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  1. Multicentric lymphoma in buffaloes in the Amazon region, Brazil

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    Cairo H S De Oliveira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of lymphoma in buffaloes was first reported in India in the 1960s. The disease is similar to Enzootic Bovine Leucosis (EBL caused by Bovine leukemia virus (BLV in cattle; however, according to our results and those of other studies, the etiology of these lymphomas in buffalo do not appear to be associated with BLV. The objectives of this study are to describe four cases of the disease in buffaloes belonging to the same herd in the Amazon region of Brazil and to perform a clinical-anatomopathological, immunohistochemical, and etiological study of the lymphomas. Results Over a period of ten years, four buffaloes were observed presenting progressive weight loss, swelling of peripheral lymph nodes, and nodules in the subcutaneous tissue. Upon necropsy, whitish-colored tumor masses were observed in the form of nodules in the subcutaneous tissue, along with miliary nodules on the serosal surfaces of abdominal and thoracic organs and tumors in lymph nodes and other organs. Neoplastic lymphocyte proliferation was observed through histopathology. An immunohistochemical study revealed that the neoplasias were formed by proliferation of predominantly B lymphocytes. The presence of BLV genome was not detected in the lymphomas when using the real-time PCR technique, nor was it detected through immunohistochemical staining using monoclonal antibodies against two viral proteins. Bovine herpesvirus 6 was not detected in the tumors. However, Bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV was detected in samples of lymphoma and in the lymph nodes and kidneys of one of the animals. Conclusions The occurrence of lymphoma in buffaloes is reported for the first time in Brazil and is characterized by B-cell multicentric lymphoma. The etiology of the disease does not appear to be associated with BLV; however, the detection of BIV in samples of lymphoma from one sick animal deserves further study, considering the oncogenic potential of this virus.

  2. Chlamydia trachomatis serotype A infections in the Amazon region of Brazil: prevalence, entry and dissemination

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    Marluísa de Oliveira Guimarães Ishak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Chlamydia infection is associated with debilitating human diseases including trachoma, pneumonia, coronary heart disease and urogenital diseases. Serotypes of C. trachomatis show a fair correlation with the group of diseases they cause, and their distribution follows a well-described geographic pattern. Serotype A, a trachoma-associated strain, is known for its limited dissemination in the Middle East and Northern Africa. However, knowledge on the spread of bacteria from the genus Chlamydia as well as the distribution of serotypes in Brazil is quite limited. METHODS: Blood samples of 1,710 individuals from ten human population groups in the Amazon region of Brazil were examined for antibodies to Chlamydia using indirect immunofluorescence and microimmunofluorescence assays. RESULTS: The prevalence of antibodies to Chlamydia ranged from 23.9% (Wayana-Apalai to 90.7% (Awa-Guaja with a mean prevalence of 50.2%. Seroreactivity was detected to C. pneumoniae and to all serotypes of C. trachomatis tested; furthermore, we report clear evidence of the as-yet-undescribed occurrence of serotype A of C. trachomatis. CONCLUSIONS: Specific seroreactivity not only accounts for the large extent of dissemination of C. trachomatis in the Amazon region of Brazil but also shows an expanded area of occurrence of serotype A outside the epidemiological settings previously described. Furthermore, these data suggest possible routes of Chlamydia introduction into the Amazon region from the massive human migration that occurred during the 1,700s.

  3. LBA Regional Boundary for the Legal Amazon of Brazil, 8-km

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    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The Legal Amazon of Brazil is defined by law to include the states of Acre, Amapa, Amazonas, Para, Rondonia, Roraima, Mato Grosso, Maranhao, and Tocantins...

  4. LBA Regional Boundary for the Legal Amazon of Brazil, 8-km

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    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Legal Amazon of Brazil is defined by law to include the states of Acre, Amapa, Amazonas, Para, Rondonia, Roraima, Mato Grosso, Maranhao, and Tocantins [Fundacao...

  5. Quinine levels in patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria in the Amazon region of Brazil.

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    Vieira, José Luiz Fernandes; Borges, Larissa Maria Guimarães; Nascimento, Margareth Tavares Silva; Gomes, Andreza de L S

    2008-10-01

    We examined the plasmatic concentrations of quinine in patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria in an endemic area of the Amazon region in Brazil in a prospective clinical trial, in which a standard three-day course of oral quinine plus doxycycline was used. We measured the quinine in the plasma samples on days 0 and 3 by high performance liquid chromatography. The mean concentration of quinine was 6.04 +/-2.21 microg/mL in male patients and 5.98 +/-1.95 microg/mL in female patients. No significant differences in quinine concentration were observed between these two groups. All samples collected before starting treatment were negative for quinine. This information could help in the development of strategies for the rational use of antimalarial drugs in Brazil.

  6. Quinine levels in patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria in the Amazon region of Brazil

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    José Luiz Fernandes Vieira

    Full Text Available We examined the plasmatic concentrations of quinine in patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria in an endemic area of the Amazon region in Brazil in a prospective clinical trial, in which a standard three-day course of oral quinine plus doxycycline was used. We measured the quinine in the plasma samples on days 0 and 3by high performance liquid chromatography. The mean concentration of quinine was 6.04 ±2.21 µg/mL in male patients and 5.98 ±1.95 µg/mL in female patients. No significant differences in quinine concentration were observed between these two groups. All samples collected before starting treatment were negative for quinine. This information could help in the development of strategies for the rational use of antimalarial drugs in Brazil.

  7. Epidemiological aspects of retrovirus (HTLV infection among Indian populations in the Amazon Region of Brazil

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    Ricardo Ishak

    Full Text Available HTLV was initially described in association with a form of leukemia in Japan and a neurological disease in the Caribbean. It was soon shown that HTLV-II was endemic among Amerindians and particularly among Brazilian Indians. The Amazon Region of Brazil is presently the largest endemic area for this virus and has allowed several studies concerning virus biology, the search for overt disease, epidemiological data including detailed demographic data on infected individuals, clear-cut geographic distribution, definition of modes of transmission and maintenance within small, epidemiologically-closed groups, and advances in laboratory diagnosis of the infection. A new molecular subtype named HTLV-IIc was further described on the basis of genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. This subtype is present in other areas of Brazil, indicating that the virus is additionally both a valuable marker for tracing past human migration routes in the Americas and a probable marker for social habits of the present human population. HIV, the other human retrovirus, is still not prevalent among indigenous communities in the Brazilian Amazon, but these groups are also easy targets for the virus.

  8. Performance of an immunochromatography test for vivax malaria in the Amazon region, Brazil

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    Alberto Ferreira Figueiredo Filho

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the ICT malaria Pf/PvTM test for vivax malaria diagnosis in Belém, Amazon region, Brazil. The results of blood malaria parasites examination using an immunochromatography test were compared with thick blood film (TBF examination. It was also evaluated the performance of this test storaged at three different temperatures (25°C, 30°C, and 37°C for 24 hours before use. Overall sensitivity of ICT Pf/PvTM was 61.8% with a specificity of 100%, positive and negative predictive value of 100% and 71.8%, respectively and accuracy of 80.6%. The test sensitivity was independent of the parasite density. This test needs to be further reviewed in order to have better performance for P. vivax malaria diagnosis.

  9. Absence of Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection in buffaloes from Amazon and southeast region in Brazil.

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    De Oliveira, Cairo H S; Resende, Cláudia F; Oliveira, Carlos M C; Barbosa, José D; Fonseca, Antônio A; Leite, Rômulo C; Reis, Jenner K P

    2016-07-01

    Enzootic bovine leucosis is an infectious disease caused by Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and is well described in bovines. The majority of infected animals are asymptomatic, one to five percent develop lymphoma and from 30 to 50% present a persistent lymphocytosis. The virus occurs naturally in cattle and experimentally in buffaloes, capybaras and rabbits. The occurrence of lymphoma in buffaloes has been attributed to BLV infection by some authors in India and Venezuela, but not confirmed by other studies and little information on natural BLV infection in buffaloes is available. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of BLV in a sub-sample of buffalo from Amazon and southeast regions in Brazil. Three hundred and fifteen serum samples were negative using commercial AGID and ELISA (ELISA-gp51) which detect anti-BLV glycoprotein gp51 antibodies. The same samples were also evaluated for antibodies to whole virus through a commercial ELISA (ELISA-BLV) in which 77 (24.44%) were found seropositive and two (0.63%) inconclusive. On the other hand, all animals were negative by PCR to BLV targeted to the env and tax genes. These results suggest that ELISA-BLV produces false positive results in buffalo serum (p<0.001). In addition, one buffalo lymphoma sample was negative in both PCR assays used in this study. BLV was not detected in buffaloes from the Amazon basin and the southeast region of Brazil. Serological tests, like ELISA-BLV, usually used for cattle may produce false-positive results for BLV in buffaloes and direct detection tests such as PCR should be chosen in these surveys. The occurrence of lymphoma in buffalo was not associated with BLV infection in the one case analyzed in this work and the etiology and pathogenesis of this disease should be clarified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Natural variation of selenium in Brazil nuts and soils from the Amazon region.

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    Silva Junior, E C; Wadt, L H O; Silva, K E; Lima, R M B; Batista, K D; Guedes, M C; Carvalho, G S; Carvalho, T S; Reis, A R; Lopes, G; Guilherme, L R G

    2017-12-01

    Brazil nut tree (Bertholletia excelsa) is native of the Amazon rainforest. Brazil nuts are consumed worldwide and are known as the richest food source of selenium (Se). Yet, the reasoning for such Se contents is not well stablished. We evaluated the variation in Se concentration of Brazil nuts from Brazilian Amazon basin, as well as soil properties, including total Se concentration, of the soils sampled directly underneath the trees crown, aiming to investigate which soil properties influence Se accumulation in the nuts. The median Se concentration in Brazil nuts varied from 2.07 mg kg - 1 (in Mato Grosso state) to 68.15 mg kg - 1 (in Amazonas state). Therefore, depending on its origin, a single Brazil nut could provide from 11% (in the Mato Grosso state) up to 288% (in the Amazonas state) of the daily Se requirement for an adult man (70 μg). The total Se concentration in the soil also varied considerably, ranging from <65.76 to 625.91 μg kg - 1 , with highest Se concentrations being observed in soil samples from the state of Amazonas. Se accumulation in Brazil nuts generally increased in soils with higher total Se content, but decreased under acidic conditions in the soil. This indicates that, besides total soil Se concentration, soil acidity plays a major role in Se uptake by Brazil nut trees, possibly due to the importance of this soil property to Se retention in the soil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Risk factors associated with diabesity in primary school students in the Amazon region of Brazil

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    Maria Virgínia Filgueiras de Assis Mello; Rosemary Ferreira de Andrade; Liudmila Miyar Otero; Anneli Mercedes Celis de Cárdenas; Silvana Rodrigues da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Identifying risk factors for diabesity (diabetes plus obesity) in primary students in the Brazilian Amazon. Methodology. Descriptive study carried out in 2009 with the participation of 1218 students. A questionnaire from the Ministry of Health of Brazil was employed with the question ''How is your diet?'' and a form was created to record the socio-demographic, clinical, anthropometric and food variables. Results. The mean age was 12 years and 57% were female. 64% of respondents rep...

  12. Avian Influenza Virus (H11N9) in Migratory Shorebirds Wintering in the Amazon Region, Brazil

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    de Araujo, Jansen; de Azevedo Júnior, Severino M.; Gaidet, Nicolas; Hurtado, Renata F.; Walker, David; Thomazelli, Luciano M.; Ometto, Tatiana; Seixas, Marina M. M.; Rodrigues, Roberta; Galindo, Daniele B.; da Silva, Adriana C. S.; Rodrigues, Arlinéa M. M.; Bomfim, Leonardo L.; Mota, Marcelo A.; Larrazábal, Maria E.; Branco, Joaquim O.; Serafini, Patricia; Neto, Isaac S.; Franks, John; Webby, Richard J.; Webster, Robert G.; Durigon, Edison L.

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic birds are the natural reservoir for avian influenza viruses (AIV). Habitats in Brazil provide stopover and wintering sites for water birds that migrate between North and South America. The current study was conducted to elucidate the possibility of the transport of influenza A viruses by birds that migrate annually between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. In total, 556 orotracheal/cloacal swab samples were collected for influenza A virus screening using real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR). The influenza A virus-positive samples were subjected to viral isolation. Four samples were positive for the influenza A matrix gene by rRT-PCR. From these samples, three viruses were isolated, sequenced and characterized. All positive samples originated from a single bird species, the ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres), that was caught in the Amazon region at Caeté Bay, Northeast Pará, at Ilha de Canelas. To our knowledge, this is the first isolation of H11N9 in the ruddy turnstone in South America. PMID:25329399

  13. Avian influenza virus (H11N9 in migratory shorebirds wintering in the Amazon Region, Brazil.

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    Jansen de Araujo

    Full Text Available Aquatic birds are the natural reservoir for avian influenza viruses (AIV. Habitats in Brazil provide stopover and wintering sites for water birds that migrate between North and South America. The current study was conducted to elucidate the possibility of the transport of influenza A viruses by birds that migrate annually between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. In total, 556 orotracheal/cloacal swab samples were collected for influenza A virus screening using real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR. The influenza A virus-positive samples were subjected to viral isolation. Four samples were positive for the influenza A matrix gene by rRT-PCR. From these samples, three viruses were isolated, sequenced and characterized. All positive samples originated from a single bird species, the ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres, that was caught in the Amazon region at Caeté Bay, Northeast Pará, at Ilha de Canelas. To our knowledge, this is the first isolation of H11N9 in the ruddy turnstone in South America.

  14. The AIDS epidemic in the Amazon region: a spatial case-control study in Rondonia, Brazil

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    Maria Rita Donalisio

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze spatial changes in the risk of AIDS and the relationship between AIDS incidence and socioeconomic variables in the state of Rondonia, Amazon region. METHODS A spatial, population case-control study in Rondonia, Brazil, based on 1,780 cases reported to the Epidemiological Surveillance System and controls based on demographic data from 1987 to 2006. The cases were grouped into five consecutive four-year periods. A generalized additive model was adjusted to the data; the dependent variable was the status of the individuals (case or control, and the independent variables were a bi-dimensional spline of the geographic coordinates and some municipality-level socioeconomic variables. The observed values of the Moran’s I test were compared to a reference distribution of values generated under conditions of spatial randomness. RESULTS AIDS risk shows a marked spatial and temporal pattern. The disease incidence is related to socioeconomic variables at the municipal level in Rondônia, such as urbanization and human capital. The highest incidence rates of AIDS are in municipalities along the BR-364 highway and calculations of the Moran’s I test show positive spatial correlation associated with proximity of the municipality to the highway in the third and fourth periods (p = 0.05. CONCLUSIONS Incidence of the disease is higher in municipalities of greater economic wealth and urbanization, and in those municipalities bisected by Rondônia’s main roads. The rapid development associated with the opening up of once remote regions may be accompanied by an increase in these risks to health.

  15. Miocene fern spores and pollen grains from the Solimões Basin, Amazon Region, Brazil

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    Natália de Paula Sá

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This work documents fern spores and pollen grains (miospores recovered from rocks of the Solimões Formation (Solimões Basin, their botanical affinities, ecology and distribution in the Miocene of the Amazon Region. The assemblage of miospores is well preserved and diverse. They are identified, illustrated and assigned to the ten families of ferns and 22 families of spermatophytes. All miospores were identified to the taxonomic level of species except for two taxa (Perinomonoletes and Podocarpidites. The families Pteridaceae and Arecaceae were most representative of ferns and spermatophytes, respectively. This work contributes to the knowledge of the paleoflora and will aid in paleoenvironmental, paleoecological and biostratigraphic interpretations of the Miocene of the Amazon Region.

  16. Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in the Legal Amazon and Northeast regions, Brazil, 2010

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    Alice Cristina Medeiros das Neves

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify the factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in children aged less than six months from the Brazilian Legal Amazon and Northeast regions. METHODS: The study used data from a survey that assessed prenatal and infant (<1 year care in 2010. Sociodemographic, prenatal, delivery, and puerperium care factors with p<0.05 in multivariate analysis were associated with exclusive breastfeeding. RESULTS: For both regions, the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding decreased with age, which was the main variable associated with early weaning. In the Legal Amazon, exclusive breastfeeding prevailed among: mothers aged 35 years or more; mothers living in state capitals; and mothers who breastfed on the first hour of life. In the Northeast, the probability of exclusive breastfeeding was greater for mothers aged 35 years or more. CONCLUSION: The factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding were child's and mother's age in both regions; and residence location and breastfeeding in the first hour of life in the Legal Amazon, suggesting the need of differentiated strategies for the promotion of exclusive breastfeeding.

  17. DDT concentration in fish from the Tapajós River in the Amazon region, Brazil.

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    Mendes, Rosivaldo de Alcântara; Lopes, Anna Sylmara da Costa; de Souza, Larissa Costa; Lima, Marcelo de Oliveira; Santos, Lourivaldo da Silva

    2016-06-01

    DDT and metabolites were measured in six species of fish collected from the Tapajós River in the village of Barreiras, near the town of Itaituba in the Brazilian Amazon region. The selected fish were the most consumed and economically important to the local people. DDT was used frequently in this region for malaria control. Fish samples were analyzed after extraction by microwave-assisted extraction in hexane/acetone (8:2, v/v) by gas chromatography with electron capture detector. Residues of op'-DDT and pp'-DDT and metabolites were detected, including pp'-DDE, pp'-DDD, op'-DDT, and op'-DDE, in 98% of the samples, with a greater abundance of pp'-DDT. Total DDT levels were 7.1-249.5 ng g(-1) wet weight (w.w). The DDE/DDT ratio was low, indicating recent exposure to DDT. The study area that may be related to generated waste used in public health campaigns to combat mosquitos (Anopheles spp.), still present in the Amazon environment, that transmit malaria. DDT levels and metabolites found in fish species do not present risks to human health because they are below acceptable limits for consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Risk factors associated with diabesity in primary school students in the Amazon region of Brazil

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    Maria Virgínia Filgueiras de Assis Mello

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Identifying risk factors for diabesity (diabetes plus obesity in primary students in the Brazilian Amazon. Methodology. Descriptive study carried out in 2009 with the participation of 1218 students. A questionnaire from the Ministry of Health of Brazil was employed with the question ''How is your diet?'' and a form was created to record the socio-demographic, clinical, anthropometric and food variables. Results. The mean age was 12 years and 57% were female. 64% of respondents reported no health problems, 37% had a family history of diabetes mellitus and 29% of students were overweight (17% overweight and 12% obese. A sedentary lifestyle was prevalent in the study group (70%. The dietary guidelines for consumption of fruits, vegetables, legumes, and complex carbohydrates are not properly fulfilled. Fast foods or 'junk' food was consumed by 43.5% of students. Conclusion. Most of the identified risk factors were related to unhealthy lifestyles that can lead to diabesity and other chronic non-communicable diseases. Identifying these factors allows planning nursing interventions for students, teachers and families.

  19. Chemical composition of black-watered rivers in the Amazons Region (Brazil)

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    Horbe, Adriana M.C.; Santos, Ana G. da Silva [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Dept. de Geociencias], e-mail: ahorbe@ufam.edu.br

    2009-07-01

    Most investigations addressing Amazonian water chemistry are focused on the Solimoes, Amazonas and Negro rivers. Knowledge of the chemical composition of their smaller tributaries is restricted to some few, punctual data. The smaller rivers, that only present inputs from their catchments, are very important to understand the overall mechanisms controlling the chemistry of larger rivers of the region. With this objective the chemical composition of the principal Solimoes river black-watered tributaries in the western Brazilian Amazon during the low water period were determined. The data reveal the black water chemical composition to be highly variable and strongly influenced by the local geological environment: the Badajos basin being chemically more diluted; the Coari basin presenting higher SiO{sub 2} contents, as well as smaller lakes having higher pH, conductivity, Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+} and Sr, yet not as much as those found in the Solimoes river. The chemical composition of these waters is compatible with the low physical erosion and the region's highly leached tropical environment from which most soluble elements were quickly removed. (author)

  20. Chemical composition of black-watered rivers in the Amazons Region (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horbe, Adriana M.C.; Santos, Ana G. da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Most investigations addressing Amazonian water chemistry are focused on the Solimoes, Amazonas and Negro rivers. Knowledge of the chemical composition of their smaller tributaries is restricted to some few, punctual data. The smaller rivers, that only present inputs from their catchments, are very important to understand the overall mechanisms controlling the chemistry of larger rivers of the region. With this objective the chemical composition of the principal Solimoes river black-watered tributaries in the western Brazilian Amazon during the low water period were determined. The data reveal the black water chemical composition to be highly variable and strongly influenced by the local geological environment: the Badajos basin being chemically more diluted; the Coari basin presenting higher SiO 2 contents, as well as smaller lakes having higher pH, conductivity, Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ and Sr, yet not as much as those found in the Solimoes river. The chemical composition of these waters is compatible with the low physical erosion and the region's highly leached tropical environment from which most soluble elements were quickly removed. (author)

  1. The universalization of the electric power services and the isolated communities of Amazon region, Brazil; A universalizacao dos servicos de energia eletrica e as comunidades isoladas da amazonia

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    Andrade, Celia Salama de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PPE/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents the main characteristics of non interconnected systems which composes the Brazilian Electric Power System, the difficulties of rural electrification at the Country, specially in the Amazon region, and the obstacles of Amazon state, Brazil, for transportation energy power to hinterland. The results of Program Light for All are also synthesized in this document, present the profile of communities yet not attended by the Program and will be reached up to the end of the year 2010, at the finalization of the Program.

  2. Insecta, Coleoptera, Elmidae, Amazon region

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    Passos, Maria Inês; Fernandes, André; Hamada, Neusa; Nessimian, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    A list of Elmidae species from Amazon is presented. The list was prepared based on a literature survey and examination of the entomological collection of Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA). The list includes 102 species, with ten new occurrences recorded, being one for the Amazon (which includes areas of Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Guyana, French Guyana, Peru, Suriname and Venezuela) three for the Amazonas state, and six for other localities in Brazil. Reports about species bib...

  3. Improving Regional Dynamic Downscaling with Multiple Linear Regression Model Using Components Principal Analysis: Precipitation over Amazon and Northeast Brazil

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    Aline Gomes da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current context of climate change discussions, predictions of future scenarios of weather and climate are crucial for the generation of information of interest to the global community. Due to the atmosphere being a chaotic system, errors in predictions of future scenarios are systematically observed. Therefore, numerous techniques have been tested in order to generate more reliable predictions, and two techniques have excelled in science: dynamic downscaling, through regional models, and ensemble prediction, combining different outputs of climate models through the arithmetic average, in other words, a postprocessing of the output data species. Thus, this paper proposes a method of postprocessing outputs of regional climate models. This method consists in using the statistical tool multiple linear regression by principal components for combining different simulations obtained by dynamic downscaling with the regional climate model (RegCM4. Tests for the Amazon and Northeast region of Brazil (South America showed that the method provided a more realistic prediction in terms of average daily rainfall for the analyzed period prescribed, after comparing with the prediction made by set through the arithmetic averages of the simulations. This method photographed the extreme events (outlier that the prediction by averaging failed. Data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM were used to evaluate the method.

  4. Detection of Hepatitis B Virus Antigens in Paraffin-embedded Liver Specimens from the Amazon Region, Brazil

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    Simonetti SRR

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic viscerotomy of paraffin-preserved old specimens, collected in the period from 1934 to 1967, were analyzed by immunohistochemical assays to detect hepatitis B, hepatitis D, dengue and yellow fever virus antigens. The material belongs to the Yellow Fever Collection, Department of Pathology, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and the cases were diagnosed at that time according to clinical aspects and histopathological findings reporting viral hepatitis, yellow fever, focal necrosis and hepatic atrophy. From the 79 specimens, 69 were collected at the Labrea Region and the other 10 in different other localities in the Amazon Region. The five micra thick histological slices were analyzed for the presence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg by immunoperoxidase technique. An immunofluorescence assay was applied to the detection of hepatitis D, yellow fever and dengue virus antigens. Nine (11.4% histological samples were HBsAg reactive and 5 (6.3% were HBcAg reactive. The oldest reactive sample was from 1934. Viral antigens related to the other pathologies were not detected in this study. Our results confirm that the methodology described may be used to elucidate the aetiology of hepatitis diseases even after a long time of conservation of the specimens.

  5. Variables Associated with Infections of Cattle by Brucella abortus., Leptospira spp. and Neospora spp. in Amazon Region in Brazil.

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    Chiebao, D P; Valadas, S Y O B; Minervino, A H H; Castro, V; Romaldini, A H C N; Calhau, A S; De Souza, R A B; Gennari, S M; Keid, L B; Soares, R M

    2015-10-01

    The frequency of Neospora spp., Leptospira spp. and Brucella abortus infections in adult cattle was determined in herds of the State of Pará, Brazil, which is an important region for cattle production located in the Amazon region. A total of 3466 adult female cattle from 176 herds were tested, leading to a frequency of seropositive animals of 14.7%, 3.7% and 65.5% and a herd positivity of 87.4%, 41.3% and 98.8% for infections caused by Neospora spp., B. abortus and Leptospira spp., respectively. The five most frequently diagnosed serologic responses to Leptospira spp. were those against serovars hardjo, wolfii, grippotyphosa, hebdomadis and shermani. The following associations were found: practice of artificial insemination, large farm size, large herd size, large number of dogs and high number of total abortions per year with the presence of antibodies against serovar hardjo; positive results to serovar grippotyphosa with the presence of dogs; inappropriate disposal of aborted foetuses with positivity to serovar hebdomadis. Serovar grippotyphosa was also associated with number of episodes of abortions. Neospora spp. positive herds were associated with episodes of abortion and B. abortus infection with the disposal of dead animals and aborted foetuses on pastures and with the use of artificial insemination. In conclusion, the high frequency of brucellosis, leptospirosis and neosporosis in the region may be a consequence of social, natural and raising conditions as: (i) climate conditions that favour the survival and spread of pathogens in the environment; (ii) farms located in regions bordering forest areas; (iii) farms in areas of difficult access to the veterinary service; (iv) extensive beef herds raised at pastures with different age and productive groups inter-mingled; and (v) minimal concerns regarding hygiene practices and disease prevention measures. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. The impact of a community intervention to improve cervical cancer screening uptake in the Amazon region of Brazil

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    Marcus Vinicius Von Zuben

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: In the northern region of Brazil, cervical cancer is the most important cause of cancer-related deaths among women. There is considerable likelihood, however, that official incidence and mortality figures are greatly underestimated. The aim of this study was to estimate the repercussions from improvement in cervical cancer screening programs on the incidence of pre-invasive and invasive cervical lesions in a municipality in this region. DESIGN AND SETTING: This was a quasi-experimental study that assessed process dimensions relevant to the program objectives. The study comprised a sample of 2,226 women seen at primary healthcare units in Cruzeiro do Sul, a small city in the Brazilian Amazon region, from April 2003 to July 2004. METHODS: Women were recruited through local radio advertisements and by oral communication from the investigators. The women answered a structured questionnaire and underwent pelvic examination, which included Papanicolaou (Pap smears and naked-eye inspection of the cervix after applying diluted acetic acid. Women with positive Pap smears or abnormal gynecological examination were referred for colposcopy and possible biopsy, diathermic large loop excision of the transformation zone or conization. RESULTS: The results obtained were compared with historical official data retrieved from the Brazilian Ministry of Health’s database. Intervention resulted in a 40% increase in positive Pap smears and detection of cancer was nine times higher than had been observed in routine screening. CONCLUSIONS: Detection of pre-invasive and invasive cervical lesions in the intervention group was remarkably higher than among women seen during routine screening.

  7. Insecta, Coleoptera, Elmidae, Amazon region

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    Passos, M. I. S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A list of Elmidae species from Amazon is presented. The list was prepared based on a literature surveyand examination of the entomological collection of Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA. The listincludes 102 species, with ten new occurrences recorded, being one for the Amazon (which includes areas ofBrazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Guyana, French Guyana, Peru, Suriname and Venezuela three for the Amazonas state,and six for other localities in Brazil. Reports about species bibliography contents were also included, as well asavailable species municipalities distributional data.

  8. A new species of Atractus (Reptilia: Ophidia: Colubridae: Dipsadinae) from the Amazon forest region in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.; Prudente, A.L.C.

    2003-01-01

    Three specimens of Atractus natans were found during fieldwork in the “Reserva Mamirauá”, Amazonas and a fourth one in the “Estação Científica Ferreira Penna”, Floresta de Caxiuanã, Pará, Brazil. The specimens from Mamirauá were all collected in floating logs in várzea forest during the period of

  9. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants by population of Valley of Juruena Region, Legal Amazon, Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieski, Isanete Geraldini Costa; Leonti, Marco; Arnason, John Thor; Ferrier, Jonathan; Rapinski, Michel; Violante, Ivana Maria Povoa; Balogun, Sikiru Olaitan; Pereira, João Filipe Costa Alves; Figueiredo, Rita de Cassia Feguri; Lopes, Célia Regina Araújo Soares; da Silva, Dennis Rodrigues; Pacini, Aloir; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino; Martins, Domingos Tabajara de Oliveira

    2015-09-15

    The use of medicinal plants for treatment, cure and prevention of diseases has been described by many people since time immemorial. Because of this use, commercial and scientific interests have emerged, making it necessary to realize ethnobotanical surveys of medicinal plants species, which is important for subsequent chemical and pharmacological bioprospections. This study aimed at surveying, identifying, cataloging and documenting the medicinal plants species used in the Valley of Juruena, Northwestern Mato Grosso, Legal Amazon Brazil for the treatment of various human diseases, as well as assessed the species of interest for bioprospecting potential. Informants were interviewed using semi-structured form to capture information on socio-demographic and ethnopharmacological data of medicinal plants such as vernacular name, uses, geographic origin, habit, form of preparation and part used. Results were analyzed using descriptive and quantitative means: indices of use-report (Ur) and informant consensus factor (ICF), for the selection of plant species with therapeutic potential. Three hundred and thirty two (332) plants species belonging to 90 families were reported for medicinal purposes and totaling 3973 use-reports were reported by 365 (92.9%) of the people interviewed. Asteraceae (32.2%), Fabaceae (26.7%) and Lamiaceae (24.4%) families were the most represented, with majority being species native (64.45%) to Brazil. Leaves (64.5%) were the part of the plant most used and infusion (45.7%) was the most utilized form. Gastrointestinal disorders followed by respiratory complaints topped the list of use-reports. The native or naturalized plants with the highest use reports in the order of decreasing absolute frequency per each emic-category are Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapfc (104), Mentha pulegium L. (94), Arrabidaea chica (Humb. & Bonpl.) B. Verl. (97), Alternanthera brasiliana (L.) Kuntze (71), Baccharis crispa Spreng (57), Phyllanthus niruri L. (48), Gossypium

  10. Petrobras eyes LNG project in Amazon region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The Brazilian state oil company has proved gas reserves in the Rio Urucu area of the Amazon jungle totaling 1.84 tcf. That compares with 3.08 tcf contained in the offshore Campos basin, source of most of Brazil's oil and gas production. The environmentally sensitive Urucu region is one of the most dense, remote jungles in the world. Because of environmental concerns about pipelines in the rain forest and a government emphasis on boosting the natural gas share of Brazil's energy mix, a small liquefied natural gas project is shaping up as the best option for developing and marketing Urucu gas. The amazon campaign underscores a government initiative to boost Brazilian consumption of natural gas. In Brazil natural gas accounts for only 4% of primary energy consumption. Some years ago, the government set an official goal of boosting the gas share of the primary energy mix to 10% by 2000. The paper discusses current drilling activities, gas production and processing, the logistics of the upper Amazon, and gas markets

  11. Diet of Bryconops alburnoides and B. caudomaculatus (Osteichthyes: Characiformes in the region affected by Balbina Hydroelectric Dam (Amazon drainage, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cylene C. da Silva

    Full Text Available The study of fish diet and its interaction with the environment provides important data on ecology and behavior, as fish face varying environmental and food availability conditions. The aim of the present study was to determine the diet of Bryconops caudomaculatus and Bryconops alburnoides, as well as to assess its seasonal variation, within the area influenced by Balbina Hydroelectric Dam (BHD, in the Uatumã River (Amazon Basin, Brazil. Collections were carried out every two months from April 2005 to February 2007, using gill nets with mesh sizes ranging from 12 to 60 mm between opposite knots. Two methods were used for determining diet: frequency of occurrence and relative volume, which were used to calculate the alimentary index (IAi. Diet similarity between species was analyzed by applying the Morisita index. Bryconops alburnoides ingested 12 items and B. caudomaculatus 10, with a 59% similarity between ingested items. Terrestrial insects for B. alburnoides and immature insects for B. caudomaculatus were the main items in their diets, and therefore, they were considered insectivorous. The seasonal composition of the diet of B. alburnoides was influenced by environmental factors, and in spite of the dominance of immature insects, it had a significant number of terrestrial insects during the heavy rainfall periods.

  12. The charcoal of Carajas: A threat to the forests of Brazil's eastern Amazon region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fearnside, P.M. (National Institute for Research in the Amazon, Manaus-Amazonas (BR))

    1989-01-01

    This article discusses the risk of deterioration of forests in the Amazonian region, following the planning and construction of a series of pig-iron smelters in the Grande Carajas region of Brazil. The demand for wood as raw material for charcoal production will be far greater than what is possible to harvest from the forestry management plans. Silviculture plantations give a rather high price for wood, why there is prudent to anticipate that most of the charcoal is likely to come from cutting native forest as long as they exist. (U.W.).

  13. Characterization and classification of leishmanial parasites from humans, wild mammals, and sand flies in the Amazon region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, G; Momen, H; Naiff, R D; McMahon-Pratt, D; Barrett, T V

    1991-06-01

    Ninety-four leishmanial isolates from the Brazilian Amazon Region (Amapá, Amazonas, Pará, and Rondônia) were identified and classified using specific monoclonal antibodies and an indirect radioimmunoassay (serodeme analysis); eighty-two were also characterized by enzyme electrophoresis (zymodeme analysis), the results of which were subjected to a numerical phenetic analysis. Six isolates from humans (3), Didelphis marsupialis (1), Lutzomyia olmeca nociva (1), and Lu, reducta (1) showed reactivity patterns and isoenzyme profiles similar to those obtained with the Leishmania amazonensis reference strains, and were identified as this species. Eighty-six stocks were classified as members of the L. braziliensis complex; of these, 61 were L. guyanensis or variants, which presented three serodeme subtypes, but whose isoenzyme profiles were all similar to the reference strain. A total of 15 isolates were distinguished as L. braziliensis or variants and were classified into five serodeme subtypes. The isolate from Psychodopugus davisi appeared, from the numerical analysis, to be a distinct parasite species. Ten isolates showed reactivity patterns and isoenzyme profiles similar to those obtained with the L. naiffi reference strain. A parasite isolated from Ps. claustrei appeared to be different from all reference strains by both techniques, and was classified as probably being a new species. The importance of these results with respect to the taxonomic status of the New World Leishmania, and their implications for both clinical and epidemiologic data are discussed.

  14. Leprosy Reactions in Patients Coinfected with HIV: Clinical Aspects and Outcomes in Two Comparative Cohorts in the Amazon Region, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Andréa Avelar Pires

    Full Text Available Leprosy, caused by Mycobacterium leprae, can lead to scarring and deformities. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, a lymphotropic virus with high rates of replication, leads to cell death in various stages of infection. These diseases have major social and quality of life costs, and although the relevance of their comorbidity is recognized, several aspects are still not fully understood.Two cohorts of patients with leprosy in an endemic region of the Amazon were observed. We compared 40 patients with leprosy and HIV (Group 1 and 107 leprosy patients with no comorbidity (Group 2 for a minimum of 2 years. Group 1 predominantly experienced the paucibacillary classification, accounting for 70% of cases, whereas Group 2 primarily experienced the multibacillary classification (80.4% of cases. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of leprosy reactions among the two groups (37.5% for Group 1 vs. 56.1% for Group 2, and the most frequent reaction was Type 1. The appearance of Group 1 patients' reversal reaction skin lesions was consistent with each clinical form: typically erythematous and infiltrated, with similar progression as those patients without HIV, which responded to prednisone. Patients in both groups primarily experienced a single episode (73.3% in Group 1 and 75% in Group 2, and Group 1 had shorter reaction periods (≤3 months; 93.3%, moderate severity (80%, with 93.3% of the patients in the state of acquired immune deficiency syndrome, and 46.7% presenting the reaction at the time of the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome.This study used a large sample and makes a significant contribution to the clinical outcomes of patients in the reactive state with comorbid HIV and leprosy. The data indicate that these diseases, although concurrent, have independent courses.

  15. Emissions of nitrous oxide and nitric oxide from soils of native and exotic ecosystems of the Amazon and Cerrado regions of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, E A; Bustamante, M M; de Siqueira Pinto, A

    2001-11-21

    This paper reviews reports of nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO) emissions from soils of the Amazon and Cerrado regions of Brazil. N2O is a stable greenhouse gas in the troposphere and participates in ozone-destroying reactions in the stratosphere, whereas NO participates in tropospheric photochemical reactions that produce ozone. Tropical forests and savannas are important sources of atmospheric N2O and NO, but rapid land use change could be affecting these soil emissions of N oxide gases. The five published estimates for annual emissions of N2O from soils of mature Amazonian forests are remarkably consistent, ranging from 1.4 to 2.4 kg N ha(-1) year(-1), with a mean of 2.0 kg N ha(-1) year(-1). Estimates of annual emissions of NO from Amazonian forests are also remarkably similar, ranging from 1.4 to 1.7 kg N ha(-1) year(-1), with a mean of 1.5 kg N ha(-1) year(-1). Although a doubling or tripling of N2O has been observed in some young (Cerrado where vegetation measurements have been made N2O emissions were below detection limits and NO emissions were modest (approximately 0.4 kg N ha(-1) year(-1)). Emissions of NO doubled after fire and increased by a factor of ten after wetting dry soil, but these pulses lasted only a few hours to days. As in Amazonian pastures, NO emissions appear to decline with pasture age. Detectable emissions of N2O have been measured in soybean and corn fields in the Cerrado region, but they are modest relative to fluxes measured in more humid tropical agricultural regions. No measurements of NO from agricultural soils in the Cerrado region have been made, but we speculate that they could be more important than N2O emissions in this relatively dry climate. While a consistent pattern is emerging from these studies in the Amazon region, far too few data exist for the Cerrado region to assess the impact of land use changes on N oxide emissions.

  16. Detection of HTLV-IIa in blood donors in an urban area of the Amazon Region of Brazil (Belém, PA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishak R.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The human lymphotropic viruses type I (HTLV-I and type II (HTLV-II are members of a group of mammalian retroviruses with similar biological properties, and blood transfusion is an important route of transmission. HTLV-I is endemic in a number of different geographical areas and is associated with several clinical disorders. HTLV-II is endemic in several Indian groups of the Americas and intravenous drug abusers in North and South America, Europe and Southeast Asia. During the year of 1995, all blood donors tested positive to HTLV-I/II in the State Blood Bank (HEMOPA, were directed to a physician and to the Virus Laboratory at the Universidade Federal do Pará for counselling and laboratory diagnosis confirmation. Thirty-five sera were tested by an enzyme immune assay, and a Western blot that discriminates HTLV-I and HTLV-II infection. Two HTLV-II positive samples were submitted to PCR analysis of pX and env genomic region, and confirmed to be of subtype IIa. This is the first detection in Belém of the presence of HTLV-IIa infection among blood donors. This result emphasizes that HTLV-II is also present in urban areas of the Amazon region of Brazil and highlights the need to include screening tests that are capable to detect antibodies for both types of HTLV.

  17. An outbreak of myxozoan parasites in farmed freshwater fish Colossoma macropomum (Cuvier, 1818 (Characidae, Serrasalminae in the Amazon region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Videira

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum is a native fish species that is farmed most frequently and in the largest quantities throughout Brazil. The high production of this species from fish farms has contributed to the occurrence of emerging parasites, which may compromise fish health and productivity. In a batch of 2500 tambaqui fry acquired for experimental farming procedures in Brazil, a mortality rate of 80% was observed, with the fish swimming erratically and gasping for air at the water surface. From among the specimens that were still alive, 60 individuals were selected at random. Organs or fragments of organs containing lesions and/or cysts were examined under an optical microscope to investigate for the presence of parasitic spores. Of the 60 specimens of tambaqui analyzed, 83.3% were found to be infected in different organs, such as the gills, liver, and gallbladder with myxosporidian species belonging to four genera, namely, Myxobolus, Ellipsomyxa, Henneguya and Thelohanellus. The parasite with the greatest prevalence was Myxobolus sp., located in the gills (70%, followed by Henneguya sp. in the gills region (68.3%, Myxobolus sp. in the liver (63.3%, Thelohanellus sp. in the liver (58.3%, and Ellipsomyxa in the gallbladder (50%. This is the first report of parasitic infection caused by the genera Ellipsomyxa and Thelohanellus in C. macropomum. The present study reported the second incidence of the occurrence of the genus Thelohanellus in South America. This study suggested that the mortality among C. macropomum specimens was caused by the outbreak of myxosporidians.

  18. A possible correlation between the host genetic background in the epidemiology of Hepatitis B virus in the Amazon region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. C. R. Santos

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon region of Brazil is an area of great interest because of the large distribution of hepatitis B virus in specific Western areas. Seven urban communities and 24 Indian groups were visited in a total of 4,244 persons. Each individual was interviewed in order to obtain demographic and familial information. Whole blood was collected for serology and genetic determinations. Eleven genetic markers and three HBV markers were tested. Among the most relevant results it was possible to show that (i there was a large variation of previous exposure to HBV in both urban and non-urban groups ranging from 0 to 59.2%; (ii there was a different pattern of epidemiological distribution of HBV that was present even among a same linguistic Indian group, with mixed patterns of correlation between HBsAg and anti-HBs and (iii the prevalence of HBV markers (HBsAg and anti-HBs were significantly higher (P=0.0001 among the Indian population (18.8% than the urban groups (12.5%. Its possible that the host genetic background could influence and modulate the replication of the virus in order to generate HB carrier state.

  19. Epidemiologia das encefalites por arbovírus na amazônia brasileira Epidemiology of encephalitis by arboviruses in the Amazon region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Fernando da Costa Vasconcelos

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores revêem os aspectos ecoepidemiológicos apresentados pelos virus da encefalite de St. Louis (SLE, encefalites equinas Leste (EEE, Oeste (WEE e Venezuelana [subtipos III, Mucambo (MUC e IV, Pixuna (PIX], decorrentes dos estudos realizados em diversas áreas da Região Amazônica brasileira, especialmente ao longo das rodovias e projetos de desenvolvimento. Esses vírus são amplamente distribuídos na Amazônia e pelo menos quatro deles, EEE, WEE, MUC e SLE já demonstraram ser patógenos do homem. O diagnóstico da doença humana foi feito por sorologia, sendo que de MUC e SLE obteve-se também isolamento viral. O vírus PIX, parece ser o menos prevalente e foi isolado em poucas oportunidades. Virtualmente se desconhecem os vetores do PIX e WEE. As aves silvestres constituem os hospedeiros principais de todos esses vírus, exceto do MUC, para o qual constituem os roedores. O quadro clínico apresentado pelos pacientes infectados na Amazônia é discutido, comparando-o ao apresentado em outras áreas, especialmente nos EUA, onde periodicamente SLE, EEE e WEE causam surtos de doença humana. Nenhuma epidemia foi até o presente detectada, embora em 1960 uma epizootia em eqüinos causada pelo EEE tenha sido registrada em Bragança, Pará, onde em um rebanho de 500 animais ocorreu uma letalidade de 5%. Quatro outras pequenas epizootias determinadas pelo SLE ocorreram nas florestas adjacentes a Belém, envolvendo aves silvestres e animais sentinelas.An overview of ecological, epidemiological and clinical findings of potential arthropod-borne encephalitis viruses circulating in the Amazon Region of Brazil are discussed. These viruses are the Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE, Western Equine Encephalitis (WEE, St. Louis Encephalitis (SLE, Mucambo (MUC and Pixuna (PIX. These last two are subtypes (HI and IV of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis virus. The areas of study were the highways and projects of development, as well as places where

  20. Swine manure application effects on ammonia volatilization, forage quality, and yield in the Pre-Amazon Region of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of swine manure as a nutrient source for pastures is increasingly common in Brazil, due to its low cost. However, this practice can cause nitrogen (N) losses in agricultural soil, where ammonia volatilization may be the main drawback, generating undesirable economic and environmental consequ...

  1. Damage by Tibraca limbativentris Stål (Pentatomidae) to Upland Rice Cultivated in Amazon Rainforest Region (Brazil) at Different Growth Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinski, D; Foerster, L A

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we evaluated the damage caused in the field by Tibraca limbativentris Stål adults at different levels of infestation (0, 1, 2, and 4 stink bugs) per three rice plants during three growth stages (V8, V13, and R4 stages) of upland rice cultivated in southwestern of Pará State, Amazon Rainforest region, Brazil. Heading time (panicle exertion) was affected by T. limbativentris infestations mainly in the vegetative stage and the whiteheads percentage in treatments ranged from 18.2 to 38%. The dead hearts percentages varied between 0 and 21.5%, and the mean number of primary branches (ramifications) ranged from 5.9 ± 0.4 to 12.3 ± 0.2. The number of empty spikelets was only affected in infestations with four insects/three plants, while the quantity of filled grains per panicle was affected only when infestations occurred during the vegetative stage. The total number of spikelets (filled + empty) per panicle decreased significantly in all phenological stages, and the percentage of damage ranged from 17 to 44% among treatments. Based on the proportion of damage observed, we suggest doubling the number of insects presently used as action threshold to 2 and 4 stink bugs per 15 stalks sampled for the vegetative stage, and of 1 or 2 stink bugs per 15 stalks sampled at the beginning of reproductive stage (R3/R4). Also, the field should be monitored during the entire vegetative stage, since most damage was observed in this phenological stage.

  2. The Amazon Region; A Vision of Sovereignty

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-06

    XVII, XVIII and XIX centuries, thirty-seven fortifications had been established to defend the Amazon Region. At the end of the XVII century, iron ...Community to drive the Brazilian Government to interrupt the project "Grande Carajas " (Great Carajas ), and thus trying to inhibit the planned search...oxygen production potential in the Amazon region. Ironically , however, in order to allow plants to grow, part of the forest would have to be

  3. Association of TLR variants with susceptibility to Plasmodium vivax malaria and parasitemia in the Amazon region of Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allyson Guimarães Costa

    Full Text Available Plasmodium vivax malaria (Pv-malaria is still considered a neglected disease despite an alarming number of individuals being infected annually. Malaria pathogenesis occurs with the onset of the vector-parasite-host interaction through the binding of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs and receptors of innate immunity, such as toll-like receptors (TLRs. The triggering of the signaling cascade produces an elevated inflammatory response. Genetic polymorphisms in TLRs are involved in susceptibility or resistance to infection, and the identification of genes involved with Pv-malaria response is important to elucidate the pathogenesis of the disease and may contribute to the formulation of control and elimination tools.A retrospective case-control study was conducted in an intense transmission area of Pv-malaria in the state of Amazonas, Brazil. Genetic polymorphisms (SNPs in different TLRs, TIRAP, and CD14 were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP analysis in 325 patients infected with P. vivax and 274 healthy individuals without malaria history in the prior 12 months from the same endemic area. Parasite load was determined by qPCR. Simple and multiple logistic/linear regressions were performed to investigate association between the polymorphisms and the occurrence of Pv-malaria and parasitemia. The C/T (TLR5 R392StopCodon and T/T (TLR9 -1486C/T genotypes appear to be risk factors for infection by P. vivax (TLR5: C/C vs. C/T [OR: 2.116, 95% CI: 1.054-4.452, p = 0.031]; TLR9: C/C vs. T/T [OR: 1.919, 95% CI: 1.159-3.177, p = 0.010]; respectively. Fever (COEF = 7599.46, 95% CI = 3063.80-12135.12, p = 0.001 and the C/C genotype of TLR9 -1237C/T (COEF = 17006.63, 95% CI = 3472.83-30540.44, p = 0.014 were independently associated with increased parasitemia in patients with Pv-malaria.Variants of TLRs may predispose individuals to infection by P. vivax. The TLR5 R392StopCodon and TLR9 -1486C

  4. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane in soil, river sediment, and fish in the Amazon in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres, J.P.M.; Pfeiffer, W.C.; Markowitz, S.; Pause, R.; Malm, O.; Japenga, J.

    2002-01-01

    Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), its main metabolites, and other organochlorines were analyzed in soils (n=6), fluvial sediments (n=14), and fish (n=10) that were collected in several areas of the Amazon region in Brazil. The samples were analyzed by capillary column gas chromatography coupled

  5. Using of the AMS - 14 C technique for dating of soil charcoals, from holocene period, in the amazon forest(Manaus-Brazil region)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, G.M.; Gomes, P.R.S.; Anjos, R.M.; Cordeiro, R.C.; Turcq, B.J.; Sifeddine, A.; Tada, M.L. di; Cresswell, R.G.; Fifield, L.K.

    1999-01-01

    The Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) technique was used to determine the radiocarbon age of charcoal fragments of soil samples from the Amazon Region near Manaus. The radiocarbon ages are within the 130 - 2400 years range. The interpretation is that these results are evidences of important fire events that occurred mostly during the superior Holocene dry phase. These res had spread out more intensely at the high land areas than at shoals. In this paper there are descriptions of the processes of sample preparation and the procedures for the AMS analysis. (author)

  6. Metagenome sequencing of the microbial community of two Brazilian anthropogenic Amazon dark earth sites, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Leandro Nascimento; de Souza, Rosineide Cardoso; de Souza Cannavan, Fabiana; Patricio, André; Pylro, Victor Satler; Hanada, Rogério Eiji; Mui, Tsai Siu

    2016-12-01

    The Anthropogenic Amazon Dark Earth soil is considered one of the world's most fertile soils. These soils differs from conventional Amazon soils because its higher organic content concentration. Here we describe the metagenome sequencing of microbial communities of two sites of Anthropogenic Amazon Dark Earth soils from Amazon Rainforest, Brazil. The raw sequence data are stored under Short Read Accession number: PRJNA344917.

  7. Health Concerns in the Amazon Region

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-09

    Residents of the Amazon region of South America contend with a number of health threats - from mosquito-borne diseases to difficulty accessing doctors and healthcare facilities in such a vast area. This podcast helps explore some of the health issues in the region and what's being done to address them.  Created: 4/9/2009 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 4/9/2009.

  8. LBA-ECO CD-01 Meteorological Data, Tapajos and Amazon Rivers, Santarem, Brazil: 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains meteorological data collected around the confluence of the Tapajos River with the Amazon River in the Amazon Basin near Santarem, Brazil, in...

  9. LBA-ECO LC-07 Amazon Floodplain Lake Chlorophyll from MODIS, Para, Brazil: 2002-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set, LBA-ECO LC-07 Amazon Floodplain Lake Chlorophyll from MODIS, Para, Brazil: 2002-2003, contains chlorophyll concentration maps of the Amazon River...

  10. Geographical Analysis for Detecting High-Risk Areas for Bovine/Human Rabies Transmitted by the Common Hematophagous Bat in the Amazon Region, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda A G de Andrade

    Full Text Available The common hematophagous bat, Desmodus rotundus, is one of the main wild reservoirs of rabies virus in several regions in Latin America. New production practices and changed land use have provided environmental features that have been very favorable for D. rotundus bat populations, making this species the main transmitter of rabies in the cycle that involves humans and herbivores. In the Amazon region, these features include a mosaic of environmental, social, and economic components, which together creates areas with different levels of risk for human and bovine infections, as presented in this work in the eastern Brazilian Amazon.We geo-referenced a total of 175 cases of rabies, of which 88% occurred in bovines and 12% in humans, respectively, and related these cases to a number of different geographical and biological variables. The spatial distribution was analyzed using the Kernel function, while the association with independent variables was assessed using a multi-criterion Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP technique.The spatiotemporal analysis of the occurrence of rabies in bovines and humans found reduction in the number of cases in the eastern state of Pará, where no more cases were recorded in humans, whereas high infection rates were recorded in bovines in the northeastern part of the state, and low rates in the southeast. The areas of highest risk for bovine rabies are found in the proximity of rivers and highways. In the case of human rabies, the highest concentration of high-risk areas was found where the highway network coincides with high densities of rural and indigenous populations.The high-risk areas for human and bovine rabies are patchily distributed, and related to extensive deforested areas, large herds of cattle, and the presence of highways. These findings provide an important database for the generation of epidemiological models that could support the development of effective prevention measures and controls.

  11. Snake venomics and antivenomics of Bothrops atrox venoms from Colombia and the Amazon regions of Brazil, Perú and Ecuador suggest the occurrence of geographic variation of venom phenotype by a trend towards paedomorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Vitelbina; Cid, Pedro; Sanz, Libia; De La Torre, Pilar; Angulo, Yamileth; Lomonte, Bruno; Gutiérrez, José María; Calvete, Juan J

    2009-11-02

    The venom proteomes of Bothrops atrox from Colombia, Brazil, Ecuador, and Perú were characterized using venomic and antivenomic strategies. Our results evidence the existence of two geographically differentiated venom phenotypes. The venom from Colombia comprises at least 26 different proteins belonging to 9 different groups of toxins. PI-metalloproteinases and K49-PLA(2) molecules represent the most abundant toxins. On the other hand, the venoms from Brazilian, Ecuadorian, and Peruvian B. atrox contain predominantly PIII-metalloproteinases. These toxin profiles correlate with the venom phenotypes of adult and juvenile B. asper from Costa Rica, respectively, suggesting that paedomorphism represented a selective trend during the trans-Amazonian southward expansion of B. atrox through the Andean Corridor. The high degree of crossreactivity of a Costa Rican polyvalent (Bothrops asper, Lachesis stenophrys, Crotalus simus) antivenom against B. atrox venoms further evidenced the close evolutionary kinship between B. asper and B. atrox. This antivenom was more efficient immunodepleting proteins from the venoms of B. atrox from Brazil, Ecuador, and Perú than from Colombia. Such behaviour may be rationalized taking into account the lower content of poorly immunogenic toxins, such as PLA(2) molecules and PI-SVMPs in the paedomorphic venoms. The immunological profile of the Costa Rican antivenom strongly suggests the possibility of using this antivenom for the management of snakebites by B. atrox in Colombia and the Amazon regions of Ecuador, Perú and Brazil.

  12. Assessment of radioactivity level in granite stones sold to ornamental and building purposes in Brazilian Amazon region (Belem, PA, Brazil): a cross sectional study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiroz, Y.M.; Santos, R.J.C.; Teixeira, C.E.C., E-mail: cecteixeira@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade da Amazonia (UNAMA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas e da Saude. Lab. de Radiologia

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this work was evaluate the level of radioactivity in granite sold in the region of Belem (Para, Brazil) using a Geiger-Mueller detector. The results showed that only 5 from 57 samples of 35 types of granite evaluated had count rates above that measured in the background. However, the counting statistics suggests that the measured radiation values in these 5 samples are not due random fluctuations inherent in such measures. (author)

  13. Assessment of radioactivity level in granite stones sold to ornamental and building purposes in Brazilian Amazon region (Belem, PA, Brazil): a cross sectional study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queiroz, Y.M.; Santos, R.J.C.; Teixeira, C.E.C.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was evaluate the level of radioactivity in granite sold in the region of Belem (Para, Brazil) using a Geiger-Mueller detector. The results showed that only 5 from 57 samples of 35 types of granite evaluated had count rates above that measured in the background. However, the counting statistics suggests that the measured radiation values in these 5 samples are not due random fluctuations inherent in such measures. (author)

  14. Backwater effects in the Amazon River basin of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, R.H.; Rayol, J.M.; Da Conceicao, S.C.; Natividade, J.R.G.

    1991-01-01

    The Amazon River mainstem of Brazil is so regulated by differences in the timing of tributary inputs and by seasonal storage of water on floodplains that maximum discharges exceed minimum discharges by a factor of only 3. Large tributaries that drain the southern Amazon River basin reach their peak discharges two months earlier than does the mainstem. The resulting backwater in the lowermost 800 km of two large southern tributaries, the Madeira and Puru??s rivers, causes falling river stages to be as much as 2-3 m higher than rising stages at any given discharge. Large tributaries that drain the northernmost Amazon River basin reach their annual minimum discharges three to four months later than does the mainstem. In the lowermost 300-400 km of the Negro River, the largest northern tributary and the fifth largest river in the world, the lowest stages of the year correspond to those of the Amazon River mainstem rather than to those in the upstream reaches of the Negro River. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  15. Phenotypic characterization of Leishmania spp. causing cutaneous leishmaniasis in the lower Amazon region, western Pará state, Brazil, reveals a putative hybrid parasite, Leishmania (Viannia guyanensis × Leishmania (Viannia shawi shawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennings Yara Lins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We phenotypically characterized 43 leishmanial parasites from cutaneous leishmaniasis by isoenzyme electrophoresis and the indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (23 McAbs. Identifications revealed 11 (25.6% strains of Leishmania (V. braziliensis, 4 (9.3% of L. (V. shawi shawi, 7 (16.3% of L. (V. shawi santarensis, 6 (13.9% of L. (V. guyanensis and L. (V. lainsoni, 2 (4.7% of L. (L. amazonensis, and 7 (16.3% of a putative hybrid parasite, L. (V. guyanensis/L. (V. shawi shawi. McAbs detected three different serodemes of L. (V. braziliensis: I-7, II-1, and III-3 strains. Among the strains of L. (V. shawi we identified two populations: one (7 strains expressing the B19 epitope that was previously considered to be species-specific for L. (V. guyanensis. We have given this population sub-specific rank, naming it L. (V. s. santarensis. The other one (4 strains did not express the B19 epitope like the L. (V. shawi reference strain, which we now designate as L. (V. s. shawi. For the first time in the eastern Brazilian Amazon we register a putative hybrid parasite (7 strains, L. (V. guyanensis/L. (V. s. shawi, characterized by a new 6PGDH three-band profile at the level of L. (V. guyanensis. Its PGM profile, however, was very similar to that of L. (V. s. shawi. These results suggest that the lower Amazon region – western Pará state, Brazil, represents a biome where L. (V. guyanensis and L. (V. s. shawi exchange genetic information.

  16. Rickettsia amblyommatis infecting ticks and exposure of domestic dogs to Rickettsia spp. in an Amazon-Cerrado transition region of northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Francisco B; da Costa, Andréa P; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Martins, Thiago F; Soares, Herbert S; Ramirez, Diego G; Dias, Ricardo A; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2017-01-01

    This study was performed in Maranhão state, a transition area two Brazilian biomes, Amazon and Cerrado. During 2011-2013, 1,560 domestic dogs were sampled for collection of serum blood samples and ticks in eight counties (3 within the Amazon and 5 within the Cerrado). A total of 959 ticks were collected on 150 dogs (9.6%). Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s.l.) was the most abundant tick (68% of all collected specimens), followed by Amblyomma cajennense sensu lato (s.l.) (12.9%), Amblyomma parvum (9.2%), and Amblyomma ovale (5.2%). Other less abundant species (Cerrado area, and A. cajennense s.s. from pigs in an Amazon area revealed R. amblyommatis infecting only the A. cajennense s.s. ticks. Serological analysis of the 1,560 canine blood samples revealed 12.6% canine seroreactivity to Rickettsia spp., with the highest specific seroreactivity rate (10.2%) for R. amblyommatis. Endpoint titers to R. amblyommatis were significantly higher than those for the other Rickettsia antigens, suggesting that most of the seroreactive dogs were exposed to R. amblyommatis-infected ticks. Highest canine seroreactivity rates per locality (13.1-30.8%) were found in Amazon biome, where A. cajennense s.s. predominated. Lowest seroreactivity rates (1.9-6.5%) were found in Cerrado localities that were further from the Amazon, where A. sculptum predominated. Multivariate analyses revealed that canine seroreactivity to Rickettsia spp. or R. amblyommatis was statistically associated with rural dogs, exposed to Amblyomma ticks.

  17. Favourable geological environment for uranium in Amazon State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenker, A.O.

    1982-01-01

    According to the synthesis of the Basic Projects of DNPM/CPRM in Amazon and in the creation of 1 : 2500000 scale map, it was possible to separate the several geological environments known in the region as for the favourableness to storage uraniferous mineralizations. (A.B.) [pt

  18. Amazon soils : a reconnaissance of the soils of the Brazilian Amazon region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sombroek, W.G.

    1966-01-01

    The study deals with soils of the Brazilian part of the Amazon basin. Most soils are Latosols, some with soft or hardened plinthite. The Latosols are characterized by a latosolic B horizon as defined in Brazil.

    Plinthite, its formation and morphology were extensively described. Five main

  19. Biomass energy for the economic sustain ability of isolated communities in the Amazon region; Energia de biomassa para a sustentabilidade economica das comunidades isoladas da Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lascio, Marco Alfredo di [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica; Freitas, Marcos Aurelio V. [Agencia Nacional de Energia Eletrica (ANEEL), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Superintendencia de Recursos Hidricos; Marques, Ana Claudia S. [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Dept. de Economia

    1999-07-01

    This work evaluates the use of forestry biomass as energy source for dispersed communities in the Amazon region. The photovoltaic alternative is also presented, including the experience obtained with two demonstration photovoltaic installations in the state of Rondonia, Brazil.

  20. Regional nitrous oxide flux in Amazon basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felippe, Monica Tais Siqueira D'Amelio

    2010-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) is the third most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas. Globally, the main sources of N 2 O are nitrification and denitrification in soils. About two thirds of the soil emissions occur in the tropics and approximately 20% originate in wet rain forest ecosystems, like the Amazon forest. The work presented here involves aircraft vertical profiles of N 2 O from the surface to 4 km over two sites in the Eastern and Central Amazon: Tapajos National Forest (2000-2009) and Cuieiras Biologic Reserve (2004-2007), and the estimation of N 2 O fluxes for regions upwind of these sites using two methods: Column Integration Technique and Inversion Model - FLEXPART. To our knowledge, these regional scale N 2 O measurements in Amazonia are unique and represent a new approach to looking regional scale emissions. For the both methods, the fluxes upwind of Cuieiras Biologic Reserve exhibited little seasonality, and the annual mean was 1.9 ±1.6 mgN 2 Om -2 day -1 for the Column Integration Technique and 2.3±0.9 mgN 2 Om -2 day -1 for Inversion Model - FLEXPART. For fluxes upwind of Tapajos Nacional Forest, the Inversion Model - FLEXPART presented about half (0.9±1.7 mgN 2 Om -2 day -1 ) of the Column Integration Technique (2.0±1.1 mgN 2 Om -2 day -1 ) for the same period (2004-2008). One reason could be because the inversion model does not consider anthropic activities, once it had a good representation for less impacted area. Both regions presented similar emission during wet season. By Column Integration Technique, fluxes upwind Tapajos Nacional Forest were similar for dry and wet seasons. The dry season N 2 O fluxes exhibit significant correlations with CO fluxes, indicating a larger than expected source of N 2 O from biomass burning. The average CO:N 2 O ratio for all 38 profiles sampled during the dry season was 82±69 mol CO:molN 2 O and suggests a larger biomass burning contribution to the global N 2 O budget than previously reported. (author)

  1. Comparative analysis of photovoltaic power storage systems by means of batteries and hydrogen in remote areas of the Amazon region in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furlan, Andre Luis; Silva Pinto, Cristiano da [FEM/UNICAMP, Sao Paulo (Brazil). School of Mechanical Engineering; Neves, Newton Pimenta Jr. [IFGW/UNICAMP, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Lab. of Hydrogen

    2010-07-01

    This study analyzes the photovoltaic power storage comparing the traditional lead-acid batteries with electrolytic hydrogen where the gas is reconverted to power in a fuel cell. In order to design the two systems a load profile of the Brazilian Amazon communities was used as well as some practical operational data of equipment tested in the laboratory. A mathematical model was developed, implemented in a spreadsheet that considers the several devices and their efficiencies in order to specify and match the systems components. The results were employed to evaluate the economic viability of the two systems in remote communities. Considering the present conditions, it was verified that the battery system is slightly cheaper. However, it was also observed that a minor cost reduction in the electrolyser, as well as in the buffer and fuel cell would make the hydrogen system very competitive, becoming the best option for photovoltaic power storage with important benefits to the environment. (orig.)

  2. Brazil: anchoring the region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costamilan, L.C.L.

    1997-01-01

    The role of Brazil's state-run petroleum company, Petrobras, in providing a national supply of oil and natural gas and their products to Brazil was discussed. Petrobras is the sole state-run enterprise which carries out research, exploration, production, refining, imports, exports and the transportation of oil and gas in Brazil. Petrobras has built a complete and modern infrastructure made up of refineries, distribution bases, terminals and oil and gas pipelines. Recently (1995) the Brazilian National Assembly approved legislation that while confirming the state monopoly, also provides private contractors and other state-owned companies ways to participate in the petroleum sector. There exists a great potential for oil and gas in many of Brazil's 29 sedimentary basins. The regulatory legislation also created two new organs to deal with the partial deregulation of the petroleum sector, the National Board for Energy Policy and the National Petroleum Agency. The first of these will deal with policy issues, measures and guidelines regarding regional energy supply and demand and specific programs such as those affecting natural gas, fuel alcohol, coal and nuclear energy. The National Petroleum Agency will manage the hydrocarbon sector on behalf of the government. Its functions will include regulation and monitoring of the sector, managing the bidding process for concessions for exploration and production, and other related activities. The new legislation opens up new horizons for the Brazilian oil sector, providing opportunities for private investment, both domestic and foreign, as well as for new technological capabilities associated with these investments. 1 tab., 6 figs

  3. New classification of natural breeding habitats for Neotropical anophelines in the Yanomami Indian Reserve, Amazon Region, Brazil and a new larval sampling methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Sánchez-Ribas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Here we present the first in a series of articles about the ecology of immature stages of anophelines in the Brazilian Yanomami area. We propose a new larval habitat classification and a new larval sampling methodology. We also report some preliminary results illustrating the applicability of the methodology based on data collected in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest in a longitudinal study of two remote Yanomami communities, Parafuri and Toototobi. In these areas, we mapped and classified 112 natural breeding habitats located in low-order river systems based on their association with river flood pulses, seasonality and exposure to sun. Our classification rendered seven types of larval habitats: lakes associated with the river, which are subdivided into oxbow lakes and nonoxbow lakes, flooded areas associated with the river, flooded areas not associated with the river, rainfall pools, small forest streams, medium forest streams and rivers. The methodology for larval sampling was based on the accurate quantification of the effective breeding area, taking into account the area of the perimeter and subtypes of microenvironments present per larval habitat type using a laser range finder and a small portable inflatable boat. The new classification and new sampling methodology proposed herein may be useful in vector control programs.

  4. New classification of natural breeding habitats for Neotropical anophelines in the Yanomami Indian Reserve, Amazon Region, Brazil and a new larval sampling methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Ribas, Jordi; Oliveira-Ferreira, Joseli; Rosa-Freitas, Maria Goreti; Trilla, Lluís; Silva-do-Nascimento, Teresa Fernandes

    2015-09-01

    Here we present the first in a series of articles about the ecology of immature stages of anophelines in the Brazilian Yanomami area. We propose a new larval habitat classification and a new larval sampling methodology. We also report some preliminary results illustrating the applicability of the methodology based on data collected in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest in a longitudinal study of two remote Yanomami communities, Parafuri and Toototobi. In these areas, we mapped and classified 112 natural breeding habitats located in low-order river systems based on their association with river flood pulses, seasonality and exposure to sun. Our classification rendered seven types of larval habitats: lakes associated with the river, which are subdivided into oxbow lakes and nonoxbow lakes, flooded areas associated with the river, flooded areas not associated with the river, rainfall pools, small forest streams, medium forest streams and rivers. The methodology for larval sampling was based on the accurate quantification of the effective breeding area, taking into account the area of the perimeter and subtypes of microenvironments present per larval habitat type using a laser range finder and a small portable inflatable boat. The new classification and new sampling methodology proposed herein may be useful in vector control programs.

  5. Spatial and temporal distribution in density and biomass of two Pseudodiaptomus species (Copepoda: Calanoida in the Caeté river estuary (Amazon region - North of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Magalhães

    Full Text Available Spatial and temporal density and biomass distribution of the planktonic copepods Pseudodiaptomus richardi and P. acutus along a salinity gradient were investigated in the Caeté River Estuary (North-Brazil in June and December, 1998 (dry season and in February and May, 1999 (rainy season. Copepod biomass was estimated using regression parameters based on the relation of dry weight and body length (prosome of adult organisms. The Caeté River Estuary was characterized by high spatial and temporal variations in salinity (0.8-37.2‰. Exponential length-weight relationships were observed for both Pseudodiaptomus species. Density and biomass values oscillated between 0.28-46.18 ind. m-3 and 0.0022-0.3507 mg DW. m-3 for P. richardi; and between 0.01-17.02 ind. m-3 and 0.0005-0.7181 mg DW. m-3 for P. acutus. The results showed that the contribution of P. richardi for the secondary production in the Caeté River Estuary is more important in the limnetic zone than in other zones where euhaline-polyhaline regimes were predominant. However, it was not possible to observe a clear pattern of spatial and temporal distribution for P. acutus.

  6. Rural energy problems in agricultural frontier region: Amazonic extreme north in the state of Mato Grosso, Central Brazil; Problematica energetica rural numa regiao equatorial de fronteira agricola recente: o extremo-norte amazonico do Estado de Mato Grosso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouvello, Christophe de [CIRED, Paris (France)

    1993-12-31

    Results of an study of electricity use in the rural frontier in the extreme north of the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso (Amazon region), including the small and big rural properties, evolution of electricity diffusion and diesel fuel, consumption evolution (productive and domestic) are presented. The strategic importance of energy tariff to the big properties and the quick appearing of energy strangling points (small properties and resident) are also discussed 20 refs., 6 tabs.

  7. In situ detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae, C. trachomatis, and cytokines among cardiovascular diseased patients from the Amazon region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freitas LS

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Larissa S Freitas,1 Núbia Caroline C Almeida,1 Maria Alice Freitas Queiroz,1 Marcelo M Zaninotto,2 Hellen T Fuzii,3 Alfredo Ribeiro-Silva,4 Antonio CR Vallinoto,1 Marluísa OG Ishak,1 Juarez AS Quaresma,3 Ricardo Ishak1 1Virus Laboratory, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Para, 2Hospital of Clinic Gaspar Viana, 3Laboratory of Immunopathology, Nucleus of Tropical Medicine, Federal University of Para, Belém, 4Departament of Pathology, Medical School of Ribeirão Preto, University of Sao Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Background: Chronic coronary artery disease has been associated, as a consequence of the local inflammatory reaction with previous or persistent infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae, which led to the investigation of the association of cardiovascular disease and previous infection with C. trachomatis and the role of cytokine profile (in situ markers in the vascular system tissues. Methods: Sixty-nine biopsies were collected for immunohistochemical analysis for the presence of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, IFN-γ, TGF-β, and IL-10, in 16 fragments from atheromatous plaques, 32 aorta fragments, and 21 valve fragments, using a tissue microarray technique for paraffin embedded tissues. Results: Most patients undergoing revascularization surgery were men >50 years, while those undergoing valve replacement were mostly women <50 years. TNF-α was the most prevalent marker, detected in 91.7% (55/60 of the samples. The mean percent area stained was greater in patients infected with C. pneumoniae (3.81% vs 1.92%; p=0.0115 and specifically in the aorta (4.83% vs 2.25%; p=0.0025; C. trachomatis infection was higher in valves, and C. pneumoniae in plaques, both without statistical significance. There was no significant difference in the cytokine staining profile between patients previously infected with both species and uninfected patients. Conclusion: Although there was no difference in the cytokine profile between patients previously

  8. LBA-ECO LC-07 Amazon Floodplain Lake Chlorophyll from MODIS, Para, Brazil: 2002-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains chlorophyll concentration maps of the Amazon River floodplain region from Parintins (Amazonas) to Almeirim (Para). These chlorophyll fraction...

  9. LBA-ECO LC-07 Amazon Floodplain Lake Chlorophyll from MODIS, Para, Brazil: 2002-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains chlorophyll concentration maps of the Amazon River floodplain region from Parintins (Amazonas) to Almeirim (Para). These chlorophyll...

  10. Environmental considerations in energy planning for the Amazon region: Downstream effects of dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manyari, Waleska Valenca; de Carvalho, Osmar Abilio

    2007-01-01

    The most salient current feature of the electric energy sector in Brazil is the pressing need for expansion. In this context, the hydroelectric resources of the Amazon region are considered a competitive alternative despite the structural problems they entail. These include reliance of new investments and environmental restrictions. Concerning the latter, plans to build large-scale dams in the region have drawn criticism mainly on account of the loss of forest cover in areas flooded by dam reservoirs and the conflicts concerning the relocation of indigenous and riverside communities in the region. This article seeks to contribute to better understanding of the environmental issue in the Amazon by focusing attention on the downstream effects of dams, which have large-scale, hitherto neglected ecological repercussions. The impact of dams extends well beyond the area surrounding the artificial lakes they create, harming rich Amazon wetland ecosystems. The morphology of dammed rivers changes in response to new inputs of energy and matter, which may in turn destroy certain biotopes. This is a remote-sensing-based case study of the Tucurui hydroelectric scheme in the Amazon state of Para. Attention is drawn to the need to take into account effects on alluvial rivers downstream from hydroelectric power plants when it comes to making planning decisions, as part of a sustainable energy policy

  11. Carbon Emissions from Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, C.; Klooster, S.; Genovese, V.

    2009-01-01

    A simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation greenness from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to estimate monthly carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado regions over the period 2000-2002. The NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) model estimates of annual forest production were used for the first time as the basis to generate a prediction for the standing pool of carbon in above-ground biomass (AGB; gC/sq m) for forested areas of the Brazilian Amazon region. Plot-level measurements of the residence time of carbon in wood in Amazon forest from Malhi et al. (2006) were interpolated by inverse distance weighting algorithms and used with CASA to generate a new regional map of AGB. Data from the Brazilian PRODES (Estimativa do Desflorestamento da Amazonia) project were used to map deforested areas. Results show that net primary production (NPP) sinks for carbon varied between 4.25 Pg C/yr (1 Pg=10(exp 15)g) and 4.34 Pg C for the region and were highest across the eastern and northern Amazon areas, whereas deforestation sources of CO2 flux from decomposition of residual woody debris were higher and less seasonal in the central Amazon than in the eastern and southern areas. Increased woody debris from past deforestation events was predicted to alter the net ecosystem carbon balance of the Amazon region to generate annual CO2 source fluxes at least two times higher than previously predicted by CASA modeling studies. Variations in climate, land cover, and forest burning were predicted to release carbon at rates of 0.5 to 1 Pg C/yr from the Brazilian Amazon. When direct deforestation emissions of CO2 from forest burning of between 0.2 and 0.6 Pg C/yr in the Legal Amazon are overlooked in regional budgets, the year-to-year variations in this net biome flux may appear to be large, whereas our model results implies net biome fluxes had actually been relatively consistent from

  12. Amazon river basin evapotranspiration and its influence on the rainfall in southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folegatti, M. V.; Wolff, W.

    2017-12-01

    Amazon river basin (ARB) presents a positive water balance, i.e. the precipitation is higher than evapotranspiration. Regarding the regional circulation, ARB evapotranspiration represents an important source of humidity for the South of Brazil. Thus, the aim of this work is to answer the question: how much is the correlation between ARB evapotranspiration and rainfall in South of Brazil? The shapefiles data of ARB and countries/states boundary were obtained through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE), respectively. According to rasters data, the precipitation was obtained from study of Numerical Terradynamic Simulation Group (NTSG) for images of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), under code MOD16A2, whereas rasters data for evapotranspiration were obtained from National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) by Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Multi-Satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA), under code 3B43_V7. The products MOD16A2 and 3B43_V7 have a respective spatial resolution of 0.5º and 0.25º, and a monthly temporal resolution from January/2000 to December/2014. For ARB and South region of Brazil was calculated the mean evapotranspiration and mean precipitation through the pixels within of the respective polygons. To answer the question of this work was performed the cross-correlation analysis between these time series. We observed the highest value for the lag that corresponds the begin of spring (October), being 0.3 approximately. As a result, the mean precipitation on South region of Brazil during spring and summer was in the order of 15% to 30 %, explained by ARB evapotranspiration. For this reason, the maintenance of ARB is extremely important for water resource grant in South of Brazil.

  13. The Amazon Hydroelectric Dams, an Internal Geopolitical Issue in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broggio, Celine; Droulers, Martine; Pallamar, Juan-Pablo

    2017-01-01

    This paper develops a geopolitical analysis of dams and hydroelectric plants in the Brazilian Amazon since the mid-2000's. The implementation of these projects has provoked tensions within the federal government under the presidency of the Workers' Party and accelerated the erosion of the ideological and political platform called 'socio-environmentalism', a situation that has led to the break-up of the coalition leading to the political crisis of 2016 and the impeachment of President Dilma Rousseff. From a regional point of view, the dispute occurred in very different terms in the case of the Madeira hydroelectric power stations (Santo Antonio and Jirau in Rondonia) and in the case of the Xingu dam (Belo Monte in Para), worldwide covered by the media

  14. People, soil and manioc interactions in the upper Amazon region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peña Venegas, C.P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Clara Patricia Peña Venegas (2015). People, soil and manioc interactions in the upper Amazon region. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, The Netherlands, with summaries in English and Dutch, 210 pp. The presence of anthropogenic soils, or Amazonian Dark

  15. State, socioenvironmental conflict and violence in the Amazon border of Brazil, Colombia and Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Gilberto Zárate Botía

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Amazonian border region of Brazil, Colombia and Peru has been place or stage to extraction, trade and transport of a wide variety of forest and aquatic resources, including those associated with activities considered illegal like drug or some types of mining. Aditionally the borders have also been converted in areas of conflict, violence and insecurity, and these, at the same time, are produced and exacerbated by state and institutional weakness of the three states, trying substitute it increasing the military presence, with little and contested results, on the one hand, by different public policies or the existence of rules and laws also different and incompatible. In a historical and current perspective, the article shows the relationship between the state, extractive economies of natural resources and conflict in the brazilian, colombian and peruvian amazon border, taking into account the limitations and possibilities of agreements recently signed between the government Colombian Juan Manuel Santos and FARC guerrillas.

  16. Heterochromatin variation and LINE-1 distribution in Artibeus (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae from Central Amazon, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Martinha Silva de Souza

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Species in the subgenus Artibeus Leach, 1821 are widely distributed in Brazil. Conserved karyotypes characterize the group with identical diploid number and chromosome morphology. Recent studies suggested that the heterochromatin distribution and accumulation patterns can vary among species. In order to assess whether variation can also occur within species, we have analyzed the chromosomal distribution of constitutive heterochromatin in A. planirostris (Spix, 1823 and A. lituratus (Olfers, 1818 from Central Amazon (North Brazil and contrasted our findings with those reported for other localities in Brazil. In addition, Ag-NOR staining and FISH with 18S rDNA, telomeric, and LINE-1 probes were performed to assess the potential role that these different repetitive markers had in shaping the current architecture of heterochromatic regions. Both species presented interindividual variation of constitutive heterochromatin. In addition, in A. planirostris the centromeres of most chromosomes are enriched with LINE-1, colocated with pericentromeric heterochromatin blocks. Overall, our data indicate that amplification and differential distribution of the investigated repetitive DNAs might have played a significant role in shaping the chromosome architecture of the subgenus Artibeus.

  17. Heterochromatin variation and LINE-1 distribution inArtibeus(Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) from Central Amazon, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Érica Martinha Silva; Gross, Maria Claudia; Silva, Carlos Eduardo Faresin E; Sotero-Caio, Cibele Gomes; Feldberg, Eliana

    2017-01-01

    Species in the subgenus Artibeus Leach, 1821 are widely distributed in Brazil. Conserved karyotypes characterize the group with identical diploid number and chromosome morphology. Recent studies suggested that the heterochromatin distribution and accumulation patterns can vary among species. In order to assess whether variation can also occur within species, we have analyzed the chromosomal distribution of constitutive heterochromatin in A. planirostris (Spix, 1823) and A. lituratus (Olfers, 1818) from Central Amazon (North Brazil) and contrasted our findings with those reported for other localities in Brazil. In addition, Ag-NOR staining and FISH with 18S rDNA, telomeric, and LINE-1 probes were performed to assess the potential role that these different repetitive markers had in shaping the current architecture of heterochromatic regions. Both species presented interindividual variation of constitutive heterochromatin. In addition, in A. planirostris the centromeres of most chromosomes are enriched with LINE-1, colocated with pericentromeric heterochromatin blocks. Overall, our data indicate that amplification and differential distribution of the investigated repetitive DNAs might have played a significant role in shaping the chromosome architecture of the subgenus Artibeus.

  18. Phorcotabanus cinereus (Wiedemann, 1821 (Diptera, Tabanidae, an ornithophilic species of Tabanid in Central Amazon, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limeira-de-Oliveira Francisco

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In Central Amazon, Brazil, the tabanid Phorcotabanus cinereus (Wiedemann was recorded attacking the native duck Cairina moschata (Linnaeus (Anseriformes, Anatidae. The flight and behavior of the tabanid during the attacks and the host's defenses were videotaped and analyzed in slow motion. The tabanid was recorded flying rapidly around the heads of the ducks before landing. Landing always took place on the beak, and then the tabanid walked to the fleshy caruncle on the basal part of the beak to bite and feed. Firstly the duck defends itself through lateral harsh head movements, and then, when it is being bitten, it defends itself by rubbing its head on the body, or dipping the head into water, when swimming. If disturbed, the fly resumed the same pattern of flight as before and would generally try to land again on the same host and bite in the same place. This feeding activity was observed predominantly between 9:30 am and 4:30 pm and always in open areas, near aquatic environments, from June 1996 to January 1997, the dry season in Central Amazon. To test the attractiveness of other animals to P. cinereus, mammals, caimans and domestic and wild birds were placed in suitable habitat and the response of P. cinereus observed. P. cinereus did not attack these animals, suggesting that this species has a preference for ducks, which are plentiful in the region.

  19. Phorcotabanus cinereus (Wiedemann, 1821) (Diptera, Tabanidae), an ornithophilic species of Tabanid in Central Amazon, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limeira-de-Oliveira, Francisco; Rafael, José Albertino; Henriques, Augusto Loureiro

    2002-09-01

    In Central Amazon, Brazil, the tabanid Phorcotabanus cinereus (Wiedemann) was recorded attacking the native duck Cairina moschata (Linnaeus) (Anseriformes, Anatidae). The flight and behavior of the tabanid during the attacks and the host's defenses were videotaped and analyzed in slow motion. The tabanid was recorded flying rapidly around the heads of the ducks before landing. Landing always took place on the beak, and then the tabanid walked to the fleshy caruncle on the basal part of the beak to bite and feed. Firstly the duck defends itself through lateral harsh head movements, and then, when it is being bitten, it defends itself by rubbing its head on the body, or dipping the head into water, when swimming. If disturbed, the fly resumed the same pattern of flight as before and would generally try to land again on the same host and bite in the same place. This feeding activity was observed predominantly between 9:30 am and 4:30 pm and always in open areas, near aquatic environments, from June 1996 to January 1997, the dry season in Central Amazon. To test the attractiveness of other animals to P. cinereus, mammals, caimans and domestic and wild birds were placed in suitable habitat and the response of P. cinereus observed. P. cinereus did not attack these animals, suggesting that this species has a preference for ducks, which are plentiful in the region.

  20. Malaria in Brazil: what happens outside the Amazonian endemic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anielle de Pina-Costa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Brazil, a country of continental proportions, presents three profiles of malaria transmission. The first and most important numerically, occurs inside the Amazon. The Amazon accounts for approximately 60% of the nation’s territory and approximately 13% of the Brazilian population. This region hosts 99.5% of the nation’s malaria cases, which are predominantly caused by Plasmodium vivax (i.e., 82% of cases in 2013. The second involves imported malaria, which corresponds to malaria cases acquired outside the region where the individuals live or the diagnosis was made. These cases are imported from endemic regions of Brazil (i.e., the Amazon or from other countries in South and Central America, Africa and Asia. Imported malaria comprised 89% of the cases found outside the area of active transmission in Brazil in 2013. These cases highlight an important question with respect to both therapeutic and epidemiological issues because patients, especially those with falciparum malaria, arriving in a region where the health professionals may not have experience with the clinical manifestations of malaria and its diagnosis could suffer dramatic consequences associated with a potential delay in treatment. Additionally, because the Anopheles vectors exist in most of the country, even a single case of malaria, if not diagnosed and treated immediately, may result in introduced cases, causing outbreaks and even introducing or reintroducing the disease to a non-endemic, receptive region. Cases introduced outside the Amazon usually occur in areas in which malaria was formerly endemic and are transmitted by competent vectors belonging to the subgenus Nyssorhynchus (i.e., Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles aquasalis and species of the Albitarsis complex. The third type of transmission accounts for only 0.05% of all cases and is caused by autochthonous malaria in the Atlantic Forest, located primarily along the southeastern Atlantic Coast. They are caused by parasites

  1. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-living Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from central Amazon, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, P S; Albuquerque, G R; da Silva, V M F; Martin, A R; Marvulo, M F V; Souza, S L P; Ragozo, A M A; Nascimento, C C; Gennari, S M; Dubey, J P; Silva, J C R

    2011-12-29

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important pathogen in aquatic mammals and its presence in these animals may indicate the water contamination of aquatic environment by oocysts. Serum samples from 95 free-living Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from the Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve (RDSM), Tefé, Amazonas, Central Amazon, Brazil were tested for T. gondii antibodies using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies (MAT ≥ 25) to T. gondii were found in 82 (86.3%) dolphins with titers of 1:25 in 24, 1:50 in 56, and 1:500 in 2. Results suggest a high level contamination of the aquatic environment of the home range of these animals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Biomass burning losses of carbon estimated from ecosystem modeling and satellite data analysis for the Brazilian Amazon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher; Brooks Genovese, Vanessa; Klooster, Steven; Bobo, Matthew; Torregrosa, Alicia

    To produce a new daily record of gross carbon emissions from biomass burning events and post-burning decomposition fluxes in the states of the Brazilian Legal Amazon (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica (IBGE), 1991. Anuario Estatistico do Brasil, Vol. 51. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil pp. 1-1024). We have used vegetation greenness estimates from satellite images as inputs to a terrestrial ecosystem production model. This carbon allocation model generates new estimates of regional aboveground vegetation biomass at 8-km resolution. The modeled biomass product is then combined for the first time with fire pixel counts from the advanced very high-resolution radiometer (AVHRR) to overlay regional burning activities in the Amazon. Results from our analysis indicate that carbon emission estimates from annual region-wide sources of deforestation and biomass burning in the early 1990s are apparently three to five times higher than reported in previous studies for the Brazilian Legal Amazon (Houghton et al., 2000. Nature 403, 301-304; Fearnside, 1997. Climatic Change 35, 321-360), i.e., studies which implied that the Legal Amazon region tends toward a net-zero annual source of terrestrial carbon. In contrast, our analysis implies that the total source fluxes over the entire Legal Amazon region range from 0.2 to 1.2 Pg C yr -1, depending strongly on annual rainfall patterns. The reasons for our higher burning emission estimates are (1) use of combustion fractions typically measured during Amazon forest burning events for computing carbon losses, (2) more detailed geographic distribution of vegetation biomass and daily fire activity for the region, and (3) inclusion of fire effects in extensive areas of the Legal Amazon covered by open woodland, secondary forests, savanna, and pasture vegetation. The total area of rainforest estimated annually to be deforested did not differ substantially among the previous analyses cited and our own.

  3. BIOFUELS AND THE INCLUSIVE GREEN ECONOMY: SEARCHING FOR SUSTAINABLE REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE BRAZILIAN LEGAL AMAZON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius Alves Finco

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Biofuel production has been greatly discussed in Brazil. In 2004, some debates lead the country to develop new policies and implement the National Biodiesel Use and Production Program (PNPB, with the intent to increase the share of renewable energy and foster sustainable regional development. In this context, the present study aims to assess the linkages between family farmer’s living standard and the adoption of oil seed activity in northern Brazil, in a region of transition between the Cerrado (Brazilian savanna and the Amazon rain forest. Ranges of socio-economic indicators were collected among smallholders who cultivate soybean. A fuzzy logic set theory based on living standard criteria and a non-linear probit model was applied to assess the inclusion of poor rural families in the biodiesel chain. Preliminary results point towards a negative relation between the family degree of deprivation and adoption of oil seed activity, for the soybean production.

  4. Spatial variability of soil carbon stock in the Urucu river basin, Central Amazon-Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceddia, Marcos Bacis; Villela, André Luis Oliveira; Pinheiro, Érika Flávia Machado; Wendroth, Ole

    2015-01-01

    The Amazon Forest plays a major role in C sequestration and release. However, few regional estimates of soil organic carbon (SOC) stock in this ecoregion exist. One of the barriers to improve SOC estimates is the lack of recent soil data at high spatial resolution, which hampers the application of new methods for mapping SOC stock. The aims of this work were: (i) to quantify SOC stock under undisturbed vegetation for the 0–30 and the 0–100 cm under Amazon Forest; (ii) to correlate the SOC stock with soil mapping units and relief attributes and (iii) to evaluate three geostatistical techniques to generate maps of SOC stock (ordinary, isotopic and heterotopic cokriging). The study site is located in the Central region of Amazon State, Brazil. The soil survey covered the study site that has an area of 80 km 2 and resulted in a 1:10,000 soil map. It consisted of 315 field observations (96 complete soil profiles and 219 boreholes). SOC stock was calculated by summing C stocks by horizon, determined as a product of BD, SOC and the horizon thickness. For each one of the 315 soil observations, relief attributes were derived from a topographic map to understand SOC dynamics. The SOC stocks across 30 and 100 cm soil depth were 3.28 and 7.32 kg C m −2 , respectively, which is, 34 and 16%, lower than other studies. The SOC stock is higher in soils developed in relief forms exhibiting well-drained soils, which are covered by Upland Dense Tropical Rainforest. Only SOC stock in the upper 100 cm exhibited spatial dependence allowing the generation of spatial variability maps based on spatial (co)-regionalization. The CTI was inversely correlated with SOC stock and was the only auxiliary variable feasible to be used in cokriging interpolation. The heterotopic cokriging presented the best performance for mapping SOC stock. - Highlights: • The SOC stocks across 30 and 100 cm depth were 3.28 and 7.32 kg C m −2 , respectively. • SOC stocks were 34 and 16%, respectively

  5. Spatial variability of soil carbon stock in the Urucu river basin, Central Amazon-Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceddia, Marcos Bacis, E-mail: marcosceddia@gmail.com [Department of Soil, Institute of Agronomy, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropédica, RJ 23890-000 (Brazil); Villela, André Luis Oliveira [Colégio Técnico da UFRRJ, RJ, Seropédica 23890-000 (Brazil); Pinheiro, Érika Flávia Machado [Department of Soil, Institute of Agronomy, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropédica, RJ 23890-000 (Brazil); Wendroth, Ole [Department of Plant & Soil Sciences, University of Kentucky, College of Agriculture, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Amazon Forest plays a major role in C sequestration and release. However, few regional estimates of soil organic carbon (SOC) stock in this ecoregion exist. One of the barriers to improve SOC estimates is the lack of recent soil data at high spatial resolution, which hampers the application of new methods for mapping SOC stock. The aims of this work were: (i) to quantify SOC stock under undisturbed vegetation for the 0–30 and the 0–100 cm under Amazon Forest; (ii) to correlate the SOC stock with soil mapping units and relief attributes and (iii) to evaluate three geostatistical techniques to generate maps of SOC stock (ordinary, isotopic and heterotopic cokriging). The study site is located in the Central region of Amazon State, Brazil. The soil survey covered the study site that has an area of 80 km{sup 2} and resulted in a 1:10,000 soil map. It consisted of 315 field observations (96 complete soil profiles and 219 boreholes). SOC stock was calculated by summing C stocks by horizon, determined as a product of BD, SOC and the horizon thickness. For each one of the 315 soil observations, relief attributes were derived from a topographic map to understand SOC dynamics. The SOC stocks across 30 and 100 cm soil depth were 3.28 and 7.32 kg C m{sup −2}, respectively, which is, 34 and 16%, lower than other studies. The SOC stock is higher in soils developed in relief forms exhibiting well-drained soils, which are covered by Upland Dense Tropical Rainforest. Only SOC stock in the upper 100 cm exhibited spatial dependence allowing the generation of spatial variability maps based on spatial (co)-regionalization. The CTI was inversely correlated with SOC stock and was the only auxiliary variable feasible to be used in cokriging interpolation. The heterotopic cokriging presented the best performance for mapping SOC stock. - Highlights: • The SOC stocks across 30 and 100 cm depth were 3.28 and 7.32 kg C m{sup −2}, respectively. • SOC stocks were 34 and 16

  6. Methane in the Amazon: A forward and inverse regional modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, V.; Gerbig, C.; Koch, F. T.; Karstens, U.; Chen, H.; Bela, M. M.; Longo, K.; Freitas, S.; Bergamaschi, P. M.; Kaplan, J. O.; Prigent, C.

    2011-12-01

    The Amazon region is an important player in the global methane (CH4) cycle, the second most important greenhouse gas after CO2. Different major CH4 sources in the Amazon region such as anaerobic microbial production in wetlands and biomass burning will be affected by changing climate. Therefore, a thorough understanding of the processes is required. Within the BARCA (Balanço Atmosférico Regional de Carbono na Amazônia) project, airborne measurements of greenhouse gases, associated tracers and aerosols were taken during the end of the dry season in November 2008 as well as during the end of the wet season in May 2009. These aircraft measurements and additional ground based measurements provide a test bed for high resolution transport simulation of CH4. Here we present a comparison of WRF-Chem passive tracer simulations of CH4 to airborne CH4 observations obtained from the BARCA campaigns in November 2008 and May 2009 using the newly established WRF Greenhouse Gas Model (WRF-GHG) in combination with two different process-based bottom-up models for the calculation of CH4 emissions from anaerobic microbial production in wetlands (Kaplan and Walter-Heimann) and three different wetland inundation maps (Kaplan, JERS-1SAR, Prigent). The comparison illustrates the importance of a wetland inundation map with inundated area changing in time, and the quality of the representation of atmospheric transport in regional models in tropical regions. In addition, we demonstrate a comparison of WRF-GHG CH4 simulations to TT34 tower observations (35 m above ground; located 60 km north-west of Manaus, Brazil) for August 2009, evaluating the performance of WRF-GHG in representing CH4 observations in the planetary boundary layer in tropical regions. Finally, we present preliminary results of a regional inversion using the TM3-STILT model together with the above mentioned observations for the estimation of the CH4 budget of the Amazon region.

  7. Selenium and aflatoxin levels in raw Brazil nuts from the Amazon basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Ariane M; Scussel, Vildes M

    2007-12-26

    Whereas selenium (Se) is an important antioxidant in human metabolism to prevent cancer, aflatoxins are highly carcinogenic. Brazil nuts from Eastern and Western Amazon regions were evaluated to find any relationship between Se and aflatoxins levels. A total of 80 (in-shell and shelled) nuts samples were collected directly from different forest sites and analyzed for Se by atomic emission spectrometry and aflatoxins by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) for Se was 2.0 mg/kg, and LOQ for total aflatoxins was 0.390 microg/kg. Nut Se levels from the Eastern region were higher than the Western, in addition to the aflatoxins. The moisture content (mc) and water activity (aw) of the raw nuts from the two regions did not present a significant difference, for either in-shell or shelled. The mc was 24.5% (minimum of 20.1% and maximum of 30.4%) and 22.1% (minimum of 14.6% and maximum of 28.9%) and a w of 0.85 for both regions. Further studies need to be carried out to discover the role of Se on fungi growth stress and aflatoxin production mechanisms.

  8. Regionalization of Methane Emissions in the Amazon Basin with Multi-temporal Microwave Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melack, J. M.; Hess, L. L.; Forsberg, B. R.; Hamilton, S. K.; Novo, E. M.

    2002-12-01

    Remote sensing of the Amazon basin with passive and active microwave techniques were applied to determine the temporally varying extent of inundation and associated vegetation, and used in conjunction with field measurements to calculate regional rates of methane emission from wetlands to the atmosphere. Monthly inundation areas were derived from analysis of the 37-GHz polarization difference observed by the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (1979 -87) for the mainstem Amazon floodplain in Brazil, the Llanos de Moxos (Beni and Mamore rivers) in Bolivia, the Bananal Island (Araguaia River) and Roraima savannas. Data from the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite-1, L-band synthetic aperture radar were used to determine inundation and wetland vegetation for Amazon basin less than 500 m above sea level at high water (May-June 1996) and low water (October 1995). Although all the measurements of methane emission from aquatic habitats have been performed in the deeply inundated, central basin in open water, flooded forests or floating macrophytes, our basin-wide remote sensing has revealed large areas of seasonally flooded savannas. Therefore, improvements in basin-wide estimates of methane emission will require field studies in wetlands such as those in Bolivia, Roraima and the Bananal.

  9. Characteristics and Diurnal Cycle of GPM Rainfall Estimates over the Central Amazon Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo Oliveira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies that investigate and evaluate the quality, limitations and uncertainties of satellite rainfall estimates are fundamental to assure the correct and successful use of these products in applications, such as climate studies, hydrological modeling and natural hazard monitoring. Over regions of the globe that lack in situ observations, such studies are only possible through intensive field measurement campaigns, which provide a range of high quality ground measurements, e.g., CHUVA (Cloud processes of tHe main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribUtion to cloud resolVing modeling and to the GlobAl Precipitation Measurement and GoAmazon (Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon over the Brazilian Amazon during 2014/2015. This study aims to assess the characteristics of Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM satellite-based precipitation estimates in representing the diurnal cycle over the Brazilian Amazon. The Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for Global Precipitation Measurement (IMERG and the Goddard Profiling Algorithm—Version 2014 (GPROF2014 algorithms are evaluated against ground-based radar observations. Specifically, the S-band weather radar from the Amazon Protection National System (SIPAM, is first validated against the X-band CHUVA radar and then used as a reference to evaluate GPM precipitation. Results showed satisfactory agreement between S-band SIPAM radar and both IMERG and GPROF2014 algorithms. However, during the wet season, IMERG, which uses the GPROF2014 rainfall retrieval from the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI sensor, significantly overestimates the frequency of heavy rainfall volumes around 00:00–04:00 UTC and 15:00–18:00 UTC. This overestimation is particularly evident over the Negro, Solimões and Amazon rivers due to the poorly-calibrated algorithm over water surfaces. On the other hand, during the dry season, the IMERG product underestimates mean precipitation in comparison to the S-band SIPAM

  10. Observations about chemical composition of aerosols in the Brazilian Amazon region - Case study: Biomass burning in the subequatorial Amazon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioda, A.; Monteiro, I. L.; Almeida, A. C.; Hacon, S. S.; Dallacort, R.; Ignotti, E.; Godoy, J. M.; Loureiro, A. L.; Morais, F.; Artaxo, P.

    2012-04-01

    The study was carried out in two cities in the Brazilian Amazon region, Tangará da Serra (14 ° 37'10 "S, 57 ° 29'09" W, 427 m asl), located in a transition area between the Amazon biome and the Cerrado and has the characteristics of urban area in Amazon region; and Alta Floresta (9 ° 52 '32 "S, 56 ° 5' 10" W, 283 m asl) situated in the extreme north of the state of Mato Grosso (MT), both in the subequatorial Amazon region. Tangara da Serra has the largest production of sugar cane in the subequatorial Amazon region. They are located 800 km from each other. These two regions are inserted in a region with typical cycles of drought and rain that alter air pollution levels, and lies in the dispersion path of the pollution plume resulting from burnings in the Brazilian Amazon and pollution emanating from neighboring countries. Both cities have wet tropical climate with two well defined seasons: rainy summer (November to May) and dry winter (June to October). During the dry winter, biomass burnings are frequent in these regions. In 2008, the Department of the Environment has banned fires in the period from July 15 to September 15 throughout the State. In this study chemical characterization was performed for approximately 100 aerosol samples collected in each site during 2008. Fine and coarse aerosol samples collected in SFUs were analyzed by ion chromatography for determination of cations (Na+, K+, NH3+, Ca2+ and Mg2+), anions (SO42-, Cl- and NO3-) and organic acids (acetate and formiate) and also measures of black carbon (BC) (Aethalometer). The results showed that for both sites the average concentrations were quite similar for PM2.5 (16 µg/m3), PM10 (11 and 13 µg/m3) and black carbon (1.4 µg/m3 for PM2.5 and 1.6 µg/m3 for PM10). Sulfate was the predominant species in fine (45%) and coarse (26%) particles in both sites. The sulfate concentrations ranged from 0.01-1.92 µg/m3 in PM2.5 and 0.01-1.66 µg/m3 in PM10 in Tangará da Serra and 0.01-2.93 µg/m3 in PM2

  11. Anatomy of predator snail Huttonella bicolor, an invasive species in Amazon rainforest, Brazil (Pulmonata, Streptaxidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Ricardo L. Simone

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The morpho-anatomy of the micro-predator Huttonella bicolor (Hutton, 1838 is investigated in detail. The species is a micro-predator snail, which is splaying in tropical and subtropical areas all over the world, the first report being from the Amazon Rainforest region of northern Brazil. The shell is very long, with complex peristome teeth. The radula bears sharp pointed teeth. The head lacks tentacles, bearing only ommatophores. The pallial cavity lacks well-developed vessels (except for pulmonary vessel; the anus and urinary aperture are on pneumostome. The kidney is solid, with ureter totally closed (tubular; the primary ureter is straight, resembling orthurethran fashion. The buccal mass has an elongated and massive odontophore, of which muscles are described; the odontophore cartilages are totally fused with each other. The salivary ducts start as one single duct, bifurcating only prior to insertion. The mid and hindguts are relatively simple and with smooth inner surfaces; there is practically no intestinal loop. The genital system has a zigzag-fashioned fertilization complex, narrow prostate, no bursa copulatrix, short and broad vas deferens, and simple penis with gland at distal tip. The nerve ring bears three ganglionic masses, and an additional pair of ventral ganglia connected to pedal ganglia, interpreted as odontophore ganglia. These features are discussed in light of the knowledge of other streptaxids and adaptations to carnivory.

  12. Sensitivity of Regional Climate to Deforestation in the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.; Bras, Rafael L.

    1994-01-01

    The deforestation results in several adverse effect on the natural environment. The focus of this paper is on the effects of deforestation on land-surface processes and regional climate of the Amazon basin. In general, the effect of deforestation on climate are likely to depend on the scale of the defrosted area. In this study, we are interested in the effects due to deforestation of areas with a scale of about 250 km. Hence, a meso-scale climate model is used in performing numerical experiments on the sensitivity of regional climate to deforestation of areas with that size. It is found that deforestation results in less net surface radiation, less evaporation, less rainfall, and warmer surface temperature. The magnitude of the of the change in temperature is of the order 0.5 C, the magnitudes of the changes in the other variables are of the order of IO%. In order to verify some of he results of the numerical experiments, the model simulations of net surface radiation are compared to recent observations of net radiation over cleared and undisturbed forest in the Amazon. The results of the model and the observations agree in the following conclusion: the difference in net surface radiation between cleared and undisturbed forest is, almost, equally partioned between net solar radiation and net long-wave radiation. This finding contributes to our understanding of the basic physics in the deforestation problem.

  13. The Amazon's energetic paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Marcos Vinicius Miranda da; Bermann, Celio

    1999-01-01

    The main energy sources in Amazon region are hydroelectric, biomass, and natural gas. Although abundance of these resources, the energy consumption in this region is one of the most low of Brazil. The article overviews this paradox. In this context, economical, geopolitical, and technical aspects are presented

  14. Chain of commercialization of Podocnemis spp. turtles (Testudines: Podocnemididae) in the Purus River, Amazon basin, Brazil: current status and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoja-Lima, Jackson; Aride, Paulo H R; de Oliveira, Adriano T; Félix-Silva, Daniely; Pezzuti, Juarez C B; Rebêlo, George H

    2014-01-27

    Consumption of turtles by natives and settlers in the Amazon and Orinoco has been widely studied in scientific communities. Accepted cultural customs and the local dietary and monetary needs need to be taken into account in conservation programs, and when implementing federal laws related to consumption and fishing methods. This study was conducted around the Purus River, a region known for the consumption and illegal trade of turtles. The objective of this study was to quantify the illegal turtle trade in Tapauá and to understand its effect on the local economy. This study was conducted in the municipality of Tapauá in the state of Amazonas, Brazil. To estimate turtle consumption, interviews were conducted over 2 consecutive years (2006 and 2007) in urban areas and isolated communities. The experimental design was randomized with respect to type of household. To study the turtle fishery and trade chain, we used snowball sampling methodology. During our study period, 100% of respondents reported consuming at least three species of turtles (Podocnemis spp.). Our estimates indicate that about 34 tons of animals are consumed annually in Tapauá along the margins of a major fishing river in the Amazon. At least five components related to the chain of commercialization of turtles on the Purus River are identified: Indigenous Apurinã and (2) residents of bordering villages (communities); (3) of local smugglers buy and sell turtles to the community in exchange for manufactured goods, and (4) regional smugglers buy in Tapauá, Lábrea, and Beruri to sell in Manaus and Manacapuru; Finally, (5) there are professional fishermen. We quantify the full impact of turtle consumption and advocate the conservation of the region's turtle populations. The Brazilian government should initiate a new turtle consumption management program which involves the opinions of consumers. With these measures the conservation of freshwater turtles in the Brazilian Amazon, is possible.

  15. Ageneiosus uranophthalmus, a new species of auchenipterid catfish (Osteichthyes: Siluriformes from river channels of the central Amazon basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Raynner V Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Ageneiosus uranophthalmus is described from river channels of the central Amazon basin, Brazil. The new species is widely distributed in the Amazon and is distinguished from its congeners by the V-shape snout and eye laterally placed and dorsally oriented, more visible in dorsal view than in ventral view. Ageneiosus uranophthalmus shows a range of variation on color pattern when compared with its congeners. This and other differences are described and discussed herein.

  16. Defending the Amazon: Conservation, Development and Security in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    was the external threat of political instability. Both Suriname and Peru were security concerns...127. 76 Ibid., 129. 77 Galeria dos Presidentes , “Fernando Collor,” Office of the President of the Federated Republic of Brazil, http...Reacting to this domestic crisis, Franco announced a war on poverty that used the military to reluctantly 79 Galeria dos Presidentes , “Itamar Franco

  17. The Neoproterozoic Puga (Varanger) cap carbonate, Amazon Craton, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccomini, C.; Nogueira, A. C.; Sial, A. N.; Moura, C. A.; Fairchild, T. R.

    2003-04-01

    Based on stratigraphic and isotopic data the basal carbonates of the Araras Group overlying diamictites of the Puga Formation at the southwest margin of the Amazon Craton are interpreted as a Neoproterozoic cap carbonate. Deposited below wavebase on a carbonate platform, this cap consists of two units separated by a transgressive erosional surface. The lower unit comprises moderately deep to shallow-water pinkish dolomudstone with stratiform fenestrate stromatolites, fenestrate planar lamination, ridge ("tepee-like structures") and tubiform structures. The upper unit includes deep-water bituminous lime mudstones with terrigenous grains, and subordinate shales. Alternating thin calcite crusts and lime mudstone laminae are commonly disrupted by calcite crystal fans (pseudomorphs after aragonite). Brecciated, faulted, and slumped limestone beds with multiple generations of cement indicate localized synsedimentary deformation. Negative excursions of δ13C and variations in 87Sr/86Sr are consistent with a Varanger age. However, unlike other cap carbonates, the basal contact with diamictites exhibits soft-sediment deformation, providing unequivocal sedimentological evidence of rapid dolostone precipitation after ice-melting. This fact confirms the existence of an abrupt change from icehouse to extreme greenhouse conditions, as proposed in the snowball earth hypothesis for Neoproterozoic glaciation. (Financial support: FAPESP grant 00/02903-8, CNPq and Pró-Reitoria de Pós-Graduação, USP).

  18. Molecular differentiation of species of the genus Zungaro (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae) from the Amazon and Paraná-Paraguay River basins in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boni, T A; Padial, A A; Prioli, S M A P; Lucio, L C; Maniglia, T C; Bignotto, T S; Panarari-Antunes, R S; Prioli, R A; Prioli, A J

    2011-11-10

    Fish species of the Zungaro genus (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae) are amongst the largest migratory fish in Latin America and have considerable economic importance for commercial fishing in Brazil. However, natural populations of this large catfish are experiencing a severe decline. There are significant taxonomical inconsistencies for this fish. Two geographically separated species of the fish were initially described, one endemic in the Amazon and another in the Paraná-Paraguay River basins. A taxonomic review had recently proposed that there is only one Zungaro species in Brazil, based on morphological data. We made a molecular study of Zungaro populations in an attempt to solve taxonomical inconsistencies and to analyze genetic diversity in natural populations of this genus. We analyzed two regions of the mitochondrial DNA (the control region and the ATPase 6 gene region) of individuals sampled from the Paraná-Paraguay River and Amazon River basins. Analyses based on p-distances and maximum likelihood phylogenetic models showed a genetic difference between populations corresponding to different species. Genetic differentiation between Zungaro populations was at the same level as that observed between other Siluriformes species, using the same DNA sequences. We conclude that Zungaro species of the Paraná-Paraguay River basin do not belong to the same species found in the Amazon basin. This finding has a significant implication for conservation of this fish, given that populations are disappearing at a high rate in the Paraná-Paraguay River basin, mainly due to impoundments.

  19. Modeling the radiative effects of biomass burning aerosols on carbon fluxes in the Amazon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Demerval S.; Longo, Karla M.; Freitas, Saulo R.; Yamasoe, Marcia A.; Mercado, Lina M.; Rosário, Nilton E.; Gloor, Emauel; Viana, Rosane S. M.; Miller, John B.; Gatti, Luciana V.; Wiedemann, Kenia T.; Domingues, Lucas K. G.; Correia, Caio C. S.

    2017-12-01

    Every year, a dense smoke haze covers a large portion of South America originating from fires in the Amazon Basin and central parts of Brazil during the dry biomass burning season between August and October. Over a large portion of South America, the average aerosol optical depth at 550 nm exceeds 1.0 during the fire season, while the background value during the rainy season is below 0.2. Biomass burning aerosol particles increase scattering and absorption of the incident solar radiation. The regional-scale aerosol layer reduces the amount of solar energy reaching the surface, cools the near-surface air, and increases the diffuse radiation fraction over a large disturbed area of the Amazon rainforest. These factors affect the energy and CO2 fluxes at the surface. In this work, we applied a fully integrated atmospheric model to assess the impact of biomass burning aerosols in CO2 fluxes in the Amazon region during 2010. We address the effects of the attenuation of global solar radiation and the enhancement of the diffuse solar radiation flux inside the vegetation canopy. Our results indicate that biomass burning aerosols led to increases of about 27 % in the gross primary productivity of Amazonia and 10 % in plant respiration as well as a decline in soil respiration of 3 %. Consequently, in our model Amazonia became a net carbon sink; net ecosystem exchange during September 2010 dropped from +101 to -104 TgC when the aerosol effects are considered, mainly due to the aerosol diffuse radiation effect. For the forest biome, our results point to a dominance of the diffuse radiation effect on CO2 fluxes, reaching a balance of 50-50 % between the diffuse and direct aerosol effects for high aerosol loads. For C3 grasses and savanna (cerrado), as expected, the contribution of the diffuse radiation effect is much lower, tending to zero with the increase in aerosol load. Taking all biomes together, our model shows the Amazon during the dry season, in the presence of high

  20. Modeling the radiative effects of biomass burning aerosols on carbon fluxes in the Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Moreira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Every year, a dense smoke haze covers a large portion of South America originating from fires in the Amazon Basin and central parts of Brazil during the dry biomass burning season between August and October. Over a large portion of South America, the average aerosol optical depth at 550 nm exceeds 1.0 during the fire season, while the background value during the rainy season is below 0.2. Biomass burning aerosol particles increase scattering and absorption of the incident solar radiation. The regional-scale aerosol layer reduces the amount of solar energy reaching the surface, cools the near-surface air, and increases the diffuse radiation fraction over a large disturbed area of the Amazon rainforest. These factors affect the energy and CO2 fluxes at the surface. In this work, we applied a fully integrated atmospheric model to assess the impact of biomass burning aerosols in CO2 fluxes in the Amazon region during 2010. We address the effects of the attenuation of global solar radiation and the enhancement of the diffuse solar radiation flux inside the vegetation canopy. Our results indicate that biomass burning aerosols led to increases of about 27 % in the gross primary productivity of Amazonia and 10 % in plant respiration as well as a decline in soil respiration of 3 %. Consequently, in our model Amazonia became a net carbon sink; net ecosystem exchange during September 2010 dropped from +101 to −104 TgC when the aerosol effects are considered, mainly due to the aerosol diffuse radiation effect. For the forest biome, our results point to a dominance of the diffuse radiation effect on CO2 fluxes, reaching a balance of 50–50 % between the diffuse and direct aerosol effects for high aerosol loads. For C3 grasses and savanna (cerrado, as expected, the contribution of the diffuse radiation effect is much lower, tending to zero with the increase in aerosol load. Taking all biomes together, our model shows the Amazon during the dry

  1. Observations of atmospheric monoaromatic hydrocarbons at urban, semi-urban and forest environments in the Amazon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paralovo, Sarah L.; Borillo, Guilherme C.; Barbosa, Cybelli G. G.; Godoi, Ana Flavia L.; Yamamoto, Carlos I.; de Souza, Rodrigo A. F.; Andreoli, Rita V.; Costa, Patrícia S.; Almeida, Gerson P.; Manzi, Antonio O.; Pöhlker, Christopher; Yáñez-Serrano, Ana M.; Kesselmeier, Jürgen; Godoi, Ricardo H. M.

    2016-03-01

    The Amazon region is one of the most significant natural ecosystems on the planet. Of special interest as a major study area is the interface between the forest and Manaus city, a state capital in Brazil embedded in the heart of the Amazon forest. In view of the interactions between natural and anthropogenic processes, an integrated experiment was conducted measuring the concentrations of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and meta, ortho, para-xylene (known as BTEX), all of them regarded as pollutants with harmful effects on human health and vegetation and acting also as important precursors of tropospheric ozone. Furthermore, these compounds also take part in the formation of secondary organic aerosols, which can influence the pattern of cloud formation, and thus the regional water cycle and climate. The samples were collected in 2012/2013 at three different sites: (i) The Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO), a pristine rain forest region in the central Amazon Basin; (ii) Manacapuru, a semi-urban site located southwest and downwind of Manaus as a preview of the Green Ocean Amazon Experiment (GoAmazon 2014/15); and (iii) the city of Manaus (distributed over three sites). Results indicate that there is an increase in pollutant concentrations with increasing proximity to urban areas. For instance, the benzene concentration ranges were 0.237-19.6 (Manaus), 0.036-0.948 (Manacapuru) and 0.018-0.313 μg m-3 (ATTO). Toluene ranges were 0.700-832 (Manaus), 0.091-2.75 μg m-3 (Manacapuru) and 0.011-4.93 (ATTO). For ethylbenzene, they were 0.165-447 (Manaus), 0.018-1.20 μg m-3 (Manacapuru) and 0.047-0.401 (ATTO). Some indication was found for toluene to be released from the forest. No significant difference was found between the BTEX levels measured in the dry season and the wet seasons. Furthermore, it was observed that, in general, the city of Manaus seems to be less impacted by these pollutants than other cities in Brazil and in other

  2. Surveillance, health promotion and control of Chagas disease in the Amazon Region--Medical attention in the Brazilian Amazon Region: a proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coura, José Rodrigues; Junqueira, Angela C V

    2015-11-01

    We refer to Oswaldo Cruz's reports dating from 1913 about the necessities of a healthcare system for the Brazilian Amazon Region and about the journey of Carlos Chagas to 27 locations in this region and the measures that would need to be adopted. We discuss the risks of endemicity of Chagas disease in the Amazon Region. We recommend that epidemiological surveillance of Chagas disease in the Brazilian Amazon Region and Pan-Amazon region should be implemented through continuous monitoring of the human population that lives in the area, their housing, the environment and the presence of triatomines. The monitoring should be performed with periodic seroepidemiological surveys, semi-annual visits to homes by health agents and the training of malaria microscopists and healthcare technicians to identify Trypanosoma cruzi from patients' samples and T. cruzi infection rates among the triatomines caught. We recommend health promotion and control of Chagas disease through public health policies, especially through sanitary education regarding the risk factors for Chagas disease. Finally, we propose a healthcare system through base hospitals, intermediate-level units in the areas of the Brazilian Amazon Region and air transportation, considering the distances to be covered for medical care.

  3. Population dynamics, structure and behavior of Anopheles darlingi in a rural settlement in the Amazon rainforest of Acre, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutinho, Paulo Rufalco; Gil, Luis Herman Soares; Cruz, Rafael Bastos; Ribolla, Paulo Eduardo Martins

    2011-06-24

    Anopheles darlingi is the major vector of malaria in South America, and its behavior and distribution has epidemiological importance to biomedical research. In Brazil, An. darlingi is found in the northern area of the Amazon basin, where 99.5% of the disease is reported. The study area, known as Ramal do Granada, is a rural settlement inside the Amazon basin in the state of Acre. Population variations and density have been analysed by species behaviour, and molecular analysis has been measured by ND4 mitochondrial gene sequencing. The results show higher density in collections near a recent settlement, suggesting that a high level of colonization decreases the vector presence. The biting activity showed higher activity at twilight and major numbers of mosquitos in the remaining hours of the night in months of high density. From a sample of 110 individual mosquitoes, 18 different haplotypes were presented with a diversity index of 0.895, which is higher than that found in other Anopheles studies. An. darlingi depends on forested regions for their larval and adult survival. In months with higher population density, the presence of mosquitoes persisted in the second part of the night, increasing the vector capacity of the species. Despite the intra-population variation in the transition to rainy season, the seasonal distribution of haplotypes shows no change in the structure population of An. darlingi.

  4. Structure and dynamics of phytoplankton in an Amazon lake, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ise de Goreth Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural lake systems represent important reservoirs for residential water supply, fish production, recreational activities and enjoyment of their natural beauty. Nevertheless, human impacts may affect their health status resulting in degradation and loss of biodiversity. The aim of the present study was to obtain data on the health status of a natural lake located in an indigenous reservation in the Brazilian Amazon, using the phytoplankton community changes along the rainy (June and dry (November seasons of 2006. We collected water (temperature, pH, Secchi depth and conductivity and phytoplankton samples from the subsurface, middle of the water column, and approximately 30cm above the bottom, over 24-hour sampling periods, from a central station in the lake. Samples taken from biotic and abiotic variables were correlated using canonical correspondence analysis (CCA. Results showed that the lake exhibited high temperatures in both seasons, and showed thermal stratification only during the rainy season. Dissolved oxygen exhibited a clinograde pattern in the rainy season and high oxygen in the hypolimnion in the dry season. In the rainy season, the water near the bottom was acidic, turbid and had a greater concentration of phosphorus. Dissolved oxygen, conductivity, pH, nitrite, total phosphorus and total dissolved phosphorus exhibited diel variations in the rainy season, whereas water temperature, dissolved oxygen, total nitrogen and total dissolved phosphorus exhibited significant differences between hours of the day in the dry season. The phytoplankton was represented by 39 taxa, and Chlorophyta showed the greatest species richness, totaling 25 taxa. Among Chlorophyta, desmids were the most diverse, accounting 52%. Bacillariophyta (nine species was the second most diverse group. Cyanophyta was represented by three species, including Merismopedia tenuissima, the most abundant taxon. Despite the occurrence of taxa that indicate organic pollution

  5. OSL dating of sediments from Negro and Solimões rivers – Amazon, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiore, M.; Soares, E.A.A.; Mittani, J.C.R.; Yee, M.; Tatumi, S.H.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the OSL dating results of Quaternary fluvial deposits from the confluence of Negro and Solimões rivers were studied. The equivalent doses (D e ) of sediments were obtained using a Single Aliquot Regeneration (SAR) protocol. Statistic studies were made using frequency histogram, weighted histogram and Radial plot in order to analyze the D e fluctuations. Ages from 74.5 to 205 thousand of years (Pleistocene) were recorded. The gamma-ray spectroscopy was used to evaluate the natural radioisotopes concentrations of the samples and low concentrations were found with values between 0.64 and 3.71 ppm for 235 U and 238 U; 2.01–9.77 ppm for 232 Th; already, for 40 K, the concentration was negligible. The OSL dating of sediments has contributed to a better understanding of the evolution of Negro and Solimões rivers, in Amazon, Brazil. - Highlights: ► OSL dating of fluvial terraces from Amazon. ► SAR protocols applied to Amazon sediments dating. ► OSL dating of Solimão and Negro rivers sediments

  6. Critical points of Brazil nuts: a beginning for food safety, quality control and Amazon sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Andriele M; Gonçalves, Evonnildo C; Andrade, Soraya S; Barbosa, Maria S R; Barroso, Karla F P; de Sousa, Mayara B; Borges, Larissa; Vieira, Jozé L F; Teixeira, Francisco M

    2013-03-15

    One difficulty of self-sustainability is the quality assurance of native products. This research was designed to study the risks and critical control points in the collection, handling and marketing of Brazil nuts from native forests and urban fairs in the Brazilian Amazon by characterisation of morphological aspects of fungi and posterior identification by molecular biology and determination of aflatoxins by high-performance liquid chromatography. Several corrective actions to improve product quality were found to be necessary in both sites. Growth of fungi was observed in 95% of fragments of Brazil nuts from both sites during the between-harvest period. Aflatoxin levels indicated that, although fungal growth was observed in both sites, only Brazil nuts from the native forest showed a high risk to human health (total aflatoxin level of 471.69 µg kg(-1)). This study has shown the main issues related to the process design of Brazil nuts, supporting the necessity for research on new strategies to improve the quality of nuts. Also, the habit of eating Brazil nuts stored throughout the year may represent a risk to farmers. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Conversion of land use and cover in northwest Amazon (Brazil

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    Carlos Antonio da Silva Junior

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The increasing use of natural resources in a disorderly way has been demanding constant monitoring and ecological-economic zoning. The knowledge on land use and cover allows that measures that guarantee the preservation, maintenance of the environment and space management be appropriate to the reality, since through these factors it is possible to follow the probable environmental impacts and the socioeconomic development of a place in several contexts. The Geographical Information System (GIS and remote sensing techniques have been applied to land use and land cover mapping. This study aimed to analyze the conversion of land use from different perspectives, concerning geoprocessing techniques, in the southeastern of Roraima State, Brazil, in two distinct periods. In order to verify the land use and cover, two analyses were conducted, using the Spring and TerraView softwares. Great part of the cultivated areas was converted into capoeira, what probably denotes an ending of profitable agriculture, as well as its abandonment caused by the nutritional deficiency of the soil, that became inappropriate for cultivation in the subsequent years. A fuzzy logic would possibly fit well to the types of data analyzed, because the attribute query is overly complex.

  8. First record of Annonaceae wood for the Neogene of South America, Amazon Basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Alberto Amaral Soares

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The relief of the regions of Manaus and Itacoatiara, Central Amazon, is supported by Neogene siliciclastic rocks, bounded at the base and top by lateritic paleosols and covered by quaternary sedimentary deposits from the Solimões-Amazon river system. This unit is informally assigned to the Novo Remanso Formation, consists of usually reddish and ferruginized sandstones, conglomerates and pelites, with few identified fossil records, a fact that has hindered its stratigraphic position, and the paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the last phase of the Amazon Basin settling. This study describes, for the first time, the occurrence of fossil wood in outcroppings of the left bank of the Amazon River, where anatomical and morphological data has enabled its characterization to the species level. Thus, the data marks the record of the Annonaceae in South America, as well as the depositional processes related to incorporation of organic material in the sandy layer and the fossilization processes that allowed its preservation. In an unprecedented way, this study has described Duguetiaxylon amazonicum nov. gen and sp. and provided information on the anatomical and systematic character, as well as data on plant-insect interaction, and a better understanding of the family.

  9. Structure and dynamics of phytoplankton in an Amazon lake, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ise de Goreth Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural lake systems represent important reservoirs for residential water supply, fish production, recreational activities and enjoyment of their natural beauty. Nevertheless, human impacts may affect their health status resulting in degradation and loss of biodiversity. The aim of the present study was to obtain data on the health status of a natural lake located in an indigenous reservation in the Brazilian Amazon, using the phytoplankton community changes along the rainy (June and dry (November seasons of 2006. We collected water (temperature, pH, Secchi depth and conductivity and phytoplankton samples from the subsurface, middle of the water column, and approximately 30cm above the bottom, over 24-hour sampling periods, from a central station in the lake. Samples taken from biotic and abiotic variables were correlated using canonical correspondence analysis (CCA. Results showed that the lake exhibited high temperatures in both seasons, and showed thermal stratification only during the rainy season. Dissolved oxygen exhibited a clinograde pattern in the rainy season and high oxygen in the hypolimnion in the dry season. In the rainy season, the water near the bottom was acidic, turbid and had a greater concentration of phosphorus. Dissolved oxygen, conductivity, pH, nitrite, total phosphorus and total dissolved phosphorus exhibited diel variations in the rainy season, whereas water temperature, dissolved oxygen, total nitrogen and total dissolved phosphorus exhibited significant differences between hours of the day in the dry season. The phytoplankton was represented by 39 taxa, and Chlorophyta showed the greatest species richness, totaling 25 taxa. Among Chlorophyta, desmids were the most diverse, accounting 52%. Bacillariophyta (nine species was the second most diverse group. Cyanophyta was represented by three species, including Merismopedia tenuissima, the most abundant taxon. Despite the occurrence of taxa that indicate organic pollution

  10. Study of the sodalite Bayer synthesis process from reject of kaolin of the Amazon region, Brazil; Estudo do processo de sintese da sodalita Bayer a partir de rejeito de caulim da regiao amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maia, A.A.B.; Neves, R.F.; Angelica, R.S., E-mail: anabmaia@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), PA (Brazil); Pöllmann, H. [Martin-Luther Universität, Halle Winttenberg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    This work presents an application for the kaolin rejects from Amazonia through the synthesis of sodalite, in addition, the series of sodalites was synthesized with the same conditions of the Bayer process to understand and control their formation when necessary. These tailings are generated by companies located in the state of Para and are mainly composed of kaolinite, thus forming an excellent starting material for the production of zeolites. The synthesis process was carried out in autoclaves and two synthesis temperatures, 150 and 200 deg C, were evaluated, the same ones used in the Bayer process. The anions used in the reaction mixture to obtain the sodalite series were: carbonate chloride and sulfate, and NaOH solution was used as the sodium source. Sodalite was produced in all the synthesis conditions, showing that through the kaolin rejects from the Amazon it was possible to study the sodalite synthesis process.

  11. A new species of Tropidopedia from the Amazon rainforest, Brazil (Hymenoptera: Apidae), with a revised phylogenetic overview of the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlmann, Thiago; De Oliveira, Marcio L

    2015-10-15

    We describe a new species of the bee tribe Tapinotaspidini, Tropidopedia guaranae Mahlmann & Oliveira sp. n. from the Amazon rainforest, Amazonas, Brazil. We emend the phylogenetic tree of Aguiar & Melo (2007) to include the new species and comment upon some characters presented by those authors.

  12. G6PD deficiency alleles in a malaria-endemic region in the Western Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, Jamille G; Souza, Rodrigo M; Curry, Jonathan; Hinton, Laura; Silva, Natercia R M; Grignard, Lynn; Gonçalves, Ligia A; Gomes, Ana Rita; Epiphanio, Sabrina; Drakeley, Chris; Huggett, Jim; Clark, Taane G; Campino, Susana; Marinho, Claudio R F

    2017-06-15

    Plasmodium vivax parasites are the predominant cause of malaria infections in the Brazilian Amazon. Infected individuals are treated with primaquine, which can induce haemolytic anaemia in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient individuals and may lead to severe and fatal complications. This X-linked disorder is distributed globally and is caused by allelic variants with a geographical distribution that closely reflects populations exposed historically to endemic malaria. In Brazil, few studies have reported the frequency of G6PD deficiency (G6PDd) present in malaria-endemic areas. This is particularly important, as G6PDd screening is not currently performed before primaquine treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of G6PDd in the region of Alto do Juruá, in the Western Brazilian Amazon, an area characterized by a high prevalence of P. vivax infection. Five-hundred and sixteen male volunteers were screened for G6PDd using the fluorescence spot test (Beutler test) and CareStart™ G6PD Biosensor system. Demographic and clinical-epidemiological data were acquired through an individual interview. To assess the genetic basis of G6PDd, 24 SNPs were genotyped using the Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR assay. Twenty-three (4.5%) individuals were G6PDd. No association was found between G6PDd and the number of malaria cases. An increased risk of reported haemolysis symptoms and blood transfusions was evident among the G6PDd individuals. Twenty-two individuals had the G6PDd A(-) variant and one the G6PD A(+) variant. The Mediterranean variant was not present. Apart from one polymorphism, almost all SNPs were monomorphic or with low frequencies (0-0.04%). No differences were detected among ethnic groups. The data indicates that ~1/23 males from the Alto do Juruá could be G6PD deficient and at risk of haemolytic anaemia if treated with primaquine. G6PD A(-) is the most frequent deficiency allele in this population. These results concur

  13. Prevalence of HTLV-I antibody among two distinct ethnic groups inhabiting the Amazon region of Brazil Prevalência do anticorpo HTLV-I em dois grupos étnicos distintos habitando a região da Amazônia Brasileira

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    C.M. Nakauchi

    1992-08-01

    Full Text Available HTLV-I seroprevalences of 3.63% (02/55, 12.19% (10/82 and 13.88% (10/72 were demonstrated among Tiryio, Mekranoiti and Xicrin Amazonian Indians, respectively, by the Western blotting enzyme assay (WBEI. By indirect immuno electron microscopy (IIEM, 2 Tiriyo, 9 Mekranoiti and 6 Xicrin Amerindians were reactive. Of 44 serum samples from Japanese immigrants, none reacted by any of the techniques before mentioned. One, 8 and 6 serum samples from Tiryio, Mekranoiti and Xicrin Indians, respectively, were both WBEI and IIEM positive. Our results strongly suggest that HTLV-I and/or an HTLV-I antigenic variant circulate (s among populations living in the Amazon region of Brazil.Soroprevalências para HTLV-I de 3,63% (02/55, 12,9% (10/82 e 13,88% (10/72 foram demonstradas entre os Tiryió, Mekranoiti e Xicrin, respectivamente - indígenas habitantes da Amazônia -, utilizando-se a técnica de "Western Blot" (WBEI. Por outro lado, a imunomicroscopia eletrônica indireta (IIME revelou como positivos 2 Tiryió, 9 Mekranoiti e 6 Xicrins. Das 44 amostras de soro oriundas de migrantes japoneses, nenhuma resultou positiva pelas duas técnicas antes mencionadas. Foram reativos por ambos os métodos, 1, 8 e 6 amostras dos índios Tiryió, Mekranoiti e Xicrin, respectivamente. Nossos resultados representam uma forte evidência de que o HTV-I e/ou variante(s antigenicamente similar(es circula(m entre populações que habitam a região amazônica do Brasil.

  14. Medicinal plants used in Rondônia, Western Amazon, Brazil

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    M.R.A. Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study refers to the use of medicinal plants by populations in the Western Amazon and provides information that can be used in phytochemical studies. It draws upon the traditional knowledge regarding the use of medicinal plants in five regions of the state of Rondônia, in the Brazilian Amazon, focusing on native species. The field research was carried out in five municipalities of the state of Rondônia: Ariquemes, Buritis, Candeias do Jamari, Cujubim and Itapoa do Oeste, characterized by primary economic sectors: agriculture, cattle farming, plant extraction and mineral exploration. Structured interviews were applied to 227 persons chosen because of their prestige in the communities in relation to the knowledge and use of medicinal plants, identifying the therapeutic purpose, parts of the plant used and methods of preparation. The species were taxonomically identified. The ethnobotanic knowledge (inferred by the number of uses of medicinal plants per person was correlated with the Brazilian region of origin, age, and gender of the interviewees. According to the collected data, 34 botanical families and 53 native species were identified. Of the 53 species, only 7 occur exclusively in the Amazon Forest: Theobroma grandiflorum (Willd. ex Spreng. K. Schum., Psidium densicomum Mart. ex DC, Piper cavalcantei Yunck., Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Wardlew., Euterpe oleracea Mart., Croton cajucara Benth., Baccharis altimontana G. Heiden. The most common disorders treated with the plants were kidney problems, influenza, generalized infections and inflammations, malaria and high blood pressure. Leaves were the most used parts in preparations. Barks, fruits, roots, flowers, stems, seeds, oils, buds, tubercles, and rhizomes were also mentioned. Thirteen forms of preparations were recorded, and infusion and decoction were the most used. Syrups, juices, flour, sap, oil and parts of the plant blended with milk, honey and coffee or flamed, macerated and

  15. An outbreak of chlamydiosis in captive blue-fronted Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raso, Tânia de Freitas; Godoy, Sílvia Nery; Milanelo, Liliane; de Souza, Cláudia Almeida Igayara; Matuschima, Eliana Reiko; Araújo Júnior, João Pessoa; Pinto, Aramis Augusto

    2004-03-01

    Fifty-eight blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva) nestlings, recovered from the illegal trade, became ill at a wildlife rehabilitation center in São Paulo State, Brazil. Clinical signs observed were nonspecific, and the mortality rate was 96.5% despite initial treatment with norfloxacin. Postmortem examinations were performed on 10 birds. Liver and spleen smears showed structures suggestive of Chlamydophila psittaci in four cases. Diagnosis was confirmed by seminested polymerase chain reaction on tissue samples. Other birds from the same location showed no clinical signs of the disease, although high complement fixation titers to C. psittaci were found in 10 adult psittacines. All birds in the facility were treated with doxycycline. The two surviving nestlings did not recover after two doxycycline treatments and were euthanatized. The high mortality rate observed in this outbreak was attributed to poor conditions of husbandry and delays in the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. After diagnosis, improved control measures for chlamydiosis were instituted.

  16. The Amazon region: tropical deforestation, biogeochemical cycles and the climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabat, P.; Andreae, M.O.; Silva-Dias, M.A.; Veraart, J.A.; Brink, N.J.

    2003-01-01

    The biogeochemical cycling of carbon, water, energy, aerosols, and trace gases in the Amazon Basin, and the interactions between deforestation, rainfall and climate were all investigated in this programme as a part of an integrated cluster of inter-linked and complementary research projects. These

  17. Mayaro Virus Infection, Amazon Basin Region, Peru, 2010–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siles, Crystyan; Guevara, Carolina; Vilcarromero, Stalin; Jhonston, Erik J.; Ramal, Cesar; Aguilar, Patricia V.; Ampuero, Julia S.

    2013-01-01

    During 2010–2013, we recruited 16 persons with confirmed Mayaro virus infection in the Peruvian Amazon to prospectively follow clinical symptoms and serologic response over a 12-month period. Mayaro virus infection caused long-term arthralgia in more than half, similar to reports of other arthritogenic alphaviruses. PMID:24210165

  18. Type C waterborne botulism outbreaks in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis in the Amazon region

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    Felipe M. Salvarani

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Botulism is a poisoning caused by botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs. BoNTs serotypes C and D are involved in botulism outbreaks in cattle in several countries. Despite the high number of buffaloes worldwide, the real impact of botulism in buffaloes is not known, because it is not a notifiable disease in Brazil and only few studies have evaluated the occurrence of the disease in buffaloes. Those studies did not conduct diagnostic tests to confirm the presence of BoNTs. The objective of the present study was to describe three outbreaks of botulism in buffaloes in the Brazilian Amazon region considering epidemiological and clinical data as well as laboratory diagnosis to confirm the presence of BoNTs. The results of the bioassay were negative in the tissues and in feed samples, but positive for BoNT C in water samples. Confirmation of the occurrence of botulism in buffaloes allows the implementation of preventive strategies in susceptible herds. Waterborne botulism in buffaloes is prevented by ensuring the constant circulation of water collections and restricting the presence of dead animals and bones in order to prevent the accumulation of organic matter and the development of anaerobic conditions, which might favor the replication of Clostridium botulinum. Another measure that can be adopted is the shading of the pasture, in order to maintain the thermal comfort for the buffaloes and to avoid the excess of permanence of them in the water pools.

  19. Environmental hazard of pesticides applied in the border region between Platinum and Amazon Basins at the turn to century XXI

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    Arno Rieder

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To reveal the environmental risk of pesticide prescribed in a border region between the Amazon and Platinum Basins, at the turn of the 21st century. Methods: The study used data of agronomic prescriptions for pesticides issued in the biennium of 1999-2000 in 24 cities located in a border region between the Amazon and Platinum Basins, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Results: The most widely used pesticides in the study region are class II (very dangerous and III (dangerous in number of prescriptions (N = 2,828, 86.8% andquantity prescribed (N = 344,765, 90.4%. Among class III pesticides, a strong inversion was observed in the number of prescriptions (N = 1,274; 39.1% and quantity prescribed (N = 237,319; 62.2%, indicating a lower number of prescriptions, but with higher amountprescribed. The proportion of prescriptions for products amid the various classes of Potential of Environmental Dangers (PPA ranking model, apllied in Brazil changed over the two years (c2=20,814; DF=3; p < 0,01. The 10 most prescribed products (11 activecompounds were: glyphosate, 2,4-D, sulfluramid, chlorimuron ethyl, fipronil, diuron, paraquat, methamidophos, carbofuran, chlorpyrifos and lambda-cyhalothrin, and seven of them were ranked as PPA class I or II. Conclusions: The ratio between the number of pesticide prescriptions and the quantities prescribed among the various classes of PPA showed alteration over crop years. The most reported products in this border region were classified as the most dangerous ones, with diverse mechanisms of action and potential risksto living organisms. This suggests the need to define specific policies and carefully designed strategies to prevent environmental disaster in this region.

  20. Cancer mortality and oil production in the Amazon Region of Ecuador, 1990-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsh, Michael A; Morimoto, Libby; Lau, Edmund

    2009-02-01

    To compare cancer mortality rates in Amazon cantons (counties) with and without long-term oil exploration and extraction activities. Mortality (1990 through 2005) and population census (1990 and 2001) data for cantons in the provinces of the northern Amazon Region (Napo, Orellana, Sucumbios, and Pastaza), as well as the province with the capital city of Quito (Pichincha province) were obtained from the National Statistical Office of Ecuador, Instituto Nacional del Estadistica y Censos (INEC). Age- and sex-adjusted mortality rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated to evaluate total and cause-specific mortality in the study regions. Among Amazon cantons with long-term oil extraction, activities there was no evidence of increased rates of death from all causes (RR = 0.98; 95% CI = 0.95-1.01) or from overall cancer (RR = 0.82; 95% CI = 0.73-0.92), and relative risk estimates were also lower for most individual site-specific cancer deaths. Mortality rates in the Amazon provinces overall were significantly lower than those observed in Pichincha for all causes (RR = 0.82; 95% CI = 0.81-0.83), overall cancer (RR = 0.46; 95% CI = 0.43-0.49), and for all site-specific cancers. In regions with incomplete cancer registration, mortality data are one of the few sources of information for epidemiologic assessments. However, epidemiologic assessments in this region of Ecuador are limited by underreporting, exposure and disease misclassification, and study design limitations. Recognizing these limitations, our analyses of national mortality data of the Amazon Region in Ecuador does not provide evidence for an excess cancer risk in regions of the Amazon with long-term oil production. These findings were not consistent or supportive of earlier studies in this region that suggested increased cancer risks.

  1. Papagaio-de-peito-roxo Amazona vinacea (Kuhl (Aves: Psittacidae no norte do Espírito Santo: redescoberta e conservação Vinaceous Amazon Amazona vinacea (Kuhl (Aves: Psittacidae in the northern region of Espirito Santo state, southeastern Brazil: rediscovery and conservation

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    Lucas A. Carrara

    2008-03-01

    endangered in Brazil and at the international level. Lack of recent reports north of Rio de Janeiro state, including the northern portion of Espírito Santo state (where it had been found probably till 1991 suggested the species had vanished from this part of the range. The present paper reports the rediscovery of A. vinacea in Alto Rio Novo region, northwestern Espírito Santo. Two flocks were seen in two different places, the largest one with 28 parrots was found in December 2005. The flocks of A. vinacea were eating seeds of Anadenanthera sp. (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae, a new resource for this parrot. Historical data list places up to 35 km from the two localities where the flocks were now found, stressing its regional importance for the Vinaceous Amazon. However, the continuous habitat degradation of the last forest remnants in the region and illegal capture of nestlings are considered the main constrain for this population's conservation. As recently as December 2002, the Pontões Capixabas National Park has been created. It is the first Conservation Unit in the mountains of northern Espírito Santo state. Luckily, it protects a historical place of the Vinaceous Amazon in the region and encompasses forested remnants suitable for the species. Its current limit is some 10 km apart from one of the places where the parrot was found in this study. Besides the conservation, data gathering on the Vinaceous Amazon populations in northwestern Espírito Santo state and the nearby region of Minas Gerais state are critical for the species future in the area. A management plan could be then established, aiming to conserve the current northernmost currently known population of this parrot.

  2. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-living Amazon river dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from central Amazon, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important pathogen in aquatic mammals and its presence in these animals may indicate water contamination of aquatic environment by oocysts. Serum samples from 95 dolphins from free-living Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from Sustainable Development Reserve Mamirauá (...

  3. LBA-ECO CD-01 Meteorological Data, Tapajos and Amazon Rivers, Santarem, Brazil: 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains meteorological data collected around the confluence of the Tapajos River with the Amazon River in the Amazon Basin near Santarem,...

  4. Formative experience mediated by virtual learning environment: science and mathematics teachers’ education in the amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    France Fraiha Martins

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reports results of a qualitative research, in the narrative modality. We investigated the formative experiences of teachers of Mathematics and Science through distance learning in the Amazon region, experienced in a course through the Virtual Learning Environment (VLE. We investigated under what conditions this education experience was a catalyst for teachers’ reflections on the Amazonian context of teaching science and mathematics. By using Discursive Textual Analysis some categories e merged: graduating in the Amazon region: obstacles and confrontations; AVA and Technologies: meaning (s of the education experience and the impact of the experience in the perceptions of teachers’ practices and training. The analysis of the results reveals the obstacles to the training in this context. The dynamics experienced by the use of VLE technologies and of the teachers reverberated methodological insights regarding the use of technology in teaching practices, indicating also the VLE as an alternative of (self education on the Amazon reality

  5. Leishmaniose cutânea na Amazônia: isolamento de Leishmania (Viannia lainsoni do roedor Agouti paca (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae, no estado do Pará, Brasil Cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Amazon Region: isolation of Leishmania (Viannia lainsoni from the rodent Agouti paca (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae in Pará State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando T. Silveira

    1991-02-01

    Full Text Available Fez-se o registro, pela primeira vez, do isolamento de Leishmania (V. lainsoni de um mamífero silvestre, o roedor Agouti paca (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae, no Estado do Pará, Brasil. As amostras do parasita foram isoladas da pele, aparentemente íntegra, de 3 espécimes desse roedor, capturados no município de Tucuruí (ilha de Tocantins, em área que seria inundada pela formação do lago da hidrelétrica construída naquele município. Nenhum isolamento foi obtido de vísceras de qualquer dos animais. A identificação das amostras de L. (V. lainsoni baseou-se na morfologia de amastigotas e promastigotas, no comportamento da infecção em "hamsters", na análise bioquímica de isoenzimas e, ainda, através de testes com anticorpos monoclonais. A natureza inaparente da infecção nos animais faz supor que o mamífero em questão possa representar um hospedeiro definitivo do parasita na região Amazônica.The isolation of Leishmania (V. lainsoni is recorded for the first time from a wild animal, the rodent Agouti paca (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae, from Pará State, north Brazil. Isolates of the parasite were made from apparently normal skin of 3 specimens of this rodent captured on the Island of Tocantins, in the municipality of Tucuruí, an area subsequently flooded in the formation of the lake associated with the Tucuruí hydroeletric dam. No isolations were made from the viscera. Identification of the parasite was in each case based on morphology of the amastigotes and promastigotes, behavior of the organism in hamsters, isoenzymes profiles and the use of monoclonal antibodies. The inapparent nature of the infection leads us to suggest that the "paca", Agouti paca, represents a primitive host of L. (V. lainsoni in the Amazon Region.

  6. Study of the shallow convection over the Belem region in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi Marinho Pires, Luciana; Suselj, Kay; Rossato, Luciana; Teixeira, Joao

    2016-04-01

    The largest forest of the world, the Amazon, presents an interesting and very complex system mixing forests, various topographies, sites of deforestation, cities, and regions close and far from the coast, which influence the climatology of the region. This study was focused in the region of Belem which is considered the rainiest region in the eastern Amazon with precipitation around 2000 mm/year. Belem is the capital of Para state, which is located in northern Brazil, 2,146 kilometers from Brasilia with an area of about 1,059,458 km² and a population of 1,432,844 inhabitants with 26% of the area of the Brazilian Amazon and having 49% of its natural attractions, according to the Organization of American States. Shallow convection and deep convection are among the main components of the local energy balance. An analysis of the performance of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory /NASA model of shallow convection parameterization in a framework of the single column model (SCM) in relation to the cluster of cumulus clouds formed in the coastal region of the Amazon forest due to squall lines is provided. To achieve this purpose infrared images from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES), visible images from the GOES-12/METEOSAT satellites, and data obtained by the "Cloud processes of the main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribUtion to cloud resolVing modeling and to the GPM (GlobAl Precipitation Measurement)" - CHUVA - campaign, during the month of June of 2011, were used. Results demonstrated that the parameterizations performed well in the case where only a core of clouds was observed.

  7. Ocorrência do molusco asiático Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774 (Bivalvia, Corbiculidae no baixo rio Negro, Amazônia central Occurrence of the Asian mollusc Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774 (Bivalvia, Corbiculidae in the lower Rio Negro, Central Amazon Region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Mansur Pimpão

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O rio Negro é um dos maiores afluentes do rio Amazonas, mas poucos moluscos foram registrados até o momento para aquele rio, representados apenas por gastrópodes. Foi registrada a presença do molusco bivalve exótico Corbicula fluminea na margem esquerda do baixo rio Negro, no lago do Tupé e no Catalão - margem direita do rio Negro, todas localidades no município de Manaus, Brasil. O registro foi realizado por meio da coleta de conchas e espécimes vivos. É o primeiro registro de C. fluminea para o estado do Amazonas e Amazônia central.The Rio Negro is one of the biggest Rio Amazonas tributaries. Few molluscs have been registered to that river yet, represented only by gastropods. It is reported the occurrence of the exotic bivalve mollusc Corbicula fluminea in left bank margin of Rio Negro, Lago do Tupé and Catalão - right bank margin of Rio Negro, all localities in the municipality of Manaus, Brazil. The species is recorded by a collection of shells and specimens alive. This is the first occurrence of C. fluminea in the Amazon State and Central Amazon.

  8. Rapidly developing market regions : Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britto, A.

    1997-01-01

    Brazil and the State of Rio Grande do Sul are experiencing a period of rapid industrial development. Global investment has been forecast to reach $240 billion over the next five to seven years. This level of development is likely to result in a sharp increase in the consumption of plastic products made from olefins and from aromatic products. Accordingly, Copesul, the centre of raw materials for the State complex, is expected to increase its production of ethane from 685 tonnes to 1.13 million tonnes after 1999. The government has established a program of incentives to stimulate investment in third generation industries. Also, the State petrochemical industry has been rendered more competitive as a result of the purchase of the latest generation equipment. The principal challenges that exist for the petrochemical industry in Brazil and for that matter, around the world, are to reduce production costs and to preserve the natural environment. Another challenge, also world-wide, is to address the issue of plastic residues and to eliminate such residues through plastic recycling programs

  9. Brazil Nut (Bertholletia excelsa, Lecythidaceae Regeneration in Logging Gaps in the Peruvian Amazon

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    Julian Moll-Rocek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa Bonpl. extraction serves as an important economic resource in the Madre de Dios region of Peru simultaneously promoting forest conservation, yet, under current management, it cannot compete with other land uses. This study investigated the effects of logging gaps on Brazil nut natural regeneration. A total of 48 paired logging gap-understory sites were visited in Brazil nut concessions in the Tambopata province of Madre de Dios, Peru. At each site, the number of Brazil nut recruits was counted and canopy openness and gap area were measured. Significantly higher levels of recruit density were found in logging gaps than in understory sites. Additionally, recruit density was positively correlated with canopy openness. Further, in experimental plantings in paired gap and understory sites, canopy openness, height, total leaf area, and number were recorded from August 2011 to February 2012. Height, total leaf area, and leaf number were significantly higher for tree-fall gap grown seedlings, lending further evidence to improved recruitment success of Brazil nuts in forest gaps. These results suggest that multiple-use forest management could be considered as an alternative for the sustainable extraction of Brazil nuts but also highlight that further studies are required.

  10. An Object-Based Machine Learning Classification Procedure for Mapping Impoundments in Brazil's Amazon-Cerrado Agricultural Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solvik, K.; Macedo, M.; Graesser, J.; Lathuilliere, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    Large-scale agriculture and cattle ranching in Brazil has driving the creation of tens of thousands of small stream impoundments to provide water for crops and livestock. These impoundments are a source of methane emissions and have significant impacts on stream temperature, connectivity, and water use over a large region. Due to their large numbers and small size, they are difficult to map using conventional methods. Here, we present a two-stage object-based supervised classification methodology for identifying man-made impoundments in Brazil. First, in Google Earth Engine pixels are classified as water or non-water using satellite data and HydroSHEDS products as predictors. Second, using Python's scikit-learn and scikit-image modules the water objects are classified as man-made or natural based on a variety of shape and spectral properties. Both classifications are performed by a random forest classifier. Training data is acquired by visually identifying impoundments and natural water bodies using high resolution satellite imagery from Google Earth.This methodology was applied to the state of Mato Grosso using a cloud-free mosaic of Sentinel 1 (10m resolution) radar and Sentinel 2 (10-20m) multispectral data acquired during the 2016 dry season. Independent test accuracy was estimated at 95% for the first stage and 93% for the second. We identified 54,294 man-made impoundments in Mato Grosso in 2016. The methodology is generalizable to other high resolution satellite data and has been tested on Landsat 5 and 8 imagery. Applying the same approach to Landsat 8 images (30 m), we identified 35,707 impoundments in the 2015 dry season. The difference in number is likely because the coarser-scale imagery fails to detect small (< 900 m2) objects. On-going work will apply this approach to satellite time series for the entire Amazon-Cerrado frontier, allowing us to track changes in the number, size, and distribution of man-made impoundments. Automated impoundment mapping

  11. Paleoproterozoic volcanism in the southern Amazon Craton (Brazil): insight into its origin and deposit textures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roverato, Matteo; Juliani, Caetano

    2014-05-01

    The Brazilian Amazon craton hosts a primitive volcanic activity that took place in a region completely stable since 1.87 Ga. The current geotectonic context is very different from what caused the huge volcanism that we are presenting in this work. Volcanic rocks in several portions of the Amazon craton were grouped in the proterozoic Uatumã supergroup, a well-preserved magmatic region that covers an area with more than 1,200,000 km2. In this work one specific region is considered, the southwestern Tapajos Gold province (TGP) that is part of the Tapajós-Parina tectonic province (Tassinari and Macambri, 1999). TGP consists of metamorphic, igneous and sedimentary sequences resulted from a ca. 2.10-1.87 Ga ocean-continent orogeny. High-K andesites to felsic volcanic sequences and plutonic bodies, andesitic/rhyolitic epiclastic volcanic rocks and A-type granitic intrusions form part of this volcanism/plutonism. In this work we focus particularly our attention on welded, reomorphic and lava-like rhyolitic ignimbrites and co-ignimbrite brecchas. Fiamme texture of different welding intensity, stretched obsidian fragments, "glassy folds", relict pumices, lithics, rotated crystals of feldspars, bipiramidal quarz, and devetrification spherulites are the common features represented by our samples. Microscopical images are provided to characterize the deposits analyzed during this preliminary research. The lack of continuum outcrops in the field made more difficult the stratigraphic reconstruction, but the superb preservation of the deposits, apparently without any metamorphic evidences (not even low-grade), permits a clearly description of the textures and a differentiation between deposits. A detailed exploration of this ancient andesitic and rhyolitic volcanic activity could contribute greatly to the knowledge of the Amazon territory and in particular for the recognition of the various units that form the supergroup Uatumã, especially in relation to different eruptive

  12. Macrofungal diversity in Colombian Amazon forests varies with regions and regimes of disturbance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez-Quintero, C.A.; Straatsma, G.; Franco-Molano, A.E.; Boekhout, T.

    2012-01-01

    Here we present the results of fungal biodiversity studies from some selected Colombian Amazon forests in relationship to plant biodiversity and successional stages after slash and burn agriculture. Macrofungal diversity was found to differ between forests occurring in two regions (Araracuara vs

  13. Amazonian Dark Earth and plant species from the Amazon region contribute to shape rhizosphere bacterial communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barbosa Lima, A.; Souza Cannavan, F.S.; Navarrete, A.A.; Kuramae, E.E.; Teixeira, W.G.; Tsai, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    Amazonian Dark Earths (ADE) or Terra Preta de Índio formed in the past by pre-Columbian populations are highly sustained fertile soils supported by microbial communities that differ from those extant in adjacent soils. These soils are found in the Amazon region and are considered as a model soil

  14. Detection and Molecular Characterization of Zoonotic Poxviruses Circulating in the Amazon Region of Colombia, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usme-Ciro, Jose A; Paredes, Andrea; Walteros, Diana M; Tolosa-Pérez, Erica Natalia; Laiton-Donato, Katherine; Pinzón, Maria Del Carmen; Petersen, Brett W; Gallardo-Romero, Nadia F; Li, Yu; Wilkins, Kimberly; Davidson, Whitni; Gao, Jinxin; Patel, Nishi; Nakazawa, Yoshinori; Reynolds, Mary G; Satheshkumar, P S; Emerson, Ginny L; Páez-Martínez, Andrés

    2017-04-01

    During 2014, cutaneous lesions were reported in dairy cattle and farmworkers in the Amazon Region of western Colombia. Samples from 6 patients were analyzed by serologic and PCR testing, and results demonstrated the presence of vaccinia virus and pseudocowpox virus. These findings highlight the need for increased poxvirus surveillance in Colombia.

  15. Description of a new species of Microglanis (Siluriformes: Pseudopimelodidae from the Amazon basin, Amazonas State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Ribeiro Jarduli

    Full Text Available The first species of Microglanis from the rio Amazonas, Amazonas State, Brazil is described. This species differs from all congeners by the forked caudal fin, and color pattern of the supraoccipital region consisting of two elliptical and juxtaposed pale spots, besides a combination of morphometrics characters.

  16. Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, and selenium levels in blood of four species of turtles from the Amazon in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Jeitner, Christian; Schneider, Larissa; Vogt, Richard; Gochfeld, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Using blood as a method of assessing metal levels in turtles may be useful for populations that are threatened or endangered or are decreasing. In this study the levels of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and selenium (Se) in blood of four species of turtles from the tributaries of the Rio Negro in the Amazon of Brazil were examined. The turtles included the six-tubercled Amazon (river) turtle (Podocnemis sextuberculata), red-headed Amazon (river) turtle (Podocnemis erythrocephala), big-headed Amazon (river) turtle (Peltocephalus dumerilianus), and matamata turtle (Chelus fimbriatus). Blood samples were taken from the vein in the left hind leg of each turtle. There were significant interspecific differences in the sizes of the turtles from the Rio Negro, and in concentrations of Pb, Hg, and Se; the smallest species (red-headed turtles) had the highest levels of Pb in their blood, while Se levels were highest in big-headed turtles and lowest in red-headed turtles. Hg in blood was highest in matamata, intermediate in big-headed, and lowest in the other two turtles. Even though females were significantly larger than males, there were no significant differences in metal levels as a function of gender, and the only relationship of metals to size was for Cd. Variations in metal levels among species suggest that blood may be a useful bioindicator. Metal levels were not high enough to pose a health risk to the turtles or to consumers, such as humans.

  17. Carbonaceous aerosol characterization in the Amazon basin, Brazil: novel dicarboxylic acids and related compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubátová, Alena; Vermeylen, Reinhilde; Claeys, Magda; Cafmeyer, Jan; Maenhaut, Willy; Roberts, Greg; Artaxo, Paulo

    High-resolution capillary gas chromatography (GC) and GC/mass spectrometry (MS) were employed for the quantitative determination of dichloromethane-extractable organic compounds in total and size-fractionated aerosol samples which were collected in the Amazon basin, Brazil, during the wet season, as part of the LBA-CLAIRE-98 experiment. Special emphasis was placed on the characterization and identification of several novel unknown dicarboxylic acids and related oxidative degradation products. This class of acidic products was enriched in the fine size fraction, suggesting that they were secondary organic aerosol products formed by gas-to-particle conversion. Some of the unknowns contributed more to the class of dicarboxylic acids than the major known compound, nonadioic acid (azelaic acid). The same unknowns were also observed in urban aerosol samples collected on hot summer days in Gent, Belgium. For the characterization and structure elucidation of the unknowns, various types of derivatizations and fractionation by solid-phase extraction were employed in combination with GC/MS. Four unknowns were identified. The most abundant were two derivatives of glutaric acid, 3-isopropyl pentanedioic acid and 3-acetyl pentanedioic acid. The other two identified unknowns were another oxo homologue, 3-acetyl hexanedioic acid, and, interestingly, 3-carboxy heptanedioic acid. To our knowledge, the occurrence of these four compounds in atmospheric aerosols has not yet been reported. The biogenic precursors of the novel identified compounds could not be pinpointed, but most likely include monoterpenes and fatty acids.

  18. Impacts of stocking on the genetic diversity of Colossoma macropomum in central Amazon, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Queiroz, C A; Sousa, N R; da Silva, G F; Inoue, L A K A

    2016-04-07

    Tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) is the main fish species farmed on a commercial scale in northern Brazil. In view of the current scenario of Brazilian aquaculture, studies on the genetic improvement and reproductive management of captive tambaqui are crucial in identifying the genetic variability of broodstocks and devising management practices. Genetic diversity of three tambaqui broodstocks in western Amazon was evaluated using molecular markers. Fin samples were collected from 89 fish; 38 from Balbina, 30 from a hatchery in Rio Preto da Eva, and 21 from the experimental farm of the Federal University of Amazonas (UFAM). Ten primers were used for the analysis of diversity and genetic structure. Of the 152 bands produced, 146 were polymorphic. The proportion of polymorphic loci showed little variation among the three stocks. The lowest and highest rates were found in the Rio Preto da Eva (80.92%) and Balbina (85.53%) stocks, respectively. Heterozygosity (H) and Shannon (I) indices were similar among the stocks; the lowest values were found in Balbina (H = 0.279 and I = 0.419), and the highest in UFAM (H = 0.294 and I = 0.439). Following analysis of the genetic structure and relationship, the sample was divided into two groups, with the Balbina stock clearly deviating from the others. The results suggest that, to increase genetic variability, molecular information may be used instead of replacement of wild breeders. The groups characterized here can be used in genetic improvement programs with other tambaqui broodstocks from different areas of South America.

  19. Indications of regional scale groundwater flows in the Amazon Basins: Inferences from results of geothermal studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Elizabeth T.; Hamza, Valiya M.

    2012-08-01

    The present work deals with determination groundwater flows in the Amazon region, based on analysis of geothermal data acquired in shallow and deep wells. The method employed is based on the model of simultaneous heat transfer by conduction and advection in permeable media. Analysis of temperature data acquired in water wells indicates down flows of groundwaters with velocities in excess of 10-7 m/s at depths less than 300 m in the Amazonas basin. Bottom-hole temperature (BHT) data sets have been used in determining characteristics of fluid movements at larger depths in the basins of Acre, Solimões, Amazonas, Marajó and Barreirinhas. The results of model simulations point to down flow of groundwaters with velocities of the order of 10-8 to 10-9 m/s, at depths of up to 4000 m. No evidence has been found for up flow typical of discharge zones. The general conclusion compatible with such results is that large-scale groundwater recharge systems operate at both shallow and deep levels in all sedimentary basins of the Amazon region. However, the basement rock formations of the Amazon region are relatively impermeable and hence extensive down flow systems through the sedimentary strata are possible only in the presence of generalized lateral movement of groundwater in the basal parts of the sedimentary basins. The direction of this lateral flow, inferred from the basement topography and geological characteristics of the region, is from west to east, following roughly the course of surface drainage system of the Amazon River, with eventual discharge into the Atlantic Ocean. The estimated flow rate at the continental margin is 3287 m3/s, with velocities of the order of 218 m/year. It is possible that dynamic changes in the fluvial systems in the western parts of South American continent have been responsible for triggering alterations in the groundwater recharge systems and deep seated lateral flows in the Amazon region.

  20. Outbreak of acute Chagas disease associated with oral transmission in the Rio Negro region, Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza-Lima, Rita de Cássia de; Barbosa, Maria das Graças Vale; Coura, José Rodrigues; Arcanjo, Ana Ruth Lima; Nascimento, Adelaide da Silva; Ferreira, João Marcos Bemfica Barbosa; Magalhães, Laylah Kelre; Albuquerque, Bernardino Cláudio de; Araújo, Guilherme Alfredo Novelino; Guerra, Jorge Augusto de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Chagas disease is considered as emerging in the Brazilian Amazon, usually occurring in acute outbreaks. We describe 17 cases of acute Chagas disease in Rio Negro, Amazonas. There were 15 males (average age, 31.3 years), all positive for Trypanosoma cruzi in fresh blood smear examination, and 14 positive by xenodiagnosis and PCR. The top clinical manifestations were fever, asthenia, abdominal pain, and palpitations. Electrocardiograms featured low-voltage QRS, anterosuperior divisional block, and right bundle branch block associated with anterosuperior divisional block. All patients had consumed açaí products from Monte Alegre in the rural area around Santa Izabel do Rio Negro, Brazil.

  1. Genetic variation in native and farmed populations of Tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) in the Brazilian Amazon: regional discrepancies in farming systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Jonas; Schneider, Horacio; Gomes, Fátima; Carneiro, Jeferson; Santos, Simôni; Rodrigues, Luis R; Sampaio, Iracilda

    2013-01-01

    The tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum, is the most popular fish species used for aquaculture in Brazil but there is no study comparing genetic variation among native and farmed populations of this species. In the present study, we analyzed DNA sequences of the mitochondrial DNA to evaluate the genetic diversity among two wild populations, a fry-producing breeding stock, and a sample of fish farm stocks, all from the region of Santarém, in the west of the Brazilian state of Pará. Similar levels of genetic diversity were found in all the samples and surprisingly the breeding stock showed expressive representation of the genetic diversity registered on wild populations. These results contrast considerably with those of the previous study of farmed stocks in the states of Amapá, Pará, Piauí, and Rondônia, which recorded only two haplotypes, indicating a long history of endogamy in the breeding stocks used to produce fry. The results of the two studies show two distinct scenarios of tambaqui farming in the Amazon basin, which must be better evaluated in order to guarantee the successful expansion of this activity in the region, and the rest of Brazil, given that the tambaqui and its hybrids are now farmed throughout the country.

  2. Genetic variation in native and farmed populations of Tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum in the Brazilian Amazon: regional discrepancies in farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Aguiar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum, is the most popular fish species used for aquaculture in Brazil but there is no study comparing genetic variation among native and farmed populations of this species. In the present study, we analyzed DNA sequences of the mitochondrial DNA to evaluate the genetic diversity among two wild populations, a fry-producing breeding stock, and a sample of fish farm stocks, all from the region of Santarém, in the west of the Brazilian state of Pará. Similar levels of genetic diversity were found in all the samples and surprisingly the breeding stock showed expressive representation of the genetic diversity registered on wild populations. These results contrast considerably with those of the previous study of farmed stocks in the states of Amapá, Pará, Piauí, and Rondônia, which recorded only two haplotypes, indicating a long history of endogamy in the breeding stocks used to produce fry. The results of the two studies show two distinct scenarios of tambaqui farming in the Amazon basin, which must be better evaluated in order to guarantee the successful expansion of this activity in the region, and the rest of Brazil, given that the tambaqui and its hybrids are now farmed throughout the country.

  3. Regional Atmospheric CO2 Inversion Reveals Seasonal and Geographic Differences in Amazon Net Biome Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alden, Caroline B.; Miller, John B.; Gatti, Luciana V.; Gloor, Manuel M.; Guan, Kaiyu; Michalak, Anna M.; van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid; Touma, Danielle; Andrews, Arlyn; Basso, Luana G.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Understanding tropical rainforest carbon exchange and its response to heat and drought is critical for quantifying the effects of climate change on tropical ecosystems, including global climate carbon feedbacks. Of particular importance for the global carbon budget is net biome exchange of CO2 with the atmosphere (NBE), which represents nonfire carbon fluxes into and out of biomass and soils. Subannual and sub-Basin Amazon NBE estimates have relied heavily on process-based biosphere models, despite lack of model agreement with plot-scale observations. We present a new analysis of airborne measurements that reveals monthly, regional-scale (Approx.1-8 x 10(exp -6) km2) NBE variations. We develop a regional atmospheric CO2 inversion that provides the first analysis of geographic and temporal variability in Amazon biosphere-atmosphere carbon exchange and that is minimally influenced by biosphere model-based first guesses of seasonal and annual mean fluxes. We find little evidence for a clear seasonal cycle in Amazon NBE but do find NBE sensitivity to aberrations from long-term mean climate. In particular, we observe increased NBE (more carbon emitted to the atmosphere) associated with heat and drought in 2010, and correlations between wet season NBE and precipitation (negative correlation) and temperature (positive correlation). In the eastern Amazon, pulses of increased NBE persisted through 2011, suggesting legacy effects of 2010 heat and drought. We also identify regional differences in postdrought NBE that appear related to long-term water availability. We examine satellite proxies and find evidence for higher gross primary productivity (GPP) during a pulse of increased carbon uptake in 2011, and lower GPP during a period of increased NBE in the 2010 dry season drought, but links between GPP and NBE changes are not conclusive. These results provide novel evidence of NBE sensitivity to short-term temperature and moisture extremes in the Amazon, where monthly and sub

  4. The influence of the Amazonian floodplain ecosystems on the trace element dynamics of the Amazon River mainstem (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viers, Jérôme; Barroux, Guénaël; Pinelli, Marcello; Seyler, Patrick; Oliva, Priscia; Dupré, Bernard; Boaventura, Geraldo Resende

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to forecast the role of riverine wetlands in the transfer of trace elements. One of the largest riverine wetlands in the world is the floodplain (várzea) of the Amazon River and its tributaries (Junk and Piedade, 1997). The central Amazon wetlands are constituted by a complex network of lakes and floodplains, named várzeas, that extend over more than 300,000 km2 (Junk, W.J., The Amazon floodplain--a sink or source for organic carbon? In Transport of Carbon and Minerals in Major World Rivers, edited by E.T. Degens, S. Kempe, R. Herrera, SCOPE/UNEP; 267-283, 1985.) and are among the most productive ecosystems in the world due to the regular enrichment in nutrients by river waters In order to understand if the adjacent floodplain of Amazon River have a significant influence on the trace element concentrations and fluxes of the mainstem, the concentrations of selected elements (i.e., Al, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Mo, Rb, Sr, Ba, and U) have been measured in the Amazon River water (Manacapuru Station, Amazonas State, Brazil) and in lake waters and plants (leaves) from a várzea(Ilha de Marchantaria, Amazonas State, Brazil) during different periods of the hydrological cycle. Four plant species (two perennial species: Pseudobombax munguba and Salix humboldtiana, and two annual herbaceous plants: Echinochloa polystachya and Eichhornia crassipes) were selected to represent the ecological functioning of the site. Time series obtained for dissolved Mn and Cu (River water could not be explained by tributary mixing or instream processes only. Therefore, the contribution of the waters transiting the floodplains should be considered. These results suggest that the chemical composition of the waters draining these floodplains is controlled by reactions occurring at sediment-water and plant-water interfaces. Trace elements concentrations in the plants (leaves) vary strongly with hydrological seasonality. Based on the concentration data and the biological

  5. Characteristics and Error Modeling of GPM Satellite Rainfall Estimates over Different Regions of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, R. A. J.; Vila, D. A.; Maggioni, V.; Morales, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to investigate, over the different regions of Brazil, the error characteristics and uncertainties (random and systematic errors components) in satellite-based precipitation estimates by comparing the Goddard Profiling Algorithm (GPROF), through different sensors from GPM database (such as GMI, TMI, SSMI/S, AMSR2, MHS, among others), and Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) algorithms. The analyses are made with other ground (S- and X-band dual polarization weather radar) and space (e.g., TRMM-PR and GPM-DPR [at Ku-band] active radars) based rainfall estimates as references at instantaneous timescales and respecting their temporal limitations. The Precipitation Uncertainties for Satellite Hydrology (PUSH) framework is used for the analysis and uncertainties characterization and error modeling. Specially, this study are focused on specific regions of Brazil, where the campaigns of the CHUVA project occurred (CHUVA/GoAmazon [IOP1 and 2] in Amazon and over southern Brazil where the S-band dual polarization radars (e.g., the FCTH radar) are located.

  6. Radioanalytical assessment of sedimentation rates in Guajara Bay (Amazon Estuary, N Brazil). A study with unsupported 210Pb and 137Cs modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patricia Andrade Neves; Paulo Alves de Lima Ferreira; Marcia Caruso Bicego; Rubens Cesar Lopes Figueira

    2014-01-01

    Guajara Bay is an integral part of the Amazon Estuary system, and functions as the main receiver of urban and industrial wastes from the city of Belem, capital city of PA State (N Brazil). There is a lack of knowledge regarding quantitative measures of sedimentation, such as sedimentation rates, in the literature for this area of the Amazon Estuary. This study aimed the evaluation of recent (time range of 100 years) sedimentation rates in three sediment profiles collected in the coastal system of Guajara Bay with a radioanalytical approach of unsupported 210 Pb and 137 Cs modeling. The mean sedimentation rates for the cores obtained were 0.85 ± 0.12 cm year -1 for Anadim core, 1.02 ± 0.17 cm year -1 for Outeiro core and 0.53 ± 0.04 cm year -1 for Tucunduba core. With the use of three models of sedimentation rate models, it was observed that Anadim and Outeiro core presented constant sedimentation rates for the evaluated time range, but Tucunduba did not. This difference in sedimentation rates was probably due to their different sampling locations that present diverse hydrodynamic regime, with deposition of fine sediments in the upper area of the bay and stronger fluvial currents in the southernmost region. (author)

  7. Phenolic constituents and antioxidant capacity of four underutilized fruits from the Amazon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Andre; Jungfer, Elvira; da Silva, Bruno Alexandre; Maia, Jose Guilherme S; Marx, Friedhelm

    2011-07-27

    The Amazon region comprises a plethora of fruit-bearing species of which a large number are still agriculturally unimportant. Because fruit consumption has been attributed to an enhanced physical well-being, interest in the knowledge of the chemical composition of underexplored exotic fruits has increased during recent years. This paper provides a comprehensive identification of the polyphenolic constituents of four underutilized fruits from the Amazon region by HPLC/DAD-ESI-MS(n). Araçá ( Psidium guineense ), jambolão ( Syzygium cumini ), muruci ( Byrsonima crassifolia ), and cutite ( Pouteria macrophylla ) turned out to be primarily good sources of hydrolyzable tannins and/or flavonols. Additionally, different flavanonols and proanthocyanidins were identified in some fruits. The antioxidant capacity was determined by using the total oxidant scavenging capacity (TOSC) assay. Cutite showed the highest antioxidant capacity followed by jambolão, araçá, and muruci.

  8. Cross-Sectional Serological Survey of Human Fascioliasis in Canutama Municipality in Western Amazon, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Gonçalves Maciel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Fascioliasis is an important parasitic disease. In the northern region of Brazil, a human parasite infection has been reported through a coprological survey. Eggs of Fasciola hepatica were found in fecal samples of 11 individuals. Knowledge of the infection in animals or the presence of snails is necessary to address the possibility of the parasite cycle occurrence in that region. The aim of this study was to describe the transmission of human fascioliasis in Canutama, Amazonas, in Western Amazonia, Brazil. Methods. Serological (ELISA and Western Blot, WB and parasitological analyses were carried out in humans. In addition, the presence of the intermediate snail host within the community was examined. Results. A total of 434 human samples were included in the study, of which 36 (8.3% were reactive by ELISA and 8 (1.8% were reactive by WB. Fasciola hepatica eggs were found in one human sample. The occurrence of the intermediated host was recorded and 31/43 specimens were identified as Lymnaea columella. Conclusion. Canutama constitutes a focus of transmission of human fascioliasis. This study describes the first serological survey for human fascioliasis, as well as its simultaneous occurrence in human hosts and possible intermediates performed in northern Brazil.

  9. Highways and outposts: economic development and health threats in the central Brazilian Amazon region

    OpenAIRE

    Barcellos, Christovam; Feitosa, Patrícia; Damacena, Giseli N; Andreazzi, Marco A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Economic development is often evoked as a driving force that has the capacity to improve the social and health conditions of remote areas. However, development projects produce uneven impacts on local communities, according to their different positions within society. This study examines the spatial distribution of three major health threats in the Brazilian Amazon region that may undergo changes through highway construction. Homicide mortality, AIDS incidence and malaria ...

  10. Higher Education for Indigenous Peoples of the Peruvian Amazon Region: Balance and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Espinosa, Oscar

    2017-01-01

    In the last decades, an important discussion has been developed in Latin America about the access of indigenous students to higher-education institutions and about the creation of intercultural universities. This article specifically revises the different types of experiences of higher-education offered to the indigenous youth of the Peruvian Amazon region, and it builds on information gathered throughout the last decade of following and studying these experiences. The article begins with a d...

  11. Hematology and plasma biochemistry in rats fed with diets enriched with fatty fishes from Amazon region

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Francisca das Chagas do Amaral; Duncan, Wallice Paxiúba; Carvalho, Roasany Piccolotto

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Rats fed diets enriched with fatty fish from the Amazon region had Hematology and plasma biochemistry analyzed. METHODS: Forty Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control group fed a standard diet; mapará group fed a diet enriched with Hypophthalmus edentatus; matrinxã group fed a diet enriched with Brycon spp.; and tambaqui group fed a diet enriched with Colossoma macropomum. After thirty days the rats had an red blood count and plasma biochemistry. RESULTS: Hematocrit and ...

  12. A snapshot on prokaryotic diversity of the Solimões River basin (Amazon, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, D; Santos-Júnior, C D; Kishi, L T; Oliveira, T C S; Garcia, J W; Sarmento, H; Miranda, F P; Henrique-Silva, F

    2017-05-18

    The Amazon region has the largest hydrographic basin on the planet and 
is well known for its huge biodiversity of plants and animals. However, 
there is a lack of studies on aquatic microbial biodiversity in the 
Solimões River, one of its main water courses. To investigate the 
microbial biodiversity of this region, we performed 16S rRNA gene clone 
libraries from Solimões River and adjacent rivers and lakes. Our question was which microorganisms inhabit the different types of aquatic 
environments in this part of the basin, and how diversity varies among 
these environments (rivers and lakes). The microbial 
diversity generating 13 clone libraries of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene 
and 5 libraries of the archaeal 16S rRNA gene was assessed. Diversity measured by several alpha diversity indices (ACE, Chao, Shannon and Simpson) revealed significant differences in diversity indices between lake and river samples. The site with higher microbial diversity was in the Solimões River (4S), downstream the confluence with Purus River. The most common bacterial taxon was the cosmopolitan Polynucleobacter genus, widely observed in all samples. The phylum Thaumarchaeota was the prevailing archaeal taxon. Our results provide the first insight into the microbial diversity of the world's largest river basin.

  13. Hematology and plasma biochemistry in rats fed with diets enriched with fatty fishes from Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca das Chagas do Amaral Souza

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Rats fed diets enriched with fatty fish from the Amazon region had Hematology and plasma biochemistry analyzed. METHODS: Forty Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control group fed a standard diet; mapará group fed a diet enriched with Hypophthalmus edentatus; matrinxã group fed a diet enriched with Brycon spp.; and tambaqui group fed a diet enriched with Colossoma macropomum. After thirty days the rats had an red blood count and plasma biochemistry. RESULTS: Hematocrit and hemoglobin levels were higher in rats fed tambaqui and matrinxã than in those fed the standard diet of mapará. However, mapará increased cholesterol, especially low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. All fish-enriched diets reduced triacylglycerols. CONCLUSION: Diets enriched with fatty fish from the Amazon region reduce triacylglycerol and increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, especially the diet enriched with tambaqui. Tambaqui and matrinxã affected hematocrit and hemoglobin levels, but not mapará. Further research is needed to determine the benefits of diets enriched with fatty fish from the Amazon region.

  14. Ethanol demand in Brazil: Regional approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, Luciano Charlita de; Kaneko, Shinji

    2011-01-01

    Successive studies attempting to clarify national aspects of ethanol demand have assisted policy makers and producers in defining strategies, but little information is available on the dynamic of regional ethanol markets. This study aims to analyze the characteristics of ethanol demand at the regional level taking into account the peculiarities of the developed center-south and the developing north-northeast regions. Regional ethanol demand is evaluated based on a set of market variables that include ethanol price, consumer's income, vehicle stock and prices of substitute fuels; i.e., gasoline and natural gas. A panel cointegration analysis with monthly observations from January 2003 to April 2010 is employed to estimate the long-run demand elasticity. The results reveal that the demand for ethanol in Brazil differs between regions. While in the center-south region the price elasticity for both ethanol and alternative fuels is high, consumption in the north-northeast is more sensitive to changes in the stock of the ethanol-powered fleet and income. These, among other evidences, suggest that the pattern of ethanol demand in the center-south region most closely resembles that in developed nations, while the pattern of demand in the north-northeast most closely resembles that in developing nations. - Research highlights: → Article consists of a first insight on regional demand for ethanol in Brazil. → It proposes a model with multiple fuels, i.e., hydrous ethanol, gasohol and natural gas. → Results evidence that figures for regional demand for ethanol differ amongst regions and with values reported for national demand. → Elasticities for the center-south keep similarities to patterns for fuel demand in developed nations while coefficients for the north-northeast are aligned to patterns on developing countries.

  15. Larval Pseudoproleptus sp. (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae) found in the Amazon river prawn Macrobrachium amazonicum (Decapoda: Palaemonidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, Frantisek; Santos, Cláudia P

    2009-06-01

    Previously undescribed infective larvae of the cystidicolid nematode Pseudoproleptus sp. (probably conspecific with the nematode originally described as Heliconema izecksohni Fabio, 1982, a parasite of freshwater fish in Brazil), were found encapsulated in the hemocel of the Amazon river prawn Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller) (Decapoda: Palaemonidae) from the natural canals on the Mexiana Island (Amazon River Delta), Pardá State, Brazil. The prevalence in prawns (body length 48-110 mm) examined in January and March 2008 (n = 44) was 32%, with an intensity of 1-6 (mean 2) larvae per crustacean. The nematode larvae (body length 19.7-25.7 mm), characterized by the cephalic end provided with a helmet-like cuticular structure having a thickened free posterior margin, are described based on light and scanning electron microscopy. Apparently prawns play a role as intermediate hosts for this nematode species. This is the first record of a larval representative of Cystidicolidae in South America and the first record of a species of Pseudoproleptus Khera, 1955, in the Neotropics. Heliconema izecksohni is transferred to Pseudoproleptus as Pseudoproleptus izecksohni (Fabio, 1982) n. comb.

  16. Seasonal variation in the distribution and isotopic composition of phytoplankton in an amazon floodplain lake, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caraballo, Pedro; Forsberg, Bruce R; Leite, Rosseval G

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the seasonal variation and isotopic composition of phytoplankton, water samples were collected monthly between October 2007 and November 2008 in Lake Catalao, a floodplain lake at the confluence between rivers Negro and Amazon. Analyses of total chlorophyll concentration and δ 1 3C and δ 1 5N isotopic abundances were made from particulate size fractions of 30-60, 10-30 and <10 μm in the littoral, pelagic, and floating meadows regions. Chlorophyll concentration was found to be inversely associated to lake depth, and high concentrations of chlorophyll in the floating meadows zone were significant. The fraction <10 μm was the most abundant representing in average more than 40% of the particulate matter. The δ3 13C values were relatively constant during the study (-25.1% -34.0%), whereas the δ 1 5N values showed strong variability (15.6% 2.4%), which has been attributed to the resuspension of sediments during mixing of the water column. Mixing associated to the sudden drop in temperature during the rising water period was an important event in the trophic and isotopic dynamics of the lake. Variations in chlorophyll content were generally associated with the dilution process, in which concentration was inversely correlated to the water level, whereas abundance was directly correlated to the water level.

  17. Multispecies Fisheries in the Lower Amazon River and Its Relationship with the Regional and Global Climate Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinaya, Walter Hugo Diaz; Lobon-Cervia, Francisco Javier; Pita, Pablo; Buss de Souza, Ronald; Freire, Juan; Isaac, Victoria Judith

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the spatial-temporal variability in catch of the main fishery resources of the Amazon River and floodplain lakes of the Lower Amazon, as well as relating the Catch per Unit of Effort with anomalies of some of the Amazon River, atmosphere and Atlantic Ocean system variables, determining the influence of the environment on the Amazonian fishery resources. Finfish landings data from the towns and villages of the Lower Amazon for the fisheries of three sites (Óbidos, Santarém and Monte Alegre), were obtained for the period between January 1993 and December 2004. Analysis of variance, detrended correspondence analysis, redundancy analysis and multiple regression techniques were used for the statistical analysis of the distinct time series. Fisheries production in the Lower Amazon presents differences between the Amazon River and the floodplain lakes. Production in the Amazon River is approximately half of the one of the floodplain lakes. This variability occurs both along the Lower Amazon River region (longitudinal gradient) and laterally (latitudinal gradient) for every fishing ground studied here. The distinct environmental variables alone or in association act differently on the fishery stocks and the success of catches in each fishery group studied here. Important variables are the flooding events; the soil the sea surface temperatures; the humidity; the wind and the occurence of El Niño-Southern Oscillation events. Fishery productivity presents a large difference in quantity and distribution patterns between the river and floodplain lakes. This variability occurs in the region of the Lower Amazon as well as laterally for each fishery group studied, being dependent on the ecological characteristics and life strategies of each fish group considered here.

  18. Palms and Palm Communities in the Upper Ucayali River Valley - a Little-Known Region in the Amazon Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Henrik; Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Kristiansen, Thea

    2010-01-01

    The Amazon region and its palms are inseparable. Palms make up such an important part of the rain forest ecosystem that it is impossible to imagine the Amazon basin without them. Palms are visible in the canopy and often fill up the forest understory. Palms – because of their edible fruits...... – are cornerstone species for the survival of many animals, and palms contribute substantially to forest inventories in which they are often among the ten most important families. Still, the palms and palm communities of some parts of the Amazon basin remain poorly studied and little known. We travelled to a little......-explored corner of the western Amazon basin, the upper Ucayali river valley. There, we encountered 56 different palms, 18 of which had not been registered for the region previously, and 21 of them were found 150–400 km beyond their previously known limits....

  19. Novel piroplasmid andHepatozoonorganisms infecting the wildlife of two regions of the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Herbert S; Marcili, Arlei; Barbieri, Amália R M; Minervino, Antonio H H; Moreira, Thiago Rocha; Gennari, Solange M; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2017-08-01

    During 2009-2012, wild animals were sampled in two areas within the Amazon biome of Brazil, in the states of Mato Grosso and Pará. Animal tissues and blood were molecularly tested for the presence of Piroplasmida (genera Babesia, Theileria, Cytauxzoon ) or Hepatozoon DNA. Overall, 181 wild animals comprising 36 different species (2 reptiles, 5 birds, and 29 mammals) were sampled. The following Piroplasmida agents were detected: Cytauxzoon felis in one ocelot ( Leopardus pardalis ), Theileria cervi in two red brocket deer ( Mazama americana ), Theileria spp. in three nine-banded-armadillos ( Dasypus novemcinctus ), one agouti ( Dasyprocta sp.), and four lowland pacas ( Cuniculus paca ), Babesia spp. in one common opossum ( Didelphis marsupialis ) and one white-lipped peccary ( Tayassu pecari ). The following Hepatozoon agents were detected: Hepatozoon sp. (possibly Hepatozoon caimani ) in three spectacled caimans ( Caiman crocodilus ), Hepatozoon felis in an ocelot ( Leopardus pardalis ), and Hepatozoon spp. in one scorpion mud turtle ( Kinosternon scorpioides ) and one lowland paca ( Cuniculus paca ). Phylogenetic analyses inferred by the 18S rRNA gene partial sequences supported these results, highlighting at least five novel Piroplasmida agents, and two novel Hepatozoon agents. This study screened the presence of tick-borne protozoa in a number of wildlife species from the Amazon for the first time. Our results indicate that a variety of genetically distinct Piroplasmida and Hepatozoon organisms circulate under natural conditions in the Amazonian wildlife.

  20. Novel piroplasmid and Hepatozoon organisms infecting the wildlife of two regions of the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert S. Soares

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available During 2009–2012, wild animals were sampled in two areas within the Amazon biome of Brazil, in the states of Mato Grosso and Pará. Animal tissues and blood were molecularly tested for the presence of Piroplasmida (genera Babesia, Theileria, Cytauxzoon or Hepatozoon DNA. Overall, 181 wild animals comprising 36 different species (2 reptiles, 5 birds, and 29 mammals were sampled. The following Piroplasmida agents were detected: Cytauxzoon felis in one ocelot (Leopardus pardalis, Theileria cervi in two red brocket deer (Mazama americana, Theileria spp. in three nine-banded-armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus, one agouti (Dasyprocta sp., and four lowland pacas (Cuniculus paca, Babesia spp. in one common opossum (Didelphis marsupialis and one white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari. The following Hepatozoon agents were detected: Hepatozoon sp. (possibly Hepatozoon caimani in three spectacled caimans (Caiman crocodilus, Hepatozoon felis in an ocelot (Leopardus pardalis, and Hepatozoon spp. in one scorpion mud turtle (Kinosternon scorpioides and one lowland paca (Cuniculus paca. Phylogenetic analyses inferred by the 18S rRNA gene partial sequences supported these results, highlighting at least five novel Piroplasmida agents, and two novel Hepatozoon agents. This study screened the presence of tick-borne protozoa in a number of wildlife species from the Amazon for the first time. Our results indicate that a variety of genetically distinct Piroplasmida and Hepatozoon organisms circulate under natural conditions in the Amazonian wildlife.

  1. Outbreak of acute Chagas disease associated with oral transmission in the Rio Negro region, Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cassia de Souza-Lima

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Chagas disease is considered as emerging in the Brazilian Amazon, usually occurring in acute outbreaks. Methods We describe 17 cases of acute Chagas disease in Rio Negro, Amazonas. Results There were 15 males (average age, 31.3 years, all positive for Trypanosoma cruzi in fresh blood smear examination, and 14 positive by xenodiagnosis and PCR. The top clinical manifestations were fever, asthenia, abdominal pain, and palpitations. Electrocardiograms featured low-voltage QRS, anterosuperior divisional block, and right bundle branch block associated with anterosuperior divisional block. Conclusions All patients had consumed açaí products from Monte Alegre in the rural area around Santa Izabel do Rio Negro, Brazil.

  2. ABUNDANCE AND MORPHOMETRIC RELATIONSHIPS OF AMAZON SHRIMP - Macrobrachium amazonicum (HELLER 1862 (DECAPODA, PALAEMONIDAE - IN AN AMAZON ESTUARY - NORTH COAST OF BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Bentes da Silva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available From Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862 (Decapoda, Palaemonidae abundance in monthly collections in the Amazon estuary and on Mosqueiro Island (State of Pará, Brazil between April 2006 and August 2007, we verified that the site mentioned is favorable to the development of the species, since there is a significant number of young and adults specimens throughout the year, whose abundance is significantly higher in the dry season. Icoaraci was the site of great contribution in the total of specimens caught, relating this productivity to the large amount of organic matter in suspension. In this study, we found the largest M. amazonicum specimen ever collected, comparing to those mentioned by available scientific literature. The individual was a female caught on Combu Island with 44.72 mm carapace length or 18.45 cm total length. Relations of body mass (g vs. carapace length (mm for males, females and sexes together had negative allometry, which can be associated to the gonadal maturation cycle of the species. All other morphometric relationships showed positive allometry. Keywords. carapace; bio-ecology; population dynamics.

  3. Latin American regionalism faces the rise of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Malamud, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    In the last two decades, Brazil has emerged as a global actor. Its rise is embodied in such acronyms as BRICS (Btazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa), IBSA (India, Brazil, South Africa), and BASIC (Brazil, South Africa, India, China), which include emerging states from several world regions. Brazil's emergence has been an unintended outcome of its foreign policy, not because the government did not seek international recognition but because it planned to reach it through...

  4. The ceramic artifacts in archaeological black earth (terra preta from Lower Amazon Region, Brazil: chemistry and geochemical evolution Artefatos cerâmicos em sítios arqueológicos com terra preta na região do baixo Amazonas, Brasil: composição química e evolução geoquímica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcondes Lima da Costa

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper carried out a chemical investigation of archaeological ceramic artifacts found in archaeological sites with Black Earth (ABE in the Lower Amazon Region at Cachoeira-Porteira, State of Pará, Brazil. The ceramic artifacts, mostly of daily use, belong to Konduri culture (from 900 to 400 years BP. They are constituted of SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, Na2O and P2O5; SiO2 and Al2O3 together add up to 80 % and indicate influence of acid rocks, transformed into clay minerals basically kaolinite. The relative high contents of P2O5 (2.37 % in average come out as (Al,Fe-phosphate, an uncommon fact in primitive red ceramics, but found in some roman and egyptian archaeological sites. The contents of the trace elements are similar or below the Earth's crust average. This chemical composition (except P2O5 detaches saprolite material derived acid igneous rocks or sedimentary ones as the main raw material of the ceramics. The contents of K, Na and Ca represent the feldspars and rock fragments possibly introduced into saprolitic groundmass, indicated by mineralogical studies. The presence of cauixi and cariapé as well as quartz sand was confirmed by optical microscope, SEM analyses and by the high silica contents of ceramic fragments. Phosphorus was possibly incorporated into groundmass during cooking of foods, and ABE soil profile formation developed on yellow Latosols. The raw materials and its tempers (cauixi, or cariapé, feldspar, crushed rocks, old ceramic artifacts and quartz fragments are found close to the sites and therefore and certainly came from them.Neste trabalho realizou-se a caracterização química de fragmentos de artefatos cerâmicos encontrados em sítios arqueológicos com terra preta no Baixo Amazonas (Cachoeira-Porteira, Pará, Brasil, representativos da cultura Konduri (de 900 a 400 anos AP. Esses fragmentos são constituídos de SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, Na2O e P2O5, sendo que SiO2 e Al2O3, juntos, perfazem mais de 80 % em peso. Os teores

  5. Nuclear analytical techniques applied to the large scale measurements of atmospheric aerosols in the amazon region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerab, Fabio

    1996-03-01

    This work presents the characterization of the atmosphere aerosol collected in different places of the Amazon Basin. We studied both the biogenic emission from the forest and the particulate material which is emitted to the atmosphere due to the large scale man-made burning during the dry season. The samples were collected during a three year period at two different locations in the Amazon, namely the Alta Floresta (MT) and Serra do Navio (AP) regions, using stacked unit filters. These regions represent two different atmospheric compositions: the aerosol is dominated by the forest natural biogenic emission at Serra do Navio, while at Alta Floresta it presents an important contribution from the man-made burning during the dry season. At Alta Floresta we took samples in gold in order to characterize mercury emission to the atmosphere related to the gold prospection activity in Amazon. Airplanes were used for aerosol sampling during the 1992 and 1993 dry seasons to characterize the atmospheric aerosol contents from man-made burning in large Amazonian areas. The samples were analyzed using several nuclear analytic techniques: Particle Induced X-ray Emission for the quantitative analysis of trace elements with atomic number above 11; Particle Induced Gamma-ray Emission for the quantitative analysis of Na; and Proton Microprobe was used for the characterization of individual particles of the aerosol. Reflectancy technique was used in the black carbon quantification, gravimetric analysis to determine the total atmospheric aerosol concentration and Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy for quantitative analysis of mercury in the particulate from the Alta Floresta gold shops. Ionic chromatography was used to quantify ionic contents of aerosols from the fine mode particulate samples from Serra do Navio. Multivariate statistical analysis was used in order to identify and characterize the sources of the atmospheric aerosol present in the sampled regions. (author)

  6. First study on communities of parasites in Triportheus rotundatus, a Characidae fish from the Amazon River system (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Nascimento Santos

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was the first investigation on the parasites of Triportheus rotundatus, a Characiformes fish from the Amazon, in Brazil. All the fish collected (100% in a tributary from the Amazon River system were infected by one or more parasite species. The mean species richness of parasites was 4.9 ± 0.9, the Brillouin index was 0.39 ± 0.16, the evenness was 0.24 ± 0.09 and the Berger-Parker dominance was 0.81 ± 0.13. A total of 1316 metazoan parasites were collected, including Anacanthorus pithophallus, Anacanthorus furculus, Ancistrohaptor sp. (Dactylogyridae, Genarchella genarchella (Derogenidae, Posthodiplostomum sp. (Diplostomidae, Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus inopinatus (Camallanidae, Echinorhynchus paranensis (Echinorhynchidae and Ergasilus sp. (Ergasilidae, but monogenoideans were the dominant parasites. These parasites presented an aggregate dispersion pattern, except for P. (S. inopinatus, which showed a random dispersion pattern. The body conditions of the hosts were not affected by the parasitism levels. This first report of these parasites for T. rotundatus indicates that the presence of ectoparasites and endoparasites was due to hosts behavior and availability of infective stages in the environment, and this was discussed.

  7. First study on communities of parasites in Triportheus rotundatus, a Characidae fish from the Amazon River system (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Paulo Henrique Nascimento; Tavares-Dias, Marcos

    2017-01-01

    This study was the first investigation on the parasites of Triportheus rotundatus, a Characiformes fish from the Amazon, in Brazil. All the fish collected (100%) in a tributary from the Amazon River system were infected by one or more parasite species. The mean species richness of parasites was 4.9 ± 0.9, the Brillouin index was 0.39 ± 0.16, the evenness was 0.24 ± 0.09 and the Berger-Parker dominance was 0.81 ± 0.13. A total of 1316 metazoan parasites were collected, including Anacanthorus pithophallus, Anacanthorus furculus, Ancistrohaptor sp. (Dactylogyridae), Genarchella genarchella (Derogenidae), Posthodiplostomum sp. (Diplostomidae), Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) inopinatus (Camallanidae), Echinorhynchus paranensis (Echinorhynchidae) and Ergasilus sp. (Ergasilidae), but monogenoideans were the dominant parasites. These parasites presented an aggregate dispersion pattern, except for P. (S.) inopinatus, which showed a random dispersion pattern. The body conditions of the hosts were not affected by the parasitism levels. This first report of these parasites for T. rotundatus indicates that the presence of ectoparasites and endoparasites was due to hosts behavior and availability of infective stages in the environment, and this was discussed.

  8. Reproductive biology of Plagioscion magdalenae (Teleostei: Sciaenidae (Steindachner, 1878 in the bay of Marajo, Amazon Estuary, Brazil

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    Nayara Barbosa Santos

    Full Text Available Plagioscion magdalenae (pacora is a commercially important benthopelagic sciaenid and widely distributed in the Amazon River basin. The present study describes the reproductive biology of this species in the bay of Marajo, Amazon Estuary, Brazil. The gonadal development stage, age and size at first sexual maturity (L50, sex ratio, and reproductive strategy were determined. The data were collected bi-monthly from December 2005 to October 2006. A total of 251 specimens were examined, with the total length (TL ranging between 220 and 590 mm. The weight-length relationship for females, males and grouped sexes was highly significant, showing a positive allometry. The L50 was of 279 mm for grouped sexes, with 305 mm and 269 mm TL for females and males respectively. The sex ratio for the total number of individuals favored the males (2.02 males: 1 female. Macroscopically, the gonads were classified as immature, maturing, mature and spent. Considering the macro and microscopic evaluation of the gonads, an extended spawning period, mainly in August to February, was observed.

  9. Schistosomiasis in the Amazon region: is the current diagnostic strategy still appropriate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Rodrigo Magalhães de Sousa

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: This study analyzed the performance of the Kato Katz technique in detecting intestinal schistosomiasis in the State of Pará. METHODS: Of three stool samples provided by each of 380 participants, a total of 16 Kato Katz slides were examined to define the reference value (RV of positives for comparisons. RESULTS: The RV revealed 37 (9.7% infected participants in contrast to 10 (2.6% according to a single slide. CONCLUSIONS: This significant underestimation of the infection rate gives reason to discuss if the current classification of prevalence levels reflects the real situation, principally in low transmission areas, like the Amazon region.

  10. Anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in beef cattle slaughtered in the metropolitan region of Belém, Brazilian Amazon

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    Ediclei Lima do Carmo

    Full Text Available Abstract The relevance of consuming raw or undercooked beef in the transmission of toxoplasmosis is unclear due to the high resistance of cattle to infection. However, this possibility needs to be considered in endemic areas, such as the Amazon, where the consumption of beef is frequent. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies in beef cattle slaughtered in the metropolitan region of Belem, Pará state, Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 500 animals of both genders in a licensed slaughterhouse in Belém. Anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies were detected by an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA with a cut-off titer of 1:64. Anti-T. gondii antibodies were found in 203 animals (40.6%, with a titer of 64 in 112 animals (55.2%, 128 in 68 animals (33.5%, 256 in 15 animals (7.4%, 512 in 5 animals (2.5%, and 1,024 in 3 animals (1.4%. No significant difference was observed between males and females (p > 0.05. The high frequency of anti-T. gondii antibodies observed in beef cattle slaughtered in Belém indicates that the meat of these animals may be an important source of infection for humans and carnivorous domestic animals when inadequately cooked beef is consumed.

  11. Chemical correlations in Caetite (BA) region, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gennari, R.F.; Almeida, Geangela M.; Souza, S.O.

    2013-01-01

    Brazil's economic situation is responsible for an urgent demand for energy. There are several ways to generate energy, in some localities of our country, energy generation occurs almost exclusively by nuclear route, as in Rio de Janeiro state. Brazil has the sixth largest reserve of the uranium ore in the world. Nowadays there is only one mine under exploration (Uraniferous District of Lagoa Real - Caetite-BA). Unfortunately, nuclear power generation is better known, by common citizen, more for its unwanted effects than for its benefits. This fact is also powered by some Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), such as Greenpeace, who claim the uranium mine is dangerous since it causes environmental contamination. However, Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB) rejected these accusations. In a previous study, we demonstrated that doses of the Caetite (BA) population are consistent with those usually found in other countries. We stated also the higher concentration of 238 U determined, in only one water sample, is probably due to natural processes, as soil leaching. In order to verify the existing natural processes, macro and micro chemical elements present in water and soil samples collected in the Caetite (BA) region were determined by ICP-MS. The results were transformed into dendrograms where chemical correlations are evidenced and they are consistent with existing natural chemical processes. It was also possible to observe a correlation between samples corroborating with the Geographic Information Systems data to be presented in this same scientific event. (author)

  12. Chemical correlations in Caetite (BA) region, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gennari, R.F., E-mail: rgennari@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Dept. de Fisica Nuclear; Campos, S.S., E-mail: simaracampos@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia (UESB), Itapetinga, BA, (Brazil); Almeida, Geangela M.; Souza, S.O., E-mail: susanasouzalalic@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica

    2013-07-01

    Brazil's economic situation is responsible for an urgent demand for energy. There are several ways to generate energy, in some localities of our country, energy generation occurs almost exclusively by nuclear route, as in Rio de Janeiro state. Brazil has the sixth largest reserve of the uranium ore in the world. Nowadays there is only one mine under exploration (Uraniferous District of Lagoa Real - Caetite-BA). Unfortunately, nuclear power generation is better known, by common citizen, more for its unwanted effects than for its benefits. This fact is also powered by some Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), such as Greenpeace, who claim the uranium mine is dangerous since it causes environmental contamination. However, Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB) rejected these accusations. In a previous study, we demonstrated that doses of the Caetite (BA) population are consistent with those usually found in other countries. We stated also the higher concentration of {sup 238}U determined, in only one water sample, is probably due to natural processes, as soil leaching. In order to verify the existing natural processes, macro and micro chemical elements present in water and soil samples collected in the Caetite (BA) region were determined by ICP-MS. The results were transformed into dendrograms where chemical correlations are evidenced and they are consistent with existing natural chemical processes. It was also possible to observe a correlation between samples corroborating with the Geographic Information Systems data to be presented in this same scientific event. (author)

  13. Dependence of hydropower energy generation on forests in the Amazon Basin at local and regional scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickler, Claudia M; Coe, Michael T; Costa, Marcos H; Nepstad, Daniel C; McGrath, David G; Dias, Livia C P; Rodrigues, Hermann O; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S

    2013-06-04

    Tropical rainforest regions have large hydropower generation potential that figures prominently in many nations' energy growth strategies. Feasibility studies of hydropower plants typically ignore the effect of future deforestation or assume that deforestation will have a positive effect on river discharge and energy generation resulting from declines in evapotranspiration (ET) associated with forest conversion. Forest loss can also reduce river discharge, however, by inhibiting rainfall. We used land use, hydrological, and climate models to examine the local "direct" effects (through changes in ET within the watershed) and the potential regional "indirect" effects (through changes in rainfall) of deforestation on river discharge and energy generation potential for the Belo Monte energy complex, one of the world's largest hydropower plants that is currently under construction on the Xingu River in the eastern Amazon. In the absence of indirect effects of deforestation, simulated deforestation of 20% and 40% within the Xingu River basin increased discharge by 4-8% and 10-12%, with similar increases in energy generation. When indirect effects were considered, deforestation of the Amazon region inhibited rainfall within the Xingu Basin, counterbalancing declines in ET and decreasing discharge by 6-36%. Under business-as-usual projections of forest loss for 2050 (40%), simulated power generation declined to only 25% of maximum plant output and 60% of the industry's own projections. Like other energy sources, hydropower plants present large social and environmental costs. Their reliability as energy sources, however, must take into account their dependence on forests.

  14. Amazonian dark Earth and plant species from the Amazon region contribute to shape rhizosphere bacterial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa Lima, Amanda; Cannavan, Fabiana Souza; Navarrete, Acacio Aparecido; Teixeira, Wenceslau Geraldes; Kuramae, Eiko Eurya; Tsai, Siu Mui

    2015-05-01

    Amazonian Dark Earths (ADE) or Terra Preta de Índio formed in the past by pre-Columbian populations are highly sustained fertile soils supported by microbial communities that differ from those extant in adjacent soils. These soils are found in the Amazon region and are considered as a model soil when compared to the surrounding and background soils. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of ADE and its surrounding soil on the rhizosphere bacterial communities of two leguminous plant species that frequently occur in the Amazon region in forest sites (Mimosa debilis) and open areas (Senna alata). Bacterial community structure was evaluated using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and bacterial community composition by V4 16S rRNA gene region pyrosequencing. T-RFLP analysis showed effect of soil types and plant species on rhizosphere bacterial community structure. Differential abundance of bacterial phyla, such as Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and Firmicutes, revealed that soil type contributes to shape the bacterial communities. Furthermore, bacterial phyla such as Firmicutes and Nitrospira were mostly influenced by plant species. Plant roots influenced several soil chemical properties, especially when plants were grown in ADE. These results showed that differences observed in rhizosphere bacterial community structure and composition can be influenced by plant species and soil fertility due to variation in soil attributes.

  15. Radiative effects of biomass burning aerosols and cloudiness on seasonal carbon cycle in the Amazon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, D. S.; Longo, K.; Freitas, S.; Mercado, L. M.; Miller, J. B.; Rosario, N. M. E. D.; Gatti, L.; Yamasoe, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    The Amazon region is characterized by high cloudiness, mainly due to convective clouds during most of the year due to the high humidity, and heat availability. However, during the Austral winter, the northward movement of the inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ) from its climatological position, significantly reducing cloudiness and precipitation, facilitating vegetation fires. Consequently, during these dry months, biomass burning aerosols contribute to relatively high values of aerosol optical depth (AOD) in Amazonia, typically exceeding 1.0 in the 550 nm wavelength. Both clouds and aerosols scatter solar radiation, reducing the direct irradiance and increasing the diffuse fraction that reaches the surface, decreasing near surface temperature and increasing photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) availability. This, in turn, affects energy and CO2 fluxes within the vegetation canopy. We applied an atmospheric model fully coupled to terrestrial carbon cycle model to assess the relative impact of biomass burning aerosols and clouds on CO2 fluxes in the Amazon region. Our results indicate that during most of the year, gross primary productivity (GPP) is high mainly due to high soil moisture and high values of the diffuse fraction of solar irradiation due to cloudiness. Therefore, heterotrophic and autotrophic respiration are both high, increasing the NEE values (i.e. reducing the net land sink). On the other hand, during the dry season, with a significant reduction of cloudiness, the biomass burning aerosol is mainly responsible for the increase in the diffuse fraction of solar irradiation and the GPP of the forest. However, the low soil moisture during the dry season, especially in the eastern Amazon, reduces heterotrophic and autotrophic respiration and thus compensates for reduced GPP compared to the wet season. Different reasons, an anthropogenic one (human induced fires during the dry season) and a natural one (cloudiness), lead to a somewhat stable value

  16. How many more dams in the Amazon?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tundisi, J.G.; Goldemberg, J.; Matsumura-Tundisi, T.; Saraiva, A.C.F.

    2014-01-01

    The Amazon watershed harbors a megadiversity of terrestrial and aquatic plants and animals. Mechanisms that sustain this biodiversity are the water level fluctuations the fluvial dynamics and the intense gene flux due to permanent integration of climatological, geomorphological and biological components of the system. The construction of hydroelectric reservoirs to support economic development of Brazil and other countries that share the Amazon basin will interfere with the ecological dynamics of this ecosystem changing the hydrological, hydrosocial and fundamental processes. Furthermore the construction of Andean reservoirs can disrupt the connectivity with the lower Amazon ecosystem. Principles of ecohydrologies, ecological engineering and preservation of key river basins, have to be applied in order to optimize energy production and promote conservation practices. Long term planning and integration of countries that share the Amazon basin is a strategic decision to control and develop the hydropower exploitation in the region. - Highlights: • The Amazon basin is an ecosystem of megadiversity. • The demand for energy threatens this ecosystem. • Climate, water, forests and floodplain interacts in the Amazon basin. • Dams in the Amazon basin will impact the hydrological and biological systems. • Ecohydrological principles and ecological engineering technology are necessary

  17. Stormflow influence on nutrient dynamics in micro-catchments under contrasting land use in the Cerrado and Amazon Biomes, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelmann, Katharina; Nóbrega, Rodolfo L. B.; Gerold, Gerhard

    2017-04-01

    The Amazon and Cerrado biomes in Brazil have been under intense land-use change during the past few decades. The conversion of native vegetation to pastures and croplands has caused impacts on hydrological processes in these biomes, resulting in increased streamflow and nutrient fluxes. Our aim was to compare the nutrient dynamics during stormflow events in two pairs of adjacent micro-catchments with similar physical characteristics under contrasting land use, i.e. native vegetation (rainforest or cerrado) and pasture. One pair of catchments was located in the Amazon and the other in the Cerrado, both on the Amazon Agricultural Frontier in the Brazilian states of Mato Grosso and Pará. We collected hydrological and hydrochemical data on 50 stormflow events on a sub-hourly resolution during the wet seasons of 2013 and 2014. We compared the dynamics of total inorganic carbon (TIC), total organic carbon (TOC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), nitrate (NO3), calcium (Ca), potassium (K), and magnesium (Mg) in different hydrograph parts, i.e. rising limb, peak and recession limb, between the catchments within the same biome. For the Cerrado biome, our findings show that the nutrient concentrations in the stormflows were higher in the pasture catchment than in the cerrado catchment. In the Amazon biome, we found an inverse relationship with higher concentrations in the forest catchment than in the pasture catchment, except for TIC and K. Most nutrients in the cerrado catchment had the highest concentrations in the rising limb. Mg, however, reached highest concentrations during peak discharge, and lowest in the recession limb. In the adjacent pasture catchment, in contrast, the highest nutrient concentrations were observed during the peak discharge (TIC, TOC, Ca) or the recession limb (DOC, NO3, K, Mg) with lowest in the rising limb, except for NO3, which showed the lowest concentrations during peak discharge. In the Amazon forest catchment, the peak discharge showed the

  18. Emergence of dhfrXVb and blaCARB-4 gene cassettes in class 1 integrons from clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated in Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica L Fonseca

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Integrons play a role in horizontal acquisition and expression of genes, as well as gene reservoir, contributing for the resistance phenotype, particularly relevant to bacteria of clinical importance. We aimed to determine the composition and the organization of the class 1 integron variable region present in Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates from Brazil. Strains carrying class 1 integrons were resistant to the majority of antibiotics tested, except to imipenem and ceftazidime. Sequence analysis of the integron variable region revealed the presence of the blaCARB-4 gene into two distinct cassette arrays: aacA4-dhfrXVb-blaCARB-4 and aadB-aacA4-blaCARB-4 . dhfrXVb gene cassette, which is rare in Brazil and in P. aeruginosa species, was found in one isolate. PFGE analysis showed the spread of blaCARB-4 among P. aeruginosa clones. The occurrence of blaCARB-4 and dhfrXVb in Brazil may contribute for developing resistance to clinically important antibiotics, and shows a diversified scenarium of these elements occurring in Amazon clinical settings, where no study about integron dinamycs was performed to date.

  19. Convective storms and non-classical low-level jets during high ozone level episodes in the Amazon region: An ARM/GOAMAZON case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias-Junior, Cléo Q.; Dias, Nelson Luís; Fuentes, José D.; Chamecki, Marcelo

    2017-04-01

    In this work, we investigate the ozone dynamics during the occurrence of both downdrafts associated with mesoscale convective storms and non-classical low-level jets. Extensive data sets, comprised of air chemistry and meteorological observations made in the Amazon region of Brazil over the course of 2014-15, are analyzed to address several questions. A first objective is to investigate the atmospheric thermodynamic and dynamic conditions associated with storm-generated ozone enhancements in the Amazon region. A second objective is to determine the magnitude and the frequency of ground-level ozone enhancements related to low-level jets. Ozone enhancements are analyzed as a function of wind shear, low-level jet maximum wind speed, and altitude of jet core. Strong and sudden increases in ozone levels are associated with simultaneous changes in variables such as horizontal wind speed, convective available potential energy, turbulence intensity and vertical velocity skewness. Rapid increases in vertical velocity skewness give support to the hypothesis that the ozone enhancements are directly related to downdrafts. Low-level jets associated with advancing density currents are often present during and after storm downdrafts that transport ozone-enriched air from aloft to the surface.

  20. Storage and remobilization of suspended sediment in the lower amazon river of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, R.H.; Dunne, T.; Richey, J.E.; Santos, U.De. M.; Salati, E.

    1985-01-01

    In the lower Amazon River, suspended sediment is stored during rising stages of the river and resuspended during falling river stages. The storage and resuspension in the reach are related to the mean slope of the flood wave on the river surface; this slope is smaller during rising river stages than during falling stages. The pattern of storage and resuspension damps out the extreme values of high and low sediment discharge and tends to keep them near the mean value between 3.0 ?? 106 and 3.5 ?? 106 metric tons per day. Mean annual discharge of suspended sediment in the lower Amazon is between 1.1 ?? 109 and 1.3 ?? 109 metric tons per year.

  1. Herpetofauna of the Northwest Amazon forest in the state of Maranhão, Brazil, with remarks on the Gurupi Biological Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio de Freitas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the biodiversity of an area is the first step for establishing effective interventions for conservation, especially when it comes to herpetofauna, since 4.1% and 9.2%, respectively, of Brazilian amphibians and reptiles are endangered. The aim of this study is to identify the composition of the herpetofauna occurring in the Northwest Amazonian state of Maranhão, with a focus on the Gurupi Biological Reserve and surrounding areas. Samples were collected between May 2012 and October 2013 (18 months, through pitfall traps, time constrained active search, and opportunistic encounters, and these records were supplemented by specimens collected by third parties and by bibliographic records. A total of 131 species were recorded: 31 species of amphibians and 100 species of reptiles (six testudines, 30 lizards, two amphisbaenas, 60 snakes and two alligators, including some species new to the state of Maranhão and the northeast region of Brazil. This inventory contributes to the knowledge of the herpetofauna for the Belém Endemism Center, the most devastated region of the Brazilian Amazon, and considered poorly sampled.

  2. Herpetofauna of the Northwest Amazon forest in the state of Maranhão, Brazil, with remarks on the Gurupi Biological Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Marco Antonio; Vieira, Ruhan Saldanha; Entiauspe-Neto, Omar Machado; Sousa, Samantha Oliveira E; Farias, Tayse; Sousa, Alanna Grazieli; de Moura, Geraldo Jorge Barbosa

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the biodiversity of an area is the first step for establishing effective interventions for conservation, especially when it comes to herpetofauna, since 4.1% and 9.2%, respectively, of Brazilian amphibians and reptiles are endangered. The aim of this study is to identify the composition of the herpetofauna occurring in the Northwest Amazonian state of Maranhão, with a focus on the Gurupi Biological Reserve and surrounding areas. Samples were collected between May 2012 and October 2013 (18 months), through pitfall traps, time constrained active search, and opportunistic encounters, and these records were supplemented by specimens collected by third parties and by bibliographic records. A total of 131 species were recorded: 31 species of amphibians and 100 species of reptiles (six testudines, 30 lizards, two amphisbaenas, 60 snakes and two alligators), including some species new to the state of Maranhão and the northeast region of Brazil. This inventory contributes to the knowledge of the herpetofauna for the Belém Endemism Center, the most devastated region of the Brazilian Amazon, and considered poorly sampled.

  3. Geographic distribution of Hemigrammus ora (Ostariophysi: Characiformes: Characidae in the Amazon basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando C Jerep

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available New records of Hemigrammus ora Zarske, Le Bail & Géry, 2006, previously believed to be endemic to the French Guiana drainages, are confirmed for Brazilian drainages. The species is reported from the Tocantins-Araguaia system and lower Amazon River. Morphometric and meristic data, previously undescribed morphological traits related to caudal-fin squamation and anal-fin hooks, and geographic variation are presented for the species.

  4. Intertidal benthic macrofauna of rare rocky fragments in the Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Cavalcante Morais

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Rock fragment fields are important habitat for biodiversity maintenance in coastal regions, particularly when located in protected areas dominated by soft sediments. Researches in this habitat have received surprisingly little attention on the Amazon Coast, despite rock fragments provide refuges, nursery grounds and food sources for a variety of benthic species. The present survey describes the mobile macroinvertebrate species composition and richness of the intertidal rocky fragments in Areuá Island within the “Mãe Grande de Curuçá” Marine Extractive Reserve (RESEX on the Brazilian Amazon Coast. Samples were collected during the dry (August and November 2009 and rainy seasons (March and May 2010 on the upper and lower intertidal zone, using a 625cm² quadrat. At each season and intertidal zone, macroinvertebrate samples were collected along four transects (20m each parallel to the waterline, and within each transect two quadrats were randomly sampled. Macroinvertebrates were identified, density determined, and biomass values obtained to characterize benthic diversity from the rocky fragments. The Jackknife procedure was used to estimate species richness from different intertidal zones during the dry and rainy seasons. Macrofaunal community comprised 85 taxa, with 17 “unique” taxa, 40 taxa were common to both intertidal zones and seasons, and 23 taxa have been recorded for the first time on the Brazilian Amazon Coast. Species richness was estimated at 106±9.7 taxa and results suggest that sampling effort was representative. Polychaeta was the most dominant in species number, followed by Malacostraca and Gastropoda. Regarding frequency of occurrence, Crustacean species Dynamenella tropica, Parhyale sp. and Petrolisthes armatus were the most frequent representing >75% of frequency of occurrence and 39 taxa were least frequent representing <5% of frequency of occurrence. Occurrence of crustaceans and polychaetes were particularly

  5. Neogene vegetation development in the Amazon Basin: evidence from marine well-2, Foz do Amazonas (Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogota-Angel, Raul; Chemale Junior, Farid; Davila, Roberto; Soares, Emilson; Pinto, Ricardo; Do Carmo, Dermeval; Hoorn, Carina

    2014-05-01

    Origen and development of the highly diverse Amazon tropical forest has mostly been inferred from continental sites. However, sediment records in the marine Foz do Amazonas Basin can provide important information to better understand the influence of the Andes uplift and climate change on its plant biomes evolution since the Neogene. Sediment analyses of samples from BP-Petrobras well 1 and 2, drilled in the Amazon Fan, allowed to infer the onset of the transcontinental Amazon river and the fan phase during the middle to late Miocene (c. 10.5 Ma). As part of the CLIMAMAZON research programme we performed pollen analysis on the 10.5 to 0.4 Ma time interval. 76 ditch cutting samples of the upper 4165 m sediments of well 2 permitted us to infer changes in floral composition in the Amazon Basin. The palynological spectra across this interval (nannofossil based age model) include pollen, fern spores, dinocysts and foram lignings. When possible pollen and fern spores were grouped in four vegetation types: estuarine, tropical, mountain forest and high mountain open treeless vegetation. Pollen is generally corroded and reflects the effects of sediment transportation while reworked material is also common. Good pollen producers such as Poaceae, Asteraceae and Cyperaceae are common and reflect indistinctive vegetation types particularly those associated to riverine systems. Rhizophora/Zonocostites spp. indicate "close-distance" mangrove development. Tropical forest biomes are represented by pollen that resemble Moraceae-Urticaceae, Melastomataceae-Combretaceae, Sapotaceae, Alchornea, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae, Bignoniaceae, Mauritia and Arecaceae. Myrica, and particularly sporadic occurrences of fossil fern spores like Lophosoria, and Cyathea suggest the development of a moist Andean forest in areas above 1000 m. First indicators of high altitudes appear in the last part of late Miocene with taxa associated to current Valeriana and particularly Polylepis, a neotropical taxon

  6. The oil industry and his environmental impacts in the Amazon region -local study: Urucu and Jurua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Junior, A.B. de.

    1991-04-01

    The oil exploration and production, from the point of view of the main interactions with the environment, in the Amazon Region considering as reference the performance of PETROBRAS in the areas of the Urucu and Jurua rivers, in the Middle Solimoes, in the State of Amazonas are described. The paper comprises basically two sections. The first one is divided into four topics that refer to the analysis of prospecting, drilling, production and oil transportation. The second section of this work is more concerned to the analysis of the local and regional repercussions and expectations in the social and economical level, after the Urucu and Jurua areas were confirmed as another Brazilian oil province. (author)

  7. Croton maasii (Euphorbiaceae), a new species from the western Amazon region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riina, R.; Berry, P.E.

    2011-01-01

    Croton maasii, a new species from South America, is described and illustrated. The species is only known from terra firme forests of the extreme western Amazonian region, in W Brazil and adjacent E Peru. Croton maasii resembles C. pachypodus, a more abundant and widely distributed species in the

  8. Novel Anaplasma and Ehrlichia organisms infecting the wildlife of two regions of the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Herbert S; Marcili, Arlei; Barbieri, Amália R M; Minervino, Antonio H H; Malheiros, Antonio F; Gennari, Solange M; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2017-10-01

    During 2009-2012, wild animals were sampled in the Amazon biome of Brazil. Animal tissues and blood were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays targeting DNA of the bacterial family Anaplasmataceae (genera Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Wolbachia) and the genus Borrelia. Overall, 181 wild animals comprising 36 different species (2 reptiles, 5 birds, and 29 mammals) were sampled. All birds and reptiles were negative by all PCR assays, as well as all mammals for the Borrelia PCR assay. Anaplasmataceae agents were searched by PCR assays targeting two different genes, the ribosomal 16S rRNA gene and the protein-coding dsb gene. Three dsb closely related haplotypes were generated from 3 white-lipped peccaries (Tayassu pecari). In a phylogenetic analysis inferred from dsb partial sequences, these haplotypes grouped with previously reported Ehrlichia haplotypes from jaguar (Panthera onca) and horse from Brazil, suggesting that they could all represent a single species, yet to be properly characterized. A unique dsb haplotype was generated from a sloth (Bradypus tridactylus), and could also represent a different Ehrlichia species. All these dsb haplotypes formed a clade sister to the Ehrlichia ruminantium clade. Three distinct 16S rRNA gene haplotypes were generated from a wild guinea pig (Cavia sp.), a woolly mouse opossum (Micoureus demerarae), and two from robust capuchin monkeys (Sapajus sp.). In a phylogenetic analysis inferred from 16S rRNA gene partial sequence, these haplotypes grouped within the Wolbachia clade, and are likely to represent Wolbachia organisms that were infecting invertebrate metazoarians (e.g., filarids) associated with the sampled mammals. Two deer (Mazama americana) samples yielded two distinct 16S rRNA gene sequences, one identical to several sequences of Anaplasma bovis, and an unique sequence that grouped in a clade with different Anaplasma species. Our results indicate that a variety of genetically distinct Anaplasmataceae organisms

  9. Highways and outposts: economic development and health threats in the central Brazilian Amazon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcellos, Christovam; Feitosa, Patrícia; Damacena, Giseli N; Andreazzi, Marco A

    2010-06-17

    Economic development is often evoked as a driving force that has the capacity to improve the social and health conditions of remote areas. However, development projects produce uneven impacts on local communities, according to their different positions within society. This study examines the spatial distribution of three major health threats in the Brazilian Amazon region that may undergo changes through highway construction. Homicide mortality, AIDS incidence and malaria prevalence rates were calculated for 70 municipalities located within the areas of influence of the Cuiabá-Santarém highway (BR-163), i.e. in the western part of the state of Pará state and the northern part of Mato Grosso. The municipalities were characterized using social and economic indicators such as gross domestic product (GDP), urban and indigenous populations, and recent migration. The municipalities' connections to the region's main transportation routes (BR-163 and Trans-Amazonian highways, along with the Amazon and Tapajós rivers) were identified by tagging the municipalities that have boundaries crossing these routes, using GIS overlay operations. Multiple regression was used to identify the major driving forces and constraints relating to the distribution of health threats. The main explanatory variables for higher malaria prevalence were: proximity to the Trans-Amazonian highway, high proportion of indigenous population and low proportion of migrants. High homicide rates were associated with high proportions of migrants, while connection to the Amazon River played a protective role. AIDS incidence was higher in municipalities with recent increases in GDP and high proportions of urban population. Highways induce social and environmental changes and play different roles in spreading and maintaining diseases and health threats. The most remote areas are still protected against violence but are vulnerable to malaria. Rapid economic and demographic growth increases the risk of AIDS

  10. Highways and outposts: economic development and health threats in the central Brazilian Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damacena Giseli N

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Economic development is often evoked as a driving force that has the capacity to improve the social and health conditions of remote areas. However, development projects produce uneven impacts on local communities, according to their different positions within society. This study examines the spatial distribution of three major health threats in the Brazilian Amazon region that may undergo changes through highway construction. Homicide mortality, AIDS incidence and malaria prevalence rates were calculated for 70 municipalities located within the areas of influence of the Cuiabá-Santarém highway (BR-163, i.e. in the western part of the state of Pará state and the northern part of Mato Grosso. Results The municipalities were characterized using social and economic indicators such as gross domestic product (GDP, urban and indigenous populations, and recent migration. The municipalities' connections to the region's main transportation routes (BR-163 and Trans-Amazonian highways, along with the Amazon and Tapajós rivers were identified by tagging the municipalities that have boundaries crossing these routes, using GIS overlay operations. Multiple regression was used to identify the major driving forces and constraints relating to the distribution of health threats. The main explanatory variables for higher malaria prevalence were: proximity to the Trans-Amazonian highway, high proportion of indigenous population and low proportion of migrants. High homicide rates were associated with high proportions of migrants, while connection to the Amazon River played a protective role. AIDS incidence was higher in municipalities with recent increases in GDP and high proportions of urban population. Conclusions Highways induce social and environmental changes and play different roles in spreading and maintaining diseases and health threats. The most remote areas are still protected against violence but are vulnerable to malaria. Rapid

  11. Seasonal Variation in the Distribution and Isotopic Composition of Phytoplankton in an Amazon Floodplain Lake, Brazil

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    Pedro Caraballo Gracia

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the seasonal variation and isotopic composition of phytoplankton, water samples were collected monthly between October 2007 and November 2008 in Lake Catalão, a floodplain lake at the confluence between rivers Negro and Amazon. Analyses of total chlorophyll concentration and δ13C and δ15N isotopic abundances were made from particulate size fractions of 30-60, 10-30 and <10 µm in the littoral, pelagic, and floating meadows regions. Chlorophyll concentration was found to be inversely associated to lake depth, and high concentrations of chlorophyll in the floating meadows zone were significant.  The fraction <10 µm was the most abundant representing in average more than 40% of the particulate matter. The δ13C values were relatively constant during the study (-25.1‰ ~ -34.0‰, whereas the δ15N values showed strong variability (15.6‰ ~ 2.4‰, which has been attributed to the resuspension of sediments during mixing of the water column. Mixing associated to the sudden drop in temperature during the rising water period was an important event in the trophic and isotopic dynamics of the lake. Variations in chlorophyll content were generally associated with the dilution process, in which concentration was inversely correlated to the water level, whereas abundance was directly correlated to the water level. VARIACIÓN ESTACIONAL DE LA DISTRIBUCIÓN Y COMPOSICIÓN ISOTÓPICA DEL FITOPLANCTON EN UN LAGO DE INUNDACIÓN EN LA AMAZONIA, BRASIL.   Con el propósito de evaluar la variación estacional de la abundancia isotópica (δ13C e δ15N del fitoplancton, muestreos mensuales fueron realizados entre octubre de 2007 y noviembre de 2008 en el lago Catalão, un lago de inundación en la zona de confluencia de los ríos Negro y Solimões, ubicado frente a la ciudad de Manaus (AM, Brasil. Análisis de la clorofila total y evaluaciones de la abundancia natural de δ13C y δ15N fueron realizados en las fracciones partículadas de 30-60, 10

  12. Spatial and Molecular Epidemiology of Giardia intestinalis Deep in the Amazon, Brazil.

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    Beatriz Coronato Nunes

    Full Text Available Current control policies for intestinal parasitosis focuses on soil-transmitted helminths, being ineffective against Giardia intestinalis, a highly prevalent protozoon that impacts children's nutritional status in developing countries. The objective of this study was to explore spatial and molecular epidemiology of Giardia intestinalis in children of Amerindian descent in the Brazilian Amazon.A cross sectional survey was performed in the Brazilian Amazon with 433 children aged 1 to 14 years. Fecal samples were processed through parasitological techniques and molecular characterization. Prevalence of G. intestinalis infection was 16.9% (73/433, reaching 22.2% (35/158 among children aged 2-5 years, and a wide distribution throughout the city with some hot spots. Positivity-rate was similar among children living in distinct socioeconomic strata (48/280 [17.1%] and 19/116 [16.4%] below and above the poverty line, respectively. Sequencing of the β-giardin gene revealed 52.2% (n = 12 of assemblage A and 47.8% (n = 11 of assemblage B with high haplotype diversity for the latter. The isolates clustered into two well-supported G. intestinalis clades. A total of 38 haplotypes were obtained, with the following subassemblages distribution: 5.3% (n = 2 AII, 26.3% (n = 10 AIII, 7.9% (n = 3 BIII, and 60.5% (n = 23 new B genotypes not previously described.Giardia intestinalis infection presents a high prevalence rate among Amerindian descended children living in Santa Isabel do Rio Negro/Amazon. The wide distribution observed in a small city suggests the presence of multiple sources of infection, which could be related to environmental contamination with feces, possibly of human and animal origin, highlighting the need of improving sanitation, safe water supply and access to diagnosis and adequate treatment of infections.

  13. Mercury loss from soils following conversion from forest to pasture in Rondonia, Western Amazon, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Marcelo D.; Lacerda, Luiz D.; Bastos, Wanderley R.; Herrmann, Joao Carlos

    2005-01-01

    This work reports on the effect of land use change on Hg distribution in Amazon soils. It provides a comparison among Hg concentrations and distribution along soil profiles under different land use categories; primary tropical forest, slashed forest prior to burning, a 1-year silviculture plot planted after 4 years of forest removal and a 5-year-old pasture plot. Mercury concentrations were highest in deeper (60-80 cm) layers in all four plots. Forest soils showed the highest Hg concentrations, ranging from 128 ng g -1 at the soil surface to 150 ng g -1 at 60-80 cm of depth. Lower concentrations were found in pasture soils, ranging from 69 ng g -1 at the topsoil to 135 ng g -1 at 60-80 cm of depth. Slashed and silviculture soils showed intermediate concentrations. Differences among plots of different soil-use categories decreased with soil depth, being non-significant below 60 cm of depth. Mercury burdens were only statistically significantly different between pasture and forest soils at the topsoil, due to the large variability of concentrations. Consequently, estimated Hg losses were only significant between these two land use categories, and only for the surface layers. Estimated Hg loss due to forest conversion to pasture ranged from 8.5 mg m -2 to 18.5 mg m -2 , for the first 20 cm of the soil profile. Mercury loss was comparable to loss rates estimated for other Amazon sites and seems to be directly related to Hg concentrations present in soils. - Deforestation can be responsible for maintaining high Hg levels in the Amazon environment, through a grasshopper effect of Hg remobilization from the affected soils

  14. Dependence of hydropower energy generation on forests in the Amazon Basin at local and regional scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickler, Claudia M.; Coe, Michael T.; Costa, Marcos H.; Nepstad, Daniel C.; McGrath, David G.; Dias, Livia C. P.; Rodrigues, Hermann O.; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S.

    2013-01-01

    Tropical rainforest regions have large hydropower generation potential that figures prominently in many nations’ energy growth strategies. Feasibility studies of hydropower plants typically ignore the effect of future deforestation or assume that deforestation will have a positive effect on river discharge and energy generation resulting from declines in evapotranspiration (ET) associated with forest conversion. Forest loss can also reduce river discharge, however, by inhibiting rainfall. We used land use, hydrological, and climate models to examine the local “direct” effects (through changes in ET within the watershed) and the potential regional “indirect” effects (through changes in rainfall) of deforestation on river discharge and energy generation potential for the Belo Monte energy complex, one of the world’s largest hydropower plants that is currently under construction on the Xingu River in the eastern Amazon. In the absence of indirect effects of deforestation, simulated deforestation of 20% and 40% within the Xingu River basin increased discharge by 4–8% and 10–12%, with similar increases in energy generation. When indirect effects were considered, deforestation of the Amazon region inhibited rainfall within the Xingu Basin, counterbalancing declines in ET and decreasing discharge by 6–36%. Under business-as-usual projections of forest loss for 2050 (40%), simulated power generation declined to only 25% of maximum plant output and 60% of the industry’s own projections. Like other energy sources, hydropower plants present large social and environmental costs. Their reliability as energy sources, however, must take into account their dependence on forests. PMID:23671098

  15. Electric power generation using biomass gasification systems in nature in isolated communities of the Amazon region: project GASEIBRAS; Geracao de eletricidade utilizando sistemas de gaseificacao de biomassa in natura em comunidades isoladas da regiao amazonica: projeto GASEIBRAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira; Velazquez, Silvia M. Stortini Goncalves; Santos, Sandra M. Apolinario dos; Lora, Beatriz Acquaro [Universidade de Sao Paulo (CENBIO/USP), SP (Brazil). Centro de Referencia Nacional em Biomassa], e-mails: suani@iee.usp.br, sgvelaz@iee.usp.br, sandra@iee.usp.br, blora@iee.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper will present the pioneering project of electric energy generation from renewable sources 'GASEIBRAS - Nationalization of the Biomass Gasification Technology and Formation of Human Resources in the Amazon Region', recently approved by the National Advice of Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) and for the Ministry of Mines and Energy (MME). The GASEIBRAS project intends to use the experience previously acquired in the project GASEIFAMAZ - Comparison between Existing Technologies of Biomass Gasification in Brazil and Exterior and Formation of Human Resources in the North Region, sponsored by FINEP/CTENERG, to develop and construct a 20 kWe biomass gasification system, with total national technology, easy to operate and to maintain, and fed with local available biomass residues. Apart from contributing for the development of the national technology, this project will provide the sustainable development of the isolated communities in the Amazon region. The ongoing development of this project will enable to consolidate the national biomass gasification technology for electricity generation. The implemented prototype will allow the response of this project in other regions of the country, due its tailor made characteristic to attend to small isolated communities, thus supplying decentralized energy from renewable sources, to Amazon region. (author)

  16. Tropical forest mapping at regional scale using the GRFM SAR mosaics over the Amazon in South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sgrenzaroli, M.

    2004-01-01

    The work described in this thesis concerns the estimation of tropical forest vegetation cover in the Amazon region using as data source a continental scale high resolution (100 m) radar mosaic as data source. The radar mosaic was compiled by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (NASA JPL) using

  17. Terrestrial Carbon Sinks in the Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado Region Predicted from MODIS Satellite Data and Ecosystem Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    A simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation cover from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to estimate monthly carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado regions over the period 2000-2004. Pr...

  18. EFL Teaching in the Amazon Region of Ecuador: A Focus on Activities and Resources for Teaching Listening and Speaking Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Paul F.; Ochoa, Cesar A.; Cabrera, Paola A.; Castillo, Luz M.; Quinonez, Ana L.; Solano, Lida M.; Espinosa, Franklin O.; Ulehlova, Eva; Arias, Maria O.

    2015-01-01

    Research on teaching listening and speaking skills has been conducted at many levels. The purpose of this study was to analyze the current implementation of classroom and extracurricular activities, as well as the use of educational resources for teaching both skills in public senior high schools in the Amazon region of Ecuador, particularly in…

  19. Chagas Disease in Ecuador: Evidence for Disease Transmission in an Indigenous Population in the Amazon Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chico H Martha

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Two well-defined synthetic peptides TcD and PEP2 were used in a sero-epidemiological study for the detection of Trypanosoma cruzi infections in an indigenous group in the Amazon region of Ecuador. Of the 18 communities studied along the Río Napo, province of Napo, 15 (83.3% were found to be positive for T. cruzi infection. Of the 1,011 individuals examined 61 (6.03% resulted positive. A prevalence of infection of 4.8% was found in children aged 1-5 years. The prevalence of infection increased with age, with adults 50 years or older showing a maximum prevalence of 18.8%. Autochthonous transmission of T. cruzi is present among this isolated indigenous population

  20. Anatomy and systematics of Anodontites Elongatus (Swainson from Amazon and Parana Basins, Brazil (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Unionoida, Mycetopodidae

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    Luiz Ricardo L Simone

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The anatomy of Anodontiies elongatus (Swainson, 1823, a rare species restricted to the Amazon and Parana Basins, is described by first time, showing a group of conchological and anatomical characters exclusive of this species that may be analyzed to identify it. Diagnosis of A. elongatus: shell long antero-posteriorly, umbones prominent, periostracum opaque and smooth, two posterior radial striae; middle fold of mantle edge veiy tall; gill long antero-posteriorly and short dorso-ventrally, extending about a half of it total length beyond visceral mass; palps proportionally small, several furrows in its outer surface; stomach without esophageal transversal ridjp, dorsal hood and gastric shield poorly developed, major typhlosole entering in ddd , posterior pouch of sa³ very-long; style sac reduced, without crystalline style; distal region of intestine and rectum with a well developed typhlosole, "T" in section, other intestinal regions without folds; gonad gonochoristic.

  1. Brazilian mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae fauna: I. Anopheles species from Porto Velho, Rondônia state, western Amazon, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirlei Antunes Morais

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study contributes to knowledge of Anopheles species, including vectors of Plasmodium from the western Brazilian Amazon in Porto Velho, Rondônia State. The sampling area has undergone substantial environmental changes as a consequence of agricultural and hydroelectric projects, which have caused intensive deforestation and favored habitats for some mosquito species. The purpose of this study was to diagnose the occurrence of anopheline species from collections in three locations along an electric-power transmission line. Each locality was sampled three times from 2010 to 2011. The principal adult mosquitoes captured in Shannon trap were Anopheles darlingi, An. triannulatus, An. nuneztovari l.s., An.gilesi and An. costai. In addition, larvae were collected in ground breeding sites for Anopheles braziliensis, An. triannulatus, An. darlingi, An. deaneorum, An. marajoara, An. peryassui, An. nuneztovari l.s. and An. oswaldoi-konderi. Anopheles darlingi was the most common mosquito in the region. We discuss Culicidae systematics, fauna distribution, and aspects of malaria in altered habitats of the western Amazon.

  2. Brazilian mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) fauna: I. Anopheles species from Porto Velho, Rondônia state, western Amazon, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Sirlei Antunes; Urbinatti, Paulo Roberto; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb; Kuniy, Adriana Akemi; Moresco, Gilberto Gilmar; Fernandes, Aristides; Nagaki, Sandra Sayuri; Natal, Delsio

    2012-12-01

    This study contributes to knowledge of Anopheles species, including vectors of Plasmodium from the western Brazilian Amazon in Porto Velho, Rondônia State. The sampling area has undergone substantial environmental changes as a consequence of agricultural and hydroelectric projects, which have caused intensive deforestation and favored habitats for some mosquito species. The purpose of this study was to diagnose the occurrence of anopheline species from collections in three locations along an electric-power transmission line. Each locality was sampled three times from 2010 to 2011. The principal adult mosquitoes captured in Shannon trap were Anopheles darlingi, An. triannulatus, An. nuneztovari l.s., An.gilesi and An. costai. In addition, larvae were collected in ground breeding sites for Anopheles braziliensis, An. triannulatus, An. darlingi, An. deaneorum, An. marajoara, An. peryassui, An. nuneztovari l.s. and An. oswaldoi-konderi. Anopheles darlingi was the most common mosquito in the region. We discuss Culicidae systematics, fauna distribution, and aspects of malaria in altered habitats of the western Amazon.

  3. Avaliação de Hb A2 e Hb F em doadores de sangue de região malarígena da Amazônia Oriental brasileira por HPLC Evaluation of Hb A2 and Hb F by HPLC in blood donors from the malaria endemic region of Eastern Amazon of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanessa C. Souza

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In malaria endemic regions of Africa, resistance to infection by Plasmodium has been observed in under 6-month-old children, when there are higher fetal hemoglobin (Hb F levels. Research performed in the São José do Rio Preto region, central-east Brazil, reported increased levels of Hb F in blood donors. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the A2 hemoglobin (Hb A2 and Hb F concentrations in blood donors deriving from the Brazilian malaria endemic region. Forty-five blood donor samples from Macapá, from patients with varying genders, ages and ethnic origins, were collected by venous puncture after informed consent was obtained. The samples were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC - System Variant (Bio-Rad. The HPLC demonstrated sensitivity and rapidity in the identification and measurement of the hemoglobins and gave precise results. Moreover, it provided measurement of hemoglobin variants, even when they were present in small amounts, providing a diagnosis of hemoglobinopathies. Hb F levels above the normal were observed in 33.3% of the analyzed samples. The presence of increased Hb F can suggest resistance to infection by Plasmodium falciparum, as there have been reports that infected red blood cells interfere in the development of the parasite.

  4. Mixing in the Amazon estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, M. O.

    2010-05-01

    The research area of this work is located at the estuary of the Amazon River (Brazil), near the river mouth. The results of air movement analysis on the surface atmospheric circulation over the Mouth of the Amazonas River, salinity and temperature measures as well as measurements of currents, carried out along a longitudinal section in the navigation canal region of the Northern Bar of the Amazon River (Barra Norte do Rio Amazonas) in June 2006, during the river flood season in the quadrature tide. The dynamics effects affect hydrodynamic,meteorological and hydrographical parameters at the river mouth. The conclusion drawn include that: a) the saline wedge-type stratification can be detected approximately 100km away from the mouth of the Amazon River during the end of the rainy season in the quadrature tide; b) probably, at the Amazon estuary the quadrature entrainment processes are dominant and they are the ones responsible for increased salinity detected in the surface layer, whereas turbulence scattering mixing is not so important. c) The large flow of fresh water from the Amazon River at the end of the rainy season implies the displacement of the saline front position over the internal Amazon continental platform, and d) The tidal wave shows a positive asymmetry in the canal, with floods lasting less than in the ebb tide. This asymmetry decreases towards the ocean, eventually becoming reversed in the presence of a saline wedge. The speeds, however, have a negative asymmetry, with more intense ebb tides, due to the river flow and is more evident by the existence of quadrature tides.

  5. Exchanges of sediment between the flood plain and channel of the Amazon River in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, T.; Mertes, L.A.K.; Meade, R.H.; Richey, J.E.; Forsberg, B.R.

    1998-01-01

    Sediment transport through the Brazilian sector of the Amazon River valley, a distance of 2010 km, involves exchanges between the channel and the flood plain that in each direction exceed the annual flux of sediment out of the river at O??bidos (???1200 Mt yr-1). The exchanges occur through bank erosion, bar deposition, settling from diffuse overbank flow, and sedimentation in flood-plain channels. We estimated the magnitude of these exchanges for each of 10 reaches of the valley, and combined them with calculations of sediment transport into and out of the reaches based on sediment sampling and flow records to define a sediment budget for each reach. Residuals in the sediment budget of a reach include errors of estimation and erosion or deposition within the channel. The annual supply of sediment entering the channel from bank erosion was estimated to average 1570 Mt yr-1 (1.3 ?? the O??bidos flux) and the amount transferred from channel transport to the bars (380 Mt yr-1) and the flood plain (460 Mt yr-1 in channelized flow; 1230 Mt yr-1 in diffuse overbank flow) totaled 2070 Mt yr-1 (1.7 ?? the O??bidos flux). Thus, deposition on the bars and flood plain exceeded bank erosion by 500 Mt yr-1 over a 10-16 yr period. Sampling and calculation of sediment loads in the channel indicate a net accumulation in the valley floor of approximately 200 Mt yr-1 over 16 yr, crudely validating the process-based calculations of the sediment budget, which in turn illuminate the physical controls on each exchange process. Another 300-400 Mt yr-1 are deposited in a delta plain downstream of O??bidos. The components of the sediment budget reflect hydrologie characteristics of the valley floor and geomorphic characteristics of the channel and flood plain, which in turn are influenced by tectonic features of the Amazon structural trough.

  6. Stress Field in Brazil with Focal Mechanism: Regional and Local Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, F.; Assumpcao, M.

    2013-05-01

    The knowledge of stress field is fundamental not only to understand driving forces and plate deformation but also in the study of intraplate seismicity. The stress field in Brazil has been determined mainly using focal mechanisms and a few breakout data and in-situ measurements. However the stress field still is poorly known in Brazil. The focal mechanisms of recent earthquakes (magnitude lower than 5 mb) were studied using waveform modeling. We stacked the record of several teleseismic stations ( delta > 30°) stacked groups of stations separated according to distance and azimuth. Every record was visually inspected and those with a good signal/noise ratio (SNR) were grouped in windows of ten degrees distance and stacked. The teleseismic P-wave of the stacked signals was modeled using the hudson96 program of Herrmann seismology package (Herrmann, 2002) and the consistency of focal mechanism with the first-motion was checked. Some events in central Brazil were recorded by closer stations (~ 1000 km) and the moment tensor was determined with the ISOLA code (Sokos & Zahradnik, 2008). With the focal mechanisms available in literature and those obtained in this work, we were able to identify some patterns: the central region shows a purely compressional pattern (E-W SHmax), which is predicted by regional theoretical models (Richardson & Coblentz, 1996 and the TD0 model of Lithgow & Bertelloni, 2004). Meanwhile in the Amazon we find an indication of SHmax oriented in the SE-NW direction, probably caused by the Caribbean plate interaction (Meijer, 1995). In northern coastal region, the compression rotates following the coastline, which indicates an important local component related to spreading effects at the continental/oceanic transition (Assumpção, 1998) and flexural stresses caused by sedimentary load in Amazon Fan. We determine the focal mechanism of several events in Brazil using different techniques according to the available data. The major difficulty is to

  7. Surface Soil Preparetion for Leguminous Plants Growing in Degraded Areas by Mining Located in Amazon Forest-Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irio Ribeiro, Admilson; Hashimoto Fengler, Felipe; Araújo de Medeiros, Gerson; Márcia Longo, Regina; Frederici de Mello, Giovanna; José de Melo, Wanderley

    2015-04-01

    The revegetation of areas degraded by mining usually requires adequate mobilization of surface soil for the development of the species to be implemented. Unlike the traditional tillage, which has periodicity, the mobilization of degraded areas for revegetation can only occur at the beginning of the recovery stage. In this sense, the process of revegetation has as purpose the establishment of local native vegetation with least possible use of inputs and superficial tillage in order to catalyze the process of natural ecological succession, promoting the reintegration of areas and minimizing the negative impacts of mining activities in environmental. In this context, this work describes part of a study of land reclamation by tin exploitation in the Amazon ecosystem in the National Forest Jamari- Rondonia Brazil. So, studied the influence of surface soil mobilization in pit mine areas and tailings a view to the implementation of legumes. The results show that the surface has areas of mobilizing a significant effect on the growth of leguminous plants, areas for both mining and to tailings and pit mine areas.

  8. Structure of parasites community in Chaetobranchopsis orbicularis (Cichlidae), a host from the Amazon River system in northern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares-Dias, Marcos; Oliveira, Marcos Sidney Brito

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the component communities of parasites in Chaetobranchopsis orbicularis from a tributary of the Amazon River system, in Northern Brazil. In 32 fish examined, 902,551 parasites were collected, including Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Piscinoodinium pillulare, Sciadicleithrum geophagi, Posthodiplostomum sp., Clinostomum marginatum, Echinorhynchus paranensis, Neoechinorhynchus pterodoridis, and Dolops longicauda. I. multifiliis was the dominant and abundant parasite species. The ectoparasites presented aggregate dispersion, but the endoparasites showed random dispersion pattern. Mean species richness was 4.0 ± 1.5 parasites, mean Brillouin diversity (HB) was 0.33 ± 0.28, mean evenness was 0.15 ± 0.13, and Berger-Parker dominance (d) was 0.85 ± 0.17. The species richness of parasites and HB were positively correlated with the length of hosts. There was positive correlation between the abundance of P. pillulare and length and weight, between the abundance of I. multifiliis and weight, as well as between the abundance of E. paranensis and N. pterodoridis and the length of hosts. Body condition of the hosts was not affected by moderate parasitism. The low diversity of endoparasites indicates that C. orbicularis is a host with low position in the food web. This is the first record of all these parasites for C. orbicularis.

  9. Ectoparasites and endoparasites community ofAgeneiosus ucayalensis(Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae), catfish from Amazon River system in northern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Ferreira, Drielly; Tavares-Dias, Marcos

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated the community of ectoparasites and endoparasites in Ageneiosus ucayalensis (Auchenipteridae) of a tributary from the Amazon River system, in Northern Brazil. Of 34 fish examined, 100% were parasitized by Ichthyophthirius multifiliis , Cosmetocleithrum bulbocirrus , Demidospermus sp., metacercariae of Genarchella genarchella , Clinostomum marginatum and Herpetodiplostomum sp., Procamallanus ( Spirocamallanus ) belenensis , Cucullanus ageneiosus and larvae of Contracaecum sp. digeneans C. marginatum and Herpetodiplostomum sp. were dominant parasite species, while I. multifiliis was the parasite with higher infection level. Such parasite species showed an aggregated dispersion, except P. ( S. ) belenensis , which showed a random dispersion. The Brillouin diversity (0.53 ± 0.29) was high, while evenness (0.28 ± 0.16) and species richness of parasites (3.7 ± 1.1) were low. The size of the hosts did not influence diversity, species richness and abundance of parasites. The ectoparasites were characterized by high prevalence and abundance, while endoparasites community presented low prevalence and abundance. The main factors responsible for structuring the parasite community in A. ucayalensis were mainly the behavior of this host and the availability of endoparasites infective stages in the environment. This was the first report of I. multifiliis , C. bulbocirus , Demidospermus sp., Contracaecum sp., C. marginatum , Herpetodiplostomum sp. and G. genarchella for A. ucayalensis . The presence of endohelminth larvae suggests that A. ucayalensis is part of the diet of other fish at the top of the food web in the Amazonian ecosystem studied.

  10. Chlamydophila psittaci in free-living Blue-fronted Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva) and Hyacinth macaws (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas Raso, Tânia; Seixas, Gláucia Helena Fernandes; Guedes, Neiva Maria Robaldo; Pinto, Aramis Augusto

    2006-10-31

    Chlamydophila psittaci (C. psittaci) infection was evaluated in 77 free-living nestlings of Blue-fronted Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva) and Hyacinth macaws (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Tracheal and cloacal swab samples from 32 wild parrot and 45 macaw nestlings were submitted to semi-nested PCR, while serum samples were submitted to complement fixation test (CFT). Although all 32 Amazon parrot serum samples were negative by CFT, cloacal swabs from two birds were positive for Chlamydophila DNA by semi-nested PCR (6.3%); these positive birds were 32 and 45 days old. In macaws, tracheal and cloacal swabs were positive in 8.9% and 26.7% of the samples, respectively. Complement-fixing antibodies were detected in 4.8% of the macaw nestlings; macaw nestlings with positive findings were between 33 and 88 days old. These results indicate widespread dissemination of this pathogen in the two evaluated psittacine populations. No birds had clinical signs suggestive of chlamydiosis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on C. psittaci in free-living Blue-fronted Amazon parrots and Hyacinth macaws in Brazil.

  11. The ceramic artifacts in archaeological black earth (terra preta from lower Amazon region, Brazil: mineralogy Artefatos cerâmicos em sítios arqueológios com terra preta na região do baixo Amazonas, Brasil: mineralogia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcondes Lima da Costa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Several archaeological black earth (ABE sites occur in the Amazon region. They contain fragments of ceramic artifacts, which are very important for the archaeological purpose. In order to improve the archaeological study in the region we carried out a detailed mineralogical and chemical study of the fragments of ceramic artifacts found in the two ABE sites of Cachoeira-Porteira, in the Lower Amazon Region. Their ceramics comprise the following tempers: cauixi, cariapé, sand, sand +feldspars, crushed ceramic and so on and are composed of quartz, clay equivalent material (mainly burned kaolinite, feldspars, hematite, goethite, maghemite, phosphates, anatase, and minerals of Mn and Ba. Cauixi and cariapé, siliceous organic compounds, were found too. The mineralogical composition and the morphology of their grains indicate a saprolite (clayey material rich on quartz derived from fine-grained felsic igneous rocks or sedimentary rocks as source material for ceramic artifacts, where silica-rich components such cauixi, cariapé and/or sand (feldspar and rock fragments were intentionally added to them. The high content of (Al,Fe-phosphates, amorphous to low crystalline, must be product of the contact between the clayey matrix of pottery wall and the hot aqueous solution formed during the daily cooking of animal foods (main source of phosphor. The phosphate crystallization took place during the discharge of the potteries put together with waste of organic material from animal and vegetal origin, and leaving to the formation of the ABE-soil profile.Sítios arqueológicos com Terra Preta, denominados de Terra Preta de Índio ou ainda Terra Preta Arqueológica (TPA são muito freqüentes na Amazônia. As TPA geralmente contém fragmentos de vasos cerâmicos, por vezes abundantes, além de líticos, que são materiais de grande importância para os estudos arqueológicos. Para consubstanciar esses estudos, realizou-se pesquisas mineralógicas e químicas em

  12. Condition and fate of logged forests in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory P. Asner; Eben N. Broadbent; Paulo J. C. Oliveira; Michael Keller; David E. Knapp; Jose N. M. Silva

    2006-01-01

    The long-term viability of a forest industry in the Amazon region of Brazil depends on the maintenance of adequate timber volume and growth in healthy forests. Using extensive high-resolution satellite analyses, we studied the forest damage caused by recent logging operations and the likelihood that logged forests would be cleared within 4 years after timber harvest....

  13. Pollination Requirements and the Foraging Behavior of Potential Pollinators of Cultivated Brazil Nut (Bertholletia excelsa Bonpl. Trees in Central Amazon Rainforest

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    M. C. Cavalcante

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out with cultivated Brazil nut trees (Bertholletia excelsa Bonpl., Lecythidaceae in the Central Amazon rainforest, Brazil, aiming to learn about its pollination requirements, to know the floral visitors of Brazil nut flowers, to investigate their foraging behavior and to determine the main floral visitors of this plant species in commercial plantations. Results showed that B. excelsa is predominantly allogamous, but capable of setting fruits by geitonogamy. Nineteen bee species, belonging to two families, visited and collected nectar and/or pollen throughout the day, although the number of bees decreases steeply after 1000 HR. Only 16, out of the 19 bee species observed, succeeded entering the flower and potentially acted as pollinators. However, due to the abundance, flower frequency and foraging behavior of floral visitors, it was concluded that only the species Eulaema mocsaryi and Xylocopa frontalis could be considered relevant potential pollinators.

  14. Standardization of radiochemical techniques aiming the study of Hg volatilization and methylation in water and sediment of gold mining areas in the Amazon region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Jean Remy Davee

    1992-09-01

    Methylation of inorganic Hg in aquatic systems is a key process in the environmental cycling of this metal, not yet studied in tropical conditions. Radiochemical techniques were adapted and simplified, aiming at the study of Hg volatilization and methylation in water and sediment of gold mining areas in the Amazon region. Preliminary experiments showed, in 35 days volatilization of up to 32 % of 203 Hg 2+ added to aqueous solutions. Acid K 2 Cr 2 0 7 0.1 M solutions were not effective in 203 Hg 0 trapping and the latter was highly and irreversibly absorbed by a variety of synthetic materials commonly used in laboratory work. Considerably simplified versions of the Furutani and Rudd (1980) radiochemical technique for the determination of methylation rates in environmental samples were developed and showed efficiencies close to 90 % in tests with methyl- 2 0 3 H g standards. In-situ incubations of surface sediments were performed in the Madeira River gold mining region, Rondonia State, Brazil, and potential net Hg methylation rates (MR) of up to 1 %.g-1.h-1 were found in black-water affluent like the Mutum-Parana and Jamari rivers and in the Samuel reservoir. MRs in the Madeira River sediments were lower, ranging 10-5 to 10-3 %.g-1.h-1 . MRs obtained in incubations of samples some weeks after collection were one or two orders of magnitude lower than those resulting from in-situ incubations. Methylation in autoclaved samples was close to minimum detectable rates. MRs in surface water samples was in all cases < 7.10-7 %.ml-1.h-1. The determination of the predominant methylation sites will allow a better standardization of the technique described herein, suitable for MR determinations even under the unfavorable conditions prevailing in the Amazon region. (author)

  15. A Triatoma maculata (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae population from Roraima, Amazon region, Brazil, has some bionomic characteristics of a potential Chagas disease vector Uma população de Triatoma maculata (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae proveniente de Roraima, Amazônia, Brasil, possui algumas características bionômicas de vetor potencial de doença de Chagas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Luitgards-Moura

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Even though Chagas disease is rare in the Brazilian Amazon, the conditions for the establishment of domiciliated cycles prevail in many areas where triatomines are of frequent occurrence. In Roraima, a previous serological and entomological survey in three agricultural settlements showed the existence of all transmission cycle elements, i.e., individuals infected by Trypanosoma cruzi, triatomine species previously found harboring T. cruzi in the broader Amazon region of neighboring countries and, domicile/ peridomicile conditions favorable to triatomine colonization. Triatoma maculata was the most frequent species, found in chicken houses in the peridomicile and sporadically within residences. Aiming to investigate the possibility of T. maculata to possess the potentiality to transmit T. cruzi in the area, bionomic characteristics were studied under laboratory conditions. These were feeding frequency, time for defecation after a blood meal, time elapsed in voluntary fasting pre- and pos-ecdysis, moulting time periods, pre-oviposition and oviposition periods and index of oviposition, incubation period, egg viability, longevity and mortality rate. Results show that the Passarão population of T. maculata should be considered a potential vector of T. cruzi since it shows a capacity to infest artificial ecotopes in the peridomicile, to carry out large number of meals during the nymphal cycle, to have a relatively short developmental cycle capable of producing 2.9 generations/year, to blood source eclecticism, to defecate immediately after the blood meal while still on the host and to the fact that has been previously found naturally infected by T.cruzi.A doença de Chagas é de rara ocorrência na Região Amazônica Brasileira, onde contudo as condições para o estabelecimento de ciclos domésticos existem. Um estudo previamente realizado em áreas de colonização agrícola no Estado de Roraima, mostrou a possibilidade de ciclos autóctones de

  16. Using of cracked castor oil for supplying electric power to a small village in the Amazon region; Utilizacao de oleo de mamona craqueado para o atendimento de energia eletrica a pequena localidade na Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coimbra, Antonio Roberto; Miyazaki, Nelson Yukio; Pereira, Elson Crisostomo; Wolter, Neusa Rodrigues; Rodrigues Filho, Joao; Melo, Risoleta Saraiva de; Scavassa, Jose Luiz; Rizzo, Tulio Neiva; Lavor, Maria Eugenia S. de [ELETRONORTE, Brasilia, DF (Brazil)]. E-mail: jluiz@eln.gov.br

    1999-07-01

    This work demonstrates the viability of using cracked castor oil as a non conventional renewable energy source for electric power generation, at a small isolated community in the inland of the state of Amazon, Brazil.

  17. Limits to Knowledge: Indigenous Peoples, NGOs, and the Moral Economy in the Eastern Amazon of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Chernela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite widespread recognition of the importance of community-conservation partnerships, problems continue to emerge. In this paper we examine one such interaction to propose that outside organisations have wrongly associated the delimitations of the habitational space with the extent of community allegiances and moral economies. Such oversights can lead to project withdrawal, as they did in one case of an ecotourism proposal among the indigenous Kayapσ of the southeastern Amazon. The case study points to the challenges in the processes of partnering with local villages where histories of fissioning and factioning contain within them their own processual relations and moral obligations. These models, by which people group themselves into communities of loyalty, affectivity, and belonging, may be elusive to outsiders and account for many challenges in local-international collaborations. Western planners are often unprepared for the long reach of relationships relevant to project planning and benefit sharing. We suggest that in order to move forward with effective multi-participant community-based projects, project planners should take into account supra-spatial, and dynamic, moral economies.

  18. [Hepatitis B and C virus infection and the hepatocellular carcinoma in the East Amazon, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Esther Castello Branco Mello; Moia, Lizomar de Jesus Pereira; Amaral, Ivanete do Socorro Abraçado; Barbosa, Maria Silvia de Brito; Conde, Simone Regina Souza da Silva; de Araújo, Marialva Tereza Ferreira; da Cruz, Ermelinda do Rosário Moutinho; Demachki, Samia; Bensabath, Gilberta; Soares, Manoel do Carmo Pereira

    2004-01-01

    In order to contribute to a better understanding of the possible role of hepatits B and C in the etiopathogenis of HCC in the East Amazon, there were studied 36 patients in Belém/PA. Serological hepatitis markers were evaluated and polymerase chain reaction assays were used to detect HBV-DNA and HCV-RNA. Alcohol abuse was observed in 33.3% and cirrhosis in 83.3%. In 88.9% of the sample, one or more hepatitis B markers were positive. Also, 8.3% those patients had anti-HCV simultaneously positive. The HBsAg serological test was positive in 58.3%; anti-HBc in 86%; anti-HBe in 85.7%; anti-HBe in 9.5%; IgM anti-HBc in 57.1%. The HBV DNA was found in 37.7% and in 65% of the HBsAg positive. The HCV RNA was detected in 8.5% and in 100% of the patients positive to anti-HCV. The AFP was above the normal value in 88.9% of patients, with levels up to 400ng/ml in 75% of them. In conclusion, hepatitis B virus infection seems to be important in the etiology of HCC and improving measures such immunization and screening in the risk population should be emphasyzed.

  19. Structure of the parasites communities in two Erythrinidae fish from Amazon river system (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcântara, Natália Milhomem; Tavares-Dias, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the parasite communities of Hoplias malabaricus and Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus from Amazon river system. Hoplias malabaricus were infected by Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Piscinoodinium pillulare, Tetrahymena sp., Urocleidoides eremitus, Braga patagonica, metacercariae of Clinostomum marginatum, Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) inopinatus, larvae of Contracaecum sp. and larvae of Nomimoscolex matogrossensis. Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus were also infected by these same species of protozoans, nematodes, digeneans and cestodes, except for Tetrahymena sp. and B. patagonica, which were replaced by Argulus pestifer, Urocleidoides sp., Whittingtonocotyle caetei, Whittingtonocotyle jeju and Gorytocephalus spectabilis. For both hosts, I. multifiliis and P. pillulare were the predominant parasites. Most of the parasites presented an overdispersion. Parasite species richness, Brillouin diversity, evenness and Berger-Parker dominance were similar for the two hosts. The length and weight of H. malabaricus showed a positive correlation with the abundance of U. eremitus and Contracaecum sp., while the weight of H. unitaeniatus showed a positive correlation with the abundance of I. multifiliis. The diversity of ectoparasites seemed to be influenced by the behavior of these two hosts. This was shown by the similar parasite communities and was characterized by low species diversity, low evenness and low richness, and by a high prevalence of ectoparasites.

  20. Structure of the parasites communities in two Erythrinidae fish from Amazon river system (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Milhomem Alcântara

    Full Text Available This study compared the parasite communities of Hoplias malabaricus and Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus from Amazon river system. Hoplias malabaricus were infected by Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Piscinoodinium pillulare, Tetrahymena sp., Urocleidoides eremitus, Braga patagonica, metacercariae of Clinostomum marginatum, Procamallanus(Spirocamallanus inopinatus, larvae of Contracaecum sp. and larvae of Nomimoscolex matogrossensis. Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus were also infected by these same species of protozoans, nematodes, digeneans and cestodes, except for Tetrahymena sp. and B. patagonica, which were replaced by Argulus pestifer, Urocleidoides sp., Whittingtonocotylecaetei, Whittingtonocotyle jeju and Gorytocephalus spectabilis. For both hosts, I. multifiliis and P. pillulare were the predominant parasites. Most of the parasites presented an overdispersion. Parasite species richness, Brillouin diversity, evenness and Berger-Parker dominance were similar for the two hosts. The length and weight of H. malabaricusshowed a positive correlation with the abundance of U. eremitusand Contracaecum sp., while the weight of H. unitaeniatus showed a positive correlation with the abundance of I. multifiliis. The diversity of ectoparasites seemed to be influenced by the behavior of these two hosts. This was shown by the similar parasite communities and was characterized by low species diversity, low evenness and low richness, and by a high prevalence of ectoparasites.

  1. Natural Leishmania (Viannia) spp. infections in phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from the Brazilian Amazon region reveal new putative transmission cycles of American cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Adelson Alcimar Almeida; Dos Santos, Thiago Vasconcelos; Jennings, Yara Lúcia Lins; Ishikawa, Edna Aoba Yassui; Barata, Iorlando da Rocha; Silva, Maria das Graças Soares; Lima, José Aprígio Nunes; Shaw, Jeffrey; Lainson, Ralph; Silveira, Fernando Tobias

    2016-01-01

    In Amazonian Brazil the etiological agents of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) belong to at least seven Leishmania species but little is known about the putative phlebotomine sand fly vectors in different biomes. In 2002-2003 a survey of the phlebotomine fauna was undertaken in the "Floresta Nacional do Tapajós", Belterra municipality, in the lower Amazon region, western Pará State, Brazil, where we recently confirmed the presence of a putative hybrid parasite, L. (V.) guyanensis × L. (V.) shawi shawi. Sand flies were collected from Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps, Shannon traps and by aspiration on tree bases. Females were dissected and attempts to isolate any flagellate infections were made by inoculating homogenized midguts into Difco B(45) medium. Isolates were characterized by monoclonal antibodies and isoenzyme electrophoresis. A total of 9,704 sand flies, belonging to 68 species or subspecies, were collected. Infections were found in the following sand flies: L. (V.) naiffi with Psychodopygus hirsutus hirsutus (1) and Ps. davisi (2); and L. (V.) shawi shawi with Nyssomyia whitmani (3) and Lutzomyia gomezi (1). These results provide strong evidence of new putative transmission cycles for L. (V.) naiffi and L. (V.) s. shawi. © A.A.A. de Souza et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2016.

  2. Natural Leishmania (Viannia) spp. infections in phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from the Brazilian Amazon region reveal new putative transmission cycles of American cutaneous leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Adelson Alcimar Almeida; dos Santos, Thiago Vasconcelos; Jennings, Yara Lúcia Lins; Ishikawa, Edna Aoba Yassui; Barata, Iorlando da Rocha; Silva, Maria das Graças Soares; Lima, José Aprígio Nunes; Shaw, Jeffrey; Lainson, Ralph; Silveira, Fernando Tobias

    2016-01-01

    In Amazonian Brazil the etiological agents of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) belong to at least seven Leishmania species but little is known about the putative phlebotomine sand fly vectors in different biomes. In 2002–2003 a survey of the phlebotomine fauna was undertaken in the “Floresta Nacional do Tapajós”, Belterra municipality, in the lower Amazon region, western Pará State, Brazil, where we recently confirmed the presence of a putative hybrid parasite, L. (V.) guyanensis × L. (V.) shawi shawi. Sand flies were collected from Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps, Shannon traps and by aspiration on tree bases. Females were dissected and attempts to isolate any flagellate infections were made by inoculating homogenized midguts into Difco B45 medium. Isolates were characterized by monoclonal antibodies and isoenzyme electrophoresis. A total of 9,704 sand flies, belonging to 68 species or subspecies, were collected. Infections were found in the following sand flies: L. (V.) naiffi with Psychodopygus hirsutus hirsutus (1) and Ps. davisi (2); and L. (V.) shawi shawi with Nyssomyia whitmani (3) and Lutzomyia gomezi (1). These results provide strong evidence of new putative transmission cycles for L. (V.) naiffi and L. (V.) s. shawi. PMID:27235194

  3. Monogenoidea (Polyonchoinea: Dactylogyridae) parasitizing the gills of marine catfish (Siluriformes: Ariidae) inhabiting the Atlantic Amazon Coast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Marcus V; Soares, Geusivam B; Watanabe, Alana

    2016-06-23

    A parasitological survey of monogenoids infesting the gills of marine catfish (Ariidae) captured from the Atlantic coastal region of the Amazon Basin was carried out during the 2011-2013 period. The gills of 448 specimens involving twelve ariid species (29 Amphiarius rugispinis (Valenciennes), 52 Aspistor quadriscutis (Valenciennes), 74 Bagre bagre (Linnaeus), 16 Cathorops arenatus (Valenciennes), 13 Cathorops agassizii (Eigenmann & Eigenmann), 17 Cathorops spixii (Agassiz), 3 Cathorops sp., 13 Notarius grandicassis (Valenciennes), 14 Sciades couma (Valenciennes), 64 Sciades herzbergii (Bloch), 48 Sciades parkeri (Traill), 13 Sciades passany (Valenciennes), 92 Sciades proops (Valenciennes) were sampled. No monogenoids were found in Cathorops agassizi, Cathorops arenatus, Cathorops spixii, Cathorops sp. and Sciades parkeri, but the gills of the other sampled species were parasitized by at least one species of monogenoid. We identified four new species of Chauhanellus and one new species of Hamatopeduncularia: Chauhanellus hamatopeduncularoideum n. sp. from Amphiarius rugispinis and Sciades couma; Chauhanellus hypenocleithrum n. sp. from Sciades proops; Chauhanellus susamlimae n. sp. from Sciades herzbergii and Sciades passany; Chauhanellus velum n. sp. from Sciades couma, Sciades herzbergii and Sciades passany; and Hamatopeduncularia cangatae n. sp. from Aspistor quadriscutis and Notarius grandicassis. Four previously described species were reported for the first time parasitizing ariids from Atlantic Amazon: Chauhanellus neotropicalis Domingues & Fehlauer, 2006 from Amphiarius rugispinis, Aspistor quadriscutis, Notarius grandicassis and Sciades passany; Chauhanellus boegeri Domingues & Fehlauer, 2006 from Sciades couma and Sciades herzbergii; Hamatopeduncularia bagre Hargis, 1955 from Bagre bagre; and Neomurraytrematoides proops Zambrano & Añez 1993 from Sciades passany. The monotypic Neomurraytrematoides Zambrano & Añez 1993 was placed in synonymy with

  4. Characterization of Aspergillus species on Brazil nut from the Brazilian Amazonian region and development of a PCR assay for identification at the genus level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midorikawa, Glaucia E O; de Sousa, Maria de Lourdes M; Freitas Silva, Otniel; Dias, Jurema do Socorro A; Kanzaki, Luis I B; Hanada, Rogerio E; Mesquita, Renata M L C; Gonçalves, Rivadalve C; Alvares, Virginia S; Bittencourt, Daniela M C; Miller, Robert N G

    2014-05-30

    Brazil nut is a protein-rich extractivist tree crop in the Amazon region. Fungal contamination of shells and kernel material frequently includes the presence of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species from the section Flavi. Aflatoxins are polyketide secondary metabolites, which are hepatotoxic carcinogens in mammals. The objectives of this study were to identify Aspergillus species occurring on Brazil nut grown in different states in the Brazilian Amazon region and develop a specific PCR method for collective identification of member species of the genus Aspergillus. Polyphasic identification of 137 Aspergillus strains isolated from Brazil nut shell material from cooperatives across the Brazilian Amazon states of Acre, Amapá and Amazonas revealed five species, with Aspergillus section Flavi species A. nomius and A. flavus the most abundant. PCR primers ASP_GEN_MTSSU_F1 and ASP_GEN_MTSSU_R1 were designed for the genus Aspergillus, targeting a portion of the mitochondrial small subunit ribosomal RNA gene. Primer specificity was validated through both electronic PCR against target gene sequences at Genbank and in PCR reactions against DNA from Aspergillus species and other fungal genera common on Brazil nut. Collective differentiation of the observed section Flavi species A. flavus, A. nomius and A. tamarii from other Aspergillus species was possible on the basis of RFLP polymorphism. Given the abundance of Aspergillus section Flavi species A. nomius and A. flavus observed on Brazil nut, and associated risk of mycotoxin accumulation, simple identification methods for such mycotoxigenic species are of importance for Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system implementation. The assay for the genus Aspergillus represents progress towards specific PCR identification and detection of mycotoxigenic species.

  5. A new species of Scinax Wagler, 1830 (Anura: Hylidae from the middle Amazon river basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo José Sturaro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the hylid genus Scinax is described and illustrated. The new taxon was found in the Amazonian rainforest of northern Brazil, municipalities of Maués and Careiro da Várzea, state of Amazonas. The new species is characterized by its moderate size (male mean snout-vent length 36.3mm; body robust; large, orange, black-bordered axillary and inguinal spots; and bilobate vocal sac. This new species was found in primary and secondary forest on branches of shrubs or trees in, or next to, permanent ponds and flooded areas.

  6. Mercury in muscle and brain of catfish from the Madeira river, Amazon, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Wanderley R; Dórea, José G; Bernardi, José Vicente E; Lauthartte, Leidiane C; Mussy, Marilia H; Hauser, Marília; Dória, Carolina Rodrigues da C; Malm, Olaf

    2015-08-01

    The central nervous system is a critical target for Hg toxicity in all living organisms. Total Hg (THg) was determined in brain and muscle samples of 165 specimens of eight species of catfish (Brachyplatystoma filamentosum; Brachyplatystoma platynemum; Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii; Brachyplatystoma vaillantii; Phractocephalus hemiliopterus; Pseudoplatystoma punctifer; Pseudoplatystoma tigrinum; Zungaro zungaro) from the Madeira River, Brazilian Amazon. Despite the narrow range of Fishbase trophic level (4.2-4.6) the median THg concentrations ranged from 0.39 to 1.99mg/kg and from 0.03 to 0.29mg/kg respectively in muscle and brain from the studied species. Overall, the median concentration for all samples analyzed was 0.93mg/kg and 0.16mg/kg respectively in muscle and brain; most samples (76%) showed muscle Hg concentrations >0.5mg/kg. There were statistically significant THg differences between sex (female>males). The correlation between THg concentrations in muscle and brain was statistically significant (r=0.9170; p<0.0001). In the studied specimens, fish total length was significantly correlated with muscle (r=0.3163; p=0.0001) and brain (r=0.3039; p=0.0003) THg; however, fish age was negatively and significantly correlated (r=-0.2991; p=0.0012) with THg in muscle but not with THg in brain (r=-0.0190; p=0.8492). Amazonian catfish accumulate high levels of Hg in muscle and brain; however, brain-THg concentrations can be predicted from muscle-THg. Muscle-Hg in catfish can be a tool to detect brain-Hg concentrations associated with environmental Hg. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. First description of Leishmania (Viannia) infection in Evandromyia saulensis, Pressatia sp. and Trichophoromyia auraensis (Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in a transmission area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Acre state, Amazon Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo-Pereira, Thais; de Pita-Pereira, Daniela; Boité, Mariana Côrtes; Melo, Myllena; da Costa-Rego, Taiana Amancio; Fuzari, Andressa Alencastre; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha; Britto, Constança

    2017-01-01

    Studies on the sandfly fauna to evaluate natural infection indexes are still limited in the Brazilian Amazon, a region with an increasing incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Here, by using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction directed to Leishmania kDNA and hybridisation, we were able to identify L. (Viannia) subgenus in 12 out of 173 sandflies captured in the municipality of Rio Branco, Acre state, revealing a positivity of 6.94%. By sequencing the Leishmania 234 bp-hsp70 amplified products from positive samples, infection by L. (V.) braziliensis was confirmed in five sandflies: one Evandromyia saulensis, three Trichophoromyia auraensis and one Pressatia sp. The finding of L. (Viannia) DNA in two Ev. saulensis corresponds to the first record of possible infection associated with this sandfly. Moreover, our study reveals for the first time in Brazil, Th. auraensis and Pressatia sp. infected by L. (Viannia) parasites. PMID:28076470

  8. Palaeohydrological controls on sedimentary organic matter in an Amazon floodplain lake, Lake Maracá (Brazil) during the late Holocene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira, L.S.; Moreira-Turcq, P.; Turcq, B.; Cordeiro, R.C.; Kim, J.-H.; Caquineau, S.; Mandeng-Yogo, M.; Macario, K.D.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2013-01-01

    In order to understand the impact of hydrological changes of the Amazon River on sedimentary organic matter (OM) composition in Amazonian floodplain lakes, three sediment cores were collected from Lake Maracá (eastern Amazonia) along a transect from the Amazon River main channel to inland. The cores

  9. GoAmazon – Scaling Amazon Carbon Water Couplings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubey, Manvendra Krishna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-06

    Forests soak up 25% of the carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted by anthropogenic fossil energy use (10 Gt C y-1) moderating its atmospheric accumulation. How this terrestrial CO2 uptake will evolve with climate change in the 21st century is largely unknown. Rainforests are the most active ecosystems with the Amazon basin storing 120 Gt C as biomass and exchanging 18 Gt C y-1 of CO2 via photosynthesis and respiration and fixing carbon at 2-3 kg C m-2 y-1. Furthermore, the intense hydrologic and carbon cycles are tightly coupled in the Amazon where about half of the water is recycled by evapotranspiration and the other half imported from the ocean by Northeasterly trade winds. Climate models predict a drying in the Amazon with reduced carbon uptake while observationally guided assessments indicate sustained uptake. We will resolve this huge discrepancy in the size and sign of the future Amazon carbon cycle by performing the first simultaneous regional scale high frequency measurements of atmospheric CO2, H2O, HOD, CH4, N2O and CO at the T3 site in Manacupuru, Brazil as part of DOE's GoAmazon project. Our data will be used to inform and develop DOE's CLM on the tropical carbon-water couplings at the appropriate grid scale (10-50km). Our measurements will also validate the CO2 data from Japan's GOSAT and NASA's imminent OCO-2 satellite (launch date July 2014).

  10. Genetic variability among Anopheles species belonging to the Nyssorhynchus and Anopheles subgenera in the Amazon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroni, Raquel Borges; Maia, Juracy de Freitas; Tadei, Wanderli Pedro; Santos, Joselita Maria Mendes dos

    2010-01-01

    Isoenzymatic analyses were performed involving species of the Nyssorhynchus and Anopheles subgenera in order to estimate the intra and interspecies genetic variability. Mosquitoes were caught at different localities in the Amazon region. The collection and rearing of mosquitoes in the laboratory followed specific protocols. For the genetic variability analyses, the technique of horizontal electrophoresis on starch and starch-agarose gel with appropriate buffer systems was used. The alloenzyme variation was estimated using the Biosys-1 software. Out of the 13 loci, eight were polymorphic. Anopheles nuneztovari presented the largest number of alleles per locus, while the smallest number was detected in Anopheles marajoara from Macapá. The largest number of polymorphic loci was found for Anopheles marajoara from Maruanum and the smallest for Anopheles benarrochi (Guayará Mirim). Anopheles darlingi (Macapá) presented the greatest heterozygosity (Ho = 0.167 +/- 0.071), while the lowest heterozygosity (Ho = 0.045 +/- 0.019) was observed in Anopheles intermedius (Pacoval) of the subgenus Anopheles. Wright's F coefficient revealed considerable genetic structuring between the populations of Anopheles darlingi (Fst = 0.110) and between the populations of Anopheles marajoara (Fst = 0.082). Considering all the species studied, the genetic distance ranged from 0.008 to 1.114. The greatest distance was between Anopheles mattogrossensis and Anopheles oswaldoi, while the smallest was between the Anopheles benarrochi populations.

  11. Agribusiness in Amazon: threats and opportunities for sustainable development of the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo da Cruz de Araujo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The advance of agribusiness in the Amazon has been the subject of debate and controversy. If on one hand it is an activity of great economic significance for the country, on the other hand can leads to various environmental impacts and thus compromise the sustainable development of the region. This paper aimed to contrast the positive and negative aspects of the activity, through a bibliographic-analytical research. The analysis concluded that the preservationism does not seem realistic and feasible, because ecosystems are always and inevitably altered to meet the resource demands for mankind. At the same time, this supply cannot happen in a disorganized and random way, without the least care criteria that ensure the future availability of such resources. It was concluded that the high yield provided by livestock and agricultural industry makes it very difficult the compliance of solutions that facilitate conservation only through "command and control", indicating that its association with additional mechanisms such as restriction of markets only to producers who effectively adopt environmental management on their properties forms a more effective set in combating deforestation.

  12. The mystery of the 'resin-of-canuaru': a medicine used by caboclos river-dwellers of the Amazon, Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, E; Santos, J de F L; Souza, S M; Lago, J H G

    2012-12-18

    'Resin-of-canuaru' is a medicine utilized by caboclos living in the Amazon Region, Brazil. There is a mystery regarding its origin because the caboclos maintain that this substance is derived only from animal secretions (from a frog called canuaru), whereas the historic literature claims that 'resin-of-canuaru' is derived solely from a plant exudate (resin). Based on our ethnographic studies, we hypothesized that this substance is a combination of both. Because the past reports on this resiniferous material in the literature are based solely on observations, we aimed to present ethnographic, zoological and chemical data to try to elucidate the origin of the 'resin-of-canuaru'. Ethnographic techniques and methods were applied, including participant observation, the use of field diaries and informal and unstructured interviews. The canuaru frog (Trachycephalus resinifictrix Goeldi, 1907) and 'resin-of-canuaru' were collected for taxonomic identification and chemical analysis, respectively. The resiniferous 'resin-of-canuaru' was extracted using MeOH and then analyzed by silica gel TLC and NMR. Canuaru frogs live in tree cavities and secrete a large amount of substances during spawning, resulting in a resiniferous material. NMR analysis of the MeOH extract of this crude material showed peaks assigned to 3,4-secofriedel-4(23)-en-3-oic acid (putranjuvic acid) and its methyl ester derivative (methyl putranjivate) and to biogenetic precursor of these two compounds (a lactone derivative), which is formed by the oxidation of friedelin. Based on evidence that Protium species accumulate primarily tetracyclic/pentacyclic triterpenoids and that the co-occurrence of the compounds listed above is rarely described in plant species, we suggest that these compounds could be products of the biotransformation of friedelin by the frog. According to our data, the 'resin-of-canuaru' seems to have both animal and vegetal origins. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Preliminary Measurements Of N2O Partial Pressures In Rivers of Amazon Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, C. B.; Rasera, M. F.; Krusche, A. V.; Victoria, R. L.; Richey, J. E.; Cunha, H. B.; Gomes, B. M.

    2006-12-01

    The concentrations of nitrous oxide (N2O), an important component of the greenhouse effect and with a long residence time in the atmosphere, have significantly increased in this century. The reasons for this atmospheric increase in N2O are still partially unexplained. This uncertainty is worse in relation to aquatic environments. Here we report on preliminary measurements of N2O partial pressures in rivers of the Amazon basin. The study areas are in the state of Rondonia (rivers Ji Parana, Urupa, Comemoracao and Pimenta Bueno) and Amazonas (rivers Solimoes and Negro). The rivers were sampled from October 2005 to April 2006, using with immersion pumps, lowered in the middle of the channel to 60% of total depth. Water was pumped directly into a 1 l plastic bottle, which was overflown three times before closing. Using syringes, 60 ml of N2 were injected into the bottle, simultaenously to the withdrawn of 60 ml of sample. N2O was extracted into these 60 ml of N2 by shaking vigorously for 2 minutes. With the same syringes, the gas was taken from the bottles and injected into sealed evacuated 25 ml vials. Atmospheric samples were taken from one meter above the water column and stored the same way. N2O partial pressures were determined on a Shimadzu GC-14 Green House Gas Analyzer. All rivers showed little variations in N2O partial pressures. Average values in the rivers of Rondonia were around 0.41 ± 0.07 μ atm (n=46), whereas the Solimoes and Negro rivers, in the state of Amazonas, showed values around 0.43 ± 0.08 μ atm (n=131). Atmospheric averages were approximately 0.34 ± 0.04 μ atm (n=58) and 0.32 ± 0.03 μ atm (n=134) in the states of Rondonia and Amazonas, respectively. This means that, although these waters are supersatured in CO2, making evasive fluxes of this gas an important component of the C cycle in this basin, the same does not occur in the N cycle. Small differences in partial pressures of N2O between water and air will result in small fluxes of

  14. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhout van Solinge, T.

    2015-01-01

    This essay takes a (green) criminological and multidisciplinary perspective on deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, by focusing on the crimes and damages that are associated with Amazonian deforestation. The analysis and results are partly based on longer ethnographic stays in North Brazil (Amazon

  15. Greenhouse Gas Induced Changes in the Seasonal Cycle of the Amazon Basin in Coupled Climate-Vegetation Regional Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Justino

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous work suggests that changes in seasonality could lead to a 70% reduction in the extent of the Amazon rainforest. The primary cause of the dieback of the rainforest is a lengthening of the dry season due to a weakening of the large-scale tropical circulation. Here we examine these changes in the seasonal cycle. Under present day conditions the Amazon climate is characterized by a zonal separation of the dominance of the annual and semi-annual seasonal cycles. This behavior is strongly modified under greenhouse warming conditions, with the annual cycle becoming dominant throughout the Amazon basin, increasing differences between the dry and wet seasons. In particular, there are substantial changes in the annual cycle of temperature due to the increase in the temperature of the warmest month, but the lengthening of the dry season is believed to be particularly important for vegetation-climate feedbacks. Harmonic analysis performed to regional climate model simulations yields results that differ from the global climate model that it is forced from, with the regional model being more sensitive to changes in the seasonal cycle.

  16. Using Satellite Error Modeling to Improve GPM-Level 3 Rainfall Estimates over the Central Amazon Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo Oliveira

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to assess the characteristics and uncertainty of Integrated Multisatellite Retrievals for Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM (IMERG Level 3 rainfall estimates and to improve those estimates using an error model over the central Amazon region. The S-band Amazon Protection National System (SIPAM radar is used as reference and the Precipitation Uncertainties for Satellite Hydrology (PUSH framework is adopted to characterize uncertainties associated with the satellite precipitation product. PUSH is calibrated and validated for the study region and takes into account factors like seasonality and surface type (i.e., land and river. Results demonstrated that the PUSH model is suitable for characterizing errors in the IMERG algorithm when compared with S-band SIPAM radar estimates. PUSH could efficiently predict the satellite rainfall error distribution in terms of spatial and intensity distribution. However, an underestimation (overestimation of light satellite rain rates was observed during the dry (wet period, mainly over rivers. Although the estimated error showed a lower standard deviation than the observed error, the correlation between satellite and radar rainfall was high and the systematic error was well captured along the Negro, Solimões, and Amazon rivers, especially during the wet season.

  17. Wood-fuel biomass from the Madeira River: A sustainable option for electricity production in the Amazon region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacellar, Atlas Augusto, E-mail: abacellar@ufam.edu.b [Center of Amazonic Energy Development, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Campus Universitario, Av. General Rodrigo Octavio Jordao Ramos, 3000, 69077-000 Manaus, Amazonas (Brazil); Rocha, Brigida R.P. [Post-Graduate Program in Electrical Engineering, Institute of Technology, Universidade Federal do Para, Rua Augusto Correa 1, Guama, 66075-110 Belem, Para (Brazil)

    2010-09-15

    The universal provision of electricity remains far from achieved in the Brazilian Amazon, given the geographical obstacles, the dispersion of its inhabitants, the indistinctness of appropriate technologies, and the economic obstacles. Governmental action was taken in 2003 with the creation of the Light for All Program (PLpT), with the goal of bringing electricity to all rural consumers by 2010. In addition, the National Electric Power Agency, ANEEL (Agencia Nacional de Energia Eletrica), which is responsible in Brazil for the electrical sector regulation, has issued a determination of compulsory access to electricity by 2015. This study describes research conducted on the Madeira River, in the Brazilian Amazon, where the electric needs of the communities and small towns along the river can be satisfied through the gasification system, using as a renewable feedstock the wood-fuel biomass deposited on the riverbed, derived from natural processes, which the Ministry of Transport is already legally obligated to remove in order to provide safe navigation along the river. The study concludes by comparing the competitiveness of this system to diesel thermoelectric plants, along with its advantages in reducing the emission of greenhouse gases. Our results should help future studies in others areas with similar phenomena.

  18. Wood-fuel biomass from the Madeira River. A sustainable option for electricity production in the Amazon region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacellar, Atlas Augusto [Center of Amazonic Energy Development, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Campus Universitario, Av. General Rodrigo Octavio Jordao Ramos, 3000, 69077-000 Manaus, Amazonas (Brazil); Rocha, Brigida R.P. [Post-Graduate Program in Electrical Engineering, Institute of Technology, Universidade Federal do Para, Rua Augusto Correa 1, Guama, 66075-110 Belem, Para (Brazil)

    2010-09-15

    The universal provision of electricity remains far from achieved in the Brazilian Amazon, given the geographical obstacles, the dispersion of its inhabitants, the indistinctness of appropriate technologies, and the economic obstacles. Governmental action was taken in 2003 with the creation of the Light for All Program (PLpT), with the goal of bringing electricity to all rural consumers by 2010. In addition, the National Electric Power Agency, ANEEL (Agencia Nacional de Energia Eletrica), which is responsible in Brazil for the electrical sector regulation, has issued a determination of compulsory access to electricity by 2015. This study describes research conducted on the Madeira River, in the Brazilian Amazon, where the electric needs of the communities and small towns along the river can be satisfied through the gasification system, using as a renewable feedstock the wood-fuel biomass deposited on the riverbed, derived from natural processes, which the Ministry of Transport is already legally obligated to remove in order to provide safe navigation along the river. The study concludes by comparing the competitiveness of this system to diesel thermoelectric plants, along with its advantages in reducing the emission of greenhouse gases. Our results should help future studies in others areas with similar phenomena. (author)

  19. Avaliação dos níveis de exposição ao mercúrio entre índios Pakaanóva, Amazônia, Brasil Mercury exposure among Pakaanóva Indians, Amazon Region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth C. Oliveira Santos

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Um estudo seccional foi realizado para avaliar os níveis de exposição ao mercúrio (Hg entre 910 índios Pakaanóva, residentes nos municípios de Guajará Mirim e Nova Marmoré no Estado de Rondônia, Brasil. Amostras de cabelo da região occipital foram coletadas de cada participante do estudo e os teores de Hg determinados por Espectrofotometria de Absorção Atômica com Geração de Vapor Frio. Os teores médios de Hg nas amostras de cabelo foram de 8,37µg/g (0,52-83,89µg/g, indicando exposição elevada. Crianças de até 2 anos e entre 3 e 5 anos de idade apresentaram médias de 10,54µg/g e 9,34µg/g, respectivamente. Os teores médios de Hg nas mulheres (8,91µg/g são mais elevados do que os valores observados nos homens (7,55µg/g, sendo esta diferença estatisticamente significante (t = 3,26; p A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate mercury (Hg exposure among 910 Pakaanóva Indians from the counties of Guajará Mirim and Nova Marmoré, Rondônia State, Brazil. Individual hair samples were taken from the occipital region, and Hg was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry with cold vapor generation. Mean Hg in hair samples was 8.37 µg/g (range 0.52-83.89, indicating high exposure. Young children (< 2 years old showed a mean Hg of 10.54 µg/g, and children from 3 to 5 years old had a mean Hg of 9.34µg/g. Mercury levels in women (8,91µg/g were higher than in men (7.55µg/g, and this difference was significant (t = 3.26; p < 0.01. These results indicate the need for surveillance programs and complementary studies including the Pakaanóva Indians in Rondônia State.

  20. Crinoids columnals (Echinodermata) of the Ererê Formation (late Eifelian-early Givetian, Amazon Basin), State of Pará, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, S. M.; Fernandes, A. C. S. F.; da Fonseca, V. M. M.

    2014-01-01

    The faunal composition of stalked echinoderms in the Brazilian Devonian is still largely unknown despite the great abundance of crinoids in the shallow epicontinental seas of the Paleozoic. The first Devonian crinoids of Brazil, recorded in the literature in 1875 and 1903, were from the sedimentary rocks of the Ererê Formation in the Amazon Basin. Since then, the echinoderms of this formation have not been studied. This study, based on isolated pluricolumnals and columnals, described and identified Botryocrinus meloi n. sp., the first record for this genus in Brazil. In addition to this species, two other morphological patterns were identified: Tjeecrinus sp. and Morphotype AM/Er-01. The form of occurrence of the crinoid material and the paleoautoecology of B. meloi allow preliminary characterization of the habitat as a moderately deep water with weak to moderate currents and soft substrate. The similarity between B. meloi and Botryocrinus montguyonensis and of Tjeecrinus? sp. and T. crassijugatus, from the Devonian of the Armorican and Rhenan Massif, represents new evidence for the existence of contact between the faunas of the Amazon Basin with those of northern Gondwana and Armorica during the Middle Devonian.

  1. Impacts of animal traffic on the Brazilian Amazon parrots (Amazona species) collection of the Quinzinho de Barros Municipal Zoological Park, Brazil, 1986-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanstreels, Ralph Eric Thijl; Teixeira, Rodrigo Hidalgo Friciello; Camargo, Luis Carlos; Nunes, Adauto Luis Veloso; Matushima, Eliana Reiko

    2010-01-01

    Eleven species of Amazon parrots (genus Amazona) are known to occur in Brazil, and nest poaching and illegal traffic pose serious conservation threats to these species. When the illegal owners realize these animals are incompatible with their expectations and lifestyle, or when the police arrests traders and owners, these trafficked animals are often considered unfit for release and sent to local zoos and captive breeders. A retrospective survey of animal and necropsy records from 1986 to 2007 was used to evaluate the impacts of animal traffic on the population composition and mortality patterns of Amazon parrots at the Quinzinho de Barros Municipal Zoological Park, Sorocaba, Brazil. Data were obtained for 374 Amazon parrots of ten Brazilian species, and there was evidence that the studied population could be split into two major groups: a majority belonging to the Amazona aestiva species and a minority belonging to the remaining species. In comparison, the animals of the first group were more frequently admitted from traffic-related origins (98 vs. 75%), had a shorter lifespan (median 301 days vs. 848 days) and a higher mortality within the first year postadmission (54 vs. 37%), were less likely to receive expensive treatments, and were more frequently housed off-exhibit. On an average, parrots were found to have a short postadmission lifespan (median 356 days), with 92.5% of the birds dying within their first five years in captivity. The paper discusses the difficult dilemmas these incoming traffic-related animals pose to zoo management and official anti-traffic policies. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Genetic diversity in Jatropha species from different regions of Brazil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic diversity in Jatropha species from different regions of Brazil based on morphological characters and inters-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) molecular markers. ... There was no relation between similarity patterns and geographical origin of accesses in the group analysis. Average percentage of polymorphism found ...

  3. Ultrastructural, Antigenic and Physicochemical Characterization of the Mojuí dos Campos (Bunyavirus Isolated from Bat in the Brazilian Amazon Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanzeller Ana LM

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mojuí dos Campos virus (MDCV was isolated from the blood of an unidentified bat (Chiroptera captured in Mojuí dos Campos, Santarém, State of Pará, Brazil, in 1975 and considerated to be antigenically different from other 102 arboviruses belonging to several antigenic groups isolated in the Amazon region or another region by complement fixation tests. The objective of this work was to develop a morphologic, an antigenic and physicochemical characterization of this virus. MDCV produces cytopathic effect in Vero cells, 24 h post-infection (p.i, and the degree of cellular destruction increases after a few hours. Negative staining electron microscopy of the supernatant of Vero cell cultures showed the presence of coated viral particles with a diameter of around 98 nm. Ultrathin sections of Vero cells, and brain and liver of newborn mice infected with MDCV showed an assembly of the viral particles into the Golgi vesicles. The synthesis kinetics of the proteins for MDCV were similar to that observed for other bunyaviruses, and viral proteins could be detected as early as 6 h p.i. Our results reinforce the original studies which had classified MDCV in the family Bunyaviridae, genus Bunyavirus as an ungrouped virus, and it may represent the prototype of a new serogroup.

  4. NTFP harvesters as citizen scientists: Validating traditional and crowdsourced knowledge on seed production of Brazil nut trees in the Peruvian Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evert Thomas

    Full Text Available Understanding the factors that underlie the production of non-timber forest products (NTFPs, as well as regularly monitoring production levels, are key to allow sustainability assessments of NTFP extractive economies. Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa, Lecythidaceae seed harvesting from natural forests is one of the cornerstone NTFP economies in Amazonia. In the Peruvian Amazon it is organized in a concession system. Drawing on seed production estimates of >135,000 individual Brazil nut trees from >400 concessions and ethno-ecological interviews with >80 concession holders, here we aimed to (i assess the accuracy of seed production estimates by Brazil nut seed harvesters, and (ii validate their traditional ecological knowledge (TEK about the variables that influence Brazil nut production. We compared productivity estimates with actual field measurements carried out in the study area and found a positive correlation between them. Furthermore, we compared the relationships between seed production and a number of phenotypic, phytosanitary and environmental variables described in literature with those obtained for the seed production estimates and found high consistency between them, justifying the use of the dataset for validating TEK and innovative hypothesis testing. As expected, nearly all TEK on Brazil nut productivity was corroborated by our data. This is reassuring as Brazil nut concession holders, and NTFP harvesters at large, rely on their knowledge to guide the management of the trees upon which their extractive economies are based. Our findings suggest that productivity estimates of Brazil nut trees and possibly other NTFP-producing species could replace or complement actual measurements, which are very expensive and labour intensive, at least in areas where harvesters have a tradition of collecting NTFPs from the same trees over multiple years or decades. Productivity estimates might even be sourced from harvesters through registers on an

  5. NTFP harvesters as citizen scientists: Validating traditional and crowdsourced knowledge on seed production of Brazil nut trees in the Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Evert; Valdivia, Jheyson; Alcázar Caicedo, Carolina; Quaedvlieg, Julia; Wadt, Lucia Helena O; Corvera, Ronald

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the factors that underlie the production of non-timber forest products (NTFPs), as well as regularly monitoring production levels, are key to allow sustainability assessments of NTFP extractive economies. Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa, Lecythidaceae) seed harvesting from natural forests is one of the cornerstone NTFP economies in Amazonia. In the Peruvian Amazon it is organized in a concession system. Drawing on seed production estimates of >135,000 individual Brazil nut trees from >400 concessions and ethno-ecological interviews with >80 concession holders, here we aimed to (i) assess the accuracy of seed production estimates by Brazil nut seed harvesters, and (ii) validate their traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) about the variables that influence Brazil nut production. We compared productivity estimates with actual field measurements carried out in the study area and found a positive correlation between them. Furthermore, we compared the relationships between seed production and a number of phenotypic, phytosanitary and environmental variables described in literature with those obtained for the seed production estimates and found high consistency between them, justifying the use of the dataset for validating TEK and innovative hypothesis testing. As expected, nearly all TEK on Brazil nut productivity was corroborated by our data. This is reassuring as Brazil nut concession holders, and NTFP harvesters at large, rely on their knowledge to guide the management of the trees upon which their extractive economies are based. Our findings suggest that productivity estimates of Brazil nut trees and possibly other NTFP-producing species could replace or complement actual measurements, which are very expensive and labour intensive, at least in areas where harvesters have a tradition of collecting NTFPs from the same trees over multiple years or decades. Productivity estimates might even be sourced from harvesters through registers on an annual basis

  6. Offspring production in three freshwater crab species (Brachyura: Pseudothelphusidae from the Amazon region and Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo S. Wehrtmann

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater crabs are an important component of the fauna of limnic environments, and out of the two true freshwater crab families present in the Neotropics, Pseudothelphusidae is the most diverse. Considering the lack of information regarding reproductive features of neotropical freshwater crabs, we studied, for the first time, the fecundity and the presence of juveniles carried by females of two pseudothelphusids from the Amazon region - Kingsleya latifrons (Randall, 1840 and Kingsleya ytupora Magalhães, 1986 - and one from Central America - Potamocarcinus magnus (Rathbun, 1896. The two Kingsleya species produced relatively few (56-114 and large eggs (1.9-3.7 mm, typical for species with an abbreviated or direct development. Recently produced eggs were substantially larger in K. latifrons (mean 2.83 mm when compared to those of K. ytupora (mean 1.87 mm; however, at the end of the embryogenesis, mean egg diameter was similar in both species. Therefore, it is assumed that hatchlings in both species should have a similar size. A brief description of attached juveniles of K. ytupora is provided. The number of juveniles varied between 30 (K. ytupora and 179 (P. magnus; two size groups of juveniles were found, which indicates that the offspring cling to their mother for a prolonged period of time. There was no significant loss of eggs and juveniles; it is assumed that parental care diminishes the loss of their offspring. We compiled the available information of reproductive aspects from freshwater crabs: egg diameter was in the range of 2-3 mm, independent of female size and fecundity, and reported egg number varied between 9 and 417 eggs.

  7. Diazotrophic Burkholderia species isolated from the Amazon region exhibit phenotypical, functional and genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Krisle; Cassetari, Alice de Souza; Lima, Adriana Silva; De Brandt, Evie; Pinnock, Eleanor; Vandamme, Peter; Moreira, Fatima Maria de Souza

    2012-06-01

    Forty-eight Burkholderia isolates from different land use systems in the Amazon region were compared to type strains of Burkholderia species for phenotypic and functional characteristics that can be used to promote plant growth. Most of these isolates (n=46) were obtained by using siratro (Macroptilium atropurpureum - 44) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris - 2) as the trap plant species; two isolates were obtained from nodules collected in the field from Indigofera suffruticosa and Pithecellobium sp. The evaluated characteristics were the following: colony characterisation on "79" medium, assimilation of different carbon sources, enzymatic activities, solubilisation of phosphates, nitrogenase activity and antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporium f. sp. phaseoli. Whole cell protein profiles, 16S rRNA, gyrB, and recA gene sequencing and multilocus sequence typing were used to identify the isolates. The isolates showed different cultural and biochemical characteristics depending on the legume species from which they were obtained. Except for one isolate from I. suffruticosa, all isolates were able to solubilise calcium phosphate and present nitrogenase activity under free-living conditions. Only one isolate from common beans, showed antifungal activity. The forty four isolates from siratro nodules were identified as B. fungorum; isolates UFLA02-27 and UFLA02-28, obtained from common bean plants, were identified as B. contaminans; isolate INPA89A, isolated from Indigofera suffruticosa, was a close relative of B. caribensis but could not be assigned to an established species; isolate INPA42B, isolated from Pithecellobium sp., was identified as B. lata. This is the first report of nitrogenase activity in B. fungorum, B. lata and B. contaminans. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  8. Aircraft Observations into the Characteristics of Biomass Burning Instigated 'Regional Haze' Over the Amazon during the SAMBBA Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbyshire, Eoghan

    2013-04-01

    E. J. N. Darbyshire, J. D. Allan, M. Flynn, W. T. Morgan, A. Hodgson, B. T. Johnson, J. M. Haywood, K. Longo, P. Artaxo and H. Coe Aerosols associated with large scale Biomass Burning (BB) impact upon weather and climate at global and regional scales. However, quantitative evaluation of these effects is impeded by i) a limited understanding of BB processes and ii) a lack of quantitative knowledge of precise BB aerosol physiochemical characteristics, thus resulting in large model uncertainties. One region where these uncertainties are especially manifest is the Amazon Basin (AzB). Intense and widespread burning results in high atmospheric loadings of BB aerosol, which over the course of the dry season develops into a so-called 'regional haze'. This cloaks the AzB in a complex and inhomogeneous mix of BB emissions, characterized by large Aerosol Optical Depths (>1), low visibility and poor air quality. This haze has a substantial impact on the radiation budget over the AzB through direct scattering/absorption and indirect cloud microphysics effects. In order to best constrain the model uncertainties, and given the scale of the AzB earth-atmosphere system, an intensive observation campaign by multiple international institutions was instigated in the South American Biomass Burning Analyses (SAMBBA) project. The findings reported here are from the SAMBBA aircraft campaign, conducted during the 2012 dry season using the large UK research aircraft (FAAM BAe-146). The dense (high AOD), persistent haze expected throughout the campaign was only present for the first five or so days, due to removal via washout/transportation associated with large storms. For the remaining period, a haze was present but much reduced in area and intensity (mostly AOD's Cerrado agricultural fires in Mato Grosso. Thus, the ten (of twenty) SAMMBA flights that encountered haze, sampled from a diversity of haze types. The haze was sampled using the standard instrumentation suite available onboard

  9. The Amazon's energetic paradox; O paradoxo energetico da Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcos Vinicius Miranda da [Grupo de Estudos em Educacao, Cultura e Meio Ambiente (GEAM), Belem, PA (Brazil)]. E-mail: marcos_v_m_silva@yahoo.com; Bermann, Celio [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia]. E-mail: cbermann@iee.usp.br

    1999-07-01

    The main energy sources in Amazon region are hydroelectric, biomass, and natural gas. Although abundance of these resources, the energy consumption in this region is one of the most low of Brazil. The article overviews this paradox. In this context, economical, geopolitical, and technical aspects are presented.

  10. Long seismic activity in the Porto dos Gaúchos Seismic Zone(PGSZ) - Amazon Craton Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, L. V.; Bowen, B. M. D.; Schmidt, K.

    2017-12-01

    The largest earthquake ever observed in the stable continental interior of the South American plate occurred in Serra do Tombador (ST), Mato Grosso state - Brazil, on January 31, 1955 with magnitude 6.2 m b . Since then no other earthquake has been located near the 1955 epicenter. However, in Porto dos Gaúchos (PG), 100 km northeast of ST, a recurrent seismicity has been observed since 1959. Both ST and PG are located in the Phanerozoic Parecis basin whose sediments overlies the crystalline basement of Amazon craton. Two magnitude 5 earthquakes occurred in PG, in 1998 and 2005 with intensities up to VI and V, respectively. These two main shocks were followed by aftershock sequences, studied by local seismic networks, last up today, almost 30 years later, period in which it was detected more than seven thousand of seismic events. Both sequences occurred in the same WSW-ENE oriented fault zone with right-lateral strike-slip mechanisms. The epicentral zone is near the northern border of Parecis basin, where there are buried grabens, generally trending WNW-ESE, such as the deep Mesoproterozoic Caiabis graben which lies partly beneath the Parecis basin. The seismogenic fault is located in a basement high, which is probably related with the same seismogenic feature responsible for the earthquakes in PGSZ. The 1955 earthquake, despite the uncertainty in its epicenter, does not seem to be directly related to any buried graben either. The seismicity in the PGSZ, therefore, is not directly related to rifted crust.Not considering the possibility of miss location in the ST earthquake, its isolated occurrence - from the perspective of new studies on intraplate seismicity - lead us to think that the PGSZ was activated by stresses released by the earthquake of 1955 and that the seismogenic fault of ST would have closed a cycle of activity. This would explain its seismic quiescence. However, other studies are necessary to prove this hypothesis, such as the measurement of the

  11. Stillbirth prevalence in Brazil: an exploration of regional differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Taiana Silva; Pellanda, Lucia Campos; Doyle, Pat

    Brazil is a large, heterogeneous, and diverse country, marked by social, economic, and regional inequalities. Stillbirth is a global concern, especially in low- and middle-income countries. This study investigated the prevalence and possible determinants of stillbirth in different regions of Brazil. This is a cross-sectional study including all women of reproductive age who had had a pregnancy in the last five years, enrolled in the most recent Brazilian Demographic and Health Survey (DHS/PNDS-2006/07). Logistic regression was used to assess the association between region and other maternal characteristics and stillbirth risk. The prevalence of stillbirth in Brazil was 14.82 per 1000 births, with great variation by region of the country, and a higher prevalence among the most deprived. The North and Northeast regions had the highest odds of stillbirth compared to the Center-West, which persisted after adjustment for multiple confounders - including deprivation level and ethnicity. Low maternal age and maternal obesity were also related to higher odds of stillbirth. In Brazil, the region influences stillbirth risk, with much higher risk in the North and Northeast. Variation in socioeconomic level does not explain this finding. Further research on the subject should explore other possible explanations, such as antenatal care and type of delivery, as well as the role of the private and public health systems in determining stillbirth. Preventive strategies should be directed to these historically disadvantaged regions, such as guaranteeing access and quality of care during pregnancy and around the time of birth. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Seasonal variation in the copepod community structure from a tropical Amazon estuary, Northern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Magalhães

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to investigate the seasonal variation of copepod community structure during the months of July, September and November 2003 (dry season and January, March and May 2004 (rainy season in the Curuçá estuary, northern Brazil. Samples were collected during neap tides via gentle 200µm mesh net tows from a small powerboat. Measurements of surface water conductivity were accomplished in situ using an electronic conductivimeter and salinity was later obtained through the transformation of the conductivity values. Salinity varied seasonally from 7.2 ± 0.1 to 39.2 ± 1.8 (mean ± standard deviation and was influenced mainly by differences in the amount of rainfall between the studied sampling seasons. In total, 30 Copepoda taxa were identified and Acartia tonsa comprised the most representative species throughout the entire studied period followed by Acartia lilljeborgii, Subeucalanus pileatus and Paracalanus quasimodo. In the present study, the density values, ecological indexes and copepod species dominance presented a clear seasonal pattern, showing that the studied area may be considered seasonally heterogeneous in relation to the investigated parameters.O presente estudo teve como objetivo principal avaliar a variação sazonal na estrutura da comunidade dos copépodos durante os meses de julho, setembro e novembro de 2003 (período seco e janeiro, março e maio de 2004 (período chuvoso no estuário do Curuçá, Norte do Brasil. As amostras foram coletadas nas marés de quadratura com auxílio de uma rede deplâncton com 200µm de abertura de malha, rebocada por meio de uma pequena embarcação a motor. As medidas de condutividade da água foram realizadas in situ utilizando-se um condutivímetro eletrônico e a salinidade foi posteriormente obtida através da transformação dos valores de condutividade. Os valores de salinidade variaram sazonalmente de 7, 2 ± 0, 1a 39, 2 ± 1, 8 (média ± desvio padr

  13. WRF-Chem simulations in the Amazon region during wet and dry season transitions: evaluation of methane models and wetland inundation maps

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, V.; Gerbig, C.; Koch, T.; Bela, M. M.; Longo, K. M.; Freitas, S. R.; Kaplan, J. O.; Prigent, C.; Bergamaschi, P.; Heimann, M.

    2013-01-01

    The Amazon region, being a large source of methane (CH4), contributes significantly to the global annual CH4 budget. For the first time, a forward and inverse modelling framework on regional scale for the purpose of assessing the CH4 budget of the Amazon region is implemented. Here, we present forward simulations of CH4 as part of the forward and inverse modelling framework based on a modified version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry that allows for passive tracer ...

  14. Achieving zero deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon: What is missing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Moutinho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Amazon deforestation causes severe climatic and ecological disruptions, with negative consequences for the livelihood of forest-dependent peoples. To avoid further disruptions, Brazil will need to take bold steps to eliminate both illegal and legal Amazon deforestation over the short term. Amazon deforestation declined by 70% between 2005 and 2014 due to drops in commodity prices and interventions by federal and state governments, such as law enforcement campaigns and credit restrictions for landowners who deforest illegally. Despite these impressive achievements, Brazil still deforests 5,000 km2 of Amazonian forests each year. How then will Brazil eliminate Amazon deforestation altogether if the country is only committed to cut illegal deforestation by 2030—as stated in its Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (iNDC to the 2015 climate change treaty meeting in Paris? Here we provide an analysis of the major socio-economic-political threats that could constrain Brazil from achieving its current goals. We then propose six fundamental strategies to help Brazil achieve a more ambitious goal to eliminate all major legal and illegal Amazon deforestation. These strategies involve bringing social and environmental safeguards to the infrastructure plans in the region, consolidating and expanding positive incentives for the production of sustainable commodities, establishing a new policy to guarantee the social and environmental sustainability of rural settlements, fully implementing the national legislation protecting forests (the Forest Code, protecting the land rights of indigenous people and traditional communities, and expanding the existing network of protected areas, allocating the 80 million hectares of not designated public forests as protected areas or areas for sustainable use of timber and non-timber forest products. The implementation of these strategies however depends on the formulation of a new development paradigm that

  15. Terrestrial Carbon Sinks in the Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado Region Predicted from MODIS Satellite Data and Ecosystem Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, C.; Klooster, S.; Huete, A.; Genovese, V.; Bustamante, M.; Ferreira, L. Guimaraes; deOliveira, R. C., Jr.; Zepp, R.

    2009-01-01

    A simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation cover from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to estimate monthly carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado regions over the period 2000-2004. Net ecosystem production (NEP) flux for atmospheric CO2 in the region for these years was estimated. Consistently high carbon sink fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems on a yearly basis were found in the western portions of the states of Acre and Rondonia and the northern portions of the state of Par a. These areas were not significantly impacted by the 2002-2003 El Nino event in terms of net annual carbon gains. Areas of the region that show periodically high carbon source fluxes from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere on yearly basis were found throughout the state of Maranhao and the southern portions of the state of Amazonas. As demonstrated though tower site comparisons, NEP modeled with monthly MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) inputs closely resembles the measured seasonal carbon fluxes at the LBA Tapajos tower site. Modeling results suggest that the capacity for use of MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) data to predict seasonal uptake rates of CO2 in Amazon forests and Cerrado woodlands is strong.

  16. Terrestrial carbon sinks in the Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado region predicted from MODIS satellite data and ecosystem modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Potter

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation cover from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS was used to estimate monthly carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado regions over the period 2000–2004. Net ecosystem production (NEP flux for atmospheric CO2 in the region for these years was estimated. Consistently high carbon sink fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems on a yearly basis were found in the western portions of the states of Acre and Rondônia and the northern portions of the state of Pará. These areas were not significantly impacted by the 2002–2003 El Niño event in terms of net annual carbon gains. Areas of the region that show periodically high carbon source fluxes from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere on yearly basis were found throughout the state of Maranhão and the southern portions of the state of Amazonas. As demonstrated though tower site comparisons, NEP modeled with monthly MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI inputs closely resembles the measured seasonal carbon fluxes at the LBA Tapajos tower site. Modeling results suggest that the capacity for use of MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI data to predict seasonal uptake rates of CO2 in Amazon forests and Cerrado woodlands is strong.

  17. Floristic composition and similarity of 15 hectares in Central Amazon, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Emidio da Silva

    2011-12-01

    en todas las parcelas de muestreo, lo que demuestra una alta presencia de especies raras. La zona de estudio se encuentra en un bosque con alta diversidad de especies de árboles, con un índice de diversidad de Shannon de 4.49. El dendrograma mostró dos grupos de parcelas con baja similitud entre ellas (menos de 0.25, y entre más cercanas las parcelas, más similares en composición de especies fueron (Mantel R=0.3627, p<0.01. Las 15 parcelas en nuestra área de estudio compartieron más del 50% de su composición de especies y representaron el grupo de parcelas con la menor distancia entre ellas. En general, nuestros resultados ponen de manifiesto la alta heterogeneidad local y regional de los ambientes de los bosques de terra firme, y la gran concurrencia de especies raras, lo cual debe ser considerado en los planes de manejo y conservación de la selva amazónica, con el fin de mantener su estructura a largo plazo.

  18. Solar-Aligned Pictographs at the Paleoindian Site of Painel do Pilão along the Lower Amazon River at Monte Alegre, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Sean Davis

    Full Text Available The archaeological sites near Monte Alegre, along Brazil's lower Amazon River, provide new information on the little-known activities and symbolism of South American Paleoindians toward the end of the Ice Age. While paleoindian sites like Monte Verde in Chile, or Guitarrero Cave in Peru, are located near the pacific coast, Monte Alegre lies much further inland, 680 km upriver from the mouth of the Amazon River and the Atlantic Coast. With excavated wood charcoal radiocarbon dated as early as 13,200 calibrated years ago, the hill-as a source of sandstone and quartz lithics-supplied early pioneers with adequate tools needed for colonizing the interior of the continent. Once there, they painted rock art on the landscape, which bears a record of the sun's horizon positions throughout the year. At just 2° south of the equator, Monte Alegre shows no overt seasonal changes beyond fluctuating rainfall amounts, unlike at higher latitudes where temperature, amount of daylight, foliage, and forms of precipitation markedly change. Near the equator, solar and stellar horizon sightings most visibly track the passage of time and seasonal cycles. However, horizons are often hidden behind high forest canopy throughout much of the Amazon Rainforest; but in the Monte Alegre hill ridges looming above the river, paleoindians could hike above the canopy to peer at the horizon, more effectively synchronizing their activities to ecological cycles. This research suggests that Monte Alegre paleoindians delimited the azimuthal range of the sun in a solar year with notational pictographs aligned to horizon sightings at Painel do Pilão, and leaving a painted grid of tally marks that might have served as a rudimentary early calendar. The broad-reaching implication for early Americans is that through the strategic placement of rock art, these ancient artists fostered predictive archaeorecording from which resources could be optimally extracted, ceremonial activities could

  19. Solar-Aligned Pictographs at the Paleoindian Site of Painel do Pilão along the Lower Amazon River at Monte Alegre, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Christopher Sean

    2016-01-01

    The archaeological sites near Monte Alegre, along Brazil's lower Amazon River, provide new information on the little-known activities and symbolism of South American Paleoindians toward the end of the Ice Age. While paleoindian sites like Monte Verde in Chile, or Guitarrero Cave in Peru, are located near the pacific coast, Monte Alegre lies much further inland, 680 km upriver from the mouth of the Amazon River and the Atlantic Coast. With excavated wood charcoal radiocarbon dated as early as 13,200 calibrated years ago, the hill-as a source of sandstone and quartz lithics-supplied early pioneers with adequate tools needed for colonizing the interior of the continent. Once there, they painted rock art on the landscape, which bears a record of the sun's horizon positions throughout the year. At just 2° south of the equator, Monte Alegre shows no overt seasonal changes beyond fluctuating rainfall amounts, unlike at higher latitudes where temperature, amount of daylight, foliage, and forms of precipitation markedly change. Near the equator, solar and stellar horizon sightings most visibly track the passage of time and seasonal cycles. However, horizons are often hidden behind high forest canopy throughout much of the Amazon Rainforest; but in the Monte Alegre hill ridges looming above the river, paleoindians could hike above the canopy to peer at the horizon, more effectively synchronizing their activities to ecological cycles. This research suggests that Monte Alegre paleoindians delimited the azimuthal range of the sun in a solar year with notational pictographs aligned to horizon sightings at Painel do Pilão, and leaving a painted grid of tally marks that might have served as a rudimentary early calendar. The broad-reaching implication for early Americans is that through the strategic placement of rock art, these ancient artists fostered predictive archaeorecording from which resources could be optimally extracted, ceremonial activities could be consistently

  20. The paradox of water in the Brazilian Amazon. People without water in the region of waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre BORDALO

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of this century the World Water Council has held five World Water Forums where data from an eminent crisis in fresh water supply were presented. Topic that should be reflected by all, and here we present a reflection on the paradox of water in the Brazilian Amazon and see that it contains not a crisis of availability of fresh water, but the crisis of unequal access to drinking water.

  1. Storm intensity and old-growth forest disturbances in the Amazon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    F.D.B. Espírito-Santo; M. Keller; B. Braswell; B.W. Nelson; S. Frolking; G. Vicente

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed the pattern of large forest disturbances or blow‐downs apparently caused by severe storms in a mostly unmanaged portion of the Brazilian Amazon using 27 Landsat images and daily precipitation estimates from NOAA satellite data. For each Landsat a spectral mixture analysis (SMA) was applied. Based on SMA, we detected and mapped 279 patches (from 5 ha to 2,...

  2. Simulium (Psilopelmia virescens, a new black-fly species (Diptera: Simuliidae from the southwestern region of the state of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neusa Hamada

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The last-instar larva, pupa, male and female of Simulium virescens sp. nov. are described and illustrated. This species has a peculiar larva, which has an elongated head capsule and light-green colour. The first thoracic segment has tubercle on its dorsal region and the third thoracic segment has one pair of tubercles; the first to the fourth abdominal segments have one pair of tubercles on each segment. Until now this new species had only been collected at the type locality, which is on the middle stretch of the Correntina River in the southwestern portion of the state of Bahia, Brazil. Females were voraciously biting humans during the field work. This new species represents the second species of Simulium(Psilopelmia in Brazil and the first registered outside of the Brazilian Amazon Region.

  3. Bushmeat networks link the forest to urban areas in the trifrontier region between Brazil, Colombia, and Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie van Vliet

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have intended to quantify urban consumption and trade in Amazonian towns. However, little is still known about the different ways in which bushmeat is made available in urban areas, including commercial and noncommercial flows, and how those flows contribute to link forests to urban livelihoods. In this study we qualitatively describe the structure and functioning of bushmeat flows in terms of species, catchment area, stakeholders involved, and the motivations for their activity in the main towns of the Amazon trifrontier region between Brazil, Colombia, and Peru. We show that bushmeat trade to urban areas exists under an organized but invisible commodity chain providing a source of income to about 195 persons. Bushmeat is made available either directly from the hunter to the urban consumer, at the main market place, or in food stalls and restaurants. On the Colombian border, the trade is totally invisible, whereas in Peru and Brazil, bushmeat is sold in open markets despite regulations. The catchment area comprises the main rivers: up to Caballococha along the Amazon River, along the Atacuary River in Peru, along the Javari River between Peru and Brazil, and along the Loretoyacu and Amacayacu rivers in Colombia and in periurban forests. Although the trade is rather localized (no commercial flows to larger towns, international transborder trade is commonplace, disregarding Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora regulations. Bushmeat clients in urban areas are mainly nonindigenous or mestizos who can afford bushmeat as a luxury meal. Instead, indigenous people in urban areas do not access bushmeat through the market but rather through their social networks with whom they maintain noncommercial flows including immediate exchange and long-term exchange mechanisms. Although bushmeat is no longer consumed as a daily meal among urban and periurban indigenous families, it constitutes what could be

  4. Terrestrial Carbon Fluxes from Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado Regions Predicted from MODIS Satellite Data and Ecosystem Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klooster, S.; Potter, C.; Genovese, V.

    2008-12-01

    The NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation cover from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to estimate tropical forest and savanna (Cerrado) carbon pools for the Brazilian Amazon region over the period 2000-2004. Adjustments for mean age of forest stands were carried out across the region, resulting in a new mapping of aboveground biomass pools based on MODIS satellite data. Yearly maps of newly deforested lands from the Brazilian PRODES (Programa de calculo do desflorestamento da Amazonia ) project were combined with these NASA-CASA biomass predictions to generate seasonal budgets of potential carbon and nitrogen trace gas losses from biomass burning events. Simulations of plant residue and soil carbon decomposition were conducted in the NASA-CASA model during and following deforestation events to track the fate of aboveground biomass pools that were cut and burned each year across the region.

  5. Case Report: Molecular Confirmation of Lobomycosis in an Italian Traveler Acquired in the Amazon Region of Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrame, Anna; Danesi, Patrizia; Farina, Claudio; Orza, Pierantonio; Perandin, Francesca; Zanardello, Claudia; Rodari, Paola; Staffolani, Silvia; Bisoffi, Zeno

    2017-12-01

    Lobomycosis is a chronic skin mycosis endemic in Amazon regions characterized by chronic nodular or keloidal lesions caused by Lacazia loboi , an uncultivable fungus. Imported cases in nonendemic countries are rare and diagnosed after years. We describe a case of lobomycosis in a healthy 55-year-old Italian traveler who had acquired the infection during 5-day-honeymoon in the Amazon region of Venezuela in 1999. Several weeks after return, he recalled pruritus and papular skin lesions on the left lower limb, subsequently evolving to a plaque-like lesion. Blastomycosis and cryptococcosis were hypothesized based on microscopic morphology of yeast-like bodies found in three consecutive biopsies, although fungal cultures were always negative. In 2016, exfoliative cytology and a biopsy specimen examination showed round yeast-like organisms (6-12 μm), isolated or in a chain, connected by short tubular projections fulfilling the morphologic diagnostic criteria of Lacazia spp. The microscopic diagnosis was confirmed by molecular identification.

  6. A REGIONAL PERSPECTIVE OF THE CREATIVE ECONOMY IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Nogueira de Paiva Britto

    Full Text Available Abstract In a knowledge-based economy, initiatives based on the Creative Economy framework are supposed to promote regional economic diversification in developing countries. In Brazil, policy initiatives have focused on those activities with a view to design public policies oriented to reducing socio-economic and regional inequalities, as well as spreading those activities throughout the territory, especially towards less favored regions. Based on the Brazilian experience, this article discusses whether the pre-existing regional distribution of various types of creative activities favors or hinders the reduction of regional inequalities as a result of a policy focused on promoting creative activities and what actions could be adopted to achieve this result. Specifically, the paper discusses whether this expansion can promote an effective reduction of regional inequalities in terms of the number and quality of jobs and wage levels associated with those activities. The analysis suggests that the regional decentralization of creative activities towards less developed regions has been relatively limited in Brazil, as the more developed regions have remained more specialized in trades with higher digital and technological content, while the less developed regions have remained relatively more specialized in activities related to the cultural heritage. To reduce this imbalance, the support of local institutions and S&T infrastructure related to creative activities appears to be very important, which points out to the relevance of comprehensive policies well-adapted to very diverse local realities. This effort should have the impact of new digital-based technologies converge with the strengthening of economic potential of local and regional cultural heritage, by enhancing professional qualification of workers devoted to those activities.

  7. Penicillium excelsum sp. nov from the Brazil Nut Tree Ecosystem in the Amazon Basin'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taniwaki, Marta Hiromi; Pitt, John I; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.

    2015-01-01

    as bees and ants from the tree ecosystem in the Amazon rainforest. The species produces andrastin A, curvulic acid, penicillic acid and xanthoepocin, and has unique partial β-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences. The holotype of P. excelsum is CCT 7772, while ITAL 7572 and IBT 31516 are cultures derived...

  8. Perception of local inhabitants regarding the socioeconomic impact of tourism focused on provisioning wild dolphins in Novo Airão, Central Amazon, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Luiz C P S; Zappes, Camilah A; Oliveira, Rafael G; Andriolo, Artur; Azevedo, Alexandre de F

    2013-01-01

    Botos (Inia geoffrensis) are currently provisioned for use in tourist attractions in five sites in the Brazilian Amazon. Despite the known negative effects associated with human-wild dolphin interactions, this activity has been regulated and licensed in the Anavilhanas National Park in Novo Airão, Amazonas State, Brazil. We present an updated evaluation of the perception of the local community concerning the possible socioeconomic impacts of this tourism in Novo Airão. In April 2011, 45 interviews were conducted with inhabitants. A small segment of Novo Airão perceives currently itself as being economically dependent on the botos feeding tourism. Despite that, the economic benefits of this controversial activity apparently are not shared among most inhabitants, and botos feeding tourism is perceived as generating diverse negative effects. We conclude that if the activity was banned or modified into a less impacting tourist activity, this action would probably not majorly affect the lives of the general population.

  9. Assessment of the content of mercury, methylmercury and other elements of interest in fish, hair and diets of pre-school children of the Amazon region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farias, Luciana Aparecida

    2006-01-01

    Studies show that some regions of the Amazon region suffer mercury (Hg) impacts as a direct result of both natural and anthropogenic processes. Jau National Park (PNJ) is the only National Park in Brazil that protects an entire black water basin (Jau River), flood land and tropical reserve. These conditions favor Hg methylation in the aquatic biota. This in turn, exposes living on the river populations to Hg contamination as well as the adjacent regions. Preliminary studies of pre-school children diets from PNJ communities have shown that these diets have a worrisome high Hg content. The present study assessed total Hg content, micro nutrients (Ca, Fe, K, Na, Se and Zn) and macro nutrients (proteins, lipids, ash, energy, carbohydrate) in pre-school diets in the PNJ and surrounding communities. Furthermore, total and Me Hg levels were also determined in hair samples of these children as well as those living in several neighborhoods of the city of Manaus. Included in this determination were the fish most consumed by these populations. From these results it was possible to evaluate the nutritional content of the diets and the exposure of the children to Hg and Se Hg. Cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry was used to quantify total and Me Hg. Micro nutrient determination was performed using neutron activation analysis technique (NAA) and Macro nutrient through AOAC methodologies (USA). All analytical methods were developed and validated for precision and accuracy by means of reference materials analyses with certified values for the determined elements. Furthermore, the uncertainty sources for Hg and Me Hg determination were assessed and the expanded uncertainties were calculated. Total Hg levels in diets and total and Me Hg levels for hair samples, were well above those values found in different localities of the Amazon region. This also holds true for those surrounding areas of the JNP. For many children Hg intake values passed the 5 mug Hg/body weigh/week (PTWI

  10. Study of Organic Matter in Soils of the Amazon Region Employing Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadini, Amanda Maria; Nicolodelli, Gustavo; Mounier, Stéphane; Montes, Célia Regina; Marcondes Bastos Pereira Milori, Débora

    2014-05-01

    In the face of climate change and increasing CO2 levels in the atmosphere, the global carbon cycle, soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration, and the role of different world biomes as potential sources and sinks of carbon are receiving increasing attention. Carbon quantification is an important environmental indicator, but the structure of organic matter is also important because is related to carbon stability. The synthesis of soil organic matter (SOM), as presented in soils of forest vegetation, can be originated from condensation polymeric polyphenols and quinones that are responsible for controlling the main physical-chemical properties of soils. These systems are present in humic substances, representing the major fluorophore of SOM[1-3]. Abiotic factors, such as soil texture, use and occupation of soil, can influence on the process of SOM formation, molecular structure and in its humification index[4]. Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy (LIFS) have become a promising technique for assessing humification index of SOM (HLIFS). In this context, the aim of this study was to analyze the humification index of the SOM in the region of Barcelos (Amazon) employing LIFS. The study area was the region of Barcelos, close the river Demeni. The whose vegetation distribution in this area, is two biomes the Dense Ombrophylous Forest (DPQD) and Campinarana (DPQT), with areas of edaphic contacts between these two phytophysiognomies, which ranged from Open field (FDE) to closed Depression (DPQ). Preliminary results showed that the area closed Depression (DPQ) there was a continuous gradient of humification with increasing soil depth. A similar behavior was verified for area Forest (DPQD), where the highest values of HLIFS were obtained between the four points analyzed, indicating the magnitude of the molecular recalcitrance this organic matter in this area. The results obtained for area Campinarana (DPQT) and Open field (FDE) showed an opposite behavior. These points there

  11. Historic carbon burial spike in an Amazon floodplain lake linked to riparian deforestation near Santarém, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Luciana M.; Taffs, Kathryn; Stokes, Debra; Sanders, Christian J.; Enrich-Prast, Alex; Amora-Nogueira, Leonardo; Marotta, Humberto

    2018-01-01

    Forests along the Amazon Basin produce significant quantities of organic material, a portion of which is deposited in floodplain lakes. Deforestation in the watershed may then have potentially important effects on the carbon fluxes. In this study, a sediment core was extracted from an Amazon floodplain lake to examine the relationship between carbon burial and changing land cover and land use. Historical records from the 1930s and satellite data from the 1970s were used to calculate deforestation rates between 1930 to 1970 and 1970 to 2010 in four zones with different distances from the margins of the lake and its tributaries (100, 500, 1000 and 6000 m buffers). A sediment accumulation rate of ˜ 4 mm yr-1 for the previous ˜ 120 years was determined from the 240+239Pu signatures and the excess 210Pb method. The carbon burial rates ranged between 85 and 298 g C m-2 yr-1, with pulses of high carbon burial in the 1950s, originating from the forest vegetation as indicated by δ13C and δ15N signatures. Our results revealed a potentially important spatial dependence of the organic carbon (OC) burial in Amazon lacustrine sediments in relation to deforestation rates in the catchment. These deforestation rates were more intense in the riparian vegetation (100 m buffer) during the period 1930 to 1970 and the larger open water areas (500, 1000 and 6000 m buffer) during 1970 to 2010. The continued removal of vegetation from the interior of the forest was not related to the peak of OC burial in the lake, but only the riparian deforestation which peaked during the 1950s. Therefore, this supports the conservation priority of riparian forests as an important management practice for Amazon flooded areas. Our findings suggest the importance of abrupt and temporary events in which some of the biomass released by deforestation, especially restricted to areas along open water edges, might reach the depositional environments in the floodplain of the Amazon Basin.

  12. Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15 – Scaling Amazon Carbon Water Couplings Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubey, Manvendra [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Parket, Harrison [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Myers, Katherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rahn, Thom [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Christoffersson, B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wunch, Debra [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Wennberg, Paul [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Forests soak up 25% of the carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted by anthropogenic fossil energy use (10 Gt C y-1), moderating its atmospheric accumulation. How this terrestrial CO2 uptake will evolve with climate change in the 21st Century is largely unknown. Rainforests are the most active ecosystems, with the Amazon basin storing 120 Gt C as biomass and exchanging 18 Gt C y-1 of CO2 via photosynthesis and respiration and fixing carbon at 2-3 kg C m-2 y-1. Furthermore, the intense hydrologic and carbon cycles are tightly coupled in the Amazon where about half of the water is recycled by evapotranspiration and the other half imported from the ocean by Northeasterly trade winds. Climate models predict a drying in the Amazon with reduced carbon uptake while observationally guided assessments indicate sustained uptake. We set out to resolve this huge discrepancy in the size and sign of the future Amazon carbon cycle by performing the first simultaneous regional-scale high-frequency measurements of atmospheric CO2, H2O, HOD, CH4, N2O, and CO at the T3 site in Manacupuru, Brazil, as part of DOE's GoAmazon 2014/15 project. Our data will be used to inform and develop DOE's Community Land Model (CLM) on the tropical carbon-water couplings at the appropriate grid scale (10-50 km). Our measurements will also validate the CO2 data from Japan's Greenhouse gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) and NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO)-2 satellite (launched in July, 2014). Our data addresses these science questions: 1. How does ecosystem heterogeneity and climate variability influence the rainforest carbon cycle? 2. How well do current tropical ecosystem models simulate the observed regional carbon cycle? 3. Does nitrogen deposition (from the Manaus, Brazil, plume) enhance rainforest carbon uptake?

  13. Assessment of pedotransfer functions for estimating soil water retention curves for the amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Medeiros

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the soil water retention curve (SWRC is essential for understanding and modeling hydraulic processes in the soil. However, direct determination of the SWRC is time consuming and costly. In addition, it requires a large number of samples, due to the high spatial and temporal variability of soil hydraulic properties. An alternative is the use of models, called pedotransfer functions (PTFs, which estimate the SWRC from easy-to-measure properties. The aim of this paper was to test the accuracy of 16 point or parametric PTFs reported in the literature on different soils from the south and southeast of the State of Pará, Brazil. The PTFs tested were proposed by Pidgeon (1972, Lal (1979, Aina & Periaswamy (1985, Arruda et al. (1987, Dijkerman (1988, Vereecken et al. (1989, Batjes (1996, van den Berg et al. (1997, Tomasella et al. (2000, Hodnett & Tomasella (2002, Oliveira et al. (2002, and Barros (2010. We used a database that includes soil texture (sand, silt, and clay, bulk density, soil organic carbon, soil pH, cation exchange capacity, and the SWRC. Most of the PTFs tested did not show good performance in estimating the SWRC. The parametric PTFs, however, performed better than the point PTFs in assessing the SWRC in the tested region. Among the parametric PTFs, those proposed by Tomasella et al. (2000 achieved the best accuracy in estimating the empirical parameters of the van Genuchten (1980 model, especially when tested in the top soil layer.

  14. Two case studies of sulfate scavenging processes in the Amazon region (Rondonia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, M.P.R. [Civil Engineering Department, UFRJ/COPPE/PEC/LAMCE, Athos da Silveira Ramos, 149, 21941-909 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: palagano@lamma.ufrj.br; Goncalves, F.L.T. [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Sao Paulo (IAG/USP) (Brazil); Freitas, S.R. [Center for Weather Forecasting and Climate Studies (CPTEC/INPE) (Brazil)

    2009-02-15

    The scavenging processes of chemical species have been previously studied with numerical modeling, in order to understand the gas and particulate matter intra-reservoir transferences. In this study, the atmospheric (RAMS) and scavenging (B.V.2) models were used, in order to simulate sulfate concentrations in rainwater using scavenging processes as well as the local atmospheric conditions obtained within the LBA Project in the State of Rondonia, during a dry-to-wet transition season. Two case studies were conducted. The RAMS atmospheric simulation of these events presented satisfactory results, showing the detailed microphysical processes of clouds in the Amazonian region. On the other hand, with cloud entrainments, observed values have been overestimated. Modeled sulfate rainwater concentration, using exponential decay and cloud heights of 16 km and no entrainments, presented the best results, reaching 97% of the observed value. The results, using shape parameter 5, are the best, improving the overall result. - The scavenging models were used in order to simulate sulfate concentrations in rainwater in Amazonia, Brazil. The best modeled result reaches 97% of the observed value.

  15. Two case studies of sulfate scavenging processes in the Amazon region (Rondonia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, M.P.R.; Goncalves, F.L.T.; Freitas, S.R.

    2009-01-01

    The scavenging processes of chemical species have been previously studied with numerical modeling, in order to understand the gas and particulate matter intra-reservoir transferences. In this study, the atmospheric (RAMS) and scavenging (B.V.2) models were used, in order to simulate sulfate concentrations in rainwater using scavenging processes as well as the local atmospheric conditions obtained within the LBA Project in the State of Rondonia, during a dry-to-wet transition season. Two case studies were conducted. The RAMS atmospheric simulation of these events presented satisfactory results, showing the detailed microphysical processes of clouds in the Amazonian region. On the other hand, with cloud entrainments, observed values have been overestimated. Modeled sulfate rainwater concentration, using exponential decay and cloud heights of 16 km and no entrainments, presented the best results, reaching 97% of the observed value. The results, using shape parameter 5, are the best, improving the overall result. - The scavenging models were used in order to simulate sulfate concentrations in rainwater in Amazonia, Brazil. The best modeled result reaches 97% of the observed value

  16. Banking and regional inequality in Brazil: an empirical note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Lima Marcelo Resende

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates a neglected aspect of regional inequality in Brazil, namely regional inequalities related to financial flows. A synthetic regional financial inequality index is proposed and calculated in a semester basis over the 02-1994/02-2000 period. The inequality measure attempts to capture to what extent deposits in a given state translate into credit operations in that locality. Two main results emerge. First, non-negligible inequality patterns emerge when one considers the segment of private banks and those are consistent with an important proportion of states with a predominantly exporting pattern, for which deposits surpasses loans in that locality. Second, if one focus on the segment of public banks, an opposite pattern appears, that is consistent with decision patterns that might have, in part, a regional development motivation.

  17. Biodiversity of mycobiota throughout the Brazil nut supply chain: From rainforest to consumer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taniwaki, Marta H.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Ferranti, Larissa S.

    2017-01-01

    A total of 172 Brazil nut samples (114 in shell and 58 shelled) from the Amazon rainforest region and São Paulo state, Brazil was collected at different stages of the Brazil nut production chain: rainforest, street markets, processing plants and supermarkets. The mycobiota of the Brazil nut samples...... of mycotoxin production from rainforest to consumer, considering the different environments which exist until the nuts are consumed....

  18. Brazilian policies that encourage deforestation in the Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Binswanger, H.P.

    1991-01-01

    Metadata only record This paper shows that general tax policies, special tax incentives, the rules of land allocation, and the agricultural credit system all accelerate deforestation in the Amazon (region of Brazil). These policies increase the size of land holdings and reduce the chances of the poor to become farmers. The key provisions include: the virtual exemption of agricultural income from income taxation; rules of public land allocation that provide incentives for deforestation beca...

  19. Anatomy and systematics of Anodontites Elongatus (Swainson) from Amazon and Parana Basins, Brazil (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Unionoida, Mycetopodidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Simone, Luiz Ricardo L

    1997-01-01

    The anatomy of Anodontiies elongatus (Swainson, 1823), a rare species restricted to the Amazon and Parana Basins, is described by first time, showing a group of conchological and anatomical characters exclusive of this species that may be analyzed to identify it. Diagnosis of A. elongatus: shell long antero-posteriorly, umbones prominent, periostracum opaque and smooth, two posterior radial striae; middle fold of mantle edge veiy tall; gill long antero-posteriorly and short dorso-ventrally, e...

  20. Socioeconomic and regional differences in active transportation in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Thiago Hérick de; Pereira, Rafael Henrique Moraes; Duran, Ana Clara; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2016-06-27

    To present national estimates regarding walking or cycling for commuting in Brazil and in 10 metropolitan regions. By using data from the Health section of 2008's Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílio (Brazil's National Household Sample Survey), we estimated how often employed people walk or cycle to work, disaggregating our results by sex, age range, education level, household monthly income per capita, urban or rural address, metropolitan regions, and macro-regions in Brazil. Furthermore, we estimated the distribution of this same frequency according to quintiles of household monthly income per capita in each metropolitan region of the country. A third of the employed men and women walk or cycle from home to work in Brazil. For both sexes, this share decreases as income and education levels rise, and it is higher among younger individuals, especially among those living in rural areas and in the Northeast region of the country. Depending on the metropolitan region, the practice of active transportation is two to five times more frequent among low-income individuals than among high-income individuals. Walking or cycling to work in Brazil is most frequent among low-income individuals and the ones living in less economically developed areas. Active transportation evaluation in Brazil provides important information for public health and urban mobility policy-making. Apresentar estimativas nacionais sobre o deslocamento a pé ou de bicicleta no trajeto casa-trabalho no Brasil e em 10 de suas regiões metropolitanas. Utilizando dados do Suplemento sobre Saúde da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios de 2008, estimamos a frequência de pessoas empregadas que se deslocam a pé ou de bicicleta no trajeto casa-trabalho estratificada por sexo, e segundo faixa etária, escolaridade, renda domiciliar per capita, residência em área urbana ou rural, regiões metropolitanas e macrorregiões do país. Adicionalmente, estimamos a distribuição da mesma frequ

  1. Ecoepidemiologia da leishmaniose tegumentar no Município de Buriticupu, Amazônia do Maranhão, Brasil, 1996 a 1998 Eco-epidemiology of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Buriticupu, Amazon region of Maranhão State, Brazil, 1996-1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzenice Macedo Martins

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Estuda-se a distribuição da Leishmaniose Tegumentar no Município de Buriticupu, Maranhão, Brasil, de acordo com os meses, estações e as ocupações, sexos e faixas etárias das pessoas, nos anos de 1996 a 1998. Os dados referentes a estes aspectos são comparados com os da fauna flebotomínica obtidos por outros autores, no mesmo período. A doença atingiu todas as faixas etárias, obedecendo à seguinte ordem: 0-5 (4,1%, 6-10 (7,1%, 11-15 (13,6%, 16-21 (20,8%, 22-30 (21,1% e > 30 (33,3%. O predomínio foi do sexo masculino (70,1% e, quanto à ocupação, os lavradores (52,5%, seguidos dos estudantes (17,7% e das domésticas (16,0%. A exemplo dos flebotomíneos, a doença distribuiu-se durante todos os meses do ano, mas a maior concentração de casos foi registrada na estação seca (58,5%, enquanto os flebotomíneos apresentaram picos bimodais nos dois primeiros anos. Ocorreu em maior freqüência no período chuvoso em 1998. A doença continua apresentando características que a definiam em épocas passadas, mas houve um aumento proporcional de casos em crianças e no sexo feminino, sugestivo de transmissão no ambiente antrópico.This study presents the distribution of leishmaniasis in the town of Buriticupu, Maranhão, Brazil, by month, season, occupation, gender, and age from 1996 to 1998. These data were compared with those on sand flies obtained by other authors during the same period. The disease affected all age groups, in the following order: 0-5 years (4.1%, 6-10 (7.1%, 11-15 (13.6%, 16-21 (20.8%, 22-30 (21.1%, and > 30 (33.3%. The disease predominantly affected males (70.1% and agricultural workers (52.5%, followed by students (17.7%, and domestic workers (16.0%. Like the sand fly vector, the disease was distributed throughout the year, but the greatest concentration of cases was recorded in the dry season (58.5%, while sand flies presented bimodal peaks in the first two years and occurred more frequently in the rainy season

  2. Composição e variabilidade espaço-temporal da meiofauna de uma praia arenosa na região amazônica (Ajuruteua, Pará Composition and spatio-temporal variability of meiofauna community on a sandy beach in the Amazon region (Ajuruteua, Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatianne P. Gomes

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avalia a variabilidade espaço-temporal da meiofauna do médiolitoral na praia de Ajuruteua, Estado do Pará. As coletas foram realizadas a cada dois meses, entre abril de 2003 a fevereiro de 2004 durante as marés de sizígia, em diferentes zonas da praia. As amostras foram retiradas com um amostrador cilíndrico de 3,14 cm² e fixadas em formalina salina a 5%. Em laboratório, as amostras foram passadas em malha de 0,063 mm de abertura e os organismos retidos identificados em nível de grandes grupos taxonômicos, contados e fixados em álcool etílico a 70%. A meiofauna esteve representada por oito grupos: Turbellaria, Nematoda, Tardigrada, Polychaeta, Oligochaeta, Acari, adultos de Copepoda Harpacticoida e juvenis de Copepoda Harpacticoida. Nematoda foi o grupo dominante, representando 74% do total de indivíduos, seguido de Copepoda (19%. Pôde-se observar clara zonação horizontal da fauna, que se distribuiu em três faixas paralelas à linha de praia, com características significativamente distintas quanto à abundância, riqueza e densidade dos principais grupos taxonômicos. No médiolitoral médio foram observados valores significativamente mais elevados de riqueza e abundância, enquanto os valores mais baixos foram registrados no médiolitoral superior e inferior. A comunidade de meiofauna, ainda que não tenha variado significativamente entre períodos climáticos, foi mais rica e abundante nos meses secos. Os principais fatores responsáveis pelas variações espaço-temporais da meiofauna foram a ação das ondas e das marés e as variações na salinidade da água.The present study investigates the spatio-temporal changes in the meiofauna community along the intertidal zone of Ajuruteua Beach, State of Pará, Brazil. Samples were collected during spring tides at different levels of the beach face every two months from April 2003 to February 2004. The material was sampled using a cylindrical corer (3.14 cm² and

  3. Cárie dentária em população ribeirinha do Estado de Rondônia, Região Amazônica, Brasil, 2005/2006 Dental caries in a riverine community in Rondônia State, Amazon Region, Brazil, 2005-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Henrique Alves da Silva

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi analisar experiência de cárie dentária na população ribeirinha residente às margens dos rios Machado e Preto (Rondônia, Brasil, em 2005 e 2006. Foram examinados 469 indivíduos com formulário preconizado pela Organização Mundial da Saúde, sob luz natural e utilização de espátulas de madeira e sonda CPI. Na faixa etária de 4-5 anos de idade, ceod = 4,30 e 19,64% livres de cárie; 6-10 anos, CPOD = 1,04, ceod = 3,52, 17,05% livres de cárie; aos 12 anos, CPOD = 2,65 e 30,76% livres de cárie; aos 18 anos, CPOD = 5,41 e 19,51% livres de cárie; 35-44 anos, CPOD = 17,74 e 2,98% livres de cárie; 65-74 anos, CPOD = 21,56 e 4,34% livres de cárie. Na análise por componentes, constatou-se que o componente cariado tem maior prevalência nas idades de 0-3, 4-5, 6-10, 12 e 18 anos. Em adultos e idosos, o componente que mais contribui é o perdido. Conclui-se que a população apresenta índices de cárie dentária elevados, sendo necessária a atuação em âmbito educativo, preventivo e curativo.This study aimed to analyze dental caries patterns among riverine people from Rondônia State, Brazil (Machado and Preto rivers in 2005 and 2006. A total of 469 subjects were examined, using the World Health Organization form, under natural light, using a wooden tongue depressor and CPI probe in cases of doubts about the presence of dental caries. The results were: 4-5-year age bracket, dmtf = 4.30 and 19.64% caries-free; 6-10 years, DMTF = 1.04, dmtf = 3.52 and 17.05% caries-free; 12 years, DMTF = 2.65 and 30.76% caries-free; 18 years, DMTF = 5.41 and 19.51% caries-free; 35-44 years, DMTF = 17.74 and 2.98% caries-free; 65-74 years, DMTF = 21.56 and 4.34% caries-free. When each component was analyzed separately in the dmtf and DMTF indices, decay was most prevalent in the 0-3, 4-5, 6-10, 12, and 18-year brackets. However, in young and older adults, the most prevalent component was missing teeth. In conclusion, the study population

  4. Report on sedimentological investigations as part of the CICAR-Programme 1970-1972 . Part I . A reconnaissance survey of bottom sediments in the Amazon's mouth region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjoe-Awie, E.C.

    1975-01-01

    As part of the CICAR programmes carried out in September - October, 1970 and in May 1971, both suspended matter and bottom sediments were collected in the Amazon's mouth region. The materials were used for an investigation regarding the spreading of bottom sediments in that area. The highest

  5. MODELING THE EFFECTS OF CLIMATE AND LAND USE CHANGE ON CARBON AND TRACE GAS BUDGETS OVER THE AMAZON REGION USING NASA SATELLITE PRODUCTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of the LBA-ECO Phase III synthesis efforts for remote sensing and predictive modeling of Amazon carbon, water, and trace gas fluxes, we are evaluating results from the regional ecosystem model called NASA-CASA (Carnegie-Ames Stanford Approach). The NASA-CASA model has bee...

  6. Equations for estimating timber volume in the region of the River Basin of Ituxi, Lábrea, Amazon, Brazil Equações para estimativa de volume de madeira para a região da bacia do Rio Ituxi, Lábrea, AM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Thaines

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    To quantify the stock of commercial timber in forests demands efficient methods, making possible to estimate efficiently and accurately the present and future timber volume. The aim of this work was to  adjust the mathematical models used to estimate timber volume, allowing the determination of the timber potential of a region with greater accuracy and lower cost. The study was conducted at Lábrea, State of  Amazonas, Brazil in an area of 6,000 ha, inserted in the Project Forest Management Seringal Iracema II. The forest is predominantly dense with emergent trees, also with the occurrence of open forest with bamboo and palms. For the process of adjusting the models to estimate the volume of commercial timber, 141 trees of commercial species were cubed by Smalian method. The equations developed for the Forest Management Project Seringal Iracema II are valid for diameters between 50 cm and 140 cm and for forests with similar structure; to standing trees due to its simplicity and accuracy, the best equation was Kopezki-Gehrardt (V = - 0.6870 + 0.00103 d²; for felling trees or for studies of biomass and carbon stock, the equation indicated is Schumacher-Hall (LnV = -9.5452 + 2.12837 Ln (d + 0.72209Ln (h.

    doi: 10.4336/2010.pfb.30.64.283

    A necessidade de quantificação do estoque de matéria-prima florestal, em floresta nativa, conduz para a busca de métodos eficientes de estimativa do volume de madeira, que possibilitem quantificar o estoque presente e futuro de maneira eficiente e precisa. O objetivo desse trabalho foi ajustar modelos matemáticos, para estimativa de volume comercial de madeira, permitindo a determinação do potencial madeireiro de uma região, com maior precisão e menor custo. O estudo foi realizado no Município de Lábrea, AM, em uma área de 6 mil ha, inserida no Projeto de Manejo Florestal Seringal Iracema II. A floresta é predominantemente densa com árvores emergentes, também com ocorrência de Foresta

  7. Historic carbon burial spike in an Amazon floodplain lake linked to riparian deforestation near Santarém, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Sanders

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Forests along the Amazon Basin produce significant quantities of organic material, a portion of which is deposited in floodplain lakes. Deforestation in the watershed may then have potentially important effects on the carbon fluxes. In this study, a sediment core was extracted from an Amazon floodplain lake to examine the relationship between carbon burial and changing land cover and land use. Historical records from the 1930s and satellite data from the 1970s were used to calculate deforestation rates between 1930 to 1970 and 1970 to 2010 in four zones with different distances from the margins of the lake and its tributaries (100, 500, 1000 and 6000 m buffers. A sediment accumulation rate of  ∼ 4 mm yr−1 for the previous  ∼ 120 years was determined from the 240+239Pu signatures and the excess 210Pb method. The carbon burial rates ranged between 85 and 298 g C m−2 yr−1, with pulses of high carbon burial in the 1950s, originating from the forest vegetation as indicated by δ13C and δ15N signatures. Our results revealed a potentially important spatial dependence of the organic carbon (OC burial in Amazon lacustrine sediments in relation to deforestation rates in the catchment. These deforestation rates were more intense in the riparian vegetation (100 m buffer during the period 1930 to 1970 and the larger open water areas (500, 1000 and 6000 m buffer during 1970 to 2010. The continued removal of vegetation from the interior of the forest was not related to the peak of OC burial in the lake, but only the riparian deforestation which peaked during the 1950s. Therefore, this supports the conservation priority of riparian forests as an important management practice for Amazon flooded areas. Our findings suggest the importance of abrupt and temporary events in which some of the biomass released by deforestation, especially restricted to areas along open water edges, might reach the depositional environments in

  8. Influence of uranium and thorium in the natural radioactivity in shales from the middle Amazon river region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferro, A.L.

    1982-02-01

    The feasibility of using the fission track registration technique in the determination of the uranium and thorium content in shales from the middle Amazon river region is studied. The above technique permits, through the determination of the uranium concentration, to establish a correlation between the uranium content and the organic matter present in the shale. In establishing the ratio between the fission tracks due to 238 U and 235 U, the sample was contaminated with natural uranium and analized, so that no modifications on the analysis conditions might change or distort the results. The experimental results were satisfactory and they may contribute to the study of the industrial exploration of these energy sources as well as to the analysis of problems related to environmental control. (Author) [pt

  9. Determination of mercury and selenium in hair samples of Brazilian Indian populations living in the Amazonic region by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Paletti, G.; Catharino, M.G.M.; Saiki, M.; Favaro, D.I.T.; Bode, P.; Ammerlaan, A.K.; Byrne, A.R.; Baruzzi, R.; Rodrigues, D.A.

    2000-01-01

    Biomonitoring of mercury contamination of Brazilian Indian population groups living in the Xingu Park, a reservation situated in the Amazonic region, has revealed very high levels of mercury in hair samples as compared to controls. Total mercury was determined by INAA in most of the tribes living in the Park and methylmercury was determined by CVAAS in samples with total mercury above 10 mg/kg. Due to the fact that selenium seems to protect animals against the toxic effects of methylmercury, it was considered also of interest to determine its concentrations in the hair samples with very high mercury levels. Selenium was determined by INAA via the short-lived radionuclide 77m Se (T 1/2 = 17.45 s). The correlations between selenium and mercury concentrations in Brazilian controls and in the Indian population groups are discussed. (author)

  10. The Effect of Communicative Activities on EFL Learners’ Motivation: A Case of Students in the Amazon Region of Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Ochoa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to shed light on the relationship between communicative activities and their impact on students’ motivation to learn English as a Foreign Language (EFL. A total of 180 senior high school learners (86 male and 94 female and 8 EFL teachers in a town of the Amazon region of Ecuador completed a questionnaire. A sample of these students and all of the teachers participated in a face-to-face interview. Both instruments were applied to obtain data concerned with use of communicative activities in the classroom and their relation with motivation. The data gathered was analyzed using a mixed-method approach, which comprised quantitative and qualitative methods. The results showed that students and teachers believe that communicative activities are motivating. Furthermore, students feel highly motivated when participating in interactive activities because these enhance their fluency, pronunciation and performance in the use of English in a realistic and enjoyable way.

  11. Inadequate management of natural ecosystem in the Brazilian Amazon region results in the emergence and reemergence of arboviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro F. C. Vasconcelos

    Full Text Available A total of 187 different species of arboviruses and other viruses in vertebrates were identified at the Evandro Chagas Institute (IEC from 1954 to 1998, among more than 10,000 arbovirus strains isolated from humans, hematophagous insects, and wild and sentinel vertebrates. Despite intensive studies in the Brazilian Amazon region, especially in Pará State, very little is known about most of these viruses, except for information on date, time, source, and method of isolation, as well as their capacity to infect laboratory animals. This paper reviews ecological and epidemiological data and analyzes the impact of vector and host population changes on various viruses as a result of profound changes in the natural environment. Deforestation, mining, dam and highway construction, human colonization, and urbanization were the main manmade environmental changes associated with the emergence and/or reemergence of relevant arboviruses, including some known pathogens for humans.

  12. Inadequate management of natural ecosystem in the Brazilian Amazon region results in the emergence and reemergence of arboviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasconcelos Pedro F. C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 187 different species of arboviruses and other viruses in vertebrates were identified at the Evandro Chagas Institute (IEC from 1954 to 1998, among more than 10,000 arbovirus strains isolated from humans, hematophagous insects, and wild and sentinel vertebrates. Despite intensive studies in the Brazilian Amazon region, especially in Pará State, very little is known about most of these viruses, except for information on date, time, source, and method of isolation, as well as their capacity to infect laboratory animals. This paper reviews ecological and epidemiological data and analyzes the impact of vector and host population changes on various viruses as a result of profound changes in the natural environment. Deforestation, mining, dam and highway construction, human colonization, and urbanization were the main manmade environmental changes associated with the emergence and/or reemergence of relevant arboviruses, including some known pathogens for humans.

  13. How old are large Brazil-nut trees (Bertholletia excelsa in the Amazon? Que idade podem alcançar as castanheiras (Bertholletia excelsa da Amazônia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.B. de Camargo

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available The age of a large Brazil-nut tree (Bertholletia excelsa is measured by radiocarbon dating, and a discussion is made about their importance in the Amazon rain-forest ecosystem.A idade de uma castanheira (Bertholletia excelsa grande é medida por datação radiocarbônica e uma discussão é feita a respeito de sua importância no ecosistema da floresta amazônica.

  14. Normative evaluation of blood banks in the Brazilian Amazon region in respect to the prevention of transfusion-transmitted malaria

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    Daniel Roberto Coradi Freitas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To evaluate blood banks in the Brazilian Amazon region with regard to structure and procedures directed toward the prevention of transfusion-transmitted malaria (TTM.Methods:This was a normative evaluation based on the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA Resolution RDC No. 153/2004. Ten blood banks were included in the study and classified as 'adequate' (≥80 points, 'partially adequate' (from 50 to 80 points, or 'inadequate' (<50 points. The following components were evaluated: 'donor education' (5 points, 'clinical screening' (40 points, 'laboratory screening' (40 points and 'hemovigilance' (15 points.Results:The overall median score was 49.8 (minimum = 16; maximum = 78. Five blood banks were classified as 'inadequate' and five as 'partially adequate'. The median clinical screening score was 26 (minimum = 16; maximum = 32. The median laboratory screening score was 20 (minimum = 0; maximum = 32. Eight blood banks performed laboratory tests for malaria; six tested all donations. Seven used thick smears, but only one performed this procedure in accordance with Ministry of Health requirements. One service had a Program of External Quality Evaluation for malaria testing. With regard to hemovigilance, two institutions reported having procedures to detect cases of transfusion-transmitted malaria.Conclusion:Malaria is neglected as a blood–borne disease in the blood banks of the Brazilian Amazon region. None of the institutions were classified as 'adequate' in the overall classification or with regard to clinical screening and laboratory screening. Blood bank professionals, the Ministry of Health and Health Surveillance service managers need to pay more attention to this matter so that the safety procedures required by law are complied with.

  15. High Infestation by Dawestrema cycloancistrioides in Arapaima gigas Cultured in the Amazon Region, Peru

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    Patrick D. Mathews

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of Dawestrema cycloancistrioides in semi-intensive fish farming of fingerlings of Arapaima gigas. Between September and November 2013, 60 individuals of A. gigas born in captivity, were collected in three concrete ponds, from a semi-intensive fish farm in the Peruvian Amazon. For the study of sclerotized structures, parasites were fixed in a solution of ammonium picrate glycerine and mounted in Canada balsam. To visualize internal structures, parasites were fixed in hot formaldehyde solution (4% for staining with Gomori’s trichrome. The parasitic indexes calculated were prevalence, mean intensity, and mean abundance. This study identified a high infestation of a monogenean D. cycloancistrioides in gills of A. gigas. The prevalence was 100%. The mean intensity and mean abundance of the parasite were 144.9 of parasites per individual. This study confirms the necessity of constant monitoring of fish in order to reduce fish mortality.

  16. The problem of gravity field representation in the Amazon region: alternatives evaluation; O problema da representacao do campo de gravidade na regiao amazonica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sa, Nelsi Cogo de [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. Astronomico e Geofisico. Dept. de Geofisica

    1997-07-01

    The Amazonic region is a large segment of South American Plate which contains important geologic and tectonic units, among them, the sedimentary basins: Acre, Parecis-Alto Xingu, Alto Tapajos, Amazonas, Marajo and Boa Vista; and the cratons Rio Branco and Amazonas. Although there are very interesting geophysical investigations in this region, besides its potentialities in oil and mineral prospecting, a very little was done about the regional geophysical survey. Because of the large extension and the geographical peculiarities of this region, the basic geophysical surveys have not been done yet. Today, the aerogeophysical surveys and the geophysical satellite missions are beginning a new phase in collecting data of the gravity and magnetic field of the Earth. The analysis of the existing alternatives for the representation of the gravity field in the Amazonic region, presented in this paper, suggest a combined solution of satellite gradiometry and airborne gravimetry. (author)

  17. (210)Pb and composition data of near-surface sediments and interstitial waters evidencing anthropogenic inputs in Amazon River mouth, Macapá, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nery, José Reinaldo Cardoso; Bonotto, Daniel Marcos

    2011-04-01

    Activity profiles of excess (210)Pb determined in three sediment cores from Amazon River mouth, Macapá city, Brazil, provided the evaluation of sedimentation rates, contributing to a better knowledge of the hydrological conditions in the site that is the capital of Amapá State and is drained by the waters of the huge Amazon River. Chemical data were also determined in the sediments, allowing identify signatures coupled to anthropogenic inputs held in the past in Amapá State. Significant direct relationships between LOI (loss on ignition) and organic matter were found for all sediments profiles. Silica was found to be inversely related to organic matter in the three profiles; its decrease accompanied an increase on the specific surface of the sediments. This relationship was confirmed by a great number of inverse significant correlations among silica and oxides Na(2)O, K(2)O, CaO, MgO, Al(2)O(3), P(2)O(5), Fe(2)O(3) and MnO. It was possible to identify the role of organic matter on adsorption of several oxides in the core sediments profiles. Apparent sediment mass accumulation rates corresponding to values between 450 and 2510 mg cm(-2)yr(-1) were obtained, and are compatible with the results of others studies. The (210)Pb activities in one sampling point suggested the occurrence of anthropogenic inputs related to the initial period of the mining activities conducted in Serra do Navio, Amapá State, for the commercialization of Mn ores. This was reinforced by the abrupt fluctuations in chemical data obtained for the sediments and composition of the interstitial waters occurring there. The Atlantic hurricane activity also appeared to affect the sedimentation rates in the area, as two different values were recorded in each profile. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Brazil, Preservation of Forest and Biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Paunić, Alida

    2016-01-01

    Increased number of extinct, endangered species in South America, especially plants in Brazil and Equator, impose question of importance of Amazon forest. Its declining trend requires constant attention not just from population in Brazil, but as well as in region and world which have their interest in direct/ indirect monetary and non-monetary values. GDP decline can further deteriorate forest areas so it is of importance to diversify and strengthen energy inputs and work on different rene...

  19. Isotopic composition of precipitations in Brazil: isothermic models and the influence of evapotranspiration in the Amazonic Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dall'Olio, Attilio.

    1976-11-01

    The simplest theoretical models of the isotopic fractionation of water during equilibrium isothermical processes are analized in detail. The theoretical results are applied to the interpretation of the stable isotope concentrations in the precipitations of 11 Brazilian cities that belong to the international network of IAEA/WMO. The analysis shows that the experimental data are fairly consistent with such equilibrium models; no non-equilibrium processes need to be assumed. The study of the stable isotope content of precipitations in the Amazonic Basin suggests some modifications to the models in order that the evapotranspiration contribution to the vapour balance be taken into account [pt

  20. Study of methylation sites and factors in contaminated aquatic systems in the Amazon using an optimized radiochemical technique - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davee Guimaraes, Jean Remy; Narvaez Mauro, Jane Beatriz; Roulet, Marc; Meili, Markus; Hylander, Lars

    2001-01-01

    In the last few years, some new data have brought light on the Hg cycle in the Amazon. Roulet et al (1998 and 1999) found high natural Hg contents in soils and showed that soil erosion, due to agriculture and other human activities, had increased the Hg burdens in aquatic systems. They also showed that, surprisingly, the activity of goldminers on many upstream affluents of the Tapajos river did not result in downstream gradients in dissolved or particulate Hg. Our own data (Malm et al, 1995, 1997) from long term surveys show little or no reduction in fish or human hair Hg levels in different water basins, despite a 3 to 10-fold decrease in goldmining activities since 1990. Regardless of the on-going debate on the relative magnitude of natural and man-made Hg sources in the Amazon, Hg is being transported and increasingly accumulated in productive lakes and floodplains in all the Amazon basin, leading riverine populations to unsafe Hg exposure levels. This Hg transport is done mainly in the particulate form, and the floating vegetation is a very efficient particle trap, besides providing support to an abundant periphyton, features that favor MeHg formation and bio-availability. A high Hg methylation potential in macrophytes is relevant for many reasons. This characteristic tropical aquatic vegetation produces highly bioavailable MeHg, because of its high standing stock (1 kg dw. m -2 , Sioli, 1986) in direct contact with the water column and very high relative area. Because the root zone of these floating aquatic plants is densely populated by a varied fauna of invertebrates and fish and represents an essential carbon source for aquatic food chains, it may constitute a major pathway of MeHg uptake into tropical aquatic food webs. In contrast, the production of MeHg in surface sediments is ∼30 times lower than in macrophyte roots, its bioavailability is probably limited, as well as the sediment-water flux of MeHg. Moreover, the role of floating meadows as important

  1. Hot moments of N2O transformation and emission in tropical soils from the Pantanal and the Amazon (Brazil)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liengaard, Lars; Figueiredo, Viviane; Markfoged, Rikke

    2014-01-01

    Tropical wetland soils emit large amounts of nitrous oxide (N2O), especially following wetting of drained soil. We investigated seasonally drained wetland soils from the Pantanal and the Amazon, both with a natural high nitrate content and low pH. Here we report the effect of wetting...... on the production, emission and consumption of N2O on these soils. Intact soil cores were wetted to simulate natural water logging events, and microsensor measurements were used to i) characterize the vertical microscale distribution of O2 and N2O, ii) monitor the accumulation of N2O in the anoxic soil volume...

  2. Integrating Ecosystem Management, Protected Areas, and Mammal Conservation in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Azevedo-Ramos

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon forest has been converted to a matrix of pristine and modified habitats. Landscape-scale biodiversity conservation requires an understanding of species' distributions over this matrix to guarantee both effective protection and use for present and future generations. In this study, we evaluated how much of the existing and future planned protected areas (PAs would be contributing to the conservation of Brazilian Amazon mammals (N = 399, including threatened species (N = 51. Currently, almost 37% of Brazilian Amazon is protected and that may increase to 46% if planned PAs are implemented. In the current PA system, 22% are indigenous land and 11% are sustainable use units, e.g., production forests. Only one-fifth of the whole range of mammal species occurring in Brazilian Amazon is actually protected by Brazilian PAs. However, considering only the part of the ranges within the Brazilian Amazon, and therefore under the scope of Brazilian actions, Brazilian PAs assume an important role in the protection of 39% of mammal distribution ranges, particularly the threatened species (39%. These results suggest that an integrated network of protected areas among Amazon countries would be necessary to increase their efficiency in mammal conservation. The need for strengthening of the forest sector and good management practices in Brazil appears critical for the maintenance of large extents of forest and species conservation. Under such a scenario, the contribution of developed nations and international agencies must assume an important role for the maintenance and enlargement of the protected area network in Amazon region.

  3. Serological evidence for Saint Louis encephalitis virus in free-ranging New World monkeys and horses within the upper Paraná River basin region, Southern Brazil

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    Walfrido Kühl Svoboda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV primarily occurs in the Americas and produces disease predominantly in humans. This study investigated the serological presence of SLEV in nonhuman primates and horses from southern Brazil. Methods From June 2004 to December 2005, sera from 133 monkeys (Alouatta caraya, n=43; Sapajus nigritus, n=64; Sapajus cay, n=26 trap-captured at the Paraná River basin region and 23 blood samples from farm horses were obtained and used for the serological detection of a panel of 19 arboviruses. All samples were analyzed in a hemagglutination inhibition (HI assay; positive monkey samples were confirmed in a mouse neutralization test (MNT. Additionally, all blood samples were inoculated into C6/36 cell culture for viral isolation. Results Positive seroreactivity was only observed for SLEV. A prevalence of SLEV antibodies in sera was detected in Alouatta caraya (11.6%; 5/43, Sapajus nigritus (12.5%; 8/64, and S. cay (30.8%; 8/26 monkeys with the HI assay. Of the monkeys, 2.3% (1/42 of A. caraya, 6.3% 94/64 of S. nigritus, and 15.4% (4/26 of S. cay were positive for SLEV in the MNT. Additionally, SLEV antibodies were detected by HI in 39.1% (9/23 of the horses evaluated in this study. Arboviruses were not isolated from any blood sample. Conclusions These results confirmed the presence of SLEV in nonhuman primates and horses from southern Brazil. These findings most likely represent the first detection of this virus in nonhuman primates beyond the Amazon region. The detection of SLEV in animals within a geographical region distant from the Amazon basin suggests that there may be widespread and undiagnosed dissemination of this disease in Brazil.

  4. Spatial-temporal dynamics and sources of total Hg in a hydroelectric reservoir in the Western Amazon, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestana, I A; Bastos, W R; Almeida, M G; de Carvalho, D P; Rezende, C E; Souza, C M M

    2016-05-01

    Damming rivers to construct hydroelectric reservoirs results in a series of impacts on the biogeochemical Hg cycle. For example, modifying the hydrodynamics of a natural watercourse can result in the suspension and transport of Hg deposits in the water column, which represents an exposure risk for biota. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influences of seasonality on the dispersion of total Hg in the Hydroelectric Power Plant (HPP)-Samuel Reservoir (Porto Velho/Brazil). Sampling campaigns were performed during the three following hydrological periods characteristic of the region: low (Oct/2011), ebbing (May/2012), and high (Feb/2013) water. Sediment profiles, suspended particulate matter (SPM), and aquatic macrophytes (Eicchornia crassipes and Oryza spp.) were collected, and their Hg concentrations and isotopic and elemental C and N signatures were determined. The drainage basin significantly influenced the SPM compositions during all the periods, with a small autochthonous influence from the reservoir during the low water. The highest SPM Hg concentrations inside the reservoir were observed during the high water period, suggesting that the hydrodynamics of this environment favor the suspension of fine SPM, which has a higher Hg adsorption capacity. The Hg concentrations in the sediment profiles were ten times lower than those in the SPM, indicating that large particles with low Hg concentrations were deposited to form the bottom sediment. Hg concentrations were higher in aquatic macrophyte roots than in their leaves and appeared to contribute to the formation of SPM during the low water period. In this environment, Hg transport mainly occurs in SPM from the Jamari River drainage basin, which is the primary source of Hg in this environment.

  5. Etiology of diarrheal infections in children of Porto Velho (Rondonia, Western Amazon region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlandi P.P.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, 470 children less than 72 months of age and presenting acute diarrhea were examined to identify associated enteropathogenic agents. Viruses were the pathogens most frequently found in stools of infants with diarrhea, including 111 cases of rotavirus (23.6% of the total diarrhea cases and 30 cases of adenovirus (6.3%. The second group was diarrheogenic Escherichia coli (86 cases, 18.2%, followed by Salmonella sp (44 cases, 9.3% and Shigella sp (24 cases, 5.1%. Using the PCR technique to differentiate the pathogenic categories of E. coli, it was possible to identify 29 cases (6.1% of enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC. Of these, 10 (2.1% were typical EPEC and 19 (4.0% atypical EPEC. In addition, there were 26 cases (5.5% of enteroaggregative E. coli, 21 cases (4.4% of enterotoxigenic E. coli, 7 cases (1.4% of enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC, and 3 cases (0.6% of enterohemorrhagic E. coli. When comparing the frequencies of diarrheogenic E. coli, EPEC was the only category for which significant differences were found between diarrhea and control groups. A low frequency of EIEC was found, thus EIEC cannot be considered to be a potential etiology agent of diarrhea. Simultaneous infections with two pathogens were found in 39 diarrhea cases but not in controls, suggesting associations among potential enteropathogens in the etiology of diarrhea. The frequent association of diarrheogenic E. coli strains was significantly higher than the probability of their random association, suggesting the presence of facilitating factor(s.

  6. [Community-based intervention to control STD/AIDS in the Amazon region, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzaken, Adele Schwartz; Galbán Garcia, Enrique; Sardinha, José Carlos Gomes; Pedrosa, Valderiza Lourenço; Paiva, Vera

    2007-12-01

    To describe a case study of community-based intervention, developed in a constructionist-emancipatory framework to control STD/AIDS. Descriptive study developed in the town of Manacapuru, in the state of Amazonas, from 1997 to 2004, focusing on procedures designed in collaboration with government agents, health professionals and the community. Data on the dynamics of prostitution and condom sales in this town, preventive practices and STD/AIDS care and process assessment were collected. Actions targeting STD prevention and care in the public healthcare system, a testing center, an epidemiological surveillance system and sex workers' qualification were established concomitantly. It was observed the strengthening of sex workers as peer educators and their legitimization as citizens and health agents in projects involving transvestites, homosexuals and students. There was an increase in condom sales in town, as well as in condom use among sex workers; reduction in bacterial STD; and stabilization of the incidence of HIV/AIDS infections and congenital syphilis. The sustainability of the intervention program studied, organized within the sphere of action of the Sistema Unico de Saúde (National Health System), was promoted by a political pact, which guaranteed headquarters and municipal law-regulated budget, as well as by the constant debate over the process and program results. The study strengthened the notion that effective control of STD/AIDS depends on a synergic approach that combines interventions on individual (biological-behavioral), sociocultural and programmatic levels.

  7. Hydrochemistry of the Parauari-Maues Acu river basin (Amazon region, Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bringel, S.R.B.

    1980-08-01

    The chemical composition of the Parauari-Maues Acu basin is studied through the determination of pH, calcium, magnesium, iron, chloride, sodium, potassium, zinc, copper and manganese. Four expeditions were made and samples were collected in 16 different points of the main course. Chemical analysis of the rivers waters shows seasonal flutuations of the concentrations of the elements in the main river as well as in the main afluents like Nambi river, Amana river and Urupadi river. (Author) [pt

  8. Mercury Exposure: Protein Biomarkers of Mercury Exposure in Jaraqui Fish from the Amazon Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, José Cavalcante Souza; Braga, Camila Pereira; de Oliveira, Grasieli; Padilha, Cilene do Carmo Federici; de Moraes, Paula Martin; Zara, Luiz Fabricio; Leite, Aline de Lima; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; Padilha, Pedro de Magalhães

    2018-05-01

    This study presents data on the extraction and characterization of proteins associated with mercury in the muscle and liver tissues of jaraqui (Semaprochilodus spp.) from the Madeira River in the Brazilian Amazon. Protein fractionation was carried out by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2D-PAGE). Mercury determination in tissues, pellets, and protein spots was performed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Proteins in the spots that showed mercury were characterized by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). The highest mercury concentrations were found in liver tissues and pellets (426 ± 6 and 277 ± 4 μg kg -1 ), followed by muscle tissues and pellets (132 ± 4 and 86 ± 1 μg kg -1 , respectively). Mercury quantification in the protein spots allowed us to propose stoichiometric ratios in the range of 1-4 mercury atoms per molecule of protein in the protein spots. The proteins characterized in the analysis by ESI-MS/MS were keratin, type II cytoskeletal 8, parvalbumin beta, parvalbumin-2, ubiquitin-40S ribosomal S27a, 39S ribosomal protein L36 mitochondrial, hemoglobin subunit beta, and hemoglobin subunit beta-A/B. The results suggest that proteins such as ubiquitin-40S ribosomal protein S27a, which have specific domains, possibly zinc finger, can be used as biomarkers of mercury, whereas mercury and zinc present characteristics of soft acids.

  9. Functional and biological diversity of foliar spectra in tree canopies throughout the Andes to Amazon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asner, Gregory P; Martin, Roberta E; Carranza-Jiménez, Loreli; Sinca, Felipe; Tupayachi, Raul; Anderson, Christopher B; Martinez, Paola

    2014-10-01

    Spectral properties of foliage express fundamental chemical interactions of canopies with solar radiation. However, the degree to which leaf spectra track chemical traits across environmental gradients in tropical forests is unknown. We analyzed leaf reflectance and transmittance spectra in 2567 tropical canopy trees comprising 1449 species in 17 forests along a 3400-m elevation and soil fertility gradient from the Amazonian lowlands to the Andean treeline. We developed quantitative links between 21 leaf traits and 400-2500-nm spectra, and developed classifications of tree taxa based on spectral traits. Our results reveal enormous inter-specific variation in spectral and chemical traits among canopy trees of the western Amazon. Chemical traits mediating primary production were tightly linked to elevational changes in foliar spectral signatures. By contrast, defense compounds and rock-derived nutrients tracked foliar spectral variation with changing soil fertility in the lowlands. Despite the effects of abiotic filtering on mean foliar spectral properties of tree communities, the spectra were dominated by phylogeny within any given community, and spectroscopy accurately classified 85-93% of Amazonian tree species. Our findings quantify how tropical tree canopies interact with sunlight, and indicate how to measure the functional and biological diversity of forests with spectroscopy. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. Mesopause region temperature variability and its trend in southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturini, Mateus S.; Bageston, José V.; Caetano, Nattan R.; Peres, Lucas V.; Bencherif, Hassan; Schuch, Nelson J.

    2018-03-01

    Nowadays, the study of the upper atmosphere is increasing, mostly because of the need to understand the patterns of Earth's atmosphere. Since studies on global warming have become very important for the development of new technologies, understanding all regions of the atmosphere becomes an unavoidable task. In this paper, we aim to analyze the temperature variability and its trend in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) region during a period of 12 years (from 2003 to 2014). For this purpose, three different heights, i.e., 85, 90 and 95 km, were focused on in order to investigate the upper atmosphere, and a geographic region different to other studies was chosen, in the southern region of Brazil, centered in the city of Santa Maria, RS (29°41'02'' S; 53°48'25'' W). In order to reach the objectives of this work, temperature data from the SABER instrument (Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry), aboard NASA's Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics Dynamics (TIMED) satellite, were used. Finally, two cases were studied related to distinct grids of latitude/longitude used to obtain the mean temperature profiles. The first case considered a grid of 20° × 20° lat/long, centered in Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. In the second case, the region was reduced to a size of 15° × 15° in order to compare the results and discuss the two cases in terms of differences or similarities in temperature trends. Observations show that the size of the geographical area used for the average temperature profiles can influence the results of variability and trend of the temperature. In addition, reducing the time duration of analyses from 24 to 12 h a day also influences the trend significantly. For the smaller geographical region (15° × 15°) and the 12 h daily time window (09:00-21:00 UT) it was found that the main contributions for the temperature variability at the three heights were the annual and semi-annual cycles and the solar flux influence

  11. Global Economic Integration and Local Community Resilience: Road Paving and Rural Demographic Change in the Southwestern Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perz, Stephen G.; Cabrera, Liliana; Carvalho, Lucas Araujo; Castillo, Jorge; Barnes, Grenville

    2010-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed an expansion in international investment in large-scale infrastructure projects with the goal of achieving global economic integration. We focus on one such project, the Inter-Oceanic Highway in the "MAP" region, a trinational frontier where Bolivia, Brazil, and Peru meet in the southwestern Amazon. We adopt a…

  12. New species of Polycentropodidae (Trichoptera: Annulipalpia) from Northeast Region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilarino, Albane; Calor, Adolfo R

    2015-08-26

    Three new species of Polycentropodidae (Insecta: Trichoptera) from the Northeast Region of Brazil are diagnosed, described, and illustrated. Polycentropus brevicornutus n. sp. of the Polycentropus gertschi Group can be diagnosed mainly by its much reduced, almost vestigial intermediate appendages, and by the inferior appendages, which are deltoid and very linear in lateral aspect. The two new species of Polyplectropus are P. anchorus n. sp. and P. auriplicatus n. sp. in the P. annulicornis and P. bredini Groups, respectively. Polyplectropus anchorus n. sp. is very similar to P. annulicornis Ulmer 1905, but can be distinguished from its congener mainly by the endothecal spines without setae and with their apices directed dorsolaterad. Polyplectropus auriplicatus n. sp. resembles P. brasilensis but can be distinguished mainly by the shorter and deltoid intermediate appendages, the straighter dorsolateral processes of the preanal appendages, and the inferior appendages each with its mesoventral branch more developed and rounded.

  13. Identification of structural breaks in hydrological maxima time series in Paraguay River, Pantanal Region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Marcus; Lima, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    The hydrological time series of the Paraguay River located in the Pantanal region of Brazil exhibits a complex and interesting behavior, which includes long memory characteristics, monotonic trends, multiple breaks and strong seasonality. Particularly, several abrupt changes from low to high flows and vice versa have been observed on annual maxima time series and have been responsible for the major flood damages in the region, even more significant than the largest floods that occurred in the period post 1974. The year of 1974 is historically known as the year of the most significant flood impact in region, especially on agriculture and cattle. Therefore, the identification and attribution of such step changes in the series is of particular interest to improve the flood management systems across the region. Here we apply the cumulative sum (CUSUM) procedure to identify the timing of the abrupt changes. Preliminary results for the Ladario streamflow gauge reveal multiple structural changes in 1936 (high flows to low flows), 1961 (high/low), 1974 (low/high) and 1999 (high/low). Rainfall records were also analyzed and the results obtained suggest that the Paraguay River basin in its upper reach, monitored by Caceres gauging station (32,400 km²) and Cuiabá river basin (23,500 km²) are the factors that most contribute to low frequencies oscillations in the Ladario maxima time series (253,000 km²). These sub-basins are both located in the northern part of the catchment along with the boundary of the Amazon River basin, where the average rainfall is more expressive. In both basins the rainfall records show a structural break in 1973. Simple linear regression using rainfall and flow records in those sub-basins show that the rainfall data accounts for around 70% of the flow variance, indicating that the internal dynamics of the catchment plays a minor role on the streamflow variability. Low frequency variability is also observed in both rainfall series and may be the

  14. Perception of local inhabitants regarding the socioeconomic impact of tourism focused on provisioning wild dolphins in Novo Airao, Central Amazon, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIZ C.P.S. ALVES

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Botos (Inia geoffrensis are currently provisioned for use in tourist attractions in five sites in the Brazilian Amazon. Despite the known negative effects associated with human-wild dolphin interactions, this activity has been regulated and licensed in the Anavilhanas National Park in Novo Airão, Amazonas State, Brazil. We present an updated evaluation of the perception of the local community concerning the possible socioeconomic impacts of this tourism in Novo Airão. In April 2011, 45 interviews were conducted with inhabitants. A small segment of Novo Airão perceives currently itself as being economically dependent on the botos feeding tourism. Despite that, the economic benefits of this controversial activity apparently are not shared among most inhabitants, and botos feeding tourism is perceived as generating diverse negative effects. We conclude that if the activity was banned or modified into a less impacting tourist activity, this action would probably not majorly affect the lives of the general population.

  15. Isolation and molecular identification of lactic acid bacteria and Bifidobacterium spp. from faeces of the blue-fronted Amazon parrot in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegretti, L; Revolledo, L; Astolfi-Ferreira, C S; Chacón, J L; Martins, L M; Seixas, G H F; Ferreira, A J P

    2014-12-01

    In Brazil, the blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva) is a common pet. The faecal microbiota of these birds include a wide variety of bacterial species, the majority of which belong to the Gram-positive lactic acid bacteria (LAB) clade. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in the diversity and abundance of LAB and Bifidobacterium spp. in the cloacae between wild and captive birds and to select, identify and characterise LAB for consideration as a parrot probiotic. Cloacal swabs were collected from 26 wild and 26 captive birds. Bacterial DNA was extracted, and the 16S rRNA genes were amplified. The numbers of PCR-positive Enterococcus, Pediococcus, and Lactobacillus species isolated from wild and captive birds were significantly different (P<0.05). Enterococcus was the most frequently isolated genus, followed by Pediococcus, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus and Bifidobacterium. Enterococcus faecium, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus coryniformis, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis and Bifidobacterium bifidum were the most frequently isolated species from all birds. This study increases our understanding of the faecal microbiota, and may help to improve the nutrition and habitat management of captive and wild parrots. The bacterial population identified in the faecal microbiota of clinically healthy wild and captive parrots can serve as a database to analyse variations in the gut microbiota of pathogen-infected parrots and to develop probiotics specific to these genera.

  16. Abbreviated larval development of Macrobrachium inpa Kensley and Walker, 1982 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae from an Amazon Basin forest stream, Brazil, reared in the laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célio Magalhães

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper brings the description and illustrations of the abbreviated larval development of the Amazonian freshwater palaemonid shrimp, Macrobrachium inpa Kensley and Walker, 1982. The study was based on ovigerous females (mean total body length of 27.0 ± 1.64 mm collected in a small forest stream in the Reserva Florestal Ducke, near Manaus, Brazil, of which four released their larvae in the laboratory. The females carried 8 to 19 eliptical (2.39 ± 0.10 X 1.67 ± 0.08 mm, yolk-rich eggs. The larval period consists of three benthic, lecithotrophic larval stages, and lasts 10-11 days. The newly-hatched larvae bear very advanced morphological features such as antenna with several marginal plumose seta on scaphocerite and long, multi-articulated flagellum; fully developed, functional uniramous pereiopods 3-5 (walking legs and biramous pleopods. The morphology of the carapace, all appendages of the cephalothorax and pleon, and the tail fan are described in detail and illustrated. The larval form was considered to be a decapodid because of the benthic behavior and due to the fact that functional walking legs and pleopods are the main structures for displacement and propulsion. The larval development of M. inpa is compared with those of the so-called "continental" group of the caridean shrimps from the Amazon River basin.

  17. Uncovering spatial patterns in the natural and human history of Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa) across the Amazon Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, E.; Alcázar Caicedo, C.; McMichael, C.H.; Corvera, R.; Loo, J.

    2015-01-01

    Aim Our goal was to test the hypothesis that ancient humans substantially contributed to shaping the current distribution of Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa), an Amazonian tree species that has been important for human livelihoods since pre-Columbian times. We scrutinized the putative association

  18. Larval Pseudoproleptus sp. (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae) found in the Amazon river prawn Macrobrachium amazonicum (Decapoda: Palaemonidae) in Brazil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Santos, C. P.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 3 (2009), s. 634-638 ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/06/0170; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Pseudoproleptus * Macrobrachium * Brazil Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.195, year: 2009

  19. Evaluating photovoltaic/energy storage/diesel hybrid power systems for remote area power supplies in the Amazon region of Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurwitch, J.W.; Danley, D.R.

    1998-01-01

    In June 1997, an international memorandum of understanding was signed between the Ministry of Energy and Mines (MEM) in Peru, the Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA) and the International Lead Zinc Research Organization (ILZRO). This agreement seeks to evaluate the potential for remote area power supplies (RAPS) for electrification of rural villages in the Amazon region. This study, funded by ILZRO, was the first major activity conducted under the aegis of this agreement. The objective of this study was to conduct a preliminary engineering design and feasibility study to assess the potential for Remote Area Power Supplies (RAPS) in the Amazon Region of Peru. This paper presents the results of this preliminary engineering study. (author)

  20. Ultrapotassic rocks geology from Salgueiro region, Pernambuco state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Filho, A.F. da; Guimaraes, I.P.

    1990-01-01

    The Cachoeirinha-Salgueiro belt has Proterozoic age and is located in the Borborema Province, NE Brazil. The ultrapotassic rocks from Salgueiro region intrudes the Cachoeirinha-Salgueiro belt rocks. The ultrapotassics from Salgueiro region constitutes of three units; Serra do Livramento pluton, and two dyke swarms called respectively beige alkali feldspar granites and green alkali feldspar syenite/quartz-syenite. The Serra do Livramento pluton shows E-W direction, boudin shape, width between 0,15 and 2,10 km, and it is intruded into metamorphic rocks and into the Terra Nova complex. Detailed geological mapping at the Serra das Duas Irmas allowed us to establish the dyke swarm chronology. The mapping reveals seven intrusion episodes, into the Terra Nova pluton, of green alkali feldspar syenite/quartz-syenite and five episodes of bege alkali feldspar granite. They alternate between them in space and time, and there are evidence that they were intruded under the tectonic control of the Pernambuco lineament. A systematic whole-rock Rb-Sr geochronology was done in the green alkali feldspar syenite/quartz-syenite, and an age of 514,8 ± 20,3 Ma was obtained. The initial ratio is 0,710615 + 0,000441. The age obtained shows small error and an initial ratio compatible with a strong crustal contamination. (author)

  1. Brazil-USA Collaborative Research: Modifications by Anthropogenic Pollution of the Natural Atmospheric Chemistry and Particle Microphysics of the Tropical Rain Forest During the GoAmazon Intensive Operating Periods (IOPs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Saewung [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Manaus, a city of nearly two million people, represents an isolated urban area having a distinct urban pollution plume within the otherwise pristine Amazon Basin. The plume has high concentrations of oxides of nitrogen and sulfur, carbon monoxide, particle concentrations, and soot, among other pollutants. Critically, the distinct plume in the setting of the surrounding tropical rain forest serves as a natural laboratory to allow direct comparisons between periods of pollution influence to those of pristine conditions. The funded activity of this report is related to the Brazil-USA collaborative project during the two Intensive Operating Periods (wet season, 1 Feb - 31 Mar 2014; dry season, 15 Aug - 15 Oct 2014) of GoAmazon2014/5. The project addresses key science questions regarding the modification of the natural atmospheric chemistry and particle microphysics of the forest by present and future anthropogenic pollution.

  2. Evaluation of Digital Classification of Polarimetric SAR Data for Iron-Mineralized Laterites Mapping in the Amazon Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber G. Oliveira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the potential of C- and L-band polarimetric SAR data for the discrimination of iron-mineralized laterites in the Brazilian Amazon region. The study area is the N1 plateau located on the northern border of the Carajás Mineral Province, the most important Brazilian mineral province which has numerous mineral deposits, particularly the world’s largest iron deposits. The plateau is covered by low-density savanna-type vegetation (campus rupestres which contrasts visibly with the dense equatorial forest. The laterites are subdivided into three units: chemical crust, iron-ore duricrust, and hematite, of which only the latter two are of economic interest. Full polarimetric data from the airborne R99B sensor of the SIVAM/CENSIPAM (L-band system and the RADARSAT-2 satellite (C-band were evaluated. The study focused on an assessment of distinct schemes for digital classification based on decomposition theory and hybrid approach, which incorporates statistical analysis as input data derived from the target decomposition modeling. The results indicated that the polarimetric classifications presented a poor performance, with global Kappa values below 0.20. The accuracy for the identification of units of economic interest varied from 55% to 89%, albeit with high commission error values. In addition, the results using L-band were considered superior compared to C-band, which suggest that the roughness scale for laterite discrimination in the area is nearer to L than to C-band.

  3. Tolerance to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs by filamentous fungi isolated from contaminated sediment in the Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilton Marcelo de Lima Souza

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Tolerance to Polycyclic Hydrocarbons Aromatic (PAHs is considered an important characteristic when assessing the bioremediation potential of microorganisms. Given this, the objective of this research was to assay filamentous fungi from the Amazon region, isolated from sediments with differents levels of contamination by PAHs, for tolerance to phenanthrene and pyrene. To achieve this, fungal cultures plugs (5 mm, obtained after 7 days growth, were transferred to petri dishes containing 20% Sabouraud dextrose agar medium, after surface innoculation with phenanthrene and pyrene crystals, separately. Radial mycelial growth was evaluated after 10 days at five different concentration levels for each contaminant and control group, all in triplicate for each treatment. Fungal growth and growth inhibition rates were calculated. The average growth of the colonies in each treatment was compared with one-way ANOVA, followed by a Tukey Test (p < 0,05. All fungi showed tolerant to phenanthrene and pyrene. However, Hypoxylon sp. showed the lowest growth inhibition rate and average growth rates significantly different of the other six tested species. Hypoxylon sp. has been shown to be a promising genetic resource for use in new studies of PAHs degradation.

  4. The epidemiology of dengue virus infection among urban, jungle, and rural populations in the Amazon region of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, C G; Phillips, I A; Callahan, J D; Griebenow, W F; Hyams, K C; Wu, S J; Watts, D M

    1996-10-01

    The first confirmed outbreak of dengue fever in Peru occurred during 1990 in Iquitos, a city of approximately 300,000 residents in the Amazon region. Because of the apparent establishment of endemic transmission of this mosquito-borne viral disease following the outbreak, epidemiologic studies were initiated in 1992. Blood specimens and data on demographic, environmental, and medical history factors were collected from volunteers in an urban sector of Iquitos, in a rural area on the outskirts of Iquitos, and in three nearby jungle communities. A follow-up blood specimen was obtained approximately one year later from a sample of subjects. Sera were tested for dengue IgG antibody by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and specificity was verified using a plaque-reduction neutralization test. Dengue antibody prevalence was 66% in the urban population, 26% in the rural population, and 32-67% in the three jungle areas. A significant association was found between age and antibody prevalence, with a steady increase in prevalence from 18% among subjects less than five years of age to greater than 90% for subjects more than 50 years old. Increased antibody prevalence also was associated with urban and jungle residence and with a piped source of household drinking water. Seroconversions were documented in four of five surveyed communities. These results indicate that dengue virus transmission continues in and around Iquitos and suggest that transmission also occurred prior to the 1990 epidemic.

  5. Influence of seasonal variation on the hydro-biogeochemical characteristics of two upland lakes in the Southeastern Amazon, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Prafulla K; Guimarães, José T F; Souza-Filho, Pedro W M; Silva, Marcio S DA; Silva, Renato O; Pessim, Gustavo; Moraes, Bergson C DE; Pessoa, Paulo F P; Rodrigues, Tarcísio M; Costa, Marlene F DA; Dall'agnol, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Limnological characteristics of the Violão and Amendoim lakes, in the Serra dos Carajás, Amazon, were studied interannually (2013-2014). Climate data indicate anomalous conditions during the 2013 rainy period with higher rainfall and lower temperature in the beginning (November). Lake levels were influenced after the first and second hour of each rainfall, which showed a strong synchronization between seasonal fluctuation of lake levels and local weather patterns. Based on the water quality, both lakes are classified as classes "1" and "2" in the CONAMA (Conselho Nacional do Meio Ambiente) scheme and as "excellent" to "good" in the WQI (Water Quality Index) categories. However, the limnology is distinctly different between the lakes and seasons. Higher trophic state and phytoplankton productivity were observed mainly during the rainy period in Violão Lake compared to Amendoim Lake. This may be due to deposition of leached nutrients in the former, mainly total phosphorus (TP), which was probably derived from mafic soils and guano. This is consistent with the significant positive correlation between Chlorophyll-a and TP at the end of the rainy period (March-April), whereas this was not observed in the beginning (November). This could possibly be a consequence of the more intense cloud cover, and unusual high rainfall that limits nutrient availability.

  6. Abundance and spatial-temporal distribution of Macrobrachium surinamicum Holthuis, 1948 (Palaemonidae) in the Amazon estuary, north of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, D V; Bentes, B S; Martinelli-Lemos, J M

    2017-01-01

    Macrobrachium surinamicum is a small shrimp that inhabits rivers of low salinity. It is mainly caught as bycatch in Amazon shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum fisheries, which is widely exploited by artisanal fisheries for food and economic needs of the riverside population. This study aimed to characterize the spatial and temporal distribution of the freshwater shrimp M. surinamicum in the Guajará Bay and on Mosqueiro Island, correlating the abundance of this species with abiotic factors (temperature and salinity). Samples were taken from May 2006 to April 2007 in six locations: Mosqueiro Island (Furo das Marinhas and Porto do Pelé); Icoaraci district; Arapiranga Island, edge of the city of Belém; and Combu Island, using traps named 'matapis'. A total of 361 shrimps were caught. The abundance was higher in December and lower in July 2006. The biggest catch occurred on Arapiranga Island and the lowest on Mosqueiro Island. The abundance differed significantly in December 2006 and no variable studied had significant influence on M. surinamicum abundance. In Guajará Bay, particularly the more sheltered places, as Arapiranga and Combu islands, favor the development of M. surinamicum, indicating that this species has preference for less disturbed areas.

  7. Abundance and spatial-temporal distribution of Macrobrachium surinamicum Holthuis, 1948 (Palaemonidae in the Amazon estuary, north of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Cavalcante

    Full Text Available Abstract Macrobrachium surinamicum is a small shrimp that inhabits rivers of low salinity. It is mainly caught as bycatch in Amazon shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum fisheries, which is widely exploited by artisanal fisheries for food and economic needs of the riverside population. This study aimed to characterize the spatial and temporal distribution of the freshwater shrimp M. surinamicum in the Guajará Bay and on Mosqueiro Island, correlating the abundance of this species with abiotic factors (temperature and salinity. Samples were taken from May 2006 to April 2007 in six locations: Mosqueiro Island (Furo das Marinhas and Porto do Pelé; Icoaraci district; Arapiranga Island, edge of the city of Belém; and Combu Island, using traps named 'matapis'. A total of 361 shrimps were caught. The abundance was higher in December and lower in July 2006. The biggest catch occurred on Arapiranga Island and the lowest on Mosqueiro Island. The abundance differed significantly in December 2006 and no variable studied had significant influence on M. surinamicum abundance. In Guajará Bay, particularly the more sheltered places, as Arapiranga and Combu islands, favor the development of M. surinamicum, indicating that this species has preference for less disturbed areas.

  8. A new eimerian species (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the blue-fronted Amazon parrot Amazona aestiva L. (Aves: Psittacidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstatter, P G; Guaraldo, A M A

    2011-12-01

    The Neotropical psittacine species Amazona aestiva, commonly known as the blue-fronted Amazon, is one of the most common and best-known psittacine birds kept as a pet worldwide. However, very little is known about the diseases or parasites of these birds. In this study, we describe a new species, Eimeria aestivae, associated with these parrots. The new species is characterized by: ovoid smooth oocysts (n  =  60), 36.8 (33.2-41.5) × 23.7 (21.7-25.7) µm, length/width ratio  =  1.55; polar granule present; ellipsoidal sporocysts (n  =  25), 19.8 (17.5-21.6) × 9.3 (8.3-9.9) µm; Stieda, sub-Stieda body, and sporocyst residuum present. Sporozoites (n  =  20), 2 per sporocyst, elongate and curved, 17.6 (15.8-19.2) × 3.8 (3.2-4.8) µm; each with 2 refractile bodies. The oocysts of the other 2 eimerian species described for Amazona are larger than those of the presented species, but they all seem to be closely related because of some similarities among them.

  9. Development of regional future climate change scenarios in South America using the Eta CPTEC/HadCM3 climate change projections: climatology and regional analyses for the Amazon, Sao Francisco and the Parana River basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marengo, Jose A.; Chou, Sin Chan; Alves, Lincoln M.; Pesquero, Jose F.; Soares, Wagner R.; Santos, Daniel C.; Lyra, Andre A.; Sueiro, Gustavo; Chagas, Diego J.; Gomes, Jorge L.; Bustamante, Josiane F.; Tavares, Priscila [National Institute for Space Research (INPE) Cachoeira Paulista, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Kay, Gillian; Betts, Richard [UK Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter, Devon (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-15

    The objective of this study is to assess the climate projections over South America using the Eta-CPTEC regional model driven by four members of an ensemble of the Met Office Hadley Centre Global Coupled climate model HadCM3. The global model ensemble was run over the twenty-first century according to the SRES A1B emissions scenario, but with each member having a different climate sensitivity. The four members selected to drive the Eta-CPTEC model span the sensitivity range in the global model ensemble. The Eta-CPTEC model nested in these lateral boundary conditions was configured with a 40-km grid size and was run over 1961-1990 to represent baseline climate, and 2011-2100 to simulate possible future changes. Results presented here focus on austral summer and winter climate of 2011-2040, 2041-2070 and 2071-2100 periods, for South America and for three major river basins in Brazil. Projections of changes in upper and low-level circulation and the mean sea level pressure (SLP) fields simulate a pattern of weakening of the tropical circulation and strengthening of the subtropical circulation, marked by intensification at the surface of the Chaco Low and the subtropical highs. Strong warming (4-6 C) of continental South America increases the temperature gradient between continental South America and the South Atlantic. This leads to stronger SLP gradients between continent and oceans, and to changes in moisture transport and rainfall. Large rainfall reductions are simulated in Amazonia and Northeast Brazil (reaching up to 40%), and rainfall increases around the northern coast of Peru and Ecuador and in southeastern South America, reaching up to 30% in northern Argentina. All changes are more intense after 2040. The Precipitation-Evaporation (P-E) difference in the A1B downscaled scenario suggest water deficits and river runoff reductions in the eastern Amazon and Sao Francisco Basin, making these regions susceptible to drier conditions and droughts in the future

  10. Forging partnerships in Brazil | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-05-09

    May 9, 2011 ... Brazil — Mercury contamination in the Amazon. Brazilian and Canadian researchers seeking to find the source of mercury contamination in the Amazon came to a startling conclusion: agricultural p. View moreBrazil — Mercury contamination in the Amazon ...

  11. Introduction: Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, S. T.; Artaxo, P.; Machado, L. A. T.; Manzi, A. O.; Souza, R. A. F.; Schumacher, C.; Wang, J.; Andreae, M. O.; Barbosa, H. M. J.; Fan, J.; Fisch, G.; Goldstein, A. H.; Guenther, A.; Jimenez, J. L.; Pöschl, U.; Silva Dias, M. A.; Smith, J. N.; Wendisch, M.

    2016-04-01

    The Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) Experiment was carried out in the environs of Manaus, Brazil, in the central region of the Amazon basin for 2 years from 1 January 2014 through 31 December 2015. The experiment focused on the complex interactions among vegetation, atmospheric chemistry, and aerosol production on the one hand and their connections to aerosols, clouds, and precipitation on the other. The objective was to understand and quantify these linked processes, first under natural conditions to obtain a baseline and second when altered by the effects of human activities. To this end, the pollution plume from the Manaus metropolis, superimposed on the background conditions of the central Amazon basin, served as a natural laboratory. The present paper, as the introduction to the special issue of GoAmazon2014/5, presents the context and motivation of the GoAmazon2014/5 Experiment. The nine research sites, including the characteristics and instrumentation of each site, are presented. The sites range from time point zero (T0) upwind of the pollution, to T1 in the midst of the pollution, to T2 just downwind of the pollution, to T3 furthest downwind of the pollution (70 km). In addition to the ground sites, a low-altitude G-159 Gulfstream I (G-1) observed the atmospheric boundary layer and low clouds, and a high-altitude Gulfstream G550 (HALO) operated in the free troposphere. During the 2-year experiment, two Intensive Operating Periods (IOP1 and IOP2) also took place that included additional specialized research instrumentation at the ground sites as well as flights of the two aircraft. GoAmazon2014/5 IOP1 was carried out from 1 February to 31 March 2014 in the wet season. GoAmazon2014/5 IOP2 was conducted from 15 August to 15 October 2014 in the dry season. The G-1 aircraft flew during both IOP1 and IOP2, and the HALO aircraft flew during IOP2. In the context of the Amazon basin, the two IOPs also correspond to the clean and

  12. Introduction: Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Martin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5 Experiment was carried out in the environs of Manaus, Brazil, in the central region of the Amazon basin for 2 years from 1 January 2014 through 31 December 2015. The experiment focused on the complex interactions among vegetation, atmospheric chemistry, and aerosol production on the one hand and their connections to aerosols, clouds, and precipitation on the other. The objective was to understand and quantify these linked processes, first under natural conditions to obtain a baseline and second when altered by the effects of human activities. To this end, the pollution plume from the Manaus metropolis, superimposed on the background conditions of the central Amazon basin, served as a natural laboratory. The present paper, as the introduction to the special issue of GoAmazon2014/5, presents the context and motivation of the GoAmazon2014/5 Experiment. The nine research sites, including the characteristics and instrumentation of each site, are presented. The sites range from time point zero (T0 upwind of the pollution, to T1 in the midst of the pollution, to T2 just downwind of the pollution, to T3 furthest downwind of the pollution (70 km. In addition to the ground sites, a low-altitude G-159 Gulfstream I (G-1 observed the atmospheric boundary layer and low clouds, and a high-altitude Gulfstream G550 (HALO operated in the free troposphere. During the 2-year experiment, two Intensive Operating Periods (IOP1 and IOP2 also took place that included additional specialized research instrumentation at the ground sites as well as flights of the two aircraft. GoAmazon2014/5 IOP1 was carried out from 1 February to 31 March 2014 in the wet season. GoAmazon2014/5 IOP2 was conducted from 15 August to 15 October 2014 in the dry season. The G-1 aircraft flew during both IOP1 and IOP2, and the HALO aircraft flew during IOP2. In the context of the Amazon basin, the two IOPs also

  13. The haze of the Amazon region observed by airborne lidar during SAMBBA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marenco, Franco; Turnbull, Kate; Johnson, Ben; Haywood, Jim

    2013-04-01

    The South AMerican Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) campaign took place in Brazil in September and October 2012, involving the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft. SAMBBA was aimed at investigating the properties of aerosols over South America during the dry season, when most of the deforestation and agricultural fires occur. Twenty research flights were carried out, and included the following aerosol measurements: physical, optical and chemical properties, as well as vertical distribution and mapping. Moreover, measurements of gas phase chemistry and fire radiative power were also carried out. This presentation focuses mainly on results obtained with the on-board lidar, putting them into context with data from other sources such as optical particle counters, dropsondes, and ground-based remote sensing. An optically thick haze layer was observed during most flights. This layer tended to be elevated, often at an altitude of 1-3 km, with multiple thinner layers all the way up to 7 km. This atmospheric structure is believed to be the result of the interaction between smoke injected in the boundary layer and deep convective clouds often formed in the afternoon hours, with the potential of lifting aerosols quite high into the free troposphere. Lidar observations also reveal smoke plumes originated from single fires, and allow to characterise them in terms of size and plume rise. Good cases of pyrocumulus are also revealed, rising some times from the ground up to altitudes of 6 km.

  14. Protected area types, strategies and impacts in Brazil's Amazon: public protected area strategies do not yield a consistent ranking of protected area types by impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Alexander; Robalino, Juan; Sandoval, Catalina; Herrera, Diego

    2015-11-05

    The leading policy to conserve forest is protected areas (PAs). Yet, PAs are not a single tool: land users and uses vary by PA type; and public PA strategies vary in the extent of each type and in the determinants of impact for each type, i.e. siting and internal deforestation. Further, across regions and time, strategies respond to pressures (deforestation and political). We estimate deforestation impacts of PA types for a critical frontier, the Brazilian Amazon. We separate regions and time periods that differ in their deforestation and political pressures and document considerable variation in PA strategies across regions, time periods and types. The siting of PAs varies across regions. For example, all else being equal, PAs in the arc of deforestation are relatively far from non-forest, while in other states they are relatively near. Internal deforestation varies across time periods, e.g. it is more similar across the PA types for PAs after 2000. By contrast, after 2000, PA extent is less similar across PA types with little non-indigenous area created inside the arc. PA strategies generate a range of impacts for PA types--always far higher within the arc--but not a consistent ranking of PA types by impact. © 2015 The Author(s).

  15. Priority Areas for Establishing National Forests in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto Veríssimo

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Brazil will benefit if it gains control of its vast Amazonian timber resources. Without immediate planning, the fate of much of the Amazon will be decided by predatory and largely unregulated timber interests. Logging in the Amazon is a transient process of natural resource mining. Older logging frontiers are being exhausted of timber resources and will face severe wood shortages within 5 yr. The Brazilian government can avoid the continued repetition of this process in frontier areas by establishing a network of National Forests (Florestas Nacionais or Flonas to stabilize the timber industry and simultaneously protect large tracts of forest. Flonas currently comprise less than 2% of the Brazilian Amazon (83,000 km2. If all these forests were used for sustainable logging, they would provide less than 10% of the demand for Amazonian timber. To sustainably supply the present and near-future demand for timber, approximately 700,000 km2 of the Amazon forest needs to be brought into well-managed production. Brazil's National Forest Program, launched in 2000, is designed to create at least 400,000 km2 of new Flonas. Objective decision-making tools are needed to site these new national forests. We present here a method for optimally locating the needed Flonas that incorporates information on existing protected areas, current vegetation cover, areas of human occupation, and timber stocks. The method combines these data in a spatial database that makes it possible to model the economic potential of the region's various forests as a function of their accessibility and timber values while constraining model solutions for existing areas of protection or human occupation. Our results indicate that 1.15 x 106 km2 of forests (23% of the Brazilian Amazon could be established as Flonas in a manner that will promote sustainable forest management; these Flonas would also serve as buffer zones for fully protected areas such as parks and reserves.

  16. Indoor radon distribution in metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Talita O.; Oliveira, Arno H. de

    2009-01-01

    Human beings are exposed to ionizing radiation from many natural sources. Radon and its progeny have been recognized as the most important contributors to the natural radioactivity dose, accounting for about half of all human exposure to ionizing radiation. Radon ( 222 Rn) is a α-radioactive noble gas derived from the natural series of uranium (2 38 U), which occurs in a wide concentration range in all geological materials, especially, in rocks, soils and waters. By diffusion and convection, radon migrates from the rocks and soils to atmosphere and through fissures, pipes and holes it may enter the dwellings and other buildings. Another important radon source in dwellings is its emanation from the construction material. The radon progeny concentration in dwellings has been receiving considerable global attention due to its potential effect in causing lung cancer if it deposited in upper respiratory tract when inhaled. This paper presents radon concentration distribution in dwellings in Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte - RMBH. The effective dose estimate is also presented for the RMBH inhabitants. The geological settings of the area are Archean rocks of Granitic Gnaissic Complex and of metasediments sequences of the great Precambrian unit of the Iron Quadrangle of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Radon concentration measurements were carried out with continuous detector AlphaGUARD PQ200PRO (Genitron), in passive mode and with passive detectors E-PERM R Eletret Ion Chamber-EIC. The radon progeny concentration was carried out with a solid state alpha spectroscope, the DOSEman PRO (Sarad). It was found an indoor radon concentration varying in a large range from 18.5 to 2671.4 Bq/m -3 , with an average value of 148.0 Bqm -3 and geometric mean equal to 128.2 Bqm -3 . The variable results are due mainly to region geological factors and building material composition of dwellings. The equilibrium factor between radon and its progeny were determined in dwellings, as 0.3 in

  17. The Amazon and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    The climatologies of cloudiness and precipitation for the Amazon, are reviewed and the physical causes of some of the observed features and those which are not well known are explained. The atmospheric circulation over the Amazon is discussed on the large scale tropical circulations forced by deep diabatic heating sources. Weather deforestation which leads to a reduction in evapotranspiration into the atmosphere, and a reduction in precipitation and its implicated for the gobal climate is discussed. It is indicated that a large scale clearing of tropical rainforests there would be a reduction in rainfall which would have global effects on climate and weather both in the tropical and extratropical regions.

  18. Somatosensory Psychophysical Losses in Inhabitants of Riverside Communities of the Tapajós River Basin, Amazon, Brazil: Exposure to Methylmercury Is Possibly Involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Eliana Dirce Torres; Souza, Givago da Silva; da Costa, Carlos Araújo; de Araújo, Amélia Ayako Kamogari; de Oliveira, Cláudia Simone Baltazar; Silveira, Luiz Carlos de Lima; Pinheiro, Maria da Conceição Nascimento

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the somatosensory system of methylmercury-exposed inhabitants living in the communities of the Tapajós river basin by using psychophysical tests and to compare with measurements performed in inhabitants of the Tocantins river basin. We studied 108 subjects from Barreiras and São Luiz do Tapajós, two communities of the Tapajós river basin, State of Pará, Amazon, Brazil, aged 13-53 years old. Mercury analysis was performed in head hair samples weighting 0.1-0.2 g by using atomic absorption spectrometry. Three somatosensory psychophysical tests were performed: tactile sensation threshold, vibration sensation duration, and two-point discrimination. Semmes-Weinstein 20 monofilaments with different diameters were used to test the tactile sensation in the lower lip, right and left breasts, right and left index fingers, and right and left hallux. The threshold was the thinner monofilament perceived by the subject. Vibration sensation was investigated using a 128 Hz diapason applied to the sternum, right and left radial sides of the wrist, and right and left outer malleoli. Two trials were performed at each place. A stopwatch recorded the vibration sensation duration. The two-point discrimination test was performed using a two-point discriminator. Head hair mercury concentration was significantly higher in mercury-exposed inhabitants of Tapajós than in non-exposed inhabitants of Tocantins (p river basin is a possible but not a definitely proven cause for psychophysical somatosensory losses observed in their population. Additionally, the relatively simple psychophysical measures used in this work should be followed by more rigorous measures of the same population.

  19. Fauna de Hymenoptera em Ficus spp. (Moraceae na Amazônia Central, Brasil Fauna of Hymenoptera in Ficus spp. (Moraceae in the Central Amazon, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison G. Nazareno

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A interação Ficus (Moraceae - vespas de figo é considerada um dos exemplos mais extremos de mutualismo entre planta e inseto. Neste trabalho, descreve-se a fauna de vespas de figo associada a cinco espécies de Ficus na Amazônia Central, considerando alguns aspectos do modo de polinização nas espécies Ficus (Urostigma cremersii, Ficus (Urostigma greiffiana, Ficus (Urostigma mathewsii, Ficus (Urostigma pertusa e Ficus (Pharmacosycea maxima. O estudo foi desenvolvido durante o período de abril a julho de 2004 em Manaus e Presidente Figueiredo, Estado do Amazonas. O número de espécies de vespas de figo por hospedeiro variou de uma a 13. Vespas do gênero Pegoscapus Cameron, 1906, polinizadoras de Ficus (Urostigma spp., apresentam pentes coxais e bolsos torácicos adaptados à coleta e ao transporte de pólen, indicando modo ativo de polinização. No subgênero Pharmacosycea, a polinizadora do gênero Tetrapus Mayr, 1885, não apresenta estrutura morfológica adaptada ao transporte de pólen, condizente com o modo passivo de polinização. Além das vespas de figo, F. (Pharmacosyceae maxima e F. (Urostigma pertusa apresentaram associação com ácaros, formigas (Solenopsis sp., Formicidae, besouros (Staphylinidae e larvas de Diptera e Lepidoptera.The interaction between Ficus (Moraceae and fig wasps is considered one of the most extreme examples of plant-insect mutualism. In the present study, we reported the fig wasp fauna associated with five Ficus species in the Central Amazon, Brazil, and considered some aspects of the pollination mode found in Ficus (Urostigma cremersii, Ficus (Urostigma greiffiana, Ficus (Urostigma mathewsii, Ficus (Urostigma pertusa e Ficus (Pharmacosycea maxima. The study was carried out from April to July 2004, in the cities of Manaus and Presidente Figueiredo (state of Amazonas, Brazil. The number of fig wasp species per host tree varied from one to 13. Wasps of the genus Pegoscapus Cameron, 1906, pollinators of

  20. The Morphologic Evolution of the Amazon Coastal Plain, Cabo Norte, Amapa, Brazil: The Need for Integrated Investigation on the Internal Continental Shelf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, O.; Santos, V. F.; Takiyama, L. R.

    2007-05-01

    The north brazilian coastal region is submitted to the conjunction of three major forcing: 1) Atmospheric, related to the wind and precipitation regimen and controlling the climatic seasonality and the local rivers hydrology; 2) Oceanic, result of the general oceanic circulation (North Equatorial Current-NEC) and it modulation with the atmospheric forcing (North Brazilian Coastal Current reflection), and 3) Amazonic, which is a result of the sedimentary transport from Amazon river, being itself under the influence of the atmospheric and oceanic forcing. Their main characteristic are the proper periodicities and also variabilities expressed according multiples and differentiated scales of time and space, determining the structure and functioning of the coastal space, giving to the Amazon coast line a considerable environmental instability. The Amapa Coastal Plain shows important part of this environmental instability. Semidiurnal macro tides, strong currents and tidal bores acts over a low gradient coastal plain which evolutionary process are intrinsically related with tectonic and geological settings. Two main areas can be distinguished in this scenario. The first one is the Amapa Lakes Region, developed over meanders of ancient drainages building a mosaic of low relief forms, with varied shapes, linked throughout communication channels. Two lacustrine belts showing alignments with the main tectonic traces were recognized beginning at the internal limit of the coastal plain, flowing southeast through the Tabaco Creek until reach the Araguari River. In it way it conform the Occidental and Meridional Belts represented by shallow lakes, totally dependent of Tartarugal River discharge and surrounded by enormous areas of peat highly sensitive to fire during the regional low discharge. Light blue clays, peat and a package of tidal deposits with fluidization structures were recognized close to Araguari River, suggesting deposition during high sea level. The second area

  1. Production and characterization of a biosurfactant produced by Streptomyces sp. DPUA 1559 isolated from lichens of the Amazon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A P P; Silva, M D S; Costa, E V L; Rufino, R D; Santos, V A; Ramos, C S; Sarubbo, L A; Porto, A L F

    2017-12-11

    Surfactants are amphipathic compounds containing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups, capable to lower the surface or interfacial tension. Considering the advantages of the use of biosurfactants produced by microorganisms, the aim of this paper was to develop and characterize a biosurfactant produced by Streptomyces sp. DPUA1559 isolated from lichens of the Amazon region. The microorganism was cultured in a mineral medium containing 1% residual frying soybean oil as the carbon source. The kinetics of biosurfactant production was accompanied by reducing the surface tension of the culture medium from 60 to values around 27.14 mN/m, and by the emulsification index, which showed the efficiency of the biosurfactant as an emulsifier of hydrophobic compounds. The yield of the isolated biosurfactant was 1.74 g/L, in addition to the excellent capability of reducing the surface tension (25.34 mN/m), as observed from the central composite rotational design when the biosurfactant was produced at pH 8.5 at 28°C. The critical micelle concentration of the biosurfactant was determined as 0.01 g/mL. The biosurfactant showed thermal and pH stability regarding the surface tension reduction, and tolerance under high salt concentrations. The isolated biosurfactant showed no toxicity to the micro-crustacean Artemia salina, and to the seeds of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.). The biochemistry characterization of the biosurfactant showed a single protein band, an acid character and a molecular weight around 14.3 kDa, suggesting its glycoproteic nature. The results are promising for the industrial application of this new biosurfactant.

  2. River boats contribute to the regional spread of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti in the Peruvian Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Anne Guagliardo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The dramatic range expansion of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti is associated with various anthropogenic transport activities, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms driving this geographic expansion. We longitudinally characterized infestation of different vehicle types (cars, boats, etc. to estimate the frequency and intensity of mosquito introductions into novel locations (propagule pressure.Exhaustive adult and immature Ae. aegypti collections were performed on six different vehicle types at five ports and two bus/ taxi departure points in the Amazonian city of Iquitos, Peru during 2013. Aquatic vehicles included 32 large and 33 medium-sized barges, 53 water taxis, and 41 speed boats. Terrestrial vehicles sampled included 40 buses and 30 taxis traveling on the only highway in the region. Ae. aegypti adult infestation rates and immature indices were analyzed by vehicle type, location within vehicles, and sampling date.Large barges (71.9% infested and medium barges (39.4% infested accounted for most of the infestations. Notably, buses had an overall infestation rate of 12.5%. On large barges, the greatest number of Ae. aegypti adults were found in October, whereas most immatures were found in February followed by October. The vast majority of larvae (85.9% and pupae (76.7% collected in large barges were produced in puddles formed in cargo holds.Because larges barges provide suitable mosquito habitats (due to dark, damp cargo storage spaces and ample oviposition sites, we conclude that they likely serve as significant contributors to mosquitoes' propagule pressure across long distances throughout the Peruvian Amazon. This information can help anticipate vector population mixing and future range expansions of dengue and other viruses transmitted by Ae. aegypti.

  3. River boats contribute to the regional spread of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti in the Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guagliardo, Sarah Anne; Morrison, Amy C; Barboza, Jose Luis; Requena, Edwin; Astete, Helvio; Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo; Kitron, Uriel

    2015-04-01

    The dramatic range expansion of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti is associated with various anthropogenic transport activities, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms driving this geographic expansion. We longitudinally characterized infestation of different vehicle types (cars, boats, etc.) to estimate the frequency and intensity of mosquito introductions into novel locations (propagule pressure). Exhaustive adult and immature Ae. aegypti collections were performed on six different vehicle types at five ports and two bus/ taxi departure points in the Amazonian city of Iquitos, Peru during 2013. Aquatic vehicles included 32 large and 33 medium-sized barges, 53 water taxis, and 41 speed boats. Terrestrial vehicles sampled included 40 buses and 30 taxis traveling on the only highway in the region. Ae. aegypti adult infestation rates and immature indices were analyzed by vehicle type, location within vehicles, and sampling date. Large barges (71.9% infested) and medium barges (39.4% infested) accounted for most of the infestations. Notably, buses had an overall infestation rate of 12.5%. On large barges, the greatest number of Ae. aegypti adults were found in October, whereas most immatures were found in February followed by October. The vast majority of larvae (85.9%) and pupae (76.7%) collected in large barges were produced in puddles formed in cargo holds. Because larges barges provide suitable mosquito habitats (due to dark, damp cargo storage spaces and ample oviposition sites), we conclude that they likely serve as significant contributors to mosquitoes' propagule pressure across long distances throughout the Peruvian Amazon. This information can help anticipate vector population mixing and future range expansions of dengue and other viruses transmitted by Ae. aegypti.

  4. Deforestation and forest fires in Roraima and their relationship with phytoclimatic regions in the northern Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barni, Paulo Eduardo; Pereira, Vaneza Barreto; Manzi, Antonio Ocimar; Barbosa, Reinaldo Imbrozio

    2015-05-01

    Deforestation and forest fires in the Brazilian Amazon are a regional-scale anthropogenic process related to biomass burning, which has a direct impact on global warming due to greenhouse gas emissions. Containment of this process requires characterizing its spatial distribution and that of the environmental factors related to its occurrence. The aim of this study is to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of deforested areas and forest fires in the State of Roraima from 2000 to 2010. We mapped deforested areas and forest fires using Landsat images and associated their occurrence with two phytoclimatic zones: zone with savanna influence (ZIS), and zone without savanna influence (ZOS). Total deforested area during the interval was estimated at 3.06 × 10(3) km(2) (ZIS = 55 %; ZOS = 45 %) while total area affected by forest fires was estimated at 3.02 × 10(3) km(2) (ZIS = 97.7 %; ZOS = 2.3 %). Magnitude of deforestation in Roraima was not related to the phytoclimatic zones, but small deforested areas (≤17.9 ha) predominated in ZOS while larger deforestation classes (>17.9 ha) predominated in ZIS, which is an area with a longer history of human activities. The largest occurrence of forest fires was observed in the ZIS in years with El Niño events. Our analysis indicates that the areas most affected by forest fires in Roraima during 2000-2010 were associated with strong climatic events and the occurrence these fires was amplified in ZIS, a sensitive phytoclimatic zone with a higher risk of anthropogenic fires given its drier climate and open forest structure.

  5. Soil functioning in an agroextractivist system in the Eastern Amazon region under family farming management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernanda Simões da Silva, Laura; Nascimento Delgado Oliveira, Mariana; de Pierri Castilho, Selene Cristina; Cooper, Miguel

    2014-05-01

    Family farming has been identified as a major modifier of Amazonian vegetation cover. These small establishments have had problems with the availability of water resources, soil quality and, consequently, low crop production. Amazonian soils studies have generated data that make up a database about the changing soil conditions as a result of the land use modifications. The objective of this research is to understand the soil degradation processes that occur on two toposequences, under native forest and pasture, in a family farming establishment. The study area is located in the Piranheira Praialta Agroextrativist Settlement Project in the county of Nova Ipixuna, Pará, Brazil. Two toposequences were chosen, one under native forest and the other under pasture. Pits were opened in different landscape positions (upslope, midslope and downslope) for soil morphological, micromorphological and physical characterization. Samples were taken for soil particle distribution, bulk density, particle density, hydraulic conductivity and image analysis. The soils were classified according to World Reference Base (WRB-FAO, 2006) as Plinthic Acrisol Clayic, Haplic Cambisols Dystric Skeletic and Haplic Plinthosol Clayic Dystric. The results show that all the studied profiles presented higher contents of sand in the surface horizons and an increase in clay in the subsurface horizons. This indicates heterogeneity of the particle soil distribution in the soil profiles along the different landscape positions. Higher bulk density values are found in the surface horizons due to the sandy texture of these horizons. Under forest, soil bulk density varies from 1,260 to 1,580 Mg m3, and under pasture bulk densities were higher varying from 1,270 to 1,710 Mg m3. Soil particle density results obtained in both land use systems were very similar in all horizons varying from 2,580 to 2,630 Mg m3 under forest and from 2,580 to 2,670 under pasture. Image analysis results showed a significant decrease

  6. LBA-ECO CD-03 Mesoscale Meteorological Data, Santarem Region, Para, Brazil: 1998-2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A mesoscale network has been set up in the Santarem region of Para, Brazil. This network consists of eight meteorological stations named Belterra, Km 117 (Fazenda...

  7. LBA-ECO CD-03 Mesoscale Meteorological Data, Santarem Region, Para, Brazil: 1998-2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: A mesoscale network has been set up in the Santarem region of Para, Brazil. This network consists of eight meteorological stations named Belterra, Km 117...

  8. Two thousand wind pumps in the arid region of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feitosa, E.A.N.; Sampaio, G.M.P.

    1991-01-01

    The North-East part of Brazil is an arid region where water pumping is of vital importance. The main strategy of the Wind Energy Group (Eolica) at the University of Pernambuco is to act as a 'catalyst' between the Brazilian government and the companies involved in wind energy. The company CONESP is a drilling company that is also responsible for choosing the appropriate pumping system and providing maintenance. CONESP already has drilled about 6,000 wells and installed 2,000 conventional windmills with piston pumps. Most of the wells have a very low capacity; thus wind pumps, having a relatively low water pumping capacity, are a suitable solution. However, one of the problems with the installed conventional wind pumps is that the drilled tube wells are not perfectly vertical, resulting in wear of the pump rod. Besides, the maintenance or replacement of the piston pump is time consuming and consequently costly. To reduce operation and maintenance costs, windmills coupled to pneumatic pumps have been developed. Examples are given of air-lift pumps and barc pumps, both using commercially available compressors. The main advantage is that there are no moving parts situated below ground level. Moreover, the windmill does not necessarily have to be placed above the well. Well and windmill can be situated up to 100 metres from each other. The starting torque of this system is also lower than the conventional wind pump. It is concluded that windmills with pneumatic pumps have a relatively low efficiency and higher investment costs compared with windmills coupled to piston pumps. However, CONESP's effort is to optimize the total performance of the pumping system. Due to the lower maintenance costs, pneumatic pumps seem to be a viable alternative to piston pumps. 7 figs., 3 refs

  9. Controls of Tufa Development in Bonito Region - Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahniuk Rumbelsperger, A. M.; Oste, J.; França, A.; Cury, L. F.

    2017-12-01

    Recent discoveries of oil in microbial carbonate rocks have directed studies into tufas and travertines because of their great similarities with the reservoir rocks of the Aptian Pre-Salt. Tufas are continental carbonate rocks precipitated from a bicarbonate fluid at environment temperature. The genesis of tufas is related to physical, chemical, and biological processes. Here, we present a study of a modern tufa samples belong to the Serra da Bodoquena Formation - Bonito, Brazil, which is located in a special climatic regime where a well-defined seasonal cycle of wet and dry conditions occurs. This area was examined with purpose to understand the chemical conditions of the depositional environment and microorganisms involved in their formation. Field descriptions provided the following facies: i) phytoherm, formed by the accumulation of leaves, branch fragments and bryophytes cushions; ii) shrubs that are radii-fibers structures related to crystallization processes of bacteria filaments; and, iii) stromatolites, made by intercalation of laminas of micrite and shrubs. Pools, barriers and cascade/waterfall were identified as the main depositional environment, which are included to the fluvial depositional model. SEM images showed several cyanobacterial filaments. Organic composition showed the presence of n-alkanes and sterols. Results of XRD and XRF indicate the presence of calcite and, locally, quartz. A depletion of the δ18O indicates a fluid of meteoric origin, which is compatible with the literature for tufas. The presence of cyanobacteria and other photosynthetic organisms, besides the influence of light carbon soil is related with low values of δ13C. Palynological analysis revealed palynomorphs of fungus, hyphae, pteridophyte spores and pollen grains, which indicate a humid environment with abundant vegetation, typical of tropical climate. In conclusion, the biomineralization process, characterized by the variations of the physico-chemical conditions in this

  10. Relationship between ionospheric plasma bubble occurrence and lightning strikes over the Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sousasantos

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The vertical coupling between the troposphere and the ionosphere presents some remarkable features. Under intense tropospheric convection, gravity waves may be generated, and once they reach the ionosphere, these waves may seed instabilities and spread F and equatorial plasma bubble events may take place. Additionally, there is a close association between severe tropospheric convection and lightning strikes. In this work an investigation covering an equinox period (September–October during the deep solar minimum (2009 presents the relation between lightning strike activity and spread F (equatorial plasma bubble detected over a low-latitude Brazilian region. The results show a considerable correlation between these two phenomena. The common element in the center of this conformity seems to be the gravity waves. Once gravity waves and lightning strikes share the same source (intense tropospheric convection and the effects of such gravity waves in the ionosphere include the seeding of instabilities according to the gravity waves magnitude, the monitoring of the lightning strike activity seems to offer some information about the subsequent development of spread F over the equatorial region.

  11. Relationship between ionospheric plasma bubble occurrence and lightning strikes over the Amazon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousasantos, Jonas; Sobral, José Humberto Andrade; Alam Kherani, Esfhan; Magalhães Fares Saba, Marcelo; Rodolfo de Campos, Diovane

    2018-03-01

    The vertical coupling between the troposphere and the ionosphere presents some remarkable features. Under intense tropospheric convection, gravity waves may be generated, and once they reach the ionosphere, these waves may seed instabilities and spread F and equatorial plasma bubble events may take place. Additionally, there is a close association between severe tropospheric convection and lightning strikes. In this work an investigation covering an equinox period (September-October) during the deep solar minimum (2009) presents the relation between lightning strike activity and spread F (equatorial plasma bubble) detected over a low-latitude Brazilian region. The results show a considerable correlation between these two phenomena. The common element in the center of this conformity seems to be the gravity waves. Once gravity waves and lightning strikes share the same source (intense tropospheric convection) and the effects of such gravity waves in the ionosphere include the seeding of instabilities according to the gravity waves magnitude, the monitoring of the lightning strike activity seems to offer some information about the subsequent development of spread F over the equatorial region.

  12. Genetic diversity of the HLA-G coding region in Amerindian populations from the Brazilian Amazon: a possible role of natural selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes-Junior, C T; Castelli, E C; Meyer, D; Simões, A L; Donadi, E A

    2013-12-01

    HLA-G has an important role in the modulation of the maternal immune system during pregnancy, and evidence that balancing selection acts in the promoter and 3'UTR regions has been previously reported. To determine whether selection acts on the HLA-G coding region in the Amazon Rainforest, exons 2, 3 and 4 were analyzed in a sample of 142 Amerindians from nine villages of five isolated tribes that inhabit the Central Amazon. Six previously described single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified and the Expectation-Maximization (EM) and PHASE algorithms were used to computationally reconstruct SNP haplotypes (HLA-G alleles). A new HLA-G allele, which originated in Amerindian populations by a crossing-over event between two widespread HLA-G alleles, was identified in 18 individuals. Neutrality tests evidenced that natural selection has a complex part in the HLA-G coding region. Although balancing selection is the type of selection that shapes variability at a local level (Native American populations), we have also shown that purifying selection may occur on a worldwide scale. Moreover, the balancing selection does not seem to act on the coding region as strongly as it acts on the flanking regulatory regions, and such coding signature may actually reflect a hitchhiking effect.

  13. Age-dependent acquisition of protective immunity to malaria in riverine populations of the Amazon Basin of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladeia-Andrade, Simone; Ferreira, Marcelo Urbano; de Carvalho, Maria Esther; Curado, Izilda; Coura, José Rodrigues

    2009-03-01

    Five community-based cross-sectional surveys of malaria morbidity and associated risk factors in remote riverine populations in northwestern Brazil showed average parasite rates of 4.2% (thick-smear microscopy) and 14.4% (polymerase chain reaction [PCR]) in the overall population, with a spleen rate of 13.9% among children 2-9 years of age. Plasmodium vivax was 2.8 times more prevalent than P. falciparum, with rare instances of P. malariae and mixed-species infections confirmed by PCR; 9.6% of asymptomatic subjects had parasitemias detected by PCR. Low-grade parasitemia detected by PCR only was a risk factor for anemia, after controlling for age and other covariates. Although clinical and subclinical infections occurred in all age groups, the risk of infection and disease decreased significantly with increasing age, after adjustment for several covariates in multilevel logistic regression models. These findings suggest that the continuous exposure to hypo- or mesoendemic malaria may induce significant anti-parasite and anti-disease immunity in native Amazonians.

  14. Serum cadmium levels in a sample of blood donors in the Western Amazon, Brazil, 2010-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Ricardo Maia da Costa de Faro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the distribution of serum cadmium (Cd levels in blood donors in Rio Branco, Acre State, Brazil. Blood samples were obtained from 922 volunteer blood donors from 18 to 65 years of age at the Hemoacre blood center in 2010-2011. Mean serum Cd was 0.37µg/L (95%CI: 0.33-0.41. Increased serum Cd was associated with lower schooling; individuals with less than five years of schooling showed a mean Cd of 0.61µg/L (95%CI: 0.34-0.89, compared to 0.34µg/L (95%CI: 0.28-0.40 among those with more than nine years of schooling. Mean serum Cd was three times higher among smokers. Smoking showed a positive association with Cd level, with an OR of 12.36 (95%CI: 7.70-19.84. Meanwhile, serum Cd was lower among individuals that regularly drank tea, as compared to non-tea drinkers. Serum Cd levels were mostly below the reference value (88.3% of participants. Mean serum Cd in the current study indicates that in general the population studied here is not exposed to worrisome Cd levels.

  15. Local and regional palm (Arecaceae) species richness patterns and their cross-scale determinants in the western Amazon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Thea; Svenning, J.-C.; Pedersen, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    divergent environmental conditions or biogeographic histories. 2. We investigated the cross-scale determinants of palm alpha and gamma diversity across the western Amazon using a large field-based data set: a census of all palm individuals in 312 transects, totalling 98 species. We used regression...

  16. Soil and deforestation use standards in Amazon and its global impacts: a regional dynamics economic and ecological model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherrill, Elisabeth I.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the work was to introduce a simulation model to analyze the deforestation causes in Amazon. The work describes the basic parameters and fundamental concepts to the performed modeling comprehension. The several agents soil utilization standards were going observed and the economic and ecological interactions simulated. The global impact aspects are also analyzed

  17. Oil and gas projects in the Western Amazon: threats to wilderness, biodiversity, and indigenous peoples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Finer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The western Amazon is the most biologically rich part of the Amazon basin and is home to a great diversity of indigenous ethnic groups, including some of the world's last uncontacted peoples living in voluntary isolation. Unlike the eastern Brazilian Amazon, it is still a largely intact ecosystem. Underlying this landscape are large reserves of oil and gas, many yet untapped. The growing global demand is leading to unprecedented exploration and development in the region. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We synthesized information from government sources to quantify the status of oil development in the western Amazon. National governments delimit specific geographic areas or "blocks" that are zoned for hydrocarbon activities, which they may lease to state and multinational energy companies for exploration and production. About 180 oil and gas blocks now cover approximately 688,000 km(2 of the western Amazon. These blocks overlap the most species-rich part of the Amazon. We also found that many of the blocks overlap indigenous territories, both titled lands and areas utilized by peoples in voluntary isolation. In Ecuador and Peru, oil and gas blocks now cover more than two-thirds of the Amazon. In Bolivia and western Brazil, major exploration activities are set to increase rapidly. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Without improved policies, the increasing scope and magnitude of planned extraction means that environmental and social impacts are likely to intensify. We review the most pressing oil- and gas-related conservation policy issues confronting the region. These include the need for regional Strategic Environmental Impact Assessments and the adoption of roadless extraction techniques. We also consider the conflicts where the blocks overlap indigenous peoples' territories.

  18. Oil and gas projects in the Western Amazon: threats to wilderness, biodiversity, and indigenous peoples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N; Pimm, Stuart L; Keane, Brian; Ross, Carl

    2008-08-13

    The western Amazon is the most biologically rich part of the Amazon basin and is home to a great diversity of indigenous ethnic groups, including some of the world's last uncontacted peoples living in voluntary isolation. Unlike the eastern Brazilian Amazon, it is still a largely intact ecosystem. Underlying this landscape are large reserves of oil and gas, many yet untapped. The growing global demand is leading to unprecedented exploration and development in the region. We synthesized information from government sources to quantify the status of oil development in the western Amazon. National governments delimit specific geographic areas or "blocks" that are zoned for hydrocarbon activities, which they may lease to state and multinational energy companies for exploration and production. About 180 oil and gas blocks now cover approximately 688,000 km(2) of the western Amazon. These blocks overlap the most species-rich part of the Amazon. We also found that many of the blocks overlap indigenous territories, both titled lands and areas utilized by peoples in voluntary isolation. In Ecuador and Peru, oil and gas blocks now cover more than two-thirds of the Amazon. In Bolivia and western Brazil, major exploration activities are set to increase rapidly. Without improved policies, the increasing scope and magnitude of planned extraction means that environmental and social impacts are likely to intensify. We review the most pressing oil- and gas-related conservation policy issues confronting the region. These include the need for regional Strategic Environmental Impact Assessments and the adoption of roadless extraction techniques. We also consider the conflicts where the blocks overlap indigenous peoples' territories.

  19. Environmental policy-making networks and the future of the Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Lemos, Maria Carmen; Roberts, J. Timmons

    2008-01-01

    This article examines four periods of environmental policy-making in the Amazonian region of Brazil. It specifically analyses the role of pro-environment and pro-development policy networks in affecting policy design and implementation. It argues that the efforts of environmentalist networks trying to advocate or block relative developmentalist policies in the Amazon depend on three critical factors - whether they are able to attract the support of elites (or at least block their developmenta...

  20. Avaliação de técnica de tomaticultura em gramado (TEG na amazônia oriental Evaluation of TEG (grassland tomato cropping technique in Eastern Amazon, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon S. Cheng

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, o tomateiro é cultivado principalmente em época de baixa precipitação e temperaturas amenas como as regiões Sudeste, Nordeste e Centro Oeste. Na Amazônia Oriental, uma região tropical úmida de baixa altitude, com temperatura elevada, a cultura do tomateiro enfrenta muitas dificuldades. A baixa produtividade e a mortalidade das plantas têm reduzido o número de produtores desta hortaliça, com a produção local de tomate inferior a 0,1% do volume comercializado anualmente. A técnica de Tomaticultura Em Gramado (TEG foi concebida em 1997 e aperfeiçoada em 1998, para solucionar os problemas da tomaticultura sob clima quente e chuvoso da Amazônia, usando dois principais mecanismos: 1. Campo gramado para controlar a proliferação de doenças, pragas, plantas invasoras, erosão e lixiviação de nutrientes. 2. Queima de descarte de madeira na área de cultivo para eliminar a grama e reduzir a acidez e pobreza do solo. O presente trabalho apresenta resultados preliminares de tomaticultura sob essa nova técnica, com avaliação de produtividade, ciclo da planta e peso médio do fruto. A nova técnica de cultivo permitiu a produtividade de 5,6 ± 0,2 kg por planta, sendo o período de colheita de 60 a 80 dias. A TEG demonstrou ser uma alternativa promissora para o sistema de produção de tomate na região quente e chuvosa, usando a gramínea como protetora e limpadora do solo.In Brazil, tomatoes are cultivated principally in seasons with low precipitation and cool temperature such as in regions of Southeast, Northeast and Central west. In East Amazon, a humid tropical region of low altitude with high temperature, tomato cropping faces many difficulties. Low yield and plant mortality had reduced the number of tomato growers, with annual local production less than 0.1% of total volume commercialized. The grassland tomato cropping technique (TEG was elaborated in 1997 and improved in 1998 to solve the problems of tomato production

  1. Early Childhood Dental Caries, Mouth Pain, and Malnutrition in the Ecuadorian Amazon Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Marvin; Ellenikiotis, Yianni A.; Husby, Hannah M.; Paz, Cecilia Leonor; Seymour, Brittany; Sokal-Gutierrez, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Malnutrition and dental caries in early childhood remain persistent and intertwined global health challenges, particularly for indigenous and geographically-remote populations. To examine the prevalence and associations between early childhood dental caries, parent-reported mouth pain and malnutrition in the Amazonian region of Ecuador, we conducted a cross-sectional study of the oral health and nutrition status of 1407 children from birth through age 6 in the “Alli Kiru” program (2011–2013). We used multivariate regression analysis to examine relationships between severe caries, parent-reported mouth pain measures, and nutritional status. The prevalence of dental caries was 65.4%, with 44.7% of children having deep or severe caries, and 33.8% reporting mouth pain. The number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft) increased dramatically with age. Malnutrition was prevalent, with 35.9% of children stunted, 1.1% wasted, 7.4% underweight, and 6.8% overweight. As mouth pain increased in frequency, odds for severe caries increased. For each unit increase in mouth pain frequency interfering with sleeping, children had increased odds for being underweight (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR): 1.27; 95% CI: 1.02–1.54) and decreased odds for being overweight (AOR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.58–0.97). This relationship was most pronounced among 3–6 year-olds. Early childhood caries, mouth pain and malnutrition were prevalent in this sample of young children. Parent-reported mouth pain was associated with severe caries, and mouth pain interfering with sleeping was predictive of poor nutritional status. We demonstrate the utility of a parsimonious parent-reported measure of mouth pain to predict young children’s risk for severe early childhood caries and malnutrition, which has implications for community health interventions. PMID:28531148

  2. Early Childhood Dental Caries, Mouth Pain, and Malnutrition in the Ecuadorian Amazon Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Marvin; Ellenikiotis, Yianni A; Husby, Hannah M; Paz, Cecilia Leonor; Seymour, Brittany; Sokal-Gutierrez, Karen

    2017-05-22

    Malnutrition and dental caries in early childhood remain persistent and intertwined global health challenges, particularly for indigenous and geographically-remote populations. To examine the prevalence and associations between early childhood dental caries, parent-reported mouth pain and malnutrition in the Amazonian region of Ecuador, we conducted a cross-sectional study of the oral health and nutrition status of 1407 children from birth through age 6 in the "Alli Kiru" program (2011-2013). We used multivariate regression analysis to examine relationships between severe caries, parent-reported mouth pain measures, and nutritional status. The prevalence of dental caries was 65.4%, with 44.7% of children having deep or severe caries, and 33.8% reporting mouth pain. The number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft) increased dramatically with age. Malnutrition was prevalent, with 35.9% of children stunted, 1.1% wasted, 7.4% underweight, and 6.8% overweight. As mouth pain increased in frequency, odds for severe caries increased. For each unit increase in mouth pain frequency interfering with sleeping, children had increased odds for being underweight (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR): 1.27; 95% CI: 1.02-1.54) and decreased odds for being overweight (AOR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.58-0.97). This relationship was most pronounced among 3-6 year-olds. Early childhood caries, mouth pain and malnutrition were prevalent in this sample of young children. Parent-reported mouth pain was associated with severe caries, and mouth pain interfering with sleeping was predictive of poor nutritional status. We demonstrate the utility of a parsimonious parent-reported measure of mouth pain to predict young children's risk for severe early childhood caries and malnutrition, which has implications for community health interventions.

  3. High-risk human papillomavirus and cervical lesions among women living with HIV/AIDS in Brazilian Amazon, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Leila da; Miranda, Angélica; Batalha, Rosieny; Ferreira, Luiz; Santos, Mayara; Talhari, Sinésio

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of human papillomavirus infection infection and cervical lesions and its associated factors among HIV infected women attending an AIDS clinic in Amazonas state, Brazil. Cross-sectional study. Women attending an AIDS clinic in the city of Manaus between March and December 2011 for gynecological examination were invited to participate. Enrolled patients answered a standardized interview including demographical, behavioral, and clinical data. Additionally, patients underwent a gynecological evaluation with collection of cervical samples for cytological analysis and high-risk human papillomavirus infection hybrid capture. A blood sample was also obtained to determine CD4 and viral load levels. A total of 310 (82.9%) women participated in the study. High-risk human papillomavirus infection was detected in 191 (61.6%) cases; 24 (13.5%) had low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) and 4 (2.2%) high-grade SIL. No invasive cervical cancer was diagnosed. Median age was 32 (interquartile range (IQR): 27-38) years and median of education was 8.5 (IQR 4-11) years of schooling and 56.1% had a monthly income up to US$180. In multivariate analysis, being less than 30 years old [OR=1.7 (95% CI: 1.2-2.4, p=0.005)], high-grade SIL [OR=6.5 (95% CI: 1.6-23.0, p=0.009)], and CD4 counts <200cells/mm(3) [OR=1.6 (95% CI: 1.2-2.0, p<0.001)] were associated with high risk human papillomavirus infection infection. In the present study high-risk human papillomavirus infection was frequent and it was associated to high-SIL. These results show the importance of gynecologic examinations in routine care and follow-up required by those who present with cervical lesions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. WRF-Chem simulations in the Amazon region during wet and dry season transitions: evaluation of methane models and wetland inundation maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Beck

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon region, being a large source of methane (CH4, contributes significantly to the global annual CH4 budget. For the first time, a forward and inverse modelling framework on regional scale for the purpose of assessing the CH4 budget of the Amazon region is implemented. Here, we present forward simulations of CH4 as part of the forward and inverse modelling framework based on a modified version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry that allows for passive tracer transport of CH4, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide (WRF-GHG, in combination with two different process-based bottom-up models of CH4 emissions from anaerobic microbial production in wetlands and additional datasets prescribing CH4 emissions from other sources such as biomass burning, termites, or other anthropogenic emissions. We compare WRF-GHG simulations on 10 km horizontal resolution to flask and continuous CH4 observations obtained during two airborne measurement campaigns within the Balanço Atmosférico Regional de Carbono na Amazônia (BARCA project in November 2008 and May 2009. In addition, three different wetland inundation maps, prescribing the fraction of inundated area per grid cell, are evaluated. Our results indicate that the wetland inundation maps based on remote-sensing data represent the observations best except for the northern part of the Amazon basin and the Manaus area. WRF-GHG was able to represent the observed CH4 mixing ratios best at days with less convective activity. After adjusting wetland emissions to match the averaged observed mixing ratios of flights with little convective activity, the monthly CH4 budget for the Amazon basin obtained from four different simulations ranges from 1.5 to 4.8 Tg for November 2008 and from 1.3 to 5.5 Tg for May 2009. This corresponds to an average CH4 flux of 9–31 mg m−2 d−1 for November 2008 and 8–36 mg m−2 d−1 for May 2009.

  5. WRF-Chem simulations in the Amazon region during wet and dry season transitions: evaluation of methane models and wetland inundation maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, V.; Gerbig, C.; Koch, T.; Bela, M. M.; Longo, K. M.; Freitas, S. R.; Kaplan, J. O.; Prigent, C.; Bergamaschi, P.; Heimann, M.

    2013-08-01

    The Amazon region, being a large source of methane (CH4), contributes significantly to the global annual CH4 budget. For the first time, a forward and inverse modelling framework on regional scale for the purpose of assessing the CH4 budget of the Amazon region is implemented. Here, we present forward simulations of CH4 as part of the forward and inverse modelling framework based on a modified version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry that allows for passive tracer transport of CH4, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide (WRF-GHG), in combination with two different process-based bottom-up models of CH4 emissions from anaerobic microbial production in wetlands and additional datasets prescribing CH4 emissions from other sources such as biomass burning, termites, or other anthropogenic emissions. We compare WRF-GHG simulations on 10 km horizontal resolution to flask and continuous CH4 observations obtained during two airborne measurement campaigns within the Balanço Atmosférico Regional de Carbono na Amazônia (BARCA) project in November 2008 and May 2009. In addition, three different wetland inundation maps, prescribing the fraction of inundated area per grid cell, are evaluated. Our results indicate that the wetland inundation maps based on remote-sensing data represent the observations best except for the northern part of the Amazon basin and the Manaus area. WRF-GHG was able to represent the observed CH4 mixing ratios best at days with less convective activity. After adjusting wetland emissions to match the averaged observed mixing ratios of flights with little convective activity, the monthly CH4 budget for the Amazon basin obtained from four different simulations ranges from 1.5 to 4.8 Tg for November 2008 and from 1.3 to 5.5 Tg for May 2009. This corresponds to an average CH4 flux of 9-31 mg m-2 d-1 for November 2008 and 8-36 mg m-2 d-1 for May 2009.

  6. Concentration of Access to Information and Communication Technologies in the Municipalities of the Brazilian Legal Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brito, Silvana Rossy; da Silva, Aleksandra do Socorro; Cruz, Adejard Gaia; Monteiro, Maurílio de Abreu; Vijaykumar, Nandamudi Lankalapalli; da Silva, Marcelino Silva; Costa, João Crisóstomo Weyl Albuquerque; Francês, Carlos Renato Lisboa

    2016-01-01

    This study fills demand for data on access and use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in the Brazilian legal Amazon, a region of localities with identical economic, political, and social problems. We use the 2010 Brazilian Demographic Census to compile data on urban and rural households (i) with computers and Internet access, (ii) with mobile phones, and (iii) with fixed phones. To compare the concentration of access to ICT in the municipalities of the Brazilian Amazon with other regions of Brazil, we use a concentration index to quantify the concentration of households in the following classes: with computers and Internet access, with mobile phones, with fixed phones, and no access. These data are analyzed along with municipal indicators on income, education, electricity, and population size. The results show that for urban households, the average concentration in the municipalities of the Amazon for computers and Internet access and for fixed phones is lower than in other regions of the country; meanwhile, that for no access and mobile phones is higher than in any other region. For rural households, the average concentration in the municipalities of the Amazon for computers and Internet access, mobile phones, and fixed phones is lower than in any other region of the country; meanwhile, that for no access is higher than in any other region. In addition, the study shows that education and income are determinants of inequality in accessing ICT in Brazilian municipalities and that the existence of electricity in rural households is directly associated with the ownership of ICT resources.

  7. Somatosensory Psychophysical Losses in Inhabitants of Riverside Communities of the Tapajós River Basin, Amazon, Brazil: Exposure to Methylmercury Is Possibly Involved.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Dirce Torres Khoury

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to evaluate the somatosensory system of methylmercury-exposed inhabitants living in the communities of the Tapajós river basin by using psychophysical tests and to compare with measurements performed in inhabitants of the Tocantins river basin. We studied 108 subjects from Barreiras and São Luiz do Tapajós, two communities of the Tapajós river basin, State of Pará, Amazon, Brazil, aged 13-53 years old. Mercury analysis was performed in head hair samples weighting 0.1-0.2 g by using atomic absorption spectrometry. Three somatosensory psychophysical tests were performed: tactile sensation threshold, vibration sensation duration, and two-point discrimination. Semmes-Weinstein 20 monofilaments with different diameters were used to test the tactile sensation in the lower lip, right and left breasts, right and left index fingers, and right and left hallux. The threshold was the thinner monofilament perceived by the subject. Vibration sensation was investigated using a 128 Hz diapason applied to the sternum, right and left radial sides of the wrist, and right and left outer malleoli. Two trials were performed at each place. A stopwatch recorded the vibration sensation duration. The two-point discrimination test was performed using a two-point discriminator. Head hair mercury concentration was significantly higher in mercury-exposed inhabitants of Tapajós than in non-exposed inhabitants of Tocantins (p < 0.01. When all subjects were divided in two groups independently of age-mercury-exposed and non-exposed-the following results were found: tactile sensation thresholds in mercury-exposed subjects were higher than in non-exposed subjects at all body parts, except at the left chest; vibration sensation durations were shorter in mercury-exposed than in non-exposed subjects, at all locations except in the upper sternum; two-point discrimination thresholds were higher in mercury-exposed than in non-exposed subjects at all

  8. Geochemical Signature of Amazon Tropical Rainforest Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José João Lelis Leal de Souza

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Evaluating soil geochemical diversity in the Amazon Basin has been a challenge largely because most study sites have been at the edge of the basin and it is difficult to get samples in such a region. Here we show that even among the most weathered soils, physicochemical soil properties express lithology. Our results are based on topsoil samples collected from different locations in minimally disturbed areas in the state of Amazonas, Brazil. Soil properties were measured using methods which are suitable for highly developed soils. The Chemical Index Alteration and Weathering Index of Parker was calculated based on the content of metal(loids in soils determined by X-ray fluorescence. Descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, and Principal Component Analysis (PCA were performed on data. In general, Amazon rainforest soils are more deeply weathered than soils in other Brazilian biomes and tropical rainforests in Asia and Africa. The high coefficient of variation of metal(loid contents express pedogenesis and parent material diversity. Correlation analysis indicated that the tri-pentavalent elements are strongly associated with Al and Fe contents in the topsoil. In contrast, mono-divalent elements are correlated with sand and silt fractions. According to PCA, five soil groups with defined geochemical compositions and degrees of weathering could be identified: i acidic sandy podzolized soils; ii acidic loamy ferralitic soils with the highest content of tri-pentavalent ions; iii acidic clayey kaolinitic soils with low metal(loid contents; iv acidic loamy kaolinitic soils with low metal(loid contents; and v silty neutral 2:1 clay soils. This study is the first effort to analyze the geochemical diversity in Amazon rainforest soils. These data are extremely valuable in determining the geochemical background for these soil types and this region. Geochemical variability can be predicted to some extent by lithology and pedogenesis, which can be

  9. Estimates of fire emissions from an active deforestation region in the southern Amazon based on satellite data and biogeochemical modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Werf, G. R.; Morton, D. C.; Defries, R. S.; Giglio, L.; Randerson, J. T.; Collatz, G. J.; Kasibhatla, P. S.

    2009-02-01

    Tropical deforestation contributes to the build-up of atmospheric carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Within the deforestation process, fire is frequently used to eliminate biomass in preparation for agricultural use. Quantifying these deforestation-induced fire emissions represents a challenge, and current estimates are only available at coarse spatial resolution with large uncertainty. Here we developed a biogeochemical model using remote sensing observations of plant productivity, fire activity, and deforestation rates to estimate emissions for the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso during 2001-2005. Our model of DEforestation CArbon Fluxes (DECAF) runs at 250-m spatial resolution with a monthly time step to capture spatial and temporal heterogeneity in fire dynamics in our study area within the ''arc of deforestation'', the southern and eastern fringe of the Amazon tropical forest where agricultural expansion is most concentrated. Fire emissions estimates from our modelling framework were on average 90 Tg C year-1, mostly stemming from fires associated with deforestation (74%) with smaller contributions from fires from conversions of Cerrado or pastures to cropland (19%) and pasture fires (7%). In terms of carbon dynamics, about 80% of the aboveground living biomass and litter was combusted when forests were converted to pasture, and 89% when converted to cropland because of the highly mechanized nature of the deforestation process in Mato Grosso. The trajectory of land use change from forest to other land uses often takes more than one year, and part of the biomass that was not burned in the dry season following deforestation burned in consecutive years. This led to a partial decoupling of annual deforestation rates and fire emissions, and lowered interannual variability in fire emissions. Interannual variability in the region was somewhat dampened as well because annual emissions from fires following deforestation and from maintenance fires did not covary, although

  10. Estimates of fire emissions from an active deforestation region in the southern Amazon based on satellite data and biogeochemical modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. van der Werf

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Tropical deforestation contributes to the build-up of atmospheric carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Within the deforestation process, fire is frequently used to eliminate biomass in preparation for agricultural use. Quantifying these deforestation-induced fire emissions represents a challenge, and current estimates are only available at coarse spatial resolution with large uncertainty. Here we developed a biogeochemical model using remote sensing observations of plant productivity, fire activity, and deforestation rates to estimate emissions for the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso during 2001–2005. Our model of DEforestation CArbon Fluxes (DECAF runs at 250-m spatial resolution with a monthly time step to capture spatial and temporal heterogeneity in fire dynamics in our study area within the ''arc of deforestation'', the southern and eastern fringe of the Amazon tropical forest where agricultural expansion is most concentrated. Fire emissions estimates from our modelling framework were on average 90 Tg C year−1, mostly stemming from fires associated with deforestation (74% with smaller contributions from fires from conversions of Cerrado or pastures to cropland (19% and pasture fires (7%. In terms of carbon dynamics, about 80% of the aboveground living biomass and litter was combusted when forests were converted to pasture, and 89% when converted to cropland because of the highly mechanized nature of the deforestation process in Mato Grosso. The trajectory of land use change from forest to other land uses often takes more than one year, and part of the biomass that was not burned in the dry season following deforestation burned in consecutive years. This led to a partial decoupling of annual deforestation rates and fire emissions, and lowered interannual variability in fire emissions. Interannual variability in the region was somewhat dampened as well because annual emissions from fires following deforestation

  11. Anuran amphibians of the urban region of Altamira (Oriental Amazonia, state of Pará, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Bezerra Barros

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to take stock of the species of anurans in three localities of the urban region of Altamira, a municipal district in the west of the state of Pará (Oriental Amazonia. Collections were made between January and June of 2004. Fifteen species were recorded during the study. The family Hylidae was the most represented, with eight species. The data was compatible with the degree of conservation of the collection areas. The necessity of making new fauna inventories in all Brazilian biomes is of extreme urgency, particularly in the Amazon, given its vast extension and lack of inventories.

  12. Land Flatworms (Platyhelminthes: Tricladida) in Remnants of Deciduous Forest in the Northeast Region Of Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Amaral,Silvana Vargas do; Hack,Ilana Rossi; Iturralde,Giuly Gouvêa; Leal-Zanchet,Ana Maria

    2014-01-01

    Land flatworms show high endemism due to their restricted mobility. In southern Brazil, land flatworm communities have been found mainly in areas of ombrophilous forests. Thus, this study documents land planarian species composition in remnants of deciduous seasonal forest in the northeast region of southern Brazil. Direct, diurnal samplings reveal the occurrence of 26 species of land flatworms, of which one belongs to the subfamily Rhynchodeminae and the others to the subfamily Geoplaninae. ...

  13. A critical analysis of the 'Programa Luz Para Todos' for the electrification of remote communities in the Amazon region; Uma analise critica do Programa Luz Para Todos para a eletrificacao de comunidades isoladas na regiao Amazonica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Andre Frazao [Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado do Amazonas (FAPEAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil); Lopes, Davi Gabriel; Cavaliero, Carla Kazue Nakao [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2010-07-01

    This article presents a critical review of 'Luz para Todos' (LpT) as a rural electricity deployment program and its viability as a starter for a development process to isolated communities from Amazon region. We analyzed the functionality using data from the beginning of the program until 2009, as well the methodology and organization of the investments over 'Luz para Todos' program as a development starter, preferably sustainable, for the isolated communities from Amazon region. We concluded that a discussion is mandatory, as well a review of some important points, such as estimation of available financial resources; mechanisms used to motivate electric utilities that serve the isolated communities especially in the Amazon region; and the relationship between energy and development proposed by the program. (author)

  14. Regional mapping for evaluation of energetic alternatives for isolated systems in the Amazon region: the Brazilian state of Amapa; Mapeamento regional para avaliacao de alternativas energeticas para sistemas isolados na Amazonia: o Estado do Amapa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Marcos V.G.; Pires, Silvia Helena M.; Lacorte, Ana Castro; Menezes, Paulo Cesar P.; Guimaraes, Ana Paula C. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: vinic@fund.cepel.br; Santos, Marco Aurelio dos; Nascimento, Jose A.S.; Borges, Jorge Luiz; La Rovere, Emilio [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents the methodology developed for the characterization of regional energy potentials, and evaluation of the utilization viability of the various alternative electric power generation, by using the analysis technology based on Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The paper also presents the first results obtained for the energy mapping of the State of Amapa, Brazil.

  15. Integrated Scenarios of Regional Development in Two Semi-Arid States of North-Eastern Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Döll, Petra; Krol, Martinus S.

    2002-01-01

    Scenario analysis of the future is an important tool for supporting sustainability-oriented regional planning. To assist regional planning in two federal states in semi-arid North-eastern Brazil, Ceará and Piauí, we developed integrated qualitative¿quantitative scenarios that show potential

  16. The man revamping Brazil's approach to water quality | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-09-20

    Sep 20, 2017 ... Brazil — Mercury contamination in the Amazon. Brazilian and Canadian researchers seeking to find the source of mercury contamination in the Amazon came to a startling conclusion: agricultural p. View moreBrazil — Mercury contamination in the Amazon ...

  17. Plasmodium vivax Cell Traversal Protein for Ookinetes and Sporozoites (PvCelTOS) gene sequence and potential epitopes are highly conserved among isolates from different regions of Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitencourt Chaves, Lana; Perce-da-Silva, Daiana de Souza; Rodrigues-da-Silva, Rodrigo Nunes; Martins da Silva, João Hermínio; Cassiano, Gustavo Capatti; Machado, Ricardo Luiz Dantas; Pratt-Riccio, Lilian Rose; Banic, Dalma Maria; Lima-Junior, Josué da Costa

    2017-02-01

    The Plasmodium vivax Cell-traversal protein for ookinetes and sporozoites (PvCelTOS) plays an important role in the traversal of host cells. Although essential to PvCelTOS progress as a vaccine candidate, its genetic diversity remains uncharted. Therefore, we investigated the PvCelTOS genetic polymorphism in 119 field isolates from five different regions of Brazilian Amazon (Manaus, Novo Repartimento, Porto Velho, Plácido de Castro and Oiapoque). Moreover, we also evaluated the potential impact of non-synonymous mutations found in the predicted structure and epitopes of PvCelTOS. The field isolates showed high similarity (99.3% of bp) with the reference Sal-1 strain, presenting only four Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP) at positions 24A, 28A, 109A and 352C. The frequency of synonymous C109A (82%) was higher than all others (pisolates. The great majority of the isolates (79.8%) revealed complete amino acid sequence homology with Sal-1, 10.9% presented complete homology with Brazil I and two undescribed PvCelTOS sequences were observed in 9.2% field isolates. Concerning the prediction analysis, the N-terminal substitution (Gly10Ser) was predicted to be within a B-cell epitope (PvCelTOS Accession Nos. AB194053.1) and exposed at the protein surface, while the Val118Leu substitution was not a predicted epitope. Therefore, our data suggest that although G28A SNP might interfere in potential B-cell epitopes at PvCelTOS N-terminal region the gene sequence is highly conserved among the isolates from different geographic regions, which is an important feature to be taken into account when evaluating its potential as a vaccine candidate.

  18. Patents on periphery of the Amazon rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Emanoel G; Araújo, José R G; Monroe, Paulo H M; de O Nascimento, Ivaneide; Aguiar, Alana C F

    2009-06-01

    In the humid tropics, on the edges of the Amazon forest, the technological challenges to establishing and maintaining productive and sustainable agricultural systems have yet to be overcome. The groups involved in agriculture in the north of Brazil still engage in the practice of slash and burn in order to prepare and fertilize the soil. This produces negative effects for the local and global environment, without the counter-effect of providing social benefits to rural communities. Whether this process continues is of fundamental importance to many countries because it means that slash and burn agriculture is advancing on the Amazon rainforest, with a negative effect on every dimension of national policy. Beyond social political problems the biggest challenge for researchers in the field of tropical agriculture is to offer technological alternatives that can sustain agriculture in soils derived from sedimentary rocks that have been subjected to a high degree of weathering. In this article patented information is also discussed. Experiments undertaken in this region recommend taking advantage of the rapid growth of plants in the tropics. We aimed at proposing a suitable alternative system for a sustainable soil management in the particular conditions of humid tropics, named as "no-till in alley cropping using tree leguminous mulch." This system offers the advantages of: bringing together, in the same space and at the same time, the processes of cultivation and the regeneration of soil fertility.

  19. Challenges and difficulties in service to legal requirements applicable to a pipeline works at the Amazon rain forest, Brazil; Os desafios e dificuldades no atendimento aos requisitos legais aplicaveis a uma obra na Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Wanderleia I.P. de [Universidade do Estado do Amazonas (UEA), Manaus, AM (Brazil); Freitas, Jaluza G.M.R. de; Teixeira, Ivan J.L. [Concremat Engenharia e Tecnologia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work brings together the difficulties and results generated in response to Brazilian Environmental Law applicable to a work of pipelines in the Amazon. We are a country that has the most extensive and rich environmental legislation in the world, and Engineering at PETROBRAS, through the Implementation of Enterprise for the North, responsible for the deployment of this pipeline, has ISO 14001:2004 certification, taking as the minimum requirement attending the applicable legal requirements, and serve them in if there are difficulties elsewhere in the country, here in the Amazon it is increased meet the logistical difficulties, the distances from major centres, the needs of technology, information and access to basic resources. This article discusses topics such as: transport of hazardous waste in an environmentally safe way in one of the largest rivers in the world, installing devices sewage treatment in regional boats, and teach the riparian preserve the historic and archaeological findings, these are just examples found. We know that all eyes of the world is impressive return to the Amazon rain forest, and that cross, or rather 'rip' their 383 km of primary forest, virgin land, almost untouched even by the people native of the region, in itself constitutes a great challenge. (author)

  20. Brazil-USA Collaborative Research: Modifications by Anthropogenic Pollution of the Natural Atmospheric Chemistry and Particle Microphysics of the Tropical Rain Forest During the GoAmazon Intensive Operating Periods (IOPs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, Jose-Luis [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Day, Douglas A. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Martin, Scot T. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Kim, Saewung [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Smith, James [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Souza, Rodrigo [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Barbosa, Henry [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-08-04

    Manaus, a city of nearly two million people, represents an isolated urban area having a distinct urban pollution plume within the otherwise pristine Amazon Basin. The plume has high concentrations of oxides of nitrogen and sulfur, carbon monoxide, particle concentrations, and soot, among other pollutants. Critically, the distinct plume in the setting of the surrounding tropical rain forest serves as a natural laboratory to allow direct comparisons between periods of pollution influence to those of pristine conditions. The funded activity of this report is related to the Brazil-USA collaborative project during the two Intensive Operating Periods (wet season, 1 Feb - 31 Mar 2014; dry season, 15 Aug - 15 Oct 2014) of GoAmazon2014/5. The project addresses key science questions regarding the modification of the natural atmospheric chemistry and particle microphysics of the forest by present and future anthropogenic pollution. The first objective of the project was to understand and quantify the interactions of biogenic and anthropogenic emissions with respect to the production of secondary organic material. In clean conditions in the Amazon basin, secondary organic material dominates the diameter distribution of the submicron particles. How and why is the diameter distribution shifted by pollution? The second objective followed from the first in that, although the diameter distribution is dominated by secondary organic material, the actual source of new particle production remains uncertain (i.e., the number concentration). The second objective was to test the hypothesis that new particles under natural conditions are produced as a result of evaporation of primary particles emitted by fungal spores as well as to investigate any shifts in this mechanism under pollution conditions, e.g., in consequence to the high concentrations of SO2 in the pollution plume. Combined, the number-diameter distribution is the key connection to upscaling to the effects of aerosol

  1. Modelling sustainable international tourism demand to the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Divino (Jose Angelo); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe Amazon rainforest is one of the world’s greatest natural wonders and holds great importance and significance for the world’s environmental balance. Around 60% of the Amazon rainforest is located in the Brazilian territory. The two biggest states of the Amazon region are Amazonas (the

  2. Origin and processing of terrestrial organic carbon in the Amazon system: lignin phenols in river, shelf, and fan sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shuwen; Schefuß, Enno; Mulitza, Stefan; Chiessi, Cristiano M.; Sawakuchi, André O.; Zabel, Matthias; Baker, Paul A.; Hefter, Jens; Mollenhauer, Gesine

    2017-05-01

    The Amazon River transports large amounts of terrestrial organic carbon (OCterr) from the Andean and Amazon neotropical forests to the Atlantic Ocean. In order to compare the biogeochemical characteristics of OCterr in the fluvial sediments from the Amazon drainage basin and in the adjacent marine sediments, we analysed riverbed sediments from the Amazon mainstream and its main tributaries as well as marine surface sediments from the Amazon shelf and fan for total organic carbon (TOC) content, organic carbon isotopic composition (δ13CTOC), and lignin phenol compositions. TOC and lignin content exhibit positive correlations with Al / Si ratios (indicative of the sediment grain size) implying that the grain size of sediment discharged by the Amazon River plays an important role in the preservation of TOC and leads to preferential preservation of lignin phenols in fine particles. Depleted δ13CTOC values (-26.1 to -29.9 ‰) in the main tributaries consistently correspond with the dominance of C3 vegetation. Ratios of syringyl to vanillyl (S / V) and cinnamyl to vanillyl (C / V) lignin phenols suggest that non-woody angiosperm tissues are the dominant source of lignin in the Amazon basin. Although the Amazon basin hosts a rich diversity of vascular plant types, distinct regional lignin compositions are not observed. In the marine sediments, the distribution of δ13CTOC and Λ8 (sum of eight lignin phenols in organic carbon (OC), expressed as mg/100 mg OC) values implies that OCterr discharged by the Amazon River is transported north-westward by the North Brazil Current and mostly deposited on the inner shelf. The lignin compositions in offshore sediments under the influence of the Amazon plume are consistent with the riverbed samples suggesting that processing of OCterr during offshore transport does not change the encoded source information. Therefore, the lignin compositions preserved in these offshore sediments can reliably reflect the vegetation in the Amazon

  3. International standards’ influence in brazilian milk production: a critical perspective about the good manufacturing practices for family farms in the Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Fonseca Costa Corrêa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Structural changes imposed on Brazil’s dairy industry are influenced by the international market while it presses local industries and local producers. One of the main difficulties in the dairy sector is the standardization of milk based on the international standards of quality. So, to meet these requirements, standard operating procedures are established for the entire production chain, and they’re called '' Good dairy farming practices”. This paper addresses in a systemic way the influences of these standards in the Brazilian milk production, and the difficulties for adopting these procedure standards in family farming, especially in the Amazon region. The Amazonian family farmer is characterized by a peculiar diversity related to the ways they produce and live in society. In addition, there is at the same time a variety of local contexts very striking in the Amazon, which involve and influence the practices of farmers, making it difficult to join a homogenizing principle of good practices. The criticism of this paper does not report the need for sanitation improvements in milk production practices, but it wants to demonstrate as a leading line that the local context and the logic of producers are extremely necessary, so that the actions elaborated can value their practices and have them as a starting point. It should be noted in this study that the result of standard procedures for family farmers is the differentiation and social reunification in between them, where some are consolidated in milk production and others are excluded.

  4. Bird diversity in the Serra do Aracá region, northwestern Brazilian Amazon: preliminary check-list with considerations on biogeography and conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Henrique Borges

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We inventoried the birds from Serra do Aracá region, state of Amazonas. The region encompasses a high diversity of vegetation types, including white sand forests and campinas, terra firme and flooded forests, montane forests and tepuis. We recorded 416 bird taxa in 69 families through captures with mist nets, tape recording of bird voices, and collection of voucher specimens. A large proportion of them (61% were recorded in a single vegetation type. Qualitative estimates suggest that approximately 580 bird species occur in the region. The avifauna of the Aracá region has a mixed biogeographic composition, with species typical of both margins of the Rio Negro occurring sympatrically. Additionally, species whose distributions are restricted to three areas of endemism for Amazonian birds (Imeri, Guiana and Pantepui were recorded in the region. Rare landscapes in the Brazilian Amazon are found in the Serra do Aracá region. Additionally, we recorded endemic and rare birds, highlighting the value of the region for conservation. The Serra do Aracá State Park officially protects montane forests, terra firme forests and tepuis. We suggest that the large extension of white sand campinas and igapó forests at the southern portion of Serra do Aracá should be also preserved in order to improve the representation of the rich natural heritage of the region.

  5. Deforestation effects on Amazon forest resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemp, D. C.; Schleussner, C.-F.; Barbosa, H. M. J.; Rammig, A.

    2017-06-01

    Through vegetation-atmosphere feedbacks, rainfall reductions as a result of Amazon deforestation could reduce the resilience on the remaining forest to perturbations and potentially lead to large-scale Amazon forest loss. We track observation-based water fluxes from sources (evapotranspiration) to sinks (rainfall) to assess the effect of deforestation on continental rainfall. By studying 21st century deforestation scenarios, we show that deforestation can reduce dry season rainfall by up to 20% far from the deforested area, namely, over the western Amazon basin and the La Plata basin. As a consequence, forest resilience is systematically eroded in the southwestern region covering a quarter of the current Amazon forest. Our findings suggest that the climatological effects of deforestation can lead to permanent forest loss in this region. We identify hot spot regions where forest loss should be avoided to maintain the ecological integrity of the Amazon forest.

  6. Transforming Data: An Ethnography of Scientific Data from the Brazilian Amazon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walford, Antonia Caitlin

    This thesis is an ethnography of scientific data produced by a Brazil-led scientific project in the Brazilian Amazon. It describes how the researchers and technicians make data about the Amazon forest, and how this data in turn generates different scientific communities, scientific subjectivities...

  7. Land tenure regimes in Brazil and the social and environmental purpose of rural land possession: land tenure regularization of riverside communities in the Amazon floodplain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Rosane Aguiar Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    on the Concessão de Direito Real de Uso (“Concession of Real Right of Use” as one of the instruments that allows the State to ensure the social function of public properties and guarantee legal certainty for rural land possession by Amazon floodplain populations.

  8. Time trends and changes in the distribution of malaria cases in the Brazilian Amazon Region, 2004-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isac da SF Lima

    Full Text Available Recent efforts to reduce malaria incidence have had some successes. Nevertheless, malaria persists as a significant public health problem in the Brazilian Amazon. The objective of this study was to describe changes in malaria case characteristics and to identify trends in malaria incidence in the Brazilian Amazon. This study used data from the Malaria Epidemiological Surveillance and Case Notification Information System from 2004 to 2013. The annual parasite incidence (API was calculated and joinpoint regression was used to assess the trends in API over time. There was a sharp increase in API in the state of Acre, followed by two periods of decrease. Pará also presented inconsistent decreases over the study period. Amapá, Amazonas, Rondônia, and Roraima showed statistically significant decreases over the period. The sharpest decrease occurred in Rondônia, with a reduction of 21.7% in the average annual percent change (AAPC (AAPC: -21.7%; 95% confidence interval: -25.4%, -17.8%; p < 0.05. This panorama of malaria incidence highlights the importance of integrating evidence-based malaria surveillance and control. Malaria is highly preventable, and eliminating its transmission should be a goal in coming decades.

  9. REGION NORTH OF TEACHER EDUCATION POLICY AND EVALUATION OF POLES OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM OF BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso José da Costa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This text aims to present, in general, the north region and policies for teacher training implemented in the last 5 years, locating in this context the importance of the Brazil Open University system and its supporting poles face as methodology research linked to the project "Institutionalization of Distance Education in Brazil." Greater emphasis will be given to data from the states of Pará and Acre, given that two authors of this text act as coordinators of the poles supporting attendance System Open University of Brazil in these states. We design the text, based on testimony of poles coordinators who participated in participatory research, conducted by the Research Group "Teacher education and information and communication technologies", LANTE / UFF. We aim also to identify the structure and functioning of the Poles face Supporting UAB in the North as well as the assessment tool applied in this region.

  10. An Assessment of Brazil’s Economic and Energy Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    deposit in the Amazon basin, a whole mining ccnter named Carajas has sprung up. This $6 billion complex of iron ore mine, railway handling yards, and...region alone is enough to inspire awe as its dimensions are realized. Under the ground in various regions of Brazil lie gold, iron ore, manganese, and a...seemingly unlimited quantity of iron ore, bauxite, manganese, tungsten, titanium, platinum, thorium, and many other strategically important metals and

  11. Regionalization of a Landscape-Based Hazard Index of Malaria Transmission: An Example of the State of Amapá, Brazil

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    Zhichao Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Identifying and assessing the relative effects of the numerous determinants of malaria transmission, at different spatial scales and resolutions, is of primary importance in defining control strategies and reaching the goal of the elimination of malaria. In this context, based on a knowledge-based model, a normalized landscape-based hazard index (NLHI was established at a local scale, using a 10 m spatial resolution forest vs. non-forest map, landscape metrics and a spatial moving window. Such an index evaluates the contribution of landscape to the probability of human-malaria vector encounters, and thus to malaria transmission risk. Since the knowledge-based model is tailored to the entire Amazon region, such an index might be generalized at large scales for establishing a regional view of the landscape contribution to malaria transmission. Thus, this study uses an open large-scale land use and land cover dataset (i.e., the 30 m TerraClass maps and proposes an automatic data-processing chain for implementing NLHI at large-scale. First, the impact of coarser spatial resolution (i.e., 30 m on NLHI values was studied. Second, the data-processing chain was established using R language for customizing the spatial moving window and computing the landscape metrics and NLHI at large scale. This paper presents the results in the State of Amapá, Brazil. It offers the possibility of monitoring a significant determinant of malaria transmission at regional scale.

  12. Effect of solar flare on the equatorial electrojet in eastern Brazil region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The effect of solar flare, sudden commencement of magnetic storm and of the disturbances ring current on the equatorial electrojet in the Eastern Brazil region, where the ground magnetic declination is as large as 20∘W is studied based on geomagnetic data with one minute resolution from Bacabal during ...

  13. Regional sustainability contrasts in Brazil as indicated by the Compass of Sustainability – CompasSus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues-Filho, S.; Lindoso, D.P.; Bursztyn, M.; Brouwer, F.M.; Debortoli, N.; Castro, de V.M.

    2013-01-01

    The current need for assessing sustainable processes and states is a driving assumption for this article, having as objective to present preliminary results of a new assessment approach, the Compass of Sustainability (CompasSus), applied to administrative regions of Brazil. Its methodological

  14. Amazon Fund: financing deforestation avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Marcovitch

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon Fund, created in 2008 by the Brazilian Federal Government, is managed by Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Econômico e Social (BNDES. It is a pioneering initiative to fundraise and manage financial resources to cut back deforestation and support sustainable development for 30 million inhabitants in the Amazon Biome. The Amazon Fund has already received more than R$ 1.7 billion in grants (about USD 787 million. This essay analyzes the Amazon Fund's governance and management with focus on its operation and from its stakeholders' perspectives. A combination of research methods includes: documental research, in-depth interviews, and speech analysis. The study offers a comparative analysis of strengths and weaknesses related to its governance. Furthermore, it proposes ways to improve its management towards greater effectiveness. The essay also includes an assessment of the government of Norway, a major donor to the fund. The governments of Norway and Germany, in partnership with Brazil, reveal how important it is to experiment with new means of international cooperation to successfully reduce greenhouse gas emissions through rainforest preservation.

  15. Nutritional composition, fatty acid and tocopherol contents of buriti (Mauritia flexuosa and patawa (Oenocarpus bataua fruit pulp from the amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Henri Darnet

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Buriti and patawa are two endemic palm trees from the Amazon region. Their pulps are traditionally consumed by the local population, but are underused and lesser known worldwide. Nutritional composition, fatty acid and tocopherol contents of the two palm pulps were determined by modern analytical methods: Gas Chromatography (CG and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC, based on the standards of AOCS (AMERICAN..., 2002 and AOAC (ASSOCIATION..., 1997, respectively. Buriti and patawa fruit pulps are highly nutritive, with respectively, high fat content (38.4% and 29.1% of dry matter (DM, protein content (7.6% and 7.4% of DM and dietary fibers (46% and 44.7% of DM. Buriti pulp can be considered healthy food due its high content of vitamin E (1169 µg.g-1 DM. Patawa pulp is highly oleaginous and its fatty acid composition is very similar to the ones of healthy oils, such as olive oil.

  16. Heroes of Civilization. The Amazon Region as Agricultural Export Cosmopolis in the Work of General Rafael Reyes

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    Felipe Martínez Pinzón

    2013-07-01

    the isthmus led the Colombian elites to rethink other border spaces. The article analyzes the discourse of appropriation of the Amazon territory set forth by President, General, and entrepreneur Rafael Reyes (1849-1921 in speeches lectures, travel diaries, and autobiographical memoirs. On the basis of those materials, the article argues that instead of nationalizing the Amazonian territory, Reyes suggesting incorporating it into the dynamics of global capitalism through the contradictory proposal of an “agricultural export cosmopolis” aimed at exploiting the region’s wealth. The contradictions of a segregationist cosmopolis, as a narrative of globalization in the early 20th century, also led General Reyes to represent the entrepreneurs of the agricultural frontier as “heroes of civilization”, a phrase that betrays the anachronism and irrationalism inherent in the allegedly indestructible rational discourse of civilization in the tropics.

  17. Nível de conhecimentos sobre Leishmaniose Tegumentar Americana (LTA e uso de terapias alternativas por populações de uma área endêmica da Amazônia do Maranhão, Brasil Awareness of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL and use of alternative therapies in an endemic area in the Amazon Region in the State of Maranhão, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosilene da Conceição R. Moreira

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se estudo visando identificar e comparar que conhecimentos básicos e uso de terapias alternativas relativos à Leishmaniose Tegumentar Americana (LTA, têm populações residentes em cinco áreas rurais (Sexta Vicinal, Quinta Vicinal, Trilha 410, Vila União e Buritizinho pertencentes ao município de Buriticupu, Maranhão. No período de setembro de 1997 a janeiro de 1998, aplicou-se questionários com perguntas abertas e fechadas, abordando aspectos epidemiológicos, modos de prevenção, clínica e terapêutica alternativa. A população estudada foi de 378 (19% indivíduos de um total de 1980 habitantes. Na Sexta Vicinal (35 indivíduos, Quinta Vicinal (63, Trilha 410 (96, Vila União (85 e Buritizinho (99. Dos entrevistados, 72% tinham poucos conhecimentos dos modos de transmissão, 96,9% já ouviram falar da doença, a maioria obteve informações com amigos, 60,7% conheciam a LTA como lésh. O Glucantime foi a droga mais citada para o tratamento, 29,6% relataram uso de plantas no local da lesão. O Citrus limon (limão foi a planta mais citada (15,4% dos entrevistados, o modo de uso mais freqüente era o pó espalhado sobre a lesão. Conclui-se que o nível de conhecimento sobre LTA foi incipiente, principalmente na prevenção e terapêutica, situação similar nas cinco áreas estudadas.The level of knowledge concerning American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL and use of alternative therapies was evaluated in five rural communities in Buriticupu, Maranhão State, Brazil. The study lasted from September 1997 to January 1998. Local inhabitants answered an interview on housing conditions, epidemiological aspects, prevention, standard clinical treatment, and alternative therapies. The study population was 378 (19% out of a total of 1,980 inhabitants, from Sexta Vicinal (35, Quinta Vicinal (63, Trilha 410 (96, Vila União (85, and Buritizinho (99. Of the interviewees, 72% had little knowledge of ATL transmission, 96% had heard

  18. Agriculture in Brazil´s Southeast Region: Limitations And Future Challenges to Development

    OpenAIRE

    César Nunes de Castro

    2015-01-01

    Much of the recent dynamism of the Brazilian agricultural sector occurred in activities developed in Brazil´s South, Southeast and Midwest regions. Specifically, the Southeast region was responsible in 2006 for approximately 34% of the value of agricultural production according to data from the 2006 Agricultural Census. The aim of this study is to assess the recent situation of agriculture in the Southeast, based on data from the 2006 Agricultural Census. Based on this diagnosis, the study ai...

  19. Strengthening Adaptation to Extreme Climate Events in Southwestern Amazonia: an Example from the Trinational Acre River Basin in the Madre de Dios/Peru - Acre/Brazil - Pando/Bolivia (MAP) Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I. F.

    2015-12-01

    Southwestern Amazonia, where Bolivia, Brazil and Peru meet, faces numerous challenges to the sustainable utilization of land and water resources as the region experiences rapid population and economic growth, expanding agriculture, transportation and energy sectors, along with frequent flooding and droughts. It is also predicted to be one of the most susceptible areas for climate change in the coming decade. The Acre River Basin, one of the few trinational basins in Amazonia, lies at the center of the Madre de Dios Region (Peru), Acre State (Brazil) and Pando Department (Bolivia) or MAP Region. It covers approximately 7,500 km2 and its inhabitants range from indigenous groups avoiding contact with industrial society to more than 60,000 dwellers of a binational urban center. The basin incorporates most the challenges facing the region and this paper discusses steps underway to address the basin's vulnerability to climate-related threats. A trinational group of professionals used GIS databases and local knowledge to classify these threats and possible societal responses. To prioritize threats and to propose responses, this group adapted a method proposed by the Queensland Climate Change Centre of Excellence of Australia to develop climate risk matrices for assessing impacts, adaptation, risk and vulnerability. The three priority climate variables were prolonged and more frequent droughts, more intense flooding, and more days with temperatures > 35oC. The final matrix proposed two areas of concentration - 1) Reduce the vulnerability of communities to hydro-meteorological extreme events and 2) Protect and restore ecosystems that maintain critical water-related resources with actions in public policy, capacity-building, and immediate activities. These results are being incorporated into the Amazon Project of the Global Environment Fund of the United Nations Environment Program, administered by the Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization (ACTO).

  20. Socioeconomic inequalities are still a barrier to full child vaccine coverage in the Brazilian Amazon: a cross-sectional study in Assis Brasil, Acre, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Fernando Luiz Cunha Castelo; Pereira, Thasciany Moraes; Delfino, Breno Matos; Braña, Athos Muniz; Oliart-Guzmán, Humberto; Mantovani, Saulo Augusto Silva; Martins, Antonio Camargo; Oliveira, Cristieli Sérgio de Menezes; Ramalho, Alanderson Alves; Codeço, Claudia Torres; da Silva-Nunes, Mônica

    2014-11-27

    Vaccines are very important to reduce morbidity and mortality by preventable infectious diseases, especially during childhood. Optimal coverage is not always achieved, for several reasons. Here we assessed vaccine coverage for the first 12 months of age in children between 12 and 59 months old, residing in the urban area of a small Amazonian city, and factors associated with incomplete vaccination. A census was performed in the urban area of Assis Brasil, in the Brazilian Amazon, in January 2010, with mothers of 282 children aged 12 to 59 months old, using structured interviews and data from vaccination cards. Mixed logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with incomplete vaccination schemes. Only 82.6% of all children had a completed the basic vaccine scheme for the first year of life. Vaccine coverage ranged from 52.7% coverage (oral rotavirus vaccine) to 99.7% coverage (for Bacille Calmette-Guérin). The major deficiencies occurred in doses administered after the first six months of life. Incomplete vaccination was associated with not having enough income to buy a house (aOR = 2.12, 95% CI 1.06-4.21), low maternal schooling (aOR = 2.60, 95% CI 1.28 - 5.29) , and time of residence of the child in the urban area of the city (aOR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.55 - 0.95). This study showed that vaccine coverage in the first twelve months of life in Assis Brasil is similar to other areas in the Amazon and it is below the coverage postulated by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Low vaccine coverage was associated with socioeconomic inequities that still prevail in the Brazilian Amazon. Short and long-term strategies must be taken to update child vaccines and increase vaccine coverage in the Amazon.

  1. Rickettsia felis in Ctenocephalides felis felis from Five Geographic Regions of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horta, Mauricio C.; Ogrzewalska, Maria; Azevedo, Milka C.; Costa, Francisco B.; Ferreira, Fernando; Labruna, Marcelo B.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated rickettsial infection in 701 Ctenocephalides felis felis fleas that were collected from dogs and cats in 31 municipalities, encompassing all regions and major biomes of Brazil. A total of 268 (38.2%) fleas from 30 municipalities were polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive for the rickettsial gltA gene. The PCR products from 44 fleas, consisting of at least 1 PCR-positive flea from each of 30 municipalities, generated DNA sequences identical to Rickettsia felis. Rickettsial prevalence was highly variable among 30 municipalities, with values ranging from 2.9% to 100%. Significantly higher infection rates by R. felis were associated with the Pampa biome (southern Brazil), and the temperate climate that prevails in southern Brazil. In contrast, lowest R. felis-infection rates were significantly associated with the Caatinga biome, and its semiarid climate. Further studies should evaluate the effect of temperature and moisture on the R. felis infection in Ctenocephalides fleas world widely. PMID:24778194

  2. Floristic, edaphic and structural characteristics of flooded and unflooded forests in the lower Rio Purús region of central Amazonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haugaasen Torbjørn

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite a natural history interest in the early 1900s, relatively little ecological research has been carried out in the Rio Purús basin of central Amazonia, Brazil. Here we describe a new study area in the region of Lago Uauaçú with an emphasis on the climate, forest structure and composition, and soil characteristics between adjacent unflooded (terra firme and seasonally inundated forests; situated within both the white-water (várzea and black-water (igapó drainage systems that dominate the landscape. The climate was found to be typical of that of the central Amazon. Várzea forest soils had high concentrations of nutrients, while terra firme and igapó soils were comparatively nutrient-poor. Terra firme forests were the most floristically diverse forest type, whereas várzea was intermediate, and igapó the most species-poor. The Lecythidaceae was the most important family in terra firme while the Euphorbiaceae was the most important in both várzea and igapó. There were significant differences between forest types in terms of number of saplings, canopy cover and understorey density. In contrasting our results with other published information, we conclude that the Lago Uauaçú region consists of a typical central Amazonian forest macro-mosaic, but is a unique area with high conservation value due to the intimate juxtaposition of terra firme, várzea and igapó forests.

  3. [Historical review of the distribution of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) darlingi (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Peruvian Amazon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Roberto; Vera, Hubert; Calderón, Guillermo

    2014-04-01

    Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) darlingi has been reported since 1931 in border areas of the department of Loreto, mainly along the borders with Brazil and Colombia. In 1994, during an outbreak of malaria, An. darlingi was found in neighboring towns to Iquitos. At present, its distribution has expanded considerably in Loreto. This paper reviews literature available for all possible information on the distribution of mosquitoes, particularly anopheline in the Amazon region of the country, with special emphasis on An darlingi. Entomological collections were also conducted in the departments of Madre de Dios and Ucayali in order to know and verify the distribution of An. darlingi. At present, the distribution of the species is confined to localities in southeastern Peru with Bolivia border towns, in a town near the Abujao River in the department of Ucayali, and widely in the northeastern region of the Amazon basin of Loreto in Peru.

  4. Precipitation Insights From Vertically Pointing Radar, Surveillance Radar and Disdrometers During the Two-Year GoAmazon2014/5

    Science.gov (United States)

    WANG, D.; Giangrande, S. E.; Hardin, J. C.; Feng, Z.; Bartholomew, M. J.; Toto, T.

    2017-12-01

    The Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) field campaign recently concluded a remote two-year deployment in the central Amazon Basin to study cloud-aerosol-precipitation interactions. As part of GoAmazon2014/5, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF) collected a unique set of observations in a region of strong climatic significance near Manacapuru, Brazil, a site known to experience both the pristine condition of its locale, as well as the effects of the Manaus, Brazil, mega city pollution plume. In addition to standard ARM cloud radar observations, this AMF deployment was equipped to capture a complete, continuous record of cloud and precipitation profiling and spatial properties, capitalizing on a reconfigured UHF (915 MHz) radar wind profiler (RWP) and collocated surface disdrometer measurements under the umbrella of the System for the Protection of Amazonia (SIPAM) S-band surveillance radar. Together, these sensors bolster multiple methods to understand detail precipitation processes, including explorations into the controls of large-scale synoptic, precipitation regimes (wet/dry seasons), diurnal cycle, and possible aerosol contributions. Of interest to climate model validation and convective parameterization improvement are new Amazon insights into rainfall characteristics, drop size distribution evolution, and relationships between storm storm dynamical/thermodynamical properties.

  5. Water beetles in mountainous regions in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MO. Segura

    Full Text Available Inventories provide information on the state of biodiversity at a site or for a geographic region. Species inventories are the basis for systematic study and critical to ecology, biogeography and identification of biological indicators and key species. They also provide key information for assessments of environmental change, for natural resource conservation or recovery of degraded ecosystems. Thus, inventories play a key role in planning strategies for conservation and sustainable use. This study aimed to inventory the fauna of water beetles, larvae and adults, in two mountainous regions in the state of São Paulo, in Serra da Mantiqueira (Parque Estadual de Campos do Jordão and Pindamonhangaba region and in Serra do Mar (Santa Virgínia and Picinguaba Divisions as well as to generate information about the habitats used by the different genera recorded. Specimens were collected in lotic and lentic systems, between the years 2005 to 2010. In total 14,492 specimens were collected and 16 families and 50 genera of Coleoptera were identified. This study in mountainous regions showed a significant portion of the faunal composition of South America and the state of São Paulo. The composition of the fauna, in terms of richness and abundance by family, indicated the predominance of Elmidae, followed by Hydrophilidae and Dytiscidae. Despite the diversity found, the results of estimated richness indicated the need for additional sampling effort for both regions, since the curves of estimated richness did not reach an asymptote, suggesting that new species can be found in future surveys.

  6. Water beetles in mountainous regions in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, M O; Fonseca-Gessner, A A; Spies, M R; Siegloch, A E

    2012-05-01

    Inventories provide information on the state of biodiversity at a site or for a geographic region. Species inventories are the basis for systematic study and critical to ecology, biogeography and identification of biological indicators and key species. They also provide key information for assessments of environmental change, for natural resource conservation or recovery of degraded ecosystems. Thus, inventories play a key role in planning strategies for conservation and sustainable use. This study aimed to inventory the fauna of water beetles, larvae and adults, in two mountainous regions in the state of São Paulo, in Serra da Mantiqueira (Parque Estadual de Campos do Jordão and Pindamonhangaba region) and in Serra do Mar (Santa Virgínia and Picinguaba Divisions) as well as to generate information about the habitats used by the different genera recorded. Specimens were collected in lotic and lentic systems, between the years 2005 to 2010. In total 14,492 specimens were collected and 16 families and 50 genera of Coleoptera were identified. This study in mountainous regions showed a significant portion of the faunal composition of South America and the state of São Paulo. The composition of the fauna, in terms of richness and abundance by family, indicated the predominance of Elmidae, followed by Hydrophilidae and Dytiscidae. Despite the diversity found, the results of estimated richness indicated the need for additional sampling effort for both regions, since the curves of estimated richness did not reach an asymptote, suggesting that new species can be found in future surveys.

  7. Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15 Terrestrial Ecosystem Project (Geco) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardine, Kolby [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-06-01

    In conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility GoAmazon campaign, the Terrestrial Ecosystem Science (TES)-funded Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon 2014/15) terrestrial ecosystem project (Geco) was designed to: • evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of leaf-level algorithms for biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emissions in Amazon forests near Manaus, Brazil, and • conduct mechanistic field studies to characterize biochemical and physiological processes governing leaf- and landscape-scale tropical forest BVOC emissions, and the influence of environmental drivers that are expected to change with a warming climate. Through a close interaction between modeling and observational activities, including the training of MS and PhD graduate students, post-doctoral students, and technicians at the National Institute for Amazon Research (INPA), the study aimed at improving the representation of BVOC-mediated biosphere-atmosphere interactions and feedbacks under a warming climate. BVOCs can form cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) that influence precipitation dynamics and modify the quality of down welling radiation for photosynthesis. However, our ability to represent these coupled biosphere-atmosphere processes in Earth system models suffers from poor understanding of the functions, identities, quantities, and seasonal patterns of BVOC emissions from tropical forests as well as their biological and environmental controls. The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN), the current BVOC sub-model of the Community Earth System Model (CESM), was evaluated to explore mechanistic controls over BVOC emissions. Based on that analysis, a combination of observations and experiments were studied in forests near Manaus, Brazil, to test existing parameterizations and algorithm structures in MEGAN. The model was actively modified as needed to improve tropical BVOC emission simulations on

  8. Demography of the Brazil nut tree (Bertholletia excelsa) in the Bolivian Amazon : impact of seed extraction on recruitment and population dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidema, P.A.; Boot, R.G.A.

    2002-01-01

    A demographic study was carried out on Bertholletia excelsa, the Brazil nut tree, in two primary forest sites in Northern Bolivia where Brazil nuts have been harvested for several decades. In spite of the large proportion (93€of seeds that are harvested, reasonable densities of recently emerged

  9. Tuberculosis in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis in the Baixo Araguari Region, Amapá, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Minharro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Water buffalo are of great economic importance in Brazilian Amazonia, which has the largest herd in Brazil. Bovine tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis is a zoonotic disease that results in severe losses to water buffalo production. Although the disease has already been described in the country, data on the occurrence and distribution of bovine tuberculosis in water buffalo in Brazil is very scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of bovine tuberculosis in water buffalo in the Baixo Araguari River region of Amapá, Brazil. Thirty herds, randomly selected from the 41 herds of water buffalo in the region, were sampled. From those herds, 212 randomly selected water buffalo were subjected to the comparative tuberculin skin test. The proportion of Baixo Araguari River region herds that were positive for bovine tuberculosis was 50.0% (95% CI 31.3% to 68.7% and the proportion of animals that were positive was estimated to be 14.8% (95% CI 7.8% to 21.9%. Our results show that bovine tuberculosis is spread widely among water buffalo in the Baixo Araguari River region, which suggests that measures to control the disease should be undertaken in the region.

  10. REGIONAL MAGNETOTELLURIC SURVEYS IN HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION, PARANA BASIN, BRAZIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, William D.; Saad, Antonio; Ohofugi, Walter

    1985-01-01

    The mangetotelluric geophysical method has been used effectively as a hydrocarbon exploration tool in the intracratonic Parana basin of South America. The 1-2 km thick surface basalts and buried diabase sills pose no problem for the magnetotelluric method because the natural electromagnetic fields used as the energy source pass easily through the basalt. Data for the regional study were taken on six profiles with sounding spaced 8 to 15 km apart. The magnetotelluric sounding data outline a linear uplift known as the Ponta Grossa arch. This major structural feature cuts across the northeast-trending intracratonic basin almost perpendicularly, and is injected with numerous diabase dikes. Significant electrical contrasts occur between the Permian sediments and older units, so that magnetotelluric measurements can give an indication of the regional thickness of the Permian and younger sediments to aid in interpreting hydrocarbon migration patterns and possible trap areas. Refs.

  11. Historical Susceptibility of Forest Fires in the Carajas Region, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceicao, M. C.; Rodrigues, R. A.; Cordeiro, R. C.; Barbosa, M. R.; Santos, D. D.; Turcq, B. J.; Seoane, J. S.; Sifeddine, A.

    2008-12-01

    The Carajas Region in the Para state, nowadays keeps a vast area of forests protected by Units of Conservation and Indigenous Land. Despite the efforts and investments done by private companies and government agencies to prevent forest fires, they are still registered, being one of the major factors of degradation of forests, flora and fauna. Thus there is a need to improve the understanding of these burning processes at present, and its evolution in different time scales, which allows comparison between patterns of fire occurrences related to climate and human reasons. This study aims to assess the evolution of the climate of Carajas region along the Quaternary, with emphasis on natural occurrence of fires related to historical events palaeoclimatic. For this a sediment core of a lake with 450 cm of depth was collected. Chronology is being determined by the radiocarbon method. Ours specific objectives are quantify and qualify the source of sedimentary material, determine concentrations of biogenic elements and minerals, through granulometric and mineralogical analyses and of quality and quantity of organic matter through the establishment of elementary (the C/N) and isotopic ratios (ä13C and ä15N). The dimensions of processes linked to the biomass burning will be determined by quantifying of charcoal fragments resulting from fires through microscopic analysis. This seeks to reconstruct the environmental scene and paleoclimatics conditions related to events of biomass burning, demonstrating the susceptibility of this historic region to the occurrence of fires according to the different climate stages identified.

  12. Preliminary technical and economic viability for the implantation of fluvial transport of CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) for barges in Amazon Region; Avaliacao preliminar de viabilidade tecnico-economica para implantacao de transporte fluvial de GNC (Gas Natual Comprimido) por barcacas na Regiao Amazonica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Marcos C.C. de; Porto, Paulo L. Lemgruber [Interocean Engenharia e Ship Management, Rio de janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Cunha, Rafael H. da [Metro Rio, RJ (Brazil); Garcia, Rafael M. [Pic Brasil (Brazil); Almeida, Marco A.R. de [Universidade Gama Filho (UGF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The isolated regions of the Amazon present difficulties for integration with the electrical system which is creating some economic problems due to the consequent costs of electric generation of subsidies as a function of the fossil fuel use as oils diesel and fuel. A viable option is the use of Natural Gas - NG that is Also available in the region. Its modal of transport possible in the Region North they are for gas-lines or barges. The Compressed Natural Gas transport is distinguished that - CNG for barges was still not tested operationally in Brazil. Soon, to develop a Preliminary Study of Viability Technician - Economic - SVTE for the implantation of fluvial transport of CNG between the cities of Coari and Manaus is basic, therefore it is created strategical alternative for the electric generation in this region. The electric sector, the characteristics of the NG and the transport in this region had been analyzed to support to the work. The gas line and the fluvial transport of CNG for barges in this region are not conflicting, and they in a complementary form can act. The SVTE presented a Liquid Present Value and Internal Tax of very attractive Return justifying its implantation. (author)

  13. Actinella species (Bacillariophyta from an Amazon black water floodplain lake (Amazonas - Brazil Espécies de Actinella (Bacillariophyta de um lago de inundação amazônico de águas pretas (Amazonas - Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Melo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Actinella Lewis was studied using planktonic samples from a black water floodplain lake in Central Amazon region. For species identification the taxa were morphological and morphometricaly analyzed on base in light microscope (LM and scanning electronic microscope (SEM. Five species were registered: Actinella brasiliensis Grunow, A. guianensis Grunow, A. gracile Kociolek, A. mirabilis (Eulenstein ex Grunow Grunow and A. robusta Hustedt. A. gracile is reported for the first time for Amazon State and black water systems and it is firstly documented with SEM. In addition, a review of geographic distribution of Actinella species in Brazilian Amazon region is given.O gênero Actinella Lewis foi estudado a partir de amostras coletadas em um lago de inundação de águas pretas na Amazônia Central. Para a identificação das espécies as características morfológicas e morfométricas dos táxons foram analisadas em microscopia óptica (MO e eletrônica de varredura (MEV. Cinco espécies foram identificadas: Actinella brasiliensis Grunow, A. guianensis Grunow, A. gracile Kociolek, A. mirabilis (Eulenstein ex Grunow Grunow e A. robusta Hustedt. A. gracile é referida pela primeira vez para o estado do Amazonas e para ambientes de águas pretas, sendo documentada pela primeira vez em MEV. Em adição, uma revisão sobre a distribuição geográfica das espécies de Actinella na região da Amazônia brasileira é apresentada.

  14. Petrography and geochronology (U/Pb-Sm/Nd) the Passagem Granite, Pensamiento Granitoid Complex, Paragua Terrane, SW Amazon Craton, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesus, Gisely Carmo de; Sousa, Maria Zelia Aguiar de; Ruiz, Amarildo Salina; Matos, Joao Batista de

    2010-01-01

    The Passagem granite includes stocks, plugs and dikes located in the Ricardo Franco hill - Vila Bela da Santissima Trindade region - state of Mato Grosso, central Brazil. The Passagem Granite is included in the Paragua terrane - SW Amazonian Craton. It consists of isotropic monzogranite, sienogranite and more rarely granodiorites with leucocratic dark gray to white color. These rocks range from hypidomorphic inequigranular to xenomorphic texture, fine to medium grained. Biotite is the only primary mafic present as essential phase and characterize an expanded slightly acid sequence formed by a sub-alkaline magmatism of high-potassium calc-alkaline, slightly peraluminous composition from arc magmatic tectonic environment during a post-collisional period. Mechanism of fractional crystallization of plagioclase, biotite, titanite, apatite and zircon associated with simultaneous crustal assimilation are suggested for the evolution of these rocks. The results support the hypothesis of a post-collisional magmatism in the Paragua terrane at 1284 +- 20 Ma corresponding to the crystallization age of the Passagem granite. This paper propose that Passagem Granite represents as an extension in Brazilian terrane of the Pensamiento Granitoid Complex. (author)

  15. Endoparasites infecting the semiaquatic coral snake Micrurus surinamensis (Squamata: Elapidae in the southern amazonian region, Mato Grosso state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RW. Ávila

    Full Text Available A parasitological survey was conducted in specimens of the semiaquatic coral snake Micrurus surinamensis, a poorly known South American elapid. Four specimens collected at the southern Amazon region in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso were analyzed for endoparasites. Three parasite species were recovered from the snake hosts: the pentastomid Sebekia oxycephala, the nematode Physaloptera sp. and the trematode Opisthogonimus lecithonotus. This represents new locality and host record for S. oxycephala and O. lecithonotus.

  16. Brazil in Regional and Global Governance: Foreign Policy, Leadership and UNASUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Chin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the role of Brazil as a source of international governance innovation during the Lula da Silva and early Rousseff presidencies (2003–12. The analysis details some of Brazil’s main contributions to regional and global governance, and how these contributions are rooted in ideational and normative innovation and its imaginative, nonconformist, status quo–altering foreign policy of the period. Although Brazil was not, and is not, a “new actor” per se in global governance, it did take unprecedented and dramatic strides between 2003 and 2012 to redefine the multilateral agenda and reshape institutional arrangements for international cooperation and conflict management in South America. At the global level, Brazil launched new platforms for international cooperation, including with the other BRICS countries of Russia, India, China and South Africa. The regional trends are examined in the case of the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR, and the innovations that Brazil spearheaded and supported in international security and health cooperation. However, Brazil’s contributions gain greater salience as part of the broader processes of global change where international power is becoming increasingly diffused and decentralized.

  17. Food flora in 17th century Northeast region of Brazil in Historia Naturalis Brasiliae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Maria Franco Trindade; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2014-06-25

    This article reports historical ethnobotany research conducted from a study of the work Historia Naturalis Brasiliae (Natural History of Brazil), authored by Piso and Marcgrave and published in 1648, with main focus on Caatinga of northeast region of Brazil. Focusing the content analysis on the section dedicated to plant species with multiple uses, Marcgrave's contribution to the aforementioned work, this research had the following objectives: the retrieval of 17th century knowledge about the food uses of the flora in the northeast region of Brazil, including the taxonomic classifications; the identification of plant parts, their modes of consumption and the ethnic group of consumers; and the verification of the use of these species over time. The use of 80 food species at the time of the publication of the work is indicated, some of which are endemic to the Caatinga, such as "umbu" (Spondias tuberosa Arruda), "mandacaru" (Cereus jamacaru DC.) and "carnauba" (Copernicia cerifera Mart.). It is noticeable that among the species listed by Marcgrave, some species still lack current studies indicating their real nutritional value. The present study is an unprecedented work because it introduces, in a systematic way, the food plants described in a study of 17th century Brazil. Finally, this study makes information about plants consumed in the past accessible, aiming to provide material for studies that could develop new food products today.

  18. Food flora in 17th century northeast region of Brazil in Historia Naturalis Brasiliae

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background This article reports historical ethnobotany research conducted from a study of the work Historia Naturalis Brasiliae (Natural History of Brazil), authored by Piso and Marcgrave and published in 1648, with main focus on Caatinga of northeast region of Brazil. Methods Focusing the content analysis on the section dedicated to plant species with multiple uses, Marcgrave's contribution to the aforementioned work, this research had the following objectives: the retrieval of 17th century knowledge about the food uses of the flora in the northeast region of Brazil, including the taxonomic classifications; the identification of plant parts, their modes of consumption and the ethnic group of consumers; and the verification of the use of these species over time. Results The use of 80 food species at the time of the publication of the work is indicated, some of which are endemic to the Caatinga, such as “umbu” (Spondias tuberosa Arruda), “mandacaru” (Cereus jamacaru DC.) and “carnauba” (Copernicia cerifera Mart.). It is noticeable that among the species listed by Marcgrave, some species still lack current studies indicating their real nutritional value. The present study is an unprecedented work because it introduces, in a systematic way, the food plants described in a study of 17th century Brazil. Conclusions Finally, this study makes information about plants consumed in the past accessible, aiming to provide material for studies that could develop new food products today. PMID:24965737

  19. Evaluation of three different DNA extraction methods from blood samples collected in dried filter paper in Plasmodium subpatent infections from the Amazon region in Brazil Avaliação de três métodos de extração de DNA obtidos de amostras de sangue coletadas em papel de filtro em infecções subpatentes de Plasmodium da região Amazônica no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Bortolasse Miguel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Asymptomatic Plasmodium infection is a new challenge for public health in the American region. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR is the best method for diagnosing subpatent parasitemias. In endemic areas, blood collection is hampered by geographical distances and deficient transport and storage conditions of the samples. Because DNA extraction from blood collected on filter paper is an efficient method for molecular studies in high parasitemic individuals, we investigated whether the technique could be an alternative for Plasmodium diagnosis among asymptomatic and pauciparasitemic subjects. In this report we compared three different methods (Chelex®-saponin, methanol and TRIS-EDTA of DNA extraction from blood collected on filter paper from asymptomatic Plasmodium-infected individuals. Polymerase chain reaction assays for detection of Plasmodium species showed the best results when the Chelex®-saponin method was used. Even though the sensitivity of detection was approximately 66% and 31% for P. falciparum and P. vivax, respectively, this method did not show the effectiveness in DNA extraction required for molecular diagnosis of Plasmodium. The development of better methods for extracting DNA from blood collected on filter paper is important for the diagnosis of subpatent malarial infections in remote areas and would contribute to establishing the epidemiology of this form of infection.Infecção assintomática por Plasmodium é um novo desafio para a saúde pública no Brasil. A reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR é o melhor método para detectar baixas parasitemias presentes em pacientes com infecção assintomática. Nas áreas endêmicas, a coleta de sangue total é dificultada pela distancia geográfica, transporte e adequada armazenagem das amostras. A coleta de sangue em papel de filtro pode ser uma alternativa nessas áreas de difícil acesso. Neste estudo foram comparados três diferentes métodos de extração de ADN a partir de

  20. Radiogeologic reconnaissance in Perus region, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, P.E.F.P.

    1980-01-01

    The determination of the means and the identification of the radiometric anomalies, and the classification of this anomalies orgin, and it probable correlation with uraniferous secundary minerals from Perus and Taipas were studied. Petrological, stratigraphic, tectonic and geochronological studies in this region were done. The radiometric anomalies was observed in granitic-pegmatic massifs, later Sao Roque group. The radiocitivity of this area was affected by litology, being the pegmatite more radiogenic than granite. The topography is also a influent factor to detected radioactivity. The cinthylometry was efficient to U an Th anomalies detection. Three kinds of radioctive focus were detected by microautoradiography method [pt

  1. The Amazon Basin in transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric A. Davidson; Alessandro C. de Araujo; Paulo Artaxo; Jennifer K. Balch; I. Foster Brown; Mercedes M.C. Bustamente; Michael T. Coe; Ruth S. DeFriess; Michael Keller; Marcos Longo; J. William Munger; Wilfrid Schroeder; Britaldo Soares-Filho; Carlos M. Souza, Jr.; Steven C. Wofsy

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural expansion and climate variability have become important agents of disturbance in the Amazon basin. Recent studies have demonstrated considerable resilience of Amazonian forests to moderate annual drought, but they also show that interactions between deforestation, fire and drought potentially lead to losses of carbon storage and changes in regional...

  2. Trans-Amazon Drilling Project (TADP): origins and evolution of the forests, climate, and hydrology of the South American tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, P.A.; Fritz, S.C.; Silva, C.G.; Rigsby, C.A.; Absy, M.L.; Almeida, R.P.; Caputo, Maria C.; Chiessi, C.M.; Cruz, F.W.; Dick, C.W.; Feakins, S.J.; Figueiredo, J.; Freeman, K.H.; Hoorn, C.; Jaramillo, C.A.; Kern, A.; Latrubesse, E.M.; Ledru, M.P.; Marzoli, A.; Myrbo, A.; Noren, A.; Piller, W.E.; Ramos, M.I.F.; Ribas, C.C.; Trinadade, R.; West, A.J.; Wahnfried, I.; Willard, Debra A.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the scientific rationale for an ambitious ICDP drilling project to continuously sample Late Cretaceous to modern sediment in four different sedimentary basins that transect the equatorial Amazon of Brazil, from the Andean foreland to the Atlantic Ocean. The goals of this project are to document the evolution of plant biodiversity in the Amazon forests and to relate biotic diversification to changes in the physical environment, including climate, tectonism, and the surface landscape. These goals require long sedimentary records from each of the major sedimentary basins across the heart of the Brazilian Amazon, which can only be obtained by drilling because of the scarcity of Cenozoic outcrops. The proposed drilling will provide the first long, nearly continuous regional records of the Cenozoic history of the forests, their plant diversity, and the associated changes in climate and environment. It also will address fundamental questions about landscape evolution, including the history of Andean uplift and erosion as recorded in Andean foreland basins and the development of west-to-east hydrologic continuity between the Andes, the Amazon lowlands, and the equatorial Atlantic. Because many modern rivers of the Amazon basin flow along the major axes of the old sedimentary basins, we plan to locate drill sites on the margin of large rivers and to access the targeted drill sites by navigation along these rivers.

  3. Trans-Amazon Drilling Project (TADP): origins and evolution of the forests, climate, and hydrology of the South American tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, P. A.; Fritz, S. C.; Silva, C. G.; Rigsby, C. A.; Absy, M. L.; Almeida, R. P.; Caputo, M.; Chiessi, C. M.; Cruz, F. W.; Dick, C. W.; Feakins, S. J.; Figueiredo, J.; Freeman, K. H.; Hoorn, C.; Jaramillo, C.; Kern, A. K.; Latrubesse, E. M.; Ledru, M. P.; Marzoli, A.; Myrbo, A.; Noren, A.; Piller, W. E.; Ramos, M. I. F.; Ribas, C. C.; Trnadade, R.; West, A. J.; Wahnfried, I.; Willard, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    This article presents the scientific rationale for an ambitious ICDP drilling project to continuously sample Late Cretaceous to modern sediment in four different sedimentary basins that transect the equatorial Amazon of Brazil, from the Andean foreland to the Atlantic Ocean. The goals of this project are to document the evolution of plant biodiversity in the Amazon forests and to relate biotic diversification to changes in the physical environment, including climate, tectonism, and the surface landscape. These goals require long sedimentary records from each of the major sedimentary basins across the heart of the Brazilian Amazon, which can only be obtained by drilling because of the scarcity of Cenozoic outcrops. The proposed drilling will provide the first long, nearly continuous regional records of the Cenozoic history of the forests, their plant diversity, and the associated changes in climate and environment. It also will address fundamental questions about landscape evolution, including the history of Andean uplift and erosion as recorded in Andean foreland basins and the development of west-to-east hydrologic continuity between the Andes, the Amazon lowlands, and the equatorial Atlantic. Because many modern rivers of the Amazon basin flow along the major axes of the old sedimentary basins, we plan to locate drill sites on the margin of large rivers and to access the targeted drill sites by navigation along these rivers.

  4. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in School: a Review Profile Found in the Different Regions From Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valesca Francisco Pinto Menezes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal infections caused by protozoa and helminths are considered a major cause of diseases by infectious processes in the world. The present study aims to conduct a survey regarding the recent years of the prevalence of intestinal parasites in school children in various cities in Brazil, identifying which species are most commonly found and the regions that require greater dedication in this area. The analyzed studies showed that the Northern and Northeastern regions presented a higher prevalence of intestinal parasites, however, in the Southeast, results were encouraging with low levels of contamination by parasites compared to all regions in Brazil. As for intestinal parasites, the most common, found in all Brazilian regions, was Ascaris lumbricoides followed by Giardia lamblia. Therefore, one can conclude that the high prevalence of intestinal parasites in children found in some places in Brazil can demonstrate the need for greater care with basic sanitation and personal hygiene, both in households and in the places of study. These data show the importance of conducting educational programs that will develop personal awareness of parents, families and children themselves.

  5. THE BRAZILIAN BIODIESEL PROGRAM AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT: CASES FROM NORTHERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius Alves Finco

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Biofuel production has been greatly discussed in Brazil. In 2004, these debates led the country to develop new policies and implement a national program for biodiesel use and production (PNPB with the intent to increase the share of renewable energy and foster regional development. In this context, the present study aims to assess the impacts of PNPB on regional development in Tocantins State, northern Brazil. For this purpose, ranges of socio-economic indicators were collected among national and regional stakeholders, as well as specific literature. The preliminary results point out that distribution logistics appears to be a considerable constraint to the success of the PNPB. The concentration of biodiesel industries in the central-west region of the country, and the large distances to deliver biodiesel in the northern Brazil make biodiesel prices non-competitive when compared to fossil diesel. The results also suggest that the PNPB is not succeeding in promoting the integration of family agriculture in the Tocantins state, especially due to the structural difficulty of the agricultural sector, as well as the technical and political shortcomings presented by the mechanism of incentives.

  6. Mutations in the pfmdr1, cg2, and pfcrt genes in Plasmodium falciparum samples from endemic malaria areas in Rondonia and Pará State, Brazilian Amazon Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Giselle Maria Rachid; Machado, Ricardo Luís Dantas; Calvosa, Vanja Sueli Pachiano; Póvoa, Marinete Marins

    2006-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the molecular basis for Plasmodium falciparum resistance to chloroquine in isolates from the Brazilian Amazon and to identify polymorphisms in the pfmdr1 gene, codons 184, 1042, and 1246, the kappa and gamma regions of the cg2 gene, and the K76T mutation of the pfcrt gene, in order to calculate the distribution of polymorphism within each target gene, comparing samples from distinct geographic areas, using allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the pfmdr gene and PCR plus restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) for the cg2 and pfcrt genes. The sample consisted of 40 human blood isolates, already collected and morphologically diagnosed as carriers of P. falciparum parasites, from four localities: Porto Velho in Rondonia State and Maraba, Itaituba, and Tailandia in Pará State. Distribution of P. falciparum in vitro chloroquine resistance in the isolates was 100% for pfmdr1, cg2 gamma region, and pfcrt, except for the polymorphism in the cg2 kappa region, which was not found.

  7. Using Landsat 8 Image Time Series for Crop Mapping in a Region of Cerrado, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendini, H.; Sanches, I. D.; Körting, T. S.; Fonseca, L. M. G.; Luiz, A. J. B.; Formaggio, A. R.

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this research is to classify agricultural land use in a region of the Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna) biome using a time series of Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) from Landsat 8 OLI. Phenological metrics extracted from EVI time series, a Random Forest algorithm and data mining techniques are used in the process of classification. The area of study is a region in the Cerrado in a region of the municipality of Casa Branca, São Paulo state, Brazil. The results are encouraging and demonstrate the potential of phenological parameters obtained from time series of OLI vegetation indices for agricultural land use classification.

  8. Use of pesticide prescription in Brazil: a case study in the region of Tubarão, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Pittol Martini

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It is considered that Brazil is currently in the lead of the world pesticide use. Given the lack of information about the types and amounts of pesticides marketed in this country and how they are applied in the crops, in this work was structured a database from data of agronomic prescription forms issued in an agricultural region of Santa Catarina State. The qualitative analysis of the agronomic prescriptions showed that these documents do not inform the farmers about the proper and safe use of pesticides. In quantitative terms, it was found that the herbicides were the most prescribed pesticides and that about one-third of total was highly toxic products. A very small number of legally skilled professionals were responsible for signing the documents. This indicates that the majority of the agronomic prescriptions analyzed in this study were not based on site phytosanitary diagnostic.

  9. On Dams in the Amazon Basin, Teleconnected Impacts, and Neighbors Unaware of the Damage to their Natural Resources and Assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latrubesse, E. M.; Park, E.

    2017-12-01

    In a recent study, Latrubesse et al., (2017) demonstrated that the accumulated negative environmental effects of more than one hundred existing dams and at least 288 proposed dams, if constructed, will trigger massive hydrophysical and biotic disturbances that will affect the Amazon basin's floodplains, estuary and sediment plume. The authors introduced a Dam Environmental Vulnerability Index (DEVI) to quantify the current and potential impacts of dams in the basin. The current and potential vulnerabilities of different regions of the Amazon basin was assessed, and the results highlighted the need for a more efficient and integrative legal framework involving all nine countries of the basin in an anticipatory assessment to minimize the negative socio-environmental and biotic impacts of hydropower developments. Here we present expanded information on the potential impacts of dams in the lower Amazon and the northeast Atlantic coast of South America, and revisit our proposed integrative strategies for basin management which are based on the adaptation and functionality of the institutional and legal framework already existing in the Amazon countries. Participative strategies involving members from the Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization (ACTO) countries, and additional members (for example, France), such as the creation of a basin committee -as defined by the Brazilian Law of Waters of Brazil-, and the creation of an Amazon Basin Panel allowing the participation of scientists that could have a policy-relevant role but should be not policy-prescriptive, are also discussed. ReferencesLatrubesse, E., Arima E. Dunne T., Park E., Baker V, Horta F.,Wight, C., Wittmann F., Zuanon, J., Baker P., Ribas C, Norgaard R., Filizola N., Ansar A., Flyvbjerg B., Stevaux, J. 2017. Damming the rivers of the Amazon basin. Nature, 546, 363-369.

  10. Biological Monitoring Using Macroinvertebrates as Bioindicators of Water Quality of Maroaga Stream in the Maroaga Cave System, Presidente Figueiredo, Amazon, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Brito Uherek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic environments are being modified by anthropogenic activities regarding their biological, physical, and chemical conditions; even pristine aquatic ecosystems can be threatened. This study focused on the biological monitoring of Maroaga Stream—a first order stream located in an Environmental Protection Area in the Amazon using the Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP Score System. The BMWP Score System revealed that the Maroaga Stream was a Class I stream (score of 138 points, indicating clean or not significantly altered water quality. The results suggest the adequate environmental conditions and ecological responses of the Maroaga Stream.

  11. The biodiversity of Aspergillus section Flavi in brazil nuts: From rainforest to consumer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderari, Thaiane O.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2013-01-01

    A total of 288 brazil nut samples (173 kernel and 115 shell) from the Amazon rainforest region and São Paulo State, Brazil were collected at different stages of brazil nut production. Samples were analysed for: percentages of aflatoxigenic fungal species and potential for aflatoxin production...... pseudotamarii produced only aflatoxin B1. The total aflatoxin levels found in samples taken from the rainforests was 0.7μg/kg, from processing plants before and after sorting 8.0 and 0.1μg/kg respectively, from street markets in the Amazon region 6.3μg/kg and from supermarkets in São Paulo State 0.2μg...

  12. Characterization of biomasses from the north and northeast regions of Brazil for processes in biorefineries

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    Magale Karine Diel RAMBO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIn search for renewable energy sources, the Brazilian residual biomasses stand out due to their favorable physical and chemical properties, low cost, and their being less pollutant. Therefore, they are likely to be used in biorefineries in the production of chemical inputs to substitute fossil fuels. This substitution is possible due to the high contents of carbohydrates (>40%, low contents of extractives (<20%, ashes (<8% and moisture (<8% found in these residual biomasses. High calorific values of all residues also offer them the chance to be used in combustion. A principal components analysis (PCA was performed for better understanding of the samples and their hysic-chemical properties. Thus, this study aimed to characterize biomasses from the north (babassu residues, such as mesocarp and endocarp; pequi and Brazil nut and northeast (agave and coconut regions of Brazil, in order to contribute to the preservation of the environment and strengthen the economy of the region.

  13. Feedbacks between land cover and climate changes in the Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, M. T.; Silverio, D. V.; Bustamante, M.; Macedo, M.; Shimbo, J.; Brando, P. M.

    2016-12-01

    An estimated 20% of Amazon forests and 45% of Cerrado savannas have been cleared to make way for the expansion of croplands and pasturelands in Brazil. Although deforestation rates have decreased or remained steady over the last decade, the cumulative area deforested continues to grow in both biomes. These land-use transitions are expected to influence regional climate by reducing evapotranspiration (ET), increasing land surface temperatures (LST), and ultimately reducing regional precipitation. Here we present results from spatial analyses to quantify the impact of land-use transitions on the regional climate of the Amazon-Cerrado agricultural frontier. The analyses combine satellite observations and model outputs from the MODIS dataset. Results from the southeastern Amazon indicate that transitions from forest to pasture or cropland decreased mean annual ET (by 24% and 32%, respectively) and increased LST (by 4.2°C and 6.4°C). Preliminary results from the Cerrado indicate that transitions from woody savannas to pasture or cropland also result in substantial reductions in mean annual ET (23% and 20%, respectively) and increases in LST (by 1.6°C in both cases). These results reinforce the need to better understand how land-use change at regional scales may alter climate by changing ecosystem properties (beyond carbon stocks and fluxes). It is important to evaluate these responses across different biomes, particularly in tropical regions under increasing deforestation pressure.

  14. Litiniferous pegmatites from Itinga-Aracuai region, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Sa, J.H. da.

    1977-01-01

    This work explains the study of more a hundred pegmatites from Itinga and Aracuai, in middle Jequitinhonha. This area have cassiterite, tantalite-columbite, semiprecious stones ad lithium minerals. The lithium ores are the most economic importance. The predominate rocks are quartz-mica schist, rich in cordierite. Geochronological dating, by the Rb-Sr method, show ages about 650 m.a. to schist and 520 m.a. to the granites. Was dated muscovites from two pegmatites by K-Ar method showing ages about 4677+- 18 m.a and 490 +- 12 m.a. The pegmatites was classified in simple and complex, based in mineralogical and structural criterion. In the complex pegmatites was determinated notable accessory minerological association, in which the principal are lithium ores-petalite, spodumene, lepidolite, ambligonite, the cesium ore-polucite-and cassiterite, tantalite-columbite, and great variety of turmaline. Genetically the pegmatites are related with the granites of this region, with present high tenor of the lithium, cesium and beryllium, comparate with the normal granites. (C.D.G.) [pt

  15. No greens in the forest? Note on the limited consumption of greens in the Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Katz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of greens is reported as being very minor among Amazonian Indians. The authors of this article present a new review of this subject, based on fieldwork with Amerindians and other populations in different parts of the Brazilian Amazon and French Guiana. Written sources on Brazilian, Peruvian, Columbian and Venezuelan Amazon were also reviewed. The consumption of cultivated, semi-cultivated and wild species of greens was taken into account here, as the data specific to wild greens is very scarce. It is confirmed that greens are not commonly eaten among native Amazonians and that some ethnic groups do not consume them at all. The consumed species are usually young shoots of weeds or cassava leaves. Common in the Belém region are some specific aromatic plants, which have been diffused to other parts of the Amazon, together with introduced plants such as kale and coriander. Migrants from Northeastern Brazil settled in the Amazon consume some cultivated greens, especially aromatic plants. Maroons are the ones who use more greens in their diet. Native Amazonian people, who supplement agriculture with game and fish, follow a hunter-gatherer pattern, preferring wild fruit and tubers to greens.

  16. Prevalence of anti-p: Falciparum sporozoite antibodies in adults in the amapa region of Brazil

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    Virgílio Do Rosario

    1987-02-01

    Full Text Available 17 of 20 adult sera from the Amapa region of Brazil were active in the inhibition of P. falciparum sporozoite invasion (ISI assay which has been correlated with protective antibodies. In contrast 11 sera were positive in IFA tests and 6 were positive in CSP tests. These results suggest that the ISI assay will be useful for evaluating naturally acquired protective anti-sporozoite antibodies in endemic areas, particularly during vaccine efficacy studies using sporozoite-based vaccines.

  17. Geochemical studies of the sediments of Barreiras group, Itaborai region-RJ, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neves, M.C.G.P.

    1983-01-01

    It is purpused to study the lead, copper, chromium, manganese, vanadium and zinc geochemical bahavior of the clays obtained from outcrop samples of Barreiras group and weathered Pre-Cambriam situated at Itaborai region, in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Field and laboratory description, grain size analyses, X-ray diffraction, emission spectrography, X-ray fluorescence, atomic absorption, transmission electronic microscopy and pH tests were applied to twenty-two samples selected. (Author) [pt

  18. Prevalence Survey of Selected Bovine Pathogens in Water Buffaloes in the North Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenevaldo Barbosa da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the largest buffalo herd in the occident is in the north region of Brazil, few studies have been conducted to assess the prevalence of selected parasitic diseases in buffalo herd. The present study was therefore conducted to investigate the epidemiological of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina, and Babesia bovis in water buffaloes in the north region of Brazil. A total of 4796 buffalo blood samples were randomly collected from five provinces and simultaneously analyzed by the IFAT and ELISA. The serological prevalence of T. gondii and N. caninum was 41.3% and 55.5% in ELISA and 35.7% and 48.8% in IFAT, respectively. The overall prevalence of A. marginale, B. bovis, and B. bigemina was 63%, 25%, and 21% by ELISA and 50.0%, 22.5%, and 18.8% by IFAT, respectively. This study shows valuable information regarding the serological survey of selected bovine pathogens in water buffaloes in the north region of Brazil which will likely be very beneficial for the management and control programs of this disease.

  19. Life Cycle Assessment of a Small Hydropower Plant in the Brazilian Amazon

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    Marla Geller

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazil as well as the rest of the world, faces a major challenge related to the electricity sector, to meet the growing demand with energy production from renewable sources. Many hydroelectric plants are being implemented, especially in the northern region of Brazil, but its environmental impacts are yet unknown. Energy produced by hydropower plants has been considered totally renewable and clean, but more recent studies describe analysis pointing to the existence of emissions by hydroelectric plants, especially if a lifecycle approach is considered. Thus, the objective of this study is the investigation of environmental impacts of the construction, operation and decommissioning of a hydroelectric power station based on Life-Cycle Assessment. The main focus is the Curuá-Una hydropower plant that is located in the Amazon forest in northern Brazil, in Santarém municipality (Pará state. 

  20. Metalloproteomics Approach to Analyze Mercury in Breast Milk and Hair Samples of Lactating Women in Communities of the Amazon Basin, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerbino, M R; Vieira, José Cavalcante Souza; Braga, C P; Oliveira, G; Padilha, I F; Silva, T M; Zara, L F; Silva, N J; Padilha, P M

    2018-02-01

    Mercury is a potentially toxic element that is present in the environment of the Brazilian Amazon and is responsible for adverse health effects in humans. This study sought to assess possible protein biomarkers of mercury exposure in breast milk samples from lactating women in the Madeira and Negro Rivers in the Brazilian Amazon. The mercury content of hair samples of lactating women was determined, and the proteome of breast milk samples was obtained using two-dimensional electrophoresis after protein precipitation with acetone. Mercury measurements of protein spots obtained via protein fractionation were performed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS), and it was observed that mercury is linked to proteins with molecular masses in the range of 14-26 kDa. The total mercury concentration was also determined by GFAAS in unprocessed milk, lyophilized milk, and protein pellets, with the purpose of determining the mercury mass balance in relation to the concentration of this element in milk and pellets. Approximately 85 to 97% of mercury present in the lyophilized milk from samples of lactating women of the Madeira River is bound in the protein fraction. From lactating women of the Negro River, approximately 49% of the total mercury is bound in the protein fraction, and a difference of 51% is bound in the lipid fraction.

  1. Acoustic characteristics of biosonar sounds of free-ranging botos (Inia geoffrensis) and tucuxis (Sotalia fluviatilis) in the Negro River, Amazon, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yukiko; Akamatsu, Tomonari; da Silva, Vera M F; Yoshida, Yayoi; Kohshima, Shiro

    2015-08-01

    Odontoceti emit broadband high-frequency clicks on echolocation for orientation or prey detection. In the Amazon Basin, two odontoceti species, boto (Amazon River dolphin, Inia geoffrensis) and tucuxi (Sotalia fluviatilis), live sympatrically. The acoustic characteristics of the echolocation clicks of free-ranging botos and tucuxis were measured with a hydrophone array consisting of a full-band and an acoustic event recorder (A-tag). The clicks of the two species were short-duration broadband signals. The apparent source level was 201 dB 1 μPa peak-to-peak at 1 m in the botos and 181 dB 1 μPa peak-to-peak at 1 m in the tucuxis, and the centroid frequency was 82.3 kHz in the botos and 93.1 kHz in the tucuxis. The high apparent source level and low centroid frequency are possibly due to the difference in body size or sound production organs, especially the nasal structure, the sound source of clicks in odontoceti.

  2. Geography of Food and the Urban Network in the Tri-Border Brazil-Peru-Colombia: The Case of Production and Commercialization of Poultry in the Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Schor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available En la Amazonía brasileña, se identifica cada vez más una fuerte transformación de los hábitos alimenticios, especialmente en relación con la sustitución del consumo de alimentos frescos por comida procesada. Un elemento importante de esta transformación es la sustitución de proteína obtenida a nivel local por la carne de pollo "congelado". Esta transformación de los hábitos alimenticios se produce de forma diferente dependiendo de la estructura de mercado, la producción y la comercialización. Hemos tratado de examinar el área de la Triple Frontera Brasil-Colombia-Perú, considerando la importancia de la ciudad de Tabatinga en la región y las peculiaridades de otras ciudades, así como las interacciones urbanas, buscando identificar los flujos de suministro y las relaciones económicas, que también se producen con las ciudades cercanas de Perú y Colombia. A través de la variable “pollo”, este artículo hace una relectura de la red urbana y la dinámica en la frontera occidental de la Amazonía.

  3. Analysis of airborne fungi in a hospital in the town of Ariquemes, Rondônia, Western Amazon region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Guimarães Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgound and Objectives: The hospital internal air environment is strongly associated with nosocomial fungal infections. In order to investigate the presence of hospital airborne fungi in one of the hospitals in the town of Ariquemes, Rondônia, air samples were collected in open Petri dishes between 15 to 30 minutes, containing the universal culture medium for fungi and yeasts: Saboraund agar, in the morning and afternoon, during October 2012 in the Surgical Center, Materials Center, Minor Surgery Room, Nursing Station and Hospital Admission Room. The isolated colonies underwent macroscopic analysis and subsequently the microculture technique to demonstrate the presence of airborne pathogens. Fifty colonies were isolated and 12 fungal genera were identified. All sectors showed the presence of fungi, which emphasizes the need for microbiological monitoring, especially in rooms with infection prophylaxis priority.

  4. Nutritional value of sugarcane varieties in relation to nitrogen fertilization for the pre-Amazon Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayanna Karlla Lima Costa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the nutritional value of sugarcane varieties in relation to nitrogen fertilization. The varieties studied were RB 863129, RB 867515, and RB 92579, and nitrogen fertilizer was applied at doses of 0, 60, 80, 120, and 140 kg N ha-1. The experiment was divided into two stages: i Year I - plant cane, when the yield and nutritional quality of the three sugarcane varieties were evaluated; ii Years II and III, when and the effect of nitrogen fertilization on the nutritional quality of the first and second ratoon crops of the same varieties was evaluated. In plant cane the yield (t ha-1 and DM (dry matter and CP (crude protein contents were higher for the RB 863129 variety. There was no difference between the varieties regarding their NDF (neutral detergent fiber and ADF (acid detergent fiber contents and IVDMD (in vitro dry matter digestibility. In the first and second ratoon crops, there was a difference between the varieties and fertilizer doses for the evaluated parameters, with the exception of the DM content and IVDMD, which were influenced by the varieties, doses of N, and cutting years. The RB 92579 variety showed the best yield of the two ratoon crops (131 t ha-1 of stems and the best nutritional parameters (26% ADF, 41% NDF, 2.4% CP, and 69.4% IVDMD. The sugarcane yield and its nutritional quality can be influenced by the cutting year and nitrogen fertilization management system and by the variety type.

  5. Studies on chaetognaths off Ubatuba region, Brazil: II. Feeding habits

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    Tsui Hua Liang

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The diet of chaetognath species were studied by examining the gut contents of 9466 specimens collected off Ubatuba region, São Paulo State. The greatest proportion of chaetognaths (7119 individuals showed their gut contents empty. Copepods, mollusc eggs, appendicularians, cladocerans and annelids were the most common food items in the gut contents of juveniles and mature stages. Cannibalism occurred in low frequency. In Summer the copepods Temora stylifera and Paracalanus spp were more abundant, whereas Oncaea spp and mollusc eggs were heavily preyed in Winter. There was a clear trend of increasing prey size with the developmental stage.O estudo dos hábitos alimentares das espécies de Chaetognatha foi realizado a partir da análise do trato digestivo de 9466 indivíduos dos estágios 0 - IV. Os quetógnatos foram coletados ao largo da região de Ubatuba, Estado de São Paulo, com o auxílio da rede Bongo (Malha 0,200 mm e 0,303 mm, nos verões de 1985 - 1987 e invernos de 1986 e 1987. Dos 9466 tratos digestivos analisados, 7119 estavam vazios e 2347 apresentaram de 1 a 3 presas. Grande quantidade de material amorfo e semi-digerido também foram detectados. A dieta esteve constituída basicamente de copépodos (Calanoida e Poecilostomatoida, cladóceros, ovos de moluscos, náuplios de crustáceos, apendiculárias e poliquetos, entre outros. O canibalismo foi observado a partir do estágio I, porém com baixa frequência. Os estágios jovens (0-1 mostraram preferência por presas de tamanho pequeno como náuplios e copépodos do gênero Oncaea, enquanto que os estágios maduros por presas maiores como Temora stylifera, Corycaeus sp e Eucalanus pileatus.

  6. Human Herpesvirus-8 Infection and Oral Shedding in Amerindian and Non-Amerindian Populations in the Brazilian Amazon Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Vanda A. U. F.; Sumita, Laura M.; Nascimento, Maria-Claudia; Oliveira, Juliane; Mascheretti, Melissa; Quiroga, Mariana; Freire, Wilton S.; Tateno, Adriana; Boulos, Marcos; Mayaud, Philippe; Pannuti, Claudio S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Human herpesvirus type 8 (HHV-8) is hyperendemic in Amerindian populations, but its modes of transmission are unknown. Methods Antibodies against either HHV-8 lytic antigen or HHV-8 latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) were detected, by immunofluorescence assays, in 339 Amerindians and 181 non-Amerindians from the Brazilian Amazon. Serological markers of oro-fecal (hepatitis A), parenteral (hepatitis B and C), and sexual (herpes simplex virus type 2 and syphilis) transmission were measured by specific ELISAs. Salivary HHV-8 DNA was detected by use of a nested polymerase chain reaction assay and was sequenced. Results Antibodies against either lytic antigen or LANA were detected in 79.1% of Amerindians and in 6.1% of non-Amerindians (adjusted seroprevalence ratio [SR], 12.63 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 7.1–22.4]; P< .0001). HHV-8 seroprevalence increased with age among Amerindians (PTrend< .001) and already had high prevalence in childhood but was not sex specific in either population. The 2 populations did not differ in seroprevalence of oro-fecal or parenteral markers, but seroprevalence of markers of sexual transmission was lower among Amerindians. HHV-8 DNA in saliva was detected in 47 (23.7%) of 198 HHV-8 seropositive Amerindians. Detection of HHV-8 DNA decreased with age (PTrend< .04) and was more common in men (SR, 2.14 [95% CI, 1.3–3.5]; P= .003). A total of 36 (76.6%) of the 47 saliva HHV-8 DNA samples were sequenced, and all clustered as subtype E. Conclusion The data support the hypothesis of early acquisition and horizontal transmission, via saliva, of HHV-8 subtype E in Amerindian populations. PMID:17703414

  7. Evidence of mercury biomagnification in the food chain of the cardinal tetra Paracheirodon axelrodi (Osteichthyes: Characidae) in the Rio Negro, central Amazon, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, B G; Forsberg, B R; Thomé-Souza, M; Peleja, R; Moreira, M Z; Freitas, C E C

    2016-07-01

    In this study, nitrogen stable isotope (δ(15) N) and total mercury (THg) analyses were conducted on algae, submersed and emergent macrophytes, shrubs and trees, Macrobrachium sp. and Paracheirodon axelrodi collected in three streams that drain a large interfluvial region in the middle Rio Negro, Amazonas State, Brazil. Samples were collected during different hydrological periods over 12 months in lower stream reaches and their headwaters; the latter being characterized by shallow, open-canopy swamps. Additionally, δ(15) N values and mercury concentrations of Paracheirodon simulans and Cichla spp. from the middle Rio Negro were analysed to demonstrate THg biomagnification in the food web. The highest mercury levels of P. axelrodi were found in small individuals, which were collected principally in the low water period. The log10 THg-δ(15) N relationship of vascular plants and algae, Macrobrachium sp., Paracheirodon spp. and Cichla spp. showed significant mercury biomagnification among trophic levels, with regression slopes of 0·15 and 0·25 for the entire food web and heterotrophs-only food web, respectively. The mean ± s.d. THg concentrations for Macrobrachium sp., P. axelrodi, P. simulans and Cichla spp. were 63·6 ± 23·7, 104·5 ± 40·0, 112·3 ± 31·4 and 418·5 ± 188·1 ng g(-1) wet mass, respectively. Elevated levels of mercury found in Paracheirodon spp. and top predators such as Cichla spp. in a remote area far from anthropogenic inputs provide evidence that high mercury concentrations occur naturally in Rio Negro aquatic food webs. © 2016 Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  8. Deforestation in the Amazon: What is illegal and what is not?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Carlos Hummel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Brazil has succeeded in reducing deforestation rates in the Amazon, but has not succeeded in explaining to the general public how much of this deforestation was illegal and how much was legally authorized. Transparency of deforestation data is limited, and pertinent legislation is little understood and poorly applied in practice. Lack of dissemination of information on authorized clearing of vegetation and lack of implementation of regulatory frameworks are contentious issues when defining strategies to reach zero deforestation in the Amazon region and for building policies related to climate change mitigation. The need to establish the new Forest Code provides an opportunity to establish goals and regulations for zero deforestation. This paper provides recommendations on how to communicate this information to the general public, how to make regulatory instruments effective and how to implement a zero deforestation agenda.

  9. Large-scale drivers of malaria and priority areas for prevention and control in the Brazilian Amazon region using a novel multi-pathogen geospatial model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Denis; Lima, Joanna M Tucker

    2014-11-20

    Most of the malaria burden in the Americas is concentrated in the Brazilian Amazon but a detailed spatial characterization of malaria risk has yet to be undertaken. Utilizing 2004-2008 malaria incidence data collected from six Brazilian Amazon states, large-scale spatial patterns of malaria risk were characterized with a novel Bayesian multi-pathogen geospatial model. Data included 2.4 million malaria cases spread across 3.6 million sq km. Remotely sensed variables (deforestation rate, forest cover, rainfall, dry season length, and proximity to large water bodies), socio-economic variables (rural population size, income, and literacy rate, mortality rate for children age under five, and migration patterns), and GIS variables (proximity to roads, hydro-electric dams and gold mining operations) were incorporated as covariates. Borrowing information across pathogens allowed for better spatial predictions of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum, as evidenced by a ten-fold cross-validation. Malaria incidence for both Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum tended to be higher in areas with greater forest cover. Proximity to gold mining operations was another important risk factor, corroborated by a positive association between migration rates and malaria incidence. Finally, areas with a longer dry season and areas with higher average rural income tended to have higher malaria risk. Risk maps reveal striking spatial heterogeneity in malaria risk across the region, yet these mean disease risk surface maps can be misleading if uncertainty is ignored. By combining mean spatial predictions with their associated uncertainty, several sites were consistently classified as hotspots, suggesting their importance as priority areas for malaria prevention and control. This article provides several contributions. From a methodological perspective, the benefits of jointly modelling multiple pathogens for spatial predictions were illustrated. In addition, maps of mean disease risk were

  10. Parasitic fauna of eight species of ornamental freshwater fish species from the middle Negro River in the Brazilian Amazon Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares-Dias, Marcos; Lemos, Jefferson Raphael Gonzaga; Martins, Maurício Laterça

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-seven specimens of cardinal tetra Paracheirodon axelrodi, 33 rosy tetra Hyphessobrycon copelandi (Characidae), 28 marbled hatchetfish Carnegiella strigata, 26 blackwing hatchetfish Carnegiella martae (Gasteropelecidae), 27 bodó Ancistrus hoplogenys (Loricariidae), 31 brown pencilfish Nannostomus eques, 38 oneline pencilfish Nannostomus unifasciatus (Lebiasinidae) and 13 angelfish Pterophyllum scalare (Cichlidae) were collected from the middle Negro River, State of Amazonas, Brazil, for parasitological studies. Out of the total of 223 fish examined, 143 (64.1%) were parasitized by at least one parasite species. The highest prevalence rate was for Monogenea (36.7%), followed by Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ciliophora) (20.6%), Trichodina spp. (Ciliophora) (4.0%), Piscinoodinium pillulare (Dinoflagellida) (1.3%), Tetrahymena sp. (Ciliophora) (0.89%), and Procamallanus sp. (Nematoda) (0.4%). All eight fish species had Monogenea (Gyrodactylidae and Dactylogyridae) in the gills, but the highest prevalence occurred in P. scalare and the lowest in P. axelrodi and C. strigata. However, the highest mean intensity of Monogenea was found in P. scalare and A. hoplogenys. The protozoan I. multifiliis occurred in the six ornamental fish species examined, but C. strigata and C. martae had higher prevalence and mean intensity. Trichodina spp. were found only in the gills of C. strigata, C. martae and N. eques, and with higher mean intensity in C. strigata. On the other hand, the protozoan P. pilullare was found only in the gills of C. martae. This is the first report of Tetrahymena sp. in Brazil, and it occurred in the gills of C. strigata.

  11. Surface Radiative Fluxes from GOES-E over the Amazon Basin: Model Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, J. C.; Pinker, R. T.; Pereira, E. B.; Martins, F. R.; Kato, H.; de Miranda, R. M.; Wonsick, M.

    2006-12-01

    In this study reported are results from an algorithm intercomparison initiative aimed at the development of improved estimates of surface radiative fluxes from satellite observations over the Amazon Basin. Three algorithms are used: (UMD-SRB, University of Maryland; GL1.2, INPE, Brazil; and Brasil-SR, INPE and University of Santa Catarina, Brazil). The algorithms are physically based, yet differ in their implementation and the way they address issues specific to this region, such as aerosols from biomass burning. Two fifteen day periods in 2005 were selected representing the rainy and dry seasons. The same satellite observations from GOES E were used by all the models. Ground truth from existing stations in the Amazon as well as from a new solar monitoring network of high quality have been used in evaluation. Using daily mean values for the March rainy season, it was found that: 1) the Brasil-SR and UMD-SRB estimates bear a close resemblance; 2) higher irradiances for Petrolina (semi-arid region in Northeast Brazil) are best described by the UMD-SRB and Brasil-SR, probably due to better assessment of water vapor column and absorption parameterization; 3) the GL1.2 results shows a systematic deviation, underestimating daily mean by about 20 Wm-2, but have lower dispersion than UMD-SRB or Brasil-SR; 4) irradiance interval 180 < E < 250 Wm-2 seems better described by GL1.2. This last behavior may be related to better assessment of cloudiness under partial coverage situations. September is characterized by intensive biomass burning in several Brazilian regions, particularly in the Amazon. The Northeast region is not affected by aerosols and estimates from all three models are in close agreement and have similar characteristics to those of March. For the Amazon sites: 1) lower irradiances (for overcast days) are correctly assessed; 2) UMD-SRB and Brasil-SR overestimate solar radiation, especially for higher irradiances (lower cloudiness); 3) GL1.2 model does not include

  12. An overview on small hydro in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filho, G.T.

    2008-01-01

    An overview of small-scale hydro development in Brazil was presented in the context of the Brazilian energy sector. Brazil's energy sector is currently comprised of 45 per cent renewable energy. Brazil is the tenth largest energy producer in the world, with an installed capacity of 105.986 MW. Brazil currently has an estimated 258.410 MW of hydroelectric power potential. Small hydropower (SHP) plants in Brazil are defined as plants capable of producing up to 30 MW of power, with a reservoir area smaller than 12 km 2 . It is estimated that SHP plants will provide 5 per cent of Brazil's electrical supply by 2030. SHP plants in Brazil typically use Kaplan and Pelton hydraulic turbines, as well as Michell-Banki cross-flow turbines. Hydrokinetic turbine prototypes are also being designed at the Federal University of Brazil. Researchers are currently developing a diffuser enhancement design. However, there are currently no designs available that use peripheric generators. Researchers are currently investigating the design of fish-friendly turbines as well as mobile dams. Development projects in the Amazon region were outlined. tabs., figs.

  13. Late Miocene onset of the Amazon River and the Amazon deep-sea fan: Evidence from the Foz do Amazonas Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Figueiredo, J.; Hoorn, C.; van der Ven, P.; Soares, E.

    2009-01-01

    New biostratigraphic, isotopic, and well log data from exploration wells on the outer continental shelf and uppermost Amazon deep-sea fan, Brazil, reveal that the Amazon River was initiated as a transcontinental river between 11.8 and 11.3 Ma ago (middle to late Miocene), and reached its present

  14. Dating by Infrared Stimulated Luminescence of a prehistoric campfire from Serido region in northeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santana, Sergio T.; Khoury, Helen J.; Borges, Fabio M.; Sullasi, Henry L.; Avila, Gabriela M.; Pessis, Anne-Marie; Guzzo, Pedro L.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the age of a prehistoric campfire from Serido region in northeastern Brazil. The dating was performed by Infrared Stimulated Luminescence (IRSL) by the method of multiple aliquot regenerative doses. Samples were collected from five different parts of the campfire in order to determine the accumulated dose, and samples of two parts of the campfire for determine the annual dose rate. After a statistical analysis of these values, we calculated an average age of 3640 +- 710 years. This age allowed to define a time frame for archaeological studies in this region. (author)

  15. Vascular Flora of the Babitonga Bay Region (Santa Catarina, Brazil): Diversity and Origins

    OpenAIRE

    Ziffer Berger, Jotham

    2008-01-01

    The Babitonga bay (Baía da Babitonga) is an estuarine complex at the northern coast of the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The Babitonga bay region is situated in the southern part of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, which in terms of biodiversity, is one of the world’s richest biomes. The region comprises well-preserved remnants of natural vegetation: tropical rain forests, mangrove swamps, salt meadows, beach dunes and the unique restinga coastal woodlands, but also a variety of secondary an...

  16. Long-term Potentiation Decay and Poor Long-lasting Memory Process in the Wild Rodents Proechimys from Brazil's Amazon Rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães Marques, Marcia J; Reyes-Garcia, Selvin Z; Marques-Carneiro, José E; Lopes-Silva, Leonardo B; Andersen, Monica L; Cavalheiro, Esper A; Scorza, Fulvio A; Scorza, Carla A

    2018-01-01

    Proechimys are small terrestrial rodents from Amazon rainforest. Each animal species is adapted to a specific environment in which the animal evolved therefore without comparative approaches unique characteristics of distinct species cannot be fully recognized. Laboratory rodents are exceedingly inbred strains dissociated from their native habitats and their fundamental ecological aspects are abstracted. Thus, the employment of exotic non-model species can be informative and complement conventional animal models. With the aim of promoting comparative studies between the exotic wildlife populations in the laboratory and traditional rodent model, we surveyed a type of synaptic plasticity intimately related to memory encoding in animals. Using theta-burst paradigm, in vitro long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 subfield of hippocampal slices was assessed in the Amazon rodents Proechimys and Wistar rats. Memory, learning and anxiety were investigated through the plus-maze discriminative avoidance task (PM-DAT) and object recognition test. In PM-DAT, both animal species were submitted to two test sessions (3-h and 24-h) after the conditioning training. Proechimys exhibited higher anxiety-like behavior in the training session but during test sessions both species exhibited similar patterns of anxiety-related behavior. After 3-h of the training, Proechimys and Wistar spent significantly less time in the aversive enclosed arm than in the non-aversive arm. But, at 24-h after training, Wistar rats remained less time in the aversive closed arm in comparison with the non-aversive one, while Proechimys rodents spent the same amount of time in both enclosed arms. In the object recognition test, both species were evaluated at 24-h after the acquisition session and similar findings than those of the PM-DAT (24-h) were obtained, suggesting that long-term memory duration did not persist for 24-h in the Amazon rodent. Field excitatory post-synaptic potentials recordings revealed

  17. Virulence and genetic diversity among isolates of Mycosphaerella fijiensis in two regions of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, G F; Santos, V S; Sousa, N R; Hanada, R E; Gasparotto, L

    2016-04-27

    Black sigatoka, caused by the fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis (anamorphic stage: Paracercospora fijiensis), was first detected in Brazil in early 1998 in the Benjamin Constant and Tabatinga municipalities in the State of Amazonas, near to where the borders of Brazil, Colombia, and Peru converge. Understanding how cultivars react to the pathogen, and characterizing the genetic variability of isolates from two distant and distinct banana-producing regions, are important for determining the virulence of M. fijiensis. In the present study, the genetic diversity of 22 M. fijiensis isolates was assessed using simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers, and their virulence was determined following inoculation on three different banana tree cultivars. All 22 isolates caused symptoms of the disease in the Maçã and Prata Comum cultivars 45 days after inoculation, and at least two virulence groups were identified for the Maçã and Prata Comum cultivars. For the D'Angola cultivars, two virulence groups were observed only after 60 days post-inoculation, and three of the isolates were not virulent. Using SSR markers, the isolates from two different regions of Brazil were placed into two genetic groups, both genetically distant from the Mf 138 isolate collected in Leticia, Colombia. There was no evidence of correlation between the virulence groups and the genetic diversity groups. These results demonstrate variability in virulence between isolates as measured by the severity of black sigatoka in the analyzed cultivars.

  18. MRSA from Santa Catarina State, Southern Brazil: intriguing epidemiological differences compared to other Brazilian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro C.O. Silveira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is one of the most frequently isolated agents in both nosocomial and community settings. It is a constant challenge for antibacterial therapy. Therefore, it becomes essential to understand the epidemiology of MRSA isolates in the institution and/or region to guide empirical therapy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological characteristics of MRSA isolates in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, and determine if there is a clonal spread. We evaluated 124 clinical isolates of MRSA obtained from various anatomical sites from patients in the state of Santa Catarina in Southern Brazil. The antimicrobial susceptibility profile was evaluated by disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined by Etest and broth macrodilution. SCCmec types were determined by multiplex PCR and the clonal relationship among isolates was assessed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Antimicrobials that have demonstrated lower rates of resistance were tetracycline (20.2%, sulfamethoxazole–trimethoprim (20.2% and chloramphenicol (12.9%. We did not detect any resistance to glycopeptides, daptomycin, linezolid, and tigecycline. SCCmec type III was predominant (54%, followed by type II (21.8%, consistent with other Brazilian studies. Twenty-six clones were observed grouping 72 (58% isolates and no clonal relationship was observed between our isolates and the major epidemic clones circulating in Brazil. An intriguing distinct MRSA epidemiology was observed in Santa Catarina, compared to other Brazilian regions.

  19. Adaptation of spineless cactus to semi-arid region of Paraíba state, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Torres-Sales

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the adaptation of two spineless cactus of the species Nopalea cochenillifera Salm Dyck (Miuda and Alagoas under the environmental conditions of the semi-arid region in the tate of Paraiba, Brazil. An experimental randomized block design with five replications was used. The experiment was conducted under field conditions in São João do Cariri county, State of Paraiba, Brazil (7°22’45,1”S and 36°31’47,2”W, from August 2004 to May 2007. Every twenty-eight days the relative growth rate of cladodes height, length, width, and thickness were evaluated, as well as the number of cladodes per plant and the photosynthetic active area of cladodes and plant. The biomass accumulation per hectare was also measured at the end of the experimental period. One thousand days after planting, the cultivars did not differ in length and width of cladodes. The Alagoas cultivar showed greater thickness of cladode than the Miuda. The Miuda had a larger number of cladodes (p>0.05. There was no difference (p>0.05 in biomass accumulation between cultivars. In conclusion, both cultivars showed similar behavior in the environmental conditions of the semiarid region of the State of Paraiba, Brazil.

  20. A zoological catalogue of hunted reptiles in the semiarid region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nóbrega Alves, Rômulo Romeu; Pereira Filho, Gentil Alves; Silva Vieira, Kleber; Silva Souto, Wedson Medeiros; Mendonça, Lívia Emanuelle Tavares; Montenegro, Paulofernandoguedespereira; Almeida, Waltécio de Oliveira; Silva Vieira, Washington Luiz

    2012-07-30

    The variety of interactions between human cultures and herpetofauna is the subject matter of Ethnoherpetology, a subdivision of Ethnozoology. In the semi-arid region of Brazil, many reptiles interact with human communities because of their utility or because of the risks they represent. These interactions have obvious implications for the conservation of reptiles from this region. In this context, ethnoherpetology studies are crucial because they serve as subsidies for guiding strategies for the handling and conservation of reptiles. This paper presents ethnozoological and taxonomic informations of hunted reptiles in the semiarid region of Brazil and analyse the implications on conservation that are related to the interactions between people and reptiles in this region. Taxonomic keys to identifying recorded reptiles are provided. Records of humans interacting with 38 reptile species that belong to 31 genuses and 16 families have been found. The groups with the largest numbers of recorded species were snakes (18 species), and this group was followed in number by lizards (13), chelonians (4), and crocodilians (3). The reptiles that were recorded may be used for the following purposes: medicinal purposes (24 species), food (13 species), ornamental or decorative purposes (11 species), in magical/religious practices (10 species), and as pets (10 species). Some species (n = 16) may have multiple uses. Furthermore, more than half of the species (n = 19) are commonly killed because they are considered potentially dangerous. Strategies for conserving the reptiles of the Brazilian semi-arid region must reconcile and integrate human and conservation needs.

  1. Species richness and distribution of bryophytes within different phytophysiognomies in the Chapada Diamantina region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia de Brito Valente

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Chapada Diamantina ecoregion is within the caatinga (shrublands biome of Brazil. Environmental factors determine the phytophysiognomies that distinguish the ecoregion from the surrounding areas. This study aimed to investigate the distribution of bryophyte flora in this ecoregion, by phytophysiognomy and elevational zone. Analyzing specimens we collected from five municipalities in the region, together with specimens (previously collected from the region in herbaria, we identified 400 taxa. The phytophysiognomies that presented the highest species richness and the greatest numbers of exclusive taxa were forests and campos rupestres (dry, rocky grasslands, which respectively accounted for 51% and 40% of the taxa, compared with only 5% and 4%, respectively, for the caatinga and cerrado (savanna. Species richness and the numbers of exclusive taxa were highest in the lower and upper montane zones. There was a predominance of neotropical taxa and a significant number of disjunct species found in Brazil and in the Andes region. We conclude that the Chapada Diamantina region is an important center of bryophyte diversity, harboring not only a great number of species overall but also a considerable number of species exclusive to the region, primarily in forests and campos rupestres at elevations above 800 m.

  2. HAZARD OF DESERTIFICATION AT IBITIPOCA REGION, SOUTHEAST OF MINAS GERAIS STATE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fillipe Tamiozzo Pereira Torres

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The high risk of desertification in Brazil reaches 16% of its territory, including 1482 municipalities only at the semi arid environment (Ministry of Environment, 2005. In terms of human beings, it means almost 32 millions of people, that represents 18% of the brazilian population. The areas already impacted sum 181000 km2 , and the economical impact reaches US$800 million/year.But it is not only at the brazilian semi arid region, located at the northeast part of the country, that the risk of desertification exists.It is well known the desertification problem at the Rio Grande do Sul state, a region with temperate climate, notably in the municipality of Alegrete, in a place called Deserto de São João ( BRASIL, 1994; SOUTO, 1984 Several causes may be listed as responsible for the process, since the climatic pattern, passing by overgrazing and soil salinization, until the natural fragile characteristics and use of thephysical substrate.The Ibitipoca Region, located southeast of Minas Gerais state, in Brazil, is composed basically by thick grained, not cemented and faulted quartzite rocks (figure1. The weathering process has broken this geological material, predominantly composed of quartz, creating acoarse sandy sediment that forms several deposits in the region. The sparse vegetation and the inadequate use of the land has created several hot spots of desertification in the region. Once removed the vegetation, the erosion takes place and magnifies the affected area, menacing the surroundings.

  3. Dissolved nitrogen in rivers: comparing pristine and impacted regions of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LA Martinelli

    Full Text Available Riverine nitrogen distribution is increasingly controlled by anthropogenic activities in their watersheds, regardless of spatial scale, climate, and geographical zone. Consequently, modelling efforts to predict the export of nitrogen from rivers worldwide have used attributes such as population density, land use, urbanization and sanitation. These models have greatly enhanced our understanding of the sources and fate of nitrogen added to terrestrial systems and transported to rivers and streams, especially for developed countries of the North temperate zone. However, much of the world's population lives in developing countries of the tropics, where the effects of human activities on riverine N exports are still poorly understood. In an effort to close this gap, we compare riverine nitrogen data from 32 Brazilian rivers draining two contrasting regions in this tropical country in terms of economic development - the State of São Paulo and the Amazon. Our data include nitrogen in different dissolved forms, such as Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen (DIN and Dissolved Organic Nitrogen (DON. The results show that nitrogen concentrations decreased as river runoff increased in both study areas, and that concentrations were significantly higher in rivers draining the most economically developed region. The relationships between nitrogen concentrations and fluxes with demographic parameters such as population density were also determined and compared to those in temperate systems. In contrast to temperate watersheds, we found that nitrogen fluxes increased only after population densities were higher than 10 individuals per km².

  4. White grubs (Cyclocephala flavipennis damaging perennial winter pastures in the South Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Gonçalves Duchini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Cyclocephala flavipennis Arrow, 1914 (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae, popularly known as white grub, is an insect widely disseminated in the South Region of Brazil. Despite the frequent occurrence of this white grub in areas cultivated with winter cereals, it is generally not considered a pest, since it feeds on straw and dead plant material. However, in 2015 and 2016, this insect has been identified as the damage-causing agent in the perennial winter pastures in Lages, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Damage was observed in patches and caused reduction in root depth and mass, resulting in loss of vigor, accelerated senescence in aerial parts, and death of tillers in Festuca arundinacea Schreb. and Dactylis glomerata L. plants.

  5. Concentration of Access to Information and Communication Technologies in the Municipalities of the Brazilian Legal Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Rossy de Brito

    Full Text Available This study fills demand for data on access and use of information and communication technologies (ICT in the Brazilian legal Amazon, a region of localities with identical economic, political, and social problems. We use the 2010 Brazilian Demographic Census to compile data on urban and rural households (i with computers and Internet access, (ii with mobile phones, and (iii with fixed phones. To compare the concentration of access to ICT in the municipalities of the Brazilian Amazon with other regions of Brazil, we use a concentration index to quantify the concentration of households in the following classes: with computers and Internet access, with mobile phones, with fixed phones, and no access. These data are analyzed along with municipal indicators on income, education, electricity, and population size. The results show that for urban households, the average concentration in the municipalities of the Amazon for computers and Internet access and for fixed phones is lower than in other regions of the country; meanwhile, that for no access and mobile phones is higher than in any other region. For rural households, the average concentration in the municipalities of the Amazon for computers and Internet access, mobile phones, and fixed phones is lower than in any other region of the country; meanwhile, that for no access is higher than in any other region. In addition, the study shows that education and income are determinants of inequality in accessing ICT in Brazilian municipalities and that the existence of electricity in rural households is directly associated with the ownership of ICT resources.

  6. Hafnium and neodymium isotopes and REY distribution in the truly dissolved, nanoparticulate/colloidal and suspended loads of rivers in the Amazon Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merschel, Gila; Bau, Michael; Schmidt, Katja; Münker, Carsten; Dantas, Elton L.

    2017-09-01

    Radiogenic isotopes in river sediments and river waters have been widely used in provenance studies, as these samples naturally integrate the geology/chemistry of the entire catchment. While the Hf and Nd isotope systems are coupled during igneous processes, they are decoupled during supergene processes at the Earth's surface, which is reflected by the isotope composition of riverine sediments. We present the first data for both Hf and Nd isotope compositions of the dissolved (0.2 μm-filtrates rich in nanoparticles and colloids, NPCs) and the truly dissolved (1 kDa-ultrafiltrates) load of rivers. Hafnium and Nd isotope compositions and concentrations of the Rare Earths and Yttrium (REY) and Hf were determined for suspended particles (>0.2 μm) as well as for the dissolved and the truly dissolved load of the Rio Solimões, the Amazon's largest tributary draining the Andes, and of the Rio Negro, an organic NPC- and particle-rich river draining the rainforest of northern Amazonia. We also analyzed the Nd isotope compositions of suspended sediments and 0.2 μm-filtered water samples from the Amazon River and its tributaries Rio Tapajos, Rio Xingu and Rio Jari. Our novel results clearly show that the decoupling of the Hf and Nd isotope systems is related to incongruent weathering processes on the continent, as this decoupling can already be observed in the different Hf and Nd pools, i.e. in the particulate, the NPC-dominated dissolved and the truly dissolved load of rivers. In the Rio Negro and Rio Solimões, a strong particle size-dependent difference in Hf isotope composition is observed. Values of εHf become more radiogenic as filter poresize decreases, which can be related to the density- and size-dependent distribution of Hf-rich minerals, e.g. zircons, and their absence from the truly dissolved pool. In contrast, the Nd isotope composition of Amazonian river waters reflects that of their catchment geology. Tributaries draining the Precambrian Brazilian and

  7. Forcing and mixing processes in the Amazon estuary: a study case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizerra, M.O.M.; Pontes, R.K. da S.; Carmo, A.M.C.; Rosario, R.P.; Gallo, M.N.; Vinzon, S.B.

    2008-01-01

    The research area of this paper is located at the estuary of the Amazon River (Brazil), more precisely at the river mouth (parallels 00 0 30 ' N and 1 0 30 ' N meridians 049 0 00 ' W and 050 0 00 ' W). This paper presents the results of air movement analysis on the surface atmospheric circulation over the Mouth of the Amazon River, salinity and temperature measures as well as measurements of currents, carried out along a longitudinal section in the navigation canal region of the Northern Bar of the Amazon River (Barra Norte do Rio Amazonas) in June 2006, during the river flood season in the quadrature tide. This paper purports to contribute towards better interpreting the dynamic effect in hydrodynamic, meteorological and hydro geographical parameters at the river mouth. The conclusion drawn from an examination of the issues and related research is that: a) the saline wedge-type stratification can be seen approximately 100 km away from the mouth of the Amazon River during the end of the rainy season in the quadrature tide; b) probably, at Amazon estuary quadrature entrainment processes are predominant and are the responsible for increased salinity in surface layer, whereas turbulence scattering mixing is secondary to it. c) The large flow of fresh water from the Amazon River at the end of the rainy season implies the displacement of the front saline position over the internal Amazon continental platform. d) The tidal wave shows a positive asymmetry in the canal, with floods lasting less than the ebb tide. This asymmetry in the canal, with floods lasting less than the ebb tide. This asymmetry decreases towards the ocean, eventually becoming reversed in the presence of a saline wedge. The speeds, however, have a negative asymmetry, with more intense ebb tides, due to the river flow and is more evident by the existence of quadrature tides. e) The progressive behavior of the tidal wave in its propagation in the Northern Channel as well as the effect of morphology on

  8. Amazon River investigations, reconnaissance measurements of July 1963

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltman, Roy Edwin; Sternberg, H. O'R.; Ames, F.C.; Davis, L.C.

    1964-01-01

    The first measurements of the flow of the Amazon River were made in July 1963 as a joint project of the University of Brazil, the Brazilian Navy, and the U.S. Geological Survey. The discharge of the Amazon River at Obidos was 7,640,000 cfs at an annual flood stage somewhat lower than the average. For comparison the maximum known discharge of the Mississippi River at Vicksburg is about 2,300,000 cfs. Dissolved-solids concentrations and sediment loads of the Amazon River and of several major tributaries were found to be low.

  9. [Occurrence of Aedes albopictus in the state of Pará, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Maria de Nazaré de Oliveira; Monteiro, Hamilton Antonio de Oliveira; Lopes, Ernani da Silva; da Silva, Orlando Vaz; Castro, Francisco Corrêa; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

    2003-06-01

    It is first reported the detection of Aedes (Stg) albopictus mosquitoes in state of Par , Brazil, in the urban area of Medicil ndia, a municipality far 90 km from Altamira, where 42 adult mosquitoes were baited using human attraction. All mosquitoes were pooled and inoculated into C6/36 and suckling mice in attempts for virus isolation. No virus was isolated. The occurrence of Aedes albopictus in urban areas of the Amazon region is of concern since dengue and yellow fever viruses are endemic in the Amazon and thus there is a potential risk for this mosquito species to become infected with both viruses.

  10. Selenium plasma levels in hemodialysis patients: Comparison between North and Southeast of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Stockler-Pinto,Milena Barcza; Malm,Olaf; Azevedo,Suellen Regina Geraldo; Farage,Najla Elias; Dorneles,Paulo Renato; Cozzolino,Silvia Maria Franciscato; Mafra,Denise

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Patients with chronic kidney disease present selenium (Se) plasma deficiency which is an essential trace element with important biological functions and, the best known biological role is attributed to its presence in the antioxidant enzyme, glutathione peroxidase (GPx). The Se content of foods depends on soil and some authors have suggested that Amazon