se presentan como una alternativa para de alguna manera ayudar a disipar ese triste escenario, mediante sus bondades y en combinación con Internet. De allí que el presente artículo aborde desde los aspectos teóricos del turismo hasta las bondades naturales y culturales que ofrece esta zona oriental del país. Se utilizó una metodología de carácter descriptiva y una combinación de estrategia documental y de campo. Se aplicó un muestreo no probabilístico de tipo intencional, seleccionando los elementos con base en criterios de los investigadores. De acuerdo al estudio, se diseñó la página web y se concluyó, que la implementación de la misma ayudaría en gran medida a mejorar los ingresos de la región y darse a conocer tanto a nivel nacional como internacional.

  10. Carbon storage in soil and aggregates of Inceptisols under different land use management systems in southern Amazonas

    OpenAIRE

    Milton César Costa Campos; Marcelo Dayron Rodrigues Soares; Mailson Ferreira Nascimento; Douglas Marcelo Pinheiro Silva

    2016-01-01

    Land use and management systems are factors that can influence carbon stock and its aggregate stability. This study assessed the carbon stock and aggregate stability of Inceptisols under different land use and management systems. The study was conducted on five properties located in the southern region of Amazonas state. Five areas were selected with different traditional land use systems (agroforestry, cassava, sugarcane, pasture and native forest). On each site, grids of 50 m x 50 m, with r...

  11. Detection of dengue virus serotype 3 by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae captured in Manaus, Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria CS Pinheiro

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The detection of dengue virus serotypes from Aedes aegypti in Manaus, state of Amazonas was carried out using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction technique. Fourteen pools out 82 (17.1% were positive for DENV3, providing a minimal infection rate of 2.1% of all analyzed infected female specimens of three different areas of the city.

  12. Scorpion poisoning in the Acosta and Caripe Counties of Monagas State, Venezuela. part 1: characterization of some epidemiological aspects Escorpionismo nos Municípios Acosta e Caripe, Estado Monagas, Venezuela.parte 1: caracterização de alguns aspectos epidemiológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo De Sousa

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion poisoning was surveyed in Acosta and Caripe counties, located in the Turimiquire subregion of Monagas State, Venezuela, aiming to expand information on stings by characterizing some epidemiological aspects. From 1987 to 1993, 298 cases of scorpion stings were recorded in Acosta and Caripe counties. Acosta had 212 cases, with an annual incidence rate of 18.3‰(cases per 10,000 inhabitants and a period median incidence rate of 128‰. The scorpion poisoning index is 4.18 times greater in Acosta than in Caripe, confirming the former as a hyperendemic zone for this type of injury, with a phenomenon of cyclical temporal fluctuations and an upward trend. This area is infested with scorpions of the genus Tityus. Our results show that the region surveyed in Monagas State is endemic for scorpion stings, posing a major public health problem.No presente trabalho os autores procuram mostrar o perfil epidemiológico do escorpionismo nos Municípios Acosta e Caripe, localizados na subregião geográfica do maciço montanhoso do Turimiquire do Estado de Monagas, Venezuela. Durante o período de 1987 a 1993, registrou-se um total de 298 acidentes causados por escorpiões, correspondendo 212 ao Município de Acosta e 86 ao de Caripe. Acosta apresentou um índice de incidência anual de 18,3 casos por 10.000 habitantes e 128% para o período meio de estudo; o índice de escorpionismo foi 4,18 vezes maior que o apresentado em Caripe. Os dados indicam que o Município de Acosta é hiperendêmico para este acidente, com um comportamento variável e uma tendência ao incremento ao longo dos anos. Os resultados obtidos evidenciam que estas regiões do Estado de Monagas são endêmicas para o acidente peçonhento causado por escorpiões que assumem importância como problema de saúde pública, mais ainda quando são áreas de dispersão do gênero Tityus.

  13. Assessing Whether Oil Dependency in Venezuela Contributes to National Instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Kott

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this article is on what role, if any, oil has on Venezuela's instability. When trying to explain why a resource-rich country experiences slow or negative growth, experts often point to the resource curse. The following pages explore the traditional theory behind the resource curse as well as alternative perspectives to this theory such as ownership structure and the correlation between oil prices and democracy. This article also explores the various forms of instability within Venezuela and their causes. Finally, the article looks at President Hugo Chavez's political and economic policies as well as the stagnation of the state oil company, Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA. This article dispels the myth that the resource curse is the source of destabilization in many resource dependent countries. Rather than a cause of instability, this phenomenon is a symptom of a much larger problem that is largely structural.

  14. Venezuela Rahvusraamatukogu juht kuulutas sõja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Venezuela Rahvusraamatukogu direktor Fernando Baez kuulutas, et tema juhtimisel püüab Venezuela rahvusraamatukogu saavutada juhirolli Ladina-Ameerikas, kuna USA Kongressi Raamatukogust on saanud raamatukogude suurimaid vaenlasi ajaloos

  15. Venezuela paneb kokku regionaalset energeetikaliitu / Allan Espenberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Espenberg, Allan

    2007-01-01

    Venezuela pealinnas toimus organisatsiooni Petrocaribe kolmas tippkohtumine. Petrocaribe, mis liidab peamiselt Kariibi mere riike ja tegeleb energeetikaküsimustega, algatas 2 aastat tagasi Venezuela president Hugo Chavez. Organisatsiooni kuulub 16 riiki

  16. Detección y diferenciación de Entamoeba histolytica y Entamoeba dispar mediante reacción en cadena de la polimerasa en individuos de una comunidad del Estado Zulia, Venezuela Detection and differentiation of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar by polymerase chain reaction in a community in Zulia State, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulbey Rivero

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La identificación diferencial de Entamoeba histolytica y Entamoeba dispar es esencial para un tratamiento adecuado del paciente y con fines epidemiológicos. Para determinar la prevalencia de E. histolytica y E. dispar se estandarizó y aplicó un ensayo de PCR, utilizando oligonucleótidos específicos para cada especie. 204 muestras de heces de individuos de la comunidad de Santa Rosa de Agua (Municipio Maracaibo, Estado Zulia, Venezuela, fueron analizadas a través del examen directo con SSF (0,85% y lugol, concentrado de formol-éter y PCR. Al examen microscópico, 42 individuos (20,58% presentaron formas evolutivas del complejo E. histolytica/E. dispar; mientras que la técnica de PCR evidenció un total de 47 casos positivos a estas amibas; de los cuales 22 eran portadores de E. histolytica (10,78%, 16 (7,84% de E. dispar y 9 (4,41% presentaron infección mixta. No hubo diferencia significativa al relacionar las variables sexo y presencia de E. histolytica y/o E. dispar, ni con los grupos etarios. No existieron casos de estas amibas, en los menores de 2 años. La frecuencia observada de E. histolytica (31/204, demuestra el carácter endémico de la amibiasis en esta comunidad.Differential identification of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar is essential for both appropriate patient treatment and epidemiological purposes. To determine the prevalence of these amoeba infections in Santa Rosa de Agua (Maracaibo, Zulia State, Venezuela, a PCR assay using specific primers for each species was standardized and applied. 204 stool samples were analyzed through direct microscopic examination with SSF (0.85% and lugol, formol-ether concentration, and PCR. Under direct microscopy, 42 individuals (20.58% presented the E. histolytica/E. dispar complex. Meanwhile PCR showed 47 positive cases for these amoebas: 22 E. histolytica (10.78%, 16 E. dispar (7.84%, and 9 (4.41% mixed infections. There was no significant difference in the presence of E

  17. Building Coalitions for Change : Venezuela Judicial Infrastructure Development Project

    OpenAIRE

    Kuehnast, Kathleen

    2001-01-01

    In the early 1990s, the Government of Venezuela urgently requested assistance from the World Bank to combat corruption, improve the business climate, and create a sense of transparency and involvement of civil society in state matters. The country's judicial system was identified as the institution in which to begin such reforms, because it was widely perceived as lacking credibility and e...

  18. The Educational System of Venezuela. Education around the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Edward J.

    History, structure, legal bases, and planned reforms of the educational system of Venezuela are discussed. The conflicting roles of church and state in administering education have been reconciled within the past two decades, with resultant increases in enrollment and government financing. Curriculum regulation, coordination, and supervision are…

  19. Transporte Urbano en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Virginia Ocaña Ortiz

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El diseño e implantación de políticas públicas expresas en el área del transporte urbano en Venezuela data de finales de los años ochenta. En él se contempló la “modernización” y la “municipalización” del transporte urbano. El objetivo del presente trabajo es analizar la intervención de los poderes locales en el diseño e implementación de la política de transporte urbano en las ciudades venezolanas. La metodología utilizada consistió en el análisis de información documental y entrevistas semiestructuradas a funcionarios de Alcaldías y del gobierno central. Los resultados indican que la política fue diseñada en el seno del Ministerio de Transporte y Comunicaciones y del Ministerio de Infraestructura, por un grupo de especialistas, siguiendo lineamientos de la banca multilateral, sin consultar a los actores del sistema, y muy especialmente a los Municipios o Alcaldías. Se concluye que los poderes locales han intervenido de forma limitada en la implantación de la política, con muy escaso poder de decisión y siguiendo lo establecido por el gobierno nacional.

  20. Desarrollo humano en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idana Berosca Rincón Soto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El siguiente artículo tiene como objetivo principal analizar la tendencia y evolución del desarrollo humano en Venezuela para el periodo 2000-2010. Se abordó la investigación enmarcada en una metodología de tipo positivista con técnicas estadísticas. Se concluyó que los recursos escasos y las dificultades históricas exigen un incremento de esfuerzos presupuestarios y de gestión, en cantidad, calidad y transparencia por parte del Estado a través del gasto público. En los últimos años, el Estado no ha aprovechado plenamente el potencial de la política fiscal y los periodos de bonanza económica, precedidos por los auspiciosos auges petroleros, para fomentar, estimular y consolidar el desarrollo humano que permita a la población en general tener calidad de vida cónsonos con una sociedad conducente al bienestar general sostenible y permanente. Esto se explica por diversas limitaciones y retos afrontados, como la falta de diversificación del financiamiento y gasto público, la exigua carga fiscal, la corrupción dentro de la praxis política, la estructura mayormente regresiva del sistema de recaudación, el gasto público y social insuficiente e inequitativo.

  1. Propagação in vitro de tucumã do Amazonas In vitro propagation of Astrocarium aculeatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Hercílio Viegas Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Astrocaryum possui um grande número de espécies com potencial alimentício e produtoras de óleos. A espécie mais utilizada, o tucumã do Amazonas, é consumida em larga escala nos estados da região norte do Brasil e originado do extrativismo vegetal. Embriões zigóticos de sementes maduras e imaturas de tucumã do Amazonas (Astrocaryum aculeatum G. Mey foram inoculados em meio de cultivo semi-sólido de Murashige e Skoog (MS suplementado com vitaminas. Os embriões sobreviventes foram transferidos para o mesmo meio MS suplementado com 0,0; 1,0; 3,0 e 5,0mg L-1 de BAP, obtendo-se taxa crescente de brotação, sendo as mais eficientes as doses de 3,0 a 5,0mg L-1There is a large number of species within the genus Astrocaryum with the potential for use as food and for oil production. The most used species, tucumã do Amazonas, is consumed on a large scale in the States in the northern region of Brazil, originating from extractivism. Zygotic embryos of mature and immature tucumã do Amazonas (Astrocaryum aculeatum G. Mey. seeds were inoculated in a semi-solid Murashige and Skoog (MS culture medium supplemented with vitamins. The surviving embryos were transferred to the same MS medium supplemented with 0.0; 1.0; 3.0 and 5.0mg L-1 of BAP, obtaining an increasing rate of shoot formation.

  2. Lasers and petroleum in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    da Costa, G.; Guerri, G.; Calatroni, J. (Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela). Lab. de Optica Cuantica)

    1978-06-01

    The viscosity of heavy hydrocarbons is one reason why conventional drilling methods are insufficient for petroleum extraction in Venezuela at a depth of 1000 m. The Quantum Optics Laboratory of Simon Bolivar University in Caracas is conducting a search for novel perforation and heating tools for petroleum extraction. Basic research is being carried out using a 10 MW TEA-CO/sub 2/ laser. The laser is not only a research tool but a matter of national interests, as petroleum is Venezuela's main export article.

  3. English Teaching Profile (Provisional): Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    This profile of the English language teaching situation in Venezuela discusses the status of English in society and in the educational system. It also gives an account of Venezuelan political, economic, and social life. A description is given of the education system and reforms that have been proposed for nursery school through higher education.…

  4. Venezuela. America = Las Americas [Series].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Leonor; Avery, Robert S.

    This bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides an encyclopedia-style overview of Venezuela's history, geography, economy, and culture for teachers to use with migrant children in the elementary grades. Topics presented in the English portion include climate, land, people, customs, government, arts, food, culture, wildlife,…

  5. Punto de corte de homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR para determinar insulinorresistencia en individuos adultos del municipio Maracaibo-Estado Zulia, Venezuela (Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA-IR cut-off point for insulin resistance in adults from Maracaibo municipality-Zulia State, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Añez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Insulin Resistance (IR is an important finding in several diseases including diabetes and metabolic syndrome, and its diagnosis seems pertinent during the evaluation of insulin sensitivity, though mathematical models like HOMA (Homeostasis Model Assessment. The purpose of the present study was to determine an appropriate cutpoint for HOMA-IR in adult individuals from the Maracaibo municipality, Zulia state, Venezuela. Two-thousand and twenty-six individuals from both sexes and beyond 18 years of age were selected from the Maracaibo city Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence Study, a descriptive cross-sectional study with multietapic sampling. HOMA-IR was calculated using the formula [Fasting Insulin (µU/L x Fasting Glycemia (mmol/L/22,5]. To estimate the cutpoint, 602 healthy individuals were selected and a percentile distribution was calculates, alongside ROC Curve in order to identify the best cutoff point according to sensitivity and specificity. Overall, the average HOMA-IR was 3,71±3,01, with 3,65±2,96 for women and 3,76±3,06 for men (p=0,397. Using the reference population, the resulting arithmetic value was 2,64±1,67. When distributing per percentile, p75 was 3,02. When selecting a cutpoint using ROC Curve, the chosen cutoff point was 3.03 with an Area Under the Curve of 0.814 (75,2% sensitivity and 75,6% specificity. The obtained results are good enough to propose a cutpoint of 3,00 for HOMA-IR, which can be use in the clinical evaluation of IR in adults from our population

  6. Briófitas de Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Yano,Olga; Paulo Eduardo A.S. Câmara

    2004-01-01

    Foram listadas 74 espécies de briófitas para a cidade de Manaus, Amazonas, sendo 41 espécies de musgos distribuídos em 24 gêneros e 15 famílias e 33 hepáticas em 17 gêneros e sete famílias. Destas, 17 espécies de briófitas são ocorrências novas para Manaus e para o estado do Amazonas. T. ligulaefolium (Bartr.) Buck é uma ocorrência nova para o Brasil. São apresentadas associações com outras briófitas e comparação com outras espécies urbanas.

  7. Cambios en el uso de tabaco y factores relacionados en estudiantes del sexto al noveno grado, Estado Lara, Venezuela, años 2000 y 2003 Changes in tobacco use and related factors in Junior High School students, Lara State, Venezuela, 2000-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Granero

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available La Encuesta Mundial sobre Tabaquismo en Jóvenes (EMTAJOVEN, sistema de vigilancia basado en la escuela elemental, fue realizada en el Estado Lara, Venezuela, por una coalición de organizaciones. El instrumento incluye: actitudes, conocimientos, conductas; acceso a productos, propaganda y exposición al humo de tabaco en el ambiente. Participación 85,7% (2000 y 79,3% (2003. Prevalencias (% 2000 vs. 2003 de: "primer contacto con tabaco": sin cambios (22,8% y 22,8%; "Fumar su primer cigarrillo antes los 10 años": disminuyó en varones (21,5% y 16,7%; "Fumadores actuales": sin cambio (8,4% y 8,3%; "Fumadores que desean dejarlo": aumentó en varones (62,6% y 84,7%; "Expuestos al humo de tabaco en el ambiente en lugares públicos": aumentó (43,9% y 50,7%; "Apoya prohibir fumar en lugares públicos": sin cambios(> 80% ambos,; "Recibieron cigarrillos promocionales gratis": aumentó (9,5% a 13,4%. "No tuvieron problema al comprar": disminuyó en varones (97% y 74,3% y mujeres (95,9% y 90,3%. El tabaquismo se mantiene sin cambios lo que puede imputarse al mercadeo y a la falta de efectividad de las leyes. Los datos presentados permiten examinar políticas y programas actuales a fin de ajustarlos a la realidad.The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS is a school-based surveillance system. In Lara State, Venezuela, it was conducted by a coalition of organizations. The instrument includes: attitudes, knowledge, behaviors, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, mass media, and marketing. Participation was 85.7% in 2000 and 79.3% in 2003. Comparing prevalence (% from 2000 to 2003: "first contact": unchanged (22.8%; "males having first cigarette before the age of 10": decreased (21.5% to 16.7%; "current cigarette smoker": unchanged (8.4% to 8.3%; "male smokers wanted to quit": increased (62.6% to 84.7%; "exposure to environmental tobacco smoke": increased (43.9% a 50.7%, "support ban on smoking in public places": unchanged (> 80%, "received free promotional

  8. Seasonal and nocturnal domiciliary human landing/biting behaviour of Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) evansi and Lutzomyia (Psychodopygus) panamensis (Diptera; Psychodidae) in a periurban area of a city on the Caribbean coast of eastern Venezuela (Barcelona; Anzoátegui State).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, R; De Sousa, L; Devera, R; Jorquera, A; Ledezma, E

    1999-01-01

    In recent years, in addition to American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL), a significant number of cases of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) have been reported in periurban areas of Barcelona city (Anzoátegui State, Venezuela). We studied the bionomics of Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) evansi and Lutzomyia (Psychodopygus) panamensis, possible vectors of AVL and ACL, respectively, in El Rincón, a periurban village of that city. To evaluate the seasonal domiciliary landing/biting activity of sandflies on human bait, a house was chosen in El Rincón. Landing catches were carried out between 18:00 and 06:00, once a month for a year. The results show the presence of 2 species, Lu. (Lu.) evansi (89.9%) and Lu. (Psy.) panamensis (10.1%). Lu. evansi was most abundant in the months of October and July, associated with the bimodal cycle of annual rainfall in the area. Maximum landing/biting activity of Lu. evansi was observed at 24:00 and 03:00. These findings suggest that at this time of the year and at these hours there is heightened risk of the transmission of AVL. Lu. panamensis monthly abundance also shows a direct association with rainfall and maximum landing/biting activity was observed between 02:00 and 03:00. The lower domiciliary abundance of Lu. panamensis suggests its greater importance in the extradomiciliary transmission of ACL.

  9. Sistema de salud de Venezuela The health system of Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabelle Bonvecchio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se describe el sistema de salud de Venezuela, incluyendo su estructura y cobertura, sus fuentes de financiamiento, los recursos humanos y materiales con los que cuenta, y las actividades de rectoría que en él se desarrollan. Este sistema cuenta con un sector público y un sector privado. El sector público está constituido por el Ministerio del Poder Popular para la Salud (MS y diversas instituciones de seguridad social, dentro de las que destaca el Instituto Venezolano de los Seguros Sociales (IVSS. El MS se financia con recursos del gobierno central, estados y municipios. El IVSS se financia con cotizaciones patronales, cotizaciones de los trabajadores y con aportes del gobierno. Ambas instituciones cuentan con su propia red de atención ambulatoria y hospitalaria. El sector privado está constituido por prestadores de servicios que reciben pagos de bolsillo y por compañías aseguradoras. El sistema de salud venezolano atraviesa por un proceso de reforma desde la aprobación de la Constitución de 1999 que plantea la creación de un Sistema Público Nacional de Salud cuya punta de lanza hoy es el programa Barrio Adentro.This paper describes the Venezuelan health system, including its structure and coverage, financial sources, human and material resources and its stewardship functions. This system comprises a public and a private sector. The public sector includes the Ministry of Popular Power for Health (MS and several social security institutions, salient among them the Venezuelan Institute for Social Security (IVSS. The MH is financed with federal, state and county contributions. The IVSS is financed with employer, employee and government contributions. These two agencies provide services in their own facilities. The private sector includes providers offering services on an out-of-pocket basis and private insurance companies. The Venezuelan health system is undergoing a process of reform since the adoption of the 1999

  10. Environmental gamma and radon dosimetry in Venezuela

    CERN Document Server

    Sajo-Bohus, L; Urbani, F; Castro, D D; Greaves, E D; Liendo, J A

    1999-01-01

    Environmental gamma exposure and radon concentration levels measured in Venezuelan regions are presented. A new generation image analyser was used for alpha particle track counting in CR-39 detectors. Mineral water wells from where water is supplied for massive consumption have an alpha activity around 0.450 Bq L sup - sup 1 and few of them have concentrations above 50 Bq L sup - sup 1. Coastal potable water activity is on the average around 5.3 +- 12% Bq L sup - sup 1. Indoor radon national average is 36 +- 5% Bq m sup - sup 3; in two of the 36 monitored sites, the measured average is above 400 +- 5% Bq m sup - sup 3. In air gamma dose values are between 100 and 144 nGy h sup - sup 1. In soil, sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs concentration is around 0.5 and 10 Bq kg sup - sup 1 at the depth of down to 20 cm. Building materials were included in this study. sup 7 Be and sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs were measured in low concentration in tropical plants on Tepuy-s (sacred mountains in the Amazonas State). Geological active faults w...

  11. [Historical overview of antimalarials used in Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerpa de Artiles, N

    1993-06-01

    A historical review of antimalarials used in Venezuela is presented from the time when the bark of quina was used until the massive distribution of quinine and metoquine by the Dirección de Malariología y Saneamiento Ambiental. The utility of chloroquine and primaquine against sensible parasite isolates and of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and quinine, currently used against P. falciparum resistant strains, is thoroughly discussed. The author suggests use of artemisimine and its derivatives as a very promising antimalarial drug. She also stresses the possibility of the application of new antimalaria vaccine against P. falciparum blood states, presently assayed in the country as an additional tool in malaria control programs.

  12. Application of Geographic Information Systems for Rural Electrification with Renewable Energy: IntiGIS Model. Case of Study: Zapara Island, Zulia State. Venezuela; Aplicaciones de Sistemas de Informacion Geografica para la Electrificacion Rural con Energias Renovables: Modelo IntiGIS. Caso de Estudio: Isla Zapara, Estado Zulia. Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rincon, L.; Dominguez, J.; Amador, J.; Arribas, L.; Pinedo, I.

    2011-07-01

    This project started as an educational exercise for the Renewable Energy and Environment Master, taught by the Polytechnic University of Madrid, with the purpose of analyze in a real context GIS application in rural electrification with renewable energies. It was developed in collaboration with CIEMAT, ENELVEN (C.A. Energia Electrica de Venezuela), FUNDELEC (Fundacion para el Desarrollo del Servicio Electrico), CORPOLEC (Corporacion Electrica Nacional de Venezuela) and the UPM. The final aim is to define the technology that suits best to Zapara Islands electrification needs. This improvement will make possible the sustainable development of the population. In order to compare electrification technologies to decide which is the most suitable to Zapara Island, using IntiGIS model, will be required a geographic resources analysis, a population distribution and an electricity demand study. Also, it will be necessary to establish the technical parameters of the facility and economic factors that could affect the study. (Author) 14 refs.

  13. Palynostratigraphy and sedimentary facies of Middle Miocene fluvial deposits of the Amazonas Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dino, Rodolfo; Soares, Emílio Alberto Amaral; Antonioli, Luzia; Riccomini, Claudio; Nogueira, Afonso César Rodrigues

    2012-03-01

    Palynostratigraphic and sedimentary facies analyses were made on sedimentary deposits from the left bank of the Solimões River, southwest of Manaus, State of Amazonas, Brazil. These provided the age-dating and subdivision of a post-Cretaceous stratigraphic succession in the Amazonas Basin. The Novo Remanso Formation is subdivided into upper and lower units, and delineated by discontinuous surfaces at its top and bottom. The formation consists primarily of sandstones and minor mudstones and conglomerates, reflecting fluvial channel, point bar and floodplain facies of a fluvial meandering paleosystem. Fairly well-preserved palynoflora was recovered from four palynologically productive samples collected in a local irregular concentration of gray clay deposits, rich in organic material and fossilized wood, at the top of the Novo Remanso Formation upper unit. The palynoflora is dominated by terrestrial spores and pollen grains, and is characterized by abundant angiosperm pollen grains ( Tricolpites, Grimsdalea, Perisyncolporites, Tricolporites and Malvacearumpollis). Trilete spores are almost as abundant as the angiosperm pollen, and are represented mainly by the genera Deltoidospora, Verrutriletes, and Hamulatisporis. Gymnosperm pollen is scarce. The presence of the index species Grimsdalea magnaclavata Germeraad et al. (1968) indicates that these deposits belong to the Middle Miocene homonymous palynozone (Lorente, 1986; Hoorn, 1993; Jaramillo et al., 2011). Sedimentological characteristics (poorly sorted, angular to sub-angular, fine to very-coarse quartz sands facies) are typical of the Novo Remanso Formation upper part. These are associated with a paleoflow to the NE-E and SE-E, and with an entirely lowland-derived palinofloristic content with no Andean ferns and gymnosperms representatives. All together, this suggests a cratonic origin for this Middle Miocene fluvial paleosystem, which was probably born in the Purus Arch eastern flank and areas surrounding the

  14. Clinical and virological descriptive study in the 2011 outbreak of dengue in the Amazonas, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valquiria do Carmo Alves Martins

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue is a vector-borne disease in the tropical and subtropical region of the world and is transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti. In the state of Amazonas, Brazil during the 2011 outbreak of dengue all the four Dengue virus (DENV serotypes circulating simultaneously were observed. The aim of the study was to describe the clinical epidemiology of dengue in Manaus, the capital city of the state of the Amazonas, where all the four DENV serotypes were co-circulating simultaneously. METHODOLOGY: Patients with acute febrile illness during the 2011 outbreak of dengue, enrolled at the Fundação de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Viera Dourado (FMT-HVD, a referral centre for tropical and infectious diseases in Manaus, were invited to participate in a clinical and virological descriptive study. Sera from 677 patients were analyzed by RT-nested-PCRs for flaviviruses (DENV 1-4, Saint Louis encephalitis virus-SLEV, Bussuquara virus-BSQV and Ilheus virus-ILHV, alphavirus (Mayaro virus-MAYV and orthobunyavirus (Oropouche virus-OROV. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Only dengue viruses were detected in 260 patients (38.4%. Thirteen patients were co-infected with more than one DENV serotype and six (46.1% of them had a more severe clinical presentation of the disease. Nucleotide sequencing showed that DENV-1 belonged to genotype V, DENV-2 to the Asian/American genotype, DENV-3 to genotype III and DENV-4 to genotype II. CONCLUSIONS: Co-infection with more than one DENV serotype was observed. This finding should be warning signs to health authorities in situations of the large dispersal of serotypes that are occurring in the world.

  15. Decade of Venezuela’s President Hugo Chavez, Por Ahora

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    controversial expansion of control was seen with Venezuela’s state-owned oil company Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. ( PDVSA ), which, to this day has been...grew in response corruption reports related to the siphoning off money from PDVSA . In 2002, pro-Hugo Chavez groups, ‘Chavistas,’ engaged in...protest.16 Within a few days, the counter-coup facilitated Chavez’s return to power but problems remained. PDVSA witnessed a devastating strike

  16. Family cluster of Mayaro fever, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Jaime R; Russell, Kevin L; Vasquez, Clovis; Barrera, Roberto; Tesh, Robert B; Salas, Rosalba; Watts, Douglas M

    2004-07-01

    A cluster of protracted migratory polyarthritis involving four adult family members occurred in January 2000 after a brief overnight outing in a rural area of Venezuela. Laboratory testing demonstrated Mayaro virus as the cause of the cluster. These results documented the first human cases of Mayaro virus in Venezuela.

  17. Family Cluster of Mayaro Fever, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime R. Torres; Russell, Kevin L; Vasquez, Clovis; Robert B Tesh; Salas, Rosalba; Watts, Douglas M.

    2004-01-01

    A cluster of protracted migratory polyarthritis involving four adult family members occurred in January 2000 after a brief overnight outing in a rural area of Venezuela. Laboratory testing demonstrated Mayaro virus as the cause of the cluster. These results documented the first human cases of Mayaro virus in Venezuela.

  18. Aspectos clínicos, epidemiológicos y de tratamiento de 11 casos de envenenamiento por ciempiés en Adícora, Península de Paraguaná, estado Falcón, Venezuela Clinical, epidemiological and treatment aspects of eleven cases of centipede envenomation in Adícora, Paraguaná peninsula, Falcón state, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalmiro J Cazorla Perfetti

    2012-07-01

    requirieron un tratamiento básicamente local.Despite centipede (Phylum Arthropoda, Clase Chilopoda bites in humans are frequent and may potentially result in fatal consequences, in Venezuela publications on its envenoming and related characteristics are really scarce. Between October 2006 and May 2007, a descriptive and prospective survey was conducted to investigate epidemiological, clinical and treatment profiles on injuries caused by centipedes in patients that were attended in ambulatory emergency service at Adicora, Falcón state, Venezuela. These were clinically examined, and by mean of anamnesis were recorded site and time of bite. The centipede was collected for identification. Treatment consisted on the application of a topical antiseptic solution (povidone-iodine, intravenous administration of an anti-inflammatory analgesic, antibiotic therapy per os and tetanus immunization. It was registered 11 cases bitten by Scolopendra sp., 6 (54.55% females and 5 (45.46% males. Most of accidents occurred in the dry season (December- April>60%, adults (39-62 years old; 81.82% local residents (81.82%, inside the home (54.55%, during the night (63.64% and on the lower limbs (54.55%. The time between ambulatory medical assistance and the accident varied from 5 to 600 minutes, with a mean time of 169.9 ± 236.3. Most clinical manifestations observed were local: intense pain [Visual Analog Scale (VAS = : 8.5 ± 0.63], and erythema 100% of the cases. Patients had a satisfactory post-treatment evolution after 4 and 5 days, and pain VAS mean values significantly lower ( = 0.09 ± 0.20; t= 42.0, P= 0.0001. Envenoming injuries caused by Scolopendra sp. are public health concern at Adicora, Falcon state, Venezuela, that appear to increase with sinanthropic and nocturnal habits of centipede, and follow a seasonal pattern, requiring local symptomatic therapeutical treatment

  19. Miconia papillosperma (Melastomataceae, Miconieae): a new species from Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelangeli, Fabián A; Goldenberg, Renato

    2016-01-01

    Miconia papillosperma, a new species of Melastomataceae shrubs from Northern Brazil is described and illustrated. This new species is characterized by elliptic lanceolate leaves with the only pair of secondary veins running close to the margin. It is also unique in having seeds with a papillose testa, a character until now unknown in the Miconieae. The description of this new species from a relatively well collected area near a major road north of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, is further evidence of our lack of knowledge on plants in many Neotropical areas.

  20. Osteoma in a blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, João Felipe Rito; Levy, Marcelo Guilherme Bezerra; Liparisi, Flavia; Romão, Mario Antonio Pinto

    2013-09-01

    Osteoma is an uncommon bone formation documented in avian species and other animals. A blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva) with clinical respiratory symptoms was examined because of a hard mass present on the left nostril. Radiographs suggested a bone tumor, and the mass was surgically excised. Histopathologic examination revealed features of an osteoma. To our knowledge, this is the first description of an osteoma in a blue-fronted Amazon parrot. Osteoma should be considered as a differential diagnosis in birds with respiratory distress and swelling of the nostril.

  1. Avifauna of the Pongos Basin, Amazonas Department, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, D.M.; O'Neill, J.P.; Foster, M.S.; Mark, T.; Dauphine, N.; Franke, I.J.

    2009-01-01

    We provide an inventory of the avifauna of the Pongos Basin, northern Amazonas Department, Peru based on museum specimens collected during expeditions spanning >60 years within the 20th century. Four hundred and thirty-eight species representing 52 families are reported. Differences between lowland and higher elevation avifaunas were apparent. Species accounts with overviews of specimen data are provided for four species representing distributional records, two threatened species, and 26 species of Nearctic and Austral migrants, of which six are considered probable migrants.

  2. Massive Variability Surveys from Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Briceno, Cesar

    2003-01-01

    At the Venezuela National Astronomical Observatory we are carrying out variability surveys spanning many hundreds of square degrees near the celestial equator, using an 8k x 8k CCD Mosaic Camera optimized for drift-scanning on a 1m Schmidt telescope. Among the initial efforts was a project to obtain the first moderately deep, homogeneous sample of young stars over an area of ~180sqr.deg. encompassing the entire Orion OB1 association, one of the nearest and most active regions of star formatio...

  3. Neotropical genera of Naucoridae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Nepomorpha): new species of Placomerus and Procryphocricos from Guyana and Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sites, Robert W; Camacho, Jesús

    2014-01-09

    The Neotropical fauna of saucer bugs (Naucoridae) currently includes four monotypic genera. Recent extensive collecting in Venezuela has produced three new species in two of these genera. In addition, undetermined Guyanan specimens of one of the new species were found in the United States National Museum of Natural History. Thus, described here are Placomerus obscuratus n. sp. from Guyana and Venezuela with brachypterous and macropterous hindwing forms, and two species of Procryphocricos from Venezuela. Procryphocricos quiu n. sp. is described from the brachypterous forewing form and Procryphocricos macoita n. sp. from both brachypterous and macropterous forms. Previously described species also are discussed.

  4. Study of renewable energies in Venezuela; Estudio del desarrollo de las energias alternativas en Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posso, F. R.

    2004-07-01

    It is study the feasibility of development of the alternative energies, AE, in Venezuela based on its potential of exploitation, the analysis of its energetic system, and the attitude of the State before the AE. The results indicate that the country has a high potential of AE, that the hidroenergy in great scale is the unique one with an important participation in the energy system, and that the solar energy and the eolic are those of greater possibility of development. However, an assembly of factors impede the development in firm of the AE, fundamentally related to its historic condition of producer and consumer of fuel fossil in great scale at low cost. It is concluded that only with a change of attitude of the State and the concourse of all the actors involved in the sector, the {sup c}lean energies{sup w}ould be able to have an important weight in the national energetic balance. (Author)

  5. Language planning for "Mundurukú do Amazonas" Planejamento Linguístico para "Mundurukú do Amazonas"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gessiane Picanço

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mundurukú, a Tupian language of Brazil, exhibits two opposite scenarios. On one extreme, there is Mundurukú do Pará, the language of daily communication in the Mundurukú Indigenous Land, with fluent speakers found across all generations and still acquired by children as a mother tongue. On the other extreme, there is Mundurukú do Amazonas, formerly spoken in the Kwatá-Laranjal Indigenous Land, but whose inhabitants have shifted to Portuguese. A group of Mundurukú students from Amazonas decided to initiate a process of language revitalisation as a way to strengthen the community's ethnic and cultural identity. This paper reports the initial stages of language planning, and includes future actions to promote language use in the homes and communities, assessement of language proficiency, and definition of educational programs to teach Mundurukú in local schools.Mundurukú, uma língua Tupí do Brasil, apresenta dois cenários opostos. Em um extremo, há o Mundurukú do Pará, a língua de comunicação diária na Terra Indígena Mundurukú, com falantes fluentes de todas as idades e adquirida pelas crianças como língua materna. No outro extremo encontra-se o Mundurukú do Amazonas, Terra Indígena Kwatá-Laranjal, que foi substituída pelo Português. Um grupo de estudantes Mundurukú do Amazonas decidiu iniciar um processo de revitalização de sua língua, como uma forma de fortalecer a identidade étnica e cultural da comunidade. Este trabalho relata os estágios iniciais do planejamento linguístico, incluindo as ações futuras para promover o uso da língua em casa e na comunidade, avaliação da proficiência na língua e definição de programas educacionais para ensinar Mundurukú nas escolas locais.

  6. Quality of democracy in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H. LEVINE

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Discussions of democracy in contemporary Venezuela lack a settled definition of the subject, how to study it, or indeed of what counts as «democracy» in the first place. The regime has been described as everything from participatory democracy, hybrid, mixed, and personalist to populist, illiberal, or no longer democratic but rather competitive authoritarian. The goal of this article is to measure the quality of democracy in Venezuela, within the terms of a procedural concept of democracy as detailed in our earlier work. Empirical measurement of the quality of democracy on five dimensions (electoral choice, participation, responsiveness, accountability, sovereignty reveals a low level overall and deep institutional weakness under a personalist leadership, with little change from 2005 to 2010. Future scenarios, after the 2012 presidential election result, include reinforcement of authoritarian trends, open militarization, liberalization and institutional strengthening, or long term volatility and polarized conflict. All scenarios are contingent on the health of President Chávez, who is a central unifying factor for his movement and regime

  7. Pediatric multiple sclerosis in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín A. Peña

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of Venezuelan pediatric patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. METHODS: Database records from the National Program for MS were searched for patients with an established diagnosis of MS whose first symptoms appeared before age 18. RESULTS: The national database held records of 1.710 patients; 3.8% had onset of the first symptoms before age 18. 46.7% were boys, yielding an F:M ratio of 1.13:1. Many children had a disease onset characterized by motor impairment (30.7%, brainstem/cerebellum and spinal cord affectation (27.6%, headache (26%. Less frequent symptoms were sensory symptoms (8% and optic neuritis (7%. DISCUSSION: Pediatric MS patients in Venezuela represent a significant proportion of all MS cases. The clinical pattern is characterized by motor symptoms at onset, and predominantly monosymptomatic presentation with a relapsing-remitting pattern. This is the first systematic attempt to estimate the prevalence of pediatric MS in Venezuela.

  8. A temática ambiental em representações e práticas de profissionais de saúde da família no município de Manaus - AM/Brasil The environmental theme in representations and practices of family health professionals in the municipality of Manaus - state of Amazonas /Brazil

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    Raimunda das Chagas Mendonça

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Evidências científicas mostram que mudanças ambientais antrópicas aumentam riscos de exposição a diversas doenças. Na Estratégia Saúde da Família - ESF, tarefas com claro enfoque ambiental são prescritas indicando às equipes de profissionais que considerem esses aspectos em suas intervenções. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi conhecer representações e práticas de profissionais de Saúde da Família de Manaus (AM sobre a questão ambiental e sua interface com a saúde pública. Os dados foram coletados por meio de observação participante e entrevistas semiestruturadas, e a análise qualitativa destes deu-se pela Análise de Conteúdo e Triangulação de Métodos. Resultados da pesquisa revelaram que a maioria dos profissionais não compreende o ambiente de forma sistêmica, mesmo tendo declarado que os fatores ambientais têm grande influência sobre a saúde humana; enquanto intervenções, as práticas educativas seguem metodologias tradicionais e são centradas na culpabilização do indivíduo e na simples transmissão de conhecimentos pontuais; o relacionamento dos profissionais com a comunidade resume-se ao atendimento individual e/ou coletivo. Concluiu-se que, para a ESF contribuir para o reordenamento do sistema, é fundamental o redirecionamento desse novo modelo de política de saúde para efetivar-se como prática social e ambiental.There are abundant scientific evidences showing that the increased risk of exposure to diseases is a consequence of anthropogenic environmental changes. In the Family Health Strategy, tasks with a clear environmental focus are prescribed, indicating to the professional teams that they should consider these aspects in their health practices. The objective of this research was to study representations and practices of Family Health Professionals of Manaus - State of Amazonas, Northern Brazil - about environmental issues and their interface with public health. Data were collected by means of

  9. Behavior of Service Quality Levels of Fast Food According to the Characteristics of Users. Libertador Municipality of Mérida State, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nubia Del Valle Landaeta de Rodríguez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Given the importance of the services fast food, an analytical non-experimental research was designed under the quantitative paradigm, to determine the behavior of service quality levels according to the characteristics of users in fast food establishments of the Libertador Municipality of Mérida state was developed. The existence users with a higher level of income perceive a lower level of quality; the existence of two user types or groups was found: independent professionals and students. It is recommended the design of strategies regarding services, prices, communications, distribution, after-sales services, optimization of service times and other aspects importance from users who perceive high income (professionals, who inferentially represent 65.86 % of the service demand.

  10. [Nature and civilization: the decorative panels of the Teatro Amazonas foyer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daou, Ana Maria Lima

    2007-12-01

    The decorative panels in the foyer of the Teatro Amazonas, inaugurated in 1896, stand out from the rest of the building's ornamental iconography. The rubber trade brought great wealth to the capitals of Pará and Amazonas and as these cities gained national and international fame, their urban fabric and forms of sociability underwent significant changes. The article looks for parallels between the landscape representations of Amazonian nature adorning the building's foyer, the construction of the modern city, and social uses of the Teatro Amazonas, symbol of the era and emblem of the newly rich elite, who were then taking their place on the regional and national stages. The Teatro Amazonas formed the center of the era's social life and its foyer played host to veritable rituals of 'civilization', in which Brazilian and foreign guests enjoyed the fine setting of Amazon's nature as represented in the decorative wall panels.

  11. Venezuela: Issues in the 111th Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    Justice First (Primero Justicia), Project Venezuela ( Proyecto Venezuela), and A New Era (Un Nuevo Tiempo, UNT); leftist parties that defected from...would not be freed from a federal immigration facility in El Paso , Texas.142 In November 2006, however, a U.S. federal judge, who was considering...whereupon he was transferred from immigration detention in El Paso to a county jail in New Mexico near the Texas border. Posada was released from jail in

  12. DAMPAK PENERAPAN SUCRE TERHADAP PEREKONOMIAN VENEZUELA

    OpenAIRE

    LATIEF, BASRI HASANUDDIN

    2016-01-01

    2016 ABSTRAKSI Basri Hasanuddin Latief, E131 11 258, dengan skripsi berjudul ???Dampak Penerapan SUCRE terhadap Perekonomian Venezuela???, dibawah bimbingan Drs. H. M. Imran Hanafi, MA., M.Ec. selaku Pembimbing I dan Nur Isdah, S.Ip., MA. selaku Pembimbing II pada Jurusan Ilmu Hubungan Internasional, Fakultas Ilmu Sosial dan Politik, Universitas Hasanuddin. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui dampak SUCRE terhadap perekonomian Venezuela yang telah menggunak...

  13. TSUNAMI HAZARD IN NORTHERN VENEZUELA

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    B. Theilen-Willige

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on LANDSAT ETM and Digital Elevation Model (DEM data derived by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM, 2000 of the coastal areas of Northern Venezuela were investigated in order to detect traces of earlier tsunami events. Digital image processing methods used to enhance LANDSAT ETM imageries and to produce morphometric maps (such as hillshade, slope, minimum and maximum curvature maps based on the SRTM DEM data contribute to the detection of morphologic traces that might be related to catastrophic tsunami events. These maps combined with various geodata such as seismotectonic data in a GIS environment allow the delineation of coastal regions with potential tsunami risk. The LANDSAT ETM imageries merged with digitally processed and enhanced SRTM data clearly indicate areas that might be prone by flooding in case of catastrophic tsunami events.

  14. Massive Variability Surveys from Venezuela

    CERN Document Server

    Briceño, C

    2003-01-01

    At the Venezuela National Astronomical Observatory we are carrying out variability surveys spanning many hundreds of square degrees near the celestial equator, using an 8k x 8k CCD Mosaic Camera optimized for drift-scanning on a 1m Schmidt telescope. Among the initial efforts was a project to obtain the first moderately deep, homogeneous sample of young stars over an area of ~180sqr.deg. encompassing the entire Orion OB1 association, one of the nearest and most active regions of star formation. The results show that variability is a powerful technique to identify pre-main sequence populations, specially in sparse areas devoid of gas and dust. We are currently developing a massive database, equipped with web-based data mining tools, that will make our data and results available to the astronomical community.

  15. Calidad de la democracia en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo León Ganatios

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir de una reforma constitucional en Venezuela, en el año 1999 se introdujeron mecanismos de democracia directa como el referendo o el plebiscito. A pesar de que este proceso amplió las vías de participación ciudadana en la vida política, hubo importantes retrocesos en libertades y derechos civiles y políticos básicos. La finalidad de este artículo consiste en medir la calidad de la democracia en Venezuela con base en una serie de indicadores derivados de la concepción de poliarquía de Robert Dahl (1993.Palabras Clave: Calidad de la democracia; Venezuela; Indicadores; estudio comparado; poliarquía.Quality of Democracy in VenezuelaAbstractSince 1999 a constitutional reform in Venezuela introduced some mechanisms of direct democracy such as the referendum and the plebiscite. Although this process broadened the means for citizens’ participation in the political system, there were important setbacks in political and civil liberties. The goal of this paper is to measure the quality of democracy according to a series of indicators that draw upon Robert Dahl’s conception of polyarchy.Keywords: Quality of democracy; Venezuela; indicators; comparative studies; polyarchy.

  16. A colored leg banding technique for Amazona parrots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    A technique for individual identification of Amazona was developed using plastic leg bands. Bands were made from 5- and 7-mm-wide strips of laminated PVC coiled 2.5 times with an inside diameter 4-5 mm gt the maximum diameter of the parrot's leg. Seventeen parrots were captured in Puerto Rico, marked with individual plastic leg bands, and observed for 204-658 d with only one lost or damaged plastic band. Plastic leg bands did not cause injury to or calluses on parrots' legs. The plastic material used for making leg bands was available in 18 colors in 1994, which would allow unique marking of 306 individuals using one plastic leg band on each leg.

  17. Sonnenaufgang am Amazonas. Goethes Farbenlehre und die Brasilianische Moderne

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    Willi Bolle

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Dois tableaux de la nature, duas descrições do nascer do sol no Amazonas, da autoria dos viajantes Carl Friedrich Philipp von Martius (1819 e Mário de Andrade (1927, são comentados à luz da teoria das cores de Goethe (1810. Enquanto o texto de Martius é tributário da tradição naturalista e romântica, Mário, uma das vozes das vanguardas do século XX, expressa uma nova estesia, numa conjunção de materialismo estético e antropológico. O objetivo deste estudo é examinar até que ponto o naturalista Martius, o poeta Mário e o cientista-poeta Goethe apresentam uma visão da natureza em que esta não seja dominada, mas reconhecida como parceira igual pela civilização.

  18. UMA NOVA RACIONALIDADE AMBIENTAL: O BIOEXTRATIVISMO NO AMAZONAS

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    José Júlio César do Nascimento Araújo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the dynamics of development of the Zona Franca Verde (PZFV in Amazonas, where the challenge of sustainability is put in the size of the insertion of Ecological Economics in economic practices. For better understanding, setting forth the concept of Bioextrativismo - the extraction for life, or the understanding of man as part of biodiversity and biodiversity as part of the life of man - that shapes the rationality in environmental caboclos, Indians, rubber tappers, varzeiros, praieros, riparian, chestnuts, pudding, hunters, benzedores, people of earth-firm, lagueiros, canoeiros, igarapezeiros, boatmen, farmers, fishermen, growers of jute, among others. The forest and natural resources are seen as essential to man and this also is noted as part of nature and the space where it is inserted leading to multiple uses of its territory, ensuring the sustainability of the Amazonian areas and must be kept in Development policies.

  19. Amazolachesilla, a new genus of Eolachesillinae (Insecta: Psocodea: "Psocoptera": Lachesillidae from Amazonas, Brazil Amazolachesilla, um gênero novo de Eolachesillinae (Insecta: Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Lachesillidae do Amazonas, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso N. García Aldrete

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Amazolachesilla, a new genus in Graphocaeciliini (Lachesillidae: Eolachesillinae, from Amazonas, Brazil, is here described and illustrated. It presents an autapomorphic clunial shelf and clunial projections, as well as a peculiar male epiproct, and paraprocts with a s clerotized longitudinal rod that makes it unique in the tribe.O gênero novo Amazolachesilla, do estado do Amazonas, Brasil, é descrito e ilustrado. Pertence à Graphocaeciliini (Lachesillidae: Eolachesillinae. Possui uma projeção clunial média e projeções laterais autapomórficas, bem como machos com um epiprocto peculiar e paraprocto com uma haste longitudinal esclerosada, únicos dentro da tribo.

  20. Globalización, desigualdad y transmisión de las enfermedades tropicales en el Amazonas venezolano Globalization, inequality, and transmission of tropical diseases in the Venezuelan Amazon

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    Carlos Botto-Abella

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La globalización económica ha acentuado la desigualdad y la vulnerabilidad a las enfermedades tropicales en todo el mundo. La población del Amazonas venezolano y particularmente la población indígena del interior del Estado es uno de los segmentos más desfavorecidos de las Américas a juzgar por los indicadores de salud. Las tasas de mortalidad infantil observadas en poblaciones indígenas en áreas remotas indican que han sido afectadas por la globalización de las enfermedades, pero no se han beneficiado de la globalización de la salud. Por otra parte, la globalización ha influido en las políticas públicas lo cual afectó la eficiencia de los programas de control de enfermedades tropicales en Amazonas. Un nuevo pacto mundial para el desarrollo sostenible de la aldea global es necesario, a través de la "globalización" de los valores y los derechos comunes de la humanidad. En Venezuela, nuevas políticas dirigidas hacia el subsector de salud indígena, más recursos y mayor autonomía de acción pueden ayudar a reducir las inequidades aquí descritas en el Amazonas venezolano.Economic globalization appears to be causing greater inequalities and increased vulnerability to tropical diseases around the world. The Venezuelan Amazon population, especially the rural indigenous population, displays among the worst health indicators in the Americas. High infant mortality rates in remote indigenous populations indicate that such communities have been affected by the globalization of disease, rather than favored by globalization of health. Globalization has also influenced public policies in the country, affecting the efficiency of control programs targeting tropical diseases. A new global pact for the sustainable development of the planet is needed, supported by the globalization of human values and rights. In Venezuela, new policies for the indigenous health sector, more resources, and greater autonomy could help reduce the inequities

  1. Second record of Tityus bahiensis (Scorpiones, Buthidae from Venezuela: epidemiological implications

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    L. De Sousa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the second record of the scorpion Tityus bahiensis Perty from Venezuela. The specimen was found alive in a wardrobe at a hotel resort in Margarita Island, northeastern Venezuela. Morphological characterization allowed its assignment to the Tityus bahiensis population inhabiting the southernmost area of the species' geographic range, e.g. the state of São Paulo in Brazil, northern Argentina and Paraguay. The fact that the only available Venezuelan antiscorpion (anti-Tityus discrepans serum does not neutralize the effects of alpha- and beta-toxin from Tityus serrulatus venom (which resembles in composition that of T. bahiensis constitutes a warning to local clinicians confronted with envenomations by noxious species transported to Venezuela from Brazil by human agency.

  2. Phlebotominae de Venezuela: Lutzomyia amilcari sp.n. del estado Lara

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    Conrado Arredondo Cardona

    1984-03-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el macho de Lutzomyia amilcari sp.n. capturado en el Parque Nacional de Yacambú, Distrito Andrés Eloy Blanco, Estado Lara, Venezuela. La especie puede ser identificada por la forma característica del parámetro. Pertenece al grupo Verrucarum, serie Verrucarum de Theodor (1965.A description is given of the male of Lutzomyia amilcari sp.n. who was collected in the National Park of Yacambú, State of Lara, Venezuela. This species is identified by the characteristic form of the paramere. It belongs to the Verrucarum Group, Verrucarum Series of Theodor (1965.

  3. Un nuevo Hansenochrus Reddell & Cokendolpher, 1995 (Schizomida: Hubbardiidae de Venezuela noroccidental

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    Osvaldo Villarreal Manzanilla

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe una nueva especie de Hansenochrus Reddell & Cokendolpher, 1995, la cual habita en una caverna del Estado Lara en la región noroccidental de Venezuela y es la cuarta especie del mismo conocida para este país. Hansenochrus urbanii sp. nov. representa el primer registro del género para la fauna hipogea venezolana.A new species of Hansenochrus Reddell & Cokendolpher, 1995 is described from a cave in Lara state, in the northwest region of Venezuela, and is its fourth species known from this country. Hansenochrus urbanii sp. nov. represents the first record of this genus from Venezuelan hypogean fauna.

  4. First report of Cowpea mild mottle Carlavirus on yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Miriam; Fernández-Rodríguez, Thaly; Garrido, Mario José; Mejías, Alexander; Romano, Mirtha; Marys, Edgloris

    2012-12-14

    Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) plants with virus-like systemic mottling and leaf distortion were observed in both experimental and commercial fields in Aragua State, Venezuela. Symptomatic leaves were shown to contain carlavirus-like particles. RT-PCR analysis with carlavirus-specific primers was positive in all tested samples. Nucleotide sequences of the obtained amplicons showed 84%-74% similarity to corresponding sequences of Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV) isolates deposited in the GenBank database. This is the first report of CPMMV in Venezuela and is thought to be the first report of CPMMV infecting yardlong bean.

  5. First Report of Cowpea Mild Mottle Carlavirus on Yardlong Bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgloris Marys

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis plants with virus-like systemic mottling and leaf distortion were observed in both experimental and commercial fields in Aragua State, Venezuela. Symptomatic leaves were shown to contain carlavirus-like particles. RT-PCR analysis with carlavirus-specific primers was positive in all tested samples. Nucleotide sequences of the obtained amplicons showed 84%–74% similarity to corresponding sequences of Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV isolates deposited in the GenBank database. This is the first report of CPMMV in Venezuela and is thought to be the first report of CPMMV infecting yardlong bean.

  6. Muuga joodab Venezuela naftaga Valgevene tehaseid / Anne Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Anne, 1970-

    2010-01-01

    Venezuela toornaftat veetakse Valgevenesse Muuga sadama kaudu. Riia sadam loodab suurema osa Venezuela nafta transiidist endale saada, samas peaks sadam selleks tegema mitmeid töid, nt. süvendama akvatooriumi

  7. Academic Writing Books in Argentina, Venezuela and Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro, Mónica Prior; Carpio, Guillermo Cordero; Pereira, Claudia Maria

    2016-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2016v69n3p253The books are:Reading and writing in learning within the different IFD graduate courses and subjects that prepare teachers for secondary school: concepts and practices stated by teachers’ trainers;Writing Seedbed: writing tasks throughout three courses at the UNGS;Academic writing in Venezuela: Research, reflection and proposals;Reading and writing in academic and professional contexts: Genres, Corpus and Methods.  Os livros resenhados são:L...

  8. Pobreza y asistencialismo en Venezuela

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    Neritza Alvarado Chacín

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de contribuir a discernir la compleja problemática de la pobreza y de sus posibles salidas, en este trabajo se discuten algunas razones que explicarían la continuidad del estilo asistencial compensatorio focalizado, propio de la política social neoliberal, en la actual estrategia venezolana de atención a la pobreza, pese a que el discurso del presente gobierno se opone frontalmente a dicho modelo. Destacan, entre otros, dos factores básicos: 1 la vigencia de los mecanismos psicológicos del rentismo, manifiesto en la cultura clientelar aún internalizada en el venezolano, tanto en los ciudadanos como en los gobernantes, a pesar de los cambios de la coyuntura económica y sociopolítica del país, y 2 la importancia político-estratégica del asistencialismo en función del objetivo prioritario, no declarado, de mantener una relativa paz social, legitimidad política, estabilidad del gobierno y del régimen democrático. Se señalan riesgos potenciales del asistencialismo y se bosquejan algunos de los prerrequisitos que hoy exige el enfrentamiento a la pobreza en Venezuela.

  9. USE OF SCALED SEMIVARIOGRAMS IN THE PLANNING SAMPLE OF SOIL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES IN SOUTHERN AMAZONAS, BRAZIL

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    Ivanildo Amorim de Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The lack of information concerning the variability of soil properties has been a major concern of researchers in the Amazon region. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial variability of soil chemical properties and determine minimal sampling density to characterize the variability of these properties in five environments located in the south of the State of Amazonas, Brazil. The five environments were archaeological dark earth (ADE, forest, pasture land, agroforestry operation, and sugarcane crop. Regular 70 × 70 m mesh grids were set up in these areas, with 64 sample points spaced at 10 m distance. Soil samples were collected at the 0.0-0.1 m depth. The chemical properties of pH in water, OM, P, K, Ca, Mg, H+Al, SB, CEC, and V were determined at these points. Data were analyzed by descriptive and geostatistical analyses. A large part of the data analyzed showed spatial dependence. Chemical properties were best fitted to the spherical model in almost all the environments evaluated, except for the sugarcane field with a better fit to the exponential model. ADE and sugarcane areas had greater heterogeneity of soil chemical properties, showing a greater range and higher sampling density; however, forest and agroforestry areas had less variability of chemical properties.

  10. The hybrid generation systems of Campinas-Amazonas and Joanes-Para

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moszkowicz, M.; Ribeiro, C. M.; Borba, A. J. V. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Electrica (CEPEL), (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    The Brazilian Amazon region is an ideal location for isolated mini-grid systems. Thousands of Diesel systems have been installed to supply electricity to this sparsely populated region. However, the availability of renewable resources makes the Amazon well-suited to renewable energy systems. This paper describes the technical characteristics and touches economic aspects of two hybrid systems being installed in this region through the cooperative effort of multiple partners: Brazilian CEPEL/ELETROBRAS and State Electric Utilities and U.S. Department of Energy, through NREL. It focuses on the market potential for hybrid systems in Northern Brazil and discusses the configuration of the two prototypes, the effort to implement both systems and the preliminary results of these projects. [Espanol] La region Brasilena del Amazonas es un lugar ideal para los sistemas aislados de mini-red. Se han instalado miles de sistemas Diesel para proporcionar electricidad a esta region escasamente poblada. Sin embargo, la disponibilidad de fuentes renovables hacen la Amazonia muy adecuada para sistemas renovables de energia. Este articulo describe las caracteristicas tecnicas y toca aspectos economicos de dos sistemas hibridos que se estan instalando en esta region mediante el esfuerzo cooperativo de multiples participantes: La brasilena CEPEL/ELECTROBRAS y las Empresas Electrica Estatales, el U.S. Departament of Energy, a traves de NREL. Se enfoca al mercado potencial de sistemas hibridos en Brasil del Norte y analiza la configuracion de los dos prototipos, el esfuerzo de instaurar ambos sistemas y los resultados preliminares de estos proyectos.

  11. Calidad de la democracia en Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Eduardo León Ganatios

    2014-01-01

    A partir de una reforma constitucional en Venezuela, en el año 1999 se introdujeron mecanismos de democracia directa como el referendo o el plebiscito. A pesar de que este proceso amplió las vías de participación ciudadana en la vida política, hubo importantes retrocesos en libertades y derechos civiles y políticos básicos. La finalidad de este artículo consiste en medir la calidad de la democracia en Venezuela con base en una serie de indicadores derivados de la concepción de poliarquía de R...

  12. Electrocardiographic parameters in captive, clinically healthy, Amazona ochrocephala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Guerrero S

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To stablish the electrocardiographic parameters of individuals of the species Amazona ochrocephala, from the Unidad de Rescate y Rehabilitacion de Animales Silvestres at the Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Materials and methods. The electrocardiographic examination was performed under inhaled anesthesia with isoflurane. Leads I, II, III, aVL, aVR and aVF were measured. Results. Electrocardiographic parameters obtained in Lead II. P wave Duration: 0.015-0.044 s, P wave amplitude: 0.031 to 0.6 mv, R wave duration: 0.015-0.022 s, amplitude R: 0.034-0.038 mv, S wave Duration: 0.019- 0.042 s, amplitude S: 0.194-0.815 mv, T wave Duration: 0.025-0.064 s, T-wave amplitude: 0.010 to 0.5 mv, PQ Duration: 0.021-0.076 s, QRS Duration: 0.036-0.068 s, QT Duration: 0.070-0.015 s, RR Duration: 0.104-0.324 s, EEM: -111° to -80°, FC: 240-600 ppm. Conclusions. The results showed different values for amplitude and duration of the P, R and T waves in comparison to those obtained in other studies. However, they were similar for heart rate, MEA and duration of the PQ/R, QT and QRS segments.

  13. O controle do câncer do colo do útero: desafios para implementação de ações programáticas no Amazonas, Brasil Cervical cancer prevention: challenges facing the implementation of program actions in Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Albuquerque Duarte Corrêa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é demonstrar alguns desafios para a implementação de ações programáticas visando ao controle do câncer do colo do útero no Estado do Amazonas, Brasil. Foram analisados os relatórios do Programa Viva Mulher do Amazonas referentes à coleta e qualidade das lâminas e os dados de mortalidade por esta causa registrados no DATASUS para os períodos 2001 a 2005. Os resultados apresentam que no período não houve o aumento na cobertura da coleta de exames de Papanicolaou, embora tenha havido uma discreta melhora na qualidade das lâminas; as taxas de mortalidade por câncer de colo de útero estão aumentando, e situam-se em patamares acima dos encontrados no país e na região norte. A análise desses resultados sugere a necessidade de haver um esforço, por parte da gestão do Programa no Amazonas, na capacitação de profissionais e dos gerentes dos serviços, visando aumentar a captação das mulheres sob maior risco.The purpose of this study is to present a number of challenges facing the implementation of program actions regarding the control of cervical cancer in the State of Amazonas, Brazil. Reports of the Viva Mulher program in Amazonas on Papanicolaou screening tests and the quality of cervical samples and mortality rates from this disease taken from DATASUS were analyzed for the 2001 to 2005 period. The results show no increase in the population covered by the Papanicolaou screening test in this period, although there was a small improvement in the quality of cervical samples. However, mortality rates for cervical cancer are increasing in this reason, and are higher than the rates for Brazil as a whole and for the North region of the country. Analysis of these results suggests the need for local program managers, to make efforts to build the capacity of health-care professionals and service managers, with a view to increasing Papanicolaou screening test coverage for high-risk women.

  14. Doing Business Economy Profile 2015 : Venezuela, RB

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2015 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Venezuela RB. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2015 is the 12th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain ...

  15. Implementing Pre-Vocational Studies in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Mi

    This paper describes prevocational education in Venezuela on each educational level. First, it sets a historical context by identifying aspects of technical education that emerged at different times in its development; then it identifies certain strategies created to support the implementation of prevocationalization, and finally it concludes by…

  16. The Development of Education in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, George I.

    The present study aims to bring to the reader an understanding of Venezuela's educational patterns, needs, and development within the framework of the country's economic and social situation. Much of this report is devoted to historical backgrounds --to cultural development, politics, immigration, economics, and international attitudes-- to give…

  17. Venezuela: Higher education, neoliberalism and socialism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muhr, T.; Verger, A.; Hill, David; Rosskam, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter we analyse the Higher Education For All (HEFA) policies and practices in the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. In the construction of a 21st Century Socialism, universal access to higher education has not only become a constitutional right but assumes a pivotal role in both the repay

  18. Propagação in vitro de tucumã do Amazonas

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues,Paulo Hercílio Viegas; Ferreira, Flávio Freires; Ambrosano, Glaucia Maria Bovi; Gato, Arlena Maria Guimarães

    2013-01-01

    O gênero Astrocaryum possui um grande número de espécies com potencial alimentício e produtoras de óleos. A espécie mais utilizada, o tucumã do Amazonas, é consumida em larga escala nos estados da região norte do Brasil e originado do extrativismo vegetal. Embriões zigóticos de sementes maduras e imaturas de tucumã do Amazonas (Astrocaryum aculeatum G. Mey) foram inoculados em meio de cultivo semi-sólido de Murashige e Skoog (MS) suplementado com vitaminas. Os embriões sobreviventes foram tra...

  19. Spatial distribution of soil acidity components in natural area field in the region Humaitá, Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Campos Mantovanelli

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Amazonian are highly weathered soils and characterized by high acidity, high aluminum saturation and low nutrient concentration, due to the high leach rates. The objective of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of acidity components in natural field environment in the region of Humaita, Amazonas. The study area is located in the region of Humaitá, south of Amazonas state, being situated in the geographical coordinates of (7 30 '24 "S and 63º 04' 56" W, the soil is classified as Cambissolo Háplico Alítico plíntico (CXalf. Soil samplings were conducted between March and October 2012 respectively in the natural field area, collected in sampling grid layout with dimensions of 70 mx 70 m and regular spacing between sampling points 10 m, sampled at two depths: 0 , 0 to 0.020 me 0.40-0.60 m. The following chemical analyzes were performed: pH in water potentiometrically determined by the ratio 1: 2.5, the exchangeable aluminum was determined from extraction solution KCl 1 mol / L-1 and the potential acidity extracted with buffered solution of calcium acetate pH 7.0. The results were subjected to analysis of descriptive statistics and geostatistics. From the mean values obtained for the soil acidity components to the natural field area, these results demonstrate the acidic nature of the soil environment and the possible correlation of a low concentration of bases due to the greater complexation of Al3+.

  20. DIVERSIDAD MITOCONDRIAL EN EL NOR-OCCIDENTE DE VENEZUELA. IMPLICACIONES PARA PROBABLES RUTAS MIGRATORIAS PREHISPÁNICAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PUJOL FLOR

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available

    RESUMEN

    La utilidad del ADN mitocondrial (ADNmt para determinar afinidad genética entre grupos indígenas contemporáneos e inferir sobre migraciones, ha sido demostrada; pero la imposibilidad de estudiar grupos prehispánicos extintos, limita las inferencias sobre migraciones en esa época. El mestizaje en poblaciones neoamericanas ha sido caracterizado por uniones entre hombres europeos y mujeres indígenas, permitiendo detectar en la población contemporánea haplogrupos mitocondriales amerindios que informan sobre poblaciones extintas. Para conocer los linajes femeninos en el occidente de Venezuela, se estudiaron los haplogrupos del ADNmt a partir de RFLP, en una muestra de 193 individuos con antepasados procedentes del occidente de Venezuela, 81 del Estado Lara (Barquisimeto y 112 de tres pueblos del Estado Falcón (Macu-quita=25, Macanillas=29 y Churuguara=58. Se comparó la distribución de haplogrupos entre las poblaciones y se estimó el mestizaje por línea femenina en ellas. Se comparó la distribución de cuatro haplogrupos indígenas con otras regiones de América.

    Se observa que en las cuatro poblaciones predominan haplogrupos amerindios, seguidos de los africanos. Al comparar la fracción indígena con el resto de América encontramos que Macanillas, Lara y Churuguara se asemejan a grupos de Amazonas y Suramérica, mientras que Macuquita a Aruba. Esto sugiere una diversidad genética importante en esa zona como probable ruta de paso hacia el sur y el Caribe; además refleja vínculos genéticos importantes entre grupos prehispánicos de Aruba y los de la Península de Paraguaná. Evidencias arqueológicas soportan estos postulados. Se recomienda aumentar la muestra y realizar análisis de secuencias para un nivel mayor de precisión.

  1. Environmental factors and the distribution of mansonelliases in southern Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, J; Guerrero, R

    2000-06-01

    The distribution of mansonelliases and their relation to various quantitative criteria were determined through the study of 1,057 subjects in 17 localities in ten regions of Amazonas State and Bolívar State. The total prevalence among the blood samples, determined through the Knott technique, was 18.54%. 11.26% were parasited by Mansonella perstans, 9.93% by Mansonella ozzardi, and 2.63% by both species. The average of microfilaremia was 48.19 mf/mL of blood in M. perstans and 13.79 mf/mL in M. ozzardi. In the regions studied, M. ozzardi has a wider area of distribution than M. perstans. Prevalence, average number of parasites per host, and the infection index have a positive and statistically significant correlation with the total annual precipitation mean for each region for M. perstans; in the case of M. ozzardi the quantitative parameters are positively correlated with the altitude of each region, this correlation being statistically significant. With respect to type of vegetation, M. perstans had a higher infection index in Amazonian caatinga transition in pluvial lowland forest, and M. ozzardi in semideciduous forest of the alisio type. Therefore two types of transmission, M. ozzardi-Simulium and M. perstans-Culicoides are suggested.

  2. Environmental factors and the distribution of mansonelliases in Southern Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez J.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of mansonelliases and their relation to various quantitative criteria were determined through the study of 1,057 subjects in 17 localities in ten regions of Amazonas State and Bolivar State. The total prevalence among the blood samples, determined through the Knott technique, was 18.54 %. 11.26 % were parasited by Mansonella perstans, 9.93 % by Mansonella ozzardi, and 2.63 % by both species. The average of microfilaremia was 48.19 mf/mL of blood in M. perstans and 13.79 mf/mL in M. ozzardi. In the regions studied, A/I. ozzardi has a wider area of distribution than M. perstans. Prevalence, average number of parasites per host, and the infection index have a positive and statistically significant correlation with the total annual precipitation mean for each region for M. perstans; in the case of M. ozzardi the quantitative parameters are positively correlated with the altitude of each region, this correlation being statistically significant. With respect to type of vegetation, M. perstans had a higher infection index in Amazonian caatinga transition in pluvial lowland forest, and M. ozzardi in semideciduous forest of the alisio type. Therefore two types of transmission, M. ozzardi-Simulium and M. perstans-Culicoides are suggested.

  3. Nave de montaje Volkswagen, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bornhorst, D.

    1966-02-01

    Full Text Available To assemble Volkswagen cars for the Venezuela market, a large hall has been built, which is fitted with full facilities for its purpose, such as painting and greasing installations, and large parking area for the finished vehicles. The siting of this hall was carefully studied, and such factors as nearness to industrial zones, climate, and ease of access were decisive aspects that were taken into account. The final choice was a site near Morón, in the Carabobo Department, close to the sea. The main constructional item is the roof of the large hall. It is made of a series of hyperbolic-parabolic reinforced concrete thin shells, of rectangular planform, and slightly inclined towards the north, to produce a saw edge profile. Each of these shells is supported by a central column. The hollow spaces along the saw edge profile have been used for ventilation. The enclosing walls consist of trellice material, which also provide ample facility for additional ventilation.Para el montaje de los coches Volkswagen destinados al mercado venezolano, se ha construido una gran nave dotada de todos los servicios necesarios: pintura, engrases, aparcamiento de los vehículos terminados, etc. La elección del lugar más apropiado para la situación de la nave y edificios anexos fue motivo de un detenido estudio, en el que la proximidad a zonas industriales, clima, fácil entrada de materiales procedentes de ultramar y salida para los acabados, fueron los factores decisivos. Definitivamente se eligió un solar en las cercanías de Morón, del departamento de Carabobo, y próximo al mar. Lo más notable es la cubierta de la gran nave, formada por una serie de láminas parabólico-hiperbólicas de hormigón armado, de planta rectangular, inclinadas ligeramente hacia el norte para formar un perfil en diente de sierra. Cada una de estas láminas se soporta por un montante central. Los huecos que dichos dientes de sierra dejan se han aprovechado para la ventilación. Los

  4. Venezuela- China Industry, Commerce, Agriculture, Tourism Fair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jinliang

    2006-01-01

    @@ Bordering Columbia, Brazil and Guyana,Venezuela's economy developed speedily in recent years. It is a comparatively active country in South America. The main industries of the country are petroleum, mining, telecom, husbandry and tourism. The visiting enterprises include the leading enterprises of each key industry. This fair provides abundant trade and investment opportunities for China's execution of "Introduce in and Walk Out" development strategy.

  5. Potential options to reduce GHG emissions in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, N.; Bonduki, Y.; Perdomo, M.

    1996-12-31

    The Government of Venezuela ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in December, 1994. The Convention requires all parties to develop and publish national inventories of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) as well as national plans to reduce or control emissions, taking into account their common but differentiated responsibilities and their specific national and regional development priorities, objectives, and circumstances. Within this context, the Ministry of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources and the Ministry of Energy and Mines developed the `Venezuelan Case-Study to Address Climate Change`. The study was initiated in October 1993, with the financial and technical assistance of the Government of United States, through the U.S. Country Studies Program (USCSP), and the Global Environment Facility (GEF), through the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).

  6. Hepatitis C virus infection in hemodialysis patients in Maracaibo, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Monsalve-Castillo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Over a two year period, the incidence of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection was evaluated in 29 hemodialysis patients, aged between 15 and 75 years (mean ± SD: 45 ± 39.5 years, from the University Hospital Hemodyalisis Unit, Maracaibo, Zulia State, Venezuela. Anti-HCV antibodies were determined using a fourth generation ELISA (Innotest HCV Ab IV kit and positive blood samples were tested using a recombinant assay kit (Inno-LIA HCV Ab III, both kits from Innogenetics N.V., Belgium. The findings indicate a lack of HCV seroconversion in the hemodialysis patients over the study period, confirmed by the recombinant assay. Risk factors for HCV infection were 0.3270 (95% confidence interval: 0.01323-8.080 in patients undergoing hemodialysis. The findings suggest a lack of significant sources for HCV infection due to the preventive measures to avoid its transmission in the hemodialysis unit.

  7. Factores de riesgo cardiovascular y perfil apolipoprotéico en un grupo de adultos atendidos en un centro público de salud del estado Carabobo, Venezuela Cardiovascular risk factors and apolipoproteic profile in a group of adults treated in a public health center in Carabobo state, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelina Ruiz

    2011-06-01

    individuals (44.0 ± 15.5 years of both genders blood pressure, waist circumference (WC, lipid profile and apolipoproteins A-I and B; body mass index (BMI was calculated from weight and height; smoking habit, alcohol intake and consumption pattern were established. Results. 27.5% of individuals had low levels of Apo A-I, 45.2% high Apo B and 60.6% high Apo B/Apo A-I ratio. Serum levels of apolipoproteins and Apo B/Apo A-I ratio did not vary with age or gender, while the ratio HDL cholesterol/Apo A-I decreased with the age. Obese individuals, smokers, hypertensive, hypercholesterolemics, hypertriglyceridemics or with low HDL cholesterol showed higher Apo B and Apo B/Apo A-I ratio. Older individuals, smokers or individuals with increased LDL cholesterol and triglycerides showed lower HDL cholesterol/Apo A-I ratio. Consumption of three or more alcoholic drinks/day was associated with decreased Apo B. Conclusions. These results show high prevalence of altered apolipoprotein profile, which is associated with major cardiovascular risk factors. The results support the inclusion of the evaluated apolipoproteins in laboratory determinations made in public health centers in Venezuela.

  8. 78 FR 55096 - Ferrosilicon from Russia and Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... publishing the notice in the Federal Register of July 25, 2013 (78 FR 44969). The conference was held in... COMMISSION Ferrosilicon from Russia and Venezuela Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... Russia and Venezuela of ferrosilicon, provided for in subheadings 7202.21.10, 7202.21.50,...

  9. Migração internacional recente no amazonas: o caso dos Hispano-americanos Latest international migration in the amazon: the case of Hispanic-Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Antônio da Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A imigração para o Amazonas continua sendo um campo aberto à pesquisa antropológica, seja aquela de cunho histórico, ainda pouco pesquisada, seja a mais recente, sobretudo a oriunda de países fronteiriços da Região Amazônica. Entretanto, o grande desafio que se coloca aos estudiosos dessa temática é superar a referência teórica que norteou as análises que tiveram como marco explicativo os ciclos econômicos, entre eles o da borracha. No caso da imigração recente para o Amazonas, a tentação é relacioná-la também com o ciclo de desenvolvimento econômico propiciado pela criação da Zona Franca de Manaus em 1967, fator que poderia por si só explicar a presença de novos imigrantes, entre eles os hispano-americanos. Compreender a lógica e as especificidades dessa presença é o que pretendemos discutir neste artigo, que se insere em uma preocupação de pensar a imigração no Amazonas não apenas como um fenômeno demográfico e econômico, mas sobretudo como um processo social de mão dupla, ou seja, que afeta tanto a sociedade de origem quanto a de acolhida, em suas dimensões sociais e culturais, nas relações de gênero e nos processos identitários.Immigration to Amazonas state remains an open field for anthropological research, either that of a historical nature, still poorly researched, or that with a current focus, especially from neighboring countries of the Amazon region. However, the great challenge posed to scholars of the subject is to overcome the theoretical framework that guided analysis based on business cycles, such as rubber. In the case of recent immigration to the Amazonas state, the challenge is also to relate it to the cycle of economic development made possible by the creation of the Manaus Free Trade Zone, in 1967. This factor alone could explain the presence of new immigrants, among them, Hispanics. This article, which intends to discuss the rationale and the specifics of this presence, is immerse

  10. Prevalência de parasitos intestinais e aspectos socioambientais em comunidade indígena no Distrito de Iauaretê, Município de São Gabriel da Cachoeira (AM, Brasil Prevalence of intestinal parasites and social-environmental aspects in an indigenous Community in the Iauaretê District, Municipality of São Gabriel da Cachoeira (State of Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Rios

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Situado em Terra Indígena do Alto Rio Negro, Iauaretê é o segundo maior pólo de concentração humana no município de São Gabriel da Cachoeira (AM e agrega dez vilas, com 15 etnias. Esse distrito indígena vem sofrendo processo de transformação progressiva de padrão de ocupação disperso e ribeirinho para núcleo com feições urbanas, com aproximadamente 2700 habitantes, desencadeando problemas de saúde pública. Com objetivo de investigar a distribuição de prevalências de parasitos intestinais na população local e discutir a relação desse indicador de saúde com aspectos socioambientais no distrito de Iauaretê, foram realizadas análises da qualidade da água de abastecimento e exames parasitológicos em amostras de fezes e solo. Do total de amostras de água analisadas, 89,2% apresentaram resultado positivo para coliformes termotolerantes. Identificou-se que a vila Dom Bosco foi a que apresentou maior índice de prevalência em amostras fecais com 76% dos indivíduos parasitados. A vila São José apresentou o menor índice com 56%. Os parasitos mais prevalentes em amostras fecais positivas foram, em ordem decrescente, Ascaris lumbricoides (64,84%, Entamoeba coli (32,58%, Endolimax nana (14,84% e Blastoyistis hominis (13,39%. Em amostras de solo as prevalências mais significativas foram de ovos de Ascaris sp (52,6%, cistos de Entamoeba coli (52,6% e larvas de ancilostomídeos (52,6%. Concluiu-se que os altos índices de parasitoses intestinais na população, aliados à falta de saneamento básico e à manutenção de práticas sanitárias tradicionais constituem um quadro preocupante em saúde pública.The Iauaretê District is the second largest human concentration centre in the municipality of São Gabriel da Cachoeira, state of Amazonas. Situated in Alto Rio Negro Indigenous Land, on the border between Brazil and Colombia, Iauaretê aggregates ten villages, encompassing 15 ethnic cultures. This indigenous district has

  11. Evolutionary and Ecological Characterization of Mayaro Virus Strains Isolated during an Outbreak, Venezuela, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auguste, Albert J; Liria, Jonathan; Forrester, Naomi L; Giambalvo, Dileyvic; Moncada, Maria; Long, Kanya C; Morón, Dulce; de Manzione, Nuris; Tesh, Robert B; Halsey, Eric S; Kochel, Tadeusz J; Hernandez, Rosa; Navarro, Juan-Carlos; Weaver, Scott C

    2015-10-01

    In 2010, an outbreak of febrile illness with arthralgic manifestations was detected at La Estación village, Portuguesa State, Venezuela. The etiologic agent was determined to be Mayaro virus (MAYV), a reemerging South American alphavirus. A total of 77 cases was reported and 19 were confirmed as seropositive. MAYV was isolated from acute-phase serum samples from 6 symptomatic patients. We sequenced 27 complete genomes representing the full spectrum of MAYV genetic diversity, which facilitated detection of a new genotype, designated N. Phylogenetic analysis of genomic sequences indicated that etiologic strains from Venezuela belong to genotype D. Results indicate that MAYV is highly conserved genetically, showing ≈17% nucleotide divergence across all 3 genotypes and 4% among genotype D strains in the most variable genes. Coalescent analyses suggested genotypes D and L diverged ≈150 years ago and genotype diverged N ≈250 years ago. This virus commonly infects persons residing near enzootic transmission foci because of anthropogenic incursions.

  12. Decentralization process in Venezuela, under perspective of mayors elected for the term 2000-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaira Josefina REVERÓN ESCOBAR

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the process of decentralization in Venezuela, under mayors’ perspective, elected for the period 2000-2004. Our main goal is to identify the vision they have over such an important process that theoretically strengthens, supports, and enhances the democratic system. We contrast decentralization theory (which states that if there is not democracy at levels of government closer to the citizens-municipal government-democracy is not sustained over real bases with what Venezuelan mayors exposed about the facts observed in the nation in this sense. Our hypothesis is that the concepts and visions that the mayors expressed must coincide with the theory sustaining decentralization in general and particularly decentralization in Venezuela, which must coincide with their praxis in their municipalities. We concluded that the positive perspectives and visions as the negatives or pessimistic ones stated by the interviewed mayors coincided with theory supporting decentralization in different countries and with the evaluations of decentralization that have been conducted in different nations. Venezuelan decentralization process is not different from those that have been discovered in other countries in this sense. It seems to be that the decentralization policy in Venezuela enjoys the same virtues and suffers the same problems that decentralization policies in other countries.

  13. Estudos florísticos no município de Presidente Figueiredo, Amazonas, Brasil - II: famílias Myristicaceae, Siparunaceae e Monimiaceae Floristic studies in township of Presidente Figueiredo, Amazonas, Brazil - II: families Myristicaceae, Siparunaceae and Monimiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Coelho da Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O Município de Presidente Figueiredo, do Estado do Amazonas, Brasil, foi visitado durante três anos consecutivos (1996 a 1999, com o objetivo de obter-se amostras botânicas da área para estudos do Subprojeto "Elaboração de Revisões e Monografias Taxonômicas", com a finalidade de elaborar-se a Flórula para o Município. As coleções feitas nesse período encontram-se depositadas no acervo do Herbário do INPA e as informações gerais sobre os taxa aqui estudados foram complementadas com as obtidas das coleções feitas anteriormente por outros pesquisadores. Para a família Myristicaceae Br. R. foram identificadas 23 espécies e duas variedades, distribuídas em quatro gêneros. Destes, Iryanthera Warb. e Virola Aubl. destacaram-se pela diversidade em espécies, sendo Iryanthera ulei Warb. e Virola calophylla (Spruce Warb. var. calophylla as espécies mais coletadas. A família Monimiaceae Juss. está representada apenas pelo gênero Mollinedia Ruiz & Pavón, pela espécie M. ovata Ruiz & Pavón; já a família Siparunaceae (A. DC. Schodde encontra-se representada pelo gênero Siparuna Aubl. com oito espécies, sendo S. cristata (Poepp. & Endl. A. DC. a espécie mais coletada.The Township of Presidente Figueiredo, in the State of Amazonas, Brazil, was visited for three consecutive years, from 1996 to 1999, with the aim of acquiring botanical samples from the area, in order to carry out studies on the "Taxonomic Monographies and Revisions Preparation" Subproject for the purpose of preparing a survey of the flora. Collections pertaining to the present work are deposited at INPA's herbarium and, general information on the taxa studied here were complemented with those obtained from earlier collections conducted by other researchers. Twenty three (23 species and two varieties, distributed in four genera were identified for family Myristicaceae Br. R. Of these Iryanthera Warb. and Virola Aubl. stood out on account of their species diversity

  14. Estudos florísticos no município de Presidente Figueiredo, Amazonas. Brasil: I. famílias Annonaceae e Gnetaceae Floristic studies in township of Presidente Figueiredo, Amazonas. Brazil: I. families Annonaceae and Gnetaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Coelho da Silva

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O Município de Presidente Figueiredo, no Estado do Amazonas, foi visitado durante três anos consecutivos, de 1996 a 1999, com o objetivo de se obter amostras botânicas da área, para estudos no Subprojeto "Elaboração de Revisões e Monografias Taxonômicas" com a finalidade de se elaborar uma Flórula para o Município. As coleções feitas neste período encontram-se depositadas no acervo do Herbário do INPA e as informações gerais sobre os taxa aqui estudados foram complementadas com as obtidas das coleções feitas anteriormente por outros pesquisadores. Para a família Annonaceae Juss. (Magnoliopsida foram identificadas 39 espécies distribuídas em 15 gêneros. Destes, Duguetia A. St. Hill., Guatteria Ruiz & Pavon, Annona L., Unonopsis R.E.Fries e Xylopia L.destacaram-se pela diversidade em espécies, sendo os dois primeiros representados por oito e seis espécies, respectivamente, e os três últimos, com quatro espécies. A família Gnetaceae Lindl. (Gimnospermae está representada no Município apenas pelo gênero Gnetum L., com a espécie G. leyboldii Tul.The Township of Presidente Figueiredo, in the State of Amazonas, was visited for three consecutive years, from 1996 to 1999, with the aim of acquiring botanical samples from the area, in order to carry out studies in the "Taxonomic Monographies and Revisions Preparation" SubProject, for the purpose of preparing a survey of the flora. Collections pertaining to the present work are deposited at INPA's herbarium and, general information on the taxa studied here were complemented with those obtained from earlier collections conducted by other researchers. Thirty nine (39 species distributed into 15 genera were identified for the family Annonaceae Juss. (Magnoliopsida. Of these, Duguetia A. St. Hill., Guatteria Ruiz & Pavon, Annona L., Unonopsis R.E.Fries and Xylopia L. stood out on account of their species diversity, the former two were represented by eight and six species

  15. Ocorrência de entorse e lesões do joelho em jogadores de futebol da cidade de Manaus, Amazonas Knee lesions and sprains in soccer players of Manaus city, Amazonas - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Telles de Menezes Stewien

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados 50 jogadores de dois times profissionais e 47 jogadoras de três times amadores de futebol do Estado do Amazonas, todos da primeira divisão e sediados em Manaus. Foi determinada a ocorrência de entorse do joelho e lesões decorrentes, mediante uma entrevista sobre a história de entorse do joelho, além de avaliação subjetiva e exame físico, segundo o International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC 2000. Entre os jogadores, 16 (32% haviam referido entorse do joelho, sendo 14 (28% unilateral e 2 (4% bilateral. Entre as jogadoras, 11 (23% haviam referido entorse do joelho, sendo 9 (19% unilateral e 2 (4% bilateral. Dez (63% dos jogadores com entorse sofreram lesões ligamentares ou meniscais, dos quais 7 atletas submeteram-se à cirurgia, sendo 6 meniscectomias e 2 reconstruções do ligamento cruzado anterior. Não encontramos lesões do joelho entre as jogadoras de futebol examinadas. O tempo médio de afastamento dos atletas foi em torno de 3,5 meses em ambos os sexos, sendo que entre os jogadores o tempo médio de retorno foi quase 3 vezes maior naqueles que sofreram lesões ligamentares ou meniscais. A média da pontuação do IKDC subjetivo foi no sexo masculino de 95 pontos e de 96 pontos no sexo feminino.Fifty male and 47 female soccer players from Amazonas state teams in Manaus City were studied. The occurrence of knee sprain and resultant lesions was determined by interviewing the athletes about their history of knee sprain, as well as by subjective evaluation and physical examination using the method recommended by the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC 2000. Among male soccer players, 16 (32% have mentioned knee sprain, being 14 (28% unilateral and 2 (4% bilateral. Among females, 11 (23% have mentioned knee sprain, being 9 (19% unilateral and 2 (4% bilateral. Ten (63% male athletes with knee sprain presented ligament or meniscus lesions, seven of which have been submitted to surgery (6 meniscectomies

  16. Kebijakan Politik Hugo Chavez Dalam Penanggulangan Krisis Ekonomi Venezuela (1998-2008)

    OpenAIRE

    Pinem, Try Edo Ati

    2015-01-01

    Hugo Chavez is the President of Venezuela who has an important role for change of political direction to resolve economic crisis in Venezuela with his Bolivarian Revolution. His political and economic policies able to cope with the bad condition in Venezuela. The purpose of this study was (1) to describe the condition of Venezuela when the economic crisis (2) Describe the Bolivarian Revolution (3) Describe the policies of Hugo Chavez in Venezuela tackling the economic crisis...

  17. e-Science perspectives in Venezuela

    CERN Document Server

    Díaz, G; Hamar, V; Hoeger, H; Mendoza, C; Mendez, Z; Núñez, L A; Ruiz, N; Torrens, R; Uzcategui, M

    2008-01-01

    We describe the e-Science strategy in Venezuela, in particular initiatives by the Centro Nacional de Calculo Cientifico Universidad de Los Andes (CECALCULA), Merida, the Universidad de Los Andes (ULA), Merida, and the Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC), Caracas. We present the plans for the Venezuelan Academic Grid and the current status of Grid ULA supported by Internet2. We show different web-based scientific applications that are being developed in quantum chemistry, atomic physics, structural damage analysis, biomedicine and bioclimate within the framework of the E-Infrastructure shared between Europe and Latin America (EELA)

  18. e-Science perspectives in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, G.; Florez-Lopez, J.; Hamar, V.; Hoeger, H.; Mendoza, C.; Mendez, Z.; Nunez, L. A.; Ruiz, N.; Torrens, R.; Uzcategui, M.

    2007-07-01

    We describe the e-Science strategy in Venezuela, in particular initiatives by the Centro Nacional de Calculo Cientifico Universidad de Los Andes (CECALCULA), Merida, the Universidad de Los Andes (ULA), Merida, and the Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC), Caracas. We present the plans for the Venezuelan Academic Grid and the current status of Grid ULA supported by Internet2. We show different web-based scientific applications that are being developed in quantum chemistry, atomic physics, structural damage analysis, biomedicine and bio climate within the framework of the E-Infrastructure shared between Europe and Latin America (EELA). (Author)

  19. Environmental isolation of Cryptococcus gattii VGII from indoor dust from typical wooden houses in the deep Amazonas of the Rio Negro basin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Brito-Santos

    Full Text Available Cryptococcosis is a human fungal infection of significant mortality and morbidity, especially in the meningoencephalitis form. Cryptococcosis is distributed worldwide and its agents, C. neoformans and C. gattii, present eight major molecular types-VNI-VNIV and VGI-VGIV respectively. The primary cryptococcosis caused by molecular type VGII (serotype B, MAT alpha prevails in immunocompetent patients in the North and Northeast of Brazil, revealing an endemic regional pattern to this molecular type. Since 1999, C. gattii VGII has been involved in an ongoing outbreak in Canada, and is expanding to the Northwest of the United States, two temperate regions. Exposure to propagules dispersed in the environment, related to various organic substrates, mainly decomposing wood in and around dwellings, initiates the infection process. The present study investigated the presence of the agents of cryptococcosis in dust from dwellings in the upper Rio Negro, municipality of Santa Isabel do Rio Negro in Amazonas state. Indoor dust was collected from 51 houses, diluted and plated on bird seed agar. Dark brown colonies were identified phenotypically, and genotypically by URA5 restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and multilocus sequence typing (MLST. The mating type was identified using pheromone-specific primers. Three of the 51 houses were positive for C. gattii molecular type VGII, MATα and MATa, showing a high prevalence of this agent. MLST studies identified eight subtypes, VGIIb (ST7, VGIIa (ST20, (ST5 and 5 new subtypes unique to the region. For the first time in the state of Amazonas, C. gattii VGII MATα and MATa were isolated from the environment and correlates with endemic cryptococcosis in this state. This is the first description of MLST subtypes on environmental isolates in the Brazilian Amazon, indicating domiciliary dust as a potential source for human infection with different subtypes of C. gattii VGII MATα and MATa.

  20. Environmental isolation of Cryptococcus gattii VGII from indoor dust from typical wooden houses in the deep Amazonas of the Rio Negro basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito-Santos, Fábio; Barbosa, Gláucia Gonçalves; Trilles, Luciana; Nishikawa, Marília Martins; Wanke, Bodo; Meyer, Wieland; Carvalho-Costa, Filipe Anibal; Lazéra, Márcia dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Cryptococcosis is a human fungal infection of significant mortality and morbidity, especially in the meningoencephalitis form. Cryptococcosis is distributed worldwide and its agents, C. neoformans and C. gattii, present eight major molecular types-VNI-VNIV and VGI-VGIV respectively. The primary cryptococcosis caused by molecular type VGII (serotype B, MAT alpha) prevails in immunocompetent patients in the North and Northeast of Brazil, revealing an endemic regional pattern to this molecular type. Since 1999, C. gattii VGII has been involved in an ongoing outbreak in Canada, and is expanding to the Northwest of the United States, two temperate regions. Exposure to propagules dispersed in the environment, related to various organic substrates, mainly decomposing wood in and around dwellings, initiates the infection process. The present study investigated the presence of the agents of cryptococcosis in dust from dwellings in the upper Rio Negro, municipality of Santa Isabel do Rio Negro in Amazonas state. Indoor dust was collected from 51 houses, diluted and plated on bird seed agar. Dark brown colonies were identified phenotypically, and genotypically by URA5 restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The mating type was identified using pheromone-specific primers. Three of the 51 houses were positive for C. gattii molecular type VGII, MATα and MATa, showing a high prevalence of this agent. MLST studies identified eight subtypes, VGIIb (ST7), VGIIa (ST20), (ST5) and 5 new subtypes unique to the region. For the first time in the state of Amazonas, C. gattii VGII MATα and MATa were isolated from the environment and correlates with endemic cryptococcosis in this state. This is the first description of MLST subtypes on environmental isolates in the Brazilian Amazon, indicating domiciliary dust as a potential source for human infection with different subtypes of C. gattii VGII MATα and MATa.

  1. Nuevos significados de la democracia en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Karina Núñez Muñoz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es interpretar los nuevos significados de la demo- cracia en Venezuela, construidos a partir de los cambios y transformaciones iniciados en 1999 (proceso constituyente-reforma política, teniendo como centro los discursos y prácticas de una ciudadanía que debe participar de forma activa y organizada en los asuntos públicos con miras a la búsqueda de la solución de sus problemas más apremiantes. La aproximación metodológica (cualitativa-hermenéutica se realizó con- siderando que esta redefinición es una construcción intersubjetiva de los valores, acciones y normas en el ámbito político que intenta explicar cómo se construye la ciudadanía, fundamentalmente en el nivel local, a través de formas asociativas (como los consejos comunales en su interrelación con el Estado. Se concluye que a partir del nuevo orden constitucional de 1999 se comien- za a construir en Venezuela un nuevo sujeto que intenta viabilizar sus de- mandas a través de las organizaciones sociales.

  2. [Colombians in Venezuela: myth and reality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidegain Greising, G; Freitez Landaeta, A

    1988-08-01

    Figures of Colombian immigrants in Venezuela in the period 1981-1986 as well as the development of their socio-demographic profile and their integration into the labor market are analyzed by means of ad hoc tables drawn from a Sample Home Survey by the Oficina Central de Estadisticas e Informatica and information from the civil record office. It is estimated that in 1987 there are only half a million Colombians in Venezuela and, contrary to what is generally assumed, not only has the afflux decreased (3/4 of the Colombians entered before 1981), but also a return migration can be observed. Colombian immigration is not homogeneous, but is made up of different groups as far as their professional skills and occupations are concerned. The number of Colombians engaged in household service and those living in rural areas has decreased, but not the number of active farm workers. A greater proportion of Colombians engaged in trade and sales activities is observed, but artisans and skilled labor are still the majority.

  3. Lanzamiento de supermercados cheap en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar A. Colmenares D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente caso de estudio se plantea en el contexto del sector de distribución de alimentos al detal en Venezuela en los años 2005 al 2007, el cual ha ostentado diversas mutaciones y cambios en función de las condiciones socioeconómicas del país y las tendencias globales. La cadena internacional de Supermercados Cheap, de origen tailandés, es una empresa dedicada a la distribución al menor de productos de consumo masivo, que estaba interesada en abrir operaciones comerciales en Latinoamérica tomando como país piloto a Venezuela. Para ello, quiere desarrollar una red de tiendas con marca y concepto propio adecuada a las características y exigencias del mercado local. En este sentido, debe diagnosticar el escenario de negocios y del mercado actual del sector y diseñar un plan de acción para cumplir con su objetivo

  4. [Zika virus: Another emerging arbovirus in Venezuela?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero Nereida

    2015-09-01

    Current health conditions of Venezuela, together with the tropical proliferation of different types of Aedes (aegypti and albopictus), suggest the arrival to this country of ZIKA virus (ZIKV). The Pan American Health Organization urges Latin American countries to take measures to prevent the ZIKV entry and advises that these measures must be designed to detect the introduction of ZIKV in an area, track its spread and actively monitor the disease. In Venezuela and other Latin-American countries, where endemicity is high for other arboviruses such as dengue arid chikungunya, health authorities should strengthen their surveillance systems to detect early and timely introduction of ZIKV ap.d refine diagnostic methods to confirm the infection rate; however, the high incidence of cases due those viral agents reflects weakened and poorly timed insensitive monitoring systems, as well as, poor vector control measures, arising the questions: will this arbovirus pop in our country, will it set as the other as edemicepidemic and lead to alter their clinical behavior and severity of the disease?

  5. [The health system of Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvecchio, Anabelle; Becerril-Montekio, Victor; Carriedo-Lutzenkirchen, Angela; Landaeta-Jiménez, Maritza

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the Venezuelan health system, including its structure and coverage, financial sources, human and material resources and its stewardship functions. This system comprises a public and a private sector. The public sector includes the Ministry of Popular Power for Health (MS) and several social security institutions, salient among them the Venezuelan Institute for Social Security (IVSS). The MH is financed with federal, state and county contributions. The IVSS is financed with employer, employee and government contributions. These two agencies provide services in their own facilities. The private sector includes providers offering services on an out-of-pocket basis and private insurance companies. The Venezuelan health system is undergoing a process of reform since the adoption of the 1999 Constitution which calls for the establishment of a national public health system. The reform process is now headed by the Barrio Adentro program.

  6. Nuevo Rowlandius Reddell & Cokendolpher, 1995 (Schizomida: Hubbardiidae de la Sierra San Luis, Venezuela noroccidental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F. de Armas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un nuevo esquizómido del género Rowlandius Reddell & Cokendolpher, 1995, proveniente de la Sierra de San Luis, Estado Falcón, en Venezuela noroccidental. Rowlandius arduus sp. n. se caracteriza por el dedo móvil del quelícero con un diminuto diente subdistal, una débil eminencia dorsoposterior en el segmento abdominal XII del macho y espermatecas constituidas por dos pares de lóbulos largos y sinuosos, tenuemente quitinizados, sin bulbo terminal notable. Su asignación al género Rowlandius es tentativa, pues posee varios caracteres que no concuerdan plenamente con el mismo, sin embargo la carencia de caracteres sinapomórficos limita su asignación a otro género. Este es el primer registro del género para Venezuela y la tercera especie suramericana conocida.A new species of the genus Rowlandius Reddell & Cokendolpher, 1995 is described from Sierra San Luis, Falcón State, northwestern Venezuela. Rowlandius arduus sp. n. may be characterized by having movable finger of chelicerae with a diminute sub-distal tooth, male with a poorly developed dorsal eminence on abdominal segment XII, and female with two pairs of weakly sclerotized, sinuous spermathecal lobes, without conspicuous terminal lobe. It is assigned to Rowlandius tentatively, because some characters are not congruent with this genus, nevertheless the absence of synapomorphic characters limits its inclusion in other one. This is the first record of the genus from Venezuela, and the third South American species described.

  7. Carbon storage in soil and aggregates of Inceptisols under different land use management systems in southern Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton César Costa Campos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Land use and management systems are factors that can influence carbon stock and its aggregate stability. This study assessed the carbon stock and aggregate stability of Inceptisols under different land use and management systems. The study was conducted on five properties located in the southern region of Amazonas state. Five areas were selected with different traditional land use systems (agroforestry, cassava, sugarcane, pasture and native forest. On each site, grids of 50 m x 50 m, with regular spacing of 10 by 10 meters were outlined for a sampling of 36 points in each mesh at a depth 0.00-0.10 m. We determined the bulk density, aggregate stability, total organic carbon and carbon stock. Data were subjected to analysis of variance (F test and means were compared by Tukey test at 5% probability. We found that the highest values of carbon stocks were found in areas under sugar cane and pasture, followed by the areas under cassava, agroforestry and native forest. Carbon stocks and aggregate stability were significantly altered by land use management systems.

  8. OPEN INNOVATION PROJECT: THE SYSTEM OF ONLINE INDICATORS IN SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION OF AMAZONAS (SiON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moises Andrade Coelho

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the implementation of an open innovation project in a public institution in the state of Amazonas. The theoretical and empirical background deals with science, technology and innovation indicators and open innovation. The study is characterized as a qualitative and descriptive research, with the case study as a methodological procedure. The delimitation of the universe was composed by a public institution in the area of science, technology and innovation (ST&I. In the case study, it was used an approach as tool to assess the implementation of open innovation projects. The results are shown several stages of open innovation project analyzed.  The study demonstrates the implications of open innovation project adoption to the strengthening of external networks and the maturing of the internal environment. The relevance of the study is based on the evaluation of an open innovation project in a public institution in order to foster the transition from traditional innovation processes to open innovation processes.

  9. Analysis of the Linkage Effects of Venezuela’s Petroleum Sector and Political Risk Analysis of Venezuela’s Petroleum Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    Maracaibo and Venezuelan Population Growth Rates. Ingles, Urbanization and Regional Development in Venezuela, p. 58. Izard, Serie estadistica para la...Regional Development in Venezuela. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University, 1975. Izard, Miguel. Serie estadistica para la historia de Venezuela. Merida

  10. Parasitism of two zoonotic reservoirs Dasyprocta leporina and D. fuliginosa (Rodentia from Amazonas, with Trichostrongylina nematodes (Heligmonellidae: description of a new genus and a new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Queiroga Gonçalves

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A new genus and a new species of Heligmonellidae nematodes are described parasiting the stomach of three agoutis (two Dasyprocta fuliginosa and one D. leporina captured in the middle and high Negro river microregion, state of Amazonas, Brazil. The new genus, as well as its type-species, are closely related to the trichostrongylids included in Fuellebornema, particularly on what concerns the pattern of the caudal bursa, but differing from them by the characteristics of the synlophe, that presents a poorly developed carene, when compared to the referred number of body ridges in Freitastrongylus n. gen. and consequently in F. angelae n. sp.,in which the ridges are well developed and the carene at mid-body has a similar size when compared to the ridge situated in front of the right field (ridge no. 5. Caudal bursa is of the type 1-4, with rays 9 shorter than rays 10, with a very long genital cone.

  11. National Training Program for Comprehensive Community Physicians, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Syr Salas Perea

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Note from the Editors: This article by Drs. Borroto Cruz and Salas Perea was published in the Fall 2008 edition of MEDICC Review. We will be publishing a Spanish translation this month in Medicina Social. We present here the abstract of the article. We encourage readers to read the English original which is available at: www.medicc.org/mediccreview/. The issue is entitled: Teaching for Health Equity: Changing Paradigms of Medical Education. National Training Program for Comprehensive Community Physicians, Venezuela Introduction: Through the 1990s, wide disparities in health status were recorded in Venezuela, a mirror of poor social conditions, decreasing investment in the public health sector and a health workforce distribution unable to meet population health needs or to staff effective, accessible public health services. Venezuelans’ health status deteriorated as a result. In 2003-2004, the Venezuelan government launched Barrio Adentro, a new national public health model aimed at assuring primary health care coverage for the entire population of an estimated 26 million. Cuban physicians staff Barrio Adentro clinics, mainly in poor neighborhoods, until enough Venezuelan physicians can be trained to fill the posts. Intervention: Cuban experience with community-oriented medical education and global health cooperation was drawn upon to develop curriculum and provide faculty for the new National Training Program for Comprehensive Community Physicians, begun in 2005 in cooperation with six Venezuelan universities. The program differs from previous Venezuelan medical education models by adopting a stated goal of training physicians for public service, recruiting students who had no previous opportunity for university-level education, and concentrating the weight of their training on a service- and community-based model of education, relying on practicing physician-tutors. Results: Over 20,000 students have been enrolled in three years. The six

  12. e-Science initiatives in Venezuela

    CERN Document Server

    Chaves, J L; Hamar, V; Isea, R; Rojas, F; Ruiz, N; Torrens, R; Uzcategui, M; Florez-Lopez, J; Hoeger, H; Mendoza, C; Núñez, L A

    2007-01-01

    Within the context of the nascent e-Science infrastructure in Venezuela, we describe several web-based scientific applications developed at the Centro Nacional de Calculo Cientifico Universidad de Los Andes (CeCalCULA), Merida, and at the Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC), Caracas. The different strategies that have been followed for implementing quantum chemistry and atomic physics applications are presented. We also briefly discuss a damage portal based on dynamic, nonlinear, finite elements of lumped damage mechanics and a biomedical portal developed within the framework of the \\textit{E-Infrastructure shared between Europe and Latin America} (EELA) initiative for searching common sequences and inferring their functions in parasitic diseases such as leishmaniasis, chagas and malaria.

  13. Las elecciones presidenciales en Venezuela 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Jiménez, Juan Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    IntroducciónEl pasado 3 de diciembre, se llevaron a cabo las elecciones presidenciales en Venezuela. La disputa estaba concentrada en las candidaturas del actual presidente Hugo Chávez Frías y la de Manuel Rosales, Gobernador del estado Zulia. Toda la campaña estuvo signada por una dinámica discusión en torno a la construcción de procesos enmarcadotes, a través de los cuales definían su perspectiva y visión acerca de la democracia, el sistema político y la utilización de la renta petrolera. P...

  14. e-Science initiatives in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, J. L.; Diaz, G.; Hamar, V.; Isea, R.; Rojas, F.; Ruiz, N.; Torrens, R.; Uzcategui, M.; Florez-Lopez, J.; Hoeger, H.; Mendoza, C.; Nunez, L. A.

    2007-07-01

    Within the context of the nascent e-Science infrastructure in Venezuela, we describe several webbased scientific applications developed at the Centro Nacional de Calculo Cientifico Universidad de Los Andes (CECALCULA), Merida, and at the Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC), Caracas. The different strategies that have been followed for implementing quantum chemistry and atomic physics applications are presented. We also briefly discuss a damage portal based on dynamic, nonlinear, finite elements of lumped damage mechanics and a biomedical portal developed within the framework of the E-Infrastructure shared between Europe and Latin America (EELA) initiative for searching common sequences and inferring their functions in parasitic diseases such as leishmaniasis, chagas and malaria. (Author)

  15. Efeitos sedativos da associação de Cetamina e Midazolam administrados pela via intranasal ou intramuscular em papagaio (Amazona aestiva e Amazona vinacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduarda H. Bitencourt

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A falta de protocolos de sedação seguros para uso em papagaios na literatura demonstra a necessidade de conhecer os anestésicos que são eficazes nestes animais. Devido a pouca massa muscular desta espécie, notou-se a necessidade de estudar outra via de administração, menos invasiva e dolorosa ao animal, como a via intranasal. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos sedativos e a viabilidade da administração intranasal, em comparação à via intramuscular, de 15mg/kg de Cetamina e 1mg/kg de Midazolam. Foram utilizados 14 papagaios das espécies Amazona aestiva e Amazona vinacea, de ambos os sexos, adultos, peso médio de 388,5±29,1g. Os animais foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos: intramuscular (IM, n=7 e intranasal (IN, n=7. No grupo intramuscular, a administração dos anestésicos foi realizada nos músculos peitorais, utilizando seringas de insulina e no grupo intranasal, com auxílio de uma micropipeta. Avaliou-se o período de latência, tempo de duração, qualidade de sedação, e o tempo de recuperação total. A média para o período de latência no grupo IM foi de 6,13±2,02 minutos e no grupo IN de 4,84±2,37 minutos. Já para o tempo de duração da sedação no grupo IM a média foi de 35,81±29,56 e no grupo IN de 24,52±14,83 minutos. Ambas as vias promoveram sedação adequada, pois a média do escore da qualidade de sedação obtida pelo grupo IM foi 2±1,5 e pelo grupo IN 1,28±1,1. O tempo de recuperação total no grupo IM foi de 27,04±11,69 e no grupo IN de 17,67±11,64 minutos. Apesar do grupo IN ter apresentado os menores tempos de período de latência, duração e de recuperação total e ter obtido melhor escore na qualidade de sedação, não houve diferença estatística significativa entre os grupos. Os resultados obtidos neste estudo indicam que a administração de 15 mg/kg de cetamina e 1mg/kg de midazolam pela via intranasal ou intramuscular em papagaios (Amazona aestiva e

  16. Estudiando el Amazonas: la experiencia de la Red Amazónica de Inventarios Forestales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lopez-Gonzalez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El establecimiento y monitoreo de parcelas permanentes en los trópicos es indispensable para entender la dinámica y biodiversidad de los bosques tropicales. La conformación de la Red Amazónica de Inventarios Forestales (RAINFOR ha permitido estudiar el Amazonas a nivel regional y ha promovido el intercambio de información entre investigadores independientes. En esta revisión se presentan: a los objetivos y lecciones aprendidas por la red RAINFOR; b la importancia de ForestPlots.net como herramienta de apoyo para una red de parcelas forestales; y c algunos de los principales descubrimientos científicos generados por RAINFOR. RAINFOR es una red científica que en los últimos diez años ha colectado, organizado y analizado datos de más de 200 parcelas forestales. Las mediciones diamétricas y la información taxonómica se guardan y manejan en la base de datos ForestPlots.net. Algunos de los principales descubrimientos de RAINFOR incluyen: 1 el incremento en biomasa en el Amazonas; 2 la diferencia en las tasas de recambio y biomasa entre la región Occidente y los bosques del Centro-Este; 3 cambios a largo plazo en la densidad de lianas, e incrementos en la mortalidad a corto plazo en respuesta a la sequía. Dada la importancia del Amazonas, debido a su gran diversidad y su contribución al ciclo global de carbono, es necesario continuar con proyectos de investigación que permitan entender su repuesta a los cambios ambientales.

  17. Hepatite fulminante e febre negra de Lábrea: estudo de 5 casos procedentes de Codajás, Amazonas, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Ferraz da Fonseca

    1983-09-01

    Full Text Available São descritas as manifestações clinicas, laboratoriais e aspectos evolutivos de cinco pacientes procedentes de Codajás-Amazonas, atendidos no Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Manaus devido ao quadro de hepatopatia grave, com período médio de doença de quatro dias. Quatro destes pacientes evoluiram para óbito, com uma média de cinco dias desde o inicio dos pródromos. A sorologia para hepatite B mostrou que o Ag HBs estava presente em quatro e o Anti - HBc em todos. Dos pacientes que foram ao óbito, através da necropsia a histopatologia do fígado revelou quadro de hepatite fulminante em dois e de febre de Lábrea nos outros dois.We have described the clinical and laboratory manifestations and evolutiortal aspects of five patients from Codajás, state of Amazonas, Brasil. These patients were treated at the Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Manaus with a picture of acute liver failure with an average period of evolution of 4 days. Of these patients, four died, within an average time of five days since the prodromal phase. Serology for hepatitis B showed that HBAg was present in four, and the HBc antigen in all patients. An autopsy was perfomed on the four patients who died, and the liver histopathology revealed a picture of fulminant hepatitis in two, and Lábrea fever (febre negra, in the other two.

  18. [Recent and future trends in general fertility in Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papail, J

    1983-01-01

    Data from the 1977 Venezuela Fertility survey were used to assess recent trends in fertility and to attempt an understanding of future fertility based on observed trends. Between 1951-61, the total fertility rate increased from 5.96 to 6.61. In the 1960s, the fertility of women aged 15-30 years declined somewhat and the use of contraception and sterilization became more widespread, so that by 1971 the total fertility rate fell to 5.58. It is possible that the 1977 fertility survey slightly underrepresented women in the Caracas area, which would tend to overestimate fertility at the national level. The small sample size of 4361 women aged 15-44 involved considerable fluctuations in fertility rates from year to year. The risk of errors resulting from the method of retrospective reporting of live births appeared to be small since the recall period was relatively short. A series of quinquennial rates for women aged 15-39 was constructed for each age group from 1968-77. Fertility rates estimated for 1971 and 1976 respectively from the Venezuela Fertility Survey results using a moving average for 3 years were 120.7 and 105.1 for women 15-19, 259.0 and 225.1 for women 20-24, 255.0 and 213.1 for women 25-29, 214.3 and 167.7 for women 30-34, and 150.0 and 103.6 for women 35-39. The results were quite close to fertility rates estimated in other sources. The 1977 fertility survey indicated a trend toward later age at marriage and a correlation of ideal family size with age. The ideal number of children was 4.2 for the total sample, 5 children for women aged 35-39 years, 4.5 for those aged 30-34, 3.9 for those 25-29, and 3.5 for those aged 20-24. 55% of women in union stated they wanted no more children. 46% of women exposed to risk of pregnancy used a modern method of contraception; the proportion varied from 40% of those with 1 child to 56% with 4 children. The fertility decline, reduced ideal family size, and use of modern contraception were closely associated with

  19. Report about star fruit fruits damaged by Amazona albifrons Sparman, in Tabasco, Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saúl Sánchez-Soto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine, the animal species causing damage to inmature fruits of Averrhoa carambola, in a home garden. The study was conducted in a home garden with two star fruit trees in Cardenas, Tabasco, Mexico (18°00’10.9’’ N, 93°25’52.2’’ W. The loss of fruits was registered from June 21st to August 2nd, 2015 based on weekly evaluations. 12 637 fruits were toppled by the bird Amazona albifrons Sparman (Psitaciformes: Psittacidae, which is distributed from Mexico to Costa Rica.

  20. Combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma in a Yellow-headed Amazon (Amazona oratrix).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennakoon, Anusha Hemamali; Izawa, Takeshi; Fujita, Daisuke; Denda, Yuki; Seto, Eiko; Sasai, Hiroshi; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Yamate, Jyoji

    2013-11-01

    A 9-year-old male Yellow-headed Amazon (Amazona oratrix) with a history of anorexia and vomiting died of a liver tumor. The tumor consisted of neoplastic cells with hepatocellular and cholangiocellular differentiations and their intermingled areas. Neoplastic hepatocytes showed islands or trabecular growth with vacuolated eosinophilic cytoplasm. Cells showing biliary differentiation formed ducts or tubules lined by cytokeratin AE1/AE3-positive epithelia, accompanied by desmoplasia consisting of myofibroblasts reacting to α-smooth muscle actin and desmin. The tumor was diagnosed as a combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma, which is very rare in the avian.

  1. A preliminary and qualitative metallomics study of mercury in the muscle of fish from Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Paula M; Santos, Felipe A; Padilha, Cilene C F; Vieira, José C S; Zara, Luiz F; de M Padilha, Pedro

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents preliminary findings for a metallomics study of mercury in the muscle of the fish species from Amazonas, Brazil, after protein separation by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and subsequent evaluation of mercury by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence. The fluorescence spectra revealed mercury in two protein spots. The mercury-containing protein spots showed molecular weights of 20.8 ± 0.7 and 19.8 ± 0.5 kDa and isoelectric points of 5.6 ± 0.2 and 7.5 ± 0.3, respectively.

  2. Sasón y sabor en el suroriente colombiano: Amazonas y Orinoco

    OpenAIRE

    Prieto, Astrid Quintero

    2016-01-01

    RESUMENEsta investigación, presenta las costumbres y tradiciones culinarias y alimenticias de las regiones del Amazonas y el Orinoco en el suroriente colombiano, dos regiones hermanas unidas por territorio y geografía, que se complementan de manera perfecta para dar cabida a una de las cocinas más variadas y singulares del mundo. Pretende mostrar, así mismo, la cocina como patrimonio cultural inmaterial de los pueblos y como un arte, en el que cada plata, fruto, animal o semilla llevan impres...

  3. SEROPREVALENCIA DE CISTICERCOSIS PORCINA EN CUATRO CASERÍOS DEL DISTRITO DE OMIA, AMAZONAS.

    OpenAIRE

    Carhuallanqui P., Mijael; Laboratorio de Microbiología y Parasitología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima-Perú.; López U., Teresa; Laboratorio de Microbiología y Parasitología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima-Perú.; González Z., Armando; Laboratorio de Medicina Veterinaria Preventiva, FMV-UNMSM; Angulo J., Carlos; Laboratorio de Medicina Veterinaria Preventiva, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima-Perú.

    2011-01-01

    La cisticercosis es una enfermedad zoonótica de distribución mundial y en el Perú representa la principal zoonosis parasitaria con seroprevalencias que alcanzan el 17% en humanos y 75% en porcinos, calificando al país como área endémica. El objetivo de este trabajo fue obtener un valor representativo del grado de infección de la forma larvaria de Taenia solium en cerdos criados en los caseríos de Omia, Nuevo Chirimoto, Mashuyacu y Tocuya del distrito de Omia, Amazonas. Se muestreó a 48 animal...

  4. Venezuela's Barrio Adentro: an alternative to neoliberalism in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner, Carles; Salazar, René M Guerra; Benach, Joan; Armada, Francisco

    2006-01-01

    Throughout the 1990s, all Latin American countries but Cuba implemented health care sector reforms based on a neoliberal paradigm that redefined health care less as a social right and more as a market commodity. These reforms were couched in the broader structural adjustment of Latin American welfare states as prescribed by international financial institutions since the mid-1980s. However, since 2003, Venezuela has been developing an alternative to this neoliberal trend through its health care reform program, Misión Barrio Adentro (Inside the Neighborhood). In this article, the authors review the main features of the Venezuelan health care reform, analyzing, within their broader sociopolitical and economic contexts, previous neoliberal health care reforms that mainly benefited transnational capital and domestic Latin American elites. They explain the emergence of the new health care program, Misión Barrio Adentro, examining its historical, social, and political underpinnings and the central role played by popular resistance to neoliberalism. This program not only provides a compelling model of health care reform for other low- to middle-income countries but also offers policy lessons to wealthy countries.

  5. Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Pregnant Women in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections, especially due to helminths, increase anemia in pregnant women. The results of this are low pregnancy weight gain and IUGR, followed by LBW, with its associated greater risks of infection and higher perinatal mortality rates. For these reasons, in the setting of no large previous studies in Venezuela about this problem, a national multicentric study was conducted. Methods. Pregnant women from nine states were studied, a prenatal evaluation with a coproparasitological study. Univariated and multivariated analyses were made to determine risk factors for intestinal parasitosis and related anemia. Results. During 19 months, 1038 pregnant women were included and evaluated. Intestinal parasitosis was evidenced in 73.9%: A lumbricoides 57.0%, T trichiura 36.0%, G lamblia 14.1%, E hystolitica 12.0%, N americanus 8.1%, E vermicularis 6.3%, S stercoralis 3.3%. Relative risk for anemia in those women with intestinal parasitosis was 2.56 ( P<.01 . Discussion. Intestinal parasitoses could be associated with conditions for development of anemia at pregnancy. These features reflect the need of routine coproparasitological study among pregnant women in rural and endemic zones for intestinal parasites. Further therapeutic and prophylactic protocols are needed. Additional research on pregnant intestinal parasitic infection impact on newborn health is also considered.

  6. 78 FR 60846 - Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... International Trade Administration Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela: Continuation of... silicomanganese from India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela would likely lead to a continuation or recurrence of dumping... a sunset review of the antidumping duty orders on silicomanganese from India, Kazakhstan,...

  7. 78 FR 4437 - Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, Venezuela: Notice of Commission Determination To Conduct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... COMMISSION Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, Venezuela: Notice of Commission Determination To Conduct... duty orders on silicomanganese from India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela would be likely to lead to... on subject imports from India and Kazakhstan were inadequate. Notwithstanding this, the...

  8. Represión y justicia en Venezuela en tiempos de protesta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogelio Pérez Perdomo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Between February and May 2014, wide public demonstrations erupted mayor cities in Venezuela, when young people protested against violent criminality, scarcity of goods, inflation and a general perception of an uncertain future. They were violently repressed by the military police, the police and armed thugs. Fifty people died, many were injured or arrested, and about 2.500 were submitted to criminal procedure. A number of opposition leaders and mayors are still in prison. Prosecutors and judges have collaborated in the repression and have paid no attention to the massive violation of human rights. The article analyzes the meaning of such massive repression for the judicial system and the state.

  9. [A new species of amphipod crustacean of the genus Amphilochus (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Amphilochidae) from Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, A; Ortiz, M; Atienza, D

    2001-01-01

    A new species of amphipod Crustacea (Gammaridea, Amphilochidae) of the genus Amphilochus Bate, 1862, is described. The species was collected in Phallusia nigra (Savigny, 1816) at depths between 0 and 2 m, in the pier piles of the Marina El Ancla and Los Manglares gas station in Morrocoy National Park (Falcón State, Venezuela), during the months of June and July 1998. The main differences between A. ascidicola new species and all others species of the genus recorded from the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea, are given.

  10. Monitoring of organophosphorus pesticide residues in vegetables of agricultural area in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, América; Caselles, María J; Ettiene, Gretty; de Colmenares, Nélida G; Ramírez, Tibisay; Medina, Deisy

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the residues of seven pesticides organophosphorus (methamidophos, diazinon, chlorpyriphos, parathion-methyl, dimethoate, malathion and tetrachlorvinphos), in some vegetables like: potato, lettuce, tomato, onion, red pepper and green onion cultivated in José María Vargas County in Táchira State, Venezuela. The research permitted to detect that 48.0% of the samples were contaminated with some of the pesticides studied. Methamidophos was founded in the vegetables in the rank of 6.3%-65.5%. The results show that 16.7% of the samples tested have residues higher than the maximum limits permitted.

  11. Aproximación al conocimiento de las briofitas de Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, Efraín J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper introduces the up-dated taxonomic placement of 106 genera of Hepaticae and 233 genera of Musci known from Venezuela. Besides, a summarized version from the geographical distribution in Venezuela of 383 species of Hepaticae and 1009 species of mosses is presented. Information was derived from an exhaustive revision of bryophyte collections in the Venezuelan herbaria, and from publications about bryophytes collected in Venezuela. It is concluded that Venezuela, despite having been li...

  12. Calidad de la democracia en Venezuela Quality of democracy in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H. LEVINE

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Los debates sobre la democracia en la Venezuela de hoy carecen de una definición común sobre el tema, sobre cómo estudiarlo, e incluso respecto a qué es democracia. El régimen ha sido descrito de muchas formas: democracia participativa, híbrido, mixto, personalista, populista, iliberal, autoritarismo competitivo. El objetivo de este trabajo es determinar el nivel de calidad de la democracia en Venezuela, en el marco de una concepción procedimental de la democracia. La evaluación empírica de cinco dimensiones de calidad de la democracia (decisión electoral, participación, respuesta a la voluntad popular, rendición de cuentas y soberanía revela un nivel bajo en conjunto, con escasa variación entre 2005 y 2010. Los escenarios posibles luego de las elecciones de 2012 incluyen: reforzamiento de las tendencias autoritarias, militarización abierta, liberalización política con fortalecimiento institucional, o volatilidad duradera con conflicto polarizado y debilidad institucional. La salud del presidente Chávez afectará estos escenarios, dado su carácter de factor central unificador de su movimiento y del régimen.Discussions of democracy in contemporary Venezuela lack a settled definition of the subject, how to study it, or indeed of what counts as «democracy» in the first place. The regime has been described as everything from participatory democracy, hybrid, mixed, and personalist to populist, illiberal, or no longer democratic but rather competitive authoritarian. The goal of this article is to measure the quality of democracy in Venezuela, within the terms of a procedural concept of democracy as detailed in our earlier work. Empirical measurement of the quality of democracy on five dimensions (electoral choice, participation, responsiveness, accountability, sovereignty reveals a low level overall and deep institutional weakness under a personalist leadership, with little change from 2005 to 2010. Future scenarios, after the

  13. Hourly activity of Lutzomyia ovallesi and L. gomezi (Diptera:Psychodidae), Vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis in northcentral Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliciangeli, M D

    1997-03-01

    The comparative hourly activity of Lutzomyia ovallesi (Ortiz) and L. gomezi (Nitzulescu), vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Miranda State, Venezuela, was studied between November and March during 1991-1994 using a Shannon trap with a fluorescent light. Female abundance of L. ovallesi increased from 1800 to 2000 hours, plateaued from 2000 to 2400 hours, then decreased progressively. L. gomezi always exhibited maximum activity between 1900 and 2000 hours, then declined abruptly. The importance of these activity patterns in Leishmania transmission is discussed.

  14. Tertiary evolution of the northeastern Venezuela offshore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ysaccis B., Raul

    1998-12-01

    On the northeastern offshore Venezuela, the pre-Tertiary basement consists of a deeply subducted accretionary complex of a Cretaceous island arc system that formed far to the west of its present location. The internal structure of this basement consists of metamorphic nappes that involve passive margin sequences, as well as oceanic (ophiolitic) elements. The Tertiary evolution of the northeastern Venezuela offshore is dominated by Paleogene (Middle Eocene-Oligocene) extension and Neogene transtension, interrupted by Oligocene to Middle Miocene inversions. The Paleogene extension is mainly an arc-normal extension associated with a retreating subduction boundary. It is limited to the La Tortuga and the La Blanquilla Basins and the southeastern Margarita and Caracolito subbasins. All of these basins are farther north of and not directly tied to the El Pilar fault system. On a reconstruction, these Paleogene extensional systems were located to the north of the present day Maracaibo Basin. By early Miocene the leading edge of the now overall transpressional system had migrated to a position to the north of the Ensenada de Barcelona. This relative to South America eastward migration is responsible for the Margarita strike-slip fault and the major inversions that began during the Oligocene and lasted into the Middle Miocene. The Bocono-El Pilar-Casanay-Warm Springs and the La Tortuga-Coche-North Coast fault systems are exclusively Neogene with major transtension occurring during the Late Miocene to Recent and act independently from the earlier Paleogene extensional system. They are responsible for the large Neogene transtensional basins of the area: the Cariaco trough, the Northern Tuy-Cariaco and the Paria sub-basins, and the Gulf of Paria Basin. This latest phase is characterized by strain-partitioning into strike slip faults, a transtensional northern domain and a transpressional southern domain that is responsible for the decollement tectonics and/or inversions of the

  15. 78 FR 13380 - Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela; Scheduling of Full Five-Year Reviews...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... COMMISSION Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela; Scheduling of Full Five-Year Reviews Concerning the Antidumping Duty Orders on Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela AGENCY... from India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  16. Presencia de Ptychodus Mortoni (Elasmobranchii: Ptychodontidae en el Cretácico Superior de Venezuela Presence of Ptychodus Mortini (Elasmobranchii: Ptychodontidae in the Upper Cretaceous of Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge D Carrillo-Briceño

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ptychodus mortoni es un tiburón durofago característico del Cretácico Superior, con un registro cronoestratigráfico entre el Turoniano-Maastrichtiano. En la presente contribución se ilustra y describe un conjunto de dientes de un mismo ejemplar de Ptychodus mortoni, proveniente de la Formación La Luna, del Cretácico Superior de La Sierra de Perijá, Estado Zulia, Venezuela. Este material representa el único registro conocido de esta especie para América del sur y extiende la distribución paleobiogeográfica del taxón, el cual era conocido sólo para África, América del Norte y EuropaPtychodus mortoni is a durophagous shark characteristic from the Upper Cretaceous, with a chronostratigraphic record between the Turonian-Maastrichtian. The present contribution illustrate and describes a set of teeth of Ptychodus mortoni from the La Luna Formation, Upper Cretaceous of the Sierra de Perijá, Zulia State, Venezuela. This material represents the only known record for South America, increasing the paleobiogeographi distribution of the taxon, which was previously known only from Africa, North America and Europe.

  17. As Organizações da Sociedade Civil no enfrentamento à AIDS no Amazonas, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Rocha Kadri

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou analisar a percepção que as Organizações da Sociedade Civil fazem de sua contribuição na história do enfrentamento à AIDS, no Amazonas. Trata-se de pesquisa qualitativa com uso de fontes documentais e orais. Os dados foram coletados entre junho e setembro de 2013. Utilizou-se técnica de entrevistas com roteiro semiestruturado com as lideranças de oito organizações que trabalham/trabalharam com grupos mais vulneráveis. A partir da análise do discurso, concluiu-se que com a descentralização de recursos do Departamento de DST, AIDS e Hepatites Virais para as Coordenações locais, as Organizações reconhecem dois momentos distintos: um primeiro momento de fortalecimento organizacional, engajamento coletivo e participação política ativa; e um momento atual de distanciamento entre as Organizações e desarticulação política e, consequentemente, enfraquecimento do movimento social na luta contra AIDS no Amazonas.

  18. Health and Reproductive Assessment of Selected Puerto Rican Parrots ( Amazona vittata ) in Captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clubb, Susan; Velez, Jafet; Garner, Michael M; Zaias, Julia; Cray, Carolyn

    2015-12-01

    The Puerto Rican parrot ( Amazona vittata ) has become an iconic and high-profile conservation species. The cornerstone of the recovery plan for this critically endangered species is an active captive breeding program, management of the wild population, and a long-term reintroduction program. In 2002, 40 adult Puerto Rican parrots that had not produced viable offspring were selected for reproductive assessment at 2 aviary populations in Puerto Rico (Iguaca and Río Abajo), which are the only sources of parrots for release. The goal was to enhance reproductive potential and produce productive pairings in an attempt to augment the population growth and provide ample individuals for reintroduction. Seven Hispanolian Amazon parrots ( Amazona ventralis ) that were used as surrogate parents for the Puerto Rican parrots were also included in the study. This assessment included physical examination, endoscopic evaluation, hematologic and plasma biochemical profiles, viral screening, and hormonal assays. Results of general physical examination and hematologic and plasma biochemical testing revealed overall good health and condition of this subset of the population of Puerto Rican parrots; no major infectious diseases were found. Endoscopic examination also revealed overall good health and condition, especially of females. The apparent low fertility of male birds warrants further investigation. The findings helped to define causes of reproductive failure in the selected pairs and individual birds. New pairings resulting from the assessment helped to augment reproduction of this critically endangered species.

  19. Characterization of woods known as pau-de-escora marketed in the city of Manaus, Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonnys Paz Castro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to characterize the wood product commercially known as pau-de-escora in Manaus, Amazonas. Pau-de-escora is a key foundation material to build concrete lining or storey in tower buildings. The use of pau-de-escora is very popular in Manaus even in public building construction. To carry out the analyses and the anatomical identification of the material, we used 450 pau-de-escora poles, which were apprehended by the Environmental Battalion of Amazonas Police Force. It was also carried out a social survey to better understand the dynamics of the trade of this product in Manaus. The length of the 450 poles averaged 3.74 ± 0.08 m (CI 95% and diameter at the base averaged 4.48 ± 0.03 cm (CI 95%. These small differences related to the means indicate that the market requires a very clear dimension pattern for this wood product. The seven most abundant families encountered were: Fabaceae, Annonaceae, Sapotaceae, Lecythidaceae, Lauraceae, Burseraceae and Chrysobalanaceae. The selling price of pau-deescora pole in Manaus averaged R$ 2.63, and the buying price averaged R$ 3.94. The custody chain of pau-de-escora is completely illegal not only in Brazil, perhaps worldwide because it is part of the natural regeneration of primary or recovery forests.

  20. de filiales de empresas multinacionales: Caso Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Sigala Paparella

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo estudia la influencia de los diferentes factores determinantes de los roles que tienen las filiales dentro de las empresas multinacionales, a través de la ponderación del comportamiento de factores del contexto de unas filiales sometidas a un entorno adverso. Se utiliza la metodología de estudio de casos en diecisiete filiales localizadas en Venezuela de diversos sectores. El estudio comprueba que la adversidad del entorno es uno de los factores contextuales que mayor influencia ejerce en la determinación de los roles de las filiales, induciendo a una devaluación de los roles de las mismas. El impacto de los determinantes varía dependiendo del tipo de filial: aquellas que realizan pocas actividades de valor agregado, usualmente de mercadeo y ventas, dependen más de la asignación de la matriz, mientras que las que incorporan un mayor número de actividades de la cadena de valor, integran otros determinantes como la adversidad del entorno y la iniciativa desarrollada por la propia filial.

  1. [Increasing difficulties for scientific publication in Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Elena

    2014-03-01

    A very important increase in the costs of the edition of scientific journals has taken place in Venezuela, due to difficulties in obtaining imported free acid paper and other materials used for handling documents. Like other journals, Investigaci6n Clinica has been considering switching completely to a digital publication format; however there are several reasons that prevent us to doing it at this time: the journal is distributed in printed form to many national institutions, which do not have immediate access to digital information. In addition, there exists a commitment of shipment of printed issues for some international indices and in exchange with other national and foreign journals, whose printed format we receive. Another important aspect is that our University maintains a weak technological platform that makes difficult the immediacy required for the interchange with authors and consulted referees of received papers; and there is a latent danger of limitations in the use of digital technologies, due to current national politic problems. Consequently, we need to continue with the printed format, but must reduce the amount of printed issues, so as not to limit the number of papers published in each edition. Nevertheless, there is an ever increasing number of contributions from foreign researches and Investigaci6n Clinica has been recently included in two new international indices, the SEIIC from Argentina and the Infobase Index from India, reasons that obligate us to maintain our levels of excellence and commitment to our authors and readers.

  2. [Enterobiasis in students from Ciudad Bolivar, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devera, R; Pérez, C; Ramos, Y

    1998-01-01

    Enterobius vermicularis is a nematode with a peculiar biological cycle, thus requiring a special diagnostic technique. In order to determine the prevalence of E. vermicularis infection among schoolchildren in Ciudad Bolívar, Venezuela, 282 children aged 5-14 years old were evaluated between november 1995 and august 1996 by the Graham technique (three perianal swabs with adhesive cellulose tape). The prevalence of enterobiasis in the studied children was estimated 19.1% (54/282). There was no difference between sexes (P > 0.05), but there was a difference between ages (x2 = 13.8; 1.g. = 4), being the infection more frequent between 5 and 8 years. Symptoms were observed in 90.7% of the schoolchildren. Anal pruritus was the most common clinical finding (81.6%). Other less frequent manifestations were enuresis (28.6%) and vulvitis in girls (26.1%). This intestinal parasitosis occurs with high frequency among schoolchildren in Ciudad Bolívar with characteristic and identifiable symptoms in most cases. The Graham method must be used for its diagnosis. This test is not routinely performed in our laboratories unless specifically requested by the attending physician.

  3. Responsabilidad social universitaria en Maracaibo, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn Lescher

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo tiene como objetivo analizar la responsabilidad social universitaria en Maracaibo, Venezuela. El trabajo se sustenta en los postulados de Rodríguez (2010, De la Cuesta (2011, el Ministerio de Educación de España (2011, entre otros. El estudio fue descriptivo, de campo. La población estuvo conformada por autoridades de cinco (5 universidades, una (1 pública y cuatro (4 privadas ubicadas en Maracaibo, a las cuales se accedió mediante un cuestionario compuesto por treinta y dos (32 ítems cerrados. El instrumento fue validado por expertos en el ámbito de la gerencia universitaria. Para determinar la confiabilidad del cuestionario se aplicó el método test-retest, obteniéndose un coeficiente de 0,94. Para analizar los datos se utilizó el promedio aritmético o media. Los resultados indican que las universidades estudiadas exhiben un modelo de responsabilidad social de tendencia empresarial instrumental, donde el conocimiento se perfila como el principal activo disponible para su uso por la sociedad, pero se requiere una mayor integración de las instituciones de educación superior con sus stakeholders.

  4. In situ combustion field experiences in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villalba, M.; Estrada, M.; Bolivar, J. [INTEVEP, Caracas (Venezuela)

    1995-02-01

    A literature review of four in situ combustion projects: in Miga, Tia Juana, Melones and Morichal fields in Venezuela was made, and a summary of these projects is presented. Reservoir description and project performance data were analyzed. The behavior of the four in situ combustion field tests can be summarized as follows: The problems most often encountered were corrosion and high temperature producing wells. The direction in which the burning front moved was guided essentially by reservoir characteristics. The produced oil was upgraded by about 4{degrees} API, and viscosity was substantially reduced. For Mirochal and Miga fields, the analyses of available information from the combustion projects indicated that the process has been successful in the affected region. Conclusions from this review indicate that the two most frequent problems encountered were operational problems in producing wells and the direction of the burning front. The heterogeneous nature of the sands probably resulted in the burning front moving in a preferential direction, hence reducing areal sweep efficiency.

  5. Possible association between gastric cancer and bracken fern in Venezuela: an epidemiologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Amelot, M E; Avendaño, M

    2001-01-15

    To explore a possible connection between specific environmental factors that might explain the high rates of stomach cancer in people living in the highlands of western Venezuela, an epidemiologic study was conducted in 2 regions of contrasting topography. The regions embrace 3 Andean states, Mérida, Táchira and Trujillo, and the vicinal lowland surrounding the Maracaibo lake basin of Zulia State. Statistical sanitary records from 1986 to 1996 comprising 5.5 million people in the study area indicated that age-sex-adjusted gastric cancer death rate per 100,000 people (DR) was up to 3.64 times higher in highland than lowland areas, although total cancer-related DRs were comparable in both regions. DRs of other less frequent cancers from the upper alimentary tract [esophagous (1.18/0.99) and mouth-throat (1.39/2.64)] showed comparable values in both regions as well as colorectal, breast, and uterus-cervix cancers, suggesting that the stomach cancer DRs were related to geographically determined factors. Comparison of some nutrition issues, incidence of Helicobacter pylori infection in selected areas, the discovery of the bracken carcinogen ptaquiloside in milk from bracken-fed cows, the prevalence of this plant in mountain cattle households and pasturelands and the rates of bracken-evoked bovine enzootic hematuria led us to conclude that consumption of ptaquiloside-contaminated milk may contribute to human gastric cancer in the Andean states of Venezuela.

  6. Ocorrência de enteroparasitas na população geronte de Nova Olinda do Norte Amazonas, Brasil Occurrence of enteroparasites in the elderly population of Nova Olinda do Norte, Amazonas, Brazil

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    Ana Felisa Hurtado-Guerrero

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo para avaliar a prevalência de enteroparasitas em um grupo de idosos ribeirinhos, moradores do Município de Nova Olinda do Norte, Estado do Amazonas Brasil, no período de abril e agosto de 1999. Por meio de um estudo de corte transversal foram analisados 81 exames, através do método de Sedimentação Espontânea (Método de Hoffman et al., 1934. Foi constatada positividade em 72,8% dos idosos, predominando o monoparasitismo (43,2%. Os helmintos foram os mais freqüentes (70,4%, destacando-se: Ascaris lumbricoides (35,2%, Trichuris trichiura (16,0%, Ancylostoma duodenale (9,0% e Strongyloides stercoralis (9,0%. Dentre os protozoários (29,5%, a ocorrência de Entamoeba coli foi de 18,2%, Giárdia lamblia de 7,0% e Entamoeba histolytica 4,5%. Não houve associação estatisticamente significativa entre sexo e grau de parasitismo e entre faixas etárias e condição parasitária. Estes resultados evidenciam um quadro de alta prevalência de parasitas intestinais nesta população e discordam dos reportados por outros pesquisadores quando afirmam que a intensidade da infestação por parasitas diminui na idade avançada. Os achados anteriores exigem das autoridades governamentais medidas de controle e educação para melhorar a qualidade de vida desses idosos, considerando a grave repercussão que esses parasitas tem no estado nutricional dos gerontes de baixa renda.A study was carried out to determine the prevalence of enteroparasites attacking elderly people living in a riverside city of the Municipal district of Nova Olinda do Norte, Amazonas State Brazil. In this cross sectional study were examined the faecal material from 81 elderly people using the method of spontaneous sedimentation (Hoffman et al., 1934. It was found a positiveness in 72,8% of the elderly people examined, predominating the mono parasitism (43,2%. The helminths were more frequents (70,3%: Ascaris lumbricoides (35,2%, Trichuris trichiura (16

  7. Misery Index Corrected by Informality: Applicable to Venezuela

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    Josefa Ramoni Perazzi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests a variation of the IMO index (Okun's Misery Index, adapting it to markets with these characteristics, adding the ESI level (Employment in the Informal Sector to the unemployment level. This research compares the evolution of several standard misery indexes in several zones during the last decades, with emphasis on the case of Venezuela, for which the new proposed index is also estimated. Results show improvement in the well-being of groups of countries under study, compared to the deterioration of the indicator in Venezuela. In general terms, the IMO is controlled by unemployment, except in Venezuela. However, preponderance of inflation over unemployment in this country seems to occur by the underestimate that the unemployment rate has on the Venezuelan labor market situation.

  8. Neogene history of the Carapita Formation, Eastern Venezuela basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez Zambrano, Dennis Alberto

    The planktonic and benthic foraminifera from the lower to middle Miocene shales of the Carapita Formation of Eastern Venezuela in three exploration wells and one outcrop section are analyzed with the objectives of establishing a precise biostratigraphy of the formation and its bathymetric history. Comparison with the well-preserved microfaunas of the correlative Cipero Formation of Trinidad made possible the achievement of these objectives. The formation, up to 4500 to 6000 m thick in outcrops, extends from northeastern Anzoategui and North of Monagas States to the Gulf of Paria and is both an important oil reservoir towards the east and the main seal rock for the Oligocene reservoir in the north of Monagas State. In the area studied the Carapita Formation spans lower to lower middle Miocene Zones N6/M3 to N9/M6; its upper part is unconstrained as only rare long ranging early Miocene to early Pliocene planktonic foraminifera occur above the Orbulina datum. Unexpectedly, we found that the four lower to middle Miocene sections are highly discontinuous, with hiastuses as long as 4 Myr. Based on the abundance patterns of sixty-nine species of benthic foraminifera and analysis of morphotype abundance following the methodology of Corliss and Chen (1988) and Corliss and Fois (1993), we show that the Carapita Formation was deposited at outer neritic to middle bathyal depths (≥200--1000 m), whereas the Cipero Formation was deposited at middle to lower bathyal depths (≥600--2000 m). Importantly, the bathymetric changes are associated with unconformities in all sections, strongly suggesting that both (shallowing and associated unconformities) were tectonically induced.

  9. Complete genome sequences of two begomoviruses infecting weeds in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiallo-Olivé, Elvira; Chirinos, Dorys T; Geraud-Pouey, Francis; Moriones, Enrique; Navas-Castillo, Jesús

    2013-01-01

    The complete sequences of isolates of two new bipartite begomoviruses (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) found infecting weeds in Venezuela are provided. The names proposed for these new begomoviruses are "Datura leaf distortion virus" (DLDV), isolated from a Datura stramonium L. (family Solanaceae) plant, and "Dalechampia chlorotic mosaic virus" (DCMV), isolated from infected Dalechampia sp. (family Euphorbiaceae) and Boerhavia diffusa L. (family Nyctaginaceae) plants. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these new begomoviruses segregated in two distinct clades of New World begomoviruses. To our knowledge, this is the first record of a begomovirus infecting Dalechampia sp. plants. Also, this is the first report of a begomovirus infecting Boerhavia spp. and Datura spp. in Venezuela.

  10. Derechos de propiedad, compañías petroleras, Estado y renta en Venezuela

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    Jesús MORA CONTRERAS

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Este artículo muestra que las compañías petroleras internacionales han estado haciendo negocios en Venezuela durante más de cuatro quintas partes de casi un siglo de historia de la industria petrolera en este país (1917-2009. Muestra también que lo que ha cambiado para ellas a lo largo del tiempo es la manera de hacer negocios en la industria petrolera venezolana, valga decir, los términos y condiciones de acceso a las actividades de exploración y producción que les ha impuesto el propietario del recurso natural, relacionados particularmente con el reparto de la renta petrolera internacional. El artículo, dividido en cuatro secciones, es una síntesis de la historia del derecho de propiedad del subsuelo, de las compañías petroleras, del Estado y de la renta petrolera internacional en Venezuela desde 1920 hasta el presente. ABSTRACT: This paper shows that in almost a century of history of the Venezuelan oil industry (1917-2009, International Oil Companies (IOCs have been doing business in this country for just more than fourth fifth of this period (74/92 years. It shows too that during that time, what has been changing in this country for the oil companies, IOCs or National Oil Companies (NOCs, is the way of doing business in the upstream of the oil industry: the terms and conditions of the owner of the underground property rights. Terms and conditions mean in this context how much of the oil generated rents in the underground public and national property rights goes to the pockets of the oil companies and government. This paper summarizes the history of the underground property rights, oil companies, the State, and rent in Venezuela from 1920 up to the present.

  11. pobres y nuevas coaliciones en Venezuela

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    Charles L. Briggs

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En Venezuela, los gobiernos locales junto con el gobierno nacional, crearon un sistema nacional de salud paralelo, Misión Barrio Adentro (MBA, ubicando a unos 33.000 profesionales de la salud, inicialmente cubanos, en vecindarios de bajos ingresos. A través de la etnografía y entrevistas, se concluye que MBA proporcionó acceso a la atención médica y logró obtener apoyo popular a consecuencia de: movimientos sociales de los pobres; cooperación entre trabajadores comunitarios, residentes, profesionales de salud y funcionarios públicos; la integración de la atención médica con programas sociales y económicos; la ubicación de médicos como residentes en barrios pobres; interacciones positivas y equitativas médico-paciente; el papel clave de los Comités de Salud; y el impacto de la hostilidad de la prensa, un segmento grande de los médicos venezolanos y la oposición en transformar a la salud en un tema político esencial. Todo esto nos sugiere que el Estado puede confrontar las inequidades de salud cuando se unen perspectivas teóricas de la medicina social y la epidemiología crítica con los saberes populares dentro de las comunidades afectadas. Estructuras institucionales flexibles, no burocráticas y creativas aumentan la efectividad de las intervenciones.

  12. e innovación en Venezuela

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    Jesús Peña cedillo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuestra investigación ha estado dirigida a evaluar las `Agendas de Investigación e Innovación` desarrolladas en Venezuela a partir de 1995. Las Agendas representaron un conjunto de políticas dirigidas a la constitución de redes de innovación en múltiples áreas, impulsando nuevas formas de colaboración entre investigadores, empresarios, ciudadanos, políticos, entre otros. En función de alcanzar nuestros objetivos de evaluación, desarrollamos algunas herramientas e indicadores para estimar si ellas fueron exitosas o no, centrándonos en este escrito en la apreciación cualitativa de las características generales de las Agendas como programas de innovación (un componente de una más compleja macro-evaluación institucional, quedando para otras publicaciones la presentación de los resultados específicos asociados a cada una de las Agendas. Los resultados preliminares aquí reportados indican un abandono de sus planteamientos originales y una vuelta a la tradición que privilegiaba la investigación académica frente a otros esfuerzos de generación de conocimiento. La puesta al día de estas políticas pareciera pasar por la profundización del planteamiento original de redes de actores y agentes sociales, superando el modelo `gerencialista` centrado en lograr `investigaciones más pertinentes`, el cual ha impedido el despliegue frontal de las promesas contenidas en el enfoque de redes.

  13. Roadkills of vertebrates in Venezuela Vertebrados mortos em estradas na Venezuela

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    Jan Pinowski

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of vertebrate roadkills in five different habitats of tropical South America. Observations of vertebrate roadkills were conducted in 1978, on a 572 km road between Caracas and Mantecal/Apure in Venezuela, during the rainy season (June-October. During five passages on this route, which includes five distinct habitats, 79 vertebrate carcasses - mammals and reptiles - were found. If we assume that the carcasses remain for two days on the road, vehicles can be expected to strike 350 spectacled caimans Caiman crocodilus Linnaeus, 1758 (Alligatoridae during the rainy season alone. Similar calculations for other species yield 313 snakes and lizards, 294 opossums Didelphis marsupialis Linnaeus, 1758 (Didelphidae, 220 crab-eating foxes Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1776 (Canidae, 129 tamanduas Tamandua tetradactyla (Linnaeus, 1758 (Myrmecophagidae, 55 capybaras Hydrochaerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766 (Hydrochaeridae and 37 eastern cottontails Sylvilagus floridanus Allen, 1890 (Leporidae. Numerous papers have been published on vertebrates killed by vehicles on roads in Europe, North America, and Australia, and several papers are available regarding vertebrate roadkills in Africa and Asia. From South America there are several papers on vertebrates, birds, and mammals, whereas from Venezuela only one and it deals with iguanas (Iguana iguana Linnaeus, 1758, Iguanidae.Este trabalho apresenta uma análise de vertebrados mortos em estrada em cinco habitats tropicais diferentes na América do Sul. As observações dos vertebrados mortos em estrada foram feitas em 1978, a 572 km da rodovia entre Caracas e Mantecal/Apure na Venezuela, durante a estação das chuvas (junho-outubro. Durante cinco passagens nesta rota, a qual inclui cinco habitats diferentes, foram encontradas 79 carcaças de vertebrados - répteis e mamíferos. Assumindo que as carcaças permaneçam por dois dias na estrada, é esperado que veículos matem 350

  14. Comportamento de atributos físicos de um Latossolo Amarelo sob agroecossistemas do Amazonas

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    O desmatamento da floresta tropical da Amazônia e a utilização do solo para fins agrícolas potencializam sua degradação física, química e biológica, quando realizados de forma inadequada. Este estudo teve o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de sistemas de uso e manejo de um Latossolo Amarelo, muito argiloso, mediante avaliações de atributos físicos determinados nas profundidades de 0,0-0,2 e 0,2-0,4 m, em área da Universidade do Amazonas, Manaus (AM). Os sistemas de uso e manejo foram: milho, lara...

  15. REPRODUÇÃO DO PAPAGAIO CHARÃO, Amazona pretrei (AVES: PSITTACIDAE EM CATIVEIRO

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    Dionisio Link

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available O papagio charão, Amazona pretrei (Temminck, 1830 pode ser reproduzido em cativeiro. O viveiro deve ser amplo para que o comportamento de acasalamento e reprodução seja o mais semelhante ao ambiente natural. Os casais devem ficar isolados de outros exemplares da mesma espécie e de outras aves. A alimentação deve ser colocada a uma certa altura do solo. O ninho deve ter dimensões que permitam à fêmea boas condições de oviposição e choco e, aos filhotes, proteção durante o período que ficam no ninho. A fase imatura é de aproximadamente dois anos. Palavras-chave: comportamento reprodutivo, avifauna, psitacídeos.

  16. Quaternary Faults and Stress Regime of Venezuela Fallas y campo de esfuerzos cuaternarios de Venezuela

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    F.A. Audemard M.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Spatial configuration of Quaternary active tectonic features along the southern Caribbean plate boundary suggests that the region is subject to a compressive strike-slip (transpressional senso lato regime, characterized by a NNW-SSE maximum horizontal stress (sH=s1 and/or an ENE-WSW minimum (s h=s3 or s2 horizontal stress. Stress inversion applied to fault-plane kinematic indicators measured essentially in Plio-Quaternary sedimentary rocks confirms this tectonic regime. Accordingly, this stress regime is responsible for the Quaternary activity and kinematics of six sets of brittle features along northern Venezuela (from Colombia in the west to Trinidad in the east: (1 east-west rightlateral faults, (2 NW right-lateral faults -acting as synthetic Riedel shears-, (3 ENE to east-west dextral faults -P shears-, (4 NNW normal faults, (5 almost north-south left-lateral faults -antithetic Riedel shears- and (6 mostly subsurface ENE reverse faults associated with folding of the same orientation. Brittle deformation conforms to the simple shear model, although not all the deformation can be accounted for it since strain partitioning is also taking place because regional folding and thrusting are due to the normal-to-structure component of the relative slip vector between the Caribbean and South America plates. On the other hand, the maximum horizontal stress in western Venezuela, particularly in the Maracaibo block and south of the Oca-Ancón fault, progressively turns counter-clockwise to become more east-west oriented, producing left- and right-lateral slip along the north-south striking and NE-SW striking faults, respectively. The orientation and spatial variation of this regional stress field in western Venezuela results from the superposition of the two major neighboring interplate maximum horizontal stress orientations (sH: roughly east-west trending stress across the Nazca-South America type-B subduction along the pacific coast of Colombia and NNW

  17. Venezuela: from doctrine to dialogue to participation in the processes of regional development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allor, D J

    1984-01-01

    The growing toward decentralization and democratization of development planning in Venezuela was discussed. Venezuela has a long tradition of rule by a strong centralized authority. Currently, the Office of the President is vested with considerable power, despite the existence of an elected legislator and an independent judiciary. The president rules by decree. State legislatures are elected, but governors of the states are appointed by the president. There are also elected municipal councils. Both state and municipal governments are almost fully dependent on the federal government for both their operating and capital investment budgets. Development programs are administered through 2 systems. Specific programs are administered by almost 100 different institutes and enterprises. The activities of these various programs are coordinated by administrative bodies at the state and federal level. The 2nd administrative system operates at the regional and federal levels. The administrative body at the federal level is the Central Office for Coordination and Planning and was established by Presidential Decree in 1958. This body prepares and coordinates all national development plans. The administrative bodies at the regional level are the Regional Organizations for Development. These bodies were created in specific regions through a series of legislative acts commencing in 1969 and continuing into the present. The development of these regional bodies represented a 1st step toward decentralization. Decree 478, promulgated in 1980, further promoted the decentalization of developmental planning. The decree established a series of assemblies and councils at various levels. A National Council of Regional Development was created at the federal level, and a Regional Council of Development was established at the regional level. At the state level an Assembly of Participation was organized, and at the municipal level a Committee of Citizen Participation was established

  18. Taska teeb Venezuela seebi eesti moodi / Verni Leivak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leivak, Verni, 1966-

    2008-01-01

    Produtsent Kristian Taska ostis ära Venezuela seebiooperi "Lorenzo naine", et valmistada Kanal Spordis näitamiseks Eesti oludele mugandatud "Kalevi naised" (lavastaja Ingomar Vihmar, osades Maria Avdjuško, Andrus Vaarik, Jan Uuspõld, Anne Reemann)

  19. Historical Development of Organochlorine Pesticides Legislation in Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Information about organochlorine pesticideslegislation in Venezuela was recovered, usingthe search engine Google. Progress and setbackswas analyzed, with information about imports,exports, inventories, storage sites, controls andactions taken for disposal and participation ininternational conventions. The country appearsto have adequate legislation, however, greaterconsistency of laws and decrees are required. Updatethe technical rule is necessary and increasesthe capacity to monitoring, iden...

  20. The Majorat of Sartenejas in Colonial Venezuela 1740-1858

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    Egilda Rangel

    2013-01-01

    Ponte and Martinez de Villegas, based on law 33, of the Leyes de Toro. Three “noble” families with roots in Venezuela, the Mixares, Ponte and Tovar families were linked to the above-mentioned property and they were joined by marriage alliances to preserve their properties.

  1. Poverty rates in Venezuela: getting the numbers right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbrot, Mark; Sandoval, Luis; Rosnick, David

    2006-01-01

    This article looks at household and individual poverty rates in Venezuela over the past seven years. For more than a year, the statement that poverty in Venezuela has increased under the government of President Hugo Chávez has appeared in scores of major newspapers, on major television and radio programs, and even in publications devoted to foreign policy. There are no data to support such statements, and in fact the available data show a decline in poverty for both individuals and households over the seven-year period: the percentage of people in poverty declined from 50 percent in the first quarter of 1999 to 43.7 percent in 2005. Further, there is no evidence to suggest any change in the methodology for measuring poverty during this period, as has been alleged in a number of reports. The article also examines briefly the impact of significant changes in non-cash benefits such as free health care, which are not taken into account in the measured poverty rate, on poor people in Venezuela. Finally, the authors look at how the mistakes in reporting on Venezuela's poverty rate were made; an appendix gives examples of mistakes in major media and foreign policy publications.

  2. Apendicularias de la región oriental de Venezuela

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoppi de Roa, Evelyn

    1971-01-01

    El presente trabajo es una contribución al estudio de las Apendicularias de la región oriental de Venezuela. Presenta los resultados taxonómicos y de distribución de las especies recolectadas durante los años 1960 a 1962. Las muestras de plancton analizadas indicaron la presencia de 18 especies pert

  3. CYP2D6 variability in populations from Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Nancy; Flores-Angulo, Carlos; Villegas, Cecilia; Mora, Yuselin

    2016-12-01

    CYP2D6 is an important cytochrome P450 enzyme that plays an important role in the metabolism of about 25% of currently prescribed drugs. The presence of polymorphisms in the CYP2D6 gene may modulate enzyme level and activity, thereby affecting individual responses to pharmacological treatments. The most prevalent diseases in the admixed population from Venezuela are cardiovascular and cancer, whereas viral, bacterial and parasitic diseases, particularly malaria, are prevalent in Amerindian populations; in the treatment of these diseases, several drugs that are metabolized by CYP2D6 are used. In this work, we reviewed the data on CYP2D6 variability and predicted metabolizer phenotypes, in healthy volunteers of two admixed and five Amerindian populations from Venezuela. The Venezuelan population is very heterogeneous as a result of the genetic admixture of three major ethnical components: Europeans, Africans and Amerindians. There are noticeable inter-regional and inter-population differences in the process of mixing of this population. Hitherto, there are few published studies in Venezuela on CYP2D6; therefore, it is necessary to increase research in this regard, in particular to develop studies with a larger sample size. There is a considerable amount of work remaining before CYP2D6 is integrated into clinical practice in Venezuela.

  4. Global Climate Change Effects on Venezuela's Vulnerability to Chagas Disease is Linked to the Geographic Distribution of Five Triatomine Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccarelli, Soledad; Rabinovich, Jorge E

    2015-11-01

    We analyzed the possible effects of global climate change on the potential geographic distribution in Venezuela of five species of triatomines (Eratyrus mucronatus (Stal, 1859), Panstrongylus geniculatus (Latreille, 1811), Rhodnius prolixus (Stål, 1859), Rhodnius robustus (Larrousse, 1927), and Triatoma maculata (Erichson, 1848)), vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease. To obtain the future potential geographic distributions, expressed as climatic niche suitability, we modeled the presences of these species using two IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) future emission scenarios of global climate change (A1B and B1), the Global Climate model CSIRO Mark 3.0, and three periods of future projections (years 2020, 2060, and 2080). After estimating with the MaxEnt software the future climatic niche suitability for each species, scenario, and period of future projections, we estimated a series of indexes of Venezuela's vulnerability at the county, state, and country level, measured as the number of people exposed due to the changes in the geographical distribution of the five triatomine species analyzed. Despite that this is not a measure of the risk of Chagas disease transmission, we conclude that possible future effects of global climate change on the Venezuelan population vulnerability show a slightly decreasing trend, even taking into account future population growth; we can expect fewer locations in Venezuela where an average Venezuelan citizen would be exposed to triatomines in the next 50-70 yr.

  5. Funciones de la supervición escolar en Venezuela. Aproximación a un modelo

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    Mogollón de González, Amada

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:Esta investigación tiene como propósito presentar la aproximación a un Modelo para las funciones de la supervisión escolar en Venezuela sustentado en los ámbitos, acción supervisora y funciones denominadas: Técnicas, Administrativas, Sociales, de Asistencia y Mediación. El modelo se fundamentó teóricamente en Kaufman, Stufflebeam, Teoría de Sistemas de Bertalanffy, enfoque humanista y jerarquía de las necesidades de Maslow. Es una investigación de campo realizada en Venezuela en los estados: Nueva Esparta, Distrito Federal, Carabobo, Lara, Táchira, Barinas y Delta Amacuro. El instrumento arrojó resultados que evidenciaron deficiencias, omisiones y ausencias durante el hecho supervisorio y su validación condujo a garantizar el éxito y calidad en la supervisión educativa venezolana.Abastract: This investigation must like intention present/display the approach to a Model for the functions of the scholastic supervision in Venezuela sustained in the scopes, supervisora action and denominated functions: Techniques, Administrative, Social, of Attendance and Mediation. The model was based theoretically on Kaufman, Stufflebeam, Theory of Systems of Bertalanffy, focuses humanist and hierarchy of the necessities of Maslow. It is an investigation of field made in Venezuela in the states: Nueva Esparta, Federal District, Carabobo, Lara, Táchira, Barinas and Delta Amacuro. The instrument threw results that demonstrated deficiencies, omissions and absences during the fact supervisorio and its validation lead to ensure the success and quality in the Venezuelan educative supervision.

  6. Lutzomyia reducta Feliciangeli et al., 1988, a host of Leishmania amazonensis, sympatric with two other members of the Flaviscutellata complex in southern Amazonas and Rondônia, Brazil (Diptera: Psychodidae Lutzomyia reducta Feliciangeli et al., 1988 um hospedeiro de Leishmania amazonensis, simpátrico com duas outras espécies do complexo flaviscutellata no sul do Amazonas e Rondônica, Brasil (Diptera: Psychodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Freitas

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available A member of the Lutzomyia flaviscutellata complex from Rondônia and southern Amazonas States, Brazil, is so close to the Venezuelan Lutzomyia olmeca recuta Feliciangeli et al., 1988, that it is regarded as belonging to the same species. Since this phlebotomine co-extis with L. olmeca nociva in Brazil, the subspecific status of the former is untenable and is rased to specific rank, as Lutzomyia reducta. The Brazilian material is described and illustrated, and compared with specimens of L. o. nociva and L. flaviscutellata from the same area. Keys to the known taxa of the flaviscutellata complex are presented. Leishmania amazonensis was isolated from one heavily infected specimen of L. reducta, making this the third species of the flaviscutellata complex to be implicated as a vector of this parasite in Brazil. The relative abundance of the three sympatric flaviscutellata complex species varies locally and appears to be related to soil drainage. L. reducta constituted about 25% if all phlebotomines captured in Disney traps at poorly drained and well drained site, but appears not to coloniza areas subject to periodic flooding. L. olmeca nociva was restricted to poorly drained areas not subject to flooding, whereas L. flaviscutellata was ubiquitous L. reducta has never been detected north of the Amazon river in Brazil, but absence of recosrds from western and northwestern Amazonas State may reflect lack of collecting in these areas.Um flebotomíneo do complexo Lutzomyia flaviscutellata, de Rondônia e sul do Amazonas, Brasil é tão parecido com Lutzomyia olmeca reducta, que é considerado como sendo da mesma espécie. Este flebotomíneo ocorre junto com L. olmeca nociva, portanto o nome é emendado para o nível de espécie, como Lutzomyia reducta. O material do Brasil é descrito e ilustrado, e comparado com exemplares de L. o. nociva e L. flaviscutellata da mesma área. Chaves para as espécies e subespécies do complexo flaviscutellata são inclu

  7. THE ENTRANCE OF VENEZUELA IN MERCOSUR: ANALYSIS OF THE POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC ASPECTS

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    Rafael Schmuziger Goldzweig

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to study the perception of the political agents of the Congress through the analysis of their votes on the context of the acceptance of Venezuela into MERCOSUR, relating it to the potential gains coming from its admission. The relevance of the topic is justified by the importance that the bloc would acquire accepting a new member, considering the expansion of the internal consumer market and the increase of oil reserves of the bloc. Therefore, the intention is to clarify the political situation favorable to the integration and, taking the Brazilian perception in consideration, establish the relationship between economic gains that would come from the acceptance of Venezuela as a state member and the political discourse regarding this subject in the National Congress. Through the votes of deputies and senators we mapped the variables that act as important factors in the decision-making process of lawmakers. It was found that the party influence, though strong, suffers marginal effects of variables such as the influence of regional and local interests when it comes to voting on foreign policy.

  8. Seismological Parameters in the Northern Andes, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobiesiak, M.; Palme de Osechas, C.; Choy, J. E.; Morandi S., M. T.; Campo, M.; Granado Ruiz, C.

    2001-12-01

    Venezuelas tectonic setting as part of the plate boundary between the Caribbean and the South American plate causes two major seismologically active fault systems: the roughly west - east trending strike slip fault system along the coast with numerous sub-parallel faults and the Bocono fault system, which dominates the Venezuelan southwest - northeast striking Andes. The main Bocono fault reaches a total length of about 500 km and has a width of approximately 100 km between the southern and northern baseline of the mountain slopes which are marked by inverse faults. This is believed to be due to strain partitioning, a concept which seems to apply as well to the Bocono fault system. The whole fault system is characterized by a high seismicity rate of small scale and intermediate event magnitudes ranging from 1.5 to 6.3 in the last fifty years. In this study we would like to present an investigation on 39 focal mechanism solutions and a b-value mapping of the Andean region with the main goal to throw light on the stess and strain situation. For recompiling the focal memchanisms calculated from first motion polarities, various sources had to been used: seismograms from stations of the local and regional networks of the Seismological Center of ULA, the national seismic network operated by FUNVISIS, the seismic network Lago Maracaibo of PDVSA and the local seismic network of DESURCA. For the b-value mapping we used the two catalogues of ULA and DESURCA of which the last one registered more than 6500 events from 1994 to 1999. The set of focal mechanism solutions studied showed normal, strike slip, and reverse faulting mechanisms concentrated in distinct areas of the Bocono fault system and thus resulting in a zonation also supported by the determinations of the azimuths of the maximum horizontal stress SHmax. This hypothesis of the zonation of the Andes region is strongly supported by the results of the b-value mapping. The zonation as seen in the varying major stress

  9. Indigenous territorial rights as a human right; an analysis of the (auto) demarcation of indigenous territories process in Venezuela (1999-2014)

    OpenAIRE

    Linda Bustillos; Vladimir Aguilar; Carlos Grimaldo

    2016-01-01

    The 1999 Constitution of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (CBRV) recognizes Indigenous Rights; among them, the territorial claims. In agreement with what is stated in the article 119 of the Magna Carta, the right to the territory of these populations is exercised through the public policy of demarcation, which is understood as the process in which its territorial space is disclaimed, made by the State in participation with the peoples and communities to be demarcated, subsequently to enti...

  10. Las cárceles y población reclusa en Venezuela Prisos and inmates population in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Posada

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de la importancia de los asuntos penitenciarios, en América Latina existen pocos estudios comprensivos y recomendaciones regionales con relación a este contexto. En este trabajo se describen las características de las cárceles y los reclusos en Venezuela, información recopilada a través de revisión documental y en visitas realizadas desde 1998-2006 a diferentes penales venezolanos, en el marco de las Jornadas de Salud insertas en el Programa Penitenciario de la Universidad Central de Venezuela, con el propósito de realizar un aporte que sirva como antecedente nacional y regional para la investigación en el ámbito penitenciario, que permita avanzar en el estudio de sus problemas y en la promoción e implementación de posibles soluciones.Despite the importance of prison issues in Latin America, there is little in the way of detailed local studies or recommendations on the subject. This article sets out to describe the situation concerning prisons and inmates in Venezuela. Data for this study was compiled from documentary sources and visits to a number of Venezuelan prisons from 1998 to 2006 as part of the Health Conference of the Programa Penitenciario de la Universidad Central de Venezuela, (Central University of Venezuela Prison Program. The program’s aim was to make contributions towards research on the prison environment at national and regional levels that might serve as a precedent for further study of the problems and issues that exist, and promote and implement possible solutions.

  11. Acidez potencial pelo método do pH SMP no Estado do Amazonas Potential acidity by pH SMP method in Amazonas State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adônis Moreira

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi definir um modelo matemático que estime o H+Al a partir do pH SMP medido em água e em solução de CaCl2 0,01 mol L-1 nas condições edafoclimáticas locais. Foram utilizadas 246 amostras de solo provenientes de diversas localidades. Mesmo apresentando menor coeficiente da correlação (r = 0,89*, a equação H+Al = 30,646 - 3,848pH SMP obtida em H2O foi mais eficiente que a obtida em solução CaCl2 (H+Al = 30,155 - 3,834pH SMP, r = 0,91*, a qual subestima os valores da acidez potencial.The objective of this work was to determine a mathematic model that estimates the potential acidity with pH SMP measured in water and in solution of CaCl2 0.01 mol L-1. Two hundred and forty six soil samples from several localities were utilized. Despite presenting a lower correlation coefficient (r = 0.89*, the equation H+Al = 30.646 - 3.848pH SMP, obtained in H2O, was more efficient than in the CaCl2 solution (H+Al = 30.155 -3.834pH SMP, r = 0.91*, since this last one underestimates the values of the potential acidity.

  12. Avaliação do desembarque pesqueiro efetuado em Manacapuru, Amazonas, Brasil Evaluation of the Manacapuru fishing landings, Amazonas State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Gonçalves

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A atividade comercial pesqueira na Amazônia Central é predominantemente direcionada para Manaus, porém o perfil das atividades pesqueiras efetuadas nos demais centros também é fundamental para o planejamento do setor. Neste contexto, o presente trabalho visa caracterizar o perfil da produção pesqueira que abastece a cidade de Manacapuru, um dos principais centros urbanos da Amazônia Central. Os desembarques ocorreram a partir de canoas a remo, canoas motorizadas, barcos de pesca e recreios. A média mensal de pescado desembarcado foi de 175,36 ± 39,50 t em 2001 e de 172,13 ± 18,88 t em 2002, não apresentando diferença significativa entre anos (P>0,05. Dos 35 nomes específicos comuns registrados, observa-se que curimatã (Prochilodus nigricans, jaraquis (Semaprochilodus spp., cubiu (Anodus spp., mapará (Hypophthalmus spp., e tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum foram os itens mais importantes nos dois anos, e piramutaba (Brachyplatystoma vaillantii em 2002. Sete sub-regiões foram visitadas pela frota pesqueira, destacando-se Baixo-Solimões e o rio Purus.The fishing commercial activity in Central Amazonia is mainly addressed for Manaus, even so the characteristics of the fishing activities directed to other important urban centers in the region are also fundamental for the planning of the sector. In this context, the present work seeks to characterize the profile of the fishing production that lands in the city of Manacapuru, one of the main urban centers of Central Amazon. Fish landings were done from non-motorized canoes, motorized canoes, fishing ships and pleasure boats. The monthly average of landed fish was of 175,36 ± 39,50 ton in 2001 and of 172,13 ± 18,88 ton in 2002, not presenting significant difference among years (P>0,05. Of the 35 registered common species names, it is observed that curimatã (Prochilodus nigricans, jaraquis (Semaprochilodus spp., cubiu (Anodus spp., mapará (Hypophthalmus spp., and tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum were the most important fish landed in 2001 and 2002, and piramutaba (Brachyplatystoma vaillantii specifically in 2002. out of the seven sub-areas visited by the fishing fleet, Lower Solimões and Purus river stand out.

  13. Ectoparasitos de cães e gatos da cidade de Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil Ectoparasites on cats and dogs from Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Cutrim Moreira de Castro

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados resultados da coleta de ectoparasitos em cães e gatos entre agosto de 2001 e maio de 2002 em diferentes bairros da cidade Manaus. No cão foram encontrados: Ctenocephalides f. felis (Bouché, 1835 (Siphonaptera, Pulicidae, Heterodoxus spiniger (Enderlein, 1909(Phthiraptera, Boopidae, Trichodectes canis (De Geer, 1778 (Phthiraptera, Trichodectidae e Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille,1806 (Acari, Ixodidae. No gato foi coletado C. f. felis. A prevalência de ectoparasitos foi de 80,8% para cães e 72,7% para gatos. Para a pulga C. f. felis foi de 28,7% para cães e 72,7% para gatos. Para o piolho H. spiniger foi de 12,3% para cães. Para o piolho T. canis foi de 0,1% para cães e para o carrapato R. sanguineus foi de 63% para cães. A média de infestaçãode pulga foi de 1,26 para cães e 1,27 para gatos. A proporção sexual fêmea/macho foi de 1,96:1 no cão e de 3,66:1 no gato. A pulga C. canis (Curtis, 1826, registrada em 1922, não foi coletada.Ectoparasites from different neighborhood of Manaus were collected from august 2001 to May 2002. On dogs it was found: Ctenocephalides f. felis (Bouché, 1835 (Siphonaptera, Pulicidae, Heterodoxus spiniger (Enderlein, 1909(Phthiraptera, Boopidae, Trichodetes canis (De Geer, 1778 (Phthiraptera, Trichodectidae and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille,1806 (Acari, Ixodidae. On cats: C. f. felis. The prevalence of ectoparasites was 80.8% to dogs and 72.7% to cats. For the flea C. f. felis was 28.7% to dogs and 72.7% to cats. For the lice H. spiniger was 12.3% for dogs. For the lice T. canis was 0.1% for dogs and for the tick R. sanguineus was 63% for dogs. The infestation index for fleas was 1.26 to dogs and 1.27 to cats. The sexual ratio obtained was 1.96:1 to dogs and 3.66:1 to cats. The flea C. canis (Curtis, 1826 registered in 1922 was not found.

  14. HEAD LICE IN HAIR SAMPLES FROM YOUTHS, ADULTS AND THE ELDERLY IN MANAUS, AMAZONAS STATE, BRAZIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Suellen Cristina Barbosa; Moroni, Raquel Borges; Mendes, Júlio; Justiniano, Sílvia Cássia Brandão; Moroni, Fábio Tonissi

    2015-01-01

    A study of head lice infestations among young people, adults and elderly individuals was conducted from August 2010 to July 2013 in Manaus, AM, Northern Brazil. Hair samples collected from 1,860 individuals in 18 barber shops and beauty parlors were examined for the ectoparasite. The occurrence of pediculosis and its association with factors, such as sex, age, ethnicity, hair characteristics and the socioeconomic profile of salon customers, salon location and seasonal variation were determined. The overall occurrence rate was 2.84%. Occurrence was higher in hair samples from non-blacks and the elderly. Higher occurrence was also observed during kindergarten, elementary and junior education school holidays. The results indicate that the occurrence of head lice among young people, adults and the elderly in Manaus is relatively low compared to that determined in children and in other regions of the country. After children, the elderly were the most affected. The study also indicated the need to adopt additional procedures to improve surveys among the population with low or no purchasing power, which is usually the most affected by this ectoparasitic disease.

  15. HEAD LICE IN HAIR SAMPLES FROM YOUTHS, ADULTS AND THE ELDERLY IN MANAUS, AMAZONAS STATE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suellen Cristina Barbosa NUNES

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A study of head lice infestations among young people, adults and elderly individuals was conducted from August 2010 to July 2013 in Manaus, AM, Northern Brazil. Hair samples collected from 1,860 individuals in 18 barber shops and beauty parlors were examined for the ectoparasite. The occurrence of pediculosis and its association with factors, such as sex, age, ethnicity, hair characteristics and the socioeconomic profile of salon customers, salon location and seasonal variation were determined. The overall occurrence rate was 2.84%. Occurrence was higher in hair samples from non-blacks and the elderly. Higher occurrence was also observed during kindergarten, elementary and junior education school holidays. The results indicate that the occurrence of head lice among young people, adults and the elderly in Manaus is relatively low compared to that determined in children and in other regions of the country. After children, the elderly were the most affected. The study also indicated the need to adopt additional procedures to improve surveys among the population with low or no purchasing power, which is usually the most affected by this ectoparasitic disease.

  16. Molecular Epidemiology of Epidemic Severe Malaria Caused by Plasmodium vivax in the State of Amazonas, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Suarez, C.F., Florez, C., del Portillo, H.A.; Andrade, L.E. Direct Submission to NCBI gene bank. Submitted 03-JAN-1997. Laboratorio de Biologia Molecular ...display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 2005 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Molecular ...statement The author hereby certifies that the use of any copyrighted material in the thesis manuscript entitled: “ Molecular Epidemiology of

  17. A water level relationship between consecutive gauge stations along Solim\\~oes/Amazonas main channel: a wavelet approach

    CERN Document Server

    Somoza, R D; Novo, E M L; Rennó, C D

    2013-01-01

    Gauge stations are distributed along the Solim\\~oes/Amazonas main channel to monitor water level changes over time. Those measurements help quantify both the water movement and its variability from one gauge station to the next downstream. The objective of this study is to detect changes in the water level relationship between consecutive gauge stations along the Solim\\~oes/Amazonas main channel, since 1980. To carry out the analyses, data spanning from 1980 to 2010 from three consecutive gauges (Tefe, Manaus and Obidos) were used to compute standardized daily anomalies. In particular for infra-annual periods it was possible to detect changes for the water level variability along the Solim\\~oes/Amazonas main channel, by applying the Morlet Wavelet Transformation (WT) and Wavelet Cross Coherence (WCC) methods. It was possible to quantify the waves amplitude for the WT infra-annual scaled-period and were quite similar to the three gauge stations denoting that the water level variability are related to the same ...

  18. Fasciola hepatica (Trematode: Fasciolidae en la zona alta de Mérida, Venezuela (Fasciola hepatica (Trematode: Fasciolidae in zone high of Mérida, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieves, E*

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudió sobre la presencia de Fasciola hepática en la finca “El Joque” vía La Azulita, Estado Mérida, Venezuela. Un foco natural de fasciolasis fue verificado por la presencia de formas larvales en los caracoles hospedadores intermediarios y por examen coprológico en los bovinos de la finca. Detectandose la presencia de moluscos en todas las áreas muestreadas de la finca, de los cuales, el 77% resultó ser del Genero Lymnaea (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae, se determinó una prevalencia de infección de un 42 % en el bebedero, del 43% en el potrero y del 39% en el manantial. Ademas, se detectó un 39% de infección por F. hepática en los bovinos de la finca. La alta prevalencia de F. hepatica en la zona . In the present study was evaluated the presence of Fasciola hepatica in the farm The Joque Merida State, Venezuela. The installation of the natural focus of fascioliasis was verified through of finding the larval forms in the intermediate snail host and coprologics exams in cattle from the farm. The snails were collected in diferents places of the farm, registering the 77% belongs to the Lymnaea genus (Pulmonata:Lymnaeidae intermediator host infected naturally with Fasciola was 42% in the water fill, 43% in the herder and 39% in the source. The results shows that the region presents one prevalence to fascioliasis in cattle of 39%. The very high prevalence of F. hepatica in area studied, suggest that could act as a potential risk to public health.

  19. A new minute Andean Pristimantis (Anura: Strabomantidae from Venezuela

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    César L. Barrio-Amorós

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Pristimantis is described from the Venezuelan Andes. The new species is the smallest in its genus known in Venezuela and belongs to the Pristimantis unistrigatus Group. It differs from the rest of Venezuelan Andean congeners in body size (mean male SVL < 21.3 mm, female SVL < 26.3 mm, expanded discs on fingers and toes, absence of dorsolateral folds, and a distinctivecall consisting in 2–5 cricket-like short notes. The new species inhabits the southwestern part of the Cordillera de Mérida in Venezuela and the Venezuelan side of the Cordillera Oriental deColombia, and could be present on the Colombian portion of the cordillera as well.

  20. Biosynthesis of glycosylated derivatives of tylosin in Streptomyces venezuelae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ah Reum; Park, Sung Ryeol; Park, Je Won; Lee, Eun Yeol; Kim, Dong-Myung; Kim, Byung-Gee; Yoon, Yeo Joon

    2011-06-01

    Streptomyces venezuelae YJ028, bearing a deletion of the entire biosynthetic gene cluster encoding the pikromycin polyketide synthases and desosamine biosynthetic enzymes, was used as a bioconversion system for combinatorial biosynthesis of glycosylated derivatives of tylosin. Two engineered deoxysugar biosynthetic pathways for the biosynthesis of TDP-3-O-demethyl-D-chalcose or TDP-Lrhamnose in conjunction with the glycosyltransferaseauxiliary protein pair DesVII/DesVIII were expressed in a S. venezuelae YJ028 mutant strain. Supplementation of each mutant strain capable of producing TDP-3-O-demethyl- D-chalcose or TDP-L-rhamnose with tylosin aglycone tylactone resulted in the production of the 3-O-demethyl- D-chalcose, D-quinovose, or L-rhamnose-glycosylated tylactone.

  1. Seismic microzoning projects and their implementation in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, M.; Cano, V.; Olbrich, F.; Vallee, M.; Morales, C.; Arreaza, A.; Mendes, K.; Klarica, S.; Alvarez Gomez, J.; Aray, J.; Vielma, J.; Pombo, A.; Diaz, J.; Grupo de trabajo

    2013-05-01

    Site effects have been recognized to play an important role in damage distribution of destructive earthquakes. These effects have been observed in Venezuela especially during the 1967 Caracas earthquake, when 4 buildings with 10 and more storeys during the Caracas 1967 earthquake collapsed, and a big number of them in the same deep sediment area have been seriously damaged. This motivated the development of studies regarding the subsurface configuration of Caracas and Barquisimeto during the last decade, with a seismic microzoning project realized in both cities from 2005 to 2009. The main results of this project were the development of design response spectra for the different microzones within the sedimentary basin, as well as estimates of landslide hazard. Implementation of the results in municipality ordinances is actually discussed with local authorities. They are aimed to address mitigation for new constructions by the application of the specific design spectra, for existing buildings via evaluation and retrofitting strategies, and for slope areas (informal, as well as formal developments) due to the identification of areas that may not be developed or require detailed studies of slope stabilities. Since then, seismic microzoning studies were started in Cumaná, Guarenas/Guatire and Lara state, and within a broader context of integrated risk management, which includes flooding, landslide and technological risks, in Mérida, Valencia, Maracay, Barcelona/Puerto La Cruz and Valle de la Pascua. The projects are coordinated by the Venezuelan Foundation for Seismological Research (FUNVISIS) in cooperation with local universities. Efforts are done to unable local researchers to apply the methodologies in other cities as Valera, Trujillo, Boconó, San Cristóbal and Tucacas. A unified seismic hazard map as input motion to these studies is actually in development. Depending on the local characteristics, building inventory and vulnerability analysis are done for risk

  2. Metamorfosis del delito de secuestro en el Estado Zulia, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Alejandra Añez Castillo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El delito de secuestro es un flagelo social que ha experimentado mutaciones en el tiempo. El año 2009 terminó con una cifra sin precedentes en cuanto a los secuestros reportados en Venezuela. Los datos aportados por los organismos oficiales revelan que durante el 2008 hubo 537 secuestros, lo cual representa un aumento de 52% respecto al total del 2007, mientras que en el 2009 la cifra se incrementó en un 62,82%, en relación con el año anterior. Esta investigación tiene como objetivo describir el delito de secuestro en Venezuela, con especial referencia al Estado Zulia, población fronteriza limítrofe con Colombia. Para ello se emplea una metodología de tipo documental- descriptiva. Se revela que no existen esquemas predefinidos que permitan caracterizar este tipo penal, pues, tal y como ha venido sucediendo, es susceptible de llevarse a cabo en cualquier momento y circunstancia, no de modo exclusivo en sujetos de alto estatus socioeconómico, sino con mínimos medios para responder a las exigencias de los plagiarios; de aquí la proliferación de la modalidad del llamado secuestro exprés. El delito de secuestro en Venezuela ha cambiado en forma notable sus patrones: de ser un delito predominantemente político, fronterizo y ejecutado por grupos organizados, ha pasado a ser uno de objetivos sobre todo económicos, urbano, y ejecutado con un fin de lucro por la delincuencia común. En verdad, el Estado Zulia sigue repuntando en la lista de los estados con mayor incidencia de este delito en Venezuela, pero no es el principal, pues ha sido desplazado en posicionamiento por otras urbes del país, encabezadas en la actualidad por la ciudad capital de Caracas.

  3. THE INFORMAL HOUSING PRODUCTION: THE MARACAIBO CASE, VENEZUELA)

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    [EN]In housing production in Venezuela and particularly in Maracaibo, we can recognize two main sectors: the "formal" sector production carried out by prívate and national enterprises, and ttie "informal" sector, which produces tiouses in marginal áreas and uncontrolled suburbs in town. The production in this sector tías become larger ttian ttie formal one. In act, in Maracaibo more than 60% of population is living in these types of suburbs. Ttiese people tiave resolve...

  4. Historical Development of Organochlorine Pesticides Legislation in Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Information about organochlorine pesticides legislation in Venezuela was recovered, using the search engine Google. Progress and setbacks was analyzed, with information about imports, exports, inventories, storage sites, controls and actions taken for disposal and participation in international conventions. The country appears to have adequate legislation, however, greater consistency of laws and decrees are required. Update the technical rule is necessary and increases the capacity to monito...

  5. Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) in Margarita Island, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    La Barbera-Sánchez, Amelia; Franco Soler, Jose; Rojas de Astudillo, Luisa; Chang-Yen, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    A severe outbreak of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) occurred in Manzanillo and Guayacán, northwestern coast of Margarita Island, Venezuela, between August and October 1991. A bloom of dinoflagellates including Prorocentrum gracile, Gymnodinium catenatum and Alexandrium tamarense seemed to be responsible for this outbreak. Levels of PSP toxins in mussels (Perna perna) exceeded the international safety limit of saxitoxin, 80 µg STX/100 g meat. PSP toxin values varied between 2 548 and 115 ...

  6. Severed hemoparasitosis complicated in a thoroughbred horses from Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Villoria, D.; Andrea, J.; Leal, L.; García, Francisco; Morales Briceño, Abelardo

    2012-01-01

    Equine piroplasmosis (EP) is the disease caused by protozoan hemoparasites Babesia caballi and/or B. (Theileria equi). The aim of this study was to report of case of severed hemoparasitosis complicated in a Thoroughbred horse from Venezuela. The equine present acute abdominal pain in 24 hours and complicated post 48 hours and death in the 72 hours. Temperature oscillate 41;2°C. Icterus and hematury severed. We realized a multidisciplinary study clinical, laboratory, biochemistry, necropsy, hi...

  7. Lessons Learned by Venezuela Fighting in Low Intensity Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-05

    BUILDING 122 CARLISLE, PA 17013-5050 ga. NAME OF FUNDING/SPONSORING I 8b. OFFICE SYMBOL 9. PROCUREMENT INSTRUMENT IDENTIFICATION NUMBER ORGANIZATION I...Congress, 29 April 1960. 1 7Colonel Juan Biaggini Gutierrez et al., Los Cinco de Linea (Caracas: Direccion de Educaion del Ejercito, 4 August 1980), 102...Barracks, PA : U.S. Army War College, 3 August 1992. Low Intensity Conflict. Venezuela Case Study. Fort Leavenworth, KS: U.S. Army Command and General Staff

  8. Nota sectorial: Servicio eléctrico en Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID)

    2010-01-01

    Esta nota sectorial tiene por objetivo facilitar el diálogo de políticas públicas, oportunidades de cooperación y la elaboración de la estrategia de país del Banco con las autoridades del Gobierno de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela para en las áreas de energía eléctrica y el Plan Nacional de Inversión.

  9. Research in seismology and earthquake engineering in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbina, L.; Grases, J.

    1983-01-01

    Venezuela has been affected by destructive earthquakes for the past four centuries. According to entries in the national seismic catalog, there have been about 180 earthquakes which have caused some type of damage to the country. The most catastrophic earthquake occurred on March 26, 1812, on the Bocono fault system and caused widespread destruction in the cities of Merida and Caracas and claimed an estimated 30,000 lives.

  10. Determinantes e conseqüências da insegurança alimentar no Amazonas: a influência dos ecossistemas Alimentary insecurity determinants and consequences at Amazonas: ecosystems influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Hélio Alencar

    2007-01-01

    in these researches the systematic exclusion of the rural area from North region of the new national epidemic picture, currently characterized by the decline of the infantile malnutrition and concomitant rise of the obesity, beyond the lack of scientific investigation to be in reference the health, nutrition and survival conditions of the practically all the populations of North region states. Specifically for Amazonas state lesser stature is referred among the Brazilian children that become evident to exposition nutritional needs at long term. The same way, the evolutionary analysis of the regional researches characterizes the persistence of a serious picture of alimentary insecurity. However, it is known that the Amazonia holds a great diversity in fishes and fruits, what should represent an abundant offer and to make use of protein of the highest biological quality, calories, vitamins, minerals, and like this, to make possible an appropriate pattern of health, nutrition and life quality for its population. The social and economical reality, as well as the picture of precariousness of the health and nutritional of the region contradicts with its abundance in natural resources. For the understanding of this obvious paradox the components of the Amazon Bioma were investigated with relation to the: heterogeneity, complexity, fragility, interactivity and their relations with the alimentary potential of the region, as well as its influence ability in the determination of the binomial health versus nutrition for the inhabitants of their several ecosystems.

  11. Proyectos educativos: estudio comparativo entre Venezuela y Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mineira Finol

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available El Proyecto Educativo Integral Comunitario (PEIC y el Proyecto Educativo Institucional constituyen la categoría de comparación entre Venezuela y Colombia; a tal fin, este estudio de tipo comparativo-documental se centró en determinar congruencias y discrepancias entre PEIC y PEI, utilizando el método comparativo estructurado en cuatro fases: descripción, interpretación, yuxtaposición y comparación, propuesto por Hilker y Bereday (1972 Entre los resultados se tienen: congruencias en cuanto surgen sobre las bases de diagnóstico externos efectuados por organismos internacionales UNESCO, CEPAL ante la inefectividad y baja productividad de ambos países; a nivel interno responden a políticas educativas reformadoras de currículum y leyes,. Discrepancias referidas al tiempo de implementación; en Venezuela a partir de 1996; Colombia en 1992; este último, consolidó las bases para la participación a través del gobierno escolar y de un sistema de evaluación institucional, muy incipiente en Venezuela.

  12. Violence in Venezuela: oil rent and political crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Briceño-León

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the changes in violence in Venezuela during the last forty years. It links the ups and downs of the oil revenues and the political crisis of the country to the changes in the homicide rates, which increased from 7 per 100 thousand inhabitants in 1970 to 12 in 1990, 19 in 1998 and 50 in 2003. The article characterizes Venezuela as a rentist society and shows its trajectory from rural violence to the beginning of urban violence, the guerilla movements of the 60s, the delinquent violence related to the abundance of oil revenues and the violence during the popular revolt and the sackings of 1989 in Caracas. After this, we analyze the coups d'état of 1992 and the influence the political violence exerted upon criminal violence. We describe the political and party changes in the country, their influence upon the stabilization of homicide rates since the mid-90s and their remarkable increase during the H. Chávez government. The article finishes with an analysis of the current situation, the official prohibition to publish statistics on homicides and with some thoughts about the perspective of greater violence in Venezuela.

  13. Venezuela: La descentralización en el socialismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Rodriguez Rojas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La nueva dinámica del poder político y el desarrollo económico en Venezuela hay que entenderlos en el contexto de La Nueva geometría del Poder, el necesario reacomodo territorial, el fortalecimiento del poder popular, Comunal y de los Núcleos de Desarrollo Endógeno. En Venezuela el desarrollo endógeno es un mecanismo dentro del proceso para la construcción de nuestro socialismo. Por lo tanto este debe partir por el debate teórico y filosófico de los fundamentos que deben sustentar esta nueva economía y sociedad. Por eso el propósito de este trabajo tiene que ver con los cambios ocurridos en la administración publica, la dialéctica entre centralización y descentralización, la ocupación del territorio en Venezuela, y los espacios alcanzados por la organización popular, para entender el papel que juegan en el desarrollo armónico de las comunas y la sociedad socialista.

  14. Risk, Activism, and Empowerment: Women's Breast Cancer in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Mahmoud; Nahon-Serfaty, Isaac

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of breast cancer in Venezuela is particularly alarming, which is attributed to healthcare inequalities, low health literacy, and lagging compliance with prevention methods (i.e., screening and mammography). While the right to health is acknowledged by the Venezuelan constitution, activism beyond governmental confines is required to increase women's breast cancer awareness and decrease mortality rates. Through the development of social support and strategic communicative methods enacted by healthcare providers, it may be possible to empower women with the tools necessary for breast cancer prevention. This paper discusses issues surrounding women's breast cancer, such as awareness of the disease and its risks, self-advocacy, and the roles of activists, healthcare providers, and society. Specifically, it describes a four-year action-oriented research project developed in Venezuela, which was a collaborative work among researchers, practitioners, NGOs, patients, journalists, and policymakers. The outcomes include higher levels of awareness and interest among community members and organizations to learn and seek more information about women's breast cancer, better understandings of the communicated messages, more media coverage and medical consultations, increasing positive patient treatments, expansion of networking of NGOs, as well as a widely supported declaration for a national response against breast cancer in Venezuela.

  15. Egalitarian policies and social determinants of health in Bolivarian Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner, Caries; Benach, Joan; Páez Victor, María; Ng, Edwin; Chung, Haejoo

    2013-01-01

    In 1999, newly-elected Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez initiated a far-reaching social movement as part of a political project known as the Bolivarian Revolution. Inspired by the democratic ideologies of Simón Bolívar, this movement was committed to reducing intractable inequalities that defined Venezuela's Fourth Republic (1958-1998). Given the ambitious scope of these reforms, Venezuela serves as an instructive example to understand the political context of social inequalities and population health. In this article, we provide a brief overview of the impact of egalitarian policies in Venezuela, stressing: (a) the socialist reforms and social class changes initiated by the Bolivarian Movement; (b) the impact of these reforms and changes on poverty and social determinants of health; (c) the sustainability of economic growth to continue pro-poor policies; and (d) the implications of egalitarian policies for other Latin American countries. The significance and implications of Chávez's achievements are now further underscored given his recent passing, leading one to ask whether political support for Bolivarianism will continue without its revolutionary leader.

  16. Comparison of fish assemblages in two littoral habitats in a Neotropical morichal stream in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen G. Montaña

    Full Text Available Morichales are lowland streams in South American savannas with riparian forest dominated by the moriche palm (Mauritia flexuosa. We sampled littoral habitats from ten flooded vegetated patches (dominated by Mauritiella aculeate and six sand banks in two months of the dry season (Feb-Mar 2005 in a stream in the savannas of Apure State, Venezuela. We collected samples that compromised 12,407 individual fishes of 107 species. Small-bodied fishes (< 100 mm, representing diverse trophic and life history strategies, were abundant. The most abundant species were in the families Characidae and Cichlidae. Fish assemblages from flooded vegetated patches differed significantly from those on adjacent sand banks. High structural complexity along vegetated shoreline habitats of morichal streams likely contributes to species richness and affects assemblage composition.

  17. Analysis of antenal sensilla patterns of Rhodnius prolixus from Colombia and Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyda Esteban

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Antennal sensilla patterns were used to analyze population variation of domestic Rhodnius prolixus from six departments and states representing three biogeographical regions of Colombia and Venezuela. Discriminant analysis of the patterns of mechanoreceptors and of three types of chemoreceptors on the pedicel and flagellar segments showed clear differentiation between R. prolixus populations east and west of the Andean Cordillera. The distribution of thick and thin-walled trichoids on the second flagellar segment also showed correlation with latitude, but this was not seen in the patterns of other sensilla. The results of the sensilla patterns appear to be reflecting biogeographic features or population isolation rather than characters associated with different habitats and lend support to the idea that domestic R. prolixus originated in the eastern region of the Andes.

  18. Isolation of Madre de Dios Virus (Orthobunyavirus; Bunyaviridae), an Oropouche Virus Species Reassortant, from a Monkey in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Juan-Carlos; Giambalvo, Dileyvic; Hernandez, Rosa; Auguste, Albert J; Tesh, Robert B; Weaver, Scott C; Montañez, Humberto; Liria, Jonathan; Lima, Anderson; Travassos da Rosa, Jorge Fernando Soares; da Silva, Sandro P; Vasconcelos, Janaina M; Oliveira, Rodrigo; Vianez, João L S G; Nunes, Marcio R T

    2016-08-03

    Oropouche virus (OROV), genus Orthobunyavirus, family Bunyaviridae, is an important cause of human illness in tropical South America. Herein, we report the isolation, complete genome sequence, genetic characterization, and phylogenetic analysis of an OROV species reassortant, Madre de Dios virus (MDDV), obtained from a sick monkey (Cebus olivaceus Schomburgk) collected in a forest near Atapirire, a small rural village located in Anzoategui State, Venezuela. MDDV is one of a growing number of naturally occurring OROV species reassortants isolated in South America and was known previously only from southern Peru.

  19. Estudio de las plantas medicinales utilizadas por la comunidad indígena Camaritagua (Amazonas, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bejarano Castillo Márylin

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Los habitantes de la comunidad indígena Camaritagua (La Pedrera-Amazonas, Colombia, utilizan 129 especies de plantas medicinales en sus prácticas médicas tradicionales. La mayor representación se obtuvo para las familias Araceae, Rubiaceae y Piperaceae, y para los géneros Piper, Protium,
    y Anthurium. El 80% de las especies encontradas tienen un origen neotropical, así mismo el 16% son cultivadas; ambos datos muestran el bajo nivel de sincretismo cultural que ha experimentado Camaritagua en cuanto al uso de las plantas medicinales. El paisaje que mayor número de especies
    presenta (65%, es el bosque Sucesional, éste resultado promueve la posibilidad de hacer productivas estas áreas disminuyendo el uso del bosque Primario permitiendo así su conservación. El 46,5% de las especies encontradas en este estudio ya habían sido citadas por otros autores como medicinales, señalando hacia dónde deben conducirse las investigaciones fitoquímicas.

  20. Diagnóstico sociolingüístico del departamento del Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pappenheim Murcia Ruth

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available

    El Departamento de Lingüística de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia inició, en el segundo semestre de 1999, un estudio sociolingüístico del departamento del Amazonas, con el propósito de definir un perfil sociolingüístico de la región. Bajo la dirección de la profesora Olga Ardila y con la colaboración de las profesoras María Emilia Montes y Gabriele de Piñeros, como investigadoras principales, y la profesora Ruth Pappenheim, como asesora sociolingüista, se lleva a cabo en la actualidad la primera etapa de esta investigación, en la cual participan cuatro estudiantes de la Maestría en Lingüística con énfasis en lenguas indígenas. En ella se realiza una indagación de las condiciones sociolingüísticas de cuatro subregiones rurales y del perímetro urbano de Leticia.

  1. Analgesic effects of intramuscular administration of meloxicam in Hispaniolan parrots (Amazona ventralis) with experimentally induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Gretchen A; Paul-Murphy, Joanne; Krugner-Higby, Lisa; Klauer, Julia M; Medlin, Scott E; Keuler, Nicholas S; Sladky, Kurt K

    2009-12-01

    OBJECTIVE-To evaluate the analgesic efficacy of meloxicam in parrots with experimentally induced arthritis, with extent of weight bearing and rotational perch walking used as outcome measures. ANIMALS-15 adult Hispaniolan parrots (Amazona ventralis). PROCEDURES-Arthritis was experimentally induced via intra-articular injection of microcrystalline sodium urate suspension (MSU) into 1 intertarsal joint. Parrots were treated in a crossover design. Five treatments were compared as follows: meloxicam (4 dosages) at 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/kg (IM, q 12 h, 3 times) and 0.03 mL of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (IM, q 12 h, 3 times). The first treatment was given 6 hours following MSU administration. Lameness was assessed by use of a biomechanical perch to record weight-bearing load and a rotational perch to determine dexterity. Feces were collected to assay for occult blood. RESULTS-Parrots treated with meloxicam at 1.0 mg/kg had significantly better return to normal (baseline) weight bearing on the arthritic pelvic limb, compared with control parrots or parrots treated with meloxicam at 0.05, 0.1, and 0.5 mg/kg. All fecal samples collected from parrots following induction of arthritis and treatment with meloxicam had negative results for occult blood. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE-Meloxicam administered at 1.0 mg/kg, IM, every 12 hours effectively relieved arthritic pain in parrots.

  2. A presumptive case of Baylisascaris procyonis in a feral green-cheeked Amazon parrot (Amazona viridigenalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Done, Lisa B; Tamura, Yoko

    2014-03-01

    A feral green-cheeked Amazon parrot (Amazona viridigenalis), also known as the red-crowned Amazon, with generalized neurologic symptoms was found in Pasadena in Southern California and brought in for treatment. The bird was refractory to a wide variety of medications and supportive treatment. Tests for polyoma virus, psittacine beak and feather disease virus, and West Nile virus as well as Chlamydophila psittaci were negative. Hospitalized and home care continued for a total of 69 days. The bird was rehospitalized on day 66 for increasing severity of clinical signs and found 3 days later hanging with its head down, in respiratory arrest. Resuscitation was unsuccessful. There were no gross pathologic lesions. Histopathology showed a focal subcutaneous fungal caseous granuloma under the skin of the dorsum. Many sarcocysts morphologically consistent with Sarcocystis falcatula were found in the cytoplasm of the skeletal myofibers from skeletal muscles of different locations of this bird, a finding that was considered an incidental, clinically nonsignificant finding in this case. Necrosis with microscopic lesions typical of Baylisascaris spp. neural larva migrans was in the brain. Although multiple histologic serial sections of the brain were examined and a brain squash performed and analyzed, no Baylisascaris larvae were found. This is the first presumptive case of Baylisascaris in a feral psittacine.

  3. Granulomatous encephalomyelitis and intestinal ganglionitis in a spectacled Amazon parrot (Amazona albifrons) infected with Mycobacterium genavense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, G; Saggese, M D; Weeks, B R; Hoppes, S M; Porter, B F

    2011-01-01

    An approximately 30-year-old male spectacled Amazon parrot (Amazona albifrons) was presented with a 2-week history of ataxia, head shaking, weight loss and seizures. Gross findings on necropsy examination included atrophy of the musculature, ruffled feathers and minimal epicardial and abdominal fat. Microscopically, there were perivascular cuffs of macrophages with fewer lymphocytes in the grey and white matter of the brain and spinal cord. These lesions were accompanied by gliosis and mild vacuolation of the white matter. In the small intestine, up to 70% of the intestinal ganglia were effaced by infiltrates of macrophages and fewer lymphocytes. The intestinal lamina propria contained multiple inflammatory aggregates of a similar nature. Ziehl-Neelsen staining revealed the presence of numerous bacilli within the cytoplasm of macrophages in the central nervous system (CNS) and enteric ganglia. Amplification of the DNAJ gene confirmed a mycobacterial infection and subsequent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using a species-specific primer confirmed the aetiology as Mycobacterium genavense. Infection of the CNS with Mycobacterium spp. is uncommon and has not been previously reported in a parrot. This case is unusual in that the organism exhibited tropism for neural tissue.

  4. Nota sobre la dieta de la Lechucita Bigotona, Xenoglaux loweryi en Yambrasbamba, Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Alarcón

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se dan a conocer los resultados del análisis de heces de la Lechucita Bigotona (Xenoglaux loweryi, especie endémica de Perú y en peligro de extinción según IUCN, que habita los bosques montanos húmedos de la cordillera Oriental de los Andes. Entre enero y setiembre de 2014, durante evaluaciones sobre la ecología de este búho en el área de bosque montano conocido como “La Jalca”, en la comunidad de Yambrasbamba, Amazonas; se colectaron cuatro muestras de heces de diferentes individuos, en los meses de mayo, julio, agosto y setiembre correspondientemente. Estos fueron analizados, encontrándose fragmentos característicos del orden Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Ortoptera y Lepidoptera. Confirmándose que parte de su dieta son pequeños insectos; al igual que otros pequeños estrígidos.

  5. Comparison of osmolality and refractometric readings of Hispaniolan Amazon parrot (Amazona ventralis) urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, A Paige; Grunkemeyer, Vanessa L; Fry, Michael M; Hall, James S; Bartges, Joseph W

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the relationship between osmolality and specific gravity of urine samples from clinically normal adult parrots and to determine a formula to convert urine specific gravity (USG) measured on a reference scale to a more accurate USG value for an avian species, urine samples were collected opportunistically from a colony of Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). Samples were analyzed by using a veterinary refractometer, and specific gravity was measured on both canine and feline scales. Osmolality was measured by vapor pressure osmometry. Specific gravity and osmolality measurements were highly correlated (r = 0.96). The linear relationship between refractivity measurements on a reference scale and osmolality was determined. An equation was calculated to allow specific gravity results from a medical refractometer to be converted to specific gravity values of Hispaniolan Amazon parrots: USGHAp = 0.201 +0.798(USGref). Use of the reference-canine scale to approximate the osmolality of parrot urine leads to an overestimation of the true osmolality of the sample. In addition, this error increases as the concentration of urine increases. Compared with the human-canine scale, the feline scale provides a closer approximation to urine osmolality of Hispaniolan Amazon parrots but still results in overestimation of osmolality.

  6. Las plantas medicinales utilizadas por la comunidad indígena Camaritagua (Amazonas-Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bejarano Castillo Márylin

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Los habitantes de la comunidad indígena Camaritagua (La Pedrera-Amazonas, Colombia, utilizan 129 especies de plantas medicinales en sus prácticas médicas  tradicionales. Las familias y los géneros mejor representadas son Araceae, Rubiaceae y Piperaceae y Piper, Protium, y Anthurium  respectivamente. El 80% de las especies encontradas tienen un origen neotropical, así mismo el 16% son cultivadas; ambos datos comprueban el bajo nivel de sincretismo cultural que ha experimentado Camaritagua. El paisaje que mayor número de especies
    presenta (65% es el Bosque Sucesional, este resultado genera la posibilidad de hacer productivas estas áreas
    disminuyendo el uso del Bosque Primario permitiendo así su conservación. El 46,5% de las especies encontradas
    en este estudio ya habían sido citadas por otros autores como medicinales, señalando hacia donde deben conducirse las investigaciones fitoquímicas.

  7. Late Neogene Sequence Stratigraphic Evolution of the Foz do Amazonas Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorini, Christian; Haq, Bilal U.; Tadeu dos Reis, Antonio; Guizan Silva, Cleverson; Cruz, Alberto; Soares, Emilson; Grangeon, Didier

    2014-05-01

    The margin of the Foz do Amazonas Basin saw a shift from predominantly carbonate to siliciclastic sedimentation in the early late Miocene. By this time the Amazon shelf had also been incised by a canyon that allowed direct influx of sediment to the basin floor, thus confirming that the paleo-Amazon fan had already initiated by that time (9.5-8.3Ma). Above this interval, during a prolonged lowstand, Messinian third-order sequences are preserved only in the incised-valley fills of the canyon with no equivalent strata on the shelf. Third and fourth-order sequences younger than Messinian are preserved on the shelf after sea-level rise above the shelf by early Pliocene. Sequences younger than 3.8 Ma often show fourth-order cyclicity with average duration of 400 kyr (larger scale eccentricity cycles) often preserved in high sedimentation rate areas of river deltas. Mass wasting and transportation of slope sediments to the basin began to play an important role in sediment dispersal at least as far back as mid Pliocene, after rapid progradation had produced steeper slopes 23 more prone to failure.

  8. Successful Treatment of Suspected Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension in a Mealy Amazon Parrot (Amazona farinose).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Sean M; Burgdorf-Moisuk, Anne; Silverman, Sarah; Wack, Raymund F

    2016-12-01

    A 25-year-old, male mealy Amazon parrot (Amazona farinose) with a history of polycythemia, hepatomegaly, and epistaxis was evaluated for progressive lethargy and anorexia. Clinical laboratory testing revealed severe polycythemia (71%), hypophosphatemia (1.6 mg/dL), and mild hypokalemia (2.8 mEq/L). Radiographs showed marked hepatomegaly and loss of air sac space. Despite supportive treatments, the bird's condition deteriorated, and it developed ataxia, was unable to fly, and became oxygen dependent. An echocardiogram, including an air bubble study, revealed a right-to-left atrial shunt and presumed pulmonary arterial hypertension. The bird was started on periodic phlebotomy (5-10 mL/kg q6wk) to reduce packed cell volume and sildenafil citrate (2.5 mg/kg PO q8h) for treatment of suspected pulmonary arterial hypertension. One week later, the patient was weaned off oxygen, and 24 days after initial presentation, the parrot was returned to its outdoor exhibit. Intermittent periods of increased respiratory rate and effort have been reported but have resolved without additional treatments. Epistaxis, once common in this bird, has not been noted since initiating treatment with sildenafil citrate 15 months ago.

  9. Nem Refugiados, nem Migrantes: A Chegada dos Haitianos à Cidade de Tabatinga (Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Véran

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo visa a analisar a migração de 4.000 haitianos entre o início de 2010 e março de 2012 em Tabatinga (Amazonas, como um "evento crítico" na história migratória recente do Brasil. Baseando-se no trabalho in situ de assistência da organização internacional Médicos Sem Fronteiras junto a esta população, o texto evidencia os limites da capacidade de resposta legal e operacional nos níveis municipal, estadual e federal. Este jogo de escala analítico permite ainda entender a convergência de elementos e circunstâncias que produziram a situação humanitária de Tabatinga. No momento em que o Brasil está entrando nas rotas demigração globalizadas, o artigo pretende contribuir para o debate sobre a reforma da política migratória brasileira.

  10. Paleoseismology in Venezuela: Objectives, methods, applications, limitations and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audemard M., Franck A.

    2005-10-01

    The privileged location of Venezuela along an active interplate deformation belt, despite of being a "so-called" developing country, has led to a long paleoseismic tradition as attested by 45 trench assessments since 1968. Since then, a first 2-trench study was carried out by the American Woodward-Clyde company across the Oca fault at Sinamaica. Since 1980, all further paleoseismic studies have been performed by FUNVISIS and the Uribante-Caparo hydroelectric project (southern Mérida Andes) became their first assessment where 22 huge trenches were bulldozer-dug. Except for these Compañía Anónima de Administración y Fomento Eléctrico (CADAFE) financed trenches and two others, all other assessments were for Petróleos de Venezuela S. A. -PDVSA-. In this paper, geographic and geologic factors, as well as logistic limitations, conditioning success in paleoseismic studies by trenching, shall be discussed based on the Venezuelan experience developed over the years. The scientific contribution of this approach refer to: confirmation of Holocene fault activity, slip-per-event and average slip rate of a given fault (or segment), seismic potential (repeat of maximum credible earthquakes) of known faults, fault segmentation, fault interaction as consequence of stress loading by stick-slip on contiguous faults, time-space distribution of seismic activity along a given tectonic feature, seismotectonic association of historical earthquakes and landscape evolution on the short term and its implications on the long-term evolution (poorly discussed since this is really part of the field of Neotectonics). In recent years (since 1999), a new approach has been introduced in Venezuela consisting in complementing the seismic history derived from trenching studies with the evaluation of seismically induced perturbations in the continuous Quaternary sedimentary record of (either active or fossil) lakes. The future of this discipline in Venezuela heads to more trenching and lake

  11. Composição florística das plantas daninhas na cultura de guaraná (Paullinia cupana, no estado do Amazonas Floristic composition of weeds in guarana (Paullinia cupana crop in Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M.F. Albertino

    2004-09-01

    Urucará located in the state of Amazonas, Brazil. Samples of weeds were taken from guarana growing areas in the five counties and identified by class, family and species. A total of 14,707 individual plants were collected and grouped into 40 families and 87 species,as follows: 70 Dicotyledonous, 13 Monocotyledonous and 4 Pteridophyts. The Dicotyledonous class presented the largest number of families and the monocotyledonous the largest number of individual plants, except in Maués and Iranduba. The number of Pteridophyts was inexpressive in all the counties. The Poaceae and Asteraceae families presented the largest number of species. Poaceae was found in all the counties, presenting the largest number of species in Maues. Panicum pilosum was the species with the largest number of individual plants, frequency, density and value of importance index, while Panicum laxum presented an expressive number of species in Urucará and Iranduba. Scleria malaleuca presented an expressive number in Coari and Chamaesyce hirta in Maués. Homolepis aturensis, Paspalum conjugatum and Spermacoce capitata were found in the five counties. The largest species diversity was found in Maues whereas the largest number of individual plants was found in Coari. The largest similarity index was found between Iranduba and Presidente Figueiredo (45% and the smallest between Iranduba and Coari (21.43%.

  12. Socio-Economic Aspects of National Communication Systems: III. Radio Broadcasting in Venezuela. Communication and Society, 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capriles, Oswaldo; And Others

    The third in a series that examines the role of radio broadcasting in the process of socioeconomic and cultural change in three countries with different types of broadcasting organization--Austria, Czechoslovakia, and Venezuela--this volume focuses on Venezuela. An overview of radio broadcasting in Venezuela describes various aspects and provides…

  13. 77 FR 59970 - Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela; Institution of Five-Year Reviews...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... silicomanganese from India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela (73 FR 841, January 4, 2008). The Commission is now... amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ No response to this request for information is required if a..., and Venezuela (67 FR 36149). Following the five-year reviews by Commerce and the Commission,...

  14. Dengue in Venezuela : A study on viral transmission, risk factors and clinical disease presentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velasco, Zoraida

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is wereldwijd de belangrijkste door muggen overgedragen ziekte. In Venezuela komen regelmatig epidemieën van toenemende omvang voor. In het onderzoek beschreven in dit proefschrift werden ongeveer 2000 personen uit drie wijken in Maracay, Venezuela, bestudeerd middels een prospectieve "commun

  15. 78 FR 77423 - Ferrosilicon From the Russian Federation and Venezuela: Postponement of Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... Russian Federation and Venezuela: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigations, 78 FR 49471 (August 14, 2013) (``Initiation Notice''). \\2\\ See id., 78 FR at 49474. As explained in the memorandum from the... International Trade Administration Ferrosilicon From the Russian Federation and Venezuela: Postponement...

  16. Venezuela loodab tüürida Kuuba saatust / Sirje Rank

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rank, Sirje, 1966-

    2006-01-01

    Venezuela president Hugo Chavez soovib üle võtte Fidel Castro rolli võitluses USA ülemvõimu vastu. Venezuela odava nafta tähtsus Kuuba majandusele. Vt. samas: Kuuba nafta õõnestab USA embargot

  17. Aproveitamento do Óleo das Amêndoas de Tucumã do Amazonas na Produção de Biodiesel The use of tucumã of amazonas kernel oil in the biodiesel production

    OpenAIRE

    Banny Silva Barbosa; Hector Henrique Ferreira Koolen; Andreza Cruz Barreto; João Domingos da Silva; Roberto Figliuolo; Sergio Massayoshi Nunomura

    2009-01-01

    A falta de disponibilidade de energia elétrica é um dos principais motivos pelo baixo Índice de Desenvolvimento Humano das comunidades isoladas localizadas na Amazônia. O biodiesel produzido a partir de óleos vegetais extraídos de espécies oleaginosas nativas de forma sustentada é uma das melhores alternativas energéticas para a região. O tucumã do amazonas, Astrocaryum aculeatum, é uma espécie de palmeira que produz um fruto muito apreciado na região, a partir do qual se obtém uma amêndoa co...

  18. A mística do Pirarucu: pesca, ethos e paisagem em comunidades rurais do baixo Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Sérgio S. Murrieta

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo é uma análise das práticas e significados que permeiam a pesca do pirarucu nas comunidades rurais da Ilha de Ituqui, no Baixo Amazonas, Pará. O pirarucu é o maior peixe de escamas da Amazônia e também um valioso produto de mercado devido ao seu papel privilegiado na culinária local. A pesca do Pirarucu é uma das atividades mais antigas no Baixo Amazonas, remontando a tempos pré-coloniais. Para os pescadores que habitam a ilha de Ituqui, a captura do pirarucu pode representar não apenas o retorno econômico garantido de uma jornada de trabalho, como também revestir-se de uma série de significados e vivências ontologicamente estruturadas no dia-a-dia e na identidade dos pescadores. Conflitos sociais e disputas pessoais são intensificadas ou reduzidas, afeições são confirmadas e laços sociais refeitos através das práticas e encontros vivenciados durante uma viagem de pesca aos lagos próximos. Além da prática em si, tais viagens tornam-se referências mnemônicas e afetivas da paisagem, do evento de captura e do próprio sentido de lugar; resultando numa unidade processual conectada a muitas esferas pessoais e sociais de significado, as quais são de difícil compartimentalização. No meio de tantos aspectos motivadores, disputas e pescarias "irracionais" acontecem em Ituqui. Locais de pescaria são possessivamente guardados e "fronteiras territoriais" sutilmente estabelecidas entre comunidades e famílias. O direito ao recurso e, por extensão, aos significados e emoções que ele incorpora, torna-se um luxo ferozmente protegido por alguns. O decréscimo da população de pirarucus, as novas tecnologias de pesca, a alta demanda do mercado pelo peixe e a "mística" que ainda permeia a captura do animal colocaram muitos pescadores num dilema em que a sobrevivência desta atividade parece colidir com o que os desenvolvimentistas e ambientalistas chamam de "racionalidade" da conservação.This article aims to

  19. IMPORTÂNCIA DO CONHECIMENTO EM DERMATOLOGIA PARA ATENDIMENTO À POPULAÇÃO RIBEIRINHA DO RIO AMAZONAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo S De Araújo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available O atendimento a populações ribeirinhas do Rio Amazonas requer um conhecimento amplo em dermatologia, possibilitando ao profissional de saúde mais facilidade no diagnóstico e tratamento das afecções que acometem essa população. Este artigo tem como objetivo demonstrar que este conhecimento é de suma importância para qualquer profissional de saúde que realize atendimento a esta população. Este estudo, um relato de experiência, apresenta dados de atendimentos realizados de 08 a 19 de julho de 2013, por um discente da Universidade Severino Sombra, representando a instituição na Operação AssHop (Assistência Hospitalar a populações ribeirinhas do Amazonas, e tem o objetivo  de analisar os atendimentos na área de dermatologia. De um total de 176 atendimentos realizados pelo discente, sempre sob supervisão médica, 30 foram dermatológicos, o que corresponde a 17% do total. Destes atendimentos, 33,3% foram dermatofitoses, 16,6% corresponderam à pitiríase alba , 16,6% foram diagnósticos de pitiríase versicolor e 33,3% outras dermatopatias, como molusco contagioso, ceratose actínica e dermatite atópica. Os pacientes receberam o tratamento específico de acordo com o diagnóstico. Constata-se que o conhecimento prévio em dermatologia é fundamental para realizar o atendimento a populações ribeirinhas do Rio Amazonas, visto que há uma grande demanda de quadros clínicos pertencentes a essa área.

  20. Prevalencia del Enteroparasitismo en escolares de comunidades nativas del Alto Marañon, Amazonas, Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Nicanor Ibáñez H.; César Jara C.; Antenor Guerra M; Enrique Díaz L

    2004-01-01

    Objetivos: Determinar la prevalencia de infección por protozoarios y helmintos intestinales y su relación con el sexo, localidad de procedencia y grupo etáreo, en escolares nativos de la zona selvática del Alto Marañón, provincia de Bagua, departamento de Amazonas, Perú. Materiales y métodos: En este estudio transversal-observacional se seleccionó a los colegios representativos de la mencionada región lográndose examinar las muestras fecales de 1049 escolares de seis a 15 años de edad, entre ...

  1. Parasites of native Cichlidae populations and invasive Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) in tributary of Amazonas River (Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Luana Silva Bittencourt; Douglas Anadias Pinheiro; Melissa Querido Cárdenas; Berenice Maria Fernandes; Marcos Tavares-Dias

    2014-01-01

    Este estudo é a primeira investigação da aquisição de parasitos na invasora O. niloticus por espécies de parasitos Cichlidae nativos da bacia Igarapé Fortaleza, Norte do Brasil. Foram examinados 576 espécimes pertencentes a 16 espécies de ciclídeos nativos e à invasora O. niloticus coletados no canal principal e área da planície de inundação deste tributário do Rio Amazonas. A invasora O. niloticus foi pobremente parasitada, pois teve somente Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Trichodi...

  2. Estudo da demanda ambulatorial da clínica de odontologia da Universidade do Estado do Amazonas

    OpenAIRE

    Sponchiado Júnior,Emílio Carlos; Souza,Torricelly Barreto de

    2011-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a demanda ambulatorial da Clínica de Odontologia da Universidade do Estado do Amazonas (UEA). Foram entrevistados cem pacientes em tratamento na disciplina de semiologia; por meio de um questionário, foram coletados os dados demográficos e o perfil socioeconômico e por meio de exame clínico foram obtidos o perfil nosológico e o perfil da pressão arterial e das perdas dentais. Os resultados evidenciaram que 52% dos pacientes eram do sexo feminino, com idad...

  3. Hematology of the Red-capped parrot (Pionopsitta pileata) and Vinaceous Amazon parrot (Amazona vinacea) in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Elizabeth Moreira dos Santos; Lange, Rogério Ribas; Ribas, Janaciara Moreira; Daciuk, Bárbara Maria; Montiani-Ferreira, Fabiano; Paulillo, Antonio Carlos

    2009-03-01

    Preliminary reference intervals for hematologic and total plasma protein profiles were determined for nine adult Red-capped parrots (Pionopsitta pileata) (six males and three females) and six Vinaceous Amazon parrots (Amazona vinacea) (two adult males, two adult females, one juvenile, and one nonsexed) from the Curitiba Zoo, Paraná, Brazil. For both Red-capped parrots and Vinaceous Amazon parrots, adult males had higher red blood cell counts than adult females. Regarding white blood cell distribution, differences due to gender were also found for both species of parrots.

  4. Prebiótico na alimentação de filhotes de papagaio verdadeiro (Amazona aestiva)

    OpenAIRE

    Medeiros, Lílian Botelho de

    2006-01-01

    O Brasil apresenta uma das maiores diversidades biológicas. Estima-se que 12 milhões de animais silvestres sejam contrabandeados anualmente. O papagaio verdadeiro (Amazona aestiva) é um dos psitacídeos mais populares do mundo. Existem poucos estudos sobre a nutrição desta ave, e os prebióticos podem ser uma alternativa para melhorar as condições sanitárias destas aves. Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da adição do mananoligossacarídeo durante cinco dias na dieta de filhotes de papagaio verdadeir...

  5. Impacto económico de la legislación laboral en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Candelaria González

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available On May 7th of 2012, Organic Law on Work, male workers and female workers —Ley Orgánica del Trabajo, los Trabajadores y Trabajadores (LOTTT— was published in Official Gazette of the Degree with Rank, Value and Force in Venezuela. The aim of this law is “to protect the work as a social fact and guarantee the labor rights, creators of the produced social wealth and the leading subjects of the processes of education and work to achieve the aims of the democratic state and social rights and justice…”. To achieve these aims changes were established that apparently benefit the employees and place them in a better situation, in respect to the 1997 law, and on the benefits of the entrepreneur. In this sense, the aim of the present article is to analyze the economic impacts that this law has had on both the employee and the entrepreneur, using a review of the literature and journals. It was observed that the most significant changes were in the reduction of the workday, the calculation and the retroactivity of the social benefits, the elimination of outsourcing, and other less significant changes such as, pre and postnatal period extension, the calculation of the overtime, the elimination of the outstanding performance bonus, among others. It was shown, without any doubt, that this law is highly punitive for the entrepreneurs and very protective for the employees. All these came along with a decrease in the Economically Active Population (PEA, with a decrease in the gross domestic product and, thus, productivity. And now with the highest levels of inflation in Latin America, this is an unflattering landscape for companies in Venezuela.

  6. [FOOD CONSUMPTION PATTERN AT A FAMILY LEVEL OF URBAN AREAS OF ANZOÁTEGUI, VENEZUELA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekmeiro Salvador, Jesús; Moreno Rojas, Rafael; García Lorenzo, María; Cámara Martos, Fernando

    2015-10-01

    In order to assess the qualitative pattern of food consumption in urban families of Anzoátegui, Venezuela, 300 domestic groups that combined a total of 1 163 people were studied. The domestic dietary pattern was addressed by the method of qualitative frequency of food consumption, which applied a structured survey that yielded the usual frequency of intake of a food or food group over a given period. The information was obtained through an interview with the person responsible for the procurement of food in every home, and included basic data for the socioeconomic and nutritional profile of the families studied. The qualitative analysis of the diet was obtained by comparing the different food groups that constitute the actual consumption pattern of the population studied, with official feeding guidelines suggested for the Venezuelan population. The present study showed that the qualitative pattern of food consumption in the urban population evaluated is characterized by slightly adjusted to the promotion of health and control of diet-related diseases. The family food proved to be far from the guidelines established by the dietary guidelines for Venezuela and consumption patterns are fairly homogeneous in the different socioeconomic strata. The foods most consumed daily were salt, coffee, dressing and precooked corn flour as well as beef, chicken and the higher weekly food consumption pastas. 90% of the food consumed daily is technologically processed. The results contribute to increase knowledge about the food situation of the Venezuelan population, and technically could direct the efforts of the authorities to reconcile the development of the productive sector and food supply, whereas a pattern qualitatively inadequate intake directly affects the individual biological functioning, and results in the collective conditioning of unfavorable health states.

  7. [High activity antiretroviral therapy change associated to adverse drug reactions in a specialized center in Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subiela, José D; Dapena, Elida

    2016-03-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) represent the first cause of change of the first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimen, therefore, they constitute the main limiting factor in the long-term follow up of HIV patients in treatment. A retrospective study was carried out in a specialized center in Lara State, Venezuela, including 99 patients over 18 years of age who had change of first-line HAART regimen due to ADRs, between 2010 and 2013. The aims of this research were to describe the sociodemographic and clinical variables, frequency of ADRs related to change of HAART, duration of the first-line HAART regimen, to determine the drugs associated with ARVs and to identify the risk factors. The ADRs constituted 47.5% of all causes of change of first-line HAART regimen, the median duration was 1.08±0.28 years. The most frequent ADRs were anemia (34.3%), hypersensitivity reactions (20.2%) and gastrointestinal intolerance (13.1%). The most frequent ARV regimen type was the protease inhibitors-based regimen (59.6%), but zidovudine was the ARV most linked to ADRs (41.4%). The regression analysis showed increased risk of ADRs in singles and students in the univariate analysis and heterosexuals and homosexuals in multivariate analysis; and decreased risk in active workers. The present work shows the high prevalence of ADRs in the studied population and represents the first case-based study that describes the pharmacoepidemiology of a cohort of HIV-positive patients treated in Venezuela.

  8. Venezuela e ALBA: regionalismo contra-hegemônico e ensino superior para todos Venezuela and the ALBA: counter-hegemonic regionalism and higher education for all

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Muhr

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Partindo de um quadro teórico neo-gramsciano crítico à globalização, este artigo aplica a nova teoria do regionalismo (NTR e a teoria do regionalismo regulatório (TRR à sua análise e teorização dos tratados de comércio da Aliança Bolivariana para os Povos da Nossa América (ALBA-TCP como regionalismo contra-hegemônico na América Latina e Caribe (ALC. A ALBA está centrada na ideia de um Socialismo do Século XXI, que, como (inicialmente também a Revolução Bolivariana da Venezuela, substitui a 'vantagem competitiva' pela 'vantagem cooperativa'. Em seu caráter de conjunto de processos multidimensionais e transnacionais a ALBA-TCP opera dentro de/transversalmente a um número de setores e escalas, ao mesmo passo que as transformações estruturais são movidas pela interação de agentes do Estado e agentes não estatais. A política de Educação Superior para Todos (ESPT do governo venezuelano rejeita a agenda neoliberal globalizada de mercadorização, privatização e elitismo e reinvindica educação pública gratuita em todos os níveis como um direito humano fundamental. A ESPT está sendo regionalizado em um espaço educacional emergente da ALBA e assume um papel-chave nos processos de democracia direta e participatória, dos quais a construção popular (bottom-up da contra-hegemonia e a redefinição política e econômica da ALC dependem. Antes de produzir sujeitos empreendedores conformes ao capitalismo global, a ESPT procura formar subjetividades ao longo de valores morais de solidariedade e cooperação. Isso será ilustrado com referência a um estudo etnográfico de caso da Universidade Bolivariana da Venezuela (UBV.This paper employs new regionalism theory and regulatory regionalism theory in its analysis and theorisation of the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America (ALBA as a counter-hegemonic Latin American and Caribbean (LAC regionalism. As (initially the regionalisation of Venezuela's Bolivarian

  9. De la Comunidad Andina de Naciones al Mercado Común del Sur: nueva estrategia de integración de Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Martínez Castillo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The year 2006 marked a milestone in the history of the regional integration of Venezuela. After 33 years as a member of CAN, the country withdrew from the integration agreement and joined Mercosur, marking a significant change in regional integration strategy. In this paper, the causes of this change, as well as its economic and political effects, have been analyzed through desk research. One of the main conclusions is that Chavez decided to use regional integration as a tool to address the liberal policies of the United States, regardless of the economic consequences. Another is that, due to the economic and institutional deterioration of Venezuela, the non-oil productive sector is not ready to compete with other members of Mercosur.

  10. Does syntax contribute to the function of duets in a parrot, Amazona auropalliata?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlin, Christine R; Wright, Timothy F

    2012-07-01

    Complex acoustic signals in many animal species are characterized by a syntax that governs how different notes are combined, but the importance of syntax to the communicative function of signals is not well understood. Mated pairs of yellow-naped amazons, Amazona auropalliata, produce coordinated vocal duets that are used for territory maintenance and defense. These duets follow rules that specify the ordering of notes within duets, such as a strict alternation of sex-specific notes and a defined progression of note types through each duet. These syntactical rules may function to define sex-specific roles, improve coordination, and allow individuals to combine calls into meaningful sequences. As a first step toward understanding the functional significance of syntax, we conducted two separate audio playback experiments in which we presented nesting pairs with normal duets and duets with broken syntax (i.e., one of the syntactic rules was broken). In Experiment One, we reversed the order of female and male notes within note pairs while retaining the typical progression of note types through a duet. In Experiment Two we reversed the order of note types across a whole duet while retaining the typical female-male ordering within note pairs. We hypothesized that duets with broken syntax would be less-effective signals than duets with normal syntax and predicted that pairs would respond less to broken syntax than to normal duets. Contrary to predictions, we did not observe differences in response between treatments for any variables except latency to approach the speaker. After we combined data across experiments post hoc, we observed longer latencies to approach the speakers after playbacks of broken syntax duets, suggesting that pairs could differentiate between playbacks. These responses suggest that breaking one rule of duet syntax at a time does not result in detectable loss of signal efficacy in the context of territorial intrusions.

  11. Non-Invasive Measurement of Adrenocortical Activity in Blue-Fronted Parrots (Amazona aestiva, Linnaeus, 1758.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João C P Ferreira

    Full Text Available Parrots kept in zoos and private households often develop psychological and behavioural disorders. Despite knowing that such disorders have a multifactorial aetiology and that chronic stress is involved, little is known about their development mainly due to a poor understanding of the parrots' physiology and the lack of validated methods to measure stress in these species. In birds, blood corticosterone concentrations provide information about adrenocortical activity. However, blood sampling techniques are difficult, highly invasive and inappropriate to investigate stressful situations and welfare conditions. Thus, a non-invasive method to measure steroid hormones is critically needed. Aiming to perform a physiological validation of a cortisone enzyme immunoassay (EIA to measure glucocorticoid metabolites (GCM in droppings of 24 Blue-fronted parrots (Amazona aestiva, two experiments were designed. During the experiments all droppings were collected at 3-h intervals. Initially, birds were sampled for 24 h (experiment 1 and one week later assigned to four different treatments (experiment 2: Control (undisturbed, Saline (0.2 mL of 0.9% NaCl IM, Dexamethasone (1 mg/kg IM and Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH; 25 IU IM. Treatments (always one week apart were applied to all animals in a cross-over study design. A daily rhythm pattern in GCM excretion was detected but there were no sex differences (first experiment. Saline and dexamethasone treatments had no effect on GCM (not different from control concentrations. Following ACTH injection, GCM concentration increased about 13.1-fold (median at the peak (after 3-9 h, and then dropped to pre-treatment concentrations. By a successful physiological validation, we demonstrated the suitability of the cortisone EIA to non-invasively monitor increased adrenocortical activity, and thus, stress in the Blue-fronted parrot. This method opens up new perspectives for investigating the connection between behavioural

  12. New sedimentological and palynological data from surface Miocene strata in the central Amazonas Basin area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emílio Alberto Amaral Soares

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The scarcity of stratigraphic data has hindered the demarcation of the outcropping area of Miocene deposits of the Amazon Basin, represented informally by the Novo Remanso Formation. Moreover, this unit is characterized by a sparse and irregular geographic distribution due to its sedimentological features and rare fossil content. Miocene deposits cropping out in central Amazonas Basin area were described in sedimentological terms and analyzed palynologically. All analyses were undertaken in samples collected at the Uatumã River banks (Itapiranga and São Sebastião do Uatumã cities. Lithostratigraphic data shows that Novo Remanso Formation consists of sandstones, with subordinate conglomerates and pelites, characteristic of a meandering fluvial paleosystem, with fluvial channel, point bar, floodplain and crevasse splay facies. The palynoflora retrieved from five samples consists exclusively of continental-origin palynomorphs dominated by angiosperms species. Trilete spores are well represented, while gymnosperms pollen grains are minor components. The presence of Psilastephanoporites tesseroporus, Syncolporites poricostatus, Jandufouria seamrogiformis and Polypodiaceoisporites potoniei ensure these deposits fits into the Grimsdalea magnaclavata palynozone (Regali et al. 1974a, b, and the Grimsdalea magnaclavata/Crassoretitriletes vanraadshooveni palynozones of Jaramillo et al. (2011 considered Middle Miocene age. This age is confirmed by the zonation of Jaramillo et al. (2011, based on the LADs of Bombacacidites baumfalki (11.57Ma and Crototricolpites annemariae (12.91Ma; and the FAD of Psilastephanoporites tesseroporus (14.00Ma. With these new data presented herein, it is possible to assume that the Miocene strata represented by the Novo Remanso Formation covers a larger area in the basin than previously considered, and that it may be extended for about 300 km until the Manacapuru village, indicating a Miocene subsidence phase.

  13. Paisagens e etnoconhecimentos na agricultura Ticuna e Cocama no alto rio Solimões, Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra do Nascimento Noda

    Full Text Available As unidades de paisagem na agricultura dos povos Ticuna e Cocama, no alto rio Solimões, são caracterizadas por arranjos produtivos e formas de gestão dos recursos naturais. Caracterizar essas práticas de base agroecológica, os resultados paisagísticos e as possibilidades de sua aplicabilidade regional foram os objetivos dessa pesquisa, realizada em duas localidades: Novo Paraíso, na ilha do Bom Intento, e Nova Aliança, ambas no município de Benjamin Constant, Amazonas. A organização social e econômica dos povos Ticuna e Cocama é fundada no parentesco e na apropriação comunal dos recursos naturais existentes, incluindo os espaços para o extrativismo. As unidades familiares, apesar da fraca vinculação com o mercado e suas regras, têm na lógica da reciprocidade a motivação para a produção, a transmissão e o manejo dos recursos e dos fatores de produção. As paisagens são reconstruídas por meio da produção de base agroecológica, derivada do etnoconhecimento, e correspondem aos mecanismos inerentes ao processo de manejo e conservação da flora e fauna. Esse processo permite a existência de complexa imbricação de paisagens em constante modificação, nas quais formas de produção são recriadas para a suficiência e a sustentabilidade.

  14. Preliminary inventory of mammals from Yurubí National Park, Yaracuy, Venezuela with some comments on their natural history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Franger J; Delgado-Jaramillo, Mariana; Machado, Marjorie; Aular, Luis

    2012-03-01

    In Venezuela, mammals represent an important group of wildlife with high anthropogenic pressures that threaten their permanence. Focused on the need to generate baseline information that allows us to contribute to document and conserve the richness of local wildlife, we conducted a mammalogical inventory in Yurubí National Park, located in Yaracuy State in Venezuela. We carried out fieldworks in three selected vegetation types: an evergreen forest at 197m, a semi-deciduous forest ranging between 100-230m, and a cloud forest at 1 446m. We used Victor, Sherman, Havahart and pitfall traps for the capture of small non-volant mammals and mist nets for bats. In addition, we carried out interviews with local residents and direct-indirect observations for medium-large sized mammals. At least 79 species inhabit the area, representing 28% of the species recorded for the North side of the country. Chiroptera (39 spp.), Carnivora (13 spp.) and Rodentia (9 spp.) were the orders with the highest richness, as expected for the Neotropics. The evergreen forest had the greatest species richness (n=68), with a sampling effort of 128 net-hours, 32 bucket-days, 16 hours of observations, and three persons interviewed, followed by cloud forest (n=45) with 324 net-hours, 790 traps-night, 77 bucket-days, 10 hours of observations, and one person interviewed. The lowest richness value was in the semi-deciduous forest (n=41), with 591 traps-night, 15 net-hours, 10 hours of observations and three persons interviewed. Data and observations obtained in this inventory (e.g., endemism, species known as "surrogate species" threatened in Venezuela) give an important role at the Yurubí National Park in the maintenance and conservation of local ecosystems and wildlife, threatened by human pressures in the Cordillera de la Costa.

  15. Venezuela: un caso de inflación mediana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justino Risquez

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se estudia el fenómeno inflacionario venezolano reciente, caracterizado como un caso de “inflación moderada”. En él se relaciona esta situación con el problema de la debilidad institucional, el déficit de credibilidad de las autoridades, lo cual ha llevado a un importante uso del impuesto inflacionario como mecanismo de financiamiento del gasto público. Así mismo se señala el papel desempeñado por la inercia en la permanencia de la inestabilidad de los precios en Venezuela.

  16. Explora??o sexual feminina na fronteira: Brasil e Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Vasconcelos, Andr?a Freitas de

    2011-01-01

    O presente trabalho procurou abordar o fen?meno da Explora??o Sexual feminina na sociedade de consumo, fundamentando-se na sociologia das rela??es de g?nero, ao tomar como estudo as situa??es de explora??o sexual feminina e de prostitui??o que acontecem na fronteira Brasil/Venezuela, no per?odo compreendido entre a ?ltima d?cada (anos dois mil), aos dias atuais. O percurso te?rico conceitual adotado considera essa tem?tica um assunto relevante para o campo de estudos sociol?gicos e da din?mic...

  17. Cambio y orden social en Venezuela, durante el "chavismo"

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar Calderón, Carlota

    2015-01-01

    En Venezuela comienza un proyecto político en el año 1998, cuando gana las elecciones el Teniente Coronel Hugo Chávez Frías. Que pretendió cambios en el sistema político corrupto, populista y clientelar. Para lo cual, en una primera etapa que denominamos Democracia Bolivariana, se da inicio a un proceso nacional constituyente, que cambió el sistema político venezolano de Democracia Representativa Liberal a Democracia Participativa y Protagónica. Un Estado federal, descentralizado, alternativo...

  18. VENEZUELA: DISENSO Y CONFLCITO EN LAS ELECCIONES 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Eduardo Romero Jiménez

    2003-01-01

    Partiendo desde una concepción de la democracia como conflicto, a través de la cual se amplían los espacios de participación pública y por lo tanto de los ciudadanos, se analiza la transición política experimentada en Venezuela, particularmente del proceso electoral de julio de 2000, que significó la construcción definitiva de un nuevo orden en el sistema político. El enfrentamiento de julio de 2000 estuvo signado por la fractura en la unidad en torno a Hugo Chávez y el surg...

  19. BYTTNERIA CARIPENSIS (STERCULIACEAE UNA NUEVA ESPECIE DE VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen L. Cristóbal

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Byttneria caripensis Cristóbal (sección Crassipetala de Edo. Bolívar, Venezuela se describe como nueva. Se estudia también la anatomía de los nectarios de la hoja y la venación menor. El tamaño y la forma muy peculiar de la cavidad glandular de los nectarios multiaperturados están estresados. Se presentan dos ilustraciones.

  20. Venezuela: Political Conditions and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-04

    America, 2006, preliminary version, December 2006. 47 Instituto Nacional de Estadística (INE), República Bolivariana de Venezuela, “Línea de Pobreza ... Mexico , Spain, and Portugal, in establishing a group known as the “Friends of Venezuela” — to lend support to the OAS Secretary General’s efforts. U.S...supplier in 2005, after Canada, Mexico , and Saudi Arabia), providing about 12% of U.S. crude oil imports, a key U.S. interest has been ensuring the

  1. Soil gas radon concentration across faults near Caracas, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sajo-Bohus, L. [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Caracas (Venezuela); Flores, N.; Urbani, F. [Universidad Central de Venezuela, Dept. de Geologia, Caracas (Venezuela); Carreno, R. [Sociedad Venezolana de Espeleologia, Apdo. 47334, Caracas 1041A (Venezuela)

    2001-09-01

    SSNTD were used across tectonic features of different degree of activity and lithology in four localities north of Caracas, Venezuela. The homemade dosimeters with LR115 film were buried 20-30 cm in the ground. This cheap and low- tech method proved very useful to understand the tectonic features involved, measuring higher Radon concentration above traces of active faults while in old and sealed faults the results only show the effect of the surrounding lithology. Radon concentration range is 4.3 - 27.2 kB/m{sup 3}. (Author)

  2. [The registration of deaths in Venezuela: an evaluation of coverage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidegain, G; Lopez, D

    1987-08-01

    "This paper presents six indirect techniques for estimating the degree of death coverage as applied to vital statistics information in Venezuela between 1960 and 1982, collected by two public institutions, namely, the 'Oficina Central de Estadistica e Informatica' (OCEI) and the Ministry of Health and Social Assistance (MSAS).... The results show remarkable improvements in the death registry coverage for both institutions, that amount to 97 or 98 per cent at the beginning of the 80's. Nevertheless, great differences can be observed between them regarding both structure and volume of deaths by sex and age." Among the problems discussed are the impact of immigration and errors in age reporting. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  3. [History of psychiatry in Venezuela: milestones in social work education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, J

    1991-01-01

    A historical compilation, initiated with Dr. Lorenzo Campins y Ballester in 1773, covering the teaching aspect, and culminated with the creation of the first postgraduate in psychiatry at the Central University of Venezuela in 1939, is made. On the assistential side, the way in which patients were treated during colonial times is mentioned, introducing the attempts which were carried out up to 1892, when Dr. G.T. Villegas Pulido ordered the moving of 30 patients to the remodeled military hospital, becoming this latter institution the Psychiatric Hospital of Caracas. The influence of private institutions on both teaching formation and assistential level is also mentioned.

  4. Venezuela to Export Crude to China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ President of CNPC Chen Geng met visiting Venezuelan Foreign Minister Jesus Armaldo Perez at Diaoyutai State Guest House in Beijing on September 7. Chen briefed the guest about CNPC's business and overseas oil and gas operation and expressed the willingness to step up the bilateral cooperation in the oil industrial field. In return,Perez also made briefings about the present situation and development trend of the Venezuelan oil industry.

  5. Etnobotânica das variedades locais do cará (Dioscorea spp. cultivados em comunidades no município de Caapiranga, estado do Amazonas Ethnobotany of local varieties of yams (Dioscorea spp. cultivated in the municipality of Caapiranga, AM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albejamere Pereira de Castro

    2012-09-01

    (Amazonas State. For this work, a four-celled method, botanical inventory and collecting, a form, interviews and participant observation with farmers about the peculiarities of each species and varieties were used. The collected material was identified by an expert at the Herbarium of the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Amazonas (EAFM and the Institute of Botany, IBt, São Paulo, and deposited in the Herbarium of Federal University of Amazonas (HUAM. For further identification of all collected species and varieties, the collected material was grown in a UFAM experimental field. Among the fifteen local varieties surveyed, ten are believed to belong to D. trifida and one to D. bulbifera. It was not possible to identify the four other taxa because they are no longer cultivated in gardens. It was found that the traditional farmers surveyed have great knowledge about the cultivated fields, as well as about cultivated local varieties, and that they have different forms of management and conservation that are fundamental to the maintenance of the agrobiodiversity of their gardens. The production systems of Caapiranga are true germplasm collections and the major local strategy for in situ/on farm conservation of genetic resources, and, therefore, should be maintained and encouraged.

  6. VENEZUELA 2010-2011: POLARIZACIÓN Y RADICALIZACIÓN DEL PROYECTO SOCIALISTA Venezuela 2010-2011: Polarization and Radicalization of the socialist project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICKARD LALANDER

    2012-01-01

    movement that hitherto has been characterized by a high degree of personalism and power concentration in Chávez. In the social field, the government has maintained its progressive (and/or paternalist policies ofdifferent State Social Missions (Misiones, since 2011 mainly to confront housing shortages. Already in 2011, the beginning of a pre-campaign before the presidential elections of 2012 can be observed. This study provides a political summary of Venezuela in 2010 and 2011, and there will be special analytical attention paid to the parliamentary elections of 2010, and -particularly- the tensions between two different democratic schemes: a liberal representative model and a more radical and participatory type of democracy. As for the second type there will be special attention to the Community Councils and their implications for Venezuelan democracy.

  7. Iranian-Venezuelan Relations and Impacts on the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    TREATY OPEC ORGANIZATION OF THE PETROLEUM EXPORTING COUNTRIES PDVSA PETROLEUM OF VENEZUELA xii THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK xiii...hydrocarbon industry became crucial for Chávez’s government. State officials dominated the ranks of the national oil company, PDVSA , specifically the...Iran to join exploration in the Orinoco Belt, a place known for Venezuela’s extra-heavy crude petroleum reserves. PDVSA (Petróleos de Venezuela, S.A

  8. Democracia y dilema eficiencia-equidad en la descentralización local en Venezuela

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    María Pilar GARCÍA-GUADILLA

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La descentralización es uno de los mecanismos mediante el cual el Estado central transfiere competencias políticas y administrativas a las localidades, ya sea con la finalidad de fortalecer la participación política, lograr eficiencia estatal o para buscar la gobernabilidad. En algunos países latinoamericanos como Colombia, Chile, Argentina, Brasil, Costa Rica se han impulado procesos de descentralización con el fin de racionalizar la actividad estatal y, precisamente, contribuir a la gobernabilidad.En Venezuela la Comisión para la Reforma del Estado (COPRE implementó la descentralización en 1988 como una forma de superar el modelo estado céntrico, caracterísitico de las últimas décadas en el país. El proceso no estuvo acompañado por cambios constitucionales, lo que condujo a conflictos entre diversas normas y al consiguiente retraso en la implementación de las nuevas políticas. El ejercicio descentralizador se está desarrollando principalmente a nivel político, por ejemplo, en los municipios de Chacao, Baruta, El Hatillo y Libertador, que pertenecen al Area Metropolitana Interna de Caracas. Así, el proceso descentralizador se vive con diferencias marcadas resultantes del tipo de administración implementada desde la alcaldía, la mayor o menor disponibilidad de resursos económicos y humanos, la población y la pobreza.ABSTRACT: Decentralization is one of the mechanisms by which the central State transfers political and administrative competences to the localities, sometimes with the purpose of strenghtening political participation, to achieve state efficiency of to look for gobernability. In some Latín American countries such as Colombia, Chile, Argentina, Brasil, Costa Rica have been decentralization processes impulsed to rationalize the public activity and, precisely, to contribute to gobernability.In Venezuela the Comission for the State Reform (COPRE implemented the decentralization in 1988 as a way of

  9. Relaciones interorganizacionales en el entorno territorial de Maracaibo-Venezuela

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    Fernando Torres

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la investigación es describir las relaciones interorganizacionales en el entorno territorial de Maracaibo - Venezuela, para lo cual se caracterizaron los elementos interconectores del capital social como soporte de la innovación y el emprendimiento. Desde el capital social se trabajaron con las perspectivas de Putnam et al (1993, Coleman (1988, Bourdieu (2001 y Lin (2001. La población la conformaron 475 empresas de siete sectores económicos. La técnica muestral empleada fue el muestreo no probabilístico de tipo intencional aplicado a 85 empresas. Se recolectaron los datos mediante un cuestionario estructurado a cada agente informante de las empresas, el cual fue validado por expertos y la confiabilidad de acuerdo a Alpha de Cronbach arrojó un 0.96, por lo que el instrumento demuestra alta confiabilidad. Las respuestas del cuestionario tuvieron un tratamiento estadístico descriptivo mediante el programa Statistical Package for the Social Sciencies (SPSS. Se concluye que hay una debil interconectividad de los elementos del capital social, incidiendo en el bajo nivel de innovación y emprendimiento, precarizando las fuerzas sustentadoras del desarrollo territorial de Maracaibo-Venezuela.

  10. Intestinal helminths of capybaras, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, from Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Salas

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative parameters of intestinal helminth species and their potential relations to host characteristics in a population of capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris from Venezuela are reported for the first time. The intestines of 40 capybaras were collected during the 1992-annual harvest at Hato El Cedral. Six helminth species were found: 2 cestodes (Monoecocestus macrobursatum, M. hagmanni, 2 nematodes (Viannella hydrochoeri, Protozoophaga obesa, and 2 trematodes (Hippocrepis hippocrepis, Taxorchis schistocotyle. This is the first report for M. macrobursatum in Venezuela. Helminth abundance did not differ between sexes or age classes. Although patterns of distribution for all helminth species were overdispersed, the high prevalence found for all species (over 70% and the high abundance observed for nematodes made it difficult to assess the effect that these helminths may produce on capybaras. Nevertheless, the negative associations found between the body condition of capybaras and helminth intensity for M. macrobursatum and V. hydrochoeri, might be pointing out potential host population regulatory role for these parasites which require further research.

  11. Genotyping of clinical isolates of Acanthamoeba genus in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Carolina; Reyes-Batlle, María; Ysea, María Alejandra Vethencourt; Pérez, Mónica V Galindo; de Rondón, Carmen Guzmán; Paduani, Anaibeth J Nessi; Pérez, Angelyseb Dorta; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Sifaoui, Ines; de Galindo, María Virginia Pérez; de Suárez, Eva Pérez; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Valladares, Basilio; Piñero, José E; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2016-12-01

    Free-living amoebae of Acanthamoeba genus are opportunistic pathogens distributed worldwide. Strains included in this genus are causative agents of a fatal encephalitis and a sight-threating keratitis in humans and other animals. In this study, 550 clinical samples which were collected between 1984 and 2014 from different patients with suspected infections due to Acanthamoeba were initially screened for the presence of this amoebic genus at the Laboratorio de Amibiasis-Escuela de Bioanálisis at the Universidad Central de Venezuela. Samples were cultured in 2% Non-Nutrient agar plates seeded with a layer of heat killed Escherichia coli. From the 550 clinical samples included in this study, 18 of them were positive for Acanthamoeba genus after culture identification. Moreover, positive samples were confirmed after amplification of the Diagnostic Fragment 3 (DF3) of the Acanthamoeba18S rDNA genus and sequencing was carried out in order to genotype the isolated strains of Acanthamoeba. Furthermore, the pathogenic potential of the strains was checked by performing thermotolerance and osmotolerance assays. Sequencing of the DF3 region resulted in the identification of genotype T4 in all the isolated strains. Moreover, most isolates were thermotolerant or both thermotolerant and osmotolerant and thus were classified as potentially pathogenic strains. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the molecular characterization at the genotype level of Acanthamoeba strains in Venezuela.

  12. CURRENT SPACE PROJECTS OF THE BOLIVARIAN REPUBLIC OF VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hernández

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir del a ̃o 2008, con el lanzamiento exitoso del primer sat ́lite venezolano de telecomunicaciones, sat ́lite n e e VENESAT-1, la Rep ́blica Bolivariana de Venezuela pasa a formar parte del grupo de pa ́ u ıses que a nivel internacional utilizan activamente la ciencia y la tecnolog ́ espacial como una herramienta para promover el ıa desarrollo nacional. Sobre esa base, a trav ́s de la Agencia Bolivariana para Actividades Espaciales (ABAE, se e ha impulsado la ejecuci ́n de diversos proyectos espaciales, entre los que destacan la fabricaci ́n y lanzamiento o o del primer sat ́lite venezolano para la observaci ́n de la Tierra, la construcci ́n de un centro especializado para e o o el dise ̃o y fabricaci ́n de sat ́lites de peque ̃o peso, as ́ como actividades de investigaci ́n y desarrollo relativas n o e n ı o a la medici ́n de propiedades f ́ o ısicas de la Tierra. El trabajo presenta una breve descripci ́n de los proyectos o espaciales desarrollados en Venezuela.

  13. Venezuela: del neoliberalismo al socialismo del siglo XXI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Rodríguez Rojas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se aborda la dinámica de la aplicación del modelo neoliberal en Venezuela y sus consecuencias económicas, políticas y sociales hasta llegar a la propuesta de construir el socialismo del siglo XXI. Para ello hacemos una breve retrospectiva de lo que ha sido la sociedad venezolana desde la década de 1970, del auge rentístico hasta llegar a la crisis de la década de 1980 y la inserción del programa neoliberal. La aplicación del modelo neoliberal en Venezuela, como en buen parte de América Latina, no fue un proceso fácil, por el contrario produjo fuertes conflictos y contradicciones. Asimismo, el periodo iniciado en 1999 con la llegada de Hugo Chávez al poder está cargado de dificultades y obstáculos, pero sin lugar a duda ha sido un proyecto contra el neoliberalismo. Por ello el objetivo de este trabajo es revisar el proceso venezolano hacia el socialismo.

  14. AMINOGLYCOSIDE RESISTANCE GENES IN Pseudomonas aeruginosa ISOLATES FROM CUMANA, VENEZUELA

    Science.gov (United States)

    TEIXEIRA, Bertinellys; RODULFO, Hectorina; CARREÑO, Numirin; GUZMÁN, Militza; SALAZAR, Elsa; DONATO, Marcos DE

    2016-01-01

    The enzymatic modification of aminoglycosides by aminoglycoside-acetyltransferases (AAC), aminoglycoside-adenyltransferases (AAD), and aminoglycoside-phosphotransferases (APH), is the most common resistance mechanism in P. aeruginosa and these enzymes can be coded on mobile genetic elements that contribute to their dispersion. One hundred and thirty seven P. aeruginosa isolates from the University Hospital, Cumana, Venezuela (HUAPA) were evaluated. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the disk diffusion method and theaac, aadB and aph genes were detected by PCR. Most of the P. aeruginosa isolates (33/137) were identified from the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), mainly from discharges (96/137). The frequency of resistant P. aeruginosaisolates was found to be higher for the aminoglycosides tobramycin and amikacin (30.7 and 29.9%, respectively). Phenotype VI, resistant to these antibiotics, was the most frequent (14/49), followed by phenotype I, resistant to all the aminoglycosides tested (12/49). The aac(6´)-Ib,aphA1 and aadB genes were the most frequently detected, and the simultaneous presence of several resistance genes in the same isolate was demonstrated. Aminoglycoside resistance in isolates ofP. aeruginosa at the HUAPA is partly due to the presence of the aac(6´)-Ib, aphA1 andaadB genes, but the high rates of antimicrobial resistance suggest the existence of several mechanisms acting together. This is the first report of aminoglycoside resistance genes in Venezuela and one of the few in Latin America. PMID:27007556

  15. Venezuela, en la prensa internacional: una cobertura sesgada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Casado-Gutiérrez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Se investigó la cobertura de Venezuela en 28 grandes diarios de América Latina, Europa y EEUU a lo largo de un año. El objetivo del trabajo fue dilucidar si existía un sesgo sistemático. Metodología. Se compaginó el análisis cualitativo y cuantitativo de contenido. Se condensaron varias categorías en dos variables –tendencia e impacto– con una simple escala de medición adscrita. Resultados. Se demostró un sistemático sesgo negativo en la cobertura de Venezuela en los grandes diarios: el 82% de los artículos publicados tienen un impacto negativo. A la vez, el 95% de los temas está relacionado con el gobierno venezolano. Discusión y conclusiones. La comprobación de un sesgo negativo sistemático significa que el derecho de información de los ciudadanos-lectores no se está cumpliendo.

  16. VENEZUELA: DISENSO Y CONFLCITO EN LAS ELECCIONES 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Eduardo Romero Jiménez

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo desde una concepción de la democracia como conflicto, a través de la cual se amplían los espacios de participación pública y por lo tanto de los ciudadanos, se analiza la transición política experimentada en Venezuela, particularmente del proceso electoral de julio de 2000, que significó la construcción definitiva de un nuevo orden en el sistema político. El enfrentamiento de julio de 2000 estuvo signado por la fractura en la unidad en torno a Hugo Chávez y el surgimiento de una nueva oposición alrededor de Francisco Arias Cárdenas, uno de los excomandantes del intento de golpe de Estado del 4 de febrero de 1992. Se concluye que a partir de agosto de 2000 se consolida el liderazgo político de Chávez y una nueva forma de concebir la democracia en Venezuela

  17. Venezuela, 1. Fenomenologìa de una Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Neira Fernández

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available El autor muestra una primera reflexión, la coyuntura histórica presentada en la crisis de los procesos sociales y estructurales en Venezuela. Esta crisis presenta procesos simultáneos derivados del principal, que ha sido el que Venezuela ha pasado de ser un país agrariamente pobre a ser un país con una gran riqueza petrolera, lo cual ha provocado la modernización y urbanización de las ciudades, y por consiguiente la incorporación de ciencia avanzada y tecnología de punta en los diferentes campos de la economía nacional. Las principales manifestaciones de esta crisis están en la inhabilidad de la clase política, la falta de una generación de líderes de relevo y la falta de institucionalización que ha dejado la sociedad sin marcos firmes y claramente definidos para encauzar su desarrollo. Se aúnan a todo lo anterior, los vicios presentes en la ciudadanía venezolana tales como la desidia en cuanto a la responsabilidad social, la cobardía cívica y la dejadez ante la propia suerte y la de la sociedad

  18. Ethics, Risk, and Media Intervention: Women's Breast Cancer in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Mahmoud; Nahon-Serfaty, Isaac

    2015-07-01

    Breast cancer incidence and mortality rates are of concern among Latin American women, mainly due to the growing prevalence of this disease and the lack of compliance to proper breast cancer screening and treatment. Focusing on Venezuelan women and the challenges and barriers that interact with their health communication, this paper looks into issues surrounding women's breast cancer, such as the challenges and barriers to breast cancer care, the relevant ethics and responsibilities, the right to health, breast cancer risk perception and risk communication, and the media interventions that affect Venezuelan women's perceptions and actions pertaining to this disease. In particular, it describes an action-oriented research project in Venezuela that was conducted over a four-year period of collaborative work among researchers, practitioners, NGOs, patients, journalists, and policymakers. The outcomes include positive indications on more effective interactions between physicians and patients, increasing satisfactions about issues of ethical treatment in providing healthcare services, more sufficient and responsible media coverage of breast cancer healthcare services and information, a widely supported declaration for a national response against breast cancer in Venezuela, and the creation of a code of ethics for the Venezuelan NGO that led the expansion of networking in support of women's breast cancer healthcare.

  19. Obligaciones legales de las asociaciones cooperativas bancos comunales en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coromoto Aguilar González, Herleny

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available n Venezuela se promulga la Ley Especial de Los Consejos Comunales en el año 2006. El Consejo Comunal está constituido por tres órganos: Órgano Ejecutivo, Unidad de Gestión Financiera, y Unidad de Contraloría Social. La Unidad de Gestión Financiera o Banco Comunal adquirirá la figura jurídica de cooperativa, por consiguiente el presente trabajo tiene por objeto analizar los deberes formales que debe cumplir el Banco Comunal: 1. Inscribirse en los registros correspondientes; 2. Llevar Libros Legales; 3. Presentar Declaración Informativa de ISLR; 4. Practicar retención de ISLR; 5. Emitir factura de conformidad con lo establecido en la regulación venezolana.Venezuela promulgated the Special Law of the Communal Councils in 2006. The Communal Council is constituted by three agencies: Executive agency, Financial Management Unit, and Social comptroller Unit. The Financial Management Unit or Communal Bank will acquire the legal figure of a cooperative, therefore the present paper intends to analyze the formal duties established in the Venezuelan tax laws, that the Communal Bank must fulfil: 1. To register in the corresponding registration system; 2. Keep the accountancy Books required by tax laws; 3. To file an informative income tax return; 4. To practice income tax withholding; 5. To emit invoice in accordance with Venezuelan tax regulations.

  20. AMINOGLYCOSIDE RESISTANCE GENES IN Pseudomonas aeruginosa ISOLATES FROM CUMANA, VENEZUELA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Bertinellys; Rodulfo, Hectorina; Carreño, Numirin; Guzmán, Militza; Salazar, Elsa; De Donato, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    The enzymatic modification of aminoglycosides by aminoglycoside-acetyltransferases (AAC), aminoglycoside-adenyltransferases (AAD), and aminoglycoside-phosphotransferases (APH), is the most common resistance mechanism in P. aeruginosa and these enzymes can be coded on mobile genetic elements that contribute to their dispersion. One hundred and thirty seven P. aeruginosa isolates from the University Hospital, Cumana, Venezuela (HUAPA) were evaluated. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the disk diffusion method and theaac, aadB and aph genes were detected by PCR. Most of the P. aeruginosa isolates (33/137) were identified from the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), mainly from discharges (96/137). The frequency of resistant P. aeruginosaisolates was found to be higher for the aminoglycosides tobramycin and amikacin (30.7 and 29.9%, respectively). Phenotype VI, resistant to these antibiotics, was the most frequent (14/49), followed by phenotype I, resistant to all the aminoglycosides tested (12/49). The aac(6´)-Ib,aphA1 and aadB genes were the most frequently detected, and the simultaneous presence of several resistance genes in the same isolate was demonstrated. Aminoglycoside resistance in isolates ofP. aeruginosa at the HUAPA is partly due to the presence of the aac(6´)-Ib, aphA1 andaadB genes, but the high rates of antimicrobial resistance suggest the existence of several mechanisms acting together. This is the first report of aminoglycoside resistance genes in Venezuela and one of the few in Latin America.

  1. Development and application of steam injection simulators in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrer, J.; Quintero, L.; Aquino, C.; Guevara, F.; Avila, A.

    1980-01-01

    Steam injection is a major oil recovery method in Venezuela, with 3 trillion bbl of oil possibly recoverable by this technqiue. Alongside progress in steam injection technology, the development of a series of numerical simulators has been proceeding at an accelerated pace. This work describes 3 of the steam injection simulators developed, and their application to 2 major heavy oil reservoirs. These simulators describe 3-phase, nonisothermal multicomponent flow, consisting of 4, 3, and 2 components, respectively, in 3 dimensions. The implicitness of the simulators increases in the order of decreasing number of components. However, for a variety of problems, the less implicit but more efficient simulators are adequate. The finite difference methods used for each simulator are outlined. These, as well as the computational performance, are compared with the existing simulators. The application of the simulators to 2 major reservoirs in Venezuela-morichal and M/sup -6/ is described and compared. Effects of such factors as spacing, injection rate, and gravity segregation are examined. 14 references.

  2. Urban movements and disempowerment in Perú and Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H. LEVINE

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a core puzzle: why is continued citizen mobilization accompanied by growing disempowerment of those same citizens? Why do movements fail, leaders burn out and members disperse, and what are the implications of this organizational failure for demo¬cratic representation? Our consideration of the issues is rooted in a close examination of urban movements, mobilization, empowerment and disempowerment in the recent experience of Venezuela and Perú. The puzzle that concerns us is of course not limited to these two countries: it is common to all the Andean republics, and in different ways, to much recent experience of urban mobilization in Latin America and beyond. After a brief account of urban citizen move¬ments and politics in our two cases, we outline general reflections on the nature of empowerment and disempowerment, on the peculiar combination of strengths and weaknesses that mark many contemporary movements. A close examination of types of movements and their links with poli¬tical parties and protest follows. The character of city life is important here. We close with analysis of recent waves of urban mobilization in Perú (that sparked the ouster of president Alberto Fujimori and in Venezuela (both for and against president Hugo Chávez Frías, and with reflections on the likely future of empowerment and disempowerment for urban citizens and the implications of this perspective for democratic representation

  3. La evolución político-institucional de Venezuela 1975-2005

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Ayala Corao; Jesús M. Casal

    2008-01-01

    Del mismo modo que ha ocurrido en otros países de América Latina, Venezuela ha experimentado un convulsionado proceso de reforma institucional y constitucional en las últimas décadas. En este trabajo se analizan los aspectos relacionados con el sistema de gobierno, el poder judicial, los derechos fundamentales y los partidos políticos en Venezuela. Este trabajo intenta extraer algunas enseñanzas y también algunos desafios que presenta esta evolución política de Venezuela, sobre todo, examinan...

  4. LESIONES CUTANEAS PARASITARIAS EN EL ASNO EQUUS ASINUS DE CHORONI, ESTADO ARAGUA, VENEZUELA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales, Abelardo; Garcia, Francisco; Rossini, Mario;

    2010-01-01

    Three donkeys (Equus asinus Linnaeus, 1758), two males and a female sex, between 5-8 years of old, in athletic shape, in Choroni, Aragua, Venezuela were examined. Clinical examination evidenced hirsute hair and moderate body condition. Nodular dermatitis like skin lesions showed crusted erythemat......Three donkeys (Equus asinus Linnaeus, 1758), two males and a female sex, between 5-8 years of old, in athletic shape, in Choroni, Aragua, Venezuela were examined. Clinical examination evidenced hirsute hair and moderate body condition. Nodular dermatitis like skin lesions showed crusted....... reported in donkeys of Choroni, Aragua, Venezuela....

  5. Composición proximal, ácidos grasos y características fisicoquímicas de aceite de harina artesanal de caribe (Serrasalmus rhombeus Pisces: Characidae proveniente de Caicara del Orinoco-Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Granados, Ángel

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Caribe (Serrasalmus rhoembeus is a Characidae fish that lives in the basins of the Orinoco and Amazon rivers. It is an  underutilized specie although in the last years has been marketed in the form of of a meal which is obtained through a handmade process but without information about its chemical composition. This research was conducted to evaluate the proximate composition of commercial caribe meal, the fatty acids profile and some physicochemical properties of its lipidic extract. Three aleatory samples of meal were selected in Caicara del Orinoco shops, Bolívar stateVenezuela. Moisture (6.00 ± 0.45 %, crude protein (N x 6.25: 52.78 ± 2.36 %, crude fat (22.47 ± 1.08 % and total ash (24.58 ± 3.12 % were determined in each sample. The fat was extracted with nhexane and it was analyzed for free fatty acids (5.66 ± 0.15 % as oleic acid, peroxide value (23.50 ± 1.02 meq O2/kg, iodine value (152.2 ± 0.5, saponification value (186.5 ± 0.3 mg KOH/g and unsaponifiable matter (2.3 ± 0.4 g/kg. The fatty acids profile showed an unsaturated acids/ saturated acids ratio of 5.62 with 59.9 % of monounsaturated fatty acids and 25.0 % of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Caribe meal is an important source of nutrients and a potential raw material for human food.El caribe (Serrasalmus rhombeus es un pez de la familia Characidae de la cuenca de los ríos Orinoco y Amazonas, de poco valor comercial debido a su estructura espinosa y a creencias relacionadas con su hábito alimentario, pero que en años recientes los pobladores de las zonas donde existe naturalmente le han dado utilidad mediante la obtención artesanal de una harina que es expendida para consumo humano; sin embargo, no se dispone de información referente a su composición química. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar la composición química proximal del producto comercializado como harina de caribe y algunas características fisicoquímicas del extracto lipídico de la misma

  6. Measles outbreak in Venezuela: a new challenge to postelimination surveillance and control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, Héctor; Cobo, Oswaldo Barrezueta; Morice, Ana; Zapata, Roger; Benitez, María Victoria; Castillo-Solórzano, Carlos

    2011-09-01

    The circulation of wild measles virus was interrupted in Venezuela in February 2007 after the catch-up vaccination (1994) and monitoring (1998) and in response to the measles outbreak in 2001. Traditionally, the routine coverage with measles-mumps-rubella vaccine does not exceed 85%. In February 2006, a measles outbreak started by importation in the State Miranda; this extended to 7 states and lasted 50 weeks with an intermediate period of 17 weeks without reported cases. New cases were reported in the States Guarico and Amazon. The pattern of circulation of the silent period was determined through the use of retrospective search for measles; this showed that 57% of suspected cases did not enter the surveillance system. Molecular epidemiology made it possible to identify B3 as only genotype, which also circulated in Spain. The epidemiological and clinical characteristics of measles have been modified; these determine outbreaks identified late, of slow expansion, silent, and with limited case-fatality, compared with classical outbreaks. The outbreak spread by that behavior was not recognized and the classical control measures did not result. The beginning of a broader and intense vaccination was delayed, partly by weaknesses in the sensitivity of the system. It is crucial to recognize the new behavior of measles and the effectiveness of the classical control measures, and especially to establish criteria for interruption of the circulation to control an outbreak in this stage of elimination.

  7. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in western Venezuela caused by infection with Leishmania venezuelensis and L. braziliensis variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfante-Garrido, R; Meléndez, E; Barroeta, S; de Alejos, M A; Momen, H; Cupolillo, E; McMahon-Pratt, D; Grimaldi, G

    1992-01-01

    Between 1975 and 1987, epidemiological studies were carried out in several rural and urban communities in the central part of western Venezuela, especially in the state of Lara. 115 positive cultures were obtained from human cases and identified by their reactivity patterns to a cross-panel of specific monoclonal antibodies using a radioimmune binding assay; 53 were Leishmania venezuelensis and 62 were L. braziliensis. Most of these stocks were also characterized by isoenzyme electrophoresis, which confirmed the identification of the L. venezuelensis isolates. The enzyme electrophoretic profiles of the L. braziliensis isolates, however, revealed two populations with distinct electromorphs, one related to the World Health Organization L. braziliensis reference strain while the other population appeared to be a hybrid between L. braziliensis and L. guyanensis. L. braziliensis variants showed the widest geographical distribution, and were found in 7 states: Districto Federal (Caracas); Lara (Barquisimeto, Crespo, Iribarren, Jimenez, Morán, Palavecino, Torres, Urdaneta); Nueva Esparta (Margarita); Portuguesa (Las Cruces, Rio Amarillo); Trujillo (Cuicas); Yaracuy (Agua Fria, Cambural, Guaremal); and Zulia (Zipa-Yare). L. venezuelensis was found in the following endemic regions: Lara (Barquisimeto, Iribarren, Jimenez, Morán); Merida (Zéa); and Yaracuy (Campos Elias), showing that this parasite has a much wider geographical distribution than was initially recognized and that both these species can occur simultaneously within the same endemic region. Five isolates of L. braziliensis were made from infected donkeys (Equus asinus) in Urdaneta, Lara State, suggesting a possible domestic reservoir of L. braziliensis.

  8. [Community structure of bivalves and gastropods in roots of red mangrove Rhizophora mangle (Rhizophoraceae) in isla Larga, Mochima Bay, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta Balbas, Vanessa; Betancourt Tineo, Rafael; Prieto Arcas, Antulio

    2014-06-01

    The Rhizophora mangle roots form a complex ecosystem where a wide range of organisms are permanently established, reproduce, and find refuge. In this study, we assessed the diversity of bivalves and gastropods that inhabit red mangrove roots, in isla Larga, Mochima, Venezuela Sucre state. Bimonthly collections were made from January 2007 to May 2008, in four study areas denominated: South, North, East and West. In each area, five mangrove roots were sampled, and the specimens were obtained. We analyzed a total of 180 roots and a total of 35 bivalve species and 25 gastropod species were found. The most abundant bivalves were: Isognomon alatus, Isognomon bicolor, Ostrea equestris, Crassostrea rhizophorae and Brachidontes exustus; among gastropods, the most common where: Littorina angulifera, (Cymatium pileare and Diodora cayenensis. The months with the highest abundances and number of individuals for both groups were January and July 2007, and March 2008. The mangrove ecosystem in isla Larga, presented a number of individuals and species higher than those reported for other regions in Venezuela and the Caribbean.

  9. Neogene vegetation development in the Amazon Basin: evidence from marine well-2, Foz do Amazonas (Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogota-Angel, Raul; Chemale Junior, Farid; Davila, Roberto; Soares, Emilson; Pinto, Ricardo; Do Carmo, Dermeval; Hoorn, Carina

    2014-05-01

    Origen and development of the highly diverse Amazon tropical forest has mostly been inferred from continental sites. However, sediment records in the marine Foz do Amazonas Basin can provide important information to better understand the influence of the Andes uplift and climate change on its plant biomes evolution since the Neogene. Sediment analyses of samples from BP-Petrobras well 1 and 2, drilled in the Amazon Fan, allowed to infer the onset of the transcontinental Amazon river and the fan phase during the middle to late Miocene (c. 10.5 Ma). As part of the CLIMAMAZON research programme we performed pollen analysis on the 10.5 to 0.4 Ma time interval. 76 ditch cutting samples of the upper 4165 m sediments of well 2 permitted us to infer changes in floral composition in the Amazon Basin. The palynological spectra across this interval (nannofossil based age model) include pollen, fern spores, dinocysts and foram lignings. When possible pollen and fern spores were grouped in four vegetation types: estuarine, tropical, mountain forest and high mountain open treeless vegetation. Pollen is generally corroded and reflects the effects of sediment transportation while reworked material is also common. Good pollen producers such as Poaceae, Asteraceae and Cyperaceae are common and reflect indistinctive vegetation types particularly those associated to riverine systems. Rhizophora/Zonocostites spp. indicate "close-distance" mangrove development. Tropical forest biomes are represented by pollen that resemble Moraceae-Urticaceae, Melastomataceae-Combretaceae, Sapotaceae, Alchornea, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae, Bignoniaceae, Mauritia and Arecaceae. Myrica, and particularly sporadic occurrences of fossil fern spores like Lophosoria, and Cyathea suggest the development of a moist Andean forest in areas above 1000 m. First indicators of high altitudes appear in the last part of late Miocene with taxa associated to current Valeriana and particularly Polylepis, a neotropical taxon

  10. Valores preliminares de referencia para hematología y química sérica del loro frente roja (Amazona autumnalis) en cautiverio (Preliminary Reference Values for Hematology and Serum Chemistry for Captive Red-Lored Amazon (Amazona autumnalis))

    OpenAIRE

    Mérida Ruíz, Samuel Alberto; Guerra Centeno, Dennis Sigfried

    2011-01-01

    ResumenSe tomaron muestras de sangre de 25 loros frente roja (Amazona autumnalis)en cautiverio, de ambos sexos, para determinar valores de referencia para hematología y química sérica. Para hematología se determinaron: recuento de glóbulos rojos, hematocrito, hemoglobina, volumen corpuscular medio, hemoglobina corpuscular media, concentración de hemoglobina corpuscular media, conteos diferenciales y absolutos de leucocitos y recuento de plaquetas.Summary25 captive red-lored amazons (Amazona ...

  11. Decentralization process in Venezuela, under perspective of mayors elected for the term 2000-2004 El proceso de descentralización de Venezuela, desde la perspectiva de los alcaldes electos para el período 2000-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaira Josefina REVERÓN ESCOBAR

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the process of decentralization in Venezuela, under mayors’ perspective, elected for the period 2000-2004. Our main goal is to identify the vision they have over such an important process that theoretically strengthens, supports, and enhances the democratic system. We contrast decentralization theory (which states that if there is not democracy at levels of government closer to the citizens-municipal government-democracy is not sustained over real bases with what Venezuelan mayors exposed about the facts observed in the nation in this sense. Our hypothesis is that the concepts and visions that the mayors expressed must coincide with the theory sustaining decentralization in general and particularly decentralization in Venezuela, which must coincide with their praxis in their municipalities. We concluded that the positive perspectives and visions as the negatives or pessimistic ones stated by the interviewed mayors coincided with theory supporting decentralization in different countries and with the evaluations of decentralization that have been conducted in different nations. Venezuelan decentralization process is not different from those that have been discovered in other countries in this sense. It seems to be that the decentralization policy in Venezuela enjoys the same virtues and suffers the same problems that decentralization policies in other countries. El presente trabajo aborda el proceso de descentralización en Venezuela visto desde la perspectiva de los alcaldes electos para el período 2000-2004. El interés es identificar la visión que tienen éstos sobre tan importante proceso que, teóricamente, sustenta, soporta y fortalece el sistema democrático. Se contrastan los fundamentos teóricos esgrimidos sobre las bondades de las políticas descentralizadoras que parten del supuesto teórico de que si no hay democracia en los niveles del gobierno que están más cerca del ciudadano (el gobierno municipal la

  12. Consideraciones sobre la produccion de frutas en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Aular

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available En la presente revisión se presenta información sobre superficie, producción, y rendimiento de los frutales en Venezuela. Además se hacen consideraciones sobre los sistemas de producción, destacando limitaciones, avances y sugerencias. La fruticultura en Venezuela ocupa el 3er. lugar dentro del sector agrícola vegetal. Existen 167.691 Ha de frutales y una producción 2.232.088 TM por año. Se producen comercialmente una docena de rubros frutícolas, siendo los principales: plátano, banano, naranjo y piña. Las áreas de producción van desde zonas bajas y áridas, en donde se obtienen uvas y piñas; hasta zonas altas y húmedas donde se hallan duraznos y fresas. Ha habido reducción de la superficie plantada, con excepción de lechosa, piña y aguacate. El manejo hortícola de los huertos frutícolas es heterogéneo, ya que se observa desde bajo hasta alto nivel de tecnología. La incorrecta aplicación de las prácticas hortícolas origina baja productividad y calidad de fruta. La poscosecha podría mejorarse a través del desarrollo e implementación de normas de clasificación, empaque, embalaje, y cadena de frío. La exportación de frutas venezolanas se ha reducido en los últimos años y se concentra en mango, naranja y lima Tahití. Los principales destinos son Colombia, Europa, Norteamérica y las islas del Caribe. Sólo la naranja se procesa de manera importante en Venezuela. Las perspectivas para la fruticultura venezolana es continuar como una actividad dirigida al mercado interno, no se vislumbra una mayor participación del país en el mercado internacional.

  13. The Crustal Structure and Seismicity of Eastern Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, M.; Martins, A.; Sobiesiak, M.; Alvarado, L.; Vasquez, R.

    2001-12-01

    Eastern Venezuela is characterized by a moderate to high seismicity, evidenced recently by the 1997 Cariaco earthquake located on the El Pilar Fault, a right lateral strike slip fault which marks the plate boundary between the Caribbean and South-American plates in this region. Recently, the seismic activity seems to migrate towards the zone of subduction of the Lesser Antilles in the northeast, where a mb 6.0 earthquake occurred in October 2000 at 120 km of depth. Periodical changes in the seismic activity are related to the interaction of the stress fields of the strike-slip and the subduction regimes. The seismic activity decreases rapidly towards to the south with some disperse events on the northern edge of the Guayana Shield, related to the Guri fault system. The crustal models used in the region are derived from the information generated by the national seismological network since 1982 and by microseismicity studies in northeastern Venezuela, coinciding in a crustal thickness of about 35 km in depth. Results of seismic refraction measurements for the region were obtained during field campains in 1998 (ECOGUAY) for the Guayana Shield and the Cariaco sedimentary basin and in 2001 (ECCO) for the Oriental Basin. The total crustal thickness decreases from about 45 km on the northern edge of the Guayana Shield to some 36 km close to El Tigre in the center of the Oriental Basin. The average crustal velocity decreases in the same sense from 6.5 to 5.8 km/s. In the Cariaco sedimentary basin a young sedimentary cover of 1 km thickness with a seismic velocity of 2 km/s was derived. Towards the northern limit of the South-American plate, no deep seismic refraction data are available up to now. The improvement of the crustal models used in that region would constitute a step forward in the analysis of the seismic hazard. Seismic refraction studies funded by CONICIT S1-97002996 and S1-2000000685 projects and PDVSA (additional drilling and blasting), recording equipment

  14. Valgevenest Iraanini : Venezuela liider koob USA-vastas ühisrinnet / Krister Paris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paris, Krister

    2006-01-01

    Venezuela president Hugo Chavez külastab mitmeid Ameerika Ühendriikidele probleemseid riike. Kohtumine Valgevene presidendi Aleksandr Lukashenkoga, eelseisvast visiidist Venemaale. Lisa: Chavez tahab julgeolekunõukogusse

  15. Venezuela tõusis presidendi sotsialismikursi vastu üles / Krister Paris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paris, Krister

    2007-01-01

    Venezuelas toimunud rahvahääletusel lükati tagasi president Hugo Chavezi ettepanekud, mis puudutasid põhiseaduse muutmist. President peab seda vaid ajutiseks tagasilöögiks. Lisa: Tudengid ja meedia riigipea vastu

  16. Three new rarely collected or endangered species of Annonaceae from Venezuela

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatrou, L.W.; Pirie, M.D.

    2005-01-01

    Three new species of Annonaceae from Venezuela are described here: Cremastosperma venezuelanum Pirie, Klarobelia subglobosa Chatrou, and Pseudomalmea wingfieldii Chatrou. All three are represented by few collections (in comparison to those of other Neotropical species of Annonaceae). Klarobelia subg

  17. Checklist and distribution maps of the blow flies of Venezuela (Diptera, Calliphoridae, Mesembrinellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velásquez, Yelitza; Martínez-Sánchez, Ana Isabel; Thomas, Arianna; Rojo, Santos

    2017-01-01

    A checklist of the 39 species of blow flies (Calliphoridae and Mesembrinellidae) so far known to occur in Venezuela is provided, based on a thorough literature review and the examination of ca. 500 specimens deposited in the main entomological collections of the country. Data from the literature and museum collections were used to generate distribution maps for 37 species. Three species are recorded from Venezuela for the first time: Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, 1830), Mesembrinella spicata Aldrich, 1925 and Mesembrinella umbrosa Aldrich, 1922.

  18. Venezuela's Petroleum Diplomacy and China & Venezuela Cooperation in Petroleum Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The considerable potential of oil and gasproduction in VenezuelaVenezuela is located in the north end of the South American continent. The oil reserve of Venezuelan announced by OPEC is 296.5 billion barrels (about 40.62 billion tons). Most of the oil reserve locates in Orinoco River area where heavy oil and ultra heavy oil can be explored, are highly viscosity and highly sulfur.

  19. Amphinomidae y Euphrosinidae (Annelida: Polychaeta de la costa nororiental de Venezuela Amphinomidae and Euphrosinidae (Annelida: Polychaeta from northeastern coast of Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildefonso Liñero-Arana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se identificaron ejemplares pertenecientes a ocho especies de Amphinomidae y una de Euphosinidae recolectados en diferentes lugares de la costa oriental de Venezuela: Amphinome rostrata, Chloeia viridis, Chloenopsis atlantica, Eurythoë complanata, Hermodice carunculata, Linopherus cana-riensis, L. paucibranchiata, Notopygos crinita (Amphinomidae y Euphrosine triloba (Euphrosinidae. Excepto para Eurythoë, Hermodice y Notopygos, los demás géneros y/o especies constituyen nuevos registros para la costa de Venezuela.Specimens belonging to eight species of Amphinomidae and one of Euphosinidae collected in different localities of the East coast of Venezuela were identified: Amphinome rostrata, Chloeia viridis, Chloenopsis atlantica, Eurythoë complanata, Hermodice carunculata, Linopherus canariensis, L. pauci-branchiata, Notopygos crinita (Amphinomidae and Euphrosine triloba (Euphrosinidae. Except for Eurythoë, Hermodice and Notopygos, the remain genera or species constitute new records from Venezuelan coast.

  20. Prevalencias de las geohelmintiasis intestinales en 100 municipios de Venezuela (1989-1992 Intestinal nematode prevalences in 100 municipalities from Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo A. Morales C.

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available El examen coproparasitológico (técnica de Kato-Katz de un total de 113.254 personas, pertenecientes a 100 municipios de Venezuela, permitió establecer las siguientes prevalencias a nivel nacional: Ascaris lumbricoides: 26,9%, Trichuris trichiura: 32,6% y Anquilostomideos: 5,6%. Además se determinaron los valores de la prevalencia para los mencionados geohelmintos en los 100 municipios considerados observándose una gran variabilidad. Para T. trichiura los valores máximos se obtuvieron en los municipios Arévalo González (54,6%, en el Estado Miranda, Urama (76,9% en el Estado Carabobo y Punta de Piedra (78,4% en el Estado Sucre. Para A. lumbricoides, en los municipios Punta de Piedra (63% y Tunapuy (61,9%, en el Estado Sucre y Arévalo González (62,7% en el Estado Miranda. Mientras que para los Anquilostomideos las prevalencias máximas se detectaron en los municipios El Amparo (39,5% y San Camilo (35,9% en el Estado Apure. En cuanto a la edad las prevalencias más altas se determinaron en niños de edad pre-escolar y escolar, para A. lumbricoides y T. trichiura y en adolescentes y adultos para anquilostomideos.A total of 113254 individuals from 100 venezuelan municipalities were studied by mean of Kato-Katz coprological examination and the geohelminth prevalences were established. The national prevalences of T. trichiura, A. lumbricoides and Anquilostomideos were 32.6%, 26.9% and 5.6% respectivelly. For T. trichiura the highest values were obtained for the following municipalities: Arévalo González (54.6% in Miranda state, Urama (76.9% in Carabobo state and Punta de Piedra (78.4% in Sucre state. For A. lumbricoides the highest values were determined in Punta de Piedra (63%, Tunapuy (61.9% in Sucre state and Arévalo González (62,7% in Miranda state. For hookworm the highest values were detected in El Amparo (39.5% and San Camilo (35.9% in the state of Apure. In relation to the age, the highest prevalence of Ascariosis and Trichuriosis

  1. ATLAS Virtual Visit-Venezuela-Colombia-05-06-2014

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    The Virtual Center of High Energy Studies (Centro Virtual de Altos Estudios en Altas Energias CeVALE2) is a Colombian-Venezuelan initiative to promote the research on particle physics in the region. It groups four Colombian universities and four Venezuelan institutions. The two main objectives of CeVALE2 are the development and transfer of collaborative and organizational platforms in the area and the creation of opportunities for the dissemination of particle physics such as courses and seminars. A cycle of conferences has been organized during June 2014 for teachers and students from the member institutions. The ATLAS Virtual Visit will be a key part of this experience - See more at: http://atlas-live-virtual-visit.web.cern.ch/atlas-live-virtual-visit/2014/Venezuela-Colombia-2014.html#sthash.tZw8PxLn.dpuf

  2. SOCIEDADES DE GARANTÍAS RECIPROCAS REGIONALES EN VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando J. Canelones

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available La investigación se propone describir el funcionamiento, los servicios que ofrecen las Sociedades de Garantías Reciprocas Regionales (SGRs en Venezuela y presentar de forma sintetizada, las nociones elementales para su constitución, así como también las bases legales por las cuales se deben regir, agregando un resumen ejecutivo de la Ley del Sistema Nacional de Garantías Reciprocas y las Normas de Promoción, Constitución y Funcionamiento de los Fondos Nacionales de Garantías Recíprocas y SGRs.  La metodología aplicada es documental, de revisión y exploración bibliográfica, que permitió inferir que las SGRs Regionales representan una alternativa de financiamiento a las Pequeñas y Medianas Empresas (Pymes

  3. Legalidad o ilegalidad de la desobediencia civil tributaria en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariadela Bello Atencio

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación estudió la legalidad o ilegalidad de la Desobediencia Civil Tributaria en Venezuela en lo que al término hermenéutico se refiere. El artículo 350 de la carta magna consagra el derecho del pueblo a desacatar cualquier régimen, autoridad o legislación cuando contraríe los principios y garantías constitucionales o menoscabe los derechos humanos. El objetivo fundamental es analizar la legalidad o ilegalidad de la misma. Se trata de una investigación jurídica documental de tipo descriptivo, con un diseño bibliográfico. El método utilizado fue el sociológico auxiliado por la hermenéutica jurídica, concluyéndose que la desobediencia civil tributaria es legal conforme al referido artículo 350.

  4. Low occurrence of Helicobacter DNA in tropical wild birds, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Amado, María Alexandra; Sanz, Virginia; Martinez, Leoncia Margarita; Contreras, Mónica; Lentino, Miguel; Michelangeli, Fabian

    2013-10-01

    Enteric Helicobacter species (Helicobacter pullorum, Helicobacter pametensis, Helicobacter canadensis, Helicobacter anseris, and Helicobacter brantae) have been found in birds from temperate latitudes. We evaluated the occurrence of Helicobacter spp. in terrestrial wild birds from Venezuela. A fragment of 16S rRNA gene was amplified by PCR with Helicobacter genus-specific primers. Helicobacter spp. were detected in four of 80 fecal and in three of 42 intestinal tissue samples. Analyses of 16S and 23S rRNA gene sequences confirm for the first time the presence of Helicobacter in tropical terrestrial wild birds. However, the occurrence of Helicobacter was low, suggesting these bacteria may be uncommon in the populations we studied.

  5. Embodying racism: race, rhinoplasty, and self-esteem in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbas, Lauren E

    2013-03-01

    In this article, I examine how race motivates women's decisions to undergo aesthetic rhinoplasty in Caracas, Venezuela. Through a combination of cultural domain analysis and thematic analysis of qualitative interviews, I explore how the preference for whiteness and associated facial features dovetail with the aesthetic ideals promoted by cosmetic surgeons. Rhinoplasty is offered by physicians and interpreted by patients as a resolution to body dissatisfaction and low self-esteem. The clinical ethos of objectivity established by cosmetic surgeons fails to acknowledge how perceptions of the self and body are strongly tied to racial marginalization: patients' efforts to alter the nose reveal attempts to change not only how the body looks, but how it is lived. As a result, cosmetic surgery only acts as a stop-gap measure to heighten one's self-esteem and body image.

  6. Ootaxonomic investigation of five Lutzomyia species (Diptera, Psychodidae from Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AM Fausto

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available The eggshell fine structure of five sand fly species from Venezuela belonging to the genus Lutzomyia (L. migonei, L. ovallesi, L. absonodonta, L. gomezi and L. panamensis was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The chorionic sculpturing of L. migonei, L. ovallesi, L. absonodonta and L. gomezi was characterized by series of columns arranged in palisade to form sinuous ridges. In inter-ridge areas, the basal layer was covered with fibrous material. The outer chorion of L. panamensis had a pattern known as "mountain- or volcano-like". The morphology of the posterior pole and aeropyle had a common structure in the five species, with some species-specific characters. The eggshell features of the five species are compared with those of other phlebotomine sand flies.

  7. La emigración gallega a Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Campos Álvarez, José Ramón

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es realizar un estudio de la emigración gallega a Venezuela entre los años 1945 y 1985 a través de la utilización de fuentes orales, complementadas con material bibliográfico, hemerográfico y de archivo. Así, veremos cómo a finales de los años cuarenta esta república sudamericana se convirtió en receptora de inmigración masiva debido a la profunda transformación económica que está experimentando, impulsada por el auge petrolífero y por la política inmigratoria de p...

  8. Potential for Great Thrust Earthquakes in NE Colombia & NW Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilham, R. G.; Mencin, D.

    2013-05-01

    Sixty-five percent of the ≈19 mm/yr eastward velocity of the Caribbean Plate north of Aruba and the Guajira peninsula relative to the South American plate is accommodated by dextral slip on the Bocono Fault system in NW Venezuela at 12±1 mm/yr, the remaining ~3 mm/yr of shear apparently distributed to the NW of the fault (Perez et al., 2011). The N40E strike of the Bocono fault system, however, requires that 10.6±1 mm/yr of convergence should accompany this partitioned dextral shear, but GPS measurements reveal that less than 25% of this convergence occurs across the Venezuelan Andes. The remaining 6-8 mm of convergence is presumably accommodated by incipient subduction between the Bocono fault and a trench 300 km NW of the northern coast of Colombia. Hence NW Venezuela and NE Colombia may occasionally host great earthquakes. Our current poor understanding of the geometry of the plate interface permits the plate to be locked 300 km down-dip and possibly 600 km along-strike, and if the plate slips in 10 m ruptures it could do so every 1200 years in a M~9 earthquake. No great earthquake has occurred since 1492, since when ~4 m of potential slip has developed, but should slip occur on just 10% of the hypothesized décollement (100x150 km) it could do so now in an Mw=8.2 earthquake. In that a potential Mw>8 earthquake poses a future seismic and tsunami threat to the Caribbean it is important to examine whether great earthquakes have occurred previously near the NW Venezuela coast. It is possible that creep accommodates the entire convergence signal, since there is no suggestion from microseismicity for an abrupt locked-to-sliding transition, as, for example, signifies its location in the Himalaya. An alternative measure of future potential seismic energy release is to identify the locus and rate of present-day strain contraction. To this end, Venezuelan, Colombian and US (CU and UNAVCO) investigators are installing an array of more than a dozen continuous operating

  9. La universidad virtual en Venezuela. Un caso de estudio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cira Fernández de Pelekais

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene como propósito presentar una visión general de la educación virtual en Venezuela con el fin de validar un nuevo enfoque educativo. Se presenta un estudio de caso, donde se evidencia la necesidad de planificar la aplicación de las nuevas tecnologías en las diferentes áreas de la educación a fin de tomar decisiones adecuadas que garanticen las relaciones costo-beneficio y la optimización del uso masivo de las mismas; así como prever el mantenimiento de esos recursos para garantizar su productividad y eficiencia.

  10. La credibilidad del sistema de banda cambiaria de Venezuela.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria I. Campos

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo estudia la credibilidad del régimen cambiario de bandas de fluctuación crecientes a tasa constante de Venezuela durante el periodo julio de 1996-febrero de 2002. Mostramos que los análisis de credibilidad aplicados a zonas objetivo, introduciendo algunas modificaciones, también pueden utilizarse para estudiar la credibilidad de sistemas cambiarios de bandas de fluctuación crecientes a tasa constante. En este trabajo aplicamos tanto el denominado test de credibilidad de Svensson como el método de ajuste de la deriva. Con ambos métodos obtenemos resultados similares en cuanto al alto grado de credibilidad del sistema durante el periodo analizado.

  11. Los movimientos estudiantiles en Venezuela, 1958-1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto López Sánchez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo está centrado en los aportes del movimiento estudiantil al proceso político venezolano, en dos momentos clave: la renovación universitaria de 1969, y las protestas estudiantiles de 1987. Hemos identificado las particularidades de los diferentes grupos estudiantiles, y a sus principales dirigentes; sus mecanismos de intervención y de conflicto, su relación con los programas de partidos y movimientos políticos, y su incidencia en la situación política local y nacional. Recurriendo a fuentes biblio-hemerográficas, documentales y orales, el estudio consideró los aportes teórico-metodológicos de investigaciones relacionadas con los movimientos sociales en general y con el movimiento estudiantil en particular. Se concluye estableciendo que los movimientos estudiantiles fueron durante los primeros treinta años de la democracia puntofijista los principales protagonistas del conflicto social en Venezuela.____________________ABSTRACT:The present work describes the contributions of the student movement to the Venezuelan political process, in two focal moments: the university’s renovation of 1969, and the students’ protests of 1987. We have identified the peculiarities of the different students’ groups and their main leaders; their political mechanisms of intervention and conflict, their relation with programs of parties and movements, and their incidence in the local and national political situation. Referring to biblio-hemerographic, documentary and oral sources, the study has considered the theoretical-methodological contributions of researches related both to social movements in general and to student movements in particular. It is established that, during the first thirty years of the puntofijista democracy, student movements were the main protagonists of the social conflict in Venezuela.  

  12. Dimensiones de Personalidad de Marca. Estudio exploratorio en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Pirela Saavedra

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo tiene como objetivo explorar el modelo de Personalidad de Marca en Venezuela, a través del estudio propuesto por Aaker (1997 de los rasgos de personalidad, utilizando los centros comerciales como producto de referencia. La investigación de tipo exploratorio adoptó un muestreo no probabilístico por conveniencia. La muestra resultó de ciento sesenta y ocho personas (168 entre encuestas auto suministradas y vía correo electrónico. En el procesamiento de los datos se aplicó un análisis de Confiabilidad vía Alfa de Cronbach encontrándose que las dimensiones de personalidad de marca para Venezuela son: Emocionante (0.91, Sinceridad (0.83, Pasional (0.88 Pasividad (0.76 y Rudeza (0.68. Estos resultados revelaron importantes diferencias con un estudio previo realizado en el país. La causa puede deberse a la falta de un procedimiento muestral más representativo de ambos estudios, ya que hasta la fecha no se ha realizado un estudio de escala nacional para medir Personalidad de Marca. A pesar de ello, se consiguieron evidencias que los rasgos de personalidad alrededor de la dimensión “Emocionante” pudiesen ser explicativos de la personalidad del venezolano promedio, ya que además de su consistencia interna, presentan coincidencias con otros estudios empíricos de segmentación realizados en el país.

  13. AMINOGLYCOSIDE RESISTANCE GENES IN Pseudomonas aeruginosa ISOLATES FROM CUMANA, VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertinellys TEIXEIRA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The enzymatic modification of aminoglycosides by aminoglycoside-acetyltransferases (AAC, aminoglycoside-adenyltransferases (AAD, and aminoglycoside-phosphotransferases (APH, is the most common resistance mechanism in P. aeruginosa and these enzymes can be coded on mobile genetic elements that contribute to their dispersion. One hundred and thirty seven P. aeruginosa isolates from the University Hospital, Cumana, Venezuela (HUAPA were evaluated. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the disk diffusion method and theaac, aadB and aph genes were detected by PCR. Most of the P. aeruginosa isolates (33/137 were identified from the Intensive Care Unit (ICU, mainly from discharges (96/137. The frequency of resistant P. aeruginosaisolates was found to be higher for the aminoglycosides tobramycin and amikacin (30.7 and 29.9%, respectively. Phenotype VI, resistant to these antibiotics, was the most frequent (14/49, followed by phenotype I, resistant to all the aminoglycosides tested (12/49. The aac(6´-Ib,aphA1 and aadB genes were the most frequently detected, and the simultaneous presence of several resistance genes in the same isolate was demonstrated. Aminoglycoside resistance in isolates ofP. aeruginosa at the HUAPA is partly due to the presence of the aac(6´-Ib, aphA1 andaadB genes, but the high rates of antimicrobial resistance suggest the existence of several mechanisms acting together. This is the first report of aminoglycoside resistance genes in Venezuela and one of the few in Latin America.

  14. Characterization of atherosclerosis by histochemical and immunohistochemical methods in African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus) and Amazon parrots (Amazona spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Cornelia; Schmidt, Volker; Cramer, Kerstin; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth; Dorrestein, Gerry M

    2009-09-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize atherosclerotic changes in African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus) and Amazon parrots (Amazona spp.) by histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. Samples of the aorta ascendens and trunci brachiocephalici from 62 African grey parrots and 35 Amazon parrots were stained by hematoxylin and eosin and Elastica van Gieson for grading of atherosclerosis in these birds. Four different stages were differentiated. The incidence of atherosclerosis in the examined parrots was 91.9% in African grey parrots and 91.4% in Amazon parrots. To evaluate the pathogenesis in birds, immunohistochemical methods were performed to demonstrate lymphocytes, macrophages, smooth muscle cells, and chondroitin sulfate. According to the missing lymphocytes and macrophages and the absence of invasion and proliferation of smooth muscle cells in each atherosclerotic stage, "response-to-injury hypothesis" seems inapplicable in parrots. Additionally, we found alterations of vitally important organs (heart, lungs) significantly correlated with atherosclerosis of the aorta ascendens.

  15. Reprodução do papagaio charão, Amazona pretrei (Aves: Psittacidae em cativeiro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionisio Link

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 O papagaio charão, Amazona pretrei (Temminck, 1830 pode ser reproduzido em cativeiro. O viveiro deve ser amplo para que o comportamento de acasalamento e reprodução seja o mais semelhante ao ambiente natural. Os casais deve ficar isolados de outros exemplares da mesma espécie e de outras aves. A alimentação deve ser colocada a uma certa altura do solo. O ninho deve ter dimensões que permitam à fêmea boas condições de oviposição e choco e, aos filhotes, proteção durante o período que ficam no ninho. A fase imatura é de aproximadamente dois anos.

  16. Effects of Hurricane Georges on habitat use by captive-reared Hispaniolan Parrots (Amazona ventralis) released in the Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, T.H.; Collazo, J.A.; Vilella, F.J.; Guerrero, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    We radio-tagged and released 49 captive-reared Hispaniolan Parrots (Amazona ventralis) in Parque Nacional del Este (PNE), Dominican Republic, during 1997 and 1998. Our primary objective was to develop a restoration program centered on using aviary-reared birds to further the recovery of the critically endangered Puerto Rican Parrot (A. vittata). Hurricane Georges made landfall over the release area on 22 September 1998 with sustained winds of 224 km/h, providing us with a unique opportunity to quantify responses of parrots to such disturbances. Quantitative data on such responses by any avian species are scarce, particularly for Amazona species, many of which are in peril and occur in hurricane-prone areas throughout the Caribbean. Mean home ranges of 18 parrots monitored both before and after the hurricane increased (P = 0.08) from 864 ha (CI = 689-1039 ha) pre-hurricane to 1690 ha (CI = 1003-2377 ha) post-hurricane. The total area traversed by all parrots increased > 300%, from 4884 ha pre-hurricane to 15,490 ha post-hurricane. Before Hurricane Georges, parrot activity was concentrated in coastal scrub, tall broadleaf forest, and abandoned agriculture (conucos). After the hurricane, parrots concentrated their activities in areas of tall broadleaf forest and abandoned conucos. Topographic relief, primarily in the form of large sinkholes, resulted in "resource refugia" where parrots and other frugivores foraged after the hurricane. Habitat use and movement patterns exhibited by released birds highlight the importance of carefully considering effects of season, topography, and overall size of release areas when planning psittacine restorations in hurricane-prone areas. ?? The Neotropical Ornithological Society.

  17. Funciones de la supervisión escolar en Venezuela. Aproximación a un modelo / Functions of the scholastic supervision in venezuela. Approach to a model

    OpenAIRE

    Mogollón de González, Amada

    2011-01-01

    Esta investigación tiene como propósito presentar la aproximación a un Modelo para las funciones de la supervisión escolar en Venezuela sustentado en los ámbitos, acción supervisora y funciones denominadas: Técnicas, Administrativas, Sociales, de Asistencia y Mediación. El modelo se fundamentó teóricamente en Kaufman, Stufflebeam, Teoría de Sistemas de Bertalanffy, enfoque humanista y jerarquía de las necesidades de Maslow. Es una investigación de campo realizada en Venezuela en los estados: ...

  18. Urban movements and disempowerment in Perú and Venezuela Movimientos urbanos y desempoderamiento en Perú y Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H. LEVINE

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a core puzzle: why is continued citizen mobilization accompanied by growing disempowerment of those same citizens? Why do movements fail, leaders burn out and members disperse, and what are the implications of this organizational failure for demo¬cratic representation? Our consideration of the issues is rooted in a close examination of urban movements, mobilization, empowerment and disempowerment in the recent experience of Venezuela and Perú. The puzzle that concerns us is of course not limited to these two countries: it is common to all the Andean republics, and in different ways, to much recent experience of urban mobilization in Latin America and beyond. After a brief account of urban citizen move¬ments and politics in our two cases, we outline general reflections on the nature of empowerment and disempowerment, on the peculiar combination of strengths and weaknesses that mark many contemporary movements. A close examination of types of movements and their links with poli¬tical parties and protest follows. The character of city life is important here. We close with analysis of recent waves of urban mobilization in Perú (that sparked the ouster of president Alberto Fujimori and in Venezuela (both for and against president Hugo Chávez Frías, and with reflections on the likely future of empowerment and disempowerment for urban citizens and the implications of this perspective for democratic representationEste artículo plantea un puzzle principal: ¿por qué la movilización ciudadana continuada viene acompañada de un crecimiento del desempoderamiento de estos mismos ciudadanos? ¿Por qué los movimientos fracasan, los líderes se desgastan y los miembros se dispersan, y cuáles son las implicaciones del fracaso organizativo para la representación democrática? Nuestra consideración del asunto encuentra sus raíces en un profundo análisis de los movimientos urbanos, de la movilización, del empoderamiento y del

  19. [Nesting habitat characterization for Amazona oratrix (Psittaciformes: Psittacidae) in the Central Pacific, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monterrubio-Rico, Tiberio C; Álvarez-Jara, Margarito; Tellez-Garcia, Loreno; Tena-Morelos, Carlos

    2014-09-01

    The nesting requirements of the Yellow-headed Parrot (Amazona oratrix) are poorly understood, despite their broad historical distribution, high demand for pet trade and current endangered status. Information concerning their nesting requirements is required in order to design specific restoration and conser- vation actions. To assess this, we studied their nesting ecology in the Central Pacific, Michoacan, Mexico during a ten year period. The analyzed variables ranged from local scale nest site characteristics such as nesting tree species, dimensions, geographic positions, diet and nesting forest patches structure, to large scale features such as vegetation use and climatic variables associated to the nesting tree distributions by an ecological niche model using Maxent. We also evaluated the parrot tolerance to land management regimes, and compared the Pacific nest trees with 18 nest trees recorded in an intensively managed private ranch in Tamaulipas, Gulf of Mexico. Parrots nested in tall trees with canopy level cavities in 92 nest-trees recorded from 11 tree species. The 72.8% of nesting occurred in trees of Astronium graveolens, and Enterolobium cyclocarpum which qualified as key- stone trees. The forests where the parrots nested, presented a maximum of 54 tree species, 50% of which were identified as food source; besides, these areas also had a high abundance of trees used as food supply. The lowest number of tree species and trees to forage occurred in an active cattle ranch, whereas the highest species rich- ness was observed in areas with natural recovery. The nesting cavity entrance height from above ground of the Pacific nesting trees resulted higher than those found in the Gulf of Mexico. We hypothesize that the differences may be attributed to Parrot behavioral differences adapting to differential poaching pressure and cavity avail- ability. Nesting trees were found in six vegetation types; however the parrots preferred conserved and riparian semi

  20. Anticuerpos ANTI-HTLV-I/II en una población del Amazonas colombiano

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    Abraham Blank

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available

    En Colombia ya son varias las regiones donde se ha informado la presencia de la infección por los retrovirus linfotrópicos humanos tipos I y II (HTLV-I y HTLV-II. La principal región endémica para HTLV-I es el sur de la costa pacífica. El HTLV-II se ha encontrado en grupos indígenas que viven en diferentes regiones rurales como en la Guajira, la Orinoquía, en la costa pacífica y en una familia en Cali (urbana. Hasta el momento los estudios hechos en el Amazonas colombiano no habían confirmado la presencia de estos retrovirus. Se pretende estudiar la presencia de anticuerpos contra HTLV-I y/o HTLV-II utilizando una prueba comercial de Western blot que confirma y diferencia la infección por cada uno de los dos retrovirus mencionados, en caso de encontrar pruebas reactivas en pruebas de tamización.

    Luego de aceptar la participación en este estudio, se buscó la presencia de anticuerpos contra los retrovirus HTLV-I/II con pruebas de tamización en un total de 401 muestras de suero de personas que atendieron al Hospital de Leticia y a la consulta médica en Puerto Nariño. La muestra correspondió a 238 personas de raza mestiza y 163 de origen amerindio. Se realizaron pruebas de ELISA y/o aglutinación de partículas. Las muestras con pruebas de tamización reactivas, se sometieron a un estudio confirmatorio de la infección mediante el estuche comercial de Western blot Problot 2.4 de GeneLabs. En una mujer amerindia se demostró anticuerpos contra el HTLV-II, enun hombre mestizo contra el HTLV-I y en otro hombre mestizo contra el HTLV-II. No había enfermedad asociada en las personas estudiadas.

    La prevalencia de infección por los HTLV en la muestra estudiada fue 0.75%. Aunque este porcentaje no es muy elevado, debe

  1. Study of an outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Venezuela: the role of domestic animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz Manuel Aguilar

    1984-06-01

    Full Text Available During an outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis in a locality (Las Rosas, Cojedes State, venezuela previously non-endemic, 12.9% of humans, 7% of dogs and 21.4% of donkeys (Equus asinus had lesions with paraites. The agent in the three hosts was identified as Leishmania braziliensis, subspecies braziliensis at least in man and donkey. The probable vector was Lutzomyia panamensis. No infection was found in a small sample of wild mammals examined. The outbreak was apparently linked with the importation of donkeys with ulcers, from endemic areas. The Authors call attention to the fact that not only in the foci of "uta", but also in areas of the other forms of American cutaneous leishmaniasis, dogs are frequently found infected. They emphasize the necessity of searching for the infection in donkeys and of performing hemocultures and xenodiagnosis with sandflies in human, canine and equine cases, to verify their possible role as sources of infection, and not merely as dead ends in the epidemiological chain of the disease.Durante um surto de leishmaniose tegumentar em Las Rosas, localidade previamente não endêmica do Estado Cojedes, Venezuela, 12,9% dos habitantes, 7% dos cães e 21,4% dos asnos (Equus asinus apresentavam lesões com parasitos. O agente etiológico nos tres hospedeiros foi identificado como Leishmania braziliensis, sendo da subespécie braziliensis pelo menos em pessoas e asnos. O transmissor provável foi Lutzomyia panamensis. Não comprovamos a infecção numa pequena amostra de mamíferos silvestres examinados. O surto esteve aparentemente relacionado com a importação de asnos com úlceras de áreas endêmicas. Chamamos a atenção para o fato de que não é apenas nos fócos de "uta", mas também nos de outras formas de leishmaniose tegumentar americana que os cães estão freqüentemente parasitados. Enfatizamos a necessidade de se procurar a infecção em asnos e de se proceder a hemoculturas e a xenodiagnósticos com

  2. Politics, class actors, and health sector reform in Brazil and Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Qamar; Muntaner, Carles

    2013-03-01

    Universal access to healthcare has assumed renewed importance in global health discourse, along with a focus on strengthening health systems. These developments are taking place in the backdrop of concerted efforts to advocate moving away from vertical, disease-based approaches to tackling health problems. While this approach to addressing public health problems is a step in the right direction, there is still insufficient emphasis on understanding the socio-political context of health systems. Reforms to strengthen health systems and achieve universal access to healthcare should be cognizant of the importance of the socio-political context, especially state-society relations. That context determines the nature and trajectory of reforms promoting universality or any pro-equity change. Brazil and Venezuela in recent years have made progress in developing healthcare systems that aim to achieve universal access. These achievements are noteworthy given that, historically, both countries had a long tradition of healthcare systems which were highly privatized and geared towards access to healthcare for a small segment of the population while the majority was excluded. These achievements are also remarkable since they took place in an era of neoliberalism when many states, even those with universally-based healthcare systems, were moving in the opposite direction. We analyze the socio-political context in each of these countries and look specifically at how the changing state-society relations resulted in health being constitutionally recognized as a social right. We describe the challenges that each faced in developing and implementing healthcare systems embracing universality. Our contention is that achieving the principle of universality in healthcare systems is less of a technical matter and more a political project. It involves opposition from the socially conservative elements in the society. Navigation to achieve this goal requires a political strategy that

  3. Comparative study of the chemical composition of essential oils of five Tagetes species collected in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Kaylin; Rojas, Janne; Rojas, Luis; Morales, Antonio

    2012-09-01

    The leaves and inflorescences of five species of Tagetes, family Asteraceae, were collected from different locations in Mérida state, Venezuela, and their essential oils analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Several differences were observed in the composition of these oils, mainly regarding the major components, which for T. caracasana were trans-ocimenone (64.3%) and cis-tagetone (13.7%), and for T. erecta, piperitone (35.9%) and terpinolene (22.2%). High amounts of trans-anethole (87.5%) and estragole (10.7%) were observed in T. filifolia, while T. subulata essential oil contained terpinolene (26.0%), piperitenone (13.1%) and limonene (10.8%). For T. patula, two different oil samples were analyzed, leaves (TPL) and inflorescences (TPI). The TPL oil showed terpinolene (20.9%) and piperitenone (14.0%) as main components, while the TPI sample was composed mainly of beta-caryophyllene (23.7%), terpinolene (15.6%) and cis-beta-ocimene (15.5%).

  4. Epidemiological Characterization of Caseous Lymphadenitis in Goat Herds in the Paraguaná Peninsula, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Delgado Duno

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Caseous lymphadenitis (CL is a chronic infectious disease caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis; it affects small ruminants and generates economic loss due to a reduction in weight, reproductive performance, milk and wool production forfeiture, and depreciation of skins. Given the socio-economic importance of goat production in the Falcón state (Venezuela, this research aimed to epidemiologically characterize the disease in herds in the Paraguaná peninsula. The research is descriptive. Field work lasted six weeks, during which superficial lymph nodes were inspected, and 71 samples of purulent discharge were obtained from animals suspected to suffer from CL, according to their clinical manifestations. Back in the laboratory, specimens were bacteriologically analyzed; C. pseudotuberculosis isolates were compared with the reference strain ATCC 19410. The only risk factor detected for CL (p < 0.05 was the origin of goats by production units; those with the highest prevalence were located in the municipality of Falcón. Injuries in subscapular lymph nodes were the most frequent (p < 0.05 among the diagnosed animals. Penicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and novobiocin-resistant strains were identified. These results are important to raise awareness among producers, given that this activity is of vital importance for the region and in many cases ignorance on the subject was evidenced.

  5. Epidemiologic characterization of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in an endemic region of eastern Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorquera, A; Ledezma, E; De Sousa, L; Garcia, A; Sanchez, J; Zerpa, J; Gonzalez, R; O'Daly, J A

    1998-05-01

    The status of American cutaneous leishmaniasis was investigated from 1985 to 1991 to provide an epidemiologic characterization of the disease in Bergantin, a rural community in the northeastern part of Anzoátegui State, Venezuela. The study revealed the presence of the infection during the period analyzed, with an average incidence of 50.2 cases per 10,000 inhabitants and this number has increased 1.5 times during the last two years. Three villages where clinical cases had been recorded were selected for a comparison of their prevalence data. These villages comprise the human population in the high and low altitude limits of Bergantin. Immunologic assessment of the inhabitants used two different antigen preparations to examine responses to parasites associated with the cutaneous and visceral forms of the disease. The leishmanin skin test (LST) was used in a sample of 276 individuals (46.3% of the inhabitants) and resulted in an overall positivity of 16.7%. The percentage of LST positivity varied with age and sex, yet analysis of this response and the prevalence for each village reflected the specific characteristics of these localities. La Montaña, situated at 800 meters above sea level, had the highest prevalence (800 cases per 10,000 inhabitants) and the most positive LST response (21.2%) in comparison with the two other villages situated at a lower altitude (300 meters above sea level).

  6. Economics vis-à-vis Politics of Venezuela under the Chavez Regime 1998-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Chandra Das

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s world most of the countries are following the market rule to determine their economic determinants with some to follow the mixed role of the government. There are a very few countries or states that are following the socialistic nature of development. One such country is Venezuela which has a long history of socialism and the degree of socialism got magnified under the regime of Hugo Chavez. The last election result in favour of Chavez has put some questions before the economists and politicians regarding its grounds. The present study has been framed in line with examining whether the role of economic factors have done the trick for Chavez to regain the presidential power. The study for the period of 1998-2010 has observed that the country has suffered in major economic factors compared to two Latin heroes Brazil and Argentina, albeit he has won the election. The study further observed that there are certain political grounds that played role for the favourable verdict.

  7. [Venezuelan equine encephalitis. Determination of antibodies in the human population of Municipio Mirand, Estado Zulia, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, S; Núñez-Camargo, J; Rangel, P; Añez, F

    1993-01-01

    With the purpose of determining antibodies prevalence against Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus in the population of Puertos de Altagracia and Sabaneta de Palmas of Miranda county, Zulia State, Venezuela, 199 subjects were studied: 57 from Puertos de Altagracia and 142 from Sabaneta de Palmas. They were classified in older (42.78%) and younger (57.2%) than 15 years. The blood specimens were processed for Hemagglutination Inhibition Test using EEV antigen Goajira strain at pH 6.5. We found that all 57 specimens from Puertos de Altagracia were negative, whereas of 142 specimens from Sabaneta de Palmas 17 were positive (11.97%). Of these, one was from a subject less than 15 years-old (5.85%) and 16 from individuals more than 15 years-old (94.15%). Positive titers were higher than 1:160 in 80% of cases. Being Sabaneta de Palmas one of the most affected areas in the 1962 epidemic in the Miranda county and keeping the affected ones high positivity with elevated titers, we conclude that this population could represent an enzootic zone similar to Paez county where a similar situation, of high positivity and elevated titers, many years after the last epidemic occurred in that area, has been described.

  8. Behavior of equipment. Project of cyclic stimulation with hot water. [Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Socorro, J.B.; Reid, T.B.

    1972-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the project of cyclic hot water injection carried out in the Morichal field, Monagas State, Venezuela, by Phillips Petroleum Co. A total of 66 billion btu of heat was injected in 21 wells for a total increment of 560,000 bbl in petroleum production. This increment in the production of petroleum was due to 2 reasons: (1) the cleanness of the formation around the wells, of the tube's perforations, and of the gravel packing caused by the removal of asphalt deposits, carbonates, etc.; and (2) reduction of the viscosity of petroleum caused by the increase of the temperature. The best results were obtained from wells in which production had decreased from plugging of flow channels in the surrounding formation, wells in good mechanical conditions and wells which were adjacent to undeveloped areas. The experience of this project points out that: (1) during a second cycle of stimulation, a production increment is obtained of approx. 80% as compared to that of the first cycle; (2) at least 2 billion btu of heat has to be injected per cycle; and (3) the wells that have a bad response to a cycle of stimulation should not be stimulated again unless the cause of bad response is eliminated or corrected.

  9. The importance of trenching in paleoseismic studies in Venezuela: brief historical summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murria, J.

    2009-04-01

    Paleoseismic studies have proved to be a powerful tool in seismic hazards assessment by he contributing to asses the seismogenic potential of a given fault by expanding the time window o seismic activity beyond the limits of historical and instrumental seismicity. Trenching has been an essential tool for paleoseismic studies in Venezuela. The first paleoseismic trenching project in Venezuela goes back to 1968 when Compania Shell de Venezuela retained the services of Woodward Clyde and Associates,(WCA), USA to asses the seismic integrity of the earthen dikes of Costa Oriental of Lake Maracaibo Protection System (COLM) in western Venezuela. The study was carried out under the general coordination of this author. An important part of this project included a seismology and seismic geology study under the direction of Geologist L.S. Cluff. This was the first ever study undertaken in Venezuela and included two excavations across the Oca Fault north of the city of Maracaibo. After several years of inactivity, FUNVISIS (The Venezuelan Foundation for Seismological Research) carried out in 1980 a seismic hazard (SHA) for the Uribante Caparo Hydroelectric Project southwest Venezuela. In 1989, MARAVEN, an operating company of PETROLE0S DE VENEUELA S.A. (PDVSA) undertook the project of a products pipeline form Maracaibo to El Vigia, south of Lake Maracaibo. Again, FUNVISIS was contracted to carry out a SHA, which included the digging of 5 trenches, which were supplemented with five more trenches for the COLM project. Trenching activity contined in Venezuela in the framework of SHA project, under the direction of Dr. Audemard. In 2001 Venezuelan trenching experience was exported to the neighboring Colombia as e Dr. Audemard t undertook a palaoseismicity project which included the digging of five trenches. In conclusion, paleoseismicty studies have given us the possibility of extending the scope of both instrumental and historical seismicity by some 10,000 years, trenching has

  10. The Guyana-Venezuela Border Dispute: An Analysis of the Reasons Behind Venezuela’s Continuing Demands for Abrogation of the 1899 Anglo-Venezuelan Arbitral Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    mainly of consumer products, such as television sets, radios, refrigerators, and washing machines - goods not readily available or else very costly in...London. December, 1990. "Hector Jurado Toro en Impacto : Indocumentados Trabajan en la Busqueda de Oro." El Universal (Caracas, Venezuela). November 5

  11. Detección de anticuerpos contra Borrelia burgdorferi e identificación de garrapatas ixodidas en Piura Y Amazonas, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Glenny A

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Detectar anticuerpos IgG/IgM contra Borrelia burgdorferi en población general, procedentes de los departamentos de Piura y Amazonas e identificar especies de garrapatas probablemente incriminadas en la transmisión de la enfermedad de Lyme. Material y Métodos: Entre agosto del año 2001 y junio de 2002, se colectaron muestras de sangre de 232 pobladores procedentes de ocho localidades del Departamento de Piura y 12 del Departamento de Amazonas, para evaluar mediante ELISA Captia™ Lyme IgG/IgM (Trinity biotech la presencia de anticuerpos contra Borrelia burgdorferi. Además, se colectaron garrapatas en animales domésticos por búsqueda directa. Resultados: Se detectó seropositividad en 9,9 % de los sueros evaluados. Asimismo, de 433 garrapatas colectadas se identificaron los géneros: Ixodes (5,5%, Amblyomma (18,0%, Rhipicephalus (23,5%, Anocentor (31,1% y Boophilus (21,7%. Conclusiones: Existen personas seropositivas por Borrelia en Piura y Amazonas, coincidiendo con los hallazgos realizados en Sapillica en el año 1992, además se detectó la presencia de garrapatas del género Ixodes en Piura.

  12. A organização do desembarque e o comércio de pescado na década de 1990 em Manaus, Amazonas Landing and fish commercialization in the decade of 1990 in the Manaus fishing harbor, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdenei de Melo Parente

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A maior parte da produção pesqueira do Estado do Amazonas é desembarcada em Manaus, entretanto, as características de organização do apoio à produção e da comercialização neste centro, pouco têm sido avaliadas ou consideradas nas discussões para o desenvolvimento do setor. O presente trabalho visa apresentar estas características de forma a estabelecer um referencial histórico sobre a organização do desembarque pesqueiro em Manaus e para subsidiar o planejamento do setor. Entrevistas foram efetuadas com diversos atores deste setor, de forma a cobrir o mosaico de alternativas que existem para o abastecimento de pescado. Há quatro tipos de agentes de comercialização atacadista de pescado para Manaus: o barco de pesca, o despachante, o atravessador e os frigoríficos. O despachante aparece como ator central no processo produtivo pesqueiro no período, seja por financiar as viagens e operações de comercialização, ou por executar a ligação entre os produtores-pescadores e os comerciantes de pescado. Exceção a esta regra ocorre com o "pescador ribeirinho autônomo", o qual pesca com seus próprios meios e comercializa sua produção com compradores sem intermediação. No comércio varejista, os feirantes são os mais importantes, sendo a Feira da Panair responsável por cerca de 20% do abastecimento do pescado in natura em Manaus. Os supermercados e os pequenos comerciantes são os demais agentes varejistas, cuja participação na comercialização da produção era ainda pequena, porém financeiramente é maior visto que disponibilizam produtos com valor agregado e portanto preços maiores a mercados de classe média que o dos feirantes.Manaus is the main commercial center for fish prodution in the state of Amazonas. However, its characteristics of commercialization have not been evaluated in order to assist the development of the fishery sector. The present paper presents these characteristics to establish a historical

  13. Mapa Geologico de Venezuela a Escala 1:750,000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Paul C.; Urbani, Franco; Karlsen, Alex W.; Garrity, Christopher P.

    2006-01-01

    Se presenta un mapa geologico digital de Venezuela sobre un fondo de relieve sombreado. Los datos geologicos e hidrologicos del norte del rio Orinoco proceden de la digitalizacion de mapas geologicos en papel a escala 1:500.000. Estos datos fueron integrados con el mapa geologico digital del Escudo de Guayana Venezolano, a su vez derivado de hojas en papel a escala 1:500.000. La informacion sobre los tipos de fallas mostrados en el mapa es igual que en las fuentes originales. Los poligonos geologicos fueron atribuidos por edad, litologia y nombre de la unidad siguiendo el Codigo geologico de Venezuela. Se incorporaron revisiones significativas de la geologia de la Cordillera de la Costa a partir de las nuevas hojas integradas a escala 1:25.000. Toda esta informacion geologico-estructural se sobrepuso a una imagen de relieve sombreado, producida por el procesamiento de los datos de radar interferometrico con 90 m (3 arcosegundos) de resolucion espacial obtenidos por la mision topografica de radar del transbordador espacial (SRTM). Las areas de la base de datos del SRTM carentes de informacion fueron llenadas por medio de la interpolacion de los datos de las celdas adyacentes. Para producir la imagen de relieve sombreado se uso una direccion de iluminacion de 315 deg con un angulo de 65 deg sobre el horizonte. La proyeccion usada en el mapa es conica equidistante, con latitudes de 4 y 9 deg norte como paralelos estandar y una longitud de 66 deg al oeste como meridiano central. Los datos en el mapa proceden primordialment de hojas a escala 1:500.000 y el producto esta preparado para una impresion optima en escala 1:750.000. Los usuarios pueden obtener ampliaciones mayores, sin embargo no se garantiza la precision del mapa a escalas mas detalladas. Especialmente en la region de Guayana, al sobreponer los mapas geologicos sobre la reciente imagen SRTM, se notan grandes discrepancias no sistematicas tanto en contactos como en fallas. Esto es debido a que los mapas

  14. Venezuela: calidad de las elecciones y calidad de la democracia

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    Miriam KORNBLITH

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Partiendo de la afirmación de Levine y Molina (2006, según la cual la calidad de la democracia depende del funcionamiento de los procesos mediante los cuales la población selecciona y controla sus gobernantes, en este trabajo se examina el caso venezolano, haciendo especial énfasis en el análisis de la dinámica electoral del período marcado por la presidencia de Chávez (1999-2006. Dicho examen nos lleva a concluir que el régimen sociopolítico venezolano actual puede ser caracterizado más adecuadamente como un «régimen autoritario electoral», más que como una democracia representativa convencional. Los rasgos autoritarios del gobierno venezolano actual explicarían la baja puntuación obtenida por Venezuela en los índices de Freedom House. Sin embargo, este examen también nos lleva a considerar la pertinencia de los supuestos de la calidad de la democracia en el contexto de un cambio de régimen que explícitamente se aleja de las aspiraciones e ideales que sustentan el concepto, dimensiones e indicadores de la calidad de la democracia propuestos.ABSTRACT: Taking off from the affirmation by Levine and Molina that «the quality of democracy depends on the operation of procedures whereby the population selects and controls its government», this article examines the dynamics of elections during the Presidency of Chávez, (1999-2006. This examination leads to the conclusion that the current regime is better characterized as «an autoritarian electoral regime» than as a conventional representative democracy. This re-definition explains the low scores obtained by Venezuela both in Freedom House. At the same time, this study throws light on the bases of democracy and of definitions of quality of democracy in a regime that explicitly rejects the very ideals and aspirations that underlie the definitions, dimensions and indicators of democracy itself.

  15. Aspectos Musicales del Joropo de Venezuela y Colombia

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    Claudia Calderón Sáenz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El Joropo es una expresión de arte popular en permanente evolución, originalmente una fiesta campesina o pueblerina que integra poesía, canto, música y danza en un sistema de creatividad improvisatoria sobre estructuras establecidas y parámetros definidos de estilo. El Joropo se caracteriza por un sistema de estructuras cristalizadas a lo largo de la historia a partir de canciones y danzas tradicionales que se erigieron en formas musicales, sirviendo como base para a variantes en la letra, o convirtiéndose en formas puramente instrumentales. El Joropo es una tradición que abarca casi la totalidad del territorio venezolano y al menos la cuarta parte del territorio colombiano. En Venezuela el Joropo es considerado el baile nacional por excelencia y existen tres tipos de Joropo clasificados por regiones con importantes variantes de instrumentación y estilo: el Joropo Oriental, el Joropo Central y el Joropo Llanero. Solamente el Joropo Llanero, extendido alrededor de la cuenca central del Orinoco, es común a Colombia y Venezuela, siendo el más difundido de todos, tanto por la amplia discografía y radiodifusión como por la abundancia de festivales, concursos y torneos que involucran a ambos países. Además es notable el auge y desarrollo urbano que ha tenido esta música en los últimos años en las respectivas capitales. Sus orígenes se remontan a las músicas ibéricas del Siglo XVII y XVIII, tales como el múltiple Fandango, las Folías, Peteneras, Jotas y Malagueñas andaluzas, sazonadas con la influencia de ocho siglos de dominación árabe y posteriormente transformadas en América con el mestizaje de elementos africanos e indígenas, bajo el sol abrasador de la Cuenca del Orinoco y la vastedad infinita de sus horizontes y llanuras. Los antecesores del Joropo incluyen la música de marineros y trovadores que llega en los galeones provenientes de España, transformándose en música arraigada en el suelo americano y dando lugar a

  16. The opisthobranch gastropods (Mollusca: Heterobranchia) from Venezuela: an annotated and illustrated inventory of species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Manuel Caballer; Ortea, Jesús; Rivero, Nelsy; Tucker, Gabriela Carias; Malaquias, Manuel António E; Narciso, Samuel

    2015-10-29

    The Caribbean waters of Venezuela are composed by a large variety of habitats, with over 2800 km of coastline, islands, and islets. This area is a transitional zone between two main biogeographic provinces, the Caribbean and the Brazilian, separated by the fresh water outflows of the Orinoco and Amazon rivers, and is therefore expected to be an area of high species diversity. However, concerning the study of molluscs, Venezuela is probably the poorest known region in the Caribbean. The best compilation of opisthobranch species known in Venezuela was produced almost a decade ago, mentioning the occurrence of 57 species, plus seven determined only to genus level. In this work, 134 species are reported for Venezuela (71 are illustrated), representing about 40 % of the entire diversity of opisthobranchs known in the Caribbean. Among the species occurring in Venezuela, 49 have here the southern limit of their distribution range and only one the northern limit. Forty-six species are recorded for the first time to the country and one is a new record for the Caribbean Sea, namely Placida cremoniana. In addition, the distribution and ecology of the species are given based in literature and new data.

  17. Ecological succession of a stretch of Dense Rain Forest in the Lowlands, Carauari, Amazonas, Brazil Sucessão ecológica de um trecho de Floresta Ombrófila Densa de Terras Baixas, Carauari, Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosival Barros de Andrade Lima

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available

    This work was carried out in a stretch of Dense Rain Forest in the lowland county of Carauari, Amazonas, aiming to estimate the species composition of tree layer and classify the species in their ecological groups in order to obtain information about the current situation of the forest fragment, to be the basis for strategies for conservation and preservation as well as the basis for formulating research aimed at the dissemination of knowledge and its application to sustainable production. The forest inventory was conducted in an area of 275 ha, crossed by three transects (822 m, 1,265 m and 2,349 m, totaling 4.436 m. Plots were installed in 20 m x 25 m, 50 m equidistant, merged to the right and left of the line transect, totaling 66 sampling units. All tree individuals trees that had a circumference of 1,30 m above the ground (CAP ≥ 25 cm were identified and measured. There were 3,050 individuals distributed in 133 species, 93 genera and 49 families. It was observed that the species of early succession (pioneer + early secondary were more numerous, showing characteristics of a forest in early successional stage.

     

    doi: 10.4336/2011.pfb.31.67.161

    O presente trabalho foi realizado em um trecho de Floresta Ombrofila Densa de Terras Baixas no Municipio de Carauari, Amazonas, tendo como objetivo estimar a composicao floristica do estrato arboreo e classificar as especies nos respectivos grupos ecologicos, a fim de se obter informacoes sobre a atual situacao do fragmento florestal, para embasar estrategias de conservacao e preservacao, bem como embasar a formulacao de pesquisas que visem a disseminacao do conhecimento e sua aplicacao na producao sustentavel. O inventario florestal foi realizado em uma area de 275 ha, cortada por tres transectos (822 m, 1.265 m e 2.349 m, totalizando 4.436 m. Foram instaladas parcelas de 20 m x 25 m, equidistantes a cada 50 m e intercaladas a direita e a esquerda da linha do

  18. Pseudoescorpiões (Arachnida da vegetação de sub-bosque da floresta primária tropical de terra firme (Coari, Amazonas, Brasil Pseudoscorpions (Aracnida in the undergrowth vegetetion in dryland forest in Coari, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nair Otaviano Aguiar

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi encontrada uma riqueza de 15 espécies de pseudoscorpiões, de 12 gêneros e 5 famílias (Chthoniidae, Geogarypidae, Olpiidae, Atemnidae e Chernetidae, habitando diferentes plantas da vegetação do sub-bosque, em floresta primária de terra firme, no alto rio Urucu, Coari, Amazonas, no período de 1991 a 1996. As plantas foram examinadas pelo método de "bateção". Apolpium aff. vastum foi à espécie mais freqüente e abundante sobre as plantas. Dentre os tipos de plantas avaliados, as maiores diversidades de espécies de pseudoscorpiões foram registradas nas pequenas palmeiras, tanto com fronde junto ao chão, como elevada acima do chão. A análise da composição das espécies que ocorreram sobre os diferentes tipos de plantas avaliadas foi realizada pelo "modo-Q", tendo como base a matriz de coeficientes de similaridade de "Jaccard", o que demonstrou maior similaridade entre a fauna das palmeiras e outras plantas que acumulam detritos acima do chão, entre as bromélias e entre aráceas de chão e outras plantas que acumulam detritos junto ao chão.A richness of 15 pseudoscorpion species, 12 genera belonging to 5 families (Chthoniidae, Geogarypidae, Olpiidae, Atemnidae and Chernetidae were found in the undergrowth vegetation of the dryland forest, at the upper Urucu river, Coari, Amazonas, from 1991 to 1996, and was collected by the "beating tray" method. Apolpium aff. vastum was the most frequent and abundant species in the undergrowth forest vegetation. Among the various types of plants examined, the majority of the pseudoscorpions occurred in small palms (in the ground-trenched palms as much as the erect stemmed palms. To appraise the specie's composition of these arachnids found in the different kinds of plants, the Q-mode analysis was used based on Jaccard's similarity coefficients. The coefficients that showed the greatest similarity were between the fauna of the palms and other plants that accumulate litter on top of the

  19. Dengue Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Past and Recent Viral Transmission in Venezuela : A Comprehensive Community-Based Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velasco-Salas, Zoraida I.; Sierra, Gloria M.; Guzman, Diamelis M.; Zambrano, Julio; Vivas, Daniel; Comach, Guillermo; Wilschut, Jan C.; Tami, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    Dengue transmission in Venezuela has become perennial and a major public health problem. The increase in frequency and magnitude of recent epidemics prompted a comprehensive community-based cross-sectional study of 2,014 individuals in high-incidence neighborhoods of Maracay, Venezuela. We found a h

  20. Enfermedad de chagas en la Región Nororiental del Perú. I. Triatominos (Hemiptera, Reduviidae presentes en Cajamarca y Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham G Cáceres

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Conocer la diversidad de triatominos presentes en las provincias de San Ignacio y Jaén (Cajamarca y en Bagua, Condorcanqui y Utcubamba (Amazonas. Materiales y métodos: los triatominos fueron capturados de mayo 1995 a diciembre 2000 en el intra y peridomicilios de las viviendas de las provincias de San Ignacio (5 distritos y Jaén (10 distritos del departamento de Cajamarca, y en 5 distritos de Bagua, un distrito de Condorcanqui y en seis de Utcubamba (Amazonas. El muestreo fue de 08:00 a 19:00 horas con alambre de 30 cm de largo, pinzas largas y linterna de mano. Resultados: se capturaron 5567 triatominos pertenecientes a cinco especies. Panstrongylus herreri fue la especie más predominante (94%. 90% del total de triatominos fueron capturados en ambientes intradomiciliarios. Se reporta Rhodnius robustus por primera vez para Amazonas. Ejemplares de R. ecuadoriensis y R. robustus, fueron colectados en intradomicilios en porcentajes mínimos en Sallique, provincia de Jaén (Cajamarca y Nieva, provincia de Condorcanqui (Amazonas. Panstrongylus geniculatus fue colectado en intradomicilios. Se reporta en ciertas localidades de La Coipa, Huarango y Namballe (San Ignacio; así como en Bellavista y Santa Rosa (Jaén y en Aramango, Copallín e Imaza (Bagua; además, en Jamalca, Cajaruro y Bagua Grande (Utcubamba. Panstrongylus chinai, especie silvestre con tendencia a domesticarse, se encontró en Santa Rosa, Bellavista, Chontalí y San José del Alto (Jaén y en Namballe, San Ignacio, La Coipa y Chirinos (San Ignacio. También se encontró en Cajaruro y Bagua Grande (Utcubamba. 90% de P. herreri fueron colectados en el interior de las viviendas. Para Cajamarca se ha colectado en Pomahuaca, Pucará, San José del Alto, Pirias, Bellavista, Santa Rosa, La Coipa y Huarango; mientras que para Amazonas en Aramango, Parco, Bagua Grande, Cajaruro y El Milagro.

  1. Late quaternary environmental history of lake valencia, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, J P; Leyden, B; Salgado-Labouriau, M; Lewis, W M; Schubert, C; Binford, M W; Frey, D G; Whitehead, D R; Weibezahn, F H

    1981-12-18

    Chemical, paleontological, and mineralogical analyses of a 7.5-meter core from the middle of Lake Valencia, Venezuela, have provided information on the paleoclimatic history of this low-elevation, low-latitude site for the last 13,000 years. The data show that dry climates existed in this region from 13,000 years before present (B.P.) until about 10,000 years B.P. The Lake Valencia Basin was occupied by intermittent saline marshes at that time. About 10,000 years B.P., a permanent lake of fluctuating salinity formed and arboreal plant communities replaced the earlier dominant xeric herbaceous vegetation and marsh plants. By 8500 years B.P., Lake Valencia reached moderate to low salinities and discharged water; the modern vegetation became established at that time. After 8500 years B.P., the lake twice ceased discharging as a result of reduced watershed moisture. The second of these drying episodes is still in progress and has been aggravated by human activities in the watershed.

  2. Sucesos de la Venezuela Rentista, 1989 y 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibelis Coromoto Blanco Rangel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante el siglo XX, Venezuela fue catalogado uno de los países de Sudamérica más ricos del continente, destacándose por su y estabilidad económica. Sin embargo, el capitalismo rentístico tanto de la época democrática como en el socialismo del siglo XXI sobredimensionó el tamaño del estado, utilizó mecanismos de subsidios que desaceleró el aparato productivo, generó niveles de inflación y déficit fiscal que se reflejaron en malestar y estallido social. Este artículo hace una reflexión sobre la crisis que atraviesa este país, para lo cual se describen elementos de política económica de corte neoliberal en 1989 y un resumen de los catorce años del gobierno actual caracterizado por las medidas de control cambiario que han generado, escasez. De igual forma se revisan los hechos desataron la crisis social en 1989 y 2014, así como los puntos en común presentes en los dos momentos, el más característico: la inseguridad.

  3. Venezuela en el comercio internacional y frente al desarrollo sustentable

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    Marysela Coromoto Morillo Moreno

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Venezuela pese a los innumerables dotes naturales no ha podido alcanzar el anhelado desarrollo, tampoco el bienestar de todos sus habitantes, en parte porque sus acciones y prácticas económicas no se han fundamentado en el desarrollo sustentable, su comercio exterior se limita a la exportación de materias primas básicas sin mucho valor agregado cuya explotación intensiva incrementa la vulnerabilidad ecológica irreversible. En el presente trabajo se analiza la economía venezolana en el marco del desarrollo sustentable, vinculando su participación en el comercio exterior con el desarrollo sustentable. Se recomienda la urgente reducción de la dependencia petrolera, la diversificación económica y de exportaciones, para participar en el comercio internacional de forma dinámica con productos de alto valor agregado. El reto son los procesos de liberalización comercial y mundialización que promueva la sustentabilidad ecológica y el desarrollo humano equitativo, integrando mundialmente las políticas ecológicas y comerciales, dado que el comercio internacional no necesariamente eleva la calidad de vida y la salud del planeta, por el contrario, todo depende del uso eficiente de los recursos para crear riquezas en concordancia con la protección del medio ambiente.

  4. Atmospheric mercury emissions from polluted gold mining areas (Venezuela).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sánchez, A; Contreras, F; Adams, M; Santos, F

    2006-12-01

    Soil, waste rock and mud from mercury-gold amalgamation mining areas of El Callao (Venezuela) are highly enriched in Hg (0.5-500 microg g(-1)) relative to natural background concentrations (mining districts (>100,000 ng m(-2) h(-1)). The results from this study also show that Hg emissions from the soil are influenced by solar radiation, soil temperature and soil Hg concentration. Our data suggest that solar radiation may be the dominant factor affecting Hg degrees emission since the major species of mercury in polluted soil is Hg degrees (85-97% of total Hg). The simple release of Hg degrees vapor is probably the dominant process occurring with incident light in the field. The apparent activation energy for mercury emission indicates that the volatilization of mercury mainly occurred as a result of the vaporization of elemental mercury in soil. The degree of Hg emission differed significantly among the soil sites studied, which may be due to variations in soil texture, organic matter content and soil compaction.

  5. Venezuela: regiones fronterizas y globalización

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    Germán Cardozo Galué

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available La globalización, al mismo tiempo que introduce tendencias hacia la homogeneidad económica, impulsa la “economía difusa” a través de procesos de descentralización y reubicación de las estructuras industriales en asentamientos territoriales como las regiones fronterizas. Ha sido señalado el peligro de tales estrategias para la integridad y futuro de los Estados nacionales. En este artículo se analiza, en la perspectiva del proceso histórico, el caso específico de la región fronteriza que comparten Venezuela y Colombia, compuesta por los Estados Zulia y Táchira y el Departamento de Santander, respectivamente. La categoría “región histórica” sirve de marco teórico-metodológico para la comprensión del problema originado por el actual juego dialéctico de “Globalización-Estado nacional-Región” con el objeto de sustentar posibles propuestas de carácter sociopolítico.

  6. [Anthropometric characterization of an institutionalized elderly population from Caracas, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hérrera, Hector; Rebato, Esther; Rocandio, Ana María; Hernández, Rosa; Rodríguez, Nahir; Barbosa, Johanna; Hernández-Valera, Yolanda

    2005-06-01

    Most of the anthropometric standards are derived from adult populations but not from older subjects, so their use to evaluate the nutritional status in the elderly may not be the most appropriate. In this sense, the anthropometric characteristics and their relationship to sex and age in a cross-sectional sample of 809 Venezuelan subjects (370 males and 439 females), aged 60 to 102 years old, randomly selected from a elderly institution-alised population were studied. The results indicate that anthropometric variables show different degrees and signs of sexual dimorphism. Males presented higher stature, weight, waist and calf circumferences and higher bone diameters, while females have higher hip and thigh perimeters, and bigger trunk and extremities skinfolds. Independently of the changes observed in these variables with age, the difference spread between the sexes tends to stay and even to increase with age in the height and weight, in hip perimeter and in thigh and calf skinfolds; while, on the contrary, they attenuate in waist perimeter and in triceps, subescapular and suprailiac skinfolds. Males and females appear to be more similar for these variables in the advanced ages. In general, these results could be used as reference elements for similar researches in Venezuela, due to the low number of studies developed in the country in older populations

  7. [Lipid profile from low socioeconomic level preschool children. Valencia, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, Liseti; Velásquez, Emma; Naddaf, Gloria; Páez, María

    2003-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are a public health problem worldwide affecting adults and children as well. The aim of this study was to assess overweight, lipid profile and cardiovascular risk ratios in 390 preschool children from low socio-economic level from Valencia, Venezuela. Nutritional anthropometric evaluation measured by body dimensions, and serum determination of cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and cardiovascular risk factors, were determined. 95% of the children were in relative and critical poverty. 14.3% of undernutrition and 20.8% of overweight was found. Lipid profile was in normal range, with no significant differences by sex, but higher values for HDL-cholesterol and risk ratios were found in children aged 1 to 3.99 years. Even though no differences were found by nutritional status, overweight children had higher values for lipids, except HDL-cholesterol. 6.3% of overweight children had cholesterol > or =170 mg/dL, 16.5% LDL-cholesterol > or =110 mg/dL, 40.5% triglycerides > or =75mg/dL and 100% HDL-cholesterol Nutritional and educational intervention should be addressed.

  8. Late quaternary environmental history of Lake Valencia, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Bradbury J.; Leyden, B.; Salgado-Labouriau, M.; Lewis, W.M.; Schubert, C.; Binford, M.W.; Frey, D.G.; Whitehead, D.R.; Weibezahn, F.H.

    1981-01-01

    Chemical, paleontological, and mineralogical analyses of a 7.5-meter core from the middle of Lake Valencia, Venezuela, have provided information on the paleoclimatic history of this low-elevation, low-latitude site for the last 13,000 years. The data show that dry climates existed in this region from 13,000 years before present (B.P.) until about 10,000 years B.P. The Lake Valencia Basin was occupied by intermittent saline marshes at that time. About 10,000 years B.P., a permanent lake of fluctuating salinity formed and arboreal plant communities replaced the earlier dominant xeric herbaceous vegetation and marsh plants. By 8500 years B.P., Lake Valencia reached moderate to low salinities and discharged water; the modern vegetation became established at that time. After 8500 years B.P., the lake twice ceased discharging as a result of reduced watershed moisture. The second of these drying episodes is still in progress and has been aggravated by human activities in the watershed. Copyright ?? 1981 AAAS.

  9. Geochemical record of anthropogenic impacts on Lake Valencia, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Yunping [Environmental Geochemistry Group, Southeast Environmental Research Center, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199 (United States)], E-mail: yunpingxu@urban.pku.edu.cn; Jaffe, Rudolf [Environmental Geochemistry Group, Southeast Environmental Research Center, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199 (United States)

    2009-03-15

    Bulk geochemical parameters and organic matter biomarkers in a short, high resolution gravity core (Lake Valencia, Venezuela) were examined to reconstruct anthropogenic impacts on the lake's conditions. During the period of ca. 1840-1990, sedimentary organic matter was characterized by high contents of total organic C (TOC) and total N (TN), low TOC/TN values as well as relatively enriched {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 15}N signals, suggesting a primary autochthonous (algae and macrophytes) organic matter origin. The occurrence of large amounts of C{sub 23} and C{sub 25} relative to C{sub 29} and C{sub 31}n-alkanes indicated substantial inputs from submerged/floating macrophytes. The variations of C{sub 32} 15-keto-ol, tetrahymanol, diploptene, C{sub 32} bishomohopanol, 2-methylhopane, dinosterol and isoarborinol concentrations over the investigated period record changes in the planktonic community structure, including Botryococcus braunii, bacteriavore ciliates, cyanobacteria, Eustigmatophytes and dinoflagellates. A principal shift occurred in the 1910s when cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates became more abundant at the expense and decline of B. braunii and Eustigmatophytes, likely related to increasing anthropogenic activity around the lake. A second shift (less obvious) occurred in the 1960s when cyanobacteria became the sole predominant planktonic class, coinciding with further deterioration of lake conditions.

  10. Estrutura populacional, razão sexual e abundância de Podocnemis sextuberculata (Testudines, Podocnemididae na Reserva de Desenvolvimento Sustentável Mamirauá, Amazonas, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Fachín-Terán

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied turtles in the focal area of the Reserva de Desenvolvimento Sustentável Mamirauá from September 1996 through August 1998. The reserve is located in the western part of the Brazilian Amazon, between the Japurá, Solimões, and Auti-Paraná rivers, near the city of Tefé, in the state of Amazonas. In this study the population structure, sex ratio and abundance of Podocnemis sextuberculata were investigated. We intensively studied the population of turtles in the Jarauá river basin in order to determine population structure. We sampled turtles in different sectors in the focal area of the reserve for one month each year during July and August of 1997 and 1998. We captured the turtles using flag gill nets and trammel nets. The type of net and the size of the nets used influenced the size of the turtles captured. The nets used by the local fishermen were sexually selective in the capture of the turtles. Sevent-two percent of the P. sextuberculata captured were adults; 13% juveniles and 14.7% subadults. During the second year of the study we found a lower density of turtles in the five areas wich we sampled each years. The sex ratio of captured P. sextuberculata was 1.87 males per female.

  11. Leptohyphidae (Insecta, Ephemeroptera do estado do Amazonas, Brasil: novos registros, nova combinação, nova espécie e chave de identificação para estágios ninfais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enide Luciana Lima Belmont

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Leptohyphidae (Insecta, Ephemeroptera do Estado do Amazonas, Brasil: novos registros, nova combinação, nova espécie e chave de identificação para estágios ninfais. Os seguintes gêneros de Leptohyphidae ocorrem no estado do Amazonas: Amanahyphes Salles & Molineri, Leptohyphes Eaton, Tricorythodes Ulmer e Tricorythopsis Traver. A distribuição das espécies de Leptohyphidae no Estado do Amazonas é apresentada. Uma espécie nova, Tricorythodes yapekuna sp. nov., é descrita e pode ser diferenciada de outros Tricorythodes pelas (1 garras tarsais com um par de dentículos submarginais e sem dentículos marginais; (2 palpo maxilar biarticulado; (3 brânquia opercular uniformemente preta com exceção da margem apical; (4 fórmula branquial 2/3/3/3/2; e (5 margem lateral do abdome expandida nos segmentos III_VI. Uma combinação nova, Tricorythopsis rondoniensis (Dias, Cruz & Ferreira, 2009 comb. nov., é proposta e constitui o primeiro registro dessa espécie para o Estado do Amazonas. Uma chave dicotômica ilustrada para identificar ninfas de gêneros e espécies ocorrentes no Amazonas também é apresentada.

  12. APLICAÇÃO DE IMAGENS IKONOS II E TM/LANDSAT-5 NA ELABORAÇÃO DE UMA BASE CARTOGRÁFICA PARA A RESERVA DE DESENVOLVIMENTO SUSTENTÁVEL MAMIRAUÁ – AMAZONAS / APPLICATION OF IKONOS II AND TM/LANDSAT-5 SATELLITES DATA FOR DIGITAL BASE MAPPING THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT RESERVE MAMIRAUÁ, AMAZON, BRAZIL

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    Josimara Martins Dias

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper has as purpose present the methodology developed to produce an updated digital map base support for participatory management Mamirauá Reserve of Sustainable Development in the state of Amazonas, Braszil. Because this protected área is situated within an area of flooded forest, both the physical landscape and social organization often change, and the dynamic demand the systematic update of cartographic databases. This work has images of orbital sensors IKONOS II and LANDSAT 5 TM, interviews with users and collecting spatial data in the Mamirauá Reserve. This work obtained a cartographic base at 1:100.000 scale and a geodatabase compatible with the local references, with which is possible to generate thematic maps updated to support dialogue in the sustainable management programs of the Mamirauá Reserve and minimize conflicts with communities.

  13. LOS TRATADOS INTERNACIONALES Y SUS POSIBLES CONFLICTOS EN EL ORDEN INTERNO A LA LUZ DE LA CONSTITUCIÓN DE LA REPUBLICA BOLIVARIANA DE VENEZUELA

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    María Fátima Pinho de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is intended to perform an analysis of international treaties and possible conflicts in the internal order in light of the Constitution of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, based on two (2 major theories underlying the application of international law and the law states. These theories are the Monist and Dualist, the first provides that domestic law and international law are two systems of identical legal or legal nature, because their purposes and audiences are the same. Indeed, the two legal systems have a source to an agreement or consensus of wills; the second, however, public international law and domestic law are two systems or State laws of different legal nature because they have different sources and recipients. If we analyze some articles on the Constitution of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, we see that it holds no preference on any of the two (2 theories, but has a mixed theory, in some cases monistic theory applies, but other cases the dualistic theory.La presente investigación tiene como finalidad realizar un análisis sobre los tratados internacionales y sus posibles conflictos en el orden interno a la luz de la Constitución de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela, partiendo de dos (2 principales teorías que sustentan la aplicación del derecho internacional y el derecho interno de los estados. Dichas teorías son la Monista y la Dualista, la primera establece que el derecho interno y el derecho internacional son dos sistemas u ordenamientos jurídicos de idéntica naturaleza jurídica, porque sus funciones y destinatarios son los mismos. En efecto ambos sistemas jurídicos tienen como fuente un acuerdo o consenso de voluntades; la segunda, en cambio, el Derecho Internacional Público y el Derecho Interno Estatal son dos sistemas u ordenamientos jurídicos de naturaleza jurídica diferente porque tienen fuentes y destinatarios distintos. Si se analizan algunos artículos referidos en la Constitución de

  14. UN MODELO DE EDUCACIÓN UNIVERSITARIA PARA VENEZUELA EN EL MARCO DEL SOCIALISMO DEL SIGLO XXI (A UNIVERSITY EDUCATION MODEL FOR VENEZUELA IN THE FRAMEWORK OF THE SOCIALISM OF THE 21ST CENTURY

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    Pineda Miguel

    2011-04-01

    the theoretical references to e. Morin and j. Habermas, develop three present in the reality of Venezuela categories: socialism of the 21st century, the State teachers and the University autonomy. The methodological treatment part of the approach of the premise: the new model of university education which is be built, is due to the crisis of the instrumental cognitive model established in the Constitution of the Republic of Venezuela (1961, its laws and regulations. To the triangular three categories arises, as an added value, conceive education through a transdisciplinary process, sustained in the first instance by the legal system to give realization and synchronization in time and movement. In the case of Venezuelan education, it is concluded that they have not been produced significant changes that indicate us that we are in the presence of a new model of education. University education is tied to the cognitive model instrumental, preventing any change it from her womb is intended to promote, so that the new law of university education and the new model of education remain deferred.

  15. Seven new species of Notiospathius (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Doryctinae from Northwest Venezuela

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    Estefany Karen López-Estrada

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe seven new species of the doryctine wasp genus Notiospathius Matthews & Marsh from Northwest Venezuela: N. araguae sp. n., N. bolivari sp. n., N. curvilineatus sp. n., N. dantei sp. n., N. estradae sp. n., N. larensis sp. n., and N. venezuelae sp. n. These represent the first described species of the genus reported for this country. Species boundaries for the above taxa were confirmed using the General mixed Yule-coalescent method with 441 DNA barcode sequences from specimens assigned to Notiospathius and other closely related genera collected in different countries along the Neotropics.

  16. Notas sobre la sostenibilidad de la deuda pública en Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, Hector; Fajardo, Eddy Johanna

    2013-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se lleva a cabo una evaluación de la sostenibilidad de la deuda pública en Venezuela. En la primera parte del estudio se presenta un breve bosquejo teórico de los modelos para evaluar la sostenibilidad de la deuda pública que aparece reflejado en la literatura económica. Asimismo, se presenta la evolución de los indicadores de sostenibilidad de la deuda pública, así como una comparación internacional de los niveles de deuda de Venezuela en comparación con otros países d...

  17. Natural gas as an integrating element for Latin America - An opportunity for Venezuela?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, Diego

    2010-09-15

    Summary This paper offers an analysis of the natural gas situation in Latin America, from Mexico to Argentina, including countries of the Caribbean; analyzes the attitude of potential buyers of this energy source and the possibilities of each country receiving natural gas from Venezuela based on its reserves and production, highlighting the most outstanding projects being undertaken in some of those countries; makes recommendations in the area of energy, with emphasis on natural gas; and, lastly, presents an epilog describing Venezuela's role in an integration process in Latin America.

  18. Sostenibilidad de la televisión digital terrestre en Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Paredes Marquina, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    Partiendo de la teoría de los sistemas y de la ciencia de la complejidad, en este trabajo se pretende delimitar el campo sobre el cual se implemente la Televisión Digital Terrestre en Venezuela (TDT). Hablar de la sostenibilidad de la Televisión Digital Terrestre en Venezuela (TDTv), implica una delimitación clara del concepto para entender los niveles de incertidumbre, y la ausencia de estudios sistemáticos sobre los contenidos a difundirse en la Televisión Digital Venezolana (TDv). Por ello...

  19. Normativas contables aplicables a la contabilidad de gestión medioambiental en Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Este trabajo planteó como objetivo, analizar las normativas contables internacionales aplicables a la contabilidad de gestión medioambiental en Venezuela. Se realizó una investigación analítica, con diseño documental, obteniendo como resultado que en Venezuela no existen normas contables en materia medioambiental específicamente; se asume lo establecido de manera indirecta en las normas internacionales de información financiera (NIIF), en cuanto al reconocimiento de activos y provisiones medi...

  20. Impacto Distributivo de las Reformas del IVA en Venezuela (1993-2011

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    Veruschka Quilez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es calcular los impactos distributivos de las reformas a las exenciones del Impuesto al Valor Agregado (IVA desde su creación en 1993 hasta el año 2011. Los impactos distributivos se midieron a través de indicadores locales de progresividad/regresividad, bajo un enfoque de equilibro parcial, utilizando las encuestas nacionales de presupuestos familiares de 1997 y 2005 que publica el Banco Central de Venezuela (BCV y las Leyes del IVA. Los resultados del estudio arrojaron que el diseño de las exenciones en Venezuela logró conferir progresividad al impuesto