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Sample records for amazonas state brazil

  1. Temporal distribution of tuberculosis in the State of Amazonas, Brazil

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    Marlucia da Silva Garrido

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is one of the infectious diseases that contributes most to the morbidity and mortality of millions of people worldwide. Brazil is one of 22 countries that accounts for 80% of the tuberculosis global burden. The highest incidence rates in Brazil occur in the States of Amazonas and Rio de Janeiro. The aim of this study was to describe the temporal distribution of TB in the State of Amazonas. Between 2001 and 2011, 28,198 cases of tuberculosis were reported in Amazonas, distributed among 62 municipalities, with the capital Manaus reporting the highest (68.7% concentration of cases. Tuberculosis was more prevalent among males (59.3% aged 15 to 34 years old (45.5%, whose race/color was predominantly pardo (64.7% and who had pulmonary TB (84.3%. During this period, 81 cases of multidrug-resistant TB were registered, of which the highest concentration was reported from 2008 onward (p = 0.002. The municipalities with the largest numbers of indigenous individuals affected were São Gabriel da Cachoeira (93%, Itamarati (78.1%, and Santa Isabel do Rio Negro (70.1%. The future outlook for this region includes strengthening the TB control at the primary care level, by expanding diagnostic capabilities, access to treatment, research projects developed in collaboration with the Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado Tropical Medicine Foundation .;Fundação de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado (FMT-HVD.; and financing institutions, such as the project for the expansion of the Clinical Research Center and the creation of a hospital ward for individuals with transmissible respiratory diseases, including TB.

  2. Uranium isotopes in groundwater occurring at Amazonas State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the behavior of the dissolved U-isotopes 238U and 234U in groundwater providing from 15 cities in Amazonas State, Brazil. The isotope dilution technique accompanied by alpha spectrometry were utilized for acquiring the U content and 234U/238U activity ratio (AR) data, 0.01–1.4 µg L−1 and 1.0–3.5, respectively. These results suggest that the water is circulating in a reducing environment and leaching strata containing minerals with low uranium concentration. A tendency to increasing ARs values following the groundwater flow direction is identified in Manaus city. The AR also increases according to the SW–NE directions: Uarini→Tefé; Manacapuru→Manaus; Presidente Figueiredo→São Sebastião do Uatumã; and Boa Vista do Ramos→Parintins. Such trends are possibly related to several factors, among them the increasing acid character of the waters. The waters analyzed are used for human consumption and the highest dissolved U content is much lower than the maximum established by the World Health Organization. Therefore, in view of this radiological parameter they can be used for drinking purposes. - Highlights: • U-isotopes data in important aquifer systems in Amazon area. • Application of the U-isotopes data to investigate the groundwater flow direction. • Evaluation of the drinking-water quality in terms of dissolved uranium

  3. Epidemiology of infectious meningitis in the State of Amazonas, Brazil

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    Maria das Graças Gomes Saraiva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In the State of Amazonas, particularly in the capital Manaus, meningitis has affected populations of different cultures and social strata over the years. Bacterial meningitis is caused by several different species and represents a major issue of public health importance. The present study reports the meningitis case numbers with different etiologies in Amazonas from January 1976 to December 2012. METHODS: Since the 1970s, the (currently named Tropical Medicine Foundation of Doutor Heitor Vieira Dourado [Fundação de Medicina Tropical Doutor Heitor Vieira Dourado (FMT-HVD] has remained a reference center in Amazonas for the treatment of meningitis through the diagnosis and notification of cases and the confirmation of such cases using specific laboratory tests. RESULTS: The foundation has achieved coverage of over 90% of the state medical records for many years. Between 1990 and 2012, meningitis cases caused by Haemophilus influenzae decreased with the introduction of the H. influenzae vaccine. Meningococcal disease previously had a higher frequency of serogroup B disease, but starting in 2008, the detection of serogroup C increased gradually and has outpaced the detection of serogroup B. Recently, surveillance has improved the etiological definition of viral meningitis at FMT-HVD, with enteroviruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV and varicella zoster virus (VZV prevailing in this group of pathogens. With the advent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, cryptococcal meningitis has become an important disease in Amazonas. Additionally, infectious meningitis is an important burden in the State of Amazonas. CONCLUSIONS: Changes in the epidemiological profile for the different etiology-defined cases are the result of continuous epidemiological surveillance and laboratory capacity improvements and control measures, such as Haemophilus influenzae vaccination.

  4. Murcha bacteriana no estado do Amazonas, Brasil Bacterial wilt in Amazonas State, Brazil

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    Rosalee A. Coelho Netto

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Durante 1998 e 2000, a incidência de murcha bacteriana causada por Ralstonia solanacearum foi registrada em 25 municípios do estado do Amazonas. A bactéria foi encontrada nas seguintes espécies vegetais: Capsicum annuum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, Cucumis sativus, Heliconia sp., Lycopersicon esculentum, Melanthera discoidea, Moringa oleifera, Musa sp., Solanum melongena, S. gilo, e S. nigrum. Em tomateiros (Lycopersicon esculentum, a murcha bacteriana estava presente em todos os plantios. Em bananeiras (Musa spp., a incidência do Moko foi menor nas várzeas dos rios Madeira e Negro do que nas dos rios Solimões e Amazonas. Caracterizaram-se 320 isolados de R. solanacearum, obtidos no levantamento, com relação a raça e a biovar. A biovar 1 predominou em todos os hospedeiros, com exceção de C. annuum e C. chinense, onde estirpes da biovar 3 foram maioria. Apenas 7,8% das estirpes foram da biovar N2. A sensibilidade de 56 estirpes da raça 1 a 23 bacteriocinas foi avaliada. As estirpes da biovar 3 apresentaram uma menor variabilidade, na sensibilidade a bacteriocinas do que as estirpes das biovares 1 e N2.A survey for bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum was conducted in 25 counties in the state of Amazonas during the years 1998 and 2000. Ralstonia solanacearum was found in the following species: Capsicum annuum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, Cucumis sativus, Heliconia sp., Lycopersicon esculentum, Melanthera discoidea, Moringa oleifera, Musa sp., Solanum melongena, S. gilo, and S. nigrum. In tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum, bacterial wilt was present in all fields. In banana (Musa spp., the incidence of Moko disease was lower in the flooded areas of the Madeira and Negro Rivers than in the Solimões and Amazonas Rivers. In this survey the race and biovar of 320 R. solanacearum isolates was determined. The biovar 1 strains predominate in almost all hosts. In C. annuum and C. chinense, however, biovar 3 was more common. Only 7

  5. Mortality Predictors in Patients with Severe Dengue in the State of Amazonas, Brazil.

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    Pinto, Rosemary Costa; Castro, Daniel Barros de; Albuquerque, Bernardino Cláudio de; Sampaio, Vanderson de Souza; Passos, Ricardo Augusto Dos; Costa, Cristiano Fernandes da; Sadahiro, Megumi; Braga, José Ueleres

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is a major public health problem in tropical and subtropical areas worldwide. There is a lack of information on the risk factors for death due to severe dengue fever in developing countries, including Brazil where the state of Amazonas is located. This knowledge is important for decision making and the implementation of effective measures for patient care. This study aimed to identify factors associated with death among patients with severe dengue, in Amazonas from 2001 to 2013. We conducted a retrospective cohort study based on secondary data from the epidemiological surveillance of dengue provided by the Fundação de Vigilância em Saúde do Amazonas, FVS (Health Surveillance Foundation) of the Secretaria de Saúde do Amazonas, SUSAM (Health Secretariat of the State of Amazonas). Data on dengue cases were obtained from the SINAN (Notifiable Diseases Information System) and SIM (Mortality Information System) databases. We selected cases of severe dengue with laboratory confirmation, including dengue-related deaths of residents in the state of Amazonas from January 1, 2001, to December 31, 2013. The explanatory variables analyzed were sex, age, level of education, spontaneous hemorrhagic manifestations, plasma extravasation and platelet count. Patients who died due to severe dengue had more hematuria, gastrointestinal bleeding, and thrombocytopenia than the survivors. Considering the simultaneous effects of demographic and clinical characteristics with a multiple logistic regression model, it was observed that the factors associated with death were age >55 years (odds ratio [OR] 4.98), gastrointestinal bleeding (OR 10.26), hematuria (OR 5.07), and thrombocytopenia (OR 2.55). Gastrointestinal bleeding was the clinical sign most strongly associated with death, followed by hematuria and age >55 years. The study results showed that the best predictor of death from severe dengue is based on the characteristic of age >55 years, together with the clinical signs of

  6. Serological evidence of hantavirus infection in rural and urban regions in the state of Amazonas, Brazil

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    João Bosco Lima Gimaque; Michele de Souza Bastos; Wornei Silva Miranda Braga; Cintia Mara Costa de Oliveira; Márcia da Costa Castilho; Regina Maria Pinto de Figueiredo; Elizabeth dos Santos Galusso; Evaulino Ferreira Itapirema; Luiz Tadeu Moraes Figueiredo; Maria Paula Gomes Mourão

    2012-01-01

    Hantavirus disease is caused by the hantavirus, which is an RNA virus belonging to the family Bunyaviridae. Hantavirus disease is an anthropozoonotic infection transmitted through the inhalation of aerosols from the excreta of hantavirus-infected rodents. In the county of Itacoatiara in the state of Amazonas (AM), Brazil, the first human cases of hantavirus pulmonary and cardiovascular syndrome were described in July 2004. These first cases were followed by two fatal cases, one in the municip...

  7. Murcha bacteriana no estado do Amazonas, Brasil Bacterial wilt in Amazonas State, Brazil

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    ROSALEE A. COELHO NETTO; Bianca G. Pereira; Hiroshi Noda; Bernard Boher

    2004-01-01

    Durante 1998 e 2000, a incidência de murcha bacteriana causada por Ralstonia solanacearum foi registrada em 25 municípios do estado do Amazonas. A bactéria foi encontrada nas seguintes espécies vegetais: Capsicum annuum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, Cucumis sativus, Heliconia sp., Lycopersicon esculentum, Melanthera discoidea, Moringa oleifera, Musa sp., Solanum melongena, S. gilo, e S. nigrum. Em tomateiros (Lycopersicon esculentum), a murcha bacteriana estava presente em todos os plantios. E...

  8. Serological evidence of hantavirus infection in rural and urban regions in the state of Amazonas, Brazil

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    João Bosco Lima Gimaque

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Hantavirus disease is caused by the hantavirus, which is an RNA virus belonging to the family Bunyaviridae. Hantavirus disease is an anthropozoonotic infection transmitted through the inhalation of aerosols from the excreta of hantavirus-infected rodents. In the county of Itacoatiara in the state of Amazonas (AM, Brazil, the first human cases of hantavirus pulmonary and cardiovascular syndrome were described in July 2004. These first cases were followed by two fatal cases, one in the municipality of Maués in 2005 and another in Itacoatiara in 2007. In this study, we investigated the antibody levels to hantavirus in a population of 1,731 individuals from four different counties of AM. Sera were tested by IgG/IgM- enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay using a recombinant nucleocapsid protein of the Araraquara hantavirus as an antigen. Ten sera were IgG positive to hantavirus (0.6%. Among the positive sera, 0.8% (1/122, 0.4% (1/256, 0.2% (1/556 and 0.9% (7/797 were from Atalaia do Norte, Careiro Castanho, Itacoatiara and Lábrea, respectively. None of the sera in this survey were IgM-positive. Because these counties are distributed in different areas of AM, we can assume that infected individuals are found throughout the entire state, which suggests that hantavirus disease could be a local emerging health problem.

  9. Predation of Apiomerus pilipes (Fabricius (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Harpactorinae, Apiomerini over Meliponinae bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, in the State of Amazonas, Brazil

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    Alexandre Coletto da Silva

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work shows the occurrence of an intense predatory activity on adults working Meliponinae bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, by Apiomerus pilipes (Fabricius, 1787 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Harpactorinae, Apiomerini at a meliponary in the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil.O presente trabalho registra a ocorrência de intensa atividade predatória de Apiomerus pilipes (Fabricius, 1787 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Harpactorini, Apiomerini sobre operárias adultas de meliponíneos (Hymenoptera, Apidae, no meliponário experimental do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil. O meliponário se encontra num fragmento de vegetação secundária no próprio INPA.

  10. Isolation of Bacillus thuringiensis from the state of Amazonas, in Brazil, and screening against Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae

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    Joelma Soares-da-Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the use of Bacillus thuringiensis isolated in the state of Amazonas, in Brazil, for the biological control of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. From 25 soil samples collected in nine municipalities, 484 bacterial colonies were obtained, 57 (11.78% of which were identified as B. thuringiensis. Six isolates, IBt-03, IBt-06, IBt-07, IBt-28, IBt-30, and BtAM-27 showed insecticidal activity, and only BtAM-27 presents the five genes investigated cry4Aa, cry4Ba, cry10Aa, cry11Aa, and cry11Ba. The IBt-07 and IBt- 28, with lower LC50 values, showed equal toxicity compared to the standards. The isolates of B. thuringiensis from Amazonas constitute potential new means of biological control for A. aegypti, because of their larvicidal activity and the possibility that they may also contain new combinations of toxins.

  11. Simulium (Psaroniocompsa tergospinosum new species (Diptera: Simuliidae in siolii group from the southern part of the State of Amazonas, Brazil

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    Hamada Neusa

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The larva, pupa, male and female of Simulium tergospinosum n. sp. are described and illustrated. The adults of this new species share many characters with species in the subgenus Psaroniocompsa, where it is placed. The larva of this species bears dorsal and lateral triangular tubercles on the abdomen and multiply branched scale-like setae on the body, suggesting that it belongs to the S. siolii species group. S. tergospinosum n.sp. was collected along the Juma River, Apuí county, in the southern part of the State of Amazonas, Brazil. The Juma, a black-water river, is a tributary of the Aripuanã River in the Madeira River hydrographic basin, on the southern part of Amazonas. Females were collected biting humans along the water courses during the sampling period (in the dry season.

  12. ANÁLISE DO DESFLORESTAMENTO NO SUL DO AMAZONAS (Analysis of deforestation in the south Amazonas state, Brazil)

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    Pinheiro, Eduardo da Silva; REZENDE, Marília Gabriela Gondim

    2012-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar o desflorestamento nos municípios de Lábrea, Boca do Acre, Canutama e Humaitá, localizados no sul do Amazonas. Além disso, caracterizar as possíveis atividades econômicas associadas a esse processo, analisar as formações vegetais, tipos de solos e relevo onde ocorre o desflorestamento e quantificar as modificações na floresta em unidades de conservação e em assentamentos rurais daqueles municípios. Para atingir os objetivos utilizaram-se dados de desflor...

  13. Characterization and genesis of waterfalls of the Presidente Figueiredo region, Northeast State of Amazonas, Brazil

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    AFONSO C. R. NOGUEIRA

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The waterfalls of the Presidente Figueiredo municipality represent a fascinating natural scenery of northeast state of Amazonas, northern Brazil. The falls, generally less than 10m high, are developed on siliciclastic rocks of the Nhamundá (Lower Silurian, and Manacapuru (Upper Silurian - Lower Devonian formations. Morphological and structural analyses of these features indicate that most of them originated through Quaternary neotectonics and are installed in NE-trending normal fault escarpments. Waterfalls also developed within pseudokarstic features, but are less frequent. The origin of the Presidente Figueiredo waterfalls probably goes back to the Neogene, when the region was submitted to laterization processes associated with a humid climate and a dense rainforest. These conditions favored the development of caves in quartzarenites of the Nhamundá Formation. During the Quaternary, the region was subjected to NE-trending normal faulting which displaced laterite layers, rivers and streams giving rise to waterfalls. These climatic and tectonic phenomena promoted intense relief dissection, as indicated by fault escarpment retreat and cave dismantlement, responsible for the present-day morphologic configuration.As cachoeiras da região de Presidente Figueiredo constituem um dos mais fascinantes cenários naturais do nordeste do Estado do Amazonas, norte do Brasil. As quedas, geralmente com menos de 10m de altura, são desenvolvidas em rochas siliciclásticas das formações Nhamundá (Siluriano inferior e Manacapuru (Siluriano superior-Devoniano inferior. Os estudos morfológico e estrutural dessas feições indicam que a maioria dessas quedas de água originaram-se por neotectônica quaternária e encontram-se instaladas em escarpas de falhas normais NE-SW. Ocorrem, ainda, com menor freqüência, cachoeiras evoluídas a partir de feições pseudocársticas. A origem das cachoeiras de Presidente Figueiredo provavelmente remonta ao Ne

  14. Fish fauna of small streams of the Catua-Ipixuna Extractive Reserve, State of Amazonas, Brazil

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    Py-Daniel, L. H. R.; Zuanon, J.; Anjos, M. B.; Marcelo Salles Rocha; R. R. Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted in an Amazonas state conservation unit, the Catuá-Ipixuna Extractive Reserve (Catuá-IpixunaRESEX). The main purpose was to provide an ichthyological survey of its small streams, all them tributaries of theSolimões River. Nine small streams (up to 4 m width and 1 m depth) were sampled in September 2006. A total of 1,525specimens were captured, belonging to 78 species, 24 families and eight orders. Eight species had higher abundancesand represented altogether 61.4 % of ...

  15. Petrobras expands gas reinjection in Brazil`s Amazonas State and Campos Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosso, S. [Dresser-Rand, Houston, TX (United States)

    1999-05-01

    Petrobras contracted with Dresser-Rand Co. and its affiliate Paragon Engineering Services Inc. to design, procure and fabricate the process modules and develop the overall layouts of the gas compression systems for four Brazilian projects: the Urucu region, the Marlim field (P-19), the Albacora field (P-31) and the Corvina field (P-9). The high-pressure Urucu injection project is the only one of the four that is onshore. This is the first time the two US companies have combined their expertise on joint projects in Brazil. However, it is not their first effort in South America. The paper briefly describes the gas compression efforts using turbocompressors.

  16. Novo registros de moscas ectoparasitas (Diptera, Streblidae e Nycteribiidae em morcegos (Mammalia, Chiroptera do Amazonas e Pará, Brasil Newrecords of batflies (Diptera, Streblidae and Nycteribiidae on bats (Mammalia, Chiroptera from Amazonas and Pará States, Brazil

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    Gustavo Graciolli

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Species of batflies of bats from Amazonas and Pará, Brazil are reported. Eleven species of Streblidae and three of Nycteribiidae were found on nine species of bats, belonging to seven genera. Pseudostrebla greenwelli Wenzel, 1996, Trichobius affinis Wenzel, 1976, Trichobius silvicolae Wenzel, 1976, and Hershkovitzia inaequalis Theodor, 1967 were collected for the first time in Brazil. Strebla consocia Wenzel, 1966, Strebla galindoi Wenzel, 1966, Trichobius dugesioides phyllostomus Guerrero, 1998, and Trichobius joblingi Wenzel, 1966 are new records for state of Amazonas. Noctiliostrebla maai Wenzel, 1966, Basilia dubia Guimarães & D'Andretta, 1956, and Basilia ferruginea Miranda Ribeiro, 1903 are new records for state of Pará.

  17. Distribution of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtypes in the State of Amazonas, Brazil, and subtype C identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Few studies have reported the molecular epidemiological characterization of HIV-1 in the Northern region of Brazil. The present study reports the molecular and epidemiological characterization of 31 HIV-1 isolates from blood donors from the State of Amazonas who donated blood between April 2006 and March 2007. Serum/plasma samples from all donors were screened for HIV antibodies by ELISA and the results confirmed by Western blot analysis. Genomic DNA was extracted from the buffy coat using the Super Quik-Gene-DNA Isolation kit. Nested PCR was performed on the env, gag, and pol regions of HIV-1 using the Gene Amp PCR System 9700. Sequencing reactions were performed using the inner PCR primers and the DYEnamic™ ET Dye Terminator Kit, and phylogenetic analysis was performed using the gag, pol, and env gene sequences. We collected samples from 31 blood donors who tested positive for HIV-1 in confirmatory experiments. The male:female ratio of blood donors was 3.4:1, and the mean age was 32.4 years (range: 19 to 61 years). Phylogenetic analysis showed that subtype B is the most prevalent among Northern Brazilian HIV-1-seropositive blood donors. One HIV-1 subtype C and one circulating recombinant form (CRF-BF) of HIV-1 were identified in the State of Amazonas. This is the first study showing the occurrence of a possible “homogenous” subtype C in this region of Brazil. This finding could contribute to a better characterization of the HIV-1 strains that circulate in the country. Key words: HIV-1; Subtypes; Phylogenetic analysis; Blood donors; Molecular and epidemiological characterization

  18. Distribution of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtypes in the State of Amazonas, Brazil, and subtype C identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, L.K.H. [Departamento de Parasitologia, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Kashima, S.; Amarante, M.F.C.; Haddad, R.; Rodrigues, E.S. [Laboratório de Biologia Molecular, Hemocentro de Ribeirão Preto, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Silva, K.L.T.; Lima, T.A.; Castro, D.B.; Brito, F.C.; Almeida, E.G. [Diretoria de Ensino e Pesquisa,Fundação de Hematologia e Hemoterapia do Amazonas, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Covas, D.T. [Laboratório de Biologia Molecular, Hemocentro de Ribeirão Preto, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Malheiro, A. [Departamento de Parasitologia, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Diretoria de Ensino e Pesquisa,Fundação de Hematologia e Hemoterapia do Amazonas, Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2012-01-20

    Few studies have reported the molecular epidemiological characterization of HIV-1 in the Northern region of Brazil. The present study reports the molecular and epidemiological characterization of 31 HIV-1 isolates from blood donors from the State of Amazonas who donated blood between April 2006 and March 2007. Serum/plasma samples from all donors were screened for HIV antibodies by ELISA and the results confirmed by Western blot analysis. Genomic DNA was extracted from the buffy coat using the Super Quik-Gene-DNA Isolation kit. Nested PCR was performed on the env, gag, and pol regions of HIV-1 using the Gene Amp PCR System 9700. Sequencing reactions were performed using the inner PCR primers and the DYEnamic™ ET Dye Terminator Kit, and phylogenetic analysis was performed using the gag, pol, and env gene sequences. We collected samples from 31 blood donors who tested positive for HIV-1 in confirmatory experiments. The male:female ratio of blood donors was 3.4:1, and the mean age was 32.4 years (range: 19 to 61 years). Phylogenetic analysis showed that subtype B is the most prevalent among Northern Brazilian HIV-1-seropositive blood donors. One HIV-1 subtype C and one circulating recombinant form (CRF-BF) of HIV-1 were identified in the State of Amazonas. This is the first study showing the occurrence of a possible “homogenous” subtype C in this region of Brazil. This finding could contribute to a better characterization of the HIV-1 strains that circulate in the country. Key words: HIV-1; Subtypes; Phylogenetic analysis; Blood donors; Molecular and epidemiological characterization.

  19. Distribution of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtypes in the state of Amazonas, Brazil, and subtype C identification

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    L.K.H. Cunha

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have reported the molecular epidemiological characterization of HIV-1 in the Northern region of Brazil. The present study reports the molecular and epidemiological characterization of 31 HIV-1 isolates from blood donors from the State of Amazonas who donated blood between April 2006 and March 2007. Serum/plasma samples from all donors were screened for HIV antibodies by ELISA and the results confirmed by Western blot analysis. Genomic DNA was extracted from the buffy coat using the Super Quik-Gene-DNA Isolation kit. Nested PCR was performed on the env, gag, and pol regions of HIV-1 using the Gene Amp PCR System 9700. Sequencing reactions were performed using the inner PCR primers and the DYEnamic™ ET Dye Terminator Kit, and phylogenetic analysis was performed using the gag, pol, and env gene sequences. We collected samples from 31 blood donors who tested positive for HIV-1 in confirmatory experiments. The male:female ratio of blood donors was 3.4:1, and the mean age was 32.4 years (range: 19 to 61 years. Phylogenetic analysis showed that subtype B is the most prevalent among Northern Brazilian HIV-1-seropositive blood donors. One HIV-1 subtype C and one circulating recombinant form (CRF_BF of HIV-1 were identified in the State of Amazonas. This is the first study showing the occurrence of a possible "homogenous" subtype C in this region of Brazil. This finding could contribute to a better characterization of the HIV-1 strains that circulate in the country.

  20. Larva of Palaemnema brasiliensis Machado (Odonata: Platystictidae), from Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiss, Ulisses Gaspar; Hamada, Neusa

    2016-01-01

    The larva of Palaemnema brasiliensis Machado, 2009 is described and illustrated based on last-instar larvae and exuviae of reared larvae collected in a blackwater stream in Barcelos and Presidente Figueiredo municipalities, Amazonas state, Brazil. The larva of P. brasiliensis can be distinguished from the two South American species of the genus with described larvae (P. clementia Selys and P. mutans Calvert), mainly by presence of a single obtuse cusp on the labial palp, the presence and configuration of setae in the caudal lamellae, and the proportional length of terminal filaments of the caudal lamellae. The family is recorded here for the first time in Brazilian state of Amazonas. PMID:27395963

  1. Evaluation of the residual effect of temephos on Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae) larvae in artificial containers in Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil

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    Pinheiro Valéria Cristina Soares; Tadei Wanderli Pedro

    2002-01-01

    Trial tests and container observations were conducted in households to verify the residual effect of temephos in Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil. Three plastic buckets, three tin cans, and three tires filled with water from an artesian well and larvicide were used in the experiment, with twenty-five third-instar larvae, which remained exposed for 24h, followed by mortality readings. The same types of containers were selected from common households. Collection and counts followed by chemical tr...

  2. New Records of Social Wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae, Polistinae in Amazonas State, Brazil

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    Alexandre Somavilla

    2013-07-01

    Resumo. Nesse trabalho registramos a ocorrência de Clypearia apicipennis (Spinola, 1851, Leipomeles pusilla (Ducke, 1904, Metapolybia nigra Richards, 1978, Parachartergus richardsi Willink, 1951 e Pseudopolybia langi Bequaert, 1944 pela primeira vez no estado do Amazonas e incluímos notas de distribuição.

  3. Magnitude da desnutrição infantil no Estado do Amazonas/AM - Brasil Magnitude of infantile malnutrition in Amazonas State (Brazil

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    Fernando Helio Alencar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Nesta revisão foi quantificada a ocorrência da desnutrição infantil em pré-escolares dos diferentes ecossistemas do Amazonas na última década. Foram incluídos os trabalhos que adotaram como parâmetro diagnóstico os critérios da OMS (Organização Mundial da Saúde (1986 e o padrão do NCHS (National Center for Health Statistics (1977. O universo estudado ficou representado por 4.030 pré-escolares, sendo 1.751 oriundos da área metropolitana de Manaus-AM, e 2.279 da área rural. Evidenciou-se como principal manifestação da desnutrição no universo estudado o déficit de crescimento, acometendo 17% das crianças da área urbana e 23% da área rural. O ecossistema do Rio Negro destacou-se como o de maior precariedade nutricional, com 35% das crianças apresentando inadequação no indicador E/I, seguido das crianças das calhas dos rios Amazonas e Purus (21% e Madeira (16%; significando isto dizer que estas crianças estão submetidas a processos carenciais de longa duração. Constatou-se em todos os municípios da área rural, uma relativa proteção das crianças a sofrerem desnutrição no primeiro ano de vida. Fica evidente a maior precariedade nutricional das crianças da área rural do Amazonas, notadamente, daquelas residentes no ecossistema do Rio Negro. Estes resultados evidenciam também a heterogeneidade da Amazônia, o que deve ser ponderado quando da execução de programas de segurança alimentar e/ou implantação de políticas de desenvolvimento sustentável na região.In this review the occurrence of the infantile malnutrition was quantified by the pre-scholars children of the different ecosystems of Amazonas state in the last decade. They were just included the data of scientific papers that adopted as diagnosis parameter OMS criteria (1986 and NCHS pattern (1977. The population was represented by 4,030 pre-school children, whom 1.751 native of the metropolitan area of Manaus (Amazonas and 2.279 of the rural area

  4. Syphilis in pregnancy and congenital syphilis in Amazonas State, Brazil: an evaluation using database linkage

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Marques de Oliveira Soeiro; Angélica Espinosa Miranda; Valeria Saraceni; Marcelo Cordeiro dos Santos; Sinesio Talhari; Luiz Carlos Lima Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes notification of syphilis in pregnancy and congenital syphilis in Amazo- nas State, Brazil, from 2007 to 2009 and verifies underreporting in databases in the National Information System on Diseases of Notification (SINAN) and the occurrence of perinatal deaths associated with congenital syphilis and not reported in the Mortality Information System (SIM). This was a cross-sectional study with probabilistic record linkage between the SINAN and SIM. There were 666 reports of s...

  5. Simultaneous circulation of all four dengue serotypes in Manaus, State of Amazonas, Brazil in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele de Souza Bastos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Manaus, the capital city of the state of Amazon with nearly 2 million inhabitants, is located in the middle of the Amazon rain forest and has suffered dengue outbreaks since 1998. METHODS: In this study, blood samples were investigated using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, aimed at identifying dengue virus serotypes. RESULTS: Acute phase sera from 432 patients were tested for the presence of dengue virus. Out of the 432 patients, 137 (31.3% were found to be positive. All the four dengue virus serotypes were observed. CONCLUSIONS: The simultaneous circulation of the four dengue serotypes is described for the first time in Manaus and in Brazil.

  6. The environmental and social impact of electric energy generation in villages and states of the interior of Amazonas state, Brazil; O impacto socio-ambiental da geracao de energia eletrica nas vilas e municipios do interior do estado do Amazonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Andre Frazao; Cavaliero, Carla Kazue Nakao [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos

    2004-07-01

    The interior of the State of Amazonas is nowadays socio and economically stagnant in consequence of various structural problems. The lack of a reliable source of electricity in these areas is one of these problems, and it has been causing several environment and social problems for the local population. To show, in a historic context, the consequences of this scenario to the country side of the State of Amazonas, is the goal of this article. (author)

  7. Esfingídeos (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae do município de Beruri, Amazonas, Brasil Hawkmoths (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae from the District of Beruri, State of Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina da Silva Motta

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Mariposas esfingídeas foram coletadas no Município de Beruri, região do baixo rio Purus, Estado do Amazonas, em três períodos 30/09-10/10/2002, 25-30/07/2003 e 29/11-08/12/2003. Foi utilizada uma lâmpada de luz mista de mercúrio de 250 W, sobre um lençol branco, em noites de coletas de 12 horas consecutivas. Foram coletados 295 exemplares, identificados em 46 espécies de 20 gêneros. A tribo Dilophonotini foi a mais representada (23 espécies, seguida por Sphingini (9 spp., Macroglossini (6 spp., Philampelini (4 spp., Ambulycini (3 spp. e Acherontiini (1 sp.. Todas as espécies foram registradas pela primeira vez para o Município de Beruri. São registrados os esfingídeos que são pragas e aqueles considerados pragas em potencial.Hawkmoths were collected at District of Beruri, low river Purus, State of Amazonas in three periods September-October/2002, July/2003 and November-December/2003. A 250W mixed mercury vapor lamp was used to atract insects on a white sheet in the nights collecting periods of 12 consecutive hours. 295 specimens were collected of 46 species, and 20 genera were identified, with predominance of Dilophonotini (23 species followed by Sphingini (9 spp., Macroglossini (6 spp., Philampelini (4 spp., Ambulycini (3 spp. and Acheronthiini (1 sp.. These are the first records of sphingids for this locality. Species considered simple and/or potential pests were registered.

  8. Syphilis in pregnancy and congenital syphilis in Amazonas State, Brazil: an evaluation using database linkage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeiro, Claudia Marques de Oliveira; Miranda, Angélica Espinosa; Saraceni, Valeria; Santos, Marcelo Cordeiro dos; Talhari, Sinesio; Ferreira, Luiz Carlos de Lima

    2014-04-01

    This study analyzes notification of syphilis in pregnancy and congenital syphilis in Amazo- nas State, Brazil, from 2007 to 2009 and verifies underreporting in databases in the National Information System on Diseases of Notification (SINAN) and the occurrence of perinatal deaths associated with congenital syphilis and not reported in the Mortality Information System (SIM). This was a cross-sectional study with probabilistic record linkage between the SINAN and SIM. There were 666 reports of syphilis in pregnant women, including 224 in 2007 (3.8/1,000), 244(4.5/1,000) in 2008, and 198(4.0/1,000) in 2009. The study found 486 cases of congenital syphilis, of which 153 in 2007 (2.1/1,000), 193 in 2008 (2.6/1,000), and 140 in 2009 (2.0/1,000). After linkage of the SINAN databases, 237 pregnant women (35.6%) had cases of congenital syphilis reported. The SIM recorded 4,905 perinatal deaths, of which 57.8% were stillbirths. Probabilistic record linkage between SIM and SINAN-Congenital Syphilis yielded 13 matched records. The use of SINAN and SIM may not reflect the total magnitude of syphilis, but provide the basis for monitoring and analyzing this health problem, with a view towards planning and management. PMID:24896047

  9. Benefits of natural gas introduction in the energy matrix of isolated electrical system in the city of Manaus - state of Amazonas - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need to find cleaner, safer and less expensive sources of fuel in the city of Manaus, capital of the state of Amazonas (AM) in Brazil is inevitable due, among other factors, to the historical situation of the petroleum-derived fuel's large-scale use for power generation in the city by Brazil's energy planning. In this context, the use of natural gas in the province of Urucu, in the city of Coari countryside of the state of Amazons, is the best short-term solution, which will enable the substitution of petroleum-derived liquid fuels for the natural gas in the thermoelectric power plants in the city of Manaus and in seven other cities in the state, which are favored by the Coari-Manaus pipeline's main trajectory. This article presents the economic and environmental benefits with gas natural introduction in the energy matrix of isolated electrical system in Manaus. This project will be a great conquest for the city of Manaus, as a result of the Brazilian Energy Sector 20-year-planning, which will be completed in 2010, and will permit the beginning of a new growth-and-development cycle for the state of Amazonas and the Amazon itself.

  10. HEAD LICE IN HAIR SAMPLES FROM YOUTHS, ADULTS AND THE ELDERLY IN MANAUS, AMAZONAS STATE, BRAZIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Suellen Cristina Barbosa; Moroni, Raquel Borges; Mendes, Júlio; Justiniano, Sílvia Cássia Brandão; Moroni, Fábio Tonissi

    2015-01-01

    A study of head lice infestations among young people, adults and elderly individuals was conducted from August 2010 to July 2013 in Manaus, AM, Northern Brazil. Hair samples collected from 1,860 individuals in 18 barber shops and beauty parlors were examined for the ectoparasite. The occurrence of pediculosis and its association with factors, such as sex, age, ethnicity, hair characteristics and the socioeconomic profile of salon customers, salon location and seasonal variation were determined. The overall occurrence rate was 2.84%. Occurrence was higher in hair samples from non-blacks and the elderly. Higher occurrence was also observed during kindergarten, elementary and junior education school holidays. The results indicate that the occurrence of head lice among young people, adults and the elderly in Manaus is relatively low compared to that determined in children and in other regions of the country. After children, the elderly were the most affected. The study also indicated the need to adopt additional procedures to improve surveys among the population with low or no purchasing power, which is usually the most affected by this ectoparasitic disease. PMID:26200965

  11. HEAD LICE IN HAIR SAMPLES FROM YOUTHS, ADULTS AND THE ELDERLY IN MANAUS, AMAZONAS STATE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suellen Cristina Barbosa NUNES

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A study of head lice infestations among young people, adults and elderly individuals was conducted from August 2010 to July 2013 in Manaus, AM, Northern Brazil. Hair samples collected from 1,860 individuals in 18 barber shops and beauty parlors were examined for the ectoparasite. The occurrence of pediculosis and its association with factors, such as sex, age, ethnicity, hair characteristics and the socioeconomic profile of salon customers, salon location and seasonal variation were determined. The overall occurrence rate was 2.84%. Occurrence was higher in hair samples from non-blacks and the elderly. Higher occurrence was also observed during kindergarten, elementary and junior education school holidays. The results indicate that the occurrence of head lice among young people, adults and the elderly in Manaus is relatively low compared to that determined in children and in other regions of the country. After children, the elderly were the most affected. The study also indicated the need to adopt additional procedures to improve surveys among the population with low or no purchasing power, which is usually the most affected by this ectoparasitic disease.

  12. Phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae from Lábrea, state of Amazonas, Brazil, with a description of Evandromyia (Aldamyia apurinan Shimabukuro, Figueira & Silva, sp. nov.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elder Augusto Guimarães Figueira

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available An entomological survey was conducted from July-December 2009 and September-December 2010, as part of the epidemiological monitoring of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL in the municipality of Lábrea, state of Amazonas (AM, Brazil. Sandflies were collected using CDC light traps installed in intra and peridomiciliary locations, as well as the border of forested areas around houses where autochthonous cases of ACL were recorded. A total of 510 sandflies belonging to 26 species were collected. The most abundant species was Nyssomyia antunesi (44.5% followed by Evandromyia walkeri (10.6% and Micropygomyia rorotaensis (9.8%. Here we also describe Evandromyia (Aldamyia apurinan sp. nov. and report new records for Trichophoromyia flochi and Evandromyia sipani in AM and Brazil, respectively. Our results describe the composition of the sandfly fauna in the south of AM and suggest Ny. antunesi as the putative vector in the transmission of Leishmania in this area of the Amazon Region.

  13. Spawning areas, dispersion and microhabitats of fish larvae in the Anavilhanas Ecological Station, rio Negro, Amazonas State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edinbergh C. de Oliveira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The abundance and distribution of ichthyoplankton and their relationships to current velocity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and electrical conductivity of the water in the Anavilhanas Ecological Station, Negro River, Amazonas State, Brazil, were analyzed. Preferred microhabitats for spawning, dispersion and nursery were also verified. Sampling was undertaken during the falling water period of 2001 and the rising water period of 2002, in a section of 100 km subdivided into 5 subsections, with a total of 20 stations (5 beaches, 5 ravines, 5 channels, and 5 lake channels at night and during the day at the surface and at the bottom. 647 eggs and 4,187 larvae were captured, belonging to 10 families and four orders: Characiformes (6, Siluriformes (2, Perciformes (1, and Clupeiformes (1. Engraulidae (55.39%, Pimelodidae (30.45%, Auchenipteridae (5.23% and Sciaenidae (5.13% were the dominant families. The hierarchical statistical model (ANOVA with three factors (microhabitat, depth and period was applied to the environmental variables and the larval abundance, showing greater abundances of sciaenids in the ravines and lower abundances of engraulids in the channels. The highest captures were obtained at lower temperature values, at the bottom during the day and at the surface at night, suggesting an active larval behavior. The presence of the four larval development stages in all subsection for pimelodids and sciaenids, and in three subsections for engraulids, indicates that the Anavilhanas Ecological Station is an important spawning and nursery area for species of these groups in the Negro River. Larvae abundance of all characiform families was extremely low (from 0.1 to 1.17%, suggesting that they do not spawn in this system.A abundância e distribuição do ictioplâncton e suas relações com a velocidade da corrente, temperatura, oxigênio dissolvido, pH e condutividade elétrica da água na Estação Ecológica Anavilhanas, rio Negro, Amazonas

  14. Diversity and distribution of sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae in a military area in the state of Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Henrique Monteiro Gomes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the distribution, ecotopes and fauna diversity of sandflies captured in five training bases on a military reserve in Manaus, state of Amazonas (AM. A total of 10,762 specimens were collected, which were distributed among 58 species, with the highest number recorded at Base Instruction 1 (BI1. A higher rate of species richness was found at the Base Instruction Boina Rajada and low levels of diversity associated with a high abundance index with the clear dominance of Lutzomyia umbratilis, Lutzomyia ruii and Lutzomyia anduzei were found at BI1. The abundance of Lu. umbratilis raises the possibility of outbreaks of American cutaneous leishmaniasis by the main vector of the disease in AM.

  15. Magnitude da desnutrição infantil no Estado do Amazonas/AM - Brasil Magnitude of infantile malnutrition in Amazonas State (Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Helio Alencar; Lucia Kiyoko Ozaki Yuyama; Eliana Figueiredo Rodrigues; Arinete Veras Fontes Esteves; Margareth Maria de Barros Mendonça; Wládia de Albuquerque Silva

    2008-01-01

    Nesta revisão foi quantificada a ocorrência da desnutrição infantil em pré-escolares dos diferentes ecossistemas do Amazonas na última década. Foram incluídos os trabalhos que adotaram como parâmetro diagnóstico os critérios da OMS (Organização Mundial da Saúde) (1986) e o padrão do NCHS (National Center for Health Statistics) (1977). O universo estudado ficou representado por 4.030 pré-escolares, sendo 1.751 oriundos da área metropolitana de Manaus-AM, e 2.279 da área rural. Evidenciou-se co...

  16. Esfingídeos (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) do município de Beruri, Amazonas, Brasil Hawkmoths (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) from the District of Beruri, State of Amazonas, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Catarina da Silva Motta; Francisco Felipe Xavier-Filho

    2005-01-01

    Mariposas esfingídeas foram coletadas no Município de Beruri, região do baixo rio Purus, Estado do Amazonas, em três períodos 30/09-10/10/2002, 25-30/07/2003 e 29/11-08/12/2003. Foi utilizada uma lâmpada de luz mista de mercúrio de 250 W, sobre um lençol branco, em noites de coletas de 12 horas consecutivas. Foram coletados 295 exemplares, identificados em 46 espécies de 20 gêneros. A tribo Dilophonotini foi a mais representada (23 espécies), seguida por Sphingini (9 spp.), Macroglossini (6 s...

  17. Leptohyphidae (Insecta, Ephemeroptera do estado do Amazonas, Brasil: novos registros, nova combinação, nova espécie e chave de identificação para estágios ninfais Leptohyphidae (Insecta, Ephemeroptera of Amazonas state, Brazil: new records, new combination, new species and identification key for nymphal stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enide Luciana Lima Belmont

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Leptohyphidae (Insecta, Ephemeroptera do Estado do Amazonas, Brasil: novos registros, nova combinação, nova espécie e chave de identificação para estágios ninfais. Os seguintes gêneros de Leptohyphidae ocorrem no estado do Amazonas: Amanahyphes Salles & Molineri, Leptohyphes Eaton, Tricorythodes Ulmer e Tricorythopsis Traver. A distribuição das espécies de Leptohyphidae no Estado do Amazonas é apresentada. Uma espécie nova, Tricorythodes yapekuna sp. nov., é descrita e pode ser diferenciada de outros Tricorythodes pelas (1 garras tarsais com um par de dentículos submarginais e sem dentículos marginais; (2 palpo maxilar biarticulado; (3 brânquia opercular uniformemente preta com exceção da margem apical; (4 fórmula branquial 2/3/3/3/2; e (5 margem lateral do abdome expandida nos segmentos III_VI. Uma combinação nova, Tricorythopsis rondoniensis (Dias, Cruz & Ferreira, 2009 comb. nov., é proposta e constitui o primeiro registro dessa espécie para o Estado do Amazonas. Uma chave dicotômica ilustrada para identificar ninfas de gêneros e espécies ocorrentes no Amazonas também é apresentada.Leptohyphidae (Insecta, Ephemeroptera of Amazonas state, Brazil: new records, new combination, new species and identification key for nymphal stages. The following genera of Leptohyphidae occur in the Amazonas state: Amanahyphes Salles & Molineri, Leptohyphes Eaton, Tricorythodes Ulmer and Tricorythopsis Traver. Distribution of Leptohyphidae species in Amazonas state is presented. A new species, Tricorythodes yapekuna sp. nov., is described and can be distinguished from other Tricorythodes by: (1 tarsal claws with pair of submarginal denticles and no marginal denticles; (2 bi-articulated maxillary palp; (3 opercular gill black except on apical margin; (4 gill formula 2/3/3/3/2; and (5 expanded lateral abdominal margin of segments III_VI. The new combination, Tricorythopsis rondoniensis (Dias, Cruz & Ferreira, 2009 comb. nov., is proposed

  18. Historical analysis of the records of sylvan yellow fever in the State of Amazonas, Brazil, from 1996 to 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Maria das Graças Gomes Saraiva; Raul Diniz Souza Amorim; Marco Antônio Sabóia Moura; Eyde Cristianne Saraiva dos Santos; Leônidas Sales Sampaio; Maria das Graças Vale Barbosa; Samira Bührer-Sékula

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Yellow fever is a non-contagious infectious disease, highly lethal, transmitted by the Aedes, Haemagogus and Sabethes. Methods Descriptive retrospective study of the yellow fever cases in Amazonas, between 1996 and 2009. Results Forty two cases of yellow fever were confirmed, with 30 deaths, 10% of which were foreigners. Conclusions The presence of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in both rural Amazonas and its ca...

  19. Mineralogy and geochemistry of manganese occurrences from Alto Tapajós basin, southeastern Amazonas State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo José Mota da Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In six of almost fifty occurrences identified to now in Apuí, Novo Aripuanã and Manicoré municipalities, southeast Amazonas State, the manganese is hosted as lenses, laminations and layers in red sandstones, siltstones and mudstones, as well as in manganese lateritic crusts and colluvium accumulations. Romanechite is the main ore mineral, but manjiroite, lithiophorite, hollandite, vernardite, cryptomelane and pyrolusite are also present. There are two main geochemical associations: 1 for manganesiferous material: a Sr, Au, U, Cu, Pb and Hg as in the Zé Julião occurrence; b CaO, K2O, Zn, Tl, Rb, Cd, P2O5 and As in the Silva e Floresta farms occurrences; c MnO, Ni, Mo, Be, Co, Ga and Eu, in the Beneficente, Cotovelo and Holanda occurrences; 2 for the sedimentary rocks, matrix and soil: d Y + ETR - Eu; e SiO2, Al2O3, TiO2, Nb, Hf, Zr, Fe2O3, Sc, Th, V. The genesis of the manganese oxy-hydroxides is related to deposition in sedimentary environment and to the subsequent processes of weathering and landscape evolution of the region.

  20. Prevalence of Mansonella ozzardi among riverine communities in the municipality of Lábrea, State of Amazonas, Brazil Prevalências de Mansonella ozzardi entre comunidades ribeirinhas do município de Lábrea, Estado do Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Fernandes Medeiros

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Estimate the prevalence of Mansonella ozzardi infection and calculate the parasitic infection rate (PIR in simuliid black flies in the municipality of Lábrea, State of Amazonas, Brazil. METHODS: Prevalence was measured using the thick blood smear method collected from the fingers and was related to age, sex and occupation. Simuliidae were collected with a suction apparatus, then stained with hematoxylin and dissected to verify the PIR. RESULTS: The average prevalence rate of M. ozzardi among the 694 individuals examined was 20.7%. Infection was higher in men (27.6% than in women (14.3% (p 58 (60.5%. The highest prevalence rates were observed in the retired (64%, followed by farm workers (47.1%. Infection by M. ozzardi was only identified in Cerqueirellum amazonicum (Simuliidae with a PIR of 0.6%. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed a high prevalence of M. ozzardi in the riverine communities of Lábrea due to the lack of policies regarding the treatment of microfilaremic individuals in the region and an abundance of competent vectors for M. ozzardi.INTRODUÇÃO: Estimar as prevalências de Mansonella ozzardi, e calcular a taxa de infecção parasitária nos simulídeos no município de Lábrea, Estado do Amazonas. MÉTODOS: As prevalências foram obtidas através do método de gota espessa a partir do sangue coletado da polpa digital e foram relacionadas com a idade, sexo e ocupação. Os simulídeos foram coletados com capturador de sucção, posteriormente foram corados com hematoxilina e dissecados para se obter a taxa de infecção parasitária. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de M. ozzardi entre as 694 pessoas examinadas foi de 20,7%. A infecção foi maior nos homens (27,6% do que nas mulheres (14,3% (p 58 (60,5% anos. As maiores prevalências foram observadas nos aposentados (64% e agricultores (47,1%. Somente Cerqueirellum amazonicum (Simuliidae foi encontrado infectado com M. ozzardi com uma taxa de infecção parasitária de 0

  1. Distribution of the Orange-winged Parrot Amazona amazonica (Linnaeus, 1766 (Aves, Psittacidae in the coastal region of the State of Paraíba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela de Carvalho Melo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-six villages along the coast of the State of Paraíba, Brazil, were visited to determine and map the occurrence of Amazona amazonica (Linnaeus, 1766. Search was conducted with binoculars and the residents of each locality were interviewed using a questionnaire to obtain information about the occurrence and species´s biological data. Reports of recent and old occurrences, absence and feeding areas were registered. The food items mentioned were fruits, such as cashew, cashew nuts, palm oil, and agricultural products, such as corn. The reproductive period occurred between November and December. Breeding sites were mangrove areas and coconut trees, with nests being made in tree hollows. Questionnaires helped to elaborate a distribution map of the species, in which the actual distribution was based on visual records, whilst the potential distribution of the species was based on the questionnaire answers. Furthermore, they provided an overview of the biology of the species in agreement with that reported in the literature. Current data may be used in future studies on the conservation of the species in the State of Paraíba.

  2. Evaluation of the micro nutrients daily ingestion and mercury on pre-elementary school children from some communities of the state of Amazonas, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluates the daily dietetic ingestion of Hg and some nutrients of pre-scholar children from eight communities of Amazonas state, Brazil. Some children from each community were selected and their diets (24 hours total consumption) were collected by the duplicate quantity method and a pool of diets composed for each of these communities. The diet samples were analysed for the Hg total content by a CV AAS linear accelerator and neutron activation analysis for determination of Ca, Fe, K, Se and Zn micro nutrients. Both analytical methodologies precision and accuracy were validated using the certified reference materials analysis. The provisional tolerable weekly ingestion (PTWI) for Hg and the daily micro nutrient ingestion were calculated for each group, considering an 10 kg average weight for each child. The obtained results for all diets were shown the inadequacy prevail for the evaluated micro nutrients, and some communities exceeded the limit of 5 μg Hg/kg of body weight (PTWI). Those results suggested that the nutritional education program must be implemented at those communities, aiming the better utilization of the local food natural resources. (author)

  3. Evaluation of the residual effect of temephos on Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae larvae in artificial containers in Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinheiro Valéria Cristina Soares

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Trial tests and container observations were conducted in households to verify the residual effect of temephos in Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil. Three plastic buckets, three tin cans, and three tires filled with water from an artesian well and larvicide were used in the experiment, with twenty-five third-instar larvae, which remained exposed for 24h, followed by mortality readings. The same types of containers were selected from common households. Collection and counts followed by chemical treatment were carried out on the larvae that were found. Follow-up was performed weekly to verify recolonization by Aedes aegypti.The experiment showed 100% mortality in the plastic buckets until day 90, and 80% in the tin cans until day 30, decreasing from day 45 onwards. Mortality in the tires decreased to 35% in the first month. Household results showed 100% mortality for all containers after 24h and differentiated values in the subsequent readings. Larvae were observed on day 35 in a tin can and on day 21 in a gallon can. There was a large diversity of results in the tires, with recolonization observed from day 7 onwards.

  4. Ultrastructure and ssrRNA sequencing of Myxidium amazonense n. sp. a myxosporean parasite of Corydoras melini from the Rio Negro river, Amazonas state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Patrick D; Silva, Marcia R M; Maia, Antônio A M; Adriano, Edson A

    2015-12-01

    In a survey of myxozoan parasites of ornamental freshwater fish from the Rio Negro river, it was found that seven of 30 (23.3 %) Corydoras melini specimens examined had plasmodia of a new Myxidium species (Myxidium amazonense n. sp.) in the gallbladder. The fish were caught in the Rio Negro river, in the municipality of Santa Isabel do Rio Negro, in the state of Amazonas, Brazil. The plasmodia had a tubular shape, which was organized as a spiral spring with several turns in the gallbladder. The development of the myxospores was asynchronic, with disporic pansporoblasts. Mature myxospores were elongated, with 17.0 ± 0.9 (16.1-17.9) μm in length and 3.7 ± 0.7 (3.0-4.4) μm in width, and lightly arcuate from the valval view, with their bodies tapering slowly until ending in rounded extremities. The valval surface had nine to ten grooves in each valve. The polar capsules, one at either end of the spore, had a length of 5.4 ± 0.5 (4.9-5.9) μm and a width of 3.4 ± 0.6 (2.8-4.0) μm. Ultrastructural analysis showed that the wall of the plasmodia had numerous microvilli-like structures, pinocytotic canals, and cytoplasmic bridges connecting the pansporoblasts to each other and to the ectoplasm zone. Phylogenetic analysis, based on a small subunit ribosomal RNA (ssrRNA), identified the new species as a sister species of Myxidiumceccarelli, the unique South American Myxidium species whose ssrRNA sequence is available in the NCBI database. This study is the first description of Myxidium species in ornamental freshwater fish from Amazon. PMID:26341802

  5. Briófitas de Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil Bryophytes from Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Yano

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram listadas 74 espécies de briófitas para a cidade de Manaus, Amazonas, sendo 41 espécies de musgos distribuídos em 24 gêneros e 15 famílias e 33 hepáticas em 17 gêneros e sete famílias. Destas, 17 espécies de briófitas são ocorrências novas para Manaus e para o estado do Amazonas. T. ligulaefolium (Bartr. Buck é uma ocorrência nova para o Brasil. São apresentadas associações com outras briófitas e comparação com outras espécies urbanas.This survey lists 74 species of bryophytes from Manaus, Amazonas, namely, 41 species of mosses distributed in 24 genera and 15 families and 33 liverworts in 17 genera and seven families, of which, 17 species are new occurrences to Manaus. T. Ligulaefolium (Bartr. Buck is new occurrence to Brazil. Associations with other bryophytes and comparison with other regions are presented.

  6. Mortality by suicide: a focus on municipalities with a high proportion of self-reported indigenous people in the state of Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesem Douglas Yamall Orellana

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze mortality rates and to describe the demographic and epidemiological characteristics of suicides recorded in the state of Amazonas. Methods: A descriptive and retrospective study has been carried out with emphasis on municipalities, which have shown, simultaneously, a high mortality rates and a high proportion of self-reported indigenous population, based on 2005 - 2009 data as provided by the Informatics Department of the Unified National Health System. Results: Among the general population of the state of Amazonas, the mortality rate, by suicide, of 4.2/100.000 inhabitants has been reported, similar to that of Manaus (4.6/100.000 inhabitants. In contrast, at Tabatinga (25.2/100.000 inhabitants, at São Gabriel da Cachoeira (27.6/100.000 inhabitants and at Santa Isabel do Rio Negro (36.4/100.000 inhabitants, municipalities, where the proportion of self-reported indigenous population is high, besides the taxes being notably higher, it was observed that most of the suicides has occurred among men; among young men aged between 15 - 24 years; at home; by hanging; during "weekend" and among the indigenous population. Discussion: Our findings have unveiled that suicide comes forth as a serious public health issue in some municipalities in the state of Amazonas, further indicating that the event occurs within very specific contexts, and that the dimension and the magnitude of the problem can be even more serious among populations or in territories exclusively inhabited by indigenous people.

  7. New records for helminths of hystricognath rodents from the middle and high Rio Negro microregion, State of Amazonas, Brazil Novos registros para helmintos de roedores histricognatos da microrregião do médio e alto Rio Negro, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Q. Gonçalves

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Four nematodes and one cestode species from three Brazilian agoutis - two Dasyprocta fuliginosa Wagler, 1832 and one Dasyprocta leporina (Linnaeus, 1758 - and six pacas - Agouti paca (Linnaeus, 1766 - captured in tributaries rivers in the middle and high Rio Negro microregion, State of Amazonas, Brazil, were studied. The nematodes Physaloptera torresi (Travassos, 1920 Ortlepp, 1922, Physocephalus mediospiralis (Molin, 1859 Hall, 1916 and the cestode Raillietina (R. trinitatae (Cameron & Reesal, 1951 Baer & Sandars, 1956 are reported from the State of Amazonas for the first time. The studied helminths (the nematodes P. torresi, P. mediospiralis, Trichuris gracilis (Rud., 1819 Hall, 1916, Helminthoxys urichi (Cameron & Reesal, 1951 Hugot, 1986 and the cestode R. (R. trinitatae represent new host record for Dasyprocta fuliginosa. New morphometric data and remarks about each species are provided.Foram estudadas quatro espécies de nematóides e uma de cestóide coletados de três cutias - duas Dasyprocta fuliginosa Wagler, 1832 e uma Dasyprocta leporina (Linnaeus, 1758 - e seis pacas - Agouti paca (Linnaeus, 1766 - capturadas em rios afluentes na microrregião do médio e alto Rio Negro, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil. Os nematóides Physaloptera torresi (Travassos, 1920 Ortlepp, 1922, Physocephalus mediospiralis (Molin, 1859 Hall, 1916 e o cestóide Raillietina (R. trinitatae (Cameron & Reesal, 1951 Baer & Sandars, 1956 são registrados pela primeira vez no Estado do Amazonas. Os helmintos estudados (os nematóides P. torresi, P. mediospiralis, Trichuris gracilis (Rud., 1819 Hall, 1916, Helminthoxys urichi (Cameron & Reesal, 1951 Hugot, 1986 e o cestóide R. (R. trinitatae representam novos registros para Dasyprocta fuliginosa. Novos dados morfométricos e observações sobre cada espécie são fornecidos.

  8. Evaluation of cryolite from pitinga (Amazonas-Brazil) as a source of hydrogen fluoride

    OpenAIRE

    Jéssica F. Paulino; Reiner Neumann; Júlio C. Afonso

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the use of cryolite from the Pitinga Mine (Amazonas state, Brazil) as raw material in hydrogen fluoride production. Samples were initially characterized by chemical and mineralogical analyses. They presented low silica content (< 4 wt.%). After milling, cryolite samples were digested with concentrated sulfuric acid under stirring (200 rpm) and variable temperature, time and liquid to solid ratio conditions. Under the best experimental conditions (140 °C, 3-5 h), 96 wt.% of ...

  9. Surface ozone in the urban area of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, R. A. F. D.; Costa, P. S.; Silva, C.; Godoi, R. M.; Martin, S. T.; Tota, J.; Barbosa, H. M.; Pauliquevis, T.; Ferreira De Brito, J.; Artaxo, P.; Manzi, A. O.; Wolf, S. A.; Cirino, G. G.

    2014-12-01

    When nitrogen oxides from vehicle and industrial emissions mix with volatile organic compounds from trees and plants with exposure to sunlight, a chemical reaction occurs contributing to ground-level ozone pollution. The preliminary results of the surface ozone study in urban area of Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil, are presented for the first intensive operating period (IOP1) of the GoAmazon experiment (February/March 2014). Photochemical ozone production was found to be a regular process, with an afternoon maximum of the ozone mixing ratio of lower than 20 ppbv for cloudy days or clear sky weather. Typical ozone concentrations at mid-day were low (about 10 ppb). On the other hand, several high-value ozone episodes with surface ozone mixing ratios up to three times larger were registered during the dry season of 2013 (September/October). At the beginning of the wet season, the ozone concentration in Manaus decreased significantly, but diurnal variations can be found during the days with rainfall and other fast changes of meteorological conditions. Possible explanations of the nature of pulsations are discussed. Photochemical ozone production by local urban plumes of Manaus is named as a first possible source of the ozone concentration and biomass burning or power plant emissions are suggested as an alternative or an additional source.

  10. Estimation of electric power generation using coal from the fruit peel of cupuassu in Amazonas State, Brazil; Estimativa de geracao de energia eletrica utilizando o carvao da casca do fruto do cupuacuzeiro no estado do Amazonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Antonio Cleuder Lima da [Manaus Energia S/A., Manaus, AM (Brazil); Santos, Eyde Cristiane Saraiva dos [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (FCA/UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias. Dept. de Engenharia Agricola e Solos], e-mail: eyde_cristianne@yahoo.com.br

    2008-07-01

    The application of the charcoal of agroforestry residue for the generation of electric energy, for being renewable power plant and possessing technology for application, comes being evidenced. In this research the potential of generation of electric energy was estimated, in the main producing cities of the State of Amazonas of the fruit of the cupuacuzeiro (Theobroma grandiflorum Wild. Ex. Spreng. Shum.), using the rind carbonized in technology of gasification, substitution of diesel. The charcoal of the rind of the fruit of the cupuacuzeiro presents to be able calorific next to the one to the deriving coal of the wood. Known the annual production of each one the cities, the amount and the cost of production of the generated electric energy, determined in this research, it justifies the exploitation of this residue, for having economic advantages, when comparative with the tariff of the adopted electric energy in the region for the concessionaire. (author)

  11. Determination of toxicity in rabbits and corresponding detection of monofluoroacetate in four Palicourea (Rubiaceae) species from the Amazonas state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de L Carvalho, Fabricio K; Cook, Daniel; Lee, Stephen T; Taylor, Charlotte M; Soares Oliveira, Jefferson Bruno; Riet-Correa, Franklin

    2016-01-01

    Numerous monofluoroacetate (MFA)-containing plants in Brazil cause sudden death syndrome precipitated by exercise in livestock, which is characterized by loss of balance, ataxia, labored breathing, muscle tremors, and recumbence leading to death. Four species of Palicourea collected at six farms were tested for the presence of MFA and their toxicity to rabbits. Palicourea longiflora and Palicourea barraensis contained MFA and caused sudden death in the rabbits. Palicourea croceoides and Palicourea nitidella did not contain MFA and were not toxic to rabbits. P. longiflora and P. barraensis were collected at three farms with a history of sudden death in their cattle. This is the first report of toxicity in regard to these two species. PMID:26603601

  12. The use of renewable alternative sources for the isolated electric generation: proposal of agroenergy system implantation based on the palm oil from the Amazonas state, Brazil; O uso de fontes alternativas renovaveis para a geracao eletrica isolada: proposta de implantacao de sistemas agroenergeticos com base na palma africana no Estado do Amazonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Anamelia Medeiros [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the introduction potential of agroenergetic systems in the state of Amazonas, BR, by giving priority to the plantation of the palm oil (Elaeis guineensis) in deforested areas od the state of Amazonas, BR, which presents the edaphoclimatic conditions necessary for the plantation of this palm tree. The palm oil can be used in natura in stationary engines and cas basic raw material for the production of biodiesel, both through transesterification and cracking as well.

  13. State, society and development policies in the Brazilian Amazon: dimensions about management and environmental governance of natural resources in protected areas in Amazonas States / Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Rapozo, Pedro Henriques Coelho

    2014-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento em Sociologia (área de especialização em Sociologia e Metodologia Fundamentais) Este estudo procura compreender as políticas governamentais a partir de uma análise sobre o modelo de desenvolvimento socioeconómico instituído para Amazônia brasileira através da sua relação com a gestão dos recursos naturais em Unidades de Conservação no Estado do Amazonas. O tema do desenvolvimento nas ciências sociais marca um campo do pensamento teórico que interpreta os ce...

  14. Possibilities of using cogeneration by the wood industry at the Brazilian state of Amazonas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper studies the potential of using the residues from the wood industry for electric power generation in the Itacoatiara community, 230 km far from the Manaus city, state of Amazonas, Brazil, representing the second largest electric power market of the state. The work analyses the potential considering the economic, environmental factors and the instruments for economic regulation for the use of energy renewable sources by the isolated electric power generation systems

  15. Decapod crustaceans used as food by the Yanomami Indians of the Balawa-ú village, State of Amazonas, Brazil Crustáceos decápodos usados na alimentação pelos índios Yanomami da aldeia de Balawa-ú, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célio Magalhães

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Yanomami are a group of South American Indians that live in the rainforest along the borderlands of Brazil and Venezuela. They depend on hunting, gardening and wild food for survival; crustaceans are a highly prized food item in their diet. Taxonomical and ethnozoological aspects of the Yanomami Indians of the Balawa-ú village, state of Amazonas, Brazil, related to the crustaceans are described. Information and specimens were obtained from August to December, 2003. Interviews were conducted with residents of the village and focused on questions about species exploited, indigenous names, modes of capture and use of the species. One shrimp species of the family Palaemonidae (Macrobrachium brasiliense and two crab species of Trichodactylidae (Sylviocarcinus pictus, Valdivia serrata as well as two of Pseudothelphusidae (Fredius fittkaui, F. platyacanthus were recorded. The indigenous names applied to these species are: shuhu, for shrimp, oko and peimatherimi for each of the two pseudothelphusid crabs, and hesiki tôtôrema for both trichodactylid crabs.Os Yanomami são um grupo de índios que habitam a floresta tropical úmida ao longo da fronteira entre Brasil e Venezuela. Eles dependem da caça, da agricultura e da coleta de produtos da floresta para a sua sobrevivência, sendo os crustáceos um dos itens alimentares mais apreciados. São descritos aspectos taxonômicos e etnozoológicos dos índios Yanomami da aldeia de Balawa-ú, no estado do Amazonas, Brasil, relacionados aos crustáceos. Informações e espécimes foram coletados de agosto a dezembro de 2003. Foram realizadas entrevistas com habitantes da aldeia com enfoque nas espécies exploradas, nomes indígenas, modos de captura e utilização. Foram registradas uma espécie de camarão da família Palaemonidae (Macrobrachium brasiliense, duas espécies de caranguejos da família Trichodactylidae (Sylviocarcinus pictus, Valdivia serrata e duas da família Pseudothelphusidae (Fredius

  16. Comportamento de atributos físicos de um Latossolo Amarelo sob agroecossistemas do Amazonas Changes in physical attributes of a Yellow Latosol under agroecossystems in Amazonas State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zigomar M. Souza

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O desmatamento da floresta tropical da Amazônia e a utilização do solo para fins agrícolas potencializam sua degradação física, química e biológica, quando realizados de forma inadequada. Este estudo teve o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de sistemas de uso e manejo de um Latossolo Amarelo, muito argiloso, mediante avaliações de atributos físicos determinados nas profundidades de 0,0-0,2 e 0,2-0,4 m, em área da Universidade do Amazonas, Manaus (AM. Os sistemas de uso e manejo foram: milho, laranja, pupunha, guaraná, pastagem, capoeira e floresta. Nos sistemas com milho, laranja, pupunha e pastagem, foram realizados o desmatamento, a queima e as operações de preparo e cultivo mecanizados. Foram avaliados a composição granulométrica, o grau de floculação da argila, o teor de matéria orgânica, a densidade de partículas, a densidade do solo, a porosidade total, a macro e microporosidade, e a infiltrações inicial e básica. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições. Os agroecossistemas, em ordem crescente: capoeira, guaraná, milho, laranja, pupunha e pastagem induziram uma degradação dos atributos físicos do solo cultivado em relação ao de floresta, quantificada pelos maiores valores de densidade do solo e menores de macroporosidade, infiltração de água e matéria orgânica.The Amazon tropical forest deforestation and the agricultural use of soils can lead to soil physical, chemical and biological degradation. This study evaluated land use and tillage systems in Yellow Latosol, very clayey, by physical attributes determinated in 0.0-0.2 and 0.2-0.4 m depths, in Universidade do Amazonas, Manaus (AM. The land used and tillage systems were: corn, orange, peach palm, guarana, pasture, capoeira and forest. Deforestation, slash-burning and mechanizated operation of tillage and manage were used on corn, orange, peach palm and pasture systems. Soil properties (particle size, clay

  17. Progression of the load of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases in the State of Amazonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Marilaine; Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Moura, Marco Antonio Saboia; Santos, Eyde Cristianne Saraiva; Saraceni, Valéria; Saraiva, Maria Graças Gomes

    2015-01-01

    In the State of Amazonas, Brazil, urban expansion together with precarious basic sanitation conditions and human settlement on river banks has contributed to the persistence of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases. Time series of the recorded cases of cholera, typhoid fever, hepatitis A and leptospirosis are described, using data from different levels of the surveillance systems. The sources for intestinal parasitosis prevalence data (non-compulsory reporting in Brazil) were Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE), Literatura Latino-Americana (LILACS) and the annals of major scientific meetings. Relevant papers and abstracts in all languages were accessed by two independent reviewers. The references cited by each relevant paper were scrutinized to locate additional papers. Despite its initial dissemination across the entire State of Amazonas, cholera was controlled in 1998. The magnitude of typhoid fever has decreased; however, a pattern characterized by eventual outbreaks still remains. Leptospirosis is an increasing cause of concern in association with the annual floods. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites is high regardless of the municipality and the characteristics of areas and populations. The incidence of hepatitis A has decreased over the past decade. A comparison of older and recent surveys shows that the prevalence of intestinal parasitic diseases has remained constant. The load of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases ranks high among the health problems present in the State of Amazonas. Interventions aiming at basic sanitation and vaccination for hepatitis A were formulated and implemented, but assessment of their effectiveness in the targeted populations is still needed. PMID:26061370

  18. Briófitas de Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil Bryophytes from Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Yano; Paulo Eduardo A.S. Câmara

    2004-01-01

    Foram listadas 74 espécies de briófitas para a cidade de Manaus, Amazonas, sendo 41 espécies de musgos distribuídos em 24 gêneros e 15 famílias e 33 hepáticas em 17 gêneros e sete famílias. Destas, 17 espécies de briófitas são ocorrências novas para Manaus e para o estado do Amazonas. T. ligulaefolium (Bartr.) Buck é uma ocorrência nova para o Brasil. São apresentadas associações com outras briófitas e comparação com outras espécies urbanas.This survey lists 74 species of bryophytes from Mana...

  19. Evaluation of cryolite from pitinga (Amazonas-Brazil as a source of hydrogen fluoride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica F. Paulino

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the use of cryolite from the Pitinga Mine (Amazonas state, Brazil as raw material in hydrogen fluoride production. Samples were initially characterized by chemical and mineralogical analyses. They presented low silica content (< 4 wt.%. After milling, cryolite samples were digested with concentrated sulfuric acid under stirring (200 rpm and variable temperature, time and liquid to solid ratio conditions. Under the best experimental conditions (140 °C, 3-5 h, 96 wt.% of fluorine was recovered as hydrogen fluoride. The application of a 23 full factorial design showed that temperature and reaction time were relevant parameters during leaching, whereas liquid to solid ratio was not statistically significant.

  20. Ocorrência da Mansonella ozzardi (Nematoda, Onchocercidae em comunidades ribeirinhas do rio Purus, Município de Boca do Acre, Amazonas, Brasil Occurrence of Mansonella ozzardi (Nematoda, Onchocercidae in riverine communities of the Purus river, Boca do Acre municipality, Amazonas State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Fernandes Medeiros

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve o objetivo de estimar as prevalências de Mansonella ozzardi e calcular taxa de infecção parasitária nos simulídeos. O trabalho foi realizado em comunidades ribeirinhas do rio Purus, Boca do Acre, Amazonas, Brasil. As prevalências foram obtidas por meio do método de gota espessa de sangue obtido por porção digital. Os simulídeos coletados foram dissecados para estimar a taxa de infecção parasitária. A prevalência de M. ozzardi foi de 27,3% (282/77. Foram observadas maiores prevalências nos homens (31,97% que nas mulheres (22,22%, nos agricultores (48% e nos indivíduos entre: 38-47 (60%, 48-57 (66,66% e 58-67 (75%. A microfilaremia foi maior nos indivíduos entre 58-67 anos (média = 58,41mf/40µL, sexo masculino (41,44mf/40µL e nos agricultores (49,94mf/40µL. Somente o simulídeo Cerqueirellum amazonicum foi encontrado infectado com taxa de infecção parasitária de 0,98%.The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of Mansonella ozzardi and calculate the parasitic infection rate in simuliid blackflies. The research was conducted in communities on the Purus River, Boca do Acre municipality, Amazonas State, Brazil. Prevalence was measured using the thick smear method. Captured blackflies were dissected to verify the parasitic infection rate. M. ozzardi prevalence was 27.30% (77/282. The study showed higher prevalence in men (31.97% than women (22.22%, farmers (48.99%, and individuals in the 38-47 (60.00%, 48-57 (66.66%, and 58-67-year age brackets (75.00%. Microfilaremia was higher in individuals 58 to 67 years of age (average= 58.41mf/40µl, men (41.44mf/40µl, and farmers (49.94mf/40µl. Only the simuliid Cerqueirellum amazonicum was found infected with a parasitic infection rate of 0.98%.

  1. Insetos associados a gravioleira (Annona muricata L., Annonaceae) na regiao de Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Hamada, N.; Gomes, A.L.S.; Couturier, Guy; Ronchi-Teles, B.

    1998-01-01

    Insects collected on soursop (#Annonaceae$ : #Annona muricat$ L.) nearby Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, are reported. Thirty-seven species were found, but only six were considered injurious to the plant : #Bephratelloides pomorum$ F. (#Eurytomidae$), #Cerconota anonella$ Sepp (#Stenomatidae$), #Membracis suctifructus$ Boulard & Couturier (#Membracidade$) and Pinnaspis aspidistrae$ Signoret (#Diaspididae$) attacking fruits ; #Aphis spiraecola$ Patch and #Aphis gossypii$ Glover (#Aphididae$) feeding...

  2. Mites (Arachnida, Acari) on Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck orange trees in the state of Amazonas, Northern Brazil Ácarofauna de Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck no estado do Amazonas, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Teiamar da Encarnação Bobot; Elizabeth Franklin; Denise Navia; Thierry Ray Jehlen Gasnier; Antonio Carlos Lofego; Byatryz Mortágua de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Despite the importance of citriculture in Brazil, very little is known about mite populations in citrus crops in the Northern Region. In the municipality of Manaus, 12 sprayed sweet orange orchards were surveyed every two weeks during seven months to record mite species amount, and to describe the abundance and distribution of the most important species. The size and age of the orchards varied from 3,360 to 88,080 m² and seven to 25 years, respectively. In the fourteen sampling period, leaves...

  3. Mites (Arachnida, Acari on Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck orange trees in the state of Amazonas, Northern Brazil Ácarofauna de Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck no estado do Amazonas, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teiamar da Encarnação Bobot

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of citriculture in Brazil, very little is known about mite populations in citrus crops in the Northern Region. In the municipality of Manaus, 12 sprayed sweet orange orchards were surveyed every two weeks during seven months to record mite species amount, and to describe the abundance and distribution of the most important species. The size and age of the orchards varied from 3,360 to 88,080 m² and seven to 25 years, respectively. In the fourteen sampling period, leaves, twigs and fruits were collected from 12 trees, one per orchard. In total, 3,360 leaves, 672 twigs and 1,344 fruits were sampled from 168 trees. Mites were manually extracted from the fruits, and by the washing method on leaves and twigs. We identified pests with the potential to cause economic loss. Fourteen species of phytophagous and mycophagous mites from Eriophyidae, Tarsonemidae, Tenuipalpidae, and Tetranychidae were recorded. Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes 1939 and Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashm., 1879, the two commonest phytophagous mites in other Brazilian regions were dominant, showing that local orchards are susceptible to their infestation. Eleven predatory mites were recorded, comprising 10% of the mite population, belonging to Phytoseiidae and Ascidae. Phytoseiidae was the richest family, with ten species. The results are discussed in relation to the temporal variation aspects and habitat use of the most important species. Long-term research encompassing chemical applications followed by evaluations of the mite community are necessary for a better management of the orchards, taking into consideration the seasonal phenology of key pests.Apesar da importância da citricultura no Brasil, pouco se conhece sobre as populações de ácaros em plantações de citros no norte do país. No município de Manaus, 12 pomares de laranja doce pulverizados foram avaliados a cada duas semanas, durante sete meses, para o registro de ácaros plantícolas e

  4. The generation of electric power in a model of endogenous development: possible solutions for isolated communities in the Amazonas State, Brazil; A geracao de energia eletrica em um modelo de desenvolvimento endogeno: possiveis solucoes para as comunidades isoladas do interior do estado do Amazonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Andre Frazao; Cavaliero, Carla Kazue Nakao [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2006-07-01

    This work was developed to fit the generation of electric energy for the isolated communities of the interior of the Amazonas State in a context of endogenous development. A regional development is proposed, with the inclusion of the generation of electric energy for these communities in a context of development, rather than the isolated form proposed in the federal government electrification program of 'Luz Para Todos' (Light For All). (author)

  5. Employment and income generation within the framework of the 'Luz para todos' program in the State of Amazonas, Brazil; Geracao de emprego e renda no ambito do programa Luz para Todos no estado do Amazonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Rubem Cesar Rodrigues; Moraes, Betsy Eddy Praia; Souza, Cristiane Daliassi Ramos de [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Centro de Desenvolvimento Energetico Amazonico

    2008-07-01

    The low level of the electric demand to be accomplished in the isolated Amazon communities, associated to the low purchasing power of those populations and the high costs for electrification of these, they impose the implementation of concrete actions of generation of job and income when it intend to assure the universalization of the electric power service in isolated Amazon communities, as ir the case of the program 'Luz para Todos'. The present article shows that is being developed by the committee state manager of the program 'Luz para Todos' in the amazon state, demonstrating that it is possible to assure good results since the effective involvement of several agents is made possible. (author)

  6. Clinical and virological descriptive study in the 2011 outbreak of dengue in the Amazonas, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valquiria do Carmo Alves Martins

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue is a vector-borne disease in the tropical and subtropical region of the world and is transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti. In the state of Amazonas, Brazil during the 2011 outbreak of dengue all the four Dengue virus (DENV serotypes circulating simultaneously were observed. The aim of the study was to describe the clinical epidemiology of dengue in Manaus, the capital city of the state of the Amazonas, where all the four DENV serotypes were co-circulating simultaneously. METHODOLOGY: Patients with acute febrile illness during the 2011 outbreak of dengue, enrolled at the Fundação de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Viera Dourado (FMT-HVD, a referral centre for tropical and infectious diseases in Manaus, were invited to participate in a clinical and virological descriptive study. Sera from 677 patients were analyzed by RT-nested-PCRs for flaviviruses (DENV 1-4, Saint Louis encephalitis virus-SLEV, Bussuquara virus-BSQV and Ilheus virus-ILHV, alphavirus (Mayaro virus-MAYV and orthobunyavirus (Oropouche virus-OROV. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Only dengue viruses were detected in 260 patients (38.4%. Thirteen patients were co-infected with more than one DENV serotype and six (46.1% of them had a more severe clinical presentation of the disease. Nucleotide sequencing showed that DENV-1 belonged to genotype V, DENV-2 to the Asian/American genotype, DENV-3 to genotype III and DENV-4 to genotype II. CONCLUSIONS: Co-infection with more than one DENV serotype was observed. This finding should be warning signs to health authorities in situations of the large dispersal of serotypes that are occurring in the world.

  7. Palynostratigraphy and sedimentary facies of Middle Miocene fluvial deposits of the Amazonas Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dino, Rodolfo; Soares, Emílio Alberto Amaral; Antonioli, Luzia; Riccomini, Claudio; Nogueira, Afonso César Rodrigues

    2012-03-01

    Palynostratigraphic and sedimentary facies analyses were made on sedimentary deposits from the left bank of the Solimões River, southwest of Manaus, State of Amazonas, Brazil. These provided the age-dating and subdivision of a post-Cretaceous stratigraphic succession in the Amazonas Basin. The Novo Remanso Formation is subdivided into upper and lower units, and delineated by discontinuous surfaces at its top and bottom. The formation consists primarily of sandstones and minor mudstones and conglomerates, reflecting fluvial channel, point bar and floodplain facies of a fluvial meandering paleosystem. Fairly well-preserved palynoflora was recovered from four palynologically productive samples collected in a local irregular concentration of gray clay deposits, rich in organic material and fossilized wood, at the top of the Novo Remanso Formation upper unit. The palynoflora is dominated by terrestrial spores and pollen grains, and is characterized by abundant angiosperm pollen grains ( Tricolpites, Grimsdalea, Perisyncolporites, Tricolporites and Malvacearumpollis). Trilete spores are almost as abundant as the angiosperm pollen, and are represented mainly by the genera Deltoidospora, Verrutriletes, and Hamulatisporis. Gymnosperm pollen is scarce. The presence of the index species Grimsdalea magnaclavata Germeraad et al. (1968) indicates that these deposits belong to the Middle Miocene homonymous palynozone (Lorente, 1986; Hoorn, 1993; Jaramillo et al., 2011). Sedimentological characteristics (poorly sorted, angular to sub-angular, fine to very-coarse quartz sands facies) are typical of the Novo Remanso Formation upper part. These are associated with a paleoflow to the NE-E and SE-E, and with an entirely lowland-derived palinofloristic content with no Andean ferns and gymnosperms representatives. All together, this suggests a cratonic origin for this Middle Miocene fluvial paleosystem, which was probably born in the Purus Arch eastern flank and areas surrounding the

  8. Progression of the load of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases in the State of Amazonas

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    Marilaine Martins

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the State of Amazonas, Brazil, urban expansion together with precarious basic sanitation conditions and human settlement on river banks has contributed to the persistence of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases. Time series of the recorded cases of cholera, typhoid fever, hepatitis A and leptospirosis are described, using data from different levels of the surveillance systems. The sources for intestinal parasitosis prevalence data (non-compulsory reporting in Brazil were Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE, Literatura Latino-Americana (LILACS and the annals of major scientific meetings. Relevant papers and abstracts in all languages were accessed by two independent reviewers. The references cited by each relevant paper were scrutinized to locate additional papers. Despite its initial dissemination across the entire State of Amazonas, cholera was controlled in 1998. The magnitude of typhoid fever has decreased; however, a pattern characterized by eventual outbreaks still remains. Leptospirosis is an increasing cause of concern in association with the annual floods. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites is high regardless of the municipality and the characteristics of areas and populations. The incidence of hepatitis A has decreased over the past decade. A comparison of older and recent surveys shows that the prevalence of intestinal parasitic diseases has remained constant. The load of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases ranks high among the health problems present in the State of Amazonas. Interventions aiming at basic sanitation and vaccination for hepatitis A were formulated and implemented, but assessment of their effectiveness in the targeted populations is still needed.

  9. USE OF SCALED SEMIVARIOGRAMS IN THE PLANNING SAMPLE OF SOIL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES IN SOUTHERN AMAZONAS, BRAZIL

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    Ivanildo Amorim de Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The lack of information concerning the variability of soil properties has been a major concern of researchers in the Amazon region. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial variability of soil chemical properties and determine minimal sampling density to characterize the variability of these properties in five environments located in the south of the State of Amazonas, Brazil. The five environments were archaeological dark earth (ADE, forest, pasture land, agroforestry operation, and sugarcane crop. Regular 70 × 70 m mesh grids were set up in these areas, with 64 sample points spaced at 10 m distance. Soil samples were collected at the 0.0-0.1 m depth. The chemical properties of pH in water, OM, P, K, Ca, Mg, H+Al, SB, CEC, and V were determined at these points. Data were analyzed by descriptive and geostatistical analyses. A large part of the data analyzed showed spatial dependence. Chemical properties were best fitted to the spherical model in almost all the environments evaluated, except for the sugarcane field with a better fit to the exponential model. ADE and sugarcane areas had greater heterogeneity of soil chemical properties, showing a greater range and higher sampling density; however, forest and agroforestry areas had less variability of chemical properties.

  10. Miocardiopatia dilatada em pacientes com infecção chagásica crônica: relato de dois casos fatais autóctones do Rio Negro, Estado do Amazonas Dilated cardiomyopathy in patients with chronic chagasic infection: report of two fatal autochthonous cases from Rio Negro, State of Amazonas, Brazil

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    Pedro Viñas Albajar

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Dois casos fatais de miocardiopatia chagásica crônica dilatada são relatados pela primeira vez em pacientes autóctones do rio Negro, Estado do Amazonas. Ambos os casos, um homem de 45 anos de idade e uma mulher de 44, nasceram e viveram toda a vida na região do Rio Negro, no norte do estado do Amazonas, tendo sido picados numerosas vezes por triatomineos silvestres em piaçabais da área. Os pacientes que tiveram as reações sorológicas positivas para anticorpos anti-Trypanosoma cruzi (imunofluorescência, ELISA e Wertern blot desenvolveram nos últimos 5-7 anos um quadro de insuficiência cardíaca progressivo, com aumento global da área cardíaca, bloqueios atrioventricular e de ramo esquerdo e extrassístoles ventriculares, faleceram de insuficiência cardíaca irreversível. Um dos casos em que foi feita a biópsia cardíaca cirúrgica pós-mortem, mostrou na histopatologia, miocardite crônica com infiltrado mononuclear difuso, com áreas de adensamento celular, fibrose, dissociação, fragmentação e hialinização de fibras cardíacas, sugestivo de miocardite chagásica crônica e o PCR in situ foi positivo para Trypanosoma cruzi.Two fatal cases of human chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy are reported, for the first time, in autochthonous patients from Rio Negro, Amazonas state. Both cases, (45 year old man and 44 year old woman who were born and lived their whole lives in the Rio Negro region, in the northern part of the state of Amazonas, reported having been bitten several times by triatomine bugs in their camping huts while gathering piaçava fibers. The patients, who had confirmed positive serology for Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies (indirect immunofluorescence, ELISA and Western blot, developed in the last 5-7 years a progressive cardiac failure, with global enlargement of the heart, atrioventricular and left bundle branch block, ventricular extrasystoles, both dying from irreversible cardiac insufficiency. The histopathology of

  11. Papagaio-de-peito-roxo Amazona vinacea (Kuhl (Aves: Psittacidae no norte do Espírito Santo: redescoberta e conservação Vinaceous Amazon Amazona vinacea (Kuhl (Aves: Psittacidae in the northern region of Espirito Santo state, southeastern Brazil: rediscovery and conservation

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    Lucas A. Carrara

    2008-03-01

    endangered in Brazil and at the international level. Lack of recent reports north of Rio de Janeiro state, including the northern portion of Espírito Santo state (where it had been found probably till 1991 suggested the species had vanished from this part of the range. The present paper reports the rediscovery of A. vinacea in Alto Rio Novo region, northwestern Espírito Santo. Two flocks were seen in two different places, the largest one with 28 parrots was found in December 2005. The flocks of A. vinacea were eating seeds of Anadenanthera sp. (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae, a new resource for this parrot. Historical data list places up to 35 km from the two localities where the flocks were now found, stressing its regional importance for the Vinaceous Amazon. However, the continuous habitat degradation of the last forest remnants in the region and illegal capture of nestlings are considered the main constrain for this population's conservation. As recently as December 2002, the Pontões Capixabas National Park has been created. It is the first Conservation Unit in the mountains of northern Espírito Santo state. Luckily, it protects a historical place of the Vinaceous Amazon in the region and encompasses forested remnants suitable for the species. Its current limit is some 10 km apart from one of the places where the parrot was found in this study. Besides the conservation, data gathering on the Vinaceous Amazon populations in northwestern Espírito Santo state and the nearby region of Minas Gerais state are critical for the species future in the area. A management plan could be then established, aiming to conserve the current northernmost currently known population of this parrot.

  12. Amazonas project: Application of remote sensing techniques for the integrated survey of natural resources in Amazonas. [Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The use of LANDSAT multispectral scanner and return beam vidicon imagery for surveying the natural resources of the Brazilian Amazonas is described. Purposes of the Amazonas development project are summarized. The application of LANDSAT imagery to identification of vegetation coverage and soil use, identification of soil types, geomorphology, and geology and highway planning is discussed. An evaluation of the worth of LANDSAT imagery in mapping the region is presented. Maps generated by the project are included.

  13. Natural Deaths Of Giant Otters (Pteronura brasiliensis In Balbina Hydroelectric Lake, Amazonas, Brazil

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    Weber Rosas F.C.

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available In 1987 the Brazilian Northern Electric Company (ELETRONORTE finished damming the Uatumã River that formed the 3,246 km2 lake (containing 3,299 islands of the Balbina hydroelectric power station. In 2001, through a project entitled "Social organization, behavior and diet of the giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis in the influenced area of Balbina hydroelectric power station, Amazonas, Brazil", the authors started to study giant otters in the reservoir (de MATTOS et al., 2002; ZUANON et al., 2002. Despite being an enormous area, we managed to record two dead otters in the lake.

  14. Aspectos epidemiológicos e clínicos dos acidentes ofídicos ocorridos nos municípios do Estado do Amazonas Epidemiological and clinical aspects of snake accidentes in the municipalities of the State of Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célio Campos Borges

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available No Amazonas, o acidente ofídico é um problema de saúde pública pouco conhecido. Por este motivo, foi realizado um estudo descritivo dos acidentes ofídicos atendidos nas Unidades de Saúde de 34 municípios, um distrito e dois pelotões de fronteira do Estado do Amazonas. As características mais comuns encontradas dentre os pacientes foram: agricultor (50,4%, do sexo masculino (81,3%, em idade produtiva (72,1%, picado no membro inferior (88,5%, por jararaca (48,6% ou surucucu (46,8%, na zona rural de seu município (70,2% e que só recebeu atendimento médico em tempo superior a seis horas, após acidente (57,3%. As manifestações locais mais freqüentes foram: edema (76,9%, dor (68,7%, eritema (10,2% e hemorragia (9,3%. Hemorragia (18,8% foi a manifestação sistêmica mais freqüente. O antiveneno foi administrado em apenas 65,9% dos pacientes. A via mais utilizada foi a endovenosa (52,3%, sendo relevante o uso de vias não mais recomendadas (47,7%. O antiveneno administrado, na maioria dos pacientes, foi o antibotrópico (66,7%. As complicações mais freqüentes foram abcesso (13,7%, necrose (12,3%, infecção secundária (8,3%, insuficiência renal (2,5% e gangrena (2,5%. Os procedimentos médicos mais usados para o tratamento das complicações foram: drenagem (52,6%, debridamento (28,9%, amputação (10,5%, limpeza cirúrgica (5,3% e diálise peritoneal (2,6%. A letalidade foi de 1%.In the State of Amazonas, accidents with snakes are a public health problem. For this reasons, the objective of this work was to carry out a descriptive study of the snake accidents attended in the health units of 34 municipalities, one district and two border platoons in the State of Amazonas. The characteristics most commonly observed among those involved in snake accidents were: farmers (50.4%, male (81.3%, belonging to the working age-group (72.1%, bitten on an upper limb (88.5% by a "jararaca" (48.6% or a "surucucu" (46.8% in the rural part of the

  15. Protozoários e metazoários parasitos do cardinal Paracheirodon axelrodi Schultz, 1956 (Characidae, peixe ornamental proveniente de exportador de Manaus, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i1.872 Protozoan and metazoan parasites of the cardinal Paracheirodon axelrodi Schultz, 1956 (Characidae, ornamental fish from Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i1.872

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    Maria Leonora Silva Brito

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Os estudos sobre a parasitofauna de peixes ornamentais cultivados são de grande relevância para o conhecimento das espécies de parasitos, permitindo interferência em sua proliferação para evitar epizootias e, consequentemente, perdas econômicas na criação. O presente estudo investigou a prevalência e intensidade de parasitos protozoários e metazoários em cardinal Paracheirodon axelrodi (N = 89, mantidos em tanques de um exportador de Manaus, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil. Dos espécimes de P. axelrodi necropsiados, 65,2% (N = 58 estavam parasitados pelos Protozoa Piscinoodinium pillulare (3,4% e Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (7,9%, Monogenoidea Gyrodactylus sp. (42,7%, Nematoda Procamallanus sp. (23,6% e Trematoda (1,1%. Gyrodactylus sp. e Procamallanus sp., porém, foram os parasitos de maior prevalência e intensidade. Apesar da elevada prevalência de parasitismo em P. axelrodi durante a sua permanência no exportador, a intensidade de protozoários e metazoários foi baixa pelo manejo profilático nos tanques. Os resultados demonstram que os cuidados com tratamento e profilaxia são de extrema importância na aquicultura de peixes ornamentais.Studies regarding parasites fauna in farmed ornamental fish are of great relevance for knowledge of the parasites species, allowing interference in their proliferation to avoid epizooties and consequently, economical losses. This study was designed to investigate the protozoan and metazoan parasites prevalence and intensity on cardinal Paracheirodon axelrodi, maintained in tanks of an exporter from Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil. On necropsy 65.2% of P. axelrodi were found parasitized by Piscinoodium pillulare, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Protozoa, Gyrodactylus sp. (Monogenoidea, Procamallanus sp. (Nematoda and Trematoda. Gyrodactylus sp. (42.7% and Procamallanus sp. (23.6% were the parasites of greatest prevalence, and protozoan I. multifiliis was the parasite of greatest mean intensity (4

  16. Estudo das parasitoses intestinais e da infecção chagásica no Município de Novo Airão, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil Cross-sectional study of intestinal parasites and Chagas' disease in the Municipality of Novo Airão, State of Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio N. Boia

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo seccional descritivo em uma amostra sistemática por conglomerado de uma em cada dez famílias residentes na sede do Município de Novo Airão, na meso-região norte do Estado do Amazonas, a 250 quilômetros de Manaus por via fluvial. De cada um dos residentes nos 89 domicílios da amostra foram solicitadas fezes para exame pelos métodos de sedimentação de Lutz e pelo Baermann-Moraes-Coutinho e colhido sangue por punção venosa para testes de ELISA e imunofluorescência para pesquisa de anticorpos anti-Trypanosoma cruzi. O exame de 316 amostras de fezes mostrou 87,6% com um ou mais parasitos: 35,1% com Ascaris lumbricoides, 29,1% com Entamoeba histolytica, 17,4% com Giardia lamblia e outros parasitos com menor prevalência. Estes resultados foram correlacionados com a falta de saneamento e de suprimento de água tratada. De 346 soros examinados 16 (4,6% foram reativos para anticorpos anti-Trypanosoma cruzi, mas somente em três deles houve correlação entre este resultado e o contacto das pessoas com triatomíneos silvestres, conhecidos localmente como "piolho da piaçava".A cross-sectional study was performed on the residents of one in every ten households in the town of Novo Airão, in the northern meso-region of the State of Amazonas, 250 kilometers from Manaus by riverboat. A family cluster sample of 89 dwellings was studied. A stool sample was requested from each of the inhabitants for examination using the Lutz sedimentation and Baermann-Moraes-Coutinho techniques, and blood was taken by venous puncture for Trypanosoma cruzi ELISA antibody testing and immunofluorescence. From a total of 316 stool samples, 87.6% had one or more parasites: Ascaris lumbricoides (35.1%, Entamoeba histolytica (29.1%, Giardia lamblia (17.4%, and other parasites with lower prevalence rates. These results were directly correlated with lack of sanitation and clean water supply. Of the 346 sera examined, 16 (4.6% were reactive to T

  17. Perfil demográfico dos Hupd'äh, povo Maku da região do Alto Rio Negro, Amazonas (2000-2003 Perfil demográfico de los Hupd'äh, pueblo Maku de la región del Alto Rio Negro, Amazonas (2000-2003 Demographic profile of the Hupd'äh, a Maku people living the Upper Rio Negro Region, State of Amazonas, Brazil (2000-2003

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    Marina Machado

    2009-06-01

    íticas públicas que la favorezcan y para los debates en antropología, demografía y salud indígena. La población de 1.487 individuos, en 2003, creció un 8,4% al año en el período estudiado. Su composición por edad y sexo indica concentración de jóvenes (44,9% con menos de 15 años, además de la predominancia de población del sexo masculino. La tasa bruta de natalidad (TBN media del período fue de 33,4 nacimientos por mil habitantes, la de fecundidad total (TFT correspondió a 3,4 hijos por mujer, la de mortalidad (TBM fue de 10 muertes por mil habitantes y la de mortalidad infantil (TMI llegó a 116,3 muertes por mil nacimientos. El perfeccionamiento de la recolección de informaciones, el elevado crecimiento vegetativo y la intensa movilidad espacial de los Hupd'äh podrían explicar el alto ritmo de crecimiento verificado entre 2000 y 2003.The Hupd'äh are a people of the Maku language who live in the Upper Rio Negro Region in Amazonas, Brazil. Indigenous leaders, anthropologists, missionaries and health professionals all say that this population lives under very precarious conditions of health, with high overall and child mortality rates. On the basis of data derived from the Special Indigenous District of Rio Negro (DSEI-RN, of Funasa/MS, for the period of 2000-2003, a descriptive study was conducted to evaluate the demographic and general profiles of the group The study also had the objective of contributing to the implementation of public policies for them, and for debates in the areas of anthropology, demography and indigenous health. The population of 1,487 individuals in 2003 grew 8.4% per year during the period studied. Composition by age and sex indicates a concentration of young people (44.9% under the age of 15, and a greater percentage of males. The average gross fertility rate (TBN for the period was 33.4 births per 1000 inhabitants, and total fertility (TFT was 3.4 children per woman. Mortality rate (TBM was 10 deaths per 1000 inhabitants and

  18. A brief historic of the evolution of the energy sources in relation to the economical occupation in Amazon State, North Brazil; A evolucao do uso da energia em funcao da ocupacao economica do Estado do Amazonas: um breve historico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartaxo, Elizabeth F. [Amazonas Univ., Manaus, AM (Brazil). Faculdade de Tecnologia. Dept. de Eletricidade; Furtado, Andre T. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents the relation between the economical cycles and energy use in Amazon State, North Brazil, since pre-colombian times until present date, giving special attention to the natural rubber economic phase, which is presented in details 6 refs., 2 tabs.

  19. Natural gas: The option for a sustainable development and energy in the state of Amazonas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The historical scenery of the fossil fuels used for power generation in the state of Amazonas (AM), indicates a great economic loss and imposes severe restrictions on the regional development of the region. This urged the necessity of seeking alternative energy sources that are cleaner, safer and less expensive. In this way, the province of Urucu's natural gas, in Coari-city of the state of Amazonas (AM), presents itself as the best short term option to substitute the petroleum derived liquid fuels by the natural gas for operating thermoelectric power plants not only in the city of Manaus-capital of the state of Amazonas, but also in the other seven cities in the state along the main trajectory of the Coari-Manaus pipeline. Additionally, natural gas can be considered as a viable option for the implantation of the natural gas based chemical pole in the state. In a manner the natural gas will be used for the implantation of many gas based projects highly sustainable and will certainly result in numerous improvements in the state of Amazonas from the social, economic and ambient points of view.

  20. Psychometric properties of the OHIP-14 and prevalence and severity of oral health impacts in a rural riverine population in Amazonas State, Brazil Avaliação das propriedades psicométricas do OHIP-14 e da prevalência dos impactos da saúde bucal, em população rural ribeirinha no Amazonas, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Cohen-Carneiro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were: (1 test the psychometric properties of OHIP-14 in a rural population; and (2 compare the oral health impacts in two riverine communities in the Brazilian Amazon that were living at different distances from an urban center. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional study in a consecutive sample (n = 126. The validity was assessed through the association of OHIP with clinical and subjective variables, which showed a more significant association with: pain, caries, need of extraction or endodontic treatment; than with tooth loss, periodontal disease or need of prostheses. The stability and internal consistency were good (ICC = 0.97; Cronbach's α = 0.89. The prevalence of oral impacts was greater in the community far from the urban center [70.3 (59.9-80.7] than in the community closer to it [44.3 (30.7-57.7], and in women [66.7 (56.0-77.3] in comparison with men [49.1 (35.3-62.7]. The OHIP-14 adapted to rural populations in Amazonas State was valid, reproducible, and consistent. There was high prevalence of impacts, especially for riverine communities that lived far from urban centers.Os objetivos do trabalho foram: (1 testar as propriedades psicométricas do OHIP-14 em população rural e (2 comparar os impactos da saúde bucal em duas comunidades ribeirinhas amazônicas, com diferentes distâncias do centro urbano. Os dados foram obtidos de uma amostra consecutiva de pacientes (n = 126 em estudo de corte transversal. A validade do instrumento foi testada pela associação do OHIP com variáveis clínicas e subjetivas, sendo mais significativa para as variáveis: dor, cárie, necessidade de extração e de endodontia que para perda dentária, doença periodontal e necessidade de prótese. Estabilidade e consistência interna foram boas (CCI = 0,97; α Cronbach = 0,89. A prevalência de impactos foi maior na comunidade mais distante do centro urbano [70,3 (59,9-80,7] que na mais próxima [44,3 (30,7-57,7], e nas

  1. The paleozoic of Amazonas basin south edge: Tapajos river, Para state; O paleozoico da borda sul da bacia do Amazonas: rio Tapajos, estado do Para

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Nilo Siguehiko [Petrobras E e P, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Exploracao. Estratigrafia e Sedimentologia Geologia Aplicada a Exploracao], E-mail: nilo@petrobras.com.br; Winter, Wilson Rubem [Petrobras, Campoas dos Goytacases, RJ (Brazil). Exploracao. Sedimentologia e Estratigrafia], E-mail: winter@petrobras.com.br; Wanderley Filho, Joaquim Ribeiro; Cacela, Alessandra Suzely Moda [Petrobras, Manaus, AM (Brazil). Exploracao. Unidade de Operacoes de Exploracao e Producao da Amazonia], Emails: jwand@petrobras.com.br, alessandra.suzely@petrobras.com.br

    2009-11-15

    The intracratonic Amazonas Basin covers an area close to 500.000km{sup 2} shared between the Amazonas and Para states. The phanerozoic stratigraphic framework is up to 6.000m thick and may be subdivided into two, first order depositional sequences: the Paleozoic sequence, intruded by diabase dikes and sills and the Mesozoic-Cenozoic sequence. Analyzing the stratigraphic framework, the great tectonic influence on the basin development can be appreciated. The mainly NW-SE structural directions of the basement, which mark the boundaries of the geochronological provinces of the Amazonas, are clearly identified along the Tapajos River. The Paleozoic sequence outcrops on the southern border of the Amazonas Basin embraces potential source rocks, reservoirs and seal rocks. They can be subdivided in three, second order sequences, limited by regional unconformities, as: the Ordovician/Devonian, which corresponds to the Pitinga lithostratigraphic formation; the Devonian-Tournaisian, which corresponds to the Maecuru, Erere, Barreirinha and Curiri formations and, the Pensylvanian-Permian that are represented by the Monte Alegre and Itaituba formations. This field trip guide presents these classic lithostratigraphic outcrop units, together with a brief sedimentological description and an analysis of their positioning related to sequence stratigraphical concepts. (author)

  2. Molecular typing of environmental Cryptococcus neoformans/C. gattii species complex isolates from Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Gleica Soyan Barbosa; Freire, Ana Karla Lima; Bentes, Amaury Dos Santos; Pinheiro, José Felipe de Souza; de Souza, João Vicente Braga; Wanke, Bodo; Matsuura, Takeshi; Jackisch-Matsuura, Ani Beatriz

    2016-08-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are the main causative agents of cryptococcosis, a systemic fungal disease that affects internal organs and skin, and which is acquired by inhalation of spores or encapsulated yeasts. It is currently known that the C. neoformans/C. gattii species complex has a worldwide distribution, however, some molecular types seem to prevail in certain regions. Few environmental studies of Cryptococcus have been conducted in the Brazilian Amazon. This is the first ecological study of the pathogenic fungi C. neoformans/C. gattii species complex in the urban area of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. A total of 506 samples from pigeon droppings (n = 191), captive bird droppings (n = 60) and tree hollows (n = 255) were collected from June 2012 to January 2014 at schools and public buildings, squares, pet shops, households, the zoo and the bus station. Samples were plated on niger seed agar (NSA) medium supplemented with chloramphenicol and incubated at 25°C for 5 days. Dark-brown colonies were isolated and tested for thermotolerance at 37°C, cycloheximide resistance and growth on canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue agar. Molecular typing was done by PCR-RFLP. Susceptibility to the antifungal drugs amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole and ketoconazole was tested using Etest(®) strips. In total, 13 positive samples were obtained: one tree hollow (C. gattiiVGII), nine pigeon droppings (C. neoformansVNI) and three captive bird droppings (C. neoformansVNI). The environmental cryptococcal isolates found in this study were of the same molecular types as those responsible for infections in Manaus. PMID:27005969

  3. Mansonella ozzardi in the municipality of Tefé, Amazonas, Brazil, 60 years after the first report: an epidemiologic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Jansen Fernandes; Rodrigues, Moreno Souza; Katsuragawa, Tony Hiroshi; Costa, Cristóvão Alves; Pessoa, Felipe Arley Costa

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of mansonelliasis was studied in the municipality of Tefé, state of Amazonas, Brazil. The prevalence (thick blood smear method) was 13.6% (147/1,078), higher in the Solimões River region (16.3%) than in the Tefé River region (6.3%). In the sampled communities in the Solimões River region, a higher density of cases was observed, as indicated by a kernel analysis (odds ratio 0.34; 95% confidence interval: 0.20-0.57). Males had a higher prevalence (χ2 = 31.292, p < 0.001) than women. Mansonella ozzardi prevalence was higher in retirees and farmers (28.9% and 27%, respectively). Prevalence also significantly increased with age (χ2 = -128.17, p < 0.001), with the highest numbers occurring in persons older than 67 years. PMID:24863971

  4. Mansonella ozzardi in the municipality of Tefé, Amazonas, Brazil, 60 years after the first report: an epidemiologic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Fernandes Medeiros

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of mansonelliasis was studied in the municipality of Tefé, state of Amazonas, Brazil. The prevalence (thick blood smear method was 13.6% (147/1,078, higher in the Solimões River region (16.3% than in the Tefé River region (6.3%. In the sampled communities in the Solimões River region, a higher density of cases was observed, as indicated by a kernel analysis (odds ratio 0.34; 95% confidence interval: 0.20-0.57. Males had a higher prevalence (χ2 = 31.292, p < 0.001 than women. Mansonella ozzardi prevalence was higher in retirees and farmers (28.9% and 27%, respectively. Prevalence also significantly increased with age (χ2 = -128.17, p < 0.001, with the highest numbers occurring in persons older than 67 years.

  5. Hansen's disease in the state of Amazonas: policy and institutional treatment of a disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweickardt, Julio Cesar; Xerez, Luena Matheus de

    2015-12-01

    This article discusses the historical aspects of the policies for controlling Hansen's disease in the state of Amazonas from the second half of the nineteenth century until the dismantling of this model in 1978. We present the historical changes in the local institutions and policies, and their relationship with national policies. The history and policies related to Hansen's disease in the state of Amazonas are analyzed through the following institutions: Umirisal, the Oswaldo Cruz Dispensary, the Paricatuba Leprosarium, the Antônio Aleixo Colony, and the Gustavo Capanema Preventorium. We seek to show that these institutions cared for the people who suffered from Hansen's disease and those related to them, and were also responsible for carrying out the policies for fighting and controlling the disease. PMID:26625914

  6. Effects of xylem water transport on CO2 efflux of woody tissue in a tropical tree, Amazonas State

    OpenAIRE

    Kunert, N.; Mercado Cardenas, A.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the effect of xylem sap flux on radial CO2 efflux of woody tissue of a tropical trees species growing in the Center of Manaus (Amazonas State, Brazil). An open chamber system was used to constantly measure diurnal changes in CO2 efflux over several days. Xylem sap flux was monitored additionally. We found a strong relationship between temperature and woody tissue respiration rates during night time. CO2 efflux rates were reduced up to 35% during daytime most probably due to vertic...

  7. Biological behaviour in mice of Trypanosoma cruzi isolates from Amazonas and Paraná, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Reis, Daniele; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Bossolani, Gleison Daion Piovezana; Teston, Ana Paula Margioto; Gomes, Monica Lucia; de Araújo, Silvana Marques; Barbosa, Maria das Graças Vale; de Ornelas Toledo, Max Jean

    2012-04-01

    The biological behaviour of 23 Trypanosoma cruzi isolates in Swiss mice was compared. Nineteen isolates were obtained from patients in the acute phase of Chagas disease (13), sylvatic reservoir hosts (Didelphis marsupialis) (3), and triatomine bugs (Rhodnius robustus) (3) from four regions of the State of Amazonas (AM). Four isolates were obtained from chronic chagasic patients in the State of Paraná (PR): three autochthones, and one allochthone from the State of Minas Gerais. Only one isolate was unable to infect the mice. The AM and PR isolates showed the largest number of significant differences from each other. The former had lower mean values in the pre-patent (5.4 days) and patent (4.6 days) periods (PP), with the parasitaemia (Pmax) reaching a peak of 9.9×10(4) blood trypomastigotes (BT)/mL of blood by the 7th day following inoculation. The AM isolates also had higher positivity to fresh-blood examination (FBE) (84.1%) compared to haemoculture (HC) (58.7%) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (33.3%), in addition to higher mortality (2.9%). The PR isolates had higher values for PP (18.5 days) and Pmax (99.9×10(4)BT/mL) as well as higher positivity to FBE (87.2%), HC (100%), and PCR (83.3%). The correlations between the biological behaviour of the T. cruzi isolates and the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of Chagas disease are discussed. PMID:22406038

  8. Malaria in the State of Amazonas: a typical Brazilian tropical disease influenced by waves of economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderson Souza Sampaio

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, more than 99% of malaria cases are reported in the Amazon, and the State of Amazonas accounts for 40% of this total. However, the accumulated experience and challenges in controlling malaria in this region in recent decades have not been reported. Throughout the first economic cycle during the rubber boom (1879 to 1912, malaria was recorded in the entire state, with the highest incidence in the villages near the Madeira River in the Southern part of the State of Amazonas. In the 1970s, during the second economic development cycle, the economy turned to the industrial sector and demanded a large labor force, resulting in a large migratory influx to the capital Manaus. Over time, a gradual increase in malaria transmission was observed in peri-urban areas. In the 1990s, the stimulation of agroforestry, particularly fish farming, led to the formation of permanent Anopheline breeding sites and increased malaria in settlements. The estimation of environmental impacts and the planning of measures to mitigate them, as seen in the construction of the Coari-Manaus gas pipeline, proved effective. Considering the changes occurred since the Amsterdam Conference in 1992, disease control has been based on early diagnosis and treatment, but the development of parasites that are resistant to major antimalarial drugs in Brazilian Amazon has posed a new challenge. Despite the decreased lethality and the gradual decrease in the number of malaria cases, disease elimination, which should be associated with government programs for economic development in the region, continues to be a challenge.

  9. Malaria in the State of Amazonas: a typical Brazilian tropical disease influenced by waves of economic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Vanderson Souza; Siqueira, André Machado; Alecrim, Maria das Graças Costa; Mourão, Maria Paula Gomes; Marchesini, Paola Barbosa; Albuquerque, Bernardino Cláudio; Nascimento, Joabi; Figueira, Élder Augusto Guimarães; Alecrim, Wilson Duarte; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães

    2015-01-01

    In Brazil, more than 99% of malaria cases are reported in the Amazon, and the State of Amazonas accounts for 40% of this total. However, the accumulated experience and challenges in controlling malaria in this region in recent decades have not been reported. Throughout the first economic cycle during the rubber boom (1879 to 1912), malaria was recorded in the entire state, with the highest incidence in the villages near the Madeira River in the Southern part of the State of Amazonas. In the 1970s, during the second economic development cycle, the economy turned to the industrial sector and demanded a large labor force, resulting in a large migratory influx to the capital Manaus. Over time, a gradual increase in malaria transmission was observed in peri-urban areas. In the 1990s, the stimulation of agroforestry, particularly fish farming, led to the formation of permanent Anopheline breeding sites and increased malaria in settlements. The estimation of environmental impacts and the planning of measures to mitigate them, as seen in the construction of the Coari-Manaus gas pipeline, proved effective. Considering the changes occurred since the Amsterdam Conference in 1992, disease control has been based on early diagnosis and treatment, but the development of parasites that are resistant to major antimalarial drugs in Brazilian Amazon has posed a new challenge. Despite the decreased lethality and the gradual decrease in the number of malaria cases, disease elimination, which should be associated with government programs for economic development in the region, continues to be a challenge. PMID:26061365

  10. Limnological characterization of floodplain lakes in Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve, Central Amazon (Amazonas State, Brazil Caracterização limnológica dos lagos da planície de inundação na Reserva de Desenvolvimento Sustentável Mamirauá, Amazônia Central (Estado do Amazonas, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Gomes Affonso

    2011-03-01

    em 2009, e água baixa em 2008, 2009 e 2010; RESULTADOS: Os resultados mostraram que as variáveis medidas possuem uma alta variabilidade nos corpos d'água na região de estudo: a entre as fases da hidrógrafas; b entre os rios principais; e c entre as margens opostas do Rio Japurá, mostrando a importância do pulso de inundação na variação dos parâmetros físicos e químicos e ainda a em relação ao rio principal de alimentação; CONCLUSÕES: O monitoramento dos parâmetros físicos e químicos em Mamirauá servirá como futura referência para comparação com outras regiões menos preservadas, como o Baixo Amazonas, e ainda como linha de base para modelos sobre efeitos das mudanças climáticas e influências antropogênicas no ecossistema aquático Amazônico.

  11. Levantamento fitossociológico em pastagens de várzea no Estado do Amazonas Phytosociological assessment of pastures under flooded low land conditions in the State of Amazon, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K.L. Galvão

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O levantamento fitossociológico em pastagens é uma importante ferramenta de suporte às recomendações de manejo. Objetivou-se com este trabalho realizar um levantamento fitossociológico em pastagens de várzea do município de Autazes-AM. O estudo foi realizado em duas áreas de várzea sazonalmente inundadas, localizadas nesse município. No estudo, utilizou-se o método do quadrado, aplicado por meio de um quadrado de 1,0 m², lançado ao acaso 31 vezes em cada área de três hectares. Nas duas áreas foram encontrados 27.706 indivíduos, distribuídos em 12 famílias e 22 espécies. As famílias mais importantes em número de espécies nas duas áreas foram Poaceae (7 e Cyperaceae (4. Brachiaria subquadripara mostrou, nas duas áreas, maiores valores de frequência, densidade, abundância e IVI. As espécies que apresentaram maiores valores de IVI na área 1 foram: B. subquadripara (118,45, Paspalum fasciculatum (51,25, Cynodon dactylon (46,99 e Lindernia crustacea (25,25, e na área 2 foram: B. subquadripara (111,66, C. dactylon (55,44, Acroceras zizanioides (33,70 e L. crustacea (24,91. Em ambas as áreas, a família Poaceae representou mais de 90% do total de indivíduos encontrados, e algumas espécies apresentaram bom potencial forrageiro.The phytosociological assessment of pastures is an important support tool for management recommendations. The objective of this work was to make a phytosociological assessment of flooded low land in Autazes-Amazon, Brazil. The study was carried out in two areas that had been flooded in the past. The inventory square method was applied using a square frame of 1.0 m², randomly thrown 31 times in each area of three hectares. In these two areas, 27,706 individuals were found, distributed in 12 families and 22 species. The most important families in number of species in the two areas were Poaceae (7 and Cyperaceae (4. Brachiaria subquadripara presented higher frequency, density, abundance and IVI

  12. The unsustainability of the implantation of the 'Luz para todos' programme in the Amazonas state; A (in)sustentabilidade da implantacao do programa Luz para Todos no estado do Amazonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcante, Andreia Santos; Cartaxo, Elizabeth Ferreira [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This article brings to discuss the policy of universalization of the supply of electrical energy 'Luz para todos' showing the significance of this proposal of the government, in a short time, bring electricity to more than 10 million people who still live in the darkness. It features the efficiency of this action of the government from the reality experienced in the context Amazon, which show a framework for various characteristics and natural, cultural and focused on the issue geospatial. This involves understanding the multitude of climates and geographical characteristics, cultural and social constitute major obstacles for the implementation of policies homogeneous, demonstrating that the potential for development of each region has different dynamics, which should influence in the formulation of policies. While electricity is essential for the economic progress of a country, the expansion of its services to society must be viewed with great discretion, in order to prevent the exploitation and consumption exacerbated of natural resources and waste of energy. With this reading, the work he proposes to show the inconsistencies of the program in the state of Amazonas, on presentation of data from the Companhia Energetica do Amazonas (CEAM), showing thus obstacles to the achievement of the goals outlined in the State. Considering the environmental importance that the Amazon represents for Brazil and for the world, emerges is the need for a differentiated look for the region, taking into account their unique reality. It is believed that is the acceptance of their characteristics that we can really promote a development that is sustainable for the Amazon. (author)

  13. Percepção e compreensão dos conceitos contidos na Escala Brasileira de Insegurança Alimentar, em comunidades indígenas no estado do Amazonas, Brasil Perception and comprehension of concepts of the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale in indigenous communities in the state of Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Kiyoko Ozaki Yuyama

    2008-08-01

    nas experiências de segurança ou insegurança alimentar. Sugere-se ainda que, para estudos quantitativos, o questionário deva ser mais resumido e simples.OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate the perception and comprehension of concepts and terminology related to food security and insecurity, especially those that comprise the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale, in the context of indigenous socio-cultural reality. METHODS: Qualitative research techniques were used in Cacau, Flexeira and Mamori indigenous communities located in the Médio Juruá watershed, in the municipalities of Envira and Eirunepé (AM. The methods were based on a methodology used previously in Brazil and adapted to the present context in a meeting of specialists familiar with these indigenous communities. Next, focus groups were organized in each one of the three communities, with a total of 18 participants. RESULTS: Hunger appeared as a phenomenon experienced frequently by the participants. Many of the concepts and terms, such as "food security", "hunger", and "good food", were well-understood, but others, such as "varied food", "sufficient food" "strategies to avoid problems with food" were not. Everyday life depends on family relations that allow exchanges, which differs from studies conducted previously in urban and rural areas, where difficulties related to access to food were due to lack of financial resources. The subject of trading, or exchanges, appeared often during the focus groups, as well as a collective aspect of the experience of food security that had not emerged previously in focus groups conducted as part of the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale validation. CONCLUSION: More in-depth qualitative and quantitative studies are needed to develop a food security measurement instrument that reflects the reality of these indigenous communities while, at the same time, provides results that are comparable to other indigenous communities as well as to results obtained using the Brazilian

  14. Arboviral diseases in the Western Brazilian Amazon: a perspective and analysis from a tertiary health & research center in Manaus, State of Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Paula Gomes Mourão

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Fundação de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado (FMT-HVD, located in Manaus, the capital of the State of Amazonas (Western Brazilian Amazon, is a pioneering institution in this region regarding the syndromic surveillance of acute febrile illness, including arboviral infections. Based on the data from patients at the FMT-HVD, we have detected recurrent outbreaks in Manaus by the four dengue serotypes in the past 15 years, with increasing severity of the disease. This endemicity has culminated in the simultaneous circulation of all four serotypes in 2011, the first time this has been reported in Brazil. Between 1996 and 2009, 42 cases of yellow fever (YF were registered in the State of Amazonas, and 71.4% (30/42 were fatal. Since 2010, no cases have been reported. Because the introduction of the yellow fever virus into a large city such as Manaus, which is widely infested by Aedes mosquitoes, may pose a real risk of a yellow fever outbreak, efforts to maintain an appropriate immunization policy for the populace are critical. Manaus has also suffered silent outbreaks of Mayaro and Oropouche fevers lately, most of which were misdiagnosed as dengue fever. The tropical conditions of the State of Amazonas favor the existence of other arboviruses capable of producing human disease. Under this real threat, represented by at least 4 arboviruses producing human infections in Manaus and in other neighboring countries, it is important to develop an efficient public health surveillance strategy, including laboratories that are able to make proper diagnoses of arboviruses.

  15. Flutuação anual e interanual da riqueza de espécies de desmídias (Chlorophyta – Conjugatophyceae em um lago de inundação amazônico de águas pretas (Lago Cutiuaú, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil = Annual and interannual fluctuation of desmids species in a black water Amazon floodplain lake (Lago Cutiuaú, Amazonas State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Melo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Nesta pesquisa foi avaliada a flutuação sazonal e interanual da riqueza específica de desmídias ao longo de diferentes períodos do ciclo hidrológico de 2002 a 2004, em um lago de inundação de águas pretas da bacia do rio Negro, no Estado do Amazonas. O lago estudadoapresentou marcada flutuação anual na profundidade da coluna d’água e elevados valores de temperatura ao longo de todo o estudo, enquanto os valores de pH e condutividade elétrica foram baixos. Foram identificadas 105 espécies de desmídias distribuídas nas famíliasClosteriaceae, Gonatozygaceae e Desmidiaceae. Destas, 23 constituem primeira citação para o Estado do Amazonas e se encontram ilustradas no presente estudo. O período de enchente foi o que apresentou maior riqueza de espécies, em oposição aos demais períodos, que apresentaramvalores similares. Em escala interanual, o ano de 2003 foi caracterizado por apresentar maior número de táxons. Os gêneros Staurastrum Meyen e Closterium Nitzch foram os que apresentaram maior número de espécies durante o estudo. A maioria das espécies registradas esteve presente em menos de 10% ou entre 10 e 30% das amostras analisadas, sendo consideradas raras ou esporádicas, respectivamente.In this study, the seasonal and interannual fluctuations of desmids species richness was investigated for three years in an Amazon black water floodplain lake in the Negro River basin, Amazon State. The studied environment showed a great annual fluctuation of water column depth and high temperature values with little seasonal fluctuations. In general, pH and electrical conductivity values were low. One hundred five desmids species were identified distributed among families Closteriaceae, Gonatozygaceae and Desmidiaceae. Twenty three species are new references to Amazon State and are illustrated in this study. A marked seasonal fluctuation of desmids species was registered in association with the inundation pulse. The increased water

  16. Aerosol emissions from forest and grassland burnings in the Southern Amazonas Basin and Central Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest and grassland clearing by means of prescribed fires in tropical areas of the world may be responsible for large inputs of fine particulates to the global atmosphere besides being a major source of trace gases. The major continents on which extensive biomass burning takes place are Africa and South America. Such agricultural practices of burning have been employed throughout man's existence, but the importance and significance of such burning relative to anthropogenic industrial emissions to the atmosphere has not until extremely recently been seriously studied. In August-September 1979 project Brushfire 1979 took place based in Brasilia, Brazil. The Air Quality Division of the National Center for Atmospheric Research made ground level and aircraft measurements of trace gases (e.g. CO2, CO, CH4, N2O, H2, CH3CL, COS, NO, NO2, O3) and Florida State University sampled ground level aerosol emissions from grass and forest burnings. (orig./RW)

  17. Modern sedimentation in the Lower Negro River, Amazonas State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzinelli, Elena; Igreja, Hailton

    2002-05-01

    The Negro River, which flows through the north central Amazon Basin, is one of the largest tributaries of the Amazon. The name "Negro" comes from the colour of its water, which reflects the large quantity of dissolved humic acids and iron oxides that also gives the water its characteristic acid pH. The river is estimated to have the fifth largest water discharge in the world, about 30,000 m 3/s. The Negro River is characterized by a high dissolved load but a low energy system. Neotectonics and water quality are the principal factors that control the modern sedimentation in the Lower Negro River. The Lower Negro River is controlled largely by a NW-SE tectonic lineament, that is a segment of a major tectonic transcurrent dextral megasystem of the Amazon Basin. Neotectonism in this area is responsible for the depth of the river and for the occurrence of steep "falésias" (cliffs), along some parts of its borders. It also seems that neotectonics have influenced the origin of the Anavilhanas Islands, which are a series of anastomosed, elongated silty clayey channel bars, with internal round or long narrow lakes. The "igapó", which is the forested area flooded during part of the year, appears to have a neotectonic origin as well. Igapós are located on intermediate blocks between the high blocks of the "terra firme" and the low blocks of the channel. The absence of clastic sediments carried in suspension is related to the rare appearance of floodplains, which are limited to very thin layers of fine sediments, located on the abrasion shelfs carved in clastic deposits of the Alter do Chão Formation. Sand bars occur in places along the base of the cliffs and along the edges of the channel system. These sand bars are composed of quartz sand, derived from the reworking of the sand of the Alter do Chão Formation.

  18. Granitogenesis in the Alto Rio Negro region - Amazonas State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new granite petrological focus, summarized in this article, was based in chemistry (conventional analysis and by rare earth elements), in geochronological analysis by the U/Pb method and in the classical microscopy. This method facilitated the discrimination of three suites, with chemical and petrological differences and ages between 1,225 Ma and 1,625 Ma - the intrusive suite Uaupes, the intrusive suite Xie and the intrusive suite Tiquie. The similar ages between the Tiquie and Uaupes suites denote that they have been generated at the same era but they derive from contrasting sources and under different tectonic conditions. 10 figs

  19. A temática ambiental em representações e práticas de profissionais de saúde da família no município de Manaus - AM/Brasil The environmental theme in representations and practices of family health professionals in the municipality of Manaus - state of Amazonas /Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimunda das Chagas Mendonça

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Evidências científicas mostram que mudanças ambientais antrópicas aumentam riscos de exposição a diversas doenças. Na Estratégia Saúde da Família - ESF, tarefas com claro enfoque ambiental são prescritas indicando às equipes de profissionais que considerem esses aspectos em suas intervenções. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi conhecer representações e práticas de profissionais de Saúde da Família de Manaus (AM sobre a questão ambiental e sua interface com a saúde pública. Os dados foram coletados por meio de observação participante e entrevistas semiestruturadas, e a análise qualitativa destes deu-se pela Análise de Conteúdo e Triangulação de Métodos. Resultados da pesquisa revelaram que a maioria dos profissionais não compreende o ambiente de forma sistêmica, mesmo tendo declarado que os fatores ambientais têm grande influência sobre a saúde humana; enquanto intervenções, as práticas educativas seguem metodologias tradicionais e são centradas na culpabilização do indivíduo e na simples transmissão de conhecimentos pontuais; o relacionamento dos profissionais com a comunidade resume-se ao atendimento individual e/ou coletivo. Concluiu-se que, para a ESF contribuir para o reordenamento do sistema, é fundamental o redirecionamento desse novo modelo de política de saúde para efetivar-se como prática social e ambiental.There are abundant scientific evidences showing that the increased risk of exposure to diseases is a consequence of anthropogenic environmental changes. In the Family Health Strategy, tasks with a clear environmental focus are prescribed, indicating to the professional teams that they should consider these aspects in their health practices. The objective of this research was to study representations and practices of Family Health Professionals of Manaus - State of Amazonas, Northern Brazil - about environmental issues and their interface with public health. Data were collected by means of

  20. Situação das indústrias madeireiras do Estado do Amazonas em 2000 Lumber industries situation in 2000 in Amazonas State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Araújo Lima

    2005-06-01

    industries of the State of Amazonas to better understand the processes of production, industrialization and commercialization, and evaluate their influence on the sustainability of tropical forests. This information is very important in order to establish forest policies for the region. After defining the main forest industry (producers of lumber, plywood and veneer zones of the State, data were collected directly from the forest industries as well as from IBAMA, SUFRAMA, SEFAZ and IBGE. Manaus, Itacoatiara, Manacapuru and Parintins were the main municipalities of sawn products; and Manaus and Itacoatiara for plywood and veneer. Questionnaires and interviews were used to collect information such as main tree species, transformation productivity, origin of raw material, transportation, personnel qualification and training, and exportation. In 2000, the annual roundwood production in the State of Amazonas was 323,400m³ (divided equally among sawmill and plywood and veneer industries. More than 50 different tree species are used in the Amazonas sawmills; but only 16 represent 80% of the total volume. Plywood and veneer industries use 17 tree species. Louro inhamui, angelim pedra, amapá, assacu and maçaranduba are the main species for sawmills; while muiratinga, sumaúma, copaíba, assacu and amapá for plywood and veneer industries.

  1. Geochemistry of Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) sills from deep boreholes in the Amazonas and Solimões basins, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatlen Heimdal, Thea; Svensen, Henrik H.; Pereira, Egberto; Planke, Sverre

    2016-04-01

    The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) is one of the most extensive Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs), and is associated with the breakup of Pangea and the subsequent opening of the central Atlantic Ocean. A large part of the province, including > 1 M km2 basins containing sill intrusions, is located in Brazil but has received limited attention due to the lack of outcrops. We have studied CAMP sills from seven deep boreholes (up to 3100 m deep) in the Amazonas and Solimões basins, northern Brazil. The boreholes contain up to ~ 482 m of sills (18 % of the stratigraphy), with a maximum individual sill thickness of 140 m. The sills were partly emplaced into thick Carboniferous evaporites. The main mineral phases of the sills include plagioclase and pyroxene, with accessory apatite, biotite, ilmenite and quartz. The majority of the sills are low-Ti dolerites (TiO2 rocks range from basalt to basaltic andesite and plot in the tholeiitic field defined within the total alkali versus silica (TAS) classification. C1 chondrite normalized Rare Earth Element (REE) patterns for both Ti-groups show increasing LREE compared to HREE (La/Lu = 2.2 - 4.1) with no major anomalies, and attest to a relatively evolved nature (La = 17-65 ppm). Primitive mantle normalized patterns for low-Ti rocks show negative anomalies for Nb, Ta, P and Ti and positive for K, whereas the high-Ti rocks show generally opposite anomalies. Late stage patches in the dolerites contain apatite, quartz and Cl-bearing biotite, suggesting the presence of halogens that may partly derive from the host sedimentary rocks.

  2. Diversidade de Agaricales (Basidiomycota na Reserva Biológica Walter Egler, Amazonas, Brasil Diversity of Agaricales (Basidiomycota in the Reserva Biológica Walter Egler, Amazonas, Brazil

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    Helenires Queiroz de Souza

    2004-01-01

    the Reserva Biológica Walter Egler was carried out from December 2000 to June 2001. The area of study is situated at Road AM-010, Manaus-Itacoatiara, km 64, Latitude 02° 43' S and Longitude 59° 47' W, Rio Preto da Eva, in the State of Amazonas, with a total area of 709 ha of terra firme rain forest. The fungi collected were identified based on traditional methodology for identification of Agaricales. A total of 39 species were studied, distributed in 13 genera and six families: Polyporaceae: Pleurotus sp.; Hygrophoraceae: Hygrocybe cf. megistospora, Hygrocybe aff. miniceps, Hygrocybe occidentalis var. scarletina and eight indeterminate species of Hygrocybe; Tricholomataceae: Clitocybe sp., Hydropus sp.1 and Hydropus sp.2, Macrocystidia sp., Marasmiellus sp., Marasmius bellus, Marasmius haedinus var. haedinus, Marasmius cf. leoninus, Marasmius cf. mazatecus, Marasmius cf. ruber, Marasmius cf. setulosifolius, Marasmius tageticolor, Marasmius cf. variabiliceps var. variabiliceps, Marasmius sp.1, Marasmius sp.2, Marasmius sp.3 and Marasmius sp.4, Tricholoma sp.; Agaricaceae: Agaricus sp.1 and Agaricus sp.2, Lepiota sp., Cystoderma sp.; Entolomataceae: Entoloma cf. azureoviride, Entoloma cf. cystidiophorum, Entoloma strigosissima, Entoloma sp.; Russulaceae: Lactarius panuoides. Entoloma azureoviride, Hygrocybe miniceps, Lactarius panuoides, Marasmius cf. mazatecus, Marasmius cf. setulosifolius and Marasmius variabiliceps var. variabiliceps, apparently are here cited for the first time from Brazil. With exception of Marasmius tageticolor, all species are cited here for the first time as occurring in Egler Forest. The tables with the species occurrence, in accordance with the topographical gradient (sand bank, incline, plateau and its respective habitat, are supplied.

  3. Ocorrência de enteroparasitas na população geronte de Nova Olinda do Norte Amazonas, Brasil Occurrence of enteroparasites in the elderly population of Nova Olinda do Norte, Amazonas, Brazil

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    Ana Felisa Hurtado-Guerrero

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo para avaliar a prevalência de enteroparasitas em um grupo de idosos ribeirinhos, moradores do Município de Nova Olinda do Norte, Estado do Amazonas Brasil, no período de abril e agosto de 1999. Por meio de um estudo de corte transversal foram analisados 81 exames, através do método de Sedimentação Espontânea (Método de Hoffman et al., 1934. Foi constatada positividade em 72,8% dos idosos, predominando o monoparasitismo (43,2%. Os helmintos foram os mais freqüentes (70,4%, destacando-se: Ascaris lumbricoides (35,2%, Trichuris trichiura (16,0%, Ancylostoma duodenale (9,0% e Strongyloides stercoralis (9,0%. Dentre os protozoários (29,5%, a ocorrência de Entamoeba coli foi de 18,2%, Giárdia lamblia de 7,0% e Entamoeba histolytica 4,5%. Não houve associação estatisticamente significativa entre sexo e grau de parasitismo e entre faixas etárias e condição parasitária. Estes resultados evidenciam um quadro de alta prevalência de parasitas intestinais nesta população e discordam dos reportados por outros pesquisadores quando afirmam que a intensidade da infestação por parasitas diminui na idade avançada. Os achados anteriores exigem das autoridades governamentais medidas de controle e educação para melhorar a qualidade de vida desses idosos, considerando a grave repercussão que esses parasitas tem no estado nutricional dos gerontes de baixa renda.A study was carried out to determine the prevalence of enteroparasites attacking elderly people living in a riverside city of the Municipal district of Nova Olinda do Norte, Amazonas State Brazil. In this cross sectional study were examined the faecal material from 81 elderly people using the method of spontaneous sedimentation (Hoffman et al., 1934. It was found a positiveness in 72,8% of the elderly people examined, predominating the mono parasitism (43,2%. The helminths were more frequents (70,3%: Ascaris lumbricoides (35,2%, Trichuris trichiura (16

  4. Late Neogene Sequence Stratigraphic Evolution of the Foz do Amazonas Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorini, Christian; Haq, Bilal U.; Tadeu dos Reis, Antonio; Guizan Silva, Cleverson; Cruz, Alberto; Soares, Emilson; Grangeon, Didier

    2014-05-01

    The margin of the Foz do Amazonas Basin saw a shift from predominantly carbonate to siliciclastic sedimentation in the early late Miocene. By this time the Amazon shelf had also been incised by a canyon that allowed direct influx of sediment to the basin floor, thus confirming that the paleo-Amazon fan had already initiated by that time (9.5-8.3Ma). Above this interval, during a prolonged lowstand, Messinian third-order sequences are preserved only in the incised-valley fills of the canyon with no equivalent strata on the shelf. Third and fourth-order sequences younger than Messinian are preserved on the shelf after sea-level rise above the shelf by early Pliocene. Sequences younger than 3.8 Ma often show fourth-order cyclicity with average duration of 400 kyr (larger scale eccentricity cycles) often preserved in high sedimentation rate areas of river deltas. Mass wasting and transportation of slope sediments to the basin began to play an important role in sediment dispersal at least as far back as mid Pliocene, after rapid progradation had produced steeper slopes 23 more prone to failure.

  5. Conodont color alteration index and upper Paleozoic thermal history of the Amazonas Basin, Brazil

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    Cardoso, Cassiane Negreiros; Sanz-López, Javier; Blanco-Ferrera, Silvia; Lemos, Valesca Brasil; Scomazzon, Ana Karina

    2015-12-01

    The conodont color alteration index (CAI) was determined in elements from core samples of the Frasnian Barreirinha Formation (one well) and of the Pennsylvanian-Permian Tapajós Group (twenty three wells and one limestone quarry) in the Amazonas Basin. The thermal history of the basin is analyzed using the CAI value distribution represented in maps and stratigraphic sections through correlation schemes, and in conjunction with previously published data. The pattern of palaeotemperatures for CAI values of 1.5-3 is coincident with organic matter maturation under a sedimentary overburden providing diagenetic conditions in the oil/gas window. Locally, conodonts show metamorphism (CAI value of 6-7) in relation to the intrusion of diabase bodies in beds including high geothermal gradient evaporites. Microtextural alteration on the surface conodonts commonly shows several types of overgrowth microtextures developed in diagenetic conditions. Locally, recrystallization in conodonts with a high CAI value is congruent with contact metamorphism in relation to Mesozoic intrusions. The CAI values of 1.5 or 2 observed close to the surface in several areas of the basin may be interpreted in relation to a high thermal palaeogradient derived from the magmatic episode or/and to the local denudation of the upper part of the Paleozoic succession prior to this thermal event.

  6. Neogene vegetation development in the Amazon Basin: evidence from marine well-2, Foz do Amazonas (Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogota-Angel, Raul; Chemale Junior, Farid; Davila, Roberto; Soares, Emilson; Pinto, Ricardo; Do Carmo, Dermeval; Hoorn, Carina

    2014-05-01

    Origen and development of the highly diverse Amazon tropical forest has mostly been inferred from continental sites. However, sediment records in the marine Foz do Amazonas Basin can provide important information to better understand the influence of the Andes uplift and climate change on its plant biomes evolution since the Neogene. Sediment analyses of samples from BP-Petrobras well 1 and 2, drilled in the Amazon Fan, allowed to infer the onset of the transcontinental Amazon river and the fan phase during the middle to late Miocene (c. 10.5 Ma). As part of the CLIMAMAZON research programme we performed pollen analysis on the 10.5 to 0.4 Ma time interval. 76 ditch cutting samples of the upper 4165 m sediments of well 2 permitted us to infer changes in floral composition in the Amazon Basin. The palynological spectra across this interval (nannofossil based age model) include pollen, fern spores, dinocysts and foram lignings. When possible pollen and fern spores were grouped in four vegetation types: estuarine, tropical, mountain forest and high mountain open treeless vegetation. Pollen is generally corroded and reflects the effects of sediment transportation while reworked material is also common. Good pollen producers such as Poaceae, Asteraceae and Cyperaceae are common and reflect indistinctive vegetation types particularly those associated to riverine systems. Rhizophora/Zonocostites spp. indicate "close-distance" mangrove development. Tropical forest biomes are represented by pollen that resemble Moraceae-Urticaceae, Melastomataceae-Combretaceae, Sapotaceae, Alchornea, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae, Bignoniaceae, Mauritia and Arecaceae. Myrica, and particularly sporadic occurrences of fossil fern spores like Lophosoria, and Cyathea suggest the development of a moist Andean forest in areas above 1000 m. First indicators of high altitudes appear in the last part of late Miocene with taxa associated to current Valeriana and particularly Polylepis, a neotropical taxon

  7. Prevalence of dental trauma among children treated in the Pediatric Dentistry Clinic of the State University of Amazonas

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Melo Moutinho da Costa; Savana Maia; Gabriel Lucas de Cardoso da Cruz; Regina Maria Puppin Rontani

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Dental trauma is an acute energy transmission to the tooth and to the supporting structures that may result in fracture, tooth dislocation, breaking or crushing of supporting tissues. Objective: This retrospective study aimed to evaluate dental trauma prevalence among children treated in the Pediatric Dentistry Clinic of the State University of Amazonas (short UEA) from July 2005 to June 2009. Material and methods: The sample used in the analysis consisted of 171 children treat...

  8. SUBSTRATE FOR PRODUCTION OF MACACAÚBA (Platymiscium ulei Harms) SEEDLINGS IN THE AUTAZES TOWN, AMAZONAS STATE

    OpenAIRE

    José Furtado de Miranda; Iza Maria Paiva Batista; Carlos Alberto Franco Tucci; Narrubia Oliveira de Almeida; Marcelo de Almeida Guimarães

    2013-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509812339The production of native species seedlings with quality in order to achieve success in reforestation is relatedwith the level of efficiency of used substrates. The objective of the study was to assess different substratecompositions for the production of seedlings in the city of Autazes, in Amazonas state. Eight treatmentsarranged in random blocks experimental design, with five replicates were tested. The treatments were: cattlemanure, lime, corrective p...

  9. Fontes de resistência à murcha bacteriana em germoplasma de Capsicum spp. do estado do Amazonas Sources of resistance against bacterial wilt in Capsicum spp. germoplasm of the Amazonas state

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    Liane Cristine Rebouças Demosthenes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A murcha bacteriana, causada por Ralstonia solanacearum, é uma das doenças mais importantes do gênero Capsicum no Brasil. No Amazonas, as condições de elevada temperatura e umidade favorecem o desenvolvimento da doença. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resistência à murcha bacteriana de germoplasma, selvagem e comercial, de Capsicum spp. Foram avaliados 22 acessos de Capsicum em casa de vegetação. A inoculação foi feita mediante ferimento das raízes, seguido de adição no solo, ao redor das plantas, de suspensão bacteriana na concentração de 10(8 ufc mL-1. A avaliação foi feita diariamente a partir do quarto dia após a inoculação, em função desenvolvimento dos sintomas. A partir das médias de progresso dos sintomas foi construída a área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPD, e os dados submetidos ao teste de Scott-Knott ao nível de 5% de probabilidade, utilizando o programa estatístico SAEG 9.1. Foram selecionados os acessos 30, 20 e 17, da espécie C. chinense, como resistentes à murcha bacteriana para ensaios futuros em programas de melhoramento genético.The bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the most important in the genus Capsicum in Brazil. In the state of Amazonas, high temperatures and humidity favor the development of the disease. The objective of this work was to evaluate resistance in germoplasm of wild and commercial Capsicum spp. to bacterial wilt. Twenty two accesses of Capsicum spp. were evaluated in greenhouse conditions. The inoculation was made by means of wounds in the roots, followed by addition of bacterial suspension in the concentration of 10(8 ufc ml-1 in the soil, around the plants. Plant evaluation was made daily after the fourth day of the inoculation (DAI considering the symptoms progress. From the average progress of symptoms was constructed the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC, and the data submitted to the Scott-Knott test at 5% of

  10. Relato de um caso de latrodectismo ocorrido em Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil Report of a case of latrodectism occurred in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil

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    Alcidéa R. B. de Souza

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available Em 02/07/1995, foi atendido no Instituto de Medicina Tropical do Amazonas, paciente masculino, 11 anos, acidentado em Manaus, por picada na região retroauricular direita, clínicamente compatível com aquele causado por Latrodectus. Observavam-se abalos musculares, febre, calafrios e sudorese intensa. Instituída terapêutica com neostigmine precedido de atropina, gluconato de cálcio, cimetidina, diazepam e hidrocortisona. No terceiro dia apresentava-se melhorado, consciente, orientado e com diminuição importante do edema palpebral. A despeito de uma melhora progressiva diária, no quinto dia surgiu eritema máculo-pápulo-vesiculoso. Em 14/07/1995 teve alta, assintomático. O caso relatado é o primeiro descrito na região Amazônica, ocorrido na periferia de Manaus e pode ter sido uma consequência da expansão urbana das duas últimas décadas.In July 2, 1995 arrived at the Instituto de Medicina Tropical do Amazonas an eleven-year-old male with complaining of spider bite on his right retroauricular region, presenting typical findings of latrodectism. The accident was reported as having ocurred in the suburbs of Manaus. The patient was given neostigmine preceded by atropin, calcium gluconate, cimetidin, diazepan and hidrocortisone. Within three days the patient showed improvement, and was aware, orientated and with significant palpebral oedem reduction. Muscle spasms are still present, as well as fever, shivering, and intense sweating. In spite of a daily progressive improvement, at the fifth day appeared a spotted papular erythem. The patient was discharged without simptoms after the13th day. This is the first such reported case which took place in Amazonian region, it might have been happened a consequence of the urban sprawl wich has characterized the growth of the city of Manaus, in the last twenty years. It is not possible at this point to evaluate the epidemiolgical resounds of the event, but in any case, it seems plausible to

  11. The 1.90-1.88 Ga magmatism in the southernmost Guyana Shield, Amazonas, Brazil: Geology, geochemistry, zircon geochronology, and tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valério, Cristóvão da Silva; Souza, Valmir da Silva; Macambira, Moacir José Buenano

    The southernmost Guyana Shield-Uatumã subdomain, northeastern Amazonas State, Brazil is dominantly formed by granitoid and volcanic rocks from the Água Branca Suite (ABS), undivided Granite Stocks (GS) and São Gabriel volcano-plutonic system (SGS). The ABS is characterized by a granite series that exhibits comparatively low Fe/(Fe + Mg) ratio, low (Nb/Zr) N, high Sr values and high Rb/Zr ratio. Its rocks display metaluminous to weakly peraluminous (A/CNK 0.94-1.06), high-K calc-alkaline, I normal-type character and have moderately to strongly fractionated rare earth elements (REE) pattern. The SG granites and SGS effusive-ignimbrite-granite association is metaluminous to weakly peraluminous (A/CNK 0.84-1.18), high-K calc-alkaline, has moderately to weakly fractionated REE trend, higher Fe/(Fe + Mg) ratio, lower Sr content and lower Rb/Zr ratio. The ABS geochemical signature is consistent with formation from volcanic arc rocks and small participation of collisional setting rocks, whereas the SG and SGS have post-collisional tectonic rocks-related geochemical signature. This model is in harmony with a post-collisional extensional regime, started with the 1.90-1.89 Ga Água Branca magmatism, and culminated with the 1.89-1.88 Ga São Gabriel system at an early stage of intracratonic reactivation, which included intrusion of mafic dikes. The Uatumã subdomain was related to mantle underplating with continental uplift and its origin involved contributions of 2.3-2.44 Ga Archean-contaminated Trans-Amazonian, 2.13-2.21 Ga Trans-Amazonian, 1.93-1.94/2.0 Ga Tapajós-Parima. Foliation styles point out that part of the Água Branca granitoids recorded later deformational effects, likely related to the Rio Negro Province formation.

  12. Composição florística das plantas daninhas na cultura de guaraná (Paullinia cupana, no estado do Amazonas Floristic composition of weeds in guarana (Paullinia cupana crop in Amazonas, Brazil

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    S.M.F. Albertino

    2004-09-01

    Urucará located in the state of Amazonas, Brazil. Samples of weeds were taken from guarana growing areas in the five counties and identified by class, family and species. A total of 14,707 individual plants were collected and grouped into 40 families and 87 species,as follows: 70 Dicotyledonous, 13 Monocotyledonous and 4 Pteridophyts. The Dicotyledonous class presented the largest number of families and the monocotyledonous the largest number of individual plants, except in Maués and Iranduba. The number of Pteridophyts was inexpressive in all the counties. The Poaceae and Asteraceae families presented the largest number of species. Poaceae was found in all the counties, presenting the largest number of species in Maues. Panicum pilosum was the species with the largest number of individual plants, frequency, density and value of importance index, while Panicum laxum presented an expressive number of species in Urucará and Iranduba. Scleria malaleuca presented an expressive number in Coari and Chamaesyce hirta in Maués. Homolepis aturensis, Paspalum conjugatum and Spermacoce capitata were found in the five counties. The largest species diversity was found in Maues whereas the largest number of individual plants was found in Coari. The largest similarity index was found between Iranduba and Presidente Figueiredo (45% and the smallest between Iranduba and Coari (21.43%.

  13. Lutzomyia reducta Feliciangeli et al., 1988, a host of Leishmania amazonensis, sympatric with two other members of the Flaviscutellata complex in southern Amazonas and Rondônia, Brazil (Diptera: Psychodidae Lutzomyia reducta Feliciangeli et al., 1988 um hospedeiro de Leishmania amazonensis, simpátrico com duas outras espécies do complexo flaviscutellata no sul do Amazonas e Rondônica, Brasil (Diptera: Psychodidae

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    R. A. Freitas

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available A member of the Lutzomyia flaviscutellata complex from Rondônia and southern Amazonas States, Brazil, is so close to the Venezuelan Lutzomyia olmeca recuta Feliciangeli et al., 1988, that it is regarded as belonging to the same species. Since this phlebotomine co-extis with L. olmeca nociva in Brazil, the subspecific status of the former is untenable and is rased to specific rank, as Lutzomyia reducta. The Brazilian material is described and illustrated, and compared with specimens of L. o. nociva and L. flaviscutellata from the same area. Keys to the known taxa of the flaviscutellata complex are presented. Leishmania amazonensis was isolated from one heavily infected specimen of L. reducta, making this the third species of the flaviscutellata complex to be implicated as a vector of this parasite in Brazil. The relative abundance of the three sympatric flaviscutellata complex species varies locally and appears to be related to soil drainage. L. reducta constituted about 25% if all phlebotomines captured in Disney traps at poorly drained and well drained site, but appears not to coloniza areas subject to periodic flooding. L. olmeca nociva was restricted to poorly drained areas not subject to flooding, whereas L. flaviscutellata was ubiquitous L. reducta has never been detected north of the Amazon river in Brazil, but absence of recosrds from western and northwestern Amazonas State may reflect lack of collecting in these areas.Um flebotomíneo do complexo Lutzomyia flaviscutellata, de Rondônia e sul do Amazonas, Brasil é tão parecido com Lutzomyia olmeca reducta, que é considerado como sendo da mesma espécie. Este flebotomíneo ocorre junto com L. olmeca nociva, portanto o nome é emendado para o nível de espécie, como Lutzomyia reducta. O material do Brasil é descrito e ilustrado, e comparado com exemplares de L. o. nociva e L. flaviscutellata da mesma área. Chaves para as espécies e subespécies do complexo flaviscutellata são inclu

  14. Quality of the Solimões River water for domestic use by the riverine community situated in Manacapuru-Amazonas-Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoja, N G P; Castro, L M; Rocha, S D; Silva, J A; Ribeiro, J S P; Donald, A R; Silva, L M; Oliveira, T C S

    2016-06-01

    The Amazon has the largest watershed in the world, with abundant fresh water reserves. Such abundance contrasts with the quality of the water consumed in the riverine communities. This work highlights the importance of assessing the quality of water of the Solimões River in the stretch situated opposite the Community Nossa Senhora das Graças-Costa do Pesqueiro, in front of the town of Manacapuru-Amazonas-Brazil. The research aimed to evaluate environmental indicators for the quality of the river water as well as in households in this community, according to the regional seasonality. The monitored parameters such as conductivity, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, color, pH, nitrate, nitrite, and sulfate were compared with the water quality standards in force in Brazil. Values well above the maximum level allowed (MLA) for color and turbidity parameters were found in some households, indicating that the water collected from the river is not getting appropriate treatment. The analysis of the correlation matrix of the parameters in the flood period of the river evidenced high correlation among dissolved oxygen (D.O), NO3 (-), Cl(-), SO4 (2-), and color. In this study, by principal component analysis (PCA), it was observed that the characteristics of the water, obtained from the river to be consumed in the households, in the flood period showed similarities with the river water samples, indicating absence of efficient treatment for human consumption. PMID:26278896

  15. Chlamydophila psittaci in free-living Blue-fronted Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva) and Hyacinth macaws (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas Raso, Tânia; Seixas, Gláucia Helena Fernandes; Guedes, Neiva Maria Robaldo; Pinto, Aramis Augusto

    2006-10-31

    Chlamydophila psittaci (C. psittaci) infection was evaluated in 77 free-living nestlings of Blue-fronted Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva) and Hyacinth macaws (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Tracheal and cloacal swab samples from 32 wild parrot and 45 macaw nestlings were submitted to semi-nested PCR, while serum samples were submitted to complement fixation test (CFT). Although all 32 Amazon parrot serum samples were negative by CFT, cloacal swabs from two birds were positive for Chlamydophila DNA by semi-nested PCR (6.3%); these positive birds were 32 and 45 days old. In macaws, tracheal and cloacal swabs were positive in 8.9% and 26.7% of the samples, respectively. Complement-fixing antibodies were detected in 4.8% of the macaw nestlings; macaw nestlings with positive findings were between 33 and 88 days old. These results indicate widespread dissemination of this pathogen in the two evaluated psittacine populations. No birds had clinical signs suggestive of chlamydiosis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on C. psittaci in free-living Blue-fronted Amazon parrots and Hyacinth macaws in Brazil. PMID:16893616

  16. Ocorrência de entorse e lesões do joelho em jogadores de futebol da cidade de Manaus, Amazonas Knee lesions and sprains in soccer players of Manaus city, Amazonas - Brazil

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    Eduardo Telles de Menezes Stewien

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados 50 jogadores de dois times profissionais e 47 jogadoras de três times amadores de futebol do Estado do Amazonas, todos da primeira divisão e sediados em Manaus. Foi determinada a ocorrência de entorse do joelho e lesões decorrentes, mediante uma entrevista sobre a história de entorse do joelho, além de avaliação subjetiva e exame físico, segundo o International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC 2000. Entre os jogadores, 16 (32% haviam referido entorse do joelho, sendo 14 (28% unilateral e 2 (4% bilateral. Entre as jogadoras, 11 (23% haviam referido entorse do joelho, sendo 9 (19% unilateral e 2 (4% bilateral. Dez (63% dos jogadores com entorse sofreram lesões ligamentares ou meniscais, dos quais 7 atletas submeteram-se à cirurgia, sendo 6 meniscectomias e 2 reconstruções do ligamento cruzado anterior. Não encontramos lesões do joelho entre as jogadoras de futebol examinadas. O tempo médio de afastamento dos atletas foi em torno de 3,5 meses em ambos os sexos, sendo que entre os jogadores o tempo médio de retorno foi quase 3 vezes maior naqueles que sofreram lesões ligamentares ou meniscais. A média da pontuação do IKDC subjetivo foi no sexo masculino de 95 pontos e de 96 pontos no sexo feminino.Fifty male and 47 female soccer players from Amazonas state teams in Manaus City were studied. The occurrence of knee sprain and resultant lesions was determined by interviewing the athletes about their history of knee sprain, as well as by subjective evaluation and physical examination using the method recommended by the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC 2000. Among male soccer players, 16 (32% have mentioned knee sprain, being 14 (28% unilateral and 2 (4% bilateral. Among females, 11 (23% have mentioned knee sprain, being 9 (19% unilateral and 2 (4% bilateral. Ten (63% male athletes with knee sprain presented ligament or meniscus lesions, seven of which have been submitted to surgery (6 meniscectomies

  17. Prevalência de parasitos intestinais e aspectos socioambientais em comunidade indígena no Distrito de Iauaretê, Município de São Gabriel da Cachoeira (AM, Brasil Prevalence of intestinal parasites and social-environmental aspects in an indigenous Community in the Iauaretê District, Municipality of São Gabriel da Cachoeira (State of Amazonas, Brazil

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    Leonardo Rios

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Situado em Terra Indígena do Alto Rio Negro, Iauaretê é o segundo maior pólo de concentração humana no município de São Gabriel da Cachoeira (AM e agrega dez vilas, com 15 etnias. Esse distrito indígena vem sofrendo processo de transformação progressiva de padrão de ocupação disperso e ribeirinho para núcleo com feições urbanas, com aproximadamente 2700 habitantes, desencadeando problemas de saúde pública. Com objetivo de investigar a distribuição de prevalências de parasitos intestinais na população local e discutir a relação desse indicador de saúde com aspectos socioambientais no distrito de Iauaretê, foram realizadas análises da qualidade da água de abastecimento e exames parasitológicos em amostras de fezes e solo. Do total de amostras de água analisadas, 89,2% apresentaram resultado positivo para coliformes termotolerantes. Identificou-se que a vila Dom Bosco foi a que apresentou maior índice de prevalência em amostras fecais com 76% dos indivíduos parasitados. A vila São José apresentou o menor índice com 56%. Os parasitos mais prevalentes em amostras fecais positivas foram, em ordem decrescente, Ascaris lumbricoides (64,84%, Entamoeba coli (32,58%, Endolimax nana (14,84% e Blastoyistis hominis (13,39%. Em amostras de solo as prevalências mais significativas foram de ovos de Ascaris sp (52,6%, cistos de Entamoeba coli (52,6% e larvas de ancilostomídeos (52,6%. Concluiu-se que os altos índices de parasitoses intestinais na população, aliados à falta de saneamento básico e à manutenção de práticas sanitárias tradicionais constituem um quadro preocupante em saúde pública.The Iauaretê District is the second largest human concentration centre in the municipality of São Gabriel da Cachoeira, state of Amazonas. Situated in Alto Rio Negro Indigenous Land, on the border between Brazil and Colombia, Iauaretê aggregates ten villages, encompassing 15 ethnic cultures. This indigenous district has

  18. Normas DRIS multivariadas para avaliação do estado nutricional de laranjeira 'Pera' no estado do Amazonas Multivariate DRIS standards for the assessment of the nutritional status of the Pera orange in the state of Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Rafael Machado Dias

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Para utilização da diagnose da composição nutricional ou do sistema integrado de diagnose e recomendação de relações multivariadas (DRIS na avaliação do estado nutricional de laranjeira, faz-se necessário a definição de valores de referência que sejam adequados para refletir suas condições nutricionais. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se estabelecer normas DRIS multivariadas e avaliar seu desempenho comparativamente aos padrões nutricionais definidos pela literatura na avaliação do estado nutricional de laranjeiras 'Pera' no estado do Amazonas. Avaliou-se o estado nutricional de 120 glebas comerciais de laranjeira 'Pera' enxertadas em limoeiro 'Cravo', sendo que os padrões de referência foram definidos a partir do conjunto das glebas. O diagnóstico nutricional pelo método DRIS conjugado a utilização de normas genéricas comparativamente aos padrões nutricionais propostos pela literatura apresentou baixo grau de concordância na avaliação do estado nutricional de laranjeira 'Pera' no estado do Amazonas.In order to use nutritional-composition diagnosis or the diagnosis and integrated recommendation system of multivariate relationships (DRIS when assessing the nutritional status of the orange, it becomes necessary to define reference values that are suitable for indicating nutritional conditions. This study aimed to establish multivariate DRIS standards, and to evaluate their comparative performance in assessing the nutritional status of the Pera orange in the state of Amazonas against nutritional standards as defined in the literature. We evaluated the nutritional status of 120 commercial plots of a hybrid of the Pera orange and Rangpur lime, the reference values being defined from the group of plots. DRIS standards for nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, potassium (K, calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg, sulfur (S, boron (B, copper (Cu, iron (Fe, manganese (Mn and zinc (Zn were established and nutritional diagnosis by DRIS, combined with the

  19. Flutuação anual e interanual da riqueza de espécies de desmídias (Chlorophyta – Conjugatophyceae em um lago de inundação amazônico de águas pretas (Lago Cutiuaú, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i3.1050 Annual and interannual fluctuation of desmids species in a black water Amazon floodplain lake (Lago Cutiuaú, Amazonas State, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i3.1050

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    Sérgio Melo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Nesta pesquisa foi avaliada a flutuação sazonal e interanual da riqueza específica de desmídias ao longo de diferentes períodos do ciclo hidrológico de 2002 a 2004, em um lago de inundação de águas pretas da bacia do rio Negro, no Estado do Amazonas. O lago estudado apresentou marcada flutuação anual na profundidade da coluna d’água e elevados valores de temperatura ao longo de todo o estudo, enquanto os valores de pH e condutividade elétrica foram baixos. Foram identificadas 105 espécies de desmídias distribuídas nas famílias Closteriaceae, Gonatozygaceae e Desmidiaceae. Destas, 23 constituem primeira citação para o Estado do Amazonas e se encontram ilustradas no presente estudo. O período de enchente foi o que apresentou maior riqueza de espécies, em oposição aos demais períodos, que apresentaram valores similares. Em escala interanual, o ano de 2003 foi caracterizado por apresentar maior número de táxons. Os gêneros Staurastrum Meyen e Closterium Nitzch foram os que apresentaram maior número de espécies durante o estudo. A maioria das espécies registradas esteve presente em menos de 10% ou entre 10 e 30% das amostras analisadas, sendo consideradas raras ou esporádicas, respectivamente.In this study, the seasonal and interannual fluctuations of desmids species richness was investigated for three years in an Amazon black water floodplain lake in the Negro River basin, Amazon State. The studied environment showed a great annual fluctuation of water column depth and high temperature values with little seasonal fluctuations. In general, pH and electrical conductivity values were low. One hundred five desmids species were identified distributed among families Closteriaceae, Gonatozygaceae and Desmidiaceae. Twenty three species are new references to Amazon State and are illustrated in this study. A marked seasonal fluctuation of desmids species was registered in association with the inundation pulse. The increased

  20. Actinella species (Bacillariophyta from an Amazon black water floodplain lake (Amazonas - Brazil Espécies de Actinella (Bacillariophyta de um lago de inundação amazônico de águas pretas (Amazonas - Brasil

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    Sérgio Melo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Actinella Lewis was studied using planktonic samples from a black water floodplain lake in Central Amazon region. For species identification the taxa were morphological and morphometricaly analyzed on base in light microscope (LM and scanning electronic microscope (SEM. Five species were registered: Actinella brasiliensis Grunow, A. guianensis Grunow, A. gracile Kociolek, A. mirabilis (Eulenstein ex Grunow Grunow and A. robusta Hustedt. A. gracile is reported for the first time for Amazon State and black water systems and it is firstly documented with SEM. In addition, a review of geographic distribution of Actinella species in Brazilian Amazon region is given.O gênero Actinella Lewis foi estudado a partir de amostras coletadas em um lago de inundação de águas pretas na Amazônia Central. Para a identificação das espécies as características morfológicas e morfométricas dos táxons foram analisadas em microscopia óptica (MO e eletrônica de varredura (MEV. Cinco espécies foram identificadas: Actinella brasiliensis Grunow, A. guianensis Grunow, A. gracile Kociolek, A. mirabilis (Eulenstein ex Grunow Grunow e A. robusta Hustedt. A. gracile é referida pela primeira vez para o estado do Amazonas e para ambientes de águas pretas, sendo documentada pela primeira vez em MEV. Em adição, uma revisão sobre a distribuição geográfica das espécies de Actinella na região da Amazônia brasileira é apresentada.

  1. State Government Bailouts in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Bevilaqua, Afonso S.

    2002-01-01

    As a result of the consolidation of democracy after the end of the military regime in the mid-1980s, Brazil has gone through a period of remarkable decentralization both in fiscal and political terms. The move towards decentralized management and control of public finances has been followed by a series of bailouts of state governments by the federal government. The lack of effective control on borrowing, coupled with reputational effects originating from these repeated bailout operations, red...

  2. Composition and abundance of fishes in the interface between open water and macrophyte banks, and the dynamics of this interface during morning and evening twilight, in lake Catalão, Amazonas, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Igor David da Costa; Ana Carolina Prado Valladares da Rocha; Mariana do Amaral Camara Lima; Jansen Alfredo Sampaio Zuanon

    2011-01-01

    This work studied the composition and abundance of the fishes that move between macrophyte banks and open water during the morning twilight (CM) and afternoon twilight (CV). The collections were made using gillnets, along banks of Paspalum repens, at Catalão lake, in Amazonas, Brazil. A total of 222 individuals and 37 species were collected. Of these, 130 individuals were collected during the CM and 92 during the CV; 80 individuals were leaving during the CM and 40 individuals were leaving du...

  3. IMPACT OF THE INVASION FROM NILE TILAPIA ON NATIVES CICHLIDAE SPECIES IN TRIBUTARY OF AMAZONAS RIVER, BRAZIL

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    Luana Silva Bittencourt

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo providenciou a primeira investigação sobre impacto causado pela invasão da Oreochromis niloticus sobre a população de Cichlidae nativos da bacia hidrográfica Igarapé Fortaleza, um tributário do Rio Amazonas no estado do Amapá, no Norte do Brasil. Como uma consequência de escapes e/ou liberações intencionais de O. niloticus de pisciculturas, houve a invasão e estabelecimento dessa espécie de peixe exótico no ecossistema natural, especialmente em área de refúgio, alimentação e reprodução das espécies de ciclídeos nativos.  Os fatores que contribuíram para essa invasão e estabelecimento foram aqui discutidos. A invasão de O. niloticus está causando pressão sobre as populações de ciclídeos nativos, os quais encontram-se em baixa densidade populacional, pois 72,7% da biomassa dos ciclídeos (nativos e não nativos está constituída por O. niloticus. Consequentemente, a CPUE (2,489 kg.h-1 para essa tilápia invasora é muito superior aos valores da CPUE (0,641 kg.h-1 de todas as 16 espécies de ciclídeos nativos juntos. Os resultados indicam uma necessidade de plano de manejo para controle desse peixe invasor, evitando assim a extinção de espécies de ciclídeos nativos. Além disso, serão úteis também para a tomada de decisão crítica de instituições governamentais (estadual e federal quanto à aprovação da introdução de peixes não nativos na Amazônia ou qualquer outra região do país. Palavras-chaves: Amazônia, peixe exótico, Oreochromis niloticus, crescimento. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v4n3p88-94

  4. SUBSTRATE FOR PRODUCTION OF MACACAÚBA (Platymiscium ulei Harms SEEDLINGS IN THE AUTAZES TOWN, AMAZONAS STATE

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    José Furtado de Miranda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509812339The production of native species seedlings with quality in order to achieve success in reforestation is relatedwith the level of efficiency of used substrates. The objective of the study was to assess different substratecompositions for the production of seedlings in the city of Autazes, in Amazonas state. Eight treatmentsarranged in random blocks experimental design, with five replicates were tested. The treatments were: cattlemanure, lime, corrective phosphate, fertilizer with NPK, lime + correction phosphate, corrective phosphate+ fertilizer with NPK, lime + fertilization with NPK and lime + corrective phosphate + fertilizer with NPK.After 120 days, the following characteristics were assessed: height of shoot, diameter of the neck, shoot, parootand total dry matter, nutrient levels and amounts in shoot dry matter. The results corroborate that alltreatments provided improvements in the soil attributes. Those improvements caused larger readiness ofnutrients for the plants, which provided an appropriate growth of Macacaúba seedlings. The plants thatgrew on cattle manure treatment showed higher nutrient absorption and growth rates in a smaller periodof time. It suggests that cattle manure soil is the most suitable in the production of Macacaúba seedlings.

  5. Parasites of Psittaciformes and Accipitriformes in Paraíba state, northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Cristiane Maria Fernandes de; Oliveira, Jaqueline Bianque; Feitosa, Thais Ferreira; Vilela, Vinícius Longo Ribeiro; Athayde, Ana Célia Rodrigues; Dantas, Antônio Flávio Medeiros; Wagner, Paulo Guilherme Carniel; Febrônio, Andrei Brum

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the presence of gastrointestinal helminths in 97 captive birds (Psittaciformes and Accipitriformes) necropsied between June and December 2011 in the state of Paraiba, Brazil. Forty-three birds were infected. Psittaciformes were infected by nematode Ascaridia hermaphrodita (97.6%) and cestode Raillietina sp. (2.4%). A. hermaphrodita was found in all species of parrots and Raillietina sp. was found only in Amazona aestiva. A. hermaphrodita was the cause of death, by intestinal obstruction, in 14 of the 40 birds investigated. Accipitriformes were infected by nematode Synhimantus (Synhimantus) rectus (100%) and acantocephalan Centrorhynchus tumidulus (50%). In Brazil, Diopsittaca nobilis and A. aestiva are reported for the first time as hosts of A. hermaphrodita and Raillietina sp., respectively. We concluded that Psittaciformes and Accipitriformes in captivity are affected by nematodes, cestodes and acanthocephalans and that implementation of control measures is essential. PMID:23856738

  6. Hidroquímica do rio Solimões na região entre Manacapuru e Alvarães: Amazonas - Brasil The Solimões river hydrochemistry between Manacapuru and Alvarães: Amazonas - Brazil

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    Maria Mireide Andrade Queiroz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho discute as características físico-químicas das águas dos rios Solimões, Purus e seus afluentes, coletadas em novembro de 2004 no Estado do Amazonas, entre as cidades de Manacapuru-Alvarães e Anamã-Pirarauara. Foram realizadas análises físico-químicas (temperatura, pH, condutividade elétrica, turbidez, Ca2+, Na+, K+, Mg2+, HCO3-, SO4(2-, Cl-, de elementos-traço (Li, B, Al, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cd, Sb, Cs, Ba, Pb, La, Ce e U e isótopos de estrôncio. Os parâmetros analisados e a composição química mostram que as águas dos rios e igarapés da região central da Amazônia são quimicamente distintas entre si. As águas brancas do Solimões são cálcicas-bicarbonatadas e as do Purus bicarbonatadas, os respectivos afluentes são sódico-potássico-bicarbonatados e sódico-potássico-sulfatados. Isso acarreta águas brancas fracamente ácidas a neutras e mais condutivas, enquanto as pretas são menos mineralizadas, mais ácidas, especialmente as do Purus. O Ba, Sr, Cu, V e As mais elevados diferenciam as águas brancas do Solimões das do Purus, bem como os afluentes do primeiro em relação ao segundo. Esse conjunto de características indicam que tanto o Solimões, como o Purus e os respectivos afluentes, estão submetidos a condições geológicas/ambientais distintas. A influência do aporte de sedimentos dos Andes é diluída ao longo da bacia do Solimões e se reflete na formação das várzeas dos Solimões e Purus. Por outro lado as rochas crustais, representadas pelos escudos das Guianas e Brasileiro também contribuem, mas em menor proporção.The present study evaluated the physical and chemical characteristics of the water of the rivers Solimões, Purus and their tributaries, collected in November of 2004 in the State of Amazonas between the cities of Manacapuru and Alvarães and Anamã and Pirarauara. Physical-chemical analyses (temperature, pH, electrical conductivity

  7. Diversidade de Agaricales (Basidiomycota) na Reserva Biológica Walter Egler, Amazonas, Brasil Diversity of Agaricales (Basidiomycota) in the Reserva Biológica Walter Egler, Amazonas, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Helenires Queiroz de Souza; Izonete de Jesus Araújo Aguiar

    2004-01-01

    Foi realizado um estudo dos representantes da Ordem Agaricales Clements (Hymenomycetes, Basidiomycotina), ocorrentes na Reserva Biológica Walter Egler, situada na Estrada AM-010, Manaus-Itacoatiara, Km 64, Latitude 02° 43' S e Longitude 59° 47' W, Rio Preto da Eva, Amazonas. A área abrange 709 ha de floresta de terra firme primária. As coletas foram realizadas no período de dezembro de 2000 a junho de 2001 e seguiu-se a metodologia usual para identificação de Agaricales. Foram estudadas um to...

  8. Oryctini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae da coleção de invertebrados do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil Oryctini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae of the invertebrate collection of the National Institute of Research of Amazonia (INPA, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil

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    Hector Jaime Gasca

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A Coleção de Invertebrados do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA possui 554 espécimes de Oryctini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae, pertencentes a 7 gêneros, 16 espécies e 2 subespécies. As distribuições geográficas das espécies são fornecidas, sendo que 97% do material examinado procedem de coletas feitas em diferentes locais da Amazônia brasileira.The Invertebrate Collection of the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, has 554 specimens of Oryctini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae, belonging to seven genera, 16 species and two subspecies. Information about geographical distribution are provided, of which 97% of the material examined was collected from several places in the Brazilian Amazon.

  9. Geoquímica de rios de água preta do sudeste do Amazonas: origem, fluxo dos elementos e consumo de CO2 Geochemistry of black water rivers from the southeastern of the Amazonas State: source, element fluxes and consumption of CO2

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    Anderson da Silva Lages

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi examinada a composição química das águas dos afluentes da margem direita do rio Madeira que drenam as rochas do Escudo Brasileiro. O estudo foi realizado no município de Apuí no sudeste do estado do Amazonas, Brasil. Foram analisados pH, condutividade, as concentrações de SiO2 e de íons dissolvidos (Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, HCO3-, Cl-, NO3- e SO4(2- em quatro épocas do ano segundo o índice pluviométrico: chuvosa, transição para a estiagem, estiagem e transição para a chuvosa. As águas são diluídas, mais concentradas em HCO3- e SiO2 e representam o típico ambiente de intensa lixiviação que afeta as rochas na Amazônia. Apesar da química das águas terem influência da sazonalidade, foram identificadas variações em função da litologia. As taxas de exportação de cátions e de erosão química das rochas são baixas e refletem a estabilidade tectônica da região e o manto intempérico que dificulta a interação da água com o substrato rochoso.This work examined the chemical composition of waters from tributaries of the right bank of the Madeira River which drain silicaterocks of the Brazilian Craton. The study was conducted at the municipalityof Apui, in the southeastern of the Amazonas State, Brazil. There were analyzed pH, conductivity, SiO2 and dissolved ions (Na+, K+, Mg2+ e Ca2+, HCO3-, Cl-, NO3- and SO4(2- in the four pluviometric seasons of the Amazon region: rainy, transition to the dry, dry and transition to the rainy. The waters are diluted, have high HCO3-and SiO2 concentration and represent the typical environment of intense leaching that affects the rocks in the Amazon. Although the chemical composition reveals seasonal influences, it was identified variation due to lithological composition. The rate of exportation of cations and the chemical erosion are low in consequence of the tectonic stability of the region and the weathering mantle, which hinders the interaction of water with the

  10. Vulnerability of groundwater to contamination in the municipality of Humaitá, Amazonas

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    Miqueias Lima Duarte

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater has been used intensively throughout Brazil. In southern Amazonas state, the water supplies of some municipalities are derived exclusively from wells. Yet this region generally has no wastewater treatment, leading to potential contamination of the underground water. We classified and mapped the vulnerability of groundwater supplies to contamination in the urban and peri-urban area of Humaitá in southern Amazonas State. We used the GOD method (Groundwater occurrence; Overall Lithology of the unsaturated zone; Depth of the water table to score vulnerability classes. The results revealed the existence of average and high vulnerability of aquifer contamination in the area, indicating the fragility of the aquifer system that supplies the municipality, and showing the need for public policies aimed at the protection of the region’s groundwater resources.

  11. Pseudoescorpiões (Arachnida da vegetação de sub-bosque da floresta primária tropical de terra firme (Coari, Amazonas, Brasil Pseudoscorpions (Aracnida in the undergrowth vegetetion in dryland forest in Coari, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nair Otaviano Aguiar

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi encontrada uma riqueza de 15 espécies de pseudoscorpiões, de 12 gêneros e 5 famílias (Chthoniidae, Geogarypidae, Olpiidae, Atemnidae e Chernetidae, habitando diferentes plantas da vegetação do sub-bosque, em floresta primária de terra firme, no alto rio Urucu, Coari, Amazonas, no período de 1991 a 1996. As plantas foram examinadas pelo método de "bateção". Apolpium aff. vastum foi à espécie mais freqüente e abundante sobre as plantas. Dentre os tipos de plantas avaliados, as maiores diversidades de espécies de pseudoscorpiões foram registradas nas pequenas palmeiras, tanto com fronde junto ao chão, como elevada acima do chão. A análise da composição das espécies que ocorreram sobre os diferentes tipos de plantas avaliadas foi realizada pelo "modo-Q", tendo como base a matriz de coeficientes de similaridade de "Jaccard", o que demonstrou maior similaridade entre a fauna das palmeiras e outras plantas que acumulam detritos acima do chão, entre as bromélias e entre aráceas de chão e outras plantas que acumulam detritos junto ao chão.A richness of 15 pseudoscorpion species, 12 genera belonging to 5 families (Chthoniidae, Geogarypidae, Olpiidae, Atemnidae and Chernetidae were found in the undergrowth vegetation of the dryland forest, at the upper Urucu river, Coari, Amazonas, from 1991 to 1996, and was collected by the "beating tray" method. Apolpium aff. vastum was the most frequent and abundant species in the undergrowth forest vegetation. Among the various types of plants examined, the majority of the pseudoscorpions occurred in small palms (in the ground-trenched palms as much as the erect stemmed palms. To appraise the specie's composition of these arachnids found in the different kinds of plants, the Q-mode analysis was used based on Jaccard's similarity coefficients. The coefficients that showed the greatest similarity were between the fauna of the palms and other plants that accumulate litter on top of the

  12. Composition and abundance of fishes in the interface between open water and macrophyte banks, and the dynamics of this interface during morning and evening twilight, in lake Catalão, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor David da Costa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the composition and abundance of the fishes that move between macrophyte banks and open water during the morning twilight (CM and afternoon twilight (CV. The collections were made using gillnets, along banks of Paspalum repens, at Catalão lake, in Amazonas, Brazil. A total of 222 individuals and 37 species were collected. Of these, 130 individuals were collected during the CM and 92 during the CV; 80 individuals were leaving during the CM and 40 individuals were leaving during the CV. Auchenipterus nuchalis, Pellona castelnaeana, Triportheus angulatus and T. albus were the most common and concentrated species collected in the CM and Pimelodus blochii was the most common species collected in the CV.

  13. Geochronologic study of sediments deposition of two lakes from the Rio Negro basin, Amazonas State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1963 the radionuclide 210Pb became an important tool for dating (geochronology) recent sediments (up to 120 years). In this work the sedimentary geochronology of two lakes from the Negro River Basin was determined, using different radiochemical separation methods for 210Pb and 226Ra. (author)

  14. Cases distribution of leptospirosis in City of Manaus, State of Amazonas, Brazil, 2000-2010

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    Michele Silva de Jesus

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Leptospirosis is an infectious disease caused by microorganisms of the genus Leptospira that affects several species of animals, including the human beings. The study described the confirmed cases of leptospirosis in Manaus, from 2000 to 2010. METHODS: A descriptive study based on secondary data analysis of Secretaria Municipal de Saúde (SEMSA, Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação SINAN and Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade (SIM analyzing the variables: age group, gender, clinical aspects and geographic area and lethality. RESULTS: Were reported 665 cases of leptospirosis, 339 were confirmed and 35 (10.3% died. The largest number of cases occurred in May (16.8%, March (13.3% and April (11.4%, a period of intense rainfall. The city areas with the greatest occurrence of the disease were South (26.6%, West (23.5% and East (19.7%, areas of the greatest precariousness socio-environment. The largest number of cases, including deaths, occurred in the age group from 14 to 44.9 years (74%, being that 291 (85.8% were male and 48 (14.1% females. The most frequent symptoms were fever, myalgia, headache and jaundice. In relation to the social conditions were identified low education, poor housing, absence of sanitation and low income. CONCLUSIONS: In Manaus, despite the implementation of the Social and Environmental Program of Igarapés of Manaus (PROSAMIM, there are still areas that need a proper urbanization and improvements in socio-environmental conditions, reducing the level of exposure of the human beings that living in these locations.

  15. Conodont biostratigraphy and paleoecology of the marine sequence of the Tapajós Group, Early-Middle Pennsylvanian of Amazonas Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scomazzon, Ana Karina; Moutinho, Luciane Profs; Nascimento, Sara; Lemos, Valesca Brasil; Matsuda, Nilo Siguehiko

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken in the south and western regions of the Amazonas Basin to describe the conodont biostratigraphy and paleoecology of Pennsylvanian carbonate rocks of the marine portion of the Tapajós Group comprising the upper Monte Alegre, Itaituba, and lower Nova Olinda formations. The analyzed area includes one outcrop along the Tapajós river (TAP), two carbonate quarries (QI, QII), and 18 wells (dots 1-18). The conodont fauna is dominated by Idiognathoides sinuatus and Neognathodus symmetricus in the Monte Alegre Formation, followed by Idiognathodus incurvus, Diplognathodus coloradoensis and Neognathodus bassleri in the Itaituba and Nova Olinda formations. The conodont association suggests an Early to Middle Pennsylvanian age to the analyzed section. Relative ages attributed to the three lithostratigraphic units using conodonts, palynomorphs, and foraminifers are consistent. Herein are proposed one local taxon-range zone of Idiognathodus incurvus in the Itaituba and lower part of the Nova Olinda Formation and one local taxon-range subzone of Diplognathodus coloradoensis in the Itaituba Formation, suggesting a late Bashkirian - Moscovian (Atokan - early Desmoinesian) age to these strata. The Itaituba Formation marks the establishment of large Pennsylvanian marine conditions in the Amazonas Basin and is composed primarily of marine carbonates of abundant fossil content, tidal flat evaporites and siliciclastic thin intervals. Its lower limit, with the Monte Alegre Formation, is characterized by the predominant occurrence of fluvial-deltaic sandstones superimposed on an extensive sequence of aeolian sandstones, siltstones and shales intercalated with the interdune and lakes. From the upper strata of Itaituba Formation the faunal and lithological characteristics indicate the occurrence of a regressive phase culminating in a restricted environment, arid which indicates the Nova Olinda Formation. This is characterized by the occurrence of evaporites

  16. Fulminant hepatic failure in children and adolescents in Northern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fonseca José Carlos F.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The histological findings of fulminant hepatic failure were correlated to the demographic, clinical, biochemical and virological features in children and adolescents, native to the Amazonas State in Northern Brazil. 96.2% had evidence of infection by primary hepatotrophic viruses. Histological analysis revealed three distinct patterns of fulminant hepatic failure.

  17. Fulminant hepatic failure in children and adolescents in Northern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, José Carlos F; Souza, Rita A B; Brasil, Leila M; Araújo, José R; Ferreira, Luiz Carlos L

    2004-01-01

    The histological findings of fulminant hepatic failure were correlated to the demographic, clinical, biochemical and virological features in children and adolescents, native to the Amazonas State in Northern Brazil. 96.2% had evidence of infection by primary hepatotrophic viruses. Histological analysis revealed three distinct patterns of fulminant hepatic failure. PMID:15042190

  18. Provenance of Pliocene and recent sedimentary deposits in western Amazônia, Brazil: Consequences for the paleodrainage of the Solimões-Amazonas River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horbe, Adriana Maria Coimbra; Motta, Marcelo Batista; de Almeida, Carolina Michelin; Dantas, Elton Luiz; Vieira, Lucieth Cruz

    2013-10-01

    Integrated data on paleocurrents, the morphology of detrital minerals and zircon grains, chemical compositions and U-Pb geochronology, reveal that the flow of the modern Solimões-Amazonas River has changed from west to east since the Plio-Pleistocene. This finding is supported by several lines of evidence, including paleocurrent directions and detrital mineral assemblages in the Içá Formation and in recent sediments. The Içá Formation, which was most likely deposited during the Pliocene, has NE and SE paleocurrents, a high proportion of stable detrital mineral assemblages and U-Pb zircon ages that we interpreted as being derived from the Amazonian craton (e.g., the Rondonian-San Ignácio and Sunsas-Grenvillian geochronologic provinces) and neighboring provinces, including the Neoproterozoic to Cambrian Brazilian Pampean mobile belts. A small proportion is derived from the Cambrian to Silurian Famatinian continental arch. Another source is the Precambrian and Paleozoic basement from the Andes cordillera, which includes several metamorphic inliers in Colombia, Peru and Bolivia. The overlying recent deposits have different provenances and are characterized by a more variable detrital assemblage with zircon grains that are enriched in trace elements and depleted in Si and have Mesoproterozoic ages. In our interpretation, the erosion of the Iquitos Arch after deposition of the Içá Formation allowed the westward expansion of the Solimões-Amazonas system in the Plio-Pleistocene.

  19. Plantas daninhas hospedeiras alternativas de Colletotrichum guaranicola em cultivos de guaraná no Estado do Amazonas Alternative host weeds of Colletotrichum guaranicola in guarana crops in the State Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.J. Miléo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available As plantas daninhas reduzem a produção de sementes de guaraná e podem hospedar microrganismos patogênicos, tornando-se potenciais fontes de inóculo. Este trabalho identificou espécies de plantas daninhas colonizadas pelo fungo Colletotrichum guaranicola em cultivos de guaranazeiro em quatro municípios do Estado do Amazonas. As plantas daninhas foram identificadas e a presença do fungo foi verificada por meio de isolamentos feitos a partir de fragmentos de folhas lesionadas. As espécies colonizadas por C. guaranicola foram Bidens bipinnata, Chloris sp., Clidemia capitellata, Cyperus flavus, Elephantopus scaber, Euphorbia brasiliensis, Hemidiodia sp., Hyptis lantanifolia, Paspalum conjugatum, Physalis angulata e Synedrella nodiflora, as quais podem representar uma fonte de inóculo do patógeno, além das plantas de guaraná. A diversidade de plantas daninhas, em cultivos de guaranazeiro, reforça a importância de estabelecer práticas de manejo dessas plantas, principalmente em Maués, onde ocorreu maior colonização das espécies de plantas daninhas pelo fungo.Weed infestation may reduce grain guarana crops yield and host plant pathogens becoming potential inoculum sources. This research identified weed species colonized by the fungus Colletotrichum guaranicola in the guarana crop in four counties in the state of Amazon. The weeds were identified fungi presence was observed by isolation from leaf fragments of leaves injured by the fungi. The weed species colonized by Colletotrichum guaranicola were Bidens bipinnata, Chloris sp., Clidemia capitellata, Cyperus flavus, Elephantopus scaber, Euphorbia brasiliensis, Hemidiodia sp., Hyptis lantanifolia, Paspalum conjugatum, Physalis angulata and Synedrella nodiflora,that may represent a strong potential of plant pathogen inoculum, along with the guarana plants. Weed diversity in guarana crop shows the importance of establishing management practices to control these weeds, mainly in the Maues

  20. Microcephaly in Infants, Pernambuco State, Brazil, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    We studied the clinical characteristics for 104 infants born with microcephaly in the delivery hospitals of Pernambuco State, Brazil, during 2015. Testing is ongoing to exclude known infectious causes. However, microcephaly peaked in October and demonstrated central nervous system abnormalities with brain dysgenesis and intracranial calcifications consistent with an intrauterine infection. PMID:27071041

  1. Óleo de andiroba: processo tradicional da extração, uso e aspectos sociais no estado do Amazonas, Brasil Crapwood oil: traditional extraction, use and social aspects in the state of Amazonas, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreza P. Mendonça

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O processo tradicional de extração do óleo das sementes de andiroba foi levantado em três municípios (Anamã, Manacapuru e Silves no Estado do Amazonas. Em 1992 e 2004, foi aplicado um questionário a 38 extratoras. Sementes das duas espécies de andiroba (Carapa procera D.C. e Carapa guianensis Aubl. foram utilizadas como matéria prima. O processo tradicional é complexo, demora cerca de dois meses e pode ser dividido em três etapas: 1. A coleta, seleção de sementes boas e um primeiro armazenamento (3-15 dias. 2. O preparo da massa pelo cozimento das sementes em água (1-3 horas, um segundo período de armazenamento (até 20 dias e finalizada pela retirada da casca e o amassamento das amêndoas. 3. A extração do óleo (até 30 dias, pelo gotejamento colocando a massa sobre uma superfície inclinada. Óleo extraído na sombra foi considerado de melhor qualidade do que no sol, porém o processo é mais demorado. Uma segunda extração com a prensa ("tipiti", usada na fabricação de farinha, foi raramente empregada. Verificaram-se pequenas variações entre os procedimentos das extratoras, aparentemente com conseqüências na rentabilidade e na qualidade do óleo. Na primeira e segunda etapa da extração participaram membros da família e/ou vizinhos, ao contrário da etapa final, realizada por uma única mulher. Enquanto, transmissão do conhecimento tradicional, em geral, costuma passar de geração por geração pela oralidade e observação, este estudo revelou, que os jovens não participam mais da extração. Fato, que no futuro próximo, pode causar a perda de conhecimento em relação à extração do óleo de andiroba pelo método tradicional.The traditional method of oil extraction from crabwood seeds was observed in three municipalities (Anamã, Manacapuru e Silves in the state of Amazonas. In 1992 and 2004 a total of 38 producers were interviewed. Seeds of two species (Carapa procera D.C. and Carapa guianensis Aubl. were

  2. Occupation and urbanization of Roraima State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, A

    1997-01-01

    The author examines settlement patterns and urbanization of the remote area of Roraima State, Brazil. "A survey conducted in the capital city, Boa Vista, provides information on migration histories and migrants' characteristics.... Current views of urbanization of the Amazon [region] are focused on the displacement factor that development and state geopolitics have upon rural settlements...." The author also suggests that more attention needs to be paid to the characteristics of migrants in the urban areas. (EXCERPT) PMID:12294841

  3. Óleo de andiroba: processo tradicional da extração, uso e aspectos sociais no estado do Amazonas, Brasil Crapwood oil: traditional extraction, use and social aspects in the state of Amazonas, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Andreza P. Mendonça; Isolde Dorothea Kossmann Ferraz

    2007-01-01

    O processo tradicional de extração do óleo das sementes de andiroba foi levantado em três municípios (Anamã, Manacapuru e Silves) no Estado do Amazonas. Em 1992 e 2004, foi aplicado um questionário a 38 extratoras. Sementes das duas espécies de andiroba (Carapa procera D.C. e Carapa guianensis Aubl.) foram utilizadas como matéria prima. O processo tradicional é complexo, demora cerca de dois meses e pode ser dividido em três etapas: 1. A coleta, seleção de sementes boas e um primeiro armazena...

  4. Uso de psicotrópicos entre universitários da área da saúde da Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Brasil Use of psychoactive drugs by health sciences undergraduate students at the Federal University in Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cyra dos Santos Lucas

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um levantamento sobre uso de psicotrópicos entre estudantes da Faculdade de Ciências da Saúde da Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus, Brasil, em uma amostra de 521 alunos. O "uso na vida" de álcool foi relatado por 87,7% dos estudantes (IC95%: 85,34-90,06 e o de tabaco por 30,7% (IC 95%: 27,39-34,01, sendo o último maior entre estudantes do sexo masculino (39,7%; IC95%: 33,33-46,01. As substâncias ilegais mais usadas foram: solventes (11,9%; IC95%: 9,57-14,23, maconha (9,4%; IC95%: 7,30-11,50, anfetamínicos e ansiolíticos (ambos com 9,2%; IC95%: 7,12-11,28, cocaína (2,1%; IC95%: 1,07- 3,13 e alucinógenos (1,2%; IC95%: 0,42-1,98. O principal motivo relatado para o uso de drogas ilegais foi a curiosidade. O "uso na vida" de esteróides anabolizantes foi citado por 2,1% dos estudantes. O uso abusivo de álcool nos últimos 30 dias foi relatado por 12,4% dos universitários. Entre os eventos ocorridos após a ingestão de bebidas alcoólicas, os estudantes citaram envolvimento em briga (4,7%, acidentes (2,4%, faltaà escola (33,7%, falta ao trabalho (11,8% e condução de veículos (47,3%. A opinião sobre as drogas e o padrão de uso dos estudantes não diferem muito dos estudos semelhantes em outras regiões do Brasil.A survey was conducted with 521 undergraduate health sciences students from the Federal University in Amazonas, Manaus, Brazil. Lifetime alcohol consumption was reported by 87.7% students, as compared to 30.7% for tobacco, with the latter reported more frequently by males (39.7%. The most common illicit drugs were solvents (11.9%, marijuana (9.4%, amphetamines and anxiolytics (9.2% each, cocaine (2.1%, and hallucinogens (1.2%. The main reason for illicit drug use was curiosity. Lifetime use of anabolic steroids was reported by 2.1% of the students. Alcohol abuse in the previous 30 days was reported by 12.4% of the students. Events following drinking included: fights (4.7%, accidents (2.4%, classroom

  5. First record of Dilocarcinus pagei Stimpson, 1861 (Decapoda, Trichodactylidae in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Valter Monteiro de Azevedo-Santos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the species that represent the Trichodactylidae family is Dilocarcinus pagei Stimpson, 1861. This species shows a wide geographic distribution in the central region of South America. In Brazil, D. pagei had already been registered in Amapá, Amazonas, Pará, Mato Grosso, Rondônia, Acre, Mato Grosso do Sul and São Paulo. The present study aimed to register the occurrence of the species in Minas Gerais.

  6. First record of Dilocarcinus pagei Stimpson, 1861 (Decapoda, Trichodactylidae) in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Valter Monteiro de Azevedo-Santos; Nelci de Lima-Stripari

    2010-01-01

    Among the species that represent the Trichodactylidae family is Dilocarcinus pagei Stimpson, 1861. This species shows a wide geographic distribution in the central region of South America. In Brazil, D. pagei had already been registered in Amapá, Amazonas, Pará, Mato Grosso, Rondônia, Acre, Mato Grosso do Sul and São Paulo. The present study aimed to register the occurrence of the species in Minas Gerais.

  7. Avaliação do desembarque pesqueiro efetuado em Manacapuru, Amazonas, Brasil Evaluation of the Manacapuru fishing landings, Amazonas State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Gonçalves

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A atividade comercial pesqueira na Amazônia Central é predominantemente direcionada para Manaus, porém o perfil das atividades pesqueiras efetuadas nos demais centros também é fundamental para o planejamento do setor. Neste contexto, o presente trabalho visa caracterizar o perfil da produção pesqueira que abastece a cidade de Manacapuru, um dos principais centros urbanos da Amazônia Central. Os desembarques ocorreram a partir de canoas a remo, canoas motorizadas, barcos de pesca e recreios. A média mensal de pescado desembarcado foi de 175,36 ± 39,50 t em 2001 e de 172,13 ± 18,88 t em 2002, não apresentando diferença significativa entre anos (P>0,05. Dos 35 nomes específicos comuns registrados, observa-se que curimatã (Prochilodus nigricans, jaraquis (Semaprochilodus spp., cubiu (Anodus spp., mapará (Hypophthalmus spp., e tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum foram os itens mais importantes nos dois anos, e piramutaba (Brachyplatystoma vaillantii em 2002. Sete sub-regiões foram visitadas pela frota pesqueira, destacando-se Baixo-Solimões e o rio Purus.The fishing commercial activity in Central Amazonia is mainly addressed for Manaus, even so the characteristics of the fishing activities directed to other important urban centers in the region are also fundamental for the planning of the sector. In this context, the present work seeks to characterize the profile of the fishing production that lands in the city of Manacapuru, one of the main urban centers of Central Amazon. Fish landings were done from non-motorized canoes, motorized canoes, fishing ships and pleasure boats. The monthly average of landed fish was of 175,36 ± 39,50 ton in 2001 and of 172,13 ± 18,88 ton in 2002, not presenting significant difference among years (P>0,05. Of the 35 registered common species names, it is observed that curimatã (Prochilodus nigricans, jaraquis (Semaprochilodus spp., cubiu (Anodus spp., mapará (Hypophthalmus spp., and tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum were the most important fish landed in 2001 and 2002, and piramutaba (Brachyplatystoma vaillantii specifically in 2002. out of the seven sub-areas visited by the fishing fleet, Lower Solimões and Purus river stand out.

  8. Acidez potencial pelo método do pH SMP no Estado do Amazonas Potential acidity by pH SMP method in Amazonas State, Brazil

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    Adônis Moreira

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi definir um modelo matemático que estime o H+Al a partir do pH SMP medido em água e em solução de CaCl2 0,01 mol L-1 nas condições edafoclimáticas locais. Foram utilizadas 246 amostras de solo provenientes de diversas localidades. Mesmo apresentando menor coeficiente da correlação (r = 0,89*, a equação H+Al = 30,646 - 3,848pH SMP obtida em H2O foi mais eficiente que a obtida em solução CaCl2 (H+Al = 30,155 - 3,834pH SMP, r = 0,91*, a qual subestima os valores da acidez potencial.The objective of this work was to determine a mathematic model that estimates the potential acidity with pH SMP measured in water and in solution of CaCl2 0.01 mol L-1. Two hundred and forty six soil samples from several localities were utilized. Despite presenting a lower correlation coefficient (r = 0.89*, the equation H+Al = 30.646 - 3.848pH SMP, obtained in H2O, was more efficient than in the CaCl2 solution (H+Al = 30.155 -3.834pH SMP, r = 0.91*, since this last one underestimates the values of the potential acidity.

  9. Associação micorrízica e teores de nutrientes nas folhas de cupuaçuzeiro (Theobroma grandiflorum e guaranazeiro (Paullinia cupana de um sistema agroflorestal em Manaus, Amazonas Arbuscular mycorrhizal association and foliar nutrient concentrations of cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum and guaraná (Paullinia cupana plants in an agroforestry system in Manaus, AM, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Oliveira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available As micorrizas arbusculares podem ser importantes na nutrição das plantas em solos ácidos e de baixa fertilidade, como são os da Amazônia de modo geral. Avaliaram-se a colonização radicular por fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMAs nativos e os teores de nutrientes em cupuaçuzeiro e guaranazeiro em um sistema agroflorestal no município de Manaus, Amazonas. Dez plantas de cada espécie foram selecionadas, das quais foram coletadas amostras de raiz, folha e solo durante o período seco e chuvoso da região de Manaus. Os guaranazeiros e os cupuaçuzeiros apresentaram maior colonização radicular por FMAs na época chuvosa. Os teores foliares de Ca, Mg, K, P, Zn, Cu e Mn nas duas espécies não foram influenciados pelas épocas de amostragem. O teor de Fe nas folhas dos cupuaçuzeiros foi maior na época chuvosa, enquanto o dos guaranazeiros, na época seca. A colonização micorrízica correlacionou-se com a concentração foliar de Ca, Mg, P e Cu nos cupuaçuzeiros e com a de Ca, Fe, Zn e Cu nos guaranazeiros.Arbuscular mycorrhiza can be important for plant nutrition in acid and low fertility soils such as those of the Amazon. The present study evaluated the mycorrhizal colonization by native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and nutrient concentrations of cupuassu and guarana leaves in an agroforestry system in Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil. Ten plants of each species were selected, of which the roots, soil and leaves were sampled during the rainy and dry seasons. Guarana and cupuassu trees presented higher levels of AMF colonization during the rainy season. Ca, Mg, K, P, Zn, Cu, and Mn concentrations in both species were not affected by the season. Fe concentration was higher during the rainy season in the cupuassu leaves, but higher in the dry season in the guarana leaves. Mycorrhizal colonization correlated with Ca, Mg, P, and Cu concentrations in cupuassu plants and with Ca, Fe, Zn, and Cu in guarana plants.

  10. Phylogeography of Dengue Virus Serotype 4, Brazil, 2010-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, Marcio Roberto Teixeira; Faria, Nuno Rodrigues; Vasconcelos, Helena Baldez; Medeiros, Daniele Barbosa de Almeida; Silva de Lima, Clayton Pereira; Carvalho, Valéria Lima; Pinto da Silva, Eliana Vieira; Cardoso, Jedson Ferreira; Sousa, Edivaldo Costa; Nunes, Keley Nascimento Barbosa; Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro; Abecasis, Ana Barroso; Suchard, Marc A.; Lemey, Philippe; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

    2012-01-01

    Dengue virus serotype 4 (DENV-4) reemerged in Roraima State, Brazil, 28 years after it was last detected in the country in 1982. To study the origin and evolution of this reemergence, full-length sequences were obtained for 16 DENV-4 isolates from northern (Roraima, Amazonas, Pará States) and northeastern (Bahia State) Brazil during the 2010 and 2011 dengue virus seasons and for an isolate from the 1982 epidemic in Roraima. Spatiotemporal dynamics of DENV-4 introductions in Brazil were applie...

  11. Astronomy Outreach In Parana state/Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emilio, Marcelo

    2015-08-01

    Paraná is a state at South of Brazil with a population of 11 million people. There are two planetarium and two fixed observatories devoted to Astronomy outreach. The great majority of population have no access to information and knowledge of astronomy discoveries. Another problem is the teaching formation of astronomy studies. In this work we relate an initiative that started at the International Year of Astronomy in 2009 that involved Universities and amateur groups that is still in place. After several grants from the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development and Araucária Foundation we were able to reach more than 100.000 people with a mobile planetarium and night astronomic observations. We also providde one-week classes to more than 1.000 teachers in several cities of the state.

  12. Electric power and traditional communities in the state of Amazonas: learning from the experience of the Roque Community in the Middle Jurua extractive reserve; Energia eletrica e as populacoes tradicionais do Estado do Amazonas: aprendizados a partir da experiencia na Comunidade do Roque na Reserva Extrativista do Medio Jurua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Celia Salama

    2010-09-15

    This work aims to bring new ideas for expanding access to electricity services to traditional communities in the state of Amazonas including strategies for income generation and improvement of local living conditions. To this end, the main achievements in the community of Roque in the implementation of the project Vegetable Oil for Electricity Generation and Valuation of Biodiversity in Isolated Communities of Extractive Reserve in the Middle Jurua, Carauari, Amazon state were identified and evaluated. Based on the results, a proposal for planning electrification works is formulated that takes into account local knowledge on socioeconomic and environmental conditions. In order to be implemented, such a proposal will require an improvement of the existing regulatory system and the establishment of partnerships or institutional articulation with broad stake holder involvement, including representatives of communities and local power utilities. (author)

  13. Uso dos recursos vegetais por agricultores familiares de Manacapuru (AM Use of vegetal resources by Family Farmers in Manacapuru, Amazonas state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne R. Costa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo é relatado o uso de espécies vegetais por onze famílias que vivem na área rural do município de Manacapuru, no Amazonas. Foi feita uma abordagem participativa durante as entrevistas, utilizando um formulário formal, que considerava toda a propriedade agrícola. No total, foram registradas 173 espécies, cuja maioria (101 apresentou uso medicinal. Sessenta e oito espécies são usadas na alimentação humana e vinte e duas espécies são utilizadas para construção de casas. Noventa e sete espécies (56,1% provêm somente dos pomares caseiros, 22 espécies (12,7% existem unicamente na floresta primária e 18 espécies (10,4% são provenientes das capoeiras. Algumas espécies são encontradas em diferentes ambientes. De fato, a vegetação da região é capaz de prover diferentes recursos para os agricultores, os quais procuram alternativas que possam melhorar sua qualidade de vida. O plantio de espécies frutíferas é bastante comum e representa uma diversificação e melhoria na qualidade alimentar. Porém, há necessidade de incentivo para o plantio de espécies florestais nativas. O aprendizado sobre as plantas medicinais é passado de geração a geração, sempre pelas mulheres.This study deals with the use of vegetal species by small farmers in the municipal district of Manacapuru, in the State of Amazonas. We used a formal questionnaire for participative interviews which took into consideration the entire agricultural property. Of the one hundred and seventy three species that we registered, the majority (101 presented medicinal use. Sixty-eight species are used for human nutrition and twenty-two for house building. Ninety-seven species (56.1% come exclusively from domestic orchards; twenty-two (12.7% exist only in the primary forest; and eighteen species (10.4% originate from fallows. Some species can be found in different environments. Although the vegetation of the region under study is capable of providing farmers

  14. A organização do desembarque e o comércio de pescado na década de 1990 em Manaus, Amazonas Landing and fish commercialization in the decade of 1990 in the Manaus fishing harbor, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdenei de Melo Parente

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A maior parte da produção pesqueira do Estado do Amazonas é desembarcada em Manaus, entretanto, as características de organização do apoio à produção e da comercialização neste centro, pouco têm sido avaliadas ou consideradas nas discussões para o desenvolvimento do setor. O presente trabalho visa apresentar estas características de forma a estabelecer um referencial histórico sobre a organização do desembarque pesqueiro em Manaus e para subsidiar o planejamento do setor. Entrevistas foram efetuadas com diversos atores deste setor, de forma a cobrir o mosaico de alternativas que existem para o abastecimento de pescado. Há quatro tipos de agentes de comercialização atacadista de pescado para Manaus: o barco de pesca, o despachante, o atravessador e os frigoríficos. O despachante aparece como ator central no processo produtivo pesqueiro no período, seja por financiar as viagens e operações de comercialização, ou por executar a ligação entre os produtores-pescadores e os comerciantes de pescado. Exceção a esta regra ocorre com o "pescador ribeirinho autônomo", o qual pesca com seus próprios meios e comercializa sua produção com compradores sem intermediação. No comércio varejista, os feirantes são os mais importantes, sendo a Feira da Panair responsável por cerca de 20% do abastecimento do pescado in natura em Manaus. Os supermercados e os pequenos comerciantes são os demais agentes varejistas, cuja participação na comercialização da produção era ainda pequena, porém financeiramente é maior visto que disponibilizam produtos com valor agregado e portanto preços maiores a mercados de classe média que o dos feirantes.Manaus is the main commercial center for fish prodution in the state of Amazonas. However, its characteristics of commercialization have not been evaluated in order to assist the development of the fishery sector. The present paper presents these characteristics to establish a historical

  15. The costs of REDD: lessons from Amazonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, Virgilio M.; Ribenboim, Gabriel [Amazonas Sustainable Foundation (Brazil); Mea, Rosana Della [Rainforest Concern (Brazil); Grieg-Gran, Maryanne

    2009-11-15

    Reducing tropical deforestation is a major climate and development issue: forest clearing is responsible for roughly a fifth of greenhouse gas emissions, and the forest-dependent poor number over a billion. In the runup to the Copenhagen climate summit, REDD – reducing emissions from deforestation and (forest) degradation by providing incentives to tropical forest countries – has been touted as one of the most cost-effective mitigation mechanisms on the table. But the benefits would be only temporary if forests saved today are cleared once incentives cease. Would the expense of maintaining such incentives over decades raise the price to uncompetitive levels? A forest reserve in Amazonas, Brazil, offers some of the first real-world data on the costs of REDD. Even with pessimistic assumptions about future pressures, the project's carbon cuts look highly affordable.

  16. Huanglongbing Surveillance Program Actions in the State of Bahia, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, S. X.B.; Andrade, E. C.; Nascimento, A. S.; Barbosa, C. J.; Girardi, E. A.; Astúa, J. F.; Laranjeira, F. F.

    2014-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is found in South/Southeastern states of Brazil, but citrus is grown all over the country. For that reason, surveillance procedures should be carried out frequently and contingency plans developed. This study reports the actions of the State Bureau of Agricultural Defense of Bahia (ADAB), for a commercial orchard in Bom Jesus da Lapa (state of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil) suspected of having HLB symptomatic plants. Besides having a Contingency Plan, a protocol that establis...

  17. An Asiatic Chironomid in Brazil: morphology, DNA barcode and bionomics

    OpenAIRE

    Gizelle Amora; Neusa Hamada; Lívia Maria Fusari; Vanderly Andrade-Souza

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In most freshwater ecosystems, aquatic insects are dominant in terms of diversity; however, there is a disproportionately low number of records of alien species when compared to other freshwater organisms. The Chironomidae is one aquatic insect family that includes some examples of alien species around the world. During a study on aquatic insects in Amazonas state (Brazil), we collected specimens of Chironomidae that are similar, at the morphological level, to Chironomus kiiensis Tok...

  18. Simulium (Psaroniocompsa) tergospinosum new species (Diptera: Simuliidae) in siolii group from the southern part of the State of Amazonas, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Hamada Neusa

    2000-01-01

    The larva, pupa, male and female of Simulium tergospinosum n. sp. are described and illustrated. The adults of this new species share many characters with species in the subgenus Psaroniocompsa, where it is placed. The larva of this species bears dorsal and lateral triangular tubercles on the abdomen and multiply branched scale-like setae on the body, suggesting that it belongs to the S. siolii species group. S. tergospinosum n.sp. was collected along the Juma River, Apuí county, in the south...

  19. State of endocrinology and diabetology in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Giannella-Neto

    2011-01-01

    Brazil is a large, populous country in South America, which has one of the biggest concentrations of people with diabetes. This article reviews the current status of diabetes care, medical education and training, and diabetes/endocrine research in Brazil. It highlights achievements in public health and research, which can be emulated by other countries. In Endocrine/Diabetes fields, a more realistic and responsible policies in terms of medical traineeship, patient education, and mainly scient...

  20. New records of Mansonella ozzardi: a parasite that is spreading from the state of Amazonas to previously uninfected areas of the state of Acre in the Purus River region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yara Leite Adami

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Mansonella ozzardi infections are common in the riverside communities along the Solimões, Negro and Purus Rivers in the state of Amazonas (AM. However, little is known about the presence of this parasite in communities located in regions bordering AM and the state of Acre. The prevalence rate of M. ozzardi infections was determined in blood samples from volunteers according to the Knott method. A total of 355 volunteers from six riverine communities were enrolled in the study and 65 (18.3% were found to be infected with M. ozzardi. As expected, most of the infections (25% occurred in individuals involved in agriculture, cattle rearing and fishing and an age/sex group analysis revealed that the prevalence increased beginning in the 40-50-years-of-age group and reached 33% in both sexes in individuals over 50 years of age. Based on the described symptomatology, articular pain and headache were found to be significantly higher among infected individuals (56 and 65% prevalence, respectively, p < 0.05. Sera from volunteers were subjected to ELISA using a cocktail of recombinant proteins from Onchocerca volvulus to evaluate the specificity of the test in an endemic M. ozzardi region. No cross-reactions between M. ozzardi-infected individuals and recombinant O. volvulus proteins were detected, thus providing information on the secure use of this particular cocktail in areas where these parasites are sympatric.

  1. New records of Mansonella ozzardi: a parasite that is spreading from the state of Amazonas to previously uninfected areas of the state of Acre in the Purus River region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adami, Yara Leite; Rodrigues, Gabriel; Alves, Marilene Costa; Moraes, Mario Augusto Pinto; Banic, Dalma Maria; Maia-Herzog, Marilza

    2014-02-01

    Mansonella ozzardi infections are common in the riverside communities along the Solimões, Negro and Purus Rivers in the state of Amazonas (AM). However, little is known about the presence of this parasite in communities located in regions bordering AM and the state of Acre. The prevalence rate of M. ozzardi infections was determined in blood samples from volunteers according to the Knott method. A total of 355 volunteers from six riverine communities were enrolled in the study and 65 (18.3%) were found to be infected with M. ozzardi. As expected, most of the infections (25%) occurred in individuals involved in agriculture, cattle rearing and fishing and an age/sex group analysis revealed that the prevalence increased beginning in the 40-50-years-of-age group and reached 33% in both sexes in individuals over 50 years of age. Based on the described symptomatology, articular pain and headache were found to be significantly higher among infected individuals (56 and 65% prevalence, respectively, p Onchocerca volvulus to evaluate the specificity of the test in an endemic M. ozzardi region. No cross-reactions between M. ozzardi-infected individuals and recombinant O. volvulus proteins were detected, thus providing information on the secure use of this particular cocktail in areas where these parasites are sympatric. PMID:24141966

  2. The developmental state in Brazil: comparative and historical perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    BEN ROSS SCHNEIDER

    2015-01-01

    The record of successful developmental states in East Asia and the partial successes of developmental states in Latin America suggest several common preconditions for effective state intervention including a Weberian bureaucracy, monitoring of implementation, reciprocity (subsidies in exchange for performance), and collaborative relations between government and business. Although Brazil failed to develop the high technology manufacturing industry and exports that have fueled sustained growth ...

  3. The developmental state in Brazil: comparative and historical perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Ben Ross

    2014-01-01

    The record of successful developmental states in East Asia and the partial successes of developmental states in Latin America suggest several common preconditions for effective state intervention including a Weberian bureaucracy, monitoring of implementation, reciprocity (subsidies in exchange for performance), and collaborative relations between government and business. Although Brazil failed to develop the high technology manufacturing industry and exports that have fueled sustained growth ...

  4. VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN PETROLINA, STATE OFPERNAMBUCO, BRAZIL, 2007-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Andreina de Carvalho ARAUJO; GONÇALVES, Nara Nagle Vieira Matos; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Ferreira, Fernando; HORTA, Mauricio Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a life-threatening disease of great public health relevance in Brazil. The municipality of Petrolina is an endemic area in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. This study was designed to assess the recent expansion of VL in the municipality of Petrolina, Pernambuco. Patients data were obtained from the Brazilian National Information System for Notifiable Diseases (SINAN). A total of 111 records from 2007 to 2013 were investigated, of which 69 were residents in Petrolina....

  5. A conservação do papagaio-da-cara-roxa (Amazona brasiliensis no estado do Paraná: uma experiência de Educação Ambiental no ensino formal Conservation of the red-tailed-parrot (Amazona brasiliensis in the northern coast of Paraná State: an Environmental Education experience for formal school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Caro Carrillo

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, avaliou-se a experiência de Educação Ambiental do "Projeto de Conservação do Papagaio-da-Cara-Roxa (Amazona brasiliensis", no ensinoformal, realizado pela Sociedade de Pesquisa em Vida Selvagem e Educação Ambiental (SPVS, no litoral norte do Estado do Paraná. A experiência teve o intuito de fomentar, tanto no corpo docente quando no corpo discente, a discussão sobre valores e princípios que norteiam as relações homem/natureza, desenvolvendo-se, assim, uma interação mais responsável com o meio ambiente. Foram desenvolvidos módulos-educativos sobre o papagaio-da-cara-roxa e seu ambiente, direcionados a 795 estudantes do ensino fundamental, nos Municípios de Paranaguá e Guaraqueçaba. Para analisar a eficácia das atividades, os estudantes responderam a testes antes e depois do processo educativo que mediram mudanças obtidas com relação ao incremento de conhecimento, postura e valorização do papagaio-da-cara-roxa e de seu ambiente. Os resultados indicaram que a utilização do exemplo de uma espécie, ameaçada de extinção e que ocorre próximo às comunidades envolvidas no processo de conservação, serviu de base para a associação do tema específico para com uma realidade ambiental mais ampla e contextualizada localmente.The utilization of a flag-species in environmental education can be an important strategy to discuss the interrelations between the species, their habitats, and man. The red-tailed-parrot (Amazona brasiliensis, is endemic in the Atlantic Rainforest and is threatened with extinction. This work aims to analyze the environmental education experience of the project "Conservation of the red-tailed-parrot (Amazona brasiliensis", together with formal teaching, held by the Society for Wildlife Research and Environmental Education (SPVS, in the northern coast of Paraná State. The objective of this work was to promote a teaching method among students and teachers that contextualizes the

  6. Fauna de flebotomíneos (Diptera: Psychodidae em um foco de leishmaniose tegumentar americana na área periurbana de Manaus, Estado do Amazonas Sandfly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae in a focus of American cutaneous leishmaniasis on the urban periphery of Manaus, State of Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria das Graças Vale Barbosa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available No período de agosto de 2001 a julho de 2002, usando armadilhas CDC e Disney, realizaram-se coletas de flebotomíneos, na base de árvores no peridomicílio e nas matas da Comunidade São João, área periurbana de Manaus, Amazonas. Foram capturados 4.104 espécimes, pertencentes a quatro subtribos, 13 gêneros e 49 espécies da subfamília Phlebotominae. Predominou a subtribo Psychodopygina com 3.403 (83% espécimes, destacando-se Nyssomyia umbratilis, Nyssomyia anduzei, Trichophoromyia eurypyga, Bichromomyia olmeca nociva e Bichromomyia flaviscutellata. O registro de Nyssomyia umbratilis e Nyssomyia anduzei, incriminadas como vetoras de Leishmania (Viannia guyanensis, e de Bichromomyia flaviscutellata e Bichromomyia olmeca nociva, de Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis, indicam risco de infecção para os moradores da área. A grande maioria (98,5% dos flebotomíneos foi capturada na área de mata. Nyssomyia anduzei e Bichromomyia olmeca nociva foram coletadas no peridomicílio. A riqueza de espécies vetoras de Leishmania nessa área revela a necessidade de uma vigilância entomológica constante.From August 2001 to July 2002, sand flies were collected from the bases of trees and, using CDC and Disney traps, from areas surrounding homes and forested areas in the São João community, on the urban periphery of Manaus, State of Amazonas. 4,104 specimens belonging to four subtribes, 13 genera and 49 species of the Phlebotominae subfamily were collected. The subtribe Psychodopygina predominated, with 3,403 (83% specimens, especially of Nyssomyia umbratilis, Nyssomyia anduzei, Trichophoromyia eurypyga, Bichromomyia olmeca nociva and Bichromomyia flaviscutellata. The occurrences of Nyssomyia umbratilis and Nyssomyia anduzei, which have been incriminated as vectors for Leishmania (Viannia guyanensis, and of Bichromomyia flaviscutellata and Bichromomyia olmeca nociva, for Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis, indicate that there is a risk of infection

  7. Influência do rio Negro sobre o status nutricional de juvenis de curimatã Prochilodus nigricans (Characiformes; Prochilodontidae no médio rio Solimões-Amazonas, Brasil Influence of river Negro on nutritional status of curimatã Prochilodus nigricans (Characiformes; Prochilodontidae juveniles in the middle river Solimões-Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Mounic-Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available As diferenças limnológicas entre as águas pretas do rio Negro e as águas brancas do rio Solimões-Amazonas podem ter influência sobre o status nutricional de peixes detritívoros pela diferença nas fontes dos recursos alimentares entre estes sistemas. Para verificar a influência do rio Negro sobre o status nutricional de juvenis de curimatã Prochilodus nigricans foi medida a condutividade em pontos de amostragem e estimado o fator de condição (K, a partir da relação peso/comprimento dos juvenis em três áreas de inundação do médio rio Solimões-Amazonas: (1 com influência do rio Negro, próxima a Manaus; (2 sem influência do rio Negro, próxima a Manaus e (3 sem influência do rio Negro, em um trecho do Solimões-Amazonas 500 km a montante de Manaus. A condutividade nos pontos de amostragem com influência do rio Negro foi significativamente menor do que as outras áreas e o K dos juvenis de águas com influência do rio Negro foi significativamente maior. A alta seletividade do curimatã pode dificultar a assimilação de itens alimentares quando estes estão em alta abundância. Em adição, as águas pretas possuem detritos com alto potencial de assimilação devido à sua qualidade protéica, o que demonstra a grande importância das florestas inundadas por água pretas para os detritívoros amazônicos.The limnological differences between the black waters of the Negro river and the white waters of the Solimões-Amazonas river can influence the nutritional status of detritivorous fishes by the difference in the food sources between these systems. To check the influence of the Negro river on the nutritional status of curimatã juveniles Prochilodus nigricans we estimated the conductivity in the sampling points and condition factor (K, from weight/length relationship of the juveniles in three flooding areas of the middle Solimões-Amazon river: (1 with Negro river influence, near Manaus (2 without Negro river influence, near

  8. Lago Amazonas: fact or fancy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been suggested that a huge lake, Lago Amazonas, covered a large part of the Amazon basin until as recently as two thousand years ago. According to this hypothesis, the topmost sediments in western Amazonia are almost universally young deposit of lacustrine and deltaic origin. The hypothesis has gained some attention among biologists because of its implications for biological phenomena in Amazonia, especially bio geography and bio diversity. According to the available geological data, however, Amazonia is geologically far more complex than assumed by the lake hypothesis. This paper discussed the weaknesses of the Lago Amazonas hypothesis, and indicate alternative explanations of the surface geology that are based on tectonically controlled fluvial deposition. Some aspects of radiocarbon dating method are also presented. (author)

  9. Uso dos recursos vegetais por agricultores familiares de Manacapuru (AM) Use of vegetal resources by Family Farmers in Manacapuru, Amazonas state

    OpenAIRE

    Joanne R. Costa; Danielle Mitja

    2010-01-01

    Neste estudo é relatado o uso de espécies vegetais por onze famílias que vivem na área rural do município de Manacapuru, no Amazonas. Foi feita uma abordagem participativa durante as entrevistas, utilizando um formulário formal, que considerava toda a propriedade agrícola. No total, foram registradas 173 espécies, cuja maioria (101) apresentou uso medicinal. Sessenta e oito espécies são usadas na alimentação humana e vinte e duas espécies são utilizadas para construção de casas. Noventa e set...

  10. The developmental state in Brazil: comparative and historical perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEN ROSS SCHNEIDER

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The record of successful developmental states in East Asia and the partial successes of developmental states in Latin America suggest several common preconditions for effective state intervention including a Weberian bureaucracy, monitoring of implementation, reciprocity (subsidies in exchange for performance, and collaborative relations between government and business. Although Brazil failed to develop the high technology manufacturing industry and exports that have fueled sustained growth in East Asia, its developmental state had a number of important, and often neglected, successes, especially in steel, automobiles, mining, ethanol, and aircraft manufacturing. Where Brazil's developmental state was less successful was in promoting sectors like information technology and nuclear energy, as well as overall social and regional equality. In addition, some isolated initiatives by state governments were also effective in promoting particular local segments of industry and agriculture. Comparisons with East Asia, highlight the central role of state enterprises in Brazil that in effect internalized monitoring and reciprocity and bypassed collaboration between business and government (that was overall rarer in Brazil.

  11. Lesão do ligamento cruzado anterior (LCA do joelho em população indígena do estado do Amazonas, Brasil Anterior cruciate ligament injury among brazilian indian population living in Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Telles de Menezes Stewien

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Em agosto de 2003, foram estudados 151 indígenas (88 homens e 63 mulheres da etnia Ticuna, que se localiza nas proximidades da cidade de Tabatinga, Amazonas. Foi determinada a ocorrência de lesão do ligamento cruzado anterior (LCA, mediante um protocolo de exame físico baseado no "International Knee Documentation Committee" - IKDC 2000. Cerca de 14% dos homens sofreu lesão do LCA, contra 3% das mulheres, e 88% da população examinada apresentou alinhamento dos joelhos em varo. O expressivo índice de lesão encontrado se deve a questões culturais, provavelmente à prática do futebol, sendo o isolamento geográfico o fator decisivo para a falta de diagnóstico e tratamento dos indígenas.In August 2003, 151 Ticuna Indians (88 males and 63 females living in the surroundings of Tabatinga city in Amazonas state (Brazil were examined for anterior cruciate ligament ( ACL injury using the International Knee Documentation Committee -IKDC2000 method. About 14% of males presented ACL injury, against 3% of female, and 88% of the population studied presented varus knee alignment. The authors believe that the expressive rate of ACL injury in male Brazilian Indians was determined by cultural issues, probably because of soccer playing, with the isolation of the Ticuna village being critical for the lack of diagnosis and treatment.

  12. NOS INTERFLÚVIOS DO RURAL E DO URBANO NA AMAZÔNIA: O CASO DE CODAJÁS-AMAZONAS, BRASIL (In the interfluves of the rural and the urban in the Amazon: the case of Codajás, Amazonas-Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    MARINHO, Thiago Pimentel; Schor, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    A complexidade da relação cidade-campo no Amazonas pode ser associada ao fenômeno de cheia/enchente e seca/vazante dos seus rios. Quando o rio está cheio, entre os meses de maio e julho, as planícies são inundadas pela água, unindo rios com outros rios e lagos. Esse fenômeno caracterizado como interfluvio faz com que espaços de difícil acesso no período na seca, sejam facilmente interligados e unidos pela rede fluvial. Neste sentido, a dinâmica espacial se modifica sazonalmente e o ribeirinho...

  13. Human onchocerciasis in Brazil: an overview Oncocercose humana no Brasil: uma revisão

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony J. Shelley

    2002-01-01

    Human onchocerciasis was recently discovered in Brazil among Yanomámi Indians living along the border region with Venezuela in the States of Amazonas and Roraima. The article reports on the history of the disease's discovery, its distribution, and incrimination of vector simuliid species. The literature that has been generated on the parasite, its vectors, and control of the disease is critically analyzed as well as the organization of epidemiological surveys and the control program developed...

  14. Energy system of Roraima State, Brazil; Sistema energetico de Roraima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahiense Junior, Heitor [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia

    1990-12-31

    This paper shows the organizational and functional aspects of the energy generation and distribution, as well as the economic sector structure of the Roraima state, Brazil. The aspects of season variation in water level, affecting the hydroelectric power generation, power distribution between the generation units and the inner of the state and the supply alternatives (gas power plants, oil power plants and hydroelectric plants) for the various sub-regions of this state are also shown

  15. Rineloricaria castroi, a new species of Mailed Catfish from Rio Trombetas, Brazil (Pisces, Siluriformes, Loricariidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isbrücker, I.J.H.; Nijssen, H.

    1984-01-01

    Rineloricaria castroi n. sp. from Rio Trombetas, Est. Pará, Brazil, is described and illustrated. It is compared with R. phoxocephala (Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1889) from Rio Amazonas at Coari, Est. Amazonas, Brazil, which species is here illustrated for the first time.

  16. Caracterização de farinhas de tapioca produzidas no estado do Pará Characterization of tapioca flour obtained in Pará state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Andrade Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A farinha de tapioca é um alimento produzido artesanalmente a partir da fécula de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz, amplamente consumida na Região Amazônica. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar duas farinhas de tapioca produzidas no estado do Pará: uma no Baixo Amazonas e outra na Zona Bragantina. As duas farinhas apresentaram perfis granulométricos distintos e diferença significativa (P 0,05 para a maioria dos parâmetros físico-químicos e tecnológicos analisados. A farinha de tapioca proveniente do Baixo Amazonas apresentou maior umidade (10,7%, em função da maior capacidade de adsorver água, devido a sua maior área específica (menor granulometria. A microscopia óptica com luz polarizada, juntamente com as características dos dois produtos indicou a inexistência de um processo padrão utilizado na produção da farinha de tapioca.Tapioca flour is a typical food produced from cassava starch (Manihot esculenta Crantz, widely consumed in the Amazon Region. The aim of this study was to characterize two tapioca flours produced in Pará State, Brazil one in the West Region and other in Bragantina Area. Both tapioca flour presented distinct particle-size distribution and significant difference (P 0.05 for majority of the physico-chemical and technological parameters. Flour from West Region presented high moisture (10.7%, this due the greater capacity of water adsorption, attributed at its high specific area (smaller particle-size. The optical microscopy with polarized light and the technologic properties of the products did not showed a standard process for the production of tapioca flour.

  17. 78 FR 32239 - Request for Applicants for Appointment to the United States-Brazil CEO Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... International Trade Administration Request for Applicants for Appointment to the United States- Brazil CEO Forum... 2007, the Governments of the United States and Brazil established the U.S.-Brazil CEO Forum. This... representatives to the U.S. Section of the Forum. The term of the current representatives to the U.S. Section...

  18. 76 FR 12337 - Request for Applicants for Appointment to the United States-Brazil CEO Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-07

    ... International Trade Administration Request for Applicants for Appointment to the United States- Brazil CEO Forum... 2007, the Governments of the United States and Brazil established the U.S.-Brazil CEO Forum. This... of the Forum. The current U.S. Section term will expire on June 11, 2011. DATES: Applications...

  19. 76 FR 17391 - Applications for New Awards; United States-Brazil Higher Education Consortia Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... Applications for New Awards; United States-Brazil Higher Education Consortia Program AGENCY: Office of... Postsecondary Education (FIPSE)--Special Focus Competition: United States (U.S.)- Brazil Higher Education... institution of higher education (IHE) in another country in Latin America (in addition to Brazil) to create...

  20. Mansonella ozzardi (Nematoda: Onchocercidae in the riverine population of the Tefé River, State of Amazonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Fernandes Medeiros

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study assessed the prevalence of Mansonella ozzardi in riverine communities of the Tefé River, Amazonas, Brazil. Methods: The prevalence of M. ozzardi was estimated by microscopic examination of thick blood smears. Results: The M. ozzardi prevalence rate was 6.3% (19/300. Filarial infection was found in 8 of the 11 communities surveyed, with prevalence rates varying from 2.5% to 22.2%. Conclusions: Tefé is a region of oil and natural gas exploration, in which there is a high turnover of workers. Migration patterns may facilitate the dissemination of mansonelliasis to other regions.

  1. New records of bryophytes for Pernambuco State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Pôrto, Kátia Cavalcanti; Germano, Shirley Rangel; de Oliveira, Sylvia Mota

    2000-01-01

    The known geographical distribution of 12 bryophyte species is extended by confirmation of their presence in the state of Pernambuco. Leptoscyphus porphyrius (Nees) Grolle, Harpalejeunea uncinata Steph., Chryso-hypnum diminutivum (Hampe) Buck and Porotrichum korthalsianum (Dozy & Molk.) Mitt. are new to northeastern Brazil. The material studied was collected in remnants of Atlantic Forest situated at altitudes of 100-1.100m. The principal taxonomic characteristics are cited, with ecological a...

  2. Characteristics of Contraceptive Use in Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elisabeth Meloni Vieira; Rita Badiani; Amaury Léis Dal Fabbro; Antonio Luiz Rodrigues Junior

    2006-01-01

    Objective To know the characteristics of contraceptive use in Sao Paulo State collected by the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) conducted in 1996.Methods Data of Sao Paulo in 1996 were analyzed compared with the previous DHS carried on in 1986focusing on Sao Paulo State. Contraceptive use among married or cohabiting women by age, number of children and schooling was closely examined.Age and timing of female sterilization were also analyzed.Results The results showed that unlike Brazil there was a stability of female sterilization in Sao Paulo State during 1986 and 1996. There was a pattern in Sao Paulo: up to 30years old the pill was the most used contraceptive, after 30 there was a predominance of female sterilization, which increased with the number of children and decreased with schooling. The use of male methods had also increased in the 1986 and 1996period, being greater in Sao Paulo than in Brazil. Sao Paulo also presented more diversity in the use of reversible contraceptives.Conclusions The predominant two contraceptive methods in Brazil and Sao Paulo changed from 1986 to 1996, I.e. From pill to female sterilization.

  3. APLICAÇÃO DE IMAGENS IKONOS II E TM/LANDSAT-5 NA ELABORAÇÃO DE UMA BASE CARTOGRÁFICA PARA A RESERVA DE DESENVOLVIMENTO SUSTENTÁVEL MAMIRAUÁ – AMAZONAS / APPLICATION OF IKONOS II AND TM/LANDSAT-5 SATELLITES DATA FOR DIGITAL BASE MAPPING THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT RESERVE MAMIRAUÁ, AMAZON, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josimara Martins Dias

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper has as purpose present the methodology developed to produce an updated digital map base support for participatory management Mamirauá Reserve of Sustainable Development in the state of Amazonas, Braszil. Because this protected área is situated within an area of flooded forest, both the physical landscape and social organization often change, and the dynamic demand the systematic update of cartographic databases. This work has images of orbital sensors IKONOS II and LANDSAT 5 TM, interviews with users and collecting spatial data in the Mamirauá Reserve. This work obtained a cartographic base at 1:100.000 scale and a geodatabase compatible with the local references, with which is possible to generate thematic maps updated to support dialogue in the sustainable management programs of the Mamirauá Reserve and minimize conflicts with communities.

  4. Dengue em criança: aspectos clínicos e epidemiológicos, Manaus, Estado do Amazonas, no período de 2006 e 2007 Dengue in children: clinical and epidemiological characteristics, Manaus, State of Amazonas, 2006 and 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Alves da Rocha

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar os aspectos clínicos e epidemiológicos das crianças acometidas por dengue, em Manaus, AM, no período de 2006 a 2007. Foram analisados 482 casos de dengue confirmados laboratorialmente, em 2006, sendo 46,9% nos menores de 15 anos, e 1.538 casos, em 2007, sendo 57,7% nos menores de 15 anos. Os dados foram obtidos do Sistema Nacional de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN de Manaus. As variáveis analisadas foram: idade, gênero, bairro de residência, mês do inicio dos sintomas, sorotipo e forma clínica da doença. Verificou-se um aumento estatisticamente significativo da proporção de casos em menores de 15 anos, bem como das formas graves entre 2006 e 2007. Apesar de a forma hemorrágica ter sido quase três vezes mais freqüente em 2007, houve uma redução do coeficiente de letalidade. Os sorotipos identificados foram DEN-3 em 2006 e DEN-1, DEN-2 e DEN-3 em 2007. Em 2007, houve registro de casos em todos os meses do ano.This study presents the clinical and epidemiological aspects of children affected with dengue, in Manaus, AM, in 2006 and 2007. There were 482 The aim of this study was to present the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of children affected by dengue, in Manaus, State of Amazonas, in 2006 and 2007. Analysis was conducted on 482 dengue cases with confirmation from laboratory tests, in 2006 (46.9% in children under 15 years of age, and 1,538 cases in 2007 (57.7% in children under 15 years of age. The data were obtained from the National System for Notifiable Diseases (Sistema Nacional de Agravos de Notificação; SINAN in Manaus. The variables analyzed were: age, gender, district where subject lived, month when symptoms started, serotypes and clinical form of the disease. Statistically significant increases in the proportion of cases in children under 15 years of age and in the proportion of severe forms were found between 2006 and 2007. Although the hemorrhagic form was almost

  5. Segurança/insegurança alimentar em famílias urbanas e rurais no estado do Amazonas: I. validação de metodologia e de instrumento de coleta de informação Nutritional security/insecurity in urban and rural families of Amazonas state: validation of methodology and of information collecting instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia K. O. Yuyama

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo validou a metodologia e o instrumento de coleta de informação para análise da segurança/insegurança alimentar, em famílias urbanas e rurais no estado do Amazonas conforme o proposto pelo USDA (Departamento de Agricultura dos Estados Unidos. Valendo-se de amostra intencional de domicílios, selecionadas para representar estratos sociais diferentes foram computadas 194 famílias sendo 174 com crianças na área urbana de Manaus, envolvendo os seguintes bairros: Jesus me Deu, Novo Israel, Cidade Nova, Coroado e Conjunto Petro. Na área rural foram entrevistadas 209 famílias ribeirinhas e destas 131 com crianças, distribuídas entre os Municípios de Iranduba e Manacapuru. A validação final do questionário (Consistência interna global deu-se por meio da comparação dos níveis de segurança e insegurança alimentar, com os estratos definidos dos indicadores sociais e de consumo. Pode-se concluir que os grupos com maior insegurança alimentar foram os situados em estratos sociais mais baixos e de baixo consumo de alimentos sensíveis a estas condições. O instrumento de coleta apresentou alta validade e consistência interna.The present study validates the methodology and the information collecting instrument for analysis of nutritional security/insecurity on the urban and rural family level, proposed by the USDA (United States Department of Agriculture. An intentional sample of domiciles was selected to represent different social strata, 194 families were enrolled in urban Manaus, of which 174 had children, in the following neighborhoods: Jesus me Deu, Nova Israel, Cidade Nova, Coroado and Conj. Petro. In the rural area between the municipalities of Iranduba and Manacapuru, 209 riparian families were interviewed, and of these 131 had children. The final validation of the questionnaire (global internal consistency was made by comparing, the levels of nutritional security/insecurity, with the defined social strata and

  6. Estado nutricional e consumo de energia e nutrientes de pré-escolares que frequentam creches no município de Manaus, Amazonas: existem diferenças entre creches públicas e privadas? Estado nutricional y consumo de energía y nutrientes de pre-escolares que frecuentan guarderías en el municipio de Manaus, Amazonas (Brasil: ¿existen diferencias entre guarderías públicas y privadas? Nutritional status and energy and nutrients intake of children attending day-care centers in the city of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil: are there differences between public and private day-care centers?

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    Bruno Mendes Tavares

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar o estado nutricional e o consumo alimentar de crianças assistidas em creches públicas e privadas no município de Manaus, Amazonas. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliadas crianças entre 24 e 72 meses de duas creches públicas (n=217 e duas creches privadas (n=91 de Manaus. O estado nutricional foi classificado pelos índices peso para idade, peso para estatura, estatura para idade e índice de massa corporal (IMC para idade, em valores de escores Z. O consumo alimentar na creche foi avaliado pelo método da pesagem direta individual dos alimentos e, no domicílio, pelo registro alimentar de um dia aplicado aos responsáveis. Estimou-se a frequência de crianças com ingestão de nutrientes acima ou abaixo dos pontos de corte de Estimated Average Intake (EAR ou Adequate Intake (AI. RESULTADOS: Verificou-se maior frequência de crianças com excesso de peso nas creches privadas segundo os índices peso para estatura e IMC para idade. As crianças das instituições públicas, quando comparadas àquelas das privadas, consumiram mais gorduras poli-insaturadas, trans, ácido graxo ômega-6, vitamina C e sódio, e menos zinco. Em ambos os tipos de creches observaram-se consumo elevado de energia e proporção elevada de crianças com consumo de vitaminas A e C, zinco e sódio acima do limite superior tolerável de ingestão. A proporção de crianças com inadequação de consumo de cálcio foi maior nas creches públicas do que nas privadas (27,6 versus 7,9%; pOBJETIVO: Verificar el estado nutricional y el consumo alimentar de niños asistidos en guarderías públicas y privadas en el municipio de Manaus, Amazonas (Brasil. MÉTODOS: Se evaluaron niños entre 24 y 72 meses de dos guarderías públicas (n=217 y dos guarderías privadas (n=91 de Manaus. El estado nutricional fue clasificado por los índices peso para la edad, peso para la estatura, estatura para la edad e índice de masa corporal (IMC para edad, en valores de escores Z. El

  7. Adverse effects of alternative therapy (minocycline, ofloxacin, and clofazimine in multibacillary leprosy patients in a recognized health care unit in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil Efeitos adversos das drogas (minociclina, ofloxacina e clofazimina utilizadas no esquema alternativo para pacientes com hanseníase multibacilar, em unidade de referência, Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil

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    Marina Valente Maia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: After the introduction of the multidrug therapy, there was a decline in the coefficients of prevalence and detection of new cases of leprosy. However, the records of drug resistance and relapses are threatening factors in leprosy control. Hence, new alternative schemes and monitoring of adverse effects to avoid treatment abandonment are important considerations. OBJECTIVE: Describe the side effects of a multidrug regimen containing minocycline, ofloxacin, and clofazimine in multibacillary leprosy patients. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, descriptive, and observational study with multibacillary patients, including cases of intolerance to standard MDT and relapses. The study was carried out at Fundação Alfredo da Matta (Alfredo da Matta Foundation, in Manaus, Amazonas, from April 2010 to January 2012. The patients received alternative therapy, which consisted of daily self-administered doses of 100mg of minocycline, 400 mg of ofloxacin, and 50mg of clofazimine and a supervised monthly dose of 300mg of clofazimine for six months, followed by eighteen months of daily doses of ofloxacin 400mg, clofazimine 50mg, and a supervised monthly dose of clofazimine 300mg. Results: Twenty-one cases were included. Mild and transitory side effects occurred in 33.3% of patients. Of the total episodes, 45.9% were attributed to ofloxacin and they included abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, headache, and insomnia; 21.6% were due to clofazimine, with 100% of patients presenting skin pigmentation. The mean time for the development of adverse effects after beginning the therapy was 15.2 days. CONCLUSION: All patients tolerated the drugs well, and compliance was satisfactory, with no serious events. Unlike other standard MDT studies had shown, no treatment was stopped due to side effects. Nevertheless, patient follow-up and studies with bigger samples are necessary to guarantee the efficacy and safety of the alternative regimen as a second-line scheme

  8. The Dom Feliciano belt in Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A geological synthesis and a proposal for the geotectonic evolution of the precambrian to eopaleozoic terrains of the southern part of Santa Catarina state is presented. The methods utilized were conventional (field works, petrological studies and bibliographic analysis), including structural analysis, lithogeochemical and geochronological investigations. Over a hundred new radiometric determinations, using several methods some of which not yet available in Brazil, as U-Pb in zircon and Pb-Pb and Sm-Nd in whole rocks, are presented. The results allowed us to determine the emplacement epoch of granitoids and consequently the associated deformational phases. (author)

  9. Brazil, the United States, and the missile technology control regime

    OpenAIRE

    Tollefson, Scott D.

    1990-01-01

    This technical report analyzes Brazil's development of ballistic missiles in light of U.S. pressures to stifle that development. The first section describes and critiques the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR); the second analyzes the U.S. application of MTCR guidelines toward Brazil; the third assesses Brazil's ballistic missile capabilities; and the fourth considers Brazil's response. The report concludes that the U.S. policy of restricting space and missile technology to Brazil under...

  10. Evidência observacional das brisas do lago de Balbina (Amazonas e seus efeitos sobre a concentração do ozônio Observational evidence of lake breezes at Balbina lake (Amazonas, Brazil and their effect on ozone concentrations

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    Marcos Antonio Lima Moura

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Mecanismos de vento local, tal como as brisas, influenciam o transporte e dispersão dos gases. Medidas da direção do vento e concentração de ozônio (O3 à 10 metros de altura foram realizadas durante a execução do projeto LBA/CLAIRE-2001 (Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazônia / Cooperative LBA Airbone Regional Experiment - 2001, no período de 02 a 28.07.2001, nas dependências do Laboratório de Limnologia (01º 55' S, 59º28' W, 174 m pertencente à Usina Hidrelétrica de Balbina, Amazonas. O lago artificial tem uma área de 2.360 km², sendo suficientemente grande para estabelecer um regime de brisas. As brisas de lago e floresta apresentam-se de forma bem definidas, sendo que a brisa de lago fica melhor caracterizada no período mais quente do dia (10 às 14 horas, enquanto a brisa de floresta evidencia-se no período de 16 às 08 horas com o resfriamento radiativo mais intenso da floresta, o que acarreta um forte contraste térmico. Enquanto isso, a concentração média diária (24 h de O3 foi de 8,7 ppbv com média de 10,6 ppbv no período diurno e 3,5 ppbv no período noturno. Os resultados também indicaram que quando a brisa é de lago, mesmo a noturna, a concentração de O3 é muito maior do que correspondente a concentração referente a brisa de floresta.Local wind systems, such as sea or lake breezes, strongly affect the transport and dispersion of atmospheric trace gases. Based on its size and location, the artificial lake of Balbina in the Amazon - can be expected to give rise to a lake/forest breeze regime. During the period 2 to 28 July 2002, within the LBA/CLAIRE-2001 experiment, we have continually measured the ozone concentrations (O3 and the wind directions close to the Balbina dam. We found that there is indeed a well established breeze system, with lake breezes prevailing during mid-day (10 to 14 LT while forest breezes prevail from the afternoon to early morning (16 to 8 LT. During the latter

  11. BRYOPHYTES NEW RECORDS FOR MATO GROSSO STATE, BRAZIL

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    Nelson Antunes de Moura

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study, a pioneer in the region, is part of the bryoflora survey municipalities of Baron Melgaço, Cuiabá and Chapada dos Guimarães, located in the southern region of Mato Grosso, Brazil. All materials were collected as viewed Yano (1984. In the herbarium of Federal University of Mato Grosso (UFMT, the materials were compared with the species already identified in its different taxa. In this article, nine species are cited are presented for the first time for the state of Mato Grosso: Calymperes platyloma, Campylopus savannarum, C. surinamensis, Fabronia macroblepharis, Hyophyla involuta, Sematophyllum adnatum, S. demissum, Racopilum tomentosum and Vesicularia vesicularis. The results showed the high occurrence of species collected as first quote for the state of Mato Grosso, whereas sparse samples were collected in three municipalities of the state, demonstrating the wealth of species in the region. Keywords: bryophytes; liver; new records.

  12. The hybrid generation systems of Campinas-Amazonas and Joanes-Para

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moszkowicz, M.; Ribeiro, C. M.; Borba, A. J. V. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Electrica (CEPEL), (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    The Brazilian Amazon region is an ideal location for isolated mini-grid systems. Thousands of Diesel systems have been installed to supply electricity to this sparsely populated region. However, the availability of renewable resources makes the Amazon well-suited to renewable energy systems. This paper describes the technical characteristics and touches economic aspects of two hybrid systems being installed in this region through the cooperative effort of multiple partners: Brazilian CEPEL/ELETROBRAS and State Electric Utilities and U.S. Department of Energy, through NREL. It focuses on the market potential for hybrid systems in Northern Brazil and discusses the configuration of the two prototypes, the effort to implement both systems and the preliminary results of these projects. [Espanol] La region Brasilena del Amazonas es un lugar ideal para los sistemas aislados de mini-red. Se han instalado miles de sistemas Diesel para proporcionar electricidad a esta region escasamente poblada. Sin embargo, la disponibilidad de fuentes renovables hacen la Amazonia muy adecuada para sistemas renovables de energia. Este articulo describe las caracteristicas tecnicas y toca aspectos economicos de dos sistemas hibridos que se estan instalando en esta region mediante el esfuerzo cooperativo de multiples participantes: La brasilena CEPEL/ELECTROBRAS y las Empresas Electrica Estatales, el U.S. Departament of Energy, a traves de NREL. Se enfoca al mercado potencial de sistemas hibridos en Brasil del Norte y analiza la configuracion de los dos prototipos, el esfuerzo de instaurar ambos sistemas y los resultados preliminares de estos proyectos.

  13. Aves de la ribera colombiana del amazonas

    OpenAIRE

    Dugand Armando; Ignacio Borrero José

    2012-01-01

    Las 106 especies y subespecies que se mencionan en este trabajo constituyen una lista preliminar de la fauna ornitológica de la región más meridional de Colombia, esto es, la ribera izquierda del rio Amazonas entre la boca del Atacuari y la población de Leticia, capital de la Intendencia del Amazonas, en el extrema sur del territorio que en Colombia llamamos comúnmente "Trapecio Amazónico". La lista esta compuesta principalmente por las colecciones hechas en Leticia y la Isla Ronda par el sen...

  14. Screening of plants found in the State of Amazonas, Brazil for activity against Aedes aegypti larvae Triagem de plantas encontradas no Estado do Amazonas para atividade larvicida contra Aedes aegypti

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    Adrian Martin Pohlit

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol, methanol and water extracts representing mostly native plant species found in the Amazon region were prepared, respectively, by maceration, continuous liquid-solid extraction and infusion, followed by evaporation and freeze-drying. The freeze-dried extracts were tested for lethality toward Aedes aegypti larvae at test concentrations of 500 mg / mL. In general, methanol extracts exhibited the greatest larvicidal activity. The following 7 methanol extracts of (the parts of the indicated plant species were the most active, resulting in 100% mortality in A. aegypti larvae: Tapura amazonica Poepp. (root, Piper aduncum L. (leaf and root, P. tuberculatum Jacq. (leaf, fruit and branch. and Simaba polyphylla (Cavalcante W.W. Thomas (branch.Extratos aquosos, etanólicos e metanólicos, representando principalmente espécies vegetais nativas encontradas na região Amazônica, foram preparados, respectivamente, por infusão, maceração e extração contínua líquido-sólido, seguida de evaporação e liofilização. Os extratos liofilizados foram testados para atividade contra larvas de Aedes aegypti, na concentração única de 500 mg / mL. Os extratos metanólicos foram, em geral, os que apresentaram maior atividade larvicida. Os seguintes 7 extratos metanólicos das (partes das espécies vegetais indicadas foram os mais ativos, provocando 100% de mortalidade em larvas de A. aegypti: Tapura amazonica Poepp. (raiz, Piper aduncum L. (folha e raiz, P. tuberculatum Jacq. (folha, fruto e galho e Simaba polyphylla (Cavalcante W.W. Thomas (galho.

  15. Parasitism of two zoonotic reservoirs Dasyprocta leporina and D. fuliginosa (Rodentia from Amazonas, with Trichostrongylina nematodes (Heligmonellidae: description of a new genus and a new species

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    Alessandra Queiroga Gonçalves

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A new genus and a new species of Heligmonellidae nematodes are described parasiting the stomach of three agoutis (two Dasyprocta fuliginosa and one D. leporina captured in the middle and high Negro river microregion, state of Amazonas, Brazil. The new genus, as well as its type-species, are closely related to the trichostrongylids included in Fuellebornema, particularly on what concerns the pattern of the caudal bursa, but differing from them by the characteristics of the synlophe, that presents a poorly developed carene, when compared to the referred number of body ridges in Freitastrongylus n. gen. and consequently in F. angelae n. sp.,in which the ridges are well developed and the carene at mid-body has a similar size when compared to the ridge situated in front of the right field (ridge no. 5. Caudal bursa is of the type 1-4, with rays 9 shorter than rays 10, with a very long genital cone.

  16. VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN PETROLINA, STATE OFPERNAMBUCO, BRAZIL, 2007-2013

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    Andreina de Carvalho ARAUJO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis is a life-threatening disease of great public health relevance in Brazil. The municipality of Petrolina is an endemic area in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. This study was designed to assess the recent expansion of VL in the municipality ofPetrolina, Pernambuco. Patients data were obtained from the Brazilian National Information System for Notifiable Diseases (SINAN. A total of 111 records from 2007 to 2013 were investigated, of which 69 were residents in Petrolina. The disease has predominantly affected 1-4 year old children (34.8%. Most of the patients were males (59.4%. Co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus occurred in 14.5% of the cases. The criterion most frequently used was the clinical and epidemiological confirmation (59.4%, with clinical cure in 78.3% of cases and one fatal outcome. Visceral leishmaniasis is endemic in Petrolina with transmission levels varying from moderate to high. The present study has shown the precariousness of the use of diagnostic tests in primary healthcare units, and this misuse has interfered with the diagnosis and treatment of cases.

  17. VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN PETROLINA, STATE OFPERNAMBUCO, BRAZIL, 2007-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Andreina de Carvalho; Gonçalves, Nara Nagle Vieira Matos; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Ferreira, Fernando; Horta, Mauricio Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a life-threatening disease of great public health relevance in Brazil. The municipality of Petrolina is an endemic area in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. This study was designed to assess the recent expansion of VL in the municipality of Petrolina, Pernambuco. Patients data were obtained from the Brazilian National Information System for Notifiable Diseases (SINAN). A total of 111 records from 2007 to 2013 were investigated, of which 69 were residents in Petrolina. The disease has predominantly affected 1-4 year old children (34.8%). Most of the patients were males (59.4%). Co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus occurred in 14.5% of the cases. The criterion most frequently used was the clinical and epidemiological confirmation (59.4%), with clinical cure in 78.3% of cases and one fatal outcome. Visceral leishmaniasis is endemic in Petrolina with transmission levels varying from moderate to high. The present study has shown the precariousness of the use of diagnostic tests in primary healthcare units, and this misuse has interfered with the diagnosis and treatment of cases. PMID:27074323

  18. Angiospermas Trepadoras de los bosques ribereños de una sección de la cuenca baja de los ríos Cuao-Sipapo (Estado Amazonas, Venezuela) Climbing angiosperms of the riparian forest of a section of the lower basin of the rivers Cuao-Sipapo (Amazonas State, Venezuela)

    OpenAIRE

    Irene C. FEDÓN; Aníbal CASTILLOSUÁREZ

    2005-01-01

    Se presenta una lista de las especies trepadoras de los bosques ribereños de los ríos Cuao-Sipapo-Orinoco Medio. El sitio de estudio se ubica en el área de confluencia de los ríos antes mencionados, en el Municipio Autana, estado Amazonas (4°54’ y 5°3’ Lat. N, 67°34’y 67°46’ Long. O, aprox. 100-250 m snm). El clima es biestacional y la vegetación corresponde a bosques siempreverdes macrotérmicos de tierras bajas estacionalmente inundables. Se elaboraron listas y tablas resúmenes del número de...

  19. Série de casos agudos de doença de Chagas atendidos num serviço terciário de Manaus, Estado do Amazonas, de 1980 a 2006 Series of acute Chagas' disease cases attended at a tertiary-level clinic in Manaus, State of Amazonas, from 1980 to 2006

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    Wuelton Marcelo Monteiro

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A doença de Chagas é um problema emergente e negligenciado na Região Amazônica. MÉTODOS: Descreve-se uma série de casos agudos autóctones de doença de Chagas atendidos na Fundação de Medicina Tropical do Amazonas, Manaus, de 1980 a 2006. RESULTADOS: Registraram-se 29 casos, sendo 19 do sexo masculino e 10 casos do sexo feminino. Quinze eram casos isolados e 14 provenientes de surtos. Os sinais/sintomas mais freqüentes foram febre, fadiga, cefaléia, mialgia, calafrios, palidez, dispnéia e edema de face e de membros inferiores. Não foi registrado nenhum óbito. CONCLUSÕES: A doença incidiu com frequência em jovens. Os métodos parasitológicos mostraram elevada sensibilidade.INTRODUCTION: Chagas disease is an emerging and neglected problem in the Brazilian Amazon region. METHODS: This study describes a series of acute autochthonous cases of Chagas disease that were attended at the Tropical Medicine Foundation of Amazonas, Manaus, between 1980 and 2006. RESULTS: Twenty-nine cases were recorded: 19 (65.5% were male and 10 (34.5% cases were female. Fifteen (51.7% were isolated cases and 14 (48.3% were from outbreaks. The commonest signs and symptoms were fever, fatigue, headache, myalgia, chills, pallor, dyspnea and edema of the face and lower limbs. No deaths were recorded. CONCLUSIONS: The disease occurred frequently among young people. The parasitological methods showed high sensitivity.

  20. Cesium-137 accident lessons in Goiania, Goias State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document relates the experience obtained by several professionals which had an important role in the cesium-137 accident occurred in Goiania, Goias State, Brazil in September, 1987. It's divided into chapters, according to the action area - medical, nursing, social assistance, odontological and psychological. At first, some notions of radioprotection are explained, followed by the accident history and by the doctors and nurses action during the emergency phase and the medical, odontological, social and psychological assistance to the victims. The social assistance report shows some statistical data about the economic, occupational and social conditions of the accident victims. It is shown some information about the health institutions and the sanitary care in the ionizing radiation and about the occupational radiological protection in Goiania

  1. Heavy metals in environmental studies in Minas Gerais State - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Intense mining activities in Minas Gerais State - Brazil bring out tons of waste to the environment. Considerable concentration of toxic elements penetrate the soil, ground waters and rivers. This endangers the environment quality not only in the surrounding areas but also occurs in ichthyofauna and in more distant areas of cattle raising and agricultural activities. After seasonal floods, veterinary clinic studies have shown that most animals raised in this region are affected by symptomatologic nervous diseases, still not clearly diagnosed, that suggests intoxication. These pathologies are mostly noted after floods. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis - INAA was applied to determine major and trace elements in environmental samples. The obtained results show that the contaminated water and sediment with heavy metals and toxic elements from the Das Velhas River upstream basin, the mining region, carry contamination to the ichthyofauna and farming region within a distance of approximately 400 km. (author)

  2. Distribution of Cs137 in soils from Bahia state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry method was developed in order to study the distribution of Cs137 in topsoils of State of Bahia (Brazil). The results has shown concentrations varying between 0.6 and 6.0 nCi/m2. Correlation of the Cs137 concentration with environmental and ohysico-chemical parameters has shown a tendency for greatest accumulation in soils with regions of greatest precipitation rates: 2.0 nCi/m2, on the average, for regions with 700mm to 1,000 mm/year and 2.8 nCi/m2, on the average, in regions with 1,700 mm to 2,000 mm/year. On the other hand, an anti-correlation between this radionuclide and both calcium and clay content, for soils of similar type and under similar climatic conditions is seen. (C.D.G.)

  3. RAILWAY INDUSTRY ROADMAP IN THE STATE OF SANTA CATARINA, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acires DIAS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to identify the main requirements to strengthen the railroad industry in Santa Catarina by using technology roadmapping. The railway industry is composed of carriers, manufacturers, suppliers, operators, logistics, services and education. The survey aimed to provide guidelines for the Federation of the State of Santa Catarina Industry (FIESC to develop its strategic plan for the next eight years. Based on the survey, the roadmap defined vision, mission, a list of key concepts, drivers and actions for the Federation to support the railway industry development, since this industrial sector is still economically unrepresented when compared to other sectors in Santa Catarina. The survey also pointed out there is a strong expansion program of the railway freight and railway transport for people in Brazil, both in government and private sectors.

  4. Reproductive and population parameters of discus fish Symphysodon aequifasciatus Pellegrin, 1904 (Perciformes: Cichlidae from Piagaçu-Purus Sustainable Development Reserve (RDS-PP, lower Purus River, Amazonas, Brazil

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    Felipe Rossoni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The ornamental discus fish Symphysodon aequifasciatus Pellegrin, 1904, is a popular endemic cichlid species from the Amazon basin, however scientific information concerning biology and ecology in its natural habitat is scarce despite its importance on the international aquarium trade. In this study we evaluated reproductive parameters of S. aequifasciatus in natural habitat in Piagaçu-Purus Sustainable Development Reserve (RDS-PP, lower Purus River, Brazilian Amazon. Males are more frequent in the larger size classes and this might be related to the complex breeding behavior known for S. aequifasciatus. Values of L50 for both sexes corresponded to more than 60% of the maximum attained length which may indicate that energy allocation for somatic growth takes longer in S. aequifasciatus than in other species. Average fecundity for female discus was 1490, ranging from 950 to 1892 oocytes and its correlations with standard length and total weight were very low, probably due to the highly compressed discus' body shape. Egg size distribution showed four types of patterns, indicating one to four modes besides the reserve oocytes group. Our results indicate that S. aequifasciatus shows total spawning, in the beginning of flooding period, with the peculiar capacity of releasing multiple egg batches as a strategy that potentially enhances reproductive success.O acará-disco (Symphysodon aequifasciatus Pellegrin, 1904 é uma espécie popular de ciclídeo endêmico da bacia amazônica, porém são poucas as informações científicas sobre biologia e ecologia em seu habitat natural, apesar de sua importância no comércio internacional de aquário. Neste estudo avaliamos parâmetros reprodutivos de S. aequifasciatus em vida livre na Reserva de Desenvolvimento Sustentável Piagaçu-Purus (RDS-PP, baixo rio Purus, Amazonas, Brasil. Os machos são mais frequentes em classes de comprimento maiores, o que provavelmente está relacionado com o complexo

  5. Structural indexes and sexual maturity of tambaqui Colossoma macropomum (cuvier, 1818 (Characiformes: Characidae in Central Amazon, Brazil Índices estruturais e maturidade sexual do tambaqui Colossoma macropomum (cuvier, 1818 (Characiformes: Characidae no Amazonas Central, Brasil

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    M. A. VILLACORTA-CORREA

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Length, weight, structural index and sexual maturity in tambaqui Colossoma macropomum were analysed. 449 specimens were obtained from the commercial fishing fleet arriving at Manaus Harbour from the floodplain areas from May 1992 to July 1993. The objective of this study is to describe changes in structural index during one hidrological cycle and to interpret them according to the water level fluctuations and to also determine the time, reproductive period and length in sexual maturity. Sex ratio in tambaqui was 1:1 however, the length of females was significantly longer than males'. Length/weight relationship was described by the expression: Pt = 0.00058*Cp2.9039. b value was significantly different from 3 which meant an alometric growth. Lower condition index values (Kn were found from August to October at the end of receding water and dry period. The feeding index was significantly lower during the receding water and dry period. Lower hepatosomatic index values were found in December during the dry period. Fishes in lengths longer than 550 mm which were more common from September to December during the dry period, stored larger cavitary fat reserves. Fishes smaller than the standard length of 550 mm stored less fat reserves and were more common during the rising of the water and flooding period. Spawning period of tambaqui extends from September to February in a total spawning synchronized with "repiquetes"(native term used to name a sudden recending and rising of the water level. Length of tambaqui was 60.69 cm, at sexual maturity.Foi analisada a relação peso comprimento, os índices estruturais e a maturidade sexual do tambaqui Colossoma macropomum. Foram obtidos 449 exemplares procedentes das áreas de várzea do Amazonas Central no porto de desembarque de Manaus de maio de 1992 a julho de 1993. O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever as modificações nos índices estruturais do tambaqui durante um ciclo hidrológico, interpretá-los de

  6. The ceramic artifacts in archaeological black earth (terra preta from Lower Amazon Region, Brazil: chemistry and geochemical evolution Artefatos cerâmicos em sítios arqueológicos com terra preta na região do baixo Amazonas, Brasil: composição química e evolução geoquímica

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    Marcondes Lima da Costa

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper carried out a chemical investigation of archaeological ceramic artifacts found in archaeological sites with Black Earth (ABE in the Lower Amazon Region at Cachoeira-Porteira, State of Pará, Brazil. The ceramic artifacts, mostly of daily use, belong to Konduri culture (from 900 to 400 years BP. They are constituted of SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, Na2O and P2O5; SiO2 and Al2O3 together add up to 80 % and indicate influence of acid rocks, transformed into clay minerals basically kaolinite. The relative high contents of P2O5 (2.37 % in average come out as (Al,Fe-phosphate, an uncommon fact in primitive red ceramics, but found in some roman and egyptian archaeological sites. The contents of the trace elements are similar or below the Earth's crust average. This chemical composition (except P2O5 detaches saprolite material derived acid igneous rocks or sedimentary ones as the main raw material of the ceramics. The contents of K, Na and Ca represent the feldspars and rock fragments possibly introduced into saprolitic groundmass, indicated by mineralogical studies. The presence of cauixi and cariapé as well as quartz sand was confirmed by optical microscope, SEM analyses and by the high silica contents of ceramic fragments. Phosphorus was possibly incorporated into groundmass during cooking of foods, and ABE soil profile formation developed on yellow Latosols. The raw materials and its tempers (cauixi, or cariapé, feldspar, crushed rocks, old ceramic artifacts and quartz fragments are found close to the sites and therefore and certainly came from them.Neste trabalho realizou-se a caracterização química de fragmentos de artefatos cerâmicos encontrados em sítios arqueológicos com terra preta no Baixo Amazonas (Cachoeira-Porteira, Pará, Brasil, representativos da cultura Konduri (de 900 a 400 anos AP. Esses fragmentos são constituídos de SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, Na2O e P2O5, sendo que SiO2 e Al2O3, juntos, perfazem mais de 80 % em peso. Os teores

  7. Pollen morphology of the genera Irlbachia, Tachia, Voyria and Voyriella (Gentianaceae Juss. found in the Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke (Amazonas, Brazil Morfologia polínica dos gêneros Irlbachia, Tachia, Voyria e Voyriella (Gentianaceae Juss. ocorrentes na Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke (Amazonas, Brasil

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    Marcos Gonçalves Ferreira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A pollen morphology study of the Gentianaceae Juss. of Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke (Manaus, Brazil was performed. The pollen grains of the studied species varied morphologically in their pollen units (tetrads or monads, size (small, medium and large, shape (oblate, suboblate, oblate spheroidal, spheroidal, prolate spheroidal and prolate, polarity (heteropolar, isopolar or subisopolar, symmetry (bilateral or radial and number and type of aperture (3-colporate and 1-3porate. In relation to ornamentation, pollen grains had a sexine that was psilate in the Voyria species, microreticulate in Voyriella parviflora and reticulate heterobrochate in Tachia grandiflora and Irlbachia alata. The exine in I. alata showed great variability in the size and shape of the lumina, in addition to clavae of various sizes in the mesocolpium and apocolpium areas. In Tachia grandiflora, besides to long colpi, the heterobrochate exine demonstrated an increase in the lumina in the mesocolpium areas that decreased considerably in the apocolpium areas. In the species of Voyria, the pollen grains showed differences in shape, polarity and the number of apertures, which were spherical, isopolar and 3-porate in Voyria spruceana; prolate/oval, heteropolar and 1-porate in Voyria tenella; and oblate/elliptical (reniform, heteropolar and 2(3-porate in Voyria aphylla and Voyria caerulea. The variations in pollen morphology and the peculiar characteristics of the genus suggest that Voyria should be treated as a unique taxon within Gentianaceae.Foi realizado um estudo da morfologia polínica de espécies Gentianaceae Juss. ocorrentes na Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke, Manaus, Brasil. Os grãos de pólen das espécies estudadas variaram morfologicamente quanto à unidade polínica (tétrades ou mônades, ao tamanho (pequenos, médios e grandes, à forma (oblata, suboblata, oblata-esferoidal, esférica, prolata-esferoidal e prolata, à polaridade (heteropolar, isopolar ou

  8. A new triatomine host of trypanosoma from the Central Amazon of Brazil: Cavernicola lenti n.sp. (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae

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    Toby V. Barrett

    1985-03-01

    Full Text Available Adults and nymphs of Cavernicola lenti, new species, from Amazonas state, Brazil, are described and illustrated. Observations on the biology of the new species are presented. Preliminaty findings indicate that C. lenti is a probable vector of bat trypanosomes.Cavernícola lenti, n.sp. é descrita com base em exemplares coletados em uma árvore viva, oca, perto das obras da usina hidrelétrica de Balbina, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil. Incluímos descrições dos adultos e ninfas de primeiro e quinto estádio, e observações sobre a biologia da nova espécie. Salientamos alguns detalhes morfológicos da nova espécie que ampliam os conceitos prévios do gênero e da tribo Cavernicolini. Flagelados encontrados nas fezes de C. lenti foram identificados provisoriamente como parasita de morcegos, Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei.

  9. PKU in Minas Gerais State, Brazil: mutation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, L L; Castro-Magalhães, M; Fonseca, C G; Starling, A L P; Januário, J N; Aguiar, M J B; Carvalho, M R S

    2008-11-01

    This work was undertaken in order to ascertain the PKU mutational spectrum in Minas Gerais, Brazil, the relative frequency of the mutations in the State and the origin of these mutations by haplotype determination. Minas Gerais is a trihybrid population formed by miscegenation from Europeans, Africans and Amerindians. All 13 exons of the PAH gene from 78 PKU patients were analyzed, including splicing sites and the promoter region. We identified 30 different mutations and 98% of the PAH alleles were established. A new mutation (Q267X) was identified as well. The most common mutations found were V388M (21.2), R261Q (16.0%), IVS10-11G>A (15.3%), I65T (5.8%), IVS2+5G>C (5.8%), R252W (5.1%), IVS2+5G>A (4.5%), P281L (3.8%) and L348V (3.2%). These nine mutations correspond to 80% of the PKU alleles in the state. Haplotypes were determined to characterize the origin of the PAH alleles. The majority of the mutations found, with respective haplotypes, are frequent in the Iberian Peninsula. However, there were some mutations that are rare in Europe and four previously unreported mutation-haplotype associations. I65T and Q267X were found in association with haplotype 38 and may be African in origin or the result of miscegenation in the Brazilian population. PMID:18798839

  10. Aspectos ecológicos e epidemiológicos de acidentes ofídicos em comunidades ribeirinhas do baixo rio Purus, Amazonas, Brasil Ecological and epidemiological aspects of snakebites in riverside communities of the lower Purus River, Amazonas, Brazil

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    Fabiano Waldez

    2009-09-01

    and bite height on the victim body were estimated with measuring tape. Correspondence of local names and scientific species were obtained by using descriptions and images of the snakes. Additional data on the number of families with snakebites victims were obtained from social-economic surveys for other 17 communities in the Piagaçu Purus Reserve. Eighteen people and 28 snakebites events were registered in five communities. The number of victims per community was not related to population's size. The number of families with victims was higher in larger communities (r²= 0.444; p= 0.003. Approximately 88% of snakebites were inflicted on the lower limbs of the victims. There was no relationship between estimated snake's size and the height of the bite. Most snakebites occurred at daytime (82.14%, and during the high rive period (64.28% that coincides with the extraction of brazil nut and timber by the local people when they spend more time in the forest. Only one death due to snakebite was registered. The species Bothrops atrox was responsible for most of the accidents in the region. Snake's identification by local people revealed various synonymies, with 20 local names attributed to 33 species. In their perception, B. atrox and Lachesis muta were the most dangerous species and differ in attack behavior.

  11. A pilot study to control Lutzomyia umbratilis (Diptera: Psychodidae, the major vector of Leishmania brazileiensis guyanensis, in a peri-urban rainforest of Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil

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    P. D. Ready

    1985-03-01

    Full Text Available In the second half of 1980, 112 (or ca. 16% of the inhabitants of the new settlement of São José, city of Manaus, contracted cutaneous leishmaniasis whilst clearing their properties of terra firme rainforest. With the aid of SUCAM, the authors carried out a pilot study to investigate the feasibility of reducing populations of Lutzomyia umbratilis, the local silvatic vector of Leishmania braziliensis guyanensis, by spraying insecticide on its favoured diurnal resting sites, the bases of the larger forest trees. Most manvector contact is at these resting sites and, therefore, it was encouraging to record a marked reduction of the tree-base populations of L. umbratilis for 21 days following just one application of D.D.T. emulsion in an area 200m square. Most of the treated trunks were not occupied by L. umbratilis for at least eleven months. Suggestions for extending the pilot study are made, and the need for collaboration with a clinical team is emphasized. Leishmania b. guyanensis is the aetiological agent of [quot ]pain bois[quot ], which is hyperendemic from French Guiana to central Amazônia. In the absence of proven vaccines or methods of vector control, some simple methods for limiting transmission of Le. b. guyanensis to man are listed.No segundo semestre de 1980, 112 (ou aproximadamente 16% dos habitantes do recém estabelecido bairro de São José, cidade de Manaus, contraíram leishmaniose, durante o desmatamento que realizavam em seus lotes localizados na floresta tipo "terra firme". Com a ajuda da SUCAM, os AA. realizaram um estudo piloto para investigar a viabilidade de redução das populações de Lutzomyia umbratilis, o vetor silvático de Leishmania braziliensis guyanensis, borrifando inseticidas na base das árvores grandes da floresta que são os lugares preferidos de repouso diurno destes insetos. A maioria do contato homem-vetor ocorre nestes lugares de repouso diurno (o vetor sendo mais ativo à noite nas copas das árvores e, assim sendo, foi animador constatar uma nítida redução das populações de L. umbratilis nas bases das árvores por um período de 21 dias após uma única aplicação de emulsão de D.D.T. numa área de 200m quadrados. Quantidade apreciável de D.D.T. permaneceu na base das árvores por pelo menos oito meses, o que proporcionou a não ocupação das mesmas por L. umbratilis durante pelo menos onze meses. Os resultados mostram que a emulsão de D.D.T. teve efeito repelente e letal(L. umbratilis foi altamente suscetível ao D.D.T. em "kits" da O.M.S.. Em contraste com as populações das bases das árvores, as populações noturnas de L. umbratilis (capturadas em armadilhas de luz tipo CDC, ou atacando ao homem não foram significantemente reduzidas pelo tratamento com D.D.T., o que sugere a possível existência de apreciável imigração noturna em áreas experimentais e/ou que lugares de repouso alternativo tenham sido procurados pelos flebótomos. São apresentadas sugestões para ampliar o estudo piloto e a necessidade de colaboração com uma equipe clínica é enfatizada. A leishmania b. guyanensis é o agente etiológico de uma forma de leishmaniose tegumentar humana ("pian bos" hiperendêmica numa vasta extensão geográfica que se estende da Guiana Francesa à Amzônia Central, ao Norte do Rio...

  12. Malaria in humait a county, state of Amazonas, Brazil. XIX - evaluation of clindamycin for the treatment of patients with Plasmodium falciparum infection

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    Domingos Alves Meira

    1988-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 207 patients with malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum were submitted to 5 different treatment schedules with clindamycin from 1981 to 1984: A - 89 patients were treated intravenously and orally, or intramuscularly and orally with 20 mg/kg/day divided into two daily applications for 5 to 7 days; B-40 patients were treated orally with 20 mg/kg/day divided into two daily doses for 5 to 7 days; C-27 patients were treated with 20 mg/kg/day intravenously or orally divided into two daily applications for 3 days; D-16 patients were treated orally and/or intravenously with a single daily dose of 20 to 40 mg/kg/day for 5 to 7 days; E-35 patients were treated orally with 5 mg/kg/day divided into two doses for 5 days. Patients were examined daily during treatment and reexamined on the 7th, 24th, 21st, 28th and 35th day both clinically and parasitologically (blood test. Eighty three (40.1% had moderate or severe malaria, and 97 (46.8% had shown resistance to chloroquine or to the combination ofsulfadoxin and pyrimethamine. The proportion of cured patients was higher than 95% among patients submitted to schedules A and B. Side effects were only occasional and of low intensity. Three deaths occurred (1.4%, two of them involving patients whose signs and symptoms were already very severe when treatment was started. Thus, clindamycin proved to be very useful in the treatment of patients with malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum and we recommend schedule A for moderate and severe cases and Bfor initial cases.De 1981 a 1984, 207 doentes com malária, causada pelo Plasmodium falciparum, foram tratados com 5 esquemas de clindamicina: A - 89 doente tratados com 20 mg/kg/dia, pelas vias endovenosa e oral, ou intramuscular e oral, em duas aplicações diárias, durante 5 a 7 dias; B - 40 doentes tratados com 20 mg/kg/dia, por via oral, em duas tomadas diárias, durante 5 a 7 dias; C - 27 doentes tratados com 20 mg/kg/dia, por via oral ou endovenosa, em duas tomadas diárias, durante 3 dias; D - 16 doentes tratados com 20 a 40 mg/kg/dia, por vias oral, e/ou, endovenosa, em uma única dose diária, durante 5 a 7 dias; E - 35 doentes tratados com 5 mg/kg/dia, por via oral, em duas doses diárias, durante 5 dias. Os doentes foram examinados, diariamente, durante o tratamento e reexaminados no 7.°, 14.°, 28.° e 35.° dias, tanto pelo exame clínico, quanto pelo parasitológico de sangue. Oitenta e três (40,1% tinham malária moderada ou grave e 97 (46,8% tinham apresentado resistência à cloroquina, ou à associação sulfadoxina e pirimetamina. Os resultados mostraram que a proporção de curados foi superior a 95% nos doentes tratados pelos esquemas A e B. Os efeitos colaterais observados foram ocasionais e de pequena intensidade. Houve três casos de óbito (1,4%, dois dos quais atendidos desde o inicio com quadro muito grave. A clindamicina: portanto, mostrou ser muito útil no tratamento de doentes com malária causada pelo Plasmodium falciparum, recomenda-se o esquema A para os casos moderados e o B para os benignos.

  13. Ataque de populações humanas por triatomíneos silvestres no Amazonas: uma nova forma de transmissão da infecção chagásica?

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    José Rodrigues Coura

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Comprovou-se o "ataque" de triatomineos silvestres (Rhodnius brethesi a colhedores de piaçava (Leopoldinia piaçaba, em piaçabal na localidade de Acuquaia, no Rio Padauari, afluente do Rio Negro, no Município de Barcelos, Estado do Amazonas, onde em trabalho anterior verificamos uma prevalência sorológica para anticorpos anti-T. cruzi em 12,5% da população na sede do município, com uma forte associação do contato dessa população com triatomineos silvestres, conhecidos na área como "piolho da piaçava", os quais vivem predominantemente nas piaçabeiras. O "ataque " de triatomineos a populações humanas foi possivelmente o mecanismo inicial de abordagem dos triatomineos ao homem, adaptando-se posteriormente ao seu peridomicílio e domicílio, principalmente em áreas desmaiadas ou de cerrado com poucos reservatórios silvestres. No caso do Amazonas, relatado neste trabalho, os triatomineos estavam provavelmente famintos por escassez de outros animais de sangue quente para sua alimentação.An "attack" of wild triatomines (Rhodnius brethesi topiaçaca workers (Leopoldinia piaçaba is confirmed in the locality of Acuquaia, at Padauari river, affluent of Rio Negro in the municipality of Barcelos, State of Amazonas, Brazil. A serological prevalence of 12.5% for T. cruzi antibodies in human population, in the city of Barcelos, has already been described in a previous paper. A strong association between the serological positivity and the population contact with wild triatomines, known in the area as "piaçava's lice", was verified.

  14. Snakebites in southwestern Goiás State, Brazil

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    U. P. Pacheco

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated snakebite cases recorded by the Southwest II Regional Health Bureau [Regional de Saúde Sudoeste II], Goiás State, Brazil. The following data were analyzed: accident period; patient's age and gender; bite site; envenomation severity; and time elapsed between the bite and medical treatment. We evaluated 211 cases recorded between January 2002 and December 2005, which resulted in an incidence coefficient of 32.4/100,000 inhabitants. Most accidents were due to the bite of snakes from the Bothrops genus (78.2%. The months between January and April had a larger number of accidents (93%-44.1%, although no significant differences were observed. Only one death occurred, resulting in a mortality rate of 0.5%. The lower limbs were the most frequently affected (66.3%. The majority of the victims were male (75.1%. The age group of most of the patients was from 21 to 30 years (20.8%. The accidents were classified as mild, moderate and severe, representing 44.9%, 47.6% and 7.5% of the cases, respectively. The time elapsed between the accident and medical treatment was less than 3h in most of the cases (80.7%, reflecting the high frequency of mild and moderate accidents (92.5% as well as the large number of healed patients.

  15. Serpentes da Bacia petrolífera de Urucu, município de Coari, Amazonas, Brasil Snakes of the Urucu Petrol Basin, Municipality of Coari, Amazonas, Brasil

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    Ana Lúcia da Costa Prudente

    2010-01-01

    , Philodryas viridissima (n= 9, Philodryas boulengeri (n= 7 and Oxybelis fulgidus (n= 7 were the most abundant in the region. The highest number of species and specimens was obtained by the time-limited search by car (n=52.8%. Previous studies indicate that localities south of the Amazonas river (such as the eastern region of Pará and Tucuruí, state of Para, and Samuel Hydroelectric Plants, state of Rondônia present a greater richness when compared to those north of the Amazonas river (such as the mucipality of Manaus, INPA-WWF Reserve and Balbina Hydroelectric Plant, state of Amazonas.Thus, it is possible to infer that the snake inventory in Urucu region is not yet complete, requiring more sampling efforts so that new records can be obtained for the area.

  16. DENGUE OUTBREAK IN MATO GROSSO STATE, MIDWESTERN BRAZIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinen, Letícia Borges da Silva; Zuchi, Nayara; Cardoso, Belgath Fernandes; Santos, Marcelo Adriano Mendes Dos; Nogueira, Mauricio Lacerda; Dezengrini-Slhessarenko, Renata

    2015-12-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is the most frequent arbovirus worldwide. In this study, we report a large outbreak in Mato Grosso State (MT). Serum samples from 604 patients with acute febrile illness for less than five days were inoculated in C6/36 cells, then infected cells were subjected to an indirect immunofluorescence test for DENV serotypes and yellow fever virus. Serum samples were submitted to a multiplex-semi-nested-RT-PCR for 11 flaviviruses. DENV-4 was isolated in 150/604 (24.8%) and DENV-1 in 19/604 (3.1%) specimens. By RT-PCR, 331 (54.8%) samples tested positive for DENV; 321 had single infections (DENV-4 n = 305; DENV-1 n = 15; DENV-3 n = 1), nine had co-infections of DENV-1/DENV-4, and one of DENV-2/DENV-4. DENV-4 was detected in 315/331 (95.2%) positive patients from 17 municipalities, and DENV-1 in 24/331 (7.2%) patients from five cities in north-central MT and the city of Cuiaba. The incidence of infection was higher in patients aged 20-39 (142/331; 42.9%). The NS5 partial nucleotide sequence of DENV-1 was most similar to that of genotype V, DENV-2 to Southeast Asian/American, DENV-3 to genotype III, and DENV-4 to genotype II strains, considered the most frequent strains in Brazil. This outbreak coincided with the introduction of DENV-4 in the state. Cuiaba was hyperendemic for the four DENV serotypes, highlighting the necessity for arbovirus surveillance in MT. PMID:27049702

  17. A new species of Scinax Wagler, 1830 (Anura: Hylidae from the middle Amazon river basin, Brazil

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    Marcelo José Sturaro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the hylid genus Scinax is described and illustrated. The new taxon was found in the Amazonian rainforest of northern Brazil, municipalities of Maués and Careiro da Várzea, state of Amazonas. The new species is characterized by its moderate size (male mean snout-vent length 36.3mm; body robust; large, orange, black-bordered axillary and inguinal spots; and bilobate vocal sac. This new species was found in primary and secondary forest on branches of shrubs or trees in, or next to, permanent ponds and flooded areas.

  18. Family Ties and Labor Markets in the United States and Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    David Lam; Schoeni, Robert F.

    1994-01-01

    We use comparable surveys from Brazil and the United States to examine "vertical" and "horizontal" connections between families. Motivated by a model of assortative mating and intergenerational transmission of schooling and earnings, we include the schooling of relatives in male wage equations. We find that the effect of father-in-law's schooling is larger than the effect of father's schooling in Brazil, while the opposite is observed in the United States. We interpret these effects as indica...

  19. Uma proposta de avaliação integrada de risco do uso de agrotóxicos no estado do Amazonas, Brasil A proposal for integrated risk assessment of pesticide use in Amazon State, Brasil

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    Andréa Viviana Waichman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante os últimos 30 anos, o aumento da população humana no Amazonas introduziu a necessidade de produção adicional de alimentos e levou o governo do estado a desenvolver programas para aumentar e melhorar a produção agrícola. A produção de hortaliças não tradicionais apresentou vários problemas desconhecidos para os agricultores da região, uma vez que estas culturas não são bem adaptadas às condições locais. A suscetibilidade a insetos, fungos e outras pragas, e a competição com vegetação nativa vem forçando os agricultores a usar intensivamente os agrotóxicos. Os agricultores não estavam preparados para o uso adequado desta tecnologia ignorando os riscos dos agrotóxicos para saúde humana e o ambiente. Os agricultores não usam equipamento de proteção individual, porque é caro, desconfortável e inadequado para o clima quente da região. A falta treinamento e o escasso conhecimento sobre os perigos dos agrotóxicos contribuem para a manipulação incorreta durante a preparação, aplicação e disposição das embalagens vazias. Nestas condições, a exposição dos agricultores, suas famílias, consumidores e ambiente é alta. Como um primeiro passo para o entendimento deste problema e a proposição de soluções é proposta a realização de uma avaliação integrada de risco. As três fases do processo, formulação de problema, avaliação da exposição, e caracterização de risco são detalhadas. Programas de educação, treinamento e informação fazem parte das estratégias para a redução do risco do uso de agrotóxicos permitindo o desenvolvimento de uma agricultura ambientalmente sustentável.During the last 30 years, the increase of the human population in the Amazon introduced the need for additional food production and caused the state government to implement programs to increase and improve agricultural production. The production of nontraditional crops introduced several problems unknown to

  20. Biologia reprodutiva de Heros efasciatus Heckel, 1840 (Pisces, Cichlidae na Reserva de Desenvolvimento Sustentável Amanã-AM, visando seu manejo sustentável Reproductive biology of Heros efasciatus Heckel,1840 (Pisces, Cichlidae in the Amanã Sustainable Reserve (Amazonas, Brazil, aiming at sustainable management of the species

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    Jana Menegassi del Favero

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o principal objetivo de fornecer ferramentas para auxiliar na implementação do manejo sustentável de peixes ornamentais na Reserva de Desenvolvimento Sustentável Amanã, Amazonas, foi realizado o estudo da biologia reprodutiva de Heros efasciatus Heckel, 1840, um ciclídeo com potencial ornamental e com poucos trabalhos sobre a sua biologia e ecologia, apesar de já ser comercializado em algumas regiões amazônicas. Coletas bimestrais foram realizadas de fevereiro de 2006 a janeiro de 2007 em dez igarapés contribuintes do Lago Amanã e Urini, sendo utilizados três aparelhos de pesca (rede de arrasto, rapiché e armadilha tipo matapi e ainda galhadas artificiais nas amostragens realizadas próximas aos lagos. Foram capturados 140 exemplares de H. efasciatus, sendo 50 fêmeas, 42 machos, e 46 indivíduos cujo sexo não foi identificado devido ao pequeno tamanho. O tipo de crescimento encontrado foi isométrico, sendo que o maior indivíduo observado apresentava 174 mm e o menor 14 mm. Os resultados encontrados auxiliarão na adoção de medidas de manejo, como a determinação de tamanhos mínimos de captura, superiores aos tamanhos médios de maturação (97 mm para as fêmeas e o estabelecimento de períodos de defeso durante a época de sua reprodução (outubro a janeiro. A pequena abundância de indivíduos da espécie, quando comparada com o total de exemplares capturados (apenas 0,07% e a baixa fecundidade média, de 2502 ovócitos, indica que se deve trabalhar anualmente apenas com um pequeno número de indivíduos, a fim de garantir a continuidade do estoque.The aim if the present work is to supply basic information that may help the management of ornamental fishes in the Amanã Sustainable Reserve, State of Amazonas, Brazi. A study of the reproductive biology of Heros efasciatus, a cichlid fish with ornamental potential, was performed using specimens collected bi-monthly between February 2006 and January 2007 in ten creeks

  1. Helicophyllaceae (Bryophyta, nova ocorrência para o Estado do Pará, Brasil Helicophyllaceae (Bryophyta, a new record to Pará State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina C. L. Lisboa

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Helicophyllaceae, família monotípica neotropical, é registrada pela primeira vez no Estado do Pará. Sua única espécie, Helicophyllum torquatum (Hook. Brid., registrada anteriormente no Estado do Amazonas e que recentemente havia sido excluída da lista de musgos amazônicos, é apresentada como nova ocorrência para toda a Amazônia brasileira.Helicophyllaceae, a monotypic family of Neotropics, is presented for the Pará State. Helicophyllum torquatum (Hook. Brid., the single species, was recorded for the Amazonas State, but recently was excluded of checklist of Amazonian mosses. H. torquatum is considered a new report for all Brazilian Amazônia.

  2. The impact of change in MSEs? regulation in municipalities in Sao Paulo state, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Chagas, Andre; Almeida, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    In 2006 was approved, in Brazil, a new regulatory framework, named General Law of Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs), regulating and expanding special conditions for MSEs - that representing more than 90% of companies in Brazil. The Law introduces differential treatment to MSEs for starting a business, reducing legal requirements, and providing differential treatment for government purchases, among others. In São Paulo state, the Law was promulgated in late 2007. About 340 municipalities (out...

  3. Snake assemblages of Marajó Island, Pará state, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gerson Moreira Rodrigues; Gleomar Fabiano Maschio; Ana Lúcia da Costa Prudente

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We describe the diversity, natural history and structure of snake assemblages from Marajó Island, state of Pará, Brazil, after analyzing 439 specimens deposited in herpetological collections. We tested the hypothesis that snake assemblages from forest and open areas of Marajó Island are distinct with regard to their structure, composition and functional groups. To compare the snake composition of the forest and open areas of Marajó with other comparable assemblages in Brazil, Princip...

  4. Antibody levels to hantavirus in inhabitants of western Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    William Marciel de Souza; Alex Martins Machado; Geonildo Rodrigo Disner; Everton Boff; Aline Rafaela da Silva Rodrigues Machado; Michelly de Padua; Luiz Tadeu Moraes Figueiredo; Gustavo Borba de Miranda

    2012-01-01

    Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) is an infectious disease caused by hantaviruses of the family Bunyaviridae, and is transmitted by aerosols of excreta of infected rodents. The aim of the present study was to determine antibody levels to hantavirus in the population that lives at frontier of Brazil and Argentina. Participated of the study 405 individuals living in the municipalities of Bandeirante, Santa Helena, Princesa and Tunapolis, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. IgG antibodies ...

  5. State summary of radioactive material transport sector in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main aim of this work is the scientific cooperation with the CNEA (Argentina) in the area of safe transport of radioactive materials, intending to find solutions to some rural problems and, also, to standardize the transport of radioactive materials between Brazil and Argentina. (E.O.)

  6. Planktic Cyanobacteria from Sao Paulo State, Brazil: Chroococcales

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sant'Anna, C. L.; Azevedo, M. T. P.; Senna, P. A. C.; Komárek, Jiří; Komárková, Jaroslava

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 2 (2004), s. 213-227. ISSN 0100-8404 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : taxonomy * Brazil * Chroococcales Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  7. Birth Defects in Newborns: Spina Bifida Index at Rio Grande Do Norte State in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo CM Junior

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: Northeast region is the one that has the major incidence of SB in Brazil country, but RN state has a number lower than others states from its region. It was made an update about therapeutic options to minimize the morbidity and mortality in newborn with SB congenital defects. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2014; 2(4.000: 217-223

  8. Managing Agricultural Weather Risks in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    ARIAS CARBALLO, DIEGO; Leiva, Juan Jose; Sy, Abdoulaye; Traore, Nouhoum; Manfredi, Federico

    2013-01-01

    Agriculture plays an important role in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Most of its production depends on small family-owned farms, which are greatly exposed to climatic and price shocks. In order to help small farmers to manage risks, the federal and state governments have been carrying out several programs and measures to reduce and transfer agricultural risks. Santa Catarina ranks s...

  9. Lyme disease in the state of Tocantins, Brazil: report of the first cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Omar Carranza-Tamayo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Lyme disease is an underdiagnosed zoonosis in Brazil. There are no cases registered in the state of Tocantins, the newest Brazilian state. The cases of three patients in contact with rural areas in three Tocantins' districts are herein described, and the Brazilian literature is reviewed.

  10. A new species of Cernotina (Trichoptera, Polycentropodidae) from the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Leandro Lourenço Dumas; Jorge Luiz Nessimian

    2011-01-01

    A new species of Cernotina (Trichoptera, Polycentropodidae) from the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil. Cernotina Ross, 1938, with 64 extant species, is a New World genus of caddisflies. In Brazil, there are 31 described species of which 28 are recorded from the Amazon basin. Cernotina puri sp. nov. is described and figured based on specimens collected in the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The new species can be distinguished by the shape of the interm...

  11. Mineralogical aspects of Morro de Seis Lagos deposit (Amazonas, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takehara, Lucy; Almeida, Marcelo; Silveira, Francisco

    2014-05-01

    The alkaline body Morro dos Seis Lagos, situated in the northwest Amazonian region, is a Nb bearing deposit formed by thick lateritic regolith as circular geological feature about 5 km in diameter. The host rock of this deposit is an intensely weathered siderite carbonatite. The alkaline intrusion body was formed during the late Mesozoic and enriched during the Cenozoic by process of denudation of the surrounding rocks and formation of lateritic cover with thickness in the order of hundreds of meters. In this process, enrichment of Nb, Fe, Ti, Mn, P and rare earth elements (REE) occurred where the lateritic regolith represents the major Nb mineralization, with estimated inferred reserves of 2.9 billion ton@ 2.8 % Nb2O5, one of the largest deposits of Nb in the world. The mineralogical composition of the lateritic regolith has the predominance of the goethite and hematite, followed by oxy - hydroxides of Mn, Ti - Nb oxides, pyrochlore, cerianite and phosphates. The lateritic regolith samples showed high contents of Fe2O3 40 %, and is followed by elevated Th concentration, which locally has concentration higher than (18%). Another REE mineral is the cerianite. The main manganese minerals are hollandite, romanechite (BaMn9O16[OH4] - mixtures of manganese oxides) and amorphous Mn oxy - hydroxides. The higher concentration of MnO2 (about 40 %) is restricted to manganesiferous range, where manganese minerals occur as layers and filling voids, indicating strong remobilization by later process.

  12. Referential haematocrite, haemoglobin, glucose and electrolyte values for Yellow-crowned Amazon (Amazona ochrocephala (Gmelin, 1788)) kept in captivity in Ibagué

    OpenAIRE

    Fabián E Castañeda; Edwin F Buriticá-Gaviria; Lady J Cruz

    2012-01-01

    The Yellow-crowned Amazon or Yellow-crowned Parrot (Amazona ochrocephala) is found from Panama to northern Bolivia and western Brazil; it is the most widely distributed parrot in Colombia and one of the most illegally trafficked ones Basic aspects regarding clinical pathology, haematology and blood biochemistry have usually been used in diagnosing sick birds; however, physiologic parameters should be studied to ascertain normal parameters, bearingeach region’spertinent variables and their r...

  13. Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technological advances by newly industrialized countries (NICs) have become a central concern of the recent literature on the political economy of development. Striking a fatal blow to dependency thinking, in so far as it had diagnosed a structural barrier to technological development, these countries have absorbed foreign technology and have developed a very impressive domestic technological capacity. Moreover, their exports have evolved from a traditional reliance on raw materials and unprocessed goods to include increasingly sophisticated manufactured goods and technology itself. The capabilities, motivations, and structures behind nuclear exports must be examined in light of these secular trends. This paper reports on this exploratory analysis of the country's emergence as a nuclear supplier which focuses on six major areas: the balance of motivations and constraints underlying Brazil's nuclear export potential; areas of extant capabilities that would allow the country to play a significant role as a nuclear supplier; formal and informal structures beneath nuclear export policy; patterns of nuclear trade as reflected in past transactions; prospects for continuity and change; generalizability of findings to other emerging suppliers

  14. Characterization of woods known as pau-de-escora marketed in the city of Manaus, Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonnys Paz Castro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to characterize the wood product commercially known as pau-de-escora in Manaus, Amazonas. Pau-de-escora is a key foundation material to build concrete lining or storey in tower buildings. The use of pau-de-escora is very popular in Manaus even in public building construction. To carry out the analyses and the anatomical identification of the material, we used 450 pau-de-escora poles, which were apprehended by the Environmental Battalion of Amazonas Police Force. It was also carried out a social survey to better understand the dynamics of the trade of this product in Manaus. The length of the 450 poles averaged 3.74 ± 0.08 m (CI 95% and diameter at the base averaged 4.48 ± 0.03 cm (CI 95%. These small differences related to the means indicate that the market requires a very clear dimension pattern for this wood product. The seven most abundant families encountered were: Fabaceae, Annonaceae, Sapotaceae, Lecythidaceae, Lauraceae, Burseraceae and Chrysobalanaceae. The selling price of pau-deescora pole in Manaus averaged R$ 2.63, and the buying price averaged R$ 3.94. The custody chain of pau-de-escora is completely illegal not only in Brazil, perhaps worldwide because it is part of the natural regeneration of primary or recovery forests.

  15. Hematology of the Red-capped parrot (Pionopsitta pileata) and Vinaceous Amazon parrot (Amazona vinacea) in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Elizabeth Moreira dos Santos; Lange, Rogério Ribas; Ribas, Janaciara Moreira; Daciuk, Bárbara Maria; Montiani-Ferreira, Fabiano; Paulillo, Antonio Carlos

    2009-03-01

    Preliminary reference intervals for hematologic and total plasma protein profiles were determined for nine adult Red-capped parrots (Pionopsitta pileata) (six males and three females) and six Vinaceous Amazon parrots (Amazona vinacea) (two adult males, two adult females, one juvenile, and one nonsexed) from the Curitiba Zoo, Paraná, Brazil. For both Red-capped parrots and Vinaceous Amazon parrots, adult males had higher red blood cell counts than adult females. Regarding white blood cell distribution, differences due to gender were also found for both species of parrots. PMID:19368236

  16. The Cultural Context of Educational Policy: Brazil and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Jose Augusto; Lynch, Patrick D.

    Both Brazil's and the United States's educational policies are influenced by centralization of administration and formal objectives mandated by law. Arising from a long division in Brazilian life between government and people, public schools have been seen to be the concern of the government, which has preserved the antiquated division of…

  17. Beyond Racism: Embracing an Interdependent Future. Brazil, South Africa, the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Education Foundation, Atlanta, GA.

    This set of four publications examines contemporary power relations between persons of European and African descent in Brazil, South Africa, and the United States. Using a comparative and multidisciplinary approach, these publications focus on three democracies with large multiracial and multiethnic populations. "Overview Report," which details…

  18. Annual statistical report 2003 of COPEL - Electrical Company of Parana State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the statistical annual report of COPEL - Electrical Company of Parana State, Brazil, during the calendar year of 2003, on electricity market covering the distribution to end users, residential consumption, industrial consumption, commercial consumption, number of consumers and corporate information

  19. Statistical annual by energy in the municipalities of Sao Paulo State, Brazil - 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document has as objective the compilation and dissemination of the consumption data corresponding of the main energetics used in the municipalities of Sao Paulo State, Brazil in the year of 2006. The considered energetics are: electric energy, natural gas, petroleum derivatives; hydrated alcohol and biodiesel

  20. The ceramic artifacts in archaeological black earth (terra preta) from Lower Amazon Region, Brazil: chemistry and geochemical evolution Artefatos cerâmicos em sítios arqueológicos com terra preta na região do baixo Amazonas, Brasil: composição química e evolução geoquímica

    OpenAIRE

    Marcondes Lima da Costa; Dirse Clara Kern; Alice Helena Eleotério Pinto; Jorge Raimundo da Trindade Souza

    2004-01-01

    This paper carried out a chemical investigation of archaeological ceramic artifacts found in archaeological sites with Black Earth (ABE) in the Lower Amazon Region at Cachoeira-Porteira, State of Pará, Brazil. The ceramic artifacts, mostly of daily use, belong to Konduri culture (from 900 to 400 years BP). They are constituted of SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, Na2O and P2O5; SiO2 and Al2O3 together add up to 80 % and indicate influence of acid rocks, transformed into clay minerals basically kaolinite. T...

  1. Triatoma jatai sp. nov. in the state of Tocantins, Brazil (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Teresa Cristina Monte; Teves-Neves, Simone Caldas; dos Santos-Mallet, Jacenir Reis; Carbajal-de-la-Fuente, Ana Laura; Lopes, Catarina Macedo

    2013-01-01

    Triatoma jatai sp. nov. is the first new species of triatomine to be described in the state of Tocantins, in the northern region of Brazil. It was caught on rock outcrops in the wild environment and, more recently, invading homes. While T. jatai sp. nov. is morphologically similar to Triatoma costalimai, it is distinguished by its general colouring, differences in the blotches on the connexivum, wing size in females and external structures of the male genitalia. The type series has been deposited in the Entomological Collection and Herman Lent Collection, Oswaldo Cruz Institute-Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PMID:23828010

  2. Antibody levels to hantavirus in inhabitants of western Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Marciel de Souza

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS is an infectious disease caused by hantaviruses of the family Bunyaviridae, and is transmitted by aerosols of excreta of infected rodents. The aim of the present study was to determine antibody levels to hantavirus in the population that lives at frontier of Brazil and Argentina. Participated of the study 405 individuals living in the municipalities of Bandeirante, Santa Helena, Princesa and Tunapolis, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. IgG antibodies to hantavirus were analyzed in sera by an ELISA that uses a recombinant N protein of Araraquara hantavirus as antigen. The results were also confirmed by immunofluorescent test. Eight individuals showed antibodies to hantavirus (1.97% positivity, with serum titers ranging from 100 to 800. Six seropositives were males, older than 30 years and farmers. Our results reinforce previous data on hantavirus circulation and human infections in the southern border of Brazil with Argentina.

  3. Echovirus 30 associated with cases of aseptic meningitis in state of Pará, Northern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyla Maria Oeiras de Castro

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the aetiology of viral meningitis in Brazil is most often restricted to cases that occur in the Southern and Southeastern Regions; therefore, the purpose of this study is to describe the viral meningitis cases that occurred in state of Pará, Northern Brazil, from January 2005-December 2006. The detection of enterovirus (EV in cerebrospinal fluid was performed using cell culture techniques, RT-PCR, nested PCR and nucleotide sequencing. The ages of the 91 patients ranged from 60 years old (median age 15.90 years. Fever (87.1%, headache (77.0%, vomiting (61.5% and stiffness (61.5% were the most frequent symptoms. Of 91 samples analyzed, 18 (19.8% were positive for EV. Twelve were detected only by RT- PCR followed by nested PCR, whereas six were found by both cell culture and RT-PCR. From the last group, five were sequenced and classified as echovirus 30 (Echo 30. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that Echo 30 detected in Northern Brazil clustered within a unique group with a bootstrap value of 100% and could constitute a new subgroup (4c according to the phylogenetic tree described by Oberste et al. (1999. This study described the first molecular characterization of Echo 30 in Brazil and this will certainly contribute to future molecular analyses involving strains detected in other regions of Brazil.

  4. 6. State energy balance - 1978/1987 - Minas Gerais, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energetic plan of Minas Gerais state and the steps such as energy balance, state potential energy identification, social and economic analysis, energetic flux, energy consumption is presented. (L.J.C.)

  5. Market study of pipe gas for the Bahia State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy market that will be conquered by the natural gas in Bahia State is identified, allowing measure the potentiality of gas industry and the gas supply, that the State will plead to the Federal Government. (C.G.C.)

  6. Bat assemblages from three Atlantic Forest fragments in Rio de Janeiro state, Southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Leonan Novaes; Daniel Rosa; Davor Vrcibradic; Leonardo Avilla

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Bat species richness in Neotropical localities is generally higher than that of any other group of mammals, and surveys of local bat assemblages may provide useful data for conservation management plans. Although the bat fauna of the Rio de Janeiro state is currently one of the best known in Brazil, there are several localities not adequately surveyed yet, and most of them are in the mountainous regions and in the northern portion of the state. From January 2008 to November 2009, we ...

  7. States, Movements and the New Politics of Blackness in Colombia and Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Paschel, Tianna Shonta

    2011-01-01

    The 1990s marked a dramatic shift throughout Latin America from constitutions and state policies that hinged on ideas of colorblindness and mestizaje to targeted policies for black and indigenous peoples. This study analyzes the role black social movements played in this shift in Colombia and Brazil, two countries where the state adopted the most comprehensive reforms for black populations in the region. It also analyzes the impact of achieving such reforms on black movements' trajectories in...

  8. THE INSTRUMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL COMPENSATION IN BRAZIL AND IN THE STATE OF MINAS GERAIS

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Costa de Barros; Luis Antonio Coimbra Borges; Maria das Graças Paula; Flávia Luciana Naves Mafra

    2015-01-01

    Compensation for environmental projects that cause significant environmental impact is an instrument established by Article 36 of Law No. 9.985/2000. The objective of this study was to describe and analyze relevant environmental legislation to the Environmental Compensation instrument in Brazil and use the state of Minas Gerais as a case study. For this we adopted the techniques of bibliographic and documentary research. The result showed that environmental compensation increased in the state...

  9. "Calling a state a state": feminist politics and the policing of violence against women in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautzinger, S

    1997-01-01

    This document reports on a 1990 case study of one of Brazil's 80 police stations established for the protection of women in response to feminist pressure to address excessively high levels of violence against women. These police stations, staffed by women to respond exclusively to complaints lodged by women, are an unusual institutional response to such violence. The study examines the station established in Salvador in 1986 to reveal which interests were served by the creation of the specialized stations. The first section of the article addresses the fact that Salvador's policewomen have gained little from the creation of the specialized stations and continue to suffer job-related sexual discrimination. Next, conceptions of gender identity among policewomen are analyzed, and the ideologies of "femininity" and "feminism" in the Brazilian context are discussed. The final section compares views on the abuse of women with views on police brutality and relays incidences when the policewomen beat male prisoners. It is argued that certain forms of violence are actually considered necessary to maintain social order and enact justice. It is concluded that all of the involved parties, the state, the feminists, the female citizenry, and Salvador's female police, benefit in part from the existence of the specialized police stations but that there are serious problems also, especially the fact that the policewomen involved are given little or no special training and no career incentives. PMID:12321266

  10. Ultrapotassic rocks geology from Salgueiro region, Pernambuco state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cachoeirinha-Salgueiro belt has Proterozoic age and is located in the Borborema Province, NE Brazil. The ultrapotassic rocks from Salgueiro region intrudes the Cachoeirinha-Salgueiro belt rocks. The ultrapotassics from Salgueiro region constitutes of three units; Serra do Livramento pluton, and two dyke swarms called respectively beige alkali feldspar granites and green alkali feldspar syenite/quartz-syenite. The Serra do Livramento pluton shows E-W direction, boudin shape, width between 0,15 and 2,10 km, and it is intruded into metamorphic rocks and into the Terra Nova complex. Detailed geological mapping at the Serra das Duas Irmas allowed us to establish the dyke swarm chronology. The mapping reveals seven intrusion episodes, into the Terra Nova pluton, of green alkali feldspar syenite/quartz-syenite and five episodes of bege alkali feldspar granite. They alternate between them in space and time, and there are evidence that they were intruded under the tectonic control of the Pernambuco lineament. A systematic whole-rock Rb-Sr geochronology was done in the green alkali feldspar syenite/quartz-syenite, and an age of 514,8 ± 20,3 Ma was obtained. The initial ratio is 0,710615 + 0,000441. The age obtained shows small error and an initial ratio compatible with a strong crustal contamination. (author)

  11. 76 FR 65696 - Request for Applicants for the Appointment to the United States-Brazil CEO Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... Forum AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In March 2007, the Governments of the United States and Brazil established the U.S.-Brazil CEO Forum. This... representatives to the current U.S. Section of the Forum. The current U.S. Section term will expire on August...

  12. Dictyoceratida (Porifera: Demospongiae) from Tropical Southwestern Atlantic (Northeastern Brazil, Sergipe State) and the description of three new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandes, Joana; Pinheiro, Ulisses

    2014-01-01

    Five species of dictyoceratid sponges were collected from trawling on the continental shelf of Sergipe State, Northeastern Brazil, of which three are new to science: Ircinia sergipana sp. nov., Ircinia repens sp. nov., Ircinia strobilina, Hyattella cavernosa and Smenospongia ramosa sp. nov., the latter the first record of the genus Smenospongia from Brazil.  PMID:25081789

  13. Rediscovery and geographic distribution of Philodryas agassizii (Jan, 1863 (Squamata: Dipsadidae in the state of Paraná, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Alves de Souza Filho

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Philodryas agassizii (Dipsadidae occurs in Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay; in Brazil, it has been recorded in open areas of the regions Northeast, Central-West, Southeast and South. In the state of Paraná, it has only old records in southeastern of the state. We report, here, the rediscovery of P. agassizii in Paraná, forty years after the last record, and review its distribution within the state, including the central-south region.

  14. Rediscovery and geographic distribution of Philodryas agassizii (Jan, 1863) (Squamata: Dipsadidae) in the state of Paraná, Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gilberto Alves de Souza Filho; Luciano Leandro Plombon

    2014-01-01

    Philodryas agassizii (Dipsadidae) occurs in Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay; in Brazil, it has been recorded in open areas of the regions Northeast, Central-West, Southeast and South. In the state of Paraná, it has only old records in southeastern of the state. We report, here, the rediscovery of P. agassizii in Paraná, forty years after the last record, and review its distribution within the state, including the central-south region.

  15. Macroeconomic effects of oil price shocks in Brazil and in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We find that output growth volatility in the US has been decreasing over time. ► The contribution of oil price shocks to such volatility has also been decreasing. ► In Brazil, oil shocks do not seem to have a clear impact on growth. ► They account for a small fraction of the Brazilian inflation and output volatility. ► Counterfactuals show US output would be 10% less volatile with Brazil’s oil import share. - Abstract: This paper studies the effects of oil price shocks in the last 30 years on the Brazilian and American inflation rate and rhythm of economic activity. The Brazilian and the United States economies are interesting polar cases, since they had a completely different path on the oil import dependence rate. While the oil import dependence rate has increase sharply in the United States (US), it has decreased substantially in Brazil. We found that output growth volatility in the United States has been decreasing over time as well as the contribution of oil price shocks to such volatility, despite the increase in oil import dependence. Inflation volatility has also been decreasing but oil price shocks are accounting for a larger fraction of this volatility in the US. In Brazil, such shocks do not seem to have a clear impact on output growth and they account for a very small fraction of the Brazilian inflation and output growth rate volatility. We finally run some counterfactual experiments to analyze how real output growth in the United States would had been if net oil import share in the United States behaved similarly to what was observed in Brazil. We conclude that output level would be roughly the same, however, it would be about 10% less volatile if the US had the actual Brazilian oil import share

  16. Characterization of autochthonous wine yeasts isolated in vineyards of the State of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samarina Rodrigues Wlodarczyk

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of grape must into wine is a complex microbiological process and is the product of the combined action of several genera and species of yeasts, dominated in the intermediate and final stages of fermentation by an alcohol-tolerant Saccharomyces sp. Current assay characterizes 42 autochthonous yeasts, isolated from the state of Paraná, southern Brazil, according to the following oenological properties: H2S production, fermentation rate, flocculation capacity, and killer phenotype (killer, sensitive and neutral characteristics. Current analysis is the first to evaluate killer phenotype in yeasts isolated from the State of Paraná, Brazil. With regard to their oenological traits, the yeasts evaluated were not suitable for winemaking and suggested that, depending on the harvest, the winemakers may face problems during the spontaneous wine production process.

  17. Energy balance of Parana State, Brazil - 1980/1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energetic information in the period of 1980/1990 are presented in this balance presenting the energy primary and secondary sources from the production until the final consumption in Parana State. Statistical data about energy consumption, external market, resources and reserves are included. (C.G.C.)

  18. Energy balance of Sao Paulo State, Brazil - 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sao Paulo State total consumption in 1986 is presented, including information of production consumption of energy in the main economics sectors. Some historical aspects, resources, reserves and considerations about equipment and electricity gas and petroleum distribution are also shown. (C.G.C.)

  19. YERSINIA PSEUDOTUBERCULOSIS, SEROGROUP O:1A, INFECTION IN TWO AMAZON PARROTS (AMAZONA AESTIVA AND AMAZONA ORATRIX) WITH HEPATIC HEMOSIDEROSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galosi, Livio; Farneti, Silvana; Rossi, Giacomo; Cork, Susan Catherine; Ferraro, Stefano; Magi, Gian Enrico; Petrini, Stefano; Valiani, Andrea; Cuteri, Vincenzo; Attili, Anna-Rita

    2015-09-01

    Necropsies were conducted on a female blue-fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva) and a female yellow-headed Amazon (Amazona oratrix) that died after depression, ruffled feathers, diarrhea, and biliverdin in the urine. Gross and microscopic examinations revealed multifocal necrosis in the liver, spleen, lungs, kidneys, intestines, and heart caused by acute bacteremia. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, serogroup O:1a, was isolated by culturing from the visceral lesions in the liver, intestines, and spleen. Virulence gene analysis showed the presence of the inv gene and the complete pathogenicity island: IS100, psn, yptE, irp1, irp2 ybtP-ybtQ, ybtX-ybtS, and int asnT-Int. Histopathologic findings and chemical analysis also demonstrated hepatic hemosiderosis. As has been demonstrated in other species, hemosiderosis may predispose Amazona spp. to systemic infection with Y. pseudotuberculosis after enteric disease. PMID:26352966

  20. Microalgae of the continental shelf off Paraná State, southeastern Brazil: a review of studies

    OpenAIRE

    Brandini, Frederico P.; Luciano F. Fernandes

    1996-01-01

    The paper reviews the taxonomic and ecological works on marine microalgae (phytoplankton and microphytobenthos) off Paraná State, Southeastern Brazil. Various studies refer to the taxonomy of benthic diatoms. Few descriptive field works in coastal and adjacent shelf waters contribute to the understanding of phytoplankton dynamics in coastal and shelf areas. Patterns of geographic distribution and changes in the phytoplankton community are described in relation to water masses and seasonal var...

  1. Environmental water quality assessment in Guaratuba bay, state of Paraná, southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Byanka Damian Mizerkowski; Eunice da Costa Machado; Nilva Brandini; Mariana Gallucci Nazario; Kleber Vieira Bonfim

    2012-01-01

    An environmental assessment of the estuarine waters of Guaratuba bay, Paraná State, Brazil, is provided through the analysis of physical-chemical, biological and hydrographic dynamics. Twelve stations with a bi-monthly frequency (from October/2002 until August/2003) were sampled during spring and neap tides for the determination of pH, Secchi depth, CO2 saturation, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll, suspended particulate matter and dissolved inorganic nutrients (nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, phosph...

  2. Physicochemical composition of Apis mellifera honey samples from São Paulo State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Luís Carlos Marchini; Augusta Carolina de Camargo Carmello Moreti; Ivani Pozar Otsuk; Geni da Silva Sodré

    2007-01-01

    This research, developed with Apis mellifera honey samples from producers of São Paulo State, Brazil, has the objective of verifying how eucalyptus, wild flower, and orange honey samples would be clustered, based on physicochemical characteristics. All the orange honey samples and some wild flower ones formed distinct groups, thus confirming that the floral source interferes with honey characteristics. Eucalyptus and some of the wild flower honey samples were clustered together because of the...

  3. Pleural tuberculosis in the state of Roraima, Brazil, between 2005 and 2013: quality of diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Tao; da Fonseca, Allex Jardim; Buenafuente, Sandra Maria Franco

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the quality of diagnosis and the epidemiological profile of patients with pleural tuberculosis in the state of Roraima, Brazil, in order to provide technical support for the development and implementation of public policies to combat the disease. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study designed to determine the prevalence of pleural forms of tuberculosis in Roraima between 2005 and 2013 and to evaluate the diagnostic criteria used, as well as their determinants. This ...

  4. Pleural tuberculosis in the state of Roraima, Brazil, between 2005 and 2013: quality of diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Tao Machado; Allex Jardim da Fonseca; Sandra Maria Franco Buenafuente

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the quality of diagnosis and the epidemiological profile of patients with pleural tuberculosis in the state of Roraima, Brazil, in order to provide technical support for the development and implementation of public policies to combat the disease. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study designed to determine the prevalence of pleural forms of tuberculosis in Roraima between 2005 and 2013 and to evaluate the diagnostic criteria used, as well as their determinants. Th...

  5. Enhanced degradation of metalaxyl in agricultural soils of São Paulo State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Papini Solange; Andréa Mara Mercedes de

    2001-01-01

    This work investigated the effect of repeated applications on enhanced degradation of metalaxyl in two different agricultural soils used for cultivation of orange and lemon from Casa Branca and Itapetininga districts of São Paulo State, Brazil. Soil samples were collected from areas repeatedly treated with commercial ridomil 50GR for six successive years, and from other areas never exposed to this fungicide. At the laboratory, soil samples received a 14C-metalaxyl solution and its degradation...

  6. Occupational structure and socioeconomic inequality: a comparative study between Brazil and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Gori Maia; Arthur Sakamoto

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTThis paper explores how occupational structure is associated with economic inequality in Brazil in comparison to the United States. Changes in the Brazilian and American occupational structures between 1983 and 2011 are investigated in order to assess how closely they generate high socioeconomic inequalities. The effects of education, age, gender and race on occupational attainment are taken into account. Highlights of the results include: (1) a higher level of socioeconomic developme...

  7. Betrayal Aversion: Evidence from Brazil, China, Oman, Switzerland, Turkey, and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Iris Bohnet; Fiona Greig; Benedikt Herrmann; Richard Zeckhauser

    2008-01-01

    Due to betrayal aversion, people take risks less willingly when the agent of uncertainty is another person rather than nature. Individuals in six countries (Brazil, China, Oman, Switzerland, Turkey, and the United States) confronted a binary-choice trust game or a risky decision offering the same payoffs and probabilities. Risk acceptance was calibrated by asking individuals their "minimum acceptable probability" (MAP) for securing the high payoff that would make them willing to accept the ri...

  8. Discourses of cyberspace securitization in Brazil and in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    LUÍSA CRUZ LOBATO; KAI MICHAEL KENKEL

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This paper uses the framework of the Copenhagen School to understand the process of securitization of cyberspace, exploring how something in such sphere becomes a threat. Seeking to contribute to the debate, this study analyses the securitization discourses of Brazil and of the United States from Hansen and Nissenbaum's (2009) theorization about the existence of a specific sector for cybersecurity. To comprehend the securitization of cyberspace in these terms allows not only to ident...

  9. Organic micropollutants on river sediments from Rio de Janeiro State, Southeast Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    João Paulo de Machado Torres; Olaf Malm; Elisa Diniz Reis Vieira; Jan Japenga; Gerwin Ferdinand Koopmans

    2002-01-01

    The paper is a contribution for the knowledge upon concentrations and fate of different kinds of organic micropollutants in Tropical River system from a very industrialized region in Brazil. The presented data was obtained during three years of an International Research Project between Brazilian and Dutch institutions. The sediments were sampled at the Paraiba do Sul-Guandu river watershed, the most important watercourse of Rio de Janeiro state, where up 90 % of the population depends on its ...

  10. Hydrological studies in experimental and representative basins in Pernambuco State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Montenegro, S.M.G.L.; da Silva, B. B.; A. C. D. Antonino; J. R. S. Lima; E.S. Souza; de Oliveira, L. M. M.; de Moura, A. E. S. S.; Souza, R. M. S.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrological studies in experimental and representative basins are of fundamental importance for water resources management. This paper presents some activities of hydrological research in experimental and representative basins of the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. The study areas are located at Tapacurá and Mundaú representative basins and at the Gameleira experimental basin, and in experimental plots in Pajeú basin. In the Tapacurá basin, three studies were performed: (1) different monthly co...

  11. Interstitial nephritis of slaughtered pigs in the State of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    João X. Oliveira Filho; Daphine A.J. de Paula; Nelson Morés; Caroline A. Pescador; Janice R. Ciacci-Zanella; Arlei Coldebella; Valéria Dutra; Luciano Nakazato

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated histological lesions in kidney samples from pigs with nephritis in two slaughterhouses in the State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Four hundred samples were subjected to histology, anti-porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) immunohistochemistry (IHC), anti-Leptospira sp. immunofluorescence (IF), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for PCV2, porcine parvovirus (PPV), and Torque teno virus type 1 and 2 (TTV1, TTV2) detection. Histological lesions were found in 81% of the samples, and m...

  12. Energy balance of Sao Paulo state, Brazil 2009. Calendar year 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the consolidated annual energy balances and also tables and graphics which detailed the evolution and the present status of offer and demand of each energy resources used by Sao Paulo, Brazil, economy and regional and environmental information. It covers the period of 1995 to 2008 and includes energy fluxes of the energy primary and secondary resources, from the production to the final consumption of the main sectors of the state economy

  13. FRUIT MORPHOLOGY AND PRODUCTIVITY OF BABASSU PALMS IN NORTHERN MINAS GERAIS STATE, BRAZIL1

    OpenAIRE

    Marcio Lisboa Guedes; Paulo Henrique Gonçalves Ferreira; Karla Nayara Oliveira Santana; Márcio Antônio Silva Pimenta; Leonardo Monteiro Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The objectives of this study were to morphologically characterize fruits of the babassu palm tree (Attalea vitrivir) and to estimate their productivity in the north of Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Twenty mature fruits were collected from 10 plants in three different areas in Januária, Minas Gerais. Eighteen biometric parameters of the fruits were measured, the oil contents of the seeds was determined, the adherence to normal distribution was evaluated, distribution frequencies were ev...

  14. Characterization and classification of two soils derived from basic rocks in Pernambuco State Coast, Northeast Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira Lindomário Barros de; Ferreira Maria da Graça de Vasconcelos Xavier; Marques Flávio Adriano

    2004-01-01

    Geomorphic surfaces that present soils derived from basic rocks under warm and humid climate are unique scenarios for studying tropical soils. This paper aimed to characterize and classify two pedons derived from basalt at the Atlantic Forest Zone, Pernambuco State, Northeastern coast of Brazil. Two representative pedons (P1 and P2) were selected on a hillslope at the Cabo de Santo Agostinho municipality. Field macromorphological descriptions were carried out and soil horizon were sampled for...

  15. Some oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida from the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anibal Ramadan Oliveira

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted in three sites from northern and mid-eastern regions of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, to determine oribatid mite composition in patches of seasonal semideciduous forest and soybean crop plantation. A list of 52 taxa, 24 at the species level and 28 only at the genus level, is given, 27 of which are new records for the region.

  16. Phosphate sequence study of Boqueirâo pegmatite (Rio Grande Do Norte State, Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Amores, S.; de Brito, S.; Espallargas, R.; Fontan, F.; Melgarejo i Draper, Joan-Carles

    2014-01-01

    The Boqueirão pegmatite is located in the Borborema Pegmatite Province in the state of Rio Grande do Norte (NE Brazil) hosted by Neoproterozoic taconglomerates of Equador Formation. The pegma tite occurs as a concentric body displaying characteristic units according their mineralogy. The border and wall zones are composed by quartz, microcline and muscovite often displaying skeletal and graphic textures with accessory tourmaline and garnet. The intermediate zone is divided in two distinct sub...

  17. Cetacean records along São Paulo state coast, Southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos César de Oliveira Santos; Salvatore Siciliano; André Fabiano de Castro Vicente; Fernando Siqueira Alvarenga; Émerson Zampirolli; Shirley Pacheco de Souza; Andréa Maranho

    2010-01-01

    The São Paulo state (SP) coast (23º18'S, 44º42'W; 25º14'S, 48º01'W) is of approximately 600 km in length, bordering the Western Atlantic Ocean, in southeastern Brazil. Cetacean sightings and strandings have long been observed throughout this area. Scattered data from scientific publications, skeletal remains in museums, photographs and articles from newspaper files, universities and aquaria have been organised and updated since 1993. Field investigations on strandings and sightings have also ...

  18. Two new species of Thaumastus (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Orthalicidae: Bulimulinae) from the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Meire Silva Pena; Norma Campos Salgado; Arnaldo C. dos Santos Coelho

    2011-01-01

    Two new species of Thaumastus (Thaumastus) from the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, are described. They are diagnosed and characterized by the morphology of the shell and soft parts and compared with Brazilian species of the subgenus Thaumastus s.s. Martens, 1860. Thaumastus (T.) parvus sp. nov. is similar to T. (T.) baixoguanduensis Pena, Coelho & Salgado, 1996 but can be distinguished by the smaller size, smaller number of plates in the jaw, different number of follicle groups i...

  19. Characterization of a foodborne outbreak caused by Salmonella Enteritidis in Aracaju, State of Sergipe, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Regina Pires Carneiro; Pedro Hernan Cabello; Ricardo Luiz Cavalcanti Albuquerque-Junior; Sona Jain; Alexandre Luna Candido

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In December 2001, an outbreak of foodborne gastroenteritis infected 114 of 161 people who ate at a restaurant in Aracaju, State of Sergipe, Brazil. METHODS: The epidemiological and microbiological aspects of the outbreak were characterized. RESULTS: Potato salad made with homemade mayonnaise and stored at unsuitable temperatures was associated with increased risk of foodborne infection. Salmonella Enteritidis was isolated from the diarrheal stools of the hospitalized patients, a...

  20. Environmental performance of aquaculture in Rondônia state, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Aurélio Ferreira Borges; Anderson Alves Santos; José Luiz Pereira de Rezende; Maria dos Anjos Cunha Silva Borges; Abílio da Paixão Ciríaco; Thaís Muniz Ottoni Santiago

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the environmental performance of aquaculture in the city of Colorado do Oeste, Rondônia State, Brazil. Fifteen fish farmers were interviewed. For data collection, structured interviews were carried out, using a questionnaire based on information supplied by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). The questionnaire considered 12 items, organized into three main topics: a) social and legal standards b) environmental standards c) sta...

  1. Ethnotaxonomy of birds by the inhabitants of Pedra Branca Village, Santa Teresinha municipality, Bahia state, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Galvagne Loss, Ana Teresa; Costa Neto, Eraldo Medeiros; Machado, Caio Graco; Flores, Fernando Moreira

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies on popular names of birds help to understand the relationship between human beings and birds and it also contributes to the field of ornithology. Methods This study aims to register the ethnotaxonomy of birds in the village of Pedra Branca, Santa Teresinha municipality, Bahia State, Brazil, by cataloguing and identifying their popular names, besides understanding the ethnoclassification system of local bird species. The ethno-ornithological data were obtained by means of se...

  2. Energy balance of Sao Paulo state, Brazil 2008. Calendar year 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the consolidated annual energy balances and also tables and graphics which detailed the evolution and the present status of offer and demand of each energy resources used by Sao Paulo, Brazil, economy and regionalized and environmental information. It covers the period of 1994 to 2007 and includes energy fluxes of the energy primary and secondary resources, from the production to the final consumption of the main sectors of the state economy

  3. Congenital Neosporosis in Goats from the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Varaschin, Mary S.; Hirsch, Christian; Wouters, Flademir; Nakagaki, Karen Y.; Guimarães, Antônio M.; Santos, Domingos S.; Bezerra, Pedro S.; Rafael C. Costa; Peconick, Ana P.; Ingeborg M. Langohr

    2012-01-01

    Congenital Neospora caninum infection was diagnosed in two Saanen goat kids from two distinct herds with a history of abortion and weak newborn goat kids in the Southern region of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The first kid was weak at birth, had difficulty to rise and was unable to nurse. Gross lesions of porencephaly and hydrocephalus ex vacuo were seen. Multifocal necrosis, gliosis and non-supurative encephalitis were observed in the brain. Several parasitic cysts with a thick wall th...

  4. Cell phone recycling experiences in the United States and potential recycling options in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Geraldo T R; Chang, Shoou-Yuh

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents an overview of cell phone recycling programs currently available in the United States. At the same time, it also provides analyses of the current recycling situation and possible recycling alternatives for Brazil. Although there are several recycling options in the United States, collection rates are still only 10% of all potential devices because customers are not aware of these possibilities. The whole system is financially based on reselling refurbished cell phones and recycled materials to developing countries which represent an effective and strong market. Several recyclers offer funds to collection partners who are either charities or who work with charities while obtaining the materials that they need in order to run their operations. A mobile phone recycling system for Brazil considering the United States experience and the Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) principle is suggested. A deposit/refund/advance-recycling fee is proposed which might be implemented as a voluntary industrial initiative managed by PRO Brazil, a producer responsibility organization. One widespread public-private agreement will integrate all mobile phone stakeholders, and environmental education actions and promotional events will promote citizen's participation. PMID:20554440

  5. Radiological emergencies attendances in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radiological Emergency Attendance Group (SAER) of the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN) was reorganized to offer the technical expertise on radiological protection to the community of Minas Gerais State. Response to many calls during 2000-2001 was provided. This paper describes the adopted procedure to look for the two 137 Cs brachytherapy sources which were lost by a hospital in Belo Horizonte. (author)

  6. Epidemiological aspects of dengue in Aracaju, State of Sergipe, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    José Antonio Barreto Alves; Jokasta Rodrigues Santos; Emanuelle Nabuco de Mendonça; Ana Cristina Freire Abud; Mariangela da Silva Nunes; Ricardo Fakhouri; Ana Dorcas de Melo Inagaki; Murilo Marchioro; Angelo Roberto Antoniolli

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The dengue fever remains to be a disease of serious public health concern, and its incidence has increased in the past decades. This study aimed to characterize the epidemiological incidence of dengue in the period 2001-2010. METHODS: This is an epidemiological study of dengue in the municipality of Aracaju, state of Sergipe, in the period between 2001 and 2010, whose data were obtained from the Information System of Diseases Notifications. A descriptive analysis of the number o...

  7. RAILWAY INDUSTRY ROADMAP IN THE STATE OF SANTA CATARINA, BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Acires; Jonny C. DA SILVA; Heitor H. KAGUEIAMA; Carolina R. HADDAD; Mauricio URIONA M.; Álvaro G.R. LEZANA; Dante L. JULIATTO

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to identify the main requirements to strengthen the railroad industry in Santa Catarina by using technology roadmapping. The railway industry is composed of carriers, manufacturers, suppliers, operators, logistics, services and education. The survey aimed to provide guidelines for the Federation of the State of Santa Catarina Industry (FIESC) to develop its strategic plan for the next eight years. Based on the survey, the roadmap defined vision, mission, a list of key concep...

  8. Ocular Gnathostomiasis in Brazil: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Cláudia M; Chaves, Claudio; Zoroquiain, Pablo; Belfort, Rubens; Burnier, Miguel N

    2016-04-01

    Gnathostomiasis is a parasitic disease caused by nematode larvae ingestion of 15 known species of the genus Gnathostoma (one of the Gnathostomatidae family members). This parasite uses freshwater fish as a host and can infect - through the consumption of raw fish or their viscera - other animals such as dogs, cats, chickens, pigs, and humans. This parasitic disease, with humans acting as hosts, has been known since 1945 (India), and ocular complications have been known since 2004 (intravitreal; also described in India). Latin American countries, especially Mexico and Peru, have reported cases of the disease since 1970. The first dermatological case was reported in Brazil in 2009 (the individual had acquired the disease in Peru). This article describes the first reported ophthalmic case of the disease in Brazil and refers to a male patient, 30 years old, living in the municipality of Juruá, Amazonas State. The disease evolved within 30 days through a fistulized tumor in the inner corner of the lower eyelid. Following excision, the anatomical and histopathological examination revealed the presence of a different parasite species from other previously known genera. PMID:27239465

  9. How important is agriculture and familiar agriculture agribusiness for Brazil and its states: an interregional input-output approach

    OpenAIRE

    Guilhoto, Joaquim José Martins; Ichihara, Silvio Massaru; Silveira, Fernando Gaiger; Diniz, Bernando P. Campolina; Azzoni, Carlos Roberto; Moreira, Guilherme R. C.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is estimate how important is agriculture and familiar agriculture agribusiness for Brazil and its states. To do so, the GDP for the agribusiness of these complexes is estimated for Brazil and for its 27 states. The estimation is based on an interregional input-output system constructed for the Brazilian economy. The agribusiness takes into consideration the relations between the agriculture production and the other sectors in the economy (inputs for production, industry,...

  10. Radioactivity in soils of the Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: For proper management of soil and groundwater quality, background levels of toxic elements in a given ecosystem must be known. The main aim of the present study is to perform a radioactive characterization of representative soils from the Sao Paulo State, in order to determine background levels for some selected radionuclides, which could be used as a quality reference value. Soil types and sampling places were chosen according to their representativeness and spatial distribution in the State geological formations, taking also into account their nearness to large urban areas. Thirty samples were collected in areas presenting low antrophic perturbation - native vegetation or ancient reforestation -, minimizing the chances that selected areas could have sustained antrophic effects in recent past. Activity concentration of U-nat, Th-nat, 228Th, 228Ra, 226Ra, 210Pb, 137Cs and 40K were evaluated and correlated with soil mineralogical characteristics. The samples were measured by means of passive gamma spectrometry and spectrophotometry, employing Arsenazo III. Results showed a wide variation on background levels for natural radionuclides of the uranium and thorium series, and very low concentration of 137Cs from radioactive fallout, ranging from -1 for U-nat, 8 to 82 Bq.kg-1 for Th-nat, 4.8 to 120 Bq.kg-1 for 228Th, 3.3 to 97.6 Bq.kg-1 for 228Ra, 1.0 to 61.8 Bq.kg-1 for 226Ra, -1 for 210Pb, 0.8 to 4.1 Bq.kg-1 for 137Cs and 15.3 to 516 Bq.kg-1 for 40 K. No significant correlation could be observed between the clay, silt and sand content in the samples and the respective activity concentration of the radionuclides. (author)

  11. Evolution of bacterial meningitis diagnosis in Sao Paulo State-Brazil and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela Marques Salgado

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial meningitis (BM is a severe disease and still represents a serious public health problem with high rates of morbidity and mortality. The most common cases of BM around the world, mainly in Brazil, have been caused by Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae type b. Bacterial culture is the gold-standard technique for BM confirmation, but approximately 50% of suspected cases are not culture-confirmed, due to problems related to improper transportation and seeding or previous antibiotic treatment. Immunological methods present low sensitivity and have possibility of cross-reactions. Real time PCR (qPCR is a molecular technique and has been successful used for BM diagnosis at Instituto Adolfo Lutz in São Paulo State, Brazil, since 2007. The incorporation of qPCR in the Public Health surveillance routine in our state resulted in diminishing 50% of undetermined BM cases. Our efforts are focused on qPCR implementation in the BM diagnostic routine throughout Brazil.

  12. Verbreiting und Vorkommen einiger Pauropodenarten im Brasilianischen Amazonas-Gebiet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hüther, Walter

    1985-01-01

    The material studied was taken by Berlese-Tullgren funnels. From the about 60 pauropod species occurring in the Brazilian Amazonas region, this paper deals only with 23 species belonging to 6 genera. Only 3 species are spread all over the region, 15 species are restricted to one locality. The mean a

  13. [Identification of schistosomiasis risk areas using spatial analysis in Lauro de Freitas, Bahia State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardim, Luciana Lobato; Ferraudo, Antonio Sergio; Pacheco, Selma Turrioni Azevedo; Reis, Renato Barbosa; Silva, Marta Mariana Nascimento; Carneiro, Deborah Daniela M Trabuco; Bavia, Maria Emilia

    2011-05-01

    The spread of schistosomiasis mansoni defies efforts by Brazil's Unified National Health System, thus demonstrating the need to reassess endemic control programs in the country. The aim of this study was to demarcate geographic areas at risk of schistosomiasis in Lauro de Freitas, Bahia State, Brazil, and to establish the epidemiological and socioeconomic profile of the disease in this municipality (county). Kernel density estimator exploratory analysis was used for visual identification of areas at risk. Kulldorff & Nagarwalla's spatial analysis was used to obtain statistically significant clusters and to measure risk. These technologies identified four risk areas for schistosomiasis. Clusters identified within the risk areas were characterized by lower socioeconomic conditions. Multiple correspondence analyses showed a distinct profile for positive patients in the primary cluster. The techniques employed here represent an important methodological acquisition for tracking and controlling schistosomiasis in Lauro de Freitas. PMID:21655841

  14. [Professional practices in public dental healthcare: case study of two municipal districts, Bahia State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Sônia Cristina Lima; da Silva, Lígia Maria Vieira

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the working facilities and processes of dentists in the primary healthcare systems of two towns in Bahia State, Brazil, striving to analyze the extent to which factors related to dental care, training, placement and professional profiles influence their practices. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine dentists in both towns, with work process organization patterns in Municipality C being closer to the structuring principles of Brazil's National Health System than in Municipality E. This seems to be related to management characteristics, with networking links among individual, collective, and preventive clinical activities and planning noted in Municipality C. Despite these differences, the practitioners presented similarities in terms of dual militancy and perceptions of the public and private healthcare fields. The hegemony of the private sector seems to be influencing the professional practices of dentists in the public health system. PMID:18813506

  15. Evaluation of umbu-caja germplasm in the state of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Ritzinger

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The umbu-caja is a tree native to the Northeastern region of Brazil, with promising perspectives of economicuse. Aiming to detect variability in the species, 43 umbu-caja genotypes were identified in 14 counties of the state of Bahia,Brazil. Fruits of these genotypes were collected for physical, chemical and physico-chemical analysis. The range of variationof all analyzed traits was large. Among genotypes, there was, however, predominance of pear-shaped to slightly pear-shapedfruits, fruit weight ranging from 15 g to 27 g, pulp/seed index around 2.0, total titratable acidity between 1.5 and 2.6%, totalsoluble solids between 9.0º and 14.0º Brix, and vitamin C content ranging from 3.6 to 16.4 mg ascorbic acid 100g pulp-1. Thepresence of seeds in genotypes ranged from 5 to 100 % of fruits without seeds.

  16. Nematodes associated with five fruit trees in the state of Amapá, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Souza Santos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to conduct a survey on nematodes associated with five cultivated fruit trees growing in the Agroforestry System (AFS of the municipality of Oiapoque, Amapá, Brazil. Rhizosphere samples were collected from three points at the base of murici ( Byrsonima sp., soursop ( Annona muricata , cupuaçu ( Theobroma grandiflorum , passion fruit ( Passiflora sp. and peach palm ( Bactris gasipaes trees. Four species of phytonematodes were identified, namely Pratylenchus brachyurus, Helicotylenchus dihystera, Mesocriconema xenoplax and Rotylenchulus reniformis . The most prevalent and abundant species was R. reniformis , which was found in the rhizospheres of passion fruit, cupuaçu, soursop, and peach palm. The first record in Brazil of the nematode P. brachyurus , found in the roots of murici is reported here, and all of the nematode species identified here are the first records for fruit trees in the state of Amapá.

  17. First records of Zygnematales (Zygnematophyceae, Streptophyta for the state of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivania Batista de Oliveira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the first taxonomic inventory of the order Zygnematales in the Litoral Norte Environmentally Protected Area, in the state of Bahia, Brazil. Fifty samples of planktonic and periphytic material were collected, from lotic and lentic environments, during the summer (January-March and winter (June-August of 2009. We identified 18 taxa distributed among five genera (Cylindrocystis, Mougeotia, Netrium, Spirogyra, and Spirotaenia. Of those 18 taxa, eight were new additions to the Brazilian desmid flora: Mougeotia calcarea; Mougeotia elegantula; Spirogyra gracilis; Cylindrocystis crassa var. elliptica; Cylindrocystis brebissonii var. minor; Cylindrocystis brebissonii var. turgida; Netrium digitus var. parvum; and Netrium oblongum var. oblongum. The geographical distributions of ten taxa were extended to include northeastern Brazil.

  18. DENDROCLIMATOLOGY CORRELATIONS OF Eucalyptus grandis HILL EX MAIDEN OF RIO CLARO, RJ STATE - BRAZIL

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    Bruna Roque Ugulino de Oliveira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The commercial forests plantation contributes decisively to generate socio-economic and environmental benefits, providing sustainability at the forest-based industries. The Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden stand out as one of the most cultivated species for reforestation in Brazil. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between precipitation and wood production for 23-year old Eucalyptus grandis from a commercial plantation in Rio Claro, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. The annual increment of wood was determined by the X-ray densitometry, which provides a detailed wood density profile in radial direction for each sample. One year of the tree life was considered because this the period for the formation of two consecutive latewood rings formation, which corresponds to two high density peaks. The results showed a positive correlation between precipitation data and annual increment of wood, revealing the dendroclimatology potential of this species in this region.

  19. Snakes killed on the roads in the state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ivo Rohling Ghizoni-Jr.; Tobias Saraiva Kunz

    2009-01-01

    Roads cause diverse impacts to ecosystems, including habitat loss and fragmentation, alteration of the natural landscape and death of animals. However, little is known about the impact of this mortality on the animal populations. The snake fauna of the state of Santa Catarina is the least studied of southern Brazil. In this work we present data on 165 snakes of 38 species found dead on the roads of the state between 2003 and 2008, which corresponds to 50% of the snake species in relation to t...

  20. Rabies virus in Molossus molossus (Chiroptera: Molossidae in the State of Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil

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    Luiz Augustinho Menezes da Silva

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Rabies virus was detected in bats (Molossus molossus from an urban area in the City of Recife, State of Pernambuco, Brazil. Four individuals were found during the day in visible, non-habitual places, lying on the ground, but still alive. No contact occurred with people or animals. Of these, only two were identified; it was not possible to identify two specimens, since they were incinerated prior to identification. Diagnosis was positive by direct immunofluorescence and intracerebral inoculation in mice. This study presents the first instance in which the virus was detected in insectivorous bats in the State of Pernambuco.

  1. The electric power consumption in Paraiba State, Brazil: recent evolution and forecasting for the year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last years the electrical energy has represented the main energetic in the consumption structure of the most important economic sets (countries, regions and states). This research analyses the recent evolution of the electrical energy consumption in the state of Paraiba, Brazil (1970/89), according to the main consuming classes (residential, industrial, commercial and other classes). It presents also some consumption perspectives until the year 2000, including the prospects of the demand and the necessary investments to its supply. (author). 4 refs., 13 tabs

  2. Epidemiological aspects of dengue in Aracaju, State of Sergipe, Brazil

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    José Antonio Barreto Alves

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The dengue fever remains to be a disease of serious public health concern, and its incidence has increased in the past decades. This study aimed to characterize the epidemiological incidence of dengue in the period 2001-2010. METHODS: This is an epidemiological study of dengue in the municipality of Aracaju, state of Sergipe, in the period between 2001 and 2010, whose data were obtained from the Information System of Diseases Notifications. A descriptive analysis of the number of confirmed cases of dengue, according to year, semester, sanitary district, age, and sex, was performed. RESULTS: There were 16,462 confirmed cases, especially in 2008, which obtained the highest incidence of the disease, with 10,485 confirmed cases. The first semester obtained the highest registration of cases during the years of research; this was predominated by females between 15 and 49 years old. With regard to the territorial distribution, the second district of the municipality obtained the highest number of cases. CONCLUSIONS: In 2008, in the City of Aracaju, SE, a significant increase in the proportion of dengue cases compared with other years was verified. However, a fast decline in the other years was observed, possibly because of the intensification of preventive actions to combat the mosquito that transmits the dengue virus.

  3. Radiation traces in exportation food samples of Parana State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work deals with radioactive traces measurements in foodstuffs produced at the State of Parana, with large export rate and also of nutritious products of some regional trading companies. The measured foods were: sulfite treated sugar, tea, mint candy, soy in grain, soy crumb, gross soy oil, gum free oil and commercial refined soy oil. Six samples of each lot of the analyzed material were prepared, which represent a sampling with 90% of confidence. The samples were sealed in Marinelli beaker of 2.1 L completely filled and kept during 40 days until secular equilibrium was achieved. The counting time for each measure was of 48 hours. Measurements were carried out by gamma-ray spectrometry employing a HPGe detector with 10% of relative efficiency, coupled to standard nuclear electronics and a 8 l multichannel card. The acquisition of the data was accomplished with the software MaestroTM, version 3.2. The energy resolution of the 137 Cs 661.62 keV gamma line was 1.75 keV. The larger intensity gamma lines observed in the spectra were from the following radionuclides: 228 Ac, 208 Tl, 212 Pb of the 232 Th series, 214 Bi and 214 Pb from the 238 U series, 227 Ac from the 235 U series and 40 K. Activities and lower level of detection limits were calculated according to the International Agency of Atomic Energy norms.The detector efficiency was measured using a 152 Eu certified source and IAEA-375 and IAEA-326 certified reference materials. For most of the radionuclides it was possible only the measurement of the minimum activity detectable in the foodstuffs. Self-attenuation corrections were accomplished with support literature results. The most important activity observed was that of 40 K, whose value measured for soy in natura was 745.0 +-9.1 Bq/kg and for the crumb soy 1473 ± 15 Bq/kg.. he measured activities of the several analyzed foods were compatible with the values expected for non contaminated normal environmental samples, except for soy crumb, whose 40 K

  4. State regulation of nuclear sector: comparative study of Argentina and Brazil models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research presents a comparative assessment of the regulation models of the nuclear sector in Argentina - under the responsibility of the Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear (ARN), and Brazil - under the responsibility of Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), trying to identify which model is more adequate aiming the safe use of nuclear energy. Due to the methodology adopted, the theoretical framework resulted in criteria of analysis that corresponds to the characteristics of the Brazilian regulatory agencies created for other economic sector during the State reform staring in the middle of the nineties. Later, these criteria of analysis were used as comparison patterns between the regulation models of the nuclear sectors of Argentina and Brazil. The comparative assessment showed that the regulatory structure of the nuclear sector in Argentina seems to be more adequate, concerning the safe use of nuclear energy, than the model adopted in Brazil by CNEN, because its incorporates the criteria of functional, institutional and financial independence, competence definitions, technical excellence and transparency, indispensable to the development of its functions with autonomy, ethics, exemption and agility. (author)

  5. Difference in adult food group intake by sex and age groups comparing Brazil and United States nationwide surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Bezerra, Ilana Nogueira; Goldman, Joseph; Rhodes, Donna G; Hoy, Mary Katherine; Moura Souza, Amanda de; Chester, Deirdra N; Martin, Carrie L; Sebastian, Rhonda S; Ahuja, Jaspreet K; Sichieri, Rosely; Moshfegh, Alanna J.

    2014-01-01

    Background International comparisons of dietary intake are an important source of information to better understand food habits and their relationship to nutrition related diseases. The objective of this study is to compare food intake of Brazilian adults with American adults identifying possible dietary factors associated with the increase in obesity in Brazil. Methods This research used cross-national analyses between the United States and Brazil, including 5,420 adults in the 2007–2008 What...

  6. Detection of the pandemic norovirus variant GII.4 Sydney 2012 in Rio Branco, state of Acre, northern Brazil

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    Luciana Damascena da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Noroviruses (NoVs are important cause of gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. Genotype GII.4 is responsible for the majority of outbreaks reported to date. This study describes, for the first time in Brazil, the circulation of NoV GII.4 variant Sydney 2012 in faecal samples collected from children aged less than or equal to eight years in Rio Branco, state of Acre, northern Brazil, during July-September 2012.

  7. Período de convivência das plantas daninhas com cultivares de feijão-caupi em várzea no Amazonas Weed coexistence with cowpea cultivars in the Amazonas floodplain

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    O.M.S. Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve o objetivo de determinar o período de convivência das plantas daninhas com três cultivares de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata em solo de várzea no Estado do Amazonas. A semeadura do feijão-caupi foi em outubro de 2007 no sistema convencional. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, no esquema de parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repetições. As parcelas foram constituídas por 11 períodos de convivência entre o feijão-caupi e as plantas daninhas: 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63 e 70 dias após sua semeadura; depois desses períodos, as plantas daninhas foram eliminadas semanalmente por capina. Nas subparcelas foram colocados os cultivares EV x 91-2E-2, BR IPEAN V69 e BR8 Caldeirão. A interferência das plantas daninhas durante todo o ciclo de vida do feijão-caupi reduziu o estande final, o número de vagens por planta e o peso de mil grãos. A produtividade dos cultivares EV x 91-2E-2, BR8 Caldeirão e BR IPEAN V69 foi reduzida em 59,78, 68,18 e 90,18%, respectivamente. O período anterior à interferência foi de 0 a 5 dias após a semeadura para o cultivar BR IPEAN V69, enquanto para os cultivares BR8 Caldeirão e EV x 91-2E-2 foi de até 6 e 7 DAS, respectivamente.This study aimed to determine the period of weed coexistence with three cowpea cultivars (Vigna unguiculata in the lowlands of the state of Amazonas, Brazil. Cowpea was sown in October 2007 under the conventional system. The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks with four replications in split-plots. The plots consisted of eleven periods of weed coexistence with cowpea at 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63 and 70 days after sowing. Following these periods, weeds were manually removed every week. The cultivars EV x 91-2E-2, BR IPEAN BR8 V69, and BR8 Caldeirão were located in the split-plots. The interference of the weeds throughout the cowpea life cycle reduced final stand, number of pods per plant, and weight of 1

  8. Floristic and phytosociology of weeds in pastures in Maranhão State, Northeast Brazil

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    Jaílson Penha Costa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Knowledge of weed floristic composition and phytosociology are key factors for improving weed management in pastures. Information on weed species that occur in pastures in Northeast Brazil, particularly in Maranhão State is very limited. It is, therefore, important, to search for information to help farmers to control weeds in livestock farming. This paper describes the weed flora diversity and community structure parameters, including density, frequency, abundance and importance value for each weed species found in five pastures of same age and management in Maranhão State, Northeast Brazil. The weed survey was carried out using a wooden frame (80 cm x 30 cm placed randomly on the soil surface 30 times in each pasture (n = 150. Weeds were pulled out, separated by species and counted. The weed flora was represented by 996 individuals, from nine families, 15 genera and 19 species. Weed density within pastures was of 44.3 plants m-2. The weed flora was dominated by species of the Cyperaceae and Poaceae families. The most important weed species based on Importance Value were Eragrostis ciliaris (IV = 32.97, Cyperus rotundus (IV = 31,95, Cyperus luzulae (IV = 27,50, Cyperus sphacelatus (IV = 27,42, Pycreus lanceolatus (IV = 27,33 Cyperus haspan (IV = 25,72 and Eleusine indica (IV = 23,49. Weed diversity, based on Shannon Diversity Index was very high (H' = 4.37 nats ind-1. Our results could lead to improved weed management in pastures in Maranhão State, Northeast Brazil.

  9. Equations for estimating timber volume in the region of the River Basin of Ituxi, Lábrea, Amazon, Brazil Equações para estimativa de volume de madeira para a região da bacia do Rio Ituxi, Lábrea, AM

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio Thaines; Evaldo Muñoz Braz; Patricia Povoa Mattos; Andreia Aparecida Ribeiro Thaines

    2010-01-01

    To quantify the stock of commercial timber in forests demands efficient methods, making possible to estimate efficiently and accurately the present and future timber volume. The aim of this work was to  adjust the mathematical models used to estimate timber volume, allowing the determination of the timber potential of a region with greater accuracy and lower cost. The study was conducted at Lábrea, State of  Amazonas, Brazil in an area of 6,000 ha, inserted in the Project Forest Mana...

  10. Euglossine bees (Apidae) in Atlantic forest areas of São Paulo State, southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Duran Cordeiro, Guaraci; Boff, Samuel; Almeida Caetano, Tiago; Fernandes, Paulo; Alves-Dos-Santos, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the diversity of euglossine bees in ten areas of Atlantic Forest Domain in São Paulo State, Brazil. Bees were collected with odor baits for 2 years, from March 2007 to March 2009. From a standardized effort during the first year of sampling, we compare the four areas using indexes of diversity, evenness, and similarity of euglossine communities. In the second year, we added six new places for presenting a general overview on the Atlantic forest in São Paulo. A total of 2,395 i...

  11. Volume equation as basis of community forest management in Anapu, Pará State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Wallacy Ferreira Barreto; Fábio Miranda Leão; Marlon Costa de Menezes; Deivison Venicio Souza

    2014-01-01

    The community forest management in settlement areas, in Pará, needs tools that provide reliable information about wood potential in the area, as volume equations. Five volumetric models of simple entrance and five of double entrance were adjusted to estimate the wood volume of standing trees in the Project of sustainable development Virola-Jatobá in Anapu, Pará State, Brazil. The trees were cubed using Smalian method. The diameter at 1.3 m above soil level was measured in 172 individuals from...

  12. [Occurrence of Aedes albopictus in the state of Pará, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Maria de Nazaré de Oliveira; Monteiro, Hamilton Antonio de Oliveira; Lopes, Ernani da Silva; da Silva, Orlando Vaz; Castro, Francisco Corrêa; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

    2003-06-01

    It is first reported the detection of Aedes (Stg) albopictus mosquitoes in state of Par , Brazil, in the urban area of Medicil ndia, a municipality far 90 km from Altamira, where 42 adult mosquitoes were baited using human attraction. All mosquitoes were pooled and inoculated into C6/36 and suckling mice in attempts for virus isolation. No virus was isolated. The occurrence of Aedes albopictus in urban areas of the Amazon region is of concern since dengue and yellow fever viruses are endemic in the Amazon and thus there is a potential risk for this mosquito species to become infected with both viruses. PMID:12792693

  13. Physicochemical composition of Apis mellifera honey samples from São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Luís Carlos Marchini

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This research, developed with Apis mellifera honey samples from producers of São Paulo State, Brazil, has the objective of verifying how eucalyptus, wild flower, and orange honey samples would be clustered, based on physicochemical characteristics. All the orange honey samples and some wild flower ones formed distinct groups, thus confirming that the floral source interferes with honey characteristics. Eucalyptus and some of the wild flower honey samples were clustered together because of the great floral source variation in the latter ones. The characteristics that influence sample clustering are acidity and electric conductivity on the X axis, and total sugars and pH on the Y axis.

  14. Discourses of cyberspace securitization in Brazil and in the United States

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    LUÍSA CRUZ LOBATO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper uses the framework of the Copenhagen School to understand the process of securitization of cyberspace, exploring how something in such sphere becomes a threat. Seeking to contribute to the debate, this study analyses the securitization discourses of Brazil and of the United States from Hansen and Nissenbaum's (2009 theorization about the existence of a specific sector for cybersecurity. To comprehend the securitization of cyberspace in these terms allows not only to identify distinct levels of securitization, but also to capture the dynamics of cyber threats, distinguishing them from those existent in other sectors, as well as to trace distinctions between tendencies of securitization and militarization.

  15. Immature mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in a eutrophic landfill tank from State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Jeronimo Alencar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction To determine the faunal composition of immature culicids inhabiting a percolation tank in the landfill of Sapucaia, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, immature mosquitoes were collected over a two-day period during the third weeks of April, August and October 2011. Results The species found were Culex usquatus, Lutzia bigoti, Anopheles argyritarsis and Limatus durhamii. This study is the first to report the colonization of eutrophic breeding sites by these species. Conclusions The oviposition behavior observed in this study suggests a secondary adaptation or change in habit to select eutrophic environments during the developmental stages of the observed species.

  16. Sanitary surveillance of ionizing radiations use in health services in Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An evaluation of the Sanitarian Surveillance actions developed at Sao Paulo State, Brazil, concerning the control of ionizing radiation is presented. Aspects such as technical standards, inspection forms, assessment and quality assurance programs, in the fields of medical and dental radiology, radiotherapy and nuclear medicine are discussed. A program is also introduced for sample monitoring of these instruments. A set of protocol with criteria to be used in quality assurance programs, including equipment and procedures is presented. Participation of several societies of specialists and consumer defense organizations in the elaboration of technical regulations has contributed to concrete adoption by health care services

  17. Chemical composition of Thymus vulgaris L. (thyme essential oil from the Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil

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    ALEXANDRE PORTE

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil from fresh leaves of Thymus vulgaris L. from Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, was isolated by hydrodistillation and analyzed through a combination of GC and GC/MS. Compounds representing 95.1 % of the oil were identified. Thirty-nine constituents were detected, of which twenty-eight were identified according to their chromatographic retention indices and mass spectra. The major constituents of the oil were thymol (44.7 %, p-cymene (18.6 % and g-terpinene (16.5 %.

  18. Growth of yellow ipe in central region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

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    Anna Paula Zimmermann

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the growth in diameter and height of individuals Handroanthus chrysotrichus through models based on age, in a stand in the municipality of São Pedro do Sul, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Data are from three representative trees of the population and were obtained from stem analysis. The diameter growth of Handroanthus chrysotrichus trees in a function of age was best explained by the allometric model. For height the negative exponential model showed better statistical parameters. Selected models explain more than 92% of the variation and configure as adequate tools for the management of this species.

  19. Characterization of a foodborne outbreak caused by Salmonella Enteritidis in Aracaju, State of Sergipe, Brazil

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    Maria Regina Pires Carneiro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In December 2001, an outbreak of foodborne gastroenteritis infected 114 of 161 people who ate at a restaurant in Aracaju, State of Sergipe, Brazil. METHODS: The epidemiological and microbiological aspects of the outbreak were characterized. RESULTS: Potato salad made with homemade mayonnaise and stored at unsuitable temperatures was associated with increased risk of foodborne infection. Salmonella Enteritidis was isolated from the diarrheal stools of the hospitalized patients, and genotyping of the fecal samples generated identical randomly amplified polymorphic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA profiles. CONCLUSIONS : To the best of our knowledge, this is the first and the only record of a gastrointestinal outbreak in Sergipe.

  20. Biological aspects of Omalonyx convexus (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Succineidae from the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

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    Janine Oliveira Arruda

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Omalonyx convexus (Heynemann, 1868 is widely spread throughout the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The studied specimens presented in vivo, tegument and mantle coloring in variations between milky-white, orange and beige. The shell presented itself covered by the mantle in different extents; however, it was not completely covered on any of the specimens. The feeding diet is basically constituted by vegetal tissues, although non-vegetal food items were also found. The specimens were found in preserved and in polluted fresh water environments, as well as on natural and artificial substrates. The temperature throughout the day influences their placement on habitat substrates.

  1. Natural radioactivity in sand beaches of Guarapari, Espirito Santo state, Brazil: a comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcelos, Danilo C.; Pereira, Claubia; Oliveira, Arno H.; Santos, Talita O.; Reis, Patricia L., E-mail: danilo@nuclear.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear; Rocha, Zildete, E-mail: rochaz@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MH (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Using gamma ray spectrometry, the activity concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, and {sup 40}K was determined in sand beaches samples from different areas in Guarapari, Espirito Santo state, from Brazil. The absorbed dose rates and annual effective dose were calculated and the results are compared with the internationally accepted values as well as others high background radiation areas (HBRAs).The activity concentration of the {sup 232}Th in Areia Preta as well as the absorbed dose rates and annual effective dose were higher than the others regions compared. The results show that Areia Preta in Guarapari has higher background found in beaches in world. (author)

  2. Plastic ingestion by sea turtles in Paraíba State, Northeast Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Camila Poli; Daniel Oliveira Mesquita; Cinthia Saska; Rita Mascarenhas

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Currently, plastics are recognized as a major pollutant of the marine environment, representing a serious threat to ocean wildlife. Here, we examined the occurrence and effects of plastic ingestion by sea turtles found stranded along the coast of Paraíba State, Brazil from August 2009 to July 2010. Ninety-eight digestive tracts were examined, with plastic found in 20 (20.4%). Sixty five percent (n = 13) of turtles with plastic in the digestive tract were green turtles (Chelonia mydas...

  3. Insect fauna in soil at different grassland ecosystems at Sobral, state of Ceará, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gislane dos Santos Sousa; Silvia Cristenia da Silva Xavier; Petronio Emanuel Timbó Braga

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was perform a surveillance of the insect fauna in soil in three grassland ecosystems of experimental farm Vale do Acaraú of Universidade Estadual Vale do Acaraú at Sobral, state of Ceará, Brazil, by the using of traps soil, with fortnightly collections, from March 2011 to February 2012. To characterize the insect fauna established a distribution pattern, whereas the rates of occurrence and dominance of species grouped by order, as an indicator of the frequency and the oc...

  4. [Violence and social distress among transgender persons in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Martha Helena Teixeira de; Malvasi, Paulo; Signorelli, Marcos Claudio; Pereira, Pedro Paulo Gomes

    2015-04-01

    The authors conducted an ethnographic research with transgender persons in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, in 2012, using participant observation, semi-structured interviews, and following their everyday lives. These individuals invariably experienced physical and symbolic violence and the resulting distress, a condition they had to deal with in their careers and daily practices and tasks. The article discusses the violence experienced by transvestites (in the family, school, police precincts, and health services), specifically seeking to understand how such violence relates to their experiences with health services and how the latter respond. PMID:25945986

  5. Accidental capture of vertebrates in small mammal studies in Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Rohling Ghizoni-Jr

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This report contains a list of vertebrate species caught accidentally by live-traps while conducting capture and recapture studies with small mammals in Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil. Twentytwo terrestrial vertebrate species were registered: two amphibians, four reptiles, thirteen birds and three mammals. The use of vegetable baits as attractive smells, for example banana and peanut butter, was of great value in terms of the capture of a great diversity of species belonging to a wide range of feeding habitats, including insectivores and carnivores, probably attracted by arthropods that had fed on the baits.

  6. Bat assemblages from three Atlantic Forest fragments in Rio de Janeiro state, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Leonan Novaes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bat species richness in Neotropical localities is generally higher than that of any other group of mammals, and surveys of local bat assemblages may provide useful data for conservation management plans. Although the bat fauna of the Rio de Janeiro state is currently one of the best known in Brazil, there are several localities not adequately surveyed yet, and most of them are in the mountainous regions and in the northern portion of the state. From January 2008 to November 2009, we conducted surveys of bats in three localities in the state of Rio de Janeiro (municipalities of Varre-Sai, Sumidouro, and Cantagalo, and our fieldwork constitutes the first assessment of the bat assemblages of these localities. Surveys were conducted using mist nets in four different habitat types in each locality (forest interior, forest edge, riparian forest, and open areas [pastures]. We captured a total of 148 individuals in 17 species, 14 genera and 3 families. Among them, 11 species were recorded in Sumidouro, seven in Cantagalo, and nine in Varre-Sai. Although species richness was low compared with previous surveys in other close localities, we recorded species that have been rarely sampled in Southeastern Brazil (e.g., Macrophyllum macrophyllum [Phyllostomidae]. The results reinforce the importance of sampling different habitats in short surveys to improve the number of species registered.

  7. Geochronology of the basement rocks, Amazonas Territory, Venezuela and the tectonic evolution of the western Guiana Shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Amazonas Territory of Venezuela is a large area of Precambrian basement rocks overlain in some locales by the supracrustal sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Roraima Formation. The basement rocks are medium to high grade gneisses with both igneous and sedimentary protoliths, plutonic rocks ranging in composition from granite to tonalite, and meta-volcanic rocks. Rb-Sr whole rock, and U-Pb isotopic analyses of zircons indicate a period of medium to high grade metamorphism and intrusion from 1860 to 1760 Ma. Post-tectonic plutonic activity continued to 1550 Ma. The volcanic rocks of the Roraima Formation in Venezuela give an age of 1746 Ma comparable to volcanic rocks of the Roraima Formation in other parts of the Guiana Shield. The ages and distribution of the basement rocks suggest the presence of a tectonic zone, approximately coincident with the Venezuelan-Colombian border, representing an active orogenic boundary between distinct tectonic provinces. The rocks to the northeast of this zone are part of the Trans-Amazonian of the Guiana Shield, while to the southwest and in adjacent Brazil and Colombia, new younger continental crust has been developed and cratonized. We suggest a model of collision and subduction followed by a chan0140n tectonic style to extensional-vertical to produce the basement rocks of the western Guiana Shield in the Amazonas Territory. (Auth.)

  8. Insect galls of a protected remnant of the Atlantic Forest tableland from Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Valéria Cid Maia; Sheila Patrícia Carvalho-Fernandes

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Insect galls of a protected remnant of the Atlantic Forest tableland from Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil): Galling insects in Rio de Janeiro state are known by their great diversity, despite most of the surveys have been done in restinga. This paper investigated the insect galls from a remnant of Atlantic Forest located in São Francisco de Itabapoana municipality, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. The galling insect fauna was surveyed from March, 2013 to April, 2014 at the Estação Ecológic...

  9. Industrial radiography in the State of Bahia, Brazil The health protection of workers

    CERN Document Server

    Andrade, A E O D

    1997-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the Regulatory and Inspection Authority for actions developed by industrial radiography enterprises in the State of Bahia, Brazil, concerning health protection of workers exposed to ionizing radiation in industry. Institutions which legislate about this matter at international, national and State level were identified. These legislations were analysed according to recommendations by the Basic Safety Standards from the Atomic Energy International Agency. Medical Supervision is proposed as a factor to warrant protection to worker's health. This is a service evaluation study, encompassing results, processes and structural components. Emphasis is given to the process component which investigated the adequacy of which is performed by employees and workers. Five enterprises which provide industrial radiography services in the State of Bahia were identified, employing forty workers on a temporary basis. This study also observed: intense workforce, a complete process of contracting out in...

  10. Snakes killed on the roads in the state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Rohling Ghizoni-Jr

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Roads cause diverse impacts to ecosystems, including habitat loss and fragmentation, alteration of the natural landscape and death of animals. However, little is known about the impact of this mortality on the animal populations. The snake fauna of the state of Santa Catarina is the least studied of southern Brazil. In this work we present data on 165 snakes of 38 species found dead on the roads of the state between 2003 and 2008, which corresponds to 50% of the snake species in relation to the expected occurrence for the state of Santa Catarina. The four most frequent species were Philodryas patagoniensis (n = 22; 13.33%, Liophis miliaris (n = 21; 12.72%, P. aestiva (n = 13; 7.87% and Bothrops jararaca (n = 12; 7.27%, which represent together about 41% of the snakes found dead on the roads. We extend the known distribution of Imantodes cenchoa by about 60km southward.

  11. Greenhouse gas mitigation potential from green harvested sugarcane scenarios in São Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil is a major sugarcane producer and São Paulo State cultivates 5.5 million hectares, close to 50% of Brazil's sugarcane area. The rapid increase in production has brought into question the sustainability of biofuels, especially considering the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated to the agricultural sector. Despite the significant progress towards the green harvest practices, 1.67 million hectares were still burned in São Paulo State during the 2011 harvest season. Here an emissions inventory for the life cycle of sugarcane agricultural production is estimated using IPCC methodologies, according to the agriculture survey data and remote sensing database. Our hypothesis is that 1.67 million hectares shall be converted from burned to green harvest scenarios up to years 2021 (rate 1), 2014 (rate 2) or 2029 (rate 3). Those conversions would represent a significant GHG mitigation, ranging from 50.5 to 70.9 megatons of carbon dioxide equivalent (Mt CO2eq) up to 2050, depending on the conversion rate and the green harvest systems adopted: conventional (scenario S1) or conservationist management (scenario S2). We show that a green harvest scenario where crop rotation and reduced soil tillage are practiced has a higher mitigation potential (70.9 Mt CO2eq), which is already practiced in some of the sugarcane areas. Here we support the decision to not just stop burning prior to harvest, but also to consider other better practices in sugarcane areas to have a more sustainable sugarcane based ethanol production in the most dense cultivated sugarcane region in Brazil. -- Highlights: • Different management practices could result in quite different emissions. • Nitrogen fertilizer, pre-harvest burning and diesel were the main emissions sources. • GHG mitigation in sugarcane areas could vary from 50.5 to 70.9 Mt CO2eq up to 2050

  12. Characterization of the energetic consumption habits in communities in the countryside area of Amazon State concerning energetic planning; Perfil dos habitos de consumo de energeticos em comunidades do interior do Estado do Amazonas para fins de planejamento energetico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Rubem C.R.; Santos Conserva, Auricelia dos; Muniz, Marcos W.C. [Amazonas Univ., Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    To outline an energetic politic to Amazons State is a difficult task considering the enormous peculiarities of the region. In order to do so it is necessary to elaborate an energy balance of the state. This paper aims to help in this procedure by performing the characterization of the energetic consumption habits of small communities in the countryside area of the above named state. Four different representative cities were studied in concerning of its socio-economical and energetic characteristics. It was concluded that parameters such as demographic density, familiar income, energy sources, etc. are to be considered during the elaboration of the state energy balance 6 refs., 1 tab.

  13. Ocorrência do molusco asiático Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774 (Bivalvia, Corbiculidae no baixo rio Negro, Amazônia central Occurrence of the Asian mollusc Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774 (Bivalvia, Corbiculidae in the lower Rio Negro, Central Amazon Region, Brazil

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    Daniel Mansur Pimpão

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O rio Negro é um dos maiores afluentes do rio Amazonas, mas poucos moluscos foram registrados até o momento para aquele rio, representados apenas por gastrópodes. Foi registrada a presença do molusco bivalve exótico Corbicula fluminea na margem esquerda do baixo rio Negro, no lago do Tupé e no Catalão - margem direita do rio Negro, todas localidades no município de Manaus, Brasil. O registro foi realizado por meio da coleta de conchas e espécimes vivos. É o primeiro registro de C. fluminea para o estado do Amazonas e Amazônia central.The Rio Negro is one of the biggest Rio Amazonas tributaries. Few molluscs have been registered to that river yet, represented only by gastropods. It is reported the occurrence of the exotic bivalve mollusc Corbicula fluminea in left bank margin of Rio Negro, Lago do Tupé and Catalão - right bank margin of Rio Negro, all localities in the municipality of Manaus, Brazil. The species is recorded by a collection of shells and specimens alive. This is the first occurrence of C. fluminea in the Amazon State and Central Amazon.

  14. Supply and usage of hemodynamic services in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Maria de Fatima Siliansky de Andreazzi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The paper analyzes the supply and the utilization of hemodynamic services in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Methods: It's an exploratory study that uses data obtained from Brazilian official databases. The period of supply analysis was from 1999 to 2009, and of utilization was from 2008 to October 2012. Results: Since 1999 there is a growth of hemodynamic equipment purchase. The private sector concentrates most of the supply, but it has been reducing its availability to SUS. The rate between population and equipment in Brazil exceeds the ones of some rich countries. In the sense of supply, there are in 2009, a supply rate of 1,4 equipments for 1 million inhabitants in RJ state, larger than brazilian rate, of 3,4 but the rates are similar for public customers. Conclusion: Interventional cardiology procedures have improved in the state, but in a different way. And this is because the public hospitals at Rio de Janeiro have mostly reduced their production, while the private ones have increased their production. The observed result is the SUS users performing their procedures at great distances.

  15. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF HONEYBEE STING CASES IN THE STATE OF CEARÁ, NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    DINIZ, Ana Gilza Quaresma; BELMINO, José Franscidavid Barbosa; de ARAÚJO, Kaliany Adja Medeiros; VIEIRA, Aluska Tavares; LEITE, Renner de Souza

    2016-01-01

    In the American continent, honeybee envenomation is a public health problem due to the high incidence and severity of the cases. Despite its medical importance, there is a lack of epidemiological studies on this topic in Brazil, especially referring to the Northeastern states. The present study has aimed to describe the epidemiological features of honeybee envenomation cases in the state of the Ceará, Northeastern Brazil, from 2007 to 2013. Data were collected from the Injury Notification Information System database of the Health Department of Ceará. A total of 1,307 cases were analyzed. Cases were shown to be distributed in all the months of the studied years, reaching higher frequencies in August. The majority of cases occurred in urban areas and involved men aged between 20 and 29 years. Victims were mainly stung on the head and torso, and they received medical assistance predominantly within 3 hours after being stung. Local manifestations were more frequent than systemic ones. Most cases were classified as mild and progressed to cure. The high number of honeybee sting cases shows that Ceará may be an important risk area for such injuries. Moreover, the current study provides data for the development of strategies to promote control and prevention of bee stings in this area. PMID:27253742

  16. Seroepidemiological inquiry on bovine neosporosis in northern Mato Grosso state, Brazil

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    Riciely Vanessa Justo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This work involved the study of anti-Neospora caninum antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence assay in serum samples of 205 cows (Bos taurus indicus Nellore, pure origin, aged over 24 months, reared on farms in the municipalities of Sinop, Itaúba, Colíder, Carlinda and Guarantã do Norte, Mato Grosso state, Brazil. An epidemiological evaluation through an interview with employees responsible for taking care of the animals during the period of 2010-2012. The studied area revealed epidemiological conditions favorable for the occurrence of bovine neosporosis, with 37.56% seropositive animals for anti-N. caninum. Sinop (70% and Carlinda (50% showed a frequency of seropositive animals was statistically equal to that observed (26.67% in other studies for other cities in Brazil. By confronting the serological status of the animals with variables of questionnaire, there was association (p < 0.01 between seropositivity of cows and the natural sources of drinking water, the incidence of abortion and repeating estrus. However, there was no statistical association between seropositive cows and the occurrence of neonatal deaths (p = 0.075, stillbirths (p = 0.02, presence of domestic dogs (p = 0.9 and the habit of giving raw offal to dogs (p = 0.93. Besides the occurrence of N. caninum, it was evidenced misinformation about bovine neosporosis and its control among interviewed people. This first study shows the need for further research on the epidemiology of bovine neosporosis in northern Mato Grosso state.

  17. First encounter of subclinical human Leishmania (Viannia infection in State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Aline Fagundes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the specificity of the Montenegro skin test (MST in an area in Brazil, state of Grande do Sul State (RS, which was considered to be non-endemic for leishmaniasis. Sixty subjects presented a positive MST and were reevaluated by clinical examination, serology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR of peripheral blood for the detection of subclinical Leishmania infection. None of the subjects presented clinical signs or symptoms of current leishmaniasis or a history of the disease.Leishmania (Viannia DNA was detected in blood by PCR and hybridization in one subject. The PCR skin test-positive individual remained asymptomatic throughout the study. Clinical examination showed no scars suggestive of past cutaneous leishmaniasis. Human subclinical infection with Leishmania (Viannia in RS was confirmed by PCR. This is the first report of subclinical infection with this parasite in the human population of this area.

  18. Navicordulia aemulatrix sp. nov. (Odonata, Corduliidae from northeastern Santa Catarina State, Brazil

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    Ângelo Parise Pinto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Navicordulia aemulatrix sp. nov. (holotype male deposited in MZSP: Brazil, Santa Catarina State, [São Bento do Sul municipality, 26°14'58"S, 49°22'59"W], [railroad station] Rio Vermelho, II.1952 is described and illustrated based on three males. The long cercus (2.9-3.2 mm places this species in the longistyla-group together with N. kiautai, N. longistyla and N. nitens but it differs from them mainly by the shape of cercus, with carinated part occupying 0.33 of cercus total length, and also by dorsal, ventro-medial and ventro-lateral tubercles developed. An unusual process on tergal portion of prothorax is reported for the first time in Navicordulia. The rate of description of new species of South American 'Corduliidae' is discussed. A map with records of Atlantic Forest Navicordulia species and a list of Brazilian corduliids by state are also presented.

  19. Pathogenicity for onion and genetic diversity of isolates of the pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Phyllachoraceae) from the State of Pernambuco, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nova, M X Vila; Borges, L R; de Sousa, A C B; Brasileiro, B T R V; Lima, E A L A; da Costa, A F; de Oliveira, N T

    2011-01-01

    Onion anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, is one of the main diseases of onions in the State of Pernambuco. We examined the pathogenicity of 15 C. gloeosporioides strains and analyzed their genetic variability using RAPDs and internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of the rDNA region. Ten of the strains were obtained from substrates and hosts other than onion, including chayote (Sechium edule), guava (Psidium guajava), pomegranate (Punica granatum), water from the Capibaribe River, maracock (Passiflora sp), coconut (Cocus nucifera), surinam cherry (Eugenia uniflora), and marine soil; five isolates came from onions collected from four different regions of the State of Pernambuco and one region of the State of Amazonas. Pathogenicity tests were carried out using onion leaves and bulbs. All strains were capable of causing disease in leaves, causing a variable degree of lesions on the leaves; four strains caused the most severe damage. In the onion bulb tests, only three of the above strains caused lesions. Seven primers of arbitrary sequences were used in the RAPD analysis, generating polymorphic bands that allowed the separation of the strains into three distinct groups. The amplification products generated with the primers ITS1 and ITS4 also showed polymorphism when digested with three restriction enzymes, DraI, HaeIII and MspI. Only the latter two demonstrated genetic variations among the strains. These two types of molecular markers were able to differentiate the strain from the State of Amazonas from those of the State of Pernambuco. However, there was no relationship between groups of strains, based on molecular markers, and degree of pathogenicity for onion leaves and bulbs. PMID:21365546

  20. Promoting Bio-Ethanol in the United States by Incorporating Lessons from Brazil's National Alcohol Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yangbo

    2007-01-01

    Current U.S. energy policy supports increasing the use of bio-ethanol as a gasoline substitute, which Brazil first produced on a large scale in response to the 1970s energy crises. Brazil's National Alcohol Program stood out among its contemporaries regarding its success at displacing a third of Brazil's gasoline requirements, primarily due to…

  1. Geodiversity, Geoturism and Geoconservation: Trails in Serra da Bocaina National Park, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Filho, Raphael; Guerra, Antonio; Fullen, Michael; do Carmo Jorge, Maria

    2015-04-01

    The human being has always been concerned with the preservation of memory, of cultural heritage. Only now he started to protect its natural heritage and the immediate environment. It is time to learn how to protect the Earth's past and, through this protection and learn to know it. This memory comes before the human memory. It is a new asset: the geological heritage, a book written long before our appearance on the Planet (...)"(IPHAN, 2014). Since the XXth century, Brazilian geographers (GUERRA, 1980; AB'SABER, 2003 and others) dedicated to carry out research on the relationship of geographical knowledge between the environment and society. On the other hand, Brazil is a signatory of the Convention for the Protection of the World Heritage Cultural and Natural (UNESCO, 1972), where the nations recognize to keep under their responsibility the conservation, to the rest of humanity and future generations, goods of exceptional value situated within its territorial limits, considered as World Heritage. Under this perspective, it is proposed here a survey on the environmental impacts, resulting from the human activities that directly or indirectly affect the health, safety and welfare of the population; social and economic activities; the biota; the aesthetic and sanitary conditions of the environment; the quality of the environment (CONAMA Resolution 001/86) - and resulting geotourism practiced on trails - paths for pedestrians, cyclists and animals, existing in the protected area of the Serra da Bocaina National Park, in Rio de Janeiro State, such as unplanned use, erosive features, presence of litter, graffiti and burned, degraded areas on the trails indicating the need for recovery (drainage, etc.). This survey is based on research work of the environmental degradation and analysis undertaken by the Laboratory of Environmental Geomorphology and Soils Degradation (LAGESOLOS / UFRJ) in the area, in order to contribute to the geoconservation, so that the encountered

  2. Environmental pollution in Piracicaba Basin, Minas Gerais State, 'Steel Valley', Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total heavy metal and trace elements concentrations were evaluated in smelting waste areas, in Piracicaba River, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The studies samples were surface water, border sediment, and fish muscle (Acara - Geophagus Brasiliensis). Elevated concentrations were found in Acara muscle fish As (1.3 - 1.8 μg g-1), Hg (0.7 - 1.84 μg g-1), Cr (0.7 - 4.1 μg g-1), Zn ( 43 - 76 μg g-1); in sediment Fe (81996 - 461147 μg g-1), Cr (126 - 447 μg g-1), Co ( 540 - 1016 μg g-1), Th (7.9 - 50 μg g-1). For the water samples the similar high heavy metal concentrations of Al, As, Cr, Fe, and Zn in all sampling sites were above the maximum limits permitted by Brazilian Environmental Council. The high level of heavy metals can affect the aquatic and cattle animals and human health. To conclusion the region studied in Piracicaba River in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, is not in agreement with the environmental parameters for 'water class 3' according to Resolution by Brazilian Environmental Standards (CONAMA). An urgent program of measures for assessment and monitoring is necessary in this River. (author)

  3. Environmental pollution in Piracicaba Basin, Minas Gerais state, 'steel valley', Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total heavy metal and trace elements concentrations were evaluated in smelting waste areas, in Piracicaba River, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The studies samples were surface water, border sediment, and fish muscle (Acara - Geophagus Brasiliensis). Elevated concentrations were found in Acara muscle fish As (1.3 - 1.8 μg g-1), Hg (0.7 - 1.84 μg g-1), Cr (0.7 - 4.1 μg g-1), Zn ( 43 - 76 μg g-1); in sediment Fe (81996 - 461147 μg g-1), Cr (126 - 447 μg g-1), Co ( 540 - 1016 μg g-1), Th (7.9 - 50 μg g-1). For the water samples the similar high heavy metal concentrations of Al, As, Cr, Fe, and Zn in all sampling sites were above the maximum limits permitted by Brazilian Environmental Council. The high level of heavy metals can affect the aquatic and cattle animals and human health. To conclusion the region studied in Piracicaba River in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, is not in agreement with the environmental parameters for 'water class 3' according to Resolution by Brazilian Environmental Standards (CONAMA). An urgent program of measures for assessment and monitoring is necessary in this River. (author)

  4. Mycoplasma agalactiae in semen and milk of goat from Pernambuco state, Brazil

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    Bruno H.L.S. Alves

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In goat and sheep flocks, mycoplasmosis is a disease that may cause severe economical losses associated with polyarthritis, mastitis, agalactia, conjunctivitis, pneumonia and reproductive failure. The latter may involve repeat breeding, granular vulvovaginitis, infertility and abortions. The aim of the present study was to assess the occurrence of Mycoplasma agalactiae (Ma in semen and milk samples from naturally infected goat in the semiarid region from Pernambuco State, Northeast from Brazil. Thirty-nine semen samples and 81 milk samples were submitted to DNA extraction using a commercially available kit and following the manufacturer's instructions. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR was then performed in accordance with protocols described in the literature. The results of the present study revealed the presence of Ma in the DNA of 17.9% (7/39 of the semen samples and 3.7% (3/81 of the milk samples. The results obtained in the present study confirm the elimination of the DNA of Ma in the semen and milk samples. The presence of this agent in goat flocks is considered very risky in terms of reproductive disorders and contagious agalactia outbreaks in the Northeast region of Brazil.

  5. Antimicrobial Resistance of Shigella spp. isolated in the State of Pará, Brazil

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    Flávia Corrêa Bastos

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Shigella spp. are Gram-negative, nonsporulating, rod-shaped bacteria that belong to the family Enterobacteriaceae and are responsible for shigellosis or bacillary dysentery, an important cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality. METHODS: We studied the antibiotic resistance profiles of 122 Shigella spp. strains (81 S. flexneri, 41 S. sonnei, 1 S. boydii isolated from patients (female and male from 0 to 80 years of age presenting diarrhea in different districts of the State of Pará, in the North of Brazil. The antibiotic resistance of the strains, isolated from human fecal samples, was determined by the diffusion disk method and by using the VITEK-2 system. RESULTS: The highest resistance rate found was the resistance rate to tetracycline (93.8%, followed by the resistance rate to chloramphenicol (63.9% and to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (63.1%. Resistance to at least three drugs was more common among S. flexneri than S. sonnei (39.5% vs. 10%. Six (4.9% strains were susceptible to all the antibiotics tested. All strains were susceptible to cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid and nitrofurantoin. CONCLUSIONS: High rates of multidrug resistance in Shigella spp. are a serious public health concern in Brazil. It is extremely important to continuously monitor the antimicrobial resistances of Shigella spp. for effective therapy and control measures against shigellosis.

  6. Vertebrate roadkills on State Highway 383, Rondônia, Brazil.

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    Luiz Carlos Batista Turci

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Roadkills are a serious threat to many species of wildlife worldwide. In Brazil, few studies are available about the importance of roadkills. Information about roadkills in Amazonia are even more scarce when compared to central and southern Brazil. Here we describe the vertebrate roadkills on State Highway 383 in Rondônia. From May 2004 – April 2005, thirty samples were taken the along 110km of the highway between Cacoal and Alta Floresta D’Oeste. Thirty-four vertebrate species were found in 259 specimens. In terms of absolute numbers, amphibians were the most frequent roadkills, with 68 individuals of two species. Birds followed, with 67 individuals of 12 species, then reptiles (67 indiv., 12 species and mammals (63 indiv.,13 species. Eight species (Leptodactylus gr. pentadactylus, Rhinella sp, Amphisbaena sp., Liophis reginae, Crotophaga ani, Didelphis marsupialis, Euphractus sexcinctus and Cerdocyon thous were the most frequent roadkills, accounting for 76% of the vertebrate roadkills. More than half of the roadkills occurred during the dry season.

  7. δ13C and δ18O in beachrocks of the State of Ceara, northeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cenozoic units form important morphological features along the littoral zone in northeastern Brazil. The origin and evolution these deposits is a direct evidence of the coastal dynamics, such as environmental formation, climatic variation and sea level change in the present day or past. Beachrocks are a common feature in coastlines around the word and they consist of sand deposits cemented by carbonate. Often, they occur in tropical and sub-tropical beaches as a layer of carbonate-cemented beach sediments and occupy a position within intertidal and low supratidal zones (Holail and Rashed, 1992). They usually record sea level fluctuations and there is a substantial literature available on their origin (e.g. Craig, 1961; Stoddart and Cann, 1965; Alexanderson, 1972; Hudson, 1977; Suhayda et al., 1977; Assis, 1990; Holail and Rashed 1992; Chaves, 1995; Bezerra et al. 1998; Chaves et al., 1999). In northeastern Brazil, these deposits occur in the intertidal zone, parallel to the coastline near by rivers mouth or partially buried as small beds. This study focus on the beachrocks of the Lagoinha and Sabiaguaba beaches along the state of Ceara coast. Carbon and oxygen isotopes are used here to estimate the paleo-environmental conditions that favored their formation (au)

  8. VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN PETROLINA, STATE OF PERNAMBUCO, BRAZIL, 2007-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    ARAUJO, Andreina de Carvalho; GONÇALVES, Nara Nagle Vieira Matos; DANTAS-TORRES, Filipe; FERREIRA, Fernando; HORTA, Mauricio Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a life-threatening disease of great public health relevance in Brazil. The municipality of Petrolina is an endemic area in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. This study was designed to assess the recent expansion of VL in the municipality of Petrolina, Pernambuco. Patients data were obtained from the Brazilian National Information System for Notifiable Diseases (SINAN). A total of 111 records from 2007 to 2013 were investigated, of which 69 were residents in Petrolina. The disease has predominantly affected 1-4 year old children (34.8%). Most of the patients were males (59.4%). Co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus occurred in 14.5% of the cases. The criterion most frequently used was the clinical and epidemiological confirmation (59.4%), with clinical cure in 78.3% of cases and one fatal outcome. Visceral leishmaniasis is endemic in Petrolina with transmission levels varying from moderate to high. The present study has shown the precariousness of the use of diagnostic tests in primary healthcare units, and this misuse has interfered with the diagnosis and treatment of cases. PMID:27074323

  9. Prevalence of Torque teno virus in healthy donors of Paraná State, southern Brazil

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    Jocimara Costa Mazzola

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of the Torque teno virus in healthy donors in the northern and northwestern regions of the state of Paraná, southern Brazil.METHODS: The Torque teno virus was detected by a nested polymerase chain reaction using a set of oligoprimers for the N22 region.RESULTS: The prevalence of the virus was 69% in 551 healthy blood donors in southern Brazil. There was no statistically significant difference between the presence of the virus and the variables gender, ethnicity and marital status. There was significant difference in the prevalence of the virus regarding the age of the donors (p-value = 0.024 with a higher incidence (74.7% in 18- to 24-year-old donors.CONCLUSION: A high prevalence of Torque teno virus was observed in the population studied. Further studies are needed to elucidate the routes of contamination and the clinical implications of the virus in the healthy population.

  10. Mitochondrial DNA control region polymorphism in the population of Alagoas state, north-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Adriana B G; da Silva, Luiz Antonio F; Azevedo, Dalmo A; Balbino, Valdir Q; Mauricio-da-Silva, Luiz

    2008-01-01

    The sequences of the two hypervariable (HV) segments of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region were determined in 167 randomly selected, unrelated individuals living in the state of Alagoas, north-eastern Brazil. One hundred and forty-five different haplotypes, associated with 139 variable positions, were determined. More than 95% of the mtDNA sequences could be allocated to specific mtDNA haplogroups according to the mutational motifs. Length heteroplasmy in the C-stretch HV1 and HV2 regions was observed in 22 and 11%, respectively, of the population sample. The genetic diversity was estimated to be 0.9975 and the probability of two random individuals presenting identical mtDNA haplotypes was 0.0084. The most frequent haplotype was shared by six individuals. All sequences showed high-quality values and phantom mutations were not detected. The diversity revealed in the mitochondrial control region indicates the importance of this locus for forensic casework and population studies within Alagoas, Brazil. PMID:18279250

  11. Myxomycetes from mangroves: species occurring in the state of Maranhão, northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agra, L A N N; Bezerra, A C C; Cavalcanti, L H

    2015-11-01

    Mangrove swamps and forests cover over 137,000 km2 distributed latitudinally among subtropical zones, 7% of which are in Brazil, with a greater density in the country's northernmost region. Considering that the community of Myxomycetes recorded for this environment is hardly known, three areas located in the state of Maranhão were investigated. Two field trips were conducted, one at the beginning of the rainy season and another during the dry season. In each area, two plots (125 m2) equidistant 100 m apart from each other were surveyed. In these areas, standing dead tree trunks and dead branches still attached to the mother plant that were above the tideline, were examined. On these same occasions, samples of the aerial litter and from the cortex of living trees (Rhizophora) were collected for the preparation of moist chambers cultures. Twenty-one specimens were obtained from field and moist chambers, belonging to 11 species, distributed in nine genera and five families. Seven species are new records from Maranhão. There was a predominance of r-strategist (73%) over K-strategist (27%) species. Cribraria violacea, Comatricha tenerrima, Echinostelium minutum, and Fuligo septica are new worldwide records from mangrove environments, and Oligonema flavidum is reported for the first time from Brazil. PMID:26628238

  12. Parental Involvement and Home Environment in Music: Current and Former Students from Selected Community Music Programs in Brazil and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Gail V.; DeFreitas, Aureo; Grego, John

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether individuals' perceptions of parental involvement and home environment in music vary with nationality (Brazil/United States) and time frame (past/current). Past and current students from selected community music programs in the United States and Brazil completed the PI-HEM (Parental Involvement and…

  13. β-globin haplotypes in normal and hemoglobinopathic individuals from Reconcavo Baiano, State of Bahia, Brazil

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    Wellington dos Santos Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Five restriction site polymorphisms in the β-globin gene cluster (HincII-5'ε, HindIII-Gγ, HindIII-ªγ, HincII-'ψβ1 and HincII-3''ψβ1 were analyzed in three populations (n = 114 from Reconcavo Baiano, State of Bahia, Brazil. The groups included two urban populations from the towns of Cachoeira and Maragojipe and one rural Afro-descendant population, known as the "quilombo community", from Cachoeira municipality. The number of haplotypes found in the populations ranged from 10 to 13, which indicated higher diversity than in the parental populations. The haplotypes 2 (+----,3(----+,4(-+--+and6(-++-+onthe βA chromosomes were the most common, and two haplotypes, 9 (-++++and 14 (++--+, were found exclusively in the Maragojipe population. The other haplotypes (1, 5, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14 and 16 had lower frequencies. Restriction site analysis and the derived haplotypes indicated homogeneity among the populations. Thirty-two individuals with hemoglobinopathies (17 sickle cell disease, 12 HbSC disease and 3 HbCC disease were also analyzed. The haplotype frequencies of these patients differed significantly from those of the general population. In the sickle cell disease subgroup, the predominant haplotypes were BEN (Benin and CAR (Central African Republic, with frequencies of 52.9% and 32.4%, respectively. The high frequency of the BEN haplotype agreed with the historical origin of the afro-descendant population in the state of Bahia. However, this frequency differed from that of Salvador, the state capital, where the CAR and BEN haplotypes have similar frequencies, probably as a consequence of domestic slave trade and subsequent internal migrations to other regions of Brazil.

  14. Salmonelloses in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, 2002 to 2004

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    Vanessa Rech Wagner

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella has been identified as the main aetiological agent responsible for foodborne diseases in several countries worldwide, including Brazil. In the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS, southern Brazil, previews studies analysed official foodborne illnesses data, identifying Salmonella as the main bacterial agent of foodborne diseases during the period of 1997 to 2001. The present study aimed to analyse the official epidemiological data on salmonelloses occurred in the State of RS, during the period of 2002 to 2004. Even though data on recent salmonelloses were available, only data concerning the period comprising in 2002 to 2004 were analysed because the official worksheet records presented more consistent information about the salmonellosis outbreaks. Results indicated that, among the 624 foodborne outbreaks officially investigated, 202 (32.37% were confirmed as salmonellosis. Among them 23,725 people were involved, 4,148 became sick, 1,878 were hospitalized and one person died. The season with the highest incidence of salmonelloses was spring, and the most affected age group was composed of people aged between 20 to 49 years old (56.66%. Animal origin foods -especially eggs and meat products -were very often involved with the outbreaks, however homemade mayonnaise was identified as the main food vehicle for salmonelloses (53.51%. The majority of the cases occurred inside private homes (55.81% and food services (12.1%, and the main factors contributing to the occurrence of the outbreaks were the consumption of products without sanitary inspection (26.7% and exposure of food at room temperature for more than two hours (18.58%. Similarly to what was previously reported for the period of 1997 to 2001, Salmonella spp. was the most prevalent foodborne disease agent in the State of RS during the years of 2002 to 2004.

  15. Use of Indicator Kriging to Investigate Schistosomiasis in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo J. P. S. Guimarães

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Geographic Information Systems (GISs are composed of useful tools to map and to model the spatial distribution of events that have geographic importance as schistosomiasis. This paper is a review of the use the indicator kriging, implemented on the Georeferenced Information Processing System (SPRING to make inferences about the prevalence of schistosomiasis and the presence of the species of Biomphalaria, intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni, in areas without this information, in the Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The results were two maps. The first one was a map of Biomphalaria species, and the second was a new map of estimated prevalence of schistosomiasis. The obtained results showed that the indicator kriging can be used to better allocate resources for study and control of schistosomiasis in areas with transmission or the possibility of disease transmission.

  16. [Managing comprehensive care: a case study in a health district in Bahia State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Adriano Maia Dos; Giovanella, Ligia

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed management of comprehensive care in a health district in Bahia State, Brazil, at the political, institutional, organizational, and healthcare practice levels and the challenges for establishing coordinated care between municipalities. The information sources were semi-structured interviews with administrators, focal groups with healthcare professionals and users, institutional documents, and observations. A comprehensive and critical analysis was produced with dialectical hermeneutics as the reference. The results show that the Inter-Administrators Regional Commission was the main regional governance strategy. There is a fragmentation between various points and lack of communications linkage in the network. Private interests and partisan political interference overlook the formally agreed-upon flows and create parallel circuits, turning the right to health into currency for trading favors. Such issues hinder coordination of comprehensive care in the inter-municipal network. PMID:27027458

  17. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF SCORPION ENVENOMATION IN THE STATE OF CEARÁ, NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    FURTADO, Sanny da Silva; BELMINO, José Franscidavid Barbosa; DINIZ, Ana Gilza Quaresma; LEITE, Renner de Souza

    2016-01-01

    This report is a retrospective study of the epidemiology of scorpion sting cases recorded from 2007 to 2013 in the State of Ceará, Northeastern Brazil. Data were collected from the Injury Notification Information System database of the Health Department of Ceará. A total of 11,134 cases were studied and distributed across all the months of the studied period and they occurred mainly in urban areas. Victims were predominantly 20-29 years-old women. Most victims were bitten on the hand; and received medical assistance within 1-3 hours after being bitten. Cases were mostly classified as mild and progressed to cure. Scorpion envenomation in Ceará is an environmental public health problem that needs to be monitored and controlled throughout the year. PMID:27007558

  18. Magnetometry, radiometry and gammaspectrometry of the Janjao diatreme, Lages, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic, radiometric and gamma spectrometric surveys have been carried out on the Janjao diatreme which outcrops near Lajes in central-east Santa Catarina State, Brazil. The body is deeply weathered on the surface and its concentrates contain serpentinized olivine, phlogopote, pyroxenes, ilmenites, garnet and zircon. The interpretation of the magnetic anomaly revealed an irregular diatreme whose main dimensions are 50 X 190 meters. A vertical to subvertical dyke cuts the main diatreme. The radiometric anomaly as well as the potassium content helped to delineate the contacts between the diatreme and its country rocks (sandstones). Faults striking NNE controlled the emplacement of the Janjao diatreme as well as the intrusion of an alkaline dyke located near the diatreme. (Author)

  19. [Years of potential life lost by female homicide victims in Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Leonildo Severino da; Menezes, Maria Lúcia Neto de; Lopes, Cyntia Lins de Almeida; Corrêa, Maria Suely Medeiros

    2011-09-01

    This cross-sectional epidemiological study aimed to calculate the potential years of life lost by female homicide victims in Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil, in 2003-2007. A database was used from the Operational Division for Information on Births and Deaths under the Recife Municipal Health Department. All death certificates for childbearing-age women were reviewed for the five-year period. The results showed a total of 12,120 potential years of life lost by these women, mostly young, black (88%), with unknown levels of schooling (78.2%), single (80%), in District III of the city, and murdered with firearms in their own homes. The specific mortality rate was 10.8 homicides per 100,000 childbearing-age women. The 43.3 years of life lost per woman express the city's characteristics, poverty levels, unemployment, population density, residential instability, and social inequality, exposing residents to social strife, crime, and violence. PMID:21986600

  20. Factors related to severe dengue during an epidemic in Vitoria, State of Espirito Santo, Brazil, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Creuza Rachel Vicente

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The prognosis of dengue depends on early diagnosis and treatment, which can help prevent severe forms whose characteristics were evaluated here. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted involving dengue cases in Vitória, State of Espírito Santo, Brazil, in 2011. Results Two health regions registered 56.3% of 371 cases of severe dengue. Of these cases, 21.3% presented with dengue hemorrhagic fever. There were associations between dengue hemorrhagic fever with younger ages and a longer time before receiving care. Conclusions There was a greater involvement of dengue hemorrhagic fever in young people. Delay in care, poor urban quality and high endemicity were identified as possible risk factors for dengue severity.

  1. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF SCORPION ENVENOMATION IN THE STATE OF CEARÁ, NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanny da Silva FURTADO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This report is a retrospective study of the epidemiology of scorpion sting cases recorded from 2007 to 2013 in the State of Ceará, Northeastern Brazil. Data were collected from the Injury Notification Information System database of the Health Department of Ceará. A total of 11,134 cases were studied and distributed across all the months of the studied period and they occurred mainly in urban areas. Victims were predominantly 20-29 years-old women. Most victims were bitten on the hand; and received medical assistance within 1-3 hours after being bitten. Cases were mostly classified as mild and progressed to cure. Scorpion envenomation in Ceará is an environmental public health problem that needs to be monitored and controlled throughout the year.

  2. Mercury exposure in Munduruku Indians from the community of Sai Cinza, state of Para, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate mercury exposure and health status among Munduruku Indians from the community of Sai inza, State of Para, Brazil. The population studied included 330 Indians, who submitted to a questionnaire, clinical exams, and collection of hair, blood, urine, and feces. Mercury was measured in hair and fish. Although no person was found to have overt mercury intoxication, the mean levels of mercury in hair were elevated (14.45 μg/g for children from 7 to 12 years ld, 15.70 μg/g for women between 14 and 44 years old, and 14.1 μg/g or the remaining population). Mercury levels in fish were below levels recommended by the World Health Organization, but rates of fish consumption ere high. These results place this indigenous population as a group under risk of mercury toxicity from the gold production

  3. A new species of Cordia (Cordiaceae for the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Franklin Guimarães, Elsie

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the genus Cordia (Cordiaceae, C. kuhlmannii E.F. Guim., N.T. Ranga & J.I.M. Melo, for the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil is described and illustrated. The species, belonging to the section Gerascanthus is characterized mainly by irregular calyx lobes, corolla with narrow tube, stamens with glabrate bases and long branches of the style.Se describe e ilustra una nueva especie del género Cordia (Cordiaceae, C. kuhlmannii E.F. Guim., N.T. Ranga & J.I.M. Melo, para el estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. La especie pertenece a la sección Gerascanthus y es caracterizada, principalmente, por presentar los lóbulos del cáliz irregulares, la corola con tubo estrecho, los estambres glabros en la base y las ramas de los estilos largas, de cerca de 5 mm.

  4. Vascular plant community composition from the campos rupestres of the Itacolomi State Park, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Gastauer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Campos rupestres are rare and endangered ecosystems that accommodate a species-rich flora with a high degree of endemism. Here, we make available a dataset from phytosociological surveys carried out in the Itacolomi State Park, Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. All species in a total of 30 plots of 10 x 10 m from two study sites were sampled. Their cardinality, a combination of cover and abundance, was estimated. Altogether, we registered occurrences from 161 different taxa from 114 genera and 47 families. The families with the most species were Poaceae and Asteraceae, followed by Cyperaceae. Abiotic descriptions, including soil properties such as type, acidity, nutrient or aluminum availability, cation exchange capacity, and saturation of bases, as well as the percentage of rocky outcrops and the mean inclination for each plot, are given. This dataset provides unique insights into the campo rupestre vegetation, its specific environment and the distribution of its diversity.

  5. A new species of Tmesiphantes (Araneae, Theraphosidae from the state of Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector M. O. Gonzalez-Filho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Tmesiphantes Simon, 1892, T. aridai sp. nov., is described and illustrated based on three males and three females collected at the Floresta Nacional do Tapajós, Santarém, state of Pará, Brazil. Males can be distinguished from T. perp Guadanucci & Silva, 2012 by the palpal bulb with an inconspicous tegular basal projection, but presenting a very slender embolus with shorter keels not extending to the tip, and from T. nubilus Simon, 1892 by the tibial apophysis with two similarly sized branches, the prolateral one with a strong spine on the retrolateral margin. Females resemble T. nubilus by the aspect of the seminal receptacle but the constriction near the apex is less evident and apex shape is irregular. The new species represents the first record of Tmesiphantes from the Amazonian region, bringing the total number of species to eight.

  6. Genetic characterization of Trypanosoma cruzi natural clones from the state of Paraíba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Barnabé

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen Trypanosoma cruzi stocks from the state of Paraíba, Brazil, isolated from man, wild mammals, and triatomine bugs were studied by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and random primed amplified polymorphic DNA. Despite the low number of stocks, a notable genetic, genotypic, and phylogenetic diversity was recorded. The presence of the two main phylogenetic subdivisions, T. cruzi I and II, was recorded. The strong linkage disequilibrium observed in the population under survey suggests that T. cruzi undergoes predominant clonal evolution in this area too, although this result should be confirmed by a broader sample. The pattern of clonal variation does not suggests a recent origin by founder effect with a limited number of different genotypes.

  7. Detection of antibodies against Leishmania infantum in cats (Felis catus from the State of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Nascimento Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Little information is available concerning infection by Leishmania infantum in cats. Therefore, the aim of this study was to perform a serological study in domestic cats. Methods: Serum samples (n=153 obtained from animals living in the Cities of Recife and Petrolina, State of Pernambuco, Brazil, were tested by ELISA/S7® (Biogene. Results: Anti-L. infantum antibodies were detected in 3.9% (6/153 of the cats. All seroreagent animals were from Petrolina. Conclusions: These results serve as an important alert, and future studies are needed to better understand the possible role of cats in the epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis (VL in this area.

  8. Compliance with technical standards for radiological protection at radiation therapy services in Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation therapy services provide essential therapeutic procedures for cancer, one of the main causes of population morbidity and mortality. Despite their importance in the health system and their potential risks due to the use of ionizing radiation, there are few studies on such services. We evaluated compliance with technical standards for radiological protection in radiation therapy services in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Forty-nine services were studied in 2000 through interviews with technical staff. Typologies of performance profiles focusing on structure and process variables were constructed and services compared. Important differences were observed in the services' positions in the health care system, level of complexity, and geographic distribution, with better average performance in structural conditions but very inadequate performance in patient protection, indicating the need for more effective health surveillance. (author)

  9. Vascular flora of an inselberg in the state of Paraíba, in Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Emília Augusta Dantas Tölke

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study characterized the floristic composition of an inselberg in the Puxinanã municipality, of Paraíba, in Northeast Brazil. Ninety-seven species were recorded that belong to 35 families: Asteraceae (12 spp., Euphorbiaceae and Fabaceae (nine spp. each, Rubiaceae and Convolvulaceae (eight spp. each were the richest families, comprising 47.42% of the total species registered. The herbaceous habit was predominant, occurring in 39% of the species, followed by species of shrubs (22%, vines (20%, rupicolous plants (6%, subshrubs (5%, trees (4% and epiphytes (1%. Passiflora luetzelburgii Harms (Passifloraceae is a new record for the flora of the state. The data from this study provides information that could be used in the conservation and rational use of the study area, and contributes to what is known about the flora and vegetation of the Caatinga.

  10. Evidence of spotted fever group rickettsiae in state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    ROZENTAL Tatiana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Ticks were obtained from dogs from February to September of 1999 at weekly intervals, in the County of Piraí, State of Rio de Janeiro. Four hundred seventy four ixodids were taxonomically identified, 103 Amblyomma cajennense, seven Amblyomma ovale, 209 Rhipicephalus sanguineus, and 155 Amblyomma sp. An hemolymph test associated with Giemsa's stain revealed two specimens in 163 ticks tested (R. sanguineus and Amblyomma sp, containing rickettsia-like organisms. Direct immunofluorescence verified the presence of spotted fever group rickettsia in one specimen of R. sanguineus. Considering the limited information on rickettsiosis in Brazil, principally in relation to the vectors involved in perpetuating it in foci, these preliminary results give us an idea on the importance of infection in ticks, allowing to expand our knowledge on this zoonosis.

  11. Resilience skills as emergent phenomena: A study of emergency departments in Brazil and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachs, Priscila; Saurin, Tarcisio Abreu; Righi, Angela Weber; Wears, Robert Lewis

    2016-09-01

    Although the use of resilience skills (RSs) by emergency department (ED) front-line staff is ubiquitous, the nature and origin of these skills tend to be taken for granted. This study investigates the research question "where do RSs come from"? Case studies in two EDs were undertaken in order to answer the research question: one in Brazil and the other in the United States. The case studies adopted the same data collection and analysis procedures, involving interviews, questionnaires, observations, and analysis of documents. A model for describing RSs as emergent phenomena is proposed. The model indicates that RSs arise from interactions between: work constraints, hidden curriculum, gaps in standardized operating procedures, organizational support for resilience, and RSs themselves. An instantiation of the model is illustrated by a critical event identified from the American ED. The model allows the identification of leverage points for influencing the development of RSs, instead of leaving their evolution purely to chance. PMID:26972019

  12. Metagabro sill zircon dating: Archean age confirmation from the Aguas Claras formation, Carajas, Para State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Carajas region, situated at Para State, Brazil, presents a great diversity of the mafic rock occurrences, distributed between various units. The rocks have been described petrographically and its geochemical and geochronological data have been accumulated. However, these last data are relatively limited or inexact due to the difficulties to these rock dating using the Uranium-Lead (U-Pb) in zircons method. The Aguas Claras Formation age is another problem in the Carajas stratigraphy. The occurrence of metagabros sills in the Aguas Claras region and the fact of existing zircons in these metagabros, stimulated the authors to realize a geochronological study of these metagabros aiming to define its age and, consequently, the minimum age of the Aguas Claras Formation. The paper presents the geological context and the methodology to develop the geochronological studies of these rocks. (author)

  13. Study of operational conditions of dentistry X-ray equipment of Roraima State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of the evaluation of the operating conditions of X-ray equipment installed in dental clinics in Boa Vista, Roraima State, Brazil. The results showed that 17% of the X-ray equipment operate with 50kV, what is not recommended by the Brazilian Health Authority. In 70% of the equipment the discrepancy between the preset time and the real irradiation time was higher than 10%, while 35% of the inspected units present discrepancy higher than 10% between the preset and the applied kV. The survey indicate also that 21,4% of the equipment present total filtration lower than 1,5 mm of Al, value recommended by the national rules. (author)

  14. Enhanced degradation of metalaxyl in agricultural soils of São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Papini Solange

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This work investigated the effect of repeated applications on enhanced degradation of metalaxyl in two different agricultural soils used for cultivation of orange and lemon from Casa Branca and Itapetininga districts of São Paulo State, Brazil. Soil samples were collected from areas repeatedly treated with commercial ridomil 50GR for six successive years, and from other areas never exposed to this fungicide. At the laboratory, soil samples received a 14C-metalaxyl solution and its degradation was studied through radiometric techniques to measure biomineralization and recovery of extractable- and soil-bound products. Enhanced degradation was verified only in one soil, although partial degradation and mineralization of the fungicide were detected in both soils. The different rates and patterns of metalaxyl degradation in the soils were probably due to their different physical, chemical, and biological characteristics.

  15. Assessment of PROBA-V Data for Discriminating Burned Areas in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arantes Pereira, Allan; Pereira, J. M. C.; Oom, Duarte; Tavares de Carvalho, Luis Marcelo

    2015-12-01

    High spatio-temporal resolution optical remote sensing data provides opportunities to monitor and discriminate burned area in a accurate way. This study has the purpose to assess the discriminatory performance of multi-spectral reflectance values of PROBA-V sensor and on normalized difference spectral indices (NDSIs), such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in burned land discrimination a in different land-cover types across Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The M separability index was calculated in each land-cover type including Cerrado (Tropical Savanna), Atlantic Forest, agricultural crops, and pastures, to determine the most powerful band(s) combinations among the PROBA-V reflective bands for discrimination between burnt and unburnt areas The results showed that the BLUE channel is potentially effective for burntarea discrimination in the majority of all land cover types ,. Moreover results showed that spectral indexes used for discriminating burned areas are vegetation type dependant.

  16. Geochemical evaluation of marginal basins in the south of Bahia state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geochemical analyses were performed on more than 700 rock samples and 4 oil samples, from Mucuri, Cumuruxatiba and Jequitinhonha basins, offshore Bahia state, Brazil. The methods employed in this study includes the evaluation of organic carbon contents, Rock-Eval pyrolysis, vitrinite reflectance, carbon isotopes, assessment of oils and extrats by liquid and gas chromatography and gas chromatography - spectrometry. Three main source rock systems have been identified in offshore Bahia: the Mucuri shales from Rio da Serra and Aratu Stages lower Neocomian related to a lacustrine fresh water environment; the Jiquia shales (Upper Neocomian) deposited in a lacustrine saline water environment, and the Alagoas Shales related to an evaporitic environment of Aptian age. (author)

  17. Vascular plant community composition from the campos rupestres of the Itacolomi State Park, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastauer, Markus; Leyh, Werner; Miazaki, Angela S; Meira-Neto, João A A

    2015-01-01

    Camposrupestres are rare and endangered ecosystems that accommodate a species-rich flora with a high degree of endemism. Here, we make available a dataset from phytosociological surveys carried out in the Itacolomi State Park, Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. All species in a total of 30 plots of 10 x 10 m from two study sites were sampled. Their cardinality, a combination of cover and abundance, was estimated. Altogether, we registered occurrences from 161 different taxa from 114 genera and 47 families. The families with the most species were Poaceae and Asteraceae, followed by Cyperaceae. Abiotic descriptions, including soil properties such as type, acidity, nutrient or aluminum availability, cation exchange capacity, and saturation of bases, as well as the percentage of rocky outcrops and the mean inclination for each plot, are given. This dataset provides unique insights into the campo rupestre vegetation, its specific environment and the distribution of its diversity. PMID:25829858

  18. READERS AS GATEKEEPERS OF ONLINE NEWS: Brazil, China, and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuli Wang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The popularity of online news items is calculated by news sites as afunction of reader behaviors, such as clicking on or reading articles,emailing them to others, commenting on or discussing them, andeven linking to them in blogs. Online news sites often provide rankorderedlists of popular articles that are updated throughout theday. Popularity reflects not only the interest of individuals, butit also can represent communication from an individual reader toother people. In the case of emailed articles, recipients may befriends, family or colleagues. When readers add comments belowan article, they may reach anyone on the internet. When readerscommunicate with other readers, they extend the usual gatekeepingprocess but their selections may not reflect the news values of thejournalists who put the sites together. This study compares thenews values of readers in Brazil, China and the United States.

  19. Occupational structure and socioeconomic inequality: a comparative study between Brazil and the United States

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    Alexandre Gori Maia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis paper explores how occupational structure is associated with economic inequality in Brazil in comparison to the United States. Changes in the Brazilian and American occupational structures between 1983 and 2011 are investigated in order to assess how closely they generate high socioeconomic inequalities. The effects of education, age, gender and race on occupational attainment are taken into account. Highlights of the results include: (1 a higher level of socioeconomic development in the American occupational structure, reflecting huge socioeconomic differences between these countries; (2 a tenuous convergence between the Brazilian and American occupational structures; (3 a significant decrease in the net impacts of education, age, gender and race on occupational attainment (i.e., reduced social stratification in both countries. These results suggest the analytical worth of considering occupational structure as a significant intermediate variable affecting the level of socioeconomic inequality within a country over time, as well as between two countries at a given point in time.

  20. Energy and social and environmental consequences in Rondonia State, Brazil; Energia e reflexos socio-ambientais em Rondonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lascio, Vania L. di [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agronomica; Paz, Luciana R.L. da [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Dept. de Sociologia

    1996-12-31

    The social and environmental consequences of the recent occupation of the State of Rondonia, Brazil, are presented.The lack of basic structure for settlement of the migrants brought many problems and in this context, the use of renewable energy could be the basis for developing the region 10 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Genetic diversity of indigenous common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. rhizobia from the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalgisa Ribeiro Torres

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We characterized indigenous common bean rhizobia from five districts of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The isolates were trapped by two common bean varieties, the Mineiro Precoce (Andean origin and Ouro Negro (Mesoamerican origin. Analysis by BOX-PCR of selected isolates detected a high level of genetic diversity.

  2. K-Ar geology, geochemistry and geochronology from the Maria River region dikes, Parana State southeastern part, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper synthesizes the geological, petrographical, geochemical and geochronological data from the Maria River region dikes, situated at the southeastern part of the Para State, Brazil. It identifies five groups of dikes and determines the age of these dikes, through the Potassium-Argon (K-Ar) methodology

  3. New geochronological data for the deformed granites from the Itacaiunas River (Serra dos Carajas, Para State, Brazil): stratigraphic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work studies the deformed granites from the Itacaiunas River, located at Para State, Brazil. At first, it presents geological data of this region and relates the geochronological studies realized by the zircon Lead evaporation method. The new geochronological data presented in this paper establishes a minimum age for the deformed granite situation outcroping at the Itacaiunas River margin

  4. Quaternary deposits in the Serra da Capivara National Park and surrounding area, Southeastern Piauí state, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Kenitiro Suguio; Alcina Magnólia Franca Barreto; Janaina C. Santos

    2012-01-01

    Serra da Capivara National Park and surrounding areas in Southeastern Piau State (Brazil) were subjected to morphostratigraphical, sedimentological, and geochronological studies about superficial deposits in order to interpret quaternary paleoenvironmental events. The following sedimentary deposits associated with morphostructural units were identified: colluvial fans at Serra Branca Valley and Structural Staircases, and eluvial-colluvial deposits at Reverse of the Cuesta. There are also coll...

  5. Mortality from asthma in the state of S. Paulo, Brazil (1970-1992

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    Paulo Andrade Lotufo

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Mortality from asthma has shown important variations over time in several countries. In Brazil, a mortality study performed in the 60s, covering the cities of S.Paulo and Ribeirão Preto, and other ten cities showed that S.Paulo presented the lowest death rate from asthma among of them all. It was decided to study the time trends of deaths from asthma and from the whole set of respiratory diseases from 1970 to 1992, in the population aged 15-34 yrs. old in the State of S.Paulo, as well as to compare them with those of other countries. Asthma mortality rates during the 23 years of observation since 1975, showed an oscillatory declining pattern with a peak of deaths in the initial years. The linearization of the curve allows the calculation of Pearson's correlation coefficient that was significantly negative, suggesting a decline in the mortality over this period, mainly in the 5-9 yrs. old and 30-34 yrs. old strata. The segmentation of data between the period of ICD-9, 1970 to 1978, and of ICD-9, 1979 and subsequent years, shows that there is stability within each period, in all age-groups, except for that of 5-9 yr. olds between 1970-1978. Comparing the rates of the population aged 15-34 yrs. old for the State of S. Paulo, Brazil, with trends observed in 14 other countries, an intermediate pattern for the first triennial period (1970-1972 as well as for the subsequent triennial periods, emerges. A prevalence study of asthma, a follow up program meant for using emergency rooms and a surveillance of deaths due to all respiratory diseases and specifically to asthma are strongly recommended.

  6. Natural transovarial transmission of dengue virus 4 in Aedes aegypti from Cuiabá, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    Lucinéia Claudia de Toni Aquino da Cruz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Dengue is the most prevalent arboviral disease in tropical areas. In Mato Grosso, outbreaks are reported every year, but studies on dengue in this state are scarce. METHODS: Natural transovarial infection of Aedes aegypti by a flavivirus was investigated in the Jardim Industriário neighborhood of Cuiabá, Mato Grosso. Eggs were collected with ovitraps during the dry, intermediate, and rainy seasons of 2012. After the eggs hatched and the larvae developed to adulthood, mosquitoes (n = 758 were identified and allocated to pools of 1-10 specimens according to the collection location, sex, and climatic period. After RNA extraction, multiplex semi-nested RT-PCR was performed to detect the four dengue virus (DENV serotypes, yellow fever virus, West Nile virus and Saint Louis encephalitis virus. RESULTS: DENV-4 was the only flavivirus detected, and it was found in 8/50 pools (16.0%. Three of the positive pools contained females, and five contained males. Their nucleotide sequences presented 96-100% similarity with DENV-4 genotype II strains from Manaus, Amazonas. The minimum infection rate was 10.5 per 1000 specimens, and the maximum likelihood estimator of the infection rate was 11.6 (95% confidence interval: 4.8; 23.3. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the first evidence of natural transovarial infection by DENV-4 in Ae. Aegypti in Mato Grosso, suggesting that this type of infection might serve as a mechanism of virus maintenance during interepidemic periods in Cuiabá, a city where dengue epidemics are reported every year. These results emphasize the need for efficient vector population control measures to prevent arbovirus outbreaks in the state.

  7. A review of bush dog Speothos venaticus (Lund, 1842) (Carnivora, Canidae) occurrences in Paraná state, subtropical Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiepolo, L M; Quadros, J; Pitman, M R P L

    2016-06-01

    We report six new occurrence records of the bush dog Speothos venaticus, a widely distributed South American carnivore that is threatened with extinction. These records are accompanied by notes on the places where the records were made, such as vegetation type, date and information about the protection of areas. The records, obtained over the last 17 years in Paraná state, southern Brazil, offer an improved understanding of the species geographic range and the threats it faces and can enable better assessments of the conservation status of the species in southern Brazil. PMID:27007505

  8. Giardiasis as zoonosis: between proof of principle and paradigm in the Northwestern region of São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Cardoso Caseca Volotão

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In order to evaluate the potential zoonotic transmission of Giardia duodenalis, isolates from humans and dogs in the Northwestern region of the São Paulo State, Brazil were characterized based on the β-giardin gene. METHODS: The samples were analyzed by sequencing of the Nested-PCR products. RESULTS: The A1 and A2 subgenotypes were detected in human and dogs. Cysts of assemblage B, C and D have not been found in any isolates studied. CONCLUSIONS: These results are consistent with the view that giardiasis in the largest endemic region of the Brazil should not be seen as a single entity.

  9. Ergasilus trygonophilus sp. nov. (Copepoda: Ergasilidae a branchial parasite of freshwater stingrays (Potamotrygonidae from state of Pará, Brazil

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    Marcus V. Domingues

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Ergasilus trygonophilus sp. nov. is described from freshwater stingrays (Potamotrygon spp. and Plesiotrygon iwamae Rosa, Castello & Thorson, 1987 from the state of Pará, Brazil. The new species differs from all known species of Ergasilus Nordman, 1832 from Brazilian waters by possessing: (1 an elongate bullet-shaped cephalosome; (2 antennule setal formula 1: 10: 4: 4: 2 + 1 ae: 6 + 1 ae; (3 maxillule bearing two distal setae; and (4 terminal endopodal segment of leg 1 with rosette-like array of blunt spinules. This is the first species of a freshwater stingray Ergasilus reported from Brazil.

  10. Parasitoids of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) collected on tomato plants in lavras, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, C H; Silva, C G; Lobo, A P

    2004-08-01

    The objective of this paper was to report on the occurrence of parasitoids of Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) on tomato plants, under greenhouse conditions, in Lavras County (21 degrees 14'43"S; 44 degrees 59'59"W), State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, from August 2001 to February 2002. Three groups of parasitoids were collected: 21 specimens of Bracon sp. (Braconidae), one specimen of Earinus sp. (Braconidae), and 13 specimens of Conura sp. (Chalcididae). The rate of parasitism for the three species was 4.2%, 0.2%, and 2.6%, respectively. This is the first reported occurrence of Earinus sp. parasitizing Tuta absoluta in Brazil. PMID:15622852

  11. Retrospective Study on Dengue in Fortaleza, State of Ceará, Brazil

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    Cunha RV da

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective serologic study was carried out in Fortaleza, State of Ceará, Brazil, in order to detect the dengue virus activity before recognizing the epidemic of 1994. Mac-Elisa was performed by using a mixture of specific DEN-1 and DEN-2 antigens on serum samples from the Emilio Ribas Laboratory collection. Samples were obtained from 1,224 patients with exanthematic febrile disease and negative serological results for rubella. All specimens were taken during November 1993 to May 1994. The results confirmed dengue infections in Fortaleza by November 1993, approximately six months before the beginning of the epidemic, proving how misleading diagnosis of dengue infection are still troublesome, in spite of the strong dengue activity in Ceará. The authors stress the urgent necessity to implement the active surveillance system in order to prevent another extensive dengue fever epidemics in the state. Epidemiological background of the dengue activity in the State of Ceará is also described.

  12. Ecological interactions of visceral leishmaniasis in the state of Bahia, Brazil

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    Italo A Sherlock

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The laboratory and field observations summarized in this paper on visceral leishmaniasis ecology in the State of Bahia, Brazil are based on the author's observations over the past 35 years in a number of state's foci, public health records and literature citations. The disease is endemic with epidemic outbreaks occurring every ten years and its geographical distribution is expanding rapidly in the last years. Leishmania chagasi is the main ethiologic agent of the visceral leishmaniasis but Le. amazonensis s. lato was the only leishmania isolated by other authors from some visceral leishmaniasis human cases in the state. Lutzomyia longipalpis (with one or two spots on tergites III and IV and two sized different populations was epidemiologically incriminated as the main vector. It was found naturally infected with promastigotes, and it was infected with four species of leishmanias in the laboratory. Although the experimental transmission of Le. amazonensis by the bite of Lu. longipalpis to hamsters was performed, the author was not successful in transmitting Le. chagasi in the same way. The dog is the most important domestic source for infection of the vector, however it is not a primary reservoir. The opossum Didelphis albiventris was found naturally infected with Le. chagasi but its role as reservoir is unknown. Foxes and rodents were not found infected with leishmanias in Bahia.

  13. New tick records from the state of Rondônia, western Amazon, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Thiago F; Venzal, José M; Terassini, Flávio A; Costa, Francisco B; Marcili, Arlei; Camargo, Luis M A; Barros-Battesti, Darci M; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2014-01-01

    From 2005 to 2012, ticks were collected from different hosts at different localities of the state of Rondônia. The following 16 ixodid tick species were identified: Ixodes fuscipes, Amblyomma auricularium, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma dubitatum, Amblyomma geayi, Amblyomma humerale, Amblyomma latepunctatum, Amblyomma longirostre, Amblyomma naponense, Amblyomma nodosum, Amblyomma oblongoguttatum, Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma romitii, Amblyomma rotundatum, Amblyomma scalpturatum, and Amblyomma varium. From these, A. auricularium, A. dubitatum, and A. geayi are reported for the first time in the state of Rondônia. We provide the following tick-host associations that have not been reported anywhere: A. longirostre on Pteroglossus bitorquatus, A. rotundatum on Hydrodynastes gigas, and A. latepunctatum and A. scalpturatum on Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris. An adult male specimen of A. rotundatum is reported on Boa constrictor, comprising only the fourth male specimen to be recorded for this obligate parthenogenetic tick species. We also report the presence of the argasid species Ornithodoros kohlsi for the first time in Brazil, based on larval specimens collected on bats Molossops (Neoplatymops) mattogrossensis in Monte Negro, Rondônia. The present study increases the Brazilian tick fauna to 65 species, from which 34 species (52 %) are now registered to Rondônia. Such high diversity of ticks in a relatively small state, associated with increasing environmental alteration due to deforestation and human occupation, makes Rondônia a potential source of tick-borne diseases. PMID:23975565

  14. Running over of mammals on roads of Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil

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    Anderson Martins

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Road deaths represent a factor of great impact on fauna. This is probably one of the main causes of mortality, even for threatened species. However, studies on this subject are unknown in Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil. Considering this lack, the present study presents records of medium to large-sized mammals killed by vehicles on the roads of this state between August 2000 and November 2005. In total, 257 records were made from 20 mammal species, most of which were obtained from the BR 116, BR 282 and BR 470 highways. Cerdocyon thous was the commonest species (82 records; 31.9%, followed by Didelphis albiventris (44; 17.1%, Procyon cancrivorus (21; 8.2%, Conepatus chinga (19; 7.4%, Dasypus novemcinctus (14; 5.4%, Tamandua tetradactyla (14; 5.4% and Sphiggurus villosus (13; 5.1%. Leopardus tigrinus (5; 1.9%, L. wiedii (1; 0.4% and one unidentified Leopardus individual were recorded as threatened species. This indicates a high number of mammals run over on the roads of Santa Catarina state, and hence the necessity of specific studies on this subject and the construction of tunnels and fences for animal passage.

  15. Industrial radiography in the State of Bahia, Brazil: The health protection of workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed to identify the Regulatory and Inspection Authority for actions developed by industrial radiography enterprises in the State of Bahia, Brazil, concerning health protection of workers exposed to ionizing radiation in industry. Institutions which legislate about this matter at international, national and State level were identified. These legislations were analysed according to recommendations by the Basic Safety Standards from the Atomic Energy International Agency. Medical Supervision is proposed as a factor to warrant protection to worker's health. This is a service evaluation study, encompassing results, processes and structural components. Emphasis is given to the process component which investigated the adequacy of which is performed by employees and workers. Five enterprises which provide industrial radiography services in the State of Bahia were identified, employing forty workers on a temporary basis. This study also observed: intense workforce, a complete process of contracting out in the sector; inadequate conditions of work organization (long work journey, night work, lack of days-off schedule); inefficiency of medical services responsible by worker's protection concerning radiation specific risks as well as other occupational risks, unrelated to main activity. There is a legal basis for Authorities actions, although it has not been completely implemented. These findings embased the elaboration of a proposal of a Surveillance Program for the Worker Exposed to Industrial Radiation, which includes the setting of safety standards and monitoring of workers exposed to ionization radiation in the occupational environment, accident prevention in this activity and the specialized health care to those affected by radio accidents. (author)

  16. Milk microbiological profile of four dairy farms from São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Adna Crisleia Rodrigues Monção

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The concern in milk quality, milk production, and in animals’ welfare is in constant increase. Mastitis is recognized as the main disease affecting dairy animals because of changing in milk composition and reduction in milk production. In Brazil, the highest incidence of mastitis is related to infectious agents. This study aimed to investigate the incidence of pathogenic microorganisms in milk produced by 60 cows from four dairy farms (15 cows/farm located at Sao Paulo state, Brazil. Milk samples from each teat were collected fortnight in sterile tubes, previously identified, during two months. In each herd 240 samples were obtained, except on the farm A, where an extra collection was done, in a total amount of 300 samples. On the farm A, the sampling was done in a period of transition between the dry and rainy season. On the farm B, samples were collected mostly in the season of high temperatures. On the farm C the collections were made over a period of heat and humidity. On the farm D, on a period of warmer temperatures and reduced rainfall. The isolation and identification of microorganisms were conducted at Laboratory of Milk Quality from Instituto de Zootecnia, Nova Odessa, São Paulo, Brazil. Aliquots of 100 mL of milk were grown on plates with 5% sheep blood agar. After incubation, they were used for the production of catalase and Gram stain. Gram positive and catalase positive samples were classified as Corynebacterium spp. (Coryne.. Gram positive cocci and catalase negative samples were classified as Streptococcus spp. (Strepto.. Milk were then proceeded to coagulase test in rabbit plasma. Gram-positive cocci, catalase positive and coagulase-negative were classified as Staphylococcus coagulase-negative (SCN. Gram positive, catalase positive and coagulase positive samples were subsequently subjected to biochemical tests: mannitol salt agar, maltose, trehalose, and acetoin production. Strains that were positive for these tests were

  17. Avifauna of the Pongos Basin, Amazonas Department, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, D.M.; O'Neill, J.P.; Foster, M.S.; Mark, T.; Dauphine, N.; Franke, I.J.

    2009-01-01

    We provide an inventory of the avifauna of the Pongos Basin, northern Amazonas Department, Peru based on museum specimens collected during expeditions spanning >60 years within the 20th century. Four hundred and thirty-eight species representing 52 families are reported. Differences between lowland and higher elevation avifaunas were apparent. Species accounts with overviews of specimen data are provided for four species representing distributional records, two threatened species, and 26 species of Nearctic and Austral migrants, of which six are considered probable migrants.

  18. Estimating the Economic Impact of an Eventual Introduction of Huanglongbing (HLB) in the State of Bahia, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, J. M.C.; Silva, S. X.B.; Nascimento, A. S.; Miranda, S. H.G.; Barbosa, C. J.; Laranjeira, F. F.

    2014-01-01

    Bahia is the second most important citrus region in Brazil, accounting for 5.5% of Brazilian production. 80% of this production comes from family based farms, which depend on this crop for economic support. Huanglongbing (HLB) was never recorded in Bahia, but is already spreading in three other citrus-producing states of the country, one of which borders the state of Bahia. Thus, this study aimed to estimate the potential economic impact resulting from an eventual introduction of HLB in Bahia...

  19. Higher Education in the United States and Brazil: How the Two Systems Origins Shaped Their Further Development

    OpenAIRE

    Arabela Campos Oliven

    2014-01-01

    This article draws a parallel between higher education in the United States and Brazil placing emphasis on its different origins. The college tradition in the United States began with Harvard in the seventeenth century soon after the pioneers settled in the new land. These institutions were private, closer to their Board of Trustees than to the British Crown, and had a deeply religious character. Since one of their objectives was to train religious leaders, character formation was very valued...

  20. Remote Sensing Images in Support of Environmental Protocol: Monitoring the Sugarcane Harvest in São Paulo State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Marcio Pupin Mello; Marcos Adami; Daniel Alves Aguiar; Bernardo Friedrich Theodor Rudorff; Wagner Fernando Silva

    2011-01-01

    Traditional manual sugarcane harvesting requires the pre-harvest burning practice which should be gradually banned by 2021 for most of São Paulo State, Brazil, on cultivated sugarcane land (terrain slope ≤12%) according to State Law number 11241. To forward the end of this practice to 2014, a “Green Ethanol” Protocol was established in 2007. The present work aims at analyzing five years of continuous sugarcane harvest monitoring, based on remote sensing images, to evaluate the effectiveness o...

  1. Bibliometric analysis of undergraduate final research projects in Nutrition courses in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Taiana Brito MENÊZES; Lívia Samila Bezerra BORGES; Letícia Mendes SANTOS; Luiz Roberto Augusto NORO

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the profile of academic production of undergraduates in Nutrition courses in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Methods: The bibliometric study was conducted with undergraduate final research projects from five courses in Nutrition in the state of Rio Grande do Norte during 2013 and 2014. The following variables were collected: institution, title of project, number of authors, academic degree of the advisor, study design, area of study interest, type o...

  2. Guarani education and religion in the state of Paraná, Brazil: a study on the Nimongarai ritual

    OpenAIRE

    Rosangela Celia Faustino

    2012-01-01

    Due to the violent expropriation and commercialization of large areas in the state of Paraná, Brazil, at the beginning of the 20th century the surviving indigenous groups were herded within small parcels of land, called villages, and currently denominated Indigene Land (IL). The Nhandewa Guarani of the northern region of the state of Paraná, living in the Laranjinha, Ywyporã and Pinhalzinho ILs, have experienced terrible conditions since they lost many of their traditions and culture, includi...

  3. Snake assemblages of Marajó Island, Pará state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Moreira Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We describe the diversity, natural history and structure of snake assemblages from Marajó Island, state of Pará, Brazil, after analyzing 439 specimens deposited in herpetological collections. We tested the hypothesis that snake assemblages from forest and open areas of Marajó Island are distinct with regard to their structure, composition and functional groups. To compare the snake composition of the forest and open areas of Marajó with other comparable assemblages in Brazil, Principal Coordinate Analysis and Clustering tests were performed. A total of 61 species of snakes was recorded for Marajó, with ten species cited for the first time for the study area (Atractus natans Hoogmoed & Prudente, 2003, A. schach (Boie, 1827, Dendrophidion dendrophis (Schlegel, 1837, Helicops hagmanni Roux, 1910, Hydrops martii (Wagler in Spix, 1824, Lygophis meridionalis (Schenkel, 1901, Erythrolamprus typhlus (Linnaeus, 1758, Philodryas argentea (Daudin, 1803, Siphlophis cervinus (Laurenti, 1768, and Thamnodynastes sp.. The composition and structure of snake assemblages between forested and open were different, with five functional groups of snakes in forest areas, and three groups in open areas, based on habit and habitat. In all, 19 species were exclusive to forest areas, 10 were exclusive to open areas and 26 species were recorded in both areas. Our results revealed greater richness for forested areas, probably due to greater habitat heterogeneity. The species composition for forested area in Marajó was similar to that found in other Amazonian assemblages, while that for open areas was more similar to the Pantanal region than other open area assemblages. The general structure of the snake assemblage of Marajó was dominated by anurophagous, terrestrial and diurnal species. Terrestrial, arboreal and semi-arboreal snakes showed a seasonal offspring production pattern, while the pattern for aquatic and semi-aquatic species was aseasonal. The

  4. Epstein-Barr virus infection and gastric carcinoma in São Paulo State, Brazil

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    L.F. Lopes

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is a ubiquitous herpesvirus, and most people have serological evidence of previous viral infection at adult age. EBV is associated with infectious mononucleosis and human cancers, including some lymphomas and gastric carcinomas. Although EBV was first reported in lymphoepithelioma-like gastric carcinoma, the virus was also found in conventional adenocarcinomas. In the present study, 53 gastric carcinomas diagnosed in São Paulo State, Brazil, were evaluated for EBV infection by non-isotopic in situ hybridization with a biotinylated probe (Biotin-AGACACCGTCCTCACCACCC GGGACTTGTA directed to the viral transcript EBER-I, which is actively expressed in EBV latently infected cells. EBV infection was found in 6 of 53 (11.32% gastric carcinomas, mostly from male patients (66.7%, with a mean age of 59 years old. Most EBV-positive tumors were in gastric antrum. Two EBV-positive tumors (33.3% were conventional adenocarcinomas, whereas four (66.7% were classified as lymphoepithelioma-like carcinomas. EBV infection in gastric carcinomas was reported elsewhere in frequencies that range from 5.6% (Korea up to 18% (Germany. In Brazil, a previous work found EBV infection in 4 of 80 (5% gastric carcinomas, whereas another study found 4.7 and 11.2% of EBV-positive gastric carcinomas of Brazilians of Japanese origin or not, respectively. In the present study, the frequency of EBV-positive gastric carcinomas is similar to that reported in other series, and the clinicopathologic characteristics of these EBV-positive tumors are in agreement with the data in the literature.

  5. ARBOREAL VEGETATION ASPECTS ON A SEASONAL STEPPE SAVANNA REMAINING, IN BARRA DO QUARAÍ, RS STATE, BRAZIL

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    Luciano Farinha Watzlawick

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509813320The purpose of this study was to evaluate the floristic composition, the horizontal and vertical structures, as well as the spatial distribution patterns of the tree component in a Steppe Savanna Park located at ‘Parque do Espinilho’, in Barra do Quaraí, Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. Floristic composition and phyto-sociological analysis were carried out in a four (04 ha permanent plot (40 000 m², where all individuals which circumference (C was ≥ 15.7 cm, measured 30 cm from the ground, were sampled and had their circumference and total height measured. A mean of 145 individuals/ha was found, distributed in 11 species, 10 genera and eight (08 families, with basal area of 4.06 m²/ha. The Shannon Diversity Index (H’ for the tree vegetation was 1.86, and the species with the highest importance values were Prosopis nigra (25.86%, Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco (24.57%, Prosopis affinis (24.30% and Vachellia caven (10.51%, representing 85.26% of the total. The tree vegetation has two strata, the lower one with 93.3% of the trees and the upper one with only 6.7% of total. The species Aspidosperma quebrachoblancodominated with 70.0% of trees in this stratum. Regarding the spatial distribution pattern of thespecies, Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco presented a grouped tendency, whereas the other ones weregrouped. The savannah steppe park studied is mainly characterized by the occurrence of Aspidospermaquebracho-blanco, Prosopis nigra, Prosopis affinis and Vachellia caven, constituting a unique combinationof species in Brazil, presenting question of rarity in terms of species composition and structure.

  6. On modeling global solar irradiation using air temperature for Alagoas State, Northeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study assesses the performance of nine empirical models: the models of Bristow and Campbell and Hargreaves and Samani (together with their modified versions) in estimating the daily and monthly solar irradiation using just extraterrestrial solar irradiation and air temperature extremes (maximum and minimum) as input data. Two schemes to calculate the air temperature amplitudes (ΔT1 and ΔT2) were used. The data used in this study cover the period from 2007 to 2009 and were collected at eight solarimetric stations in Alagoas State (Northeastern Brazil); three are located in the interior, two in the hinterlands and three in the humid/coastal zones. Statistical parameters were used to evaluate the model performance. The estimates obtained with the ΔT1 scheme are better than those using the ΔT2 scheme for the interior (1.10%) and hinterlands (2.50%). The daily (0.160–0.201) and monthly (0.158–0.199) values of the coefficients of the original Hargreaves and Samani model did not show significant differences among them; this was not the case of Bristow and Campbell model. Have a special from the coastline (thermal amplitude, humidity and cloudiness) and altitude (bulk thermal capacity and optical depth of the atmosphere). On the daily basis, the original model of Hargreaves and Samani yields better estimates than those obtained with the Bristow and Campbell model: 2.30% (interior) and 5.20% (hinterlands). The latter had a better performance mainly for the sites along the humid/coastal zone (10.20%). - Highlights: • Calibration of solar irradiation models that use air temperature. • Estimates of the solar irradiation in Alagoas, Northeastern Brazil. • Hargreaves and Samani model performed best for the interior and hinterland. • The Bristow and Campbell model was more suitable for coastal and humid zones

  7. INAA: metal pollution in the environment of minas gerais state- Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intense mining activities in Minas Gerais State - Brazil bring out tons of waste to the environment. Considerable concentrations of toxic elements penetrate the soil, ground waters and rivers. This endangers the environment quality not only in the surrounding areas but also occurs in ichthyofauna and in more distant areas of cattle raising and agricultural activities. After seasonal floods, veterinary clinic studies have shown that most animals raised in this region are affected by symptomatologic nervous diseases, still not clearly diagnosed, that suggests intoxication. These pathologies are mostly noted after floods. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis was applied to determine Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Th and Zn in environmental samples. The obtained results show that the contaminated water and sediment with heavy metals and toxic elements from the Das Velhas River upstream basin, the mining region, carry contamination to the ichthyofauna and farming region within a distance of approximately 400 km. Researches to study environmental pollution greatly advanced mainly because of need for answers to various phenomena observed in natural waters, in the living beings that depend on them. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis has been widely employed for the determination of multielemental concentrations in the environment. The diversity and abundance study of aquatic fauna species in control and mining affected areas, correlated with physical and chemical factors of the water and sediment, will serve as another environmental indicator of water quality resources in Candiota region, Brazil, which receives important metallic loads originated from point (industrial and domestic effluents) and diffuse sources (coal mines and mining waste and ashes disposal areas) and constitute the area of potential influence for investigation. Industrial waste from mining, chemical industries and metal processing are

  8. Pisces, Perciformes, Cichlidae, Apistogramma borellii (Regan, 1906): First record for state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Lanés, L. E. K.; L. Maltchik; Lucena, C. A. S.

    2010-01-01

    This note extends the distribution of the dwarf cichlid fish Apistogramma borellii, and is the first record of thespecies, and the genus for the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, suggesting that the fish diversity of wetlands,although relatively high, is still poorly investigated in southern Brazil.

  9. Pisces, Cyprinodontiformes, Rivulidae,Austrolebias periodicus (Costa, 1999): Distribution extension in state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Volcan, M. V.; Lanés, L. E. K.; Gonçalves, A. C.

    2010-01-01

    The present note extends the distribution of annual killifish Austrolebias periodicus, a endangered species,endemic of the Pampas region, in Ibicuí River basin, state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. This information is neededto develop conservation strategies for this species and its habitat, which are at high risk due to the expansion of riceproduction and exotic forests in southern Brazil.

  10. Virulence and genetic diversity among isolates of Mycosphaerella fijiensis in two regions of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, G F; Santos, V S; Sousa, N R; Hanada, R E; Gasparotto, L

    2016-01-01

    Black sigatoka, caused by the fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis (anamorphic stage: Paracercospora fijiensis), was first detected in Brazil in early 1998 in the Benjamin Constant and Tabatinga municipalities in the State of Amazonas, near to where the borders of Brazil, Colombia, and Peru converge. Understanding how cultivars react to the pathogen, and characterizing the genetic variability of isolates from two distant and distinct banana-producing regions, are important for determining the virulence of M. fijiensis. In the present study, the genetic diversity of 22 M. fijiensis isolates was assessed using simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers, and their virulence was determined following inoculation on three different banana tree cultivars. All 22 isolates caused symptoms of the disease in the Maçã and Prata Comum cultivars 45 days after inoculation, and at least two virulence groups were identified for the Maçã and Prata Comum cultivars. For the D'Angola cultivars, two virulence groups were observed only after 60 days post-inoculation, and three of the isolates were not virulent. Using SSR markers, the isolates from two different regions of Brazil were placed into two genetic groups, both genetically distant from the Mf 138 isolate collected in Leticia, Colombia. There was no evidence of correlation between the virulence groups and the genetic diversity groups. These results demonstrate variability in virulence between isolates as measured by the severity of black sigatoka in the analyzed cultivars. PMID:27173264

  11. Oxacillinase (OXA-producing Acinetobacter baumannii in Brazil: clinical and environmental impact and therapeutic options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheli Medeiros

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Following a worldwide trend, infections caused by MDR OXA-type (Ambler class D carbapenemase-producing Acinetobacter baumannii are currently regarded as a clinical and epidemiological emergency in Brazil. OXA-producing A. baumannii strains have been identified in the states of Alagoas, Amazonas, Bahia, Distrito Federal, Espírito Santo, Goiás, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Paraná, Pernambuco, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina and São Paulo. In some settings, the presence of OXA-23- and/or OXA-143 -producing A. baumannii (so far restricted to Brazil has been endemic and A. baumannii strains carrying blaOXA-23 genes have been detected in hospital wastewater effluents, hence a potential risk to the community and the environment. Although molecular typing by multilocus sequence typing (MLST - Bartual scheme, University of Oxford, http://pubmlst.org/abaumannii/ has revealed the international spread of a clonal complex (CC denominated CC92, in Brazil most OXA-23-producing A. baumannii belong to CC113, CC109 or CC104 clonal complexes. Finally, from a clinical point of view, the main problem of A. baumannii infections is the limited use of antibacterial agents with in vitro activity, often restricted to ampicillin/sulbactam, polymyxin B and/or colistin (polymyxin E.

  12. Fauna de flebotomíneos (Diptera: Psychodidae em fragmentos de floresta ao redor de conjuntos habitacionais na cidade de Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil. I. Estratificação Vertical Sand flies fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae in forest fragments around housing complexes in the Manaus municipality, state of Amazonas, Brazil. I. Vertical Stratification

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    Marlisson Augusto Costa Feitosa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available No período de janeiro a agosto de 1999 foram realizadas coletas de flebotomíneos (Diptera: Psychodidae em duas áreas de floresta residual (Estrada do Turismo e Cidade de Deus, na periferia da cidade de Manaus (AM, tendo o objetivo de verificar as espécies e a estratificação vertical. Foram utilizadas armadilhas luminosas tipo CDC, colocadas nos fragmentos de florestas a um e dez metros de altura. Foram capturados 7.516 flebotomíneos distribuídos em 45 espécies; 4.836 espécimes, de 36 espécies, na estrada de Turismo e 2.680 exemplares, de 40 espécies, na Cidade de Deus. Predominaram na Estrada do Turismo Lutzomyia umbratilis e L. ubiquitalis e na Cidade de Deus, L. umbratilis e L. anduzei. A presença de algumas espécies, apenas em certas áreas, indica a adaptabilidade destes flebotomíneos em áreas sobre ação antrópica.Between January and August of 1999, a study was carried out on the phlebotomine (Diptera: Psychodidae sand flies occurrence in two areas of residual forest (Estrada do Turismo and Cidade de Deus, in the periphery of Manaus, AM. The objective of this study was to verify the Phlebotominae sand fly fauna and vertical stratification. CDC light traps were placed in the forests, one to ten meters in height. A total of 7.516 sand flies, distributed in 45 species, were captured: 4.836 specimens of 36 species in the Estrada do Turismo and 2.680 individuals of 40 species in the Cidade de Deus.Predominant in the Estrada do Turismo were the species Lutzomyia umbratilis and L. ubiquitalis were as L. umbratilis and L. anduzei prevailed in the Cidade de Deus. Different Phlebotominae sand fly species in certain areas, showed an adaptation of these sand flies to areas of human activity.

  13. Seasonal dynamics of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in plants of Theobroma grandiflorum Schum and Paullinia cupana Mart. of aN agroforestry system in Central Amazonia, Amazonas State, Brazil Dinâmica sazonal de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares em plantas de Theobroma grandiflorum Schum e Paullinia cupana Mart. de um sistema agroflorestal na Amazônia Central, Amazonas, Brasil

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    Arlem Nascimento de Oliveira

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The seasonal dynamics of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF was investigated in the rhizosphere of two fruit species in a terra firme (upland ecosystem in Central Amazonia. Two host species (Theobroma grandiflorum and Paullinia cupana and nine sampling months (August, September and December/1998, February, April, May and December/1999, February and May/2000 were studied in a completely randomized design, with five replications, set in a 2 x 9 factorial experiment. Soil (0-20 cm depth and root samples were collected between August 1998 and May 2000. The mean percent colonization of AMF for both species reached maximal values in February and May 2000 (rainy season. In April and May 1999, February and May 2000 (rainy season the highest AMF spore numbers were registered. The pluvial precipitation was significantly positively correlated with AMF number spores for both fruit species, and significant positive correlation only with AMF colonization of P. cupana. Soil moisture content was positively correlated with colonization and spore numbers of AMF for both species evaluated. AMF colonization and AMF spore numbers of T. grandiflorum were positively correlated with soil Mg and K concentrations. AMF spore numbers of T. grandiflorum were also negatively correlated with effective cation exchange capacity (ECEC. AMF colonization and AMF spore numbers in the rhizosphere of P. cupana were positively correlated with pH and Mn concentrations. AMF colonization was also positively correlated with AMF spore numbers for both species evaluated. In conclusion, this study showed that AMF colonization and sporulation are seasonal and dependent on host plant species, pluvial precipitation, soil moisture content and soil chemistry in Central Amazonia conditions.A dinâmica sazonal de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA foi investigada na rizosfera de duas espécies frutíferas em um ecossistema de terra firme na Amazônia Central. Adotou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo fatorial 2 x 9, onde os fatores representaram duas espécies frutíferas (Theobroma grandiflorum e Paullinia cupana e nove meses de coleta (agosto, setembro e dezembro/1998, fevereiro, abril, maio e dezembro/1999, fevereiro e maio/2000, com cinco repetições. O percentual de colonização micorrízica para as duas espécies atingiu valores máximos nos meses de fevereiro e maio de 2000 (estação chuvosa. Similarmente, nos meses de abril e maio de 1999, fevereiro e maio de 2000 (estação chuvosa foram registrados os maiores números de esporos de FMA para ambas espécies. A precipitação pluvial foi significativamente e positivamente correlacionada com o número de esporos para as duas espécies, e significativamente correlacionada apenas com a colonização micorrízica de P. cupana. O teor de umidade do solo foi positivamente correlacionado com o número de esporos e colonização por FMA para ambas espécies. A colonização micorrízica e o número de esporos de FMA foram positivamente correlacionados com os teores de Mg e K no solo. O número de esporos foi ainda negativamente correlacionado com a CTC efetiva do solo. A colonização micorrízica e o número de esporos de FMA na rizosfera de P. cupana foram positivamente correlacionadas com o pH e a concentração de Mn no solo. A colonização micorrízica foi também positivamente correlacionada com o número de esporos de FMA para as duas espécies avaliadas. Em conclusão, esse estudo mostrou que tanto a colonização micorrízica como a esporulação são sazonais e dependentes da espécie de planta hospedeira, precipitação pluvial, teor de umidade e da química do solo, nas condições da Amazônia Central.

  14. A pesca de pequena escala no rio Madeira pelos desembarques ocorridos em Manicoré (Estado do Amazonas, Brasil Small-scale fishery at Madeira River by fish landings in Manicoré city (Amazon State, Brazil

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    Renato Soares Cardoso

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo analisar o desembarque da pesca comercial na região do Médio rio Madeira, tendo como área focal o município de Manicoré, buscando identificar as espécies explotadas, os locais de pesca e sua contribuição para o abastecimento local de pescado. O desembarque foi amostrado diariamente, utilizando questionários aplicados aos pescadores após a comercialização do pescado. Foram desembarcadas no ano de 2002 aproximadamente 225,4 toneladas de pescado. Canoas motorizadas efetuaram mais expedições de pesca, entretanto os barcos de pesca desembarcaram uma maior produção. Os valores médios de desembarque foram de 11,2; 5,4 e 2,4 toneladas por mês para barcos, canoas e compradores de pescado respectivamente, sendo as capturas compostas por 32 espécies ou grupo de espécies, sendo jaraqui (Semaprochilodus spp, pacu (Mylossoma duriventre, curimatá (Prochilodus nigricans, sardinha (Triportheus spp e jatuarana (Brycon spp, responsáveis por 75% do pescado desembarcado. Foram identificados 32 locais de pesca, sendo os mais explotados os rios Madeira e Manicoré, os lagos Acará e Boquerão e o igarapé Matupiri.The study aimed to analyze the landing of commercial fishing in Middle Madeira River, near Manicoré city, identifying the exploited species, fishing grounds and the contribution for the local supplying of fish. Fish landings were sampled daily, using questionnaires, given to fishermen after the fish sale. In 2002, 225.4 tons of fish were landed in Manicoré city. Motorized canoes undertook more fishing trips, but the higher fish landings were accomplished by boats. Mean values of fish landings were 11.2 tons/month, 5.4 tons/month and 2.4 tons/month for boats, motorized canoes and fish purchasers, respectively. 32 species or group of species were landed, with a predominance of jaraqui (Semaprochilodus spp, pacu (Mylossoma duriventre, curimatá (Prochilodus nigricans, sardinha (Triportheus spp e jatuarana (Brycon spp, responsible for 75% of fish production. 32 fishing grounds were identified and the most exploited were the Madeira and Manicoré rivers, Acará and Boquerão lakes and the Matupiri stream.

  15. Marine influence in the Barreiras Formation, State of Alagoas, northeastern Brazil

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    Dilce F. Rossetti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Tidal processes were important for deposition of the Barreiras Formation located in northern Brazil, while correlatable deposits in northeastern Brazil have been traditionally related to continental environments. Facies analysis in southern Alagoas revealed that the Barreiras Formation consists of cross-stratified conglomerates and sandstones (facies Sx and Cgx, compound cross-stratified sandstones (facies Cx, and heterolithic beddings (facies H. A significant portion of these deposits occurs within channel morphologies displaying fining and thinning upward successions. An abundance of sedimentary features is comparable to those from the northern Brazilian counterpart. These include: tidal bundles; herringbone cross-stratification; heterolithic beddings with sandstone and mudstone beds in sharp contacts; and ichnofossils mostly consisting of Ophiomorpha nodosa, Skolithos and Planolites. Altogether, these features point to a marginal marine depositional setting dominated by tidal processes, which are related to an estuarine system, an interpretation also provided for the Barreiras Formation in northern Brazil. The widespread occurrence of deposits with unambiguous evidence of tidal processes in the Barreiras Formation of northern Brazil, and now in the State of Alagoas, leads to argue that the early/middle Miocene worldwide marine transgression might have left a much more widespread sedimentary record along the Brazilian coast than currently regarded.Processos de maré foram importantes na deposição da Formação Barreiras localizada no norte do Brasil, enquanto depósitos correlatos do nordeste brasileiro têm sido tradicionalmente relacionados a ambientes continentais. Análise de fácies no sul de Alagoas revelou que a Formação Barreiras consiste em conglomerados e arenitos com estratificações cruzadas (facies Sx e Cgx, arenitos com estratificação cruzada composta (facies Cx, e acamamentos heterolíticos (facies H. Uma por

  16. An ecoregional classification for the state of Roraima, Brazil: the importance of landscape in malaria biology

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    Maria Goreti Rosa-Freitas

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the different background landscapes in which malaria transmission occurs is fundamental to understanding malaria epidemiology and to designing effective local malaria control programs. Geology, geomorphology, vegetation, climate, land use, and anopheline distribution were used as a basis for an ecological classification of the state of Roraima, Brazil, in the northern Amazon Basin, focused on the natural history of malaria and transmission. We used unsupervised maximum likelihood classification, principal components analysis, and weighted overlay with equal contribution analyses to fine-scale thematic maps that resulted in clustered regions. We used ecological niche modeling techniques to develop a fine-scale picture of malaria vector distributions in the state. Eight ecoregions were identified and malaria-related aspects are discussed based on this classification, including 5 types of dense tropical rain forest and 3 types of savannah. Ecoregions formed by dense tropical rain forest were named as montane (ecoregion I, submontane (II, plateau (III, lowland (IV, and alluvial (V. Ecoregions formed by savannah were divided into steppe (VI, campos de Roraima, savannah (VII, cerrado, and wetland (VIII, campinarana. Such ecoregional mappings are important tools in integrated malaria control programs that aim to identify specific characteristics of malaria transmission, classify transmission risk, and define priority areas and appropriate interventions. For some areas, extension of these approaches to still-finer resolutions will provide an improved picture of malaria transmission patterns.

  17. Health risks due to pre-harvesting sugarcane burning in São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Maria Leticia de Souza Paraiso

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available After 2003, a new period of expansion of the sugarcane culture began in Brazil. Pre-harvesting burning of sugarcane straw is an agricultural practice that, despite the nuisance for the population and pollution generated, still persisted in over 70% of the municipalities of São Paulo State in 2010. In order to study the distribution of this risk factor, an ecological epidemiological study was conducted associating the rates of deaths and hospital admissions for respiratory diseases, for each municipality in the State, with the exposure to the pre-harvesting burning of sugarcane straw. A Bayesian multivariate regression model, controlled for the possible effects of socioeconomic and climate (temperature, humidity, and rainfall variations, has been used. The effect on health was measured by the standardized mortality and morbidity ratio. The measures of exposure to the pre-harvesting burning used were: percentage of the area of sugarcane harvested with burning, average levels of aerosol, and number of outbreaks of burning. The autocorrelation between data was controlled using a neighborhood matrix. It was observed that the increase in the number of outbreaks of burning was significantly associated with higher rates of hospital admissions for respiratory disease in children under five years old. Pre-harvesting burning of sugarcane effectively imposes risk to population health and therefore it should be eliminated.

  18. Corn Water Variables Assessments from Earth Observation Data in the Sao Paulo State, Southeast Brazil

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    Antonio Heriberto de Castro Teixeira[1; Femando Braz Tangerino Hemandez[2; Ricardo Guimaraes Andrade[1; Janice Freitas Leivas[1; Daniel de Castro Victoria[1; Edson Luis Bolfe[1

    2015-01-01

    Landsat satellite images and agrometeorological data were used together for modelling the crop coefficient (Kc) in irrigation pivots composed by a mixture of corn hybrids from a commercial farm for grains and silage, located at the northwestern side of Sao Paulo state, Brazil. After developing relationships between Kc and the accumulated degree-days (DDac) and having yield data for 2012 available, they were applied in the whole state, to upscale the crop water variables, during the GS (growing seasons) of a second-harvest crop from March to August. Spatial thermohydrological differences among the main corn growing regions were clear. The largest CWP (crop water productivity) values and SD (standard deviations) were for Itapetininga with an average value of 1.60 ± 0.43 kg m-3, while the lowest ones were for Presidente Prudente (0.81±0.21 kg m-3). As corn is important for these growing regions, being inside of the priorities from the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, these results should be considered for a rational exploration, including both, irrigation and rainfed conditions, as the actual water scarcity can bring much competition with other non-agricultural sectors.

  19. Pleural tuberculosis in the state of Roraima, Brazil, between 2005 and 2013: quality of diagnosis

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    Tao Machado

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the quality of diagnosis and the epidemiological profile of patients with pleural tuberculosis in the state of Roraima, Brazil, in order to provide technical support for the development and implementation of public policies to combat the disease. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study designed to determine the prevalence of pleural forms of tuberculosis in Roraima between 2005 and 2013 and to evaluate the diagnostic criteria used, as well as their determinants. This study was based on secondary data from the Brazilian Case Registry Database, including all reported cases of pleural tuberculosis in the state during the study period. Diagnoses based on bacteriological or histopathological confirmation were defined as high-quality diagnoses. Results: Among the 1,395 cases of tuberculosis reported during the study period, 116 (8.3% were cases of pleural tuberculosis, accounting for 38.9% of all cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis in the sample. The incidence rate of pleural tuberculosis did not follow the downward trend observed for the pulmonary form of the disease during the same period. The prevalence of cases with a high-quality diagnosis was 28.5% (95% CI: 20.4-37.6%. In a univariate analysis, none of the demographic or clinical characteristics collected from the database were found to have a significant impact on the outcome (as explanatory variables. Conclusions: The quality of the diagnoses in our study sample was considered unsatisfactory. Limited access to specific diagnostic methods might have contributed to these results.

  20. Prevalence and geospatial distribution of bovine cysticercosis in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Gabriel Augusto Marques; de Simoni, Heloisa Adélia Stefanoni; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Almeida, Henrique Meiroz de Souza; Soares, Vando Edésio; Vidal, Ana Maria Centola; Ferraudo, Antonio Sergio; Mathias, Luis Antonio

    2016-08-01

    This study focused on estimating the prevalence and evaluating the geospatial distribution of bovine cysticercosis in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. To this, we used data of 6,200,497 animals slaughtered during the years of 2013 and 2014, and from 141 municipalities of the state. The prevalence observed for this period was 0.0873% (95% CI 0.0851-0.0897). Regarding the cysticerci detected, the calcified ones were the most frequent (74.43%). The high odds ratios were observed in animals reared in the Administrative Regions of Sinop, Barra do Garças, Água Boa, Cáceres, Barra do Bugres, Cuiabá, Pontes Lacerda, Rondonópolis, Matupa, São Félix do Araguaia and Lucas do Rio Verde, respectively. Furthermore, the results indicate the existence of a relation between the areas with high cysticercosis prevalence and human population density. We highlight the need of the development of a risk model based on the origin to improve cysticercosis detection in endemic areas. PMID:27435651

  1. Mitochondrial DNA control region diversity in a population from Espirito Santo state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches, Naiara M; Paneto, Greiciane G; Figueiredo, Raquel F; de Mello, Aline O; Cicarelli, Regina M B

    2014-10-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis has proved to be useful for forensic identification, especially in cases which nuclear DNA markers fail, as in degraded samples or in cases where the biological material has few traces or no nuclear DNA. Moreover, it can be applied in population genetics, inferring the origin of a population. In this work, the entire mtDNA control region of 97 individuals from the state of Espirito Santo, Brazil, was analyzed. We have found 94 different haplotypes yielding a high haplotype diversity of 0.9994 ± 0.0016. The probability of a random match calculated was 1.09. Haplogroup distribution analysis confirmed a highly admixed Latin American population: African lineages (43.3 %), European lineages (32.0 %), Native American lineages (23.7 %) and Asian lineages (1.0 %). We have concluded that this type of tool can be used both in forensic genetics to the study of different human populations, such as highly admixed populations, and in the study of migration's history and colonization of different states and countries of the world. PMID:24996288

  2. [Prevalence of hemoglobin S in the State of Paraná, Brazil, based on neonatal screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Alexandra M; Pianovski, Mara Albonei D; Zanis Neto, José; Lichtvan, Leniza C L; Chautard-Freire-Maia, Eleidi A; Domingos, Mouseline T; Wittig, Ehrenfried O

    2008-05-01

    The Brazilian Ministry of Health created the National Neonatal Screening Program under ruling no. 822/2001, including neonatal screening for hemoglobinopathies. In the State of Paraná, neonatal screening is conducted by the Ecumenical Foundation for the Protection of the Handicapped. The prevalence rates were determined for homozygous and heterozygous hemoglobin S and Sbeta-thalassemia. Blood samples drawn on filter paper were examined by isoelectric focusing (IEF) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). From January 2002 to December 2004, 548,810 newborns were screened, with the detection of 21 with FS, two FSA/FS, and four FSA. After confirmatory tests at six months of age, 12 were defined as sickle-cell anemia, or a prevalence of 2.2:100,000 newborns; Sbeta-thalassemia was confirmed in 15 (2.7:100,000 newborns); and 8,321 newborns were diagnosed as heterozygous HbS (1,500:100,000 newborns). HbS prevalence in Paraná (in southern Brazil) is lower than in the Central-West, North, and Northeast of the country. Ethnic origin of the population, fetal deaths, and non-random procreation may contribute to the relatively low number of homozygous individuals in the State. Sbeta-thalassemia interaction suggests the presence of Euro-Mediterranean peoples in this population's miscegenation. PMID:18461228

  3. Suicide among physicians in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, across one decade

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    Hamer N. Palhares-Alves

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To describe mortality by suicide among physicians in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, between 2000 and 2009.Methods:Secondary analysis of government mortality data. The variable of interest was “underlying cause of death”, specifically deaths classified by the ICD-10 as intentional self-harm (X60 to X84.Results:The analyses examined 2,297 declarations of death, among which suicide accounted for 50 cases, i.e., 1.7% of all causes of death. Women comprised 13.2% of the total sample and represented 24% of the death-by-suicide group, indicating an overrepresentation of women in the latter (p = 0.02. Deaths by suicide occurred on average 20 years earlier than deaths by other causes (46.8±14.2 years and 68.1±15.8 years, respectively; p = 0.001. There was a significant association between single and/or divorced status and suicide (p < 0.001. The average mortality rate during the study period was 4.2 deaths per 100,000 physicians registered with the Regional Board of Medicine of the State of São Paulo.Conclusion:Deaths by suicide occurred 20 years earlier than deaths by other causes. Medical institutions should develop strategies for the prevention and early detection of mental disorders and occupational stressors that elevate the risk of suicide among physicians.

  4. Socioeconomic diagnosis of cheese producers of Marajó, state of Pará, Brazil

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    Vitória Nazaré Costa Seixas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to diagnose the socioeconomic conditions of cheese producers from three municipalities of Marajó Island, Pará state, Brazil. Manufacture process, hygienic-sanitary conditions in handmade cheese production and its commercialization were some features analysed for both cream-type and butter-type cheeses. During the survey, conducted from March to September 2012 questionnaires were applied to ten Marajó’s cheese producers. The cheese fabrication was characterized as a handmade process, employing family labor, most over ten years of experience. The production has a small scale, uses rudimentary technologies, lacks proper infrastructure for the processing of the product and has unsatisfactory hygienic-sanitary conditions. Commercialization is mainly by direct sale on the ship that travels to Belém city, capital of Pará state. Interviewed producers showed good reception to knowledge that can improve quality of the product, but they need a better guidance. In this context, the transfer of information is essential to sustain the production of these cheeses and preserve local culture, contributing to the economic and social development of producers regions.

  5. Identification and molecular characterization of norovirus in são paulo state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morilla, Simone Guadagnucci; Cilli, Audrey; de Cássia Compagnoli Carmona, Rita; Timenetsky, Maria do Carmo Sampaio Tavares

    2008-10-01

    Norovirus (NoV), previously called Norwalk-like virus, represents an important group of human pathogens associated with outbreaks of nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Epidemiological surveys of outbreaks have shown that the most important routes of transmission are person-to-person contacts and contaminated food and water, with the virus affecting adults and children. NoV is classified into genogroups, being genogroups GI, GII and GIV found in humans. In view of the high genetic diversity of NoV and the lack of information about this virus in Brazil, the aim of the present study was the molecular characterization of NoV isolated from diarrheic stool samples of patients from São Paulo State. In this study, 204 stool specimens collected during diarrhea outbreaks were analyzed by RT-PCR, and 12 were sequenced for genogroup confirmation. One-step PCR was performed in order to amplify the B region of ORF 1 using the MON 431, 432, 433 and 434 primer pool. From total, 32 (15.7%) stool specimens were positive for NoV genogroup GII. Comparison of the sequences of the PCR products to GenBank sequences showed 88.8% to 98.8% identity, suggesting the presence of genogroup GII in gastroenteritis outbreaks in São Paulo State. PMID:24031277

  6. Spatial study of homicide rates in the state of Bahia, Brazil, 1996-2010

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    Tiago Oliveira de Souza

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the spatial distribution of homicide mortality in the state of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. METHODS Ecological study of the 15 to 39-year old male population in the state of Bahia in the period 1996-2010. Data from the Mortality Information System, relating to homicide (X85-Y09 and population estimates from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics were used. The existence of spatial correlation, the presence of clusters and critical areas of the event studied were analyzed using Moran’s I Global and Local indices. RESULTS A non-random spatial pattern was observed in the distribution of rates, as was the presence of three clusters, the first in the north health district, the second in the eastern region, and the third cluster included townships in the south and the far south of Bahia. CONCLUSIONS The homicide mortality in the three different critical areas requires further studies that consider the socioeconomic, cultural and environmental characteristics in order to guide specific preventive and interventionist practices.

  7. Mortality from liver cirrhosis in Espírito Santo State, Brazil

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    Patricia Lofego Gonçalves

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To study mortality from liver cirrhosis in Espírito Santo State, Brazil, we reviewed death certificates (DC from 2000-2010 and medical records of deceased patients with investigation of alcoholism and hepatitis B or C. From a total of 218,410 DC, 3,554 deaths from liver cirrhosis were retrieved. The annual mortality rate was 19.8/100,000 for men and 4.31/100,000 for women, without significant changes after correction for ICD-R98 and R99 and without a significant increase in the annual percentage change. In 49% of death certificates, the aetiology of cirrhosis was defined: of these alcoholism in 81.5% of cases and viral hepatitis in 15.7%. Aetiology was confirmed in 262 reviewed records, including alcoholism (40.5%; hepatitis B or C (26.7%; other (3.8%; and cryptogenic (10.6%. The mean annual potential years of life lost were 5,946 years and 1,739 years for men and women respectively. The mortality rate from cirrhosis in Espírito Santo State is intermediate in relationship to worldwide data; alcoholism and hepatitis B or C were the main aetiologies; probably alcoholism is overestimated and hepatitis B and C viruses are underestimated as causes of cirrhosis registered on death certificates.

  8. Bryophytes from anthropic areas of the State Park of Serra do Mar, Núcleo Picinguaba, Ubatuba, São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Sandra Regina Visnadi

    2013-01-01

    The human actions have increased the occurrence of bryophytes in different kinds of environments and substrates. The paper list 110 species for the bryoflora from anthropic areas of the State Park of Serra do Mar, Núcleo Picinguaba in Ubatuba, São Paulo State, Brazil. The material was collected in natural and artificial substrates and it totalizes 172 exsiccatae, which are deposited in the Herbarium Maria Eneyda Pacheco Kauffmann Fidalgo (SP) and Herbarium Rioclarense (HRCB). The liverworts o...

  9. Amerindian agriculture in an urbanising Amazonia (Rio Negro, Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Emperaire, Laure; Eloy, L.

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the transformations undergone by indigenous agricultural systems in periurban areas of the Rio Negro (Amazonas, Brazil). Rather than losing their characteristics, these systems have basically been transposed from a forest context to periurban areas, maintaining multi-plot cultivation, dynamic management of agrobiodiversity and traditional knowledge. But this agriculture is confronted by the values of modernity embedded in urban agriculture. The recognition of the ecologi...

  10. Paracoccidioidomycosis in the state of Maranhão, Brazil: geographical and clinical aspects

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    Wilma Batista de Matos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The study aimed to show the situation of paracoccidioidomycosis in the state of Maranhão, Brazil. METHODS: This study is a descriptive case series developed in two stages. First, a survey of cases originating from the state of Maranhão at the Instituto de Doenças Tropicais Natan Portela, Piauí (IDTNP from 1997 to 2007, and second, the clinical description of 29 cases diagnosed in the Centro de Referências em Doenças Infecciosas e Parasitárias, Maranhão (CREDIP from 2004 to 2010. RESULTS: Two hundred and sixteen cases have been cataloged at the IDTNP. West, east, and central regions of the state of Maranhão recorded 90.3% of cases proving to be important areas for study. The western region, with a prevalence of 10.8/100,000 inhabitants, has a significantly higher proportion of cases than the northern, southern, and eastern regions (p < 0.05. The occurrence was higher in men with 89.3% of cases, and the male-to-female ratio was 8.4:1. The majority of patients were older than 20 years, lived in rural areas, and had farming or soil management as main occupation (73.8%. At CREDIP, 29 cases were diagnosed, of which 26 (89.6% had multifocal manifestations. Mucous tissues were involved more (75.8% frequently, followed by lymph nodes, skin, and lungs with 65.5%, 39% and 37.9 %, respectively. The diagnosis was made by combining direct examination, culture, and histopathology. CONCLUSIONS: The study shows the geographical distribution and the epidemiological and clinical aspects of paracoccidioidomycosis, revealing the significance of the disease to the state of Maranhão.

  11. Cancer incidence in eighteen cities of the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela I Andreoni

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: As in Brazil cancer registries are mostly based on large cities, there are no estimates per state or per region and information on the disease incidence in the vast in-land areas is very scarce. An incidence survey was conducted in 18 major cities of the state of São Paulo, excluding the capital, aiming to collect information about cancer incidence in the state of São Paulo. METHODS: Of the 18 cities in state of São Paulo included in the survey, all had available resources for cancer management. Data from the year of 1991 were collected by the personnel of the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (Brazilian Institute of Statistics, who were especially trained by the study coordinators at the Fundação Oncocentro de São Paulo (Cancer Center of São Paulo. The collected data were processed and analyzed at the Oncocentro. Data collection, processing, and analyses were performed according to the recommendations of the International Agency for Research on Cancer. RESULTS: Although some discrepancies were observed in cancer incidence rates between the cities, results obtained for all 18 cities combined were remarkably close to those recently found for the city of São Paulo in the year 1993. One remarkable finding was the relatively high cancer incidence rates in both sexes in the city of Santos. CONCLUSIONS: The very similar all-sites cancer incidence rates found in the year 1991, when compared to those for the city of São Paulo in the year 1993, are suggestive that all regions have common cancer-related factors. Nevertheless, other explanations, such as the inclusion in the study of prevalent cases, as well as of non-residents, may have occurred in both studies, biasing the results. There is a need of further studies to confirm the high cancer incidence in Santos.

  12. Cancer incidence in eighteen cities of the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreoni Gisela I

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: As in Brazil cancer registries are mostly based on large cities, there are no estimates per state or per region and information on the disease incidence in the vast in-land areas is very scarce. An incidence survey was conducted in 18 major cities of the state of São Paulo, excluding the capital, aiming to collect information about cancer incidence in the state of São Paulo. METHODS: Of the 18 cities in state of São Paulo included in the survey, all had available resources for cancer management. Data from the year of 1991 were collected by the personnel of the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (Brazilian Institute of Statistics, who were especially trained by the study coordinators at the Fundação Oncocentro de São Paulo (Cancer Center of São Paulo. The collected data were processed and analyzed at the Oncocentro. Data collection, processing, and analyses were performed according to the recommendations of the International Agency for Research on Cancer. RESULTS: Although some discrepancies were observed in cancer incidence rates between the cities, results obtained for all 18 cities combined were remarkably close to those recently found for the city of São Paulo in the year 1993. One remarkable finding was the relatively high cancer incidence rates in both sexes in the city of Santos. CONCLUSIONS: The very similar all-sites cancer incidence rates found in the year 1991, when compared to those for the city of São Paulo in the year 1993, are suggestive that all regions have common cancer-related factors. Nevertheless, other explanations, such as the inclusion in the study of prevalent cases, as well as of non-residents, may have occurred in both studies, biasing the results. There is a need of further studies to confirm the high cancer incidence in Santos.

  13. Description of Microvelia urucara sp. nov. and new distributional data on veliids (Insecta: Heteroptera: Veliidae: from the Amazon River floodplain, Brazil

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    Felipe F. F Moreira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on material collected on streams and lakes from the Amazon River floodplain, Brazil, Microvelia urucara sp. nov. is described, illustrated and compared with similar species. The new species, like many other Neotropical Microvelia Westwood, 1834, does not present striking modifications on the body or appendages, but can be separated from its congeners by features of the male genitalia. Distributional data is presented for other veliids collected along the Amazon River, and Paravelia capixaba Moreira, Nessimian & Rúdio, 2010 and Microvelia summersi Drake & Harris, 1928 are recorded for the first time from the Brazilian Amazon. Rhagovelia jubata Bacon, 1948 is newly recorded from the state of Amazonas, and Microvelia mimula White, 1879, M. pulchella Westwood, 1834 and M. venustatis Drake & Harris, 1933 are recorded for the first time from the state of Pará.

  14. Water balance indicators from MODIS images and agrometeorological data in Minas Gerais state, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de C. Teixeira, Antônio H.; Leivas, Janice F.; Andrade, Ricardo G.; de C. Victoria, Daniel; Bolfe, Edson L.; da Silva, Gustavo B. S.

    2015-10-01

    Minas Gerais state, Brazil, has experienced severe water scarcity in some areas, demanding large-scale water balance studies to subsidize water policies. The reflectance bands from the MOD13Q1 MODIS product were used together with gridded agrometeorological data in the state, during the year 2014, later extracting the main agriculture growing regions, North, Northwest and Minas Triangle, for analyzes. Precipitation (Prec) and reference evapotranspiration (ET0) data from 36 weather stations were interpolated, while for actual evapotranspiration (ET), the SAFER (Simple Algorithm for Evapotranspiration Retrieving) algorithm was used. Two climatic water balance indicators were applied, the Water Balance Ratio (WBr = Prec/ET) and the Water Balance Difference (WDd = Prec - ET). The daily net radiation (Rn) was retrieved from surface albedo (α0), air temperature (Ta) and shortwave atmospheric transmissivity (τsw), while the ground heat flux (G) was estimated as a fraction of Rn. For surface moisture, the evapotranspiration ratio (ETr = ET/ET0) and the evaporative fraction [Ef = λE/(Rn - G)] were used, with the latent heat flux (λE) obtained by transforming ET into energy units. Analyzing WDr and WDd, the most water scarcity critical MODIS 16-day periods, reaching to minimum values lower than 1.0 and -10 mm, respectively, were from the end of April to the middle of October. Higher water availability, detected by these indicators larger than 1.5 and 10 mm, respectively, were from the middle of October to the end of December. The maximums WDr and WDd of 7.0 and 158 mm happened from the middle of November to the start of December in the Northwest agricultural growing region. However, according to the ETr and Ef values, after this period, the soil moisture storage showed a gap, increasing only in the second half of December, when they reached to averages of 0.63. The largest values of these last soil moisture indicators, above 0.70 in May, did not coincided with the period

  15. Quality evaluation of radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine services in the states of Alagoas and Sergipe - Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Poliane Angelo de Lucena; Andrade, Wellington Gomes de; Lima, Fernando Roberto de Andrade, E-mail: wandrade@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: falima@cnen.gov.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Lima, Fabiana Farias de, E-mail: fflima@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals are compounds associated with a radionuclide. They can be considered as vectors that have some specificity for an organ or a physiological or pathophysiological function. Assessing the radiopharmaceutical's quality is essential to obtain adequate images, avoiding repetition of examinations and unnecessary absorbed dose to the patient. Resolution no. 8 (RCD 38) of 06/04/2008 by Agencia Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria (ANVISA) states the obligation of performing a minimum of tests in the routines of nuclear medicine services (NMS). The aim of this work was to evaluate the radiochemical purity and pH of radiopharmaceuticals used in NMS in states of Alagoas and Sergipe - Brazil. Radiochemical purity was determined by thin layer chromatography where a paper Whatman and TLC were used as steady state and the solvents were used related to the appropriate radiopharmaceutical, both as recommended by the manufacturer's directions. The chromatographic strips were placed in closed containers to avoid contact with the walls. After, the strips were cut in 1cm pieces and the activity was determined in each NMS's activity calibrators. The radiopharmaceuticals pH was evaluated by using universal pH paper (Merck) and the obtained color was compared with its range of colors. It was observed that 33.34% and 2.3% of the tested radiopharmaceuticals showed PRQ (radiochemical purity) and pH values, respectively, are outside of the limits described by the manufacturers. The results show that the radiochemical purity assessment in the NMS's routine can indicate problems with a radioisotope tagging, allowing their exclusion before administration. (author)

  16. Evaluation of diagnostic procedures in nuclear medicine services of Pernambuco and Alagoas states - Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Ricardo Braz F. da; Hazin, Clovis A., E-mail: chazin@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Lima, Fabiana F., E-mail: fflima@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The medical use of ionizing radiation contributes significantly to population exposure to radiation. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic procedures carried out in nuclear medicine (SMN) in Pernambuco and Alagoas in order to gather data to subsidize the proposal of reference levels for nuclear medicine in Brazil. Data were collected of the SMN in Pernambuco and Alagoas in the period of 2005 to 2009, according by UNSCEAR. The study used data from IBGE. The results showed that the total number of examinations in the period 2005 to 2009 was 34.828 in Pernambuco and 27.700 in Alagoas, corresponding to 6.966 and 5.540 average annual examinations in Pernambuco and Alagoas, respectively. The total number of examinations performed in both states in 2009 was twice the number carried out in 2005. Scintigraphy is the cardiovascular examination most performed in both states, followed by bone scintigraphy. Tc-99m is the radionuclide used most often, followed by I-131. The number of tests using Tc-99m in 2009 doubled when compared with the examinations performed in 2005. The results indicate that there has been a significant increase in the number of examinations in MN, and that females outnumber males, as far as the use of this diagnostic resource is concerned. The study of the activities of the radionuclides administered to patients in the states of Pernambuco and Alagoas showed that they are high when compared to the values recommended by the IAEA in its Safety Report Series Document No. 40. (author)

  17. Determination of soil screening levels for natural radionuclides in Minas Gerais state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil screening levels express the levels of contaminant concentration in the soil, which guide the actions to be taken following investigation to confirm contamination. The list of toxic substances or elements under Brazilian legislation includes organics, volatile organics and metals but does not consider radioactive elements. Radioactive elements are all potentially carcinogenic and therefore need to be subject to legal control. The National Nuclear Energy Commission, the federal agency currently responsible for legislation regarding the control of Naturally-Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) facilities does not establish guiding values for intervention in terms of soil activity concentration in the case of contamination with radioactive elements. In mining, the processing and treating of ores such as cassiterite, uranium, phosphate, niobium, and rare earths contribute to the generation of large amounts of NORM residues. Obviously, the improper disposal of these materials may lead to situations that result in soil and groundwater contamination and unnecessary exposure of the population in general. In order to establish guiding values for soil quality for natural radionuclides in the state of Minas Gerais, the study area included the entire state, which has unique characteristics related to the lithology, genesis, and morphology of the soils. These characteristics have tremendous influence on the petrogeochemistry of elements and radionuclides. A total of 110 soil samples were collected and analyzed in order to determine the activity concentration of U, Th, 226Ra, 228Ra e 210Pb. In general, it was possible to verify that the activity concentrations of U are higher than those of Th. This fact can be explained by the intense weathering that most of the state's soil has undergone and the chemical and geochemical characteristics of the two elements. The values obtained up to the present are higher than the reference values for soil quality adopted in other parts of

  18. Evaluation of diagnostic procedures in nuclear medicine services of Pernambuco and Alagoas states - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The medical use of ionizing radiation contributes significantly to population exposure to radiation. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic procedures carried out in nuclear medicine (SMN) in Pernambuco and Alagoas in order to gather data to subsidize the proposal of reference levels for nuclear medicine in Brazil. Data were collected of the SMN in Pernambuco and Alagoas in the period of 2005 to 2009, according by UNSCEAR. The study used data from IBGE. The results showed that the total number of examinations in the period 2005 to 2009 was 34.828 in Pernambuco and 27.700 in Alagoas, corresponding to 6.966 and 5.540 average annual examinations in Pernambuco and Alagoas, respectively. The total number of examinations performed in both states in 2009 was twice the number carried out in 2005. Scintigraphy is the cardiovascular examination most performed in both states, followed by bone scintigraphy. Tc-99m is the radionuclide used most often, followed by I-131. The number of tests using Tc-99m in 2009 doubled when compared with the examinations performed in 2005. The results indicate that there has been a significant increase in the number of examinations in MN, and that females outnumber males, as far as the use of this diagnostic resource is concerned. The study of the activities of the radionuclides administered to patients in the states of Pernambuco and Alagoas showed that they are high when compared to the values recommended by the IAEA in its Safety Report Series Document No. 40. (author)

  19. Anurofauna of an Atlantic Rainforest fragment and its surroundings in Northern Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Gomes, M; Almeida-Santos, M; Goyannes-Araújo, P; Borges-Júnior, V N T; Vrcibradic, D; Siqueira, C C; Ariani, C V; Dias, A S; Souza, V V; Pinto, R R; Van Sluys, M; Rocha, C F D

    2010-10-01

    We carried out a study on the anurofaunal community from an Atlantic Forest fragment (Monte Verde mountains) and the surrounding area in Cambuci municipality, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, which constitutes one of the largest fragments remaining in the largely deforested landscape of the northern portion of the State. We combined three sampling methods: plot sampling, transects and pit-fall traps. We recorded twenty species of amphibians, of which only eleven were found within the forest fragment (and five of these also occurred in the surrounding matrix). Two of the species recorded in the present study (Crossodactylus sp. and Ischnocnema cf. parva) may represent undescribed taxa. Our records expand the distribution range of one species (Scinax trapicheiroi) to the north, and fill a geographic distribution gap for another one (Ischnocnema oea). The estimated overall density of frogs living in the leaf litter of the fragment (based on results of plot sampling) was 3.1 individuals/100 m², with Haddadus binotatus being the most abundant species (2.4 individuals/100 m²). Comparisons of our data with those of other studies suggest that anuran communities in forest fragments ca. 1,000 ha or smaller may be severely limited in their richness, and often include a large proportion of species tolerant to open areas, such as many hylids. Our results show the importance of increasing knowledge about the anurofaunal community of the northern portion of the State of Rio de Janeiro and preserve the forest remnants that still exist in the region. PMID:21085792

  20. Quality evaluation of radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine services in the states of Alagoas and Sergipe - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiopharmaceuticals are compounds associated with a radionuclide. They can be considered as vectors that have some specificity for an organ or a physiological or pathophysiological function. Assessing the radiopharmaceutical's quality is essential to obtain adequate images, avoiding repetition of examinations and unnecessary absorbed dose to the patient. Resolution no. 8 (RCD 38) of 06/04/2008 by Agencia Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria (ANVISA) states the obligation of performing a minimum of tests in the routines of nuclear medicine services (NMS). The aim of this work was to evaluate the radiochemical purity and pH of radiopharmaceuticals used in NMS in states of Alagoas and Sergipe - Brazil. Radiochemical purity was determined by thin layer chromatography where a paper Whatman and TLC were used as steady state and the solvents were used related to the appropriate radiopharmaceutical, both as recommended by the manufacturer's directions. The chromatographic strips were placed in closed containers to avoid contact with the walls. After, the strips were cut in 1cm pieces and the activity was determined in each NMS's activity calibrators. The radiopharmaceuticals pH was evaluated by using universal pH paper (Merck) and the obtained color was compared with its range of colors. It was observed that 33.34% and 2.3% of the tested radiopharmaceuticals showed PRQ (radiochemical purity) and pH values, respectively, are outside of the limits described by the manufacturers. The results show that the radiochemical purity assessment in the NMS's routine can indicate problems with a radioisotope tagging, allowing their exclusion before administration. (author)

  1. The regulatory aspects of bulk natural gas distribution market: the case of the Espirito Santo state, Brazil; Aspectos regulatorios do mercado de distribuicao de gas natural a granel: o caso do estado do Espirito Santo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Adriana Fiorotti; Moraes, Natalia Goncalvez de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PPE/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Planejamento Energetico; Carolino, Jaqueline [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents the regulatory aspects of the natural gas in Brazil, and particularly focusing the segment of distribution and also how the regulatory and institutional changes happened at the Espirito Santo state, Brazil.

  2. Extensão de Cobertura ou Reorganização da Atenção Básica? A trajetória do Programa de Saúde da Família de Manaus-AM Coverage Extension or Reorganization of Primary Health Care? The Implementation of the Family Health Program in the City of Manaus, State of Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nair Chase da Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho analisa sete anos de implantação do Programa de Saúde da Família (PSF de Manaus, procurando identificar mudanças no sistema municipal de saúde a ele relacionadas e capazes de contribuir para a redução de desigualdades em saúde. Contextualiza a gênese do PSF no município, suas características, contradições e limitações, investigando se o programa construiu apenas uma trajetória de extensão de cobertura ou contribuiu efetivamente para a reorganização do modelo de atenção básica à saúde. As categorias de análise priorizaram princípios específicos de gestão do PSF: caráter substitutivo, integração com instituições e organizações sociais, territorialização, planejamento situacional com base na família e na comunidade, participação popular e controle social. A metodologia utilizada foi quali-quantitativa, compreendendo a análise dos dados de duas pesquisas avaliativas da implementação do PSF no município, realizadas em 2001 e em 2006. Os resultados mostram que, em Manaus, o PSF se constitui em uma estratégia de extensão de cobertura, com parcial superposição à estrutura assistencial de atenção básica (AB preexistente e paralelismo de ações. Dadas as condições de sua implantação, conclui-se que o PSF se expressa como um programa isolado dentro do sistema municipal de saúde, com potencialidade para se converter em estratégia reestruturadora da AB em Manaus. A confluência com a implantação dos Distritos Sanitários poderá contribuir para um caminho de reorientação do modelo assistencial que garanta atenção integral e concretize o direito à saúde.This paper analyzes seven years of implementation of Programa Saúde da Família (PSF - Family Health Program in the city of Manaus, state of Amazonas, aiming at identifying its influence on changes in the municipal health care system that are capable of contributing to the reduction in health care inequalities. It contextualizes

  3. Seasonality of Pelecinus polyturator (Drury (Hymenoptera, Pelecinidae in the Atlantic Rainforest of São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogéria I. R. Lara

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Seasonality of Pelecinus polyturator (Drury (Hymenoptera, Pelecinidae in the Atlantic Rainforest of São Paulo State, Brazil. A survey of the parasitoid wasp Pelecinus polyturator (Drury, 1773 (Hymenoptera, Pelecinidae was carried out with five Malaise traps/area in five areas in the Atlantic Rainforest of São Paulo State, Brazil, between November 2009 and October 2010. The sampling effort in each locality amounted to 1,825 trap-days. Data were obtained from a total of 317 exemplars of P. polyturator, corresponding to 108 females and 209 males. The average sex ratio of the studied population was 0.52. The highest occurrence of P. polyturator was observed between November and March with frequency peak in January; about 95% of the specimens studied were captured at altitudes close to 1,000 m above sea level.

  4. Toxic and essential elements in blood from delivering women in selected areas of São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudge, Cibele V C; Calderon, Iracema M P; Rudge, Marilza V C; Volpato, Gustavo; Silva, João L P; Duarte, Geraldo; Neto, Corintio M; Sass, Nelson; Mattar, Rosiane; Röllin, Halina B; Thomassen, Yngvar; Odland, Jon Ø

    2011-03-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the degree of environmental contamination and possible exposure of pregnant women to toxic elements in seven selected areas of São Paulo State, Brazil. The overall median concentration of Mo in maternal blood was 0.53 μg L⁻¹, highly significant differences found between sites (p Rural 1 sites having the highest levels (p Rural site 1; significant correlation was shown for Hg, Pb, Mn and Co (p environmental contamination in São Paulo State, Brazil. These findings could also indicate that pregnant women have little or no contact with pollutants, possibly due to awareness campaigns carried out by public health practitioners. PMID:21184002

  5. Volume equation as basis of community forest management in Anapu, Pará State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallacy Ferreira Barreto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The community forest management in settlement areas, in Pará, needs tools that provide reliable information about wood potential in the area, as volume equations. Five volumetric models of simple entrance and five of double entrance were adjusted to estimate the wood volume of standing trees in the Project of sustainable development Virola-Jatobá in Anapu, Pará State, Brazil. The trees were cubed using Smalian method. The diameter at 1.3 m above soil level was measured in 172 individuals from 25 species with commercial interest by the community. The diameters ranged from 60 to 120 cm and commercial height varied from 5.24 m to 35 m. The statistic criteria used to select the best volume model of simple or double entrance was adjusted coefficient of determination (R2aj, standard error of estimate (Sxyr, coefficient of variation (CV, average deviation percentage (ADP and graphic residual analysis. Chi-square test was used to validate the best models. Husch model presented the best estimative of wood volume in standing trees in the studied area, through the equation logv = 0,7974 + 4,4294logd. This equation does not use the commercial height variable, so it field inventory cost less and avoid mistakes from the estimation of this variable.

  6. Quantitative analysis of savanna wood species, in Teixeira, state of Paraiba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Adelmo Nunes Leite

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Savanna is the vegetation of semi-arid northeastern region of Brazil, which is largely determined by climate and topography. The municipality of Teixeira in the state of Paraiba presents hyperxerophilous shrub-arboreal caatinga land cover, which differs in size and density from those found in Sertaneja Depression, due to higher humidity. The objective of this work was to quantify forest remnant in the municipality of Teixeira, using geographic information system and forest inventory techniques. Native vegetation was mapped using satellite images, from November, 2008. Forest inventory was carried out in 40 sample plots (20 m × 20 m that were selected systematically. Height and diameter at 1.30 m from soil level (DBH were measured in every tree with DBH ≥ 10 cm. Each tree was identified by common and scientific names. A total of 4,911 trees were sampled, representing 46 species and 24 families that corresponds to 3,069 trees ha-1. The species with highest importance value (IV were: Croton sonderianus, Mimosa tenuiflora and Piptadenia stipulacea and the more important families were Euphorbiaceae, Mimosaceae and Caesalpinaceae. The municipality of Teixeira has its best preserved areas in mountainous regions with difficult access.

  7. Genetic structure of natural populations of Theobroma in the Juruena National Park, Mato Grosso State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, B M; Rossi, A A B; Dardengo, J F E; Silva, C R; Silva, I V; Silva, M L; Silva, C J

    2015-01-01

    Several species within the genus Theobroma have particularly high economic value, including T. cacao and T. grandiflorum. Other species in this genus, such as T. speciosum and T. subincanum, have potential value for use in the conservation of genetic diversity in breeding programs. These latter species could also be domesticated or improved to produce commercial products. Using 13 simple sequence repeat loci, the population structure and genetic diversity of T. speciosum and T. subincanum natural populations in the Juruena National Park, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, was studied. We sampled all individuals of each species (N = 25) present inside a designated research area established by the Program for Research on Biodiversity. The average number of alleles per locus was 5 for T. speciosum and 6.69 for T. subincanum, with average PIC values above 0.5 in both species. All evaluated individuals varied genetically. Seeds from the individuals analyzed will be useful for the development of germplasm banks and for establishment of breeding programs. PMID:26345977

  8. Study on phlebotomine sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae fauna in Belo Horizonte, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Margonari de Souza

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A study on the phlebotomine sand fly fauna in Belo Horizonte city, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, was carried out. From April 2001 to March 2003, monthly systematic collections were performed in three houses from each of the nine regions of the city, using CDC light traps for four consecutive days. The traps were set into the houses and in peridomestic areas totaling 54 traps. A number of 3871 sand fly specimens of the genera Lutzomyia and Brumptomyia were collected. Sixty eight percent of the specimens were L. longipalpis and 16% L. whitmani, insect vectors of visceral and American cutaneous leishmaniasis, respectively. Environmental factors such as temperature, humidity, and frequency of precipitation suggest that the number of insects increases after rainy periods. During the same period mentioned above, seasonal captures were carried out in parks and green areas of Belo Horizonte, using Shannon trap. A total of 579 phlebotomine sand flies were collected from which 398 (68.7% were females with the predominance of L. whitmani and L. monticola. Those specimens were used for natural infection examination, by polymerase chain reaction. No Leishmania DNA was present in any of the specimens tested.

  9. The association of health and income in the elderly: experience from a southern state of Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda G Fillenbaum

    Full Text Available In high income, developed countries, health status tends to improve as income increases, but primarily through the 50(th-66(th percentile of income. It is unclear whether the same limitation holds in middle income countries, and for both general assessments of health and specific conditions.Data were obtained from Brazil, a middle income country. In-person interviews with a representative sample of community residents age ≥ 60 (N=6963, in the southern state of Rio Grande do Sul, obtained information on demographic characteristics including household income and number of persons supported, general health status (self-rated health, functional status, depression, and seven physician-diagnosed, self-reported health conditions. Analyses used household income (adjusted for number supported and economies of scale together with higher order income terms, and controlled for demographics and comorbidities, to ascertain nonlinearity between income and general and specific health measures.In fully controlled analyses income was associated with general measures of health (linearly with self-rated health, nonlinearly with functional status. For specific health measures there was a consistent linear association with depression, pulmonary disorders, renal disorders, and sensory impairment. For musculoskeletal, cardiovascular (negative association, and gastrointestinal disorders this association no longer held when comorbidities were controlled. There was no association with diabetes.Contrary to findings in high income countries, the association of household-size-adjusted income with health was generally linear, sometimes negative, and sometimes absent when comorbidities were controlled.

  10. Effectiveness of nutrition centers in Ceará state, northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Monte, C M; Ashworth, A; Sá, M L; Diniz, R L

    1998-12-01

    Childhood malnutrition has been a major, long-standing health concern in northeastern Brazil. In response, during 1992-1994, the state government of Ceará, with financial support from the World Bank, established 34 new nutrition centers. During 1996 an evaluation of the centers was conducted to determine their effectiveness in treating children with malnutrition and to identify weaknesses in the system and possible solutions. Also evaluated were the adequacy of resources, admission and discharge criteria, staff training, and community satisfaction. Effectiveness was found to be low. Treatment procedures did not conform with World Health Organization recommendations. Rates of weight gain were inadequate, and the mean duration of rehabilitation--8.7 months--was too long. Case fatality in two centers was unacceptably high, 40% and more. Entry and exit criteria for rehabilitation were ill defined, resulting in some nonmalnourished children being enrolled. Few staff were adequately trained; knowledge was weak, especially about case management; and mothers were not effectively instructed. Recommendations include setting objectives for the centers, improving referral systems, standardizing entry criteria, improving case management, and establishing performance indicators. PMID:9924513

  11. Hydrological studies in experimental and representative basins in Pernambuco State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, S. M. G. L.; da Silva, B. B.; Antonino, A. C. D.; Lima, J. R. S.; de Souza, E. S.; de Oliveira, L. M. M.; de Moura, A. E. S. S.; Souza, R. M. S.

    2014-09-01

    Hydrological studies in experimental and representative basins are of fundamental importance for water resources management. This paper presents some activities of hydrological research in experimental and representative basins of the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. The study areas are located at Tapacurá and Mundaú representative basins and at the Gameleira experimental basin, and in experimental plots in Pajeú basin. In the Tapacurá basin, three studies were performed: (1) different monthly coefficients "k" of the Thornthwaite method were tested to calculate the effective temperature and, consequently, the reference evapotranspiration, giving rise to the method identified as Modified Thornthwaite; (2) the spatial variability of the retention curve and hydraulic conductivity parameters were analysed using the Beerkan method; (3) changes in vegetation cover were evaluated through the NDVI and NDWI indexes using TM-Landsat 5 images. In the Mundaú representative basin, the performance of different evapotranspiration methods was evaluated and compared to the FAO standard method, Penman-Monteith. In the Pajeú basin, the experimental plot is covered by pasture and sensors were installed to monitor the following variables: rainfall, air temperature, the energy balance components (net radiation, latent and sensible heat, and soil heat flux), wind velocity and CO2 flux into atmosphere, soil moisture and runoff.

  12. Macrofauna associated to Mycale microsigmatosa (Porifera, Demospongiae) in Rio de Janeiro State, SE Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Suzi M.; Omena, Elianne P.; Muricy, Guilherme

    2003-08-01

    The macrofauna (endo- and epi-biotic) associated to the sponge Mycale ( Carmia) microsigmatosa Arndt, 1927 was studied at three sites in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil (Arraial do Cabo, Niterói, and Rio de Janeiro). A total of 2235 individuals (over 1 mm long) of 75 invertebrate species were found associated to 19 specimens of the sponge. The most abundant and diverse taxa were the crustaceans (83%, 31 spp.), polychetes (10%, 18 spp.), and molluscs (3.7%, 15 spp.). Cnidarians, platyhelminthes, ascidians, echinoderms, pycnogonids, bryozoans, and sponges were also represented. Amphipod crustaceans were the dominant group, comprising 61% of all individuals collected. Species richness and abundance of associated fauna were highly correlated with sponge volume, but diversity and evenness were not. The site of collection influenced the species composition of the fauna associated to M. microsigmatosa but did not change significantly its diversity, abundance, richness, and dominance patterns of higher taxa. Pregnant females and juvenile stages of 29% of the species associated, including crustaceans, molluscs, echinoderms, and pycnogonids were frequently found inside M. microsigmatosa. Although many of these organisms do occur and reproduce in other habitats outside the sponge as well, M. microsigmatosa is also important for their reproduction and survivorship, thus contributing for the maintenance of biodiversity in Southwestern Atlantic sublittoral rocky shores.

  13. Genetic heterogeneity of Escherichia coli isolated from pasteurized milk in State of Paraná, Brazil

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    Karine Oltramari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Food contamination caused by enteric pathogens is a major cause of diarrheal disease worldwide, resulting in high morbidity and mortality and significant economic losses. Bacteria are important agents of foodborne diseases, particularly diarrheagenic Escherichia coli. The present study assessed the genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of E. coli isolates from pasteurized milk processed in 21 dairies in northwestern State of Parana, Brazil. The 95 E. coli isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing according to the recommendations of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute and assessed genotypically by Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus-Polymerase Chain Reaction (ERIC-PCR. The highest rate of resistance was observed for cephalothin (55.78%. ERIC-PCR revealed high genetic diversity, clustering the 95 bacterial isolates into 90 different genotypic patterns. These results showed a heterogeneous population of E. coli in milk samples produced in the northwestern region of Paraná and the need for good manufacturing practices throughout the processing of pasteurized milk to reduce the risk of foodborne illnesses.

  14. Dosimetry and image quality in digital mammography facilities in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Sabrina Donato; Joana, Geórgia Santos; Oliveira, Bruno Beraldo; de Oliveira, Marcio Alves; Leyton, Fernando; Nogueira, Maria do Socorro

    2015-11-01

    According to the National Register of Health Care Facilities (CNES), there are approximately 477 mammography systems operating in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, of which an estimated 200 are digital apparatus using mainly computerized radiography (CR) or direct radiography (DR) systems. Mammography is irreplaceable in the diagnosis and early detection of breast cancer, the leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide. A high standard of image quality alongside smaller doses and optimization of procedures are essential if early detection is to occur. This study aimed to determine dosimetry and image quality in 68 mammography services in Minas Gerais using CR or DR systems. The data of this study were collected between the years of 2011 and 2013. The contrast-to-noise ratio proved to be a critical point in the image production chain in digital systems, since 90% of services were not compliant in this regard, mainly for larger PMMA thicknesses (60 and 70 mm). Regarding the image noise, only 31% of these were compliant. The average glandular dose found is of concern, since more than half of the services presented doses above acceptable limits. Therefore, despite the potential benefits of using CR and DR systems, the employment of this technology has to be revised and optimized to achieve better quality image and reduce radiation dose as much as possible.

  15. Land Use Intensification Effects in Soil Arthropod Community of an Entisol in Pernambuco State, Brazil

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    G. M. Siqueira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The interactions between soil invertebrates and land use and management are fundamental for soil quality assessment but remain largely unaddressed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in soil arthropod community of an entisol brought about by different land use systems under semiarid climate in Pernambuco State, Brazil. The soil invertebrate community was sampled using pitfall traps from areas with eight vegetation types by the end of the austral winter. The land uses studied were native thorn forest plus seven agricultural fields planted with elephant grass, apple guava, passion fruit, carrot, maize, tomato, and green pepper. Native vegetation was considered as a reference, whereas the agricultural fields showed a range of soil use intensities. The abundance of organisms, the total and average richness, Shannon’s diversity index, and the Pielou uniformity index were determined, and all of these were affected by several crop and soil management practices such as residue cover, weed control, and pesticide application. Our study found differences in community assemblages and composition under different land use systems, but no single taxa could be used as indicator of soil use intensity.

  16. Provenience studies in archaeological sites in Araruama region, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work shows the results of provenience studies for ceramics collected at Sao Jose, Morro Grande, Serrano and Bela Vista archaeological sites in Araruama region, in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The clays used in this study were collected in the same region. The elemental chemical composition were determined in ceramic and clay samples by INAA allowing the simultaneous determination of twenty five elements, most of them at trace level. The studies of classification and provenience were made by multivariate statistical methods. The Euclidean distance and the hierarchical means in the Ward subroutine were used in cluster analysis. besides, dilution effect was also taken into account to verify the relation between clays and the different groups defined. The results of the cluster analysis and of the average dilution factor calculated for each one of the clays in relation to each group defined show that ceramics without decorations from Sao Jose have a closer chemical composition collected at the closest point at Morro Grande, denominated as Corrego Cambuci. The elements Co, Cr, Hf, Ta, Ti and Sb show smaller concentration in the ceramic, suggesting that in some way those elements are lost during fabrication or probably are diluted by the addition of temper or other materials. (author)

  17. Quantification of aluminium in soil of the Solimões Formation, Acre State, Brazil

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    Thiago Andrade Bernini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The variety of soils in the State of Acre is wide and their chemical profiles are still not fully understood. The nature of the material of origin of these soils is indicated by the high aluminium (Al content, commonly associated with high calcium (Ca and magnesium (Mg contents. The study objective was to use different methods to quantify Al in soils from toposequences formed from material of a sedimentary nature originating from the Solimões Formation, in Acre, Brazil. Trenches were opened at three distinct points in the landscape: shoulder, backslope and footslope positions. Soil samples were collected for physical, chemical, mineralogical analyses. The Al content was quantified using different methods. High Al contents were found in most of these horizons, associated with high Ca and Mg levels, representing the predominant cations in the sum of exchangeable bases. The mineralogy indicates that the soils are still in a low weathering phase, with the presence of significant quantities of 2:1 minerals. Similar Al contents were determined by the methods of NaOH titration, xylenol orange spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. However, no consistent data were obtained by the pyrocatechol violet method. Extraction with KCl overestimated the exchangeable Al content due to its ability to extract the non-exchangeable Al present in the smectite interlayers. It was observed that high Al contents are related to the instability of the hydroxyl-Al smectite interlayers.

  18. Organic micropollutants on river sediments from Rio de Janeiro State, Southeast Brazil

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    Torres João Paulo Machado

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a contribution for the knowledge upon concentrations and fate of different kinds of organic micropollutants in Tropical River system from a very industrialized region in Brazil. The presented data was obtained during three years of an International Research Project between Brazilian and Dutch institutions. The sediments were sampled at the Paraiba do Sul-Guandu river watershed, the most important watercourse of Rio de Janeiro state, where up 90 % of the population depends on its water for domestic uses. After extraction with non-polar solvents in a hot sohxlet device and clean up using chromatographic columns, three classes of organic micropollutants were analyzed: organochlorine insecticides (OCs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. The organochlorines, including the PCBs were scarcely present in the collected samples probably reflecting the restrictions of use of this class of compounds in the Brazilian market. However, the PAHs levels were high at the vicinity of a huge steelworks located in the city of Volta Redonda. This contamination is probably due to the massive use of coal in the above-cited metallurgical plant.

  19. Organic micropollutants on river sediments from Rio de Janeiro State, Southeast Brazil

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    João Paulo Machado Torres

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a contribution for the knowledge upon concentrations and fate of different kinds of organic micropollutants in Tropical River system from a very industrialized region in Brazil. The presented data was obtained during three years of an International Research Project between Brazilian and Dutch institutions. The sediments were sampled at the Paraiba do Sul-Guandu river watershed, the most important watercourse of Rio de Janeiro state, where up 90 % of the population depends on its water for domestic uses. After extraction with non-polar solvents in a hot sohxlet device and clean up using chromatographic columns, three classes of organic micropollutants were analyzed: organochlorine insecticides (OCs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. The organochlorines, including the PCBs were scarcely present in the collected samples probably reflecting the restrictions of use of this class of compounds in the Brazilian market. However, the PAHs levels were high at the vicinity of a huge steelworks located in the city of Volta Redonda. This contamination is probably due to the massive use of coal in the above-cited metallurgical plant.

  20. The burden of disease due to tuberculosis in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Glenio Cesar Nunes Ferrer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the burden of disease due to tuberculosis in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, in 2009. METHODS: This was an epidemiological study with an ecological design. Data on tuberculosis incidence and mortality were collected from specific Brazilian National Ministry of Health databases. The burden of disease due to tuberculosis was based on the calculation of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs. The DALYs were estimated by adding the years of life lost (YLLs and years lived with disability (YLDs. Absolute values were transformed into rates per 100,000 population. The rates were calculated by gender, age group, and health care macroregion. RESULTS: The burden of disease due to tuberculosis was 5,644.27 DALYs (92.25 DALYs/100,000 population, YLLs and YLDs respectively accounting for 78.77% and 21.23% of that total. The highest rates were found in males in the 30-44 and 45-59 year age brackets, although that was not true in every health care macroregion. Overall, the highest estimated burden was in the Planalto Norte macroregion (179.56 DALYs/100,000 population, followed by the Nordeste macroregion (167.07 DALYs/100,000 population. CONCLUSIONS: In the majority of the health care macroregions of Santa Catarina, the burden of disease due to tuberculosis was concentrated in adult males, the level of that concentration varying among the various macroregions.

  1. Environmental diagnosis at the landfill area of Andradas, State Of Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Bárbara Giraldi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The main problem of the contemporary society is the generation and disposal of the garbage, which has causing a series of impacts and risk for the human health. The main goal of this research was carry out a diagnosis of the water and soil quality at areas of arrangement of the garbage at the county of Andradas, in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The methodology was comprised of visits and photographic survey of the site, chemical analysis of soil (pH, P, S, K, Ca, Mg, Al, B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn and microbiological analysis of water (total and fecal coliform bacteria, in the month of May of 2008. The photographic survey showed that the garbage is not recovered daily. The chemical analyses showed that the soil is degraded, in what refers to his fertility, and a concentration of Mn which reached 18.9 mg kg-1. The microbiological analyses indicated an absence of fecal coliform, however a potential water pollution exists by total coliform, which reached 9.3 x 103 NMP 100 mL-1.Keywords: water resources, garbage, soil and water pollution.

  2. Diet of the lizard Ecpleopus gaudichaudii (Gymnophthalmidae in Atlantic Rainforest, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Thiago Maia

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study we analyzed the diet of the gymnophthalmid lizard Ecpleopus gaudichaudii Duméril & Bibron, 1839, a typical inhabitant of the forest-floor leaf litter, in an Atlantic Forest area in the state of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. The 26 individuals sampled during the study had a mean snout-vent length (SVL of 36.2 ± 4.2 mm and a mean jaw width (JW of 4.1 ± 0.5 mm. We did not find differences in SVL between males and females, though the sexes differed in JW when the effect of body size was factored out, with females presenting higher values. The diet of the lizards was composed exclusively of arthropods, especially isopods and orthopterans. The similarity in trophic niches among seasons (volumetric and numerical proportions of prey categories consumed were 0.096 and to 0.43, respectively. There were also no detectable seasonal differences in mean number and mean volume of prey ingested, as well as no significant influence of lizard SVL on prey number and of lizard JW on mean prey volume, which may reflect the tendency of E. gaudichaudii to feed on few, relatively large prey.

  3. NUTRIENTS CONCENTRATION AND ACCUMULATION IN TEAK STANDS IN THE STATE OF MATO GROSSO, BRAZIL

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    Tania de Fátima de Deus Rosa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of plant nutrition is very important for fertilizer practices. The aim of this investigation was to estimate the concentrations and accumulations of nutrients in teak trees of different ages located at Nossa Senhora do Livramento, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. From September 2008 to August 2009 wood litter collectors of 0.64 cm2 were installed 30 cm above soil surface to collect litter material from plants in five, six and seven year old stands. Every 30 days the litter contents were manually collected and separated in three fractions: leaves, branches and miscellaneous (barks, flowers and fruits. Each fraction was dried and then weighted and chemically analyzed. The order of nutrients stocks in the leaves was Ca> N> Mg> K> P> S, in the branches was N> Ca> K> Mg> S> P, and in the miscellany was N > Ca> K> Mg> P> S. The order of nutrients magnitude in the fractions was leaves> branches> miscellany. The order of concentration for nutrients and accumulation for plants was the same in all ages, that is, Ca> N> K> Mg> P> S.

  4. FRUIT MORPHOLOGY AND PRODUCTIVITY OF BABASSU PALMS IN NORTHERN MINAS GERAIS STATE, BRAZIL1

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    Marcio Lisboa Guedes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objectives of this study were to morphologically characterize fruits of the babassu palm tree (Attalea vitrivir and to estimate their productivity in the north of Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Twenty mature fruits were collected from 10 plants in three different areas in Januária, Minas Gerais. Eighteen biometric parameters of the fruits were measured, the oil contents of the seeds was determined, the adherence to normal distribution was evaluated, distribution frequencies were evaluated and the effects of individuals and areas on the variables and the correlations between them were analyzed. The production of fruit bunches per plant and the number of fruits per bunch from 10 plants were quantified in three areas and the potential production under both natural harvesting and cultivation conditions were estimated. Significant differences were found among all of the biometric parameters examined between the different individuals and the different areas, which shows wide morphological variability in the fruits. The average oil content was 45.7%, but with significant differences among individuals. The observed variability favors the selection of productive individuals in genetic improvement programs. The potential productivity of endocarps and oil based on a density of 400/plants per hectare would be respectively 6.4 and 1.2 tons/ha, which indicates the possibility of using A. vitrivir for producing charcoal, bio fuels, and for carbon fixation.

  5. Characterization and classification of two soils derived from basic rocks in Pernambuco State Coast, Northeast Brazil

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    Oliveira Lindomário Barros de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Geomorphic surfaces that present soils derived from basic rocks under warm and humid climate are unique scenarios for studying tropical soils. This paper aimed to characterize and classify two pedons derived from basalt at the Atlantic Forest Zone, Pernambuco State, Northeastern coast of Brazil. Two representative pedons (P1 and P2 were selected on a hillslope at the Cabo de Santo Agostinho municipality. Field macromorphological descriptions were carried out and soil horizon were sampled for physical, chemical, mineralogical and micromorphological characterization. The soils were classified, according to the Brazilian System of Soil Classification (and US Soil Taxonomy as: "Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo distroférrico argissólico" (Typic Hapludox (P1 and "Nitossolo Vermelho distroférrico típico" (Rhodic Paleudult (P2. Pedon 1 differs from Pedon 2 in some aspects. For instance, P1 presents more yellowish colors, absence of clay illuviation, more friable consistence and the prismatic structure undergoes transformation to angular and subangular blocks. Pedon 2 presents ferri-argilans and leptocutans which indicate that vertical and lateral illuviation of clay is an active process in their formation. These chemically poor and mineralogically uniform soils are a result of the high temperature and rainfall of the studied area.

  6. Personal and behavioral factors associated with bicycling in adults from Curitiba, Parana State, Brazil

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    Marilson Kienteka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bicycling is an important form of physical activity that can promote health benefits. The objective of this study was to analyze the association between personal and behavioral aspects in transportation bicycling and leisure time bicycling in adults. Data was drawn from a household survey involving 677 adults (53.1% female in Curitiba, Paraná State, Brazil. The prevalence of bicycling was 11.2% for transportation and 16.7% for leisure. The frequency of leisure time bicycling was higher among men (PR = 2.08; p < 0.001, young people < 30 and adults aged between 30 and 39.9, bicycle owners (PR = 8.76; p < 0.001 and among the physically active. Transportation bicycling occurred more frequently among men (PR = 3.63; p < 0.001, individuals aged 30 to 39.9, those with a low socioeconomic status (PR = 5.00; p = 0.006, bicycle owners (PR = 10.2; p < 0.001 and individuals with a negative perception of their quality of life. The prevalence of bicycling is low in Curitiba considering its potential as a means of physical activity. Personal and behavioral factors were associated with each form of bicycling.

  7. [Multiple perceptions of infant mortality in Ceará State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, José Roberto Pereira de; Nations, Marilyn

    2011-02-01

    This qualitative study analyzes the perceptions of various social actors towards infant mortality and the program to reduce it in Ceará State, Northeast Brazil. The study compares two municipalities (counties) that showed opposite infant mortality trends from 1993 to 1997, during which time Ceará achieved international visibility for having reduced infant mortality statewide. A total of 48 semi-structured interviews with four groups of key informants health system managers, community health agents, mothers who had lost a child, and neighbor women with children in the same age bracket and content analysis revealed "multiple conflicting voices" on the issue. Although the level of political determination to implement the interventions varied between the two municipalities, the differences in perceptions concerning infant death were more striking between the various groups of social actors, regardless of the municipality. The study revealed a kind of authoritarian educational practice that jeopardizes acceptance of the Community Health Agents Program. Public policies are needed that give voice to the people closest to the experience of infant death. PMID:21359462

  8. Radiocrystallographic study of Schneiderhohnite from Urucum stream pegmatite - (Minas Gerais State, Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fragment of a Schneiderhoehnite crystal, found at Urucum pegmatite, at the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, was studied by x-ray crystallography. Schneiderhoehnite, Fe8 As10 O23, was described previously as triclinic. The cell parameters for the original sample, found at Tsumeb, South West Africa, were: a0 = 8.940 ± 0.004 Angstrom, α = 63.00 ± 0,003deg; b0 = 9.998 ± 0.004 Angstrom, β = 116.20 ± 0.003deg; c0 = 9.145 ± 0.005 Angstrom, γ = 81.79 ± 0.003deg. The experimental value for the density of the mineral was found to be 4.3 g.cm-3 and the density calculated by using the parameters is 4.40 g.cm-3. The results here reported suggests an alternative unit cell for Schneiderhoehnite which, despite of being yet triclinic, presents reticular parameters somewhat different from those reported previously that is, a0 9.034 Angstrom, α = 56deg 23'; b0 = 9.689 Angstrom, β = 124deg 14'; c0 = 9.944 Angstrom, γ = 98deg 13'. The density of Schneiderhoehnite calculated with these parameters should be 4.47 g.cm-3. This value compares favourably with the experimental value (4.3 g.cm-32). (author). 5 refs, 2 tabs

  9. Population data of 17 Y-STR loci from Rio Grande do Sul state (South Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwengber, Solange P; Kommers, Trícia; Matte, Cecília H F; Raimann, Paulo E; Carvalho, Bianca A; Leite, Fabio P N; Medeiros, Marcelo A; Souza, Luis F; Castro, Cibele S; Chassot, Fernanda G C; Bonatto, Sandro L

    2009-12-01

    A sample of 255 Brazilian males from Rio Grande do Sul (RS), the Brazilian southernmost state, was typed for 17 Y-STR loci (DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635, YGATA_H4.1 and DYS385ab). A total of 247 haplotypes were identified, of which 239 were unique and eight were found in two individuals each. The haplotype diversity (99.98%) and discrimination capacity (96.86%) were calculated. Pairwise haplotype distances showed that the RS population is not significantly different from Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, and Argentina, is different from São Paulo, Italy, and North Portugal, and is very distant from Spain, the Amazon region, Germany, and South Amerindians. When the RS data was separated in the seven geopolitical regions, some pairs of regions were significantly different; however no region was different from the whole Brazilian sample. PMID:19948319

  10. Sedimentation rate at Olho d'agua Lagoon in Pernambuco State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of the dynamic of sediments in coastal estaurine areas has attracted rthe attenition of a great number of scientists, due to its role in determining the impact of human activities on the ecosystem. A knowledge of the rate at which sediments have been accumulating can be a useful parameter in quantifying the amount of polltuants that reach the marine environment. This study had thge objective of determining the sediment accumulation rate at the Olho D'agua Lagoon, located at the Jabotao dos Guararapes District, in the metropolitan region of Recife, the capital of the State of Pernambuco -Brazil. This lagoon was selected by the Brazilian government to benefit from the Habitat II Program, which is sponsored by the United Nations Organization. Sedimentation rates were estimated by measuring the vertical distribution of 210 Pb in sediment cores collected in two different areas of the lagoon. The determination of the 210 Pb content was based upon the measurement of its descendent 210 Po which was deposited in a cooper disk. The results indicated rates of accumulation of 0.6 cm/year and 1.5 cm/year at points near the Olho D'agua and Setubal channels, respectively. These channels are important conveyors of sediments to this estuary. (author). 5 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Herpetofauna of Núcleo Experimental de Iguaba Grande, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, A R; Bruno, S F; Navegantes, A Q

    2012-08-01

    The Atlantic Rain forest, which is considered the second largest pluvial forest in the American continent, has had an estimated 93% of its original area destroyed. Although studies concerning the herpetofaunal diversity in this biome have been intensified in the past years, its diversity is still underestimated. The Nucleo Experimental de Iguaba Grande (NEIG) is included in an Environmental Protection Area (APA de Sapeatiba) in the Iguaba Grande municipality, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil (22º 51' S and 42º 10' W). The goal of this study was to conduct an inventory of the reptile and amphibian species that occur in this area between July 2008 and December 2009. We recorded 19 species of amphibians (18 anurans and one caecilian) and 15 species of reptiles (three lizards, 11 snakes and one amphisbaenian). Leptodactylus latrans and L. mystacinus had the highest capture rates among amphibians captured, and among reptiles, Ameiva ameiva, Hemidactylus mabouia and Mabuya agilis had the highest capture rates. Rarefaction curves for both amphibians and reptiles did not reach the asymptote, indicating that the species richness in the NEIG is still underestimated. PMID:22990826

  12. Temporal evaluation of soil use conflicts in the Formoso river basin, state of Tocantins, Brazil

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    Kaio Cesar Cardoso de Lima Fonseca Alves

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The importance of permanent preservation areas (PPA is mainly associated to their environmental role to maintain, preserve, and conserve water resources and ecosystems within a basin. The objective of this study was to delimitate and quantify the areas of PPA along watercourses as well as anthropized areas within PPAs boundaries, in the Formoso river basin, state of Tocantins, Brazil. PPAs area was delimited considering boundaries according to the Brazilian Forest Law. We sampled areas within the watercourses classified up to hierarchical Level 4. Watercourses handling draw, automatic delimitation of PPA, and visual classification of the soil use conflicts based on LANDSAT 5 TM of 1985, 1998 and 2011 were carried out on Geographical Information System ArcGIS. PPA of the watercourses sampled in this study represent 1.14% (24,491.35 ha of the drainage area of the Formoso river basin. For 1985, an area of about 3,616.48 ha was quantified, which is characterized by conflicts related to soil use. However, these conflict areas were reduced to 3,341.25 ha and 3,345.37 ha, respectively, for 1998 and 2011. Due to the intense agricultural land expansion observed in the basin in the last decades, the mentioned reductions in soil use conflicts between 1985 and 1998 and subsequent maintenance can be linked to changes on Brazilian environmental legislation.

  13. Schistosomiasis mansoni in Bananal (State of São Paulo, Brazil: II. Intermediate hosts

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    Horacio Manuel Santana Teles

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available We conducted monthly snail captures in Bananal, State of São Paulo, Brazil, between March 1998 and February 2001, to identify Schistosoma mansoni vectors, estimate seasonal population changes, and delimit foci. We also evaluated the impact of improvements in city water supply and basic sanitation facilities. We identified 28,651 vector specimens, 28,438 as Biomphalaria tenagophila, 49 of them (0.2% infected with S. mansoni, and 213 as B. straminea, none of the latter infected. Vectors predominated in water bodies having some vegetation along their banks. Neither population density nor local vegetation could be linked to vector infection. We found the first infected snails in 1998 (from March to May. Further captures of infected snails ocurred, without exception, from July to December, when rainfall was least. Irrespective of season, overall temperature ranged from 16.5ºC to 21ºC; pH values, from 6.0 to 6.8. Neither factor was associated with snail population density. Frequent contact of people with the river result from wading across it, extracting sand from its bottom, fishing, washing animals, etc. Despite a marked reduction in contamination, cercaria shedding persists. Whatever the location along its urban course, contact with river Bananal, particularly of the unprotected skin, entails risks of infection.

  14. [AIDS in children: the influence of socioeconomic differences in Fortaleza, Ceará State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Emeline Moura; Pedrosa, Nathália Lima; Holanda, Eliane Rolim de; Almeida, Rosa Lívia Freitas; Kerr, Lígia Regina Franco Sansigolo; Galvão, Marli Teresinha Gimeniz

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to analyze the relationship between pediatric AIDS cases and neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics in Fortaleza, Ceará State, Brazil. This was an ecological and descriptive study with socioeconomic data from the 2010 Population Census and AIDS data in children for 2001-2011 from the Information System on Notifiable Diseases. Pearson's correlation was performed and the Moran index was used to verify spatial autocorrelation. A multinomial model was used to identify clusters. Of the total sample, 57.8% were male. In 18.8% of the children, the diagnosis was made after two years of age. There was a positive spatial correlation between AIDS cases in children and income (I = 0.6; p = 0.001) and the proportion of poor (I = 0.5; p = 0.001). Neighborhoods with these characteristics are mainly located in the Northwest and Southwest areas of the city. Spatial correlation between pediatric AIDS cases and socioeconomic indicators highlights the need for interventions aimed at improving health and living conditions. PMID:26578024

  15. Demographic characteristics of owned dogs and cats of Votorantim, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Santos Baquero

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A two-stage cluster sample design was used to estimate population parameters of dogs and cats of the urban area of Votorantim, São Paulo State, Brazil, to support the planning and implementation of population management programs for companion animals. For dogs, the total and density estimates were 27,241 dogs (95% confidence interval [CI]=23,903-30,578 and 951 dogs km-2 (95% CI=835-1,068, respectively. For cats, these estimates were 5,579 cats (95% CI=3,595-7,562 and 195 cats km-2 (95% CI=126-264. Cost was the most prevalent reason for not sterilizing the animals (33%, 95% CI=23%-44%, Deff=6.1. The percentage of interviewees that expressed reasons for abandoning their animals was equal to 9 (95% CI=5-13, Deff=2.1. Other estimates were obtained, including indirect estimates of abandonment. The estimates associated with abandonment suggest that the prevalence of this phenomenon can significantly affect population dynamics. Distribution of dogs per household can be used to construct hypothetical populations and to validate estimation procedures. The estimates generated allow parameterizing mathematical models and constructing population management indicators

  16. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii among turkeys on family farms in the state of Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Silvio G; Lima, Débora C V; Silva, Luana T R; Pinheiro Júnior, José W; Dubey, Jitender P; Silva, Jean C R; Mota, Rinaldo A

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in turkeys and chickens on family farms in the semi-arid region of the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. In order to do so, 204 sera samples from turkeys were analyzed using the Modified Agglutination Test (MAT) and 322 sera samples from chickens were assessed using the Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA). Twenty-eight properties contained turkeys and 23 of these properties also contained chickens. The relative frequency of positive turkeys was 11% (21/204), with 46.6% (13/28) of the properties containing at least one positive turkey. The frequency of positive chickens was 25.8% (83/322), with 95.6% (22/23) of the properties containing at least one positive chicken. Based on the results of the present study, it was possible to conclude that turkeys can serve as an indicator of environmental contamination by oocysts of T. gondii. However, they are less effective than chickens bred in the same conditions. The increasing demand from consumers for naturally produced products should worry local sanitary authorities due to the high prevalence of antibodies against T. gondii found in this type of rearing system, particularly among chickens. PMID:27078666

  17. Evapotranspiration of caupi beans culture in the Zona da Mata of Pernambuco State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A water balance experiment was carried out in a red-yellow podzolic soil of the Northern Zona da Mata region, in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. Six 11 m x 3m plots were planted with the IPA-206 variety of caupi beans (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp), which was genetically modified at the IPA Research Center in order to improve its resistance to water stress. The experiments were performed in two different periods of the year, so that the influence of the amount of rainfall on the crop yield could be evaluated. Stored water and water potential gradient at the 0-90 cm depth layer, were measured through the use of neutron probes and mercury manometers, respectively. The dry season results a water stress throughout the growing cycle, resulting in a low yield (548 Kg/ha). In contrast, the large amount of rainfall that occurred during the wet season, was sufficient to avoid water stress to the plant root system, leading to a significant increase in the crop yield, (1014 kg/ha). The evapotranspiration component has been estimated as 3,57 mm/day and 4,07 mm/day, respectively. (author)

  18. Interstitial nephritis of slaughtered pigs in the State of Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    João X. Oliveira Filho

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated histological lesions in kidney samples from pigs with nephritis in two slaughterhouses in the State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Four hundred samples were subjected to histology, anti-porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 immunohistochemistry (IHC, anti-Leptospira sp. immunofluorescence (IF, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR for PCV2, porcine parvovirus (PPV, and Torque teno virus type 1 and 2 (TTV1, TTV2 detection. Histological lesions were found in 81% of the samples, and mononuclear interstitial nephritis was the most frequent lesion (77.50%. A follicular pattern was observed in 40.97% of the interstitial nephritis lesions. PCV2, PPV, TTV1, and TTV2 were identified in the kidneys by PCR in 27.25%, 28.50%, 94%, and 87.5% of the samples, respectively. Leptospira sp. was not detected through IF. Infection by PCV2 (PCR and the presence of histological lesions (P=0.008 and giant cells (P=0.0016 were significantly associated. An association was observed between the TTV2-TTV1 co-infection (P<0.0001 and the risk for pathogenesis. These findings indicated that PCV2, PPV, TTV1, and TTV2 were widely distributed among pigs in the local farms and that the presence of these agents should be considered in the differential diagnosis of kidneys with interstitial nephritis in pigs.

  19. Metal distribution in sediment cores from Sao Paulo State Coast, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Sediment core study in the total fraction. → Elementary composition of sediment for dredged sediment regulation. → Multivariate analysis for determination of basal level of sediment composition. → Importance of the determination of local reference values for sediment studies. - Abstract: Ten sediment core samples with lengths ranging from 35 to 100 cm were collected in the Baixada Santista region and analyzed to determine As, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Rb, Sb, Ta, Th, U, Zn and rare earths (Sc, Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) level concentrations using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The studied region is located in the southeastern coast of Sao Paulo State and is comprised of a densely urbanized area, the largest industrial complex of the country, with a predominance of petrochemical and fertilizer plants. It is also home to Brazil's most important and busiest port. The conclusions found that the As, La, Sm, Ne, Ce, Eu, Hf, Ta, Th, and U elements have a high background level in the region and that Fe and Zn were the main indicators of anthropogenic contribution in the sediments.

  20. Determination of gamma ray attenuation coefficient of archaeological ceramics from Parana State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work demonstrates an alternative methodology for the linear attenuation coefficient determination (μρ) of irregular form samples. This methodology aims the study of indigenous archaeological ceramics from the region of Londrina, North of Parana State, Brazil. These ceramics are from Padre Carlos Weiss Historic Museum, Londrina University and belong to the Kaingaing tradition. Firstly, μρ determination by two mean method was performed by the gamma ray beam attenuation of the immersed ceramics, by using two different means with well-known linear attenuation coefficient. Beyond, the deduction of the equation for the μρ determination by the two-means methods, was also realized. By the other side, μρ theoretical value was determined with the XCOM computer program. This program uses the ceramics chemistry composition and provides an energy versus mass attenuation coefficient table. To verify the two-means method efficiency, five ceramics sample of thickness 1.15 cm and 1.87 cm were prepared with homogeneous clay. Theses ceramics, we used for the μρ determination using the attenuation method, and two-means method. The results and the μρ obtained deviation were compared for these samples, for the two methods. With the obtained results, it was concluded that the two-means method is applicable for the mass attenuation coefficient determination for the archaeometry studies. (author). 6 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  1. Insect fauna in soil at different grassland ecosystems at Sobral, state of Ceará, Brazil

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    Gislane dos Santos Sousa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was perform a surveillance of the insect fauna in soil in three grassland ecosystems of experimental farm Vale do Acaraú of Universidade Estadual Vale do Acaraú at Sobral, state of Ceará, Brazil, by the using of traps soil, with fortnightly collections, from March 2011 to February 2012. To characterize the insect fauna established a distribution pattern, whereas the rates of occurrence and dominance of species grouped by order, as an indicator of the frequency and the occurrence of the amount of captured. At the end, we collected and identified a total of 17,008 specimens of insects belonging to 11 orders, namely: Blattariae, Coleoptera, Dermaptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Isoptera, Lepidoptera, Odonata, Orthoptera and Mantodea. The Order Hymenoptera was the one that stood out the largest number of individuals captured, attributing the presence of large amount of ants, are still considered common to the three ecosystems studied, according to the method employed.

  2. Plastic ingestion by sea turtles in Paraíba State, Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Poli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Currently, plastics are recognized as a major pollutant of the marine environment, representing a serious threat to ocean wildlife. Here, we examined the occurrence and effects of plastic ingestion by sea turtles found stranded along the coast of Paraíba State, Brazil from August 2009 to July 2010. Ninety-eight digestive tracts were examined, with plastic found in 20 (20.4%. Sixty five percent (n = 13 of turtles with plastic in the digestive tract were green turtles (Chelonia mydas, 25% (n = 5 were hawksbills (Eretmochelys imbricata, and 10% (n = 2 were olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea. More plastic was found in the intestine (85% than in other parts of the gastrointestinal tract. We observed complete blockage of the gastrointestinal tract due to the presence of plastic in 13 of the 20 turtles that had ingested plastic. No correlation was found between the curved carapace length (CCL and the number or mass of the plastic ingested items. Significant differences were found between the intake of hard and soft plastic and the ingestion of white/transparent and colored plastic, with soft and white/transparent plastics being more commonly ingested. This study reveals the serious problem of plastic pollution to sea turtles at the area.

  3. Uranium deposits of Lagoa Real uranium Province, state of Bahia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Uranium Province of Lagoa Real is situated in the south-central part of the state of Bahia and constitutes, at the present moment, one of the most promising uranium districts of Brazil. The first anomaly was recorded in 1977 and, since then intense exploration and evaluation has been carried out in the area, resulting in the characterization of six ore deposits until now. Simultaneously, NUCLEBRAS has performed tests to establish the beneficiation characteristics of the ore, and developed preliminary mining plans. The host rock for the ore mineralization is related to sodic metasomatism and controlled by lithology and structure. The ore exhibits granoblastic texture, fine to coarse grain size, and the principal uranium minerals are uraninite, and, in minor quantities, pitchblende and uranophane. The solubility is over 90% of the U3O8 contained, with an average acid consumption of 35 Kg per ton of ore treated. This paper presents a brief description of the main ore deposits and touches on their general characterisitcs. As an example, the deposit 'Jazida Cachoeira' is dealt with in greater detail, since this deposit is considered in the present context to be the most important one in the province. (Author)

  4. Epidemiology of snakebite accidents in the municipalities of the state of Paraíba, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Renner de Souza; Targino, Isabely Tamarys Gomes; Lopes, Ysabel Arianne Cordeiro Ferreira; Barros, Rafaella Moreno; Vieira, Alecxandro Alves

    2013-05-01

    Accidents involving venomous animals represent an important, albeit neglected, public health issue worldwide. A descriptive study was made of snakebite cases attended and recorded between 2007 and 2010 in the health units of the municipalities of Cariri, State of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil. Data was collected from the Injury Notification Information System data banks of the Health Ministry and a total of 351 records of snakebite victims were reviewed. Victims were predominantly male farm workers over 50. The highest incidence of snakebites occurred in rural areas, between April and June of 2007 and 2010. Snakes of the genus Bothrops were responsible for most cases, and victims were mostly bitten on the feet. The majority of the victims received medical assistance within 1 to 3 hours after being bitten. The most common clinical manifestations were pain, edema and ecchymosis, which were mainly classified as mild or moderate. Two deaths were reported. It was concluded that there is a significant impact of seasonality in snakebites, the prevalence of attacks caused by Bothrops, affecting the lower limbs of adult male farmers in rural areas. The findings of this study may contribute to identify the conditions that increase the risk of snake attacks in the northeastern region. PMID:23670475

  5. First record of Mesoclemmys tuberculata (Reptilia, Testudines, Chelidae) in the Cerrado area of Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Adriano Lima Silveira; Raquel Valinhas e Valinhas

    2010-01-01

    Mesoclemmys tuberculata is a turtle species that is distributed in northeastern Brazil, recorded mainly in the Caatinga and at some localities in the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado. In this paper we report the first species record in an area of Cerrado of Minas Gerais state, and it is the only known state record in a specific location. During field sampling, a specimen of M. tuberculata was collected in the municipality of João Pinheiro, northwest state, in a Cerrado nuclear area in the São Fran...

  6. Endophytic cultivable bacterial community obtained from the Paullinia cupana seed in Amazonas and Bahia regions and its antagonistic effects against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Maria Carolina Santos E; Polonio, Julio Cesar; Quecine, Maria Carolina; Almeida, Tiago Tognolli de; Bogas, Andréa Cristina; Pamphile, João Alencar; Pereira, José Odair; Astolfi-Filho, Spartaco; Azevedo, João Lucio

    2016-09-01

    Guarana (Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis) is a plant from the Amazonas region with socio-economic importance. However, guarana production has been increasingly affected by unfavorable conditions resulting from anthracnose, caused by the Colletotrichum fungal genus, which primarily affects mainly the Amazonas region. The aim of the present study was to isolate bacterial endophytes from the seeds of guarana plants obtained from Amazonas region and the Northeast state of Bahia, a region where this disease is not a problem for guarana plantations. The number of bacterial Colony Forming Units (CFU/g seeds) was 2.4 × 10(4) from the Bahia and 2.9 × 10(4) from the Amazonas region. One hundred and two isolated bacteria were evaluated in vitro against the phytopathogenic strain Colletotrichum gloeosporioides L1. These isolates were also analyzed for the enzymatic production of amylase, cellulase, protease, pectinase, lipase and esterase. Approximately 15% of isolates, showing high antagonistic activity, and the production of at least one enzyme were identified through the partial sequencing of 16S rDNA. The genus Bacillus was the most frequently observed, followed by Paenibacillus, Ochrobactrum, Microbacterium and Stenotrophomonas. Proteolytic activity was observed in 24 isolates followed by amylolytic, pectinolytic and cellulolytic activities. No esterase and lipase production was detected. Most of the isolates, showing antagonistic effects against C. gloeosporioides and high enzymatic activities, were isolated from the anthracnose-affected region. A biocontrol method using the endophytes from guarana seeds could be applied in the future, as these bacteria are vertically transferred to guarana seedlings. PMID:27343372

  7. Dynamics of microalgal communities in the water-column/sediment interface of the inner shelf off Parana State, Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Luiz Queiroz; Frederico Pereira Brandini; Franciane Maria Pellizzari

    2004-01-01

    The composition and biomass of the microalgal community at the water-column/sediment interface on the continental shelf off Parana State (Brazil) were studied every 2 months during 1999. Samples for cell identification and determination of chlorophyll a were taken from the interface layer and at discrete depths up to 4 m above the sediment. Results showed a community mainly formed by benthic and planktonic diatoms >30 µm, benthic diatoms 30 µm, which accounted for most of the pigment biomass,...

  8. Diatom associations in shelf waters off Paraná State, Southern Brazil: annual variation in relation to environmental factors

    OpenAIRE

    Luciano Felício Fernandes; Frederico Pereira Brandini

    2004-01-01

    The seasonal variation of diatoms in the inshore waters off Paraná State, Southern Brazil was investigated to analyse their temporal dynamics and to detect the main environmental constraints of the planktonic community. Biomass peaks occurred from May to August and from December to March. Among the microplanktonic diatoms, Cerataulina pelagica, Chaetoceros spp., Dactyliosolen fragilissimus, Guinardia striata, Lauderia annulata, Leptocylindrus spp., Pseudo-nitzschia cf. delicatissima, P. austr...

  9. Nematode parasites of marsupials and small rodents from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes Delir Corrêa; Cruz Rosane Pereira da; Vicente Joaquim Júlio; Pinto Roberto Magalhães

    2003-01-01

    Nematodes from opossums and rodents captured in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil were studied. From the opossums Didelphis aurita Weid-Neuweid, 1826 and Philander opossum (Linnaeus, 1758) the following nematode species were recovered: Viannaia hamata Travassos, 1914, Aspidodera raillieti Travassos, 1913, Cruzia tentaculata (Rudolphi, 1819), Travassos, 1917, Turgida turgida (Rudolphi, 1819) Travassos, 1919, Gongylonemoides marsupialis (Vaz & Pereira, 1934) F...

  10. Euglossine bee communities in small forest fragments of the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil (Hymenoptera, Apidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Willian Moura Aguiar; Maria Cristina Gaglianone

    2012-01-01

    Euglossine bee communities in small forest fragments of the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil (Hymenoptera, Apidae). Euglossine bees are important pollinators in forests and agricultural areas. Although the structure of their communities is critically affected by anthropogenic disturbances, little is known about these bees in small forest fragments. The objectives of this study were to analyze the composition, abundance, and diversity of euglossine bee species in nine...

  11. Autochthonous Chagas' disease in Santa Catarina State, Brazil: report of the first case of digestive tract involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maegawa Felipe Antonio Boff

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the first case of digestive tract pathology (megaesophagus determined by Trypanosoma cruzi infection in Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil. A 63-year- old female had presumptive clinical diagnosis of Chagas' disease, which was confirmed by imaging (endoscopy and esophagogram and immunological methods. Further molecular diagnosis was carried out with esophagus and blood samples collected during corrective surgery. Polymerase chain reaction tested positive for Trypanosoma cruzi in both esophagus and buffy coat samples.

  12. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with infection by Neospora caninum of dairy cattle in the state of Alagoas, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Maria E.; J.N. Porto Wagnner; Pedro P.F. Albuquerque; Orestes L. Souza Neto; Eduardo B Faria; José W. Pinheiro Júnior; Rinaldo A. Mota

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of anti-Neospora caninum antibodies in cattle from milk producing farms of the microregion of Batalha, state of Alagoas, Brazil, as well as to identify the risk factors associated with the infection. Blood samples were collected from 1,004 cattle of 17 farms for the serological investigation regarding the presence of anti-N. caninum antibodies by the Indirect Immunofluorescence Reaction Technique (IMRT). From the total amount of sa...

  13. American cutaneous leishmaniasis in dogs from an endemic urban area in Cianorte municipality, Paraná State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    DA Cerino; Veloso, J; TF Perles; PD Zanzarini; MVC Lonardoni; TGV Silveira

    2010-01-01

    American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) was investigated in dogs from an urban endemic area in Cianorte, Paraná state, Brazil. Of 169 studied dogs, none presented suspected ACL lesions. Eleven animals (6.6%) had anti-Leishmania braziliensis antibodies (titers > 40) detected by the immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) while four (2.4%) showed L. braziliensis-complex DNA by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Although no associations were found between IFAT or PCR results and age, sex, origin...

  14. Speleoclimate dynamics in Santana Cave (PETAR, São Paulo State, Brazil): general characterization and implications for tourist management

    OpenAIRE

    Heros Augusto Santos Lobo; Paulo Cesar Boggiani; José Alexandre de Jesus Perinotto

    2015-01-01

    Show caves provide tourists with the opportunity to have close contact with natural underground spaces. However, visitation to these places also creates a need for management measures, mainly the definition of tourist carrying capacity. The present work describes the results of climate monitoring and atmospheric profiling performed in Santana Cave (Alto Ribeira State and Tourist Park – PETAR, Brazil) between 2008 and 2011. Based on the results, distinct preliminary zones with different levels...

  15. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in preschool children in the region of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Lúcia Ribeiro Gonçalves; Talita Lucas Belizário; Janderson de Brito Pimentel; Mário Paulo Amante Penatti; Reginaldo dos Santos Pedroso

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Children are an important high-risk group for helminth and protozoa infections. Daycare centers are environments where children have proven to be more susceptible to acquiring intestinal parasites. Thus, the purpose of this study was to verify the prevalence of intestinal parasites in children who attended the two daycare centers maintained by the local government of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODS: Fecal samples were collected from 133 children (73 children a...

  16. Seismic refraction technique aplications in the geotechnical characterization of the Cachoeira deposit massif, Caetite, State of Bahia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geophysical surveys throught the Cachoeira Uranium deposit massif were carried out with the purpose of assisting in the geotechnical characterization for the implantation of the Mining-Industrial Complex projects on the Lagoa Real uranium deposits, Caetite municipality, state of Bahia, Brazil. This study discusses the methodology utilized in the geophysical surveys and their results as well as their applications to the geotechnical characterization as a whole. (D.J.M.)

  17. Seasonality of Monomachus Klug (Hymenoptera, Monomachidae) in the Biological Reserve of Duas Bocas, Espírito Santo State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Celso Oliveira Azevedo; Hélio Sá Santos

    2001-01-01

    A survey of Monomachidae species was carried out in anarea of Atlantic rain forest of the Biological Reserve of Duas Bocas, Espírito Santo State, Brazil between September, 1996 and August, 1997. Two species of Mollomachus Klug, 1841, M. fuscator Perty, 1833 and M. eurycephalus Schletterer, 1890 were collected from May to September. Both species are typical of winter time and showed the same parttern of seasonality.

  18. Ergasilus trygonophilus sp. nov. (Copepoda: Ergasilidae) a branchial parasite of freshwater stingrays (Potamotrygonidae) from state of Pará, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus V. Domingues; Taísa M. Marques

    2010-01-01

    Ergasilus trygonophilus sp. nov. is described from freshwater stingrays (Potamotrygon spp. and Plesiotrygon iwamae Rosa, Castello & Thorson, 1987) from the state of Pará, Brazil. The new species differs from all known species of Ergasilus Nordman, 1832 from Brazilian waters by possessing: (1) an elongate bullet-shaped cephalosome; (2) antennule setal formula 1: 10: 4: 4: 2 + 1 ae: 6 + 1 ae; (3) maxillule bearing two distal setae; and (4) terminal endopodal segment of leg 1 with rosette-like a...

  19. Contamination of public parks and squares from Guarulhos (São Paulo State, Brazil ) by Toxocara spp. and Ancylostoma spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Jacó Pereira Marques; Catarina de Rezende Guimarães; Ailton Vilas Boas; Paulo Usignolo Carnaúba; Josué de Moraes

    2012-01-01

    The contaminated soil with mammal feces is an important factor of risk to infection with zoonotic diseases. Amongst these zoonoses are visceral larva migrans and cutaneous larva migrans caused by Toxocara spp. and Ancylostoma spp., respectively. The aim of this study was to assess the environmental contamination by Toxocara spp. eggs and hookworms (Ancylostoma spp.) in public parks and squares in the city of Guarulhos, a metropolitan area of São Paulo, São Paulo State, Brazil. Soil samples we...

  20. Pedotransfer functions to estimate retention and availability of water in soils of the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    André da Costa; Jackson Adriano Albuquerque; Jaime Antônio de Almeida; Adriano da Costa; Rodrigo Vieira Luciano

    2013-01-01

    Studies on water retention and availability are scarce for subtropical or humid temperate climate regions of the southern hemisphere. The aims of this study were to evaluate the relations of the soil physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties with water retention and availability for the generation and validation of continuous point pedotransfer functions (PTFs) for soils of the State of Santa Catarina (SC) in the South of Brazil. Horizons of 44 profiles were sampled in areas under diff...