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Sample records for amazon sites exposure

  1. DDT in fishes from four different Amazon sites: exposure assessment for breast feeding infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Amato, C.; Torres, J.P.; Malm, O. [Lab. de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca, Inst. de Biofisica, UFRJ, RJ (Brazil); Bastos, W. [Lab. de Biogeoquimica, UNIR, Porto Velho (Brazil); Claudio, L.; Markowitz, S. [International Training Program on Environmental and Occupational Health, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Queens Coll., NY (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Concerning DDT in food, based on clinical observations as well as experimental animals, the annual Joint FAO/WHO Meetings on Pesticide Residues held in 2000 estimated a Provisional Tolerable Daily Intake (PTDI) for DDT in 0.01 mg/kg/day. Marien and Laflamme have proposed a Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) for breast feedings infants of 5 x 10{sup -3} mg/kg/day, and conducted an assessment to evaluate the public health significance of eating {sigma}ODDT contaminated fish, accomplished by establishing a daily intake level of DDT for the population of greatest concern, like breastfeeding infants. Their results indicated that mothers who frequently consume contaminated fish could have breast milk DDT concentrations highly enough to expose their infants to levels above the TDI. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ODDT (o,p'-DDT + p,p'-DDT + o,p'-DDE + p,p'-DDE + o,p'-DDD) levels in commercial fish samples from distinct Brazilian Amazon sites, which are consumed by the riverine populations, and to assess the potential health impacts from eating these fishes, especially for breastfeeding infants.

  2. Metagenome sequencing of the microbial community of two Brazilian anthropogenic Amazon dark earth sites, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Leandro Nascimento; de Souza, Rosineide Cardoso; de Souza Cannavan, Fabiana; Patricio, André; Pylro, Victor Satler; Hanada, Rogério Eiji; Mui, Tsai Siu

    2016-12-01

    The Anthropogenic Amazon Dark Earth soil is considered one of the world's most fertile soils. These soils differs from conventional Amazon soils because its higher organic content concentration. Here we describe the metagenome sequencing of microbial communities of two sites of Anthropogenic Amazon Dark Earth soils from Amazon Rainforest, Brazil. The raw sequence data are stored under Short Read Accession number: PRJNA344917.

  3. Assessing Mammal Exposure to Climate Change in the Brazilian Amazon

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    Ribeiro, Bruno R.; Sales, Lilian P.; De Marco, Paulo; Loyola, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Human-induced climate change is considered a conspicuous threat to biodiversity in the 21st century. Species’ response to climate change depends on their exposition, sensitivity and ability to adapt to novel climates. Exposure to climate change is however uneven within species’ range, so that some populations may be more at risk than others. Identifying the regions most exposed to climate change is therefore a first and pivotal step on determining species’ vulnerability across their geographic ranges. Here, we aimed at quantifying mammal local exposure to climate change across species’ ranges. We identified areas in the Brazilian Amazon where mammals will be critically exposed to non-analogue climates in the future with different variables predicted by 15 global circulation climate forecasts. We also built a null model to assess the effectiveness of the Amazon protected areas in buffering the effects of climate change on mammals, using an innovative and more realistic approach. We found that 85% of species are likely to be exposed to non-analogue climatic conditions in more than 80% of their ranges by 2070. That percentage is even higher for endemic mammals; almost all endemic species are predicted to be exposed in more than 80% of their range. Exposure patterns also varied with different climatic variables and seem to be geographically structured. Western and northern Amazon species are more likely to experience temperature anomalies while northeastern species will be more affected by rainfall abnormality. We also observed an increase in the number of critically-exposed species from 2050 to 2070. Overall, our results indicate that mammals might face high exposure to climate change and that protected areas will probably not be efficient enough to avert those impacts. PMID:27829036

  4. Assessing Mammal Exposure to Climate Change in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Bruno R; Sales, Lilian P; De Marco, Paulo; Loyola, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Human-induced climate change is considered a conspicuous threat to biodiversity in the 21st century. Species' response to climate change depends on their exposition, sensitivity and ability to adapt to novel climates. Exposure to climate change is however uneven within species' range, so that some populations may be more at risk than others. Identifying the regions most exposed to climate change is therefore a first and pivotal step on determining species' vulnerability across their geographic ranges. Here, we aimed at quantifying mammal local exposure to climate change across species' ranges. We identified areas in the Brazilian Amazon where mammals will be critically exposed to non-analogue climates in the future with different variables predicted by 15 global circulation climate forecasts. We also built a null model to assess the effectiveness of the Amazon protected areas in buffering the effects of climate change on mammals, using an innovative and more realistic approach. We found that 85% of species are likely to be exposed to non-analogue climatic conditions in more than 80% of their ranges by 2070. That percentage is even higher for endemic mammals; almost all endemic species are predicted to be exposed in more than 80% of their range. Exposure patterns also varied with different climatic variables and seem to be geographically structured. Western and northern Amazon species are more likely to experience temperature anomalies while northeastern species will be more affected by rainfall abnormality. We also observed an increase in the number of critically-exposed species from 2050 to 2070. Overall, our results indicate that mammals might face high exposure to climate change and that protected areas will probably not be efficient enough to avert those impacts.

  5. Carbon Fluxes at the AmazonFACE Research Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norby, R.; De Araujo, A. C.; Cordeiro, A. L.; Fleischer, K.; Fuchslueger, L.; Garcia, S.; Hofhansl, F.; Garcia, M. N.; Grandis, A.; Oblitas, E.; Pereira, I.; Pieres, N. M.; Schaap, K.; Valverde-Barrantes, O.

    2017-12-01

    The free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiment to be implemented in the Amazon rain forest requires strong pretreatment characterization so that eventual responses to elevated CO2 can be detected against a background of substantial species diversity and spatial heterogeneity. Two 30-m diameter plots have been laid out for initial characterization in a 30-m tall, old-growth, terra firme forest. Intensive measurements have been made of aboveground tree growth, leaf area, litter production, and fine-root production; these data sets together support initial estimates of plot-scale net primary productivity (NPP). Leaf-level measurements of photosynthesis throughout the canopy and over a daily time course in both the wet and dry season, coupled with meterological monitoring, support an initial estimate of gross primary productivity (GPP) and carbon-use efficiency (CUE = NPP/GPP). Monthly monitoring of CO2 efflux from the soil, partitioned into autotrophic and heterotrophic components, supports an estimate of net ecosystem production (NEP). Our estimate of NPP in the two plots (1.2 and 1.4 kg C m-2 yr-1) is 16-38% greater than previously reported for the site, primarily due to our more complete documentation of fine-root production, including root production deeper than 30 cm. The estimate of CUE of the ecosystem (0.52) is greater than most others in Amazonia; this discrepancy reflects large uncertainty in GPP, which derived from just two days of measurement, or to underestimates of the fine-root component of NPP in previous studies. Estimates of NEP (0 and 0.14 kg C m-2 yr-1) are generally consistent with a landscape-level estimate from flux tower data. Our C flux estimates, albeit very preliminary, provide initial benchmarks for a 12-model a priori evaluation of this forest. The model means of GPP, NPP, and NEP are mostly consistent with our field measurements. Predictions of C flux responses to elevated CO2 from the models become hypotheses to be tested in the FACE

  6. Late Quaternary Vegetation and Climate Change in the Amazon Basin Based on a 50,000 Year Pollen Record from the Amazon Fan, ODP Site 932

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberle, Simon G.; Maslin, Mark A.

    1999-01-01

    Hemipelagic sediments from the Amazon deep-sea fan, ODP Site 932 (5° 12.7‧N, 47° 1.8‧W), and continental shelf provide a 50,000-yr-long pollen record of Amazon Basin vegetation. The age model for Hole 932A is constrained by eight magnetic remanence intensity features, one paleomagnetic excursion, and three AMS14C dates.Alchornea,Melastomataceae, Myrtaceae, and Moraceae/Urticaceae are dominant taxa in the pollen record between 40,200 and 19,800 cal yr B.P. Andean taxa, such asPodocarpusandHedyosmum,increase in abundance between 19,800 and 11,000 cal yr B.P. and prior to 40,200 cal yr B.P. The Holocene pollen assemblage, derived from Amazon River and continental shelf sediments, is dominated by secondary growth taxa, such asCecropia.Climatic factors influencing the development of glacial and interglacial tropical vegetation are considered by comparing marine with terrestrial records of vegetation change. This comparison shows that the Amazon Basin forests were not extensively replaced by savanna vegetation during the glacial period, contradicting the refugia hypothesis.

  7. Study of exchange networks between two Amazon archaeological sites by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work comprises the utilization of instrumental neutron activation analysis to determine the concentration of 24 chemical elements in pottery shards from two large archaeological sites in central Amazon, Lago Grande and Osvaldo. The multidimensional data set was analyzed by cluster and principal component analysis for defining chemical groups of pottery. The results were correlated to potential exchange networks driven by three mechanisms: trade, exogamic marriage and territorial integration in the region. All of them have important consequences for archaeological research regarding the Amazonian pre-colonial occupation. (author)

  8. Epidemiologic confirmation that fruit consumption influences mercury exposure in riparian communities in the Brazilian Amazon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa Passos, Carlos Jose; Mergler, Donna; Fillion, Myriam; Lemire, Melanie; Mertens, Frederic; Guimaraes, Jean Remy Davee; Philibert, Aline

    2007-01-01

    Since deforestation has recently been associated with increased mercury load in the Amazon, the problem of mercury exposure is now much more widespread than initially thought. A previous exploratory study suggested that fruit consumption may reduce mercury exposure. The objectives of the study were to determine the effects of fruit consumption on the relation between fish consumption and bioindicators of mercury (Hg) exposure in Amazonian fish-eating communities. A cross-sectional dietary survey based on a 7-day recall of fish and fruit consumption frequency was conducted within 13 riparian communities from the Tapajos River, Brazilian Amazon. Hair samples were collected from 449 persons, and blood samples were collected from a subset of 225, for total and inorganic mercury determination by atomic absorption spectrometry. On average, participants consumed 6.6 fish meals/week and ate 11 fruits/week. The average blood Hg (BHg) was 57.1±36.3 μg/L (median: 55.1 μg/L), and the average hair-Hg (HHg) was 16.8±10.3 μg/g (median: 15.7 μg/g). There was a positive relation between fish consumption and BHg (r=0.48; P 2 =36.0%) and HHg levels (fish: β=1.2, P 2 =21.0%). ANCOVA models showed that for the same number of fish meals, persons consuming fruits more frequently had significantly lower blood and HHg concentrations. For low fruit consumers, each fish meal contributed 9.8 μg/L Hg increase in blood compared to only 3.3 μg/L Hg increase for the high fruit consumers. In conclusion, fruit consumption may provide a protective effect for Hg exposure in Amazonian riparians. Prevention strategies that seek to maintain fish consumption while reducing Hg exposure in fish-eating communities should be pursued

  9. Volcanic Ashes Intercalated with Cultural Vestiges at Archaeological Sites from the Piedmont to the Amazon, Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Viviana; Mothes, Patricia; Andrade, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    A mineralogical analysis was done on 70 volcanic ashes; 9 corresponding to proximal samples of seven volcanoes: Cotopaxi (4500 yBP), Guagua Pichincha (3300 yBP, 1000 yBP and 1660 yAD), Cuicocha (3100 yBP), Pululahua (2400 yBP), Ninahuilca (2350 yBP and 4600 yBP) and 61 to distal ashes collected at eight archaeological sites in the Coastal, Sierra and Amazon regions of Ecuador. Cultural vestiges are from Pre-ceramic, Formative, Regional Development and Integration periods, with the exception of a site denominated Hacienda Malqui, which also has Inca vestiges. The sampling process was done in collaboration with various archaeologists in 2011-2013. The volcanic ashes were washed, dried and divided in order to obtain a representative fraction and their later analysis with binocular microscope. The microscope analysis allowed determination of the characteristics of each component of volcanic ash. These main elements are: pumice fragments, minerals, volcanic glass, lithics and exogenous material (non volcanic). The petrographic analysis of distal volcanic ash layers at each archaeological site was correlated by their components and characteristics with proximal volcanic ashes of source volcanoes. Some correlations permitted obtaining a relative age for the layers of distal volcanic ash in the archaeological sites. The petrographic analysis showed a correlation between the archaeological sites of Las Mercedes - Los Naranjos, Rumipamba and El Condado (located west of Quito) with the eruptive activity of Guagua Pichincha volcano (3300 yBP, 1000 yBP and 1660 yAD) and Pululahua volcano (2400 yBP). Also, a correlation with eruptive activity of Ninahuilca (2350 yBP), Cotopaxi (4500 yBP) and Quilotoa (800 yBP) volcanoes at Hda. Malqui (60 km west of Latacunga) was provided by mineralogy of the respective ashes expulsed by these volcanoes. The ash layers at Cuyuja (50 km east of Quito) are mostly superficial; they are associated with Quilotoa's 800 yBP plinian. Finally at the

  10. Monitoring mercury exposure in reproductive aged women inhabiting the Tapajós river basin, Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Corvelo, Tereza Cristina; Oliveira, Érika Abdon Fiquene; de Parijós, Amanda Magno; de Oliveira, Claudia Simone Baltazar; do Socorro Pompeu de Loiola, Rosane; de Araújo, Amélia A; da Costa, Carlos Araújo; de Lima Silveira, Luiz Carlos; da Conceição Nascimento Pinheiro, Maria

    2014-07-01

    Among Amazonian communities, exposure to methylmercury is associated mainly with fish consumption that may affect fetal development in pregnant women. Therefore a temporal assessment was performed to assess the exposure of reproductive aged women to mercury who reside in the riparian communities of São Luís do Tapajós and Barreiras located in the Tapajós basin of the Brazilian Amazon from 1999 to 2012. The total mercury concentration in the 519 hair samples was assessed by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Data analysis showed that the average total mercury concentration decreased from 1.066 to 0.743 μg/g in those years. In 1999 the proportion of volunteers with mercury levels ≥ 10 μg/g was approximately 68 %. In general, exposure to mercury decreased among women of reproductive age, but the potential risks to reproduction and human health is still an issue as 22 % of the woman continued showing high mercury levels (≥ 10 μg/g) in 2012.

  11. Traditional living in the Amazon: Extended breastfeeding, fish consumption, mercury exposure and neurodevelopment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Rejane C; Abreu, Luciana; Bernardi, José V E; Dórea, José G

    2016-07-01

    Features of traditional living in the Amazon Basin (high fish consumption and long breastfeeding) are likely to expose children to Mercury (Hg). To study neurodevelopment in 690 children in relation to prolonged breastfeeding and mercury exposure. Three groups of breastfeeding children were formed: Group 1 (breastfed for 6 months), Group 2 (7-12 months) and Group 3 (extending up to 24 months). Neurodevelopment was assessed as age of walking, age of talking and the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-BSID. Mercury exposure was assessed from Thimerosal-containing vaccines and fish consumption from hair Hg (HHg). HHg increased in children and decreased in mothers at 24 months. Frequency of fish consumption was significantly correlated with maternal HHg at birth (Spearman's r = 0.8583; p = 0.0001); likewise, there was a significant correlation between duration of breastfeeding and children's HHg (Spearman's r = 0.15; p = 0.0018). Extended breastfeeding did not influence the Mental Development Index-MDI or Psychomotor Development Index-PDI, but maternal education and HHg (marker of fish consumption) interacted positively and significantly with both. Frequency of maternal fish consumption and education had a positive association with BSID scores; it is speculated that maternal education and nutrients in fish have an opposing effect on Hg exposure.

  12. Mercury Exposure: Protein Biomarkers of Mercury Exposure in Jaraqui Fish from the Amazon Region.

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    Vieira, José Cavalcante Souza; Braga, Camila Pereira; de Oliveira, Grasieli; Padilha, Cilene do Carmo Federici; de Moraes, Paula Martin; Zara, Luiz Fabricio; Leite, Aline de Lima; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; Padilha, Pedro de Magalhães

    2018-05-01

    This study presents data on the extraction and characterization of proteins associated with mercury in the muscle and liver tissues of jaraqui (Semaprochilodus spp.) from the Madeira River in the Brazilian Amazon. Protein fractionation was carried out by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2D-PAGE). Mercury determination in tissues, pellets, and protein spots was performed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Proteins in the spots that showed mercury were characterized by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). The highest mercury concentrations were found in liver tissues and pellets (426 ± 6 and 277 ± 4 μg kg -1 ), followed by muscle tissues and pellets (132 ± 4 and 86 ± 1 μg kg -1 , respectively). Mercury quantification in the protein spots allowed us to propose stoichiometric ratios in the range of 1-4 mercury atoms per molecule of protein in the protein spots. The proteins characterized in the analysis by ESI-MS/MS were keratin, type II cytoskeletal 8, parvalbumin beta, parvalbumin-2, ubiquitin-40S ribosomal S27a, 39S ribosomal protein L36 mitochondrial, hemoglobin subunit beta, and hemoglobin subunit beta-A/B. The results suggest that proteins such as ubiquitin-40S ribosomal protein S27a, which have specific domains, possibly zinc finger, can be used as biomarkers of mercury, whereas mercury and zinc present characteristics of soft acids.

  13. A preliminary study of mercury exposure and blood pressure in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guimarães Jean

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fish is considered protective for coronary heart disease (CHD, but mercury (Hg intake from fish may counterbalance beneficial effects. Although neurotoxic effects of methylmercury (MeHg are well established, cardiovascular effects are still debated. The objective of the present study was to evaluate blood pressure in relation to Hg exposure and fish consumption among a non-indigenous fish-eating population in the Brazilian Amazon. Methods The study was conducted among 251 persons from six communities along the Tapajós River, a major tributary of the Amazon. Data was obtained for socio-demographic information, fish consumption, height and weight to determine body mass index (BMI, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and Hg concentration in hair samples. Results Results showed that overall, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, were relatively low (mean: 113.9 mmHg ± 14.6 and 73.7 mmHg ± 11.0. Blood pressure was significantly associated with hair total Hg (H-Hg, age, BMI and gender. No association was observed between fish consumption and blood pressure, although there were significant inter-community differences. Logistic regression analyses showed that the Odds Ratio (OR for elevated systolic blood pressure (≥ 130 mmHg with H-Hg ≥ 10 μg/g was 2.91 [1.26–7.28], taking into account age, BMI, smoking, gender and community. Conclusion The findings of this preliminary study add further support for Hg cardiovascular toxicity.

  14. Optically stimulated luminescence dating of archaeological ceramics from Osvaldo and Lago Grande sites in central Amazon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazenfratz, Roberto; Tudela, Diego R.G.; Munita, Casimiro S.; Mittani, Juan C.R.; Tatumi, Sonia H.

    2013-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating are two important techniques for dating archaeological and geological material, especially suitable for archaeological ceramics, where samples for 14 C dating are not available. In this work, five pottery shards from Osvaldo and Lago Grande archaeological sites were dated by OSL. For measurements, it was used the SAR protocol. The annual dose rates were estimated by the contents of U, Th and K, determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) of the pottery shards and clay samples near both sites. Lago Grande and Osvaldo represent a microcosm of the region, and their proximity and high density of archaeological record turn them interesting to study possible relations of cultural and/or commercial exchange. Calculations showed that the water content is an important variable that cannot be neglected in OSL dating of pottery shards from central Amazon, due to the high humidity in regional soils. The results between 867 ± 101 and 1154 ± 62 years AD agreed with the average time span for the archaeological sites occupation found in the literature. (author)

  15. Study of ceramics from circular archaeological sites of Amazonic Basin by geochemical methods: dating and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicoli, Ieda Gomes

    2000-09-01

    The aim of this work is to examine by means of characterization and dating pottery recently discovery inside archaeological sites recognized with circular earth structure in Acre State - Brazil which may contribute to the research in the reconstruction of part of the pre-history of the Amazonic Basin. These sites are located mainly in the Hydrographic Basin of High Purus River. Three of them were strategic chosen which provide the ceramics: Lobao, in Sena Madureira County at north; Alto Alegre, in Rio Branco County at east and Xipamanu I, in Xapuri County at south. The X-ray diffraction mineral analysis made possible to identify two types of crystal structures of ceramic minerals: quartz and M-Kaolinite. Neutron activation analysis in conjunction with multivariate statistical methods were applied for the ceramic characterization and classification. An homogeneous group was established by all sherds collected from Alto Alegre and was distinct from all the other two groups analyzed. Some of the sherds collected from Xipamanu I appeared in Lobao's urns, probably because they had the same fabrication process. The Lobao's urns presented a homogeneous group. Geochronology of these materials was carried out by Thermoluminescence. The Xipamanu I was the oldest site and Lobao the youngest. The average age of Xipamanu I and Alto Alegre were 2600 and 2070 years respectively. The average age of of occupation was 400 years to Alto Alegre and 970 years to Xipamanu I. The most probably date for Lobao was 1880 years. (author)

  16. [Children exposure to lead in contaminated sites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Ramírez, Rogelio; Rico-Escobar, Edna; Núñez-Monreal, Jorge E; García-Nieto, Edelmira; Carrizales, Leticia; Ilizaliturri-Hernández, César; Díaz-Barriga, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    To assess the exposure to lead in children living in various types of contaminated sites. The study was conducted from June 2008 to December 2009 at four sites in Mexico: Avalos metallurgical, Chihuahua; Morales metallurgical, San Luis Potosí (SLP); Trinidad pottery area, Tlaxcala and Cedral mine site, SLP. These sites contain different sources of lead. The metal levels were quantified in outdoor dust and in peripheral blood of children. Lead dust concentrations exceed the National Guidelines for residential soils (400 mg/kg) in a range of values for the four sites from 62 to 5 187 mg/kg. Regarding biological monitoring, the studied children showed maximum lead blood levels of 22 µg/dL in Cedral, 31 µg/dL in Morales, 32 µg/dL in Avalos, and 52 µg/dL in Trinidad. It is important to mention that in all the studied sites, a significative positive correlation was found between blood lead levels and the lead concentrations in dust. These sites are an example of the health risks related to lead exposure in Mexico; therefore, there is an urgent need for a national public health program aimed at reducing lead exposure in vulnerable populations.

  17. Human exposure and risk assessment associated with mercury contamination in artisanal gold mining areas in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilhos, Zuleica; Rodrigues-Filho, Saulo; Cesar, Ricardo; Rodrigues, Ana Paula; Villas-Bôas, Roberto; de Jesus, Iracina; Lima, Marcelo; Faial, Kleber; Miranda, Antônio; Brabo, Edilson; Beinhoff, Christian; Santos, Elisabeth

    2015-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination is an issue of concern in the Amazon region due to potential health effects associated with Hg exposure in artisanal gold mining areas. The study presents a human health risk assessment associated with Hg vapor inhalation and MeHg-contaminated fish ingestion, as well as Hg determination in urine, blood, and hair, of human populations (about 325 miners and 321 non-miners) from two gold mining areas in the Brazilian Amazon (São Chico and Creporizinho, Pará State). In São Chico and Creporizinho, 73 fish specimens of 13 freshwater species, and 161 specimens of 11 species, were collected for total Hg determination, respectively. The hazard quotient (HQ) is a risk indicator which defines the ratio of the exposure level and the toxicological reference dose and was applied to determine the threat of MeHg exposure. The mean Hg concentrations in fish from São Chico and Creporizinho were 0.83 ± 0.43 and 0.36 ± 0.33 μg/g, respectively. More than 60 and 22 % of fish collected in São Chico and Creporizinho, respectively, were above the Hg limit (0.5 μg/g) recommended by WHO for human consumption. For all sampling sites, HQ resulted from 1.5 to 28.5, except for the reference area. In Creporizinho, the values of HQ are close to 2 for most sites, whereas in São Chico, there is a hot spot of MeHg contamination in fish (A2-São Chico Reservoir) with the highest risk level (HQ = 28) associated with its human consumption. Mean Hg concentrations in urine, blood, and hair samples indicated that the miners group (in São Chico: urine = 17.37 μg/L; blood = 27.74 μg/L; hair = 4.50 μg/g and in Creporizinho: urine = 13.75 μg/L; blood = 25.23 μg/L; hair: 4.58 μg/g) was more exposed to mercury compared to non-miners (in São Chico: urine = 5.73 μg/L; blood = 16.50 μg/L; hair = 3.16 μg/g and in Creporizinho: urine = 3.91 μg/L; blood = 21.04 μg/L, hair = 1.88 μg/g). These high Hg levels (found

  18. Spatial Variability of the Background Diurnal Cycle of Deep Convection around the GoAmazon2014/5 Field Campaign Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burleyson, Casey D.; Feng, Zhe; Hagos, Samson M.; Fast, Jerome; Machado, Luiz A. T.; Martin, Scot T.

    2016-07-01

    The Amazon rainforest is one of a few regions of the world where continental tropical deep convection occurs. The Amazon’s isolation makes it challenging to observe, but also creates a unique natural laboratory to study anthropogenic impacts on clouds and precipitation in an otherwise pristine environment. Extensive measurements were made upwind and downwind of the large city of Manaus, Brazil during the Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon 2014-2015 (GoAmazon2014/5) field campaign. In this study, 15 years of high-resolution satellite data are analyzed to examine the spatial and diurnal variability of convection occurring around the GoAmazon2014/5 sites. Interpretation of anthropogenic differences between the upwind (T0) and downwind (T1-T3) sites is complicated by naturally-occurring spatial variability between the sites. During the rainy season, the inland propagation of the previous day’s sea-breeze front happens to be in phase with the background diurnal cycle near Manaus, but is out of phase elsewhere. Enhanced convergence between the river-breezes and the easterly trade winds generates up to 10% more frequent deep convection at the GoAmazon2014/5 sites east of the river (T0a, T0t/k, and T1) compared to the T3 site which was located near the western bank. In general, the annual and diurnal cycles during 2014 were representative of the 2000-2013 distributions. The only exceptions were in March when the monthly mean rainrate was above the 95th percentile and September when both rain frequency and intensity were suppressed. The natural spatial variability must be accounted for before interpreting anthropogenically-induced differences among the GoAmazon2014/5 sites.

  19. Study of methylation sites and factors in contaminated aquatic systems in the Amazon using an optimized radiochemical technique - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davee Guimaraes, Jean Remy; Narvaez Mauro, Jane Beatriz; Roulet, Marc; Meili, Markus; Hylander, Lars

    2001-01-01

    In the last few years, some new data have brought light on the Hg cycle in the Amazon. Roulet et al (1998 and 1999) found high natural Hg contents in soils and showed that soil erosion, due to agriculture and other human activities, had increased the Hg burdens in aquatic systems. They also showed that, surprisingly, the activity of goldminers on many upstream affluents of the Tapajos river did not result in downstream gradients in dissolved or particulate Hg. Our own data (Malm et al, 1995, 1997) from long term surveys show little or no reduction in fish or human hair Hg levels in different water basins, despite a 3 to 10-fold decrease in goldmining activities since 1990. Regardless of the on-going debate on the relative magnitude of natural and man-made Hg sources in the Amazon, Hg is being transported and increasingly accumulated in productive lakes and floodplains in all the Amazon basin, leading riverine populations to unsafe Hg exposure levels. This Hg transport is done mainly in the particulate form, and the floating vegetation is a very efficient particle trap, besides providing support to an abundant periphyton, features that favor MeHg formation and bio-availability. A high Hg methylation potential in macrophytes is relevant for many reasons. This characteristic tropical aquatic vegetation produces highly bioavailable MeHg, because of its high standing stock (1 kg dw. m -2 , Sioli, 1986) in direct contact with the water column and very high relative area. Because the root zone of these floating aquatic plants is densely populated by a varied fauna of invertebrates and fish and represents an essential carbon source for aquatic food chains, it may constitute a major pathway of MeHg uptake into tropical aquatic food webs. In contrast, the production of MeHg in surface sediments is ∼30 times lower than in macrophyte roots, its bioavailability is probably limited, as well as the sediment-water flux of MeHg. Moreover, the role of floating meadows as important

  20. Nuclear method applied in archaeological sites at the Amazon basin; Metodo nuclear aplicado em sitios arqueologicos na bacia amazonica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicoli, Ieda Gomes [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Distrito do Planalto Central; Bernedo, Alfredo Victor Bellido; Latini, Rose Mary [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Fisico-Quimica

    2002-07-01

    The aim of this work was to use the nuclear methodology to character pottery discovered inside archaeological sites recognized with circular earth structure in Acre State - Brazil which may contribute to the research in the reconstruction of part of the pre-history of the Amazonic Basin. The sites are located mainly in the Hydrographic Basin of High Purus River. Three of them were strategic chosen to collect the ceramics: Lobao, in Sena Madureira County at north; Alto Alegre in Rio Branco County at east and Xipamanu I, in Xapuri County at south. Neutron Activation Analysis in conjunction with multivariate statistical methods were used for the ceramic characterization and classification. An homogeneous group was established by all the sherds collected from Alto Alegre and was distinct from the other two groups analyzed. Some of the sherds collected from Xipamunu I appeared in Lobao's urns, probably because they had the same fabrication process. (author)

  1. Human exposure and risk assessment associated with mercury pollution in the Caqueta River, Colombian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivero-Verbel, Jesus; Carranza-Lopez, Liliana; Caballero-Gallardo, Karina; Ripoll-Arboleda, Adriana; Muñoz-Sosa, Diego

    2016-10-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global contaminant posing severe risks to human health worldwide. The aim of this study was to assess the levels of total Hg (T-Hg) in human hair and fish in the Caqueta River, at the Colombian Amazon, as well as to determine fish consumption-based risks for T-Hg ingestion. T-Hg levels were measured using a direct mercury analyzer. The overall mean T-Hg level in hair for humans in the Caqueta River sample (n = 200) was 17.29 ± 0.61 μg/g (1.2 to 47.0 μg/g). Ninety-four percent of the individuals had hair T-Hg concentrations greater than the WHO threshold level (5 μg/g), and 79 % displayed levels higher than 10 μg/g. Average Hg concentrations in fish varied between 0.10-0.15 μg/g and 0.10-1.60 μg/g, for noncarnivorous and carnivorous species, respectively. Based on the maximum allowable fish consumption rate for adults, most carnivorous species should be avoided in the diet, as their target hazard quotient ranged from 2.96 up to 31.05, representing a risk for Hg-related health problems. In the light of existing evidence for elevated Hg levels in the indigenous population of the Colombian Amazon, carnivorous fish should be restricted as part of the diet, and breastfeeding should be reduced to protect children health. Most importantly, gold mining activities directly on rivers demand immediate attention from the national government to avoid extensive damage on the environment and human health.

  2. Assessment of mercury exposure and malaria in a Brazilian Amazon riverine community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crompton, Peter; Ventura, Ana Maria; Souza, Jose Maria de; Santos, Elisabeth; Strickland, G. Thomas; Silbergeld, Ellen

    2002-01-01

    Small-scale gold mining in the Brazilian Amazon occurs in areas with high rates of malaria transmission. Amazonian populations can be exposed to mercury through direct contact with the mining process and/or through fish consumption. Because of data from experimental studies, we examined the potential for mercury to affect host response to malaria. A cross-sectional survey was done in Jacareacanga, a riverine community in Para state, in a region of intense alluvial gold mining. A sample of 205 persons was selected by cluster sampling from the total population of approximately 2000. A brief medical history and exam were conducted, malaria slides were obtained, and air samples were taken to measure mercury levels. The average hair mercury level was 8.6 μg/g, ranging from 0.3 to 83.2 μg/g. The most important predictors of elevated mercury levels were high fish consumption and low income. Although there was no prevalent malaria, the odds of reporting a past malaria infection was four times higher for those also reporting a history of working with mercury

  3. Preliminary characterization of ceramics from the Lago Grande archaeological site in the central Amazon by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazenfratz, Roberto; Munita, Casimiro S.; Neves, Eduardo G.; Oliveira, Paulo M.S.; Toyota, Rosimeiri G.

    2009-01-01

    The macroscopic characteristics of archaeological ceramics, such as the surface decoration and shape, are used as cultural and chronological indicators of ancient people. The combination of stylistic-typological studies with archaeometric analysis, as provenance studies, has been considered of great importance in Archaeology. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of the pre-colonial Amazonian occupations. Inside this context, fifty ceramic fragments from the Lago Grande archaeological site were analyzed by INAA in order to characterize its elemental composition. The results were treated with multivariate statistics: Cluster, Principal Components and Discriminant Analysis. The results obtained by these three methods were compared in an effort to achieve some correlation with the archaeological context. It was stated the existence of two different groups of artifacts. They probably regard to the main ceramic phases found in the site excavation: Paredao and Manacapuru. Once confirmed by other archaeological analyses, these results could corroborate an exchange net among the former inhabitants of Lago Grande and other sites in the neighborhood. (author)

  4. Amazon rainforest exchange of carbon and subcanopy air flow: Manaus LBA site--a complex terrain condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóta, Julio; Fitzjarrald, David Roy; da Silva Dias, Maria A F

    2012-01-01

    On the moderately complex terrain covered by dense tropical Amazon Rainforest (Reserva Biologica do Cuieiras--ZF2--02°36'17.1'' S, 60°12'24.4'' W), subcanopy horizontal and vertical gradients of the air temperature, CO(2) concentration and wind field were measured for the dry and wet periods in 2006. We tested the hypothesis that horizontal drainage flow over this study area is significant and can affect the interpretation of the high carbon uptake rates reported by previous works at this site. A similar experimental design as the one by Tóta et al. (2008) was used with a network of wind, air temperature, and CO(2) sensors above and below the forest canopy. A persistent and systematic subcanopy nighttime upslope (positive buoyancy) and daytime downslope (negative buoyancy) flow pattern on a moderately inclined slope (12%) was observed. The microcirculations observed above the canopy (38 m) over the sloping area during nighttime presents a downward motion indicating vertical convergence and correspondent horizontal divergence toward the valley area. During the daytime an inverse pattern was observed. The micro-circulations above the canopy were driven mainly by buoyancy balancing the pressure gradient forces. In the subcanopy space the microcirculations were also driven by the same physical mechanisms but probably with the stress forcing contribution. The results also indicated that the horizontal and vertical scalar gradients (e.g., CO(2)) were modulated by these micro-circulations above and below the canopy, suggesting that estimates of advection using previous experimental approaches are not appropriate due to the tridimensional nature of the vertical and horizontal transport locally. This work also indicates that carbon budget from tower-based measurement is not enough to close the system, and one needs to include horizontal and vertical advection transport of CO(2) into those estimates.

  5. Palm bract breeding sites and their exploitation by Toxorhynchites (Lynchiella) haemorrhoidalis haemorrhoidalis (Diptera: Culicidae) in an upland forest of the central Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, R S

    1994-03-01

    Considering the potential importance of Toxorhynchites (Lynchiella) haemorrhoidalis haemorrhoidalis (F.) as a biological control agent of other mosquitoes, this species was studied in an upland forest of the Central Amazon. Palm bracts, the natural breeding sites, were sampled monthly in two different study areas for a period of 1 yr to detect the presence of immature stages and to determine their capacity to recolonize new or empty bracts. The ability of these breeding sites (bracts) to retain water was greater on a plateau where there is less humidity than in a valley. The availability of breeding sites may be related to the number of existing palms and the low precipitation. Tx. h. haemorrhoidalis is multivoltine, and the greatest abundance of larvae occurred in natural breeding sites in the valley. The population fluctuations of the larvae of this species may be influenced by the availability of natural breeding sites and by low precipitation which occurs during the dry season.

  6. Solar-Aligned Pictographs at the Paleoindian Site of Painel do Pilão along the Lower Amazon River at Monte Alegre, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Sean Davis

    Full Text Available The archaeological sites near Monte Alegre, along Brazil's lower Amazon River, provide new information on the little-known activities and symbolism of South American Paleoindians toward the end of the Ice Age. While paleoindian sites like Monte Verde in Chile, or Guitarrero Cave in Peru, are located near the pacific coast, Monte Alegre lies much further inland, 680 km upriver from the mouth of the Amazon River and the Atlantic Coast. With excavated wood charcoal radiocarbon dated as early as 13,200 calibrated years ago, the hill-as a source of sandstone and quartz lithics-supplied early pioneers with adequate tools needed for colonizing the interior of the continent. Once there, they painted rock art on the landscape, which bears a record of the sun's horizon positions throughout the year. At just 2° south of the equator, Monte Alegre shows no overt seasonal changes beyond fluctuating rainfall amounts, unlike at higher latitudes where temperature, amount of daylight, foliage, and forms of precipitation markedly change. Near the equator, solar and stellar horizon sightings most visibly track the passage of time and seasonal cycles. However, horizons are often hidden behind high forest canopy throughout much of the Amazon Rainforest; but in the Monte Alegre hill ridges looming above the river, paleoindians could hike above the canopy to peer at the horizon, more effectively synchronizing their activities to ecological cycles. This research suggests that Monte Alegre paleoindians delimited the azimuthal range of the sun in a solar year with notational pictographs aligned to horizon sightings at Painel do Pilão, and leaving a painted grid of tally marks that might have served as a rudimentary early calendar. The broad-reaching implication for early Americans is that through the strategic placement of rock art, these ancient artists fostered predictive archaeorecording from which resources could be optimally extracted, ceremonial activities could

  7. Solar-Aligned Pictographs at the Paleoindian Site of Painel do Pilão along the Lower Amazon River at Monte Alegre, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Christopher Sean

    2016-01-01

    The archaeological sites near Monte Alegre, along Brazil's lower Amazon River, provide new information on the little-known activities and symbolism of South American Paleoindians toward the end of the Ice Age. While paleoindian sites like Monte Verde in Chile, or Guitarrero Cave in Peru, are located near the pacific coast, Monte Alegre lies much further inland, 680 km upriver from the mouth of the Amazon River and the Atlantic Coast. With excavated wood charcoal radiocarbon dated as early as 13,200 calibrated years ago, the hill-as a source of sandstone and quartz lithics-supplied early pioneers with adequate tools needed for colonizing the interior of the continent. Once there, they painted rock art on the landscape, which bears a record of the sun's horizon positions throughout the year. At just 2° south of the equator, Monte Alegre shows no overt seasonal changes beyond fluctuating rainfall amounts, unlike at higher latitudes where temperature, amount of daylight, foliage, and forms of precipitation markedly change. Near the equator, solar and stellar horizon sightings most visibly track the passage of time and seasonal cycles. However, horizons are often hidden behind high forest canopy throughout much of the Amazon Rainforest; but in the Monte Alegre hill ridges looming above the river, paleoindians could hike above the canopy to peer at the horizon, more effectively synchronizing their activities to ecological cycles. This research suggests that Monte Alegre paleoindians delimited the azimuthal range of the sun in a solar year with notational pictographs aligned to horizon sightings at Painel do Pilão, and leaving a painted grid of tally marks that might have served as a rudimentary early calendar. The broad-reaching implication for early Americans is that through the strategic placement of rock art, these ancient artists fostered predictive archaeorecording from which resources could be optimally extracted, ceremonial activities could be consistently

  8. Personal UV exposure in high albedo alpine sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siani, A. M.; Casale, G. R.; Diémoz, H.; Agnesod, G.; Kimlin, M. G.; Lang, C. A.; Colosimo, A.

    2008-07-01

    Mountain sites experience enhanced UV radiation levels due to the concurrent effects of shorter radiation path-length, low aerosol load and high reflectivity of the snow surfaces. This study was encouraged by the possibility to collect original data of personal dose on a specific anatomical site (erythemally effective UV dose on the forehead) of two groups of volunteers (ski instructors and skiers) in the mountainous areas of Italy (the Alpine site of La Thuile-Les Suches in Valle d'Aosta region). Personal doses were assessed using polysulphone dosimetry. Exposure Ratio (ER), defined as the ratio between the personal dose and the corresponding ambient dose (i.e. erythemally weighted dose received by a horizontal surface) during the same exposure period was taken into account. In addition measuring skin colours as biological markers of individual response to UV exposure, was also carried out on the forearm and cheek of each volunteer before and after exposure. The median ER, taking into account the whole sample, is 0.60 in winter, with a range of 0.29 to 1.46, and 1.02 in spring, ranging from 0.46 to 1.72. No differences in ERs were found between skiers and instructors in spring while in winter skiers experienced lower values. Regarding skin colorimetric parameters the main result was that both skiers and instructors had on average significantly lower values of luminance after exposure i.e.~they became darker. It was found that the use of sunscreen and individual skin photo-type did not produce significant variations in ER across instructor/skier group by day and by seasons (p>0.05). It seems that sunscreen use only at the beginning of the exposure or in a few cases a couple of times during exposure (at difference with the specific instructions sheets), was not sufficient to change significantly skin colorimetric parameters across participants. In conclusion UV personal doses on the ski-fields are often significantly higher than those on horizontal surfaces and

  9. Personal UV exposure in high albedo alpine sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Siani

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Mountain sites experience enhanced UV radiation levels due to the concurrent effects of shorter radiation path-length, low aerosol load and high reflectivity of the snow surfaces. This study was encouraged by the possibility to collect original data of personal dose on a specific anatomical site (erythemally effective UV dose on the forehead of two groups of volunteers (ski instructors and skiers in the mountainous areas of Italy (the Alpine site of La Thuile-Les Suches in Valle d'Aosta region. Personal doses were assessed using polysulphone dosimetry. Exposure Ratio (ER, defined as the ratio between the personal dose and the corresponding ambient dose (i.e. erythemally weighted dose received by a horizontal surface during the same exposure period was taken into account. In addition measuring skin colours as biological markers of individual response to UV exposure, was also carried out on the forearm and cheek of each volunteer before and after exposure.

    The median ER, taking into account the whole sample, is 0.60 in winter, with a range of 0.29 to 1.46, and 1.02 in spring, ranging from 0.46 to 1.72. No differences in ERs were found between skiers and instructors in spring while in winter skiers experienced lower values.

    Regarding skin colorimetric parameters the main result was that both skiers and instructors had on average significantly lower values of luminance after exposure i.e.~they became darker. It was found that the use of sunscreen and individual skin photo-type did not produce significant variations in ER across instructor/skier group by day and by seasons (p>0.05. It seems that sunscreen use only at the beginning of the exposure or in a few cases a couple of times during exposure (at difference with the specific instructions sheets, was not sufficient to change significantly skin colorimetric parameters across participants.

    In conclusion UV personal doses on the ski-fields are often

  10. Lead exposure in indigenous children of the Peruvian Amazon : seeking the hidden source,venturing into participatory research

    OpenAIRE

    Anticona Huaynate, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. In 2006, a Peruvian environmental agency reported the presence of elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) in indigenous communities of the Corrientes river basin. This is a territory in the Peruvian Amazon where oil activity has been associated with serious environmental effects, with impact on an ongoing social conflict. This PhD project aimed to determine the lead sources, risk factors and pathways in children of these communities and to suggest control and prevention strategies. Gi...

  11. The NH4+-NO3--Cl--SO42--H2O aerosol system and its gas phase precursors at a pasture site in the Amazon Basin: How relevant are mineral cations and soluble organic acids?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trebs, I.; Metzger, S.; Meixner, F.X.; Helas, G.N.; Hoffer, A.; Rudich, Y.; Falkovich, A.H.; Moura, M.A.L.; Silva, da R.S.; Artaxo, P.; Slanina, J.; Andreae, M.O.

    2005-01-01

    Real-time measurements of ammonia, nitric acid, hydrochloric acid, sulfur dioxide and the water-soluble inorganic aerosol species, ammonium, nitrate, chloride, and sulfate were performed at a pasture site in the Amazon Basin (Rondônia, Brazil). The measurements were made during the late dry season

  12. Research into Mercury Exposure and Health Education in Subsistence Fish-Eating Communities of the Amazon Basin: Potential Effects on Public Health Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José G. Dórea

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The neurotoxic effects of fish-methylmercury (meHg consumed regularly are considered hazardous to fetuses and newborn infants; as a result fish consumption advisories are an important asset to control meHg exposure in affluent societies. These concerns are now part of health promotion programs for Amazon subsistence villagers. While urban dwellers in affluent societies can choose an alternative nutritious diet, traditional and subsistence communities are caught up in controversial issues and lifestyle changes with unintended health consequences. Traditional fish-eating populations of industrialized and non-industrialized regions may be exposed to different neurotoxic substances: man-made pollutants and environmentally occurring meHg. Additionally, in non-industrialized countries, pregnant women and infants are still being immunized with thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCVs which degrade to ethylmercury (etHg. Therefore, the complexity involving fish-meHg associated with wild-fish choices and Hg exposure derived from TCVs is difficult to disentangle and evaluate: are villagers able to distinguish exposure to differently hazardous chemical forms of Hg (inorganic, fish-meHg, and injected etHg? Is it possible that instead of helping to prevent a plausible (unperceived fish-meHg associated neurocognitive delay we may inadvertently arouse panic surrounding Hg exposure and disrupt subsistence fish-eating habits (necessary for survival and life-saving vaccination programs (required by public health authorities? These questions characterize the incompleteness of information related on the various chemical forms of Hg exposure and the need to convey messages that do not disrupt nutritional balance and disease prevention policies directed at Amazonian subsistence communities.

  13. External exposure estimates for individuals near the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, R.W.; Smale, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    Individuals living near the Nevada Test Site were exposed to both beta and gamma radiations from fission products and activation products resulting from the atmospheric testing of nuclear devices. These exposures were functions of the amount of material deposited, the time of arrival of the debris, and the amount of shielding afforded by structures. Results are presented for each of nine generic life styles. These are representative of the living patterns of the people residing in the area. For each event at each location for which data exist, a representative of each life style was closely followed for a period of thirty days. The results of these detailed calculations are then extrapolated to the present. 7 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  14. The influence of changes in lifestyle and mercury exposure in riverine populations of the Madeira River (Amazon Basin) near a hydroelectric project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacon, Sandra S; Dórea, José G; Fonseca, Márlon de F; Oliveira, Beatriz A; Mourão, Dennys S; Ruiz, Claudia M V; Gonçalves, Rodrigo A; Mariani, Carolina F; Bastos, Wanderley R

    2014-02-26

    In the Amazon Basin, naturally occurring methylmercury bioaccumulates in fish, which is a key source of protein consumed by riverine populations. The hydroelectric power-plant project at Santo Antônio Falls allows us to compare the Hg exposure of riverine populations sparsely distributed on both sides of the Madeira river before the area is to be flooded. From 2009 to 2011, we concluded a population survey of the area (N = 2,008; representing circa 80% of community residents) that estimated fish consumption and mercury exposure of riverine populations with different degrees of lifestyle related to fish consumption. Fish samples from the Madeira river (N = 1,615) and 110 species were analyzed for Hg. Hair-Hg was significantly lower (p < 0.001) in less isolated communities near to the capital of Porto Velho (median 2.32 ppm) than in subsistence communities in the Cuniã Lake, 180 km from Porto Velho city (median 6.3 ppm). Fish Hg concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 6.06 µg/g, depending on fish size and feeding behavior. Currently available fish in the Madeira river show a wide variability in Hg concentrations. Despite cultural similarities, riparians showed hair-Hg distribution patterns that reflect changes in fish-eating habits driven by subsistence characteristics.

  15. Eddy covariance fluxes of the NO-O3-NO2 triad above the forest canopy at the ATTO Site in the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsokankunku, Anywhere; Wolff, Stefan; Sörgel, Matthias; Berger, Martina; Zelger, Michael; Dlugi, Ralf

    2017-04-01

    Nitrogen monoxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) (denoted together as NOx) determine the abundance of the tropospheric oxidants OH, O3 and NO3 that regulate atmospheric self-cleaning. The three reactive trace gases NO, NO2 and O3 undergo a series of interconnected photochemical reactions and are often referred to as the NO-O3-NO2 triad. Ozone deposition is mainly controlled by stomatal uptake, thus contributes to oxidative stress for the plants. Similarly, nitrogen dioxide from above or below the canopy is deposited to leaves through stomatal uptake. NO emissions from soils contribute to above canopy O3 formation and accelerate OH recycling. Therefore, quantification of the exchange fluxes of these species between the atmosphere and the biosphere are important for atmospheric chemistry and ecosystem research as well. The eddy covariance method is state of the art for direct measurements of ecosystem fluxes of trace gases. Eddy covariance measurements of NOx in pristine environments are rare because of lack of availability of instruments with the required precision to resolve concentrations characteristic of these environments. The Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO) is located in a pristine rainforest environment in the Amazon basin about 150 km northeast of the city of Manaus. It is the ideal site for studying the biosphere-atmosphere exchange of the NO-O3-NO2 triad, being largely undisturbed by anthropogenic sources. During an intensive measurement campaign in November 2015 at the ATTO site, measurements of NO, NO2 and O3 were carried out at 42 m above ground level on the 80 m walk-up tower with a fast (5 Hz) and sensitive (gas profile system which has been operational at the site since 2012. From these measurements, we present eddy covariance fluxes of the NO-O3-NO2 triad. We relate the fluxes to the canopy-atmosphere exchange of the trace gases and other scalars using the profile data along the tower. Chemical and turbulent transport timescales of the triad

  16. Use of a new Trichoderma harzianum strain isolated from the Amazon rainforest with pretreated sugar cane bagasse for on-site cellulase production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delabona, Priscila da Silva; Farinas, Cristiane Sanchez; da Silva, Mateus Ribeiro; Azzoni, Sindelia Freitas; Pradella, José Geraldo da Cruz

    2012-03-01

    The on-site production of cellulases is an important strategy for the development of sustainable second-generation ethanol production processes. This study concerns the use of a specific cellulolytic enzyme complex for hydrolysis of pretreated sugar cane bagasse. Glycosyl hydrolases (FPase, xylanase, and β-glucosidase) were produced using a new strain of Trichoderma harzianum, isolated from the Amazon rainforest and cultivated under different conditions. The influence of the carbon source was first investigated using shake-flask cultures. Selected carbon sources were then further studied under different pH conditions using a stirred tank bioreactor. Enzymatic activities up to 121 FPU/g, 8000 IU/g, and 1730 IU/g of delignified steam-exploded bagasse+sucrose were achieved for cellulase, xylanase and β-glucosidase, respectively. This enzymatic complex was used to hydrolyze pretreated sugar cane bagasse. A comparative evaluation, using an enzymatic extract from Trichoderma reesei RUTC30, indicated similar performance of the T. harzianum enzyme complex, being a potential candidate for on-site production of enzymes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Eddy Covariance Fluxes of the NO-O3-NO2 Triad above the Forest Canopy at the ATTO Site in the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsokankunku, A.; Wolff, S.; Berger, M.; Zelger, M.; Dlugi, R. J. W.; Andreae, M. O.; Sörgel, M.

    2017-12-01

    Nitrogen monoxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) (denoted together as NOx) determine the abundance of the tropospheric oxidants OH, O3 and NO3 that regulate atmospheric self-cleaning. The three reactive trace gases NO, NO2 and O3 undergo a series of interconnected photochemical reactions and are therefore often referred to as the NO-O3-NO2 triad. Ozone deposition is mainly controlled by stomatal uptake, therefore resulting in oxidative stress for the plants. Similarly, nitrogen dioxide from above or below the canopy is deposited to leaves through stomatal uptake. NO emissions from soils contribute to above canopy O3 formation and accelerate OH recycling. Therefore, quantification of the biosphere-atmosphere exchange fluxes of these species is important for atmospheric chemistry and ecosystem research. The eddy covariance method is state of the art for direct measurements of ecosystem fluxes of trace gases. Eddy covariance measurements of NOx in pristine environments are rare because of lack of availability of instruments with the required precision to resolve concentrations characteristic of these environments with the required high time resolution. The Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO) is located in a pristine rainforest environment in the Amazon basin about 150 km northeast of the city of Manaus. It is the ideal site for studying the biosphere-atmosphere exchange of the NO-O3-NO2 triad, because of the absence of nearby anthropogenic sources. During an intensive measurement campaign in November 2015 at the ATTO site, measurements of NO, NO2 and O3 were carried out at 42 m above ground level on the 80 m walk-up tower with a fast (5 Hz) and sensitive (< 30 ppt) instrument (CLD790SR2, Eco Physics) for NO and NO2 and with 10 Hz for O3 (Enviscope GmbH). Additionally, a suite of micrometeorological instruments was installed, including a profile of 3-dimensional sonic anemometers and meteorological sensors. Vertical concentration profile measurements of NO, NO2 and O

  18. Site-specific data confirm arsenic exposure predicted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, S; Griffin, S

    1998-01-01

    The EPA uses an exposure assessment model to estimate daily intake to chemicals of potential concern. At the Anaconda Superfund site in Montana, the EPA exposure assessment model was used to predict total and speciated urinary arsenic concentrations. Predicted concentrations were then compared to concentrations measured in children living near the site. When site-specific information on concentrations of arsenic in soil, interior dust, and diet, site-specific ingestion rates, and arsenic abso...

  19. Control of dry season evapotranspiration over the Amazonian forest as inferred from observations at a southern Amazon forest site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Negrón Juárez, R.I.; Hodnett, M.G.; Fu, R.; Goulden, M.L.; Randow, von C.

    2007-01-01

    The extent to which soil water storage can support an average dry season evapotranspiration (ET) is investigated using observations from the Rebio Jarú site for the period of 2000 to 2002. During the dry season, when total rainfall is less than 100 mm, the soil moisture storage available to root

  20. Cancer mortality and oil production in the Amazon Region of Ecuador, 1990-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsh, Michael A; Morimoto, Libby; Lau, Edmund

    2009-02-01

    To compare cancer mortality rates in Amazon cantons (counties) with and without long-term oil exploration and extraction activities. Mortality (1990 through 2005) and population census (1990 and 2001) data for cantons in the provinces of the northern Amazon Region (Napo, Orellana, Sucumbios, and Pastaza), as well as the province with the capital city of Quito (Pichincha province) were obtained from the National Statistical Office of Ecuador, Instituto Nacional del Estadistica y Censos (INEC). Age- and sex-adjusted mortality rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated to evaluate total and cause-specific mortality in the study regions. Among Amazon cantons with long-term oil extraction, activities there was no evidence of increased rates of death from all causes (RR = 0.98; 95% CI = 0.95-1.01) or from overall cancer (RR = 0.82; 95% CI = 0.73-0.92), and relative risk estimates were also lower for most individual site-specific cancer deaths. Mortality rates in the Amazon provinces overall were significantly lower than those observed in Pichincha for all causes (RR = 0.82; 95% CI = 0.81-0.83), overall cancer (RR = 0.46; 95% CI = 0.43-0.49), and for all site-specific cancers. In regions with incomplete cancer registration, mortality data are one of the few sources of information for epidemiologic assessments. However, epidemiologic assessments in this region of Ecuador are limited by underreporting, exposure and disease misclassification, and study design limitations. Recognizing these limitations, our analyses of national mortality data of the Amazon Region in Ecuador does not provide evidence for an excess cancer risk in regions of the Amazon with long-term oil production. These findings were not consistent or supportive of earlier studies in this region that suggested increased cancer risks.

  1. Simian malaria at two sites in the Brazilian Amazon--II. Vertical distribution and frequency of anopheline species inside and outside the forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço-de-Oliveira, R; Luz, S L

    1996-01-01

    An anopheline survey was carried out in two simian malaria areas in the Brazilian Amazon, Balbina and Samuel, to determine the potential vectors of Plasmodium brasilianum. The most abundant and/or acrodendrophilic anophelines in the forest and the most likely vector were Anopheles mediopunctatus, An. nuneztovari, An. oswaldoi, An. triannulatus and An. shannoni. An. darlingi and An. marajoara were captured essentially in anthropic habitats outside the forest and are unlikely to be involved in the transmission of P. brasilianum among monkeys within the forests and from monkeys to man in their surroundings in the Amazon.

  2. Simian malaria at two sites in the Brazilian Amazon - II: Vertical distribution and frequency of anopheline species inside and outside the forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Lourenço-de-Oliveira

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available An anopheline survey was carried out in two simian malaria areas in the Brazilian Amazon, Balbina and Samuel, to determine the potential vectors of Plasmodium brasilianum. The most abundant and/or acrodendrophilic anophelines in the forest and the most likely vector were Anopheles mediopunctatus, An. nuneztovari, An. oswaldoi, An. triannulatus and An. shannoni. An. darlingi and An. marajoara were captured essentially in anthropic habitats outside the forest and are unlikely to be involved in the transmission of P. brasilianum among monkeys within the forests and from monkeys to man in their surroundings in the Amazon.

  3. Somatosensory Psychophysical Losses in Inhabitants of Riverside Communities of the Tapajós River Basin, Amazon, Brazil: Exposure to Methylmercury Is Possibly Involved.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Dirce Torres Khoury

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to evaluate the somatosensory system of methylmercury-exposed inhabitants living in the communities of the Tapajós river basin by using psychophysical tests and to compare with measurements performed in inhabitants of the Tocantins river basin. We studied 108 subjects from Barreiras and São Luiz do Tapajós, two communities of the Tapajós river basin, State of Pará, Amazon, Brazil, aged 13-53 years old. Mercury analysis was performed in head hair samples weighting 0.1-0.2 g by using atomic absorption spectrometry. Three somatosensory psychophysical tests were performed: tactile sensation threshold, vibration sensation duration, and two-point discrimination. Semmes-Weinstein 20 monofilaments with different diameters were used to test the tactile sensation in the lower lip, right and left breasts, right and left index fingers, and right and left hallux. The threshold was the thinner monofilament perceived by the subject. Vibration sensation was investigated using a 128 Hz diapason applied to the sternum, right and left radial sides of the wrist, and right and left outer malleoli. Two trials were performed at each place. A stopwatch recorded the vibration sensation duration. The two-point discrimination test was performed using a two-point discriminator. Head hair mercury concentration was significantly higher in mercury-exposed inhabitants of Tapajós than in non-exposed inhabitants of Tocantins (p < 0.01. When all subjects were divided in two groups independently of age-mercury-exposed and non-exposed-the following results were found: tactile sensation thresholds in mercury-exposed subjects were higher than in non-exposed subjects at all body parts, except at the left chest; vibration sensation durations were shorter in mercury-exposed than in non-exposed subjects, at all locations except in the upper sternum; two-point discrimination thresholds were higher in mercury-exposed than in non-exposed subjects at all

  4. Rickettsia amblyommatis infecting ticks and exposure of domestic dogs to Rickettsia spp. in an Amazon-Cerrado transition region of northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Francisco B; da Costa, Andréa P; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Martins, Thiago F; Soares, Herbert S; Ramirez, Diego G; Dias, Ricardo A; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2017-01-01

    This study was performed in Maranhão state, a transition area two Brazilian biomes, Amazon and Cerrado. During 2011-2013, 1,560 domestic dogs were sampled for collection of serum blood samples and ticks in eight counties (3 within the Amazon and 5 within the Cerrado). A total of 959 ticks were collected on 150 dogs (9.6%). Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s.l.) was the most abundant tick (68% of all collected specimens), followed by Amblyomma cajennense sensu lato (s.l.) (12.9%), Amblyomma parvum (9.2%), and Amblyomma ovale (5.2%). Other less abundant species (Cerrado area, and A. cajennense s.s. from pigs in an Amazon area revealed R. amblyommatis infecting only the A. cajennense s.s. ticks. Serological analysis of the 1,560 canine blood samples revealed 12.6% canine seroreactivity to Rickettsia spp., with the highest specific seroreactivity rate (10.2%) for R. amblyommatis. Endpoint titers to R. amblyommatis were significantly higher than those for the other Rickettsia antigens, suggesting that most of the seroreactive dogs were exposed to R. amblyommatis-infected ticks. Highest canine seroreactivity rates per locality (13.1-30.8%) were found in Amazon biome, where A. cajennense s.s. predominated. Lowest seroreactivity rates (1.9-6.5%) were found in Cerrado localities that were further from the Amazon, where A. sculptum predominated. Multivariate analyses revealed that canine seroreactivity to Rickettsia spp. or R. amblyommatis was statistically associated with rural dogs, exposed to Amblyomma ticks.

  5. GoAmazon – Scaling Amazon Carbon Water Couplings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubey, Manvendra Krishna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-06

    Forests soak up 25% of the carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted by anthropogenic fossil energy use (10 Gt C y-1) moderating its atmospheric accumulation. How this terrestrial CO2 uptake will evolve with climate change in the 21st century is largely unknown. Rainforests are the most active ecosystems with the Amazon basin storing 120 Gt C as biomass and exchanging 18 Gt C y-1 of CO2 via photosynthesis and respiration and fixing carbon at 2-3 kg C m-2 y-1. Furthermore, the intense hydrologic and carbon cycles are tightly coupled in the Amazon where about half of the water is recycled by evapotranspiration and the other half imported from the ocean by Northeasterly trade winds. Climate models predict a drying in the Amazon with reduced carbon uptake while observationally guided assessments indicate sustained uptake. We will resolve this huge discrepancy in the size and sign of the future Amazon carbon cycle by performing the first simultaneous regional scale high frequency measurements of atmospheric CO2, H2O, HOD, CH4, N2O and CO at the T3 site in Manacupuru, Brazil as part of DOE's GoAmazon project. Our data will be used to inform and develop DOE's CLM on the tropical carbon-water couplings at the appropriate grid scale (10-50km). Our measurements will also validate the CO2 data from Japan's GOSAT and NASA's imminent OCO-2 satellite (launch date July 2014).

  6. Real-time measurements of ammonia, acidic trace gases and water-soluble inorganic aerosol species at a rural site in the Amazon Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Trebs

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We measured the mixing ratios of ammonia (NH3, nitric acid (HNO3, nitrous acid (HONO, hydrochloric acid (HCl, sulfur dioxide (SO2 and the corresponding water-soluble inorganic aerosol species, ammonium (NH4+, nitrate (NO3-, nitrite (NO2-, chloride (Cl- and sulfate (SO42-, and their diel and seasonal variations at a pasture site in the Amazon Basin (Rondônia, Brazil. This study was conducted within the framework of LBA-SMOCC (Large Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia - Smoke Aerosols, Clouds, Rainfall and Climate: Aerosols from Biomass Burning Perturb Global and Regional Climate. Sampling was performed from 12 September to 14 November 2002, extending from the dry season (extensive biomass burning activity, through the transition period to the wet season (background conditions. Measurements were made continuously using a wet-annular denuder (WAD in combination with a Steam-Jet Aerosol Collector (SJAC followed by suitable on-line analysis. A detailed description and verification of the inlet system for simultaneous sampling of soluble gases and aerosol compounds is presented. Overall measurement uncertainties of the ambient mixing ratios usually remained below 15%. The limit of detection (LOD was determined for each single data point measured during the field experiment. Median LOD values (3σ-definition were ≤0.015ppb for acidic trace gases and aerosol anions and ≤0.118ppb for NH3 and aerosol NH4+. Mixing ratios of acidic trace gases remained below 1ppb throughout the measurement period, while NH3 levels were an order of magnitude higher. Accordingly, mixing ratios of NH4+ exceeded those of other inorganic aerosol contributors by a factor of 4 to 10. During the wet season, mixing ratios decreased by nearly a factor of 3 for all compounds compared to those observed when intensive biomass burning took place. Additionally, N-containing gas and aerosol species featured pronounced diel variations. This is attributed to strong

  7. Site-specific data confirm arsenic exposure predicted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, S; Griffin, S

    1998-03-01

    The EPA uses an exposure assessment model to estimate daily intake to chemicals of potential concern. At the Anaconda Superfund site in Montana, the EPA exposure assessment model was used to predict total and speciated urinary arsenic concentrations. Predicted concentrations were then compared to concentrations measured in children living near the site. When site-specific information on concentrations of arsenic in soil, interior dust, and diet, site-specific ingestion rates, and arsenic absorption rates were used, measured and predicted urinary arsenic concentrations were in reasonable agreement. The central tendency exposure assessment model successfully described the measured urinary arsenic concentration for the majority of children at the site. The reasonable maximum exposure assessment model successfully identified the uppermost exposed population. While the agreement between measured and predicted urinary arsenic is good, it is not exact. The variables that were identified which influenced agreement included soil and dust sample collection methodology, daily urinary volume, soil ingestion rate, and the ability to define the exposure unit. The concentration of arsenic in food affected agreement between measured and predicted total urinary arsenic, but was not considered when comparing measured and predicted speciated urinary arsenic. Speciated urinary arsenic is the recommended biomarker for recent inorganic arsenic exposure. By using site-specific data in the exposure assessment model, predicted risks from exposure to arsenic were less than predicted risks would have been if the EPA's default values had been used in the exposure assessment model. This difference resulted in reduced magnitude and cost of remediation while still protecting human health.

  8. Development of exposure scenarios for CERCLA risk assessments at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nix, D.W.; Immel, J.W. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Phifer, M.A. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1992-12-31

    A CERCLA Baseline Risk Assessment (BRA) is performed to determine if there are any potential risks to human health and the environment from waste unit at SRS. The SRS has numerous waste units to evaluate in the RFMU and CMS/FS programs and, in order to provide a consistent approach, four standard exposure scenarios were developed for exposure assessments to be used in human health risk assessments. The standard exposure scenarios are divided into two temporal categories: (a) Current Land Use in the BRA, and (b) Future Land Use in the RERA. The Current Land Use scenarios consist of the evaluation of human health risk for Industrial Exposure (of a worker not involved in waste unit characterization or remediation), a Trespasser, a hypothetical current On-site Resident, and an Off-site Resident. The Future Land Use scenario considers exposure to an On-site Resident following termination of institutional control in the absence of any remedial action (No Action Alternative), as well as evaluating potential remedial alternatives against the four scenarios from the BRA. A critical facet in the development of a BRA or RERA is the scoping of exposure scenarios that reflect actual conditions at a waste unit, rather than using factors such as EPA Standard Default Exposure Scenarios (OSWER Directive 9285.6-03) that are based on upper-bound exposures that tend to reflect worst case conditions. The use of site-specific information for developing risk assessment exposure scenarios will result in a more realistic estimate of Reasonable Maximum Exposure for SRS waste units.

  9. Localização de áreas de monitoramento telemétrico em ambientes aquáticos da Amazônia Location of telemetric monitoring sites in Amazon floodplain lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Bergier Tavares de Lima

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho demonstra a aplicabilidade de imagens de sensoriamento remoto e de métodos de processamento de imagens digitais para definição de locais adequados à instalação de sistemas telemétricos de monitoramento de variáveis ambientais em sistemas aquáticos, localizados em regiões de difícil acesso. A técnica consiste essencialmente da aplicação de operações Booleanas entre mapas da pluma do Rio Amazonas e de zonas inundadas do Lago de Curuai em diferentes etapas do ciclo hidrológico. A localização exata para o sistema de monitoramento telemétrico será vital para o desenvolvimento de modelos de troca de gases traço entre a planície de inundação Amazônica e a atmosfera.The present work illustrates the application of remote sensing and image processing methods to define appropriate sites for installing buoy moored telemetric systems at the surface of Amazon floodplain lakes for long-term limnologic-micrometeorologic monitoring. The technique consists essentially of Boolean operations over Amazon plume maps and historic inundation of the Curuai Lake at distinct stages of the hydrologic cycle. The precise location for the long-term monitoring is vital to the development of models concerning air-water trace gas exchange in the Amazon floodplains.

  10. Collaborative community hazard exposure mapping: Distant Early Warning radar sites in Alaska's North Slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, M.

    2015-12-01

    A method to produce hazard exposure maps that are developed in collaboration with local coastal communities is the focus of this research. Typically efforts to map community exposure to climate threats over large areas have limited consideration of local perspectives about associated risks, constraining their utility for local management. This problem is especially acute in remote locations such as the Arctic where there are unique vulnerabilities to coastal threats that can be fully understood only through inclusion of community stakeholders. Through collaboration with community members, this study identifies important coastal assets and places and surveys local perspectives of exposure to climate threats along Alaska's vast North Slope coastline spanning multiple municipalities. To model physical exposure, the study adapts the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) coastal vulnerability index (CVI) to the Arctic context by incorporating the effects of open water distance determined by sea ice extent, and assigning CVI values to coastal assets and places according to direction and proximity. The study found that in addition to concerns about exposed municipal and industrial assets, North Slope communities viewed exposure of traditional activity sites as presenting a particular risk for communities. Highly exposed legacy Cold War Distant Early Warning Line sites are of particular concern with impacts ranging from financial risk to contamination of sensitive coastal marine environments. This research demonstrates a method to collaboratively map community exposure to coastal climate threats to better understand local risks and produce locally usable exposure maps.

  11. Large-scale projects in the amazon and human exposure to mercury: The case-study of the Tucuruí Dam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrifano, Gabriela P F; Martín-Doimeadios, Rosa C Rodríguez; Jiménez-Moreno, María; Ramírez-Mateos, Vanesa; da Silva, Núbia F S; Souza-Monteiro, José Rogério; Augusto-Oliveira, Marcus; Paraense, Ricardo S O; Macchi, Barbarella M; do Nascimento, José Luiz M; Crespo-Lopez, Maria Elena

    2018-01-01

    The Tucuruí Dam is one of the largest dams ever built in the Amazon. The area is not highly influenced by gold mining as a source of mercury contamination. Still, we recently noted that one of the most consumed fishes (Cichla sp.) is possibly contaminated with methylmercury. Therefore, this work evaluated the mercury content in the human population living near the Tucuruí Dam. Strict exclusion/inclusion criteria were applied for the selection of participants avoiding those with altered hepatic and/or renal functions. Methylmercury and total mercury contents were analyzed in hair samples. The median level of total mercury in hair was above the safe limit (10µg/g) recommended by the World Health Organization, with values up to 75µg/g (about 90% as methylmercury). A large percentage of the participants (57% and 30%) showed high concentrations of total mercury (≥ 10µg/g and ≥ 20µg/g, respectively), with a median value of 12.0µg/g. These are among the highest concentrations ever detected in populations living near Amazonian dams. Interestingly, the concentrations are relatively higher than those currently shown for human populations highly influenced by gold mining areas. Although additional studies are needed to confirm the possible biomagnification and bioaccumulation of mercury by the dams in the Amazon, our data already support the importance of adequate impact studies and continuous monitoring. More than 400 hydropower dams are operational or under construction in the Amazon, and an additional 334 dams are presently planned/proposed. Continuous monitoring of the populations will assist in the development of prevention strategies and government actions to face the problem of the impacts caused by the dams. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of exposure scenarios for CERCLA risk assessments at the Savannah River Site (U)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nix, D.W.; Immel, J.W.; Phifer, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    Environmental Restoration (ER) activities at the Savannah River Site (SRS) begin with the characterization of inactive hazardous, radioactive and mixed waste disposal areas by a combined Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI)/Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Remedial Investigation (Rl) followed by evaluation of remedial alternatives in a RCRA Corrective Measures Study (CMS)/CERCLA Feasibility Study (FS). A CERCLA Baseline Risk Assessment (BRA) is performed during the RFVRI characterization to determine if there are any potential risks to human health or the environment from the waste unit. If it is determined that there is need for remedial action, a Risk Evaluation of Remedial Alternatives (RERA) is performed as part of the CMS/FS to provide a basis for selecting a remedy that is protective of human health and the environment. The SRS has numerous waste units to evaluate in the RFI/RI and CMS/FS programs and, in order to provide a consistent approach, four standard exposure scenarios were developed for exposure assessments to be used in human health risk assessments. The standard exposure scenarios are divided into two temporal categories: (a) Current Land Use in the BRA, and (b) Future Land Use in the RERA. The Current Land Use scenarios consist of the evaluation of human health risk for Industrial Exposure (of a worker not involved in waste unit characterization or remediation), a Trespasser, a hypothetical current On-site Resident, and an Off-site Resident. The Future Land Use scenario considers exposure to an On-site Resident following termination of institutional control in the absence of any remedial action (No Action Alternative), as well as evaluating potential remedial alternatives against the four scenarios from the BRA. A critical facet in the development of a BRA or RERA is the seeping of exposure scenarios that reflect actual conditions at a waste unit, rather than using

  13. Personal UV exposure on a ski-field at an alpine site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siani, A. M.; Casale, G. R.; Diémoz, H.; Agnesod, G.; Kimlin, M. G.; Lang, C. A.; Colosimo, A.

    2008-02-01

    Mountain sites experience enhanced ambient UV radiation levels due to the concurrent effects of shorter radiation path-length, low aerosol load and high reflectivity of the snow surfaces. This study was encouraged by the possibility to collect data of personal UV exposure in the mountainous areas of Italy, for the first time. Personal UV exposure (expressed in terms of Exposure Ratio, ER) of two groups of volunteers (ski instructors and skiers) at the Alpine site of La Thuile (Valle d'Aosta region, Italy) was assessed using polysulphone dosimetry which was tested in a mountainous snow-covered environment. In addition measurements of biological markers of individual response to UV exposure such as skin colorimetric parameters were carried out. It was found that snow and altitude of study site affect calibration curves of polysulphone dosimeters in comparison to a situation without snow. The median ER, taking into account the whole sample, is 0.60 in winter, with a range of 0.29 to 1.46, and 1.02 in spring, ranging from 0.46 to 1.72. There are no differences in exposures across skiers and instructors in spring while in winter skiers experience lower values. UV exposures are not sensitive to the use of sunscreen across instructor/skier group by day or by seasons or by photo-type. With regard to colorimetric parameters, the main result was that both skiers and instructors had on average significantly lower values of L* and b* after exposure i.e. becoming darker but the inappropriate sunscreen use did not reveal any changes in skin colorimetric parameters except in one spring day. In conclusions UV intensities on the ski-fields are often significantly higher than those on horizontal surfaces. Given the high levels of exposure observed in the present study, dedicated public heath messages on the correct sunscreen use should be adopted.

  14. Simian malaria at two sites in the Brazilian Amazon: I-The infection rates of Plasmodium brasilianum in non-human primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Lourenço-de-Oliveira

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The parasite that causes simian malaria in the Brazilian Amazon, Plasmodium brasilianum, is infective to man. In this region, where humans live within and in close proximity to the forest, it was suspected that this parasite could be the cause of a zoonosis. A study was performed in the areas surrounding two hydroelectric plants in the Amazon, Balbina and Samuel, aiming at determining the zoonotic potential of this parasite. P. brasilianum was detected in, respectively, 15.8% and 9.9% of 126 and 252 primates belonging to seven and eight species examined from Balbina and Samuel. The highest malaria infection rates were found among the red-howler monkey Alouatta seniculus straminea (32.3%, the bearded-saki Chiropotes satanas chiropotes (50% and the spider-monkey Ateles paniscus paniscus (2[1+] from Balbina and in the squirrel-monkey Saimiri ustus (21% and the black-faced-spider-monkey Ateles paniscus chamek (28.6% from Samuel.

  15. Wind-Driven Erosion and Exposure Potential at Mars 2020 Rover Candidate-Landing Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnacki, Matthew; Banks, Maria; Urso, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Aeolian processes have likely been the predominant geomorphic agent for most of Mars’ history and have the potential to produce relatively young exposure ages for geologic units. Thus, identifying local evidence for aeolian erosion is highly relevant to the selection of landing sites for future missions, such as the Mars 2020 Rover mission that aims to explore astrobiologically relevant ancient environments. Here we investigate wind-driven activity at eight Mars 2020 candidate-landing sites to constrain erosion potential at these locations. To demonstrate our methods, we found that contemporary dune-derived abrasion rates were in agreement with rover-derived exhumation rates at Gale crater and could be employed elsewhere. The Holden crater candidate site was interpreted to have low contemporary erosion rates, based on the presence of a thick sand coverage of static ripples. Active ripples at the Eberswalde and southwest Melas sites may account for local erosion and the dearth of small craters. Moderate-flux regional dunes near Mawrth Vallis were deemed unrepresentative of the candidate site, which is interpreted to currently be experiencing low levels of erosion. The Nili Fossae site displayed the most unambiguous evidence for local sand transport and erosion, likely yielding relatively young exposure ages. The downselected Jezero crater and northeast Syrtis sites had high-flux neighboring dunes and exhibited substantial evidence for sediment pathways across their ellipses. Both sites had relatively high estimated abrasion rates, which would yield young exposure ages. The downselected Columbia Hills site lacked evidence for sand movement, and contemporary local erosion rates are estimated to be relatively low. PMID:29568719

  16. Wind-Driven Erosion and Exposure Potential at Mars 2020 Rover Candidate-Landing Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnacki, Matthew; Banks, Maria; Urso, Anna

    2018-02-01

    Aeolian processes have likely been the predominant geomorphic agent for most of Mars' history and have the potential to produce relatively young exposure ages for geologic units. Thus, identifying local evidence for aeolian erosion is highly relevant to the selection of landing sites for future missions, such as the Mars 2020 Rover mission that aims to explore astrobiologically relevant ancient environments. Here we investigate wind-driven activity at eight Mars 2020 candidate-landing sites to constrain erosion potential at these locations. To demonstrate our methods, we found that contemporary dune-derived abrasion rates were in agreement with rover-derived exhumation rates at Gale crater and could be employed elsewhere. The Holden crater candidate site was interpreted to have low contemporary erosion rates, based on the presence of a thick sand coverage of static ripples. Active ripples at the Eberswalde and southwest Melas sites may account for local erosion and the dearth of small craters. Moderate-flux regional dunes near Mawrth Vallis were deemed unrepresentative of the candidate site, which is interpreted to currently be experiencing low levels of erosion. The Nili Fossae site displayed the most unambiguous evidence for local sand transport and erosion, likely yielding relatively young exposure ages. The downselected Jezero crater and northeast Syrtis sites had high-flux neighboring dunes and exhibited substantial evidence for sediment pathways across their ellipses. Both sites had relatively high estimated abrasion rates, which would yield young exposure ages. The downselected Columbia Hills site lacked evidence for sand movement, and contemporary local erosion rates are estimated to be relatively low.

  17. Wind-Driven Erosion and Exposure Potential at Mars 2020 Rover Candidate-Landing Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnacki, Matthew; Banks, Maria; Urso, Anna

    2018-02-01

    Aeolian processes have likely been the predominant geomorphic agent for most of Mars' history and have the potential to produce relatively young exposure ages for geologic units. Thus, identifying local evidence for aeolian erosion is highly relevant to the selection of landing sites for future missions, such as the Mars 2020 Rover mission that aims to explore astrobiologically relevant ancient environments. Here we investigate wind-driven activity at eight Mars 2020 candidate-landing sites to constrain erosion potential at these locations. To demonstrate our methods, we found that contemporary dune-derived abrasion rates were in agreement with rover-derived exhumation rates at Gale crater and could be employed elsewhere. The Holden crater candidate site was interpreted to have low contemporary erosion rates, based on the presence of a thick sand coverage of static ripples. Active ripples at the Eberswalde and southwest Melas sites may account for local erosion and the dearth of small craters. Moderate-flux regional dunes near Mawrth Vallis were deemed unrepresentative of the candidate site, which is interpreted to currently be experiencing low levels of erosion. The Nili Fossae site displayed the most unambiguous evidence for local sand transport and erosion, likely yielding relatively young exposure ages. The downselected Jezero crater and northeast Syrtis sites had high-flux neighboring dunes and exhibited substantial evidence for sediment pathways across their ellipses. Both sites had relatively high estimated abrasion rates, which would yield young exposure ages. The downselected Columbia Hills site lacked evidence for sand movement, and contemporary local erosion rates are estimated to be relatively low.

  18. Current practices for maintaining occupational exposures ALARA at low-level waste disposal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadlock, D.E.; Herrington, W.N.; Hooker, C.D.; Murphy, D.W.; Gilchrist, R.L.

    1983-12-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracted with Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide technical assistance in establishing operational guidelines, with respect to radiation control programs and methods of minimizing occupational radiation exposure, at Low-Level Waste (LLW) disposal sites. The PNL, through site visits, evaluated operations at LLW disposal sites to determine the adequacy of current practices in maintaining occupational exposures as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA). The data sought included the specifics of: ALARA programs, training programs, external exposure control, internal exposure control, respiratory protection, surveillance, radioactive waste management, facilities and equipment, and external dose analysis. The results of the study indicated the following: The Radiation Protection and ALARA programs at the three commercial LLW disposal sites were observed to be adequate in scope and content compared to similar programs at other types of nuclear facilities. However, it should be noted that there were many areas that could be improved upon to help ensure the health and safety of occupationally exposed individuals.

  19. Current practices for maintaining occupational exposures ALARA at low-level waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadlock, D.E.; Herrington, W.N.; Hooker, C.D.; Murphy, D.W.; Gilchrist, R.L.

    1983-12-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracted with Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide technical assistance in establishing operational guidelines, with respect to radiation control programs and methods of minimizing occupational radiation exposure, at Low-Level Waste (LLW) disposal sites. The PNL, through site visits, evaluated operations at LLW disposal sites to determine the adequacy of current practices in maintaining occupational exposures as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA). The data sought included the specifics of: ALARA programs, training programs, external exposure control, internal exposure control, respiratory protection, surveillance, radioactive waste management, facilities and equipment, and external dose analysis. The results of the study indicated the following: The Radiation Protection and ALARA programs at the three commercial LLW disposal sites were observed to be adequate in scope and content compared to similar programs at other types of nuclear facilities. However, it should be noted that there were many areas that could be improved upon to help ensure the health and safety of occupationally exposed individuals

  20. Portable Analytical Systems for On-Site Diagnosis of Exposure to Pesticides and Nerve Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yuehe; Wang, Jun; Liu, Guodong; Timchalk, Chuck

    2009-12-01

    In this chapter, we summarize recent work in our laboratory on the development of sensitive portable analytical systems for use in on-site detection of exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides and chemical nerve agents. These systems are based on various nanomaterials functioning as transducers; recognition agents or labels and various elelectrochemical/immunoassay techniques. The studied nanomaterials included functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNT), zirconia nanoparticles (NPs) and quantum dots (QDs). Three biomarkers e.g. the free OPs, metabolites of OPs and protein-OP adducts in biological matrices have been employed for biomonitoring of OP exposure with our developed system. It has been found that the nanomaterial-based portable analytical systems have high sensitivity for the detection of the biomarkers, which suggest that these technologies offer great promise for the rapid and on-site detection and evaluation of OP exposure.

  1. Programming Amazon EC2

    CERN Document Server

    Vliet, Jurg

    2011-01-01

    If you plan to use Amazon Web Services to run applications in the cloud, the end-to-end approach in this book will save you needless trial and error. You'll find practical guidelines for designing and building applications with Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) and a host of supporting AWS tools, with a focus on critical issues such as load balancing, monitoring, and automation. How do you move an existing application to AWS, or design your application so that it scales effectively? How much storage will you require? Programming Amazon EC2 not only helps you get started, it will also keep y

  2. Identification of Gene Transcription Start Sites and Enhancers Responding to Pulmonary Carbon Nanotube Exposure in Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornholdt, Jette; Saber, Anne Thoustrup; Lilje, Berit; Boyd, Mette; Jørgensen, Mette; Chen, Yun; Vitezic, Morana; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; Poulsen, Sarah Søs; Berthing, Trine; Bressendorff, Simon; Vitting-Seerup, Kristoffer; Andersson, Robin; Hougaard, Karin Sørig; Yauk, Carole L; Halappanavar, Sabina; Wallin, Håkan; Vogel, Ulla; Sandelin, Albin

    2017-04-25

    Increased use of nanomaterials in industry, medicine, and consumer products has raised concerns over their toxicity. To ensure safe use of nanomaterials, understanding their biological effects at the molecular level is crucial. In particular, the regulatory mechanisms responsible for the cascade of genes activated by nanomaterial exposure are not well-characterized. To this end, we profiled the genome-wide usage of gene transcription start sites and linked active enhancer regions in lungs of C57BL/6 mice 24 h after intratracheal instillation of a single dose of the multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) Mitsui-7. Our results revealed a massive gene regulatory response, where expression of key inflammatory genes (e.g., Csf3, Il24, and Fgf23) was increased >100-fold 24 h after Mitsui-7 exposure. Many of the Mitsui-7-responsive transcription start sites were alternative transcription start sites for known genes, and the number of alternative transcription start sites used in a given gene was correlated with overall Mitsui-7 response. Strikingly, genes that were up-regulated after Mitsui-7 exposure only through their main annotated transcription start site were linked to inflammatory and defense responses, while genes up-regulated only through alternative transcription start sites were functionally heterogeneous and not inflammation-associated. Furthermore, we identified almost 12 000 active enhancers, many of which were Mitsui-7-responsive, and we identified similarly responding putative target genes. Overall, our study provides the location and activity of Mitsui-7-induced enhancers and transcription start sites, providing a useful resource for targeted experiments elucidating the biological effects of nanomaterials and the identification of biomarkers for early detection of MWCNT-induced inflammation.

  3. Transforming an Exposure trip to Botanical Expedition: Introducing Ecological Research thru Exposure Trip in an Eco-tourism Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo C. Lunar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available – Fieldtrips can be considered as one of the three avenues through which science can be taught - through formal classroom teaching, practical work and field trips. An exposure trip at Bangkong Kahoy Valley Field Study Center was arranged for a class of BS Biology and BS Education students enrolled in Ecology Course. This approach purposefully transformed the usual exposure trip from being a casual site visit into a focused and productive learning experience. This transformation from exposure trip to a botanical expedition has exceeded the initial activity goals. Rather than a day off from learning, the time spent at the study center has been a meaningful opportunity to engage students in an active ecological research project while delivering valuable science content. Employing the descriptive survey design, the learning gains of the students were assessed and students were directed to do a guided reflection writing using the ORID Model of Focused Conversation. The learning gains and reflections of the students confirmed that students can collaboratively develop focused research questions, make meaning from a variety of sources, carry out a vegetation analysis and conduct surveys on socio-economic status, plant resource utilization and ecotourism assessment of the host community. As students prepared for their trip and synthesized their learning afterward, they were able to come up with very impressive and scientifically sound research outputs.

  4. Ecohydrology of a Dammed Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpe, K. A.; Kaplan, D. A.

    2016-12-01

    The Amazon River watershed is the world's largest river basin and provides >US$30 billion/yr in ecosystem services to local populations, national societies and humanity at large. Construction of >30 large hydroelectric dams and >170 small dams in the Brazilian Amazon is currently underway as a result of governmental plans geared toward increased energy security, economic growth, improved living standards and industrialization. Changes in the Amazon's freshwater ecosystems from the development of hydropower will have a cascade of physical, ecological, and social effects at local to global scales. Here we demonstrate the extensive and large-scale effects of hydroelectric dams in the Amazon region on hydrologic parameters calculated using the Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (IHA) method applied to 33 small and large dams in the Brazilian Amazon. Our analysis provides the first holistic assessment of hydrological alterations (HA) caused by Amazonian dams and offers insight on the primary physical and management drivers of dam impacts. Across sites, results show that dams have affected all ecologically important flow characteristics (i.e., magnitude, duration, timing, frequency and rate of change of pulse events). While each dam/river system are unique, some dams cause substantially greater HA. The "worst" dams were Balbina (HA=108%), Manso (HA=62%), and Serra da Mesa (HA=48%). All three are "large" dams with substantial reservoirs, however Serra da Mesa produces 6 times more electricity than either Balbina or Manso, with lower impact. The most dramatic dam-induced shifts in hydrologic regime were related to the frequency/duration and frequency/rate of change of pulse events. HA on rivers with multiple dams was only 8% higher than those with individual dams. Dam elevation and reservoir area were the best environmental predictors of HA. Results suggest that hydrological impacts from dams are similar among temperate and tropical climates (i.e., peak flows are often

  5. Monte Carlo exposure analysis: making risk management decisions about human health priorities at contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kindzierski, W.B. [Alberta Health, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    1996-09-01

    Remediation criteria for contaminated sites in North America were discussed. The use of a benchmark could be valuable to risk managers who must determine if a site should be managed before redevelopment. Such a benchmark was obtained at a site containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The cleanup level at the contaminated site was determined using the Monte Carlo probabilistic risk assessment, which suggested a cleanup level of 2 mg/kg (expressed as benzo(a)pyrene) for total carcinogenic PAHs in residential surface soil. The cleanup level was estimated by selecting an appropriate percentile of a probability distribution based on exposures to a child, youth and adult. 29 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs.

  6. Individual external exposures from Nevada Test Site fallout for Utah leukemia cases and controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, R.D.; Gren, D.C.; Simon, S.L.; Wrenn, M.E.; Hawthorne, H.A.; Lotz, T.M.; Stevens, W.; Till, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    External gamma-ray exposures from fallout originating at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) have been assigned to 6,507 individual subjects (1,177 leukemia cases and 5,330 control subjects) who died as Utah residents between 1952 and 1981. Leukemia cases were identified, confirmed, and classified by cell type from the Utah Cancer Registry, Utah State vital records, and medical records. Residential histories were obtained from the Deceased Membership File (DMF) of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS), supplemented by information from the LDS Church Census Records that were taken in 1950, 1955, and 1960-62. Control subjects were selected randomly within age strata from the DMF and were frequency-matched to the cases by age at death and for sex. Individual radiation exposures were assigned as a function of residence location and time interval for each residence during the fallout period (1951-1958) using geographic exposure data taken from the literature. Temporal distribution of exposure for subjects who resided in more than one locality or who were born or died during the fallout period was determined from data of other investigators. Calculated gamma-ray exposures for each place of residence were summed for each subject to yield the exposure to fallout from the NTS

  7. Carbon Nanotube and Nanofiber Exposure Assessments: An Analysis of 14 Site Visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahm, Matthew M.; Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K.; Evans, Douglas E.; Birch, M. Eileen; Fernback, Joseph E.; Deddens, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has suggested the potential for wide-ranging health effects that could result from exposure to carbon nanotubes (CNT) and carbon nanofibers (CNF). In response, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) set a recommended exposure limit (REL) for CNT and CNF: 1 µg m−3 as an 8-h time weighted average (TWA) of elemental carbon (EC) for the respirable size fraction. The purpose of this study was to conduct an industrywide exposure assessment among US CNT and CNF manufacturers and users. Fourteen total sites were visited to assess exposures to CNT (13 sites) and CNF (1 site). Personal breathing zone (PBZ) and area samples were collected for both the inhalable and respirable mass concentration of EC, using NIOSH Method 5040. Inhalable PBZ samples were collected at nine sites while at the remaining five sites both respirable and inhalable PBZ samples were collected side-by-side. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) PBZ and area samples were also collected at the inhalable size fraction and analyzed to quantify and size CNT and CNF agglomerate and fibrous exposures. Respirable EC PBZ concentrations ranged from 0.02 to 2.94 µg m−3 with a geometric mean (GM) of 0.34 µg m−3 and an 8-h TWA of 0.16 µg m−3. PBZ samples at the inhalable size fraction for EC ranged from 0.01 to 79.57 µg m−3 with a GM of 1.21 µg m−3. PBZ samples analyzed by TEM showed concentrations ranging from 0.0001 to 1.613 CNT or CNF-structures per cm3 with a GM of 0.008 and an 8-h TWA concentration of 0.003. The most common CNT structure sizes were found to be larger agglomerates in the 2–5 µm range as well as agglomerates >5 µm. A statistically significant correlation was observed between the inhalable samples for the mass of EC and structure counts by TEM (Spearman ρ = 0.39, P 1 μg m−3. Until more information is known about health effects associated with larger agglomerates, it seems prudent to assess worker exposure to airborne CNT and CNF

  8. Study of ceramics from circular archaeological sites of Amazonic Basin by geochemical methods: dating and characterization; Estudo de ceramicas de sitios arqueologicos circulares da Bacia Amazonica por meio de metodos geoquimicos: datacao e caracterizacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicoli, Ieda Gomes

    2000-09-01

    The aim of this work is to examine by means of characterization and dating pottery recently discovery inside archaeological sites recognized with circular earth structure in Acre State - Brazil which may contribute to the research in the reconstruction of part of the pre-history of the Amazonic Basin. These sites are located mainly in the Hydrographic Basin of High Purus River. Three of them were strategic chosen which provide the ceramics: Lobao, in Sena Madureira County at north; Alto Alegre, in Rio Branco County at east and Xipamanu I, in Xapuri County at south. The X-ray diffraction mineral analysis made possible to identify two types of crystal structures of ceramic minerals: quartz and M-Kaolinite. Neutron activation analysis in conjunction with multivariate statistical methods were applied for the ceramic characterization and classification. An homogeneous group was established by all sherds collected from Alto Alegre and was distinct from all the other two groups analyzed. Some of the sherds collected from Xipamanu I appeared in Lobao's urns, probably because they had the same fabrication process. The Lobao's urns presented a homogeneous group. Geochronology of these materials was carried out by Thermoluminescence. The Xipamanu I was the oldest site and Lobao the youngest. The average age of Xipamanu I and Alto Alegre were 2600 and 2070 years respectively. The average age of of occupation was 400 years to Alto Alegre and 970 years to Xipamanu I. The most probably date for Lobao was 1880 years. (author)

  9. Challenges in developing estimates of exposure rate near the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, C.B.; McArthur, R.D.

    1996-01-01

    As one of several dose reconstruction projects, the Off-site Radiation Exposure Review Project needed to develop models that reflect processes and lifestyles of the past and obtain accurate and adequate historical data to drive the models. One of the critical pieces, ultimately used to estimate the potential dose to people in the area surrounding the Nevada Test Site, was the development of exposure rate estimates used as input to the external and internal dose models. The historical data available for making these estimates were collected in manners and for purposes not necessarily consistent with the needs of this task. The Town Data Base is the culmination of the effort to develop those estimates for the Project's Phase I region (or for locations near the Nevada Test Site that were primarily covered by ground monitoring at the time of the nuclear tests). It includes estimates of discernible exposure rate at 353 populated locations in Arizona, California, Nevada, and Utah and for 74 nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. Each dose reconstruction effort has similarities with, and variations from, others. This paper describes some of the challenges encountered in creating the Town Data Base and the approaches used to address them. These challenges included collecting historical data, incorporating net exposure rate values of zero into the estimates, defining a discernible fallout level, handling the lack of measurements at some locations and creating dispersion estimates. The approaches were developed to create open-quotes bestclose quotes estimates and to use actual data (as opposed to assumed values) as the primary source where such data were available. A summary of the spatial distribution of these estimates and a comparison of relative levels of fallout by location are also included

  10. Trace elements distribution in the Amazon floodplain soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, E.A.N.; Ferraz, E.S.B.; Oliveira, H.

    1994-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis was performed on aluvial soil samples from several sites on the foodplains of the Amazon River and its major tributaries for trace elements determination. The spatial and temporal variations of chemical composition of floodland sediments in the Amazon basin are discussed. No significant difference was found in trace elemental distribution in the floodland soils along the Amazon main channel, even after the source material has been progressively diluted with that from lowland draining tributaries. It was also seen that the average chemical composition of floodplain soils compares well with that of the suspended sedimets. (author) 12 refs.; 5 figs.; 2 tabs

  11. Exposure to Paper Mill Effluent at a Site in North Central Florida Elicits Molecular-Level Changes in Gene Expression Indicative of Progesterone and Androgen Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Brockmeier, Erica K.; Jayasinghe, B. Sumith; Pine, William E.; Wilkinson, Krystan A.; Denslow, Nancy D.

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are chemicals that negatively impact endocrine system function, with effluent from paper mills one example of this class of chemicals. In Florida, female Eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) have been observed with male secondary sexual characteristics at three paper mill-impacted sites, indicative of EDC exposure, and are still found at one site on the Fenholloway River. The potential impacts that paper mill effluent exposure has on the G. holbrooki...

  12. Site-specific lead exposure from lead pellet ingestion in sentinel mallards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, T.E.; Brand, C.J.; Mensik, John G.

    1997-01-01

    We monitored lead poisoning from the ingestion of spent lead pellets in sentinel mallards (Anas platyhrynchos) at the Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge (SNWR), Willows, California for 4 years (1986-89) after the conversion to steel shot for waterfowl hunting on refuges in 1986. Sentinel mallards were held in 1.6-ha enclosures in 1 hunted (P8) and 2 non-hunted (T19 and TF) wetlands. We compared site-specific rates of lead exposure, as determined by periodic measurement of blood lead concentrations, and lead poisoning mortality between wetlands with different lead pellet densities, between seasons, and between male and female sentinels. In 1986, the estimated 2-week rate of lead exposure was significantly higher (P 2,000,000 pellets/ha), than in those with lower densities of lead pellets, T19 (18.1%; 173,200 pellets/ha) and TF (0.9%; 15,750 pellets/ha). The probability of mortality from lead poisoning was also significantly higher (P exposure and the probability of lead poisoning mortality in P8 were significantly higher (P exposure or lead poisoning mortality between male and female sentinel mallards. The results of this study demonstrate that in some locations, lead exposure and lead poisoning in waterfowl will continue to occur despite the conversion to steel shot for waterfowl hunting.

  13. Assessment of 222Rn occupational exposure at IPEN nuclear materials storage site, SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caccuri, Lilian Saueia

    2007-01-01

    In this study it was assessed the occupational exposure to 222 Rn at IPEN, SP, Brazil, nuclear materials storage site through the committed effective dose received by workers exposed to this radionuclide. The radiation dose was calculated through the radon concentrations at nuclear materials storage site. Radon concentrations were determined by passive detection method with solid state nuclear detectors (SSNTD). The SSNTD used in this study was the polycarbonate Makrofol E; each detector is a small square plastic of 1 cm 2 , placed into a diffusion chamber type KFK. It was monitored 14 points at nuclear materials storage site and one external point, over a period of 21 months, changing the detectors every three months, from December 2004 to September 2006. The 222 Rn concentrations varied from 196 ± 9 and 2048 ± 81 Bq·m -3 . The committed effective dose due to radon inhalation at IPEN nuclear materials storage site was obtained from radon activity incorporated and dose conversion factor, according to International Commission on Radiological Protection procedures. The effective committed dose received by workers is below 20 mSv·y -1 . This value is suggested as an annual effective dose limit for occupational exposure by ICRP 60. (author)

  14. CalTOX, a multimedia total exposure model for hazardous-waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKone, T.E.

    1993-06-01

    CalTOX has been developed as a spreadsheet model to assist in health-risk assessments that address contaminated soils and the contamination of adjacent air, surface water, sediments, and ground water. The modeling effort includes a multimedia transport and transformation model, exposure scenario models, and efforts to quantify and reduce uncertainty in multimedia, multiple-pathway exposure models. This report provides an overview of the CalTOX model components, lists the objectives of the model, describes the philosophy under which the model was developed, identifies the chemical classes for which the model can be used, and describes critical sensitivities and uncertainties. The multimedia transport and transformation model is a dynamic model that can be used to assess time-varying concentrations of contaminants introduced initially to soil layers or for contaminants released continuously to air or water. This model assists the user in examining how chemical and landscape properties impact both the ultimate route and quantity of human contact. Multimedia, multiple pathway exposure models are used in the CalTOX model to estimate average daily potential doses within a human population in the vicinity of a hazardous substances release site. The exposure models encompass twenty-three exposure pathways. The exposure assessment process consists of relating contaminant concentrations in the multimedia model compartments to contaminant concentrations in the media with which a human population has contact (personal air, tap water, foods, household dusts soils, etc.). The average daily dose is the product of the exposure concentrations in these contact media and an intake or uptake factor that relates the concentrations to the distributions of potential dose within the population

  15. Roundup® exposure promotes gills and liver impairments, DNA damage and inhibition of brain cholinergic activity in the Amazon teleost fish Colossoma macropomum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braz-Mota, Susana; Sadauskas-Henrique, Helen; Duarte, Rafael M; Val, Adalberto L; Almeida-Val, Vera M F

    2015-09-01

    Roundup Original® (RD) is a glyphosate-based herbicide used to control weeds in agriculture. Contamination of Amazon waters has increased as a consequence of anthropogenic pressure, including the use of herbicides as RD. The central goal of this study was to evaluate the toxic effects of RD on juveniles of tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum). Our findings show that biomarkers in tambaqui are organ specific and dependent on RD concentration. Alterations in gills structural and respiratory epithelium were followed by changes in hematological parameters such as concentration of hemoglobin, particularly in fish exposed to the higher concentration tested (75% of RD LC50 96 h). In addition, both RD concentrations affected the biotransformation process in gills of tambaqui negatively. Instead, liver responses suggest that a production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) occurred in fish exposed to RD, particularly in the animals exposed to 75% RD, as seen by imbalances in biotransformation and antioxidant systems. The increased DNA damage observed in red blood cells of tambaqui exposed to RD is in agreement with this hypothesis. Finally, both tested sub-lethal concentrations of RD markedly inhibited the cholinesterase activity in fish brain. Thus, we can suggest that RD is potentially toxic to tambaqui and possibly to other tropical fish species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Multiple Elemental Exposures Amongst Workers at the Agbogbloshie Electronic Waste (E-Waste) Site in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srigboh, Roland Kofi; Basu, Niladri; Stephens, Judith; Asampong, Emmanuel; Perkins, Marie; Neitzel, Richard L.; Fobil, Julius

    2016-01-01

    Electronic waste (e-waste) recycling is growing worldwide and raising a number of environmental health concerns. One of the largest e-waste sites is Agbogbloshie (Ghana). While several toxic elements have been reported in Agbogbloshie’s environment, there is limited knowledge of human exposures there. The objectives of this study were to characterize exposures to several essential (copper, iron, manganese, selenium, zinc) and toxic (arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, mercury, nickel, lead) elements in the urine and blood of male workers (n=58) at Agbogbloshie, as well as females (n=11) working in activities that serve the site, and to relate these exposures to sociodemographic and occupational characteristics. The median number of years worked at the site was 5, and the average worker indicated being active in 6.8 tasks (of 9 key e-waste job categories). Additionally, we categorized four main e-waste activities (in brackets % of population self-reported main activity): dealing (22.4%), sorting (24.1%), dismantling (50%), and burning (3.4%) e-waste materials. Many blood and urinary elements (including essential ones) were within biomonitoring reference ranges. However, blood cadmium (1.2 ug/L median) and lead (6.4 ug/dl; 67% above U.S. CDC/NIOSH reference level), and urinary arsenic (38.3 ug/L; 39% above U.S. ATSDR value) levels were elevated compared to background populations elsewhere. Workers who burned e-waste tended to have the highest biomarker levels. The findings of this study contribute to a growing body of work at Agbogbloshie (and elsewhere) to document that individuals working within e-waste sites are exposed to a number of toxic elements, some at potentially concerning levels. PMID:27580259

  17. Multiple elemental exposures amongst workers at the Agbogbloshie electronic waste (e-waste) site in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srigboh, Roland Kofi; Basu, Niladri; Stephens, Judith; Asampong, Emmanuel; Perkins, Marie; Neitzel, Richard L; Fobil, Julius

    2016-12-01

    Electronic waste (e-waste) recycling is growing worldwide and raising a number of environmental health concerns. One of the largest e-waste sites is Agbogbloshie (Ghana). While several toxic elements have been reported in Agbogbloshie's environment, there is limited knowledge of human exposures there. The objectives of this study were to characterize exposures to several essential (copper, iron, manganese, selenium, zinc) and toxic (arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, mercury, nickel, lead) elements in the urine and blood of male workers (n = 58) at Agbogbloshie, as well as females (n = 11) working in activities that serve the site, and to relate these exposures to sociodemographic and occupational characteristics. The median number of years worked at the site was 5, and the average worker indicated being active in 6.8 tasks (of 9 key e-waste job categories). Additionally, we categorized four main e-waste activities (in brackets % of population self-reported main activity): dealing (22.4%), sorting (24.1%), dismantling (50%), and burning (3.4%) e-waste materials. Many blood and urinary elements (including essential ones) were within biomonitoring reference ranges. However, blood cadmium (1.2 μg/L median) and lead (6.4 μg/dl; 67% above U.S. CDC/NIOSH reference level), and urinary arsenic (38.3 μg/L; 39% above U.S. ATSDR value) levels were elevated compared to background populations elsewhere. Workers who burned e-waste tended to have the highest biomarker levels. The findings of this study contribute to a growing body of work at Agbogbloshie (and elsewhere) to document that individuals working within e-waste sites are exposed to a number of toxic elements, some at potentially concerning levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Task-based lead exposures and work site characteristics of bridge surface preparation and painting contractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virji, M Abbas; Woskie, Susan R; Pepper, Lewis D

    2009-02-01

    This study of bridge painters working for small contractors in Massachusetts investigated the causes of elevated blood lead levels and assessed their exposure to lead. Bridge work sites were evaluated for a 2-week period during which personal and area air samples and information on work site characteristics and lead abatement methods were gathered. Short-duration personal inhalable samples collected from 18 tasks had geometric means (GM) of 3 microg/m(3) to 7286 microg/m(3). Full-shift, time-weighted average (TWA) inhalable samples (>or=6 hours) collected from selected workers and work sites had GMs of 2 microg/m(3) to 15,704 microg/m(3); 80% of samples exceeded the permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 50 microg/m(3), on average by a factor of 30. Area inhalable samples collected from three locations ranged from 2 microg/m(3) to 40,866 microg/m(3) from inside the containment, 2 microg/m(3) to 471 microug/m(3) from a distance of 6 meters from the containment. Seventy nine percent of the area samples from inside the containment exceeded the PEL on average by a factor of 140. Through observations of work site characteristics, opportunities for improving work methods were identified, particularly the institution of engineering controls (which were only occasionally present) and improvement in the design and construction of the containment structure. The high levels of airborne lead exposures indicate a potential for serious exposure hazard for workers and environmental contamination, which can be mitigated through administrative and engineering controls. Although these data were collected over 10 years ago, a 2005 regulatory review by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) of its lead in construction standard reported that elevated lead exposures and blood lead levels, high occurrence of noncompliance with the lead standard, and nonimplementation of newer technology especially among small painting firms employing <10 workers are still widespread. As a

  19. Somatosensory Psychophysical Losses in Inhabitants of Riverside Communities of the Tapajós River Basin, Amazon, Brazil: Exposure to Methylmercury Is Possibly Involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Eliana Dirce Torres; Souza, Givago da Silva; da Costa, Carlos Araújo; de Araújo, Amélia Ayako Kamogari; de Oliveira, Cláudia Simone Baltazar; Silveira, Luiz Carlos de Lima; Pinheiro, Maria da Conceição Nascimento

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the somatosensory system of methylmercury-exposed inhabitants living in the communities of the Tapajós river basin by using psychophysical tests and to compare with measurements performed in inhabitants of the Tocantins river basin. We studied 108 subjects from Barreiras and São Luiz do Tapajós, two communities of the Tapajós river basin, State of Pará, Amazon, Brazil, aged 13-53 years old. Mercury analysis was performed in head hair samples weighting 0.1-0.2 g by using atomic absorption spectrometry. Three somatosensory psychophysical tests were performed: tactile sensation threshold, vibration sensation duration, and two-point discrimination. Semmes-Weinstein 20 monofilaments with different diameters were used to test the tactile sensation in the lower lip, right and left breasts, right and left index fingers, and right and left hallux. The threshold was the thinner monofilament perceived by the subject. Vibration sensation was investigated using a 128 Hz diapason applied to the sternum, right and left radial sides of the wrist, and right and left outer malleoli. Two trials were performed at each place. A stopwatch recorded the vibration sensation duration. The two-point discrimination test was performed using a two-point discriminator. Head hair mercury concentration was significantly higher in mercury-exposed inhabitants of Tapajós than in non-exposed inhabitants of Tocantins (p river basin is a possible but not a definitely proven cause for psychophysical somatosensory losses observed in their population. Additionally, the relatively simple psychophysical measures used in this work should be followed by more rigorous measures of the same population.

  20. Mesothelioma incidence and asbestos exposure in Italian national priority contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binazzi, Alessandra; Marinaccio, Alessandro; Corfiati, Marisa; Bruno, Caterina; Fazzo, Lucia; Pasetto, Roberto; Pirastu, Roberta; Biggeri, Annibale; Catelan, Dolores; Comba, Pietro; Zona, Amerigo

    2017-11-01

    Objectives This study aimed to (i) describe mesothelioma incidence in the Italian national priority contaminated sites (NPCS) on the basis of data available from the Italian National Mesothelioma Registry (ReNaM) and (ii) profile NPCS using Bayesian rank analysis. Methods Incident cases of mesothelioma and standardized incidence ratios (SIR) were estimated for both genders in each of the 39 selected NPCS in the period 2000-2011. Age-standardized rates of Italian geographical macro areas were used to estimate expected cases. Rankings of areas were produced by a hierarchical Bayesian model. Asbestos exposure modalities were discussed for each site. Results In the study period, 2683 incident cases of mesothelioma (1998 men, 685 women) were recorded. An excess of mesothelioma incidence was confirmed in sites with a known past history of direct use of asbestos (among men) such as Balangero (SIR 197.1, 95% CI 82.0-473.6), Casale Monferrato (SIR 910.7, 95% CI 816.5-1012.8), and Broni (SIR 1288.5, 95% CI 981.9-1691.0), in sites with shipyards and harbors (eg, Trieste, La Spezia, Venice, and Leghorn), and in settings without documented direct use of asbestos. The analysis ranked the sites of Broni and Casale Monferrato (both genders) and Biancavilla (only for women) the highest. Conclusions The present study confirms that asbestos pollution is a risk for people living in polluted areas, due to not only occupational exposure in industrial settings with direct use of asbestos but also the presence of asbestos in the environment. Epidemiological surveillance of asbestos-related diseases is a fundamental tool for monitoring the health profile in NPCS.

  1. Effect of corrosive marine atmosphere on construction materials in Tanzania: Exposure sites and preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mmari, A.G.; Uiso, C.B.S.; Makundi, I.N.; Potgieter-Vermaak, S.S.; Potgieter, J.H.; Van Grieken, R.

    2007-01-01

    Air pollution studies in Africa are limited and the influence of ambient air quality on buildings and constructions have not been investigated in the larger part of Sub-Saharan Africa. The increasing burden of emission from industry, traffic and coal power plants on ambient air pollution in Sub-Saharan Africa necessitated reviewing previous and current studies. In South Africa a 20-year exposure program, focusing on the effect of ambient exposure on various metals and alloys, showed that the amount of rainfall, relative humidity, atmospheric pollution, wind speed, solar radiation and structural design are some of the factors controlling atmospheric corrosion. Tanzania, being among the Sub-Saharan African countries and partly bordered by Indian ocean, the main source of marine atmosphere, experiences corrosive degradation on metal roofing and cementitious materials. This paper describes the exposure site set-up and will report on some preliminary results of air quality and its relation with the meteorological conditions, as well as surface changes observed, for the year one of exposure. These will thereafter be compared to the completed European and Asian studies, as reported by CLRTAP and RAPIDC respectively. (author)

  2. Understanding pathways of exposure using site-specific habits surveys, particularly new pathways and methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grzechnik, M.; McTaggart, K.; Clyne, F.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: UK policy on the control of radiation exposure via routine discharges from nuclear licensed sites has long been based on ICRP recommendations that embody the principles of justification of practices, optimisation of protection, and dose limitation. Radiological protection of the public is based on the concept of a critical group of individuals. This group is defined as those people who, as a result of the area they reside and their habits, receive the highest radiation dose due to the operations of a site. Therefore, if the dose to this critical group is acceptable in relation to relevant dose limits and constraints, then other members of the public will receive lower doses. Thus, the principle of critical groups provides overall protection for the public. Surveys to determine local habits involve an integrated methodology, whereby the potential radioactive exposure pathways from liquid and gaseous discharges and direct radiation from the site are investigated. Surveys to identify these habits must be undertaken rigorously for consistency, and have been known to reveal unexpected pathways of radiation exposure. Pathways typically include consumption of local foodstuffs and external exposure. Furthermore, a number of critical groups ma y be identified within a single survey area if the habits of one group do not adequately describe those of the other inhabitants of the area. Survey preparation involves the initial identification of high producers and consumers of local foods in a geographically defined area surrounding the nuclear facility. Pathways can be broken down into three general groups, which include exposure arising from; 1) Terrestrial (gaseous) discharges surveyed within 5 km of the site 2) Direct radiation surveyed within 1 km of the site 3) Aquatic (liquid) discharges surveyed within local areas affected by the discharges, including seas, rivers and sewage works. The survey fieldwork involves interviewing members of the

  3. Measuring youth exposure to alcohol marketing on social networking sites: challenges and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, David H; Rushman, Anne E

    2014-02-01

    Youth exposure to alcohol marketing has been linked to increased alcohol consumption and problems. On relatively new and highly interactive social networking sites (SNS) that are popular with youth, tools for measuring youth exposure to alcohol marketing in traditional media are inadequate. We critically review the existing policies of Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube designed to keep branded alcohol content away from underage youth. Looking at brand and user activity on Facebook for the 15 alcohol brands most popular among US youth, we found activity has grown dramatically in the past 3 years, and underage users may be accounting for some of this activity. Surveys of youth and adult participation in alcohol marketing on SNS will be needed to inform debate over these marketing practices.

  4. The Amazon and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    The climatologies of cloudiness and precipitation for the Amazon, are reviewed and the physical causes of some of the observed features and those which are not well known are explained. The atmospheric circulation over the Amazon is discussed on the large scale tropical circulations forced by deep diabatic heating sources. Weather deforestation which leads to a reduction in evapotranspiration into the atmosphere, and a reduction in precipitation and its implicated for the gobal climate is discussed. It is indicated that a large scale clearing of tropical rainforests there would be a reduction in rainfall which would have global effects on climate and weather both in the tropical and extratropical regions.

  5. Solar-collector-materials exposure to the IPH site environment. Volume 1. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, V.L.

    1982-01-01

    In-situ environmental exposure tests were conducted at nine proposed intermediate-temperature Industrial Process Heat (IPH) sites. Three types of reflector materials were evaluated for survivability at the nine sites: second-surface silvered glass, aluminized acrylic FEK-244 film on aluminumsubstrate and Alzak (electropolished aluminum) on aluminium substrate. Black chrome absorber material and low-iron float glass were evaluated for thermal, photochemical, and environmental degradation. The reflector specimens were monitored for decreases in specular and hemispherical reflectance due to soil buildup. The absorber material was evaluated for changes in solar absorptivity and emissivity, and the float glass was monitored for changes in transmissivity. Surface and subsurface defects on all materials were examined microscopically and, where deemed of note, were documented photographically.

  6. Introduction: Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, S. T.; Artaxo, P.; Machado, L. A. T.; Manzi, A. O.; Souza, R. A. F.; Schumacher, C.; Wang, J.; Andreae, M. O.; Barbosa, H. M. J.; Fan, J.; Fisch, G.; Goldstein, A. H.; Guenther, A.; Jimenez, J. L.; Pöschl, U.; Silva Dias, M. A.; Smith, J. N.; Wendisch, M.

    2016-04-01

    The Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) Experiment was carried out in the environs of Manaus, Brazil, in the central region of the Amazon basin for 2 years from 1 January 2014 through 31 December 2015. The experiment focused on the complex interactions among vegetation, atmospheric chemistry, and aerosol production on the one hand and their connections to aerosols, clouds, and precipitation on the other. The objective was to understand and quantify these linked processes, first under natural conditions to obtain a baseline and second when altered by the effects of human activities. To this end, the pollution plume from the Manaus metropolis, superimposed on the background conditions of the central Amazon basin, served as a natural laboratory. The present paper, as the introduction to the special issue of GoAmazon2014/5, presents the context and motivation of the GoAmazon2014/5 Experiment. The nine research sites, including the characteristics and instrumentation of each site, are presented. The sites range from time point zero (T0) upwind of the pollution, to T1 in the midst of the pollution, to T2 just downwind of the pollution, to T3 furthest downwind of the pollution (70 km). In addition to the ground sites, a low-altitude G-159 Gulfstream I (G-1) observed the atmospheric boundary layer and low clouds, and a high-altitude Gulfstream G550 (HALO) operated in the free troposphere. During the 2-year experiment, two Intensive Operating Periods (IOP1 and IOP2) also took place that included additional specialized research instrumentation at the ground sites as well as flights of the two aircraft. GoAmazon2014/5 IOP1 was carried out from 1 February to 31 March 2014 in the wet season. GoAmazon2014/5 IOP2 was conducted from 15 August to 15 October 2014 in the dry season. The G-1 aircraft flew during both IOP1 and IOP2, and the HALO aircraft flew during IOP2. In the context of the Amazon basin, the two IOPs also correspond to the clean and

  7. Introduction: Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Martin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5 Experiment was carried out in the environs of Manaus, Brazil, in the central region of the Amazon basin for 2 years from 1 January 2014 through 31 December 2015. The experiment focused on the complex interactions among vegetation, atmospheric chemistry, and aerosol production on the one hand and their connections to aerosols, clouds, and precipitation on the other. The objective was to understand and quantify these linked processes, first under natural conditions to obtain a baseline and second when altered by the effects of human activities. To this end, the pollution plume from the Manaus metropolis, superimposed on the background conditions of the central Amazon basin, served as a natural laboratory. The present paper, as the introduction to the special issue of GoAmazon2014/5, presents the context and motivation of the GoAmazon2014/5 Experiment. The nine research sites, including the characteristics and instrumentation of each site, are presented. The sites range from time point zero (T0 upwind of the pollution, to T1 in the midst of the pollution, to T2 just downwind of the pollution, to T3 furthest downwind of the pollution (70 km. In addition to the ground sites, a low-altitude G-159 Gulfstream I (G-1 observed the atmospheric boundary layer and low clouds, and a high-altitude Gulfstream G550 (HALO operated in the free troposphere. During the 2-year experiment, two Intensive Operating Periods (IOP1 and IOP2 also took place that included additional specialized research instrumentation at the ground sites as well as flights of the two aircraft. GoAmazon2014/5 IOP1 was carried out from 1 February to 31 March 2014 in the wet season. GoAmazon2014/5 IOP2 was conducted from 15 August to 15 October 2014 in the dry season. The G-1 aircraft flew during both IOP1 and IOP2, and the HALO aircraft flew during IOP2. In the context of the Amazon basin, the two IOPs also

  8. Pathway analysis and exposure assessment: MEPAS modeling for nonradiological chemical contaminants at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanton, M.L.; Dirkes, R.; Buck, J.; Cooper, A.; Castieton, K.; Glantz, C.

    1995-01-01

    A Chemical Pathway Analysis and Exposure Assessment was performed by the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP). The SESP monitors air, surface water, sediment, agricultural products, vegetation, soil, and wildlife in order to assess onsite of offsite environmental impacts and offsite human health risk at the Hanford Site. The objectives of this study are (1) determine if a nonradiological chemical monitoring program is warranted for the Hanford Site, (2) ensure that the selection of surveillance parameters such as media, sampling location, and analytes are chosen in a manner that is scientifically sound and cost-efficient, and (3) identify specific nonradiological chemicals of concern (COC) for the Hanford Site. The basis for identification of COC for the Hanford Site was an extensive literature review. The model was also used to predict COC concentrations required onsite to achieve an offsite cancer incidence of 1 E-6 and a hazard quotient of 1.0. This study indicated that nonradiological chemical contamination occurring onsite does not pose a significant offsite human health risk. The highest cancer incidence to the offsite maximally exposed individual from COC was from arsenic (1.76E-1 0); the highest hazard quotient was chromium VI (1.48E-04)

  9. The Amazon's energetic paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Marcos Vinicius Miranda da; Bermann, Celio

    1999-01-01

    The main energy sources in Amazon region are hydroelectric, biomass, and natural gas. Although abundance of these resources, the energy consumption in this region is one of the most low of Brazil. The article overviews this paradox. In this context, economical, geopolitical, and technical aspects are presented

  10. Gallium arsenide selectively up-regulates inflammatory cytokine expression at exposure site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Stephen M; McCoy, Kathleen L

    2003-12-01

    Gallium arsenide (GaAs), a technologically and economically important semiconductor, is widely utilized in both military and commercial applications. This chemical is a potential health hazard as a carcinogen and immunotoxicant. We previously reported that macrophages at the exposure site exhibit characteristics of activation. In vitro culture of macrophages with GaAs fails to recapitulate the in vivo phenotype, suggesting that complete GaAs-mediated activation in vivo may require other cells or components found in the body's microenvironment. Our present study examined the role of cytokines upon GaAs-mediated macrophage activation. Intraperitoneal administration of GaAs elicited rapid specific recruitment of blood monocytes to the exposure site. This recruitment occurred concomitant with up-regulation of 17 chemokine and inflammatory cytokine mRNAs, while transcripts of three inhibitory cytokines diminished. Administration of latex beads caused less cytokine induction than GaAs, indicating that changes in mRNA levels could not be attributed to phagocytosis. Four representative chemokines and cytokines were selected for further analysis. Increased cytokine mRNA expression was paralleled by similar increases in cytokine protein levels, and secreted protein products were detected in peritoneal fluid. Cytokine protein expression was constrained to myeloid cells, and to a lesser extent to B cells. Alterations in patterns of cytokine gene expression elucidate mechanisms for increased cellular activation and antigen processing, and modulation of the inflammatory response. Our findings indicate that in vivo GaAs exposure alters cytokine gene expression, which may lead to an inflammatory reaction and contribute to pathological tissue damage.

  11. Radiation exposure and health damage of residents at Semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolebay, Rakhypbekov; Noso, Yoshihiro; Takechi, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    Although the nuclear test site of Semipalatinsk (former Soviet Union and presently the Republic of Kazakhstan) stopped nuclear tests 25 years ago, there are presumably more than 200,000 victims near the site, including persons with a low dose and a high dose. Semey Medical University and Shimane University, together with the Kazakh Scientific Institute for Radiation Medicine and Ecology, have been conducting the measurement of radiation concentration of soil and the thyroid screening of residents. The following were surveyed: (1) chromosomal abnormality for 55 female residents (average 45 years in age) in heavily polluted areas and 25 female residents (average 42 years in age) in non-polluted areas, (2) mental abnormality of residents in polluted areas and non-polluted areas of Semey City, and (3) changes in the frequency of surgery cases for cancer between 1989 and 2014 at Semey Medical University Cancer Center. As for chromosomal abnormality, 3-5 times many mutation cases were observed in heavily polluted areas than in non-polluted areas. The nodules of thyroid gland were four times more frequent in heavily polluted areas. The frequency of a whole variety of cancers was nearly twice in polluted areas compared with in non-polluted areas, most of which were digestive system cancer, lung cancer, and breast cancer in the order. The frequency of mental abnormality has also increased nearly twice as compared to non-polluted areas, and it included neurological disorder, adjustment disorder, neuralgia, moderate depression, and learning disability. These results suggest that some physical effects can be caused by exposure. In the future, this study will investigate the effects of radiation exposure at the nuclear test site. (A.O.)

  12. Primary tumor sites in relation to ultraviolet radiation exposure and skin visibility correlate with survival in cutaneous melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Daniela; Hansson, Johan; Eloranta, Sandra; Gordon, Max; Gillgren, Peter; Smedby, Karin E

    2017-10-01

    The prognostic value of detailed anatomic site and ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure patterns has not been fully determined in cutaneous melanoma. Thus, we reviewed medical records for detailed site in a population-based retrospective Swedish patient cohort diagnosed with primary invasive melanoma 1976-2003 (n = 5,973). We followed the patients from date of diagnosis until death, emigration or December 31 st 2013, and evaluated melanoma-specific survival by subsite in a multivariable regression model adjusting for established prognostic factors. We found that melanoma on chronic UVR exposure sites (face, dorsum of hands; adjusted HR 0.6; CI 0.4-0.7) and moderately intermittent UVR sites (lateral arms, lower legs, dorsum of feet; HR 0.7; CI 0.6-0.8) were associated with a favorable prognosis compared with highly intermittent sites (chest, back, neck, shoulders and thighs). Further, melanoma on poorly visible skin sites upon self-examination (scalp, retroauricular area, back, posterior upper arms and thighs, buttocks, pubic area; HR 1.3; CI 1.1-1.5) had a worse prognosis than those on easily visible sites (face, chest, abdomen, anterior upper arms and thighs, lower arms and legs, dorsum of hands and feet, palms). In conclusion, highly intermittent UVR exposure sites and poor skin visibility presumably correlate with reduced melanoma survival, independent of established tumor characteristics. A limitation of the study was the lack of information on actual individual UVR exposure. © 2017 UICC.

  13. Significance of radon exposures in developing cleanup criteria for radium-contaminated soil at the Weldon Spring Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blunt, D.L.; Peterson, J.M.; Hillman, D.J.

    1993-10-01

    The Weldon Spring site, located in St. Charles County, Missouri, is included on the National Priorities List (NPL) of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the US Department of Energy (DOE) is currently conducting cleanup activities at the site. This paper discusses the significance of radon exposures that may result from radium-contaminated soil and the approach currently being taken at the Weldon Spring site to address this issue

  14. Structure of an epiphytic hydroid community on Cystoseira at two sites of different wave exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuschka Faucci

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Epiphytism is a strategy by which opportunistic species such as hydroids, escape the intense levels of competition in marine hard bottom communities. Species of the macroalgae Cystoseira have a seasonal turnover of the frond, and we hypothesise that epiphytic hydroids colonising such an unstable substrate might show some degree of specialisation. Here the first systematic study on hydroid-Cystoseira communities is presented. In particular, the seasonal and spatial distribution of epiphytic hydroids on three species of Cystoseira at two sites of different wave exposure at Porto Cesareo (Ionian Sea/Italy were investigated. Thirty-two hydroid species were recorded which are well known from other substrates and thus are not specific to Cystoseira; dominant species were all thecates. The influence of biological factors such as competition and the structure and abundance of the host, seem to have little influence on the hydroid community. The factors of greatest influence were mostly abiotic: sedimentation rate, nutrient levels, temperature and most especially water movement. The importance of water movement was evident in the higher colonisation of algal stems, higher hydroid frequency, larger colonies, reduced colony height, species composition, and distribution on the stems at the wave-exposed site.

  15. Health risk assessments of heavy metal exposure via consumption of marine mussels collected from anthropogenic sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yap, Chee Kong; Cheng, Wan Hee; Karami, Ali; Ismail, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    A total of 40 marine mussel Perna viridis populations collected (2002–2009) from 20 geographical sites located in two busy shipping lanes namely the Straits of Malacca (10 sites; 16 populations) and the Straits of Johore (8 sites; 21 populations) and three populations (2 sites) on the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia, was determined for Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations. In comparison with the maximum permissible limits (MPLs) set by existing food safety guidelines, all metal concentrations found in all the mussel populations were lower than the prescribed MPLs. In terms of the provisional tolerable weekly intake prescribed by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and oral reference doses (ORDs) by the USEPA, all the studied metals (except for Pb) were unlikely to become the limiting factors or unlikely to pose a risk for the consumption of the mussel populations. The estimated daily intake (EDI) for average level mussel (ALM) and high level mussel (HLM) consumers of mussels was found to be lower than the ORD guidelines for Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni and Zn. Furthermore, the target hazard quotient (THQ) was found to be less than 1 for ALM consumers but higher than 1 for HLM consumers in some sites. Therefore, there were no potential human health risks to the ALM consumers of the mussels. However, for Pb THQ values, the Pb levels in some mussel populations could create a health risk problem. Present results indicate that the consumption amounts of mussels should be limited for minimizing potential health risks of heavy metals to the HLM consumers. - Highlights: • Human health risk assessments of heavy metals in Perna viridis were investigated. • All metals in the mussels were below the established seafood safety guidelines. • Pb in mussels could easily reach the percentage of prescribed PTWI value of Pb. • Potential health risk with Pb exposure was found for the mussel consumers. • Consumption rate of mussels should be limited to

  16. Health risk assessments of heavy metal exposure via consumption of marine mussels collected from anthropogenic sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yap, Chee Kong, E-mail: yapckong@hotmail.com [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Cheng, Wan Hee [Inti International University, Persiaran Perdana BBN, 71800 Nilai, Negeri Sembilan (Malaysia); Karami, Ali [Laboratory of Aquatic Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Ismail, Ahmad [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-05-15

    A total of 40 marine mussel Perna viridis populations collected (2002–2009) from 20 geographical sites located in two busy shipping lanes namely the Straits of Malacca (10 sites; 16 populations) and the Straits of Johore (8 sites; 21 populations) and three populations (2 sites) on the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia, was determined for Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations. In comparison with the maximum permissible limits (MPLs) set by existing food safety guidelines, all metal concentrations found in all the mussel populations were lower than the prescribed MPLs. In terms of the provisional tolerable weekly intake prescribed by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and oral reference doses (ORDs) by the USEPA, all the studied metals (except for Pb) were unlikely to become the limiting factors or unlikely to pose a risk for the consumption of the mussel populations. The estimated daily intake (EDI) for average level mussel (ALM) and high level mussel (HLM) consumers of mussels was found to be lower than the ORD guidelines for Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni and Zn. Furthermore, the target hazard quotient (THQ) was found to be less than 1 for ALM consumers but higher than 1 for HLM consumers in some sites. Therefore, there were no potential human health risks to the ALM consumers of the mussels. However, for Pb THQ values, the Pb levels in some mussel populations could create a health risk problem. Present results indicate that the consumption amounts of mussels should be limited for minimizing potential health risks of heavy metals to the HLM consumers. - Highlights: • Human health risk assessments of heavy metals in Perna viridis were investigated. • All metals in the mussels were below the established seafood safety guidelines. • Pb in mussels could easily reach the percentage of prescribed PTWI value of Pb. • Potential health risk with Pb exposure was found for the mussel consumers. • Consumption rate of mussels should be limited to

  17. Learning big data with Amazon Elastic MapReduce

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Amarkant

    2014-01-01

    This book is aimed at developers and system administrators who want to learn about Big Data analysis using Amazon Elastic MapReduce. Basic Java programming knowledge is required. You should be comfortable with using command-line tools. Prior knowledge of AWS, API, and CLI tools is not assumed. Also, no exposure to Hadoop and MapReduce is expected.

  18. Study of methylation sites and factors in contaminated aquatic systems in the Amazon using an optimized radiochemical technique. Highlights and achievements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davee Guimaraes, Jean Remy

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Highlights and achievements: We confirmed that high methylation potentials (up to 22%) are found in roots of Paspalum repens and other floating macrophyte species such as Eichhomia crassipes and Ludwigia helmynthoryza during both phases of the hydrological cycle, with a tendency for higher values in the wet season, confirming findings of previous studies, and a strong intra and interlake variation. Hg methylation in macrophyte roots is carried out mainly in the root-associated periphyton a complex and variable assemblage of benthic microalgae, fungi, bacteria and organic and inorganic detritus. However, no significant correlation was found in the first campaign between Hg methylation in samples of Paspalum sp. roots and the amount of periphyton in these samples. We also verified that total plankton and phytoplankton are sites of a low 203 Hg; Basic infrastructure problems caused partial loss of samples in one of the campaigns. (author)

  19. Human mercury exposure and adverse health effects in the Amazon: a review Exposição humana ao mercúrio e efeitos adversos à saúde na Amazônia: uma revisão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos J. S. Passos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines issues of human mercury (Hg exposure and adverse health effects throughout the Amazon region. An extensive review was conducted using bibliographic indexes as well as secondary sources. There are several sources of Hg (mining, deforestation, reservoirs, and exposure takes place through inhalation or from fish consumption. There is a wide range of exposure, with mean hair-Hg levels above 15µg/g in several Amazonian communities, placing them among the highest reported levels in the world today. Dietary Hg intake has been estimated in the vicinity of 1-2µg/kg/day, considerably higher than the USEPA RfD of 0.1µg/kg/day or the World Health Organization recommendation of 0.23µg/kg/day. Neurobehavioral deficits and, in some cases, clinical signs have been reported both for adults and children in relation to Hg exposure in several Amazonian countries. There is also some evidence of cytogenetic damage, immune alterations, and cardiovascular toxicity. Since fish provide a highly nutritious food source, there is an urgent need to find realistic and feasible solutions that will reduce exposure and toxic risk, while maintaining healthy traditional dietary habits and preserving this unique biodiversity.Este artigo examina questões sobre exposição humana ao mercúrio (Hg e seus efeitos adversos à saúde na Amazônia, com base em extensa revisão da literatura. Diferentes bioindicadores revelam uma ampla faixa de exposição, com teores médios de Hg em cabelo acima de 15µg/g em diversas comunidades amazônicas, situando-as dentre as mais expostas no mundo atualmente. Taxas de ingestão diária de Hg foram estimadas em alguns estudos e situam-se entre 1-2µg/kg/dia, consideravelmente acima das doses de referência estabelecidas pela USEPA (0,1µg/kg/dia ou pela OMS (0,23µg/kg/dia. Déficits neurocomportamentais e, em alguns casos, sinais clínicos relacionados à exposição mercurial têm sido relatados tanto em adultos quanto em

  20. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhout van Solinge, T.

    2015-01-01

    This essay takes a (green) criminological and multidisciplinary perspective on deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, by focusing on the crimes and damages that are associated with Amazonian deforestation. The analysis and results are partly based on longer ethnographic stays in North Brazil (Amazon

  1. Isoprene photochemistry over the Amazon rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingjun; Brito, Joel; Dorris, Matthew R; Rivera-Rios, Jean C; Seco, Roger; Bates, Kelvin H; Artaxo, Paulo; Duvoisin, Sergio; Keutsch, Frank N; Kim, Saewung; Goldstein, Allen H; Guenther, Alex B; Manzi, Antonio O; Souza, Rodrigo A F; Springston, Stephen R; Watson, Thomas B; McKinney, Karena A; Martin, Scot T

    2016-05-31

    Isoprene photooxidation is a major driver of atmospheric chemistry over forested regions. Isoprene reacts with hydroxyl radicals (OH) and molecular oxygen to produce isoprene peroxy radicals (ISOPOO). These radicals can react with hydroperoxyl radicals (HO2) to dominantly produce hydroxyhydroperoxides (ISOPOOH). They can also react with nitric oxide (NO) to largely produce methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) and methacrolein (MACR). Unimolecular isomerization and bimolecular reactions with organic peroxy radicals are also possible. There is uncertainty about the relative importance of each of these pathways in the atmosphere and possible changes because of anthropogenic pollution. Herein, measurements of ISOPOOH and MVK + MACR concentrations are reported over the central region of the Amazon basin during the wet season. The research site, downwind of an urban region, intercepted both background and polluted air masses during the GoAmazon2014/5 Experiment. Under background conditions, the confidence interval for the ratio of the ISOPOOH concentration to that of MVK + MACR spanned 0.4-0.6. This result implies a ratio of the reaction rate of ISOPOO with HO2 to that with NO of approximately unity. A value of unity is significantly smaller than simulated at present by global chemical transport models for this important, nominally low-NO, forested region of Earth. Under polluted conditions, when the concentrations of reactive nitrogen compounds were high (>1 ppb), ISOPOOH concentrations dropped below the instrumental detection limit (Amazon rainforest.

  2. Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15 – Scaling Amazon Carbon Water Couplings Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubey, Manvendra [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Parket, Harrison [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Myers, Katherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rahn, Thom [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Christoffersson, B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wunch, Debra [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Wennberg, Paul [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Forests soak up 25% of the carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted by anthropogenic fossil energy use (10 Gt C y-1), moderating its atmospheric accumulation. How this terrestrial CO2 uptake will evolve with climate change in the 21st Century is largely unknown. Rainforests are the most active ecosystems, with the Amazon basin storing 120 Gt C as biomass and exchanging 18 Gt C y-1 of CO2 via photosynthesis and respiration and fixing carbon at 2-3 kg C m-2 y-1. Furthermore, the intense hydrologic and carbon cycles are tightly coupled in the Amazon where about half of the water is recycled by evapotranspiration and the other half imported from the ocean by Northeasterly trade winds. Climate models predict a drying in the Amazon with reduced carbon uptake while observationally guided assessments indicate sustained uptake. We set out to resolve this huge discrepancy in the size and sign of the future Amazon carbon cycle by performing the first simultaneous regional-scale high-frequency measurements of atmospheric CO2, H2O, HOD, CH4, N2O, and CO at the T3 site in Manacupuru, Brazil, as part of DOE's GoAmazon 2014/15 project. Our data will be used to inform and develop DOE's Community Land Model (CLM) on the tropical carbon-water couplings at the appropriate grid scale (10-50 km). Our measurements will also validate the CO2 data from Japan's Greenhouse gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) and NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO)-2 satellite (launched in July, 2014). Our data addresses these science questions: 1. How does ecosystem heterogeneity and climate variability influence the rainforest carbon cycle? 2. How well do current tropical ecosystem models simulate the observed regional carbon cycle? 3. Does nitrogen deposition (from the Manaus, Brazil, plume) enhance rainforest carbon uptake?

  3. The changing Amazon forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Oliver L; Lewis, Simon L; Baker, Timothy R; Chao, Kuo-Jung; Higuchi, Niro

    2008-05-27

    Long-term monitoring of distributed, multiple plots is the key to quantify macroecological patterns and changes. Here we examine the evidence for concerted changes in the structure, dynamics and composition of old-growth Amazonian forests in the late twentieth century. In the 1980s and 1990s, mature forests gained biomass and underwent accelerated growth and dynamics, all consistent with a widespread, long-acting stimulation of growth. Because growth on average exceeded mortality, intact Amazonian forests have been a carbon sink. In the late twentieth century, biomass of trees of more than 10cm diameter increased by 0.62+/-0.23tCha-1yr-1 averaged across the basin. This implies a carbon sink in Neotropical old-growth forest of at least 0.49+/-0.18PgCyr-1. If other biomass and necromass components are also increased proportionally, then the old-growth forest sink here has been 0.79+/-0.29PgCyr-1, even before allowing for any gains in soil carbon stocks. This is approximately equal to the carbon emissions to the atmosphere by Amazon deforestation. There is also evidence for recent changes in Amazon biodiversity. In the future, the growth response of remaining old-growth mature Amazon forests will saturate, and these ecosystems may switch from sink to source driven by higher respiration (temperature), higher mortality (as outputs equilibrate to the growth inputs and periodic drought) or compositional change (disturbances). Any switch from carbon sink to source would have profound implications for global climate, biodiversity and human welfare, while the documented acceleration of tree growth and mortality may already be affecting the interactions among millions of species.

  4. East of the Andes: The genetic profile of the Peruvian Amazon populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Corcia, T; Sanchez Mellado, C; Davila Francia, T J; Ferri, G; Sarno, S; Luiselli, D; Rickards, O

    2017-06-01

    Assuming that the differences between the Andes and the Amazon rainforest at environmental and historical levels have influenced the distribution patterns of genes, languages, and cultures, the maternal and paternal genetic reconstruction of the Peruvian Amazon populations was used to test the relationships within and between these two extreme environments. We analyzed four Peruvian Amazon communities (Ashaninka, Huambisa, Cashibo, and Shipibo) for both Y chromosome (17 STRs and 8 SNPs) and mtDNA data (control region sequences, two diagnostic sites of the coding region, and one INDEL), and we studied their variability against the rest of South America. We detected a high degree of genetic diversity in the Peruvian Amazon people, both for mtDNA than for Y chromosome, excepting for Cashibo people, who seem to have had no exchanges with their neighbors, in contrast with the others communities. The genetic structure follows the divide between the Andes and the Amazon, but we found a certain degree of gene flow between these two environments, as particularly emerged with the Y chromosome descent cluster's (DCs) analysis. The Peruvian Amazon is home to an array of populations with differential rates of genetic exchanges with their neighbors and with the Andean people, depending on their peculiar demographic histories. We highlighted some successful Y chromosome lineages expansions originated in Peru during the pre-Columbian history which involved both Andeans and Amazon Arawak people, showing that at least a part of the Amazon rainforest did not remain isolated from those exchanges. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Development of the town data base: Estimates of exposure rates and times of fallout arrival near the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, C.B.; McArthur, R.D.; Hutchinson, S.W.

    1994-09-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Off-Site Radiation Exposure Review Project, the time of fallout arrival and the H+12 exposure rate were estimated for populated locations in Arizona, California, Nevada, and Utah that were affected by fallout from one or more nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. Estimates of exposure rate were derived from measured values recorded before and after each test by fallout monitors in the field. The estimate for a given location was obtained by retrieving from a data base all measurements made in the vicinity, decay-correcting them to H+12, and calculating an average. Estimates were also derived from maps produced after most events that show isopleths of exposure rate and time of fallout arrival. Both sets of isopleths on these maps were digitized, and kriging was used to interpolate values at the nodes of a 10-km grid covering the pattern. The values at any location within the grid were then estimated from the values at the surrounding grid nodes. Estimates of dispersion (standard deviation) were also calculated. The Town Data Base contains the estimates for all combinations of location and nuclear event for which the estimated mean H+12 exposure rate was greater than three times background. A listing of the data base is included as an appendix. The information was used by other project task groups to estimate the radiation dose that off-site populations and individuals may have received as a result of exposure to fallout from Nevada nuclear tests

  6. Development of the town data base: Estimates of exposure rates and times of fallout arrival near the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, C.B.; McArthur, R.D. [Univ. and Community College System of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Hutchinson, S.W. [Mead Johnson Nutritional Group, Evansville, IN (United States)

    1994-09-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Off-Site Radiation Exposure Review Project, the time of fallout arrival and the H+12 exposure rate were estimated for populated locations in Arizona, California, Nevada, and Utah that were affected by fallout from one or more nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. Estimates of exposure rate were derived from measured values recorded before and after each test by fallout monitors in the field. The estimate for a given location was obtained by retrieving from a data base all measurements made in the vicinity, decay-correcting them to H+12, and calculating an average. Estimates were also derived from maps produced after most events that show isopleths of exposure rate and time of fallout arrival. Both sets of isopleths on these maps were digitized, and kriging was used to interpolate values at the nodes of a 10-km grid covering the pattern. The values at any location within the grid were then estimated from the values at the surrounding grid nodes. Estimates of dispersion (standard deviation) were also calculated. The Town Data Base contains the estimates for all combinations of location and nuclear event for which the estimated mean H+12 exposure rate was greater than three times background. A listing of the data base is included as an appendix. The information was used by other project task groups to estimate the radiation dose that off-site populations and individuals may have received as a result of exposure to fallout from Nevada nuclear tests.

  7. Insecta, Coleoptera, Elmidae, Amazon region

    OpenAIRE

    Passos, Maria Inês; Fernandes, André; Hamada, Neusa; Nessimian, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    A list of Elmidae species from Amazon is presented. The list was prepared based on a literature survey and examination of the entomological collection of Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA). The list includes 102 species, with ten new occurrences recorded, being one for the Amazon (which includes areas of Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Guyana, French Guyana, Peru, Suriname and Venezuela) three for the Amazonas state, and six for other localities in Brazil. Reports about species bib...

  8. Analogical reasoning in amazons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obozova, Tanya; Smirnova, Anna; Zorina, Zoya; Wasserman, Edward

    2015-11-01

    Two juvenile orange-winged amazons (Amazona amazonica) were initially trained to match visual stimuli by color, shape, and number of items, but not by size. After learning these three identity matching-to-sample tasks, the parrots transferred discriminative responding to new stimuli from the same categories that had been used in training (other colors, shapes, and numbers of items) as well as to stimuli from a different category (stimuli varying in size). In the critical testing phase, both parrots exhibited reliable relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) behavior, suggesting that they perceived and compared the relationship between objects in the sample stimulus pair to the relationship between objects in the comparison stimulus pairs, even though no physical matches were possible between items in the sample and comparison pairs. The parrots spontaneously exhibited this higher-order relational responding without having ever before been trained on RMTS tasks, therefore joining apes and crows in displaying this abstract cognitive behavior.

  9. Violence against Amazon women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Vera Lúcia de Azevedo; Souza, Maria de Lourdes de; Monticelli, Marisa; Oliveira, Marília de Fátima Vieira de; Souza, Carlos Benedito Marinho de; Costa, Carlos Alberto Leal da; Brüggemann, Odaléa Maria

    2009-01-01

    This quantitative and exploratory study analyzed violence against Amazon women presented in print media according to type and severity, and whether aggressors fell under the Maria da Penha law. A total of 181 issues of a regional newspaper were consulted. Based on content analysis, 164 items addressing violence against women were selected and 46 were included in the corpus of analysis. Results were gathered in three thematic groups: women killed with cruelty, sexual violence against women regardless of age, and violence against women and the limitations of the Maria da Penha law. Violence against these women varied in terms of form and severity, including up to homicide. Women are submitted to sexual violence from childhood through adulthood. The enforcement of this law shows the community it has a means to cope with this social phenomenon.

  10. Analisis E-Bisnis Terhadap Amazon dan Aquarelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evawaty Tanuar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The internet and digital world is one thing that needs to be taken into account by the Company. Business through Internet, known as e-business, is another way to increase the relation between company and customers or prospective customers. Analysis from the view point of customers and the integration of technologies was conducted on 2 examples sites that well known in doing online business but have different history on how it started the e-commerce. They are Amazon and Aquarelle. By comparing the two sites, the characteristics of e-commerce sites could be studied. As a result, there are striking differences between these two sites, where Amazon is more oriented to sales, while Aquarelle more on customer-oriented impact to the design and implementation of their e-business. 

  11. Risk assessment of soil-based exposures to plutonium at experimental sites located on the Nevada Test Site and adjoining areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layton, D.W.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Bogen, K.T.; Straume, T.

    1993-06-01

    In the late 1950s and early 1960s, a series of tests was conducted at or near the Nevada Test Site to study issues involving plutonium-bearing devices. These tests resulted in the dispersal of about 5 TBq of {sup 239,240}Pu on the surficial soils at the test locations. Access to the sites is strictly controlled; therefore, it does not constitute a threat to human health at the present time. However, because the residual {sup 239} Pu decays slowly (half-life of 24,110 y), the sites could indeed represent a long-term hazard if they are not remediated and if institutional controls are lost. To investigate the magnitude of the potential health risks for this no-remediation case, we defined three basic exposure scenarios that could bring individuals in contact with {sup 239,240}Pu at the sites: (1) a resident living in a subdivision located at a test site, (2) a resident farmer, and (3) a worker at a commercial facility. Our screening analyses indicated that doses to organs are dominated by the intemal deposition of Pu via the inhalation pathway, and thus our risk assessment focused on those factors that affect inhalation exposures and associated doses, including inhalation rates, activity patterns, tenure at a residence or occupation, indoor/outdoor air relationships, and resuspension outdoors. Cancer risks were calculated as a function of lifetime cumulative doses to the key target organs (i.e., bone surface, liver, and lungs) and risk factors for those organs. Uncertainties in the predicted cancer risks were analyzed using Monte-Carlo simulations of the probability distributions used to represent assessment parameters. The principal sources of uncertainty in the estimated risks were population mobility, the relationship between indoor and outdoor contaminant levels, and the dose and risk factors for bone, liver, and lung.

  12. Risk assessment of soil-based exposures to plutonium at experimental sites located on the Nevada Test Site and adjoining areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layton, D.W.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Bogen, K.T.; Straume, T.

    1993-06-01

    In the late 1950s and early 1960s, a series of tests was conducted at or near the Nevada Test Site to study issues involving plutonium-bearing devices. These tests resulted in the dispersal of about 5 TBq of 239,240 Pu on the surficial soils at the test locations. Access to the sites is strictly controlled; therefore, it does not constitute a threat to human health at the present time. However, because the residual 239 Pu decays slowly (half-life of 24,110 y), the sites could indeed represent a long-term hazard if they are not remediated and if institutional controls are lost. To investigate the magnitude of the potential health risks for this no-remediation case, we defined three basic exposure scenarios that could bring individuals in contact with 239,240 Pu at the sites: (1) a resident living in a subdivision located at a test site, (2) a resident farmer, and (3) a worker at a commercial facility. Our screening analyses indicated that doses to organs are dominated by the intemal deposition of Pu via the inhalation pathway, and thus our risk assessment focused on those factors that affect inhalation exposures and associated doses, including inhalation rates, activity patterns, tenure at a residence or occupation, indoor/outdoor air relationships, and resuspension outdoors. Cancer risks were calculated as a function of lifetime cumulative doses to the key target organs (i.e., bone surface, liver, and lungs) and risk factors for those organs. Uncertainties in the predicted cancer risks were analyzed using Monte-Carlo simulations of the probability distributions used to represent assessment parameters. The principal sources of uncertainty in the estimated risks were population mobility, the relationship between indoor and outdoor contaminant levels, and the dose and risk factors for bone, liver, and lung

  13. Mercury levels assessment in hair of riverside inhabitants of the Tapajós River, Pará State, Amazon, Brazil: fish consumption as a possible route of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faial, Kleber; Deus, Ricardo; Deus, Simonny; Neves, Ramiro; Jesus, Iracina; Santos, Elisabeth; Alves, Cláudio Nahum; Brasil, Davi

    2015-04-01

    The study present evaluated the levels of mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in hair samples of people from Barreiras community, riverside inhabitants of the Tapajós River (Pará, Brazil), an area impacted by clandestine gold mining, as well as we analyzed the levels of Hg and Se (selenium) in nine fish species (carnivores and non-carnivorous) from the Tapajós River, which stand out as the main species consumed by riverside inhabitants, to evaluate a relationship between frequency of fish consumption and Hg concentration, and also to evaluate possible mechanisms of fish protection (or non-protection) to Hg exposure by Se. Furthermore we analyze the water quality to evaluate the environmental trophic state, fact responsible by creating conditions that can potentiate the effects of toxic mercury. Concentrations of Hg and MeHg were analyzed in hair samples of 141 volunteers in different age band. Of those, 84.40% of samples present values above the threshold for biological tolerance, which is 6.00μgg(-1) of total Hg in hair. Total Hg, in men there was a variation of 2.07-24.93μgg(-1), while for women the variation was 4.84-27.02μgg(-1). Consequently, the level of MeHg in men presented a variation of 1.49-19.57μgg(-1), with an average of 11.68μgg(-1), while with women the variation was from 3.73 to 22.35μgg(-1), with an average of 10.38μgg(-1). In fish species, Hg concentrations in carnivorous species had an average of 0.66μgg(-1), higher than that permitted by current legislation, ranging from 0.30 to 0.98μgg(-1), while the non-carnivorous species have values below the recommended by the legislation averaging 0.09μgg(-1), ranging between 0.02 and 0.44μgg(-1). For Se in fish, show that among carnivores, the contents of Se ranged between 0.18 and 0.54μgg(-1) with a mean of 0.34μgg(-1), while for non-carnivores these values were of the order of 0.16-0.56μgg(-1), with an average of 0.32μgg(-1). In surface water quality variables at the sampling points

  14. Conteúdo dos criadouros larvais e comportamento de adultos de Toxorhynchites (Lynchiella haemorrhoidalis haemorrhoidalis (Fabricius (Diptera, Culicidae numa floresta de terra-firme da Amazônia central Larval breeding site contents and adult behavior of toxorhynchites (Lynchiella haemorrhoidalis haemorrhoidalis (Fabricius (Diptera, Culicidae in an upland forest of the central amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Sá Gomes Hutchings

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural breeding sites of Toxorhynchites (Lynchiella haemorrhoidalis haemorihoidalis (Fabricius, 1794, in two study areas, were sampled monthly, during a period of one year, in an upland "terra-firme" forest of the Central Amazon. These natural breeding sites, consisting of water filled palm bracts on the ground, contained invertobrates and vertebrates along with palm inflorescences, leaves and twigs. The inhabitants of the non-submersed area of the bracts include Diplopoda, Acarina, Araneae, Pseudoscorpiones, Isopoda, Blattodea, Coleoptera (Carabidae, Curculionidae, Scolytidae, Staphilinidae. Collembola, Dermaptera, Diptera (Cecidomyidae, Drosophilidae, Mycetophilidae, Tipulidae, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera and Trichoptera. The submersed areas of the bracts were inhabited by Oligochaeta, Coleoptera (Dysticidae, Helodidae, Histeridae, Hydrophilidae, Limnebiidae, Diptera (Ceratopogonidae, Chirononiidae, Culicidae, Psychodidae, Stratiomyidae, Syrphidae. Odonata, along with immature Dendrobatidae e Hylidae. The ovipositing, resting and feeding behaviors of T. h. haemorrhoidalis adults are described.

  15. Down-regulation of 3H-imipramine binding sites in rat cerebral cortex prenatal exposure to antidepressants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montero, D.; de Ceballos, M.L.; Del Rio, J.

    1990-01-01

    Several antidepressant drugs were given to pregnant rats in the last 15 days of gestation and 3 H-imipramine binding ( 3 H-IMI) was subsequently measured in the cerebral cortex of the offspring. The selective serotonin (5-HT) uptake blockers chlorimipramine and fluoxetine as well as the selective monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors clorgyline and deprenyl induced, after prenatal exposure, a down-regulation of 3 H-IMI binding sites at postnatal day 25. The density of these binding sites was still reduced at postnatal day 90 in rats exposed in utero to the MAO inhibitors. The antidepressants desipramine and nomifensine were ineffective in this respect. After chronic treatment of adult animals, only chlorimipramine was able to down-regulate the 3 H-IMI binding sites. Consequently, prenatal exposure of rats to different antidepressant drugs affecting predominantly the 5-HT systems induces more marked and long-lasting effects on cortical 3 H-IMI binding sites. The results suggest that the developing brain is more susceptible to the actions of antidepressants

  16. Down-regulation of sup 3 H-imipramine binding sites in rat cerebral cortex prenatal exposure to antidepressants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montero, D.; de Ceballos, M.L. (Cajal Institute, Madrid (Spain)); Del Rio, J. (Univ. of Navarra, Pamplona (Spain))

    1990-01-01

    Several antidepressant drugs were given to pregnant rats in the last 15 days of gestation and {sup 3}H-imipramine binding ({sup 3}H-IMI) was subsequently measured in the cerebral cortex of the offspring. The selective serotonin (5-HT) uptake blockers chlorimipramine and fluoxetine as well as the selective monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors clorgyline and deprenyl induced, after prenatal exposure, a down-regulation of {sup 3}H-IMI binding sites at postnatal day 25. The density of these binding sites was still reduced at postnatal day 90 in rats exposed in utero to the MAO inhibitors. The antidepressants desipramine and nomifensine were ineffective in this respect. After chronic treatment of adult animals, only chlorimipramine was able to down-regulate the {sup 3}H-IMI binding sites. Consequently, prenatal exposure of rats to different antidepressant drugs affecting predominantly the 5-HT systems induces more marked and long-lasting effects on cortical {sup 3}H-IMI binding sites. The results suggest that the developing brain is more susceptible to the actions of antidepressants.

  17. Geochemical Signature of Amazon Tropical Rainforest Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José João Lelis Leal de Souza

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Evaluating soil geochemical diversity in the Amazon Basin has been a challenge largely because most study sites have been at the edge of the basin and it is difficult to get samples in such a region. Here we show that even among the most weathered soils, physicochemical soil properties express lithology. Our results are based on topsoil samples collected from different locations in minimally disturbed areas in the state of Amazonas, Brazil. Soil properties were measured using methods which are suitable for highly developed soils. The Chemical Index Alteration and Weathering Index of Parker was calculated based on the content of metal(loids in soils determined by X-ray fluorescence. Descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, and Principal Component Analysis (PCA were performed on data. In general, Amazon rainforest soils are more deeply weathered than soils in other Brazilian biomes and tropical rainforests in Asia and Africa. The high coefficient of variation of metal(loid contents express pedogenesis and parent material diversity. Correlation analysis indicated that the tri-pentavalent elements are strongly associated with Al and Fe contents in the topsoil. In contrast, mono-divalent elements are correlated with sand and silt fractions. According to PCA, five soil groups with defined geochemical compositions and degrees of weathering could be identified: i acidic sandy podzolized soils; ii acidic loamy ferralitic soils with the highest content of tri-pentavalent ions; iii acidic clayey kaolinitic soils with low metal(loid contents; iv acidic loamy kaolinitic soils with low metal(loid contents; and v silty neutral 2:1 clay soils. This study is the first effort to analyze the geochemical diversity in Amazon rainforest soils. These data are extremely valuable in determining the geochemical background for these soil types and this region. Geochemical variability can be predicted to some extent by lithology and pedogenesis, which can be

  18. CalTOX, a multimedia total exposure model for hazardous-waste sites; Part 1, Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, T.E.

    1993-06-01

    CalTOX has been developed as a spreadsheet model to assist in health-risk assessments that address contaminated soils and the contamination of adjacent air, surface water, sediments, and ground water. The modeling effort includes a multimedia transport and transformation model, exposure scenario models, and efforts to quantify and reduce uncertainty in multimedia, multiple-pathway exposure models. This report provides an overview of the CalTOX model components, lists the objectives of the model, describes the philosophy under which the model was developed, identifies the chemical classes for which the model can be used, and describes critical sensitivities and uncertainties. The multimedia transport and transformation model is a dynamic model that can be used to assess time-varying concentrations of contaminants introduced initially to soil layers or for contaminants released continuously to air or water. This model assists the user in examining how chemical and landscape properties impact both the ultimate route and quantity of human contact. Multimedia, multiple pathway exposure models are used in the CalTOX model to estimate average daily potential doses within a human population in the vicinity of a hazardous substances release site. The exposure models encompass twenty-three exposure pathways. The exposure assessment process consists of relating contaminant concentrations in the multimedia model compartments to contaminant concentrations in the media with which a human population has contact (personal air, tap water, foods, household dusts soils, etc.). The average daily dose is the product of the exposure concentrations in these contact media and an intake or uptake factor that relates the concentrations to the distributions of potential dose within the population.

  19. Modeling human off-site aerosol exposures to polybrominated flame retardants emitted during the land application of sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemba, Chris; Yang, Wulin; Peccia, Jordan

    2013-10-01

    Elevated sewage sludge concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are due to their broad utilization in textiles and polymers, their resistance to biological degradation, and also their hydrophobic nature-which drives partitioning into wastewater solids. This study estimated the total U.S. emissions of PBDE due to sewage sludge land application and then determined the human inhalation exposure to sludge-associated PBDEs as a function meteorological conditions and downwind distances from an application site. These aerosol exposures have also been incorporated into pharmacokinetic models to predict contributions to steady-state body burden. Our results suggest that while the amount of PBDEs aerosolized during the land application process is small compared to aerosol emissions associated with product use, the application of sludges onto U.S. soils constitutes a major source of PBDEs entering the outdoor environment. Regarding aerosol exposure to nearby residents, the maximum daily inhalation dosages from a common land application scenario occur immediately after sewage sludges are applied and were 137, 27, 1.9, and 81pg/day for significant congeners PBDE-47, -99, -153 and 209 respectively. These doses are 1-2 orders of magnitude less than the standard daily inhalation exposure to the same PBDEs associated with home indoor air and are similar to doses from inhalation of urban and rural outdoor air. Under the worst-case atmospheric transport scenario, the dosages are reduced by approximately 1 order of magnitude when the setback distance between the sludge aerosolization source and human receptor is increased to 200m. Though the health implications of low-level exposures are not well-understood, these sludge-derived PBDE dosages contribute less than a tenth of 1% to the estimated total body burden of PBDE produced from inhalation of indoor and outdoor air, exposure to house dust, and exposure to PBDE from food and water intake. Overall, the inhalation of

  20. Baseline risk assessment for exposure to contaminants at the St. Louis Site, St. Louis, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    The St. Louis Site comprises three noncontiguous areas in and near St. Louis, Missouri: the St. Louis Downtown Site (SLDS), the St. Louis Airport Storage Site (SLAPS), and the Latty Avenue Properties. The main site of the Latty Avenue Properties includes the Hazelwood Interim Storage Site (HISS) and the Futura Coatings property, which are located at 9200 Latty Avenue. Contamination at the St. Louis Site is the result of uranium processing and disposal activities that took place from the 1940s through the 1970s. Uranium processing took place at the SLDS from 1942 through 1957. From the 1940s through the 1960s, SLAPS was used as a storage area for residues from the manufacturing operations at SLDS. The materials stored at SLAPS were bought by Continental Mining and Milling Company of Chicago, Illinois, in 1966, and moved to the HISS/Futura Coatings property at 9200 Latty Avenue. Vicinity properties became contaminated as a result of transport and movement of the contaminated material among SLDS, SLAPS, and the 9200 Latty Avenue property. This contamination led to the SLAPS, HISS, and Futura Coatings properties being placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for cleanup activities at the St. Louis Site under its Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The primary goal of FUSRAP is the elimination of potential hazards to human health and the environment at former Manhattan Engineer District/Atomic Energy Commission (MED/AEC) sites so that, to the extent possible, these properties can be released for use without restrictions. To determine and establish cleanup goals for the St. Louis Site, DOE is currently preparing a remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental impact statement (RI/FS-EIS). This baseline risk assessment (BRA) is a component of the process; it addresses potential risk to human health and the environment associated wi

  1. An exposure assessment of radionuclide emissions associated with potential mixed-low level waste disposal facilities at fifteen DOE sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardi, D.A.; Socolof, M.L.

    1996-05-01

    A screening method was developed to compare the doses received via the atmospheric pathway at 15 potential DOE MLLW (mixed low-level waste) sites. Permissible waste concentrations were back calculated using the radioactivity NESHAP (National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants) in 40 FR 61 (DOE Order 5820.2A performance objective). Site-specific soil and meteorological data were used to determine permissible waste concentrations (PORK). For a particular radionuclide, perks for each site do not vary by more than one order of magnitude. perks of {sup 14}C are about six orders of magnitude more restrictive than perks of {sup 3}H because of differences in liquid/vapor partitioning, decay, and exposure dose. When comparing results from the atmospheric pathway to the water and intruder pathways, {sup 14}C disposal concentrations were limited by the atmospheric pathway for most arid sites; for {sup 3}H, the atmospheric pathway was not limiting at any of the sites. Results of this performance evaluation process are to be used for planning for siting of disposal facilities.

  2. An exposure assessment of radionuclide emissions associated with potential mixed-low level waste disposal facilities at fifteen DOE sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardi, D.A.; Socolof, M.L.

    1996-01-01

    A screening method was developed to compare the doses received via the atmospheric pathway at 15 potential DOE MLLW (mixed low-level waste) sites. Permissible waste concentrations were back calculated using the radioactivity NESHAP (National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants) in 40 FR 61 (DOE Order 5820.2A performance objective). Site-specific soil and meteorological data were used to determine permissible waste concentrations (PORK). For a particular radionuclide, perks for each site do not vary by more than one order of magnitude. perks of 14 C are about six orders of magnitude more restrictive than perks of 3 H because of differences in liquid/vapor partitioning, decay, and exposure dose. When comparing results from the atmospheric pathway to the water and intruder pathways, 14 C disposal concentrations were limited by the atmospheric pathway for most arid sites; for 3 H, the atmospheric pathway was not limiting at any of the sites. Results of this performance evaluation process are to be used for planning for siting of disposal facilities

  3. Annual variation in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs and nestlings at Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) study sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, Thomas W.; Dummer, Paul; Goldberg, Diana R.; Franson, J. Christian

    2018-01-01

    Tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs and nestlings were collected from 16 sites across the Great Lakes to quantify normal annual variation in total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure and to validate the sample size choice in earlier work. A sample size of five eggs or five nestlings per site was adequate to quantify exposure to PCBs in tree swallows given the current exposure levels and variation. There was no difference in PCB exposure in two randomly selected sets of five eggs collected in the same year, but analyzed in different years. Additionally, there was only modest annual variation in exposure, with between 69% (nestlings) and 73% (eggs) of sites having no differences between years. There was a tendency, both statistically and qualitatively, for there to be less exposure in the second year compared to the first year.

  4. Hydrologic resilience and Amazon productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlström, Anders; Canadell, Josep G; Schurgers, Guy; Wu, Minchao; Berry, Joseph A; Guan, Kaiyu; Jackson, Robert B

    2017-08-30

    The Amazon rainforest is disproportionately important for global carbon storage and biodiversity. The system couples the atmosphere and land, with moist forest that depends on convection to sustain gross primary productivity and growth. Earth system models that estimate future climate and vegetation show little agreement in Amazon simulations. Here we show that biases in internally generated climate, primarily precipitation, explain most of the uncertainty in Earth system model results; models, empirical data and theory converge when precipitation biases are accounted for. Gross primary productivity, above-ground biomass and tree cover align on a hydrological relationship with a breakpoint at ~2000 mm annual precipitation, where the system transitions between water and radiation limitation of evapotranspiration. The breakpoint appears to be fairly stable in the future, suggesting resilience of the Amazon to climate change. Changes in precipitation and land use are therefore more likely to govern biomass and vegetation structure in Amazonia.Earth system model simulations of future climate in the Amazon show little agreement. Here, the authors show that biases in internally generated climate explain most of this uncertainty and that the balance between water-saturated and water-limited evapotranspiration controls the Amazon resilience to climate change.

  5. Exposición infantil al plomo en sitios contaminados Children exposure to lead in contaminated sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogelio Flores-Ramírez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar el grado de la exposición infantil al plomo en diversos tipos de sitios contaminados. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: El estudio se realizó de junio 2008 a diciembre 2009 en cuatro sitios de México: metalúrgica de Ávalos, Chihuahua.; metalúrgica de Morales, San Luis Potosí (SLP; zona alfarera en La Trinidad, Tlaxcala, y sitio minero en Cedral, SLP. Se cuantificó plomo en polvo y se realizó un biomonitoreo humano en niños de la comunidad. RESULTADOS: Los valores obtenidos de plomo en polvo exterior superaron el límite establecido de 400 mg/kg para suelos residenciales en un intervalo de valores para los cuatro sitios de 62 a 5 187 mg/kg. En cuanto al monitoreo biológico, todas las poblaciones presentaron valores extremos, desde los 22 µg/dL en Cedral, 31 µg/dL en Morales, y 32 µg/dL en Ávalos, hasta los 52 µg/dL en La Trinidad. Es importante señalar que encontramos una correlación positiva y significativa entre los valores de plomo en polvo y plomo en sangre en todos los sitios de estudio (pOBJECTIVE: To assess the exposure to lead in children living in various types of contaminated sites. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted from June 2008 to December 2009 at four sites in Mexico: Avalos metallurgical, Chihuahua; Morales metallurgical, San Luis Potosí (SLP; Trinidad pottery area, Tlaxcala and Cedral mine site, SLP. These sites contain different sources of lead. The metal levels were quantified in outdoor dust and in peripheral blood of children. RESULTS: Lead dust concentrations exceed the National Guidelines for residential soils (400 mg/kg in a range of values for the four sites from 62 to 5 187 mg/kg. Regarding biological monitoring, the studied children showed maximum lead blood levels of 22 µg/dL in Cedral, 31 µg/dL in Morales, 32 µg/dL in Avalos, and 52 µg/dL in Trinidad. It is important to mention that in all the studied sites, a significative positive correlation was found between blood lead

  6. Human health risk assessment: models for predicting the effective exposure duration of on-site receptors exposed to contaminated groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baciocchi, Renato; Berardi, Simona; Verginelli, Iason

    2010-09-15

    Clean-up of contaminated sites is usually based on a risk-based approach for the definition of the remediation goals, which relies on the well known ASTM-RBCA standard procedure. In this procedure, migration of contaminants is described through simple analytical models and the source contaminants' concentration is supposed to be constant throughout the entire exposure period, i.e. 25-30 years. The latter assumption may often result over-protective of human health, leading to unrealistically low remediation goals. The aim of this work is to propose an alternative model taking in account the source depletion, while keeping the original simplicity and analytical form of the ASTM-RBCA approach. The results obtained by the application of this model are compared with those provided by the traditional ASTM-RBCA approach, by a model based on the source depletion algorithm of the RBCA ToolKit software and by a numerical model, allowing to assess its feasibility for inclusion in risk analysis procedures. The results discussed in this work are limited to on-site exposure to contaminated water by ingestion, but the approach proposed can be extended to other exposure pathways. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A Simplified 4-Site Economical Intradermal Post-Exposure Rabies Vaccine Regimen: A Randomised Controlled Comparison with Standard Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrell, Mary J.; Riddell, Anna; Yu, Ly-Mee; Phipps, Judith; Diggle, Linda; Bourhy, Hervé; Deeks, Jonathan J.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Audry, Laurent; Brookes, Sharon M.; Meslin, François-Xavier; Moxon, Richard; Pollard, Andrew J.; Warrell, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Background The need for economical rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is increasing in developing countries. Implementation of the two currently approved economical intradermal (ID) vaccine regimens is restricted due to confusion over different vaccines, regimens and dosages, lack of confidence in intradermal technique, and pharmaceutical regulations. We therefore compared a simplified 4-site economical PEP regimen with standard methods. Methods Two hundred and fifty-four volunteers were randomly allocated to a single blind controlled trial. Each received purified vero cell rabies vaccine by one of four PEP regimens: the currently accepted 2-site ID; the 8-site regimen using 0.05 ml per ID site; a new 4-site ID regimen (on day 0, approximately 0.1 ml at 4 ID sites, using the whole 0.5 ml ampoule of vaccine; on day 7, 0.1 ml ID at 2 sites and at one site on days 28 and 90); or the standard 5-dose intramuscular regimen. All ID regimens required the same total amount of vaccine, 60% less than the intramuscular method. Neutralising antibody responses were measured five times over a year in 229 people, for whom complete data were available. Findings All ID regimens showed similar immunogenicity. The intramuscular regimen gave the lowest geometric mean antibody titres. Using the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test, some sera had unexpectedly high antibody levels that were not attributable to previous vaccination. The results were confirmed using the fluorescent antibody virus neutralisation method. Conclusions This 4-site PEP regimen proved as immunogenic as current regimens, and has the advantages of requiring fewer clinic visits, being more practicable, and having a wider margin of safety, especially in inexperienced hands, than the 2-site regimen. It is more convenient than the 8-site method, and can be used economically with vaccines formulated in 1.0 or 0.5 ml ampoules. The 4-site regimen now meets all requirements of immunogenicity for PEP and can be

  8. A simplified 4-site economical intradermal post-exposure rabies vaccine regimen: a randomised controlled comparison with standard methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary J Warrell

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The need for economical rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP is increasing in developing countries. Implementation of the two currently approved economical intradermal (ID vaccine regimens is restricted due to confusion over different vaccines, regimens and dosages, lack of confidence in intradermal technique, and pharmaceutical regulations. We therefore compared a simplified 4-site economical PEP regimen with standard methods.Two hundred and fifty-four volunteers were randomly allocated to a single blind controlled trial. Each received purified vero cell rabies vaccine by one of four PEP regimens: the currently accepted 2-site ID; the 8-site regimen using 0.05 ml per ID site; a new 4-site ID regimen (on day 0, approximately 0.1 ml at 4 ID sites, using the whole 0.5 ml ampoule of vaccine; on day 7, 0.1 ml ID at 2 sites and at one site on days 28 and 90; or the standard 5-dose intramuscular regimen. All ID regimens required the same total amount of vaccine, 60% less than the intramuscular method. Neutralising antibody responses were measured five times over a year in 229 people, for whom complete data were available.All ID regimens showed similar immunogenicity. The intramuscular regimen gave the lowest geometric mean antibody titres. Using the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test, some sera had unexpectedly high antibody levels that were not attributable to previous vaccination. The results were confirmed using the fluorescent antibody virus neutralisation method.This 4-site PEP regimen proved as immunogenic as current regimens, and has the advantages of requiring fewer clinic visits, being more practicable, and having a wider margin of safety, especially in inexperienced hands, than the 2-site regimen. It is more convenient than the 8-site method, and can be used economically with vaccines formulated in 1.0 or 0.5 ml ampoules. The 4-site regimen now meets all requirements of immunogenicity for PEP and can be introduced without further

  9. Mixing in the Amazon estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, M. O.

    2010-05-01

    The research area of this work is located at the estuary of the Amazon River (Brazil), near the river mouth. The results of air movement analysis on the surface atmospheric circulation over the Mouth of the Amazonas River, salinity and temperature measures as well as measurements of currents, carried out along a longitudinal section in the navigation canal region of the Northern Bar of the Amazon River (Barra Norte do Rio Amazonas) in June 2006, during the river flood season in the quadrature tide. The dynamics effects affect hydrodynamic,meteorological and hydrographical parameters at the river mouth. The conclusion drawn include that: a) the saline wedge-type stratification can be detected approximately 100km away from the mouth of the Amazon River during the end of the rainy season in the quadrature tide; b) probably, at the Amazon estuary the quadrature entrainment processes are dominant and they are the ones responsible for increased salinity detected in the surface layer, whereas turbulence scattering mixing is not so important. c) The large flow of fresh water from the Amazon River at the end of the rainy season implies the displacement of the saline front position over the internal Amazon continental platform, and d) The tidal wave shows a positive asymmetry in the canal, with floods lasting less than in the ebb tide. This asymmetry decreases towards the ocean, eventually becoming reversed in the presence of a saline wedge. The speeds, however, have a negative asymmetry, with more intense ebb tides, due to the river flow and is more evident by the existence of quadrature tides.

  10. Insecta, Coleoptera, Elmidae, Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passos, M. I. S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A list of Elmidae species from Amazon is presented. The list was prepared based on a literature surveyand examination of the entomological collection of Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA. The listincludes 102 species, with ten new occurrences recorded, being one for the Amazon (which includes areas ofBrazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Guyana, French Guyana, Peru, Suriname and Venezuela three for the Amazonas state,and six for other localities in Brazil. Reports about species bibliography contents were also included, as well asavailable species municipalities distributional data.

  11. Retrospective beryllium exposure assessment at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnard, A.E.; Torma-Krajewski, J.; Viet, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    Since the 1960's, beryllium machining was performed to make nuclear weapon components at the Department of Energy (DOE) Rocky Flats Plant. Beryllium exposure was assessed via fixed airhead (FAH) sampling in which the filter cassette was affixed to the machine, generally within a few feet of the worker's breathing zone. Approximately 500,000 FAH samples were collected for beryllium over three decades. From 1984 to 1987, personal breathing zone (PBZ) samples were also collected as part of the evaluation of a new high velocity/low volume local exhaust ventilation (HV/LV LEV) system. The purpose of this study was to determine how the two types of sampling data could be used for an exposure assessment in the beryllium shop

  12. Saskatoon serviceberry and ambient sulfur dioxide exposures: study sites re-visited, 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupa, S.V.; Legge, A.H.

    2001-01-01

    Field surveys for symptoms of foliar injury in a regional airshed that is influenced by a number of point sources of SO x , NO x and hydrocarbons, combined with foliar and soil sulfur analyses, confirmed earlier results that Saskatoon serviceberry (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt.) cv. Smokey can be used as a biological indicator of chronic sulfur dioxide exposures, in the presence of other phytotoxic air pollutants such as ozone. (Author)

  13. Site-specific dynamics of CD11b+ and CD103+ dendritic cell accumulations following ozone exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Jeffrey D; Ballinger, Carol A; Tuggle, Katherine L; Fanucchi, Michelle V; Schwiebert, Lisa M; Postlethwait, Edward M

    2012-12-15

    Pulmonary dendritic cells (DCs) are among the first responders to inhaled environmental stimuli such as ozone (O(3)), which has been shown to activate these cells. O(3) reacts with epithelial lining fluid (ELF) components in an anatomically site-specific manner dictated by O(3) concentration, airway flow patterns, and ELF substrate concentration. Accordingly, the anatomical distribution of ELF reaction products and airway injury are hypothesized to produce selective DC maturation differentially within the airways. To investigate how O(3) affects regional airway DC populations, we utilized a model of O(3)-induced pulmonary inflammation, wherein C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 0.8 ppm O(3) 8 h/day for 1, 3, and 5 days. This model induced mild inflammation and no remarkable epithelial injury. Tracheal, but not more distant airway sites, and mediastinal lymph node (MLN) DC numbers were increased significantly after the third exposure day. The largest increase in each tissue was of the CD103(+) DC phenotype. After 3 days of exposure, fewer DCs expressed CD80, CD40, and CCR7, and, at this same time point, total MLN T cell numbers increased. Together, these data demonstrate that O(3) exposure induced site-specific and phenotype changes in the pulmonary and regional lymph node DC populations. Possibly contributing to ozone-mediated asthma perturbation, the phenotypic changes to DCs within pulmonary regions may alter responses to antigenic stimuli. Decreased costimulatory molecule expression within the MLN suggests induction of tolerance mechanisms; increased tracheal DC number may raise the potential for allergic sensitization and asthmatic exacerbation, thus overcoming O(3)-induced decrements in costimulatory molecule expression.

  14. E.D.F. dismantling site and surveillance of internal exposure to alpha emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonin, M.; Le Guen, B.; Brement, F.; Phan Van, J.

    2001-01-01

    On two dismantling sites between 1995 and 2000, 27 workers on 1066 ( 2.5%) have shown an internal contamination coming from alpha emitters for a collective dose of 69.5 mSv with an individual dose bracket from 0.5 to 8 mSv. (N.C.)

  15. Exposure-Reducing Behaviors among Residents Living near a Coal Ash Storage Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zierold, Kristina M.; Sears, Clara G.; Brock, Guy N.

    2016-01-01

    Coal ash, a waste product generated from burning coal for energy, is composed of highly respirable particles containing heavy metals, radioactive elements, and polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons. Coal ash is stored in landfills and surface impoundments frequently located near neighborhoods. Fugitive dust from the storage sites exposes neighborhoods,…

  16. Children’s exposure to advertising on games sites in Brazil and Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pâmela Saunders Uchôa Craveiro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to confirm general data about the advertising pressure that affects children that play on game pages on the Internet. To achieve this goal, we applied theoretical and methodological framework of content analysis on a sample of games sites played by a group of children in Brazil and Spain.

  17. Lead exposure among children from native communities of the Peruvian Amazon basin Exposición al plomo en niños de comunidades indígenas de la cuenca del Amazonas en el Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Anticona

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess potential risk factors associated with elevated blood lead levels (BLLs among children in two communities from the Corrientes River basin in the Peruvian Amazon. METHODS: Children aged 0-17 years were screened for BLLs, hemoglobin levels, and anthropometric measures. Dwelling, family, and child data were collected through a parental questionnaire. Statistical analysis included descriptive and bivariate analysis. Multiple linear and logistic regressions using generalized estimating equations were also conducted to determine associated risk factors. A map of each community was drawn to examine the spatial distribution of BLLs. RESULTS: Of 208 children (88 from 23 households of the Peruanito community and 120 from 28 households of Santa Isabel, 27.4% had BLLs > 10 µg/dL. The geometric mean (± standard deviation BLL was 8.7 ± 4.0 µg/dL (range 3.0-26.8 µg/dL. In the total population, linear regression analysis indicated that age was positively associated with BLLs (P 10 µg/dL than girls (P 10 µg/dL had 45.0% higher odds of presenting BLLs > 10 µg/dL than children whose mothers had BLLs 10 µg/dL were the main risk factors for elevated BLLs. The higher risk in boys 7-17 years suggests that exposure could be related to specific activities in this group, such as fishing and hunting. Continuous monitoring of BLLs in the Corrientes River population is recommended.OBJETIVO: Evaluar los potenciales factores de riesgo asociados con niveles elevados de plomo en sangre (Pbs en niños de dos comunidades de la cuenca del río Corrientes en la Amazonia peruana. MÉTODOS: Se estudiaron de manera sistemática los niveles de PbS, la concentración de hemoglobina y las medidas antropométricas en niños de 0 a 17 años. A través de un cuestionario efectuado a los padres se recopilaron datos sobre la vivienda, la familia y los niños. El análisis estadístico incluyó el análisis descriptivo y de dos variables. También se llevaron a

  18. Exposição humana ao mercúrio na Amazônia brasileira: uma perspectiva histórica Human exposure to mercury in the Brazilian Amazon: a historical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguinaldo Gonçalves

    2004-12-01

    dignidade na saúde e de uma ética pública pioneira no Brasil.The objective of the present article was to present the most important data generated by a multicentric study carried out by Brazilian researchers who, with the support of national and international institutions, worked during the 1990s to describe human exposure to mercury in gold mining areas in the Brazilian Amazon. Three sets of procedures were followed with residents of the Tocantins and Xingu river basins: (1 clinical examination, based on a standardized protocol and performed by a single researcher, in order to identify five basic levels of contamination; (2 determination of mercury levels in blood, hair, and urine, using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (Xingu Project; and (3 investigation of genotoxicity by using four cytogenetic indicators. During the first stage, 41 individuals were studied. Mercury was found in miners and their family members. Contamination was significantly associated with occupation and showed a differential correlation with genotoxicity indicators. After that, the Xingu project, which encompassed 625 individuals, focused on 417 Kayapó natives from the Gorotire and Djudjetiktire villages; 142 miners; and 66 riverine individuals (ribeirinhos. The highest levels of methylmercury in hair and total mercury in blood and urine were found among the Indian population. Contamination with inorganic forms of mercury was also observed in the blood, hair, and urine of Indians. Following a specific recommendation from the World Health Organization, special attention was given to pregnant Gorotire and Djudjetiktire women, who, although not directly exposed to mercury vapors, showed considerable levels of mercury intoxication. Despite this worrisome scenario, a number of social achievements in the 1990s point to new standards of dignity in health care and of social ethics in Brazil that could benefit everyone, including the victims of environmental injury.

  19. Exposure to hazardous substances in Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) recycling sites in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecler, Marie-Thérèse, E-mail: marie-therese.lecler@inrs.fr; Zimmermann, François; Silvente, Eric; Clerc, Frédéric; Chollot, Alain; Grosjean, Jérôme

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Chemical risks were assessed in the nine cathode ray tube screens recycling facilities. • The main hazardous agents are dust containing lead, cadmium, barium and yttrium. • Exposure and pollutant levels are described for different operations and processes. • All the operations and processes are concerned by significant levels of pollutants. • We suggest recommendations to reduce chemical risk. - Abstract: The Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) or e-waste recycling sector has grown considerably in the last fifteen years due to the ever shorter life cycles of consumables and an increasingly restrictive policy context. Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs) from used television and computer screens represent one of the main sources of e-waste. CRTs contain toxic materials such as lead, cadmium, barium, and fluorescent powders which can be released if recycling of CRTs is not appropriate. Exposure to these harmful substances was assessed in nine workshops where CRT screens are treated. Particulate exposure levels were measured using a gravimetric method and metals were analysed by plasma emission spectrometry. The maximum levels of worker exposure were 8.8 mg/m{sup 3}, 1504.3 μg/m{sup 3}, 434.9 μg/m{sup 3}, 576.3 μg/m{sup 3} and 2894.3 μg/m{sup 3} respectively for inhalable dust, barium, cadmium, lead and yttrium. The maximum levels of airborne pollutants in static samples were 39.0 mg/m{sup 3}, 848.2 μg/m{sup 3}, 698.4 μg/m{sup 3}, 549.3 μg/m{sup 3} and 3437.9 μg/m{sup 3} for inhalable dust, barium, cadmium, lead and yttrium. The most harmful operations were identified, and preventive measures for reducing the chemical risk associated with screen recycling were proposed. Workplace measurements were used to define recommendations for reducing the chemical risks in CRT screens recycling facilities and for promoting the design and development of “clean and safe” processes in emerging recycling channels.

  20. Amazon Fund: financing deforestation avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Marcovitch

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon Fund, created in 2008 by the Brazilian Federal Government, is managed by Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Econômico e Social (BNDES. It is a pioneering initiative to fundraise and manage financial resources to cut back deforestation and support sustainable development for 30 million inhabitants in the Amazon Biome. The Amazon Fund has already received more than R$ 1.7 billion in grants (about USD 787 million. This essay analyzes the Amazon Fund's governance and management with focus on its operation and from its stakeholders' perspectives. A combination of research methods includes: documental research, in-depth interviews, and speech analysis. The study offers a comparative analysis of strengths and weaknesses related to its governance. Furthermore, it proposes ways to improve its management towards greater effectiveness. The essay also includes an assessment of the government of Norway, a major donor to the fund. The governments of Norway and Germany, in partnership with Brazil, reveal how important it is to experiment with new means of international cooperation to successfully reduce greenhouse gas emissions through rainforest preservation.

  1. The Amazon Basin in transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric A. Davidson; Alessandro C. de Araujo; Paulo Artaxo; Jennifer K. Balch; I. Foster Brown; Mercedes M.C. Bustamente; Michael T. Coe; Ruth S. DeFriess; Michael Keller; Marcos Longo; J. William Munger; Wilfrid Schroeder; Britaldo Soares-Filho; Carlos M. Souza, Jr.; Steven C. Wofsy

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural expansion and climate variability have become important agents of disturbance in the Amazon basin. Recent studies have demonstrated considerable resilience of Amazonian forests to moderate annual drought, but they also show that interactions between deforestation, fire and drought potentially lead to losses of carbon storage and changes in regional...

  2. Off-Site Radiation Exposure Review Project: Phase 2 soils program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McArthur, R.D.; Miller, F.L. Jr.

    1989-12-01

    To help estimate population doses of radiation from fallout originating at the Nevada Test Site, soil samples were collected throughout the western United States. Each sample was prepared by drying and ball-milling, then analyzed by gamma-spectrometry to determine the amount of {sup 137}Cs it contained. Most samples were also analyzed by chemical separation and alpha-spectrometry to determine {sup 239 + 240}Pu and by isotope mass spectroscopy to determine the ratios of {sup 240}Pu to {sup 239}Pu and {sup 241}Pu to {sup 239}Pu. The total inventories of cesium and plutonium at 171 sites were computed from the results. This report describes the sample collection, processing, and analysis, presents the analytical results, and assesses the quality of the data. 10 refs., 9 figs., 12 tabs.

  3. Overview of the National Cancer Institute's activities related to exposure of the public to fallout from the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachholz, B.W.

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) was directed by Congress to assess the risk of thyroid cancer from 131I associated with fallout from the atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons at the Nevada Test Site. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) was requested by DHHS to address Public Law 97-414, Section 7 (a), which directs DHHS to (1) conduct scientific research and prepare analyses necessary to develop valid and credible assessments of the risks of thyroid cancer that are associated with thyroid doses of Iodine 131; (2)...develop...methods to estimate the thyroid doses of Iodine 131 that are received by individuals from nuclear bomb fallout; (and) (3)...develop...assessments of the exposure to Iodine 131 that the American people received from the Nevada atmospheric nuclear bomb tests. In addition, the University of Utah, under contract with the NCI, is carrying out a study to determine if the incidence of thyroid disease and leukemia among identified populations in Utah may be related to exposure from fallout originating at the Nevada Test Site

  4. Priority Areas for Establishing National Forests in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto Veríssimo

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Brazil will benefit if it gains control of its vast Amazonian timber resources. Without immediate planning, the fate of much of the Amazon will be decided by predatory and largely unregulated timber interests. Logging in the Amazon is a transient process of natural resource mining. Older logging frontiers are being exhausted of timber resources and will face severe wood shortages within 5 yr. The Brazilian government can avoid the continued repetition of this process in frontier areas by establishing a network of National Forests (Florestas Nacionais or Flonas to stabilize the timber industry and simultaneously protect large tracts of forest. Flonas currently comprise less than 2% of the Brazilian Amazon (83,000 km2. If all these forests were used for sustainable logging, they would provide less than 10% of the demand for Amazonian timber. To sustainably supply the present and near-future demand for timber, approximately 700,000 km2 of the Amazon forest needs to be brought into well-managed production. Brazil's National Forest Program, launched in 2000, is designed to create at least 400,000 km2 of new Flonas. Objective decision-making tools are needed to site these new national forests. We present here a method for optimally locating the needed Flonas that incorporates information on existing protected areas, current vegetation cover, areas of human occupation, and timber stocks. The method combines these data in a spatial database that makes it possible to model the economic potential of the region's various forests as a function of their accessibility and timber values while constraining model solutions for existing areas of protection or human occupation. Our results indicate that 1.15 x 106 km2 of forests (23% of the Brazilian Amazon could be established as Flonas in a manner that will promote sustainable forest management; these Flonas would also serve as buffer zones for fully protected areas such as parks and reserves.

  5. Depletion of cellular adenosine triphosphate and hepatocellular damage in rat after subchronic exposure to leachate from anthropogenic recycling site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akintunde, J K; Oboh, G

    2015-11-01

    One of the major hazards arising from recycling sites is the generation of leachate containing mixed metal. This study evaluated the toxic effects of leachate obtained from Elewi Odo municipal auto-battery recycling site (EOMABRSL) on male liver functions using hepatic indices and biomarker of cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in rat via the oral route. Concentrations of heavy metals analysis showed that lead, cadmium, nickel, chromium, manganese, and iron were 1.5-, 2-, 2.5-, 1.36-, 19.61-, and 8.89-folds, respectively, higher than acceptable limits set by regulatory authority World Health Organization. Copper, zinc, and cobalt were 5.9-, 300-, and 1.02-folds, respectively, lower than permissible limits. The EOMABRSL was administered at 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100% concentrations to adult male rats for 60 days. Following exposure, plasma and livers were collected for several biochemistry assays. Exposure of animals to EOMABRSL resulted in 27.51, 28.14, 63.93, 28.42, and 40.16% increase in aspartate aminotransferase activity, whereas it elevated alanine aminotransferase activity by 5.35, 22.33, 88.68, 183.02, and 193.08%, respectively, when compared with the control. Similarly, γ-glutamyl transferase activity increased by 111.22, 114.19, 122.96, 573.14, and 437.02%, respectively, when compared with the control. EOMABRSL administration significantly decreased catalase activity and reduced glutathione level and superoxide dismutase with concomitant increase in malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide levels. Also, significant (p health hazards in subjects with occupational or environmental exposure. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Nerve Agent Exposure Elicits Site-Specific Changes in Protein Phosphorylation in Mouse Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongwen; O’Brien, Jennifer J.; O’Callaghan, James P.; Miller, Diane B.; Zhang, Qiang; Rana, Minal; Tsui, Tiffany; Peng, Youyi; Tomesch, John; Hendrick, Joseph P.; Wennogle, Lawrence P; Snyder, Gretchen L.

    2010-01-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) compounds cause toxic symptoms, including convulsions, coma, and death, as the result of irreversible inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The development of effective treatments to block these effects and attenuate long-term cognitive and motor disabilities that result from OP intoxication is hampered by a limited understanding of the CNS pathways responsible for these actions. We employed a candidate method (called CNSProfile™) to identify changes in the phosphorylation state of key neuronal phosphoproteins evoked by the OP compound, diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP). Focused microwave fixation was used to preserve the phosphorylation state of phosphoproteins in brains of DFP-treated mice; hippocampus and striatum were analyzed by immunoblotting with a panel of phospho-specific antibodies. DFP exposure elicited comparable effects on phosphorylation of brain phosphoproteins in both C57BL/6 and FVB mice. DFP treatment significantly altered phosphorylation at regulatory residues on glutamate receptors, including Serine897 (S897) of the NR1 NMDA receptor. NR1 phosphorylation was bi-directionally regulated after DFP in striatum versus hippocampus. NR1 phosphorylation was reduced in striatum, but elevated in hippocampus, compared with controls. DARPP-32 phosphorylation in striatum was selectively increased at the Cdk5 kinase substrate, Threonine75 (T75). Phencynonate hydrochloride, a muscarinic cholinergic antagonist, prevented seizure-like behaviors and the observed changes in phosphorylation induced by DFP. The data reveal region-specific effects of nerve agent exposure on intracellular signaling pathways that correlate with seizure-like behavior and which are reversed by the muscarinic receptor blockade. This approach identifies specific targets for nerve agents, including substrates for Cdk5 kinase, which may be the basis for new anti-convulsant therapies. PMID:20423708

  7. Prospective radiological dose assessment. Amersham plc (Amersham site) variation application December 1998[Dosimetry; Exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allott, R

    2001-09-01

    Amersham plc (previously Nycomed-Amersham plc) submitted an application to the Environment Agency in December 1998 for a variation to their radioactive waste discharge authorisations granted under the Radioactive Substances Act 1993. The application requested a reduction in the discharge limits for certain radionuclides and no change for the remaining radionuclides. Amersham plc undertook a further review of their discharge requirements and submitted a new assessment for revised limits in January 2001. This report provides an assessment of the radiological implications of discharges at these revised limits requested by Amersham plc and the limits proposed by the Agency. It has been prepared by the National Compliance Assessment Service at the request of Thames Region to support their determination of the application. Four candidate critical groups were identified who could be exposed to discharges from the Amersham site: 1) Sewage workers at the Maple Lodge sewage works who might be exposed to external radiation from discharges contained within sewage and inadvertently inhale or ingest sewage. 2) Anglers on the Grand Union Canal who eat a small proportion of their annual catch of freshwater fish, who drink water abstracted solely from the River Colne and eat vegetables irrigated by water from the canal. 3) Persons living closest to site who eat locally produced food. 4) Dog walkers living near to site who eat locally produced food. For continuous discharges at the Agency's proposed annual limits, the highest dose of 160 {mu}Sv/y is predicted to be received by infants who live closest to the site and eat locally produced food. Therefore, this has been identified as the critical group. Children and adults living at the same location and eating locally produced food receive doses of 140 {mu}Sv/y and 130 {mu}Sv/y respectively. The critical group dose is less than the source constraint of 300 {mu}Sv/y. The dose is dominated by direct radiation from the site (110

  8. Active moss biomonitoring applied to an industrial area in Romania: variation of element contents with the height of exposure site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culicov, O.; Yurukova, L.; Mocanu, R.; Frontasyeva, V.; Sarbu, C.

    2007-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis and the moss-bag transplant technique were used to investigate the variation of element contents with the height of the exposure site of Sphagnum girgensohnii samples in the strongly polluted town of Baia Mare, Romania, according to a novel sampling design. Moss collected from the background area in Moscow region, Russia, was hanged in bags at 3 locations spread within an area of one square kilometre, and analyzed after 4 months of exposure. At each location a number of 15 samples were suspended at 6 different levels above the ground: 6, 12, 18, 24 and 30 m. A total of 35 elements were determined by NAA at IBR-2 reactor in Dubna, Russia. Discriminant Analysis allowed depicting the differences between the accumulation patterns of moss at different levels of exposure and at various locations. The concentration of only twenty four and twenty five elements of thirty five provided sufficient information to enable classification rules to be developed for identifying moss samples according with their height of exposure and location, respectively. The most discriminant elements have the F values (indicating the statistical significance in the discrimination between groups) descending in the following order: K, Rb, Sb, Cs, Zn, Cl for the location model and Ca, Cd, As, Sr, Ba, Cl for the height model. A good agreement have been observed between the groups obtained by applying Discriminant Analysis and the origin of the samples. A small number of elements are significant for the separation of moss-bags by height in individual locations. The parameter ?variation in concentration by height? is less significant than the parameter ? variation in concentration by location?

  9. Coarse woody debris in undisturbed and logged forests in the eastern Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Keller; Michael Palace; Gregory P. Asner; Rodrigo Jr. Pereira; Jose Natalino M. Silva

    2004-01-01

    Coarse woody debris (CWD) is an important component of the carbon cycle in tropical forests. We measured the volume and density of fallen CWD at two sites, Cauaxi and Tapajós in the Eastern Amazon. At both sites we studied undisturbed forests (UFs) and logged forests 1 year after harvest. Conventional logging (CL) and reduced impact logging (RIL) were...

  10. Historical estimates of external gamma exposure and collective external gamma exposure from testing at the Nevada Test Site. I. Test series through HARDTACK II, 1958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anspaugh, L.R.; Church, B.W.

    1985-12-01

    In 1959, the Test Manager's Committee to Establish Fallout Doses calculated estimated external gamma exposure at populated locations based upon measurements of external gamma-exposure rate. Using these calculations and estimates of population, we have tabulated the collective estimated external gamma exposures for communities within established fallout patterns. The total collective estimated external gamma exposure is 85,000 person-R. The greatest collective exposures occurred in three general areas: Saint George, Utah; Ely, Nevada; and Las Vegas, Nevada. Three events, HARRY (May 19, 1953), BEE (March 22, 1955), and SMOKY (August 31, 1957), accounted for over half of the total collective estimated external gamma exposure. The bases of the calculational models for external gamma exposure of ''infinite exposure,'' ''estimated exposure,'' and ''one year effective biological exposure'' are explained. 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. Historical estimates of external gamma exposure and collective external gamma exposure from testing at the Nevada Test Site. I. Test series through HARDTACK II, 1958

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anspaugh, L.R.; Church, B.W.

    1986-01-01

    In 1959, the Test Manager's Committee to Establish Fallout Doses calculated estimated external gamma exposure at populated locations based upon measurements of external gamma-exposure rate. Using these calculations and estimates of population, we have tabulated the collective estimated external gamma exposures for communities within established fallout patterns. The total collective estimated external gamma exposure is 85,000 person-R. The greatest collective exposures occurred in three general areas: Saint George, UT; Ely, NV; and Las Vegas, NV. Three events, HARRY (19 May 1953), BEE (22 March 1955), and SMOKY (31 August 1957), accounted for more than half the total collective estimated external gamma exposure. The bases of the calculational models for external gamma exposure of infinite exposure, estimated exposure, and 1-yr effective biological exposure are explained

  12. Historical estimates of external gamma exposure and collective external gamma exposure from testing at the Nevada Test Site. I. Test series through HARDTACK II, 1958

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anspaugh, L.R.; Church, B.W.

    1985-12-01

    In 1959, the Test Manager's Committee to Establish Fallout Doses calculated estimated external gamma exposure at populated locations based upon measurements of external gamma-exposure rate. Using these calculations and estimates of population, we have tabulated the collective estimated external gamma exposures for communities within established fallout patterns. The total collective estimated external gamma exposure is 85,000 person-R. The greatest collective exposures occurred in three general areas: Saint George, Utah; Ely, Nevada; and Las Vegas, Nevada. Three events, HARRY (May 19, 1953), BEE (March 22, 1955), and SMOKY (August 31, 1957), accounted for over half of the total collective estimated external gamma exposure. The bases of the calculational models for external gamma exposure of ''infinite exposure,'' ''estimated exposure,'' and ''one year effective biological exposure'' are explained. 4 figs., 7 tabs

  13. Off-site radiation exposure review project: computer-aided surface interpolation and graphical display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, T.A. Jr.

    1981-08-01

    This report presents the implementation of an iterative procedure that solves the following bivariate interpolation problem: Given N distinct points in the plane (x/sub i/, y/sub i/) and N real numbers Z/sub i/, construct a function F(x,y) that satisfies F(x/sub i/, y/sub i/) = Z/sub i/, for i = 1, ..., N. This problem can be interpreted as fitting a surface through N points in three dimensional space. The application of primary concern to the Offsite Radiation Exposure Review Project is the characterization of the radionuclide activity resulting from nuclear tests. Samples of activity were measured at various locations. The location of the sample point is represented by (x/sub i/, y/sub i/), and the magnitude of the reading is represented by Z/sub i/. The method presented in this report is constructed to be efficient on large data sets, stable on the large variations of the Z/sub i/ magnitudes, and capable of smoothly filling in areas that are void of data. This globally defined icode was initiateminednitial shock but to two later eriological invaders are Staphylococcus albus, Beta-hemolytic Streptococcus e to the same general semiclassical treatment

  14. Skeletal dosimetry for external exposure to photons based on μCT images of spongiosa from different bone sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, R; Khoury, H J; Vieira, J W; Kawrakow, I

    2007-01-01

    Micro computed tomography (μCT) images of human spongiosa have recently been used for skeletal dosimetry with respect to external exposure to photon radiation. In this previous investigation, the calculation of equivalent dose to the red bone marrow (RBM) and to the bone surface cells (BSC) was based on five different clusters of micro matrices derived from μCT images of vertebrae, and the BSC equivalent dose for 10 μm thickness of the BSC layer was determined using an extrapolation method. The purpose of this study is to extend the earlier investigation by using μCT images from eight different bone sites and by introducing an algorithm for the direct calculation of the BSC equivalent dose with sub-micro voxel resolution. The results show that for given trabecular bone volume fractions (TBVFs) the whole-body RBM equivalent dose does not depend on bone site-specific properties or imaging parameters. However, this study demonstrates that apart from the TBVF and the BSC layer thickness, the BSC equivalent dose additionally depends on a so-called trabecular bone structure (TBS) effect, i.e. that the contribution of photo-electrons released in trabecular bone to the BSC equivalent dose also depends on the bone site-specific structure of the trabeculae. For a given bone site, the TBS effect is also a function of the thickness of the BSC layer, and it could be shown that this effect would disappear almost completely, should the BSC layer thickness be raised from 10 to 50 μm, according to new radiobiological findings

  15. Genetic variability in three Amazon parrot species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IF. Lopes

    Full Text Available Parrots of the genus Amazona are among the most threatened species of the Order Pscittaciformes. This work describes allozyme polymorphisms in three Amazon parrot species - the Blue-fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva, the Orange-winged Amazon (Amazona amazonica, and the Festive Amazon (Amazona festiva -, and provides useful data for the evaluation of their genetic variability. We electrophoretically analyzed blood samples from 68 wild-caught individuals, maintained in captivity in three Brazilian zoos. Eight of the ten studied enzyme loci exhibited polymorphism. Glucosephosphate isomerase (Gpi proved to be a diagnostic locus for the identification of these Amazon species. The expected average heterozygosity of the Blue-fronted Amazon (0.060 differed significantly from the expected heterozygosities of the Orange-winged Amazon and the Festive Amazon (0.040 and 0.039, respectively. This result was discussed as a consequence of hybridization between two geographic A. aestiva subspecies, and alternatively as a particular trait of this species. Genetic variability of the Blue-fronted Amazon compared to birds in general is not low on a species-wide level, despite the fact that this parrot is one of the most illegally traded species. Allozyme analysis proved to be an useful tool in monitoring the genetic variation within the genus Amazona and can be applied in the management program of other threatened species of this genus.

  16. Genetic variability in three Amazon parrot species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, I F; Del Lama, M A; Del Lama, S N

    2007-12-01

    Parrots of the genus Amazona are among the most threatened species of the Order Pscittaciformes. This work describes allozyme polymorphisms in three Amazon parrot species--the Blue-fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva), the Orange-winged Amazon (Amazona amazonica), and the Festive Amazon (Amazona festiva) -, and provides useful data for the evaluation of their genetic variability. We electrophoretically analyzed blood samples from 68 wild-caught individuals, maintained in captivity in three Brazilian zoos. Eight of the ten studied enzyme loci exhibited polymorphism. Glucosephosphate isomerase (Gpi) proved to be a diagnostic locus for the identification of these Amazon species. The expected average heterozygosity of the Blue-fronted Amazon (0.060) differed significantly from the expected heterozygosities of the Orange-winged Amazon and the Festive Amazon (0.040 and 0.039, respectively). This result was discussed as a consequence of hybridization between two geographic A. aestiva subspecies, and alternatively as a particular trait of this species. Genetic variability of the Blue-fronted Amazon compared to birds in general is not low on a species-wide level, despite the fact that this parrot is one of the most illegally traded species. Allozyme analysis proved to be an useful tool in monitoring the genetic variation within the genus Amazona and can be applied in the management program of other threatened species of this genus.

  17. Mercury Pollution in Soils from the Yacuambi River (Ecuadorian Amazon) as a Result of Gold Placer Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Blanco, Charo; Collahuazo, Luis; Torres, Sandra; Chinchay, Luis; Ayala, Diana; Benítez, Paulina

    2015-09-01

    Gold mining is known to generate important economic products but also to produce several types of contamination/pollution. We report here the first data about Hg concentrations in the soils of the Yacuambi River in the Ecuadorian Amazon. We analyzed soil samples to assess the extent of contamination caused by gold placer mining in this area. Hg concentrations in soils exceeded the local background concentrations. High concentrations of Mn, As, Pb, Cr, Cu, Fe and Zn in some soil samples were probably derived from the geology of the site, which is rich in polysulfides and metamorphic rocks. Placer mining may accelerate the natural release of these elements to the environment by the exposure of the bedrock to the atmosphere. Accumulation of Hg in the river soils may be a potential source of toxicity for aquatic life and a risk to human health in the future.

  18. Cellular Telephones, Magnetic Field Exposure, Risk of Brain Tumours and Cancer at Other Sites: A Cohort Study (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, C.; Olsen, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate whether exposure to electromagnetic fields from cellular telephones is associated with brain tumours and cancer at other sites. Key information has been obtained on all cellular telephone subscribers in Denmark from 1 January 1982 to 31 December 1995. The overall subscriber cohort will include approximately 500,000 individuals. Collected information includes name of subscriber, address, telephone number, system used (analogue or digital), and annual use of the telephone. The name and address of the subscribers will be linked to the Central Population Register, and the personal identification number will be supplied in addition to information on vital status and migration. Finally, all members of the cohort will be linked to the Danish Cancer Registry, and the observed number of tumours will be compared with those expected on the basis of national cancer incidence rates stratified by sex, age, and calendar time. (author)

  19. A registry for exposure and population health in the Altai region affected by fallout from the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoikhet, Ya.N.; Kiselev, V.I.; Zaitsev, E.V.; Kolyado, I.B.; Konovalov, B.Yu.; Bauer, S.; Grosche, B.; Burkart, W.

    1999-01-01

    A registry of the rural population in the Altai region exposed to fallout from nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk test site (STS) was established more than four decades after the first Soviet nuclear explosion on August 29, 1949. Information about individuals living in an exposed and a control area was collected using all available local sources, such as kolkhoz documentation, school registries, medical treatment records and interviews with residents. As a result, a database comprising an exposed group of 39 179 individuals from 53 Altai region villages, 6769 external and 3303 internal controls was compiled. For several settlements, effective dose estimates reached the level of 1.5 Sv, while the average effective dose estimate in the exposed group was 340 mSv. Dosimetric data, vital status information and health records gathered at rayon and village medical facilities are held in the registry. Cause-of-death information for deceased residents is obtained from death registration forms archived at the Altai region vital statistics office. At present, a follow-up of approximately 40% of the population exposed in 1949 has been done. More will be added by searching for migrants to the larger towns of the Altai region, i.e. Barnaul, Rubtsovsk and Biisk. In order to assess the influence of radiation exposure, analytical studies with a case-control design for stomach and lung cancer are currently being prepared. The number of known cases is sufficient to detect an odds ratio of 1.5 at the 95% confidence level. Epidemiological studies in populations affected by fallout from STS may be equally important to the atomic bomb survivors' study for the direct quantification of radiation effects. The range of exposure rates experienced will extend the acute high-dose-rate findings from Hiroshima/Nagasaki towards acute and protracted lower exposures, which are more relevant for radiation protection issues. (orig.)

  20. The relevance of the food production chain with regard to the population exposure to chemical substances and its role in contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Francesca Romana; Busani, Luca; Tait, Sabrina; La Rocca, Cinzia

    2016-01-01

    Food may be contaminated with many chemical substances at any level along the production chain. Chemicals that may be found in food items can simultaneously be present in other matrices, as air, water, soil and dust; therefore, human exposure to chemicals via food has to be summed to the exposure through all the other possible routes. The role played by the food production chain with regard to the population exposure to chemicals assumes amplified proportions when considering contaminated sites. Indeed the link between environment and food production is undeniable and consequently, when population chemical exposure is considered, an integrated approach assessing the contribution of the different routes of exposure, including dietary exposure, is needed. Such integrated approach allows a realistic and comprehensive risk assessment of chemical substances in order to identify and deploy effective prevention and intervention measures to protect human health.

  1. Implications of Scientific Collaboration Networks on Studies of Aquatic Vertebrates in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinero, María Celeste; Michalski, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    The quantity of wildlife extracted from the Amazon has increased in the past decades as a consequence of an increase in human population density and income growth. To evaluate the spatial distribution of studies on subsistence and/or commercial hunting conducted in the Brazilian Amazon, we selected eight mid-sized and large-bodied aquatic vertebrate species with a history of human exploitation in the region. We used a combination of searches in the gray and scientific literature from the past 24 years to provide an updated distributional map of studies on the target species. We calculated the distances between the study sites and the locations of the research institutes/universities that the first and last authors of the same study were affiliated to. For the period of 1990 to 2014, we found 105 studies on the subsistence and/or commercial hunting of aquatic vertebrates in the Brazilian Amazon in 271 locations that involved 43 institutions (37 Brazilian and 6 international). The spatial distribution of the studies across the Brazilian Amazon varied, but over 80% took place in the northeast and central Amazon, encompassing three States of the Legal Brazilian Amazon (Amazonas, 51.42%; Pará, 19.05%; and Amapá, 16.19%). Over half of the research study sites (52.91%) were within 500 km of the research institute/university of the first or last authors. Some research institutes/universities did not have any inter-institutional collaborations, while others collaborated with eight or more institutes. Some research institutes/universities conducted many studies, had an extensive collaboration network, and contributed greatly to the network of studies on Amazonian aquatic vertebrates. Our research contributes to the knowledge of studies on the subsistence and/or commercial hunting of the most exploited aquatic vertebrates of the Brazilian Amazon, illustrates the impact that collaboration networks have on research, and highlights potential areas for improvement and the

  2. Mercury concentrations in bats (Chiroptera) from a gold mining area in the Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Brush, Mónica; Portillo, Alejandro; Brändel, Stefan Dominik; Storch, Ilse; Tschapka, Marco; Biester, Harald

    2018-01-01

    In the southeastern Peruvian Amazon, artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is estimated to have released up to 300 tonnes of mercury (Hg) to the environment between 1995 and 2007 alone, and is claimed to be responsible for Hg concentrations above international thresholds for aquatic wildlife species. Here, we examined whether Hg concentrations in bat populations are potentially related to regional ASGM-Hg releases. We determined Hg concentrations in the fur of bats collected at three different distances from the major ASGM areas in Peru. Our findings from 204 individuals of 32 species indicate that Hg concentrations in bat fur mainly resulted from differences in feeding habits, because Hg concentrations were significantly higher in omnivorous bats than in frugivorous bats. At least in two species, populations living in ASGM-affected sites harbored higher Hg concentrations than did populations in unaffected sites. Because Hg concentrations reflect Hg dietary exposure, Hg emissions from amalgam roasting sites appear to deposit locally and enter the terrestrial food web. Although our study demonstrates that ASGM activities (and Hg point sources) increase Hg exposure in wildlife, the overall Hg concentrations reported here are relatively low. The measured Hg concentrations were below the toxicity threshold at which adverse neurological effects have been reported in rodents and mink (>10 µg g -1 ), and were in the range of Hg concentrations in the fur of bats from nonpoint source affected sites in other latitudes. This study emphasizes the importance of considering feeding habits when evaluating Hg concentrations in bats and other vertebrates.

  3. Rethinking the strategy of Amazon.com

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heng, Michael S.H.

    2001-01-01

    The strategic challenge facing Amazon.com is that it is not able to convincethe investment community that it is able to generate profits in the long run. The doubtof investors is well grounded. This paper argues that Amazon should make a strategicshift to operate as a provider of technical services

  4. Selective logging in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. P. Asner; D. E. Knapp; E. N. Broadbent; P. J. C. Oliveira; M Keller; J. N. Silva

    2005-01-01

    Amazon deforestation has been measured by remote sensing for three decades. In comparison, selective logging has been mostly invisible to satellites. We developed a large-scale, high-resolution, automated remote-sensing analysis of selective logging in the top five timber-producing states of the Brazilian Amazon. Logged areas ranged from 12,075 to 19,823 square...

  5. Deforestation effects on Amazon forest resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemp, D. C.; Schleussner, C.-F.; Barbosa, H. M. J.; Rammig, A.

    2017-06-01

    Through vegetation-atmosphere feedbacks, rainfall reductions as a result of Amazon deforestation could reduce the resilience on the remaining forest to perturbations and potentially lead to large-scale Amazon forest loss. We track observation-based water fluxes from sources (evapotranspiration) to sinks (rainfall) to assess the effect of deforestation on continental rainfall. By studying 21st century deforestation scenarios, we show that deforestation can reduce dry season rainfall by up to 20% far from the deforested area, namely, over the western Amazon basin and the La Plata basin. As a consequence, forest resilience is systematically eroded in the southwestern region covering a quarter of the current Amazon forest. Our findings suggest that the climatological effects of deforestation can lead to permanent forest loss in this region. We identify hot spot regions where forest loss should be avoided to maintain the ecological integrity of the Amazon forest.

  6. Oil Extraction and Indigenous Livelihoods in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozigar, Matthew; Gray, Clark L; Bilsborrow, Richard E

    2016-02-01

    Globally, the extraction of minerals and fossil fuels is increasingly penetrating into isolated regions inhabited by indigenous peoples, potentially undermining their livelihoods and well-being. To provide new insight to this issue, we draw on a unique longitudinal dataset collected in the Ecuadorian Amazon over an 11-year period from 484 indigenous households with varying degrees of exposure to oil extraction. Fixed and random effects regression models of the consequences of oil activities for livelihood outcomes reveal mixed and multidimensional effects. These results challenge common assumptions about these processes and are only partly consistent with hypotheses drawn from the Dutch disease literature.

  7. Deforestation, floodplain dynamics, and carbon biogeochemistry in the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, M. L.; Dunne, T.; Richey, J.; Melack, J.; Simonett, D. S.; Woodwell, G.

    1984-01-01

    Three aspects of the physical geographic environment of the Amazon Basin are considered: (1) deforestation and reforestation, (2) floodplain dynamics, and (3) fluvial geomorphology. Three independent projects are coupled in this experiment to improve the in-place research and to ensure that the Shuttle Imaging Radar-B (SIR-B) experiment stands on a secure base of ongoing work. Major benefits to be obtained center on: (1) areal and locational information, (2) data from various depression angles, and (3) digital radar signatures. Analysis will be conducted for selected sites to define how well SIR-B data can be used for: (1) definition of extent and location of deforestation in a tropical moist forest, (2) definition and quantification of the nature of the vegetation and edaphic conditions on the (floodplain) of the Amazon River, and (3) quantification of the accuracy with which the geometry and channel shifting of the Amazon River may be mapped using SIR-B imagery in conjunction with other remote sensing data.

  8. Exposure to atmospheric pms, pahs, pcdd/fs and metals near an open air waste burning site in Beirut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rima Baalbaki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Baalbaki, R., El Hage, R., Nassar, J., Gerard, J., Saliba, N.B., Zaarour, R., Abboud, M., Wehbeh, F., Khalaf, L.K., Shihadeh, A.L., Saliba, N.A. 2016. Exposure to atmospheric PMS, PAHS, PCDD/FS and metals near an open air waste burning site in Beirut. Lebanese Science Journal, 17(2: 91-103. Since July 2015, Lebanon has experienced the worst solid waste management crisis in its history. Consequently, open-air waste burning in the vicinity of highly populated areas in Beirut has become a common practice. This study evaluates the effects of open-air dumping and burning on local air quality and public health. The levels of particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5, gaseous and particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs, and particle-bound metals at a residence close to waste burning are reported. Concentrations, determined between October 2 and December 2, 2015, were compared either to previous measurements or to measurements taken away from a nearby burning incident, and after it had rained. Subsequently, the cancer risk due to exposure to these chemicals was assessed. Results showed alarming increases in pollutant concentrations which was translated into an increase in short-term cancer risk from about 1 to 20 people per million on the days when waste was being burned. Findings were shared with the public to warn the community against the dangers of waste mismanagement, and underline the obvious need for solid waste management at the governmental and municipal levels.

  9. An Atlantic influence on Amazon rainfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jin-Ho [University of Maryland, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, College Park, MD (United States); Zeng, Ning [University of Maryland, Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, College Park, MD (United States); University of Maryland, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, College Park, MD (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Rainfall variability over the Amazon basin has often been linked to variations in Pacific sea surface temperature (SST), and in particular, to the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). However, only a fraction of Amazon rainfall variability can be explained by ENSO. Building upon the recent work of Zeng (Environ Res Lett 3:014002, 2008), here we provide further evidence for an influence on Amazon rainfall from the tropical Atlantic Ocean. The strength of the North Atlantic influence is found to be comparable to the better-known Pacific ENSO connection. The tropical South Atlantic Ocean also shows some influence during the wet-to-dry season transition period. The Atlantic influence is through changes in the north-south divergent circulation and the movement of the ITCZ following warm SST. Therefore, it is strongest in the southern part of the Amazon basin during the Amazon's dry season (July-October). In contrast, the ENSO related teleconnection is through anomalous east-west Walker circulation with largely concentrated in the eastern (lower) Amazon. This ENSO connection is seasonally locked to boreal winter. A complication due to the influence of ENSO on Atlantic SST causes an apparent North Atlantic SST lag of Amazon rainfall. Removing ENSO from North Atlantic SST via linear regression resolves this causality problem in that the residual Atlantic variability correlates well and is in phase with the Amazon rainfall. A strong Atlantic influence during boreal summer and autumn is particularly significant in terms of the impact on the hydro-ecosystem which is most vulnerable during the dry season, as highlighted by the severe 2005 Amazon drought. Such findings have implications for both seasonal-interannual climate prediction and understanding the longer-term changes of the Amazon rainforest. (orig.)

  10. Getting started With Amazon Redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Getting Started With Amazon Redshift is a step-by-step, practical guide to the world of Redshift. Learn to load, manage, and query data on Redshift.This book is for CIOs, enterprise architects, developers, and anyone else who needs to get familiar with RedShift. The CIO will gain an understanding of what their technical staff is working on; the technical implementation personnel will get an in-depth view of the technology, and what it will take to implement their own solutions.

  11. Regional nitrous oxide flux in Amazon basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felippe, Monica Tais Siqueira D'Amelio

    2010-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) is the third most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas. Globally, the main sources of N 2 O are nitrification and denitrification in soils. About two thirds of the soil emissions occur in the tropics and approximately 20% originate in wet rain forest ecosystems, like the Amazon forest. The work presented here involves aircraft vertical profiles of N 2 O from the surface to 4 km over two sites in the Eastern and Central Amazon: Tapajos National Forest (2000-2009) and Cuieiras Biologic Reserve (2004-2007), and the estimation of N 2 O fluxes for regions upwind of these sites using two methods: Column Integration Technique and Inversion Model - FLEXPART. To our knowledge, these regional scale N 2 O measurements in Amazonia are unique and represent a new approach to looking regional scale emissions. For the both methods, the fluxes upwind of Cuieiras Biologic Reserve exhibited little seasonality, and the annual mean was 1.9 ±1.6 mgN 2 Om -2 day -1 for the Column Integration Technique and 2.3±0.9 mgN 2 Om -2 day -1 for Inversion Model - FLEXPART. For fluxes upwind of Tapajos Nacional Forest, the Inversion Model - FLEXPART presented about half (0.9±1.7 mgN 2 Om -2 day -1 ) of the Column Integration Technique (2.0±1.1 mgN 2 Om -2 day -1 ) for the same period (2004-2008). One reason could be because the inversion model does not consider anthropic activities, once it had a good representation for less impacted area. Both regions presented similar emission during wet season. By Column Integration Technique, fluxes upwind Tapajos Nacional Forest were similar for dry and wet seasons. The dry season N 2 O fluxes exhibit significant correlations with CO fluxes, indicating a larger than expected source of N 2 O from biomass burning. The average CO:N 2 O ratio for all 38 profiles sampled during the dry season was 82±69 mol CO:molN 2 O and suggests a larger biomass burning contribution to the global N 2 O budget than previously reported. (author)

  12. Multispecies Fisheries in the Lower Amazon River and Its Relationship with the Regional and Global Climate Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinaya, Walter Hugo Diaz; Lobon-Cervia, Francisco Javier; Pita, Pablo; Buss de Souza, Ronald; Freire, Juan; Isaac, Victoria Judith

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the spatial-temporal variability in catch of the main fishery resources of the Amazon River and floodplain lakes of the Lower Amazon, as well as relating the Catch per Unit of Effort with anomalies of some of the Amazon River, atmosphere and Atlantic Ocean system variables, determining the influence of the environment on the Amazonian fishery resources. Finfish landings data from the towns and villages of the Lower Amazon for the fisheries of three sites (Óbidos, Santarém and Monte Alegre), were obtained for the period between January 1993 and December 2004. Analysis of variance, detrended correspondence analysis, redundancy analysis and multiple regression techniques were used for the statistical analysis of the distinct time series. Fisheries production in the Lower Amazon presents differences between the Amazon River and the floodplain lakes. Production in the Amazon River is approximately half of the one of the floodplain lakes. This variability occurs both along the Lower Amazon River region (longitudinal gradient) and laterally (latitudinal gradient) for every fishing ground studied here. The distinct environmental variables alone or in association act differently on the fishery stocks and the success of catches in each fishery group studied here. Important variables are the flooding events; the soil the sea surface temperatures; the humidity; the wind and the occurence of El Niño-Southern Oscillation events. Fishery productivity presents a large difference in quantity and distribution patterns between the river and floodplain lakes. This variability occurs in the region of the Lower Amazon as well as laterally for each fishery group studied, being dependent on the ecological characteristics and life strategies of each fish group considered here.

  13. Exposure of commuters to carbon monoxide in Mexico City II. Comparison of in-vehicle and fixed-site concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Bremauntz, A A; Ashmore, M R

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to compare measurements of carbon monoxide taken concurrently inside vehicles and at fixed-site monitoring stations (FSMs), in order to assess if the FSM stations can be used to estimate commuters' exposure to this pollutant. During the study period ambient CO concentrations were very high. Five selected stations reported concentrations in excess of the Mexican (13 ppm) and United States (9 ppm) 8-hour standards for CO. Since, for all modes of transportation, the in-vehicle concentrations were always larger than the concurrent ambient concentrations, the differences between them were always positive and the ratios were always greater than one. Average, in-vehicle/ambient ratios for each mode of transportation were: automobile, 5.2; minivan, 5.2; minibus, 4.3; bus, 3.1; trolleybus 3.0; and metro, 2.2. A series of simple regression models with a moderate predictive power (R2 = 0.47 to 0.71) were developed for metro, bus, minibus, and automobile commuters. The models include the FSM measurements and also, depending on the mode of transportation, other variables, such as vehicular speed, the route of travel, and the wind speed. In the future, the models should be validated in two ways to determine their predictive power. First, they should be verified against additional samples taken under similar conditions; and second, their applications under different conditions should be explored through sampling during a different season of the year or on other commuting routes.

  14. Environmental contamination and human exposure to dioxin-related compounds in e-waste recycling sites of developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tue, Nguyen Minh; Takahashi, Shin; Subramanian, Annamalai; Sakai, Shinichi; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2013-07-01

    E-waste recycling using uncontrolled processes is a major source of dioxin-related compounds (DRCs), including not only the regulated polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) but also non-regulated brominated and mixed halogenated compounds (PBDD/Fs and PXDD/Fs). Various studies at informal e-waste recycling sites (EWRSs) in Asian developing countries found the soil contamination levels of PCDD/Fs from tens to ten thousand picogram TCDD-equivalents (TEQ) per gram and those of DL-PCBs up to hundreds of picogram TEQ per gram. The air concentration of PCDD/Fs was reported as high as 50 pg TEQ per m(3) in Guiyu, the largest Chinese EWRS. Non-regulated compounds also contributed substantially to the total DL toxicity of the DRC mixtures from e-waste, as evidenced by the high TEQ levels estimated for the currently identifiable PBDD/Fs as well as the large portion of unexplained bioassay-derived TEQ levels in soils/dusts from EWRSs. Considering the high exposure levels estimated for EWRS residents, especially children, comprehensive emission inventories of DRCs from informal e-waste recycling, the identities and toxic potencies of unidentified DRCs released, and their impacts on human health need to be investigated in future studies.

  15. Kinetic analysis of gill (Na⁺,K⁺)-ATPase activity in selected ontogenetic stages of the Amazon River shrimp, Macrobrachium amazonicum (Decapoda, Palaemonidae): interactions at ATP- and cation-binding sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Francisco Assis; Masui, Douglas Chodi; de Souza Bezerra, Thais Milena; Garçon, Daniela Pereira; Valenti, Wagner Cotroni; Augusto, Alessandra Silva; McNamara, John Campbell

    2012-04-01

    We investigated modulation by ATP, Mg²⁺, Na⁺, K⁺ and NH₄⁺ and inhibition by ouabain of (Na⁺,K⁺)-ATPase activity in microsomal homogenates of whole zoeae I and decapodid III (formerly zoea IX) and whole-body and gill homogenates of juvenile and adult Amazon River shrimps, Macrobrachium amazonicum. (Na⁺,K⁺)-ATPase-specific activity was increased twofold in decapodid III compared to zoea I, juveniles and adults, suggesting an important role in this ontogenetic stage. The apparent affinity for ATP (K(M) = 0.09 ± 0.01 mmol L⁻¹) of the decapodid III (Na⁺,K⁺)-ATPase, about twofold greater than the other stages, further highlights this relevance. Modulation of (Na⁺,K⁺-ATPase activity by K⁺ also revealed a threefold greater affinity for K⁺ (K₀.₅ = 0.91 ± 0.04 mmol L⁻¹) in decapodid III than in other stages; NH₄⁺ had no modulatory effect. The affinity for Na⁺ (K₀.₅ = 13.2 ± 0.6 mmol L⁻¹) of zoea I (Na⁺,K⁺)-ATPase was fourfold less than other stages. Modulation by Na⁺, Mg²⁺ and NH₄⁺ obeyed cooperative kinetics, while K⁺ modulation exhibited Michaelis-Menten behavior. Rates of maximal Mg²⁺ stimulation of ouabain-insensitive ATPase activity differed in each ontogenetic stage, suggesting that Mg²⁺-stimulated ATPases other than (Na⁺,K⁺)-ATPase are present. Ouabain inhibition suggests that, among the various ATPase activities present in the different stages, Na⁺-ATPase may be involved in the ontogeny of osmoregulation in larval M. amazonicum. The NH₄⁺-stimulated, ouabain-insensitive ATPase activity seen in zoea I and decapodid III may reflect a stage-specific means of ammonia excretion since functional gills are absent in the early larval stages.

  16. Canopy-scale biophysical controls on transpiration and evaporation in the Amazon Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mallick, Kaniska; Trebs, Ivonne; Bøgh, Eva

    2016-01-01

    to directly quantify the canopy-scale biophysical controls on λET and λEE over multiple plant functional types (PFTs) in the Amazon Basin. Combining data from six LBA (Large-scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia) eddy covariance tower sites and a TR-driven physically based modeling approach, we...

  17. How many more dams in the Amazon?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tundisi, J.G.; Goldemberg, J.; Matsumura-Tundisi, T.; Saraiva, A.C.F.

    2014-01-01

    The Amazon watershed harbors a megadiversity of terrestrial and aquatic plants and animals. Mechanisms that sustain this biodiversity are the water level fluctuations the fluvial dynamics and the intense gene flux due to permanent integration of climatological, geomorphological and biological components of the system. The construction of hydroelectric reservoirs to support economic development of Brazil and other countries that share the Amazon basin will interfere with the ecological dynamics of this ecosystem changing the hydrological, hydrosocial and fundamental processes. Furthermore the construction of Andean reservoirs can disrupt the connectivity with the lower Amazon ecosystem. Principles of ecohydrologies, ecological engineering and preservation of key river basins, have to be applied in order to optimize energy production and promote conservation practices. Long term planning and integration of countries that share the Amazon basin is a strategic decision to control and develop the hydropower exploitation in the region. - Highlights: • The Amazon basin is an ecosystem of megadiversity. • The demand for energy threatens this ecosystem. • Climate, water, forests and floodplain interacts in the Amazon basin. • Dams in the Amazon basin will impact the hydrological and biological systems. • Ecohydrological principles and ecological engineering technology are necessary

  18. Ozone pollution and ozone biomonitoring in European cities. Part I: Ozone concentrations and cumulative exposure indices at urban and suburban sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpp, A.; Ansel, W.; Klumpp, G.

    2006-01-01

    In the frame of a European research project on air quality in urban agglomerations, data on ozone concentrations from 23 automated urban and suburban monitoring stations in 11 cities from seven countries were analysed and evaluated. Daily and summer mean and maximum concentrations were computed...... based on hourly mean values, and cumulative ozone exposure indices (Accumulated exposure Over a Threshold of 40 ppb (AOT40), AOT20) were calculated. The diurnal profiles showed a characteristic pattern in most city centres, with minimum values in the early morning hours, a strong rise during the morning......, by contrast, maximum values were lower and diurnal variation was much smaller. Based on ozone concentrations as well as on cumulative exposure indices, a clear north-south gradient in ozone pollution, with increasing levels from northern and northwestern sites to central and southern European sites...

  19. Damming the rivers of the Amazon basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latrubesse, Edgardo M; Arima, Eugenio Y; Dunne, Thomas; Park, Edward; Baker, Victor R; d'Horta, Fernando M; Wight, Charles; Wittmann, Florian; Zuanon, Jansen; Baker, Paul A; Ribas, Camila C; Norgaard, Richard B; Filizola, Naziano; Ansar, Atif; Flyvbjerg, Bent; Stevaux, Jose C

    2017-06-14

    More than a hundred hydropower dams have already been built in the Amazon basin and numerous proposals for further dam constructions are under consideration. The accumulated negative environmental effects of existing dams and proposed dams, if constructed, will trigger massive hydrophysical and biotic disturbances that will affect the Amazon basin's floodplains, estuary and sediment plume. We introduce a Dam Environmental Vulnerability Index to quantify the current and potential impacts of dams in the basin. The scale of foreseeable environmental degradation indicates the need for collective action among nations and states to avoid cumulative, far-reaching impacts. We suggest institutional innovations to assess and avoid the likely impoverishment of Amazon rivers.

  20. Deforestation, fire susceptibility, and potential tree responses to fire in the eastern Amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhl, C. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (USA) Agropecuria do Tropico Umnido, Para (Brazil)); Kauffman, J.B. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis (USA))

    1990-04-01

    In the state of Para, Brazil, in the eastern Amazon, the authors studied the potential for sustained fire events within four dominant vegetation cover types (undisturbed rain forest, selectively logged forest, second-growth forest, and open pasture), by measuring fuel availability, microclimate, and rates of fuel moisture loss. They also estimated the potential tree mortality that might result from a wide-scale Amazon forest fire by measuring the thermal properties of bark for all trees in a 5-ha stand of mature forest, followed by measurements of heat flux through bark during simulated fires. In pastures the average midday temperature was almost 10{degree}C greater and the average midday relative humidity was 30% lower than in primary forest. The most five-prone ecosystem was the open pasture followed by selectively logged forest, second growth forest, and undisturbed rain forest in which sustained combustion was not possible even after prolonged rainless periods. Even though the autogenic factors in primary forest of the eastern Amazon create a microclimate that virtually eliminates the probability of fire, they are currently a common event in disturbed areas of Amazonia. As many as 8 {times} 10{sup 6} ha burned in the Amazon Basin of Brazil in 1987 alone. In terms of current land-use patterns, altered microclimates, and fuel mass, there are also striking similarities between the eastern Amazon and East Kalimantan, Indonesia (the site of recent rain forest wildfires that burned 3.5 {times} 10{sup 6} ha).

  1. Progress in Remote Sensing of Photosynthetic Activity over the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende de Sousa, Celio Helder; Hilker, Thomas; Waring, Richard; Mendes De Moura, Yhasmin; Lyapustin, Alexei

    2017-01-01

    Although quantifying the massive exchange of carbon that takes place over the Amazon Basin remains a challenge, progress is being made as the remote sensing community moves from using traditional, reflectance-based vegetation indices, such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), to the more functional Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI). This new index, together with satellite-derived estimates of canopy light interception and Sun-Induced Fluorescence (SIF), provide improved estimates of Gross Primary Production (GPP). This paper traces the development of these new approaches, compares the results of their analyses from multiple years of data acquired across the Amazon Basin and suggests further improvements in instrument design, data acquisition and processing. We demonstrated that our estimates of PRI are in generally good agreement with eddy-flux tower measurements of photosynthetic light use efficiency (epsilon) at four sites in the Amazon Basin: r(exp 2) values ranged from 0.37 to 0.51 for northern flux sites and to 0.78for southern flux sites. This is a significant advance over previous approaches seeking to establish a link between global-scale photosynthetic activity and remotely-sensed data. When combined with measurements of Sun-Induced Fluorescence (SIF), PRI provides realistic estimates of seasonal variation in photosynthesis over the Amazon that relate well to the wet and dry seasons. We anticipate that our findings will steer the development of improved approaches to estimate photosynthetic activity over the tropics.

  2. Progress in Remote Sensing of Photosynthetic Activity over the Amazon Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celio Helder Resende de Sousa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although quantifying the massive exchange of carbon that takes place over the Amazon Basin remains a challenge, progress is being made as the remote sensing community moves from using traditional, reflectance-based vegetation indices, such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, to the more functional Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI. This new index, together with satellite-derived estimates of canopy light interception and Sun-Induced Fluorescence (SIF, provide improved estimates of Gross Primary Production (GPP. This paper traces the development of these new approaches, compares the results of their analyses from multiple years of data acquired across the Amazon Basin and suggests further improvements in instrument design, data acquisition and processing. We demonstrated that our estimates of PRI are in generally good agreement with eddy-flux tower measurements of photosynthetic light use efficiency (ε at four sites in the Amazon Basin: r2 values ranged from 0.37 to 0.51 for northern flux sites and to 0.78 for southern flux sites. This is a significant advance over previous approaches seeking to establish a link between global-scale photosynthetic activity and remotely-sensed data. When combined with measurements of Sun-Induced Fluorescence (SIF, PRI provides realistic estimates of seasonal variation in photosynthesis over the Amazon that relate well to the wet and dry seasons. We anticipate that our findings will steer the development of improved approaches to estimate photosynthetic activity over the tropics.

  3. Methylmercury Modulation in Amazon Rivers Linked to Basin Characteristics and Seasonal Flood-Pulse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Daniele; Forsberg, Bruce R; Amaral, João H F; Py-Daniel, Sarah S; Bastos, Wanderley R; Malm, Olaf

    2017-12-19

    We investigated the impact of the seasonal inundation of wetlands on methylmercury (MeHg) concentration dynamics in the Amazon river system. We sampled 38 sites along the Solimões/Amazon and Negro rivers and their tributaries during distinct phases of the annual flood-pulse. MeHg dynamics in both basins was contrasted to provide insight into the factors controlling export of MeHg to the Amazon system. The export of MeHg by rivers was substantially higher during high-water in both basins since elevated MeHg concentrations and discharge occurred during this time. MeHg concentration was positively correlated to %flooded area upstream of the sampling site in the Solimões/Amazon Basin with the best correlation obtained using 100 km buffers instead of whole basin areas. The lower correlations obtained with the whole basin apparently reflected variable losses of MeHg exported from upstream wetlands due to demethylation, absorption, deposition, and degradation before reaching the sampling site. A similar correlation between %flooded area and MeHg concentrations was not observed in the Negro Basin probably due to the variable export of MeHg from poorly drained soils that are abundant in this basin but not consistently flooded.

  4. The Amazon Region; A Vision of Sovereignty

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-06

    XVII, XVIII and XIX centuries, thirty-seven fortifications had been established to defend the Amazon Region. At the end of the XVII century, iron ...Community to drive the Brazilian Government to interrupt the project "Grande Carajas " (Great Carajas ), and thus trying to inhibit the planned search...oxygen production potential in the Amazon region. Ironically , however, in order to allow plants to grow, part of the forest would have to be

  5. Methods for in situ Mesocosm Water Table Manipulation in Amazon Peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarno, B. G.; Guardia, J. R.; Torres, M. G.; Lopez, J. G.; Rios, M. L.; Saquiray, L. M.; Rodriguez, T. C.; Rivera, P. V.; Van Haren, J. L. M.; Cadillo-Quiroz, H.

    2016-12-01

    Rainfall manipulation in tropical Amazon rainforests has previously been used to analyze the effects of rapidly changing drought and flood seasons on canopy dynamics, above-ground ecological function and greenhouse gas cycles. We chose to focus on variance below the rootline due to the greater carbon mass and impact of this region and the variables affecting it. We designed and implemented a system that manipulates above and below ground water exposure to control soil saturation. Isolation of soil sample was collected using a PVC pipe submerged 50 cm into the ground with an overhead watershed and an underground water filter. Similarly, a control sample of the above ground water was collected. Above ground water control was performed, not unlike previous systems, using overhead cover, drainage and rerouting, constructed using 1 inch PVC sections configured to allow 25% shed, 50% shed, and 75% increase. Underground filters were designed using variable clay concentrations to achieve desired permeability and flow rate. We selected kiln-fire pure clay discs, instead of poly-acrylamide discs, to enable a steady flow of 0.83 mL/hr. In addition, we adjusted the concentration of the clay disc with sand buffering and carbon lacing at different mass concentrations to allow direct controls of the flow rate, as high as 12.45 mL/hr. Using pure clay concentrations of 100%, 75%, and 50% by mass, and lacing the filters with carbon fill of 10%, 20%, and 30% by volume, before kiln firing, allows much more desirable flow rates. These significant increases in flow rate allow for better control of both above and below ground water exposure. Such a system will enable a more complete geochemical and microbiological analysis of soil and water within this highly variable region of the rain forest. Construction and installation of the submerged towers has been performed at numerous sites along the Peruvian Amazon River basin. Monitoring soil respiration will be performed on the current

  6. A source of methane from upland forests in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janaina Braga do Carmo; Michael Keller; Jadson Dezincourt Dias; Plinio Barbosa de Camargo; Patrick Crill

    2006-01-01

    We sampled air in the canopy layer of undisturbed upland forests during wet and dry seasons at three sites in the Brazilian Amazon region and found that both methane(CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) mixing ratios increased at night. Such increases were consistent across sites and seasons. A canopy layer budget model based on measured soil-atmosphere fluxes of CO2 was...

  7. Observations about chemical composition of aerosols in the Brazilian Amazon region - Case study: Biomass burning in the subequatorial Amazon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioda, A.; Monteiro, I. L.; Almeida, A. C.; Hacon, S. S.; Dallacort, R.; Ignotti, E.; Godoy, J. M.; Loureiro, A. L.; Morais, F.; Artaxo, P.

    2012-04-01

    The study was carried out in two cities in the Brazilian Amazon region, Tangará da Serra (14 ° 37'10 "S, 57 ° 29'09" W, 427 m asl), located in a transition area between the Amazon biome and the Cerrado and has the characteristics of urban area in Amazon region; and Alta Floresta (9 ° 52 '32 "S, 56 ° 5' 10" W, 283 m asl) situated in the extreme north of the state of Mato Grosso (MT), both in the subequatorial Amazon region. Tangara da Serra has the largest production of sugar cane in the subequatorial Amazon region. They are located 800 km from each other. These two regions are inserted in a region with typical cycles of drought and rain that alter air pollution levels, and lies in the dispersion path of the pollution plume resulting from burnings in the Brazilian Amazon and pollution emanating from neighboring countries. Both cities have wet tropical climate with two well defined seasons: rainy summer (November to May) and dry winter (June to October). During the dry winter, biomass burnings are frequent in these regions. In 2008, the Department of the Environment has banned fires in the period from July 15 to September 15 throughout the State. In this study chemical characterization was performed for approximately 100 aerosol samples collected in each site during 2008. Fine and coarse aerosol samples collected in SFUs were analyzed by ion chromatography for determination of cations (Na+, K+, NH3+, Ca2+ and Mg2+), anions (SO42-, Cl- and NO3-) and organic acids (acetate and formiate) and also measures of black carbon (BC) (Aethalometer). The results showed that for both sites the average concentrations were quite similar for PM2.5 (16 µg/m3), PM10 (11 and 13 µg/m3) and black carbon (1.4 µg/m3 for PM2.5 and 1.6 µg/m3 for PM10). Sulfate was the predominant species in fine (45%) and coarse (26%) particles in both sites. The sulfate concentrations ranged from 0.01-1.92 µg/m3 in PM2.5 and 0.01-1.66 µg/m3 in PM10 in Tangará da Serra and 0.01-2.93 µg/m3 in PM2

  8. Evaluation the total exposure of soil sample in Adaya site and the obtain risk assessments for the worker by Res Rad code program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadi, A. M.; Khadim, A. A. N.; Ibrahim, Z. H.; Ali, S. A.

    2012-12-01

    The present study aims to evaluation the total exposure to the worker in Adaya site risk assessment by using Res Rad code program. The study including 5 areas soil sample calculate in the site and analysis it by High Pure Germaniums (Hg) system made (CANBERRA) company. The soil sample simulation by (Res Rad) code program by inter the radioactive isotope concentration and the specification of the contamination zone area, depth and the cover depth of it. The total exposure of same sample was about 9 mSv/year and the (Heast 2001 Morbidity, FGR13 Morbidity) about 2.045 state every 100 worker in the year. There are simple different between Heast 2001 Morbidity and FGR13 Morbidity according to the Dose Conversion Factor (DCF) use it. The (FGR13 Morbidity) about 2.041 state every 100 worker in the year. (Author)

  9. Progress Towards Improved MOPITT-based Biomass Burning Emission Inventories for the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeter, M. N.; Emmons, L. K.; Martinez-Alonso, S.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Arellano, A. F.; Fischer, E. V.; González-Alonso, L.; Val Martin, M.; Gatti, L. V.; Miller, J. B.; Gloor, M.; Domingues, L. G.; Correia, C. S. D. C.

    2016-12-01

    The 17-year long record of carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations from the MOPITT satellite instrument is uniquely suited for studying the interannual variability of biomass burning emissions. Data assimilation methods based on Ensemble Kalman Filtering are currently being developed to infer CO emissions within the Amazon Basin from MOPITT measurements along with additional datasets. The validity of these inversions will depend on the characteristics of the MOPITT CO retrievals (e.g., retrieval biases and vertical resolution) as well as the representation of chemistry and dynamics in the chemical transport model (CAM-Chem) used in the data assimilation runs. For example, the assumed vertical distribution ("injection height") of the biomass burning emissions plays a particularly important role. We will review recent progress made on a project to improve biomass burning emission inventories for the Amazon Basin. MOPITT CO retrievals over the Amazon Basin are first characterized, focusing on the MOPITT Version 6 "multispectral" retrieval product (exploiting both thermal-infrared and near-infrared channels). Validation results based on in-situ vertical profiles measured between 2010 and 2013 are presented for four sites in the Amazon Basin. Results indicate a significant negative bias in MOPITT retrieved lower-tropospheric CO concentrations. The seasonal and geographical variability of smoke injection height over the Amazon Basin is then analyzed using a MISR plume height climatology. This work has led to the development of a new fire emission injection height parameterization that was implemented in CAM-Chem and GEOS-Chem.. Finally, we present initial data assimilation results for the Amazon Basin and evaluate the results using available field campaign measurements.

  10. Concentration and transportation of heavy metals in vegetables and risk assessment of human exposure to bioaccessible heavy metals in soil near a waste-incinerator site, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Kang, Yuan; Pan, Weijian; Zeng, Lixuan; Zhang, Qiuyun; Luo, Jiwen

    2015-07-15

    There is limited study focusing on the bioaccumulation of heavy metals in vegetables and human exposure to bioaccessible heavy metals in soil. In the present study, heavy metal concentrations (Cr, Ni, Cu, Pb and Cd) were measured in five types of vegetables, soil, root, and settled air particle samples from two sites (at a domestic waste incinerator and at 20km away from the incinerator) in Guangzhou, South China. Heavy metal concentrations in soil were greater than those in aerial parts of vegetables and roots, which indicated that vegetables bioaccumulated low amount of heavy metals from soil. The similar pattern of heavy metal (Cr, Cd) was found in the settled air particle samples and aerial parts of vegetables from two sites, which may suggest that foliar uptake may be an important pathway of heavy metal from the environment to vegetables. The highest levels of heavy metals were found in leaf lettuce (125.52μg/g, dry weight) and bitter lettuce (71.2μg/g) for sites A and B, respectively, followed by bitter lettuce and leaf lettuce for sites A and B, respectively. Swamp morning glory accumulated the lowest amount of heavy metals (81.02μg/g for site A and 53.2μg/g for site B) at both sites. The bioaccessibility of heavy metals in soil ranged from Cr (2%) to Cu (71.78%). Risk assessment showed that Cd and Pb in soil samples resulted in the highest non-cancer risk and Cd would result in unacceptable cancer risk for children and risk. The non-dietary intake of soil was the most important exposure pathway, when the bioaccessibility of heavy metals was taken into account. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Longitudinal assessment of mercury exposure in schoolchildren in an urban area of the Brazilian Amazon Avaliação longitudinal da exposição ao mercúrio em crianças de uma área urbana na Amazônia brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene Danieli Simões Dutra

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was a longitudinal assessment of mercury exposure in schoolchildren in an urban area of the Brazilian Amazon. The study population consisted of 90 children whose exposure levels were assessed by testing mercury levels in the umbilical cord blood and mothers' blood samples in 2000-2001, and in the children's hair and blood samples. The study also used a questionnaire on demographic and socioeconomic data, fish consumption, and self-reported disease history. Mean mercury level in hair in 2010 was approximately 1µg/g, ranging up to 8.22µg/g, similar to 2004 and 2006. These figures can be explained by low fish consumption. Mean blood mercury levels at birth exceeded 10µg/L, ranging up to nearly 60µg/L, which indicates mercury transfer across the placenta. There was a significant increase in blood mercury from 2004 to 2006 (p O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar avaliação longitudinal da exposição de crianças de uma área urbana da Amazônia brasileira ao mercúrio (Hg. A população foi composta por 90 crianças, cuja exposição foi avaliada desde o nascimento por meio das análises dos teores de Hg no sangue do cordão umbilical e no sangue das mães em 2000/2001, e em amostras de cabelo e sangue das crianças. Os procedimentos incluíram também um questionário com informações demográficas, socioeconômicas, sobre consumo de peixes e morbidade referida. A média dos teores de Hg no cabelo em 2010 foi próxima a 1µg/g e sua amplitude 8,22µg/g, semelhantes aos anos 2004 e 2006, podendo ser explicada pela baixa ingestão de peixes. A média dos teores de Hg no sangue das crianças ao nascer ultrapassou 10µg/L e sua amplitude atingiu quase 60µg/L, indicando transferência do Hg através da barreira placentária. Ocorreu aumento significativo dos teores de Hg no sangue entre 2004 e 2006 (p < 0,001, sugerindo a possibilidade de exposição atmosférica ao Hg. O principal período de exposição ao Hg ocorreu durante a gestação.

  12. Modelling sustainable international tourism demand to the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Divino (Jose Angelo); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe Amazon rainforest is one of the world’s greatest natural wonders and holds great importance and significance for the world’s environmental balance. Around 60% of the Amazon rainforest is located in the Brazilian territory. The two biggest states of the Amazon region are Amazonas (the

  13. Wind Disturbance Produced Changes in Tree Species Assemblage in the Peruvian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifai, S. W.; Chambers, J. Q.; Negron Juarez, R. I.; Ramirez, F.; Tello, R.; Alegria Muñoz, W.

    2010-12-01

    Wind disturbance has been a frequently overlooked abiotic cause of mass tree mortality in the Amazon basin. In the Peruvian Amazon these wind disturbances are produced by meteorological events such as convective systems. Downbursts for example produce short term descendent wind speeds that can be in excess of 30 m s-1. These are capable of producing tree blowdowns which have been reported to be as large as 33 km2 in the Amazon basin. We used the chronosequence of Landsat Satellite imagery to find and locate where these blowdowns have occurred in the Loreto region of the Peruvian Amazon. Spectral Mixture Analysis was used to estimate the proportion landcover of green vegetation, non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV), soil and shade in each pixel. The change in NPV was calculated by subtracting the NPV signal in the Landsat image prior to the blowdown occurrence, from the image following the disturbance. Our prior research has established a linear relationship between tree mortality and change in NPV. It is hypothesized that these mass tree mortality events result in changes in the tree species assemblage of affected forests. Here we present preliminary tree species assemblage data from two sites in the Peruvian Amazon near Iquitos, Peru. The site (ALP) at the Allpahuayo Mishana reserve (3.945 S, 73.455 W) is 30 km south of Iquitos, Peru, and hosts the remnants of a 50 ha blowdown that occurred in either 1992 or 1993. Another site (NAPO) on the Napo river about 60 km north of Iquitos, is the location of an approximately 300 ha blowdown that occurred in 1998. At each site, a 3000 m x 10 m transect encompassing non disturbed and disturbed areas was installed, and trees greater than 10 cm diameter at breast height were measured for diameter, height and were identified to the species. Stem density of trees with diameter at breast height > 10 cm, and tree height appear to be similar both inside and outside the blowdown affected areas of the forests at both sites. At the ALP

  14. Assessing Worker and Environmental Chemical Exposure Risks at an e-Waste Recycling and Disposal Site in Accra, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Caravanos

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions. The Agbogbloshie e-waste recycling/disposal site in Accra, Ghana revealed an area with extensive lead contamination in both ambient air and topsoil. Given the urban nature of this site e as well as the large adjacent food distribution market, the potential for human health impact is substantial both to workers and local residents.

  15. Amazon rainforest responses to elevated CO2: Deriving model-based hypotheses for the AmazonFACE experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammig, A.; Fleischer, K.; Lapola, D.; Holm, J.; Hoosbeek, M.

    2017-12-01

    response ratio to elevated CO2 at the AmazonFACE site and identify priorities for experimental work and model development.

  16. Trans-Amazon Drilling Project (TADP): origins and evolution of the forests, climate, and hydrology of the South American tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, P.A.; Fritz, S.C.; Silva, C.G.; Rigsby, C.A.; Absy, M.L.; Almeida, R.P.; Caputo, Maria C.; Chiessi, C.M.; Cruz, F.W.; Dick, C.W.; Feakins, S.J.; Figueiredo, J.; Freeman, K.H.; Hoorn, C.; Jaramillo, C.A.; Kern, A.; Latrubesse, E.M.; Ledru, M.P.; Marzoli, A.; Myrbo, A.; Noren, A.; Piller, W.E.; Ramos, M.I.F.; Ribas, C.C.; Trinadade, R.; West, A.J.; Wahnfried, I.; Willard, Debra A.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the scientific rationale for an ambitious ICDP drilling project to continuously sample Late Cretaceous to modern sediment in four different sedimentary basins that transect the equatorial Amazon of Brazil, from the Andean foreland to the Atlantic Ocean. The goals of this project are to document the evolution of plant biodiversity in the Amazon forests and to relate biotic diversification to changes in the physical environment, including climate, tectonism, and the surface landscape. These goals require long sedimentary records from each of the major sedimentary basins across the heart of the Brazilian Amazon, which can only be obtained by drilling because of the scarcity of Cenozoic outcrops. The proposed drilling will provide the first long, nearly continuous regional records of the Cenozoic history of the forests, their plant diversity, and the associated changes in climate and environment. It also will address fundamental questions about landscape evolution, including the history of Andean uplift and erosion as recorded in Andean foreland basins and the development of west-to-east hydrologic continuity between the Andes, the Amazon lowlands, and the equatorial Atlantic. Because many modern rivers of the Amazon basin flow along the major axes of the old sedimentary basins, we plan to locate drill sites on the margin of large rivers and to access the targeted drill sites by navigation along these rivers.

  17. Trans-Amazon Drilling Project (TADP): origins and evolution of the forests, climate, and hydrology of the South American tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, P. A.; Fritz, S. C.; Silva, C. G.; Rigsby, C. A.; Absy, M. L.; Almeida, R. P.; Caputo, M.; Chiessi, C. M.; Cruz, F. W.; Dick, C. W.; Feakins, S. J.; Figueiredo, J.; Freeman, K. H.; Hoorn, C.; Jaramillo, C.; Kern, A. K.; Latrubesse, E. M.; Ledru, M. P.; Marzoli, A.; Myrbo, A.; Noren, A.; Piller, W. E.; Ramos, M. I. F.; Ribas, C. C.; Trnadade, R.; West, A. J.; Wahnfried, I.; Willard, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    This article presents the scientific rationale for an ambitious ICDP drilling project to continuously sample Late Cretaceous to modern sediment in four different sedimentary basins that transect the equatorial Amazon of Brazil, from the Andean foreland to the Atlantic Ocean. The goals of this project are to document the evolution of plant biodiversity in the Amazon forests and to relate biotic diversification to changes in the physical environment, including climate, tectonism, and the surface landscape. These goals require long sedimentary records from each of the major sedimentary basins across the heart of the Brazilian Amazon, which can only be obtained by drilling because of the scarcity of Cenozoic outcrops. The proposed drilling will provide the first long, nearly continuous regional records of the Cenozoic history of the forests, their plant diversity, and the associated changes in climate and environment. It also will address fundamental questions about landscape evolution, including the history of Andean uplift and erosion as recorded in Andean foreland basins and the development of west-to-east hydrologic continuity between the Andes, the Amazon lowlands, and the equatorial Atlantic. Because many modern rivers of the Amazon basin flow along the major axes of the old sedimentary basins, we plan to locate drill sites on the margin of large rivers and to access the targeted drill sites by navigation along these rivers.

  18. Flame retardants and organochlorines in indoor dust from several e-waste recycling sites in South China: composition variations and implications for human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaobo; Xu, Fuchao; Chen, Kehui; Zeng, Yanhong; Luo, Xiaojun; Chen, Shejun; Mai, Bixian; Covaci, Adrian

    2015-05-01

    Several classes of flame retardants, such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs), dechlorane plus (DPs), and organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs), together with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in indoor dust from five villages located in three e-waste recycling regions in Guangdong Province, South China. The medians of PBDEs, NBFRs, and PFRs in dust in five sites ranged from 685-67,500, 1460-50,010, and 2180-29,000ng/g, respectively. These concentrations were much higher than the medians of PCBs (52-2900ng/g). BDE 209 and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) were the two major halogen flame retardants in dust, while tris-(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCIPP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) were the major PFRs. Principle component analysis revealed the different pollutant patterns among different sites. The estimated median human exposures of PBDEs, NBFRs, PFRs, and PCBs via dust ingestion were 1.1-24.1, 0.73-20.3, 1.36-23.5, and 0.04-0.93ng/kgbw/day for adults, and 16.2-352, 10.7-296, 19.9-343, 0.05-0.61, 0.65-13.6ng/kgbw/day for toddlers, respectively. Residents from Site 5 had the highest exposure (95 percentile levels and high dust ingestion for toddlers) of PBDEs (3920ng/kgbw/day), NBFRs (3200ng/kgbw/day), and PFRs (5280ng/kgbw/day). More attention should be paid to the contamination with NBFRs and PFRs, instead of PCBs, in these e-waste recycling regions, and local public health threat from PBDE alternatives should remain of concern. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on human exposure assessment of PFRs at e-waste sites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Chemical contaminants in water and sediment near fish nesting sites in the Potomac River basin: determining potential exposures to smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolpin, Dana W.; Blazer, Vicki; Gray, James L.; Focazio, Michael J.; Young, John A.; Alvarez, David A.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Foreman, William T.; Furlong, Edward T.; Speiran, Gary K.; Zaugg, Steven D.; Hubbard, Laura E.; Meyer, Michael T.; Sandstrom, Mark W.; Barber, Larry B.

    2013-01-01

    The Potomac River basin is an area where a high prevalence of abnormalities such as testicular oocytes (TO), skin lesions, and mortality has been observed in smallmouth bass (SMB, Micropterus dolomieu). Previous research documented a variety of chemicals in regional streams, implicating chemical exposure as one plausible explanation for these biological effects. Six stream sites in the Potomac basin (and one out-of-basin reference site) were sampled to provide an assessment of chemicals in these streams. Potential early life-stage exposure to chemicals detected was assessed by collecting samples in and around SMB nesting areas. Target chemicals included those known to be associated with important agricultural and municipal wastewater sources in the Potomac basin. The prevalence and severity of TO in SMB were also measured to determine potential relations between chemistry and biological effects. A total of 39 chemicals were detected at least once in the discrete-water samples, with atrazine, caffeine, deethylatrazine, simazine, and iso-chlorotetracycline being most frequently detected. Of the most frequently detected chemicals, only caffeine was detected in water from the reference site. No biogenic hormones/sterols were detected in the discrete-water samples. In contrast, 100 chemicals (including six biogenic hormones/sterols) were found in a least one passive-water sample, with 25 being detected at all such samples. In addition, 46 chemicals (including seven biogenic hormones/sterols) were found in the bed-sediment samples, with caffeine, cholesterol, indole, para-cresol, and sitosterol detected in all such samples. The number of herbicides detected in discrete-water samples per site had a significant positive relation to TOrank (a nonparametric indicator of TO), with significant positive relations between TOrank and atrazine concentrations in discrete-water samples and to total hormone/sterol concentration in bed-sediment samples. Such significant correlations

  20. The Vine Trust's Amazon Hope boats--providing a dental service on the Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Shona M C

    2013-01-01

    The Vine Trust's Amazon Hope Project is a medical and dental programme providing healthcare to communities along the Amazon River in Peru. Volunteers from the UK and other countries work alongside Peruvian staff employed by their partner organization, Union Biblica del Peru, to provide a health service from a boat which serves communities on several tributaries who otherwise would have no other access to care. The dental programme involves a basic restorative and extraction service, with scope to develop a preventive programme. Dentists'and DCPs' skills are transferable globally: this article illustrates how one volunteer dental project is working to provide relevant and sustainable dental health care in the Amazon jungle.

  1. Modelling basin-wide variations in Amazon forest photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Lina; Lloyd, Jon; Domingues, Tomas; Fyllas, Nikolaos; Patino, Sandra; Dolman, Han; Sitch, Stephen

    2010-05-01

    Given the importance of Amazon rainforest in the global carbon and hydrological cycles, there is a need to use parameterized and validated ecosystem gas exchange and vegetation models for this region in order to adequately simulate present and future carbon and water balances. Recent research has found major differences in above-ground net primary productivity (ANPP), above ground biomass and tree dynamics across Amazonia. West Amazonia is more dynamic, with younger trees, higher stem growth rates and lower biomass than central and eastern Amazon (Baker et al. 2004; Malhi et al. 2004; Phillips et al. 2004). A factor of three variation in above-ground net primary productivity has been estimated across Amazonia by Malhi et al. (2004). Different hypotheses have been proposed to explain the observed spatial variability in ANPP (Malhi et al. 2004). First, due to the proximity to the Andes, sites from western Amazonia tend to have richer soils than central and eastern Amazon and therefore soil fertility could possibly be highly related to the high wood productivity found in western sites. Second, if GPP does not vary across the Amazon basin then different patterns of carbon allocation to respiration could also explain the observed ANPP gradient. However since plant growth depends on the interaction between photosynthesis, transport of assimilates, plant respiration, water relations and mineral nutrition, variations in plant gross photosynthesis (GPP) could also explain the observed variations in ANPP. In this study we investigate whether Amazon GPP can explain variations of observed ANPP. We use a sun and shade canopy gas exchange model that has been calibrated and evaluated at five rainforest sites (Mercado et al. 2009) to simulate gross primary productivity of 50 sites across the Amazon basin during the period 1980-2001. Such simulation differs from the ones performed with global vegetation models (Cox et al. 1998; Sitch et al. 2003) where i) single plant functional

  2. Retrospective dose assessment for the population living in areas of local fallout from the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site. Part 2: International exposure to thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordeev, Konstantin; Shinkarev, Sergey; Ilyin, Leonid; Bouville, Andre; Luckyanov, Nickolas; Simon, Steven L.; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2006-01-01

    A methodology to assess internal exposure to thyroid from radioiodines for the residents living in settlements located in the vicinity of the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site is described that is the result of many years of research, primarily at the Moscow Institute of Biophysics. This methodology introduces two important concepts. First, the biologically active fraction, is defined as the fraction of the total activity on fallout particles with diameter less than 50 microns. That fraction is retained by vegetation and will ultimately result in contamination of dairy products. Second, the relative distance is derived as a dimensionless quantity from information on test yield, maximum height of cloud, and average wind velocity and describes how the biologically active fraction is distributed with distance from the site of the explosion. The parameter is derived in such a way that at locations with equal values of relative distance, the biologically active fraction will be the same for any test. The estimates of internal exposure to thyroid for the residents of Dolon and Kanonerka villages, for which the external exposure were assessed and given in a companion paper (Gordeev et al. 2006) in this conference, are presented. The main sources of uncertainty in the estimates are identified. (author)

  3. 28 CFR Appendix C to Part 79 - Radiation Exposure Compensation Act Offset Worksheet-On Site Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Column 4 “Actuarial Present Value”of past payments = $0.00 NET AMOUNT OWED CLAIMANT ($75,000 less APV... Compensation Act Offset Worksheet—On Site Participants [Present CPI = 185.20] VA paymentsyear Payment Indicated...

  4. Evapotranspiration seasonality across the Amazon Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Maeda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Evapotranspiration (ET of Amazon forests is a main driver of regional climate patterns and an important indicator of ecosystem functioning. Despite its importance, the seasonal variability of ET over Amazon forests, and its relationship with environmental drivers, is still poorly understood. In this study, we carry out a water balance approach to analyse seasonal patterns in ET and their relationships with water and energy drivers over five sub-basins across the Amazon Basin. We used in situ measurements of river discharge, and remotely sensed estimates of terrestrial water storage, rainfall, and solar radiation. We show that the characteristics of ET seasonality in all sub-basins differ in timing and magnitude. The highest mean annual ET was found in the northern Rio Negro basin (∼ 1497 mm year−1 and the lowest values in the Solimões River basin (∼ 986 mm year−1. For the first time in a basin-scale study, using observational data, we show that factors limiting ET vary across climatic gradients in the Amazon, confirming local-scale eddy covariance studies. Both annual mean and seasonality in ET are driven by a combination of energy and water availability, as neither rainfall nor radiation alone could explain patterns in ET. In southern basins, despite seasonal rainfall deficits, deep root water uptake allows increasing rates of ET during the dry season, when radiation is usually higher than in the wet season. We demonstrate contrasting ET seasonality with satellite greenness across Amazon forests, with strong asynchronous relationships in ever-wet watersheds, and positive correlations observed in seasonally dry watersheds. Finally, we compared our results with estimates obtained by two ET models, and we conclude that neither of the two tested models could provide a consistent representation of ET seasonal patterns across the Amazon.

  5. Amazon Plume Salinity Response to Ocean Teleconnections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Tyaquiçã

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Pacific and Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST variability strongly influences rainfall changes in the Amazon River basin, which impacts on the river discharge and consequently the sea surface salinity (SSS in the Amazon plume. An Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF analysis was performed using 46 years of SST, rainfall, and SSS datasets, in order to establish the relationship between these variables. The first three modes of SST/rainfall explained 87.83% of the total covariance. Pacific and Atlantic SSTs led Amazon basin rainfall events by 4 months. The resultant SSS in the western tropical North Atlantic (WTNA lagged behind basin rainfall by 3 months, with 75.04% of the total covariance corresponding to the first four EOF modes. The first EOF mode indicated a strong SSS pattern along the coast that was connected to negative rainfall anomalies covering the Amazon basin, linked to El Niño events. A second pattern also presented positive SSS anomalies, when the rainfall was predominantly over the northwestern part of the Amazon basin, with low rainfall around the Amazon River mouth. The pattern with negative SSS anomalies in the WTNA was associated with the fourth mode, when positive rainfall anomalies were concentrated in the northwest part of South America. The spatial rainfall structure of this fourth mode was associated with the spatial rainfall distribution found in the third EOF mode of SST vs. rainfall, which was a response to La Niña Modoki events. A statistical analysis for the 46 year period and monthly anomaly composites for 2008 and 2009 indicated that La Niña Modoki events can be used for the prediction of low SSS patterns in the WNTA.

  6. Ambient air benzene at background sites in China's most developed coastal regions: exposure levels, source implications and health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhou; Wang, Xinming; Zhang, Yanli; Lü, Sujun; Huang, Zhonghui; Huang, Xinyu; Wang, Yuesi

    2015-04-01

    Benzene is a known human carcinogen causing leukemia, yet ambient air quality objectives for benzene are not available in China. The ambient benzene levels at four background sites in China's most developed coastal regions were measured from March 2012 to February 2013. The sites are: SYNECP, in the Northeast China Plain (NECP); YCNCP, in the North China Plain (NCP); THYRD, in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) and DHPRD, in the Pearl River Delta (PRD). It was found that the mean annual benzene levels (578-1297 ppt) at the background sites were alarmingly higher, especially when compared to those of 60-480 pptv monitored in 28 cities in the United States. Wintertime benzene levels were significantly elevated at both sites (SYNECP and YCNCP) in northern China due to heating with coal/biofuels. Even at these background sites, the lifetime cancer risks of benzene (1.7-3.7E-05) all exceeded 1E-06 set by USEPA as acceptable for adults. At both sites in northern China, good correlations between benzene and CO or chloromethane, together with much lower toluene/benzene (T/B) ratios, suggested that benzene was largely related to coal combustion and biomass/biofuel burning. At the DHPRD site in the PRD, benzene revealed a highly significant correlation with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), indicating that its source was predominantly from vehicle emissions. At the THYRD site in the YRD, higher T/B ratios and correlations between benzene and tetrachloroethylene, or MTBE, implied that benzene levels were probably affected by both traffic-related and industrial emissions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The Amazon, measuring a mighty river

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1967-01-01

    The Amazon, the world's largest river, discharges enough water into the sea each day to provide fresh water to the City of New York for over 9 years. Its flow accounts for about 15 percent of all the fresh water discharged into the oceans by all the rivers of the world. By comparison, the Amazon's flow is over 4 times that of the Congo River, the world's second largest river. And it is 10 times that of the Mississippi, the largest river on the North American Continent.

  8. Greenhouse problem in the Amazon jungle clearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, E.J.; Margulis, S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the contribution of Amazon jungle clearing to the greenhouse problem and makes an assessment of long-run prospects. The introductory sections pose the problem from both international and Brazilian perspectives. The next section describes major features of the Amazonia ecosystems and presents methods and evidence on deforestation and on its impact on carbon dioxide emissions. Based upon cross-section information for a sample of municipalities in the Brazilian Amazon, the following section estimates elasticities of deforestation in relation to major economic factors- government policies included- and uses them to make projections for the future pace of deforestation. The last section discusses policy alternatives to slow down forest conversion

  9. GoAmazon 2014/15 Thermal Desorption Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (TDCIMS) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, JN [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The Thermal Desorption Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (TDCIMS) deployment to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility T3 site in Manacapuru, Brazil, was motivated by two main scientific objectives of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon) 2014/15 field campaign. 1) Study the interactions between anthropogenic and biogenic emissions by determining important molecular species in ambient nanoparticles. To address this, TDCIMS data will be combined with coincident measurements such as gas-phase sulfuric acid to determine the contribution of sulfuric acid condensation to nucleation and growth. We can then compare that result to TDCIMS-derived nanoparticle composition to determine the fraction of growth that can be attributed to the uptake of organic compounds. The molecular composition of sampled particles will also be used to attribute specific chemical species and mechanisms to growth, such as the condensation of low-volatility species or the oligomerization of α-dicarbonyl compounds. 2) Determine the source of new ambient nanoparticles in the Amazon. The hypothesis prior to measurements was that potassium salts formed from the evaporation of primary particles emitted by fungal spores can provide a unique and important pathway for new particle production in the Amazon basin. To explore this hypothesis, the TDCIMS recorded the mass spectra of sampled ambient particles using a protonated water cluster Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (CIMS). Laboratory tests performed using potassium salts show that the TDCIMS can detect potassium with high sensitivity with this technique.

  10. Oil pollution in soils and sediments from the Northern Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell-Melé, Antoni; Moraleda-Cibrián, Núria; Cartró-Sabaté, Mar; Colomer-Ventura, Ferran; Mayor, Pedro; Orta-Martínez, Martí

    2018-01-01

    Oil has been extracted from the Northern Peruvian Amazon for over four decades. However, few scientific studies have assessed the impacts of such activities in the environment and health of indigenous communities in the region. We have investigated the occurrence of petrogenic hydrocarbon pollution in soils and sediments from areas favoured as hunting or fishing grounds by local indigenous inhabitants. The study was conducted in one of the most productive oil blocks in Peru, located in the headwaters of the Amazon river. Soils and river sediments, in the vicinity of oil extraction and processing infrastructure, contained an oil pollution signature as attested by the occurrence of hopanes and steranes. Given the lack of any other significant source of oil pollution in the region, the sources of hydrocarbons are likely to be the activities of the oil industry in the oil block, from voluntary discharges or accidental spills. Spillage of produced water was commonplace until 2009. Moreover, petrogenic compounds were absent in control samples in sites far removed from any oil infrastructure in the oil block. Our findings suggest that wildlife and indigenous populations in this region of the Amazon are exposed to the ingestion of oil polluted soils and sediments. The data obtained supports previous claims that the local spillage of oil and produced waters in the water courses in the Corrientes and Pastaza basins could have eventually reached the main water course of the Amazon. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Forest Understory Fire in the Brazilian Amazon in ENSO and Non-ENSO Years: Area Burned and Committed Carbon Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, A.; Nepstad, D.; Ver-Diaz, M. Del. C.

    2004-01-01

    "Understory fires" that burn the floor of standing forests are one of the most important types of forest impoverishment in the Amazon, especially during the severe droughts of El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) episodes. However, we are aware of no estimates of the areal extent of these fires for the Brazilian Amazon and, hence, of their contribution to Amazon carbon fluxes to the atmosphere. We calculated the area of forest understory fires for the Brazilian Amazon region during an El Nino (1998) and a non El Nino (1995) year based on forest fire scars mapped with satellite images for three locations in eastern and southern Amazon, where deforestation is concentrated. The three study sites represented a gradient of both forest types and dry season severity. The burning scar maps were used to determine how the percentage of forest that burned varied with distance from agricultural clearings. These spatial functions were then applied to similar forest/climate combinations outside of the study sites to derive an initial estimate for the Brazilian Amazon. Ninety-one percent of the forest area that burned in the study sites was within the first kilometer of a clearing for the non ENSO year and within the first four kilometers for the ENSO year. The area of forest burned by understory forest fire during the severe drought (ENSO) year (3.9 millions of hectares) was 13 times greater than the area burned during the average rainfall year (0.2 million hectares), and twice the area of annual deforestation rate. Dense forest was, proportionally, the forest area most affected by understory fires during the El Nino year, while understory fires were concentrated in transitional forests during the year of average rainfall. Our estimate of aboveground tree biomass killed by fire ranged from 0.06 Pg to 0.38 Pg during the ENSO and from 0,004 Pg to 0,024 Pg during the non ENSO.

  12. Calculation of site specific characterisation factors for metal ecotoxicity using decoupled multi species fate and exposure modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkved, Morten; Strandesen, Maria; Larsen, HF

    2004-01-01

    Calculation of characterisation factors (CF’s) for metal ecotoxicity typically involves fate and exposure modelling of metals in multi-media models developed for assessment of organic compounds. Metals do not follow the fate patterns of organic chemicals, and the results will therefore most likely...... misrepresent the exposure concentration of metals. However, using multiple versions of such models for individual metal species within each model region and linking these to databases containing information on speciation pattern and fate properties of the individual metal species enables the assessment...... to the part of the metal species present as complexes which is very hard to account for in single species assessment. Preliminary results on the CF’s based on single species assessment and decoupled multi species assessment will be presented for 4 common metals....

  13. Effects of water pH and calcium concentration on ion balance in fish of the Rio Negro, Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, R J; Wood, C M; Wilson, R W; Patrick, M L; Bergman, H L; Narahara, A; Val, A L

    1998-01-01

    We examined the effects of acute low-pH exposure on ion balance (Na+, Cl-, K+) in several species of fish captured from the Rio Negro, a dilute, acidic tributary of the Amazon. At pH 5.5 (untreated Rio Negro water), the four Rio Negro species tested (piranha preta, Serrasalmus rhombeus; piranha branca, Serrasalmus cf. holandi; aracu, Leporinus fasciatus; and pacu, Myleus sp.) were at or near ion balance; upon exposure to pH 3.5, while Na+ and Cl- loss rates became significant, they were relatively mild. In comparison, tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum), which were obtained from aquaculture and held and tested under the same conditions as the other fish, had loss rates seven times higher than all the Rio Negro species. At pH 3.0, rates of Na+ and Cl- loss for the Rio Negro fish increased three- to fivefold but were again much less than those observed in tambaqui. Raising water Ca2+ concentration from 10 micromol L-1 to 100 micromol L-1 during exposure to the same low pH's had no effect on rates of ion loss in the three species tested (piranha preta, piranha branca, aracu), which suggests that either they have such a high branchial affinity for Ca2+ that all sites are saturated at 10 micromol L-1 and additional Ca2+ had no effect, or that Ca2+ may not be involved in regulation of branchial ion permeability. For a final Rio Negro species, the cardinal tetra (Paracheirodon axelrodi), we monitored body Na+ concentration during 5 d of exposure to pH 6.0, 4.0, or 3.5. These pH's had no effect on body Na+ concentration. These data together suggest that exceptional acid tolerance is a general characteristic of fish that inhabit the dilute acidic Rio Negro and raise questions about the role of Ca2+ in regulation of branchial ion permeability in these fish.

  14. Human health risk assessment of occupational and residential exposures to dechlorane plus in the manufacturing facility area in China and comparison with e-waste recycling site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, De-Gao; Alaee, Mehran; Byer, Jonathan D; Brimble, Samantha; Pacepavicius, Grazina

    2013-02-15

    A screening level human health risk assessment based on the worst-case scenario was conducted on the occupational and residential exposures to dechlorane plus (DP) in the manufacturing facility region and an electronic-waste (e-waste) recycling site in China, which are two of the most polluted areas of DP in the world. Total estimated exposure doses (EEDs) via dietary intake, dermal contact, and inhalation was approximately 0.01 mg kg(-1) d(-1) for people living in the manufacturing facility region. In comparison, total EEDs (approximate 0.03 μg kg(-1), d(-1)) were 300-fold lower in people living near an e-waste recycling site in China. Chronic oral, dermal, and inhalation reference doses (RfDs) were estimated to be 5.0, 2.0, and 0.01 mg kg(-1)d (-1), respectively. The oral RfD was markedly greater than Mirex (2×10(-4) mg kg(-1) d(-1)) and decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209; 7×10(-3) mg kg(-1) d(-1)), which have been or might be replaced by DP as a flame retardant with less toxicity. Monte Carlo simulation was used to generate the probability densities and functions for the hazard index which was calculated from the EEDs and RfDs to assess the human health risk. The hazard index was three orders of magnitude lower than 1, suggesting that occupational and residential exposures were relatively safe in the manufacturing facility region and e-waste recycling site. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Spatial and temporal dynamics of forest canopy gaps following selective logging in the eastern Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GREGORY P. ASNER; MICHAEL KELLER; JOSEN M. SILVA

    2004-01-01

    Selective logging is a dominant form of land use in the Amazon basin and throughout the humid tropics, yet little is known about the spatial variability of forest canopy gap formation and closure following timber harvests. We established chronosequences of large-area (14–158 ha) selective logging sites spanning a 3.5-year period of forest regeneration and two distinct...

  16. Charcoal chronology of the Amazon forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goulart, Ana Carolina; Macario, Kita D.; Scheel-Ybert, Rita; Alves, Eduardo Q.; Bachelet, Caroline; Pereira, Bruna B.; Levis, Carolina; Marimon Junior, Ben Hur; Marimon, Beatriz S.; Quesada, Carlos Alberto; Feldpausch, Ted R.

    2017-01-01

    The Amazon region holds a wide variety of ethnic groups and microclimates, enabling different interactions between humans and environment. To better understand the evolution of this region, ancient remains need to be analysed by all possible means. In this context, the study of natural and/or

  17. Geological development of amazon and orinoco basins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, F.P.; Hoorn, C.; Albert, J.S.; Reis, R.E.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter examines the geological development of the Orinoco and Amazon River basins. It analyzes the evolution of aquatic Amazonian ecosystems from the Late Cretaceous to the Quaternary period and provides and considers the potential impacts on the development of modern Amazonian fish faunas. It

  18. Deforestation crimes and conflicts in the Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhout van Solinge, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/156696207

    2010-01-01

    This article explores and explains deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon rainforest. It primarily takes a green criminological perspective and looks at the harm that is inflicted on many of the Amazon’s inhabitants, including indigenous populations such as ‘uncontacted’ tribes of hunters-gatherers,

  19. Principal Connection / Amazon and the Whole Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerr, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    A recent controversy over Amazon's culture has strong implications for the whole child approach, and it offers powerful lessons for principals. A significant difference between the culture of so many businesses today and the culture at good schools is that in good schools, the welfare of the employees is very important. Student success is the…

  20. Land Use Dynamics in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Walker

    1996-01-01

    The articles presented in this special issue of Ecological Economics address the important theme of land use dynamics as it pertains to the Brazilian Amazon. Much environmental change is an ecological artifact of human agency, and such agency is often manifested in land use impacts, particularly in tropical areas. The critical problem of tropical deforestation is but...

  1. Does the Amazon suffer from BSE prevention?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elferink, E.V.; Nonhebel, S.; Schoot Uiterkamp, A.J.M.

    In the last decade, large-scale production of soybeans has been a major driver of the enhanced deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. We show that these soybeans are mainly exported to the EU to substitute for the BSE related banned meat and bone meal in livestock feed. This strongly suggests a link

  2. Diversity of epiphytic bryophytes across the Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mota de Oliveira, S.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis reports on the first systematic sampling, species identification and analysis of community composition of epiphytic bryophytes in nine localities across the Amazon basin. Eight trees were sampled per locality, from the base to the outer canopy in five height zones. The sampling resulted

  3. Detecting the effects of hydrocarbon pollution in the Amazon forest using hyperspectral satellite images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arellano, Paul; Tansey, Kevin; Balzter, Heiko; Boyd, Doreen S.

    2015-01-01

    The global demand for fossil energy is triggering oil exploration and production projects in remote areas of the world. During the last few decades hydrocarbon production has caused pollution in the Amazon forest inflicting considerable environmental impact. Until now it is not clear how hydrocarbon pollution affects the health of the tropical forest flora. During a field campaign in polluted and pristine forest, more than 1100 leaf samples were collected and analysed for biophysical and biochemical parameters. The results revealed that tropical forests exposed to hydrocarbon pollution show reduced levels of chlorophyll content, higher levels of foliar water content and leaf structural changes. In order to map this impact over wider geographical areas, vegetation indices were applied to hyperspectral Hyperion satellite imagery. Three vegetation indices (SR, NDVI and NDVI 705 ) were found to be the most appropriate indices to detect the effects of petroleum pollution in the Amazon forest. - Highlights: • Leaf biochemical alterations in the rainforest are caused by petroleum pollution. • Lower levels of chlorophyll content are symptom of vegetation stress in polluted sites. • Increased foliar water content was found in vegetation near polluted sites. • Vegetation stress was detected by using vegetation indices from satellite images. • Polluted sites and hydrocarbon seepages in rainforest can be identified from space. - Hydrocarbon pollution in the Amazon forest is observed for first time from satellite data

  4. Recovery of Methane Consumption by Secondary Forests in the Amazon River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, K.; Meredith, L. K.; Piccini, W.; Pedrinho, A.; Nüsslein, K.; Van Haren, J. L. M.; Camargo, P. B. D.; Mui, T. S.; Saleska, S. R.

    2017-12-01

    Methane (CH4) is a major greenhouse gas in Earth's atmosphere and its atmospheric global mole fraction has roughly doubled since the start of the industrial revolution. The tropics are thought to be a major CH4 emitter, with the Amazon River Basin estimated to contribute 7 % of the annual flux to the atmosphere. The Amazon has experienced extensive land use change during the past 30 years, but we lack an understanding of the qualitative and quantitative effects of land use change on CH4 flux from the Amazon and the associated reasons. To illuminate the factors controlling CH4 flux across land use gradients in the Amazon we measured the CH4 fluxes and will measure the associated stable isotopic composition from pastures, primary forests, and secondary forests, at Ariquemes (Western Amazon, more deforested), and Santarem (Eastern Amazon, less deforested), Brazil. The sites near Santarem were sampled in June of 2016 and the sites near Ariquemes were sampled in March and April of 2017, both at the end of the wet season. Little difference was observed between land use types in Santarem with each land use type slightly consuming atmospheric CH4. However, pasture fluxes at Ariquemes were higher (+520 μg-C m-2 hr-1) than in primary (0 μg-C m-2 hr-1) and secondary forests (-20 μg-C m-2 hr-1; p = 6*10-4). CH4 flux from individual Santarem sites was not correlated with environmental variables. CH4 flux from Airquemes was correlated with several parameters across all samples including soil temperature (p = 7*10-4), and soil humidity (p = 0.02). Despite the fact that pastures experienced higher soil temperatures than forest soils this appears to be a low predictor of CH4 flux from these environments as it was seen at both Santarem and Ariquemes. The analysis of the stable isotopic composition of CH4 from these chambers will aid in understanding the competing processes of microbial CH4 consumption and production in these soils and why pastures may become CH4 sources and

  5. Soluble iron nutrients in Saharan dust over the central Amazon rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzolo, Joana A.; Barbosa, Cybelli G. G.; Borillo, Guilherme C.; Godoi, Ana F. L.; Souza, Rodrigo A. F.; Andreoli, Rita V.; Manzi, Antônio O.; Sá, Marta O.; Alves, Eliane G.; Pöhlker, Christopher; Angelis, Isabella H.; Ditas, Florian; Saturno, Jorge; Moran-Zuloaga, Daniel; Rizzo, Luciana V.; Rosário, Nilton E.; Pauliquevis, Theotonio; Santos, Rosa M. N.; Yamamoto, Carlos I.; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Artaxo, Paulo; Taylor, Philip E.; Godoi, Ricardo H. M.

    2017-02-01

    The intercontinental transport of aerosols from the Sahara desert plays a significant role in nutrient cycles in the Amazon rainforest, since it carries many types of minerals to these otherwise low-fertility lands. Iron is one of the micronutrients essential for plant growth, and its long-range transport might be an important source for the iron-limited Amazon rainforest. This study assesses the bioavailability of iron Fe(II) and Fe(III) in the particulate matter over the Amazon forest, which was transported from the Sahara desert (for the sake of our discussion, this term also includes the Sahel region). The sampling campaign was carried out above and below the forest canopy at the ATTO site (Amazon Tall Tower Observatory), a near-pristine area in the central Amazon Basin, from March to April 2015. Measurements reached peak concentrations for soluble Fe(III) (48 ng m-3), Fe(II) (16 ng m-3), Na (470 ng m-3), Ca (194 ng m-3), K (65 ng m-3), and Mg (89 ng m-3) during a time period of dust transport from the Sahara, as confirmed by ground-based and satellite remote sensing data and air mass backward trajectories. Dust sampled above the Amazon canopy included primary biological aerosols and other coarse particles up to 12 µm in diameter. Atmospheric transport of weathered Saharan dust, followed by surface deposition, resulted in substantial iron bioavailability across the rainforest canopy. The seasonal deposition of dust, rich in soluble iron, and other minerals is likely to assist both bacteria and fungi within the topsoil and on canopy surfaces, and especially benefit highly bioabsorbent species. In this scenario, Saharan dust can provide essential macronutrients and micronutrients to plant roots, and also directly to plant leaves. The influence of this input on the ecology of the forest canopy and topsoil is discussed, and we argue that this influence would likely be different from that of nutrients from the weathered Amazon bedrock, which otherwise provides the

  6. Hepatitis B Virus Core Protein Phosphorylation Sites Affect Capsid Stability and Transient Exposure of the C-terminal Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selzer, Lisa; Kant, Ravi; Wang, Joseph C-Y; Bothner, Brian; Zlotnick, Adam

    2015-11-20

    Hepatitis B virus core protein has 183 amino acids divided into an assembly domain and an arginine-rich C-terminal domain (CTD) that regulates essential functions including genome packaging, reverse transcription, and intracellular trafficking. Here, we investigated the CTD in empty hepatitis B virus (HBV) T=4 capsids. We examined wild-type core protein (Cp183-WT) and a mutant core protein (Cp183-EEE), in which three CTD serines are replaced with glutamate to mimic phosphorylated protein. We found that Cp183-WT capsids were less stable than Cp183-EEE capsids. When we tested CTD sensitivity to trypsin, we detected two different populations of CTDs differentiated by their rate of trypsin cleavage. Interestingly, CTDs from Cp183-EEE capsids exhibited a much slower rate of proteolytic cleavage when compared with CTDs of Cp183-WT capsids. Cryo-electron microscopy studies of trypsin-digested capsids show that CTDs at five-fold symmetry vertices are most protected. We hypothesize that electrostatic interactions between glutamates and arginines in Cp183-EEE, particularly at five-fold, increase capsid stability and reduce CTD exposure. Our studies show that quasi-equivalent CTDs exhibit different rates of exposure and thus might perform distinct functions during the hepatitis B virus lifecycle. Our results demonstrate a structural role for CTD phosphorylation and indicate crosstalk between CTDs within a capsid particle. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Necrotizing fasciitis due to Vibrio cholerae non-O1/non-O139 after exposure to Austrian bathing sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirk, Sonja; Huhulescu, Steliana; Allerberger, Franz; Lepuschitz, Sarah; Rehak, Sonja; Weil, Sandra; Gschwandtner, Elisabeth; Hermann, Michael; Neuhold, Stephanie; Zoufaly, Alexander; Indra, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    We report on two cases of necrotizing fasciitis of the lower leg due to nontoxigenic Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae). A 73-year-old woman (case 1) and an 80-year-old man (case 2) were hospitalized with symptoms of necrotizing fasciitis on July 18 and August 15, 2015, respectively. In both cases, symptoms started the day after swimming in local ponds. Swabs gained intraoperatively and a blood culture from the male patient, yielded V. cholerae non-O1/non-O139, negative for cholera toxin gene ctx and positive for hemolysin genes hlyA and hlyB. Water samples taken from pond A on August 17, 2015 (32 days after exposure of case 1) and from pond B on August 20, 2015 (7 days after exposure of case 2) yielded non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae in most-probable numbers of > 11,000 per 100 ml each. The occurrence of two cases of necrotizing fasciitis within a 1 month period related to two Austrian non-saline bathing waters, previously not known to harbor V. cholerae, is probably linked to the prevailing extreme weather conditions (heat wave, drought) this summer in Austria. While case 1 was discharged in good clinical condition after 73 days, case 2 died after four months of hospitalization. Public health authorities are challenged to assess the effects of long-term climate change on pathogen growth and survival in continental bodies of fresh water.

  8. Use of social networking sites and associations with skin tone dissatisfaction, sun exposure, and sun protection in a sample of Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingoia, John; Hutchinson, Amanda D; Gleaves, David H; Corsini, Nadia; Wilson, Carlene

    2017-12-01

    Previous research has indicated that greater exposure to traditional media (i.e. television, film, and print) predicted skin cancer risk factors in adolescents; however, the relationship between social media usage and these outcomes remains unexplored. We examined whether social networking site (SNS) usage, and the particular manner of this use, was associated with skin tone dissatisfaction, sun exposure and sun protection among Australian adolescents. We also explored sex differences in SNS usage related to tanning. A total of 1856 South Australian secondary school students completed the Australian School Students Alcohol and Drug 2014 survey. SNS usage related to tanning comprised posting pictures, posting text, viewing pictures, viewing text and liking or sharing posts. Adolescents spent 214.56 minutes, on average, per day using SNSs. Behaviours related to tanning that involved pictures (i.e. viewing pictures, posting pictures, and liking or sharing content) were significantly associated with more skin tone dissatisfaction, more sun exposure and less sun protection. Females performed all SNS-linked behaviours more frequently than did males, with the exception of posting text. Australian adolescents spend a considerable amount of time using SNSs, and their behaviours related to tanning on these SNSs are significantly associated with skin cancer risk factors.

  9. Contamination of indoor dust and air by polychlorinated biphenyls and brominated flame retardants and relevance of non-dietary exposure in Vietnamese informal e-waste recycling sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tue, Nguyen Minh; Takahashi, Shin; Suzuki, Go; Isobe, Tomohiko; Viet, Pham Hung; Kobara, Yuso; Seike, Nobuyasu; Zhang, Gan; Sudaryanto, Agus; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the occurrence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and several additive brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in indoor dust and air from two Vietnamese informal e-waste recycling sites (EWRSs) and an urban site in order to assess the relevance of these media for human exposure. The levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), 1,2-bis-(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE) and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) in settled house dust from the EWRSs (130-12,000, 5.4-400, 5.2-620 and 31-1400 ng g(-1), respectively) were significantly higher than in urban house dust but the levels of PCBs (4.8-320 ng g(-1)) were not higher. The levels of PCBs and PBDEs in air at e-waste recycling houses (1000-1800 and 620-720 pg m(-3), respectively), determined using passive sampling, were also higher compared with non-e-waste houses. The composition of BFRs in EWRS samples suggests the influence from high-temperature processes and occurrence of waste materials containing older BFR formulations. Results of daily intake estimation for e-waste recycling workers are in good agreement with the accumulation patterns previously observed in human milk and indicate that dust ingestion contributes a large portion of the PBDE intake (60%-88%), and air inhalation to the low-chlorinated PCB intake (>80% for triCBs) due to their high levels in dust and air, respectively. Further investigation of both indoor dust and air as the exposure media for other e-waste recycling-related contaminants and assessment of health risk associated with exposure to these contaminant mixtures is necessary. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Radiation exposure in the Biblis area. Estimated on the basis of site-specific data for the year 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buske, H.

    1981-01-01

    The largest portions of the whole-body dose in the radiation exposure pathway waste water are provided by the pathways fish and sedimentary stay. The gastro-intestinal and bone dose result exclusively from the fish pathway. To the thyroid dose the pathways drinking-water, fish and spray irrigation/vegetables contribute as equal shares. The main dose stems, for as much as 97%, from the sedimentary stay. The most important nuclides are P-32 and J-131. The most important nuclides of the waste air pathway are C-14 (whole-body and bone dose) and J-131 (thyroid dose). The development of the calculation models reveals no errors inherent to the system or dependence on the user. (DG) [de

  11. Exposure to different toxic chemicals: a threat to environment and human health in mining sites in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magduala, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    The mining activities in Tanzania have been existed since time immemorial whereby traditional mining was practiced. However until now the country is still endowed with abundant mineral resources including gold, tanzanite diamonds, iron ore, salt, gypsum, gemstones, natural gas, phosphate, coal, cobalt and nickel. The country's major gold fields are located in Geita, Musoma, Tarime, Chunya and Mpanda. During the last decade, local and foreign investors intensified their mining activities in Tanzania. This resulted in increased use of hazardous chemicals like mercury and cyanide which are harmful and toxic. In this report, the extent and impact to long term exposure of such chemicals to both natural environment and animals including human beings will be discussed. Recommendations to local and international investors and policy markers regarding the safe and sustainable use of harmful chemicals will also be discussed.(author)

  12. CH4 concentrations over the Amazon from GOSAT consistent with in situ vertical profile data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Alex J.; Bösch, Hartmut; Parker, Robert J.; Gatti, Luciana V.; Gloor, Emanuel; Palmer, Paul I.; Basso, Luana S.; Chipperfield, Martyn P.; Correia, Caio S. C.; Domingues, Lucas G.; Feng, Liang; Gonzi, Siegfried; Miller, John B.; Warneke, Thorsten; Wilson, Christopher

    2016-09-01

    The Amazon Basin contains large wetland ecosystems which are important sources of methane (CH4). Spaceborne observations of atmospheric CH4 can provide constraints on emissions from these remote ecosystems, but lack of validation precludes robust estimates. We present the first validation of CH4 columns in the Amazon from the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) using aircraft measurements of CH4 over five sites across the Amazon Basin. These aircraft profiles, combined with stratospheric results from the TOMCAT chemical transport model, are vertically integrated allowing direct comparison to the GOSAT XCH4 measurements (the column-averaged dry air mole fraction of CH4). The measurements agree within uncertainties or show no significant difference at three of the aircraft sites, with differences ranging from -1.9 ppb to 6.6 ppb, while at two sites GOSAT XCH4 is shown to be slightly higher than aircraft measurements, by 8.1 ppb and 9.7 ppb. The seasonality in XCH4 seen by the aircraft profiles is also well captured (correlation coefficients from 0.61 to 0.90). GOSAT observes elevated concentrations in the northwest corner of South America in the dry season and enhanced concentrations elsewhere in the Amazon Basin in the wet season, with the strongest seasonal differences coinciding with regions in Bolivia known to contain large wetlands. Our results are encouraging evidence that these GOSAT CH4 columns are generally in good agreement with in situ measurements, and understanding the magnitude of any remaining biases between the two will allow more confidence in the application of XCH4 to constrain Amazonian CH4 fluxes.

  13. The Green Ocean Amazon Experiment (GoAmazon2014/5) Observes Pollution Affecting Gases, Aerosols, Clouds, and Rainfall over the Rain Forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, S. T. [Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts; Artaxo, P. [University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; Machado, L. [National Institute for Space Research, São José dos Campos, Brazil; Manzi, A. O. [National Institute of Amazonian Research, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil; Souza, R. A. F. [Amazonas State University, Amazonas, Brazil; Schumacher, C. [Texas A& amp,M University, College Station, Texas; Wang, J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York; Biscaro, T. [National Institute for Space Research, São José dos Campos, Brazil; Brito, J. [University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; Calheiros, A. [National Institute for Space Research, São José dos Campos, Brazil; Jardine, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, California; Medeiros, A. [Amazonas State University, Amazonas, Brazil; Portela, B. [National Institute of Amazonian Research, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil; de Sá, S. S. [Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts; Adachi, K. [Meteorological Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan; Aiken, A. C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico; Albrecht, R. [University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; Alexander, L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Andreae, M. O. [Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany; Barbosa, H. M. J. [University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; Buseck, P. [Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona; Chand, D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Comstock, J. M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Day, D. A. [University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, Colorado; Dubey, M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico; Fan, J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Fast, J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Fisch, G. [Aeronautic and Space Institute, São José dos Campos, Brazil; Fortner, E. [Aerodyne, Inc., Billerica, Massachusetts; Giangrande, S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York; Gilles, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, California; Goldstein, A. H. [University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California; Guenther, A. [University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California; Hubbe, J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Jensen, M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York; Jimenez, J. L. [University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, Colorado; Keutsch, F. N. [Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts; Kim, S. [University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California; Kuang, C. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York; Laskin, A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; McKinney, K. [Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts; Mei, F. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Miller, M. [Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey; Nascimento, R. [Amazonas State University, Amazonas, Brazil; Pauliquevis, T. [Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; Pekour, M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Peres, J. [University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; Petäjä, T. [University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Pöhlker, C. [Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany; Pöschl, U. [Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany; Rizzo, L. [Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; Schmid, B. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Shilling, J. E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Dias, M. A. Silva [University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; Smith, J. N. [University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California; Tomlinson, J. M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Tóta, J. [Federal University of West Para, Santarém, Pará, Brazil; Wendisch, M. [University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany

    2017-05-01

    The Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) experiment took place around the urban region of Manaus in central Amazonia across two years. The urban pollution plume was used to study the susceptibility of gases, aerosols, clouds, and rainfall to human activities in a tropical environment. Many aspects of air quality, weather, terrestrial ecosystems, and climate work differently in the tropics than in the more thoroughly studied USA, employed an unparalleled suite of measurements at nine ground sites and onboard two aircraft to investigate the flow of background air into Manaus, the emissions into the air over the city, and the advection of the pollution downwind of the city. Herein, to visualize this train of processes and its effects, observations aboard a low-flying aircraft are presented. Comparative measurements within and adjacent to the plume followed the emissions of biogenic volatile organic carbon compounds (BVOCs) from the tropical forest, their transformations by the atmospheric oxidant cycle, alterations of this cycle by the influence of the pollutants, transformations of the chemical products into aerosol particles, the relationship of these particles to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity, and the differences in cloud properties and rainfall for background compared to polluted conditions. The observations of the GoAmazon2014/5 experiment illustrate how the hydrologic cycle, radiation balance, and carbon recycling may be affected by present-day as well as future economic development and pollution over the Amazonian tropical forest.

  14. Did we choose the best one? A new site selection approach based on exposure and uptake potential for waste incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirarslan, K Onur; Korucu, M Kemal; Karademir, Aykan

    2016-08-01

    Ecological problems arising after the construction and operation of a waste incineration plant generally originate from incorrect decisions made during the selection of the location of the plant. The main objective of this study is to investigate how the selection method for the location of a new municipal waste incineration plant can be improved by using a dispersion modelling approach supported by geographical information systems and multi-criteria decision analysis. Considering this aim, the appropriateness of the current location of an existent plant was assessed by applying a pollution dispersion model. Using this procedure, the site ranking for a total of 90 candidate locations and the site of the existing incinerator were determined by a new location selection practice and the current place of the plant was evaluated by ANOVA and Tukey tests. This ranking, made without the use of modelling approaches, was re-evaluated based on the modelling of various variables, including the concentration of pollutants, population and population density, demography, temporality of meteorological data, pollutant type, risk formation type by CALPUFF and re-ranking the results. The findings clearly indicate the impropriety of the location of the current plant, as the pollution distribution model showed that its location was the fourth-worst choice among 91 possibilities. It was concluded that the location selection procedures for waste incinerators should benefit from the improvements obtained by the articulation of pollution dispersion studies combined with the population density data to obtain the most suitable location. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Elemental Mixing State of Aerosol Particles Collected in Central Amazonia during GoAmazon2014/15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraund, Matthew; Pham, Don; Bonanno, Daniel; Harder, Tristan; Wang, Bingbing; Brito, Joel; de Sá, Suzane; Carbone, Samara; China, Swarup; Artaxo, Paulo; Martin, Scot; Pöhlker, Christopher; Andreae, Meinrat; Laskin, Alexander; Gilles, Mary; Moffet, Ryan

    2017-09-01

    Two complementary techniques, Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy/Near Edge Fine Structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS) and Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX), have been quantitatively combined to characterize individual atmospheric particles. This pair of techniques was applied to particle samples at three sampling sites (ATTO, ZF2, and T3) in the Amazon basin as part of the Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) field campaign during the dry season of 2014. The combined data was subjected to k-means clustering using mass fractions of the following elements: C, N, O, Na, Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, and Zn. Cluster analysis identified 12 particle types, across different sampling sites and particle sizes. Samples from the remote Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO, also T0a) exhibited less cluster variety and fewer anthropogenic clusters than samples collected at the sites nearer to the Manaus metropolitan region, ZF2 (also T0t) or T3. Samples from the ZF2 site contained aged/anthropogenic clusters not readily explained by transport from ATTO or Manaus, possibly suggesting the effects of long range atmospheric transport or other local aerosol sources present during sampling. In addition, this data set allowed for recently established diversity parameters to be calculated. All sample periods had high mixing state indices (χ) that were >0.8. Two individual particle diversity (Di) populations were observed, with particles <0.5 μm having a Di of ~2.4 and >0.5 μm particles having a Di of ~3.6, which likely correspond to fresh and aged aerosols respectively. The diversity parameters determined by the quantitative method presented here will serve to aid in the accurate representation of aerosol mixing state, source apportionment, and aging in both less polluted and more industrialized environments in the Amazon Basin.

  16. Exposure to PCBs, through inhalation, dermal contact and dust ingestion at Taizhou, China--a major site for recycling transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Guan Hua; Liang, Ying; Chen, Ling Xuan; Wu, Sheng Chun; Wong, Ming Hung

    2011-04-01

    Air samples containing gaseous and particulate phases were collected from e-waste workplaces and residential areas of an intensive e-waste recycling area and compared with a reference site. The highest total concentration of PCBs was detected at transformer recycling workshops (17.6 ng m(-3)), followed by the residential area (3.37 ng m(-3)) at Taizhou, and the lowest was obtained at the residential area of the reference site, Lin'an (0.46 ng m(-3)). The same trend was also observed with regards to PCB levels in dust samples. The highest average PCBs level of 2824 ng g(-1) (dry wt) was found in the transformer recycling workshops, and was significantly higher than that of residential areas of Taizhou (572 ng g(-1) dry wt) and Lin'an (42.4 ng g(-1) dry wt). WHO-PCB-TEQ level in the workshops of Taizhou was 2216 pg TEQ(1998)g(-1) dry wt or 2159 pg TEQ(2005)g(-1) dry wt, due to the high abundance of PCB 126 (21.5 ng g(-1) dry wt), which contributed 97% or 99% of WHO-PCB-TEQs. The estimated intake of PCBs via dust ingestion and dermal absorption by transformer recycling workers were 77.5×10(-5) and 36.0×10(-5) pg WHO-PCB-TEQ(1998)kg(-1)d(-1), and 67.3×10(-5) and 31.3×10(-5) pg WHO-PCB-TEQ(2005)kg(-1)d(-1), respectively. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Radionuclide transfer to wildlife at a 'Reference site' in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and resultant radiation exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresford, N A; Barnett, C L; Gashchak, S; Maksimenko, A; Guliaichenko, E; Wood, M D; Izquierdo, M

    2018-02-27

    This study addresses a significant data deficiency in the developing environmental protection framework of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, namely a lack of radionuclide transfer data for some of the Reference Animals and Plants (RAPs). It is also the first study that has sampled such a wide range of species (invertebrates, plants, amphibians and small mammals) from a single terrestrial site in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ). Samples were collected in 2014 from the 0.4 km 2 sampling site, located 5 km west of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power complex. We report radionuclide ( 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 241 Am and Pu-isotopes) and stable element concentrations in wildlife and soil samples and use these to determine whole organism-soil concentration ratios and absorbed dose rates. Increasingly, stable element analyses are used to provide transfer parameters for radiological models. The study described here found that for both Cs and Sr the transfer of the stable element tended to be lower than that of the radionuclide; this is the first time that this has been demonstrated for Sr, though it is in agreement with limited evidence previously reported for Cs. Studies reporting radiation effects on wildlife in the CEZ generally relate observations to ambient dose rates determined using handheld dose meters. For the first time, we demonstrate that ambient dose rates may underestimate the actual dose rate for some organisms by more than an order of magnitude. When reporting effects studies from the CEZ, it has previously been suggested that the area has comparatively low natural background dose rates. However, on the basis of data reported here, dose rates to wildlife from natural background radionuclides within the CEZ are similar to those in many areas of Europe. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Causes and impacts of the 2005 Amazon drought

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng Ning; Yoon, Jin-Ho [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, University of Maryland, MD 20742 (United States); Marengo, Jose A; Nobre, Carlos A [CPTEC, INPE, Cachoeira Paulista (Brazil); Subramaniam, Ajit [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, NY 10964 (United States); Mariotti, Annarita [Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, University of Maryland, MD 20742 (United States); Neelin, J David [Department Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences and Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)], E-mail: zeng@atmos.umd.edu

    2008-01-15

    A rare drought in the Amazon culminated in 2005, leading to near record-low streamflows, small Amazon river plume, and greatly enhanced fire frequency. This episode was caused by the combination of 2002-03 El Nino and a dry spell in 2005 attributable to a warm subtropical North Atlantic Ocean. Analysis for 1979-2005 reveals that the Atlantic influence is comparable to the better-known Pacific linkage. While the Pacific influence is typically locked to the wet season, the 2005 Atlantic impact concentrated in the Amazon dry season when its hydroecosystem is most vulnerable. Such mechanisms may have wide-ranging implications for the future of the Amazon rainforest.

  19. Causes and impacts of the 2005 Amazon drought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Ning; Yoon, Jin-Ho; Marengo, Jose A; Nobre, Carlos A; Subramaniam, Ajit; Mariotti, Annarita; Neelin, J David

    2008-01-01

    A rare drought in the Amazon culminated in 2005, leading to near record-low streamflows, small Amazon river plume, and greatly enhanced fire frequency. This episode was caused by the combination of 2002-03 El Nino and a dry spell in 2005 attributable to a warm subtropical North Atlantic Ocean. Analysis for 1979-2005 reveals that the Atlantic influence is comparable to the better-known Pacific linkage. While the Pacific influence is typically locked to the wet season, the 2005 Atlantic impact concentrated in the Amazon dry season when its hydroecosystem is most vulnerable. Such mechanisms may have wide-ranging implications for the future of the Amazon rainforest

  20. [Folklore and popular medicine in the Amazon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrique, Márcio Couto

    2009-01-01

    This discussion of the relations between folklore and popular medicine in the Amazon takes Canuto Azevedo's story "Filhos do boto" (Children of the porpoise) as an analytical reference point. Replete with elements of cultural reality, folk tales can serve as historical testimonies expressing clashes between different traditions. Folk records are fruit of what is often a quarrelsome dialogue between folklorists, social scientists, physicians, and pajés and their followers, and their analysis should take into account the conditions under which they were produced. Based on the imaginary attached to the figure of the porpoise--a seductive creature with healing powers--the article explores how we might expand knowledge of popular medicine as practiced in the Amazon, where the shamanistic rite known as pajelança cabocla has a strong presence.

  1. Acid rain in an Amazon rainforest

    OpenAIRE

    Haines, Bruce; Jordan, Carl; Clark, Howard; Clark, Kathleen E.

    2011-01-01

    Acid rain is reported from the Amazon territory of Venezuela. The volume weighted average pHwas 4.7 for 70 storms sampled from January 1979 through February 1980. At this location,remote from point sources of industrial pollution, acid rain might result from naturalbiogeochemical processes in the rainforest, from global atmospheric pollution, or from somecombination of natural and polliition processes.DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0889.1983.tb00011.x

  2. Health Concerns in the Amazon Region

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-09

    Residents of the Amazon region of South America contend with a number of health threats - from mosquito-borne diseases to difficulty accessing doctors and healthcare facilities in such a vast area. This podcast helps explore some of the health issues in the region and what's being done to address them.  Created: 4/9/2009 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 4/9/2009.

  3. Dioxin-related compounds in breast milk of women from Vietnamese e-waste recycling sites: levels, toxic equivalents and relevance of non-dietary exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tue, Nguyen Minh; Katsura, Kana; Suzuki, Go; Tuyen, Le Huu; Takasuga, Takumi; Takahashi, Shin; Viet, Pham Hung; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2014-08-01

    Although informal e-waste recycling sites (EWRSs) are hotspots of both polychlorinated and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs and PBDD/Fs), human exposure to the latter has not been studied in details. This study investigated the accumulation levels and profiles of dioxin-related compounds (DRCs) in breast milk samples from women living in two Vietnamese EWRSs and estimated the intake contribution from e-waste-related exposure. Screening results using Dioxin-Responsive Chemically Activated LUciferase gene eXpression assay (DR-CALUX) showed higher dioxin-like (DL) activities in samples from the EWRS Bui Dau than in those from the EWRS Trang Minh and a reference site (2.3-10 vs 1.7-4.8 and 0.60-5.7 pg CALUX-TEQ/g lipid, n=10, 6 and 9, respectively). Chemical analysis results of selected samples show that the WHO-TEQ levels of PCDD/Fs, DL-PCBs and PBDD/Fs in EWRS samples were not significantly higher than in those from the reference site (0.22-7.4 vs 1.1-3.0 pg/g lipid) and within the Vietnamese background range, but women involved in recycling accumulated higher concentrations of PCDFs (13-15 vs 2.3-8.8 pg/g lipid) and PBDFs (1.1-1.5 vs <1.1 pg/g lipid). By comparing the DRC profile in milk of these women with the reported profile in house dust from the same site, dust ingestion was estimated to contribute most of the intake for tetraBDF, 37 per cent to 55 per cent for penta-octaCDFs, but less than twenty per cent for PCDDs and DL-PCBs, and 26 per cent for total WHO-TEQs. The DL activities in some EWRS milk samples were not fully explained by chemical data, suggesting contribution from unidentified compounds. The estimated WHO-TEQ intake doses for breastfed infants (1.3-33 pg/kg/d) mostly exceeded the tolerable value, especially for those living in the EWRSs; and unidentified DRCs might increase further the dioxin-related health risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Totally Implantable Central Venous Port Catheters: Radiation Exposure as a Function of Puncture Site and Operator Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonczyk, Martin; Gebauer, Bernhard; Rotzinger, Roman; Schnapauff, Dirk; Hamm, Bernd; Collettini, Federico

    2018-01-01

    Totally implantable central venous port systems provide a safe and effective, long-term means of access for administration of hyperosmolar, local irritant medication, such as chemotherapy, antibiotics and parenteral nutrition. To evaluate the combination of access site and level of experience on fluoroscopy times (FT) and dose area products (DAP) during implantation of port catheters in a large patient population. A total of 1,870 patients (992 women, 878 men; age: 61±13.14 years) were reviewed investigating two groups of junior (≤50 implantations) and senior (>50) radiologists. Senior radiologists required less FT/DAP (0.24 s/57.3 μGy m 2 versus 0.43 s/68.2 μGy m 2 , respectively; p<0.001). Right jugular vein access required the least FT/DAP (0.25 s/56.15 μGy m 2 ) and right-sided implantation lower FT/DAP (right: 0.26 s/56.4 μGy m 2 , left: 0.40 s/85.10 μGy m 2 , p<0.001). Due to DAP/FT reductions, the right jugular vein seems to be the most favorable implantation side for port systems. For further dose reduction, residents should be well-trained. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  5. Update to agency for toxic substances and disease registry 2012 report on assessment of biota exposure to mercury originating from Savannah River Site.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhne, W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-08-10

    The purpose of this report is to 1) update previous Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) assessment reports (Kvartek et al. 1994 and Halverson et al. 2008) on the fate of mercury in the Savannah River Site (SRS) environment and 2) address comments and recommendations from the review of SRS by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) concerning the evaluation of exposures to contaminants in biota originating from the SRS. The ATSDR reviewed and evaluated data from SRS, South Carolina Department of Health & Environmental Control (SCDHEC) and the Georgia Department of Natural Resources (GDNR) concerning the non-radioactive contaminant mercury. This report will provide a response and update to conclusions and recommendations made by the ATSDR.

  6. Petrobras eyes LNG project in Amazon region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The Brazilian state oil company has proved gas reserves in the Rio Urucu area of the Amazon jungle totaling 1.84 tcf. That compares with 3.08 tcf contained in the offshore Campos basin, source of most of Brazil's oil and gas production. The environmentally sensitive Urucu region is one of the most dense, remote jungles in the world. Because of environmental concerns about pipelines in the rain forest and a government emphasis on boosting the natural gas share of Brazil's energy mix, a small liquefied natural gas project is shaping up as the best option for developing and marketing Urucu gas. The amazon campaign underscores a government initiative to boost Brazilian consumption of natural gas. In Brazil natural gas accounts for only 4% of primary energy consumption. Some years ago, the government set an official goal of boosting the gas share of the primary energy mix to 10% by 2000. The paper discusses current drilling activities, gas production and processing, the logistics of the upper Amazon, and gas markets

  7. Evaluation and Quantification of Uncertainty in the Modeling of Contaminant Transport and Exposure Assessment at a Radioactive Waste Disposal Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauxe, J.; Black, P.; Carilli, J.; Catlett, K.; Crowe, B.; Hooten, M.; Rawlinson, S.; Schuh, A.; Stockton, T.; Yucel, V.

    2002-12-01

    The disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in the United States (U.S.) is a highly regulated undertaking. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), itself a large generator of such wastes, requires a substantial amount of analysis and assessment before permitting disposal of LLW at its facilities. One of the requirements that must be met in assessing the performance of a disposal site and technology is that a Performance Assessment (PA) demonstrate "reasonable expectation" that certain performance objectives, such as dose to a hypothetical future receptor, not be exceeded. The phrase "reasonable expectation" implies recognition of uncertainty in the assessment process. In order for this uncertainty to be quantified and communicated to decision makers, the PA computer model must accept probabilistic (uncertain) input (parameter values) and produce results which reflect that uncertainty as it is propagated through the model calculations. The GoldSim modeling software was selected for the task due to its unique facility with both probabilistic analysis and radioactive contaminant transport. Probabilistic model parameters range from water content and other physical properties of alluvium to the activity of radionuclides disposed to the amount of time a future resident might be expected to spend tending a garden. Although these parameters govern processes which are defined in isolation as rather simple differential equations, the complex interaction of couple processes makes for a highly nonlinear system with often unanticipated results. The decision maker has the difficult job of evaluating the uncertainty of modeling results in the context of granting permission for LLW disposal. This job also involves the evaluation of alternatives, such as the selection of disposal technologies. Various scenarios can be evaluated in the model, so that the effects of, for example, using a thicker soil cap over the waste cell can be assessed. This ability to evaluate mitigation

  8. Pre-exposure to faeces or saliva of Triatoma dimidiata decreases parasitemia in mice challenged with Trypanosoma cruzi: a description of the inflammatory reaction at the inoculation site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteon, Victor; Quen-Rámirez, Enrique; Macedo-Reyes, Veronica; Lopez, Ruth; Acosta-Viana, Karla; Pennigton, Pamela; Ramos-Ligonio, Angel

    2016-10-01

    Under natural conditions, Trypanosoma cruzi infection is transmitted to mammals when faeces contaminated with metacyclic trypomastigotes gain access through skin lesions, mucosa or bite wounds. Natural infection of bugs with T. cruzi can vary greatly from less than 1% up to 70%, depending on triatomine species: in the case of Triatoma dimidiata, the percentage of infection is around 30%. In this work uses biological fluids (saliva and faeces) from Triatoma dimidiata to inoculate experimental animals once or multiple times, before inoculation with faeces contaminated with metacyclic trypomastigotes discrete type unit Ia (TcI). The site of infection was analyzed for histological changes based on hematoxile-eosine technique and toluide blue stain for mast cells. Inoculation with saliva led to the recruitment of eosinophils and mononuclear cells at the inoculation site, whereas inoculation with faeces led to the recruitment of neutrophils. Mice inoculated multiple times exhibited a strong inflammatory reaction from the first hour. Mono- or multi-exposure to T. dimidiata fluids before inoculation with metacyclic trypomastigotes helped to control the level of parasitemia. Previous contact with saliva or faeces of T. dimidiata reduces parasitemia in T. cruzi I -infected mice.

  9. Microsatellites for the gynogenetic Amazon molly, Poecilia formosa ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    reproductive biology of a mixed species reproductive com- plex, and also into the genetic mechanism underlying cancer formation. P. formosa, the Amazon molly, is a small ... A higher number of microchro- mosomes correlates with an increased risk of developing skin cancer (Schartl et al. 1997). Amazon mollies occur in ...

  10. Food Security, Fisheries and Aquaculture in the Bolivian Amazon ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    scale aquaculture value chains in two pilot areas: capture fisheries in the northern Bolivian Amazon (Paiche) and pond aquaculture of native fish in the Marmoré basin in the northeastern Amazon. The team will analyze the nutritional value of ...

  11. Lidar Comparison for GoAmazon 2014/15 Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Henrique MJ [Universidade de Sao Paulo; Barja, B [Universidade de Sao Paulo; Landulfo, E [Universidade de Sao Paulo

    2016-04-01

    The Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15 (GoAmazon 2014/15) experiment uses the city of Manaus, Amazonas (AM), Brazil, in the setting of the surrounding green ocean as a natural laboratory for understanding the effects of present and future anthropogenic pollution on the aerosol and cloud life cycle in the tropics. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) supported this experiment through the deployment of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s first Mobile Facility (AMF-1) in the city of Manacapuru, which is 100 km downwind of Manaus, from January 1 2014 to December 31 2015. During the second Intensive Operational Period (IOP) from August 15 to October 15 2014, three lidar systems were operated simultaneously at different experimental sites, and an instrument comparison campaign was carried out during the period October 4 to 10, during which the mobile lidar system from Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares-Universidade de São Paulo was brought from the T2 site (Iranduba) to the other sites (T3 [Manacapuru] and then T0e-Embrapa). In this report we present the data collected by the mobile lidar system at the DOE-ARM site and compare its measurements with those from the micro-pulse lidar system running at that site.

  12. Amazon soils : a reconnaissance of the soils of the Brazilian Amazon region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sombroek, W.G.

    1966-01-01

    The study deals with soils of the Brazilian part of the Amazon basin. Most soils are Latosols, some with soft or hardened plinthite. The Latosols are characterized by a latosolic B horizon as defined in Brazil.

    Plinthite, its formation and morphology were extensively described. Five main

  13. Physical stature of adult Tsimane' Amerindians, Bolivian Amazon in the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, Ricardo A; Leonard, William R; Reyes-García, Victoria; Goodman, Elizabeth; McDade, Thomas; Huanca, Tomás; Tanner, Susan; Vadez, Vincent

    2006-06-01

    We examine the association between exposure to the market and Western society on the height of adult Tsimane', a foraging-farming society in the Bolivian Amazon. As with other contemporary native peoples, we find little evidence of a significant secular change in height during 1920-1980. Female height bore a positive association with own schooling and fluency in spoken Spanish and with maternal modern human capital (schooling, writing ability, and fluency in spoken Spanish), but male heights bore no association with parental height or with modern human capital. The absence of a secular change likely reflects the persistence of traditional forms of social organization and production that protect health.

  14. Biological processes dominate seasonality of remotely sensed canopy greenness in an Amazon evergreen forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jin; Kobayashi, Hideki; Stark, Scott C; Meng, Ran; Guan, Kaiyu; Tran, Ngoc Nguyen; Gao, Sicong; Yang, Wei; Restrepo-Coupe, Natalia; Miura, Tomoaki; Oliviera, Raimundo Cosme; Rogers, Alistair; Dye, Dennis G; Nelson, Bruce W; Serbin, Shawn P; Huete, Alfredo R; Saleska, Scott R

    2018-03-01

    Satellite observations of Amazon forests show seasonal and interannual variations, but the underlying biological processes remain debated. Here we combined radiative transfer models (RTMs) with field observations of Amazon forest leaf and canopy characteristics to test three hypotheses for satellite-observed canopy reflectance seasonality: seasonal changes in leaf area index, in canopy-surface leafless crown fraction and/or in leaf demography. Canopy RTMs (PROSAIL and FLiES), driven by these three factors combined, simulated satellite-observed seasonal patterns well, explaining c. 70% of the variability in a key reflectance-based vegetation index (MAIAC EVI, which removes artifacts that would otherwise arise from clouds/aerosols and sun-sensor geometry). Leaf area index, leafless crown fraction and leaf demography independently accounted for 1, 33 and 66% of FLiES-simulated EVI seasonality, respectively. These factors also strongly influenced modeled near-infrared (NIR) reflectance, explaining why both modeled and observed EVI, which is especially sensitive to NIR, captures canopy seasonal dynamics well. Our improved analysis of canopy-scale biophysics rules out satellite artifacts as significant causes of satellite-observed seasonal patterns at this site, implying that aggregated phenology explains the larger scale remotely observed patterns. This work significantly reconciles current controversies about satellite-detected Amazon phenology, and improves our use of satellite observations to study climate-phenology relationships in the tropics. No claim to original US Government works New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. Near real time detection of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon using MODIS imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egídio Arai

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to provide near real time information about deforestation detection (DETER in the entire Brazilian Amazon using MODIS high temporal resolution images. It is part of the operational deforestation monitoring project to estimate the annual deforestation rate in the Brazilian Amazon (PRODES. A rapid deforestation detection method was designed to support land use policies in this region. In order to evaluate the proposed method a test site was selected covering a Landsat ETM+ scene (227/68 located in Mato Grosso State. For this purpose a multitemporal series of MODIS surface reflectance images (MOD09 and the corresponding ETM+ images from June to October 2002 were analyzed. It was found that small deforested areas (lower than 15 ha were detected by MODIS images with lower accuracy when compared with ETM+ images. As the deforested areas increase MODIS and ETM+ results tend to converge. This procedure showed to be adequate to operationally detect and monitor deforested areas and has been used since 2004 as part of a government plan to control the Amazon deforestation.

  16. Near real time detection of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon using MODIS imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício A. Moreira

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to provide near real time information about deforestation detection (DETER in the entire Brazilian Amazon using MODIS high temporal resolution images. It is part of the operational deforestation monitoring project to estimate the annual deforestation rate in the Brazilian Amazon (PRODES. A rapid deforestation detection method was designed to support land use policies in this region. In order to evaluate the proposed method a test site was selected covering a Landsat ETM+ scene (227/68 located in Mato Grosso State. For this purpose a multitemporal series of MODIS surface reflectance images (MOD09 and the corresponding ETM+ images from June to October 2002 were analyzed. It was found that small deforested areas (lower than 15 ha were detected by MODIS images with lower accuracy when compared with ETM+ images. As the deforested areas increase MODIS and ETM+ results tend to converge. This procedure showed to be adequate to operationally detect and monitor deforested areas and has been used since 2004 as part of a government plan to control the Amazon deforestation.

  17. Socio-ecological costs of Amazon nut and timber production at community household forests in the Bolivian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soriano Candia, M.; Mohren, G.M.J.; Ascarrunz, Nataly; Dressler, W.H.; Pena Claros, M.

    2017-01-01

    The Bolivian Amazon holds a complex configuration of people and forested landscapes in which communities hold secure tenure rights over a rich ecosystem offering a range of livelihood income opportunities. A large share of this income is derived from Amazon nut (Bertholletia excelsa). Many

  18. Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15: Parsivel2 Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, Courtney [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2016-07-01

    One of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s Parsivel2 disdrometers was deployed at the first ARM Mobile Facility (AMF1) T3 site in Manacapuru, Brazil at the beginning of the second Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon)2014/15 intensive operational period (IOP2) in September 2014 through the end of the field campaign in December 2015. The Parsivel2 provided one-minute drop-size distribution (DSD) observations that have already been used for a number of applications related to GoAmazon2014/15 science objectives. The first use was the creation of a reflectivity-rain rate (Z-R) relation enabling the calculation of rain rates from the Brazilian Sistema de Protecao da Amazonia (SIPAM) S-band operational radar in Manaus. The radar-derived rainfall is an important constraint for the variational analysis of a large-scale forcing data set, which was recently released for the two IOPs that took place in the 2014 wet and transition seasons, respectively. The SIPAM radar rainfall is also being used to validate a number of cloud-resolving model simulations being run for the campaign. A second use of the Parsivel2 DSDs has been to provide a necessary reference point to calibrate the vertical velocity retrievals from the AMF1 W Band ARM Cloud Radar (WACR) cloud-profiling and ultra-high-frequency (UHF) wind-profiling instruments. Accurate retrievals of in-cloud vertical velocities are important to understand the microphysical and kinematic properties of Amazonian convective clouds and their interaction with the land surface and atmospheric aerosols. Further use of the Parsivel2 DSD observations can be made to better understand precipitation characteristics and their variability during GoAmazon2014/15.

  19. Proliferation of hydroelectric dams in the Andean Amazon and implications for Andes-Amazon connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N

    2012-01-01

    Due to rising energy demands and abundant untapped potential, hydropower projects are rapidly increasing in the Neotropics. This is especially true in the wet and rugged Andean Amazon, where regional governments are prioritizing new hydroelectric dams as the centerpiece of long-term energy plans. However, the current planning for hydropower lacks adequate regional and basin-scale assessment of potential ecological impacts. This lack of strategic planning is particularly problematic given the intimate link between the Andes and Amazonian flood plain, together one of the most species rich zones on Earth. We examined the potential ecological impacts, in terms of river connectivity and forest loss, of the planned proliferation of hydroelectric dams across all Andean tributaries of the Amazon River. Considering data on the full portfolios of existing and planned dams, along with data on roads and transmission line systems, we developed a new conceptual framework to estimate the relative impacts of all planned dams. There are plans for 151 new dams greater than 2 MW over the next 20 years, more than a 300% increase. These dams would include five of the six major Andean tributaries of the Amazon. Our ecological impact analysis classified 47% of the potential new dams as high impact and just 19% as low impact. Sixty percent of the dams would cause the first major break in connectivity between protected Andean headwaters and the lowland Amazon. More than 80% would drive deforestation due to new roads, transmission lines, or inundation. We conclude with a discussion of three major policy implications of these findings. 1) There is a critical need for further strategic regional and basin scale evaluation of dams. 2) There is an urgent need for a strategic plan to maintain Andes-Amazon connectivity. 3) Reconsideration of hydropower as a low-impact energy source in the Neotropics.

  20. Proliferation of hydroelectric dams in the Andean Amazon and implications for Andes-Amazon connectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Finer

    Full Text Available Due to rising energy demands and abundant untapped potential, hydropower projects are rapidly increasing in the Neotropics. This is especially true in the wet and rugged Andean Amazon, where regional governments are prioritizing new hydroelectric dams as the centerpiece of long-term energy plans. However, the current planning for hydropower lacks adequate regional and basin-scale assessment of potential ecological impacts. This lack of strategic planning is particularly problematic given the intimate link between the Andes and Amazonian flood plain, together one of the most species rich zones on Earth. We examined the potential ecological impacts, in terms of river connectivity and forest loss, of the planned proliferation of hydroelectric dams across all Andean tributaries of the Amazon River. Considering data on the full portfolios of existing and planned dams, along with data on roads and transmission line systems, we developed a new conceptual framework to estimate the relative impacts of all planned dams. There are plans for 151 new dams greater than 2 MW over the next 20 years, more than a 300% increase. These dams would include five of the six major Andean tributaries of the Amazon. Our ecological impact analysis classified 47% of the potential new dams as high impact and just 19% as low impact. Sixty percent of the dams would cause the first major break in connectivity between protected Andean headwaters and the lowland Amazon. More than 80% would drive deforestation due to new roads, transmission lines, or inundation. We conclude with a discussion of three major policy implications of these findings. 1 There is a critical need for further strategic regional and basin scale evaluation of dams. 2 There is an urgent need for a strategic plan to maintain Andes-Amazon connectivity. 3 Reconsideration of hydropower as a low-impact energy source in the Neotropics.

  1. Forecasting Malaria in the Western Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, W. K.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Pizzitutti, F.; Berky, A.; Feingold, B.; Mena, C.; Janko, M.

    2017-12-01

    Reported cases of malaria in the western Amazon regions of Peru, Colombia and Ecuador have more than tripled since 2011. Responding to this epidemic has been challenging given large-scale environmental impacts and demographic changes combined with changing financial and political priorities. In Peru alone, malaria cases increased 5-fold since 2011. Reasons include changes in the Global Malaria Fund, massive flooding in 2012, the "mega" El Nino in 2016, and continued natural resource extraction via logging and mining. These challenges prompted the recent creation of the Malaria Cero program in 2017 with the goal to eradicate malaria by 2021. To assist in malaria eradiation, a team of investigators supported by NASA have been developing an Early Warning System for Malaria. The system leverages demographic, epidemiological, meteorological and land use/cover data to develop a four-component system that will improve detection of malaria across the western Amazon Basin. System components include a land data assimilation system (LDAS) to estimate past and future hydrological states and flux, a seasonal human population model to estimate population at risk and spatial connectivity to high risk transmission areas, a sub-regional statistical model to identify when and where observed malaria cases have exceeded those expected, and an Agent Based Model (ABM) to integrate human, environmental, and entomological transmission dynamics with potential strategies for control. Data include: daily case detection reports between 2000 and 2017 from all health posts in the region of Loreto in the northern Peruvian Amazon; LDAS outputs (precipitation, temperature, humidity, solar radiation) at a 1km and weekly scale; satellite-derived estimates of land cover; and human population size from census and health data. This presentation will provide an overview of components, focusing on how the system identifies an outbreak and plans for technology transfer.

  2. Plant Family-Specific Impacts of Petroleum Pollution on Biodiversity and Leaf Chlorophyll Content in the Amazon Rainforest of Ecuador.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Arellano

    Full Text Available In recent decades petroleum pollution in the tropical rainforest has caused significant environmental damage in vast areas of the Amazon region. At present the extent of this damage is not entirely clear. Little is known about the specific impacts of petroleum pollution on tropical vegetation. In a field expedition to the Ecuadorian Amazon over 1100 leaf samples were collected from tropical trees in polluted and unpolluted sites. Plant families were identified for 739 of the leaf samples and compared between sites. Plant biodiversity indices show a reduction of the plant biodiversity when the site was affected by petroleum pollution. In addition, reflectance and transmittance were measured with a field spectroradiometer for every leaf sample and leaf chlorophyll content was estimated using reflectance model inversion with the radiative tranfer model PROSPECT. Four of the 15 plant families that are most representative of the ecoregion (Melastomataceae, Fabaceae, Rubiaceae and Euphorbiaceae had significantly lower leaf chlorophyll content in the polluted areas compared to the unpolluted areas. This suggests that these families are more sensitive to petroleum pollution. The polluted site is dominated by Melastomataceae and Rubiaceae, suggesting that these plant families are particularly competitive in the presence of pollution. This study provides evidence of a decrease of plant diversity and richness caused by petroleum pollution and of a plant family-specific response of leaf chlorophyll content to petroleum pollution in the Ecuadorian Amazon using information from field spectroscopy and radiative transfer modelling.

  3. Plant Family-Specific Impacts of Petroleum Pollution on Biodiversity and Leaf Chlorophyll Content in the Amazon Rainforest of Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano, Paul; Tansey, Kevin; Balzter, Heiko; Tellkamp, Markus

    2017-01-01

    In recent decades petroleum pollution in the tropical rainforest has caused significant environmental damage in vast areas of the Amazon region. At present the extent of this damage is not entirely clear. Little is known about the specific impacts of petroleum pollution on tropical vegetation. In a field expedition to the Ecuadorian Amazon over 1100 leaf samples were collected from tropical trees in polluted and unpolluted sites. Plant families were identified for 739 of the leaf samples and compared between sites. Plant biodiversity indices show a reduction of the plant biodiversity when the site was affected by petroleum pollution. In addition, reflectance and transmittance were measured with a field spectroradiometer for every leaf sample and leaf chlorophyll content was estimated using reflectance model inversion with the radiative tranfer model PROSPECT. Four of the 15 plant families that are most representative of the ecoregion (Melastomataceae, Fabaceae, Rubiaceae and Euphorbiaceae) had significantly lower leaf chlorophyll content in the polluted areas compared to the unpolluted areas. This suggests that these families are more sensitive to petroleum pollution. The polluted site is dominated by Melastomataceae and Rubiaceae, suggesting that these plant families are particularly competitive in the presence of pollution. This study provides evidence of a decrease of plant diversity and richness caused by petroleum pollution and of a plant family-specific response of leaf chlorophyll content to petroleum pollution in the Ecuadorian Amazon using information from field spectroscopy and radiative transfer modelling.

  4. Where Deforestation Leads to Urbanization: How Resource Extraction is Leading to Urban Growth in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Peter; VanWey, Leah

    2015-07-01

    Developing the Amazon into a major provider of internationally traded mineral and food commodities has dramatically transformed broad expanses of tropical forests to farm and pasturelands, and to mining sites. The environmental impacts of this transformation, as well as the drivers underlying the process, have already been well documented. In this article we turn our analytical lenses to another, less examined effect of Amazon land use and environmental change, namely the creation and development of new urban areas. Here we argue that urban growth in the Amazon is a direct residual of international interest in the production of traded commodities, and of the capacity of local urban residents to capture capital and value before it is extracted from the region. Specifically, we suggest that urban growth is occurring fastest where cities have access to both rural export commodities and export corridors. We also show correlations between urban growth and lower rural population density, and cities' capacities to draw migrants from beyond their immediate rural surroundings. More broadly, we argue that urbanization in the Amazon is better interpreted as a symptom rather than a driver of the region's land use and land cover change.

  5. The Hanford Site's Gable Mountain structure: A comparison of the recurrence of design earthquakes based on fault slip rates and a probabilistic exposure model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohay, A.C.

    1991-01-01

    Gable Mountain is a segment of the Umtanum Ridge-Gable Mountain structural trend, an east-west trending series of anticlines, one of the major geologic structures on the Hanford Site. A probabilistic seismic exposure model indicates that Gable Mountain and two adjacent segments contribute significantly to the seismic hazard at the Hanford Site. Geologic measurements of the uplift of initially horizontal (11-12 Ma) basalt flows indicate that a broad, continuous, primary anticline grew at an average rate of 0.009-0.011 mm/a, and narrow, segmented, secondary anticlines grew at rates of 0.009 mm/a at Gable Butte and 0.018 mm/a at Gable Mountain. The buried Southeast Anticline appears to have a different geometry, consisting of a single, intermediate-width anticline with an estimated growth rate of 0.007 mm/a. The recurrence rate and maximum magnitude of earthquakes for the fault models were used to estimate the fault slip rate for each of the fault models and to determine the implied structural growth rate of the segments. The current model for Gable Mountain-Gable Butte predicts 0.004 mm/a of vertical uplift due to primary faulting and 0.008 mm/a due to secondary faulting. These rates are roughly half the structurally estimated rates for Gable Mountain, but the model does not account for the smaller secondary fold at Gable Butte. The model predicted an uplift rate for the Southeast Anticline of 0.006 mm/a, caused by the low open-quotes fault capabilityclose quotes weighting rather than a different fault geometry. The effects of previous modifications to the fault models are examined and potential future modifications are suggested. For example, the earthquake recurrence relationship used in the current exposure model has a b-value of 1.15, compared to a previous value of 0.85. This increases the implied deformation rates due to secondary fault models, and therefore supports the use of this regionally determined b-value to this fault/fold system

  6. Modeling investigation of light-absorbing aerosols in the Amazon Basin during the wet season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We use a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem to interpret observed light-absorbing aerosols in Amazonia during the wet season. Observed aerosol properties, including black carbon (BC concentration and light absorption, at the Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO site in the central Amazon have relatively low background levels but frequently show high peaks during the study period of January–April 2014. With daily temporal resolution for open fire emissions and modified aerosol optical properties, our model successfully captures the observed variation in fine/coarse aerosol and BC concentrations as well as aerosol light absorption and its wavelength dependence over the Amazon Basin. The source attribution in the model indicates the important influence of open fire on the observed variances of aerosol concentrations and absorption, mainly from regional sources (northern South America and from northern Africa. The contribution of open fires from these two regions is comparable, with the latter becoming more important in the late wet season. The analysis of correlation and enhancement ratios of BC versus CO suggests transport times of < 3 days for regional fires and  ∼  11 days for African plumes arriving at ATTO during the wet season. The model performance of long-range transport of African plumes is also evaluated with observations from AERONET, MODIS, and CALIOP. Simulated absorption aerosol optical depth (AAOD averaged over the wet season is lower than 0.0015 over the central Amazon, including the ATTO site. We find that more than 50 % of total absorption at 550 nm is from BC, except for the northeastern Amazon and the Guianas, where the influence of dust becomes significant (up to 35 %. The brown carbon contribution is generally between 20 and 30 %. The distribution of absorption Ångström exponents (AAE suggests more influence from fossil fuel combustion in the southern part of the basin (AAE  ∼  1 but more

  7. [The Amazon Sanitation Plan (1940-1942)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Rômulo de Paula; Hochman, Gilberto

    2007-12-01

    The article addresses the Amazon Sanitation Plan and the political context in which it was formulated between 1940 and 1941. It examines the role of Getúlio Vargas, the activities of the plan's main protagonists (such as Evandro Chagas, João de Barros Barreto, and Valério Konder), its key proposals, and its demise as of 1942 upon creation of the Special Public Health Service (Sesp), which grew out of cooperation agreements between Brazil and the US following both nations' involvement in World War II. A reproduction of the Plan as published in the Arquivos de Higiene in 1941 is included.

  8. The Amazon reveals its secrets--partly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Julio L.

    2000-01-01

    The role of the tropics in global climate change during glacial cycles is hotly debated in paleoclimate cycles today. Records from South America have not provided a clear picture of tropical climate change. In his Perspective, Betancourt highlights the study by Maslin and Burns, who have deduced the outflow of the Amazon over the past 14,000 years. This may serve as a proxy that integrates hydrology over the entire South American tropics, although the record must be interpreted cautiously because factors other than rainfall may contribute to the variability in outflow.

  9. Radiological impact of exposure to radon-thoron and their progeny present in the environment of fly ash dumping site in Faridabad (Haryana)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Nitin; Kant, Krishan; Garg, Maneesha

    2013-01-01

    Radon-Thoron and their Progeny monitoring was carried out in dwellings near fly ash dumping sites in Faridabad (Haryana), as it is very important from health and hygiene point of view of the occupants. For the measurements, the track etch technique was used. The dosimeter employed for the measurement consisted of twin chamber systems with LR-115 Type II SSNTDs placed on the two sides of the central partition inside the cup and a bare film placed outside it. The detectors were exposed in the mixed field of radon-thoron in the environment of dwellings. The detectors were placed in about 100 dwellings and the choice of the dwelling was random. The value of PAEC, radon concentration, annual exposure, annual effective dose in the dwellings near fly ash dumping sites in District Faridabad (Haryana) varied from 1.34 mWL to 14.05 mWL with an average value of (4.95 0.85) mWL, 12.41 Bqm -3 to 129.91 Bqm -3 with an average value of (45.77 7.87) Bqm -3 , 0.55 10 -1 WLM to 5.83 10 -1 WLM with an average value of (2.04 0.28) 10 -1 WLM and 0.21 mSv to 2.23 mSv with an average value of (0.79 0.13) mSv. The value of PAEC, thoron concentration, annual exposure, annual effective dose in the dwellings near fly ash dumping sites in District Faridabad (Haryana) varied from 1.34 mWL to 14.0 SmWL with an average value of (4.95 0.85) mWL, 1.16 Bq/m 3 to 65.08 Bq/m 3 with an average value of (32.77 7.87) Bqm -3 , 0.55 10 -1 WLM to 5.83 10 -1 WLM with an average value of (2.04 0.28) 10 -1 WLM and 0.21 mSv to 2.23 mSv with an average value of (0.79 0.13) mSv. The measurements indicate that the radon concentration was below the safety levels (action levels) as recommended by various regulatory bodies. The maximum value of 129.91 Bqm -3 was found in a cave inside a temple, where there was no ventilation. The different values of radon concentrations are due to different ventilation conditions and house structures. The radon concentration was found to decrease with the increase in distance of the

  10. Land-use versus natural controls on soil fertility in the Subandean Amazon, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindell, Lina; Aström, Mats; Oberg, Tomas

    2010-01-15

    Deforestation to amplify the agricultural frontier is a serious threat to the Amazon forest. Strategies to attain and maintain satisfactory soil fertility, which requires knowledge of spatial and temporal changes caused by land-use, are important for reaching sustainable development. This study highlights these issues by evaluating the relative effects of agricultural land-use and natural factors on chemical fertility of Inceptisols on redbed lithologies in the Subandean Amazon. Macro and micronutrients were determined in topsoil and subsoil in the vicinity of two villages at a total of 80 sites including pastures, coffee plantations, swidden fields, secondary forest and, as a reference, adjacent primary forest. Differences in soil fertility between the land cover classes were investigated by principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares regression (PLSR). Primary forest soil was found to be chemically similar to that of coffee plantations, pastures and secondary forests. There were no significant differences between soils of these land cover types in terms of plant nutrients (e.g. N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mo, Mn, Zn, Cu and Co) or other fertility indicators (OM, pH, BS, EC, CECe and exchangeable acidity). The parent material (as indicated by texture and sample geographical origin) and the slope of the sampled sites were stronger controls on soil fertility than land cover type. Elevated concentrations of a few nutrients (NO(3) and K) were, however detected in soils of swidden fields. Despite being fertile (higher CECe, Ca and P) compared to Oxisols and Ultisols in the Amazon lowland, the Subandean soils frequently showed deficiencies in several nutrients (e.g. P, K, NO(3), Cu and Zn), and high levels of free Al at acidic sites. This paper concludes that deforestation and agricultural land-use has not introduced lasting chemical changes in the studied Subandean soils that are significant in comparison to the natural variability. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B

  11. Carbon uptake by mature Amazon forests has mitigated Amazon nations' carbon emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Oliver L; Brienen, Roel J W

    2017-12-01

    Several independent lines of evidence suggest that Amazon forests have provided a significant carbon sink service, and also that the Amazon carbon sink in intact, mature forests may now be threatened as a result of different processes. There has however been no work done to quantify non-land-use-change forest carbon fluxes on a national basis within Amazonia, or to place these national fluxes and their possible changes in the context of the major anthropogenic carbon fluxes in the region. Here we present a first attempt to interpret results from ground-based monitoring of mature forest carbon fluxes in a biogeographically, politically, and temporally differentiated way. Specifically, using results from a large long-term network of forest plots, we estimate the Amazon biomass carbon balance over the last three decades for the different regions and nine nations of Amazonia, and evaluate the magnitude and trajectory of these differentiated balances in relation to major national anthropogenic carbon emissions. The sink of carbon into mature forests has been remarkably geographically ubiquitous across Amazonia, being substantial and persistent in each of the five biogeographic regions within Amazonia. Between 1980 and 2010, it has more than mitigated the fossil fuel emissions of every single national economy, except that of Venezuela. For most nations (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname) the sink has probably additionally mitigated all anthropogenic carbon emissions due to Amazon deforestation and other land use change. While the sink has weakened in some regions since 2000, our analysis suggests that Amazon nations which are able to conserve large areas of natural and semi-natural landscape still contribute globally-significant carbon sequestration. Mature forests across all of Amazonia have contributed significantly to mitigating climate change for decades. Yet Amazon nations have not directly benefited from providing this global scale

  12. Carbon uptake by mature Amazon forests has mitigated Amazon nations’ carbon emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver L. Phillips

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several independent lines of evidence suggest that Amazon forests have provided a significant carbon sink service, and also that the Amazon carbon sink in intact, mature forests may now be threatened as a result of different processes. There has however been no work done to quantify non-land-use-change forest carbon fluxes on a national basis within Amazonia, or to place these national fluxes and their possible changes in the context of the major anthropogenic carbon fluxes in the region. Here we present a first attempt to interpret results from ground-based monitoring of mature forest carbon fluxes in a biogeographically, politically, and temporally differentiated way. Specifically, using results from a large long-term network of forest plots, we estimate the Amazon biomass carbon balance over the last three decades for the different regions and nine nations of Amazonia, and evaluate the magnitude and trajectory of these differentiated balances in relation to major national anthropogenic carbon emissions. Results The sink of carbon into mature forests has been remarkably geographically ubiquitous across Amazonia, being substantial and persistent in each of the five biogeographic regions within Amazonia. Between 1980 and 2010, it has more than mitigated the fossil fuel emissions of every single national economy, except that of Venezuela. For most nations (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname the sink has probably additionally mitigated all anthropogenic carbon emissions due to Amazon deforestation and other land use change. While the sink has weakened in some regions since 2000, our analysis suggests that Amazon nations which are able to conserve large areas of natural and semi-natural landscape still contribute globally-significant carbon sequestration. Conclusions Mature forests across all of Amazonia have contributed significantly to mitigating climate change for decades. Yet Amazon nations

  13. Patents on periphery of the Amazon rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Emanoel G; Araújo, José R G; Monroe, Paulo H M; de O Nascimento, Ivaneide; Aguiar, Alana C F

    2009-06-01

    In the humid tropics, on the edges of the Amazon forest, the technological challenges to establishing and maintaining productive and sustainable agricultural systems have yet to be overcome. The groups involved in agriculture in the north of Brazil still engage in the practice of slash and burn in order to prepare and fertilize the soil. This produces negative effects for the local and global environment, without the counter-effect of providing social benefits to rural communities. Whether this process continues is of fundamental importance to many countries because it means that slash and burn agriculture is advancing on the Amazon rainforest, with a negative effect on every dimension of national policy. Beyond social political problems the biggest challenge for researchers in the field of tropical agriculture is to offer technological alternatives that can sustain agriculture in soils derived from sedimentary rocks that have been subjected to a high degree of weathering. In this article patented information is also discussed. Experiments undertaken in this region recommend taking advantage of the rapid growth of plants in the tropics. We aimed at proposing a suitable alternative system for a sustainable soil management in the particular conditions of humid tropics, named as "no-till in alley cropping using tree leguminous mulch." This system offers the advantages of: bringing together, in the same space and at the same time, the processes of cultivation and the regeneration of soil fertility.

  14. Drought sensitivity of the Amazon rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Oliver L; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Lewis, Simon L; Fisher, Joshua B; Lloyd, Jon; López-González, Gabriela; Malhi, Yadvinder; Monteagudo, Abel; Peacock, Julie; Quesada, Carlos A; van der Heijden, Geertje; Almeida, Samuel; Amaral, Iêda; Arroyo, Luzmila; Aymard, Gerardo; Baker, Tim R; Bánki, Olaf; Blanc, Lilian; Bonal, Damien; Brando, Paulo; Chave, Jerome; de Oliveira, Atila Cristina Alves; Cardozo, Nallaret Dávila; Czimczik, Claudia I; Feldpausch, Ted R; Freitas, Maria Aparecida; Gloor, Emanuel; Higuchi, Niro; Jiménez, Eliana; Lloyd, Gareth; Meir, Patrick; Mendoza, Casimiro; Morel, Alexandra; Neill, David A; Nepstad, Daniel; Patiño, Sandra; Peñuela, Maria Cristina; Prieto, Adriana; Ramírez, Fredy; Schwarz, Michael; Silva, Javier; Silveira, Marcos; Thomas, Anne Sota; Steege, Hans Ter; Stropp, Juliana; Vásquez, Rodolfo; Zelazowski, Przemyslaw; Alvarez Dávila, Esteban; Andelman, Sandy; Andrade, Ana; Chao, Kuo-Jung; Erwin, Terry; Di Fiore, Anthony; Honorio C, Eurídice; Keeling, Helen; Killeen, Tim J; Laurance, William F; Peña Cruz, Antonio; Pitman, Nigel C A; Núñez Vargas, Percy; Ramírez-Angulo, Hirma; Rudas, Agustín; Salamão, Rafael; Silva, Natalino; Terborgh, John; Torres-Lezama, Armando

    2009-03-06

    Amazon forests are a key but poorly understood component of the global carbon cycle. If, as anticipated, they dry this century, they might accelerate climate change through carbon losses and changed surface energy balances. We used records from multiple long-term monitoring plots across Amazonia to assess forest responses to the intense 2005 drought, a possible analog of future events. Affected forest lost biomass, reversing a large long-term carbon sink, with the greatest impacts observed where the dry season was unusually intense. Relative to pre-2005 conditions, forest subjected to a 100-millimeter increase in water deficit lost 5.3 megagrams of aboveground biomass of carbon per hectare. The drought had a total biomass carbon impact of 1.2 to 1.6 petagrams (1.2 x 10(15) to 1.6 x 10(15) grams). Amazon forests therefore appear vulnerable to increasing moisture stress, with the potential for large carbon losses to exert feedback on climate change.

  15. Size distribution of Amazon River bed sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, C.F.; Meade, R.H.; Curtis, W.F.; Bosio, N.J.; Landim, P.M.B.

    1980-01-01

    The first recorded observations of bed material of the Amazon River were made in 1843 by Lt William Lewis Herndon of the US Navy, when he travelled the river from its headwaters to its mouth, sounding its depths, and noting the nature of particles caught in a heavy grease smeared to the bottom of his sounding weight1. He reported the bed material of the river to be mostly sand and fine gravel. Oltman and Ames took samples at a few locations in 1963 and 1964, and reported the bed material at O??bidos, Brazil, to be fine sands, with median diameters ranging from 0.15 to 0.25 mm (ref. 2). We present here a summary of particle-size analyses of samples of streambed material collected from the Amazon River and its major tributaries along a reach of the river from Iquitos in Peru, ???3,500 km above Macapa?? Brazil, to a point 220 km above Macapa??3. ?? 1980 Nature Publishing Group.

  16. Express-Air Screen-System to protect miners against radon exposures at small underground construction sites in old mining; Express-Wetterblenden-System zum Sofort-Schutz von Bergleuten vor Radonexpositionen bei untertaegigen Bergsicherungsarbeiten im Altbergbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehnert, J. [Saechsisches Landesamt fuer Umwelt, Landwirtschaft und Geologie (Germany). Referat Strahlenschutz; Stopp, J. [Aluminiumbau und Verwaltungs GmbH Stopp, Schneeberg (Germany); Schoenherr, B. [Bergsicherung Schneeberg GmbH (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    A new Express-Air Screen-System (EAS) for miners was developed to reduce the radon exposures of miners at small construction sites of old mining. The EAS is a lightweight, modular and reusable construction kit of interlocking telescopic aluminum tubes, plastic foils and glue foam to shut off radon rich parts of galleries in some minutes only.

  17. The Legal Protection of Ecoturism on Amazon State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Dias Cabral

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the legislation on ecotourism in the Amazon, which stands as polo Brazilian and global ecotourism. An answer search the following questioning: analyzing the social, environmental and cultural aspects, we can say that the Brazilian legal system and legislation promote Amazon Ecotourism? The methodology is deductive, with doctrinal, legislative and interdisciplinary research, as it quotes the thought of some tourismologists, agronomists and environmentalists. There in the text some concepts and brief history on Ecotourism, relevant legislation in international, national and state level, comments on prospects for the Amazon Ecotourism.

  18. Diversity of palm uses in the western Amazon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paniagua Zambrana, N.Y.; Byg, A.; Svenning, J.-C.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract  We used palm knowledge to understand the interaction between people and the rainforests and the factors that influence this dynamic process. We interviewed 278 informants in 12 villages in the Pastaza and Madidi areas of the western Amazon basin. Together they used 38 different palm......, the great variation in the knowledge they possess, and the fact that the differences between villages is so great, are important elements to consider when developing management plans for the sustainable use of the rainforest resources in the western Amazon. Keywords  Local knowledge - Palms - Western Amazon...

  19. Radium and barium in the Amazon River system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, W.S.; Edmond, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Data for 226 Ra and 228 Ra in the Amazon River system show that the activity of each radium isotope is strongly correlated with barium concentrations. Two trends are apparent, one for rivers which drain shield areas and another for all other rivers. These data suggest that there has been extensive fractionation of U, Th, and Ba during weathering in the Amazon basin. The 226 Ra data fit a flux model for the major ions indicating that 226 Ra behaves conservatively along the main channel of the Amazon River

  20. Amazon River investigations, reconnaissance measurements of July 1963

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltman, Roy Edwin; Sternberg, H. O'R.; Ames, F.C.; Davis, L.C.

    1964-01-01

    The first measurements of the flow of the Amazon River were made in July 1963 as a joint project of the University of Brazil, the Brazilian Navy, and the U.S. Geological Survey. The discharge of the Amazon River at Obidos was 7,640,000 cfs at an annual flood stage somewhat lower than the average. For comparison the maximum known discharge of the Mississippi River at Vicksburg is about 2,300,000 cfs. Dissolved-solids concentrations and sediment loads of the Amazon River and of several major tributaries were found to be low.

  1. The Amazon river breeze and the local boundary layer. I - Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira, Amauri P.; Fitzjarrald, David R.

    1993-01-01

    Observations of the diurnal evolution of the planetary boundary layer over the Amazon rain forest, made at sites close to the confluence of the Solimoes and Negro rivers (approximately at 3 deg S, 60 deg W) near Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, show the existence of a diurnal rotation of the wind near the surface and the frequent presence of low-level nocturnal wind maxima. These circulations are shown to be plausibly explained as elements of a river and land breeze circulation induced by the thermal contrast between the rivers and the adjacent forest.

  2. The Amazon river breeze and the local boundary layer: I. Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira Oliveira, Amauri; Fitzjarrald, David R.

    1993-02-01

    Observations of the diurnal evolution of the planetary boundary layer over the Amazon rain forest, made at sites close to the confluence of the Solimões and Negro rivers (approximately at 3°S, 60°W) near Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, show the existence of a diurnal rotation of the wind near the surface and the frequent presence of low-level nocturnal wind maxima. These circulations are shown to be plausibly explained as elements of a river and land breeze circulation induced by the thermal contrast between the rivers and the adjacent forest.

  3. Genotoxic potential generated by biomass burning in the Brazilian Legal Amazon by Tradescantia micronucleus bioassay: a toxicity assessment study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artaxo Paulo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Brazilian Amazon has suffered impacts from non-sustainable economic development, especially owing to the expansion of agricultural commodities into forest areas. The Tangará da Serra region, located in the southern of the Legal Amazon, is characterized by non-mechanized sugar cane production. In addition, it lies on the dispersion path of the pollution plume generated by biomass burning. The aim of this study was to assess the genotoxic potential of the atmosphere in the Tangará da Serra region, using Tradescantia pallida as in situ bioindicator. Methods The study was conducted during the dry and rainy seasons, where the plants were exposed to two types of exposure, active and passive. Results The results showed that in all the sampling seasons, irrespective of exposure type, there was an increase in micronucleus frequency, compared to control and that it was statistically significant in the dry season. A strong and significant relationship was also observed between the increase in micronucleus incidence and the rise in fine particulate matter, and hospital morbidity from respiratory diseases in children. Conclusions Based on the results, we demonstrated that pollutants generated by biomass burning in the Brazilian Amazon can induce genetic damage in test plants that was more prominent during dry season, and correlated with the level of particulates and elevated respiratory morbidity.

  4. Precipitation Insights From Vertically Pointing Radar, Surveillance Radar and Disdrometers During the Two-Year GoAmazon2014/5

    Science.gov (United States)

    WANG, D.; Giangrande, S. E.; Hardin, J. C.; Feng, Z.; Bartholomew, M. J.; Toto, T.

    2017-12-01

    The Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) field campaign recently concluded a remote two-year deployment in the central Amazon Basin to study cloud-aerosol-precipitation interactions. As part of GoAmazon2014/5, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF) collected a unique set of observations in a region of strong climatic significance near Manacapuru, Brazil, a site known to experience both the pristine condition of its locale, as well as the effects of the Manaus, Brazil, mega city pollution plume. In addition to standard ARM cloud radar observations, this AMF deployment was equipped to capture a complete, continuous record of cloud and precipitation profiling and spatial properties, capitalizing on a reconfigured UHF (915 MHz) radar wind profiler (RWP) and collocated surface disdrometer measurements under the umbrella of the System for the Protection of Amazonia (SIPAM) S-band surveillance radar. Together, these sensors bolster multiple methods to understand detail precipitation processes, including explorations into the controls of large-scale synoptic, precipitation regimes (wet/dry seasons), diurnal cycle, and possible aerosol contributions. Of interest to climate model validation and convective parameterization improvement are new Amazon insights into rainfall characteristics, drop size distribution evolution, and relationships between storm storm dynamical/thermodynamical properties.

  5. Fish consumption by traditional subsistence villagers of the Rio Madeira (Amazon): impact on hair mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ronaldo C; Dórea, José G; Bernardi, José V E; Bastos, Wanderley R; Almeida, Ronaldo; Manzatto, Angelo G

    2010-01-01

    Subsistence ribeirinhos of the Amazon Basin depend on fish for their principal source of protein, but fish availability changes with seasonal high and low waters. To assess taxa and quantity of fish consumed and estimate attendant exposure to methyl-Hg in a traditional subsistence high fish-eating community of the Amazon Basin. 120 villagers in 18 households were followed for 6 months (August to February) for weighed portions of fish consumed. Mean daily per capita fish consumption was high (406 g/day) with fish meals ranging from 4 to 14 times/week and an integrated yearly consumption of 148.2 kg/person. Median total-Hg concentrations in fish ranged from 0.011 to 0.409 ppm; six of the more consumed fish species comprised more than 50% of the fish consumed. The villagers mean hair-Hg concentration was high (17.4 +/- 11.5 microg/g), with both inter- and intra-household variation despite similar high fish consumption; only 7% showed hair-Hg concentrations ribeirinho communities traditional fish consumption is high and depends on available species; fish is also the principal via of meHg exposure and attendant hair-Hg concentrations.

  6. Observations of atmospheric monoaromatic hydrocarbons at urban, semi-urban and forest environments in the Amazon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paralovo, Sarah L.; Borillo, Guilherme C.; Barbosa, Cybelli G. G.; Godoi, Ana Flavia L.; Yamamoto, Carlos I.; de Souza, Rodrigo A. F.; Andreoli, Rita V.; Costa, Patrícia S.; Almeida, Gerson P.; Manzi, Antonio O.; Pöhlker, Christopher; Yáñez-Serrano, Ana M.; Kesselmeier, Jürgen; Godoi, Ricardo H. M.

    2016-03-01

    The Amazon region is one of the most significant natural ecosystems on the planet. Of special interest as a major study area is the interface between the forest and Manaus city, a state capital in Brazil embedded in the heart of the Amazon forest. In view of the interactions between natural and anthropogenic processes, an integrated experiment was conducted measuring the concentrations of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and meta, ortho, para-xylene (known as BTEX), all of them regarded as pollutants with harmful effects on human health and vegetation and acting also as important precursors of tropospheric ozone. Furthermore, these compounds also take part in the formation of secondary organic aerosols, which can influence the pattern of cloud formation, and thus the regional water cycle and climate. The samples were collected in 2012/2013 at three different sites: (i) The Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO), a pristine rain forest region in the central Amazon Basin; (ii) Manacapuru, a semi-urban site located southwest and downwind of Manaus as a preview of the Green Ocean Amazon Experiment (GoAmazon 2014/15); and (iii) the city of Manaus (distributed over three sites). Results indicate that there is an increase in pollutant concentrations with increasing proximity to urban areas. For instance, the benzene concentration ranges were 0.237-19.6 (Manaus), 0.036-0.948 (Manacapuru) and 0.018-0.313 μg m-3 (ATTO). Toluene ranges were 0.700-832 (Manaus), 0.091-2.75 μg m-3 (Manacapuru) and 0.011-4.93 (ATTO). For ethylbenzene, they were 0.165-447 (Manaus), 0.018-1.20 μg m-3 (Manacapuru) and 0.047-0.401 (ATTO). Some indication was found for toluene to be released from the forest. No significant difference was found between the BTEX levels measured in the dry season and the wet seasons. Furthermore, it was observed that, in general, the city of Manaus seems to be less impacted by these pollutants than other cities in Brazil and in other

  7. Neogene vegetation development in the Amazon Basin: evidence from marine well-2, Foz do Amazonas (Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogota-Angel, Raul; Chemale Junior, Farid; Davila, Roberto; Soares, Emilson; Pinto, Ricardo; Do Carmo, Dermeval; Hoorn, Carina

    2014-05-01

    Origen and development of the highly diverse Amazon tropical forest has mostly been inferred from continental sites. However, sediment records in the marine Foz do Amazonas Basin can provide important information to better understand the influence of the Andes uplift and climate change on its plant biomes evolution since the Neogene. Sediment analyses of samples from BP-Petrobras well 1 and 2, drilled in the Amazon Fan, allowed to infer the onset of the transcontinental Amazon river and the fan phase during the middle to late Miocene (c. 10.5 Ma). As part of the CLIMAMAZON research programme we performed pollen analysis on the 10.5 to 0.4 Ma time interval. 76 ditch cutting samples of the upper 4165 m sediments of well 2 permitted us to infer changes in floral composition in the Amazon Basin. The palynological spectra across this interval (nannofossil based age model) include pollen, fern spores, dinocysts and foram lignings. When possible pollen and fern spores were grouped in four vegetation types: estuarine, tropical, mountain forest and high mountain open treeless vegetation. Pollen is generally corroded and reflects the effects of sediment transportation while reworked material is also common. Good pollen producers such as Poaceae, Asteraceae and Cyperaceae are common and reflect indistinctive vegetation types particularly those associated to riverine systems. Rhizophora/Zonocostites spp. indicate "close-distance" mangrove development. Tropical forest biomes are represented by pollen that resemble Moraceae-Urticaceae, Melastomataceae-Combretaceae, Sapotaceae, Alchornea, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae, Bignoniaceae, Mauritia and Arecaceae. Myrica, and particularly sporadic occurrences of fossil fern spores like Lophosoria, and Cyathea suggest the development of a moist Andean forest in areas above 1000 m. First indicators of high altitudes appear in the last part of late Miocene with taxa associated to current Valeriana and particularly Polylepis, a neotropical taxon

  8. Surface Radiative Fluxes from GOES-E over the Amazon Basin: Model Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, J. C.; Pinker, R. T.; Pereira, E. B.; Martins, F. R.; Kato, H.; de Miranda, R. M.; Wonsick, M.

    2006-12-01

    In this study reported are results from an algorithm intercomparison initiative aimed at the development of improved estimates of surface radiative fluxes from satellite observations over the Amazon Basin. Three algorithms are used: (UMD-SRB, University of Maryland; GL1.2, INPE, Brazil; and Brasil-SR, INPE and University of Santa Catarina, Brazil). The algorithms are physically based, yet differ in their implementation and the way they address issues specific to this region, such as aerosols from biomass burning. Two fifteen day periods in 2005 were selected representing the rainy and dry seasons. The same satellite observations from GOES E were used by all the models. Ground truth from existing stations in the Amazon as well as from a new solar monitoring network of high quality have been used in evaluation. Using daily mean values for the March rainy season, it was found that: 1) the Brasil-SR and UMD-SRB estimates bear a close resemblance; 2) higher irradiances for Petrolina (semi-arid region in Northeast Brazil) are best described by the UMD-SRB and Brasil-SR, probably due to better assessment of water vapor column and absorption parameterization; 3) the GL1.2 results shows a systematic deviation, underestimating daily mean by about 20 Wm-2, but have lower dispersion than UMD-SRB or Brasil-SR; 4) irradiance interval 180 < E < 250 Wm-2 seems better described by GL1.2. This last behavior may be related to better assessment of cloudiness under partial coverage situations. September is characterized by intensive biomass burning in several Brazilian regions, particularly in the Amazon. The Northeast region is not affected by aerosols and estimates from all three models are in close agreement and have similar characteristics to those of March. For the Amazon sites: 1) lower irradiances (for overcast days) are correctly assessed; 2) UMD-SRB and Brasil-SR overestimate solar radiation, especially for higher irradiances (lower cloudiness); 3) GL1.2 model does not include

  9. The Amazon continuum dataset: quantitative metagenomic and metatranscriptomic inventories of the Amazon River plume, June 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satinsky, Brandon M; Zielinski, Brian L; Doherty, Mary; Smith, Christa B; Sharma, Shalabh; Paul, John H; Crump, Byron C; Moran, Mary Ann

    2014-01-01

    The Amazon River is by far the world's largest in terms of volume and area, generating a fluvial export that accounts for about a fifth of riverine input into the world's oceans. Marine microbial communities of the Western Tropical North Atlantic Ocean are strongly affected by the terrestrial materials carried by the Amazon plume, including dissolved (DOC) and particulate organic carbon (POC) and inorganic nutrients, with impacts on primary productivity and carbon sequestration. We inventoried genes and transcripts at six stations in the Amazon River plume during June 2010. At each station, internal standard-spiked metagenomes, non-selective metatranscriptomes, and poly(A)-selective metatranscriptomes were obtained in duplicate for two discrete size fractions (0.2 to 2.0 μm and 2.0 to 156 μm) using 150 × 150 paired-end Illumina sequencing. Following quality control, the dataset contained 360 million reads of approximately 200 bp average size from Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya, and viruses. Bacterial metagenomes and metatranscriptomes were dominated by Synechococcus, Prochlorococcus, SAR11, SAR116, and SAR86, with high contributions from SAR324 and Verrucomicrobia at some stations. Diatoms, green picophytoplankton, dinoflagellates, haptophytes, and copepods dominated the eukaryotic genes and transcripts. Gene expression ratios differed by station, size fraction, and microbial group, with transcription levels varying over three orders of magnitude across taxa and environments. This first comprehensive inventory of microbial genes and transcripts, benchmarked with internal standards for full quantitation, is generating novel insights into biogeochemical processes of the Amazon plume and improving prediction of climate change impacts on the marine biosphere.

  10. Amazon floodplain channels regulate channel-floodplain water exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, P. D.; Baugh, C.; Trigg, M.

    2017-12-01

    We examine the role of floodplain channels in regulating the exchange of water between the Amazon main stem and its extensive floodplains using a combination of field survey, remote sensing and numerical modelling for a 30,000 km2 area around the confluence of the Solimões and Purus rivers. From Landsat imagery we identified 1762 individual floodplain channel reaches with total length of nearly 9300 line km that range in width from 900m to 20m. Using a boat survey we measured width and depth along 509 line km of floodplain channels in 45 separate reaches and used these data to develop geomorphic relationships between width and depth. This enabled reconstruction of the depth of all other channels in the Landsat survey to an RMSE of 2.5m. We then constructed a 2D hydraulic model of this site which included all 9300km of floodplain channels as sub-grid scale features using a recently developed version of the LISFLOOD-FP code. The DEM for the model was derived from a version of the SRTM Digital Elevation Model that was processed to remove vegetation artefacts. The model was run at 270m resolution over the entire 30,000 km2 domain for the period from 2002-2009. Simulations were run with and without floodplain channels to examine the impact of these features on floodplain flow dynamics and storage. Simulated floodplain channel hydraulics were validated against a combination of in-situ and remotely sensed data. Our results show that approximately 100 km3 of water is exchanged between the channel and the floodplain during a typical annual cycle, and 8.5±2.1% of mainstem flows is routed through the floodplain. The overall effect of floodplains channels was to increase the duration of connections between the Amazon River and the floodplain. Inclusion of floodplain channels in the model increased inundation volume by 7.3% - 11.3% at high water, and decreased it at low water by 4.0% - 16.6%, with the range in these estimates due to potential errors in floodplain channel

  11. LBA-ECO LC-07 JERS-1 SAR Wetlands Masks and Land Cover, Amazon Basin: 1995-1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides three Amazon Basin wetland image products: (1) a Central Amazon Wetlands Mask, (2) a Central Amazon Wetlands Vegetative-hydrologic...

  12. LBA-ECO LC-07 JERS-1 SAR Wetlands Masks and Land Cover, Amazon Basin: 1995-1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides three Amazon Basin wetland image products: (1) a Central Amazon Wetlands Mask, (2) a Central Amazon Wetlands Vegetative-hydrologic Land Cover...

  13. Tectonics and paleogeography along the Amazon river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, João Batista Sena; Léa Bemerguy, Ruth; Hasui, Yociteru; da Silva Borges, Maurício

    2001-09-01

    The main structural and geomorphological features along the Amazon River are closely associated with Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonic events. The Mesozoic tectonic setting is characterised by the Amazonas and Marajó Basins, two distinct extensional segments. The Amazonas Basin is formed by NNE-SSW normal faults, which control the emplacement of dolerite dykes and deposition of the sedimentary pile. In the more intense tectonic phase (mid-Late Cretaceous), the depocentres were filled with fluvial sequences associated with axial drainage systems, which diverge from the Lower Tapajós Arch. During the next subsidence phase, probably in the Early Tertiary, and under low rate extension, much of the drainage systems reversed, directing the paleo-Amazon River to flow eastwards. The Marajó Basin encompasses NW-SE normal faults and NE-SW strike-slip faults, with the latter running almost parallel to the extensional axes. The normal faults controlled the deposition of thick rift and post-rift sequences and the emplacement of dolerite dykes. During the evolution of the basin, the shoulder (Gurupá Arch) became distinct, having been modelled by drainage systems strongly controlled by the trend of the strike-slip faults. The Arari Lineament, which marks the northwest boundary of the Marajó Basin, has been working as a linkage corridor between the paleo and modern Amazon River with the Atlantic Ocean. The neotectonic evolution since the Miocene comprises two sets of structural and geomorphological features. The older set (Miocene-Pliocene) encompasses two NE-trending transpressive domains and one NW-trending transtensive domain, which are linked to E-W and NE-SW right-lateral strike-slip systems. The transpressive domains display aligned hills controlled by reverse faults and folds, and are separated by large plains associated with pull-apart basins along clockwise strike-slip systems (e.g. Tupinambarana Lineament). Many changes were introduced in the landscape by the

  14. Evaluation of the immunological and hematological effects of chronic exposure of adult Peromyscus leucopus to Aroclor 1254 at concentrations equivalent to those at contaminated sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, S.R.; Segre, M.; French, J.B.

    2000-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls are known to cause adverse health effects to biological systems; however, limited data is available on their effects on the immune system of wild species. Previous work by our lab found that 4 and 6-week old white-footed mice (Perornyscus leucopus) born from dams injected with a single dose (300 mg/kg) of Aroclor 1254, had altered immunological, hematological, and biochemical responses. The present study examines various immunological parameters of 22-week old white footed mice born from dams chronically exposed to Aroclor 1254 at concentrations equivalent to those at contaminated sites. Females were fed diets containing either Aroclor 1254 in corn oil or corn off only, for 3 months, then bred; pups were maintained on the same diets as their mothers. At 22 weeks of age, 31 of the young Peromyscus were analyzed. Body and organ weights were taken and immune function was evaluated by assessing blood profiles, cellularity of thymus and spleen, antibody response to the antigen DNP-KLH, and the in vitro proliferative response to the T-cell mitogen Conconavalin A (Con A). Liver weights and liver to body weight ratios in the treated mice were significantly higher compared to controls, while the combined weights of the adrenal glands were significantly lower. In addition, the number of thymocytes in the treated mice was significantly lower than that of the controls; however, thymocytes of treated mice had a higher degree of proliferation to Con A. Taken together, these results and those obtained from our previous study, indicate that monitoring of vulnerable immunological parameters in white-footed mice may be a useful indicator of exposure.

  15. Biosphere-Atmosphere Exchange of NOx and O3 in Central Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, K. T.; Swofsy, S. C.; Munger, J. W.; Saleska, S. R.; Rizzo, L. V.; Silva Campos, K.

    2017-12-01

    The primary source of atmospheric OH is the photolysis of O3 in the presence of water vapor. NOx gases are the main precursors of O3 and OH. In NOx-rich environments that have both high humidity and high solar radiation, OH concentrations are enhanced, making tropical forests dominant in global oxidation of long lived gases. The Amazon rain forest has a unique combination of vegetation with diverse characteristics, climate, and a dynamic land use, factors that altogether govern the emission and fate of trace gases, particle formation and atmospheric chemistry. Understanding the interactions among the mechanisms that govern local precursor emissions will lead to a better description of the local atmospheric chemistry and its global impacts. As part of the GoAmazon project, an array of complementary measurements was conducted in a research site in central Amazon, near Santarem (PA, Brazil), inside the Tapajos National Forest. The research site is surrounded by intact rain forest in a 6km radius, and a 45m canopy. The 67m tower was assembled in the site in 2001 for flux measurements (CO2 and H2O). In mid 2014 additional instrumentation were added, measuring NOx, O3, CH4, and SO2 fluxes and profiles. The low concentrations of SO2 (up to 0.1ppb during the peak of the dry season), and a small vertical gradient, suggest the predominance of biogenic sources. O3 show no significant seasonality between the daytime and nighttime vertical profiles, but occasional nighttime high concentrations for levels below canopy were observed. Hourly ozone fluxes suggest a production of O3 under canopy. NO soil emissions are indicated by concentrations in the ppb range for lower profile levels, decreasing to a few hundreds ppt above the canopy, and emission rates of NO from Amazonian soils may be higher than expected from earlier measurements. Daytime data indicate that not all of this NOx escapes to the atmosphere, however. Fluxes of NO average 133x109 molec cm-2 s-1, a factor of 4 higher

  16. Formaldehyde and Glyoxal Measurements as Tracers of Oxidation Chemistry in the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, M. P.; Dorris, M. R.; Keutsch, F. N.; Springston, S. R.; Jimenez, J. L.; Palm, B. B.; Seco, R.; Kim, S.; Yee, L.; Wernis, R. A.; Goldstein, A. H.; Isaacman-VanWertz, G. A.; Liu, Y.; Martin, S. T.

    2015-12-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) and glyoxal (CHOCHO) are important tracers for oxidative processes in the atmosphere such as oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and production of HO2 radicals by photolysis or reaction with OH. Products of VOC oxidation and radical cycling, such as aerosols and tropospheric ozone, have direct impacts on human health. During the Green Ocean Amazon campaign (GoAmazon2014/5), HCHO and CHOCHO measurements were obtained together with OH, RO2+HO2, CO, CO2, O3, NOx, (o)VOCs, and aerosol particle size distribution. HCHO concentration was measured by the Madison FIber Laser-Induced Fluorescence (FILIF) instrument, while CHOCHO concentrations were collected by the Madison Laser-Induced Phosphorescence (Mad-LIP) instrument. Here we present data collected during 2014 at the T3 field site, 60 km to the west of Manaus, Brazil (3°12'47.82"S, 60°35'55.32"W). The T3 GoAmazon site varies between sampling strictly pristine (biogenic) emissions and influence from anthropogenic emissions from Manaus, depending on meteorological conditions. Here we present overall trends and regimes observed during the campaign, with a focus on HCHO, CHOCHO, and related species within the context of VOC oxidation and secondary pollutant production. We acknowledge the support from the Central Office of the Large Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA), the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA), and the Universidade do Estado do Amazonia (UEA). The work was conducted under 001030/2012-4 of the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq). Data were collected from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility, a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science user facility sponsored by the Office of Biological and Environmental Research. Additionally, we acknowledge logistical support from the ARM Climate Research Facility. Additional funding from: NSF GRFP DGE-1256259, and NSF AGS-1051338

  17. The Legal Protection of Ecoturism on Amazon State

    OpenAIRE

    Bárbara Dias Cabral

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the legislation on ecotourism in the Amazon, which stands as polo Brazilian and global ecotourism. An answer search the following questioning: analyzing the social, environmental and cultural aspects, we can say that the Brazilian legal system and legislation promote Amazon Ecotourism? The methodology is deductive, with doctrinal, legislative and interdisciplinary research, as it quotes the thought of some tourismologists, agronomists and environmentalists. There in the ...

  18. Spatial Pattern of Standing Timber Value across the Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Sadia E.; Ewers, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    The Amazon is a globally important system, providing a host of ecosystem services from climate regulation to food sources. It is also home to a quarter of all global diversity. Large swathes of forest are removed each year, and many models have attempted to predict the spatial patterns of this forest loss. The spatial patterns of deforestation are determined largely by the patterns of roads that open access to frontier areas and expansion of the road network in the Amazon is largely determine...

  19. Mining drives extensive deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Sonter, Laura J.; Herrera, Diego; Barrett, Damian J.; Galford, Gillian L.; Moran, Chris J.; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S.

    2017-01-01

    Mining poses significant and potentially underestimated risks to tropical forests worldwide. In Brazil’s Amazon, mining drives deforestation far beyond operational lease boundaries, yet the full extent of these impacts is unknown and thus neglected in environmental licensing. Here we quantify mining-induced deforestation and investigate the aspects of mining operations, which most likely contribute. We find mining significantly increased Amazon forest loss up to 70 km beyond mining lease boun...

  20. Wetlands the primary source of Amazon Basin methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2012-11-01

    The Amazon basin is an important sink of carbon dioxide, but it is also a substantial source of atmospheric methane. Tropical wetlands, including those in the Amazon, are one of the largest sources of biogenic methane and globally represent roughly 13% of annual emissions of the greenhouse gas. Other sources of methane include fossil fuel or biomass burning. Through two intensive atmospheric methane sampling campaigns, Beck et al. determined the sources of Amazonian methane.

  1. Trace elements distribution in bottom sediments from Amazon River estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara, L.B.L.S.; Nadai Fernandes, E. de; Oliveira, H. de; Bacchi, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    The Amazon River discharges into a dynamic marine environment where there have been many interactive processes affecting dissolved and particulate solids, either those settling on the shelf or reaching the ocean. Trace elemental concentration, especially of the rare earth elements, have been determined by neutron activation analysis in sixty bottom sediment samples of the Amazon River estuary, providing information for the spatial and temporal variation study of those elements. (author). 16 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

  2. Reserves Protect against Deforestation Fires in the Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Adeney, J. Marion; Christensen, Norman L.; Pimm, Stuart L.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reserves are the principal means to conserve forests and biodiversity, but the question of whether reserves work is still debated. In the Amazon, fires are closely linked to deforestation, and thus can be used as a proxy for reserve effectiveness in protecting forest cover. We ask whether reserves in the Brazilian Amazon provide effective protection against deforestation and consequently fires, whether that protection is because of their location or their legal status, and whether...

  3. Elemental Mixing State of Dry Season Aerosols in Central Amazonia During GoAmazon2014/15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraund, M. W.; Pham, D.; Bonanno, D.; Harder, T.; Wang, B.; Brito, J.; de Sá, S. S.; Carbone, S.; China, S.; Artaxo, P.; Martin, S. T.; Pöhlker, C.; Andreae, M. O.; Laskin, A.; Gilles, M. K.; Moffet, R.

    2017-12-01

    The extent of aerosol aging as they travel over time and distance is complex and not well understood. To better understand this process, particle samples from three sites in Central Amazonia were collected as part of the Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) field campaign during the dry season of 2014. The sites are as follows: site T3 (near Manacapuru, downwind from metropolitan Manaus), site ZF2 (also TT34, T0t, 80 km north of T3), and the Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO, also T0a, 170 km northwest of T3). With these samples, two techniques were used on the exact same region on each sample. First, Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy/Near Edge Fine Structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS) was used to quantify elemental masses of C, N, and O, followed by Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX) to quantify elemental masses for Na, Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, and Zn. K-means cluster analysis was conducted on data set, which identified 12 particle clusters based on size, and elemental composition. Samples from the ATTO site had the least cluster diversity whereas the other two sampling sites showed an increase in the number of particle classes present. This data also allowed for individual particle diversity and mixing state parameters to be calculated. From this, mixing state parameters were universally high (χ > 0.8) and had a large uncertainty due to the varied particle types identified in clustering. Two diversity populations were also observed, one at 2.4 and another at 3.6 suggesting a distinction between fresh and aged aerosol. The high diversity population wasn't observed at site T3 due to the large number of fresh emissions from Manaus.

  4. Cartography of affections in the Bragantine Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ênio José da Costa Brito

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This communication synthetically presents some elements of Jerônimo Silva e Silva’s ethnographic research. Actually it is the outlines of his doctoral thesis Cartography of affections in the encantaria: religious masters narratives from Bragantine Amazon. Silva lines out an ethnography via a cartographic flow having in mind to capture its live forces or movers. Using hermeneutics data from these narratives and living with some religious agents in situ – Pajé-Exorcista Cristino, Pajé Edvaldo, Mãe Terezinha, Mãe Lourdes, Rezadeira Luiza, Mãe Ana e Experiente Zé Maria – he unveils a plurality of relationships between people and incantation. Using some local technical concepts like corda (rope, linha (line, viração (breeze he discloses a rich social complexity in this religion of the incantation.

  5. Is the Amazon Rainforest Drying Out?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saatchi, S.; Xu, L.; Bloom, A. A.; Konings, A. G.; Yang, Y.; Aragão, L. E.; Fu, R.; Worden, J. R.; Schimel, D.

    2017-12-01

    Hotter droughts are the emerging characteristics of recent climate conditions, causing increased aridity over many land areas, broad-scale die-off, and pervasive mortality in forest ecosystems globally. Using a suite of eco-hydrological measurements from satellite observations combined with ecosystem data assimilation model, we show the Amazon forests, under recent changes in climate, have been consistently losing water in vegetation from increased leaf temperature. These long-term changes have caused a decline in evapotranspiration with consequences of changing the seasonality of precipitation by increasing the dry season length and delaying the wet season arrival. Three severe droughts (2005, 2010, 2015), occurring on the background of this long-term warming have an unprecedented legacy resulting in longer delays in recharging of water storage and recovery of forests after drought induced disturbances (4-5 years after each drought). The paper discusses the evidences of eco-hydrological changes pointing to the drying of forests of Amazonia.

  6. Volatile Organic Compounds and Oxidation Capacity of the Atmosphere in the Brazilian Amazon during the GoAmazon2014/5 Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seco, R.; Jeong, D.; Kim, S.; Park, J. H.; Sjostedt, S. J.; Guenther, A. B.; Smith, J. N.; Liu, Y.; Gu, D.; Bustillos, J. O. V.; Tota, J.; Souza, R. A. F. D.; Martin, S. T.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have key environmental and biological roles, and can influence atmospheric chemistry, secondary aerosol formation, and also regional climate. The GoAmazon2014/5 campaign included measurements of VOCs in pristine to polluted air of the Amazon basin, depending upon the influences from the pollution plumes originating in the city of Manaus, Brazil. Observations at the T3 site in Manacapuru during the second Intensive Operating Period (dry season, August-October 2014) using a Switchable Reagent Ion (SRI)-ToF-MS will be presented to investigate isoprene oxidation processes in a wide spectrum of anthropogenic influences. The SRI capability was utilized to quantify ratios of Methyl Vinyl Ketone (MVK) to Methacrolein (MACR) in order to assess photochemical age of air masses at T3 and examine isoprene peroxy radical reaction pathways as a function of NO levels. Given recently identified ISOPOOH interference to MVK and MACR measurements, the current analysis focus on high NOx conditions when the contribution of ISOPOOH was small. In addition, the results will be critically compared with previously reported relationships between MVK, MACR and isoprene to explore potential systematic analytical interferences that may affect regional OH level estimations. These OH estimates will be evaluated using in-situ OH observations.

  7. Fragmentation of Andes-to-Amazon connectivity by hydropower dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Elizabeth P; Jenkins, Clinton N; Heilpern, Sebastian; Maldonado-Ocampo, Javier A; Carvajal-Vallejos, Fernando M; Encalada, Andrea C; Rivadeneira, Juan Francisco; Hidalgo, Max; Cañas, Carlos M; Ortega, Hernan; Salcedo, Norma; Maldonado, Mabel; Tedesco, Pablo A

    2018-01-01

    Andes-to-Amazon river connectivity controls numerous natural and human systems in the greater Amazon. However, it is being rapidly altered by a wave of new hydropower development, the impacts of which have been previously underestimated. We document 142 dams existing or under construction and 160 proposed dams for rivers draining the Andean headwaters of the Amazon. Existing dams have fragmented the tributary networks of six of eight major Andean Amazon river basins. Proposed dams could result in significant losses in river connectivity in river mainstems of five of eight major systems-the Napo, Marañón, Ucayali, Beni, and Mamoré. With a newly reported 671 freshwater fish species inhabiting the Andean headwaters of the Amazon (>500 m), dams threaten previously unrecognized biodiversity, particularly among endemic and migratory species. Because Andean rivers contribute most of the sediment in the mainstem Amazon, losses in river connectivity translate to drastic alteration of river channel and floodplain geomorphology and associated ecosystem services.

  8. Circulatory disease mortality rates in the elderly and exposure to PM2.5 generated by biomass burning in the Brazilian Amazon in 2005 Mortalidad por enfermedades cardiovasculares en los ancianos y la exposición a PM2,5 como resultado de la quema en la Amazonia brasileña en 2005 Mortalidade por doenças circulatórias na população idosa e exposição a PM2,5 em decorrência das queimadas na Amazônia brasileira em 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Ignotti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the association between the exposure to fine particulate matter and circulatory disease mortality rates in the elderly living in the Brazilian Amazon. An ecological study of circulatory disease, acute myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular disease mortality rates in micro areas of the Brazilian Amazon was carried out. The environmental exposure indicator used was percentage hours of PM2.5 concentrations > 25µg/m³ divided by the total number of estimated hours of PM2.5 in 2005. The association between exposure and circulatory disease mortality rates was strongest in the oldest age group. No significant statistical association was found between cerebrovascular disease mortality rates and exposure. Circulatory disease mortality rates in the elderly living in the Amazon have been influenced by atmospheric pollution from emissions caused by forest fires.El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la asociación entre la exposición a las partículas finas, con tasas de mortalidad por enfermedades cardiovasculares en los ancianos en la Amazonia brasileña. Se trata de un estudio ecológico de las tasas de mortalidad por enfermedades cardiovasculares, el infarto agudo de miocardio y enfermedades cerebrovasculares en las microrregiones brasileñas de la Amazonia. El indicador de la exposición ambiental fue estimado como un porcentaje de horas de PM2,5 > 25µg/m³, dividido por el número total de horas estimado de PM2,5 en 2005. La asociación del indicador de exposición con las tasas de mortalidad para las enfermedades circulatorias fue mayor en el grupo de mayor edad. La tasa de mortalidad por enfermedad cerebrovascular no se asoció con el indicador de exposición. Las enfermedades cardiovasculares en los ancianos que viven en la Amazonia han sido influenciadas por la contaminación atmosférica, causada por las emisiones de los incendios.O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a associação da exposição ao

  9. Socio-ecological costs of Amazon nut and timber production at community household forests in the Bolivian Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Soriano

    Full Text Available The Bolivian Amazon holds a complex configuration of people and forested landscapes in which communities hold secure tenure rights over a rich ecosystem offering a range of livelihood income opportunities. A large share of this income is derived from Amazon nut (Bertholletia excelsa. Many communities also have long-standing experience with community timber management plans. However, livelihood needs and desires for better living conditions may continue to place these resources under considerable stress as income needs and opportunities intensify and diversify. We aim to identify the socioeconomic and biophysical factors determining the income from forests, husbandry, off-farm and two keystone forest products (i.e., Amazon nut and timber in the Bolivian Amazon region. We used structural equation modelling tools to account for the complex inter-relationships between socioeconomic and biophysical factors in predicting each source of income. The potential exists to increase incomes from existing livelihood activities in ways that reduce dependency upon forest resources. For example, changes in off-farm income sources can act to increase or decrease forest incomes. Market accessibility, social, financial, and natural and physical assets determined the amount of income community households could derive from Amazon nut and timber. Factors related to community households' local ecological knowledge, such as the number of non-timber forest products harvested and the number of management practices applied to enhance Amazon nut production, defined the amount of income these households could derive from Amazon nut and timber, respectively. The (inter relationships found among socioeconomic and biophysical factors over income shed light on ways to improve forest-dependent livelihoods in the Bolivian Amazon. We believe that our analysis could be applicable to other contexts throughout the tropics as well.

  10. Socio-ecological costs of Amazon nut and timber production at community household forests in the Bolivian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohren, Frits; Ascarrunz, Nataly; Dressler, Wolfram; Peña-Claros, Marielos

    2017-01-01

    The Bolivian Amazon holds a complex configuration of people and forested landscapes in which communities hold secure tenure rights over a rich ecosystem offering a range of livelihood income opportunities. A large share of this income is derived from Amazon nut (Bertholletia excelsa). Many communities also have long-standing experience with community timber management plans. However, livelihood needs and desires for better living conditions may continue to place these resources under considerable stress as income needs and opportunities intensify and diversify. We aim to identify the socioeconomic and biophysical factors determining the income from forests, husbandry, off-farm and two keystone forest products (i.e., Amazon nut and timber) in the Bolivian Amazon region. We used structural equation modelling tools to account for the complex inter-relationships between socioeconomic and biophysical factors in predicting each source of income. The potential exists to increase incomes from existing livelihood activities in ways that reduce dependency upon forest resources. For example, changes in off-farm income sources can act to increase or decrease forest incomes. Market accessibility, social, financial, and natural and physical assets determined the amount of income community households could derive from Amazon nut and timber. Factors related to community households’ local ecological knowledge, such as the number of non-timber forest products harvested and the number of management practices applied to enhance Amazon nut production, defined the amount of income these households could derive from Amazon nut and timber, respectively. The (inter) relationships found among socioeconomic and biophysical factors over income shed light on ways to improve forest-dependent livelihoods in the Bolivian Amazon. We believe that our analysis could be applicable to other contexts throughout the tropics as well. PMID:28235090

  11. Regression based modeling of vegetation and climate variables for the Amazon rainforests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodali, A.; Khandelwal, A.; Ganguly, S.; Bongard, J.; Das, K.

    2015-12-01

    Both short-term (weather) and long-term (climate) variations in the atmosphere directly impact various ecosystems on earth. Forest ecosystems, especially tropical forests, are crucial as they are the largest reserves of terrestrial carbon sink. For example, the Amazon forests are a critical component of global carbon cycle storing about 100 billion tons of carbon in its woody biomass. There is a growing concern that these forests could succumb to precipitation reduction in a progressively warming climate, leading to release of significant amount of carbon in the atmosphere. Therefore, there is a need to accurately quantify the dependence of vegetation growth on different climate variables and obtain better estimates of drought-induced changes to atmospheric CO2. The availability of globally consistent climate and earth observation datasets have allowed global scale monitoring of various climate and vegetation variables such as precipitation, radiation, surface greenness, etc. Using these diverse datasets, we aim to quantify the magnitude and extent of ecosystem exposure, sensitivity and resilience to droughts in forests. The Amazon rainforests have undergone severe droughts twice in last decade (2005 and 2010), which makes them an ideal candidate for the regional scale analysis. Current studies on vegetation and climate relationships have mostly explored linear dependence due to computational and domain knowledge constraints. We explore a modeling technique called symbolic regression based on evolutionary computation that allows discovery of the dependency structure without any prior assumptions. In symbolic regression the population of possible solutions is defined via trees structures. Each tree represents a mathematical expression that includes pre-defined functions (mathematical operators) and terminal sets (independent variables from data). Selection of these sets is critical to computational efficiency and model accuracy. In this work we investigate

  12. Serosurvey for selected viral infections in free-ranging jaguars (Panthera onca) and domestic carnivores in Brazilian Cerrado, Pantanal, and Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Mariana Malzoni; de Ramos Filho, José Domingues; Scheffer, Karin Corrêa; Coelho, Claudio José; Cruz, Paula Sônia; Ikuta, Cassia Yumi; Jácomo, Anah Tereza de Almeida; Porfírio, Grasiela Edith de Oliveira; Silveira, Leandro; Sollmann, Rahel; Tôrres, Natália Mundim; Ferreira Neto, José Soares

    2013-07-01

    We investigated the exposure of jaguar (Panthera onca) populations and domestic carnivores to selected viral infections in the Cerrado, Amazon, and Pantanal biomes of Brazil. Between February 2000 and January 2010, we collected serum samples from 31 jaguars, 174 dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), and 35 domestic cats (Felis catus). Serologic analyses for antibodies to rabies virus, canine distemper virus (CDV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen were conducted. The jaguars from Cerrado and Pantantal were exposed to rabies virus, while the jaguars from the Pantanal and the dogs from all three areas were exposed to CDV. Two cats from the Amazonian site were antigen-positive for FeLV, but no jaguars had FeLV antigen or FIV antibody. Canine distemper and rabies viruses should be carefully monitored and considered potential threats to these jaguar populations. Currently FIV and FeLV do not appear to represent a health threat for jaguar populations in this area. Domestic dogs and cats in these areas should be vaccinated, and the movement of domestic animals around protected areas should be restricted.

  13. Prenatal Organochlorine and Methylmercury Exposure and Memory and Learning in School-Age Children in Communities Near the New Bedford Harbor Superfund Site, Massachusetts

    OpenAIRE

    Orenstein, Sara T.C.; Thurston, Sally W.; Bellinger, David C.; Schwartz, Joel D.; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra J.; Altshul, Larisa M.; Korrick, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides, and methylmercury (MeHg) are environmentally persistent with adverse effects on neurodevelopment. However, especially among populations with commonly experienced low levels of exposure, research on neurodevelopmental effects of these toxicants has produced conflicting results. Objectives: We assessed the association of low-level prenatal exposure to these contaminants with memory and learning. Methods: We studied 393 chi...

  14. Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15 Manaus Pollution Study Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keutsch, Frank N. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This work was part of the larger Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15 (GOAmazon 2014/15) experiment, which extended through the wet and dry seasons from January 2014 through December 2015 and which took place around the urban region of Manaus, Brazil in central Amazonia. This work was conducted as part of this experiment at the main U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility ground research site “T3” circa 100 km west of Manaus during two intensive operational periods, “IOP1” and “IOP2” (February 1 to March 31, 2014, and August 15 to October 15, 2014, respectively). Funding for this work was provided by the National Science Foundation AGS 1321987/1628491. The GoAmazon experiment was designed to enable the study of how aerosols and surface fluxes influence cloud cycles under clean conditions, as well as how aerosol and cloud life cycles, including cloud-aerosol-precipitation interactions, are influenced by pollutant outflow from a tropical megacity. These observations provide a data set vital to constrain tropical rain forest model parameterizations for organic aerosols, cloud and convection schemes, and terrestrial vegetation components and how these are perturbed by pollution. Research objectives specific to this work and the T3 ground site included studies of how outflow of pollution from Manaus modulated the photochemically driven conversion of emitted precursors to aerosol precursors and aerosol.

  15. Face to face versus Facebook: does exposure to social networking web sites augment or attenuate physiological arousal among the socially anxious?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Shannon M; Strobel, Cara; Bella, Megan; Odachowski, Zachary; Bloom, Christopher

    2014-03-01

    The present study tested two competing hypotheses about the effect of Facebook exposure on the physiological arousal level of participants who then encountered the stimulus person in a face-to-face situation. Facebook exposure may attenuate later arousal by providing increased comfort and confidence, but it is also possible that Facebook exposure will augment arousal, particularly among the socially anxious. Participants completed a measure of social anxiety and were exposed to a stimulus person via Facebook, face to face, or both. Galvanic skin response was recorded during the exposures to the stimulus person. Results were consistent with the augmentation hypothesis: a prior exposure on Facebook will lead to increased arousal during a face-to-face encounter, particularly for those high in social anxiety.

  16. Reconstruction of local fallout composition and gamma-ray exposure in a village contaminated by the first USSR nuclear test in the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanaka, Tetsuji; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Kawai, Kenta; Sakaguchi, Aya; Hoshi, Masaharu; Chaizhunusova, Nailya; Apsalikov, Kazbek

    2010-11-01

    After the disintegration of the USSR in end of 1991, it became possible for foreign scientists to visit Kazakhstan, in order to investigate the radiological consequences of nuclear explosions that had been conducted at the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (SNTS). Since the first visit in 1994, our group has been continuing expeditions for soil sampling at various areas around SNTS. The current level of local fallout at SNTS was studied through γ-spectrometry for (137)Cs as well as α-spectrometry for (239,240)Pu. Average values of soil inventory from wide areas around SNTS were 3,500 and 3,700 Bq m(-2) for (137)Cs and (239,240)Pu, respectively, as of January 1, 2000. The average level of (137)Cs is comparable to that in Japan due to global fallout, while the level of (239,240)Pu is several tens of times larger than that in Japan. Areas of strong contamination were found along the trajectories of radioactive fallout, information on which was declassified after the collapse of the USSR. Our recent efforts of soil sampling were concentrated on the area around the Dolon village heavily affected by the radioactive plume from the first USSR atomic bomb test in 1949 and located 110 km east from ground zero of the explosion. Using soil inventory data, retrospective dosimetry was attempted by reconstructing γ-ray exposure from fission product nuclides deposited on the ground. Adopting representative parameters for the initial (137)Cs deposition (13 kBq m(-2)), the refractory/volatile deposition ratio (3.8) and the plume arrival time after explosion (2.5 h), an absorbed dose in air of 600 mGy was obtained for the 1-year cumulative dose in Dolon village, due to the first bomb test in 1949. Considering possible ranges of the parameters, 350 and 910 mGy were estimated for high and low cases of γ-ray dose in air, respectively. It was encouraging that the deduced value was consistent with other estimations using thermal luminescence and archived monitoring data. The present

  17. Black and brown carbon over central Amazonia: Long-term aerosol measurements at the ATTO site

    OpenAIRE

    Saturno, Jorge; Holanda, Bruna A.; Pöhlker, Christopher; Ditas, Florian; Wang, Qiaoqiao; Moran-Zuloaga, Daniel; Brito, Joel; Carbone, Samara; Cheng, Yafang; Chi, Xuguang; Ditas, Jeannine; Hoffmann, Thorsten; Hrabe de Angelis, Isabella; Könemann, Tobias; Lavrič, Jošt V.

    2017-01-01

    The Amazon rain forest is considered a very sensitive ecosystem that could be significantly affected by a changing climate. It is still one of the few places on Earth where the atmosphere in the continent approaches near-pristine conditions for some periods of the year. The Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO) has been built in central Amazonia to monitor the atmospheric and forest ecosystem conditions. The atmospheric conditions at the ATTO site oscillate between biogenic and biomass burning...

  18. Antioxidant activity and potential photoprotective from amazon native flora extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Francislene J; Caneschi, César A; Vieira, José L F; Barbosa, Wagner; Raposo, Nádia R B

    2016-08-01

    Plant species are sources of active compounds that can fight and/or prevent damage caused by reactive oxygen species, which enables the development of natural products that can help to prevent premature aging caused by exposure to solar radiation. This study assessed the antioxidant and photoprotective activities of six dried extracts of plants from the Brazilian Amazon biome. Plant extracts were prepared in 70% (v/v) ethanol by dynamic maceration for 72h in the dark, and then filtered, concentrated and lyophilized. The extracts were subjected to a phytochemical screening. The antioxidant activity was measured using a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay and the photoprotection assay was performed using the diffuse transmittance technique. The data obtained from the antioxidant activity assay was evaluated by Student's t-test for independent samples, with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences v.14.0 for Windows software. The flavonoids represent a special metabolites class present in all analyzed extracts. The antioxidant activity (μgmL(-1)) decreased in the following order: Aniba canelilla (1.80±0.16), Brosimum acutifolium (2.84±0.38), Dalbergia monetaria (5.46±0.17) or Caesalpinia pyramidalis (6.45±1.18), Arrabidaea chica (15.35±0.86), and Aspidosperma nitidum (99.14±2.3). Only D. monetaria showed a considerable sun protection factor allowing for labeling (6.0±0.3). The D. monetaria extract was considered the most promising sample because it had optimal antioxidant and photoprotective activities against solar radiation, considering the limit established by regulatory agencies. These extracts with antioxidant potential can be used in photoprotective formulations, providing synergistic photoprotective effect or elevating the adeed value of the product. Additionally, these formulations are attractive to a population who searchs for products made with natural ingredients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. LBA-ECO CD-01 Meteorological Data, Tapajos and Amazon Rivers, Santarem, Brazil: 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains meteorological data collected around the confluence of the Tapajos River with the Amazon River in the Amazon Basin near Santarem, Brazil, in...

  20. LBA-ECO CD-01 Meteorological Data, Tapajos and Amazon Rivers, Santarem, Brazil: 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains meteorological data collected around the confluence of the Tapajos River with the Amazon River in the Amazon Basin near Santarem,...

  1. 77 FR 14852 - Advanced Growing Systems, Inc., Advantage Capital Development Corp., Amazon Biotech, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] Advanced Growing Systems, Inc., Advantage Capital Development Corp., Amazon Biotech, Inc., Andover Holdings, Inc. a/k/a Andover Energy Holdings, Inc... securities of Amazon [[Page 14853

  2. LBA-ECO LC-07 Amazon Floodplain Lake Chlorophyll from MODIS, Para, Brazil: 2002-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set, LBA-ECO LC-07 Amazon Floodplain Lake Chlorophyll from MODIS, Para, Brazil: 2002-2003, contains chlorophyll concentration maps of the Amazon River...

  3. Granular cell tumor in an endangered Puerto Rican Amazon parrot (Amazon vittata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quist, C.F.; Latimer, K.S.; Goldade, S.L.; Rivera, A.; Dein, F.J.

    1999-01-01

    A 3 cm diameter mass from the metacarpus of a Puerto Rican Amazon parrot was diagnosed as a granular cell tumour based on light microscopy. The cytoplasmic granules were periodic-acid Schiff positive and diastase resistant. Ultrastructural characteristics of the cells included convoluted nuclei and the presence of numerous cytoplasmic tertiary lysosomes. This is only the second granular cell tumour reported in a bird. We speculate that most granular cell tumours are derived from cells that are engaged in some type of cellular degradative process, creating a similar morphologic appearance, but lacking a uniform histogenesis.

  4. Mercury loss from soils following conversion from forest to pasture in Rondonia, Western Amazon, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Marcelo D.; Lacerda, Luiz D.; Bastos, Wanderley R.; Herrmann, Joao Carlos

    2005-01-01

    This work reports on the effect of land use change on Hg distribution in Amazon soils. It provides a comparison among Hg concentrations and distribution along soil profiles under different land use categories; primary tropical forest, slashed forest prior to burning, a 1-year silviculture plot planted after 4 years of forest removal and a 5-year-old pasture plot. Mercury concentrations were highest in deeper (60-80 cm) layers in all four plots. Forest soils showed the highest Hg concentrations, ranging from 128 ng g -1 at the soil surface to 150 ng g -1 at 60-80 cm of depth. Lower concentrations were found in pasture soils, ranging from 69 ng g -1 at the topsoil to 135 ng g -1 at 60-80 cm of depth. Slashed and silviculture soils showed intermediate concentrations. Differences among plots of different soil-use categories decreased with soil depth, being non-significant below 60 cm of depth. Mercury burdens were only statistically significantly different between pasture and forest soils at the topsoil, due to the large variability of concentrations. Consequently, estimated Hg losses were only significant between these two land use categories, and only for the surface layers. Estimated Hg loss due to forest conversion to pasture ranged from 8.5 mg m -2 to 18.5 mg m -2 , for the first 20 cm of the soil profile. Mercury loss was comparable to loss rates estimated for other Amazon sites and seems to be directly related to Hg concentrations present in soils. - Deforestation can be responsible for maintaining high Hg levels in the Amazon environment, through a grasshopper effect of Hg remobilization from the affected soils

  5. Programming Amazon Web Services S3, EC2, SQS, FPS, and SimpleDB

    CERN Document Server

    Murty, James

    2009-01-01

    With this book, you'll learn how companies can take advantage of Amazon Web Services (AWS) to rent" computing power, data storage and bandwidth on Amazon's vast network infrastructure. Programming Amazon Web Services gives developers the background and technical detail they need for using Amazon's subscription-based Simple Storage Service (S3), Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2), Simple Queue Service (SQS), Flexible Payments Service (FPS), and SimpleDB to build web-scale business applications. "

  6. DDT concentration in fish from the Tapajós River in the Amazon region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Rosivaldo de Alcântara; Lopes, Anna Sylmara da Costa; de Souza, Larissa Costa; Lima, Marcelo de Oliveira; Santos, Lourivaldo da Silva

    2016-06-01

    DDT and metabolites were measured in six species of fish collected from the Tapajós River in the village of Barreiras, near the town of Itaituba in the Brazilian Amazon region. The selected fish were the most consumed and economically important to the local people. DDT was used frequently in this region for malaria control. Fish samples were analyzed after extraction by microwave-assisted extraction in hexane/acetone (8:2, v/v) by gas chromatography with electron capture detector. Residues of op'-DDT and pp'-DDT and metabolites were detected, including pp'-DDE, pp'-DDD, op'-DDT, and op'-DDE, in 98% of the samples, with a greater abundance of pp'-DDT. Total DDT levels were 7.1-249.5 ng g(-1) wet weight (w.w). The DDE/DDT ratio was low, indicating recent exposure to DDT. The study area that may be related to generated waste used in public health campaigns to combat mosquitos (Anopheles spp.), still present in the Amazon environment, that transmit malaria. DDT levels and metabolites found in fish species do not present risks to human health because they are below acceptable limits for consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The influence of the Amazonian floodplain ecosystems on the trace element dynamics of the Amazon River mainstem (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viers, Jérôme; Barroux, Guénaël; Pinelli, Marcello; Seyler, Patrick; Oliva, Priscia; Dupré, Bernard; Boaventura, Geraldo Resende

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to forecast the role of riverine wetlands in the transfer of trace elements. One of the largest riverine wetlands in the world is the floodplain (várzea) of the Amazon River and its tributaries (Junk and Piedade, 1997). The central Amazon wetlands are constituted by a complex network of lakes and floodplains, named várzeas, that extend over more than 300,000 km2 (Junk, W.J., The Amazon floodplain--a sink or source for organic carbon? In Transport of Carbon and Minerals in Major World Rivers, edited by E.T. Degens, S. Kempe, R. Herrera, SCOPE/UNEP; 267-283, 1985.) and are among the most productive ecosystems in the world due to the regular enrichment in nutrients by river waters In order to understand if the adjacent floodplain of Amazon River have a significant influence on the trace element concentrations and fluxes of the mainstem, the concentrations of selected elements (i.e., Al, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Mo, Rb, Sr, Ba, and U) have been measured in the Amazon River water (Manacapuru Station, Amazonas State, Brazil) and in lake waters and plants (leaves) from a várzea(Ilha de Marchantaria, Amazonas State, Brazil) during different periods of the hydrological cycle. Four plant species (two perennial species: Pseudobombax munguba and Salix humboldtiana, and two annual herbaceous plants: Echinochloa polystachya and Eichhornia crassipes) were selected to represent the ecological functioning of the site. Time series obtained for dissolved Mn and Cu (River water could not be explained by tributary mixing or instream processes only. Therefore, the contribution of the waters transiting the floodplains should be considered. These results suggest that the chemical composition of the waters draining these floodplains is controlled by reactions occurring at sediment-water and plant-water interfaces. Trace elements concentrations in the plants (leaves) vary strongly with hydrological seasonality. Based on the concentration data and the biological

  8. Carbon Emissions from Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, C.; Klooster, S.; Genovese, V.

    2009-01-01

    A simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation greenness from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to estimate monthly carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado regions over the period 2000-2002. The NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) model estimates of annual forest production were used for the first time as the basis to generate a prediction for the standing pool of carbon in above-ground biomass (AGB; gC/sq m) for forested areas of the Brazilian Amazon region. Plot-level measurements of the residence time of carbon in wood in Amazon forest from Malhi et al. (2006) were interpolated by inverse distance weighting algorithms and used with CASA to generate a new regional map of AGB. Data from the Brazilian PRODES (Estimativa do Desflorestamento da Amazonia) project were used to map deforested areas. Results show that net primary production (NPP) sinks for carbon varied between 4.25 Pg C/yr (1 Pg=10(exp 15)g) and 4.34 Pg C for the region and were highest across the eastern and northern Amazon areas, whereas deforestation sources of CO2 flux from decomposition of residual woody debris were higher and less seasonal in the central Amazon than in the eastern and southern areas. Increased woody debris from past deforestation events was predicted to alter the net ecosystem carbon balance of the Amazon region to generate annual CO2 source fluxes at least two times higher than previously predicted by CASA modeling studies. Variations in climate, land cover, and forest burning were predicted to release carbon at rates of 0.5 to 1 Pg C/yr from the Brazilian Amazon. When direct deforestation emissions of CO2 from forest burning of between 0.2 and 0.6 Pg C/yr in the Legal Amazon are overlooked in regional budgets, the year-to-year variations in this net biome flux may appear to be large, whereas our model results implies net biome fluxes had actually been relatively consistent from

  9. The impact of Amazonian deforestation on Amazon basin rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spracklen, D. V.; Garcia-Carreras, L.

    2015-11-01

    We completed a meta-analysis of regional and global climate model simulations (n = 96) of the impact of Amazonian deforestation on Amazon basin rainfall. Across all simulations, mean (±1σ) change in annual mean Amazon basin rainfall was -12 ± 11%. Variability in simulated rainfall was not explained by differences in model resolution or surface parameters. Across all simulations we find a negative linear relationship between rainfall and deforestation extent, although individual studies often simulate a nonlinear response. Using the linear relationship, we estimate that deforestation in 2010 has reduced annual mean rainfall across the Amazon basin by 1.8 ± 0.3%, less than the interannual variability in observed rainfall. This may explain why a reduction in Amazon rainfall has not consistently been observed. We estimate that business-as-usual deforestation (based on deforestation rates prior to 2004) would lead to an 8.1 ± 1.4% reduction in annual mean Amazon basin rainfall by 2050, greater than natural variability.

  10. Methane emissions from floodplain trees of the Amazon basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangala, Sunitha; Bastviken, David; Enrich-Prast, Alex; Gauci, Vincent

    2016-04-01

    Wetlands are the largest source of methane to the atmosphere, but emission estimates are highly uncertain leading to large discrepancies between emission inventories and much larger estimates of the Amazon methane source derived at larger scales. We examined methane emissions from all emission pathways including aquatic surfaces, emergent soils and herbaceous vegetation and more than 2000 trees from 13 locations across the central Amazon floodplain in 2014. Our data are the first measurements of stem emission from emergent portions of inundated trees in the Amazon and they demonstrate that regionally, tree stems are the dominant means of emissions for soil produced methane to the atmosphere. Emissions via the range of egress pathways varied substantially between sample locations and water-table exerted some control over emissions from ~2m below the soil surface upto 0.5-1m of inundation. Higher water (upto ~10m of inundation) exerted no further control over emissions. Applying our measurements to models of whole tree emission and scaling to the entire Amazon lowland basin demonstrates the significant contribution of trees to regional emissions that can close the Amazon basin methane budget.

  11. Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15 High-Volume Filter Sampling: Atmospheric Particulate Matter of an Amazon Tropical City and its Relationship to Population Health Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, C. M. [Federal Univ. of Amazonas (Brazil); Santos, Erickson O. [Federal Univ. of Amazonas (Brazil); Fernandes, Karenn S. [Federal Univ. of Amazonas (Brazil); Neto, J. L. [Federal Univ. of Amazonas (Brazil); Souza, Rodrigo A. [Univ. of the State of Amazonas (Brazil)

    2016-08-01

    Manaus, the capital of the Brazilian state of Amazonas, is developing very rapidly. Its pollution plume contains aerosols from fossil fuel combustion mainly due to vehicular emission, industrial activity, and a thermal power plant. Soil resuspension is probably a secondary source of atmospheric particles. The plume transports from Manaus to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility ARM site at Manacapuru urban pollutants as well as pollutants from pottery factories along the route of the plume. Considering the effects of particulate matter on health, atmospheric particulate matter was evaluated at this site as part of the ARM Facility’s Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15 (GoAmazon 2014/15) field campaign. Aerosol or particulate matter (PM) is typically defined by size, with the smaller particles having more health impact. Total suspended particulate (TSP) are particles smaller than 100 μm; particles smaller than 2.5 μm are called PM2.5. In this work, the PM2.5 levels were obtained from March to December of 2015, totaling 34 samples and TSP levels from October to December of 2015, totaling 17 samples. Sampling was conducted with PM2.5 and TSP high-volume samplers using quartz filters (Figure 1). Filters were stored during 24 hours in a room with temperature (21,1ºC) and humidity (44,3 %) control, in order to do gravimetric analyses by weighing before and after sampling. This procedure followed the recommendations of the Brazilian Association for Technical Standards local norm (NBR 9547:1997). Mass concentrations of particulate matter were obtained from the ratio between the weighted sample and the volume of air collected. Defining a relationship between particulate matter (PM2.5 and TSP) and respiratory diseases of the local population is an important goal of this project, since no information exists on that topic.

  12. Branch xylem density variations across the Amazon Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Patiño

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Xylem density is a physical property of wood that varies between individuals, species and environments. It reflects the physiological strategies of trees that lead to growth, survival and reproduction. Measurements of branch xylem density, ρx, were made for 1653 trees representing 598 species, sampled from 87 sites across the Amazon basin. Measured values ranged from 218 kg m−3 for a Cordia sagotii (Boraginaceae from Mountagne de Tortue, French Guiana to 1130 kg m−3 for an Aiouea sp. (Lauraceae from Caxiuana, Central Pará, Brazil. Analysis of variance showed significant differences in average ρx across regions and sampled plots as well as significant differences between families, genera and species. A partitioning of the total variance in the dataset showed that species identity (family, genera and species accounted for 33% with environment (geographic location and plot accounting for an additional 26%; the remaining "residual" variance accounted for 41% of the total variance. Variations in plot means, were, however, not only accountable by differences in species composition because xylem density of the most widely distributed species in our dataset varied systematically from plot to plot. Thus, as well as having a genetic component, branch xylem density is a plastic trait that, for any given species, varies according to where the tree is growing in a predictable manner. Within the analysed taxa, exceptions to this general rule seem to be pioneer species belonging for example to the Urticaceae whose branch xylem density is more constrained than most species sampled in this study. These patterns of variation of branch xylem density across Amazonia suggest a large functional diversity amongst Amazonian trees which is not well understood.

  13. Branch xylem density variations across the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiño, S.; Lloyd, J.; Paiva, R.; Baker, T. R.; Quesada, C. A.; Mercado, L. M.; Schmerler, J.; Schwarz, M.; Santos, A. J. B.; Aguilar, A.; Czimczik, C. I.; Gallo, J.; Horna, V.; Hoyos, E. J.; Jimenez, E. M.; Palomino, W.; Peacock, J.; Peña-Cruz, A.; Sarmiento, C.; Sota, A.; Turriago, J. D.; Villanueva, B.; Vitzthum, P.; Alvarez, E.; Arroyo, L.; Baraloto, C.; Bonal, D.; Chave, J.; Costa, A. C. L.; Herrera, R.; Higuchi, N.; Killeen, T.; Leal, E.; Luizão, F.; Meir, P.; Monteagudo, A.; Neil, D.; Núñez-Vargas, P.; Peñuela, M. C.; Pitman, N.; Priante Filho, N.; Prieto, A.; Panfil, S. N.; Rudas, A.; Salomão, R.; Silva, N.; Silveira, M.; Soares Dealmeida, S.; Torres-Lezama, A.; Vásquez-Martínez, R.; Vieira, I.; Malhi, Y.; Phillips, O. L.

    2009-04-01

    Xylem density is a physical property of wood that varies between individuals, species and environments. It reflects the physiological strategies of trees that lead to growth, survival and reproduction. Measurements of branch xylem density, ρx, were made for 1653 trees representing 598 species, sampled from 87 sites across the Amazon basin. Measured values ranged from 218 kg m-3 for a Cordia sagotii (Boraginaceae) from Mountagne de Tortue, French Guiana to 1130 kg m-3 for an Aiouea sp. (Lauraceae) from Caxiuana, Central Pará, Brazil. Analysis of variance showed significant differences in average ρx across regions and sampled plots as well as significant differences between families, genera and species. A partitioning of the total variance in the dataset showed that species identity (family, genera and species) accounted for 33% with environment (geographic location and plot) accounting for an additional 26%; the remaining "residual" variance accounted for 41% of the total variance. Variations in plot means, were, however, not only accountable by differences in species composition because xylem density of the most widely distributed species in our dataset varied systematically from plot to plot. Thus, as well as having a genetic component, branch xylem density is a plastic trait that, for any given species, varies according to where the tree is growing in a predictable manner. Within the analysed taxa, exceptions to this general rule seem to be pioneer species belonging for example to the Urticaceae whose branch xylem density is more constrained than most species sampled in this study. These patterns of variation of branch xylem density across Amazonia suggest a large functional diversity amongst Amazonian trees which is not well understood.

  14. Assessment of {sup 222}Rn occupational exposure at IPEN nuclear materials storage site, SP, Brazil; Avaliacao da exposicao ocupacional ao {sup 222}Rn no galpao da Salvaguardas do IPEN, SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caccuri, Lilian Saueia

    2007-07-01

    In this study it was assessed the occupational exposure to {sup 222}Rn at IPEN, SP, Brazil, nuclear materials storage site through the committed effective dose received by workers exposed to this radionuclide. The radiation dose was calculated through the radon concentrations at nuclear materials storage site. Radon concentrations were determined by passive detection method with solid state nuclear detectors (SSNTD). The SSNTD used in this study was the polycarbonate Makrofol E; each detector is a small square plastic of 1 cm{sup 2}, placed into a diffusion chamber type KFK. It was monitored 14 points at nuclear materials storage site and one external point, over a period of 21 months, changing the detectors every three months, from December 2004 to September 2006. The {sup 222}Rn concentrations varied from 196 {+-} 9 and 2048 {+-} 81 Bq{center_dot}m{sup -3}. The committed effective dose due to radon inhalation at IPEN nuclear materials storage site was obtained from radon activity incorporated and dose conversion factor, according to International Commission on Radiological Protection procedures. The effective committed dose received by workers is below 20 mSv{center_dot}y{sup -1}. This value is suggested as an annual effective dose limit for occupational exposure by ICRP 60. (author)

  15. Carbon Tetrachloride Emissions from the Amazon Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, K.; Chambers, J. Q.; Higuchi, N.; Jardine, A. B.; Martin, S. T.; Manzi, A. O.

    2014-12-01

    As a chemically inert greenhouse gas in the troposphere with lifetimes up to 50 years but active in ozone destruction in the stratosphere, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) plays a major role in the atmospheric chlorine budget and is widely considered strictly of anthropogenic origin deriving from numerous industrial processes and products. However, satellite remote sensing studies have shown higher concentrations at the Equator, and earlier work has suggested possible biogenic sources. Here we present highly vertically-resolved atmospheric gradients of CCl4 within and above a primary rainforest ecosystem from three towers in the Central Amazon. The observed buildup of CCl4 mixing ratios near the top of the main canopies provides new evidence for a potentially large biogenic source from the Basin. By demonstrating the need to represent tropical forests as biogenic sources of CCl4, our study may help narrow the gap between remote sensing observations of CCl4 and emission, chemistry, and transport models and therefore lead to improved predictions of its role in atmospheric chemistry and climate.

  16. Physicochemical parameters of Amazon Melipona honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Bicudo de Almeida-Muradian

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Stingless bees produce a honey that is different from the Apis honey in terms of composition. There aren't enough data to establish quality control parameters for this product, mainly due to lack of research results. The aim of this work is to evaluate some physicochemical parameters that can be used for the characterization and for the quality control of the Meliponinae honey. Four different samples were collected in the Amazon region of Brazil in 2004 (Melipona compressipes manaoense bee and Melipona seminigra merribae bee. Honey analyses were performed as described by the official methods. The mean results were: moisture (30.13%, pH (3.65, acidity (24.57 mEq/kg, water activity (0.75, fructose (31.91%, glucose (29.30% and sucrose (0.19%. These results reinforce the need for a specific regulation for stingless bee honey. This will only be feasible when enough data is available to establish upper and lower limits for the physicochemical parameters used for quality control.

  17. Four years of ozone measurements in the Central Amazon - Absorption mechanisms and reactions within the rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Stefan; Ganzeveld, Laurens; Tsokankunku, Anywhere; Saturno, Jorge; Souza, Rodrigo; Trebs, Ivonne; Sörgel, Matthias

    2017-04-01

    The ATTO (Amazon Tall Tower Observatory) site (02°08'38.8''S, 58°59'59.5''W) is located in the remote Amazon rainforest, allowing atmospheric and forest studies away from nearby anthropogenic emission sources. Starting with continuous measurements of vertical mixing ratio profiles of H2O, CO2 and O3 in April 2012 at 8 heights between 0.05 m and 80 m above ground, the longest continuous record of near surface O3 in the Amazon rainforest was established. Black carbon (BC), CO and micrometeorological measurements are available for the same period. During intensive campaigns, NOx was measured as well using the same profile system, and therefore several month of parallel NOx measurements are available. This data allows the analyses of diverse patterns regarding emission, deposition, turbulence and chemical reactions of trace gases within and above the rainforest for several rainy and dry seasons. The remote Amazon generally serves as a sink for O3 which is mainly deposited to the canopy. The deposition depends to a large extent on the aperture of the leaf stomata, which is correlated to temperature, humidity, solar radiation and water availability. Comparing these parameters with the in-canopy and above canopy gradients of O3, considering the turbulent conditions and further chemical reactions of O3 with NOx and VOC molecules, we estimated the role of the forest for the removal of ozone from the atmosphere under different meteorological conditions. We applied the Multi-Layer Canopy Chemical Exchange Model - MLC-CHEM to support the analysis of the observed profiles of NOx and O3. Under pristine conditions, the forest soil is the major source for NO emissions, which are directly reacting with O3 molecules, affecting the O3 gradient within the sub-canopy. We have analyzed differences between model and measurements in sub-canopy NO and O3 mixing ratios by the application of different NO soil emission scenarios and by the performance of several sensitivity analyses to

  18. Canopy spectral and chemical diversity from lowland to tree line in the Western Amazon using CAO-VSWIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R. E.; Asner, G. P.

    2012-12-01

    Canopy chemistry and spectroscopy offer insight into community assembly and ecosystem processes in high-diversity tropical forests. Results from one lowland site in the Peruvian Amazon suggests both an environmental and an evolutionary component of canopy trait development however, the degree to which larger environmental differences influence diversity in canopy traits and their respective spectroscopic signatures across remains poorly understood. The spectranomics approach explicitly connects phylogenetic, chemical and spectral patterns in tropical canopies providing the basis for analysis, while high-fidelity, airborne remote sensing measurements extend plot-level data to landscape-scale, achieving a comprehensive view of the region. In 2011, the Carnegie Airborne Observatory (CAO) was used to sample a large region of the Western Amazon Basin in southeastern Peru, extending from lowlands to tree line in the Andean mountains. The CAO Visible-Shortwave Imaging Spectrometer (VSWIR) collected 480-band high-fidelity imaging spectroscopy data of the forest canopy, while its high-resolution LiDAR captured information on canopy structure and the underlying terrain. The data were used to quantify relationships between environmental gradients and canopy chemical and spectral diversity. Results suggest strong environmental control with additional phylogenetic influence over canopy spectral and chemical properties, particularly those related to structure, defense and metabolic function. Data from CAO-VSWIR extends the large range in canopy chemical and spectral diversity related to environmental factors across the Western Amazon Basin.

  19. Resilience of Amazon forests emerges from plant trait diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakschewski, Boris; von Bloh, Werner; Boit, Alice; Poorter, Lourens; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Heinke, Jens; Joshi, Jasmin; Thonicke, Kirsten

    2016-11-01

    Climate change threatens ecosystems worldwide, yet their potential future resilience remains largely unquantified. In recent years many studies have shown that biodiversity, and in particular functional diversity, can enhance ecosystem resilience by providing a higher response diversity. So far these insights have been mostly neglected in large-scale projections of ecosystem responses to climate change. Here we show that plant trait diversity, as a key component of functional diversity, can have a strikingly positive effect on the Amazon forests' biomass under future climate change. Using a terrestrial biogeochemical model that simulates diverse forest communities on the basis of individual tree growth, we show that plant trait diversity may enable the Amazon forests to adjust to new climate conditions via a process of ecological sorting, protecting the Amazon's carbon sink function. Therefore, plant trait diversity, and biodiversity in general, should be considered in large-scale ecosystem projections and be included as an integral part of climate change research and policy.

  20. Reexamining the late Cenozoic geologic evolution of the Amazon basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigsby, C. A.; Latrubesse, E. M.; Baker, P. A.; Silva, C. G.

    2010-12-01

    The recent geologic evolution of the Amazon basin has been the focus of many recent studies. Our own research and our review of the literature suggest a need for reevaluation of many aspects of this history including several key questions: What was the timing of Andean uplift (especially, the Western Cordillera)? What is the relationship between the northernmost Solimões Formation and northern Andean tectonic activity? What is the precise age of the lowermost levels of the Solimões Formation? Were there marine incursions? Are tidal deposits recorded in Amazonia? Was there a very large, long-lived, Miocene "Pebas" megalake in the western Amazon? When did the trans-continental, eastern outlet, Amazon drainage become established? What is the antiquity of the Amazon fan? Correct answers to these questions are essential in order to gain a better understanding of the climatic and biogeographic history of the Amazon basin. Although several authors have suggested the existence of late Miocene tidal sediments deposited during a sea-level high stand and marine transgressions into the Amazon basin from the north (Caribbean Sea) or from the south (Paranáense Sea), both the existence of a late Miocene seaway through western Amazonia and the existence of thousands of square kilometers affected by tides are difficult to support. The faunal composition and pollen content of the upper Miocene Solimões Formation are inconsistent with tidal/marine environments. And, as we have demonstrated, deposits in Peruvian Amazonia that have been attributed to Miocene tidal environments are actually fluvial sediments that have been environmentally and chronologically misinterpreted. Further, the existence of a giant paleolake in western Amazonia during the middle to late Miocene is inconsistent with our paleoenvironmental reconstructions of shifting rivers in aggradational conditions - reconstructions that are consistent with the interpretations of the Solimões Formation in other parts of

  1. Boundary layer ozone - An airborne survey above the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Gerald L.; Browell, Edward V.; Warren, Linda S.

    1988-01-01

    Ozone data obtained over the forest canopy of the Amazon Basin during July and August 1985 in the course of NASA's Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment 2A are discussed, and ozone profiles obtained during flights from Belem to Tabatinga, Brazil, are analyzed to determine any cross-basin effects. The analyses of ozone data indicate that the mixed layer of the Amazon Basin, for the conditions of undisturbed meteorology and in the absence of biomass burning, is a significant sink for tropospheric ozone. As the coast is approached, marine influences are noted at about 300 km inland, and a transition from a forest-controlled mixed layer to a marine-controlled mixed layer is noted.

  2. Radium-226 in waters of the Amazon river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirshova, M.P.; Vinogradova, A.S.; Popov, N.I.

    1987-01-01

    Analysis of the Amazon river waters for 226 Ra content is carried out. Exploration works are carried out in the framework of the soviet investigations of the Amazon river in 1983 by the Academy of Science of USSR on board a research ship ''Professor Schtokman'' with the agreement and participation of brazilian scientists. Radium determination has been carried out in reference with equilibrium radon preliminary accumulated in samples (30 y) tightly closed. The general 226 Ra concentrations observed in the Amazon waters exceed 4-6 times the values known before relating to a ''diluted'' element fraction. It happens due to the presence of the river suspended matter in the water analysed; it is a carrier of additional quantities of 226 Ra, and considerable. The mixture zone of river and ocean waters is shown to be no ''geochemical barrier'' on the way to the ocean for river radium inlike the other microelements of the river run-off

  3. Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GOAMAZON). Particulate Matter and Gases Final Campaign Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godoi, R. H.M. [Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM), Climate Research Facility , Washington, DC (United States); Federal Univ. of Parana (Brazil); Barbosa, C. G.G. [Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM), Climate Research Facility , Washington, DC (United States); Federal Univ. of Parana (Brazil); Kurzlop, P. [Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM), Climate Research Facility , Washington, DC (United States); Souza, R. A.F. [Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM), Climate Research Facility , Washington, DC (United States); Amazonas State Univ. (Brazil); Paralovo, S. L. [Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM), Climate Research Facility , Washington, DC (United States); Federal Univ. of Parana (Brazil); Carneiro, I. P. S. [Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM), Climate Research Facility , Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Because of their proven adverse effects on human health and vegetation, and also considering their influence over the local and regional climate, inhalable fine particles (PM2.5) and NO2, SO2, and O3 have been collected at the ARM site located in Manacapuru, Amazon, Brazil, as a part of the GoAmazon 2014/5 project. PM2.5 samples were analyzed through gravimetry, black carbon transmittance, elemental composition by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence, and ionic concentration (cations) by ion chromatography. NO2 and SO2 samples were analyzed by ion chromatography, whereas O3 samples were analyzed through ultraviolet-vis spectrophotometry. Sampling of both particulate and gaseous pollutants took place during the two intensive operation periods (IOP1 from February to March 2014, and IOP2 from August to October 2014). Results are interpreted both separately and as a whole with the specific goal of identifying compounds that could affect the population’s health and/or could act as cloud condensation nuclei. Chemical analysis supports the elucidation of the possible origins, transport mechanisms, health effects, and main effects of the assessed pollutants in those environments

  4. Influence of deforestation, logging, and fire on malaria in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micah B Hahn

    Full Text Available Malaria is a significant public health threat in the Brazilian Amazon. Previous research has shown that deforestation creates breeding sites for the main malaria vector in Brazil, Anopheles darlingi, but the influence of selective logging, forest fires, and road construction on malaria risk has not been assessed. To understand these impacts, we constructed a negative binomial model of malaria counts at the municipality level controlling for human population and social and environmental risk factors. Both paved and unpaved roadways and fire zones in a municipality increased malaria risk. Within the timber production states where 90% of deforestation has occurred, compared with areas without selective logging, municipalities where 0-7% of the remaining forests were selectively logged had the highest malaria risk (1.72, 95% CI 1.18-2.51, and areas with higher rates of selective logging had the lowest risk (0.39, 95% CI 0.23-0.67. We show that roads, forest fires, and selective logging are previously unrecognized risk factors for malaria in the Brazilian Amazon and highlight the need for regulation and monitoring of sub-canopy forest disturbance.

  5. Amazonian dark Earth and plant species from the Amazon region contribute to shape rhizosphere bacterial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa Lima, Amanda; Cannavan, Fabiana Souza; Navarrete, Acacio Aparecido; Teixeira, Wenceslau Geraldes; Kuramae, Eiko Eurya; Tsai, Siu Mui

    2015-05-01

    Amazonian Dark Earths (ADE) or Terra Preta de Índio formed in the past by pre-Columbian populations are highly sustained fertile soils supported by microbial communities that differ from those extant in adjacent soils. These soils are found in the Amazon region and are considered as a model soil when compared to the surrounding and background soils. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of ADE and its surrounding soil on the rhizosphere bacterial communities of two leguminous plant species that frequently occur in the Amazon region in forest sites (Mimosa debilis) and open areas (Senna alata). Bacterial community structure was evaluated using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and bacterial community composition by V4 16S rRNA gene region pyrosequencing. T-RFLP analysis showed effect of soil types and plant species on rhizosphere bacterial community structure. Differential abundance of bacterial phyla, such as Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and Firmicutes, revealed that soil type contributes to shape the bacterial communities. Furthermore, bacterial phyla such as Firmicutes and Nitrospira were mostly influenced by plant species. Plant roots influenced several soil chemical properties, especially when plants were grown in ADE. These results showed that differences observed in rhizosphere bacterial community structure and composition can be influenced by plant species and soil fertility due to variation in soil attributes.

  6. Spectral mixture analysis for water quality assessment over the Amazon floodplain using Hyperion/EO-1 images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lênio Soares Galvão

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Water composition undergoes complex spatial and temporal variations throughout the central Amazon floodplain. This study analyzed the spectral mixtures of the optically active substances (OASs in water with spaceborne hyperspectral images. The test site was located upstream the confluence of Amazon (white water and Tapajós (clear-water rivers, where two Hyperion images were acquired from the Earth Observing One (EO-1 satellite. The first image was acquired on September 16, 2001, during the falling water period of the Amazon River. The second image was acquired on June 23, 2005, at the end of the high water period. The images were pre-processed to remove stripes of anomalous pixels, convert radiance-calibrated data to surface reflectance, mask land, clouds and macrophytes targets, and spectral subset the data within the range of 457-885nm. A sequential procedure with the techniques Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF, Pixel Purity Index (PPI and n-dimensional visualization of the MNF feature space was employed to select end-members from both images. A single set of end-members was gathered to represent the following spectrally unique OASs: clear-water; dissolved organic matter; suspended sediments; and phytoplankton. The Linear Spectral Unmixing algorithm was applied to each Hyperion image in order to map the spatial distribution of these constituents, in terms of sub-pixel fractional abundances. Results showed three patterns of changes in the water quality from high to falling flood periods: decrease of suspended inorganic matter concentration in the Amazon River; increase of suspended inorganic matter and phytoplankton concentrations in varzea lakes; and increase of phytoplankton concentration in the Tapajós River.

  7. A century of Amazon burning driven by Atlantic climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makou, M.; Thompson, L. G.; Davis, M. E.; Eglinton, T. I.

    2011-12-01

    Very little is known about annual burning trends in the Amazon Basin prior to remote sensing of fires beginning in the late 1970's. Fires reduce Amazon forest biomass and species richness, release pollutant aerosols, and impact the carbon cycle, compelling further investigation of fire-climate dynamics. We measured organic compounds derived from vegetation burning in ice core samples from the Quelccaya Ice Cap in Peru at better than annual resolution to reconstruct wet and dry season burning throughout the Twentieth Century. Variations in the abundance of methyl hexadecanoate, which is produced by thermal alteration of vascular plant alkanoic acids, were used as a proxy for past fire activity. Concentrations of this compound in Quelccaya ice varied strongly on seasonal, interannual, and decadal time scales over the last 100 years, with high-amplitude dry season variability and muted, decadal-scale changes in wet season fire activity. Decade-long periods of repeatedly enhanced burning occurred during the 1930's and 1960's when dry season precipitation was perpetually reduced, as evidenced by low stages of the Rio Negro. These decadal trends suggest that changes in dry season precipitation drive fire activity in the western Amazon and highlight the potential of Amazon forests to undergo repeated strong burning. Fires occurred during years when sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the north tropical Atlantic were elevated and the north-south tropical Atlantic SST gradient was enhanced; this SST pattern likely displaced the intertropical convergence zone northward, driving subsidence and drought in the western and southern Amazon basin. Thus, our novel ice core record suggests that Amazon forest fire activity during the Twentieth Century was driven primarily by Atlantic climate processes, and future forest health will depend heavily on the evolution of tropical climate.

  8. Forest disappearance by firewood consumption in the Amazon estuary

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuchiya, Akio; Hiraoka, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Deforestation of flooded (várzea) and non-flooded (terra firme) forests caused by firewood consumption at tile factories (olaria) was investigated in Abaetetuba Island at the Amazon estuary. Várzea is spatially limited, the area is only 3% of the whole Amazon, however, it is heavily influenced by human activities, especially by the cultivation of acaí palm (Euterpe oleracea Mart.). The trees are cut down for the olarias. The number of tree species are small, and they have less wood density th...

  9. The Visibility of Work among Ticuna Women in the Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraildes Caldas Torres

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the Amazon Indian craftsmanship, done by Ticuna Women. Crafts are shown to be an important product in the strong positive development in the rural Amazon community. It works with data observed and collected in research done as a consultant for Sebrae/Amazonas in 2004. It shows how women work is an organizing element of the domestic economy for the Ticuna ethnicity. A principal feature of the sexual division of labor places women as having more responsibility for family maintenance.

  10. Transferrin polymorphism in Amazon turtle (Podocnemis expansa) stocks

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, Aylton Saturnino; Jamieson, Alan; Raposo, José Carlos Paula; Vieira, Alvaro Alves

    1996-01-01

    The transferrin gene locus (Tf) was investigated in five populations of the Amazon turtle (Podocnemis expansa) sampled from five geographical areas in the Amazon region. This locus was polymorphic, showing three genotypes (Tfª Tfª, Tfª Tf b and Tf b Tf b), presumably encoded by two co-dominant alleles, Tfª and Tf b. All populations showed good genetic balance according to Hardy-Weinberg expectations, and may sustain the hypothesis of a single stock in the area investigated. The data are consi...

  11. Assessing the Amazon Cloud Suitability for CLARREO's Computational Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldin, Daniel; Vakhnin, Andrei A.; Currey, Jon C.

    2015-01-01

    In this document we compare the performance of the Amazon Web Services (AWS), also known as Amazon Cloud, with the CLARREO (Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory) cluster and assess its suitability for computational needs of the CLARREO mission. A benchmark executable to process one month and one year of PARASOL (Polarization and Anistropy of Reflectances for Atmospheric Sciences coupled with Observations from a Lidar) data was used. With the optimal AWS configuration, adequate data-processing times, comparable to the CLARREO cluster, were found. The assessment of alternatives to the CLARREO cluster continues and several options, such as a NASA-based cluster, are being considered.

  12. Beginning Amazon Web Services with Node.js

    CERN Document Server

    Shackelford, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Beginning Amazon Web Services with Node.js teaches any novice Node.js developer to configure, deploy, and maintain scalable small to large scale Node.js applications in Amazon Web Services. Hosting a Node.js application in a production environment usually means turning to PaaS hosting, but this approach brings problems. Deploying Node.js directly to AWS solves the problems you encounter in these situations, enabling you to cut out the middle man. You will begin with a basic RESTful web service in Node.js, using the popular Express.js framework, pre-built and ready to run in your local env

  13. Osteoma in a blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, João Felipe Rito; Levy, Marcelo Guilherme Bezerra; Liparisi, Flavia; Romão, Mario Antonio Pinto

    2013-09-01

    Osteoma is an uncommon bone formation documented in avian species and other animals. A blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva) with clinical respiratory symptoms was examined because of a hard mass present on the left nostril. Radiographs suggested a bone tumor, and the mass was surgically excised. Histopathologic examination revealed features of an osteoma. To our knowledge, this is the first description of an osteoma in a blue-fronted Amazon parrot. Osteoma should be considered as a differential diagnosis in birds with respiratory distress and swelling of the nostril.

  14. Effects of Occupational Exposure on the Health of Rag Pickers Due to Fungal Contamination at Waste Dumping Sites in Gwalipor (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harandra K. Sharma

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated fungal contamination near different waste dumping sites and assessed the health risk factors of rag pickers associated with collection of waste in Gwalior during the year 2014-15. Petri plates were exposed at waste dumping sites and were transferred to the laboratory, analysis and identification was mainly carried out by culturing the fungal colonies by following standard procedures. A pretested questionnaire was used to evaluate the health problems among the rag pickers. Results indicated that all the dumping sites are contaminated with different types of fungal pathogens like Alternaria alternate, Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigates, A. niger, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Mucor, Penicillium and Rhizopus. Our study reported higher incidence of musculoskeletal and respiratory diseases among rag pickers. There is also strong need for carrying out similar assessment studies for other cities too. This will entail generation of more precise site specific information regarding fungal species and associated health risk factor.

  15. Effects of Occupational Exposure on the Health of Rag Pickers Due to Fungal Contamination at Waste Dumping Sites in Gwalior (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harandra K. Sharma

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated fungal contamination near different waste dumping sites and assessed the health risk factors of rag pickers associated with collection of waste in Gwalior during the year 2014-15. Petri plates were exposed at waste dumping sites and were transferred to the laboratory, analysis and identification was mainly carried out by culturing the fungal colonies by following standard procedures. A pretested questionnaire was used to evaluate the health problems among the rag pickers. Results indicated that all the dumping sites are contaminated with different types of fungal pathogens like Alternaria alternate, Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigates, A. niger, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Mucor, Penicillium and Rhizopus. Our study reported higher incidence of musculoskeletal and respiratory diseases among rag pickers. There is also strong need for carrying out similar assessment studies for other cities too. This will entail generation of more precise site specific information regarding fungal species and associated health risk factor.

  16. Amazon Forests Response to Droughts: A Perspective from the MAIAC Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Jian; Myneni, Ranga; Lyapustin, Alexei; Wang, Yujie; Park, Taejin; Chi, Chen; Yan, Kai; Knyazikhin, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Amazon forests experienced two severe droughts at the beginning of the 21st century: one in 2005 and the other in 2010. How Amazon forests responded to these droughts is critical for the future of the Earth's climate system. It is only possible to assess Amazon forests' response to the droughts in large areal extent through satellite remote sensing. Here, we used the Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation index (VI) data to assess Amazon forests' response to droughts, and compared the results with those from the standard (Collection 5 and Collection 6) MODIS VI data. Overall, the MAIAC data reveal more realistic Amazon forests inter-annual greenness dynamics than the standard MODIS data. Our results from the MAIAC data suggest that: (1) the droughts decreased the greenness (i.e., photosynthetic activity) of Amazon forests; (2) the Amazon wet season precipitation reduction induced by El Niño events could also lead to reduced photosynthetic activity of Amazon forests; and (3) in the subsequent year after the water stresses, the greenness of Amazon forests recovered from the preceding decreases. However, as previous research shows droughts cause Amazon forests to reduce investment in tissue maintenance and defense, it is not clear whether the photosynthesis of Amazon forests will continue to recover after future water stresses, because of the accumulated damages caused by the droughts.

  17. The effects of land use change on mercury distribution in soils of Alta Floresta, Southern Amazon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacerda, Luiz D.; Souza, Margareth de; Ribeiro, Mario G.

    2004-01-01

    This study presents the spatial distribution, degree of contamination and storage capacity of Hg in surface forest and pasture soils from Alta Floresta, Southern Amazon, a significant gold mining site from 1980 to 1996. During that period, average annual gold production was about 6.5 tons, with an estimated Hg annual emission to the environment of about 8.8 tons, 60-80% of it being emitted to the atmosphere. Mercury sources to the region are mining sites and gold-dealer shops at the city of Alta Floresta, where gold is smelted and commercialized. Mercury concentrations in forest soils (15-248 ng g -1 , average=61.9 ng g -1 ) were 1.5-3.0 times higher than in pasture soils (10-74 ng g -1 , average=33.8 ng g -1 ), suggesting strong re-mobilization after deforestation. Highest Hg concentrations were found within a distance of 20-30 km from mining sites in both soil types. The influence of the refining operations within the city of Alta Floresta, however, was less clear. Somewhat higher concentrations were observed only within a 5 km radius from the city center where gold-dealer shops are located. Wind direction controls the spatial distribution of Hg. Background concentrations (15-50 ng g -1 ) were generally found at the outer perimeter of the sampling grid, about 40 km from sources. This suggests that Hg released from mining and refining activities undergoes rapid deposition. Estimated cumulative Hg burdens for the first 10 cm of soil averaged 8.3 mg m -2 and 4.9 mg m -2 , for forest and pasture soils respectively and compare well with ultisols and hydromorphic oxisols, but were lower than those found in yellow-red and yellow latosols and podsols from other Amazonian areas. Our results show that changing land use in the Amazon is a strong re-mobilizing agent of Hg deposited on soils from the atmosphere. - Land use change is a strong re-mobilizing agent of Hg distribution in Amazon soils

  18. Jotï ecogony, Venezuelan Amazon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zent, Egleé L

    2013-01-01

    The current environmental crisis permeates the discourse and concerns of people all over the world. Consideration of diverse environmental ethics showing the alternative ways in which people conceptualize and relate to nature and natural resources are critical for bringing about more sustainable human behaviors. After a brief review of Western historical notions of nature, this work explores the ecogony, or causal reasons, that trigger the behavior of the Jotï, an Amerindian people of the Venezuelan Amazon, with other entities and the forest that they inhabit. The analysis presented synthesizes 15 years of transdisciplinary ethno-ecological research comprising quantitative and qualitative methods (collection of herbarium voucher specimens, floristic inventories in forest plots, structured interviews focused on plot vegetation, semi-structured interviews of life-histories, participant observation, time allocation studies, food resource accounting, focal person following observations, garden crop inventories and censuses, mapping of wild resource harvest locations, among others). Jotï pragmatic and ideological tenets generate a distinctive environmental ethics based on ecogonic nodes. Notions of interdependence, humanity and person are articulated on a daily basis through several dynamics: (1) hyper-awareness of all living things’ dependence on each other and other elements of the biophysical environment at macroscales and microscales, (2) the construction of human spiritual, conscious, physical and agentive constituents from a variety of diverse botanical and zoological species and mineral components of their homeland, and (3) an understanding of the aggregate surroundings, including a significant portion of the biotic and abiotic components, as potential subjects with awareness, creativity and moral stances. This condition of interdependence confers rights and duties on all the parts. Jotï horizontal communications with and among life-forms sustain their

  19. Jotï ecogony, Venezuelan Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zent, Egleé L.

    2013-03-01

    The current environmental crisis permeates the discourse and concerns of people all over the world. Consideration of diverse environmental ethics showing the alternative ways in which people conceptualize and relate to nature and natural resources are critical for bringing about more sustainable human behaviors. After a brief review of Western historical notions of nature, this work explores the ecogony, or causal reasons, that trigger the behavior of the Jotï, an Amerindian people of the Venezuelan Amazon, with other entities and the forest that they inhabit. The analysis presented synthesizes 15 years of transdisciplinary ethno-ecological research comprising quantitative and qualitative methods (collection of herbarium voucher specimens, floristic inventories in forest plots, structured interviews focused on plot vegetation, semi-structured interviews of life-histories, participant observation, time allocation studies, food resource accounting, focal person following observations, garden crop inventories and censuses, mapping of wild resource harvest locations, among others). Jotï pragmatic and ideological tenets generate a distinctive environmental ethics based on ecogonic nodes. Notions of interdependence, humanity and person are articulated on a daily basis through several dynamics: (1) hyper-awareness of all living things’ dependence on each other and other elements of the biophysical environment at macroscales and microscales, (2) the construction of human spiritual, conscious, physical and agentive constituents from a variety of diverse botanical and zoological species and mineral components of their homeland, and (3) an understanding of the aggregate surroundings, including a significant portion of the biotic and abiotic components, as potential subjects with awareness, creativity and moral stances. This condition of interdependence confers rights and duties on all the parts. Jotï horizontal communications with and among life-forms sustain their

  20. Particle growth kinetics over the Amazon rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinterich, T.; Andreae, M. O.; Artaxo, P.; Kuang, C.; Longo, K.; Machado, L.; Manzi, A. O.; Martin, S. T.; Mei, F.; Pöhlker, C.; Pöhlker, M. L.; Poeschl, U.; Shilling, J. E.; Shiraiwa, M.; Tomlinson, J. M.; Zaveri, R. A.; Wang, J.

    2016-12-01

    Aerosol particles larger than 100 nm play a key role in global climate by acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Most of these particles, originated from new particle formation or directly emitted into the atmospheric, are initially too small to serve as CCN. These small particles grow to CCN size mainly through condensation of secondary species. In one extreme, the growth is dictated by kinetic condensation of very low-volatility compounds, favoring the growth of the smallest particles; in the other extreme, the process is driven by Raoult's law-based equilibrium partitioning of semi-volatile organic compound, favoring the growth of larger particles. These two mechanisms can lead to very different production rates of CCN. The growth of particles depends on a number of parameters, including the volatility of condensing species, particle phase, and diffusivity inside the particles, and this process is not well understood in part due to lack of ambient data. Here we examine atmospheric particle growth using high-resolution size distributions measured onboard the DOE G-1 aircraft during GoAmazon campaign, which took place from January 2014 to December 2015 near Manaus, Brazil, a city surrounded by natural forest for over 1000 km in every direction. City plumes are clearly identified by the strong enhancement of nucleation and Aitken mode particle concentrations over the clean background. As the plume traveled downwind, particle growth was observed, and is attributed to condensation of secondary species and coagulation (Fig.1). Observed aerosol growth is modeled using MOSAIC (Model for Simulating Aerosol Interactions and Chemistry), which dynamically partitions multiple compounds to all particle size bins by taking into account compound volatility, gas-phase diffusion, interfacial mass accommodation, particle-phase diffusion, and particle-phase reaction. The results from both wet and dry seasons will be discussed.

  1. Biomedical cloud computing with Amazon Web Services.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent A Fusaro

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this overview to biomedical computing in the cloud, we discussed two primary ways to use the cloud (a single instance or cluster, provided a detailed example using NGS mapping, and highlighted the associated costs. While many users new to the cloud may assume that entry is as straightforward as uploading an application and selecting an instance type and storage options, we illustrated that there is substantial up-front effort required before an application can make full use of the cloud's vast resources. Our intention was to provide a set of best practices and to illustrate how those apply to a typical application pipeline for biomedical informatics, but also general enough for extrapolation to other types of computational problems. Our mapping example was intended to illustrate how to develop a scalable project and not to compare and contrast alignment algorithms for read mapping and genome assembly. Indeed, with a newer aligner such as Bowtie, it is possible to map the entire African genome using one m2.2xlarge instance in 48 hours for a total cost of approximately $48 in computation time. In our example, we were not concerned with data transfer rates, which are heavily influenced by the amount of available bandwidth, connection latency, and network availability. When transferring large amounts of data to the cloud, bandwidth limitations can be a major bottleneck, and in some cases it is more efficient to simply mail a storage device containing the data to AWS (http://aws.amazon.com/importexport/. More information about cloud computing, detailed cost analysis, and security can be found in references.

  2. Biomedical cloud computing with Amazon Web Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusaro, Vincent A; Patil, Prasad; Gafni, Erik; Wall, Dennis P; Tonellato, Peter J

    2011-08-01

    In this overview to biomedical computing in the cloud, we discussed two primary ways to use the cloud (a single instance or cluster), provided a detailed example using NGS mapping, and highlighted the associated costs. While many users new to the cloud may assume that entry is as straightforward as uploading an application and selecting an instance type and storage options, we illustrated that there is substantial up-front effort required before an application can make full use of the cloud's vast resources. Our intention was to provide a set of best practices and to illustrate how those apply to a typical application pipeline for biomedical informatics, but also general enough for extrapolation to other types of computational problems. Our mapping example was intended to illustrate how to develop a scalable project and not to compare and contrast alignment algorithms for read mapping and genome assembly. Indeed, with a newer aligner such as Bowtie, it is possible to map the entire African genome using one m2.2xlarge instance in 48 hours for a total cost of approximately $48 in computation time. In our example, we were not concerned with data transfer rates, which are heavily influenced by the amount of available bandwidth, connection latency, and network availability. When transferring large amounts of data to the cloud, bandwidth limitations can be a major bottleneck, and in some cases it is more efficient to simply mail a storage device containing the data to AWS (http://aws.amazon.com/importexport/). More information about cloud computing, detailed cost analysis, and security can be found in references.

  3. Viruses and bacteria in floodplain lakes along a major Amazon tributary respond to distance to the Amazon River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Rafael M; Roland, Fábio; Cardoso, Simone J; Farjalla, Vinícius F; Bozelli, Reinaldo L; Barros, Nathan O

    2015-01-01

    In response to the massive volume of water along the Amazon River, the Amazon tributaries have their water backed up by 100s of kilometers upstream their mouth. This backwater effect is part of the complex hydrodynamics of Amazonian surface waters, which in turn drives the variation in concentrations of organic matter and nutrients, and also regulates planktonic communities such as viruses and bacteria. Viruses and bacteria are commonly tightly coupled to each other, and their ecological role in aquatic food webs has been increasingly recognized. Here, we surveyed viral and bacterial abundances (BAs) in 26 floodplain lakes along the Trombetas River, the largest clear-water tributary of the Amazon River's north margin. We correlated viral and BAs with temperature, pH, dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), phosphorus, nitrogen, turbidity, water transparency, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2), phytoplankton abundance, and distance from the lake mouth until the confluence of the Trombetas with the Amazon River. We hypothesized that both bacterial and viral abundances (VAs) would change along a latitudinal gradient, as the backwater effect becomes more intense with increased proximity to the Amazon River; different flood duration and intensity among lakes and waters with contrasting sources would cause spatial variation. Our measurements were performed during the low water period, when floodplain lakes are in their most lake-like conditions. Viral and BAs, DOC, pCO2, and water transparency increased as distance to the Amazon River increased. Most viruses were bacteriophages, as viruses were strongly linked to bacteria, but not to phytoplankton. We suggest that BAs increase in response to DOC quantity and possibly quality, consequently leading to increased VAs. Our results highlight that hydrodynamics plays a key role in the regulation of planktonic viral and bacterial communities in Amazonian floodplain lakes.

  4. Prenatal organochlorine and methylmercury exposure and memory and learning in school-age children in communities near the New Bedford Harbor Superfund site, Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orenstein, Sara T C; Thurston, Sally W; Bellinger, David C; Schwartz, Joel D; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra J; Altshul, Larisa M; Korrick, Susan A

    2014-11-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides, and methylmercury (MeHg) are environmentally persistent with adverse effects on neurodevelopment. However, especially among populations with commonly experienced low levels of exposure, research on neurodevelopmental effects of these toxicants has produced conflicting results. We assessed the association of low-level prenatal exposure to these contaminants with memory and learning. We studied 393 children, born between 1993 and 1998 to mothers residing near a PCB-contaminated harbor in New Bedford, Massachusetts. Cord serum PCB, DDE (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene), and maternal peripartum hair mercury (Hg) levels were measured to estimate prenatal exposure. Memory and learning were assessed at 8 years of age (range, 7-11 years) using the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning (WRAML), age-standardized to a mean ± SD of 100 ± 15. Associations with each WRAML index-Visual Memory, Verbal Memory, and Learning-were examined with multivariable linear regression, controlling for potential confounders. Although cord serum PCB levels were low (sum of four PCBs: mean, 0.3 ng/g serum; range, 0.01-4.4), hair Hg levels were typical of the U.S. fish-eating population (mean, 0.6 μg/g; range, 0.3-5.1). In multivariable models, each microgram per gram increase in hair Hg was associated with, on average, decrements of -2.8 on Visual Memory (95% CI: -5.0, -0.6, p = 0.01), -2.2 on Learning (95% CI: -4.6, 0.2, p = 0.08), and -1.7 on Verbal Memory (95% CI: -3.9, 0.6, p = 0.14). There were no significant adverse associations of PCBs or DDE with WRAML indices. These results support an adverse relationship between low-level prenatal MeHg exposure and childhood memory and learning, particularly visual memory.

  5. Marsh wrens as bioindicators of mercury in wetlands of Great Salt Lake: do blood and feathers reflect site-specific exposure risk to bird reproduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, C. Alex; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Herring, Garth; Isanhart, John; Herzog, Mark P.

    2013-01-01

    Nonlethal sampling of bird blood and feathers are among the more common ways of estimating the risk of mercury exposure to songbird reproduction. The implicit assumption is that mercury concentrations in blood or feathers of individuals captured in a given area are correlated with mercury concentrations in eggs from the same area. Yet, this assumption is rarely tested. We evaluated mercury concentrations in blood, feathers, and eggs of marsh wrens in wetlands of Great Salt Lake, Utah, and, at two spatial scales, specifically tested the assumption that mercury concentrations in blood and feather samples from birds captured in a defined area were predictive of mercury concentrations in eggs collected in the same area. Mercury concentrations in blood were not correlated with mercury concentrations in eggs collected within the same wetland unit, and were poorly correlated with mercury concentrations in eggs collected at the smaller home range spatial scale of analysis. Moreover, mercury exposure risk, as estimated via tissue concentrations, differed among wetland units depending upon whether blood or egg mercury concentrations were sampled. Mercury concentrations in feathers also were uncorrelated with mercury concentrations in eggs, and were poorly correlated with mercury concentrations in blood. These results demonstrate the potential for contrasting management actions that may be implemented based solely on the specific avian tissue that is sampled, and highlight the importance of developing avian tissues as biomonitoring tools for assessing local risk of mercury exposure to bird reproduction.

  6. Marsh wrens as bioindicators of mercury in wetlands of Great Salt Lake: do blood and feathers reflect site-specific exposure risk to bird reproduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, C Alex; Ackerman, Joshua T; Herring, Garth; Isanhart, John; Herzog, Mark

    2013-06-18

    Nonlethal sampling of bird blood and feathers are among the more common ways of estimating the risk of mercury exposure to songbird reproduction. The implicit assumption is that mercury concentrations in blood or feathers of individuals captured in a given area are correlated with mercury concentrations in eggs from the same area. Yet, this assumption is rarely tested. We evaluated mercury concentrations in blood, feathers, and eggs of marsh wrens in wetlands of Great Salt Lake, Utah, and, at two spatial scales, specifically tested the assumption that mercury concentrations in blood and feather samples from birds captured in a defined area were predictive of mercury concentrations in eggs collected in the same area. Mercury concentrations in blood were not correlated with mercury concentrations in eggs collected within the same wetland unit, and were poorly correlated with mercury concentrations in eggs collected at the smaller home range spatial scale of analysis. Moreover, mercury exposure risk, as estimated via tissue concentrations, differed among wetland units depending upon whether blood or egg mercury concentrations were sampled. Mercury concentrations in feathers also were uncorrelated with mercury concentrations in eggs, and were poorly correlated with mercury concentrations in blood. These results demonstrate the potential for contrasting management actions that may be implemented based solely on the specific avian tissue that is sampled, and highlight the importance of developing avian tissues as biomonitoring tools for assessing local risk of mercury exposure to bird reproduction.

  7. Photovoltaics and eco-tourism in the Peruvian Amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, D. [Dulas Ltd. (United Kingdom)

    2000-04-01

    The Explorama company caters for tourists in the jungles along the Amazon in Peru where the mains electricity (if present at all) is notoriously unreliable. The company therefore generates electricity through photovoltaic cells so that the tourists can enjoy home comforts such as lights, fans, air-conditioning, radio, freezers and refrigerators. The paper discusses the various units supplying the electric power. (uk)

  8. Palm diversity and abundance in the Colombian Amazon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Henrik; Copete, Juan Carlos; Pedersen, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    We studied diversity and abundance of palms in the eastern Colombian Amazon in 71 transects, 61 measuring 5×500 m and 10 transects measuring 4×500 m, innventoring a total of 17.25 hectares. We found a total of 74 species in 21 genera. In terra firme we found 68 species in 20 genera and an average...

  9. Spatial pattern of standing timber value across the Brazilian Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia E Ahmed

    Full Text Available The Amazon is a globally important system, providing a host of ecosystem services from climate regulation to food sources. It is also home to a quarter of all global diversity. Large swathes of forest are removed each year, and many models have attempted to predict the spatial patterns of this forest loss. The spatial patterns of deforestation are determined largely by the patterns of roads that open access to frontier areas and expansion of the road network in the Amazon is largely determined by profit seeking logging activities. Here we present predictions for the spatial distribution of standing value of timber across the Amazon. We show that the patterns of timber value reflect large-scale ecological gradients, determining the spatial distribution of functional traits of trees which are, in turn, correlated with timber values. We expect that understanding the spatial patterns of timber value across the Amazon will aid predictions of logging movements and thus predictions of potential future road developments. These predictions in turn will be of great use in estimating the spatial patterns of deforestation in this globally important biome.

  10. Spatial pattern of standing timber value across the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sadia E; Ewers, Robert M

    2012-01-01

    The Amazon is a globally important system, providing a host of ecosystem services from climate regulation to food sources. It is also home to a quarter of all global diversity. Large swathes of forest are removed each year, and many models have attempted to predict the spatial patterns of this forest loss. The spatial patterns of deforestation are determined largely by the patterns of roads that open access to frontier areas and expansion of the road network in the Amazon is largely determined by profit seeking logging activities. Here we present predictions for the spatial distribution of standing value of timber across the Amazon. We show that the patterns of timber value reflect large-scale ecological gradients, determining the spatial distribution of functional traits of trees which are, in turn, correlated with timber values. We expect that understanding the spatial patterns of timber value across the Amazon will aid predictions of logging movements and thus predictions of potential future road developments. These predictions in turn will be of great use in estimating the spatial patterns of deforestation in this globally important biome.

  11. The Amazon region: tropical deforestation, biogeochemical cycles and the climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabat, P.; Andreae, M.O.; Silva-Dias, M.A.; Veraart, J.A.; Brink, N.J.

    2003-01-01

    The biogeochemical cycling of carbon, water, energy, aerosols, and trace gases in the Amazon Basin, and the interactions between deforestation, rainfall and climate were all investigated in this programme as a part of an integrated cluster of inter-linked and complementary research projects. These

  12. Favourable geological environment for uranium in Amazon State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenker, A.O.

    1982-01-01

    According to the synthesis of the Basic Projects of DNPM/CPRM in Amazon and in the creation of 1 : 2500000 scale map, it was possible to separate the several geological environments known in the region as for the favourableness to storage uraniferous mineralizations. (A.B.) [pt

  13. Future of oil and gas development in the western Amazon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finer, Matt; Babbitt, Bruce; Novoa, Sidney; Ferrarese, Francesco; Pappalardo, Salvatore Eugenio; Marchi, Massimo De; Saucedo, Maria; Kumar, Anjali

    2015-01-01

    The western Amazon is one of the world’s last high-biodiversity wilderness areas, characterized by extraordinary species richness and large tracts of roadless humid tropical forest. It is also home to an active hydrocarbon (oil and gas) sector, characterized by operations in extremely remote areas that require new access routes. Here, we present the first integrated analysis of the hydrocarbon sector and its associated road-building in the western Amazon. Specifically, we document the (a) current panorama, including location and development status of all oil and gas discoveries, of the sector, and (b) current and future scenario of access (i.e. access road versus roadless access) to discoveries. We present an updated 2014 western Amazon hydrocarbon map illustrating that oil and gas blocks now cover 733 414 km 2 , an area much larger than the US state of Texas, and have been expanding since the last assessment in 2008. In terms of access, we documented 11 examples of the access road model and six examples of roadless access across the region. Finally, we documented 35 confirmed and/or suspected untapped hydrocarbon discoveries across the western Amazon. In the Discussion, we argue that if these reserves must be developed, use of the offshore inland model—a method that strategically avoids the construction of access roads—is crucial to minimizing ecological impacts in one of the most globally important conservation regions. (letter)

  14. Neogene origins and implied warmth tolerance of Amazon tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Christopher W; Lewis, Simon L; Maslin, Mark; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2012-01-01

    Tropical rain forest has been a persistent feature in South America for at least 55 million years. The future of the contemporary Amazon forest is uncertain, however, as the region is entering conditions with no past analogue, combining rapidly increasing air temperatures, high atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, possible extreme droughts, and extensive removal and modification by humans. Given the long-term Cenozoic cooling trend, it is unknown whether Amazon forests can tolerate air temperature increases, with suggestions that lowland forests lack warm-adapted taxa, leading to inevitable species losses. In response to this uncertainty, we posit a simple hypothesis: the older the age of a species prior to the Pleistocene, the warmer the climate it has previously survived, with Pliocene (2.6-5 Ma) and late-Miocene (8-10 Ma) air temperature across Amazonia being similar to 2100 temperature projections under low and high carbon emission scenarios, respectively. Using comparative phylogeographic analyses, we show that 9 of 12 widespread Amazon tree species have Pliocene or earlier lineages (>2.6 Ma), with seven dating from the Miocene (>5.6 Ma) and three >8 Ma. The remarkably old age of these species suggest that Amazon forests passed through warmth similar to 2100 levels and that, in the absence of other major environmental changes, near-term high temperature-induced mass species extinction is unlikely.

  15. Mayaro Virus Infection, Amazon Basin Region, Peru, 2010–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siles, Crystyan; Guevara, Carolina; Vilcarromero, Stalin; Jhonston, Erik J.; Ramal, Cesar; Aguilar, Patricia V.; Ampuero, Julia S.

    2013-01-01

    During 2010–2013, we recruited 16 persons with confirmed Mayaro virus infection in the Peruvian Amazon to prospectively follow clinical symptoms and serologic response over a 12-month period. Mayaro virus infection caused long-term arthralgia in more than half, similar to reports of other arthritogenic alphaviruses. PMID:24210165

  16. Two new Morganella species from the Brazilian Amazon rainforest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo DS

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Two new Morganella species, M. albostipitata and M. rimosa were found during studies of gasteroid fungi in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest, Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve, Amazonas State, Brazil. The new taxa are described, and illustrated with photographs and line drawings, and taxonomical comments are made.

  17. Long-term decline of the Amazon carbon sink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brienen, R J W; Phillips, O L; Feldpausch, T R; Gloor, E; Baker, T R; Lloyd, J; Lopez-Gonzalez, G; Monteagudo-Mendoza, A; Malhi, Y; Lewis, S L; Vásquez Martinez, R; Alexiades, M; Álvarez Dávila, E; Alvarez-Loayza, P; Andrade, A; Aragão, L E O C; Araujo-Murakami, A; Arets, E J M M; Arroyo, L; Aymard C, G A; Bánki, O S; Baraloto, C; Barroso, J; Bonal, D; Boot, R G A; Camargo, J L C; Castilho, C V; Chama, V; Chao, K J; Chave, J; Comiskey, J A; Cornejo Valverde, F; da Costa, L; de Oliveira, E A; Di Fiore, A; Erwin, T L; Fauset, S; Forsthofer, M; Galbraith, D R; Grahame, E S; Groot, N; Hérault, B; Higuchi, N; Honorio Coronado, E N; Keeling, H; Killeen, T J; Laurance, W F; Laurance, S; Licona, J; Magnussen, W E; Marimon, B S; Marimon-Junior, B H; Mendoza, C; Neill, D A; Nogueira, E M; Núñez, P; Pallqui Camacho, N C; Parada, A; Pardo-Molina, G; Peacock, J; Peña-Claros, M; Pickavance, G C; Pitman, N C A; Poorter, L; Prieto, A; Quesada, C A; Ramírez, F; Ramírez-Angulo, H; Restrepo, Z; Roopsind, A; Rudas, A; Salomão, R P; Schwarz, M; Silva, N; Silva-Espejo, J E; Silveira, M; Stropp, J; Talbot, J; ter Steege, H; Teran-Aguilar, J; Terborgh, J; Thomas-Caesar, R; Toledo, M; Torello-Raventos, M; Umetsu, R K; van der Heijden, G M F; van der Hout, P; Guimarães Vieira, I C; Vieira, S A; Vilanova, E; Vos, V A; Zagt, R J

    2015-03-19

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide records indicate that the land surface has acted as a strong global carbon sink over recent decades, with a substantial fraction of this sink probably located in the tropics, particularly in the Amazon. Nevertheless, it is unclear how the terrestrial carbon sink will evolve as climate and atmospheric composition continue to change. Here we analyse the historical evolution of the biomass dynamics of the Amazon rainforest over three decades using a distributed network of 321 plots. While this analysis confirms that Amazon forests have acted as a long-term net biomass sink, we find a long-term decreasing trend of carbon accumulation. Rates of net increase in above-ground biomass declined by one-third during the past decade compared to the 1990s. This is a consequence of growth rate increases levelling off recently, while biomass mortality persistently increased throughout, leading to a shortening of carbon residence times. Potential drivers for the mortality increase include greater climate variability, and feedbacks of faster growth on mortality, resulting in shortened tree longevity. The observed decline of the Amazon sink diverges markedly from the recent increase in terrestrial carbon uptake at the global scale, and is contrary to expectations based on models.

  18. Backwater effects in the Amazon River basin of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, R.H.; Rayol, J.M.; Da Conceicao, S.C.; Natividade, J.R.G.

    1991-01-01

    The Amazon River mainstem of Brazil is so regulated by differences in the timing of tributary inputs and by seasonal storage of water on floodplains that maximum discharges exceed minimum discharges by a factor of only 3. Large tributaries that drain the southern Amazon River basin reach their peak discharges two months earlier than does the mainstem. The resulting backwater in the lowermost 800 km of two large southern tributaries, the Madeira and Puru??s rivers, causes falling river stages to be as much as 2-3 m higher than rising stages at any given discharge. Large tributaries that drain the northernmost Amazon River basin reach their annual minimum discharges three to four months later than does the mainstem. In the lowermost 300-400 km of the Negro River, the largest northern tributary and the fifth largest river in the world, the lowest stages of the year correspond to those of the Amazon River mainstem rather than to those in the upstream reaches of the Negro River. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  19. People, soil and manioc interactions in the upper Amazon region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peña Venegas, C.P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Clara Patricia Peña Venegas (2015). People, soil and manioc interactions in the upper Amazon region. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, The Netherlands, with summaries in English and Dutch, 210 pp. The presence of anthropogenic soils, or Amazonian Dark

  20. Kindling: The Amazon e-Reader as an Educational Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezicki, Colin

    2011-01-01

    The revolutionary electronic reading device, Amazon's Kindle, is already obsolete. Such is the breakneck speed of technology that the machine touted to spell the death of printed books is already heading for the scrap heap, replaced by e-readers like the iPad that access the Internet, make phone calls, download movies, and connect users with all…

  1. Cytotoxic Constituents of Pachyrhizus tuberosus from Peruvian Amazon

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Leuner, O.; Havlík, J.; Buděšínský, Miloš; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Chu, J.; Bradshaw, T. D.; Hummelová, J.; Mikšátková, P.; Lapčík, O.; Valterová, Irena; Kokoška, L.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 10 (2013), s. 1423-1426 ISSN 1934-578X Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA525/09/0994 Program:GA Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : Pachyrrhizus sp. * Amazon ian yam bean * isoflavonoid * rotenoid Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.924, year: 2013

  2. Microsatellites for the gynogenetic Amazon molly, Poecilia formosa

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 85; Issue 1. Microsatellites for the gynogenetic Amazon molly, Poecilia formosa: useful tools for detection of mutation rate, ploidy determination and overall genetic diversity. Kathrin P. Lampert Dunja K. Lamatsch Susanne Schories Armin Hopf Francisco J. García De León ...

  3. Placentation in dolphins from the Amazon River Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Silva, Vera M F; Carter, Anthony M; Ambrosio, Carlos E

    2007-01-01

    A recent reassessment of the phylogenetic affinities of cetaceans makes it timely to compare their placentation with that of the artiodactyls. We studied the placentae of two sympatric species of dolphin from the Amazon River Basin, representing two distinct families. The umbilical cord branched...

  4. Condition and fate of logged forests in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory P. Asner; Eben N. Broadbent; Paulo J. C. Oliveira; Michael Keller; David E. Knapp; Jose N. M. Silva

    2006-01-01

    The long-term viability of a forest industry in the Amazon region of Brazil depends on the maintenance of adequate timber volume and growth in healthy forests. Using extensive high-resolution satellite analyses, we studied the forest damage caused by recent logging operations and the likelihood that logged forests would be cleared within 4 years after timber harvest....

  5. Commons management and ecotourism: Ethnographic evidence from the Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stronza, Amanda Lee

    2010-01-01

    TThe paper evaluates the relationship between ecotourism and commons management. Social and economic impacts of ecotourism in an indigenous village in the Peruvian Amazon are considered in relation to opportunities for collective action to manage common pool resources, including wildlife, forests,

  6. Food Security, Fisheries and Aquaculture in the Bolivian Amazon ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Dieta del paiche - Arapaima aff. gigas (Osteoglossiformes: Arapaimidae) en el lago El Mentiroso, Río Madre de Dios (Bolivia). Download PDF. Studies. Food security and nutritional status in fishing communities in Bolivia's Northern Amazon : results of a household survey. Download PDF. Briefs. Pêches, aquaculture et bien ...

  7. Helping the Amazon's Caboclos riverine communities cope with ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-11-15

    Nov 15, 2013 ... Riverine communities are known to be adaptable to hydro-climatic changes. However, they are experiencing higher and longer tides and floods. A research project is developing an early warning system and tools to help these communities in the Delta of the Amazon River adapt to extreme events.

  8. Food Security, Fisheries and Aquaculture in the Bolivian Amazon ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Indigenous communities involved in fisheries and aquaculture are among the most food insecure in the Bolivian Amazon. Although fish could be the main source of protein, it is often not part of the local diet. This project - supported by the Canadian International Food Security Research Fund (CIFSRF), a joint program of ...

  9. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon: A Classroom Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijman, Jan; Hill, A. David

    1991-01-01

    Presents a classroom project dealing with tropical deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Addresses environmental consequences and economic, social, and political causes. Involves both lectures and individual research and reports by student groups on deforestation causes. Includes a note-playing activity in which students make recommendations for…

  10. Characterization, analysis and dating of archaeological ceramics from the Amazon basin through nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latini, Rose Mary

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this work is to contribute to the research in the reconstruction of part of the pre-history of the Amazon Basin by means of an analytical methods combined with multivariate analysis, given a analytic basis that can be continued by the archaeological work, through the identification, classification, provenance and dating the ceramics found in different archaeological sites of the Hydro graphic Basin of the Purus river. Neutron activation analysis in conjunction multivariate statistical methods were used for the identification and classification and thermoluminescence was used for the dating. Chemical composition results were in better agreement with archaeological classification for the archaeologically define Iquiri, Quinan and Xapuri phases and less characteristics the Iaco and Jacuru archaeological phase were not well characterized. An homogeneous group was established by most of the samples collected from the Los Angeles Archaeological Site (LA) and was distinct from all the other groups analysed. The provenance studies made with ceramics collected at this site shows that they were made with clay from nearby river (Rio Ina). From the LA ceramics dating the average date of site occupation was 1660 years. The ceramic dating results from the external wall of a circular earth wall construction confirm the relation with the local pre-history. Beyond the Acre material two urns were dated from the Archaeological Site Morro Grande and Sao Jose at Araruama, Rio de Janeiro. (author)

  11. The Impacts of Amazon Deforestation on Pacific Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Leah

    Variability in eastern Pacific sea surface temperatures (SSTs) associated with the El Nino Southern Oscillation are known to affect Amazonian precipitation, but to what extent do changing Amazonian vegetation and rainfall impact eastern Pacific SST? The Amazon rainforest is threatened by many factors including climate change and clearing for agricultural reasons. Forest fires and dieback are more likely due to increased frequency and intensity of droughts in the region. It is possible that extensive Amazon deforestation can enhance El Nino conditions by weakening the Walker circulation. Correlations between annual rainfall rates over the Amazon and other atmospheric parameters (global precipitation, surface air temperature, low cloud amount, 500 hPa vertical velocity, surface winds, and 200 hPa winds) over the eastern Pacific indicate strong relationships among these fields. Maps of these correlations (teleconnection maps) reveal that when the Amazon is rainy SSTs in the central and eastern Pacific are cold, rainfall is suppressed over the central and eastern Pacific, low clouds are prominent over the eastern and southeastern Pacific, and subsidence over the central and eastern Pacific is enhanced. Precipitation in the Amazon is also consistent with a strong Walker circulation (La Nina conditions), manifest as strong correlations with the easterly surface and westerly 200 hPa zonal winds. Coupling between Amazon rainfall and these fields are seen in observations and model data. Correlations were calculated using data from observations, reanalysis data, two models under the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project/Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5/AMIP), and an AMIP run with the model used in this study, the Community Earth System Model (CESM1.1.1). Although the correlations between Amazon precipitation and the aforementioned fields are strong, they do not show causality. In order to investigate the impact of tropical South American deforestation on the

  12. Characterization of the Early Inflammatory Infiltrate at the Feeding Site of Infected Sand Flies in Mice Protected from Vector-Transmitted Leishmania major by Exposure to Uninfected Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Clarissa; Gomes, Regis; Oliveira, Fabiano; Meneses, Claudio; Gilmore, Dana C.; Elnaiem, Dia-Eldin A.; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Kamhawi, Shaden

    2014-01-01

    Background Mice exposed to sand fly saliva are protected against vector-transmitted Leishmania major. Although protection has been related to IFN- γ producing T cells, the early inflammatory response orchestrating this outcome has not been defined. Methodology/Principal findings Mice exposed to uninfected P. duboscqi bites and naïve mice were challenged with L. major-infected flies to characterize their early immune response at the bite site. Mostly, chemokine and cytokine transcript expression post-infected bites was amplified in exposed compared to naïve mice. In exposed mice, induced chemokines were mostly involved in leukocyte recruitment and T cell and NK cell activation; IL-4 was expressed at 6 h followed by IFN-γ and iNOS2 as well as IL-5 and IL-10 expression. In naïve animals, the transcript expression following Leishmania-infected sand fly bites was suppressed. Expression profiles translated to an earlier and significantly larger recruitment of leukocytes including neutrophils, macrophages, Gr+ monocytes, NK cells and CD4+ T cells to the bite site of exposed compared to naïve mice post-infected bites. Additionally, up to 48 hours post-infected bites the number of IFN-γ-producing CD4+T cells and NK cells arriving at the bite site was significantly higher in exposed compared to naïve mice. Thereafter, NK cells become cytolytic and persist at the bite site up to a week post-bite. Conclusion/Significance The quiet environment induced by a Leishmania-infected sand fly bite in naïve mice was significantly altered in animals previously exposed to saliva of uninfected flies. We propose that the enhanced recruitment of Gr+ monocytes, NK cells and CD4 Th1 cells observed at the bite site of exposed mice creates an inhospitable environment that counters the establishment of L. major infection. PMID:24762408

  13. Amazon peatlands: quantifying ecosytem's stocks, GHG fluxes and their microbial connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadillo-Quiroz, Hinsby; Lähteenoja, Outi; Buessecker, Steffen; van Haren, Joost

    2017-04-01

    Reports of hundreds of peatlands across basins in the West and Central Amazon suggest they play an important, previously not considered regional role in organic carbon (OC) and GHG dynamics. Amazon peatlands store ˜3-6 Gt of OC in their waterlogged soils with strong potential for conversion and release of GHG, in fact our recent, and others', efforts have confirmed variable levels of GHG emissions (CO2, N2O, CH4), as well as variable microbial communities across rich to poor soil peatlands. Here, we report early results of quantification of different components making up the aboveground C stocks, the rates and paths for GHG release, and microbial organisms occurring in three ecologically distinct peatland types in the Pastaza-Marañon region of the Peruvian Amazon. Evaluations were done in duplicated continuous monitoring plots established since 2015 at a "palm swamp" (PS), poor "pole forest" (pPF) and a rich "forested" (rF) peatlands. Although overall vegetation "structure" with a few dominant plus several low frequency species was common across the three sites, their botanical composition and tree density was highly contrasting. Aboveground C stocks content showed the following order among sites: rF>PS>pPF, and hence we tested whether this differences can have a direct effect on CH4 emissions rates. CH4 emissions rates from soils were observed in average at 11, 6, and 0.8 mg-C m-2 h-1for rF, PS, and pPF respectively. However, these estimated fluxes needed to be revised when we develop quantifications of CH4 emissions from tree stems. Tree stem fluxes were detected showing a broad variation with nearly nill emissions in some species all the way to maximum fluxes near to ˜90 mg-C m-2 h-1 in other species. Mauritia flexuosa, a highly dominant palm species in PS and ubiquitous to the region, showed the highest ranges of CH4 flux. In the PS site, overall CH4 flux estimate increased by ˜50% when including stem emission weighted by trees' species, density and heights

  14. Structural factors that increase HIV/STI vulnerability among indigenous people in the Peruvian amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, E Roberto; Alva, Isaac E; Cárcamo, Cesar P; García, Patricia J

    2013-09-01

    We examined structural factors-social, political, economic, and environmental-that increase vulnerability to HIV among indigenous people in the Peruvian Amazon. Indigenous adults belonging to 12 different ethnic groups were purposively recruited in four Amazonian river ports and 16 indigenous villages. Qualitative data revealed a complex set of structural factors that give rise to environments of risk where health is constantly challenged. Ferryboats that cross Amazonian rivers are settings where unprotected sex-including transactional sex between passengers and boat crew and commercial sex work-often take place. Population mobility and mixing also occurs in settings like the river docks, mining sites, and other resource extraction camps, where heavy drinking and unprotected sex work are common. Multilevel, combination prevention strategies that integrate empirically based interventions with indigenous knowledge are urgently needed, not only to reduce vulnerability to HIV transmission, but also to eliminate the structural determinants of indigenous people's health.

  15. Energetic strategies for the sustainable development of the isolated areas of Amazon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Lascio, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    This article analyzes the economic and energetic situation of the 35 % Amazonian inhabitants that live in remote and isolated sites, inside the Amazon forest. Generally, deforestation begins in those places and rapidly occurs the destruction of local ecosystems. The poverty is everywhere and the energy supply is insufficient or nonexistent. The electric energy is generated with diesel, but its acquisition consumes all available income.The man is not adapted to the environment, and destroys the forest to increase profit and comfort, but without protection the soil fragility causes poverty. To conclude some case studies are presented. Finally, it is proposed an energy strategy to protect the environment, through an an economic development, based on the use of renewable energy. (author)

  16. Spatial variability of soil carbon stock in the Urucu river basin, Central Amazon-Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceddia, Marcos Bacis; Villela, André Luis Oliveira; Pinheiro, Érika Flávia Machado; Wendroth, Ole

    2015-01-01

    The Amazon Forest plays a major role in C sequestration and release. However, few regional estimates of soil organic carbon (SOC) stock in this ecoregion exist. One of the barriers to improve SOC estimates is the lack of recent soil data at high spatial resolution, which hampers the application of new methods for mapping SOC stock. The aims of this work were: (i) to quantify SOC stock under undisturbed vegetation for the 0–30 and the 0–100 cm under Amazon Forest; (ii) to correlate the SOC stock with soil mapping units and relief attributes and (iii) to evaluate three geostatistical techniques to generate maps of SOC stock (ordinary, isotopic and heterotopic cokriging). The study site is located in the Central region of Amazon State, Brazil. The soil survey covered the study site that has an area of 80 km 2 and resulted in a 1:10,000 soil map. It consisted of 315 field observations (96 complete soil profiles and 219 boreholes). SOC stock was calculated by summing C stocks by horizon, determined as a product of BD, SOC and the horizon thickness. For each one of the 315 soil observations, relief attributes were derived from a topographic map to understand SOC dynamics. The SOC stocks across 30 and 100 cm soil depth were 3.28 and 7.32 kg C m −2 , respectively, which is, 34 and 16%, lower than other studies. The SOC stock is higher in soils developed in relief forms exhibiting well-drained soils, which are covered by Upland Dense Tropical Rainforest. Only SOC stock in the upper 100 cm exhibited spatial dependence allowing the generation of spatial variability maps based on spatial (co)-regionalization. The CTI was inversely correlated with SOC stock and was the only auxiliary variable feasible to be used in cokriging interpolation. The heterotopic cokriging presented the best performance for mapping SOC stock. - Highlights: • The SOC stocks across 30 and 100 cm depth were 3.28 and 7.32 kg C m −2 , respectively. • SOC stocks were 34 and 16%, respectively

  17. Spatial variability of soil carbon stock in the Urucu river basin, Central Amazon-Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceddia, Marcos Bacis, E-mail: marcosceddia@gmail.com [Department of Soil, Institute of Agronomy, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropédica, RJ 23890-000 (Brazil); Villela, André Luis Oliveira [Colégio Técnico da UFRRJ, RJ, Seropédica 23890-000 (Brazil); Pinheiro, Érika Flávia Machado [Department of Soil, Institute of Agronomy, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropédica, RJ 23890-000 (Brazil); Wendroth, Ole [Department of Plant & Soil Sciences, University of Kentucky, College of Agriculture, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Amazon Forest plays a major role in C sequestration and release. However, few regional estimates of soil organic carbon (SOC) stock in this ecoregion exist. One of the barriers to improve SOC estimates is the lack of recent soil data at high spatial resolution, which hampers the application of new methods for mapping SOC stock. The aims of this work were: (i) to quantify SOC stock under undisturbed vegetation for the 0–30 and the 0–100 cm under Amazon Forest; (ii) to correlate the SOC stock with soil mapping units and relief attributes and (iii) to evaluate three geostatistical techniques to generate maps of SOC stock (ordinary, isotopic and heterotopic cokriging). The study site is located in the Central region of Amazon State, Brazil. The soil survey covered the study site that has an area of 80 km{sup 2} and resulted in a 1:10,000 soil map. It consisted of 315 field observations (96 complete soil profiles and 219 boreholes). SOC stock was calculated by summing C stocks by horizon, determined as a product of BD, SOC and the horizon thickness. For each one of the 315 soil observations, relief attributes were derived from a topographic map to understand SOC dynamics. The SOC stocks across 30 and 100 cm soil depth were 3.28 and 7.32 kg C m{sup −2}, respectively, which is, 34 and 16%, lower than other studies. The SOC stock is higher in soils developed in relief forms exhibiting well-drained soils, which are covered by Upland Dense Tropical Rainforest. Only SOC stock in the upper 100 cm exhibited spatial dependence allowing the generation of spatial variability maps based on spatial (co)-regionalization. The CTI was inversely correlated with SOC stock and was the only auxiliary variable feasible to be used in cokriging interpolation. The heterotopic cokriging presented the best performance for mapping SOC stock. - Highlights: • The SOC stocks across 30 and 100 cm depth were 3.28 and 7.32 kg C m{sup −2}, respectively. • SOC stocks were 34 and 16

  18. Achieving zero deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon: What is missing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Moutinho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Amazon deforestation causes severe climatic and ecological disruptions, with negative consequences for the livelihood of forest-dependent peoples. To avoid further disruptions, Brazil will need to take bold steps to eliminate both illegal and legal Amazon deforestation over the short term. Amazon deforestation declined by 70% between 2005 and 2014 due to drops in commodity prices and interventions by federal and state governments, such as law enforcement campaigns and credit restrictions for landowners who deforest illegally. Despite these impressive achievements, Brazil still deforests 5,000 km2 of Amazonian forests each year. How then will Brazil eliminate Amazon deforestation altogether if the country is only committed to cut illegal deforestation by 2030—as stated in its Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (iNDC to the 2015 climate change treaty meeting in Paris? Here we provide an analysis of the major socio-economic-political threats that could constrain Brazil from achieving its current goals. We then propose six fundamental strategies to help Brazil achieve a more ambitious goal to eliminate all major legal and illegal Amazon deforestation. These strategies involve bringing social and environmental safeguards to the infrastructure plans in the region, consolidating and expanding positive incentives for the production of sustainable commodities, establishing a new policy to guarantee the social and environmental sustainability of rural settlements, fully implementing the national legislation protecting forests (the Forest Code, protecting the land rights of indigenous people and traditional communities, and expanding the existing network of protected areas, allocating the 80 million hectares of not designated public forests as protected areas or areas for sustainable use of timber and non-timber forest products. The implementation of these strategies however depends on the formulation of a new development paradigm that

  19. Naturally Acquired Antibodies to Plasmodium vivax Duffy Binding Protein (DBP) in Rural Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza-Silva, Flávia A.; da Silva-Nunes, Mônica; Sanchez, Bruno A. M.; Ceravolo, Isabela P.; Malafronte, Rosely S.; Brito, Cristiana F. A.; Ferreira, Marcelo U.; Carvalho, Luzia H.

    2010-01-01

    Duffy binding protein (DBP), a leading malaria vaccine candidate, plays a critical role in Plasmodium vivax erythrocyte invasion. Sixty-eight of 366 (18.6%) subjects had IgG anti-DBP antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in a community-based cross-sectional survey in the Brazilian Amazon Basin. Despite continuous exposure to low-level malaria transmission, the overall seroprevalence decreased to 9.0% when the population was reexamined 12 months later. Antibodies from 16 of 50 (36.0%) subjects who were ELISA-positive at the baseline were able to inhibit erythrocyte binding to at least one of two DBP variants tested. Most (13 of 16) of these subjects still had inhibitory antibodies when reevaluated 12 months later. Cumulative exposure to malaria was the strongest predictor of DBP seropositivity identified by multiple logistic regression models in this population. The poor antibody recognition of DBP elicited by natural exposure to P. vivax in Amazonian populations represents a challenge to be addressed by vaccine development strategies. PMID:20133990

  20. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-living Amazon river dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from central Amazon, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important pathogen in aquatic mammals and its presence in these animals may indicate water contamination of aquatic environment by oocysts. Serum samples from 95 dolphins from free-living Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from Sustainable Development Reserve Mamirauá (...

  1. Habitat- and species-dependent accumulation of organohalogen pollutants in home-produced eggs from an electronic waste recycling site in South China: Levels, profiles, and human dietary exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yan-Hong; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Tang, Bin; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2016-09-01

    Organohalogen pollutants (OHPs) including chlorinated paraffins (CPs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and other halogenated flame retardants (OHFRs) (dechlorane plus (DP), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (BTBPE), hexabromobenzene (HBB), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA)) originating from an e-waste recycling area in Guiyu, southern China were investigated in chicken and goose eggs. As expected, OHP concentrations were higher in chicken eggs collected from the location (site 1) approaching the e-waste recycling center than from the location (site 2) far from the e-waste recycling center. Also, much higher OHP levels were observed in goose eggs foraging in residential area (site 2) than that in agricultural area (site 1), suggesting a clear habitat dependent OHP bioaccumulation pattern both concerning distance from e-waste activities and type of foraging habitat. Goose eggs exhibited higher short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) concentrations but lower PBDE and OHFR levels than chicken eggs. The proportion of high brominated PBDEs (hepta-to deca-BDEs) was lower in goose eggs than that in chicken eggs and showed a clear decrease from site 1 to site 2. DP isomeric composition fanti values (the ratio of the anti-DP to the sum of the anti- and syn-DP) in goose eggs were significantly lower than those in chicken eggs (p < 0.001). These differences are likely a reflection of factors such as the species-specific differences in habitat preference and the differing environmental behaviors of the pollutants owing to their inherent properties (such as solubility and vapor pressure). Our findings suggested a high dietary intake of OHPs via home-produced eggs. For BDE99 there is a potential health concern with respect to the current dietary exposure via eggs. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Aerosol Hygroscopicity Measured in Pristine and Polluted Conditions During the First Year of the GoAmazon 2014/15 Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, H. M.; Krüger, M. L.; Thalman, R.; Wang, J.; Pauliquevis, T.; Brito, J.; Poeschl, U.; Andreae, M. O.; Martin, S. T.; Artaxo, P.

    2015-12-01

    The effects of aerosol particles on cloud microphysical properties, cloud cover, precipitation, and regional climate are an important aspect of the climate system. The Amazon region is particularly susceptible to changes in number-diameter distributions of the atmospheric particle population because of the low background concentrations and high water vapor levels, indicating a regime of cloud properties that is highly sensitive to aerosol microphysics. This natural regime, different from most other continental areas worldwide, is expected to be perturbed by the interaction of the Manaus urban plume with the natural the natural environment. Studying the effects of this interaction on the cloud and aerosol life cycle is the main objective of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon) campaign taking place around Manaus-Brazil from January 2014 to December 2015. In this paper we compare the particle hygroscopicity calculated from measurements of size-resolved cloud condensation nuclei performed at three ground sites during the first year of the GoAmazon 2014/15 experiment. Site T3 is about 70 km downwind from Manaus experiencing urban polluted and background conditions; site T2 is just across the Rio Negro from Manaus and CCN measurements were performed there only from 15 August 2014 to 30 Jan 2015; and T0, at the Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO), is a pristine site about 200 km upwind from Manaus. Our results indicate a lower hygroscopicity under polluted conditions (mean kappa values around 0.14 to 0.16) than under clean conditions (mean kappa around 0.2 to 0.3). At the clean site, it was possible to identify peaks of large sea salt particles with organic coating, while small particles seems to be purely organic. The activation fraction and hygroscopicity will be compared and discussed as a function of particle size. The mean kappa at ATTO is 0.17+-0.05 (mean of June and September) when there is no impact from long range transport from Africa or fresh soot emissions

  3. Late Miocene onset of the Amazon River and the Amazon deep-sea fan: Evidence from the Foz do Amazonas Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Figueiredo, J.; Hoorn, C.; van der Ven, P.; Soares, E.

    2009-01-01

    New biostratigraphic, isotopic, and well log data from exploration wells on the outer continental shelf and uppermost Amazon deep-sea fan, Brazil, reveal that the Amazon River was initiated as a transcontinental river between 11.8 and 11.3 Ma ago (middle to late Miocene), and reached its present

  4. Measuring solar induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) in the Amazon rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornfeld, A.; Stutz, J.; Berry, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    Measurement of solar induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) has, in our hands, been fraught with missteps and puzzling problems. Here we describe lessons we have learned and the resulting novel system recently installed in the Amazon rainforest near Manaus, Brazil. The system is designed to measure light from 740 - 780 nm, enabling us to compare SIF computed from Fraunhofer lines in an optically transparent band of the atmosphere (745 - 759 nm) with SIF computed using the telluric O2A band (760 - 770 nm). Fraunhofer line analysis requires high optical resolution (better than 0.2 nm) to detect the relatively narrow lines, but we discovered that fiber-optic diffraction-grating spectrometers are sensitive to very small inhomogeneities in the lighting. Errors resulting from this autocorrelated but random noise were similar in magnitude to the SIF signal itself. Optical diffusers reduce this problem, leading to our final design: a sealed cylinder, dubbed Rotaprism, in which a rotatable prism selects whether light from upward- or downward-looking windows enters an axially-placed optical fiber. Cosine-correcting opal glass covering the windows not only solves the noise issue but also makes the measurements correspond to photon flux. Rotaprism also maximizes the amount of light reaching the spectrometer - maximizing the signal:noise ratio - by avoiding the need for lossy optical switches and fiber splitters. Rotaprism is driven by a pneumatic actuator that is controlled by electronic valves attached to a pressurized N2 source. The gas exhausts into the temperature-controlled spectrometer enclosure to help purge the optics. Finally, custom software provides fault-tolerant control and data acquisition, ensuring that measurements continue with little or no intervention at the remote field site despite unreliable power. Analysis of initial data demonstrates the advantage of Fraunhofer line SIF analysis: due to the atmosphere transparency in this band, the results are more

  5. Histological observation and occurrence of apoptosis in the gill from estuary Amazon fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zélia Maria Nunes

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sciades herszbergii is a fish species commomly know as "blue catfish" and is one the most important natural resources an estuary in the Amazon region. In this study histological observations and apoptosis analysis was made in a gill tissue of the S. herszbergii from two environments: I, away from pollution sources and; II, waste from industry, the last one was used to relate the health status of the fishes in the environmental. Gill fragments were fixed 4% paraformaldehyde solution for 24 h and submitted for histological routine processing for embedding in paraffin. Sections of 7 μm were stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin for analysis under light microscopy. For immunohistochemycal analyses gill sections were incubated in the primary polyclonal antibody anti-caspase 3, made in rabbit. Slides were revealed using 3,3'-diaminobenzidine. The results showed the type and level of lesions were verified between two study sites. A variety of severe damages were observed in specimens including aneurysms, epithelial lifting, and intense hyperplasia, specially on the site II. Apoptosis analyses also revealed injuries in the gill tissue of specimens from these two sites. While on site I only few specimens showed mild changes in gill tissues and rare apoptosis marking. These results suggest the gill histological and immunohistochemical analysis are a good biomarker, and the specie S. herszbergii could be used as a bioindicator for environmental monitoring.

  6. Dietary exposure to PCBs based on food consumption survey and food basket analysis at Taizhou, China--the world's major site for recycling transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Guan Hua; Wu, Sheng Chun; Wong, Ming Hung

    2010-11-01

    The levels of PCBs in different types of food (fish, shellfish, meat, rice, vegetables, and fruits) were analyzed to determine the dietary intake of 37 PCBs for local residents and e-waste workers (all lactating mothers) at Taizhou (China), a major electronic waste scrapping center, in particular for recycling transformers. The exposure to PCBs through dietary intake in Taizhou was estimated at 92.79 ngkg(-1)d(-1), contributed by consumption of freshwater fish (28%), rice (28%), meat (17%), shellfish (9%), vegetables (8%), egg (4%) and marine fish (2%). With regards to WHO-PCB-TEQ values, freshwater fish (40%), shellfish (24%), duck liver (18%) and rice (12%) were the main dietary sources with total daily intake (9.78 pg WHO-PCB-TEQ kg(-1)d(-1)), exceeding the FAO/WHO Tolerable Daily Intake (70 pg TEQkg(-1)body(-1)wt(-1)month(-1)). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Late Miocene paleogeography of the Amazon Basin and the evolution of the Amazon River system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latrubesse, Edgardo M.; Cozzuol, Mario; da Silva-Caminha, Silane A. F.; Rigsby, Catherine A.; Absy, Maria Lucia; Jaramillo, Carlos

    2010-05-01

    basin, and became instead an erosional area that contributed sediments to the Amazon fluvial system. At that time, the lowland fluvial systems of southwestern Amazonia (the Purus, Jurua and Javarí basins) become isolated from the Andes by the newly formed north-flowing Ucayali system and south-east flowing Madre de Dios System. It was during the early Pliocene that the Amazon fluvial system integrated regionally and acquired its present appearance, and also when it started to drain water and sediments on a large scale to the Atlantic Ocean.

  8. Contrasting Patterns of Damage and Recovery in Logged Amazon Forests From Small Footprint LiDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, D. C.; Keller, M.; Cook, B. D.; Hunter, Maria; Sales, Marcio; Spinelli, L.; Victoria, D.; Andersen, H.-E.; Saleska, S.

    2012-01-01

    Tropical forests ecosystems respond dynamically to climate variability and disturbances on time scales of minutes to millennia. To date, our knowledge of disturbance and recovery processes in tropical forests is derived almost exclusively from networks of forest inventory plots. These plots typically sample small areas (less than or equal to 1 ha) in conservation units that are protected from logging and fire. Amazon forests with frequent disturbances from human activity remain under-studied. Ongoing negotiations on REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation plus enhancing forest carbon stocks) have placed additional emphasis on identifying degraded forests and quantifying changing carbon stocks in both degraded and intact tropical forests. We evaluated patterns of forest disturbance and recovery at four -1000 ha sites in the Brazilian Amazon using small footprint LiDAR data and coincident field measurements. Large area coverage with airborne LiDAR data in 2011-2012 included logged and unmanaged areas in Cotriguacu (Mato Grosso), Fiona do Jamari (Rondonia), and Floresta Estadual do Antimary (Acre), and unmanaged forest within Reserva Ducke (Amazonas). Logging infrastructure (skid trails, log decks, and roads) was identified using LiDAR returns from understory vegetation and validated based on field data. At each logged site, canopy gaps from logging activity and LiDAR metrics of canopy heights were used to quantify differences in forest structure between logged and unlogged areas. Contrasting patterns of harvesting operations and canopy damages at the three logged sites reflect different levels of pre-harvest planning (i.e., informal logging compared to state or national logging concessions), harvest intensity, and site conditions. Finally, we used multi-temporal LiDAR data from two sites, Reserva Ducke (2009, 2012) and Antimary (2010, 2011), to evaluate gap phase dynamics in unmanaged forest areas. The rates and patterns of canopy gap

  9. Recurrence of Plasmodium falciparum after treatment with quinine and doxycycline in the Amazon basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Margarete do Socorro Mendonça; Vieira, José Luiz Fernandes; Couto, Álvaro Augusto Ribeiro D'Almeida; Couto, Vanja Suely Calvosa D'Almeida; Vieira, Michelle Valéria Dias Ferreira; Pereira, Francis Christian da Silva; Machado, Ricado Luiz Dantas

    2017-02-01

    To investigate whether the recurrence of infection by Plasmodium falciparum in patients from the Brazilian Amazon was caused by an inadequate exposure to quinine. A retrospective study was carried out using blood samples from patients with slide-confirmed infection by P. falciparum, classified according to the parasitological response after 28 days of follow-up. Quinine and doxycycline were measured in plasma samples by high-performance liquid chromatography. A statistical model was used to estimate parasite clearance rates. Six of 40 patients who met the criteria for inclusion in the study showed recurrence of parasitaemia within 28 days after the commencement of treatment. A group of six patients with adequate parasitological response was formed to avoid bias when the variables were compared. Parasitaemia at admission was similar in both groups. Plasma quinine concentrations were similar in both groups on days 1, 2 and 3 and ranged from 1.07 to 4.35 μg/ml in cured patients and from 1.1 to 3.2 μg/ml in patients with parasite recurrence. Concentrations of doxycycline were similar in both groups on day 3. The parasite clearance rate constant was 0.131 ± 0.16 h in the cured patients and 0.117 ± 0.02 h in those showing recurrence. The slope half-life in the cured patients was 4.8 h and 5.4 h in recurrence cases. The hillslope of the cured group (14.24) increased sharply compared to the recurrence group (4.13). There is evidence of a decreased in vivo sensitivity to quinine of P. falciparum strains in the Brazilian Amazon basin. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. ABUNDANCE AND MORPHOMETRIC RELATIONSHIPS OF AMAZON SHRIMP - Macrobrachium amazonicum (HELLER 1862 (DECAPODA, PALAEMONIDAE - IN AN AMAZON ESTUARY - NORTH COAST OF BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Bentes da Silva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available From Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862 (Decapoda, Palaemonidae abundance in monthly collections in the Amazon estuary and on Mosqueiro Island (State of Pará, Brazil between April 2006 and August 2007, we verified that the site mentioned is favorable to the development of the species, since there is a significant number of young and adults specimens throughout the year, whose abundance is significantly higher in the dry season. Icoaraci was the site of great contribution in the total of specimens caught, relating this productivity to the large amount of organic matter in suspension. In this study, we found the largest M. amazonicum specimen ever collected, comparing to those mentioned by available scientific literature. The individual was a female caught on Combu Island with 44.72 mm carapace length or 18.45 cm total length. Relations of body mass (g vs. carapace length (mm for males, females and sexes together had negative allometry, which can be associated to the gonadal maturation cycle of the species. All other morphometric relationships showed positive allometry. Keywords. carapace; bio-ecology; population dynamics.

  11. Large emissions from floodplain trees close the Amazon methane budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangala, Sunitha R.; Enrich-Prast, Alex; Basso, Luana S.; Peixoto, Roberta Bittencourt; Bastviken, David; Hornibrook, Edward R. C.; Gatti, Luciana V.; Marotta, Humberto; Calazans, Luana Silva Braucks; Sakuragui, Cassia Mônica; Bastos, Wanderley Rodrigues; Malm, Olaf; Gloor, Emanuel; Miller, John Bharat; Gauci, Vincent

    2017-12-01

    Wetlands are the largest global source of atmospheric methane (CH4), a potent greenhouse gas. However, methane emission inventories from the Amazon floodplain, the largest natural geographic source of CH4 in the tropics, consistently underestimate the atmospheric burden of CH4 determined via remote sensing and inversion modelling, pointing to a major gap in our understanding of the contribution of these ecosystems to CH4 emissions. Here we report CH4 fluxes from the stems of 2,357 individual Amazonian floodplain trees from 13 locations across the central Amazon basin. We find that escape of soil gas through wetland trees is the dominant source of regional CH4 emissions. Methane fluxes from Amazon tree stems were up to 200 times larger than emissions reported for temperate wet forests and tropical peat swamp forests, representing the largest non-ebullitive wetland fluxes observed. Emissions from trees had an average stable carbon isotope value (δ13C) of -66.2 ± 6.4 per mil, consistent with a soil biogenic origin. We estimate that floodplain trees emit 15.1 ± 1.8 to 21.2 ± 2.5 teragrams of CH4 a year, in addition to the 20.5 ± 5.3 teragrams a year emitted regionally from other sources. Furthermore, we provide a ‘top-down’ regional estimate of CH4 emissions of 42.7 ± 5.6 teragrams of CH4 a year for the Amazon basin, based on regular vertical lower-troposphere CH4 profiles covering the period 2010-2013. We find close agreement between our ‘top-down’ and combined ‘bottom-up’ estimates, indicating that large CH4 emissions from trees adapted to permanent or seasonal inundation can account for the emission source that is required to close the Amazon CH4 budget. Our findings demonstrate the importance of tree stem surfaces in mediating approximately half of all wetland CH4 emissions in the Amazon floodplain, a region that represents up to one-third of the global wetland CH4 source when trees are combined with other emission sources.

  12. Methane emissions from floodplains in the Amazon Basin: challenges in developing a process-based model for global applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringeval, B.; Houweling, S.; van Bodegom, P. M.; Spahni, R.; van Beek, R.; Joos, F.; Röckmann, T.

    2014-03-01

    Tropical wetlands are estimated to represent about 50% of the natural wetland methane (CH4) emissions and explain a large fraction of the observed CH4 variability on timescales ranging from glacial-interglacial cycles to the currently observed year-to-year variability. Despite their importance, however, tropical wetlands are poorly represented in global models aiming to predict global CH4 emissions. This publication documents a first step in the development of a process-based model of CH4 emissions from tropical floodplains for global applications. For this purpose, the LPX-Bern Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (LPX hereafter) was slightly modified to represent floodplain hydrology, vegetation and associated CH4 emissions. The extent of tropical floodplains was prescribed using output from the spatially explicit hydrology model PCR-GLOBWB. We introduced new plant functional types (PFTs) that explicitly represent floodplain vegetation. The PFT parameterizations were evaluated against available remote-sensing data sets (GLC2000 land cover and MODIS Net Primary Productivity). Simulated CH4 flux densities were evaluated against field observations and regional flux inventories. Simulated CH4 emissions at Amazon Basin scale were compared to model simulations performed in the WETCHIMP intercomparison project. We found that LPX reproduces the average magnitude of observed net CH4 flux densities for the Amazon Basin. However, the model does not reproduce the variability between sites or between years within a site. Unfortunately, site information is too limited to attest or disprove some model features. At the Amazon Basin scale, our results underline the large uncertainty in the magnitude of wetland CH4 emissions. Sensitivity analyses gave insights into the main drivers of floodplain CH4 emission and their associated uncertainties. In particular, uncertainties in floodplain extent (i.e., difference between GLC2000 and PCR-GLOBWB output) modulate the simulated emissions by a

  13. Ebola Virus Infections in Nonhuman Primates Are Temporally Influenced by Glycoprotein Poly-U Editing Site Populations in the Exposure Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C. Trefry

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent experimentation with the variants of the Ebola virus that differ in the glycoprotein’s poly-uridine site, which dictates the form of glycoprotein produced through a transcriptional stutter, has resulted in questions regarding the pathogenicity and lethality of the stocks used to develop products currently undergoing human clinical trials to combat the disease. In order to address these concerns and prevent the delay of these critical research programs, we designed an experiment that permitted us to intramuscularly challenge statistically significant numbers of naïve and vaccinated cynomolgus macaques with either a 7U or 8U variant of the Ebola virus, Kikwit isolate. In naïve animals, no difference in survivorship was observed; however, there was a significant delay in the disease course between the two groups. Significant differences were also observed in time-of-fever, serum chemistry, and hematology. In vaccinated animals, there was no statistical difference in survivorship between either challenge groups, with two succumbing in the 7U group compared to 1 in the 8U challenge group. In summary, survivorship was not affected, but the Ebola virus disease course in nonhuman primates is temporally influenced by glycoprotein poly-U editing site populations.

  14. Amazon Column CO2 & CO Observations to Elucidate Tropical Ecosystem Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, M. K.; Parker, H. A.; Myers, K.; Wennberg, P. O.; Wunch, D.; Allen, N.; Kawa, S. R.; Keppel-Aleks, G.; Miller, J. B.; O'Dell, C.; Feist, D. G.; Osterman, G. B.

    2015-12-01

    The Amazon basin stores 150-200 PgC, exchanges 18 PgC with the atmosphere every year and has taken up 0.42-0.65 PgC/y over the past two decades. Despite its global significance, the response of the tropical carbon cycle to climate variability and change is ill constrained. The complex interplay of radiation, water and ecosystem phenology remains unresolved in tropical ecosystem models. We use high frequency regional scale TCCON observations of column CO2, CO and CH4 near Manaus, Brazil that began in October 2014 to understand the aforementioned interplay of processes. We observe a robust mean daily column CO2 uptake of about 1.8 ppm (5 ppm to 0.5 ppm) over 8 hours and evaluate how it changes as we transition to the dry season. Back-trajectory calculations show that the daily CO2 uptake footprint is terrestrial and influenced by the heterogeneity of the Amazon rain forests. The column CO falls from above 120 ppb to below 80 ppb as we transition from the biomass burning to wet seasons. The daily mean column CO2 rises by 3 ppm from October through June. Removal of biomass burning and secular CO2 increase during this period implies an increase of 3.5 ppm that is attributed to tropical biospheric processes (respiration and photosynthesis). This is consistent with ground-based and eddy flux observations that indicate that tree phenology (e.g. leaf flushing) plays an important role in the tropical carbon cycle in regions that are not water limited and is not considered in current models. We compare our observations with output from carbon cycle models with assimilated meteorology (e.g. NASA's CASA/GFED) and find they under predict the daily drawdown of CO2 by a factor of 2.5. We plan to perform comparisons with other models (e.g. CLM) and also determine the net carbon flux from the Amazon basin by combining back-trajectory analysis and observations of column CO2 made at Ascension Island that is upwind of our site.

  15. LBA-ECO LC-07 Amazon Floodplain Lake Chlorophyll from MODIS, Para, Brazil: 2002-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains chlorophyll concentration maps of the Amazon River floodplain region from Parintins (Amazonas) to Almeirim (Para). These chlorophyll fraction...

  16. LBA-ECO LC-07 Amazon Floodplain Lake Chlorophyll from MODIS, Para, Brazil: 2002-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains chlorophyll concentration maps of the Amazon River floodplain region from Parintins (Amazonas) to Almeirim (Para). These chlorophyll...

  17. Diversity of terrestrial mammal seed dispersers along a lowland Amazon forest regrowth gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arévalo-Sandi, Alexander; Bobrowiec, Paulo Estefano D; Rodriguez Chuma, Victor Juan Ulises; Norris, Darren

    2018-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the restoration/regeneration of degraded tropical habitats yet the potential role of natural regenerators remains unclear. We test the hypothesis that the richness and functional diversity of terrestrial mammals differs between forest regrowth stages. We quantified the richness and functional diversity of eight terrestrial mammal seed-disperser species across a forest regrowth gradient in the eastern Brazilian Amazon. We installed camera-traps in 15 sites within small-holder properties with forest regrowth stage classified into three groups, with five sites each of: late second-regrowth forest, early second-regrowth forest and abandoned pasture. Species richness and functional dispersion from the regrowth sites were compared with 15 paired forest control sites. Multi model selection showed that regrowth class was more important for explaining patterns in richness and functional diversity than other variables from three non-mutually exclusive hypotheses: hunting (distance to house, distance to river, distance to town, small holder residence), land cover (% forest cover within 50 meters, 1 kilometer and 5 kilometers) and land use (regrowth class, time since last use). Differences in functional diversity were most strongly explained by a loss of body mass. We found that diversity in regrowth sites could be similar to control sites even in some early-second regrowth areas. This finding suggests that when surrounded by large intact forest areas the richness and functional diversity close to human small-holdings can return to pre-degradation values. Yet we also found a significant reduction in richness and functional diversity in more intensely degraded pasture sites. This reduction in richness and functional diversity may limit the potential for regeneration and increase costs for ecological regeneration and restoration actions around more intense regrowth areas.

  18. Liver histopathology of the southern watersnake, Nerodia fasciata fasciata, following chronic exposure to trace element-contaminated prey from a coal ash disposal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganser, L.R.; Hopkins, W.A.; O' Neil, L.; Hasse, S.; Roe, J.H.; Sever, D.M. [St Marys College, Notre Dame, IN (USA). Dept. of Biology

    2003-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the accumulation of arsenic, cadmium, selenium, strontium, and vanadium in livers of Southern Watersnakes fed fish from a coal-ash contaminated site. Our study is the first to investigate effects of trace element accumulation on cytology of snake liver. Snakes were born in the laboratory and raised for one or two years on diets consisting of varying proportions of contaminated fish. The majority (71%) of snakes fed contaminated prey did not exhibit any differences in liver histology when compared to control snakes fed an uncontaminated diet. In the remaining contaminant-exposed snakes, some aberrations were noted. The most prevalent pathology involved the proliferation of collagen fibers that resulted in narrowing or occlusion of sinusoids and increasing the mass of the intersinsuoidal parenychma. Fibrosis of the liver as a result of chronic injury has been reported previously in reptiles, but this is the first report that links such tissue damage to dietary contamination.

  19. Biological pathways of exposure and ecotoxicity values for uranium and associated radionuclides: Chapter D in Hydrological, geological, and biological site characterization of breccia pipe uranium deposits in Northern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinck, Jo E.; Linder, Greg L.; Finger, Susan E.; Little, Edward E.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Kuhne, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    This chapter compiles available chemical and radiation toxicity information for plants and animals from the scientific literature on naturally occurring uranium and associated radionuclides. Specifically, chemical and radiation hazards associated with radionuclides in the uranium decay series including uranium, thallium, thorium, bismuth, radium, radon, protactinium, polonium, actinium, and francium were the focus of the literature compilation. In addition, exposure pathways and a food web specific to the segregation areas were developed. Major biological exposure pathways considered were ingestion, inhalation, absorption, and bioaccumulation, and biota categories included microbes, invertebrates, plants, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. These data were developed for incorporation into a risk assessment to be conducted as part of an environmental impact statement for the Bureau of Land Management, which would identify representative plants and animals and their relative sensitivities to exposure of uranium and associated radionuclides. This chapter provides pertinent information to aid in the development of such an ecological risk assessment but does not estimate or derive guidance thresholds for radionuclides associated with uranium. Previous studies have not attempted to quantify the risks to biota caused directly by the chemical or radiation releases at uranium mining sites, although some information is available for uranium mill tailings and uranium mine closure activities. Research into the biological impacts of uranium exposure is strongly biased towards human health and exposure related to enriched or depleted uranium associated with the nuclear energy industry rather than naturally occurring uranium associated with uranium mining. Nevertheless, studies have reported that uranium and other radionuclides can affect the survival, growth, and reproduction of plants and animals. Exposure to chemical and radiation hazards is influenced by a

  20. Terrestrial Carbon Sinks in the Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado Region Predicted from MODIS Satellite Data and Ecosystem Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, C.; Klooster, S.; Huete, A.; Genovese, V.; Bustamante, M.; Ferreira, L. Guimaraes; deOliveira, R. C., Jr.; Zepp, R.

    2009-01-01

    A simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation cover from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to estimate monthly carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado regions over the period 2000-2004. Net ecosystem production (NEP) flux for atmospheric CO2 in the region for these years was estimated. Consistently high carbon sink fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems on a yearly basis were found in the western portions of the states of Acre and Rondonia and the northern portions of the state of Par a. These areas were not significantly impacted by the 2002-2003 El Nino event in terms of net annual carbon gains. Areas of the region that show periodically high carbon source fluxes from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere on yearly basis were found throughout the state of Maranhao and the southern portions of the state of Amazonas. As demonstrated though tower site comparisons, NEP modeled with monthly MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) inputs closely resembles the measured seasonal carbon fluxes at the LBA Tapajos tower site. Modeling results suggest that the capacity for use of MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) data to predict seasonal uptake rates of CO2 in Amazon forests and Cerrado woodlands is strong.

  1. Terrestrial carbon sinks in the Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado region predicted from MODIS satellite data and ecosystem modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Potter

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation cover from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS was used to estimate monthly carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado regions over the period 2000–2004. Net ecosystem production (NEP flux for atmospheric CO2 in the region for these years was estimated. Consistently high carbon sink fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems on a yearly basis were found in the western portions of the states of Acre and Rondônia and the northern portions of the state of Pará. These areas were not significantly impacted by the 2002–2003 El Niño event in terms of net annual carbon gains. Areas of the region that show periodically high carbon source fluxes from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere on yearly basis were found throughout the state of Maranhão and the southern portions of the state of Amazonas. As demonstrated though tower site comparisons, NEP modeled with monthly MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI inputs closely resembles the measured seasonal carbon fluxes at the LBA Tapajos tower site. Modeling results suggest that the capacity for use of MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI data to predict seasonal uptake rates of CO2 in Amazon forests and Cerrado woodlands is strong.

  2. RESRAD: an analysis method of the exposure via to ionizing radiation, used on radiological risk assessment in sites with problems of soil contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Loureiro, C. de; Yu, C.

    1995-01-01

    A microcomputer program, denominated RESRAD, was presented and described as an analytical tool to perform pathway analysis and radiological risk assessment. Nine exposure pathways are implemented in the code. They are the following: external radiation; dust inhalation; inhalation of radon; and, ingestion of plant, meat, milk, water, aquatic food, and soil. The U.S. Department of Energy (US-DOE) has recommended the use of RESRAD, as a radiological risk assessment package, for completing the pathway analysis needed to derive specific soil-guidelines and to support the ALARA evaluation. Since its conception, the RESRAD code has been continuously improved and updated to accommodate comments and suggestions from its users and to incorporate new features to improve its capability and flexibility. Version 5.0 consolidates the last major RESRAD updates. The package is intentionally user-friendly and operates with a menu system from which the user can access the data input screens, run the RESRAD calculations and view the output. (author). 4 refs, 1 fig, 1 tab

  3. Activation of factor IX zymogen results in exposure of a binding site for low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neels, J G; van Den Berg, B M; Mertens, K; ter Maat, H; Pannekoek, H; van Zonneveld, A J; Lenting, P J

    2000-11-15

    The interaction between the endocytic receptor low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) and either coagulation factor IX or its active derivative factor IXa was studied. Purified factor IX was unable to associate with LRP when analyzed by surface plasmon resonance. By contrast, factor XIa-mediated conversion of factor IX into factor IXa resulted in reversible dose- and calcium-dependent binding to LRP. Active-site blocking of factor IXa did not affect binding to LRP, whereas LRP binding was efficiently inhibited in the presence of heparin or antibodies against factor IX or LRP. The factor IXa-LRP interaction could be described by a 2-site binding model with equilibrium dissociation constants of 27 nmol/L and 69 nmol/L. Consistent with this model, it was observed that factor IXa binds to 2 different recombinant receptor fragments of LRP (denoted cluster II and cluster IV) with equilibrium dissociation constants of 227 nmol/L and 53 nmol/L, respectively. The amount of factor IXa degraded by LRP-deficient cells was 35% lower than by LRP-expressing cells, demonstrating that LRP contributes to the transport of factor IXa to the intracellular degradation pathway. Because ligand binding to LRP is often preceded by binding to proteoglycans, the contribution of proteoglycans to the catabolism of factor IXa was addressed by employing proteoglycan-deficient cells. Degradation of factor IXa by proteoglycan-deficient cells proceeded at a 83% lower rate than wild-type cells. In conclusion, the data presented here indicate that both LRP and proteoglycans have the potential to contribute to the catabolism of factor IXa.

  4. Remote tropical and sub-tropical responses to Amazon deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badger, Andrew M.; Dirmeyer, Paul A.

    2016-05-01

    Replacing natural vegetation with realistic tropical crops over the Amazon region in a global Earth system model impacts vertical transport of heat and moisture, modifying the interaction between the atmospheric boundary layer and the free atmosphere. Vertical velocity is decreased over a majority of the Amazon region, shifting the ascending branch and modifying the seasonality of the Hadley circulation over the Atlantic and eastern Pacific oceans. Using a simple model that relates circulation changes to heating anomalies and generalizing the upper-atmosphere temperature response to deforestation, agreement is found between the response in the fully-coupled model and the simple solution. These changes to the large-scale dynamics significantly impact precipitation in several remote regions, namely sub-Saharan Africa, Mexico, the southwestern United States and extratropical South America, suggesting non-local climate repercussions for large-scale land use changes in the tropics are possible.

  5. Tree ring reconstructed rainfall over the southern Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Lidio; Stahle, David; Villalba, Ricardo; Torbenson, Max; Feng, Song; Cook, Edward

    2017-07-01

    Moisture sensitive tree ring chronologies of Centrolobium microchaete have been developed from seasonally dry forests in the southern Amazon Basin and used to reconstruct wet season rainfall totals from 1799 to 2012, adding over 150 years of rainfall estimates to the short instrumental record for the region. The reconstruction is correlated with the same atmospheric variables that influence the instrumental measurements of wet season rainfall. Anticyclonic circulation over midlatitude South America promotes equatorward surges of cold and relatively dry extratropical air that converge with warm moist air to form deep convection and heavy rainfall over this sector of the southern Amazon Basin. Interesting droughts and pluvials are reconstructed during the preinstrumental nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, but the tree ring reconstruction suggests that the strong multidecadal variability in instrumental and reconstructed wet season rainfall after 1950 may have been unmatched since 1799.

  6. Database of the Amazon aromatic plants and their essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Guilherme S. Maia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aromatic flora of the Amazon has been inventoried for 30 years. In this sense, were made over 500 field trips to collect over 2500 plants and to obtain more than 2000 essential oils and aroma concentrates, all of them submitted to GC and GC-MS. This work led to the creation of a database for the aromatic plants of the Amazon, which catalogs general information about 1250 specimens. The database has allowed the publication of the chemical composition of the oils and aromas of more than 350 species, associated with a larger number of chemical types. The essential oils of many species offer optimum conditions for economic exploitation and use in national and international market of fragrances, cosmetics, agricultural and household pesticides.

  7. Biogenic cloud nuclei in the central Amazon during the transition from wet to dry season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Whitehead

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon basin is a vast continental area in which atmospheric composition is relatively unaffected by anthropogenic aerosol particles. Understanding the properties of the natural biogenic aerosol particles over the Amazon rainforest is key to understanding their influence on regional and global climate. While there have been a number of studies during the wet season, and of biomass burning particles in the dry season, there has been relatively little work on the transition period – the start of the dry season in the absence of biomass burning. As part of the Brazil–UK Network for Investigation of Amazonian Atmospheric Composition and Impacts on Climate (BUNIAACIC project, aerosol measurements, focussing on unpolluted biogenic air masses, were conducted at a remote rainforest site in the central Amazon during the transition from wet to dry season in July 2013. This period marks the start of the dry season but before significant biomass burning occurs in the region. Median particle number concentrations were 266 cm−3, with size distributions dominated by an accumulation mode of 130–150 nm. During periods of low particle counts, a smaller Aitken mode could also be seen around 80 nm. While the concentrations were similar in magnitude to those seen during the wet season, the size distributions suggest an enhancement in the accumulation mode compared to the wet season, but not yet to the extent seen later in the dry season, when significant biomass burning takes place. Submicron nonrefractory aerosol composition, as measured by an aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM, was dominated by organic material (around 81 %. Aerosol hygroscopicity was probed using measurements from a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyser (HTDMA, and a quasi-monodisperse cloud condensation nuclei counter (CCNc. The hygroscopicity parameter, κ, was found to be low, ranging from 0.12 for Aitken-mode particles to 0.18 for accumulation

  8. Land inequality and deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Albuquerque Sant'Anna, André

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the relationship between land inequality and deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Therefore, it is developed an occupational choice model where an individual decides whether to become a farmer in an already established place or to move in search of economic opportunities and land to clear at the agricultural frontier. This model provides theoretical predictions that are tested empirically. Based on data from 515 municipalities, this paper estimates a ...

  9. DETERMINATION OF CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF WOODS FROM SOUTHERN AMAZON

    OpenAIRE

    A. P. S. Almeida; D. A. Rodrigues; P. A. R. Castelo

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to make conventional analyzes to determine the chemical composition of five wooden species found on the Southern Amazon area, which are: Peltogyne lecointei, Erisma uncinatum, Hymenaea courbaril, Hymenolobium petraeum and Trattinnickia burseraefolia. First of all, the samples was collected based on the availability and and primarily in the commercial interest of the wood. It was taken discs along the stem (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of the commercial height) fro...

  10. Response of the Amazon rainforest to late Pleistocene climate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häggi, Christoph; Chiessi, Cristiano M.; Merkel, Ute; Mulitza, Stefan; Prange, Matthias; Schulz, Michael; Schefuß, Enno

    2017-12-01

    Variations in Amazonian hydrology and forest cover have major consequences for the global carbon and hydrological cycles as well as for biodiversity. Yet, the climate and vegetation history of the lowland Amazon basin and its effect on biogeography remain debated due to the scarcity of suitable high-resolution paleoclimate records. Here, we use the isotopic composition (δD and δ13C) of plant-waxes from a high-resolution marine sediment core collected offshore the Amazon River to reconstruct the climate and vegetation history of the integrated lowland Amazon basin for the period from 50,000 to 12,800 yr before present. Our results show that δD values from the Last Glacial Maximum were more enriched than those from Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3 and the present-day. We interpret this trend to reflect long-term changes in precipitation and atmospheric circulation, with overall drier conditions during the Last Glacial Maximum. Our results thus suggest a dominant glacial forcing of the climate in lowland Amazonia. In addition to previously suggested thermodynamic mechanisms of precipitation change, which are directly related to temperature, we conclude that changes in atmospheric circulation are crucial to explain the temporal evolution of Amazonian rainfall variations, as demonstrated in climate model experiments. Our vegetation reconstruction based on δ13C values shows that the Amazon rainforest was affected by intrusions of savannah or more open vegetation types in its northern sector during Heinrich Stadials, while it was resilient to glacial drying. This suggests that biogeographic patterns in tropical South America were affected by Heinrich Stadials in addition to glacial-interglacial climate variability.

  11. Brazilian policies that encourage deforestation in the Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Binswanger, H.P.

    1991-01-01

    Metadata only record This paper shows that general tax policies, special tax incentives, the rules of land allocation, and the agricultural credit system all accelerate deforestation in the Amazon (region of Brazil). These policies increase the size of land holdings and reduce the chances of the poor to become farmers. The key provisions include: the virtual exemption of agricultural income from income taxation; rules of public land allocation that provide incentives for deforestation beca...

  12. Ongoing River Capture in the Amazon via Secondary Channel Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, S. L.; Stokes, M.; Perron, J. T.

    2017-12-01

    The Rio Casiquiare in South America is a secondary channel that originates as a distributary of the Rio Orinoco and flows into the Rio Negro as a tributary to form a perennial connection between the Amazon and Orinoco basins, the largest and fourth-largest rivers on Earth by discharge. This unusual configuration is the result of an incomplete and ongoing river capture in which the Rio Negro is actively capturing the upper Rio Orinoco. This rarely observed intermediate stage of capture illuminates important mechanisms that drive river capture in lowland settings, both in the Amazon basin and elsewhere. In particular, we show that the capture of the Rio Orinoco by the Rio Casiquiare is driven by a combination of headward incision of a rapidly eroding tributary of the Rio Negro, sedimentation in the Rio Orinoco downstream of the bifurcation, and seasonal inundation of a low-relief divide. The initiation of the bifurcation by headward erosion caused an increase in discharge to the Rio Casiquiare while the corresponding loss of discharge to the downstream Rio Orinoco has led to observable sedimentation within the main channel. Unlike most ephemeral secondary channels, the Rio Casiquiare appears to be growing, suggesting that the present bifurcation is an unstable feature that will eventually lead to the complete capture of the upper Rio Orinoco by the Rio Casiquiare. This capture is the latest major event in the late Cenozoic drainage evolution of South America in response to Andean tectonism, and is an example of the lateral expansion of the Amazon basin through river capture following integration and entrenchment of the transcontinental Amazon River. The Rio Casiquiare provides a snapshot of an intermediate, transient state of bifurcation and inter-basin flow via a secondary channel during lowland river capture.

  13. Reserves protect against deforestation fires in the Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Marion Adeney

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Reserves are the principal means to conserve forests and biodiversity, but the question of whether reserves work is still debated. In the Amazon, fires are closely linked to deforestation, and thus can be used as a proxy for reserve effectiveness in protecting forest cover. We ask whether reserves in the Brazilian Amazon provide effective protection against deforestation and consequently fires, whether that protection is because of their location or their legal status, and whether some reserve types are more effective than others. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Previous work has shown that most Amazonian fires occur close to roads and are more frequent in El Niño years. We quantified these relationships for reserves and unprotected areas by examining satellite-detected hot pixels regressed against road distance across the entire Brazilian Amazon and for a decade with 2 El Niño-related droughts. Deforestation fires, as measured by hot pixels, declined exponentially with increasing distance from roads in all areas. Fewer deforestation fires occurred within protected areas than outside and the difference between protected and unprotected areas was greatest near roads. Thus, reserves were especially effective at preventing these fires where they are known to be most likely to burn; but they did not provide absolute protection. Even within reserves, at a given distance from roads, there were more deforestation fires in regions with high human impact than in those with low impact. The effect of El Niño on deforestation fires was greatest outside of reserves and near roads. Indigenous reserves, limited-use reserves, and fully protected reserves all had fewer fires than outside areas and did not appear to differ in their effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taking time, regional factors, and climate into account, our results show that reserves are an effective tool for curbing destructive burning in the Amazon.

  14. Microspatial gene expression patterns in the Amazon River Plume

    OpenAIRE

    Satinsky, Brandon M.; Crump, Byron C.; Smith, Christa B.; Sharma, Shalabh; Zielinski, Brian L.; Doherty, Mary; Meng, Jun; Sun, Shulei; Medeiros, Patricia M.; Paul, John H.; Coles, Victoria J.; Yager, Patricia L.; Moran, Mary Ann

    2014-01-01

    The microbial community of the Amazon River Plume determines the fate of the world’s largest input of terrestrial carbon and nutrients to the ocean. By benchmarking with internal standards during sample collection, we determined that each liter of plume seawater contains 1 trillion genes and 50 billion transcripts from thousands of bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic taxa. Gene regulation by taxa inhabiting distinct microenvironments provides insights into micron-scale patterns of transformat...

  15. Genetic diversity of vaccine candidate antigens in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from the Amazon basin of Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Carmen M

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several of the intended Plasmodium falciparum vaccine candidate antigens are highly polymorphic and could render a vaccine ineffective if their antigenic sites were not represented in the vaccine. In this study, characterization of genetic variability was performed in major B and T-cell epitopes within vaccine candidate antigens in isolates of P. falciparum from Peru. Methods DNA sequencing analysis was completed on 139 isolates of P. falciparum collected from endemic areas of the Amazon basin in Loreto, Peru from years 1998 to 2006. Genetic diversity was determined in immunological important regions in circumsporozoite protein (CSP, merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1, apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1, liver stage antigen-1 (LSA-1 and thrombospondin-related anonymous protein (TRAP. Alleles identified by DNA sequencing were aligned with the vaccine strain 3D7 and DNA polymorphism analysis and FST study-year pairwise comparisons were done using the DnaSP software. Multilocus analysis (MLA was performed and average of expected heterozygosity was calculated for each loci and haplotype over time. Results Three different alleles for CSP, seven for MSP-1 Block 2, one for MSP-1 Block 17, three for AMA-1 and for LSA-1 each and one for TRAP were identified. There were 24 different haplotypes in 125 infections with complete locus typing for each gene. Conclusion Characterization of the genetic diversity in Plasmodium isolates from the Amazon Region of Peru showed that P. falciparum T and B cell epitopes in these antigens have polymorphisms more similar to India than to Africa. These findings are helpful in the formulation of a vaccine considering restricted repertoire populations.

  16. Aboveground Biomass Variability Across Intact and Degraded Forests in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Marcos; Keller, Michael; Dos-Santos, Maiza N.; Leitold, Veronika; Pinage, Ekena R.; Baccini, Alessandro; Saatchi, Sassan; Nogueira, Euler M.; Batistella, Mateus; Morton, Douglas C.

    2016-01-01

    Deforestation rates have declined in the Brazilian Amazon since 2005, yet degradation from logging, re, and fragmentation has continued in frontier forests. In this study we quantified the aboveground carbon density (ACD) in intact and degraded forests using the largest data set of integrated forest inventory plots (n 359) and airborne lidar data (18,000 ha) assembled to date for the Brazilian Amazon. We developed statistical models relating inventory ACD estimates to lidar metrics that explained70 of the variance across forest types. Airborne lidar-ACD estimates for intact forests ranged between 5.0 +/- 2.5 and 31.9 +/- 10.8 kg C m(exp -2). Degradation carbon losses were large and persistent. Sites that burned multiple times within a decade lost up to 15.0 +/- 0.7 kg C m(-2)(94%) of ACD. Forests that burned nearly15 years ago had between 4.1 +/- 0.5 and 6.8 +/- 0.3 kg C m(exp -2) (22-40%) less ACD than intact forests. Even for low-impact logging disturbances, ACD was between 0.7 +/- 0.3 and 4.4 +/- 0.4 kg C m(exp -2)(4-21%) lower than unlogged forests. Comparing biomass estimates from airborne lidar to existing biomass maps, we found that regional and pan-tropical products consistently overestimated ACD in degraded forests, under-estimated ACD in intact forests, and showed little sensitivity to res and logging. Fine-scale heterogeneity in ACD across intact and degraded forests highlights the benefits of airborne lidar for carbon mapping. Differences between airborne lidar and regional biomass maps underscore the need to improve and update biomass estimates for dynamic land use frontiers, to better characterize deforestation and degradation carbon emissions for regional carbon budgets and Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation(REDD+).

  17. High-resolution hydroclimate variability in eastern Amazon over the past 800 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, K.; Wang, X.

    2017-12-01

    We established an annually resolved speleothem δ18O record from Paraiso Cave located in eastern Amazon lowlands. The record covers continuously through the past 800 years, with a chronology determined by high-precision U/Th disequilibrium dating methods. The δ18O varies between -4.5‰ and -6.5‰ VPDB in the record, and relatively high values appear between 1,500 A.D. and 1,850 A.D., within the Little Ice Age (LIA) interval. The record broadly resembles other cave δ18O data from the region over their contemporaneous time periods. Considering the proximity of the cave site to the tropical Atlantic Ocean, meteorological observations and modeling results, we interpret the speleothem δ18O as a proxy of regional rainfall. So, higher speleothem δ18O values indicate lower rainfall over the region, and vice versa. The record is characterized by multi-decadal as well as interannual variations. When comparing with the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO) index, we found that eastern Amazon was relatively dry (wet) during the negative (positive) phase of the AMO. The dry anomaly during the LIA therefore cannot be accounted by the meridional shift of the Atlantic intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) associated with the AMO. Instead, rainfall variations were likely controlled by changes in zonal energy fluxes, as suggested by the dominant interannual variations in the record. An El Nino-like condition during the LIA can further be confirmed by the tight correlations between the Paraiso record and those from the eastern tropical Pacific and the Andes.

  18. Suspended sediments of the modern Amazon and Orinoco rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, R.H.

    1994-01-01

    The Amazon and Orinoco Rivers are massive transcontinental conveyance systems for suspended sediment. They derive about 90% of their sediment from the Andes that support their western headwaters, transport it for thousands of kilometers across the breadth of the continent and deposit it in the coastal zones of the Atlantic. At their points of maximum suspended-sediment discharge, the Amazon transports an average of 1100-1300 ?? 106 tons per year and the Orinoco transports about 150 ?? 106 tons per year. Relations of sediment discharge to water discharge are complicated by unusual patterns of seasonal storage and remobilization, increased storage and reduced transport of sediment in the middle Orinoco during periods of peak water discharge, and storage of suspended sediment in the lower Amazon during rising discharge and resuspension during falling discharge. Spatial distributions of suspended sediment in cross-sections of both rivers are typically heterogeneous, not only in the vertical sense but also in the lateral. The cross-channel mixing of tributary inputs into the mainstem waters is a slow process that requires several hundred kilometers of downriver transport to complete. Considerable fine-grained sediment is exchanged between rivers and floodplains by the combination of overbank deposition and bank erosion. ?? 1994.

  19. An extensive reef system at the Amazon River mouth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Rodrigo L; Amado-Filho, Gilberto M; Moraes, Fernando C; Brasileiro, Poliana S; Salomon, Paulo S; Mahiques, Michel M; Bastos, Alex C; Almeida, Marcelo G; Silva, Jomar M; Araujo, Beatriz F; Brito, Frederico P; Rangel, Thiago P; Oliveira, Braulio C V; Bahia, Ricardo G; Paranhos, Rodolfo P; Dias, Rodolfo J S; Siegle, Eduardo; Figueiredo, Alberto G; Pereira, Renato C; Leal, Camille V; Hajdu, Eduardo; Asp, Nils E; Gregoracci, Gustavo B; Neumann-Leitão, Sigrid; Yager, Patricia L; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B; Fróes, Adriana; Campeão, Mariana; Silva, Bruno S; Moreira, Ana P B; Oliveira, Louisi; Soares, Ana C; Araujo, Lais; Oliveira, Nara L; Teixeira, João B; Valle, Rogerio A B; Thompson, Cristiane C; Rezende, Carlos E; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2016-04-01

    Large rivers create major gaps in reef distribution along tropical shelves. The Amazon River represents 20% of the global riverine discharge to the ocean, generating up to a 1.3 × 10(6)-km(2) plume, and extensive muddy bottoms in the equatorial margin of South America. As a result, a wide area of the tropical North Atlantic is heavily affected in terms of salinity, pH, light penetration, and sedimentation. Such unfavorable conditions were thought to imprint a major gap in Western Atlantic reefs. We present an extensive carbonate system off the Amazon mouth, underneath the river plume. Significant carbonate sedimentation occurred during lowstand sea level, and still occurs in the outer shelf, resulting in complex hard-bottom topography. A permanent near-bottom wedge of ocean water, together with the seasonal nature of the plume's eastward retroflection, conditions the existence of this extensive (~9500 km(2)) hard-bottom mosaic. The Amazon reefs transition from accretive to erosional structures and encompass extensive rhodolith beds. Carbonate structures function as a connectivity corridor for wide depth-ranging reef-associated species, being heavily colonized by large sponges and other structure-forming filter feeders that dwell under low light and high levels of particulates. The oxycline between the plume and subplume is associated with chemoautotrophic and anaerobic microbial metabolisms. The system described here provides several insights about the responses of tropical reefs to suboptimal and marginal reef-building conditions, which are accelerating worldwide due to global changes.

  20. Artisanal fisheries of the Xingu River basin in Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, V J; Almeida, M C; Cruz, R E A; Nunes, L G

    2015-08-01

    The present study characterises the commercial fisheries of the basin of the Xingu River, a major tributary of the Amazon River, between the towns of Gurupá (at the mouth of the Amazon) and São Félix do Xingu. Between April, 2012, and March, 2014, a total of 23,939 fishing trips were recorded, yielding a total production of 1,484 tons of fish, harvested by almost three thousand fishers. The analysis of the catches emphasizes the small-scale and artisanal nature of the region's fisheries, with emphasis on the contribution of the motorised canoes powered by "long-tail" outboard motors. Larger motorboats operate only at the mouth of the Xingu and on the Amazon. Peacock bass (Cichla spp.), croakers (Plagioscion spp.), pacu (a group containing numerous serrasalmid species), aracu (various anostomids), and curimatã (Prochilodus nigricans) together contributed more than 60% of the total catch. Mean catch per unit effort was 18 kg/fisher-1.day-1, which varied among fishing methods (type of vessel and fishing equipment used), river sections, and time of the year. In most cases, yields varied little between years (2012 and 2013). The technical database provided by this study constitutes an important resource for the regulation of the region's fisheries, as well as for the evaluation of future changes resulting from the construction of the Belo Monte dam on the Xingu River.

  1. New products made with lignocellulosic nanofibers from Brazilian amazon forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bufalino, L; Mendes, L M; Tonoli, G H D; Fonseca, A; Rodrigues, A; Cunha, P I; Marconcini, J M

    2014-01-01

    The biodiversity of the Amazon forest is undoubtedly rich; hence there is considerable variety of plant fibers regarding their morphological, chemical and structural properties. The legal exploration of the Brazilian Amazon is based on sustainable management techniques, but the generation of a relevant amount of plant wastes still cant be avoided. The correct destination of such materials is a challenge that Brazilian companies have to face. In this context, the National Council of Science and Technology (CNPq) promoted the creation of investigation nets on sustainability of Brazilian agribusiness. The Brazilian Net on Lignocellulosic Composites and Nanocomposites was then created, with partnership between several national and international research institutions. Until the moment, the results showed that Amazon plant fibers that are discarded as residues have great potential to nanofiber production. Nanopapers with considerable high mechanical and physical strength, proper opacity and great crystalline index were produced by using a clean and simple mechanical method. Those materials are candidates to several uses such as packaging, substrates transparent conductive films, gas barrier films, solar cells and e-papers

  2. Rural electrification of the Brazilian Amazon - Achievements and lessons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, Maria F.; Silveira, Semida

    2010-01-01

    The Brazilian government has the ambition to provide complete electricity coverage for all citizens as a means to promote development and reduce inequalities. Full coverage implies the provision of electricity to 15 million people in the country by the end of 2010 through the program Luz para Todos (LPT - light for all) launched in 2003. So far, 11 million people have benefited, 2 million of which live in the Amazon. In this paper, we analyze the linkages between development and rural electrification through the Human Development Index (HDI) and within the context of the Amazon. We examine the suitability of the HDI as a planning and monitoring tool for improving energy access and development. We show that the recognition of electricity access as a driver for development has led to concrete goals for electrification, actual action and welfare improvement. Our study serves to highlight the role of LPT in the development of the Amazon region, and the specific features and achievements of the Brazilian policy for universal electrification. We conclude that some challenges related to the electrification of isolated areas still lie ahead. We finalize with a discussion on the relevance of the Brazilian experience to other developing countries.

  3. Estimation of the evapotranspiration in the Amazon Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villa Nova, N.A.; Salati, E.; Matsui, E.

    1976-01-01

    The establishment of a water balance for the Amazon Basin constitutes a problem of difficult solution, not only on the account of its extension and characteristics, but also for lack of sufficient meteorological and hydrological data. In an attempt to estimate the magnitude of the main components of the water balance, a study was made with data from the Brazilian Amazon Region and from some observation stations in other countries. An energy balance was made and based on this balance the water balance of the region was established, having the Penman method been adapted to forest conditions. The data obtained indicate that 90% of the evaportranspiration is due to the energy balance. The evaportranspiration in this area should be very close to the potential evaportranspiration, and the average found was of the order of 4mm/day, i.e., 1460mm/year. As a first approximation it was found that the Amazon Basin system receives 14,4X10 12 m 3 water/year through precipitation, this total being balanced by a surface discharge of 5,5 x10 12 m 3 /year and an evaportranspiration of 8,9x10 12 m 3 /year. Since transpiration by plants represents 61,8% of the water balance, all seems to indicate that intensive deforestation shall bring about alterations of the hydrological cycle [pt

  4. Mining drives extensive deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonter, Laura J; Herrera, Diego; Barrett, Damian J; Galford, Gillian L; Moran, Chris J; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S

    2017-10-18

    Mining poses significant and potentially underestimated risks to tropical forests worldwide. In Brazil's Amazon, mining drives deforestation far beyond operational lease boundaries, yet the full extent of these impacts is unknown and thus neglected in environmental licensing. Here we quantify mining-induced deforestation and investigate the aspects of mining operations, which most likely contribute. We find mining significantly increased Amazon forest loss up to 70 km beyond mining lease boundaries, causing 11,670 km 2 of deforestation between 2005 and 2015. This extent represents 9% of all Amazon forest loss during this time and 12 times more deforestation than occurred within mining leases alone. Pathways leading to such impacts include mining infrastructure establishment, urban expansion to support a growing workforce, and development of mineral commodity supply chains. Mining-induced deforestation is not unique to Brazil; to mitigate adverse impacts of mining and conserve tropical forests globally, environmental assessments and licensing must considered both on- and off-lease sources of deforestation.

  5. Critical points of Brazil nuts: a beginning for food safety, quality control and Amazon sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Andriele M; Gonçalves, Evonnildo C; Andrade, Soraya S; Barbosa, Maria S R; Barroso, Karla F P; de Sousa, Mayara B; Borges, Larissa; Vieira, Jozé L F; Teixeira, Francisco M

    2013-03-15

    One difficulty of self-sustainability is the quality assurance of native products. This research was designed to study the risks and critical control points in the collection, handling and marketing of Brazil nuts from native forests and urban fairs in the Brazilian Amazon by characterisation of morphological aspects of fungi and posterior identification by molecular biology and determination of aflatoxins by high-performance liquid chromatography. Several corrective actions to improve product quality were found to be necessary in both sites. Growth of fungi was observed in 95% of fragments of Brazil nuts from both sites during the between-harvest period. Aflatoxin levels indicated that, although fungal growth was observed in both sites, only Brazil nuts from the native forest showed a high risk to human health (total aflatoxin level of 471.69 µg kg(-1)). This study has shown the main issues related to the process design of Brazil nuts, supporting the necessity for research on new strategies to improve the quality of nuts. Also, the habit of eating Brazil nuts stored throughout the year may represent a risk to farmers. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in plastic products, indoor dust, sediment and fish from informal e-waste recycling sites in Vietnam: a comprehensive assessment of contamination, accumulation pattern, emissions, and human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anh, Hoang Quoc; Nam, Vu Duc; Tri, Tran Manh; Ha, Nguyen Manh; Ngoc, Nguyen Thuy; Mai, Pham Thi Ngoc; Anh, Duong Hong; Minh, Nguyen Hung; Tuan, Nguyen Anh; Minh, Tu Binh

    2017-08-01

    Residue concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in different kinds of samples including consumer products, indoor dust, sediment and fish collected from two e-waste recycling sites, and some industrial, urban and suburban areas in Vietnam were determined to provide a comprehensive assessment of the contamination levels, accumulation pattern, emission potential and human exposure through dust ingestion and fish consumption. There was a large variation of PBDE levels in plastic parts of obsolete electronic equipment (from 1730 to 97,300 ng/g), which is a common result observed in consumer plastic products reported elsewhere. PBDE levels in indoor dust samples collected from e-waste recycling sites ranged from 250 to 8740 ng/g, which were markedly higher than those in industrial areas and household offices. Emission rate of PBDEs from plastic parts of disposed electronic equipment to dust was estimated to be in a range from 3.4 × 10 -7 to 1.2 × 10 -5 (year -1 ) for total PBDEs and from 2.9 × 10 -7 to 7.2 × 10 -6 (year -1 ) for BDE-209. Some fish species collected from ponds in e-waste recycling villages contained elevated levels of PBDEs, especially BDE-209, which were markedly higher than those in fish previously reported. Overall, levels and patterns of PBDE accumulation in different kinds of samples suggest significant emission from e-waste sites and that these areas are potential sources of PBDE contamination. Intakes of PBDEs via fish consumption were generally higher than those estimated through dust ingestion. Intake of BDE-99 and BDE-209 through dust ingestion contributes a large proportion due to higher concentrations in dust and fish. Body weight normalized daily intake through dust ingestion estimated for the e-waste recycling sites (0.10-3.46 ng/day/kg body wt.) were in a high range as compared to those reported in other countries. Our results highlight the potential releases of PBDEs from informal recycling activities and

  7. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-living Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from central Amazon, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, P S; Albuquerque, G R; da Silva, V M F; Martin, A R; Marvulo, M F V; Souza, S L P; Ragozo, A M A; Nascimento, C C; Gennari, S M; Dubey, J P; Silva, J C R

    2011-12-29

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important pathogen in aquatic mammals and its presence in these animals may indicate the water contamination of aquatic environment by oocysts. Serum samples from 95 free-living Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from the Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve (RDSM), Tefé, Amazonas, Central Amazon, Brazil were tested for T. gondii antibodies using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies (MAT ≥ 25) to T. gondii were found in 82 (86.3%) dolphins with titers of 1:25 in 24, 1:50 in 56, and 1:500 in 2. Results suggest a high level contamination of the aquatic environment of the home range of these animals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Pharmacokinetics of a Sustained-release Formulation of Meloxicam After Subcutaneous Administration to Hispaniolan Amazon Parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Court, Michael H; Zhu, Zhaohui; Summa, Noémie; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R

    2017-09-01

    Meloxicam has been shown to have a safe and favorable pharmacodynamic profile with individual variability in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). In the current study, we determined the pharmacokinetics of a sustained-release formulation of meloxicam after subcutaneous administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. Twelve healthy adult parrots, 6 males and 6 females, were used in the study. Blood samples were collected before (time 0) and at 0.5, 1, 2, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 hours after a single dose of the sustained-release meloxicam formulation (3 mg/kg SC). Plasma meloxicam concentrations were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by noncompartmental analysis. Plasma concentrations reached a mean C max of 23.4 μg/mL (range, 14.7-46.0 μg/mL) at 1.8 hours (range, 0.5-6 hours), with a terminal half-life of 7.4 hours (range, 1.4-40.9 hours). Individual variation was noticeable, such that some parrots (4 of 12 birds) had very low plasma meloxicam concentrations, similar to the high variability reported in a previous pharmacokinetic study of the standard meloxicam formulation in the same group of birds. Two birds developed small self-resolving scabs at the injection site. On the basis of these results, the sustained-release meloxicam formulation could be administered every 12 to 96 hours in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots to manage pain. Because of these highly variable results, the use of this formulation in this species cannot be recommended until further pharmacokinetic, safety, and pharmacogenomic evaluations are performed to establish accurate dosing recommendations and to understand the high pharmacokinetic variability.

  9. Freshwater shrimps (Macrobrachium depressimanum and Macrobrachium jelskii) as biomonitors of Hg availability in the Madeira River Basin, Western Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, R C F; Holanda, I B B; De Carvalho, D P; Almeida, R; Souza, C M M; Lacerda, L D; Bastos, W R

    2018-01-10

    Total mercury (THg) concentrations measured in two freshwater shrimp species (Macrobrachium depressimanum and Macrobrachium jelskii) showed a relationship with the location of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) from the Madeira River Basin, Western Amazon. Between August 2009 and May 2010, 212 shrimp samples were collected in the confluence of the Madeira River with three of its tributaries (Western Amazon). THg concentration was quantified in the exoskeleton, hepatopancreas and muscle tissue of the shrimps by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometry. There were no significant differences between the two shrimp species when samples came from the Madeira River, but Hg concentrations were significantly lower in a tributary outside the influence of the gold mining area. Average THg concentrations were higher in the hepatopancreas (up to 160.0 ng g -1 ) and lower in the exoskeleton and muscle tissue (10.0-35.0 ng g -1 and Madeira River respond to local environmental levels of Hg and can be considered as biomonitors for environmental Hg at this spatial scale. These organisms are important for moving Hg up food webs including those that harbor economic significant fish species and thus enhancing human exposure.

  10. Use of filter papers to determine seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii among hunted ungulates in remote Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aston, Emily J; Mayor, Pedro; Bowman, Dwight D; Mohammed, Hussni O; Liotta, Janice L; Kwok, Oliver; Dubey, J P

    2014-04-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a zoonosis caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, and it is found worldwide. To determine whether ungulates are reservoirs of T. gondii in an isolated and remote region of the northeastern Peruvian Amazon, antibodies to T. gondii were determined in 5 species of ungulates by the modified agglutination test (MAT). These animals were hunted by subsistence hunters along the Yavarí-Mirín River, in the northeastern Peruvian Amazon. Blood samples were collected by hunters on filter papers. For determination of T. gondii antibodies, blood was eluted from filter papers, and a titer of 1:25 was considered indicative of exposure to T. gondii. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 26 (31.0%) peccaries (Pecari tajacu, Tayassu pecari), six (17.1%) brocket deer (Mazama americana, Mazama gouazoubira), and four (40.0%) lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris). We also introduced a modification to the MAT protocol that allows the extraction of fluid samples from several types of laboratory-grade filter paper, thus enabling researchers to easily adapt their approaches to the materials presented to them.

  11. Quantifying How Climate Affects Vegetation in the Amazon Rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, K.; Kodali, A.; Szubert, M.; Ganguly, S.; Bongard, J.

    2016-12-01

    Amazon droughts in 2005 and 2010 have raised serious concern about the future of the rainforest. Amazon forests are crucial because of their role as the largest carbon sink in the world which would effect the global warming phenomena with decreased photosynthesis activity. Especially, after a decline in plant growth in 1.68 million km2 forest area during the once-in-a-century severe drought in 2010, it is of primary importance to understand the relationship between different climatic variables and vegetation. In an earlier study, we have shown that non-linear models are better at capturing the relation dynamics of vegetation and climate variables such as temperature and precipitation, compared to linear models. In this research, we learn precise models between vegetation and climatic variables (temperature, precipitation) for normal conditions in the Amazon region using genetic programming based symbolic regression. This is done by removing high elevation and drought affected areas and also considering the slope of the region as one of the important factors while building the model. The model learned reveals new and interesting ways historical and current climate variables affect the vegetation at any location. MAIAC data has been used as a vegetation surrogate in our study. For temperature and precipitation, we have used TRMM and MODIS Land Surface Temperature data sets while learning the non-linear regression model. However, to generalize the model to make it independent of the data source, we perform transfer learning where we regress a regularized least squares to learn the parameters of the non-linear model using other data sources such as the precipitation and temperature from the Climatic Research Center (CRU). This new model is very similar in structure and performance compared to the original learned model and verifies the same claims about the nature of dependency between these climate variables and the vegetation in the Amazon region. As a result of this

  12. Materials Deterioration in Tropic versus Conus Sites,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    RADIATION COASTAL EXPOSURE SITE OCEAN SPRINGS, MS SUBTROPICAL MARINE CLIMATE, HIGH PREVIOUS SUMMER HEAT, HUMIDITY AND MANGROVE RAINFALL SITE RESULTS KEY...WEST, FL TROPICAL MARINE CLIMATE DURING FORT SHERMAN CERTAIN MONTHS COASTAL EXPO- SURE SITE Figure 3. Analogy Between CONUS and Panama Exposure Sites...Sherman Coastal Site for 2 Weeks, 520X. Figure 13. Photomicrograph of Fungi on Surface of Jungle Fatigue Strip Exposed at Fort Sherman Coastal Site for

  13. Four years of ozone measurements in the Central Amazon - Effects of increasing deforestation rates and different meteorological conditions on near surface concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Stefan; Tsokankunku, Anywhere; Pöhlker, Christopher; Saturno, Jorge; Walter, David; Ditas, Florian; Könemann, Tobias; Ganzeveld, Laurens; Yañez-Serrano, Ana Maria; Souza, Rodrigo; Trebs, Ivonne; Sörgel, Matthias

    2017-04-01

    The ATTO (Amazon Tall Tower Observatory) site (02°08'38.8''S, 58°59'59.5''W) is located in the remote Amazon rainforest, allowing atmospheric and forest studies away from nearby anthropogenic emission sources. Starting with continuous measurements of vertical mixing ratio profiles of H2O, CO2 and O3 in April 2012 at 8 heights between 0.05 m and 80 m above ground, the longest continuous record of near surface O3 in the Amazon rainforest was established. Black carbon (BC), CO and micrometeorological measurements are available for the same period. During intensive campaigns, NOx was measured as well using the same profile system, and, therefore several month of simultaneous NOx measurements are available. During a period of about four months also direct flux measurements of O3 are available. Here, we analyze the long term and seasonal variability of near surface O3 mixing ratios with respect to air pollution, deposition and transport. The Central Amazon is characterized by a clear seasonal precipitation pattern (ca. 350 mm around March and ca. 80 mm around September), correlating strongly with ozone mixing ratios. Since 2012 deforestation rates have increased again in the Amazon, leading to higher air pollution especially during the drier season in the last years. For several strong pollution events we compared the effects of long and short distance biomass burning on O3 and NOx mixing ratios using back trajectories and satellite data. By comparing O3 mixing ratios with solar radiation, Bowen ratio, several trace gases and aerosol loads (Volatile Organic Compounds, CO and BC), different correlation patterns throughout the year that are linked to the sources (transport of O3 and precursors) and sinks (stomatal uptake and chemical reactions) are investigated. For example, the last months of 2015 were strongly influenced by an extraordinary El Niño phenomenon, leading to much drier conditions and enhanced biomass burning in the Amazon, which prolonged the period of

  14. Exposição ao mercúrio e ao arsênio em Estados da Amazônia: síntese dos estudos do Instituto Evandro Chagas/FUNASA Exposure to mercury and arsenic in Amazon States: a summary of studies by the Evandro Chagas Institute/FUNASA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth C. de Oliveira Santos

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo é uma revisão das pesquisas da Seção de Meio Ambiente do Instituto Evandro Chagas/FUNASA sobre exposição ao mercúrio (Hg no vale do rio Tapajós e Estado do Acre, e exposição ao arsênio (As através de resíduos da exploração de manganês (Mn realizada pela ICOMI deixados no Porto de Santana-AP. Em relação ao mercúrio, têm sido pesquisadas populações sob risco através da via respiratória ou alimentar. No primeiro caso, os trabalhadores de casas de compra e venda de ouro têm apresentado teores mais elevados de Hg em urina do que os garimpeiros estudados. No segundo caso, as populações ribeirinhas têm mostrado níveis diferenciados de exposição (Hg em cabelo. Comunidades ribeirinhas situadas em áreas não afetadas pelo mercúrio da garimpagem e com hábitos alimentares semelhantes às de área de risco têm sido avaliadas, visando a construção de parâmetros de normalidade regional. São também pesquisados os teores de Hg em materiais ambientais e na biota aquática. Os estudos de saúde humana e ambiente na cidade de Santana-AP objetivaram avaliar as fontes e possíveis vias de exposição da população da comunidade do Elesbão ao arsênio. Verificou-se a existência de fonte de risco através dos rejeitos de Mn, porém os níveis de As na água consumida pela população mostraram-se dentro dos parâmetros de normalidade. As médias encontradas em sangue e cabelo coincidem com médias de normalidade referidas na literatura, em populações não expostas, e as associações entre variáveis epidemiológicas, avaliação clínico-laboratorial e os teores de arsênio não mostraram significância estatística.This article is a review of the studies carried out by Environmental Section of the Evandro Chagas Institute/FUNASA on mercury (Hg exposure in the Tapajós river basin, and arsenic exposure (As due to residues of the manganese (Mn exploration, performed by ICOMI and left at the port of Santana

  15. Methane emissions from floodplains in the Amazon Basin: towards a process-based model for global applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringeval, B.; Houweling, S.; van Bodegom, P. M.; Spahni, R.; van Beek, R.; Joos, F.; Röckmann, T.

    2013-10-01

    Tropical wetlands are estimated to represent about 50% of the natural wetland emissions and explain a large fraction of the observed CH4 variability on time scales ranging from glacial-interglacial cycles to the currently observed year-to-year variability. Despite their importance, however, tropical wetlands are poorly represented in global models aiming to predict global CH4 emissions. This study documents the first regional-scale, process-based model of CH4 emissions from tropical floodplains. The LPX-Bern Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (LPX hereafter) was modified to represent floodplain hydrology, vegetation and associated CH4 emissions. The extent of tropical floodplains was prescribed using output from the spatially-explicit hydrology model PCR-GLOBWB. We introduced new Plant Functional Types (PFTs) that explicitly represent floodplain vegetation. The PFT parameterizations were evaluated against available remote sensing datasets (GLC2000 land cover and MODIS Net Primary Productivity). Simulated CH4 flux densities were evaluated against field observations and regional flux inventories. Simulated CH4 emissions at Amazon Basin scale were compared to model simulations performed in the WETCHIMP intercomparison project. We found that LPX simulated CH4 flux densities are in reasonable agreement with observations at the field scale but with a~tendency to overestimate the flux observed at specific sites. In addition, the model did not reproduce between-site variations or between-year variations within a site. Unfortunately, site informations are too limited to attest or disprove some model features. At the Amazon Basin scale, our results underline the large uncertainty in the magnitude of wetland CH4 emissions. In particular, uncertainties in floodplain extent (i.e., difference between GLC2000 and PCR-GLOBWB output) modulate the simulated emissions by a factor of about 2. Our best estimates, using PCR-GLOBWB in combination with GLC2000, lead to simulated Amazon

  16. Molecular characterization of an earliest cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) collection from Peruvian Amazon using microsatllite DNA markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is indigenous to the Amazon region of South America. The Peruvian Amazon harbors a large number of diverse cacao populations. Since the 1930s, several numbers of populations have been collected from the Peruvian Amazon and maintained as ex situ germplasm repositories in ...

  17. Avaliação dos níveis de exposição ao mercúrio entre índios Pakaanóva, Amazônia, Brasil Mercury exposure among Pakaanóva Indians, Amazon Region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth C. Oliveira Santos

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Um estudo seccional foi realizado para avaliar os níveis de exposição ao mercúrio (Hg entre 910 índios Pakaanóva, residentes nos municípios de Guajará Mirim e Nova Marmoré no Estado de Rondônia, Brasil. Amostras de cabelo da região occipital foram coletadas de cada participante do estudo e os teores de Hg determinados por Espectrofotometria de Absorção Atômica com Geração de Vapor Frio. Os teores médios de Hg nas amostras de cabelo foram de 8,37µg/g (0,52-83,89µg/g, indicando exposição elevada. Crianças de até 2 anos e entre 3 e 5 anos de idade apresentaram médias de 10,54µg/g e 9,34µg/g, respectivamente. Os teores médios de Hg nas mulheres (8,91µg/g são mais elevados do que os valores observados nos homens (7,55µg/g, sendo esta diferença estatisticamente significante (t = 3,26; p A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate mercury (Hg exposure among 910 Pakaanóva Indians from the counties of Guajará Mirim and Nova Marmoré, Rondônia State, Brazil. Individual hair samples were taken from the occipital region, and Hg was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry with cold vapor generation. Mean Hg in hair samples was 8.37 µg/g (range 0.52-83.89, indicating high exposure. Young children (< 2 years old showed a mean Hg of 10.54 µg/g, and children from 3 to 5 years old had a mean Hg of 9.34µg/g. Mercury levels in women (8,91µg/g were higher than in men (7.55µg/g, and this difference was significant (t = 3.26; p < 0.01. These results indicate the need for surveillance programs and complementary studies including the Pakaanóva Indians in Rondônia State.

  18. Population structure and relative growth of the Amazon shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862 (Decapoda: Palaemonidae on two islands in the fluvial-estuarine plain of the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Sousa Vilela da Nóbrega

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe the population structure of the Amazon shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum, as well as their relative growth between the length of the cephalothorax and the total length, and between the length of the cephalothorax and the total mass of shrimps of a fluvial-estuarine plain in the State of Pará. Shrimps were sampled monthly from August 2006 to July 2007, using trawl nets, taking three replicates at each site (Arapiranga and Mosqueiro per month, totaling 72 replicates. We caught 5,510 specimens, being 90.90% from Arapiranga Island and 9.1% from Mosqueiro Island. The highest densities occurred in July (1.33 individuals/m², at the beginning of the dry season and in December (1.66 individuals/m², at the beginning of the rainy season. The morphometric analysis for separate and grouped sexes resulted in negative and positive allometric growth. Ovigerous females were observed in all months, indicating continuous reproduction and the majority (67.81% was caught during the less rainy season. The abundance and continuous reproduction of M. amazonicum show that this estuary offers conditions for the proper development of this population.

  19. Exposure Forecaster

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Exposure Forecaster Database (ExpoCastDB) is EPA's database for aggregating chemical exposure information and can be used to help with chemical exposure...

  20. A Slippery Slope: Children's Perceptions of Their Role in Environmental Preservation in the Peruvian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Despite international attention and attempts to preserve the environmental diversity of the Amazon, it is an accepted fact that those who inhabit the forest must be the ones who preserve it. This article presents an analysis of how children in small rural riverine communities along the Amazon understand the importance of environmental preservation…

  1. Transforming Data: An Ethnography of Scientific Data from the Brazilian Amazon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walford, Antonia Caitlin

    This thesis is an ethnography of scientific data produced by a Brazil-led scientific project in the Brazilian Amazon. It describes how the researchers and technicians make data about the Amazon forest, and how this data in turn generates different scientific communities, scientific subjectivities...

  2. Amazon Forest Structure from IKONOS Satellite Data and the Automated Characterization of Forest Canopy Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Palace; Michael Keller; Gregory P. Asner; Stephen Hagen; Bobby . Braswell

    2008-01-01

    We developed an automated tree crown analysis algorithm using 1-m panchromatic IKONOS satellite images to examine forest canopy structure in the Brazilian Amazon. The algorithm was calibrated on the landscape level with tree geometry and forest stand data at the Fazenda Cauaxi (3.75◦ S, 48.37◦ W) in the eastern Amazon, and then compared with forest...

  3. Desmidias (zygnemaphyceae) of a small tributary of the Amazons River in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez Avellaneda, Marcela; Duque, Santiago

    2000-01-01

    This is a contribution to the knowledge of the freshwater algae of the Colombian Amazon region. Two of the 13 taxa are reported for the first time from Colombia and 10 are new records for the Colombian Amazon. Ecological characteristics are given for these desmids

  4. Hypoxia adaptation in fish of the Amazon: a never-ending task | Val ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition to seasonal long-term changes in dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide, water bodies of the Amazon present periodic short-term episodes of hypoxia and even anoxia. To preserve gas exchange and acid base balance, fish of the Amazon have developed multiple adaptive solutions which occur at all biological ...

  5. Election-driven weakening of deforestation control in the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues-Filho, S.; Verburg, R.W.; Lindoso, D.; Debortoli, N.; Bursztyn, M.; Vilhena, A.M.G.

    2015-01-01

    Commodity prices, exchange rate, infrastructural projects and migration patterns are known and important drivers of Amazon deforestation, but cannot solely explain the high rates observed in 1995 and 2003–2004 in six Brazilian Amazon states. Deforestation predictions using those widely applied

  6. Election-driven weakening of deforestation control in the Brazilian Amazon.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues-Filho, S; Verburg, R.W.; Bursztyn, M; Lindoso, D; Debortoli, N

    2015-01-01

    Commodity prices, exchange rate, infrastructural projects and migration patterns are known and important drivers of Amazon deforestation, but cannot solely explain the high rates observed in 1995 and 2003–2004 in six Brazilian Amazon states. Deforestation predictions using those widely applied

  7. Localised Voices in the globalised Amazon: challenges of civil society building in Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brian Wallis (Brian)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractCivil society building efforts in Ecuador have provided the Achuar and Kichwas of the Amazon with a voice. This is particularly relevant given the global significance of the Amazon, which makes it essential that local voices are empowered to have a say in the future of their local space.

  8. Net Heterotrophy in the Amazon Continental Shelf Changes Rapidly to a Sink of CO2 in the Outer Amazon Plume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Lefèvre

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon continental shelf and adjacent oceanic area were sampled for inorganic and organic carbon parameters in order to improve data coverage and understanding of carbon cycling dynamics within this important region. Seasonal coverage of the Amazon plume on the French Guiana continental shelf further north, was provided by CO2 monitoring using a merchant ship sailing from France to French Guiana (2006–2016. Salinity ranged from 1 to 36 (transects in April 2013, and May 2014. At salinity below 10, strong outgassing was observed with fugacity of CO2 (fCO2 over 2,000 μatm. This region displayed net heterotrophy, fueled by organic matter with terrestrial origin, as shown by δ13C and δ15N values of suspended particles. A δ13C cross shelf average of −31% was measured during May 2014, contrasting with oceanic values in excess of −20%. The reactivity of this terrestrial material resulted in the local production of dissolved inorganic and organic carbon as well as fluorescent humic compounds. Further offshore, the dilution of freshwater by ocean waters created a sink for CO2, enhanced by biological activity. The strongest CO2 drawdowns, associated with high chlorophyll a concentrations, were observed on the French Guiana continental shelf in the outer Amazon plume, with fCO2 values below 150 μatm. Here, a CO2 sink was present almost throughout the year, with a seasonal maximum of −9.2 mmol CO2 m−2d−1 observed in June 2015. However, both the CO2 and salinity distributions could vary significantly within a few days, confirming the presence of many eddies in this region. The Amazon continental shelf hence behaved as a transition zone between an inshore source of CO2 to the atmosphere and an offshore sink. Some marine phytoplankton production was detected but occurred mainly close to the French Guiana shelf. A mean net CO2 outgassing of 44 ± 43.6 mmol m−2d−1 was estimated for the area. Quantifying the CO2 flux for the entire Amazon

  9. A Conceptual model of Ecophysiological Function across the Amazon Basin using a Synthesis of Observed and Model Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, I. T.; Denning, A. S.; Harper, A. B.

    2008-12-01

    Observations of the seasonal cycle of Net Ecosystem Exchange of Carbon (NEE) are variable across the Amazon Basin. NEE has been observed to be nearly uniform through the year at sites such as Cueiras Reserve in Amazonas. A pattern of efflux during the wet season and uptake during seasonal drought has been observed at multiple sites in the Tapajos River National Forest, while the opposite pattern (uptake during wet season, efflux during seasonal drought) has been observed at several sites in Mato Grosso . Using a synthesis of eddy covariance flux observations from multiple sites across vegetation and moisture gradients in the Amazon basin and a biophysical model (Simple Biosphere Model, SiB), we construct a conceptual model of the patterns of ecophysiological function that determine annual cycles and interannual variability in observed NEE across tropical Amazonia. We identify several factors that determine the behavior of Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and respiration fluxes, while NEE is determined by their sum. We evaluate our conceptual model across a pseudo-latitudinal gradient from extremely wet (more than 2000 mm annual precipitation) in the north to drier cerrado (savanna) regions in the south. In the extremely wet regions near the equator we find little or no stress on photosynthesis and, subsequently, little or no variability in annual cycles of energy or carbon flux. In these regions NEE is determined by vegetation response to high-frequency meteorological events. As precipitation decreases, the flux seasonality increases and phase relationships between GPP and respiration determine annual NEE cycles. As GPP/respiration cycles transition from an out-of-phase relationship in wetter regions to an in-phase pattern in the cerrado, NEE changes from dry to wet season carbon uptake.

  10. Neutrons, radiation and archaeology: a multi analytical case study of incised rim tradition ceramics in Central Amazon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazenfratz-Marks, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is an interdisciplinary archaeometric study involving archaeological ceramic material from two large archaeological sites in Central Amazon, namely Lago Grande and Osvaldo, on the confluence region of Negro and Solimoes rivers. It was tested a hypothesis about the existence of an exchange network between the former inhabitants of those sites, focusing on material and/or technological exchange. That hypothesis has implications for archaeological theories of human occupation of the pre-colonial Central Amazon, which try to relativise the role of ecological difficulties of the tropical forest as a limiting factor for the emergence of social complexity in the region. The physical-chemical characterization of potsherds and clay samples near the sites was carried out by: instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) to determine the elemental chemical composition; electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) to determine the firing temperature; X-ray diffraction (XRD) to determine the mineralogical composition; and dating by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). Previous studies showed that Osvaldo and Lago Grande were occupied by people which produced pottery classified in the Manacapuru and Paredao phases, subclasses of the Incised Rim Tradition, around the 5-10th and 7-12th centuries BC, respectively. INAA results were analyzed by multivariate statistical methods, whereby two chemical groups of pottery were defined for each archaeological site. Significant variation in firing temperatures and mineralogical composition were not identified for such groups. By integration of the results with archaeological data, the superposition between pairs of chemical groups was interpreted as a correlate of an ancient exchange network, although it was not possible to define if it existed exclusively between Lago Grande and Osvaldo. On the contrary, it was suggested that Lago Grande participated in a more extensive exchange network by comparison of two chemical groups

  11. Dampak Peningkatan Kepuasan Pelanggan dalam Proses Bisnis E-Commerce pada Perusahaan Amazon.Com

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Made Karmawan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Purpose of writing is to describe the impact of increased customer satisfaction in the business process of e-commerce at Amazon.com and analyzed e-commerce strategies used in the company.The Benefits are to get an overview of the strategies in the Amazon.com for improving customer satisfaction and the impact of increased satisfaction. The method of writing is conducting reviews of existing sources to gain an overview strategy and business processes e-commerce at Amazon.com. The paper results are gaining knowledge of thenumber of visitors and Sales that accurred at Amazon.com. The Conclusions is about the impact of increasing customer Satisfaction in the business process e-commerce in the Amazone.com.

  12. Cloud characteristics, thermodynamic controls and radiative impacts during the Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giangrande, Scott; Feng, Zhe; Jensen, Michael; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Johnson, Karen; Toto, Tami; Wang, Meng; Burleyson, Casey D.; Bharadwaj, Nitin; Mei, Fan; Machado, Luiz; Manzi, Antonio; Xie, Shaocheng; Tang, Shuaiqi; Silva Dias, Maria Assuncao F.; de Souza, Rodrigo A.; Schumacher, Courtney; Martin, Scot T.

    2017-01-01

    Routine cloud, precipitation and thermodynamic observations collected by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF) and Aerial Facility (AAF) during the 2-year US Department of Energy (DOE) ARM Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) campaign are summarized. These observations quantify the diurnal to large-scale thermodynamic regime controls on the clouds and precipitation over the undersampled, climatically important Amazon basin region. The extended ground deployment of cloud-profiling instrumentation enabled a unique look at multiple cloud regimes at high temporal and vertical resolution. This longer-term ground deployment, coupled with two short-term aircraft intensive observing periods, allowed new opportunities to better characterize cloud and thermodynamic observational constraints as well as cloud radiative impacts for modeling efforts within typical Amazon wet and dry seasons.

  13. CERCLA site assessment workbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This contains comments for each chapter of exercises (in Vol. 1) which illustrate how to conduct site assessments for CERCLA regulation. A through analysis of the exercises is provided so that work and solutions from Vol 1 can be critiqued and comments are also included on the strategy of site assessment whereas the exercises illustrate the principles involved. Covered exercises include the following: A preliminary assessment of a ground water site; waste characteristics and characterization of sources; documentation of observed releases and actual contamination of targets; the strategy of an SI at a surface water site; the soil exposure pathway; the air pathway

  14. Toward detection of CO2 fertilization of tree growth and biomass accumulation in Amazon forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, J. Q.; Negron Juarez, R. I.; Di Vittorio, A. V.; Marra, D.; Rifai, S. W.; Ribeiro, G.; Higuchi, N.

    2012-12-01

    Synthesis studies of old-growth tropical forest plot networks indicate a pantropical net carbon sink of more than 1 Pg C/yr. However a number of confounding factors limit our ability to attribute these changes to direct CO2 fertilization of tree growth and forest productivity. Of primary importance is determining if the plots adequately sample natural disturbance and recovery gradients, and the larger landscape successional mosaic. In addition, forest biomass dynamics which include tree growth, recruitment and mortality can interact in complex ways with changes in forest productivity and biomass accumulation. This study represents a novel approach to determine the sensitivity of different sampling strategies for detecting tropical forest CO2 fertilization while accounting for these confounding factors. Our approach, developed for Amazon forests in Brazil and Peru, combines extensive field plot data on biomass dynamics, remote sensing analyses to generate disturbance probability distribution functions, and individual-based simulation modeling for placing plot-level results into a landscape context. Results indicate that forest plots significantly larger than 10 ha are required to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio for detecting CO2 fertilization. We also present a field sampling strategy for quantifying site-to-site differences in forest biomass accumulation rates, which is useful for detecting regional differences in tropical forest sensitivity to rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. Overall, this approach is useful in developing field campaigns that explicitly account for landscape heterogeneity in testing key predictions of Earth system models.

  15. Evaluation of NetApp Cloud ONTAP and AltaVault using Amazon Web Services

    CERN Document Server

    Weisz, Michael

    2015-01-01

    As of now, the storage infrastructure at CERN almost exclusively consists of on-premise storage, i.e. storage which physically resides in the institution’s data center. While this offers certain advantages such as full control regarding data security, it also holds many challenges, most importantly in terms of flexibility and scalability. For instance, the provisioning of new on-site storage takes some time, since the required storage needs to be ordered, delivered, and installed first, before it can be used. Furthermore, there is certain maintenance work involved even after the initial setup inflicting ongoing costs of upkeep. At the same time, various cloud providers such as Amazon Web Services and Microsoft Azure have emerged during the last years, offering services to flexibly provision storage resources in the cloud in a scalable way. This project tries to explore and evaluate to what extend the on-site storage infrastructure at CERN could be extended using virtual NetApp storage offerings such as Clou...

  16. Methylmercury in a predatory fish (Cichla spp.) inhabiting the Brazilian Amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kehrig, Helena do A [Laboratorio de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), 21941-902 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: kehrig@biof.ufrj.br; Howard, Bruce M. [T.H. Huxley School, Imperial College, London SW7 2BP (United Kingdom); Malm, Olaf [Laboratorio de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), 21941-902 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2008-07-15

    This research tested whether limnological conditions, biological characteristics of fish and anthropogenic impacts influenced the assimilation of methylmercury into the muscle of a sedentary piscivorous fish, Cichla spp., from three rivers (Negro, Madeira, Tapajos) and two hydroelectric reservoirs (Balbina, Tucurui) within the Brazilian Amazon. Methylmercury in this fish ranged from 0.04 to 1.43 {mu}g g{sup -1}