WorldWideScience

Sample records for amazon region avaliacao

  1. Institutions and sustainable development in Amazon region

    OpenAIRE

    Bastos, Ana Paula; Monteiro, Maurilio

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses recent efforts to create a different institutional framework in Pará State, Brazilian Amazon to promote sustainable development. The region is economically peripheral to capitalism. Historically, Amazon river delta has been used as source of raw materials since XVII century, but only from the 1970’s, when roads were built, is been massively occupied by frontier activities like timber, mining, cattle and more recently soya beans. The economy is driven by primary a...

  2. Health Concerns in the Amazon Region

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-09

    Residents of the Amazon region of South America contend with a number of health threats - from mosquito-borne diseases to difficulty accessing doctors and healthcare facilities in such a vast area. This podcast helps explore some of the health issues in the region and what's being done to address them.  Created: 4/9/2009 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 4/9/2009.

  3. Petrobras eyes LNG project in Amazon region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brazilian state oil company has proved gas reserves in the Rio Urucu area of the Amazon jungle totaling 1.84 tcf. That compares with 3.08 tcf contained in the offshore Campos basin, source of most of Brazil's oil and gas production. The environmentally sensitive Urucu region is one of the most dense, remote jungles in the world. Because of environmental concerns about pipelines in the rain forest and a government emphasis on boosting the natural gas share of Brazil's energy mix, a small liquefied natural gas project is shaping up as the best option for developing and marketing Urucu gas. The amazon campaign underscores a government initiative to boost Brazilian consumption of natural gas. In Brazil natural gas accounts for only 4% of primary energy consumption. Some years ago, the government set an official goal of boosting the gas share of the primary energy mix to 10% by 2000. The paper discusses current drilling activities, gas production and processing, the logistics of the upper Amazon, and gas markets

  4. People, soil and manioc interactions in the upper Amazon region

    OpenAIRE

    Peña Venegas, C.P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Clara Patricia Peña Venegas (2015). People, soil and manioc interactions in the upper Amazon region. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, The Netherlands, with summaries in English and Dutch, 210 pp. The presence of anthropogenic soils, or Amazonian Dark   Earths (ADE), fuels the debate about how pristine the Amazon ecosystem actually is, and about the degree to which humans affected Amazonian diversity in the past. Most upland soils of the Amazon region are very acid,...

  5. Preliminary technical and economic viability for the implantation of fluvial transport of CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) for barges in Amazon Region; Avaliacao preliminar de viabilidade tecnico-economica para implantacao de transporte fluvial de GNC (Gas Natual Comprimido) por barcacas na Regiao Amazonica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Marcos C.C. de; Porto, Paulo L. Lemgruber [Interocean Engenharia e Ship Management, Rio de janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Cunha, Rafael H. da [Metro Rio, RJ (Brazil); Garcia, Rafael M. [Pic Brasil (Brazil); Almeida, Marco A.R. de [Universidade Gama Filho (UGF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The isolated regions of the Amazon present difficulties for integration with the electrical system which is creating some economic problems due to the consequent costs of electric generation of subsidies as a function of the fossil fuel use as oils diesel and fuel. A viable option is the use of Natural Gas - NG that is Also available in the region. Its modal of transport possible in the Region North they are for gas-lines or barges. The Compressed Natural Gas transport is distinguished that - CNG for barges was still not tested operationally in Brazil. Soon, to develop a Preliminary Study of Viability Technician - Economic - SVTE for the implantation of fluvial transport of CNG between the cities of Coari and Manaus is basic, therefore it is created strategical alternative for the electric generation in this region. The electric sector, the characteristics of the NG and the transport in this region had been analyzed to support to the work. The gas line and the fluvial transport of CNG for barges in this region are not conflicting, and they in a complementary form can act. The SVTE presented a Liquid Present Value and Internal Tax of very attractive Return justifying its implantation. (author)

  6. Assessment of the content of mercury, methylmercury and other elements of interest in fish, hair and diets of pre-school children of the Amazon region; Avaliacao do conteudo de mercurio, metilmercurio e outros elementos de interesse em peixes e em amostras de cabelos e dietas de pre-escolares da regiao Amazonica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, Luciana Aparecida

    2006-07-01

    Studies show that some regions of the Amazon region suffer mercury (Hg) impacts as a direct result of both natural and anthropogenic processes. Jau National Park (PNJ) is the only National Park in Brazil that protects an entire black water basin (Jau River), flood land and tropical reserve. These conditions favor Hg methylation in the aquatic biota. This in turn, exposes living on the river populations to Hg contamination as well as the adjacent regions. Preliminary studies of pre-school children diets from PNJ communities have shown that these diets have a worrisome high Hg content. The present study assessed total Hg content, micro nutrients (Ca, Fe, K, Na, Se and Zn) and macro nutrients (proteins, lipids, ash, energy, carbohydrate) in pre-school diets in the PNJ and surrounding communities. Furthermore, total and Me Hg levels were also determined in hair samples of these children as well as those living in several neighborhoods of the city of Manaus. Included in this determination were the fish most consumed by these populations. From these results it was possible to evaluate the nutritional content of the diets and the exposure of the children to Hg and Se Hg. Cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry was used to quantify total and Me Hg. Micro nutrient determination was performed using neutron activation analysis technique (NAA) and Macro nutrient through AOAC methodologies (USA). All analytical methods were developed and validated for precision and accuracy by means of reference materials analyses with certified values for the determined elements. Furthermore, the uncertainty sources for Hg and Me Hg determination were assessed and the expanded uncertainties were calculated. Total Hg levels in diets and total and Me Hg levels for hair samples, were well above those values found in different localities of the Amazon region. This also holds true for those surrounding areas of the JNP. For many children Hg intake values passed the 5 mug Hg/body weigh/week (PTWI

  7. Chagas disease in the Amazon Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Marcelo Aguilar

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The risk that Chagas disease becomes established as a major endemic threat in Amazonia (the world's largest tropical biome, today inhabited by over 30 million people relates to a complex set of interacting biological and social determinants. These include intense immigration from endemic areas (possibly introducing parasites and vectors, extensive landscape transformation with uncontrolled deforestation, and the great diversity of wild Trypanosoma cruzi reservoir hosts and vectors (25 species in nine genera, which maintain intense sylvatic transmission cycles. Invasion of houses by adventitious vectors (with infection rates > 60% is common, and focal adaptation of native triatomines to artificial structures has been reported. Both acute (~ 500 and chronic cases of autochthonous human Chagas disease have been documented beyond doubt in the region. Continuous, low-intensity transmission seems to occur throughout the Amazon, and generates a hypoendemic pattern with seropositivity rates of ~ 1-3%. Discrete foci also exist in which transmission is more intense (e.g., in localized outbreaks probably linked to oral transmission and prevalence rates higher. Early detection-treatment of acute cases is crucial for avoiding further dispersion of endemic transmission of Chagas disease in Amazonia, and will require the involvement of malaria control and primary health care systems. Comprehensive eco-epidemiological research, including prevalence surveys or the characterization of transmission dynamics in different ecological settings, is still needed. The International Initiative for Chagas Disesae Surveillance and Prevention in the Amazon provides the framework for building up the political and scientific cooperation networks required to confront the challenge of preventing Chagas disease in Amazonia.

  8. Regional nitrous oxide flux in Amazon basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is the third most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas. Globally, the main sources of N2O are nitrification and denitrification in soils. About two thirds of the soil emissions occur in the tropics and approximately 20% originate in wet rain forest ecosystems, like the Amazon forest. The work presented here involves aircraft vertical profiles of N2O from the surface to 4 km over two sites in the Eastern and Central Amazon: Tapajos National Forest (2000-2009) and Cuieiras Biologic Reserve (2004-2007), and the estimation of N2O fluxes for regions upwind of these sites using two methods: Column Integration Technique and Inversion Model - FLEXPART. To our knowledge, these regional scale N2O measurements in Amazonia are unique and represent a new approach to looking regional scale emissions. For the both methods, the fluxes upwind of Cuieiras Biologic Reserve exhibited little seasonality, and the annual mean was 1.9 ±1.6 mgN2Om-2day-1 for the Column Integration Technique and 2.3±0.9 mgN2Om-2day-1 for Inversion Model - FLEXPART. For fluxes upwind of Tapajos Nacional Forest, the Inversion Model - FLEXPART presented about half (0.9±1.7 mgN2Om-2day-1) of the Column Integration Technique (2.0±1.1 mgN2Om-2day-1) for the same period (2004-2008). One reason could be because the inversion model does not consider anthropic activities, once it had a good representation for less impacted area. Both regions presented similar emission during wet season. By Column Integration Technique, fluxes upwind Tapajos Nacional Forest were similar for dry and wet seasons. The dry season N2O fluxes exhibit significant correlations with CO fluxes, indicating a larger than expected source of N2O from biomass burning. The average CO:N2O ratio for all 38 profiles sampled during the dry season was 82±69 mol CO:molN2O and suggests a larger biomass burning contribution to the global N2O budget than previously reported. (author)

  9. Remote sensing in forestry: Application to the Amazon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Tardin, A. T.; Dossantos, A.; Filho, P. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.

    1981-01-01

    The utilization of satellite remote sensing in forestry is reviewed with emphasis on studies performed for the Brazilian Amazon Region. Timber identification, deforestation, and pasture degradation after deforestation are discussed.

  10. THE IMPACTS OF LOCAL DEMANDS, URBANIZATION AND AMAZONIAN METROPOLITAN REGIONS OVER DEFORESTATION ON BRAZILIAN AMAZON

    OpenAIRE

    Castelani, Sergio; GUILHOTO, Joaquim; Igliori, Danilo

    2013-01-01

    The paper estimates how much of the Amazon deforestation is due to the consumption of goods and services from households who live within the Amazon region itself, comparing it to deforestation driven by consumers who live outside Amazon. As the Brazilian Amazon contains 5 big Metropolitan Regions, and in order to take into account this referred urbanization process, it not only compared the effects of demand vectors from within and outside Brazilian Amazon, but also with the isolated effects ...

  11. Carbon Emissions from Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, C.; Klooster, S.; Genovese, V.

    2009-01-01

    A simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation greenness from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to estimate monthly carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado regions over the period 2000-2002. The NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) model estimates of annual forest production were used for the first time as the basis to generate a prediction for the standing pool of carbon in above-ground biomass (AGB; gC/sq m) for forested areas of the Brazilian Amazon region. Plot-level measurements of the residence time of carbon in wood in Amazon forest from Malhi et al. (2006) were interpolated by inverse distance weighting algorithms and used with CASA to generate a new regional map of AGB. Data from the Brazilian PRODES (Estimativa do Desflorestamento da Amazonia) project were used to map deforested areas. Results show that net primary production (NPP) sinks for carbon varied between 4.25 Pg C/yr (1 Pg=10(exp 15)g) and 4.34 Pg C for the region and were highest across the eastern and northern Amazon areas, whereas deforestation sources of CO2 flux from decomposition of residual woody debris were higher and less seasonal in the central Amazon than in the eastern and southern areas. Increased woody debris from past deforestation events was predicted to alter the net ecosystem carbon balance of the Amazon region to generate annual CO2 source fluxes at least two times higher than previously predicted by CASA modeling studies. Variations in climate, land cover, and forest burning were predicted to release carbon at rates of 0.5 to 1 Pg C/yr from the Brazilian Amazon. When direct deforestation emissions of CO2 from forest burning of between 0.2 and 0.6 Pg C/yr in the Legal Amazon are overlooked in regional budgets, the year-to-year variations in this net biome flux may appear to be large, whereas our model results implies net biome fluxes had actually been relatively consistent from

  12. People, soil and manioc interactions in the upper Amazon region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peña Venegas, C.P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Clara Patricia Peña Venegas (2015). People, soil and manioc interactions in the upper Amazon region. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, The Netherlands, with summaries in English and Dutch, 210 pp. The presence of anthropogenic soils, or Amazonian Dark   Ea

  13. Mimivirus Circulation among Wild and Domestic Mammals, Amazon Region, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Dornas, Fábio P.; Rodrigues, Felipe P.; Boratto, Paulo V.M.; Silva, Lorena C. F.; Ferreira, Paulo C. P.; Bonjardim, Cláudio A.; Trindade, Giliane S; Kroon, Erna G.; La Scola, Bernard; Abrahão, Jônatas S

    2014-01-01

    To investigate circulation of mimiviruses in the Amazon Region of Brazil, we surveyed 513 serum samples from domestic and wild mammals. Neutralizing antibodies were detected in 15 sample pools, and mimivirus DNA was detected in 9 pools of serum from capuchin monkeys and in 16 pools of serum from cattle.

  14. Mimivirus circulation among wild and domestic mammals, Amazon Region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornas, Fábio P; Rodrigues, Felipe P; Boratto, Paulo V M; Silva, Lorena C F; Ferreira, Paulo C P; Bonjardim, Cláudio A; Trindade, Giliane S; Kroon, Erna G; La Scola, Bernard; Abrahão, Jônatas S

    2014-03-01

    To investigate circulation of mimiviruses in the Amazon Region of Brazil, we surveyed 513 serum samples from domestic and wild mammals. Neutralizing antibodies were detected in 15 sample pools, and mimivirus DNA was detected in 9 pools of serum from capuchin monkeys and in 16 pools of serum from cattle. PMID:24564967

  15. Observations about chemical composition of aerosols in the Brazilian Amazon region - Case study: Biomass burning in the subequatorial Amazon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioda, A.; Monteiro, I. L.; Almeida, A. C.; Hacon, S. S.; Dallacort, R.; Ignotti, E.; Godoy, J. M.; Loureiro, A. L.; Morais, F.; Artaxo, P.

    2012-04-01

    The study was carried out in two cities in the Brazilian Amazon region, Tangará da Serra (14 ° 37'10 "S, 57 ° 29'09" W, 427 m asl), located in a transition area between the Amazon biome and the Cerrado and has the characteristics of urban area in Amazon region; and Alta Floresta (9 ° 52 '32 "S, 56 ° 5' 10" W, 283 m asl) situated in the extreme north of the state of Mato Grosso (MT), both in the subequatorial Amazon region. Tangara da Serra has the largest production of sugar cane in the subequatorial Amazon region. They are located 800 km from each other. These two regions are inserted in a region with typical cycles of drought and rain that alter air pollution levels, and lies in the dispersion path of the pollution plume resulting from burnings in the Brazilian Amazon and pollution emanating from neighboring countries. Both cities have wet tropical climate with two well defined seasons: rainy summer (November to May) and dry winter (June to October). During the dry winter, biomass burnings are frequent in these regions. In 2008, the Department of the Environment has banned fires in the period from July 15 to September 15 throughout the State. In this study chemical characterization was performed for approximately 100 aerosol samples collected in each site during 2008. Fine and coarse aerosol samples collected in SFUs were analyzed by ion chromatography for determination of cations (Na+, K+, NH3+, Ca2+ and Mg2+), anions (SO42-, Cl- and NO3-) and organic acids (acetate and formiate) and also measures of black carbon (BC) (Aethalometer). The results showed that for both sites the average concentrations were quite similar for PM2.5 (16 µg/m3), PM10 (11 and 13 µg/m3) and black carbon (1.4 µg/m3 for PM2.5 and 1.6 µg/m3 for PM10). Sulfate was the predominant species in fine (45%) and coarse (26%) particles in both sites. The sulfate concentrations ranged from 0.01-1.92 µg/m3 in PM2.5 and 0.01-1.66 µg/m3 in PM10 in Tangará da Serra and 0.01-2.93 µg/m3 in PM2

  16. Sensitivity of Regional Climate to Deforestation in the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.; Bras, Rafael L.

    1994-01-01

    The deforestation results in several adverse effect on the natural environment. The focus of this paper is on the effects of deforestation on land-surface processes and regional climate of the Amazon basin. In general, the effect of deforestation on climate are likely to depend on the scale of the defrosted area. In this study, we are interested in the effects due to deforestation of areas with a scale of about 250 km. Hence, a meso-scale climate model is used in performing numerical experiments on the sensitivity of regional climate to deforestation of areas with that size. It is found that deforestation results in less net surface radiation, less evaporation, less rainfall, and warmer surface temperature. The magnitude of the of the change in temperature is of the order 0.5 C, the magnitudes of the changes in the other variables are of the order of IO%. In order to verify some of he results of the numerical experiments, the model simulations of net surface radiation are compared to recent observations of net radiation over cleared and undisturbed forest in the Amazon. The results of the model and the observations agree in the following conclusion: the difference in net surface radiation between cleared and undisturbed forest is, almost, equally partioned between net solar radiation and net long-wave radiation. This finding contributes to our understanding of the basic physics in the deforestation problem.

  17. Effects of environmental change on malaria in the Amazon region of Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takken, W.; Tarso Vilarinhos, de P.; Schneider, P.; Santos, dos F.

    2003-01-01

    Malaria is endemic in Brazil, affecting mostly the Amazon states. Whereas 50 years ago good progress was made towards its control, since the opening up of the Amazon region for forestry, agriculture and livestock activities, the disease has rapidly increased in incidence, peaking to >500,000 case

  18. Atmospheric correction analysis on LANDSAT data over the Amazon region. [Manaus, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Dias, L. A. V.; Dossantos, J. R.; Formaggio, A. R.

    1983-01-01

    The Amazon Region natural resources were studied in two ways and compared. A LANDSAT scene and its attributes were selected, and a maximum likelihood classification was made. The scene was atmospherically corrected, taking into account Amazonic peculiarities revealed by (ground truth) of the same area, and the subsequent classification. Comparison shows that the classification improves with the atmospherically corrected images.

  19. Surveillance, health promotion and control of Chagas disease in the Amazon Region--Medical attention in the Brazilian Amazon Region: a proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coura, José Rodrigues; Junqueira, Angela C V

    2015-11-01

    We refer to Oswaldo Cruz's reports dating from 1913 about the necessities of a healthcare system for the Brazilian Amazon Region and about the journey of Carlos Chagas to 27 locations in this region and the measures that would need to be adopted. We discuss the risks of endemicity of Chagas disease in the Amazon Region. We recommend that epidemiological surveillance of Chagas disease in the Brazilian Amazon Region and Pan-Amazon region should be implemented through continuous monitoring of the human population that lives in the area, their housing, the environment and the presence of triatomines. The monitoring should be performed with periodic seroepidemiological surveys, semi-annual visits to homes by health agents and the training of malaria microscopists and healthcare technicians to identify Trypanosoma cruzi from patients' samples and T. cruzi infection rates among the triatomines caught. We recommend health promotion and control of Chagas disease through public health policies, especially through sanitary education regarding the risk factors for Chagas disease. Finally, we propose a healthcare system through base hospitals, intermediate-level units in the areas of the Brazilian Amazon Region and air transportation, considering the distances to be covered for medical care.

  20. Surveillance, health promotion and control of Chagas disease in the Amazon Region - Medical attention in the Brazilian Amazon Region: a proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coura, José Rodrigues; Junqueira, Angela CV

    2015-01-01

    We refer to Oswaldo Cruz's reports dating from 1913 about the necessities of a healthcare system for the Brazilian Amazon Region and about the journey of Carlos Chagas to 27 locations in this region and the measures that would need to be adopted. We discuss the risks of endemicity of Chagas disease in the Amazon Region. We recommend that epidemiological surveillance of Chagas disease in the Brazilian Amazon Region and Pan-Amazon region should be implemented through continuous monitoring of the human population that lives in the area, their housing, the environment and the presence of triatomines. The monitoring should be performed with periodic seroepidemiological surveys, semi-annual visits to homes by health agents and the training of malaria microscopists and healthcare technicians to identify Trypanosoma cruzi from patients' samples and T. cruzi infection rates among the triatomines caught. We recommend health promotion and control of Chagas disease through public health policies, especially through sanitary education regarding the risk factors for Chagas disease. Finally, we propose a healthcare system through base hospitals, intermediate-level units in the areas of the Brazilian Amazon Region and air transportation, considering the distances to be covered for medical care. PMID:26560976

  1. Amazon soils : a reconnaissance of the soils of the Brazilian Amazon region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sombroek, W.G.

    1966-01-01

    The study deals with soils of the Brazilian part of the Amazon basin. Most soils are Latosols, some with soft or hardened plinthite. The Latosols are characterized by a latosolic B horizon as defined in Brazil.Plinthite, its formation and morphology were extensively described. Five main types of har

  2. Endemic hepatitis b and c virus infection in a brazilian eastern amazon region

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo El Khouri; Quirino Cordeiro; Diogo Arantes Behling Pereira da Luz; Leandro Savoy Duarte; Mônica Elinor Alves Gama; Carlos Eduardo Pereira Corbett

    2010-01-01

    CONTEXT: Hepatitis B and hepatitis C infection has been an important cause of morbidity and mortality around the world. However there are few investigations regarding the prevalence and possible risk factors for these diseases in Brazil, particularly in Amazon region, where there are some endemic focus. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C in the city of Buriticupu, MA, located in the Brazilian Eastern Amazon region, and try to explore the risk factors for th...

  3. Evaluation of the introduction of cogeneration for refrigeration in the fisheries sector of the Amazon; Avaliacao da introducao da cogeracao para refrigeracao no setor pesqueiro do Amazonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Ricardo Wilson Aguiar da [Universidade Estadual do Amazonas (UEA), Manaus (Brazil)], e-mail: rcruz@uea.edu.br; Nebra, Silvia Azucena [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica], e-mail: sanebra@fem.unicamp.br; Cartaxo, Elizabeth Ferreira [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil)], e-mail: ecartaxo@ufam.edu.br

    2004-07-01

    This work analyses the opportunity to introduce cogeneration for the production of aquammonia absorption refrigeration in the autonomous Amazons State power system, by one hand as a means to improve its efficiency and by another, solve the deficiency the State has to store its fish-ing production. (author)

  4. Modelling the interplay between global and regional drivers on Amazon deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla-Nora, E. L.; Aguiar, A. P. D.; Montenegro Lapola, D.; Woltjer, G.

    2014-12-01

    Since mid-2000s, several measures have been taken to curb Amazon deforestation in Brazil, which dropped 84% up to 2012. However, this process raise concerns owed of the unintended effects of such interventions, like land use displacements. Here we explore an innovative modeling approach for the Amazon in order to simulate how the global demand for agricultural commodities and different regional land use policies could affect future deforestation trends inside and outside the Amazon, paying special attention to leakage effects over the Cerrado. A global economic model was taken to integrate supply and demand factors at both global and regional scales, coupled with a spatially explicitly land use model. Leakage effects are simulated in two different ways, regarding land demand and land allocation, based on the relative land rents of different land use types and spatial regression. Six contrasting multi-scale scenarios are explored focusing on deforestation rates and spatial pattern analysis. Our results unveil that Amazon conservation might not be the end of deforestation in Brazil once it can lead to 70% increase over the Cerrado cleared area up to 2050. Biofuels targets compliance can further press land cover changes over these regions revealing that productivity gains will be decisive for both Amazon and Cerrado conservation. In summary, closing the agricultural frontier in the Amazon cannot ensure biodiversity conservation or carbon savings in absence of complementary measures committed with land use efficiency, controlled land use expansion and new economic alternatives.

  5. The Amazon region: tropical deforestation, biogeochemical cycles and the climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabat, P.; Andreae, M.O.; Silva-Dias, M.A.; Veraart, J.A.; Brink, N.J.

    2003-01-01

    The biogeochemical cycling of carbon, water, energy, aerosols, and trace gases in the Amazon Basin, and the interactions between deforestation, rainfall and climate were all investigated in this programme as a part of an integrated cluster of inter-linked and complementary research projects. These i

  6. Mayaro virus infection, Amazon Basin region, Peru, 2010-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, Eric S; Siles, Crystyan; Guevara, Carolina; Vilcarromero, Stalin; Jhonston, Erik J; Ramal, Cesar; Aguilar, Patricia V; Ampuero, Julia S

    2013-11-01

    During 2010-2013, we recruited 16 persons with confirmed Mayaro virus infection in the Peruvian Amazon to prospectively follow clinical symptoms and serologic response over a 12-month period. Mayaro virus infection caused long-term arthralgia in more than half, similar to reports of other arthritogenic alphaviruses.

  7. Risks of endemicity, morbidity and perspectives regarding the control of Chagas disease in the Amazon Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rodrigues Coura

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease, in the Amazon Region as elsewhere, can be considered an enzootic disease of wild animals or an anthropozoonosis, an accidental disease of humans that is acquired when humans penetrate a wild ecosystem or when wild triatomines invade human dwellings attracted by light or searching for human blood. The risk of endemic Chagas disease in the Amazon Region is associated with the following phenomena: (i extensive deforestation associated with the displacement of wild mammals, which are the normal sources of blood for triatomines, (ii adaptation of wild triatomines to human dwellings due to the need for a new source of blood for feeding and (iii uncontrolled migration of human populations and domestic animals that are already infected with Trypanosoma cruzi from areas endemic for Chagas disease to the Amazon Region. Several outbreaks of severe acute cases of Chagas disease, as well as chronic cases, have been described in the Amazon Region. Control measures targeted to avoiding endemic Chagas disease in the Amazon Region should be the following: improving health education in communities, training public health officials and communities for vector and Chagas disease surveillance and training local physicians to recognise and treat acute and chronic cases of Chagas diseases as soon as possible.

  8. Risks of endemicity, morbidity and perspectives regarding the control of Chagas disease in the Amazon Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coura, José Rodrigues; Junqueira, Angela Cv

    2012-03-01

    Chagas disease, in the Amazon Region as elsewhere, can be considered an enzootic disease of wild animals or an anthropozoonosis, an accidental disease of humans that is acquired when humans penetrate a wild ecosystem or when wild triatomines invade human dwellings attracted by light or searching for human blood. The risk of endemic Chagas disease in the Amazon Region is associated with the following phenomena: (i) extensive deforestation associated with the displacement of wild mammals, which are the normal sources of blood for triatomines, (ii) adaptation of wild triatomines to human dwellings due to the need for a new source of blood for feeding and (iii) uncontrolled migration of human populations and domestic animals that are already infected with Trypanosoma cruzi from areas endemic for Chagas disease to the Amazon Region. Several outbreaks of severe acute cases of Chagas disease, as well as chronic cases, have been described in the Amazon Region. Control measures targeted to avoiding endemic Chagas disease in the Amazon Region should be the following: improving health education in communities, training public health officials and communities for vector and Chagas disease surveillance and training local physicians to recognise and treat acute and chronic cases of Chagas diseases as soon as possible.

  9. Regional development and greenhouse gases emission: the case of the Amazon Region

    OpenAIRE

    Imori, Denise; Guilhoto, Joaquim José Martins; David, Letícia Scretas; Gutierre, Leopoldo Millan; Waisman, Caio

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to verify the existence of possible tradeoffs between policies direct to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) with the ones direct to foster the development of the Brazilian Amazon Region, considering its economic relations with the rest of the country and the international markets. In order to achieve this goal, this paper uses an interregional input-output (I-O) model, estimated for the Brazilian economy for the year of 2004. The I-O model is used to m...

  10. Downscaling Statistical Model Techniques for Climate Change Analysis Applied to the Amazon Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Mendes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon is an area covered predominantly by dense tropical rainforest with relatively small inclusions of several other types of vegetation. In the last decades, scientific research has suggested a strong link between the health of the Amazon and the integrity of the global climate: tropical forests and woodlands (e.g., savannas exchange vast amounts of water and energy with the atmosphere and are thought to be important in controlling local and regional climates. Consider the importance of the Amazon biome to the global climate changes impacts and the role of the protected area in the conservation of biodiversity and state-of-art of downscaling model techniques based on ANN Calibrate and run a downscaling model technique based on the Artificial Neural Network (ANN that is applied to the Amazon region in order to obtain regional and local climate predicted data (e.g., precipitation. Considering the importance of the Amazon biome to the global climate changes impacts and the state-of-art of downscaling techniques for climate models, the shower of this work is presented as follows: the use of ANNs good similarity with the observation in the cities of Belém and Manaus, with correlations of approximately 88.9% and 91.3%, respectively, and spatial distribution, especially in the correction process, representing a good fit.

  11. Nuclear analytical techniques applied to characterization of atmospheric aerosols in Amazon Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents the atmospheric aerosols characterization that exist in different regions of Amazon basin. The biogenic aerosol emission by forest, as well as the atmospheric emissions of particulate materials due to biomass burning, were analyzed. Samples of aerosol particles were collected during three years in two different locations of Amazon region using Stacked Unit Filters. In order to study these samples some analytical nuclear techniques were used. The high concentrations of aerosols as a result of biomass burning process were observed in the period of june-september

  12. Macrofungal diversity in Colombian Amazon forests varies with regions and regimes of disturbance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez-Quintero, C.A.; Straatsma, G.; Franco-Molano, A.E.; Boekhout, T.

    2012-01-01

    Here we present the results of fungal biodiversity studies from some selected Colombian Amazon forests in relationship to plant biodiversity and successional stages after slash and burn agriculture. Macrofungal diversity was found to differ between forests occurring in two regions (Araracuara vs Ama

  13. Amazonian Dark Earth and plant species from the Amazon region contribute to shape rhizosphere bacterial communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barbosa Lima, A.; Souza Cannavan, F.S.; Navarrete, A.A.; Kuramae, E.E.; Teixeira, W.G.; Tsai, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    Amazonian Dark Earths (ADE) or Terra Preta de Índio formed in the past by pre-Columbian populations are highly sustained fertile soils supported by microbial communities that differ from those extant in adjacent soils. These soils are found in the Amazon region and are considered as a model soil whe

  14. Land-use system shapes soil bacterial communities in Southeastern Amazon region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendes, L.W.; Brossi, M.J.L.; Kuramae, Eiko E.; Tsai, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    The expansion of the agriculture has become the main agent of disturbance in the Amazon region, and such alteration has consequences on soil microbial communities, which represent the majority of biodiversity in terrestrial ecosystems. In this study we assessed the effects of land-use changes on phy

  15. Macrofungal diversity in Colombian Amazon forests varies with regions and regimes of disturbance

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez-Quintero, C.A.; Straatsma, G.; Franco-Molano, A.E.; Boekhout, T.

    2012-01-01

    Here we present the results of fungal biodiversity studies from some selected Colombian Amazon forests in relationship to plant biodiversity and successional stages after slash and burn agriculture. Macrofungal diversity was found to differ between forests occurring in two regions (Araracuara vs Amacayacu) as well as between flooded forests and terra firme forests in the Amacayacu region. Macrofungal biodiversity differed between regeneration states of different age in the Araracuara region. ...

  16. Indications of regional scale groundwater flows in the Amazon Basins: Inferences from results of geothermal studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Elizabeth T.; Hamza, Valiya M.

    2012-08-01

    The present work deals with determination groundwater flows in the Amazon region, based on analysis of geothermal data acquired in shallow and deep wells. The method employed is based on the model of simultaneous heat transfer by conduction and advection in permeable media. Analysis of temperature data acquired in water wells indicates down flows of groundwaters with velocities in excess of 10-7 m/s at depths less than 300 m in the Amazonas basin. Bottom-hole temperature (BHT) data sets have been used in determining characteristics of fluid movements at larger depths in the basins of Acre, Solimões, Amazonas, Marajó and Barreirinhas. The results of model simulations point to down flow of groundwaters with velocities of the order of 10-8 to 10-9 m/s, at depths of up to 4000 m. No evidence has been found for up flow typical of discharge zones. The general conclusion compatible with such results is that large-scale groundwater recharge systems operate at both shallow and deep levels in all sedimentary basins of the Amazon region. However, the basement rock formations of the Amazon region are relatively impermeable and hence extensive down flow systems through the sedimentary strata are possible only in the presence of generalized lateral movement of groundwater in the basal parts of the sedimentary basins. The direction of this lateral flow, inferred from the basement topography and geological characteristics of the region, is from west to east, following roughly the course of surface drainage system of the Amazon River, with eventual discharge into the Atlantic Ocean. The estimated flow rate at the continental margin is 3287 m3/s, with velocities of the order of 218 m/year. It is possible that dynamic changes in the fluvial systems in the western parts of South American continent have been responsible for triggering alterations in the groundwater recharge systems and deep seated lateral flows in the Amazon region.

  17. Environmental considerations in energy planning for the Amazon region: Downstream effects of dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most salient current feature of the electric energy sector in Brazil is the pressing need for expansion. In this context, the hydroelectric resources of the Amazon region are considered a competitive alternative despite the structural problems they entail. These include reliance of new investments and environmental restrictions. Concerning the latter, plans to build large-scale dams in the region have drawn criticism mainly on account of the loss of forest cover in areas flooded by dam reservoirs and the conflicts concerning the relocation of indigenous and riverside communities in the region. This article seeks to contribute to better understanding of the environmental issue in the Amazon by focusing attention on the downstream effects of dams, which have large-scale, hitherto neglected ecological repercussions. The impact of dams extends well beyond the area surrounding the artificial lakes they create, harming rich Amazon wetland ecosystems. The morphology of dammed rivers changes in response to new inputs of energy and matter, which may in turn destroy certain biotopes. This is a remote-sensing-based case study of the Tucurui hydroelectric scheme in the Amazon state of Para. Attention is drawn to the need to take into account effects on alluvial rivers downstream from hydroelectric power plants when it comes to making planning decisions, as part of a sustainable energy policy

  18. Regional atmospheric CO2 inversion reveals seasonal and geographic differences in Amazon net biome exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alden, Caroline B; Miller, John B; Gatti, Luciana V; Gloor, Manuel M; Guan, Kaiyu; Michalak, Anna M; van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T; Touma, Danielle; Andrews, Arlyn; Basso, Luana S; Correia, Caio S C; Domingues, Lucas G; Joiner, Joanna; Krol, Maarten C; Lyapustin, Alexei I; Peters, Wouter; Shiga, Yoichi P; Thoning, Kirk; van der Velde, Ivar R; van Leeuwen, Thijs T; Yadav, Vineet; Diffenbaugh, Noah S

    2016-10-01

    Understanding tropical rainforest carbon exchange and its response to heat and drought is critical for quantifying the effects of climate change on tropical ecosystems, including global climate-carbon feedbacks. Of particular importance for the global carbon budget is net biome exchange of CO2 with the atmosphere (NBE), which represents nonfire carbon fluxes into and out of biomass and soils. Subannual and sub-Basin Amazon NBE estimates have relied heavily on process-based biosphere models, despite lack of model agreement with plot-scale observations. We present a new analysis of airborne measurements that reveals monthly, regional-scale (~1-8 × 10(6)  km(2) ) NBE variations. We develop a regional atmospheric CO2 inversion that provides the first analysis of geographic and temporal variability in Amazon biosphere-atmosphere carbon exchange and that is minimally influenced by biosphere model-based first guesses of seasonal and annual mean fluxes. We find little evidence for a clear seasonal cycle in Amazon NBE but do find NBE sensitivity to aberrations from long-term mean climate. In particular, we observe increased NBE (more carbon emitted to the atmosphere) associated with heat and drought in 2010, and correlations between wet season NBE and precipitation (negative correlation) and temperature (positive correlation). In the eastern Amazon, pulses of increased NBE persisted through 2011, suggesting legacy effects of 2010 heat and drought. We also identify regional differences in postdrought NBE that appear related to long-term water availability. We examine satellite proxies and find evidence for higher gross primary productivity (GPP) during a pulse of increased carbon uptake in 2011, and lower GPP during a period of increased NBE in the 2010 dry season drought, but links between GPP and NBE changes are not conclusive. These results provide novel evidence of NBE sensitivity to short-term temperature and moisture extremes in the Amazon, where monthly and sub

  19. Variations of chromosomal structures in Caluromys philander (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae) from the Amazon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Erica Martinha Silva de; Faresin e Silva, Carlos Eduardo; Eler, Eduardo Schmidt; Silva, Maria Nazareth F da; Feldberg, Eliana

    2013-03-01

    Caluromys is considered to be one of the most ancient genera of extant marsupials and is positioned among the basal taxa of the family Didelphidae. At least two species occur in Brazil, C. philander and C. lanatus, both of which have 2n = 14 chromosomes. For the first time, we present evidence of an intrapopulation polymorphism of the sexual chromosome pair in C. philander females from the Central Amazon region. Detailed cytogenetic results of animals from three localities on the Amazon region were analyzed using classical cytogenetics (NOR, C-Band and G-Band) and molecular techniques (18S rDNA and telomere probes). Similar to other conspecific individuals, the diploid number of these animals is 2n = 14, and their fundamental number is 24, with NOR present on the 6th autosomal pair. The X chromosome presented variation detectable by G banding, suggesting a pericentric inversion.

  20. Chlamydia trachomatis serotype A infections in the Amazon region of Brazil: prevalence, entry and dissemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marluísa de Oliveira Guimarães Ishak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Chlamydia infection is associated with debilitating human diseases including trachoma, pneumonia, coronary heart disease and urogenital diseases. Serotypes of C. trachomatis show a fair correlation with the group of diseases they cause, and their distribution follows a well-described geographic pattern. Serotype A, a trachoma-associated strain, is known for its limited dissemination in the Middle East and Northern Africa. However, knowledge on the spread of bacteria from the genus Chlamydia as well as the distribution of serotypes in Brazil is quite limited. METHODS: Blood samples of 1,710 individuals from ten human population groups in the Amazon region of Brazil were examined for antibodies to Chlamydia using indirect immunofluorescence and microimmunofluorescence assays. RESULTS: The prevalence of antibodies to Chlamydia ranged from 23.9% (Wayana-Apalai to 90.7% (Awa-Guaja with a mean prevalence of 50.2%. Seroreactivity was detected to C. pneumoniae and to all serotypes of C. trachomatis tested; furthermore, we report clear evidence of the as-yet-undescribed occurrence of serotype A of C. trachomatis. CONCLUSIONS: Specific seroreactivity not only accounts for the large extent of dissemination of C. trachomatis in the Amazon region of Brazil but also shows an expanded area of occurrence of serotype A outside the epidemiological settings previously described. Furthermore, these data suggest possible routes of Chlamydia introduction into the Amazon region from the massive human migration that occurred during the 1,700s.

  1. Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in the Legal Amazon and Northeast regions, Brazil, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Cristina Medeiros das Neves

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify the factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in children aged less than six months from the Brazilian Legal Amazon and Northeast regions. METHODS: The study used data from a survey that assessed prenatal and infant (<1 year care in 2010. Sociodemographic, prenatal, delivery, and puerperium care factors with p<0.05 in multivariate analysis were associated with exclusive breastfeeding. RESULTS: For both regions, the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding decreased with age, which was the main variable associated with early weaning. In the Legal Amazon, exclusive breastfeeding prevailed among: mothers aged 35 years or more; mothers living in state capitals; and mothers who breastfed on the first hour of life. In the Northeast, the probability of exclusive breastfeeding was greater for mothers aged 35 years or more. CONCLUSION: The factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding were child's and mother's age in both regions; and residence location and breastfeeding in the first hour of life in the Legal Amazon, suggesting the need of differentiated strategies for the promotion of exclusive breastfeeding.

  2. First record of notoedric mange in ocelot (Leopardus pardalis Linnaeus, 1758) in the Amazon region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scofield, Alessandra; dos Santos, Rafaelle Cunha; Carvalho, Nadino; Martins, Áurea Linhares; Góes-Cavalcante, Gustavo

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a case of notoedric mange in an ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) in the Brazilian Amazon region. A young male of approximately four months of age that was illegally kept as a pet was apprehended in Altamira, State of Pará, northern Brazil. The animal was transported to the Mangal das Garças Park in the state's capital city of Belém. The ocelot had pruritus and lesions suggestive of scabies in the head. Skin scraping material was examined under optic microscopy. There was seen a large number of eggs, larvae, nymphs and adult mites. The mean female and male sizes were 230.2 × 200.4 μm and 137.6 × 104.9 μm. Based on the morphologic characteristics and morphometric analysis, this mite was classified as Notoedres cati. This is the first report of notoedric mange in L. pardalis from Brazilian Amazon. PMID:22166390

  3. Multispecies Fisheries in the Lower Amazon River and Its Relationship with the Regional and Global Climate Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinaya, Walter Hugo Diaz; Lobon-Cervia, Francisco Javier; Pita, Pablo; Buss de Souza, Ronald; Freire, Juan; Isaac, Victoria Judith

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the spatial-temporal variability in catch of the main fishery resources of the Amazon River and floodplain lakes of the Lower Amazon, as well as relating the Catch per Unit of Effort with anomalies of some of the Amazon River, atmosphere and Atlantic Ocean system variables, determining the influence of the environment on the Amazonian fishery resources. Finfish landings data from the towns and villages of the Lower Amazon for the fisheries of three sites (Óbidos, Santarém and Monte Alegre), were obtained for the period between January 1993 and December 2004. Analysis of variance, detrended correspondence analysis, redundancy analysis and multiple regression techniques were used for the statistical analysis of the distinct time series. Fisheries production in the Lower Amazon presents differences between the Amazon River and the floodplain lakes. Production in the Amazon River is approximately half of the one of the floodplain lakes. This variability occurs both along the Lower Amazon River region (longitudinal gradient) and laterally (latitudinal gradient) for every fishing ground studied here. The distinct environmental variables alone or in association act differently on the fishery stocks and the success of catches in each fishery group studied here. Important variables are the flooding events; the soil the sea surface temperatures; the humidity; the wind and the occurence of El Niño-Southern Oscillation events. Fishery productivity presents a large difference in quantity and distribution patterns between the river and floodplain lakes. This variability occurs in the region of the Lower Amazon as well as laterally for each fishery group studied, being dependent on the ecological characteristics and life strategies of each fish group considered here. PMID:27314951

  4. Multispecies Fisheries in the Lower Amazon River and Its Relationship with the Regional and Global Climate Variability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Hugo Diaz Pinaya

    Full Text Available This paper aims to describe the spatial-temporal variability in catch of the main fishery resources of the Amazon River and floodplain lakes of the Lower Amazon, as well as relating the Catch per Unit of Effort with anomalies of some of the Amazon River, atmosphere and Atlantic Ocean system variables, determining the influence of the environment on the Amazonian fishery resources. Finfish landings data from the towns and villages of the Lower Amazon for the fisheries of three sites (Óbidos, Santarém and Monte Alegre, were obtained for the period between January 1993 and December 2004. Analysis of variance, detrended correspondence analysis, redundancy analysis and multiple regression techniques were used for the statistical analysis of the distinct time series. Fisheries production in the Lower Amazon presents differences between the Amazon River and the floodplain lakes. Production in the Amazon River is approximately half of the one of the floodplain lakes. This variability occurs both along the Lower Amazon River region (longitudinal gradient and laterally (latitudinal gradient for every fishing ground studied here. The distinct environmental variables alone or in association act differently on the fishery stocks and the success of catches in each fishery group studied here. Important variables are the flooding events; the soil the sea surface temperatures; the humidity; the wind and the occurence of El Niño-Southern Oscillation events. Fishery productivity presents a large difference in quantity and distribution patterns between the river and floodplain lakes. This variability occurs in the region of the Lower Amazon as well as laterally for each fishery group studied, being dependent on the ecological characteristics and life strategies of each fish group considered here.

  5. Multispecies Fisheries in the Lower Amazon River and Its Relationship with the Regional and Global Climate Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinaya, Walter Hugo Diaz; Lobon-Cervia, Francisco Javier; Pita, Pablo; Buss de Souza, Ronald; Freire, Juan; Isaac, Victoria Judith

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the spatial-temporal variability in catch of the main fishery resources of the Amazon River and floodplain lakes of the Lower Amazon, as well as relating the Catch per Unit of Effort with anomalies of some of the Amazon River, atmosphere and Atlantic Ocean system variables, determining the influence of the environment on the Amazonian fishery resources. Finfish landings data from the towns and villages of the Lower Amazon for the fisheries of three sites (Óbidos, Santarém and Monte Alegre), were obtained for the period between January 1993 and December 2004. Analysis of variance, detrended correspondence analysis, redundancy analysis and multiple regression techniques were used for the statistical analysis of the distinct time series. Fisheries production in the Lower Amazon presents differences between the Amazon River and the floodplain lakes. Production in the Amazon River is approximately half of the one of the floodplain lakes. This variability occurs both along the Lower Amazon River region (longitudinal gradient) and laterally (latitudinal gradient) for every fishing ground studied here. The distinct environmental variables alone or in association act differently on the fishery stocks and the success of catches in each fishery group studied here. Important variables are the flooding events; the soil the sea surface temperatures; the humidity; the wind and the occurence of El Niño-Southern Oscillation events. Fishery productivity presents a large difference in quantity and distribution patterns between the river and floodplain lakes. This variability occurs in the region of the Lower Amazon as well as laterally for each fishery group studied, being dependent on the ecological characteristics and life strategies of each fish group considered here.

  6. Multispecies Fisheries in the Lower Amazon River and Its Relationship with the Regional and Global Climate Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss de Souza, Ronald; Freire, Juan; Isaac, Victoria Judith

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the spatial-temporal variability in catch of the main fishery resources of the Amazon River and floodplain lakes of the Lower Amazon, as well as relating the Catch per Unit of Effort with anomalies of some of the Amazon River, atmosphere and Atlantic Ocean system variables, determining the influence of the environment on the Amazonian fishery resources. Finfish landings data from the towns and villages of the Lower Amazon for the fisheries of three sites (Óbidos, Santarém and Monte Alegre), were obtained for the period between January 1993 and December 2004. Analysis of variance, detrended correspondence analysis, redundancy analysis and multiple regression techniques were used for the statistical analysis of the distinct time series. Fisheries production in the Lower Amazon presents differences between the Amazon River and the floodplain lakes. Production in the Amazon River is approximately half of the one of the floodplain lakes. This variability occurs both along the Lower Amazon River region (longitudinal gradient) and laterally (latitudinal gradient) for every fishing ground studied here. The distinct environmental variables alone or in association act differently on the fishery stocks and the success of catches in each fishery group studied here. Important variables are the flooding events; the soil the sea surface temperatures; the humidity; the wind and the occurence of El Niño-Southern Oscillation events. Fishery productivity presents a large difference in quantity and distribution patterns between the river and floodplain lakes. This variability occurs in the region of the Lower Amazon as well as laterally for each fishery group studied, being dependent on the ecological characteristics and life strategies of each fish group considered here. PMID:27314951

  7. Palms and Palm Communities in the Upper Ucayali River Valley - a Little-Known Region in the Amazon Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Henrik; Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Kristiansen, Thea;

    2010-01-01

    The Amazon region and its palms are inseparable. Palms make up such an important part of the rain forest ecosystem that it is impossible to imagine the Amazon basin without them. Palms are visible in the canopy and often fill up the forest understory. Palms – because of their edible fruits...... – are cornerstone species for the survival of many animals, and palms contribute substantially to forest inventories in which they are often among the ten most important families. Still, the palms and palm communities of some parts of the Amazon basin remain poorly studied and little known. We travelled to a little......-explored corner of the western Amazon basin, the upper Ucayali river valley. There, we encountered 56 different palms, 18 of which had not been registered for the region previously, and 21 of them were found 150–400 km beyond their previously known limits....

  8. Characteristics and Diurnal Cycle of GPM Rainfall Estimates over the Central Amazon Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo Oliveira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies that investigate and evaluate the quality, limitations and uncertainties of satellite rainfall estimates are fundamental to assure the correct and successful use of these products in applications, such as climate studies, hydrological modeling and natural hazard monitoring. Over regions of the globe that lack in situ observations, such studies are only possible through intensive field measurement campaigns, which provide a range of high quality ground measurements, e.g., CHUVA (Cloud processes of tHe main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribUtion to cloud resolVing modeling and to the GlobAl Precipitation Measurement and GoAmazon (Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon over the Brazilian Amazon during 2014/2015. This study aims to assess the characteristics of Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM satellite-based precipitation estimates in representing the diurnal cycle over the Brazilian Amazon. The Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for Global Precipitation Measurement (IMERG and the Goddard Profiling Algorithm—Version 2014 (GPROF2014 algorithms are evaluated against ground-based radar observations. Specifically, the S-band weather radar from the Amazon Protection National System (SIPAM, is first validated against the X-band CHUVA radar and then used as a reference to evaluate GPM precipitation. Results showed satisfactory agreement between S-band SIPAM radar and both IMERG and GPROF2014 algorithms. However, during the wet season, IMERG, which uses the GPROF2014 rainfall retrieval from the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI sensor, significantly overestimates the frequency of heavy rainfall volumes around 00:00–04:00 UTC and 15:00–18:00 UTC. This overestimation is particularly evident over the Negro, Solimões and Amazon rivers due to the poorly-calibrated algorithm over water surfaces. On the other hand, during the dry season, the IMERG product underestimates mean precipitation in comparison to the S-band SIPAM

  9. Classification and Use of Natural and Anthropogenic Soils by Indigenous Communities of the Upper Amazon Region of Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Peña-Venegas, C. P.; Stomph, T.J.; Verschoor, G.; Echeverri, J. A.; Struik, P.C.

    2015-01-01

    Outsiders often oversimplify Amazon soil use by assuming that abundantly available natural soils are poorly suited to agriculture and that sporadic anthropogenic soils are agriculturally productive. Local perceptions about the potentials and limitations of soils probably differ, but information on these perceptions is scarce. We therefore examined how four indigenous communities in the Middle Caquetá River region in the Colombian Amazon classify and use natural and anthropogenic soils. The st...

  10. New technical and economic solutions for gas exploitation in the Amazon region (Peru-Brazil Pipeline)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrera, G.Z.; Santos, E.M. dos [Sao Paulo Univ., (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    The oil and gas potential in Brazil's Amazon region and neighbouring countries was discussed with particular focus on the economic feasibility of developing a pipeline system to transport the resource from the reserves to potential markets. The natural gas energy option in particular, has been attracting governments and investors due to the lower capital cost required for gas-fired power plants as compared to hydroelectric systems that can still be developed in the region. It is also more competitive than current diesel or fuel oil power generation. Currently, the huge energy costs in the Brazilian Amazon region inhibit regional economic growth and development. It is estimated that the introduction of gas-fired power plants could reduce the regional generation cost to about $40 US MWh from $150 US MWh. The biggest challenge in doing so, however, lies in the large distances that separate the gas fields from the large cities where the market is concentrated. This paper presented the following 4 transportation options for linking the gas to markets in a transnational pipeline: (1) Pipeline Camisea - Porto Velho, (2) Pipeline Camisea - Porto Velho - Manaus, (3) Pipeline Camisea - Porto Velho - Caceres, and (4) Pipeline Camisea - Port Velho -Manaus combined with Porto Velho - Caceres. For each option, the authors described the route, the distances involved, the maximum gas flow forecasted, the pipeline diameter, the operational pressures and the requested compression stations. 5 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs.

  11. Metallomic study of mercury in fish from Amazon region - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moraes P. M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents preliminary findings for a metallomics study of mercury in the muscle of the fish from Amazonas region – Brazil, after protein separation by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE and subsequent evaluation of mercury by Thermal Decomposition and Amalgamation Coupled with Atomic Absorption (TTA-CAAS. It was found that mercury is present in 18 protein spots of “dourada” muscle (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii and 9 protein spots of “pacu” muscle (Myleussp.. The protein spots in which they were determined the presence of mercury present molecular weight of 13.5 and 21.4 kDa and isoelectric point of 3.8 and 9.2, respectively.

  12. Endemic eastern equine encephalitis in the Amazon region of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Patricia V; Robich, Rebecca M; Turell, Michael J; O'Guinn, Monica L; Klein, Terry A; Huaman, Alfredo; Guevara, Carolina; Rios, Zonia; Tesh, Robert B; Watts, Douglas M; Olson, James; Weaver, Scott C

    2007-02-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) causes severe neurologic disease in North America, but only two fatal human cases have been documented in South America. To test the hypothesis that alphavirus heterologous antibodies cross-protect, animals were vaccinated against other alphaviruses and challenged up to 3 months later with EEEV. Short-lived cross-protection was detected, even in the absence of cross-neutralizing antibodies. To assess exposure to EEEV in Peru, sera from acutely ill and healthy persons were tested for EEEV and other alphavirus antibodies, as well as for virus isolation. No EEEV was isolated from patients living in an EEEV-enzootic area, and only 2% of individuals with febrile illness had EEEV-reactive IgM. Only 3% of healthy persons from the enzootic region had EEEV-neutralizing antibodies. Our results suggest that humans are exposed but do not develop apparent infection with EEEV because of poor infectivity and/or avirulence of South American strains.

  13. The development of the brazilian amazon region and greenhouse gases emission: a dilemma to be faced!

    OpenAIRE

    Imori, Denise; Guilhoto, Joaquim José Martins; David, Leticia Scretas; Gutierre, Leopoldo Millan; Waisman, Caio

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to verify the existence of possible tradeoffs between policies direct to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) with the ones direct to foster the development of the Brazilian Amazon Region, which is one of the poorest in the country. In order to achieve this goal, this paper uses an interregional input-output (I-O) model, estimated for the Brazilian economy for the year of 2004. The I-O model is used to make a comparison between the economical and the en...

  14. Dependence of hydropower energy generation on forests in the Amazon Basin at local and regional scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickler, Claudia M; Coe, Michael T; Costa, Marcos H; Nepstad, Daniel C; McGrath, David G; Dias, Livia C P; Rodrigues, Hermann O; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S

    2013-06-01

    Tropical rainforest regions have large hydropower generation potential that figures prominently in many nations' energy growth strategies. Feasibility studies of hydropower plants typically ignore the effect of future deforestation or assume that deforestation will have a positive effect on river discharge and energy generation resulting from declines in evapotranspiration (ET) associated with forest conversion. Forest loss can also reduce river discharge, however, by inhibiting rainfall. We used land use, hydrological, and climate models to examine the local "direct" effects (through changes in ET within the watershed) and the potential regional "indirect" effects (through changes in rainfall) of deforestation on river discharge and energy generation potential for the Belo Monte energy complex, one of the world's largest hydropower plants that is currently under construction on the Xingu River in the eastern Amazon. In the absence of indirect effects of deforestation, simulated deforestation of 20% and 40% within the Xingu River basin increased discharge by 4-8% and 10-12%, with similar increases in energy generation. When indirect effects were considered, deforestation of the Amazon region inhibited rainfall within the Xingu Basin, counterbalancing declines in ET and decreasing discharge by 6-36%. Under business-as-usual projections of forest loss for 2050 (40%), simulated power generation declined to only 25% of maximum plant output and 60% of the industry's own projections. Like other energy sources, hydropower plants present large social and environmental costs. Their reliability as energy sources, however, must take into account their dependence on forests.

  15. Amazonian dark Earth and plant species from the Amazon region contribute to shape rhizosphere bacterial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa Lima, Amanda; Cannavan, Fabiana Souza; Navarrete, Acacio Aparecido; Teixeira, Wenceslau Geraldes; Kuramae, Eiko Eurya; Tsai, Siu Mui

    2015-05-01

    Amazonian Dark Earths (ADE) or Terra Preta de Índio formed in the past by pre-Columbian populations are highly sustained fertile soils supported by microbial communities that differ from those extant in adjacent soils. These soils are found in the Amazon region and are considered as a model soil when compared to the surrounding and background soils. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of ADE and its surrounding soil on the rhizosphere bacterial communities of two leguminous plant species that frequently occur in the Amazon region in forest sites (Mimosa debilis) and open areas (Senna alata). Bacterial community structure was evaluated using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and bacterial community composition by V4 16S rRNA gene region pyrosequencing. T-RFLP analysis showed effect of soil types and plant species on rhizosphere bacterial community structure. Differential abundance of bacterial phyla, such as Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and Firmicutes, revealed that soil type contributes to shape the bacterial communities. Furthermore, bacterial phyla such as Firmicutes and Nitrospira were mostly influenced by plant species. Plant roots influenced several soil chemical properties, especially when plants were grown in ADE. These results showed that differences observed in rhizosphere bacterial community structure and composition can be influenced by plant species and soil fertility due to variation in soil attributes. PMID:25103911

  16. Isolation of viruses from mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) collected in the Amazon Basin region of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turell, M J; O'Guinn, M L; Jones, J W; Sardelis, M R; Dohm, D J; Watts, D M; Fernandez, R; Travassos da Rosa, A; Guzman, H; Tesh, R; Rossi, C A; Ludwig, V; Mangiafico, J A; Kondig, J; Wasieloski, L P; Pecor, J; Zyzak, M; Schoeler, G; Mores, C N; Calampa, C; Lee, J S; Klein, T A

    2005-09-01

    As part of a comprehensive study on the ecology of arthropod-borne viruses in the Amazon Basin region of Peru, we assayed 539,694 mosquitoes captured in Loreto Department, Peru, for arboviruses. Mosquitoes were captured either by dry ice-baited miniature light traps or with aspirators while mosquitoes were landing on human collectors, identified to species, and later tested on Vero cells for virus. In total, 164 virus isolations were made and included members of the Alphavirus (eastern equine encephalomyelitis, Trocara, Una, Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis, and western equine encephalomyelitis viruses), Flavivirus (Ilheus and St. Louis encephalitis), and Orthobunyavirus (Caraparu, Itaqui, Mirim, Murutucu, and Wyeomyia viruses) genera. In addition, several viruses distinct from the above-mentioned genera were identified to the serogroup level. Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus was associated primarily with Culex pedroi Sirivanakarn & Belkin, whereas Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus was associated primarily with Culex gnomatos Sallum, Huchings & Ferreira. Most isolations of Ilheus virus were made from Psorophora ferox (Von Humboldt). Although species of the Culex subgenus Melanoconion accounted for only 45% of the mosquitoes collected, 85% of the virus isolations were made from this subgenus. Knowledge of the viruses that are being transmitted in the Amazon Basin region of Peru will enable the development of more effective diagnostic assays, more efficient and rapid diagnoses of clinical illnesses caused by these pathogens, risk analysis for military/civilian operations, and development of potential disease control measures.

  17. DDT concentration in fish from the Tapajós River in the Amazon region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Rosivaldo de Alcântara; Lopes, Anna Sylmara da Costa; de Souza, Larissa Costa; Lima, Marcelo de Oliveira; Santos, Lourivaldo da Silva

    2016-06-01

    DDT and metabolites were measured in six species of fish collected from the Tapajós River in the village of Barreiras, near the town of Itaituba in the Brazilian Amazon region. The selected fish were the most consumed and economically important to the local people. DDT was used frequently in this region for malaria control. Fish samples were analyzed after extraction by microwave-assisted extraction in hexane/acetone (8:2, v/v) by gas chromatography with electron capture detector. Residues of op'-DDT and pp'-DDT and metabolites were detected, including pp'-DDE, pp'-DDD, op'-DDT, and op'-DDE, in 98% of the samples, with a greater abundance of pp'-DDT. Total DDT levels were 7.1-249.5 ng g(-1) wet weight (w.w). The DDE/DDT ratio was low, indicating recent exposure to DDT. The study area that may be related to generated waste used in public health campaigns to combat mosquitos (Anopheles spp.), still present in the Amazon environment, that transmit malaria. DDT levels and metabolites found in fish species do not present risks to human health because they are below acceptable limits for consumption.

  18. Biomass burning in the Amazon region: Aerosol source apportionment and associated health risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Alves, Nilmara; Brito, Joel; Caumo, Sofia; Arana, Andrea; de Souza Hacon, Sandra; Artaxo, Paulo; Hillamo, Risto; Teinilä, Kimmo; Batistuzzo de Medeiros, Silvia Regina; de Castro Vasconcellos, Pérola

    2015-11-01

    The Brazilian Amazon represents about 40% of the world's remaining tropical rainforest. However, human activities have become important drivers of disturbance in that region. The majority of forest fire hotspots in the Amazon arc due to deforestation are impacting the health of the local population of over 10 million inhabitants. In this study we characterize western Amazonia biomass burning emissions through the quantification of 14 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), Organic Carbon, Elemental Carbon and unique tracers of biomass burning such as levoglucosan. From the PAHs dataset a toxic equivalence factor is calculated estimating the carcinogenic and mutagenic potential of biomass burning emissions during the studied period. Peak concentration of PM10 during the dry seasons was observed to reach 60 μg m-3 on the 24 h average. Conversely, PM10 was relatively constant throughout the wet season indicating an overall stable balance between aerosol sources and sinks within the filter sampling resolution. Similar behavior is identified for OC and EC components. Levoglucosan was found in significant concentrations (up to 4 μg m-3) during the dry season. Correspondingly, the estimated lung cancer risk calculated during the dry seasons largely exceeded the WHO health-based guideline. A source apportionment study was carried out through the use of Absolute Principal Factor Analysis (APFA), identifying a three-factor solution. The biomass burning factor is found to be the dominating aerosol source, having 75.4% of PM10 loading. The second factor depicts an important contribution of several PAHs without a single source class and therefore was considered as mixed sources factor, contributing to 6.3% of PM10. The third factor was mainly associated with fossil fuel combustion emissions, contributing to 18.4% of PM10. This work enhances the knowledge of aerosol sources and its impact on climate variability and local population, on a site representative of the

  19. Amazon old-growth forest wind disturbance and the regional carbon balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, J. Q.; Negron Juarez, R. I.; Marra, D. M.; Roberts, D. A.; Hurtt, G. C.; Lima, A.; Higuchi, N.

    2010-12-01

    Estimating the carbon balance of a landscape is challenging. A key problem is determining whether or not measurements made in plots are representative of the carbon state of a larger region. A key parameter for calculating landscape carbon balance is the return frequency of episodic disturbances. If disturbances are clustered and occur more frequently than the time required for biomass recovery, a spatial mixture of patches in different stages of recovery occurs. Under these shifting steady-state mosaic conditions, quantifying the mean state of ecosystem attributes such as carbon balance or tree species diversity is difficult. In this study, satellite remote sensing (Landsat) was coupled with field investigations to create ~25 year landscape-scale disturbance chronosequence for old-growth forest in the Central Amazon. The detected disturbances were caused by strong storms which resulted in tree mortality events ranging from small clusters of 7-10 downed trees, to large contiguous blowdowns larger than 30 ha in size. Using the chronosequence, a cumulative probability distribution function was developed, which followed a power law, and was used to parameterize a forest carbon balance model. Results demonstrate that for power law exponents less than about 2.0, the spatial scale at which forest carbon balance establishes is much larger than generally expected. Ultimately, an increase in wind disturbance frequency and/or intensity with a warming climate has the potential to cause a net loss of carbon from Amazon forests to the atmosphere.

  20. Transient convection over the Amazon-Bolivia region and the dynamics of drought over Northeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmann, J.; Leitedasilvadias, P.; Moura, A. D.

    1985-01-01

    A two layer, nonlinear, equatorial beta-plane model, in p-coordinates is used to study the atmospheric response to a large scale prescribed heat source varying in time. The heat source is meant to represent a convective burst with total duration of approximately 48 hours over the Amazon/Bolivia region. The boundary conditions used are meridional velocity zero at 60 deg S, omega w = 0 at the top and zero geometric velocity at the lower boundary. Sensitivity study was done which includes initial state at rest, compared with realistic initial flow. The scale of the heat source is 1500 km in latitude and longitude and it is centered at 10 deg S. Special attention is paid to the distribution and intensity of the induced vertical motion. The model is integrated for two days and the preliminary results show agreement with the observed 200 mb flow. Of interest is the establishment of a trough and descending motion to the northeast of the heat source. A conjucture is thus made that the Amazon heat source and its fluctuations bear some relationship with the drought problem over Northeast Brazil.

  1. The oil industry and his environmental impacts in the Amazon region -local study: Urucu and Jurua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oil exploration and production, from the point of view of the main interactions with the environment, in the Amazon Region considering as reference the performance of PETROBRAS in the areas of the Urucu and Jurua rivers, in the Middle Solimoes, in the State of Amazonas are described. The paper comprises basically two sections. The first one is divided into four topics that refer to the analysis of prospecting, drilling, production and oil transportation. The second section of this work is more concerned to the analysis of the local and regional repercussions and expectations in the social and economical level, after the Urucu and Jurua areas were confirmed as another Brazilian oil province. (author)

  2. Highways and outposts: economic development and health threats in the central Brazilian Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damacena Giseli N

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Economic development is often evoked as a driving force that has the capacity to improve the social and health conditions of remote areas. However, development projects produce uneven impacts on local communities, according to their different positions within society. This study examines the spatial distribution of three major health threats in the Brazilian Amazon region that may undergo changes through highway construction. Homicide mortality, AIDS incidence and malaria prevalence rates were calculated for 70 municipalities located within the areas of influence of the Cuiabá-Santarém highway (BR-163, i.e. in the western part of the state of Pará state and the northern part of Mato Grosso. Results The municipalities were characterized using social and economic indicators such as gross domestic product (GDP, urban and indigenous populations, and recent migration. The municipalities' connections to the region's main transportation routes (BR-163 and Trans-Amazonian highways, along with the Amazon and Tapajós rivers were identified by tagging the municipalities that have boundaries crossing these routes, using GIS overlay operations. Multiple regression was used to identify the major driving forces and constraints relating to the distribution of health threats. The main explanatory variables for higher malaria prevalence were: proximity to the Trans-Amazonian highway, high proportion of indigenous population and low proportion of migrants. High homicide rates were associated with high proportions of migrants, while connection to the Amazon River played a protective role. AIDS incidence was higher in municipalities with recent increases in GDP and high proportions of urban population. Conclusions Highways induce social and environmental changes and play different roles in spreading and maintaining diseases and health threats. The most remote areas are still protected against violence but are vulnerable to malaria. Rapid

  3. Terrestrial Carbon Sinks in the Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado Region Predicted from MODIS Satellite Data and Ecosystem Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    A simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation cover from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to estimate monthly carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado regions over the period 2000-2004. Pr...

  4. Tropical forest mapping at regional scale using the GRFM SAR mosaics over the Amazon in South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sgrenzaroli, M.

    2004-01-01

    The work described in this thesis concerns the estimation of tropical forest vegetation cover in the Amazon region using as data source a continental scale high resolution (100 m) radar mosaic as data source. The radar mosaic was compiled by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (NASA JPL) using approximate

  5. High Plasmodium malariae Prevalence in an Endemic Area of the Colombian Amazon Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo-Ayala, Paola Andrea; Cubides, Juan Ricardo; Niño, Carlos Hernando; Camargo, Milena; Rodríguez-Celis, Carlos Arturo; Quiñones, Teódulo; Sánchez-Suárez, Lizeth; Patarroyo, Manuel Elkin

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a worldwide public health problem; parasites from the genus Plasmodium are the aetiological agent for this disease. The parasites are mostly diagnosed by conventional microscopy-based techniques; however, their limitations have led to under-registering the reported prevalence of Plasmodium species. This study has thus been aimed at evaluating the infection and coinfection prevalence of 3 species of Plasmodium spp., in an area of the Colombian Amazon region. Blood samples were taken from 671 symptomatic patients by skin puncture; a nested PCR amplifying the 18S ssRNA region was used on all samples to determine the presence of P. vivax, P. malariae and P. falciparum. Statistical analysis determined infection and coinfection frequency; the association between infection and different factors was established. The results showed that P. vivax was the species having the greatest frequency in the study population (61.4%), followed by P. malariae (43.8%) and P. falciparum (11.8%). The study revealed that 35.8% of the population had coinfection, the P. vivax/P. malariae combination occurring most frequently (28.3%); factors such as age, geographical origin and clinical manifestations were found to be associated with triple-infection. The prevalence reported in this study differed from previous studies in Colombia; the results suggest that diagnosis using conventional techniques could be giving rise to underestimating some Plasmodium spp. species having high circulation rates in Colombia (particularly in the Colombian Amazon region). The present study’s results revealed a high prevalence of P. malariae and mixed infections in the population being studied. The results provide relevant information which should facilitate updating the epidemiological panorama and species’ distribution so as to include control, prevention and follow-up measures. PMID:27467587

  6. Quinine levels in patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria in the Amazon region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Fernandes Vieira

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available We examined the plasmatic concentrations of quinine in patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria in an endemic area of the Amazon region in Brazil in a prospective clinical trial, in which a standard three-day course of oral quinine plus doxycycline was used. We measured the quinine in the plasma samples on days 0 and 3by high performance liquid chromatography. The mean concentration of quinine was 6.04 ±2.21 µg/mL in male patients and 5.98 ±1.95 µg/mL in female patients. No significant differences in quinine concentration were observed between these two groups. All samples collected before starting treatment were negative for quinine. This information could help in the development of strategies for the rational use of antimalarial drugs in Brazil.

  7. Performance of an immunochromatography test for vivax malaria in the Amazon region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Ferreira Figueiredo Filho

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the ICT malaria Pf/PvTM test for vivax malaria diagnosis in Belém, Amazon region, Brazil. The results of blood malaria parasites examination using an immunochromatography test were compared with thick blood film (TBF examination. It was also evaluated the performance of this test storaged at three different temperatures (25°C, 30°C, and 37°C for 24 hours before use. Overall sensitivity of ICT Pf/PvTM was 61.8% with a specificity of 100%, positive and negative predictive value of 100% and 71.8%, respectively and accuracy of 80.6%. The test sensitivity was independent of the parasite density. This test needs to be further reviewed in order to have better performance for P. vivax malaria diagnosis.

  8. Performance of an immunochromatography test for vivax malaria in the Amazon region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueiredo Filho Alberto Ferreira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the ICT malaria Pf/PvTM test for vivax malaria diagnosis in Belém, Amazon region, Brazil. The results of blood malaria parasites examination using an immunochromatography test were compared with thick blood film (TBF examination. It was also evaluated the performance of this test storaged at three different temperatures (25degreesC, 30degreesC, and 37degreesC for 24 hours before use. Overall sensitivity of ICT Pf/PvTM was 61.8% with a specificity of 100%, positive and negative predictive value of 100% and 71.8%, respectively and accuracy of 80.6%. The test sensitivity was independent of the parasite density. This test needs to be further reviewed in order to have better performance for P. vivax malaria diagnosis.

  9. Bovine herpesvirus 6 in buffaloes (Bubalus bulalis) from the Amazon region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Cairo Henrique Sousa; de Oliveira, Fernanda Gonçalves; Gasparini, Marcela Ribeiro; Galinari, Grazielle Cossenzo Florentino; Lima, Graciela Kunrath; Fonseca, Antônio Augusto; Barbosa, José Diomedes; Barbosa-Stancioli, Edel Figueiredo; Leite, Rômulo Cerqueira; Dos Reis, Jenner Karlisson Pimenta

    2015-02-01

    This study presents the first description of Bovine herpesvirus 6 (BoHV-6) that was isolated from buffaloes of Amazon region in Brazil. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the BoHV-6 Brazilian strains clustered with the sequence of BoHV-6 from elsewhere available at the GenBank. It was observed in some buffaloes with lymphoproliferative disease in one herd, thus the animals were also tested for Bovine leukemia virus (BLV), which has been associated to lymphoma in bovines. All animals were negative to BLV. These results indicate that BoHV-6 is present in buffaloes in Brazil, but the importance and impact of this infection and its association with any illness is still undefined.

  10. Absence of Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection in buffaloes from Amazon and southeast region in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira, Cairo H S; Resende, Cláudia F; Oliveira, Carlos M C; Barbosa, José D; Fonseca, Antônio A; Leite, Rômulo C; Reis, Jenner K P

    2016-07-01

    Enzootic bovine leucosis is an infectious disease caused by Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and is well described in bovines. The majority of infected animals are asymptomatic, one to five percent develop lymphoma and from 30 to 50% present a persistent lymphocytosis. The virus occurs naturally in cattle and experimentally in buffaloes, capybaras and rabbits. The occurrence of lymphoma in buffaloes has been attributed to BLV infection by some authors in India and Venezuela, but not confirmed by other studies and little information on natural BLV infection in buffaloes is available. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of BLV in a sub-sample of buffalo from Amazon and southeast regions in Brazil. Three hundred and fifteen serum samples were negative using commercial AGID and ELISA (ELISA-gp51) which detect anti-BLV glycoprotein gp51 antibodies. The same samples were also evaluated for antibodies to whole virus through a commercial ELISA (ELISA-BLV) in which 77 (24.44%) were found seropositive and two (0.63%) inconclusive. On the other hand, all animals were negative by PCR to BLV targeted to the env and tax genes. These results suggest that ELISA-BLV produces false positive results in buffalo serum (pAmazon basin and the southeast region of Brazil. Serological tests, like ELISA-BLV, usually used for cattle may produce false-positive results for BLV in buffaloes and direct detection tests such as PCR should be chosen in these surveys. The occurrence of lymphoma in buffalo was not associated with BLV infection in the one case analyzed in this work and the etiology and pathogenesis of this disease should be clarified.

  11. Contribution of regional sources to atmospheric methane over the Amazon Basin in 2010 and 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Chris; Gloor, Manuel; Gatti, Luciana V.; Miller, John B.; Monks, Sarah A.; McNorton, Joey; Bloom, A. Anthony; Basso, Luana S.; Chipperfield, Martyn P.

    2016-03-01

    We present an assessment of methane (CH4) atmospheric concentrations over the Amazon Basin for 2010 and 2011 using a 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model, two wetland emission models, and new observations made during biweekly flights made over four locations within the basin. We attempt to constrain basin-wide CH4 emissions using the observations, and since 2010 was an unusually dry year, we assess the effect of this drought on Amazonian methane emissions. We find that South American emissions contribute up to 150 ppb to concentrations at the sites, mainly originating from within the basin. Our atmospheric model simulations agree reasonably well with measurements at three of the locations (0.28 ≤ r2 ≤ 0.63, mean bias ≤ 9.5 ppb). Attempts to improve the simulated background CH4 concentration through analysis of simulated and observed sulphur hexafluoride concentrations do not improve the model performance, however. Through minimisation of seasonal biases between the simulated and observed atmospheric concentrations, we scale our prior emission inventories to derive total basin-wide methane emissions of 36.5-41.1 Tg(CH4)/yr in 2010 and 31.6-38.8 Tg(CH4)/yr in 2011. These totals suggest that the Amazon contributes significantly (up to 7%) to global CH4 emissions. Our analysis indicates that factors other than precipitation, such as temperature variations or tree mortality, may have affected microbial emission rates. However, given the uncertainty of our emission estimates, we cannot say definitively whether the noncombustion emissions from the region were different in 2010 and 2011, despite contrasting meteorological conditions between the two years.

  12. Spatial analysis spotlighting early childhood leprosy transmission in a hyperendemic municipality of the Brazilian Amazon region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josafá Gonçalves Barreto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: More than 200,000 new cases of leprosy were reported by 105 countries in 2011. The disease is a public health problem in Brazil, particularly within high-burden pockets in the Amazon region where leprosy is hyperendemic among children. METHODOLOGY: We applied geographic information systems and spatial analysis to determine the spatio-temporal pattern of leprosy cases in a hyperendemic municipality of the Brazilian Amazon region (Castanhal. Moreover, we performed active surveillance to collect clinical, epidemiological and serological data of the household contacts of people affected by leprosy and school children in the general population. The occurrence of subclinical infection and overt disease among the evaluated individuals was correlated with the spatio-temporal pattern of leprosy. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The pattern of leprosy cases showed significant spatio-temporal heterogeneity (p<0.01. Considering 499 mapped cases, we found spatial clusters of high and low detection rates and spatial autocorrelation of individual cases at fine spatio-temporal scales. The relative risk of contracting leprosy in one specific cluster with a high detection rate is almost four times the risk in the areas of low detection rate (RR = 3.86; 95% CI = 2.26-6.59; p<0.0001. Eight new cases were detected among 302 evaluated household contacts: two living in areas of clusters of high detection rate and six in hyperendemic census tracts. Of 188 examined students, 134 (71.3% lived in hyperendemic areas, 120 (63.8% were dwelling less than 100 meters of at least one reported leprosy case, 125 (66.5% showed immunological evidence (positive anti-PGL-I IgM titer of subclinical infection, and 9 (4.8% were diagnosed with leprosy (8 within 200 meters of a case living in the same area. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Spatial analysis provided a better understanding of the high rate of early childhood leprosy transmission in this region. These findings can be applied to guide

  13. Biomass energy for the economic sustain ability of isolated communities in the Amazon region; Energia de biomassa para a sustentabilidade economica das comunidades isoladas da Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lascio, Marco Alfredo di [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica; Freitas, Marcos Aurelio V. [Agencia Nacional de Energia Eletrica (ANEEL), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Superintendencia de Recursos Hidricos; Marques, Ana Claudia S. [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Dept. de Economia

    1999-07-01

    This work evaluates the use of forestry biomass as energy source for dispersed communities in the Amazon region. The photovoltaic alternative is also presented, including the experience obtained with two demonstration photovoltaic installations in the state of Rondonia, Brazil.

  14. Molecular detection of bovine immunodeficiency virus in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) from the Amazon region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albernaz, Tatiane Teles; Leite, Rômulo Cerqueira; Reis, Jenner Karlison Pimenta; de Sousa Rodrigues, Ana Paula; da Cunha Kassar, Telissa; Resende, Claudia Fideles; de Oliveira, Cairo Henrique Sousa; Silva, Rafaela das Mercês; Salvarani, Felipe Masiero; Barbosa, José Diomedes

    2015-12-01

    Bovine immunodeficiency is a chronic progressive disease caused by a lentivirus that affects cattle and buffaloes. Although the infection has been described in cattle in some countries, including in Brazil, there are only two reports of infection in buffaloes: one in Pakistan and one in Cambodia. The aim of the present study was to survey the occurrence of bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) in water buffaloes from the Amazon region, Pará state, Brazil. BIV proviral DNA was surveyed in 607 whole blood samples of water buffaloes from 10 farms located in the state of Pará using semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (PCR-SN) to amplify the pol region of the viral genome. Of the 607 samples tested, 27 (4.4 %) were positive for BIV proviral DNA. The amplified fragments were confirmed by sequence analysis after cloning and nucleotide sequencing. The sequence obtained had 99 % similarity to the reference strain (R-29). The present study provides important epidemiological data because BIV was detected for the first time in water buffaloes in Brazil. Further, the results suggest the possibility of the virus being a risk factor for herd health because it may be a potential causal agent of chronic disease and, also may be associated to other infectious diseases.

  15. Molecular detection of bovine immunodeficiency virus in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) from the Amazon region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albernaz, Tatiane Teles; Leite, Rômulo Cerqueira; Reis, Jenner Karlison Pimenta; de Sousa Rodrigues, Ana Paula; da Cunha Kassar, Telissa; Resende, Claudia Fideles; de Oliveira, Cairo Henrique Sousa; Silva, Rafaela das Mercês; Salvarani, Felipe Masiero; Barbosa, José Diomedes

    2015-12-01

    Bovine immunodeficiency is a chronic progressive disease caused by a lentivirus that affects cattle and buffaloes. Although the infection has been described in cattle in some countries, including in Brazil, there are only two reports of infection in buffaloes: one in Pakistan and one in Cambodia. The aim of the present study was to survey the occurrence of bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) in water buffaloes from the Amazon region, Pará state, Brazil. BIV proviral DNA was surveyed in 607 whole blood samples of water buffaloes from 10 farms located in the state of Pará using semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (PCR-SN) to amplify the pol region of the viral genome. Of the 607 samples tested, 27 (4.4 %) were positive for BIV proviral DNA. The amplified fragments were confirmed by sequence analysis after cloning and nucleotide sequencing. The sequence obtained had 99 % similarity to the reference strain (R-29). The present study provides important epidemiological data because BIV was detected for the first time in water buffaloes in Brazil. Further, the results suggest the possibility of the virus being a risk factor for herd health because it may be a potential causal agent of chronic disease and, also may be associated to other infectious diseases. PMID:26174574

  16. Antigenic cross-reactivity and immunogenicity of Bothrops venoms from snakes of the Amazon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Maria de Fátima D; Cardoso, Silvia Travaglia; Soares, Oscar Espellet; Pereira, Aparecida Pietro; Fernandes, Daniel Silva; Tambourgi, Denise Vilarinho; Sant'Anna, Osvaldo Augusto

    2010-04-01

    Snakebites are still a critical public health problem in developing countries or isolated areas. In Brazil, the North Region has a high distribution coefficient worsened by the significant number of eventually unreported cases, due to difficulties in access to health services, to the natural geographic barriers and the vast territory. In the Rio Negro area, the species Bothrops atrox, Bothrops brazili, Lachesis muta muta and Bothriopsis taeniata are thought to be the major species responsible for snakebites. The aim of this study was to qualitatively and quantitatively determine the antigenic cross-reactivity and expression of toxins and the immunogenicity of Bothrops venom species of the Amazon and to evaluate the general efficacy of the therapeutic sera. The in vivo assays demonstrated that the defibrinating activity of B. taeniata venom was absent but that the lethal and hemorrhagic properties were more intense than in the B. atrox venom. The results evidence venom variability among the two B. atrox populations from two distinct Amazonian regions, which may reveal a subjacent speciation process. The results point to new aspects that may guide the improvement of anti-Bothropic therapeutic serum. PMID:20036275

  17. Cost-effectiveness of diagnostic for malaria in Extra-Amazon Region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Oliveira Maria Regina F

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid diagnostic tests (RDT for malaria have been demonstrated to be effective and they should replace microscopy in certain areas. Method The cost-effectiveness of five RDT and thick smear microscopy was estimated and compared. Data were collected on Brazilian Extra-Amazon Region. Data sources included the National Malaria Control Programme of the Ministry of Health, the National Healthcare System reimbursement table, laboratory suppliers and scientific literature. The perspective was that of the Brazilian public health system, the analytical horizon was from the start of fever until the diagnostic results provided to patient and the temporal reference was that of year 2010. Two costing methods were produced, based on exclusive-use microscopy or shared-use microscopy. The results were expressed in costs per adequately diagnosed cases in 2010 U.S. dollars. One-way sensitivity analysis was performed considering key model parameters. Results In the cost-effectiveness analysis with exclusive-use microscopy, the RDT CareStart™ was the most cost-effective diagnostic strategy. Microscopy was the most expensive and most effective, with an additional case adequately diagnosed by microscopy costing US$ 35,550.00 in relation to CareStart™. In opposite, in the cost-effectiveness analysis with shared-use microscopy, the thick smear was extremely cost-effective. Introducing into the analytic model with shared-use microscopy a probability for individual access to the diagnosis, assuming a probability of 100% of access for a public health system user to any RDT and, hypothetically, of 85% of access to microscopy, this test saw its effectiveness reduced and was dominated by the RDT CareStart™. Conclusion The analysis of cost-effectiveness of malaria diagnosis technologies in the Brazilian Extra-Amazon Region depends on the exclusive or shared use of the microscopy. Following the assumptions of this study, shared-use microscopy would be

  18. Tropical forest mapping at regional scale using the GRFM SAR mosaics over the Amazon in South America

    OpenAIRE

    Sgrenzaroli, M.

    2004-01-01

    The work described in this thesis concerns the estimation of tropical forest vegetation cover in the Amazon region using as data source a continental scale high resolution (100 m) radar mosaic as data source. The radar mosaic was compiled by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (NASA JPL) using approximately 2500 JERS-1 L-band scenes acquired in the context of the Global Rain Forest Mapping project by the National Agency for Space Development of Japan (NASDA).A novel classification scheme was develo...

  19. Satellite-based analysis of clouds and radiation properties of different vegetation types in the Brazilian Amazon region

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Nadine; Quaas, Johannes; Claussen, Martin; Reick, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Land-use changes impact the energy balance of the Earth system, and feedbacks in the Earth system can dampen or amplify this perturbation. We analyze here from satellite data the response of clouds and subsequently radiation to a change of land use for the example of deforestation in the Amazon Basin. In this region, the characteristics of different cloud types over two vegetation types (forest and crop-/grasslands) were calculated for a time period of five years by using satellite data...

  20. Improving the organisation and commercialisation of small coffee and cocoa producers in the Northern Amazon Region of Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Viteri, Oswaldo; Ramos Martín, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    Coffee and cocoa represent the main sources of income for small farmers in the Northern Amazon Region of Ecuador. The provinces of Orellana and Sucumbios, as border areas, have benefited from investments made by many public and private institutions. Many of the projects carried out in the area have been aimed at energising the production of coffee and cocoa, strengthening the producers’ associations and providing commercialisation infrastructure. Improving the quality of life of this populati...

  1. Landscape and soil regionalization in southern Brazilian Amazon and contiguous areas: methodology and relevance for ecological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Volkoff

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Soils of a large tropical area with differentiated landscapes cannot be treated uniformly for ecological applications. We intend to develop a framework based on physiography that can be used in regional applications. The study region occupies more than 1.1 million km² and is located at the junction of the savanna region of Central Brazil and the Amazon forest. It includes a portion of the high sedimentary Central Brazil plateau and large areas of mostly peneplained crystalline shield on the border of the wide inner-Amazon low sedimentary plain. A first broad subdivision was made into landscape regions followed by a more detailed subdivision into soil regions. Mapping information was extracted from soil survey maps at scales of 1:250000-1:500000. Soil units were integrated within a homogenized legend using a set of selected attributes such as taxonomic term, the texture of the B horizon and the associated vegetation. For each region, a detailed inventory of the soil units with their area distribution was elaborated. Ten landscape regions and twenty-four soil regions were recognized and delineated. Soil cover of a region is normally characterized by a cluster composed of many soil units. Soil diversity is comparable in the landscape and the soil regions. Composition of the soil cover is quantitatively expressed in terms of area extension of the soil units. Such geographic divisions characterized by grouping soil units and their spatial estimates must be used for regional ecological applications.

  2. Observations of atmospheric monoaromatic hydrocarbons at urban, semi-urban and forest environments in the Amazon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paralovo, Sarah L.; Borillo, Guilherme C.; Barbosa, Cybelli G. G.; Godoi, Ana Flavia L.; Yamamoto, Carlos I.; de Souza, Rodrigo A. F.; Andreoli, Rita V.; Costa, Patrícia S.; Almeida, Gerson P.; Manzi, Antonio O.; Pöhlker, Christopher; Yáñez-Serrano, Ana M.; Kesselmeier, Jürgen; Godoi, Ricardo H. M.

    2016-03-01

    The Amazon region is one of the most significant natural ecosystems on the planet. Of special interest as a major study area is the interface between the forest and Manaus city, a state capital in Brazil embedded in the heart of the Amazon forest. In view of the interactions between natural and anthropogenic processes, an integrated experiment was conducted measuring the concentrations of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and meta, ortho, para-xylene (known as BTEX), all of them regarded as pollutants with harmful effects on human health and vegetation and acting also as important precursors of tropospheric ozone. Furthermore, these compounds also take part in the formation of secondary organic aerosols, which can influence the pattern of cloud formation, and thus the regional water cycle and climate. The samples were collected in 2012/2013 at three different sites: (i) The Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO), a pristine rain forest region in the central Amazon Basin; (ii) Manacapuru, a semi-urban site located southwest and downwind of Manaus as a preview of the Green Ocean Amazon Experiment (GoAmazon 2014/15); and (iii) the city of Manaus (distributed over three sites). Results indicate that there is an increase in pollutant concentrations with increasing proximity to urban areas. For instance, the benzene concentration ranges were 0.237-19.6 (Manaus), 0.036-0.948 (Manacapuru) and 0.018-0.313 μg m-3 (ATTO). Toluene ranges were 0.700-832 (Manaus), 0.091-2.75 μg m-3 (Manacapuru) and 0.011-4.93 (ATTO). For ethylbenzene, they were 0.165-447 (Manaus), 0.018-1.20 μg m-3 (Manacapuru) and 0.047-0.401 (ATTO). Some indication was found for toluene to be released from the forest. No significant difference was found between the BTEX levels measured in the dry season and the wet seasons. Furthermore, it was observed that, in general, the city of Manaus seems to be less impacted by these pollutants than other cities in Brazil and in other

  3. Avian influenza virus (H11N9 in migratory shorebirds wintering in the Amazon Region, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen de Araujo

    Full Text Available Aquatic birds are the natural reservoir for avian influenza viruses (AIV. Habitats in Brazil provide stopover and wintering sites for water birds that migrate between North and South America. The current study was conducted to elucidate the possibility of the transport of influenza A viruses by birds that migrate annually between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. In total, 556 orotracheal/cloacal swab samples were collected for influenza A virus screening using real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR. The influenza A virus-positive samples were subjected to viral isolation. Four samples were positive for the influenza A matrix gene by rRT-PCR. From these samples, three viruses were isolated, sequenced and characterized. All positive samples originated from a single bird species, the ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres, that was caught in the Amazon region at Caeté Bay, Northeast Pará, at Ilha de Canelas. To our knowledge, this is the first isolation of H11N9 in the ruddy turnstone in South America.

  4. Organic production of tomatoes in the amazon region by plants grafted on wild Solanum rootstocks

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    Elaine Aparecida de Paula Farias

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The production of organically grown tomatoes in the Amazonian region of Brazil is difficult due to inherent phytosanitary issues. The objectives of the present investigation were to evaluate the productivity of grafted tomato plants (Solanumlycopersicum cv. Santa Adélia grown organically in Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil, and to assess scion/rootstock compatibility under organic growth conditions. The Solanum species employed as rootstocks were S. gilo (jiló, S. lycocarpum (jurubebão, S. stramonifolium (jurubeba vermelha and S. viarum (joá, while the susceptible S.lycopersicum cultivar Santa Adélia was the scion. Ungrafted tomato plants and tomato grafted on tomato rootstock were employed as controls. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized block design with six treatments and five repetitions of five plants each. Data were submitted to analysis of variance and the significance of differences between treatments were determined using the Tukey test (P<0.05. All ungrafted tomato plants and those comprising tomato grafted on S.lycopersicum rootstock became infected by brown rot and perished. The total numbers of fruits, numbers of marketable fruits, mean masses of fruits, total productivities and productivities of marketable fruits associated with tomato grafted on S. gilo, S. lycocarpum and S. stramonifolium rootstocks were significantly higher (P<0.05 than the equivalent values obtained with tomato grafted on S. viarum rootstock. S. gilo exhibited the best compatibility index (1.11 of all rootstock/scion combinations studied. It is concluded that tomato grafted on S. gilo, S. lycocarpum and S. stramonifolium rootstocks represent viable alternatives for the production of organic tomatoes in the Amazon region.

  5. The AIDS epidemic in the Amazon region: a spatial case-control study in Rondonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rita Donalisio

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze spatial changes in the risk of AIDS and the relationship between AIDS incidence and socioeconomic variables in the state of Rondonia, Amazon region. METHODS A spatial, population case-control study in Rondonia, Brazil, based on 1,780 cases reported to the Epidemiological Surveillance System and controls based on demographic data from 1987 to 2006. The cases were grouped into five consecutive four-year periods. A generalized additive model was adjusted to the data; the dependent variable was the status of the individuals (case or control, and the independent variables were a bi-dimensional spline of the geographic coordinates and some municipality-level socioeconomic variables. The observed values of the Moran’s I test were compared to a reference distribution of values generated under conditions of spatial randomness. RESULTS AIDS risk shows a marked spatial and temporal pattern. The disease incidence is related to socioeconomic variables at the municipal level in Rondônia, such as urbanization and human capital. The highest incidence rates of AIDS are in municipalities along the BR-364 highway and calculations of the Moran’s I test show positive spatial correlation associated with proximity of the municipality to the highway in the third and fourth periods (p = 0.05. CONCLUSIONS Incidence of the disease is higher in municipalities of greater economic wealth and urbanization, and in those municipalities bisected by Rondônia’s main roads. The rapid development associated with the opening up of once remote regions may be accompanied by an increase in these risks to health.

  6. THE EMERGENCE OF NEW SOCIOPRODUCTIVE PRACTICES AND INNOVATIVE CAPACITY OF SMALL FARMERS IN AREAS OF AGRARIAN FRONTIER THE CASE OF THE REGION OF MARABÁ, IN THE EASTERN AMAZON

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Myriam; Almeida, Jalcione

    2010-01-01

    N° ISBN - 978-2-7380-1284-5 International audience The emergence of new socio-productive practices and innovative capacity of small farmers in areas of agrarian frontier : the case of the region of Marabá, in the eastern Amazon. The agrarian frontier of Maraba, in the eastern Amazon, has historically been marked by a pattern of exploitation and highly aggressive predator of the environment, a pattern linked to processes of occupation and it developed a fierce dispute between the differe...

  7. Pre-Columbian land use in the ring-ditch region of the Bolivian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Carson, John; Watling, Jennifer; Mayle, Frank; Whitney, Bronwen S.; Iriarte, Jose; Prumers , Heiko; Soto, J. Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The nature and extent of pre-Columbian (pre-1492 AD) human impact in Amazonia is a contentious issue. The Bolivian Amazon has yielded some of the most impressive evidence for large and complex pre-Columbian societies in the Amazon basin, yet there remains relatively little data concerning the land use of these societies over time. Palaeoecology, when integrated with archaeological data, has the potential to fill these gaps in our knowledge. We present a 6,000-year record of anthropogenic b...

  8. Growth curve of female collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu raised in captivity in the Brazilian Amazon Region

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    A.D.V. Garnero

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to determine the most suitable nonlinear model to describe the growth of female collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu. The monthly records of the weight of 10 captive female collared peccaries over a period of two years in the Brazilian Amazon Region were used. The growth models used were the Von Bertalanffy, Brody, Gompertz and Logistic. The parameters were estimated by using the NLIN procedure from the SAS application. The criteria used to verify the adjustment of the models were: asymptotic standard deviation (ASD; coefficient of determination (R²; average absolute residual deviation (ARD and the asymptotic rate (AR. The Brody model and the Logistic model estimated the highest (19.44kg and the lowest (19.18kg asymptotic weight (A, indicating the lowest (0.0070kg/day and the highest (0.0121kg/day maturation rate (K. These results and the coefficients of phenotypic correlation that varied from -0.75 and -0.47 confirmed the antagonistic nature between these parameters. The Brody model estimated the lower value for ARD, a limiting factor for describing the lowest value for AR through this model. The Brody model showed the best adjustment for AR, although the other models also showed a suitable adjustment to the weight data of said species/gender. Based on the AR obtained in this work, the Brody model is recommended for adjusting the growth curve of the female collared peccaries. Depending on the estimated values, especially for K, this trait can be included in a selection index.

  9. Offspring production in three freshwater crab species (Brachyura: Pseudothelphusidae from the Amazon region and Central America

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    Ingo S. Wehrtmann

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater crabs are an important component of the fauna of limnic environments, and out of the two true freshwater crab families present in the Neotropics, Pseudothelphusidae is the most diverse. Considering the lack of information regarding reproductive features of neotropical freshwater crabs, we studied, for the first time, the fecundity and the presence of juveniles carried by females of two pseudothelphusids from the Amazon region - Kingsleya latifrons (Randall, 1840 and Kingsleya ytupora Magalhães, 1986 - and one from Central America - Potamocarcinus magnus (Rathbun, 1896. The two Kingsleya species produced relatively few (56-114 and large eggs (1.9-3.7 mm, typical for species with an abbreviated or direct development. Recently produced eggs were substantially larger in K. latifrons (mean 2.83 mm when compared to those of K. ytupora (mean 1.87 mm; however, at the end of the embryogenesis, mean egg diameter was similar in both species. Therefore, it is assumed that hatchlings in both species should have a similar size. A brief description of attached juveniles of K. ytupora is provided. The number of juveniles varied between 30 (K. ytupora and 179 (P. magnus; two size groups of juveniles were found, which indicates that the offspring cling to their mother for a prolonged period of time. There was no significant loss of eggs and juveniles; it is assumed that parental care diminishes the loss of their offspring. We compiled the available information of reproductive aspects from freshwater crabs: egg diameter was in the range of 2-3 mm, independent of female size and fecundity, and reported egg number varied between 9 and 417 eggs.

  10. Genetic diversity and population structure of the New World screwworm fly from the Amazon region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrangelo, Thiago; Fresia, Pablo; Lyra, Mariana L; Rodrigues, Rosangela A; Azeredo-Espin, Ana Maria L

    2014-10-01

    Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) is a myiasis fly that causes economic losses to livestock farmers in warmer American regions. Previous studies of this pest had found population structure at north and south of the Amazon Basin, which was considered to be a barrier to dispersal. The present study analyzed three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers and eight nuclear microsatellite loci to investigate for the first time the genetic diversity and population structure across the Brazilian Amazon region (Amazonia). Both mtDNA and microsatellite data supported the existence of much diversity and significant population structure among nine regional populations of C. hominivorax, which was found to be surprisingly common in Amazonia. Forty-six mtDNA haplotypes were identified, of which 39 were novel and seven had previously been found only at south of Amazonia. Seventy microsatellite alleles were identified by size, moderate to high values of heterozygosity were discovered in all regions, and a Bayesian clustering analysis identified four genetic groups that were not geographically distributed. Reproductive compatibility was also investigated by laboratory crossing, but no evidence of hybrid dysgenesis was found between an Amazonian colony and one each of from Northeast and Southeast Brazil. The results have important implications for area-wide control by the Sterile Insect Technique. PMID:24731964

  11. Genetic diversity and population structure of the New World screwworm fly from the Amazon region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrangelo, Thiago; Fresia, Pablo; Lyra, Mariana L; Rodrigues, Rosangela A; Azeredo-Espin, Ana Maria L

    2014-10-01

    Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) is a myiasis fly that causes economic losses to livestock farmers in warmer American regions. Previous studies of this pest had found population structure at north and south of the Amazon Basin, which was considered to be a barrier to dispersal. The present study analyzed three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers and eight nuclear microsatellite loci to investigate for the first time the genetic diversity and population structure across the Brazilian Amazon region (Amazonia). Both mtDNA and microsatellite data supported the existence of much diversity and significant population structure among nine regional populations of C. hominivorax, which was found to be surprisingly common in Amazonia. Forty-six mtDNA haplotypes were identified, of which 39 were novel and seven had previously been found only at south of Amazonia. Seventy microsatellite alleles were identified by size, moderate to high values of heterozygosity were discovered in all regions, and a Bayesian clustering analysis identified four genetic groups that were not geographically distributed. Reproductive compatibility was also investigated by laboratory crossing, but no evidence of hybrid dysgenesis was found between an Amazonian colony and one each of from Northeast and Southeast Brazil. The results have important implications for area-wide control by the Sterile Insect Technique.

  12. Complete genome sequence of Deltapapillomavirus 4 (bovine papillomavirus 2) from a bovine papillomavirus lesion in Amazon Region, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daudt, Cíntia; da Silva, Flavio RC; Cibulski, Samuel P; Weber, Matheus N; Mayer, Fabiana Q; Varela, Ana Paula M; Roehe, Paulo M; Canal, Cláudio W

    2016-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of bovine papillomavirus 2 (BPV2) from Brazilian Amazon Region was determined using multiple-primed rolling circle amplification followed by Illumina sequencing. The genome is 7,947 bp long, with 45.9% GC content. It encodes seven early (E1, E2,E4, E5, E6,E7, and E8) and two late (L1 and L2) genes. The complete genome of a BPV2 can help in future studies since this BPV type is highly reported worldwide although the lack of complete genome sequences available. PMID:27074259

  13. Complete genome sequence of Deltapapillomavirus 4 (bovine papillomavirus 2 from a bovine papillomavirus lesion in Amazon Region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Daudt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The complete genome sequence of bovine papillomavirus 2 (BPV2 from Brazilian Amazon Region was determined using multiple-primed rolling circle amplification followed by Illumina sequencing. The genome is 7,947 bp long, with 45.9% GC content. It encodes seven early (E1, E2,E4, E5, E6,E7, and E8 and two late (L1 and L2 genes. The complete genome of a BPV2 can help in future studies since this BPV type is highly reported worldwide although the lack of complete genome sequences available.

  14. Terrestrial Carbon Sinks in the Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado Region Predicted from MODIS Satellite Data and Ecosystem Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, C.; Klooster, S.; Huete, A.; Genovese, V.; Bustamante, M.; Ferreira, L. Guimaraes; deOliveira, R. C., Jr.; Zepp, R.

    2009-01-01

    A simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation cover from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to estimate monthly carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado regions over the period 2000-2004. Net ecosystem production (NEP) flux for atmospheric CO2 in the region for these years was estimated. Consistently high carbon sink fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems on a yearly basis were found in the western portions of the states of Acre and Rondonia and the northern portions of the state of Par a. These areas were not significantly impacted by the 2002-2003 El Nino event in terms of net annual carbon gains. Areas of the region that show periodically high carbon source fluxes from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere on yearly basis were found throughout the state of Maranhao and the southern portions of the state of Amazonas. As demonstrated though tower site comparisons, NEP modeled with monthly MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) inputs closely resembles the measured seasonal carbon fluxes at the LBA Tapajos tower site. Modeling results suggest that the capacity for use of MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) data to predict seasonal uptake rates of CO2 in Amazon forests and Cerrado woodlands is strong.

  15. An Unusual Association between Chromoblastomycosis and Jorge Lobo’s Disease in the Same Patient from the Amazon Region

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    Maurimelia M. da Costa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A clinical case of co-infection Cladophialophora sp. and Lacazia loboi is described and in a same patient with an 18-year history of verrucous plaques and parakeloidal nodular lesions. A 50-year-old man, a laborer, living in the Anajas city, Para, Brazil (rural Amazon region, was seen at the Evandro Chagas Institute’s ambulatory. Histopathological analysis revealed intense hyperplasia and hyperkeratosis of the epidermis, sometimes showing well-circumscribed areas of an intraepidermal suppurative content intermingled with round and brownish structures. The papillary and reticular dermis was characterized by fibrosis and a granulomatous reaction consisting of lymphocytes, histiocytes and giant cells permeated by suppurative inflammatory foci and multiple round fungal structures mainly arranged amidst a neutrophilic inflammatory infiltrate. The clinical material collected from the lesion was submitted to direct mycological examination using 20% KOH solution and lactophenol cotton blue, which revealed the presence of yeast-like cells with a double membrane arranged in groups, a characteristic of Lacazia loboi, as well as sclerotic cells characteristic of chromoblastomycosis. Culture of the specimen on Mycosel agar and microculture on potato agar showed the typical morphology of Cladophialophora sp. The association of these two fungi causing lesions and inducing long-term disease may indicate a similarity in the characteristics of the habitat of these agents in the Amazon region."

  16. Terrestrial Carbon Fluxes from Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado Regions Predicted from MODIS Satellite Data and Ecosystem Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klooster, S.; Potter, C.; Genovese, V.

    2008-12-01

    The NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation cover from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to estimate tropical forest and savanna (Cerrado) carbon pools for the Brazilian Amazon region over the period 2000-2004. Adjustments for mean age of forest stands were carried out across the region, resulting in a new mapping of aboveground biomass pools based on MODIS satellite data. Yearly maps of newly deforested lands from the Brazilian PRODES (Programa de calculo do desflorestamento da Amazonia ) project were combined with these NASA-CASA biomass predictions to generate seasonal budgets of potential carbon and nitrogen trace gas losses from biomass burning events. Simulations of plant residue and soil carbon decomposition were conducted in the NASA-CASA model during and following deforestation events to track the fate of aboveground biomass pools that were cut and burned each year across the region.

  17. Study of Organic Matter in Soils of the Amazon Region Employing Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadini, Amanda Maria; Nicolodelli, Gustavo; Mounier, Stéphane; Montes, Célia Regina; Marcondes Bastos Pereira Milori, Débora

    2014-05-01

    In the face of climate change and increasing CO2 levels in the atmosphere, the global carbon cycle, soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration, and the role of different world biomes as potential sources and sinks of carbon are receiving increasing attention. Carbon quantification is an important environmental indicator, but the structure of organic matter is also important because is related to carbon stability. The synthesis of soil organic matter (SOM), as presented in soils of forest vegetation, can be originated from condensation polymeric polyphenols and quinones that are responsible for controlling the main physical-chemical properties of soils. These systems are present in humic substances, representing the major fluorophore of SOM[1-3]. Abiotic factors, such as soil texture, use and occupation of soil, can influence on the process of SOM formation, molecular structure and in its humification index[4]. Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy (LIFS) have become a promising technique for assessing humification index of SOM (HLIFS). In this context, the aim of this study was to analyze the humification index of the SOM in the region of Barcelos (Amazon) employing LIFS. The study area was the region of Barcelos, close the river Demeni. The whose vegetation distribution in this area, is two biomes the Dense Ombrophylous Forest (DPQD) and Campinarana (DPQT), with areas of edaphic contacts between these two phytophysiognomies, which ranged from Open field (FDE) to closed Depression (DPQ). Preliminary results showed that the area closed Depression (DPQ) there was a continuous gradient of humification with increasing soil depth. A similar behavior was verified for area Forest (DPQD), where the highest values of HLIFS were obtained between the four points analyzed, indicating the magnitude of the molecular recalcitrance this organic matter in this area. The results obtained for area Campinarana (DPQT) and Open field (FDE) showed an opposite behavior. These points there

  18. Environmental hazard of pesticides applied in the border region between Platinum and Amazon Basins at the turn to century XXI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno Rieder

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To reveal the environmental risk of pesticide prescribed in a border region between the Amazon and Platinum Basins, at the turn of the 21st century. Methods: The study used data of agronomic prescriptions for pesticides issued in the biennium of 1999-2000 in 24 cities located in a border region between the Amazon and Platinum Basins, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Results: The most widely used pesticides in the study region are class II (very dangerous and III (dangerous in number of prescriptions (N = 2,828, 86.8% andquantity prescribed (N = 344,765, 90.4%. Among class III pesticides, a strong inversion was observed in the number of prescriptions (N = 1,274; 39.1% and quantity prescribed (N = 237,319; 62.2%, indicating a lower number of prescriptions, but with higher amountprescribed. The proportion of prescriptions for products amid the various classes of Potential of Environmental Dangers (PPA ranking model, apllied in Brazil changed over the two years (c2=20,814; DF=3; p < 0,01. The 10 most prescribed products (11 activecompounds were: glyphosate, 2,4-D, sulfluramid, chlorimuron ethyl, fipronil, diuron, paraquat, methamidophos, carbofuran, chlorpyrifos and lambda-cyhalothrin, and seven of them were ranked as PPA class I or II. Conclusions: The ratio between the number of pesticide prescriptions and the quantities prescribed among the various classes of PPA showed alteration over crop years. The most reported products in this border region were classified as the most dangerous ones, with diverse mechanisms of action and potential risksto living organisms. This suggests the need to define specific policies and carefully designed strategies to prevent environmental disaster in this region.

  19. Y-STR haplotypes of Native American populations from the Brazilian Amazon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palha, Teresinha Jesus Brabo Ferreira; Rodrigues, Elzemar Martins Ribeiro; dos Santos, Sidney Emanuel Batista

    2010-10-01

    The allele and haplotype frequencies of nine Y-STRs (DYS19, DYS389 I, DYS389 II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS385 I/II) were determined in a sample of six native tribes from the Brazilian Amazon (Tiriyó, Awa-Guajá, Waiãpi, Urubu-Kaapor, Zoé and Parakanã). Forty-eight different haplotypes were identified, 28 of which unique. Five haplotypes are very frequent and were shared by over 10 individuals. The estimated haplotype diversity (0.9114) was very low compared to other geographic groups, including Africans, Europeans and Asians. PMID:20457062

  20. Holocene Environmental Changes from the Rio Curuá Record in the Caxiuanã Region, Eastern Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behling, Hermann; da Costa, Marcondes Lima

    2000-05-01

    Holocene environments have been reconstructed by multiproxy studies of an 850-cm-long core from Rio Curuá dating to >8000 14C yr B.P. The low-energy river lies in the eastern Amazon rain forest in the Caxiuanã National Forest Reserve, 350 km west of Belém in northern Brazil. Sedimentological, mineralogical, and geochemical dates demonstrate that the deposits correspond to two different environments, sediments of an active river before 8000 14C yr B.P. and later a passive river system. The pollen analytical results indicate four different local and regional Holocene paleoenvironmental periods: (1) a transition to a passive fluvial system and a well-drained terra firme (unflooded upland) Amazon rain forest with very limited development of inundated forests (várzea and igapó) (>7990-7030 14C yr B.P.); (2) a sluggish river with a local Mauritia palm-swamp and similar regional vegetation, as before (7030-5970 14C yr B.P.); (3) a passive river, forming shallow lake conditions and with still-abundant terra firme forest in the study region (5970-2470 14C yr B.P.); and (4) a blocked river with high water levels and marked increase of inundated forests during the last 2470 14C yr B.P. Increased charcoal during this last period suggests the first strong presence of humans in this region. The Atlantic sea level rise was probably the major factor in paleoenvironmental changes, but high water stands might also be due to greater annual rainfall during the late Holocene.

  1. The universalization of the electric power services and the isolated communities of Amazon region, Brazil; A universalizacao dos servicos de energia eletrica e as comunidades isoladas da amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Celia Salama de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PPE/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents the main characteristics of non interconnected systems which composes the Brazilian Electric Power System, the difficulties of rural electrification at the Country, specially in the Amazon region, and the obstacles of Amazon state, Brazil, for transportation energy power to hinterland. The results of Program Light for All are also synthesized in this document, present the profile of communities yet not attended by the Program and will be reached up to the end of the year 2010, at the finalization of the Program.

  2. Studies on mercury contamination in the Brazilian Amazonic region using neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Intensive gold exploration activities started in Brazil in the 1980's, in the Amazonic region. Ever since, awareness of the general public and of the authorities has been growing, as to the dangers of environmental contamination by disposal of metallic mercury used for extraction of gold by amalgamation. It is estimated by Malm et al that around 2000 tonnes of mercury have been released in the Amazon in the last 20 years as a consequence of these activities. In the framework of a Project developed at the Radiochemistry Division of IPEN/CNEN-SP (Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission ) and with support from the IAEA first as a part of a Coordinated Research Programme and then as a Technical Cooperation Project a nuclear analytical technique, instrumental neutron activation analysis, INAA ,was applied to the study of mercury contamination in Brazilian Indian populations living in the Xingu Park Indian reservation, located in the Amazonic region. Hair samples from the Indians and from a control population were analysed for total mercury and very high concentrations of mercury were found in the Indians, with means up to about 20 times that of the control population. Following this work on analysis of hair samples of the Brazilian Indians, where the application of a nuclear technique allowed the analysis of mercury in about 400 samples, it is necessary to make a more complete study on this area, analyzing samples of fish and other foodstuffs consumed by the Indians, as well as soils and sediments of the region, in order to assess the sources of contamination. The hair samples of the Indians have been also analysed in this Project for methylmercury, a very toxic compound of mercury, which is able to surpass biological barriers like the placenta and cause severe damage to the nervous system of the fetus. With the collaboration of the Jozef Stefan Institute, of Ljubljana, Slovenia, methylmercury was analysed in many of the hair samples of the Indians, using another

  3. MODELING THE EFFECTS OF CLIMATE AND LAND USE CHANGE ON CARBON AND TRACE GAS BUDGETS OVER THE AMAZON REGION USING NASA SATELLITE PRODUCTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of the LBA-ECO Phase III synthesis efforts for remote sensing and predictive modeling of Amazon carbon, water, and trace gas fluxes, we are evaluating results from the regional ecosystem model called NASA-CASA (Carnegie-Ames Stanford Approach). The NASA-CASA model has bee...

  4. Evaluation of paleovegetation changes in the northwest part of the Amazon region, Brazil: a carbon isotope approach in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text. Numerous studies have focused on the understanding of the vegetation dynamics in the amazon region and its realtion to climate. The research approaches in these studies have involved the use of biological, geomorphologic and botanical tools, (1,2). Our approach involves the use of 13 and 14 C analyses in soil organic mater t infer past vegeation changes in the Amazon region (3). This is based on the distinct composition that characterize the C3 and C4 plants, that formed the different vegetation communities that exist in the Amazon region. 14 C used as a dating tool. This paper present data in soils collected in the Rondonia State, located in the northwestern part of the Amazon region. The soils were collected along a transect that include four distinct vegetation communities, ranging from a Cerrado type vegetation (southern part), dominated by C4 grasses, to a tropical forest (northern part). The soils types are Latossolo Vermelho Amarelo at the Cerrado, Cerrado-transition and forest-transition sites, and Podzolico Vermelho amarelo at the forest site. 14 C data obtained in total soil organic matter, humin fraction and charcoal indicate that the organic matterin these soils is at least Holocene in age. The forest and the forest-transition sites area characterized by typical δ 13 C profiles (-29 to -24 0/00), indicating the predominance of C3 plants during the past in this region. The Cerrado-transition sites show a significant change in δ 13 C from -27.5 0/00 at the surface to -19 0/00 at 30 cm. This value changed toward more depleted δ 13 C values at the 90-100 cm depth interval, reaching a value of -30 0/00 at 190-200 cm depth interval. This trend has to be associated to a change from a forest type vegetation (190-200 cm to 130-140 cm), to a vegetation community with a mayor influence of C4 palnts recorded i the interval between 110-120 to 20-23 cm depth. The δ 13 C values at the Cerrado sites are the more enriched ones observed in this study

  5. Inadequate management of natural ecosystem in the Brazilian Amazon region results in the emergence and reemergence of arboviruses

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    Vasconcelos Pedro F. C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 187 different species of arboviruses and other viruses in vertebrates were identified at the Evandro Chagas Institute (IEC from 1954 to 1998, among more than 10,000 arbovirus strains isolated from humans, hematophagous insects, and wild and sentinel vertebrates. Despite intensive studies in the Brazilian Amazon region, especially in Pará State, very little is known about most of these viruses, except for information on date, time, source, and method of isolation, as well as their capacity to infect laboratory animals. This paper reviews ecological and epidemiological data and analyzes the impact of vector and host population changes on various viruses as a result of profound changes in the natural environment. Deforestation, mining, dam and highway construction, human colonization, and urbanization were the main manmade environmental changes associated with the emergence and/or reemergence of relevant arboviruses, including some known pathogens for humans.

  6. Determination of mercury and selenium in hair samples of Brazilian Indian populations living in the Amazonic region by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomonitoring of mercury contamination of Brazilian Indian population groups living in the Xingu Park, a reservation situated in the Amazonic region, has revealed very high levels of mercury in hair samples as compared to controls. Total mercury was determined by INAA in most of the tribes living in the Park and methylmercury was determined by CVAAS in samples with total mercury above 10 mg/kg. Due to the fact that selenium seems to protect animals against the toxic effects of methylmercury, it was considered also of interest to determine its concentrations in the hair samples with very high mercury levels. Selenium was determined by INAA via the short-lived radionuclide 77mSe (T1/2 = 17.45 s). The correlations between selenium and mercury concentrations in Brazilian controls and in the Indian population groups are discussed. (author)

  7. Normative evaluation of blood banks in the Brazilian Amazon region in respect to the prevention of transfusion-transmitted malaria

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    Daniel Roberto Coradi Freitas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To evaluate blood banks in the Brazilian Amazon region with regard to structure and procedures directed toward the prevention of transfusion-transmitted malaria (TTM.Methods:This was a normative evaluation based on the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA Resolution RDC No. 153/2004. Ten blood banks were included in the study and classified as 'adequate' (≥80 points, 'partially adequate' (from 50 to 80 points, or 'inadequate' (<50 points. The following components were evaluated: 'donor education' (5 points, 'clinical screening' (40 points, 'laboratory screening' (40 points and 'hemovigilance' (15 points.Results:The overall median score was 49.8 (minimum = 16; maximum = 78. Five blood banks were classified as 'inadequate' and five as 'partially adequate'. The median clinical screening score was 26 (minimum = 16; maximum = 32. The median laboratory screening score was 20 (minimum = 0; maximum = 32. Eight blood banks performed laboratory tests for malaria; six tested all donations. Seven used thick smears, but only one performed this procedure in accordance with Ministry of Health requirements. One service had a Program of External Quality Evaluation for malaria testing. With regard to hemovigilance, two institutions reported having procedures to detect cases of transfusion-transmitted malaria.Conclusion:Malaria is neglected as a blood–borne disease in the blood banks of the Brazilian Amazon region. None of the institutions were classified as 'adequate' in the overall classification or with regard to clinical screening and laboratory screening. Blood bank professionals, the Ministry of Health and Health Surveillance service managers need to pay more attention to this matter so that the safety procedures required by law are complied with.

  8. High Infestation by Dawestrema cycloancistrioides in Arapaima gigas Cultured in the Amazon Region, Peru

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    Patrick D. Mathews

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of Dawestrema cycloancistrioides in semi-intensive fish farming of fingerlings of Arapaima gigas. Between September and November 2013, 60 individuals of A. gigas born in captivity, were collected in three concrete ponds, from a semi-intensive fish farm in the Peruvian Amazon. For the study of sclerotized structures, parasites were fixed in a solution of ammonium picrate glycerine and mounted in Canada balsam. To visualize internal structures, parasites were fixed in hot formaldehyde solution (4% for staining with Gomori’s trichrome. The parasitic indexes calculated were prevalence, mean intensity, and mean abundance. This study identified a high infestation of a monogenean D. cycloancistrioides in gills of A. gigas. The prevalence was 100%. The mean intensity and mean abundance of the parasite were 144.9 of parasites per individual. This study confirms the necessity of constant monitoring of fish in order to reduce fish mortality.

  9. Outbreak of acute Chagas disease associated with oral transmission in the Rio Negro region, Brazilian Amazon

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    Rita de Cássia de Souza-Lima

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Chagas disease is considered as emerging in the Brazilian Amazon, usually occurring in acute outbreaks. Methods We describe 17 cases of acute Chagas disease in Rio Negro, Amazonas. Results There were 15 males (average age, 31.3 years, all positive for Trypanosoma cruzi in fresh blood smear examination, and 14 positive by xenodiagnosis and PCR. The top clinical manifestations were fever, asthenia, abdominal pain, and palpitations. Electrocardiograms featured low-voltage QRS, anterosuperior divisional block, and right bundle branch block associated with anterosuperior divisional block. Conclusions All patients had consumed açaí products from Monte Alegre in the rural area around Santa Izabel do Rio Negro, Brazil.

  10. Outbreak of acute Chagas disease associated with oral transmission in the Rio Negro region, Brazilian Amazon

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    Rita de Cassia de Souza-Lima

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Chagas disease is considered as emerging in the Brazilian Amazon, usually occurring in acute outbreaks. Methods We describe 17 cases of acute Chagas disease in Rio Negro, Amazonas. Results There were 15 males (average age, 31.3 years, all positive for Trypanosoma cruzi in fresh blood smear examination, and 14 positive by xenodiagnosis and PCR. The top clinical manifestations were fever, asthenia, abdominal pain, and palpitations. Electrocardiograms featured low-voltage QRS, anterosuperior divisional block, and right bundle branch block associated with anterosuperior divisional block. Conclusions All patients had consumed açaí products from Monte Alegre in the rural area around Santa Izabel do Rio Negro, Brazil.

  11. Differences in virulence markers between Helicobacter pylori strains from the Brazilian Amazon region

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    Mario Ribeiro da Silva Junior

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This study compares virulence markers of Helicobacter pylori isolated from patients in 2 cities in the Brazilian Amazon. Methods The study analyzed 168 patients with chronic gastritis from Belém and 151 from Bragança, State of Pará, Brazil. Levels of bacterial DNA associated with cagA and vacA alleles were checked by PCR, and hematoxylin-eosin staining was used for histologic diagnosis. Results In Bragança 87% of patients were genotype s1m1 cagA-positive (s1m1 cagA+, compared with 76% in Belém. In samples from patients in both cities, there was an association between s1m1 cagA+ strains and gastric mucosal damage. Conclusions Both cities have a high frequency of s1m1 cagA+ strains of H. pylori.

  12. Improving Regional Dynamic Downscaling with Multiple Linear Regression Model Using Components Principal Analysis: Precipitation over Amazon and Northeast Brazil

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    Aline Gomes da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current context of climate change discussions, predictions of future scenarios of weather and climate are crucial for the generation of information of interest to the global community. Due to the atmosphere being a chaotic system, errors in predictions of future scenarios are systematically observed. Therefore, numerous techniques have been tested in order to generate more reliable predictions, and two techniques have excelled in science: dynamic downscaling, through regional models, and ensemble prediction, combining different outputs of climate models through the arithmetic average, in other words, a postprocessing of the output data species. Thus, this paper proposes a method of postprocessing outputs of regional climate models. This method consists in using the statistical tool multiple linear regression by principal components for combining different simulations obtained by dynamic downscaling with the regional climate model (RegCM4. Tests for the Amazon and Northeast region of Brazil (South America showed that the method provided a more realistic prediction in terms of average daily rainfall for the analyzed period prescribed, after comparing with the prediction made by set through the arithmetic averages of the simulations. This method photographed the extreme events (outlier that the prediction by averaging failed. Data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM were used to evaluate the method.

  13. Generation of electric energy in isolated rural communities in the Amazon Region a proposal for the autonomy and sustainability of the local populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Celia Salama [Energy and Environment Planning Program, COPPE/UFRJ - Cidade Universitaria, Centro de Tecnologia, Rio de Janeiro - RJ (Brazil); Rosa, Luiz Pinguelli [Energy and Environment Planning Program, COPPE/UFRJ - Director of COPPE/UFRJ - Cidade Universitaria, Centro de Tecnologia, Bloco G, sala 101, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro - RJ (Brazil); Silva, Neilton Fidelis da [IVIG/COPPE/UFRJ, CETS, Predio anexo ao Centro de Tecnologia, Rua Pedro Calmon, s/no. Cidade Universitaria, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro - RJ (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    The Brazilian Amazon Region is living with the consequences of governance based on predatory extraction of its natural resources, bringing little or no benefit to the local population. The region suffers from socioeconomic inequality and lack of basic infrastructure. The populations of the Amazon Region, if and when supplied with electricity at all, are provided with a low quality service based on energy generation from fossil fuels, subject to difficulties in terms of access and logistics, and negative environmental impacts. There have been programs aimed at the universalization of electricity services, such as the current Programa Luz para Todos (Light for All Program), but they have not succeeded in altering this scenario in the North region of the country. In this paper we present the result of these initiatives and an overview of the Isolated Systems in the Amazon Region. We propose in this paper that the provision of electric energy be effectively considered part of a plan for generating wealth and employment for the region's inhabitants, whilst preserving the environment. The solutions offered to each community should take into account the need to manage renewable energy sources, should be developed together with local populations, and drawing on the lessons learned from other projects. The specific characteristics and needs of the communities should be taken into account and local people should be empowered as citizens by means of their involvement in the development possibilities. (author)

  14. Formic and acetic acid over the central Amazon region, Brazil. I - Dry season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreae, M. O.; Andreae, T. W.; Talbot, R. W.; Harriss, R. C.

    1988-01-01

    The concentrations of formic and acetic acids in the gas phase, atmospheric aerosol, and rainwater samples collected in Amazonia at ground level and in the atmosphere during the Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment in July/August 1985 were analyzed by ion exchange chromatography. The diurnal behavior of both acids at ground level and their vertical distribution in the forest canopy point to the existence of vegetative sources as well as to production by chemical reactions in the atmosphere. The concentrations of formic and acetic acids in the gas phase were about 2 orders of magnitude higher than the corresponding concentrations in the atmospheric aerosol. In rainwater, the total formate and acetate represented about one half of the anion equivalents, in contrast to less than 10 percent of the soluble anionic equivalents contributed by these acids in the atmospheric aerosol. The observed levels of these ions in rainwater are considered to be the result of a combination of chemical reactions in hydrometeors and the scavenging of the gaseous acids by cloud droplets.

  15. Study on the environmental costs of the hydroelectric power plants impact on the amazon region biodiversity; Estudos dos custos ambientais do impacto de usinas hidreletricas na biodiversidade da regiao amazonica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinguelli Rosa, Luiz; Sherrill, Elisabeth I.; Santos, Marco Aurelio dos

    1996-03-01

    This document aims to correlate the hydroelectric power plants constructed and forecasted to the amazon region with biodiversity questions, focusing the related environmental costs under two viewpoints: the environment economy and project location attributes 63 refs., 7 tabs.

  16. Mercury in environmental and biological samples from a gold mining area in the Amazon region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palheta, D; Taylor, A

    1995-05-19

    A massive increase in gold mining in the Amazon region of Brazil has led to an enormous discharge of metallic mercury into the aquatic ecosystem. To investigate the dispersion, total and inorganic mercury concentrations were measured in water, fish and animal tissues, and in blood, urine and hair from members of the local populations. Mercury concentrations in river water, sediments and fish were high compared with those of non-contaminated areas. Cattle and pigs kept in the area and with access to the contaminated rivers had concentrations of mercury of 0.1-1.28 micrograms/g and 11.7-15.7 micrograms/l in hair and blood, respectively. These results are approximately twice those measured in specimens from control animals. Mean mercury concentrations in blood, urine and hair of residents were increased at 11.4 micrograms/l, 22.8 micrograms/l and 4.3 micrograms/g, respectively, and the urine mercury of workers from the gold mining sites were up to 155 micrograms/l. The results demonstrate widespread contamination of the environment by mercury with transfer of the metal to fish and animals used for food, and into the inhabitants of the region. Further investigations for possible adverse health effects need to be undertaken. PMID:7610384

  17. Detection of Hepatitis B Virus Antigens in Paraffin-embedded Liver Specimens from the Amazon Region, Brazil

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    Simonetti SRR

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic viscerotomy of paraffin-preserved old specimens, collected in the period from 1934 to 1967, were analyzed by immunohistochemical assays to detect hepatitis B, hepatitis D, dengue and yellow fever virus antigens. The material belongs to the Yellow Fever Collection, Department of Pathology, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and the cases were diagnosed at that time according to clinical aspects and histopathological findings reporting viral hepatitis, yellow fever, focal necrosis and hepatic atrophy. From the 79 specimens, 69 were collected at the Labrea Region and the other 10 in different other localities in the Amazon Region. The five micra thick histological slices were analyzed for the presence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg by immunoperoxidase technique. An immunofluorescence assay was applied to the detection of hepatitis D, yellow fever and dengue virus antigens. Nine (11.4% histological samples were HBsAg reactive and 5 (6.3% were HBcAg reactive. The oldest reactive sample was from 1934. Viral antigens related to the other pathologies were not detected in this study. Our results confirm that the methodology described may be used to elucidate the aetiology of hepatitis diseases even after a long time of conservation of the specimens.

  18. Evaluating photovoltaic/energy storage/diesel hybrid power systems for remote area power supplies in the Amazon region of Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In June 1997, an international memorandum of understanding was signed between the Ministry of Energy and Mines (MEM) in Peru, the Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA) and the International Lead Zinc Research Organization (ILZRO). This agreement seeks to evaluate the potential for remote area power supplies (RAPS) for electrification of rural villages in the Amazon region. This study, funded by ILZRO, was the first major activity conducted under the aegis of this agreement. The objective of this study was to conduct a preliminary engineering design and feasibility study to assess the potential for Remote Area Power Supplies (RAPS) in the Amazon Region of Peru. This paper presents the results of this preliminary engineering study. (author)

  19. Emissions of Nitrous Oxide and Nitric Oxide from Soils of Native and Exotic Ecosystems of the Amazon and Cerrado Regions of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, Eric A.; Bustamante, Mercedes M. C.; Alexandre de Siqueira Pinto

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews reports of nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO) emissions from soils of the Amazon and Cerrado regions of Brazil. N2O is a stable greenhouse gas in the troposphere and participates in ozone-destroying reactions in the stratosphere, whereas NO participates in tropospheric photochemical reactions that produce ozone. Tropical forests and savannas are important sources of atmospheric N2O and NO, but rapid land use change could be affecting these ...

  20. The carbon isotope record in soils along a forest-cerrado ecosystem transect : implications for vegetation changes in the Rondonia state, Southwestern Brazilian Amazon region

    OpenAIRE

    Pessenda, L.C.R.; Gomes, B.M.; Aravena, R.; Ribeiro, A.S.; Boulet, René; Gouveia, S.E.M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents carbon isotope data on soil organic matter (SOM) collected along an ecosystem transect that includes a wooded savanah (cerrado), a tropical semideciduous forest (cerradao), a forest transition type and a tropical forest. The study area is located in the Rondonia state, southwestern Brazilian Amazon region. 14C data of total soil organic matter and charcoal indicate that the organic matter in these soils is a least Holocene in age. The forest and forest transition sites are...

  1. Nutritional composition, fatty acid and tocopherol contents of buriti (Mauritia flexuosa) and patawa (Oenocarpus bataua) fruit pulp from the amazon region

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvain Henri Darnet; Luiza Helena Meller da Silva; Antonio Manoel da Cruz Rodrigues; Roseana Telles Lins

    2011-01-01

    Buriti and patawa are two endemic palm trees from the Amazon region. Their pulps are traditionally consumed by the local population, but are underused and lesser known worldwide. Nutritional composition, fatty acid and tocopherol contents of the two palm pulps were determined by modern analytical methods: Gas Chromatography (CG) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), based on the standards of AOCS (AMERICAN..., 2002) and AOAC (ASSOCIATION..., 1997), respectively. Buriti and patawa...

  2. Variables Associated with Infections of Cattle by Brucella abortus., Leptospira spp. and Neospora spp. in Amazon Region in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiebao, D P; Valadas, S Y O B; Minervino, A H H; Castro, V; Romaldini, A H C N; Calhau, A S; De Souza, R A B; Gennari, S M; Keid, L B; Soares, R M

    2015-10-01

    The frequency of Neospora spp., Leptospira spp. and Brucella abortus infections in adult cattle was determined in herds of the State of Pará, Brazil, which is an important region for cattle production located in the Amazon region. A total of 3466 adult female cattle from 176 herds were tested, leading to a frequency of seropositive animals of 14.7%, 3.7% and 65.5% and a herd positivity of 87.4%, 41.3% and 98.8% for infections caused by Neospora spp., B. abortus and Leptospira spp., respectively. The five most frequently diagnosed serologic responses to Leptospira spp. were those against serovars hardjo, wolfii, grippotyphosa, hebdomadis and shermani. The following associations were found: practice of artificial insemination, large farm size, large herd size, large number of dogs and high number of total abortions per year with the presence of antibodies against serovar hardjo; positive results to serovar grippotyphosa with the presence of dogs; inappropriate disposal of aborted foetuses with positivity to serovar hebdomadis. Serovar grippotyphosa was also associated with number of episodes of abortions. Neospora spp. positive herds were associated with episodes of abortion and B. abortus infection with the disposal of dead animals and aborted foetuses on pastures and with the use of artificial insemination. In conclusion, the high frequency of brucellosis, leptospirosis and neosporosis in the region may be a consequence of social, natural and raising conditions as: (i) climate conditions that favour the survival and spread of pathogens in the environment; (ii) farms located in regions bordering forest areas; (iii) farms in areas of difficult access to the veterinary service; (iv) extensive beef herds raised at pastures with different age and productive groups inter-mingled; and (v) minimal concerns regarding hygiene practices and disease prevention measures. PMID:26302373

  3. Variables Associated with Infections of Cattle by Brucella abortus., Leptospira spp. and Neospora spp. in Amazon Region in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiebao, D P; Valadas, S Y O B; Minervino, A H H; Castro, V; Romaldini, A H C N; Calhau, A S; De Souza, R A B; Gennari, S M; Keid, L B; Soares, R M

    2015-10-01

    The frequency of Neospora spp., Leptospira spp. and Brucella abortus infections in adult cattle was determined in herds of the State of Pará, Brazil, which is an important region for cattle production located in the Amazon region. A total of 3466 adult female cattle from 176 herds were tested, leading to a frequency of seropositive animals of 14.7%, 3.7% and 65.5% and a herd positivity of 87.4%, 41.3% and 98.8% for infections caused by Neospora spp., B. abortus and Leptospira spp., respectively. The five most frequently diagnosed serologic responses to Leptospira spp. were those against serovars hardjo, wolfii, grippotyphosa, hebdomadis and shermani. The following associations were found: practice of artificial insemination, large farm size, large herd size, large number of dogs and high number of total abortions per year with the presence of antibodies against serovar hardjo; positive results to serovar grippotyphosa with the presence of dogs; inappropriate disposal of aborted foetuses with positivity to serovar hebdomadis. Serovar grippotyphosa was also associated with number of episodes of abortions. Neospora spp. positive herds were associated with episodes of abortion and B. abortus infection with the disposal of dead animals and aborted foetuses on pastures and with the use of artificial insemination. In conclusion, the high frequency of brucellosis, leptospirosis and neosporosis in the region may be a consequence of social, natural and raising conditions as: (i) climate conditions that favour the survival and spread of pathogens in the environment; (ii) farms located in regions bordering forest areas; (iii) farms in areas of difficult access to the veterinary service; (iv) extensive beef herds raised at pastures with different age and productive groups inter-mingled; and (v) minimal concerns regarding hygiene practices and disease prevention measures.

  4. GENETIC CHARACTERIZATION OF A BOVINE BREED (TABAPUA UNDER ARTIFICIAL SELECTION LOCATED IN THE AMAZON REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ednaldo da Silva Filho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil currently has the biggest commercial bovine cattle population in the world. Several different breeds that come from Europe and India compose it. They are primarily used for dairy and meat production. In Brazil, several high quality genetic background cattle are kept in a condition known as pure breed, meaning no other animal of different genetic background is interbreeding with them and consequently, affecting their genetic variability. Hence, these cattle are apparently vulnerable to lose of their genetic variability by continuous interbreed. This scenario has encouraged this study to evaluate the genetic variability of one cattle type, known in Brazil as Tabapua breed, located at the Brazilian Amazon, by using DNA microsatellites loci as molecular markers. Blood samples were randomly taken from 60 animals and submitted to DNA extraction, followed by multiplex PCR, using 11 microsatellites primers recommended by International Society of Animal Genetics (ISAG for paternity test in bovine. PCR products were genotyped in an automated DNA sequencer and polymorphic loci were found. They presented the following data: Average allele number: 6.727±1.679; Average effective allele number: 3.772±1.266; Shannon index: 1.454±0.302; Average heterozygosis: 0.706±0.101. Polymorphic Informative Content (PIC varied from 0.452 to 0.815; Average Fis was -0.037±0.054. The probability for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was not significant (p>0.05 for all loci. The power of discrimination and power exclusion were >0.999 and >0.981 respectively, for PE1 (with offspring and their parental genotypes and PE2 (without one of the parental genotypes. The pure bovine breed Tabapua evaluated in this study showed significantly high genetic variability. Because Tabapua is a commercial breed, in which reproductive animals are selected for business, the high genetic variability can be linked to the high circulation of animals purchased for reproduction

  5. The Amazon and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    The climatologies of cloudiness and precipitation for the Amazon, are reviewed and the physical causes of some of the observed features and those which are not well known are explained. The atmospheric circulation over the Amazon is discussed on the large scale tropical circulations forced by deep diabatic heating sources. Weather deforestation which leads to a reduction in evapotranspiration into the atmosphere, and a reduction in precipitation and its implicated for the gobal climate is discussed. It is indicated that a large scale clearing of tropical rainforests there would be a reduction in rainfall which would have global effects on climate and weather both in the tropical and extratropical regions.

  6. Production and economic potentials of cattle in pasture-based systems of the western Amazon region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, B L; Blake, R W; Nicholson, C F; Fox, D G; Tedeschi, L O; Pell, A N; Fernandes, E C M; Valentim, J F; Carneiro, J C

    2003-12-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate strategies to improve productivity and economic returns from beef and dual-purpose cattle systems based on data collected on one dual-purpose (Bos taurus x Bos indicus) and two beef (Nellore) cattle farms in the western Amazon region of Brazil. Forage chemical composition and digestion rates of carbohydrate fractions of grazed Brachiaria decumbens and Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu grasses and Pueraria phaseoloides (tropical kudzu) legume were measured monthly during a 9-mo period from the end of one dry season to the end of the subsequent rainy season. Measurements of milk and growth responses to grazing these forages were used to predict animal productivity responses to dietary nutrient availability throughout an annual cycle. The ME available for gain in our simulations was always more limiting than metabolizable protein. The predicted ME available for gain was 0.50 kg/d for steers grazing B. brizantha and 0.40 kg/d for finishing steers grazing B. decumbens. Grasses contained more NDF and neutral detergent insoluble protein and less ME (P grass-legume pastures and greater stocking density is the preferable strategy for owners of these cattle systems to improve economic returns under current conditions. It also might help decrease the motivation for additional forest clearing.

  7. The epidemiology of dengue virus infection among urban, jungle, and rural populations in the Amazon region of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, C G; Phillips, I A; Callahan, J D; Griebenow, W F; Hyams, K C; Wu, S J; Watts, D M

    1996-10-01

    The first confirmed outbreak of dengue fever in Peru occurred during 1990 in Iquitos, a city of approximately 300,000 residents in the Amazon region. Because of the apparent establishment of endemic transmission of this mosquito-borne viral disease following the outbreak, epidemiologic studies were initiated in 1992. Blood specimens and data on demographic, environmental, and medical history factors were collected from volunteers in an urban sector of Iquitos, in a rural area on the outskirts of Iquitos, and in three nearby jungle communities. A follow-up blood specimen was obtained approximately one year later from a sample of subjects. Sera were tested for dengue IgG antibody by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and specificity was verified using a plaque-reduction neutralization test. Dengue antibody prevalence was 66% in the urban population, 26% in the rural population, and 32-67% in the three jungle areas. A significant association was found between age and antibody prevalence, with a steady increase in prevalence from 18% among subjects less than five years of age to greater than 90% for subjects more than 50 years old. Increased antibody prevalence also was associated with urban and jungle residence and with a piped source of household drinking water. Seroconversions were documented in four of five surveyed communities. These results indicate that dengue virus transmission continues in and around Iquitos and suggest that transmission also occurred prior to the 1990 epidemic.

  8. Production and economic potentials of cattle in pasture-based systems of the western Amazon region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, B L; Blake, R W; Nicholson, C F; Fox, D G; Tedeschi, L O; Pell, A N; Fernandes, E C M; Valentim, J F; Carneiro, J C

    2003-12-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate strategies to improve productivity and economic returns from beef and dual-purpose cattle systems based on data collected on one dual-purpose (Bos taurus x Bos indicus) and two beef (Nellore) cattle farms in the western Amazon region of Brazil. Forage chemical composition and digestion rates of carbohydrate fractions of grazed Brachiaria decumbens and Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu grasses and Pueraria phaseoloides (tropical kudzu) legume were measured monthly during a 9-mo period from the end of one dry season to the end of the subsequent rainy season. Measurements of milk and growth responses to grazing these forages were used to predict animal productivity responses to dietary nutrient availability throughout an annual cycle. The ME available for gain in our simulations was always more limiting than metabolizable protein. The predicted ME available for gain was 0.50 kg/d for steers grazing B. brizantha and 0.40 kg/d for finishing steers grazing B. decumbens. Grasses contained more NDF and neutral detergent insoluble protein and less ME (P cattle systems to improve economic returns under current conditions. It also might help decrease the motivation for additional forest clearing. PMID:14677847

  9. Differentiation in the fertility of Inceptisols as related to land use in the upper Solimões river region, western Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Fatima Maria de Souza; Nóbrega, Rafaela Simão Abrahão; Jesus, Ederson da Conceição; Ferreira, Daniel Furtado; Pérez, Daniel Vidal

    2009-12-20

    The Upper Solimões river region, western Amazon, is the homeland of indigenous populations and contains small-scale agricultural systems that are important for biodiversity conservation. Although traditional slash-and-burn agriculture is being practiced over many years, deforestation there is relatively small compared to other Amazon regions. Pastures are restricted to the vicinity of cities and do not spread to the small communities along the river. Inceptisols are the main soil order (>90%) in the area and have unique attributes including high Al content and high cation exchange capacity (CEC) due to the enrichment of the clay fraction with 2:1 secondary aluminosilicates. Despite its importance, few studies have focussed on this soil order when considering land use effects on the fertility of Amazon soils. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate changes in soil fertility of representative land use systems (LUSs) in the Upper Solimões region, namely: primary rainforest, old secondary forest, young secondary forest, agroforestry, pasture and agriculture. LUSs were significantly differentiated by the chemical attributes of their topsoil (0-20 cm). Secondary forests presented soil chemical attributes more similar to primary rainforest areas, while pastures exhibited the highest dissimilarity from all the other LUSs. As a whole, soil chemical changes among Inceptisols dominated LUSs showed patterns that were distinct from those reported from other Amazon soils like Oxisols and Ultisols. This is probably related to the presence of high-activity clays enriched in exchangeable aluminum that heavily influenced the soil chemical reactions over the expected importance of organic matter found in most studies conducted over Oxisol and Ultisol. PMID:19853281

  10. WRF-Chem simulations in the Amazon region during wet and dry season transitions: evaluation of methane models and wetland inundation maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Beck

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon region as a large source of methane (CH4 contributes significantly to the global annual CH4 budget. For the first time in the Amazon region, a forward and inverse modelling framework on regional scale for the purpose of assessing the CH4 budget of the Amazon region is implemented. Here, we present forward simulations of CH4 based on a modified version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry that allows for passive tracer transport of CH4, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide (WRF-GHG, in combination with two different process-based bottom-up models of CH4 emissions from anaerobic microbial production in wetlands and additional datasets prescribing CH4 emissions from other sources such as biomass burning, termites, or other anthropogenic emissions. We compare WRF-GHG simulations on 10 km horizontal resolution to flask and continuous CH4 observations obtained during two airborne measurement campaigns within the Balanço Atmosférico Regional de Carbono na Amazônia (BARCA project in November 2008 and May 2009. In addition, three different wetland inundation maps, prescribing the fraction of inundated area per grid cell, are evaluated. Our results indicate that the wetland inundation map with inundated area changing in time represents the observations best except for the northern part of the Amazon basin and the Manaus area. WRF-GHG was able to represent the observed CH4 mixing ratios best at days with less convective activity. After adjusting wetland emissions to match the averaged observed mixing ratios of flights with little convective activity, the monthly CH4 budget of the Amazon lowland region obtained from four different simulations ranges from 1.5 to 4.8 Tg for November 2008 and from 1.3 to 5.5 Tg for May 2009. This corresponds to an average CH4 flux of 9–31 mg m−2 d−1

  11. Characterization of kaolin wastes from kaolin mining industry from the amazon region as raw material for pozzolans production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capim and Jari are the two most important kaolin mining districts of the Brazilian Amazon region. They encompass the major Brazilian reserves of high quality kaolin for the paper coating industry. The kaolin is mined and processed by three major companies responsible for about 500,000 ton of a residue mainly composed of kaolinite. The wastes come mainly from the centrifugation phase of the kaolin beneficiation process and their final destinations are huge sedimentation basins that occupy large areas. The main purpose of this work is to evaluate the physical, chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the kaolin wastes processed from the Capim and Jari region, in order to obtain meta kaolinite, a high reactive pozzolans for the cement industry. When incorporated to ordinary Portland cement such pozzolans increases the concrete and mortars performance. All the residues studied in this work were characterized by means of: X-ray diffraction analysis, differential thermal analysis, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and laser diffraction. Both residues are mainly constitutes by at least 92% of low granulometry kaolinite with specific surface area above 8 m2 /g and mean diameter below 1 μm. Free silica (quartz) contents are below 3%. The high concentration of kaolinite in these residues dispenses rigid control parameters for removal of impurities usually employed in pozzolans production. The Jari kaolin exhibits high disordered kaolinite in comparison with the high ordered kaolinite of the Capim region and gives rise to higher desidroxilation degree at lower temperatures. It points to energy saving and reducing costs during the production of a pozzolans. The results are satisfactory and reveal that both kaolin wastes are excellent raw material for the production of high reactive meta kaolin. (author)

  12. Water and nutrient dynamics at various spatial scales of a tropical agricultural watershed in Eastern Amazon region, Brazil: First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickel, A. J.; Van de Giesen, N.; Sa, T.; Vlek, P. L.; Vielhauer, K.; Denich, M.

    2002-05-01

    As a part of the German-Brazilian Studies project on Human Impacts on Floodplains In the Tropics (SHIFT) the small agricultural "Cumaru" watershed (16 km2), Eastern Amazon region, Brazil, was monitored at various spatial scales for a period of one and a half year. The overall aim of this project is to provide sustainable alternatives to slash-and-burn agriculture. With the current study an attempt is made to close the water and nutrient balance for two sub-watersheds (1 km2) and the fields surrounding their source. In order to understand the processes of water and nutrient dynamics from a field to watershed scale, a wide variety of hydrological and micro-meteorological measurements were made. An automatic weather station, throughfall gauges, TDR-profiles, a piezometer network, and weirs were installed to monitor the main components of the water balance. A digital database of topography, soils, hydrological properties, land use, and vegetation was made to serve as the base input of the various models that are intended to be used. In order to evaluate nutrient dynamics samples were taken of rain-, soil-, ground- and runoff-water at various temporal scales. The modeling of water yield and runoff response will be performed with the physically based TOPOG model. This model is capable of solving water, energy, solute and sediment balances of a catchment in a fully distributed way. Regional (shallow) groundwater modeling will be done with a Finite Element Model (MicroFEM). Preliminary measurement and modeling results indicate that the regional water balance is mainly determined by shallow groundwater flow. A strong nutrient fixation is observed throughout the soil profile, and in the riparian forest zone.

  13. Evaluation of the altimetry from SRTM-3 and planimetry from high-resolution PALSAR FBD data for semi-detailed topographic mapping in the Amazon Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Thiago G; Paradella, Waldir R; Oliveira, Cleber G

    2011-09-01

    The Brazilian Amazon has a deficit of 35% of coverage regarding topographic mapping at semi-detailed (1:100,000) scale. This paper presents an alternative to overcome this scenario using a combination of planialtimetric information from two orbital SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) missions. The altimetry was acquired from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), while the planimetry was provided from Fine Beam Dual (FBD) images of the Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) sensor. The research was carried out in the mountainous area of the Serra dos Carajás (Pará State), located on the Amazon region. The quality of the orbital topographic information was evaluated regarding precise planialtimetric measurements acquired from Global Positioning System (GPS) field campaigns. The evaluations were performed following two approaches: (1) the use of Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and (2) tendency and precision hypothesis tests. The investigation has shown that the planialtimetric quality of the orbital products fulfilled the Brazilian Map Accuracy Standards requirements for 1:100,000 A Class map. Thus, the use of combination of information provided by PALSAR and SRTM-3 data can be considered a promising alternative for production and update of semi-detailed topographic mapping in similar environments of the Amazon region, where topographic information is lacking or presents low quality. PMID:21861043

  14. Genetic analysis of South American eastern equine encephalomyelitis viruses isolated from mosquitoes collected in the Amazon Basin region of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondig, John P; Turell, Michael J; Lee, John S; O'Guinn, Monica L; Wasieloski, Leonard P

    2007-03-01

    Identifying viral isolates from field-collected mosquitoes can be difficult and time-consuming, particularly in regions of the world where numerous closely related viruses are co-circulating (e.g., the Amazon Basin region of Peru). The use of molecular techniques may provide rapid and efficient methods for identifying these viruses in the laboratory. Therefore, we determined the complete nucleotide sequence of two South American eastern equine encephalomyelitis viruses (EEEVs): one member from the Peru-Brazil (Lineage II) clade and one member from the Argentina-Panama (Lineage III) clade. In addition, we determined the nucleotide sequence for the nonstructural P3 protein (nsP3) and envelope 2 (E2) protein genes of 36 additional isolates of EEEV from mosquitoes captured in Peru between 1996 and 2001. The 38 isolates were evenly distributed between lineages II and III virus groupings. However, analysis of the nsP3 gene for lineage III strongly suggested that the 19 isolates from this lineage could be divided into two sub-clades, designated as lineages III and IIIA. Compared with North American EEEV (lineage I, GA97 strain), we found that the length of the nsP3 gene was shorter in the strains isolated from South America. A total of 60 nucleotides was deleted in lineage II, 69 in lineage III, and 72 in lineage IIIA. On the basis of the sequences we determined for South American EEEVs and those for other viruses detected in the same area, we developed a series of primers for characterizing these viruses.

  15. Regional Markets for Non-timber Forest Products in Eastern Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Vuola, Matleena

    2013-01-01

    While export of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) has been promoted as a sustainable development strategy, the literature suggests that local and regional markets are also potentially important, not only for producers but also for traders and consumers (Shackleton et al. 2007). For producers, regional markets are thought to offer more accessible and more stable markets, while for traders, these markets offer employment, and for consumers, reasonably priced, diverse, fresh food. Consumptio...

  16. Croton maasii (Euphorbiaceae), a new species from the western Amazon region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riina, R.; Berry, P.E.

    2011-01-01

    Croton maasii, a new species from South America, is described and illustrated. The species is only known from terra firme forests of the extreme western Amazonian region, in W Brazil and adjacent E Peru. Croton maasii resembles C. pachypodus, a more abundant and widely distributed species in the Neo

  17. Deforestation and forest fires in Roraima and their relationship with phytoclimatic regions in the northern Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barni, Paulo Eduardo; Pereira, Vaneza Barreto; Manzi, Antonio Ocimar; Barbosa, Reinaldo Imbrozio

    2015-05-01

    Deforestation and forest fires in the Brazilian Amazon are a regional-scale anthropogenic process related to biomass burning, which has a direct impact on global warming due to greenhouse gas emissions. Containment of this process requires characterizing its spatial distribution and that of the environmental factors related to its occurrence. The aim of this study is to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of deforested areas and forest fires in the State of Roraima from 2000 to 2010. We mapped deforested areas and forest fires using Landsat images and associated their occurrence with two phytoclimatic zones: zone with savanna influence (ZIS), and zone without savanna influence (ZOS). Total deforested area during the interval was estimated at 3.06 × 10(3) km(2) (ZIS = 55 %; ZOS = 45 %) while total area affected by forest fires was estimated at 3.02 × 10(3) km(2) (ZIS = 97.7 %; ZOS = 2.3 %). Magnitude of deforestation in Roraima was not related to the phytoclimatic zones, but small deforested areas (≤17.9 ha) predominated in ZOS while larger deforestation classes (>17.9 ha) predominated in ZIS, which is an area with a longer history of human activities. The largest occurrence of forest fires was observed in the ZIS in years with El Niño events. Our analysis indicates that the areas most affected by forest fires in Roraima during 2000-2010 were associated with strong climatic events and the occurrence these fires was amplified in ZIS, a sensitive phytoclimatic zone with a higher risk of anthropogenic fires given its drier climate and open forest structure.

  18. River boats contribute to the regional spread of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti in the Peruvian Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Anne Guagliardo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The dramatic range expansion of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti is associated with various anthropogenic transport activities, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms driving this geographic expansion. We longitudinally characterized infestation of different vehicle types (cars, boats, etc. to estimate the frequency and intensity of mosquito introductions into novel locations (propagule pressure.Exhaustive adult and immature Ae. aegypti collections were performed on six different vehicle types at five ports and two bus/ taxi departure points in the Amazonian city of Iquitos, Peru during 2013. Aquatic vehicles included 32 large and 33 medium-sized barges, 53 water taxis, and 41 speed boats. Terrestrial vehicles sampled included 40 buses and 30 taxis traveling on the only highway in the region. Ae. aegypti adult infestation rates and immature indices were analyzed by vehicle type, location within vehicles, and sampling date.Large barges (71.9% infested and medium barges (39.4% infested accounted for most of the infestations. Notably, buses had an overall infestation rate of 12.5%. On large barges, the greatest number of Ae. aegypti adults were found in October, whereas most immatures were found in February followed by October. The vast majority of larvae (85.9% and pupae (76.7% collected in large barges were produced in puddles formed in cargo holds.Because larges barges provide suitable mosquito habitats (due to dark, damp cargo storage spaces and ample oviposition sites, we conclude that they likely serve as significant contributors to mosquitoes' propagule pressure across long distances throughout the Peruvian Amazon. This information can help anticipate vector population mixing and future range expansions of dengue and other viruses transmitted by Ae. aegypti.

  19. Leprosy Reactions in Patients Coinfected with HIV: Clinical Aspects and Outcomes in Two Comparative Cohorts in the Amazon Region, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Carla Andréa Avelar; Jucá Neto, Fernando Octávio Machado; de Albuquerque, Nahima Castelo; Macedo, Geraldo Mariano Moraes; Batista, Keila de Nazaré Madureira; Xavier, Marília Brasil

    2015-01-01

    Background Leprosy, caused by Mycobacterium leprae, can lead to scarring and deformities. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a lymphotropic virus with high rates of replication, leads to cell death in various stages of infection. These diseases have major social and quality of life costs, and although the relevance of their comorbidity is recognized, several aspects are still not fully understood. Methodology/Principal Findings Two cohorts of patients with leprosy in an endemic region of the Amazon were observed. We compared 40 patients with leprosy and HIV (Group 1) and 107 leprosy patients with no comorbidity (Group 2) for a minimum of 2 years. Group 1 predominantly experienced the paucibacillary classification, accounting for 70% of cases, whereas Group 2 primarily experienced the multibacillary classification (80.4% of cases). There was no significant difference in the prevalence of leprosy reactions among the two groups (37.5% for Group 1 vs. 56.1% for Group 2), and the most frequent reaction was Type 1. The appearance of Group 1 patients’ reversal reaction skin lesions was consistent with each clinical form: typically erythematous and infiltrated, with similar progression as those patients without HIV, which responded to prednisone. Patients in both groups primarily experienced a single episode (73.3% in Group 1 and 75% in Group 2), and Group 1 had shorter reaction periods (≤3 months; 93.3%), moderate severity (80%), with 93.3% of the patients in the state of acquired immune deficiency syndrome, and 46.7% presenting the reaction at the time of the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Conclusions/Significance This study used a large sample and makes a significant contribution to the clinical outcomes of patients in the reactive state with comorbid HIV and leprosy. The data indicate that these diseases, although concurrent, have independent courses. PMID:26029928

  20. Deforestation and forest fires in Roraima and their relationship with phytoclimatic regions in the northern Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barni, Paulo Eduardo; Pereira, Vaneza Barreto; Manzi, Antonio Ocimar; Barbosa, Reinaldo Imbrozio

    2015-05-01

    Deforestation and forest fires in the Brazilian Amazon are a regional-scale anthropogenic process related to biomass burning, which has a direct impact on global warming due to greenhouse gas emissions. Containment of this process requires characterizing its spatial distribution and that of the environmental factors related to its occurrence. The aim of this study is to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of deforested areas and forest fires in the State of Roraima from 2000 to 2010. We mapped deforested areas and forest fires using Landsat images and associated their occurrence with two phytoclimatic zones: zone with savanna influence (ZIS), and zone without savanna influence (ZOS). Total deforested area during the interval was estimated at 3.06 × 10(3) km(2) (ZIS = 55 %; ZOS = 45 %) while total area affected by forest fires was estimated at 3.02 × 10(3) km(2) (ZIS = 97.7 %; ZOS = 2.3 %). Magnitude of deforestation in Roraima was not related to the phytoclimatic zones, but small deforested areas (≤17.9 ha) predominated in ZOS while larger deforestation classes (>17.9 ha) predominated in ZIS, which is an area with a longer history of human activities. The largest occurrence of forest fires was observed in the ZIS in years with El Niño events. Our analysis indicates that the areas most affected by forest fires in Roraima during 2000-2010 were associated with strong climatic events and the occurrence these fires was amplified in ZIS, a sensitive phytoclimatic zone with a higher risk of anthropogenic fires given its drier climate and open forest structure. PMID:25604215

  1. Deforestation and Forest Fires in Roraima and Their Relationship with Phytoclimatic Regions in the Northern Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barni, Paulo Eduardo; Pereira, Vaneza Barreto; Manzi, Antonio Ocimar; Barbosa, Reinaldo Imbrozio

    2015-05-01

    Deforestation and forest fires in the Brazilian Amazon are a regional-scale anthropogenic process related to biomass burning, which has a direct impact on global warming due to greenhouse gas emissions. Containment of this process requires characterizing its spatial distribution and that of the environmental factors related to its occurrence. The aim of this study is to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of deforested areas and forest fires in the State of Roraima from 2000 to 2010. We mapped deforested areas and forest fires using Landsat images and associated their occurrence with two phytoclimatic zones: zone with savanna influence (ZIS), and zone without savanna influence (ZOS). Total deforested area during the interval was estimated at 3.06 × 103 km2 (ZIS = 55 %; ZOS = 45 %) while total area affected by forest fires was estimated at 3.02 × 103 km2 (ZIS = 97.7 %; ZOS = 2.3 %). Magnitude of deforestation in Roraima was not related to the phytoclimatic zones, but small deforested areas (≤17.9 ha) predominated in ZOS while larger deforestation classes (>17.9 ha) predominated in ZIS, which is an area with a longer history of human activities. The largest occurrence of forest fires was observed in the ZIS in years with El Niño events. Our analysis indicates that the areas most affected by forest fires in Roraima during 2000-2010 were associated with strong climatic events and the occurrence these fires was amplified in ZIS, a sensitive phytoclimatic zone with a higher risk of anthropogenic fires given its drier climate and open forest structure.

  2. Common vampire bat attacks on humans in a village of the Amazon region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Maria Cristina

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Many people in Amazonian communities have reported bat bites in the last decade. Bites by vampire bats can potentially transmit rabies to humans. The objective of this study was to analyze factors associated with bat biting in one of these communities. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a village of gold miners in the Amazonian region of Brazil (160 inhabitants. Bats were captured near people's houses and sent to a lab. Of 129 people interviewed, 41% had been attacked by a bat at least once, with 92% of the bites located on the lower limbs. A logistic regression found that adults were bitten around four times more often than children (OR = 3.75, CI 95%: 1.46-9.62, p = 0.036. Males were bitten more frequently than females (OR = 2.08, CI 95%: 0.90-4.76, p = 0.067. Nine Desmodus rotundus and three frugivorous bats were captured and tested negative for rabies. The study suggests that, in an area of gold miners, common vampire bats are more likely to attack adults and males. The control strategy for human rabies developed in this region should therefore place special emphasis on adult males. There should also be more research on how the search for gold in the Amazonian region places people and the environment at risk.

  3. Soil and deforestation use standards in Amazon and its global impacts: a regional dynamics economic and ecological model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the work was to introduce a simulation model to analyze the deforestation causes in Amazon. The work describes the basic parameters and fundamental concepts to the performed modeling comprehension. The several agents soil utilization standards were going observed and the economic and ecological interactions simulated. The global impact aspects are also analyzed

  4. Classification and Use of Natural and Anthropogenic Soils by Indigenous Communities of the Upper Amazon Region of Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peña-Venegas, C.P.; Stomph, T.J.; Verschoor, G.; Echeverri, J.A.; Struik, P.C.

    2016-01-01

    Outsiders often oversimplify Amazon soil use by assuming that abundantly available natural soils are poorly suited to agriculture and that sporadic anthropogenic soils are agriculturally productive. Local perceptions about the potentials and limitations of soils probably differ, but information o

  5. Genotyping of two Neisseria gonorrhoeae fluroquinolone-resistant strains in the Brazilian Amazon Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Antunes Ferreira

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We report two ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains that were isolated from the urethral discharge of male patients at the sexually transmitted diseases outpatient clinic of the Alfredo da Matta Foundation (Manaus, state of Amazonas, Brazil. The gonococci displayed minimal inhibitory concentrations (> 32.00 µg/mL and three mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region (S91F and D95G in GyrA and S87R in ParC. Both isolates were genotyped using N. gonorrhoeae multi-antigen sequence typing and the analysis showed that the ST225 which represented an emerging widespread multi-resistant clone that has also been associated with reduced susceptibility to ceftriaxone. We recommend continued surveillance of this pathogen to assess the efficacy of anti-gonococcal antibiotics in Brazil.

  6. Emissions of nitrous oxide and nitric oxide from soils of native and exotic ecosystems of the Amazon and Cerrado regions of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, E A; Bustamante, M M; de Siqueira Pinto, A

    2001-11-21

    This paper reviews reports of nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO) emissions from soils of the Amazon and Cerrado regions of Brazil. N2O is a stable greenhouse gas in the troposphere and participates in ozone-destroying reactions in the stratosphere, whereas NO participates in tropospheric photochemical reactions that produce ozone. Tropical forests and savannas are important sources of atmospheric N2O and NO, but rapid land use change could be affecting these soil emissions of N oxide gases. The five published estimates for annual emissions of N2O from soils of mature Amazonian forests are remarkably consistent, ranging from 1.4 to 2.4 kg N ha(-1) year(-1), with a mean of 2.0 kg N ha(-1) year(-1). Estimates of annual emissions of NO from Amazonian forests are also remarkably similar, ranging from 1.4 to 1.7 kg N ha(-1) year(-1), with a mean of 1.5 kg N ha(-1) year(-1). Although a doubling or tripling of N2O has been observed in some young (cattle pastures relative to mature forests, most Amazonian pastures have lower emissions than the forests that they replace, indicating that forest-to-pasture conversion has, on balance, probably reduced regional emissions slightly (Amazon region, far too few data exist for the Cerrado region to assess the impact of land use changes on N oxide emissions. PMID:12805795

  7. Assessment of pedotransfer functions for estimating soil water retention curves for the amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Medeiros

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the soil water retention curve (SWRC is essential for understanding and modeling hydraulic processes in the soil. However, direct determination of the SWRC is time consuming and costly. In addition, it requires a large number of samples, due to the high spatial and temporal variability of soil hydraulic properties. An alternative is the use of models, called pedotransfer functions (PTFs, which estimate the SWRC from easy-to-measure properties. The aim of this paper was to test the accuracy of 16 point or parametric PTFs reported in the literature on different soils from the south and southeast of the State of Pará, Brazil. The PTFs tested were proposed by Pidgeon (1972, Lal (1979, Aina & Periaswamy (1985, Arruda et al. (1987, Dijkerman (1988, Vereecken et al. (1989, Batjes (1996, van den Berg et al. (1997, Tomasella et al. (2000, Hodnett & Tomasella (2002, Oliveira et al. (2002, and Barros (2010. We used a database that includes soil texture (sand, silt, and clay, bulk density, soil organic carbon, soil pH, cation exchange capacity, and the SWRC. Most of the PTFs tested did not show good performance in estimating the SWRC. The parametric PTFs, however, performed better than the point PTFs in assessing the SWRC in the tested region. Among the parametric PTFs, those proposed by Tomasella et al. (2000 achieved the best accuracy in estimating the empirical parameters of the van Genuchten (1980 model, especially when tested in the top soil layer.

  8. Evaluation of the natural radioactivity at sands of anomalous regions of Espirito Santo state, Brazil; Avaliacao da radioatividade natural em areias de regioes anomalas do Espirito Santo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Reginaldo Ribeiro de; Pecequilo, Brigitte Roxana Soreanu, E-mail: raquino@ipen.b, E-mail: brigitte@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    The natural radioactivity in sands of anomalous regions of the state of Espirito Santo, Brazil, were calculated from the concentration of activity of {sup 40}K, {sup 225}Ra and {sup 232}Th for the places of south and central of Camburi, Curva da Jurema, Ilha do Boi, Setibinha, south and central area of Praia da Areia Preta, denominated Black Spot. The samples were sealed and measured by high resolution gamma spectrometry and after a expectation time pf 30 days, until to reach a radioactive equilibrium

  9. Sustainable charcoal use in iron and steel industry in Carajas region, Brazil; Avaliacao do potencial brasileiro de florestas plantadas na reducao da concentracao do carbono atmosferico: o caso do polo guseiro de Grande Carajas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinaud, Rodrigo Zambrotti [AJR Engenharia - Seguranca, Meio Ambiente e Saude Ltda. (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Concern about greenhouse gas emissions and global climate change has raised awareness that forest-management strategies have a large potential for storing and absorbing carbon from the atmosphere. Other measures under consideration include the use of renewable biomass as a substitute for fossil fuel use. This thesis shows the potential of charcoal from renewable Eucalyptus plantations for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions by replacing charcoal from the harvest of native forest in the iron and steel industry located at Carajas region, state of Para, Brazil. The results show that, if deforestation in the Carajas region were stopped and substituted by renewable forests for charcoal production, within a 21-year time horizon some 470.000 hectares of native Amazon forests could be preserved, avoiding the emission of some 2.67 x 10{sup 6} tC/yr to the atmosphere, which is 3.2% of the current carbon emissions from fossil fuel consumption in Brazil (82,4 x 10{sup 6} tC/yr) at a cost of 2,65-3,84 US$/tC. (author)

  10. WRF-Chem simulations in the Amazon region during wet and dry season transitions: evaluation of methane models and wetland inundation maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Beck

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon region, being a large source of methane (CH4, contributes significantly to the global annual CH4 budget. For the first time, a forward and inverse modelling framework on regional scale for the purpose of assessing the CH4 budget of the Amazon region is implemented. Here, we present forward simulations of CH4 as part of the forward and inverse modelling framework based on a modified version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry that allows for passive tracer transport of CH4, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide (WRF-GHG, in combination with two different process-based bottom-up models of CH4 emissions from anaerobic microbial production in wetlands and additional datasets prescribing CH4 emissions from other sources such as biomass burning, termites, or other anthropogenic emissions. We compare WRF-GHG simulations on 10 km horizontal resolution to flask and continuous CH4 observations obtained during two airborne measurement campaigns within the Balanço Atmosférico Regional de Carbono na Amazônia (BARCA project in November 2008 and May 2009. In addition, three different wetland inundation maps, prescribing the fraction of inundated area per grid cell, are evaluated. Our results indicate that the wetland inundation maps based on remote-sensing data represent the observations best except for the northern part of the Amazon basin and the Manaus area. WRF-GHG was able to represent the observed CH4 mixing ratios best at days with less convective activity. After adjusting wetland emissions to match the averaged observed mixing ratios of flights with little convective activity, the monthly CH4 budget for the Amazon basin obtained from four different simulations ranges from 1.5 to 4.8 Tg for November 2008 and from 1.3 to 5.5 Tg for May 2009. This corresponds to an average CH4 flux of 9–31 mg m−2 d−1 for November 2008 and 8–36 mg m−2 d−1 for May 2009.

  11. Proximate analysis for amazon biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Antonio Geraldo de Paula; Feitosa Netto, Genesio Batista; Nogueira, Manoel Fernandes Martins; Coutinho, Manoel Fernandes Martins; Coutinho, Hebert Willian Martins; Rendeiro, Goncalo [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Lab. de Engenharia Mecanica (LABGAS)], e-mail: ageraldo@ufpa.br, e-mail: mfmn@ufpa.br, e-mail: rendeiro@ufpa.br

    2006-07-01

    In order to asses the potentiality of Amazon biomass to generate power, either to supply electric energy to the grid or as fuel to plants supplying power for off-grid location, data for their proximate analysis must be available. A literature review on the subject indicated a lack of information and data concerning typical Amazon rain forest species. This work aimed to characterize (proximate analysis) 80 Amazon species in order to evaluate the energy resource from woody biomass wastes in Amazon region. Higher Heating Value, Carbon, Volatile and Ash contents were measured in a dry basis. The measurements were performed obeying the following Brazilian standards, NBR 6923, NBR 8112, NBR 8633, NBR 6922. (author)

  12. Prevalence of antibody to human T cell lymphotropic virus types 1/2 among aboriginal groups inhabiting northern Argentina and the Amazon region of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeot, S; Nates, S; Recalde, A; Gallego, S; Maturano, E; Giordano, M; Serra, H; Reategui, J; Cabezas, C

    1999-04-01

    We carried out a seroepidemiologic survey to define the prevalence of human T cell lymphotropic virus types 1/2 (HTLV-1/2) infections among aboriginal populations from isolated regions of northern Argentina and the Amazon region of Peru. Antibodies against HTLV were measured with agglutination tests and confirmed with by an immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and Western blotting. Five (6.94%) of 72 samples from the Tobas Indians in Argentina were positive by the IFA; two samples were typed as HTLV-1 (2.78%), two as HTLV-2 (2.78%), and one (1.39%) could not be typed because it had similar antibody titers against both viruses. No positive samples were found among 84 Andinos Puneños and 47 Matacos Wichis Indians. Seroprevalences of 2.50% (1 of 40) and 1.43% (1 of 70) for HTLV-1 were observed among Wayku and San Francisco communities in the Amazon region of Peru, and seroprevalences of 4.54% (1 of 22) and 2.38% (1 of 42) for HTLV-2 were observed among Boca Colorada and Galilea communities. No serologic evidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection was found among the Indians tested. These results indicated the presence of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 in the indigenous populations of Argentina and Peru. Moreover, the lack of HIV infection indicates that the virus has probably not yet been introduced into these populations. PMID:10348238

  13. A critical analysis of the 'Programa Luz Para Todos' for the electrification of remote communities in the Amazon region; Uma analise critica do Programa Luz Para Todos para a eletrificacao de comunidades isoladas na regiao Amazonica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Andre Frazao [Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado do Amazonas (FAPEAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil); Lopes, Davi Gabriel; Cavaliero, Carla Kazue Nakao [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2010-07-01

    This article presents a critical review of 'Luz para Todos' (LpT) as a rural electricity deployment program and its viability as a starter for a development process to isolated communities from Amazon region. We analyzed the functionality using data from the beginning of the program until 2009, as well the methodology and organization of the investments over 'Luz para Todos' program as a development starter, preferably sustainable, for the isolated communities from Amazon region. We concluded that a discussion is mandatory, as well a review of some important points, such as estimation of available financial resources; mechanisms used to motivate electric utilities that serve the isolated communities especially in the Amazon region; and the relationship between energy and development proposed by the program. (author)

  14. Recommendations for the limnology and water quality studies at hydroelectric profits located at Amazon region; Recomendacoes para o planejamento de estudos de limnologia e qualidade da agua em empreendimentos hidreletricos na regiao Amazonica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, A.C.; Froehlich, S.; Imbroisi, D.; Juras, A.A. [ELETRONORTE, Brasilia, PA (Brazil)

    1992-12-31

    This paper presents some recommendations for future limnology and water quality studies that will be developed at the Amazon region. This recommendations include the correct determination of collect points and sample parameters, planning of the hydrologic cycle, determination of the regional aquatic biota and correct use of the biologic indicators 8 refs.

  15. Modelling sustainable international tourism demand to the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Divino (Jose Angelo); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe Amazon rainforest is one of the world’s greatest natural wonders and holds great importance and significance for the world’s environmental balance. Around 60% of the Amazon rainforest is located in the Brazilian territory. The two biggest states of the Amazon region are Amazonas (the

  16. Nested PCR to detect and distinguish the sympatric filarial species Onchocerca volvulus, Mansonella ozzardi and Mansonella perstans in the Amazon Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuy-Huong Ta Tang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We present filaria-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR, which is based on amplification of first internal transcribed spacer rDNA to distinguish three parasitic filarial species (Onchocerca volvulus, Mansonella ozzardiand Mansonella perstans that can be found in the Amazon Region. Nested PCR-based identifications yielded the same results as those utilizing morphological characters. Nested PCR is highly sensitive and specific and it detects low-level infections in both humans and vectors. No cross-amplifications were observed with various other blood parasites and no false-positive results were obtained with the nested PCR. The method works efficiently with whole-blood, blood-spot and skin biopsy samples. Our method may thus be suitable for assessing the efficacy of filaria control programmes in Amazonia by recording parasite infections in both the human host and the vector. By specifically differentiating the major sympatric species of filaria, this technique could also enhance epidemiological research in the region.

  17. Nested PCR to detect and distinguish the sympatric filarial species Onchocerca volvulus, Mansonella ozzardi and Mansonella perstans in the Amazon Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Thuy-Huong Ta; López-Vélez, Rogelio; Lanza, Marta; Shelley, Anthony John; Rubio, Jose Miguel; Luz, Sérgio Luiz Bessa

    2010-09-01

    We present filaria-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which is based on amplification of first internal transcribed spacer rDNA to distinguish three parasitic filarial species (Onchocerca volvulus, Mansonella ozzardi and Mansonella perstans) that can be found in the Amazon Region. Nested PCR-based identifications yielded the same results as those utilizing morphological characters. Nested PCR is highly sensitive and specific and it detects low-level infections in both humans and vectors. No cross-amplifications were observed with various other blood parasites and no false-positive results were obtained with the nested PCR. The method works efficiently with whole-blood, blood-spot and skin biopsy samples. Our method may thus be suitable for assessing the efficacy of filaria control programmes in Amazonia by recording parasite infections in both the human host and the vector. By specifically differentiating the major sympatric species of filaria, this technique could also enhance epidemiological research in the region. PMID:20945000

  18. Routines of Riparian Women of the Amazon Region: Activities and Roles in the Family, at Work and in the Community

    OpenAIRE

    Neuzeli Maria de Almeida Pinto; Fernando Augusto Ramos Pontes; Simone Souza da Costa Silva

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the perception of the routines of women who live in Amazon riverside communities, identifying the roles and activities related to domestic work, açaí gathering and actions in community associations. The participants were three women from two island communities in Belem, Ilha Grande and Combu, who earn their living solely from açaí gathering, work at home and in community associations. The instruments used were the sociodemographic schedule (ISD), the I...

  19. Bird diversity in the Serra do Aracá region, northwestern Brazilian Amazon: preliminary check-list with considerations on biogeography and conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Henrique Borges

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We inventoried the birds from Serra do Aracá region, state of Amazonas. The region encompasses a high diversity of vegetation types, including white sand forests and campinas, terra firme and flooded forests, montane forests and tepuis. We recorded 416 bird taxa in 69 families through captures with mist nets, tape recording of bird voices, and collection of voucher specimens. A large proportion of them (61% were recorded in a single vegetation type. Qualitative estimates suggest that approximately 580 bird species occur in the region. The avifauna of the Aracá region has a mixed biogeographic composition, with species typical of both margins of the Rio Negro occurring sympatrically. Additionally, species whose distributions are restricted to three areas of endemism for Amazonian birds (Imeri, Guiana and Pantepui were recorded in the region. Rare landscapes in the Brazilian Amazon are found in the Serra do Aracá region. Additionally, we recorded endemic and rare birds, highlighting the value of the region for conservation. The Serra do Aracá State Park officially protects montane forests, terra firme forests and tepuis. We suggest that the large extension of white sand campinas and igapó forests at the southern portion of Serra do Aracá should be also preserved in order to improve the representation of the rich natural heritage of the region.

  20. Nutritional composition, fatty acid and tocopherol contents of buriti (Mauritia flexuosa and patawa (Oenocarpus bataua fruit pulp from the amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Henri Darnet

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Buriti and patawa are two endemic palm trees from the Amazon region. Their pulps are traditionally consumed by the local population, but are underused and lesser known worldwide. Nutritional composition, fatty acid and tocopherol contents of the two palm pulps were determined by modern analytical methods: Gas Chromatography (CG and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC, based on the standards of AOCS (AMERICAN..., 2002 and AOAC (ASSOCIATION..., 1997, respectively. Buriti and patawa fruit pulps are highly nutritive, with respectively, high fat content (38.4% and 29.1% of dry matter (DM, protein content (7.6% and 7.4% of DM and dietary fibers (46% and 44.7% of DM. Buriti pulp can be considered healthy food due its high content of vitamin E (1169 µg.g-1 DM. Patawa pulp is highly oleaginous and its fatty acid composition is very similar to the ones of healthy oils, such as olive oil.

  1. Geographical Analysis for Detecting High-Risk Areas for Bovine/Human Rabies Transmitted by the Common Hematophagous Bat in the Amazon Region, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda A G de Andrade

    Full Text Available The common hematophagous bat, Desmodus rotundus, is one of the main wild reservoirs of rabies virus in several regions in Latin America. New production practices and changed land use have provided environmental features that have been very favorable for D. rotundus bat populations, making this species the main transmitter of rabies in the cycle that involves humans and herbivores. In the Amazon region, these features include a mosaic of environmental, social, and economic components, which together creates areas with different levels of risk for human and bovine infections, as presented in this work in the eastern Brazilian Amazon.We geo-referenced a total of 175 cases of rabies, of which 88% occurred in bovines and 12% in humans, respectively, and related these cases to a number of different geographical and biological variables. The spatial distribution was analyzed using the Kernel function, while the association with independent variables was assessed using a multi-criterion Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP technique.The spatiotemporal analysis of the occurrence of rabies in bovines and humans found reduction in the number of cases in the eastern state of Pará, where no more cases were recorded in humans, whereas high infection rates were recorded in bovines in the northeastern part of the state, and low rates in the southeast. The areas of highest risk for bovine rabies are found in the proximity of rivers and highways. In the case of human rabies, the highest concentration of high-risk areas was found where the highway network coincides with high densities of rural and indigenous populations.The high-risk areas for human and bovine rabies are patchily distributed, and related to extensive deforested areas, large herds of cattle, and the presence of highways. These findings provide an important database for the generation of epidemiological models that could support the development of effective prevention measures and controls.

  2. Geographical Analysis for Detecting High-Risk Areas for Bovine/Human Rabies Transmitted by the Common Hematophagous Bat in the Amazon Region, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begot, Alberto L.; Ramos, Ofir de S.

    2016-01-01

    Background The common hematophagous bat, Desmodus rotundus, is one of the main wild reservoirs of rabies virus in several regions in Latin America. New production practices and changed land use have provided environmental features that have been very favorable for D. rotundus bat populations, making this species the main transmitter of rabies in the cycle that involves humans and herbivores. In the Amazon region, these features include a mosaic of environmental, social, and economic components, which together creates areas with different levels of risk for human and bovine infections, as presented in this work in the eastern Brazilian Amazon. Methodology We geo-referenced a total of 175 cases of rabies, of which 88% occurred in bovines and 12% in humans, respectively, and related these cases to a number of different geographical and biological variables. The spatial distribution was analyzed using the Kernel function, while the association with independent variables was assessed using a multi-criterion Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) technique. Findings The spatiotemporal analysis of the occurrence of rabies in bovines and humans found reduction in the number of cases in the eastern state of Pará, where no more cases were recorded in humans, whereas high infection rates were recorded in bovines in the northeastern part of the state, and low rates in the southeast. The areas of highest risk for bovine rabies are found in the proximity of rivers and highways. In the case of human rabies, the highest concentration of high-risk areas was found where the highway network coincides with high densities of rural and indigenous populations. Conclusion The high-risk areas for human and bovine rabies are patchily distributed, and related to extensive deforested areas, large herds of cattle, and the presence of highways. These findings provide an important database for the generation of epidemiological models that could support the development of effective prevention

  3. Clinical trial of two antivenoms for the treatment of Bothrops and Lachesis bites in the north eastern Amazon region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardal, Pedro Pereira de Oliveira; Souza, Suzana Medeiro; Monteiro, Maria Rita de Cássia da Costa; Fan, Hui Wen; Cardoso, João Luiz Costa; França, Francisco Oscar Siqueira; Tomy, Sandra Corrallo; Sano-Martins, Ida S; de Sousa-e-Silva, Maria Cristina Cirillo; Colombini, Mônica; Kodera, Nancy F; Moura-da-Silva, Ana Maria; Cardoso, Diva Ferreira; Velarde, David Toledo; Kamiguti, Aura S; Theakston, Robert David; Warrell, David A

    2004-01-01

    The efficacies of specific Bothrops atrox-Lachesis and standard Bothrops-Lachesis antivenoms were compared in the north eastern Amazon region of Brazil. The main aim was to investigate whether a specific antivenom raised against the venom of B. atrox, the most important Amazon snake species from a medical point of view, was necessary for the treatment of patients in this region. Seventy-four patients with local and systemic effects of envenoming by Bothrops or Lachesis snakes were randomly allocated to receive either specific (n = 38) or standard (n = 36) antivenoms. In 46 cases (24 in the standard antivenom group, 22 in the other) the snake was identified either by enzyme immunoassay or by examination of the dead snake, as B. atrox in 45, L. muta in one. Patients were similar in all clinical and epidemiological respects before treatment. Results indicated that both antivenoms were equally effective in reversing all signs of envenoming detected both clinically and in the laboratory. Venom-induced haemostatic abnormalities were resolved within 24 h after the start of antivenom therapy in most patients. The extent of local complications, such as local skin necrosis and secondary infection, was similar in both groups. There were no deaths. The incidence of early anaphylactic reactions was 18% and 19%, respectively for specific and standard antivenoms; none was life-threatening. Measurement of serum venom concentrations by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) confirmed that both antivenoms cleared venom antigenaemia effectively. EIA also revealed that one patient had been bitten by Lachesis muta, although the clinical features in this case were not distinctive. PMID:14702836

  4. The ceramic artifacts in archaeological black earth (terra preta) from lower Amazon region, Brazil: mineralogy Artefatos cerâmicos em sítios arqueológios com terra preta na região do baixo Amazonas, Brasil: mineralogia

    OpenAIRE

    Marcondes Lima da Costa; Dirse Clara Kern; Alice Helena Eleotério Pinto; Jorge Raimundo da Trindade Souza

    2004-01-01

    Several archaeological black earth (ABE) sites occur in the Amazon region. They contain fragments of ceramic artifacts, which are very important for the archaeological purpose. In order to improve the archaeological study in the region we carried out a detailed mineralogical and chemical study of the fragments of ceramic artifacts found in the two ABE sites of Cachoeira-Porteira, in the Lower Amazon Region. Their ceramics comprise the following tempers: cauixi, cariapé, sand, sand +feldspars,...

  5. Mixing in the Amazon estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, M. O.

    2010-05-01

    The research area of this work is located at the estuary of the Amazon River (Brazil), near the river mouth. The results of air movement analysis on the surface atmospheric circulation over the Mouth of the Amazonas River, salinity and temperature measures as well as measurements of currents, carried out along a longitudinal section in the navigation canal region of the Northern Bar of the Amazon River (Barra Norte do Rio Amazonas) in June 2006, during the river flood season in the quadrature tide. The dynamics effects affect hydrodynamic,meteorological and hydrographical parameters at the river mouth. The conclusion drawn include that: a) the saline wedge-type stratification can be detected approximately 100km away from the mouth of the Amazon River during the end of the rainy season in the quadrature tide; b) probably, at the Amazon estuary the quadrature entrainment processes are dominant and they are the ones responsible for increased salinity detected in the surface layer, whereas turbulence scattering mixing is not so important. c) The large flow of fresh water from the Amazon River at the end of the rainy season implies the displacement of the saline front position over the internal Amazon continental platform, and d) The tidal wave shows a positive asymmetry in the canal, with floods lasting less than in the ebb tide. This asymmetry decreases towards the ocean, eventually becoming reversed in the presence of a saline wedge. The speeds, however, have a negative asymmetry, with more intense ebb tides, due to the river flow and is more evident by the existence of quadrature tides.

  6. Assessment of the content of mercury, methylmercury and other elements of interest in fish, hair and diets of pre-school children of the Amazon region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies show that some regions of the Amazon region suffer mercury (Hg) impacts as a direct result of both natural and anthropogenic processes. Jau National Park (PNJ) is the only National Park in Brazil that protects an entire black water basin (Jau River), flood land and tropical reserve. These conditions favor Hg methylation in the aquatic biota. This in turn, exposes living on the river populations to Hg contamination as well as the adjacent regions. Preliminary studies of pre-school children diets from PNJ communities have shown that these diets have a worrisome high Hg content. The present study assessed total Hg content, micro nutrients (Ca, Fe, K, Na, Se and Zn) and macro nutrients (proteins, lipids, ash, energy, carbohydrate) in pre-school diets in the PNJ and surrounding communities. Furthermore, total and Me Hg levels were also determined in hair samples of these children as well as those living in several neighborhoods of the city of Manaus. Included in this determination were the fish most consumed by these populations. From these results it was possible to evaluate the nutritional content of the diets and the exposure of the children to Hg and Se Hg. Cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry was used to quantify total and Me Hg. Micro nutrient determination was performed using neutron activation analysis technique (NAA) and Macro nutrient through AOAC methodologies (USA). All analytical methods were developed and validated for precision and accuracy by means of reference materials analyses with certified values for the determined elements. Furthermore, the uncertainty sources for Hg and Me Hg determination were assessed and the expanded uncertainties were calculated. Total Hg levels in diets and total and Me Hg levels for hair samples, were well above those values found in different localities of the Amazon region. This also holds true for those surrounding areas of the JNP. For many children Hg intake values passed the 5 mug Hg/body weigh/week (PTWI

  7. Electric power generation using biomass gasification systems in nature in isolated communities of the Amazon region: project GASEIBRAS; Geracao de eletricidade utilizando sistemas de gaseificacao de biomassa in natura em comunidades isoladas da regiao amazonica: projeto GASEIBRAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira; Velazquez, Silvia M. Stortini Goncalves; Santos, Sandra M. Apolinario dos; Lora, Beatriz Acquaro [Universidade de Sao Paulo (CENBIO/USP), SP (Brazil). Centro de Referencia Nacional em Biomassa], e-mails: suani@iee.usp.br, sgvelaz@iee.usp.br, sandra@iee.usp.br, blora@iee.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper will present the pioneering project of electric energy generation from renewable sources 'GASEIBRAS - Nationalization of the Biomass Gasification Technology and Formation of Human Resources in the Amazon Region', recently approved by the National Advice of Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) and for the Ministry of Mines and Energy (MME). The GASEIBRAS project intends to use the experience previously acquired in the project GASEIFAMAZ - Comparison between Existing Technologies of Biomass Gasification in Brazil and Exterior and Formation of Human Resources in the North Region, sponsored by FINEP/CTENERG, to develop and construct a 20 kWe biomass gasification system, with total national technology, easy to operate and to maintain, and fed with local available biomass residues. Apart from contributing for the development of the national technology, this project will provide the sustainable development of the isolated communities in the Amazon region. The ongoing development of this project will enable to consolidate the national biomass gasification technology for electricity generation. The implemented prototype will allow the response of this project in other regions of the country, due its tailor made characteristic to attend to small isolated communities, thus supplying decentralized energy from renewable sources, to Amazon region. (author)

  8. Epidemiologia das encefalites por arbovírus na amazônia brasileira Epidemiology of encephalitis by arboviruses in the Amazon region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Fernando da Costa Vasconcelos

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores revêem os aspectos ecoepidemiológicos apresentados pelos virus da encefalite de St. Louis (SLE, encefalites equinas Leste (EEE, Oeste (WEE e Venezuelana [subtipos III, Mucambo (MUC e IV, Pixuna (PIX], decorrentes dos estudos realizados em diversas áreas da Região Amazônica brasileira, especialmente ao longo das rodovias e projetos de desenvolvimento. Esses vírus são amplamente distribuídos na Amazônia e pelo menos quatro deles, EEE, WEE, MUC e SLE já demonstraram ser patógenos do homem. O diagnóstico da doença humana foi feito por sorologia, sendo que de MUC e SLE obteve-se também isolamento viral. O vírus PIX, parece ser o menos prevalente e foi isolado em poucas oportunidades. Virtualmente se desconhecem os vetores do PIX e WEE. As aves silvestres constituem os hospedeiros principais de todos esses vírus, exceto do MUC, para o qual constituem os roedores. O quadro clínico apresentado pelos pacientes infectados na Amazônia é discutido, comparando-o ao apresentado em outras áreas, especialmente nos EUA, onde periodicamente SLE, EEE e WEE causam surtos de doença humana. Nenhuma epidemia foi até o presente detectada, embora em 1960 uma epizootia em eqüinos causada pelo EEE tenha sido registrada em Bragança, Pará, onde em um rebanho de 500 animais ocorreu uma letalidade de 5%. Quatro outras pequenas epizootias determinadas pelo SLE ocorreram nas florestas adjacentes a Belém, envolvendo aves silvestres e animais sentinelas.An overview of ecological, epidemiological and clinical findings of potential arthropod-borne encephalitis viruses circulating in the Amazon Region of Brazil are discussed. These viruses are the Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE, Western Equine Encephalitis (WEE, St. Louis Encephalitis (SLE, Mucambo (MUC and Pixuna (PIX. These last two are subtypes (HI and IV of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis virus. The areas of study were the highways and projects of development, as well as places where

  9. Detection of HTLV-IIa in blood donors in an urban area of the Amazon Region of Brazil (Belém, PA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishak R.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The human lymphotropic viruses type I (HTLV-I and type II (HTLV-II are members of a group of mammalian retroviruses with similar biological properties, and blood transfusion is an important route of transmission. HTLV-I is endemic in a number of different geographical areas and is associated with several clinical disorders. HTLV-II is endemic in several Indian groups of the Americas and intravenous drug abusers in North and South America, Europe and Southeast Asia. During the year of 1995, all blood donors tested positive to HTLV-I/II in the State Blood Bank (HEMOPA, were directed to a physician and to the Virus Laboratory at the Universidade Federal do Pará for counselling and laboratory diagnosis confirmation. Thirty-five sera were tested by an enzyme immune assay, and a Western blot that discriminates HTLV-I and HTLV-II infection. Two HTLV-II positive samples were submitted to PCR analysis of pX and env genomic region, and confirmed to be of subtype IIa. This is the first detection in Belém of the presence of HTLV-IIa infection among blood donors. This result emphasizes that HTLV-II is also present in urban areas of the Amazon region of Brazil and highlights the need to include screening tests that are capable to detect antibodies for both types of HTLV.

  10. Ultrastructural, Antigenic and Physicochemical Characterization of the Mojuí dos Campos (Bunyavirus Isolated from Bat in the Brazilian Amazon Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanzeller Ana LM

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mojuí dos Campos virus (MDCV was isolated from the blood of an unidentified bat (Chiroptera captured in Mojuí dos Campos, Santarém, State of Pará, Brazil, in 1975 and considerated to be antigenically different from other 102 arboviruses belonging to several antigenic groups isolated in the Amazon region or another region by complement fixation tests. The objective of this work was to develop a morphologic, an antigenic and physicochemical characterization of this virus. MDCV produces cytopathic effect in Vero cells, 24 h post-infection (p.i, and the degree of cellular destruction increases after a few hours. Negative staining electron microscopy of the supernatant of Vero cell cultures showed the presence of coated viral particles with a diameter of around 98 nm. Ultrathin sections of Vero cells, and brain and liver of newborn mice infected with MDCV showed an assembly of the viral particles into the Golgi vesicles. The synthesis kinetics of the proteins for MDCV were similar to that observed for other bunyaviruses, and viral proteins could be detected as early as 6 h p.i. Our results reinforce the original studies which had classified MDCV in the family Bunyaviridae, genus Bunyavirus as an ungrouped virus, and it may represent the prototype of a new serogroup.

  11. How many more dams in the Amazon?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Amazon watershed harbors a megadiversity of terrestrial and aquatic plants and animals. Mechanisms that sustain this biodiversity are the water level fluctuations the fluvial dynamics and the intense gene flux due to permanent integration of climatological, geomorphological and biological components of the system. The construction of hydroelectric reservoirs to support economic development of Brazil and other countries that share the Amazon basin will interfere with the ecological dynamics of this ecosystem changing the hydrological, hydrosocial and fundamental processes. Furthermore the construction of Andean reservoirs can disrupt the connectivity with the lower Amazon ecosystem. Principles of ecohydrologies, ecological engineering and preservation of key river basins, have to be applied in order to optimize energy production and promote conservation practices. Long term planning and integration of countries that share the Amazon basin is a strategic decision to control and develop the hydropower exploitation in the region. - Highlights: • The Amazon basin is an ecosystem of megadiversity. • The demand for energy threatens this ecosystem. • Climate, water, forests and floodplain interacts in the Amazon basin. • Dams in the Amazon basin will impact the hydrological and biological systems. • Ecohydrological principles and ecological engineering technology are necessary

  12. A large proportion of P. falciparum isolates in the Amazon region of Peru lack pfhrp2 and pfhrp3: implications for malaria rapid diagnostic tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionicia Gamboa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs offer significant potential to improve the diagnosis of malaria, and are playing an increasing role in malaria case management, control and elimination. Peru, along with other South American countries, is moving to introduce malaria RDTs as components of malaria control programmes supported by the Global Fund for AIDS, TB and malaria. The selection of the most suitable malaria RDTs is critical to the success of the programmes. METHODS: Eight of nine microscopy positive P. falciparum samples collected in Iquitos, Peru tested negative or weak positive using HRP2-detecting RDTs. These samples were tested for the presence of pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 and their flanking genes by PCR, as well as the presence of HRP proteins by ELISA. To investigate for geographic extent of HRP-deleted parasites and their temporal occurrence a retrospective study was undertaken on 148 microscopy positive P. falciparum samples collected in different areas of the Amazon region of Peru. FINDINGS: Eight of the nine isolates lacked the pfhrp2 and/or pfhrp3 genes and one or both flanking genes, and the absence of HRP was confirmed by ELISA. The retrospective study showed that 61 (41% and 103 (70% of the 148 samples lacked the pfhrp2 or pfhrp3 genes respectively, with 32 (21.6% samples lacking both hrp genes. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first documentation of P. falciparum field isolates lacking pfhrp2 and/or pfhrp3. The high frequency and wide distribution of different parasites lacking pfhrp2 and/or pfhrp3 in widely dispersed areas in the Peruvian Amazon implies that malaria RDTs targeting HRP2 will fail to detect a high proportion of P. falciparum in malaria-endemic areas of Peru and should not be used. RDTs detecting parasite LDH or aldolase and quality microscopy should be use for malaria diagnosis in this region. There is an urgent need for investigation of the abundance and geographic distribution of these parasites in Peru and

  13. Biomarkers of Mercury Exposure in the Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Nathália Santos Serrão de Castro; Marcelo de Oliveira Lima

    2014-01-01

    Mercury exposure in the Amazon has been studied since the 1980s decade and the assessment of human mercury exposure in the Amazon is difficult given that the natural occurrence of this metal is high and the concentration of mercury in biological samples of this population exceeds the standardized value of normality established by WHO. Few studies have focused on the discovery of mercury biomarkers in the region's population. In this way, some studies have used genetics as well as immunologica...

  14. GoAmazon – Scaling Amazon Carbon Water Couplings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubey, Manvendra Krishna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-06

    Forests soak up 25% of the carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted by anthropogenic fossil energy use (10 Gt C y-1) moderating its atmospheric accumulation. How this terrestrial CO2 uptake will evolve with climate change in the 21st century is largely unknown. Rainforests are the most active ecosystems with the Amazon basin storing 120 Gt C as biomass and exchanging 18 Gt C y-1 of CO2 via photosynthesis and respiration and fixing carbon at 2-3 kg C m-2 y-1. Furthermore, the intense hydrologic and carbon cycles are tightly coupled in the Amazon where about half of the water is recycled by evapotranspiration and the other half imported from the ocean by Northeasterly trade winds. Climate models predict a drying in the Amazon with reduced carbon uptake while observationally guided assessments indicate sustained uptake. We will resolve this huge discrepancy in the size and sign of the future Amazon carbon cycle by performing the first simultaneous regional scale high frequency measurements of atmospheric CO2, H2O, HOD, CH4, N2O and CO at the T3 site in Manacupuru, Brazil as part of DOE's GoAmazon project. Our data will be used to inform and develop DOE's CLM on the tropical carbon-water couplings at the appropriate grid scale (10-50km). Our measurements will also validate the CO2 data from Japan's GOSAT and NASA's imminent OCO-2 satellite (launch date July 2014).

  15. A possible correlation between the host genetic background in the epidemiology of Hepatitis B virus in the Amazon region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. C. R. Santos

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon region of Brazil is an area of great interest because of the large distribution of hepatitis B virus in specific Western areas. Seven urban communities and 24 Indian groups were visited in a total of 4,244 persons. Each individual was interviewed in order to obtain demographic and familial information. Whole blood was collected for serology and genetic determinations. Eleven genetic markers and three HBV markers were tested. Among the most relevant results it was possible to show that (i there was a large variation of previous exposure to HBV in both urban and non-urban groups ranging from 0 to 59.2%; (ii there was a different pattern of epidemiological distribution of HBV that was present even among a same linguistic Indian group, with mixed patterns of correlation between HBsAg and anti-HBs and (iii the prevalence of HBV markers (HBsAg and anti-HBs were significantly higher (P=0.0001 among the Indian population (18.8% than the urban groups (12.5%. Its possible that the host genetic background could influence and modulate the replication of the virus in order to generate HB carrier state.

  16. Detection of the VP6 gene of group F and G rotaviruses in broiler chicken fecal samples from the Amazon region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Joana D P; Bezerra, Delana A M; Silva, René R; Silva, Mayara J M; Júnior, Edivaldo C Sousa; Soares, Luana S

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to detect rotavirus F (RVF) and rotavirus G (RVG) in fecal specimens of broiler chickens in Brazil. During 2008 and 2011, a total of 85 fecal samples were collected. The viral genome was extracted, followed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and nucleotide sequencing. Samples were screened for rotaviruses by PAGE, and RVF and RVG genome banding patterns were not seen. Using RT-PCR, it was found that 9.4 % (8/85) of the pools contained RVF, whereas 10.6 % (9/85) contained RVG. The predicted amino acid sequences of RVF and RVG from Brazilian samples were 94.4-95.7 % and 96.8-96.9 % identical, respectively, to those of prototypes from Germany. The detection of RVF and RVG in this study provides important epidemiological data about the simultaneous circulation of rotaviruses affecting broiler flocks in the Amazon region of Brazil. PMID:27154557

  17. Natural Leishmania (Viannia) spp. infections in phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from the Brazilian Amazon region reveal new putative transmission cycles of American cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Adelson Alcimar Almeida; Dos Santos, Thiago Vasconcelos; Jennings, Yara Lúcia Lins; Ishikawa, Edna Aoba Yassui; Barata, Iorlando da Rocha; Silva, Maria das Graças Soares; Lima, José Aprígio Nunes; Shaw, Jeffrey; Lainson, Ralph; Silveira, Fernando Tobias

    2016-01-01

    In Amazonian Brazil the etiological agents of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) belong to at least seven Leishmania species but little is known about the putative phlebotomine sand fly vectors in different biomes. In 2002-2003 a survey of the phlebotomine fauna was undertaken in the "Floresta Nacional do Tapajós", Belterra municipality, in the lower Amazon region, western Pará State, Brazil, where we recently confirmed the presence of a putative hybrid parasite, L. (V.) guyanensis × L. (V.) shawi shawi. Sand flies were collected from Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps, Shannon traps and by aspiration on tree bases. Females were dissected and attempts to isolate any flagellate infections were made by inoculating homogenized midguts into Difco B(45) medium. Isolates were characterized by monoclonal antibodies and isoenzyme electrophoresis. A total of 9,704 sand flies, belonging to 68 species or subspecies, were collected. Infections were found in the following sand flies: L. (V.) naiffi with Psychodopygus hirsutus hirsutus (1) and Ps. davisi (2); and L. (V.) shawi shawi with Nyssomyia whitmani (3) and Lutzomyia gomezi (1). These results provide strong evidence of new putative transmission cycles for L. (V.) naiffi and L. (V.) s. shawi.

  18. Local and regional palm (Arecaceae) species richness patterns and their cross-scale determinants in the western Amazon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Thea; Svenning, J.-C.; Pedersen, Dennis;

    2011-01-01

    1. Local and regional patterns of plant species richness in tropical rain forests, aswell as their possible drivers, remain largely unexplored. The main hypotheses for local species richness (alpha diversity) are (i) local environmental determinism with species-saturated communities, and (ii......-scale topography. Apart fromgamma diversity, the factormost strongly related to regional alpha diversity was precipitation seasonality, while gamma diversity itself was strongly linked to long-termhabitat stability. These results imply that plant species richness is contingent on both contemporary and historical......) regional control, in which the immigration of species from the regional species pool (gamma diversity) determines how many species coexist locally. The species pool hypothesis suggests a combined influence of local and regional drivers on alpha diversity. Differences in gamma diversity may arise from...

  19. Molecular assays reveal the presence of Theileria spp. and Babesia spp. in Asian water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis, Linnaeus, 1758) in the Amazon region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Júlia A G; de Oliveira, Cairo H S; Silvestre, Bruna T; Albernaz, Tatiana T; Leite, Rômulo C; Barbosa, José D; Oliveira, Carlos M C; Ribeiro, Múcio F B

    2016-07-01

    Approximately 50% of buffalo herds in Brazil are located in Pará state in northern Brazil. There are several properties where cattle and buffalo live and graze together, and thus, buffalo pathogens may threaten the health of cattle and vice versa. Therefore, knowledge of infectious agents of buffalo is essential for maintaining healthy livestock. Clinical disease caused by Theileria and Babesia parasites in the Asian water buffalo is not common, although these animals may act as reservoir hosts, and the detection of these hemoparasites in buffaloes is as important as it is in cattle. Studies of the infection of buffaloes by hemoparasites in Brazil are scarce. The objective of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of Piroplasmida parasites in Asian water buffaloes in the state of Pará in the Amazon region of Brazil using nested PCR assays and phylogenetic analysis. The 18S rRNA gene and ITS complete region were amplified from DNA extracted from blood samples collected from 308 apparently healthy buffaloes bred on six properties in the state of Pará, Brazil. The prevalence of positive buffalo samples was 4.2% (13/308) for Theileria spp., 3.6% (11/308) for Babesia bovis and 1% (3/308) for Babesia bigemina. Animals infected with Theileria were detected in 50% (3/6) of the assessed properties. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the Theileria species detected in this study were closely related to Theileria buffeli, Theileria orientalis and Theileria sinensis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Theileria in Asian water buffaloes in the Americas. The majority of Theileria-positive buffaloes (11/13) belong to a property that has a history of animals presenting lymphoproliferative disease of unknown etiology. Therefore, the present research suggests that this disorder can be associated with Theileria infection in this property. Our results provide new insights on the distribution and biological aspects of hemoparasites transmissible from

  20. New records of bats from the northern region of the Peruvian Amazon%秘鲁亚马孙北部地区蝙蝠新记录

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M Mónica Díaz

    2011-01-01

    The northern Amazon Basin in Peru is one of the most diverse areas for small mammals in the world. In this work, I present information related to the diversity of bat species in the Amazonian region of Iquitos, Peru, where nearly 60% of the 152 bat species known to Peru recorded. Unlike in previous investigations in this area, bat surveys were designed to detect species living in urban and rural areas. The results have added a new bat species (Eumops delticus) to the Peruvian fauna, eight new species for the region around Iquitos (Peropteryx macrotis, Peropteryx pallidoptera, Anoura caudifer, Lionycteris spurrelli, Vampyrum spectrum, Thyroptera lavali, Cynomops planirostris, and Molossus coibensis), and a new species for Northeast Peru (Eumops maurus).%位于秘鲁的亚马孙盆地北部是世界小型哺乳动物多样性最高的地区之一.该文报道了亚马孙流域在秘鲁伊基托斯的蝙蝠物种多样性:这里的蝙蝠物种数约占秘鲁已知152个蝙蝠物种的60%.与在该地区之前开展的研究不同,本次调查范围为城市和农村地区.结果发现1个秘鲁新记录(Eumops delticus)、8个伊基托斯新记录(Peropteryx macrotis、Peropteryx pallidoptera、Anoura caudifer、Lionycteris spurrelli、Vampyrum spectrum、Thyroptera lavali、Cynomops planirostris和Molossus coibensis)和1个秘鲁东北部新记录(Eumops maurus).

  1. Impact of forested fallows on fertility and mercury content in soils of the Tapajós River region, Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patry, Cynthia; Davidson, Robert; Lucotte, Marc; Béliveau, Annie

    2013-08-01

    Recent research on slash-and-burn agriculture conducted in the Amazonian basin has suggested that soils must be left under forested fallows for at least 10 to 15 years to regain fertility levels comparable to non-disturbed forests in order to allow for short cycle crop cultivation. However, small scale farmers tend nowadays to re-burn secondary forests as soon as after 3 to 5 years, thus could contribute to further reduce soil fertility and could enhance the transfer of mercury (Hg) naturally present in soils of the region towards water courses. The present research project sets out to characterize the impact of forested fallows of differing age and land-use history on soils properties (fertility and Hg contents) in the region of the Tapajós River, an active pioneer front of the Brazilian Amazon. To do this, soil samples in forested fallows of variable age and in control primary forests were retrieved. In general, soil fertility of grouped forested fallows of different ages was similar to that of the primary forests. But when discriminating soils according to their texture, forested fallows on coarse grained soils still had much higher NH4/NO3 ratios, NH4 and Ca contents than primary forests, this even 15 years after burning. The impact of repeated burnings was also assessed. Fallows on coarse grained soils showed an impoverishment for all variables related to fertility when the number of burnings was 5 or more. For fallows on fine grained soils that underwent 5 or more burnings, NO3 contents were low although a cation enrichment was observed. Total soil Hg content was also sensitive to repeated burnings, showing similar losses for forested fallows established on both types of soil. However, Hg linked to coarse particles appeared to migrate back towards fine particles at the surface of coarse grained soils in fallows older than 7 years. PMID:23651778

  2. Molecular assays reveal the presence of Theileria spp. and Babesia spp. in Asian water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis, Linnaeus, 1758) in the Amazon region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Júlia A G; de Oliveira, Cairo H S; Silvestre, Bruna T; Albernaz, Tatiana T; Leite, Rômulo C; Barbosa, José D; Oliveira, Carlos M C; Ribeiro, Múcio F B

    2016-07-01

    Approximately 50% of buffalo herds in Brazil are located in Pará state in northern Brazil. There are several properties where cattle and buffalo live and graze together, and thus, buffalo pathogens may threaten the health of cattle and vice versa. Therefore, knowledge of infectious agents of buffalo is essential for maintaining healthy livestock. Clinical disease caused by Theileria and Babesia parasites in the Asian water buffalo is not common, although these animals may act as reservoir hosts, and the detection of these hemoparasites in buffaloes is as important as it is in cattle. Studies of the infection of buffaloes by hemoparasites in Brazil are scarce. The objective of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of Piroplasmida parasites in Asian water buffaloes in the state of Pará in the Amazon region of Brazil using nested PCR assays and phylogenetic analysis. The 18S rRNA gene and ITS complete region were amplified from DNA extracted from blood samples collected from 308 apparently healthy buffaloes bred on six properties in the state of Pará, Brazil. The prevalence of positive buffalo samples was 4.2% (13/308) for Theileria spp., 3.6% (11/308) for Babesia bovis and 1% (3/308) for Babesia bigemina. Animals infected with Theileria were detected in 50% (3/6) of the assessed properties. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the Theileria species detected in this study were closely related to Theileria buffeli, Theileria orientalis and Theileria sinensis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Theileria in Asian water buffaloes in the Americas. The majority of Theileria-positive buffaloes (11/13) belong to a property that has a history of animals presenting lymphoproliferative disease of unknown etiology. Therefore, the present research suggests that this disorder can be associated with Theileria infection in this property. Our results provide new insights on the distribution and biological aspects of hemoparasites transmissible from

  3. Eco-efficiency in oil and gas exploration and production in regions of humid tropical forests: the PETROBRAS case in the Amazon region; Eco-eficiencia na exploracao e producao de petroleo e gas em regioes de florestas tropicais umidas: o caso da PETROBRAS na Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leyen, Bianca de Castro

    2008-09-15

    This dissertation discourses about the application of eco-efficiency concepts to the case of PETROBRAS oil and gas exploration and production activities in the Amazon Forest, proposing the use of indicators as a systematization tool for this application. First there is a description about the concepts concerning corporate sustainability, corporate social responsibility and eco-efficiency, considering their application to the oil and gas industry. The main exploration and production projects in rainforest regions are described next, with distinction to PETROBRAS case in the Amazon Forest. Finally there is a description about the process of alignment of PETROBRAS Amazon activities management to the eco-efficiency and corporate sustainability, followed by a proposal of a body of indicators to the case study. (author)

  4. Population dynamics in the context of environmental vulnerability: comparison of the Mekong, Ganges-Brahmaputra and Amazon delta regions

    OpenAIRE

    Szabo, Sylvia; Brondizio, Eduardo; Hetrick, Scott; Matthews, Zoe; Renaud, Fabrice; NICHOLLS, Robert; Sebesvari, Zita; da Costa, Sandra; Dearing, John; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi; Tejedor, Alejandro; Tessler, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    Tropical delta regions experience complex population dynamics, which are strongly influenced by socio-economic and environmental factors. They are subject to increasing pressure from relative sea-level rise, and because of human alterations they are becoming more and more vulnerable to extreme floods, storms, surges, and salinity intrusion, hazards which could also increase in magnitude and frequency with a changing climate. In this context, understanding population dynamics in delta regions ...

  5. Structure and organization of the mitochondrial DNA control region with tandemly repeated sequence in the Amazon ornamental fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terencio, Maria Leandra; Schneider, Carlos Henrique; Gross, Maria Claudia; Feldberg, Eliana; Porto, Jorge Ivan Rebelo

    2013-02-01

    Tandemly repeated sequences are a common feature of vertebrate mitochondrial DNA control regions. However, questions still remain about their mode of evolution and function. To better understand patterns of variation in length and to explore the existence of previously described domain, we have characterized the control region structure of the Amazonian ornamental fish Nannostomus eques and Nannostomus unifasciatus. The control region ranged from 1121 to 1142 bp in length and could be separated into three domains: the domain associated with the extended terminal associated sequences, the central conserved domain, and the conserved sequence blocks domain. In the first domain, we encountered a sequence repeated 10 times in tandem (variable number tandem repeat (VNTR)) that could adopt an "inverted repetitions" type structural conformation. The results suggest that the VNTR pattern encountered in both N. eques and N. unifasciatus is consistent with the prerequisites of the illegitimate elongation model in which the unequal pairing of the chains near the 5'-end of the control region favors the formation of repetitions.

  6. Adsorptive, thermodynamic and kinetic performances of Al/Ti and Al/Zr-pillared clays from the Brazilian Amazon region for zinc cation removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra, Denis L. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Caixa Postal 6154, 13084-971 Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Airoldi, Claudio [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Caixa Postal 6154, 13084-971 Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil)], E-mail: airoldi@iqm.unicamp.br; Lemos, Vanda P.; Angelica, Romulo S. [Universidade Federal do Para, Centro de Geociencia, Caixa Postal 1611, 66075-110 Belem, Para (Brazil)

    2008-06-30

    Smectite clay samples from the Amazon region, Brazil, were pillarized by intercalating the species obtained from the chemical reactions: (i) AlCl{sub 3}.6H{sub 2}O/NaOH, (ii) titanium ethoxide in hydrochloric acid and (iii) direct use of ZrOCl{sub 2}.8H{sub 2}O solution. The natural matrices and the pillaring solutions were maintained under vigorous stirring at 298 K for 3 h and then subjected to calcination at temperatures of 723 and 873 K. Natural and pillared matrices were characterized by XRD, FTIR, TG-DTG and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. The resulting materials were used for zinc adsorption from aqueous solution at room temperature. The Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin adsorption isotherm models have been applied to fit the experimental data and the Freundlich model is limited for higher concentrations. The pillaring process increases the thermal stability, the basal spacing of the natural clay sample (A{sub 1}) from 1.55 to 2.06 nm and the surface area from 44.30 to 223.73 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}. Kinetic studies demonstrated an equilibrium time of 180 min for zinc adsorption on the pillared matrices. Pseudo-first-order, Lagergren pseudo-second-order and Elovich equations demonstrated a better agreement with second-order kinetics was obtained with K{sub 2} = 4.17-10.43 x 10{sup -3} g mg{sup -1} min{sup -1} for the A{sub 1} sample.

  7. Applying persistent scatterer interferometry for surface displacement mapping in the Azul open pit manganese mine (Amazon region) with TerraSAR-X StripMap data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athayde Pinto, Carolina de; Paradella, Waldir Renato; Mura, José Claudio; Gama, Fabio Furlan; Ribeiro dos Santos, Athos; Silva, Guilherme Gregório; Hartwig, Marcos Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    The Azul mining complex, located in the Carajás Mineral Province, Amazon region, encompasses the most important manganese mine in Brazil. Vale S.A. company operates three simultaneous open pit excavations (mines 1, 2, and 3) in the area, which are conducted on rock alteration products of low geomechanical quality related to sandstones, siltstones, and a lateritic cover. In order to monitor ground deformation, 33 TerraSAR-X (TSX-1) StripMap images covering the period of March 2012-April 2013 were used in the investigation. An advanced differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (A-DInSAR) approach based on persistent scatterer interferometry (PSI) using an interferometric point target analysis algorithm was applied, and the results showed that most of the area was considered stable during the time span of the synthetic aperture radar acquisitions. However, persistent scatterers (PS) with high deformation rates were mapped over a waste pile, probably related to settlements, and also along the north flank of mine 1, indicative of cut slope movements toward the center of the pit. A spatial relationship of geological structures with PS was observed for this sector of the mine, given by PS showing deformation rates concentrated along a structural corridor with faults, fractures, and folds related to the Carajás fault system. Though only ground-based radar measurements for wall benches of mine 1 were available for a short time period of the TSX-1 coverage, the PS movement patterns showed concordance with geotechnical field measurements. The investigation emphasized the important role that satellite-based A-DInSAR can play for deformation monitoring and risk assessment in this kind of mining area.

  8. Karyotype evolution in Curimatidae (Teleostei, Characiformes) from the Amazon region. II. Centric fissions in the genus Potamorhina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldberg, E; Porto, J I; Nakayama, C M; Bertollo, L A

    1993-04-01

    Using cytogenetic analysis following Giemsa staining, nucleolar organizer region (NOR) staining, and C-banding, three distinct karyotypes in three species of curimatids belonging to the fish genus Potamorhina were identified: 2n = 54/44 M + 10 SM (P. pristigaster), 2n = 56/52 M + 2 SM + 2 ST (P. latior), and 2n = 102/2 M + 2 SM + 98 A (P. altamazonica). A 2n = 54 was considered to be the ancestral diploid number and the different karyotypes were probably the result of centric fissions. Both the NOR pattern and constitutive heterochromatin pattern are species specific. PMID:18469994

  9. Novel polymorphism in exon 1 of the melatonin receptor gene unassociated with reproductive characteristics of buffaloes in the Amazon Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, E M; Souza, B B; Guimarães, R C; Azevedo, J S N; Gonçalves, E C; Ribeiro, H F L; Rolim Filho, S T; Silva Filho, E

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to sequence part of the exon 1 in the melatonin receptor 1A gene (MTRN1A) in buffaloes to detect a novel polymorphism with which to associate reproductive characteristics, such as age at first birth and the interval between births, in buffaloes from the northeastern region of the State of Pará (Brazil). Buffalo hair samples (77) were collected from the Terra Firme region of Pará. DNA was extracted and polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) were carried out with a primer that was designed using the GenBank accession No. AY524665 reference sequence. PCR products were purified and sequenced. After editing and analysis of the sequences, a mutation was observed at the 62nd position in exon 1 of MTRN1A (T↔C), which corresponded with a change in the 21st amino acid from leucine to proline. All possible genotypes were observed, with the most common being genotype CC (0.481). The allele frequencies were T = 0.377 and C = 0.623. Statistical analysis of FIS showed inbreeding within the sample group (FIS = 0.397) and deviations from the Hardy- Weinberg equilibrium were observed (P 0.05). Although the related SNP was not synonymous, there were no observable effects on the reproductive characteristics under investigation. As such, it would be ideal to detect other SNPs in exon 1 of the MTRN1A gene that can be associated with reproductive characteristics in Amazonian buffaloes. PMID:27421017

  10. Fragmentation patterns and systematic transitions of the forested land-scape in the upper Amazon region, Ecuador 1990-2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Santiago Bonilla-Bedoya; Juan R. Molina; José E. Macedo-Pezzopane; Miguel A. Herrera-Machuca

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of the systeTatic transitions in the forested landscape and the study of the forest fragTentation patterns allow us to deepen our understanding of the changes in the vegetation ground cover. The iTportance of knowing the intricate patterns of the land usage of the upper basin of the ATazon region is widely recognized. This zone is one of the Tost diverse biological areas in the world, is hoTe to large areas of Tature tropical cloud forest and deTonstrates high probabilities of stable cliTatic conditions in light of global warTing. The research quan-tified systeTatic transitions through the"loss"and"gain"of the different categories of landscape during the eighteen-year study period of the Ecuadorian ATazon Region (EAR), the forest fragTentation patterns were also analyzed based on a set of indicators. Therefore, with respect to the entirety of the landscape, the results registered for the ground coverage in forested areas during the first period (1990-2000), show a decrease of 6.99% and an increase of 0.68%; and during the second period (2000-2008), show a decrease of 3.99%and an increase of 2.14%. It deTonstrated that forest and agricultural areas tended to replace or be replaced by herbaceous vegetation faster than expected fortuitously. Finally, the indices of fragTentation signaled intense changes during the 1990-2000 period with a reduction during the period 2000-2008. Per-centages registered in the Largest Patch Index (LPI) were between 79.58%;52.39%and 49.99%respectively;while the Patch Density (PD) varied between 0.04;0.06 and 0.07. This suggests the propensity of for-est cover to reTain intact. The results of this investigation suggest a tendency towards stability in Ecuador’s ATazon landscape. Within the fraTework for developTent and TanageTent of this area, the tendency is natural regeneration. This perTits a consolidation of the conservation, reforestation, forestation and agricultural forestry plans, prograTs and systeTs for the protected

  11. Modelling conservation in the Amazon basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares-Filho, Britaldo Silveira; Nepstad, Daniel Curtis; Curran, Lisa M.; Cerqueira, Gustavo Coutinho; Garcia, Ricardo Alexandrino; Ramos, Claudia Azevedo; Voll, Eliane; McDonald, Alice; Lefebvre, Paul; Schlesinger, Peter

    2006-03-01

    Expansion of the cattle and soy industries in the Amazon basin has increased deforestation rates and will soon push all-weather highways into the region's core. In the face of this growing pressure, a comprehensive conservation strategy for the Amazon basin should protect its watersheds, the full range of species and ecosystem diversity, and the stability of regional climates. Here we report that protected areas in the Amazon basin-the central feature of prevailing conservation approaches-are an important but insufficient component of this strategy, based on policy-sensitive simulations of future deforestation. By 2050, current trends in agricultural expansion will eliminate a total of 40% of Amazon forests, including at least two-thirds of the forest cover of six major watersheds and 12 ecoregions, releasing 32 +/- 8Pg of carbon to the atmosphere. One-quarter of the 382 mammalian species examined will lose more than 40% of the forest within their Amazon ranges. Although an expanded and enforced network of protected areas could avoid as much as one-third of this projected forest loss, conservation on private lands is also essential. Expanding market pressures for sound land management and prevention of forest clearing on lands unsuitable for agriculture are critical ingredients of a strategy for comprehensive conservation.

  12. An outbreak of myxozoan parasites in farmed freshwater fish Colossoma macropomum (Cuvier, 1818 (Characidae, Serrasalminae in the Amazon region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Videira

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum is a native fish species that is farmed most frequently and in the largest quantities throughout Brazil. The high production of this species from fish farms has contributed to the occurrence of emerging parasites, which may compromise fish health and productivity. In a batch of 2500 tambaqui fry acquired for experimental farming procedures in Brazil, a mortality rate of 80% was observed, with the fish swimming erratically and gasping for air at the water surface. From among the specimens that were still alive, 60 individuals were selected at random. Organs or fragments of organs containing lesions and/or cysts were examined under an optical microscope to investigate for the presence of parasitic spores. Of the 60 specimens of tambaqui analyzed, 83.3% were found to be infected in different organs, such as the gills, liver, and gallbladder with myxosporidian species belonging to four genera, namely, Myxobolus, Ellipsomyxa, Henneguya and Thelohanellus. The parasite with the greatest prevalence was Myxobolus sp., located in the gills (70%, followed by Henneguya sp. in the gills region (68.3%, Myxobolus sp. in the liver (63.3%, Thelohanellus sp. in the liver (58.3%, and Ellipsomyxa in the gallbladder (50%. This is the first report of parasitic infection caused by the genera Ellipsomyxa and Thelohanellus in C. macropomum. The present study reported the second incidence of the occurrence of the genus Thelohanellus in South America. This study suggested that the mortality among C. macropomum specimens was caused by the outbreak of myxosporidians.

  13. First record of notoedric mange in ocelot (Leopardus pardalis Linnaeus, 1758) in the amazon region, Brazil Primeiro relato de sarna notoédrica em jaguatirica (Leopardus pardalis Linnaeus, 1758) na região amazônica, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandra Scofield; Rafaelle Cunha dos Santos; Nadino Carvalho; Áurea Linhares Martins; Gustavo Góes-Cavalcante

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a case of notoedric mange in an ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) in the Brazilian Amazon region. A young male of approximately four months of age that was illegally kept as a pet was apprehended in Altamira, State of Pará, northern Brazil. The animal was transported to the Mangal das Garças Park in the state's capital city of Belém. The ocelot had pruritus and lesions suggestive of scabies in the head. Skin scraping material was examined under optic microscopy. There was seen ...

  14. Programming Amazon EC2

    CERN Document Server

    Vliet, Jurg

    2011-01-01

    If you plan to use Amazon Web Services to run applications in the cloud, the end-to-end approach in this book will save you needless trial and error. You'll find practical guidelines for designing and building applications with Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) and a host of supporting AWS tools, with a focus on critical issues such as load balancing, monitoring, and automation. How do you move an existing application to AWS, or design your application so that it scales effectively? How much storage will you require? Programming Amazon EC2 not only helps you get started, it will also keep y

  15. Archaeometric study of Amazon ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is no evidence of urban civilization in Brazilian prehistory; most inhabitants lived in tribal organization, probably with regional economic integration among several independent tribes. There are few evidences of seasonal migrations between the coast and the inland of southern Brazil. Some specialized horticulturists competed among themselves but other groups lived more isolatedly and probably peacefully, in the upper interfluvial regions. The chiefdom system is supposed to have existed only along the Amazon River. In this region, some pottery makers may have been specialized craftsmen and finest ceramics, that should have been exported from one village/region to another, can be found. In this study we tested some limited possibilities in three different cultural and regional contexts to see if application of analytic analysis in economically and politically 'simple' societies should give any results. (author)

  16. Development of gas activities in the Amazon region: technological proposals for overcoming the challenges of the regional transport (Peru-Brazil gas pipeline); Desenvolvendo atividades gasiferas na Regiao Amazonica: propostas tecnologicas para superar os desafios do transporte regional (gasoduto Peru-Brasil)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamalloa, Guido Antonio Carrera; Santos, Edimilson Moutinho dos [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Programa Interunidades de Pos-graduacao em Energia

    1999-07-01

    The Amazon region has been demonstrating a great oil and gas potential in Brazil and in the neighboring countries, specially the field of Camisea in Peru. However, the development of feasible and economically justifiable transport systems, that allow the flows of those resources to their potential markets, it continues to be a great challenge. In this work we present some options that can be transformed into competitive and commercial enterprises. We describe different transportation systems, discussing about their technical, economic and commercial aspects. We suggest that the fields already discovered in the area should be treated in an integrated way, achieving economics of scale in more ambitious projects aiming at export. (author)

  17. Electricity generation using vegetal oils: the implantation model for the isolated communities in the Amazon Region; Geracao de eletricidade a partir de oleos vegetais: um modelo de implantacao para comunidades isoladas amazonicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira; Silva, Orlando Cristiano; Velazquez, Silvia M.S.G.; Monteiro, Maria Beatriz C.A.; Silotto, Carlos Eduardo G. [Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa - CENBIO, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The territorial occupation from the Amazon region is characterized by isolated communities, which makes the conventional electric distribution economically and technically impracticable. To solve the electric problem of these communities, it is necessary for them to produce their own fuel in order to generate electric energy and promote the development. These are the premises that have guided the elaboration of the project PROVEGAM - which has as objective, the installation and performance testing of a conventional diesel engine, adapted to operate with palm oil 'in natura' at the community of Vila Soledade, city of Moju, Para State. Vila Soledade is an isolated community that has, approximately, 700 inhabitants. The PROVEGAM project installed a diesel generator adapted with a conversion kit to operate with 'in natura' palm oil. The operation begins and finishes with diesel oil, in order to heat the palm oil and cleaning possible residues. During the diesel generator installation, diesel oil emissions and performance were compared with the palm oil. Analysing the results, this electric model of generating energy is already recommended to be implemented in others Amazon region communities. (author)

  18. Methodology to evaluate the energy associated to the industrial solid wastes: application in a metropolitan region of Campinas, Sao Paulo state, Brazil; Metodologia para avaliacao da energia associada ao residuo solido industrial: aplicacao a regiao metropolitada de Campinas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Tereza Rosana Orrico [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Curso de Pos-graduacao em Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos; Teixeira, Egle Novaes [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo; Silva, Ennio Peres da [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico. Lab. de Hidrogenio

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this work is to the application of a methodology to evaluate the energy associated to the industrial solid wastes in the metropolitan region of Campinas. The methodological route proposed is: the characterization of the research area and the production/management of the industrial solid wastes; the energetic classification and the qualitative/quantitative research of the energy associated to the industrial solid wastes; and, the valuation of the applicability of the energetic utilization mechanisms proposed to the region. This methodology when applied at the Campinas metropolitan region proved to be valid and it resulted in a synthetically presentation of the social and environmental reality of the industrial sector and the destination of the wastes, as well as it indicated the potentialities related to the energetic utilization of the industrial solid waste in the region. With the obtained results it was shown the importance of the the production and the destination of the industrial solid wastes in the Campinas metropolitan region , and the meaning, in terms of electric potency, of the values of the energy associated to the wastes with a known factor of energetic conversion shown in the researched sample. (author)

  19. First report and description of a Cyrilia sp. (Apicomplexa: Haemogregarinidae) from a freshwater Cururu Stingray Potamotrygon cf. histrix (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae), from the Amazon Region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magro, N M; de Oliveira, A T; O'Dwyer, L H

    2016-08-01

    A haemogregarine is described in 12 cururu stingray (Potamotrygon cf. histrix), from Mariuá Archipelago, Negro River, in the Brazilian Amazon Basin. All animals, both male and female, were parasitized by the haemogregarine and parasitaemia varied between 0.8% and 10% of erythrocytes. The stages observed included trophozoites or merozoites, suspected meronts, and gamonts presumed to be of two types, macrogamonts and microgamonts. Most stages were observed inside mature erythrocytes, while others were extracellular. The stages observed were most similar to those characteristics of the genus Cyrilia, than to any other fish haemogregarine and may represent a new Cyrilia species. PMID:26642832

  20. First report and description of a Cyrilia sp. (Apicomplexa: Haemogregarinidae) from a freshwater Cururu Stingray Potamotrygon cf. histrix (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae), from the Amazon Region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magro, N M; de Oliveira, A T; O'Dwyer, L H

    2016-08-01

    A haemogregarine is described in 12 cururu stingray (Potamotrygon cf. histrix), from Mariuá Archipelago, Negro River, in the Brazilian Amazon Basin. All animals, both male and female, were parasitized by the haemogregarine and parasitaemia varied between 0.8% and 10% of erythrocytes. The stages observed included trophozoites or merozoites, suspected meronts, and gamonts presumed to be of two types, macrogamonts and microgamonts. Most stages were observed inside mature erythrocytes, while others were extracellular. The stages observed were most similar to those characteristics of the genus Cyrilia, than to any other fish haemogregarine and may represent a new Cyrilia species.

  1. Spectrometry of pasture condition and biogeochemistry in the central Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asner, Gregory P.; Townsend, Alan R.; Bustamante, Mercedes M. C.

    Regional analyses of Amazon cattle pasture biogeochemistry are difficult due to the complexity of human, edaphic, biotic and climatic factors and persistent cloud cover in satellite observations. We developed a method to estimate key biophysical properties of Amazon pastures using hyperspectral reflectance data and photon transport inverse modeling. Remote estimates of live and senescent biomass were strongly correlated with plant-available forms of soil phosphorus and calcium. These results provide a basis for monitoring pasture condition and biogeochemistry in the Amazon Basin using spaceborne hyperspectral sensors.

  2. Urban malaria in the Brazilian Western Amazon Region I: high prevalence of asymptomatic carriers in an urban riverside district is associated with a high level of clinical malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Shugiro Tada

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Cross sectional studies on malaria prevalence was performed in 2001, 2002, and 2004 in Vila Candelária, an urban riverside area of Porto Velho, Rondônia, in the Brazilian Western Amazon, followed by longitudinal surveys on malaria incidence. Vila Candelária is a working class district, provided with electricity, water supply, and basic sanitation. Previous preliminary surveys indicated high malaria incidence in this community. At the end of year 2000 regular diagnostic and treatment measures for malaria were introduced, with active search of febrile cases among residents. Despite of both rapid treatment of cases and relative good sanitary and housing conditions, the malaria incidence persisted at high levels during the following years with an annual parasite index of 150 to 300/1000 inhabitants. Parasite surveys in 2001, 2002, and 2004 achieved through microscopy and polymerase chain reaction to diagnose malaria showed a constant high prevalence of asymptomatic carriers for both Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax parasites. It was concluded that asymptomatic carriers represent an important reservoirs of parasites and that the carriers might contribute to maintaining the high level of transmission. Comparing our findings to similar geo-demographic situations found in other important urban communities of the Brazilian Amazon, we propose that asymptomatic carriers could explain malaria's outbreaks like the one recently observed in Manaus.

  3. Regional and large-scale patterns in Amazon forest structure and function are mediated by variations in soil physical and chemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Quesada

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Forest structure and dynamics have been noted to vary across the Amazon Basin in an east-west gradient in a pattern which coincides with variations in soil fertility and geology. This has resulted in the hypothesis that soil fertility may play an important role in explaining Basin-wide variations in forest biomass, growth and stem turnover rates.

    To test this hypothesis and assess the importance of edaphic properties in affect forest structure and dynamics, soil and plant samples were collected in a total of 59 different forest plots across the Amazon Basin. Samples were analysed for exchangeable cations, C, N, pH with various P fractions also determined. Physical properties were also examined and an index of soil physical quality developed.

    Overall, forest structure and dynamics were found to be strongly and quantitatively related to edaphic conditions. Tree turnover rates emerged to be mostly influenced by soil physical properties whereas forest growth rates were mainly related to a measure of available soil phosphorus, although also dependent on rainfall amount and distribution. On the other hand, large scale variations in forest biomass could not be explained by any of the edaphic properties measured, nor by variation in climate.

    A new hypothesis of self-maintaining forest dynamic feedback mechanisms initiated by edaphic conditions is proposed. It is further suggested that this is a major factor determining forest disturbance levels, species composition and forest productivity on a Basin wide scale.

  4. Estimating Timber Depreciation in the Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Ronaldo Seroa da Motta; Claudio Ferraz

    2015-01-01

    This study applies distinct methodological forest accounting approaches, following Vincent and Hartwick (1997) lines, to estimate economic depreciation of timber exploitation in the Brazilian Amazon region. Although our results may be not definitive ones due to data availability problems, this exercise has proved to bring about issues which, though are theoretical and methodologically fully recognised, are not always revealed in other regional studies. High timber stocks, lack of well defined...

  5. Epífitas vasculares como indicadores de regeneración en bosques intervenidos de la Amazonía colombiana Vascular Epiphytes as Regeneration Indicators of Disturbed Forests of theColombian Amazon Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triana-Moreno Luz Amparo

    2003-12-01

    neighborhood of Leticia city (Amazons, Colombia. In each stubble 7 Cecropia sciadophylla (Cecropiaceae individuals were selected, and a sampling of epiphytes was made in the first 3 m of each tree. The number of species, their abundance and covering were used as criteria to compare the three stubbles, because the sensitivity of epiphytes to environmental changes. The results show that the evaluated factors are useful for the characterization of the forestre generation process. In spite of the fact that the number of species in the there stubbles was similar, the composition varied in such a way that about half the species of each stubble were exclusive. The dominance of Monstera obliqua (Araceae was evident, constituting more than 80% of the epiphytic covering of the total sample. The youngest stubble presented a denser covering and a high diversity index, whereas in the oldest stubbles these values diminish drastically.

  6. Soil and deforestation use standards in Amazon and its global impacts: a regional dynamics economic and ecological model; Padroes de uso do solo e desmatamento na Amazonia e seus impactos globais: um modelo economico-ecologico de dinamica regional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherrill, Elisabeth I. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia

    1999-07-01

    The aim of the work was to introduce a simulation model to analyze the deforestation causes in Amazon. The work describes the basic parameters and fundamental concepts to the performed modeling comprehension. The several agents soil utilization standards were going observed and the economic and ecological interactions simulated. The global impact aspects are also analyzed.

  7. The impact of Amazonian deforestation on Amazon basin rainfall

    OpenAIRE

    Spracklen, DV; Garcia-Carreras, L.

    2015-01-01

    We completed a meta-analysis of regional and global climate model simulations (n=96) of the impact of Amazonian deforestation on Amazon basin rainfall. Across all simulations, mean (±1σ) change in annual mean Amazon basin rainfall was -12±11%. Variability in simulated rainfall was not explained by differences in model resolution or surface parameters. Across all simulations we find a negative linear relationship between rainfall and deforestation extent, although individual studies often simu...

  8. Evaluation of {sup 137}Cs mobility in soil profiles from the Pantanal region, Brazil; Avaliacao da mobilidade do {sup 137}Cs em perfis de solos da regiao do Pantanal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Fernanda Leite da

    2013-07-01

    Radioactive pollutants can cause impact on the environmental quality of soils and pose a risk to human health. The release of radioactive materials through nuclear testing or nuclear accidents cause the deposition of radionuclides on the ground,· it may be leached by rain, transported to the sources of natural waters and absorbed by the soil fauna and flora, and thus enter the human food chain. Radioecological studies have shown that soils with low pH, low organic matter content and low fertility are more vulnerable to contamination by {sup 137}Cs, since the transfer to plants is high. In this study, we aimed to assess and map the vulnerability to contamination by {sup 137}Cs surface horizons of the soils from the Pantanal and propose mitigation measures adapted to the regional scenario to optimize radiological protection of agricultural areas. Therefore, selected soil profiles located in the municipality of Jaraguari, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, and applied the conceptual model developed by Picanco Jr (2012), which was used in the reference values of the factor of soil-plant transfer (FT) for {sup 137}Cs in corn, related soil variables (pH, CTC and exchangeable K) and relevance of parameters and variations of amplitudes for each value range of FT. The application of this conceptual model established to detect the vulnerability of soils to radioactive contamination generated maps vulnerability showing that the region is very heterogeneous as this criterion, showing low levels of vulnerability for most of the region and in some areas, extreme vulnerability. This result identified the Pantanal as one of the less vulnerable to the radioactive contamination, but the sparse areas of extreme vulnerability can lead to contamination of subsoil and a significant spread of contamination via groundwater. This conceptual model, which defines vulnerability classification, is a first step for the study and determination of a numerical index of vulnerability to {sup 137}Cs soil

  9. Evaluation of ensemble atmospheric simulations in oil dispersion models at Itaguai Port region; Avaliacao do uso de resultados numericos de previsao atmosferica por conjunto na modelagem da dispersao de oleo na regiao do Porto de Itaguai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Renato Goncalves dos; Silva, Mariana P.R.; Silva, Ricardo Marcelo da; Torres Junior, Audalio R. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Modelagem de Processos Marinhos e Atmosfericos (LAMMA); Landau, Luiz [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Metodos Computacinais em Engenharia (LAMCE); Sa, Reginaldo Ventura de; Hochleitner, Fabio; Correa, Eduardo Barbosa [AQUAMET Meteorologia e Projeto de Sistemas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work discusses the use of numerical prediction using ensemble as boundary condition in pollutants dispersion models, applied in a hypothetical case of an oil spill occurrence in Itaguai Port. The Princeton Ocean Model (POM) has been used to simulate hydrodynamics and NICOIL Eulerian model to forecast oil spill dispersion, and ensemble wind forecast from Global Forecast System (GFS), aiming to assess the importance of this parameter variability in oil dispersion at sea. The wind scenarios using ensemble members has showed significant dispersion when compared to control simulation, demonstrating that the uncertainty in the atmospheric modeling can generate considerable variations in the placement of the final spot of oil. The region of interest was the Sepetiba Bay, located on the southern coast of the Rio de Janeiro state; because of port operations carried out around the Port of Itaguai where they can, eventually, oil leaks occur. (author)

  10. Development of regional future climate change scenarios in South America using the Eta CPTEC/HadCM3 climate change projections: climatology and regional analyses for the Amazon, Sao Francisco and the Parana River basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marengo, Jose A.; Chou, Sin Chan; Alves, Lincoln M.; Pesquero, Jose F.; Soares, Wagner R.; Santos, Daniel C.; Lyra, Andre A.; Sueiro, Gustavo; Chagas, Diego J.; Gomes, Jorge L.; Bustamante, Josiane F.; Tavares, Priscila [National Institute for Space Research (INPE) Cachoeira Paulista, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Kay, Gillian; Betts, Richard [UK Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter, Devon (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-15

    The objective of this study is to assess the climate projections over South America using the Eta-CPTEC regional model driven by four members of an ensemble of the Met Office Hadley Centre Global Coupled climate model HadCM3. The global model ensemble was run over the twenty-first century according to the SRES A1B emissions scenario, but with each member having a different climate sensitivity. The four members selected to drive the Eta-CPTEC model span the sensitivity range in the global model ensemble. The Eta-CPTEC model nested in these lateral boundary conditions was configured with a 40-km grid size and was run over 1961-1990 to represent baseline climate, and 2011-2100 to simulate possible future changes. Results presented here focus on austral summer and winter climate of 2011-2040, 2041-2070 and 2071-2100 periods, for South America and for three major river basins in Brazil. Projections of changes in upper and low-level circulation and the mean sea level pressure (SLP) fields simulate a pattern of weakening of the tropical circulation and strengthening of the subtropical circulation, marked by intensification at the surface of the Chaco Low and the subtropical highs. Strong warming (4-6 C) of continental South America increases the temperature gradient between continental South America and the South Atlantic. This leads to stronger SLP gradients between continent and oceans, and to changes in moisture transport and rainfall. Large rainfall reductions are simulated in Amazonia and Northeast Brazil (reaching up to 40%), and rainfall increases around the northern coast of Peru and Ecuador and in southeastern South America, reaching up to 30% in northern Argentina. All changes are more intense after 2040. The Precipitation-Evaporation (P-E) difference in the A1B downscaled scenario suggest water deficits and river runoff reductions in the eastern Amazon and Sao Francisco Basin, making these regions susceptible to drier conditions and droughts in the future

  11. Changes and continuities in the Indigenous perceptions and politicaldemands about their territory: the case of the Indigenous Peoples ofthe Peruvian Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Espinosa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores changes and continuities in political demandsconcerning territorial rights as they have been articulated byindigenous organizations of the Peruvian Amazon over recentdecades. Its main objective is to demonstrate how particular historicalconjunctures have influenced the ways in which these groups havefocused their efforts in defense of what they consider to be a crucialelement of their way of life, increasingly threatened by incursionsfrom modern society, capitalism and processes of globalization. Theanalysis rejects depictions of the indigenous peoples as passive, opento manipulation by outside interests. At the same time, it provides amore profound understanding of the changes that are taking placewithin indigenous societies with respect to their perception of, andrelationship to, their territories.

  12. Comparative analysis of photovoltaic power storage systems by means of batteries and hydrogen in remote areas of the Amazon region in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furlan, Andre Luis; Silva Pinto, Cristiano da [FEM/UNICAMP, Sao Paulo (Brazil). School of Mechanical Engineering; Neves, Newton Pimenta Jr. [IFGW/UNICAMP, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Lab. of Hydrogen

    2010-07-01

    This study analyzes the photovoltaic power storage comparing the traditional lead-acid batteries with electrolytic hydrogen where the gas is reconverted to power in a fuel cell. In order to design the two systems a load profile of the Brazilian Amazon communities was used as well as some practical operational data of equipment tested in the laboratory. A mathematical model was developed, implemented in a spreadsheet that considers the several devices and their efficiencies in order to specify and match the systems components. The results were employed to evaluate the economic viability of the two systems in remote communities. Considering the present conditions, it was verified that the battery system is slightly cheaper. However, it was also observed that a minor cost reduction in the electrolyser, as well as in the buffer and fuel cell would make the hydrogen system very competitive, becoming the best option for photovoltaic power storage with important benefits to the environment. (orig.)

  13. [Distribution of potentially nitrogen-fixing bacteria and its relationship with physicochemical parameters in soils with three vegetation types in the southern Colombian Amazon region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantilla-Paredes, Andrea J; Cardona, Gladys I; Peña-Venegas, Clara P; Murcia, Uriel; Rodríguez, Mariana; Zambrano, Maria M

    2009-12-01

    Potentially nitrogen-fixing microaerobic and aerobic bacteria were isolated from several Colombian Amazon soils (forest, pastures and chagras) and two landscapes (floodable and non floodable areas). The abundance and distribution of bacteria were evaluated, as well as their relationship with soil physical and chemical characteristics. Landscape had a direct influence on the abundance of the microaerobic bacteria, with higher numbers in forest and pasture soils in non-floodable zones. The aerobic isolates (N=51) were grouped into 19 morphologies, with the highest numbers found in forest soil in floodable zones. A higher number of aerobic morphologies was shared among forest sites (Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling and Analysis of Similarity p<0.05), and 40% of the distribution was explained by lime percentage and Al concentration. PMID:20073324

  14. A Metalloproteomics Study on the Association of Mercury With Breast Milk in Samples From Lactating Women in the Amazon Region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Felipe André; Cavecci, Bruna; Vieira, José Cavalcante Souza; Franzini, Vanessa Pezza; Santos, Ademir; de Lima Leite, Aline; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; Zara, Luiz Fabrício; de Magalhães Padilha, Pedro

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to identify metalloproteins that lose their metal ions in the presence of mercury (Hg) and bind to Hg in breast milk samples collected from the riverine population of the Madeira River, a tributary of the Amazon River. Initially, total Hg was determined from the hair of lactating women to identify individuals who were contaminated followed by a proteomic analysis of breast milk samples through two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis after acetone precipitation. The presence of Hg in the obtained protein spots was determined by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry and cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry. These determinations indicated the presence of Hg in one protein spot, which was then characterized through electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Based on searches in the UniProt database, this protein spot was identified as lysozyme C.

  15. Amazon flood wave hydraulics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigg, Mark A.; Wilson, Matthew D.; Bates, Paul D.; Horritt, Matthew S.; Alsdorf, Douglas E.; Forsberg, Bruce R.; Vega, Maria C.

    2009-07-01

    SummaryA bathymetric survey of 575 km of the central Amazon River and one of its tributaries, the Purus, are combined with gauged data to characterise the Amazon flood wave, and for hydraulic modelling of the main channel for the period June 1995-March 1997 with the LISFLOOD-FP and HEC-RAS hydraulic models. Our investigations show that the Amazon flood wave is subcritical and diffusive in character and, due to shallow bed slopes, backwater conditions control significant reach lengths and are present for low and high water states. Comparison of the different models shows that it is necessary to include at least the diffusion term in any model, and the RMSE error in predicted water elevation at all cross sections introduced by ignoring the acceleration and advection terms is of the order of 0.02-0.03 m. The use of a wide rectangular channel approximation introduces an error of 0.10-0.15 m on the predicted water levels. Reducing the bathymetry to a simple bed slope and with mean cross section only, introduces an error in the order of 0.5 m. These results show that when compared to the mean annual amplitude of the Amazon flood wave of 11-12 m, water levels are relatively insensitive to the bathymetry of the channel model. The implication for remote sensing studies of the central Amazon channel, such as those proposed with the Surface Water and Ocean Topography mission (SWOT), is that even relatively crude assumptions regarding the channel bathymetry will be valid in order to derive discharge from water surface slope of the main channel, as long as the mean channel area is approximately correct.

  16. Assessment of contamination for inorganic elements and phthalate esters in household dust from the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo; Avaliacao da contaminacao por elementos inorganicos e esteres ftalicos em poeira domestica da regiao metropolitana de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scapin, Valdirene de Oliveira

    2009-07-01

    Household dust has been identified as an important vector of exposure by inorganic and organic substances potentially toxic in children and adults. The dust composition has a strong influence of contaminants provided from internal and external environments. During the natural process of wearing or weather incidents of artifacts and materials variety, the chemical substances are released into the environment in the steam form or by leaching from final products. Once released, they can be accumulated and enriched in the dust; and by continuous exposure (inhalation, ingestion and dermal contact mechanisms), these substances are harmful to human health. In this work, a study to determine the inorganic constituents and phthalate esters concentrations in residential indoor environment dust samples, correlating them with the probable anthropogenic sources was proposed. Dust samples were collected from 69 residences in neighborhoods Pirituba, Freguesia do O, Jaragua and Perus of the Sao Paulo metropolitan region, using a domestic vacuum cleaner, between 2006 and 2008. The samples were sieved in the fractions of 850, 850-300, 300-150, 150-75, 75-63 and <63 {mu}m. The analysis by X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) showed the presence of Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr and Pb. The presence of phthalate esters (DEHP, DnBP, DEP, DEHA, DMP and BBP) was detected, by GCMS analyses. From the enrichment factor (EF), the elements P, S, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb were classified as being significant and extremely enriched in the dust. The natural and anthropogenic contributions by statistical tools as factor analysis (AF) and cluster were identified. The elements Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb were present significantly elevated concentrations in relation to the total exposure values (ingestion, inhalation and skin contact) and to risk. (author)

  17. Assessment of atmospheric metallic pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil, employing Tillandsia usneoides L. as biomonitor; Avaliacao da poluicao atmosferica por metais na regiao metropolitana de Sao Paulo, Brasil, utilizando a bromelia Tillandsia usneoides L. como biomonitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Claudio Ailton

    2006-07-01

    Tillandsia usneoides L. is an epiphytic bromeliad that lives on trees or other kinds of inert substrates, absorbing water and nutrients directly from the environment without roots. Due to its morphological and physiological characteristics, this species accumulates the pollutants present in the atmosphere. In the present work, Tillandsia usneoides was used as a bio monitor of metal atmospheric pollution in Sao Paulo, Brazil, which is the biggest city in South America with a population of 18 million inhabitants and a strong industrial activity. The urban area is polluted by industrial emissions but, according to the Environmental Protection Agency of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB), the governmental agency of air quality control, regularly occurring emissions from about 7.8 million motor vehicles provide the principal source of air pollution. The Tillandsia samples were collected from an unpolluted area and were exposed bimonthly in 10 sites of the city with different pollution levels and in a control site. After exposure, trace metals were analyzed in the plant by instrumental neutron activation analysis and ICP-MS (Pb, Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Sb e V). The results of the investigation showed a notable concentration of Co and Ni in the plants exposed in an industrial area where there is a metal processing plant, which produces about 600 tons/year of Co and 16,000 tons/year of Ni. Copper and chromium were equally distributed in industrial regions and in sites near heavy traffic avenues, suggesting that these elements can be associated to both vehicular and industrial sources. A high accumulation of Cd in the plant exposed in industrial areas indicates industrial activities as the main source of this element. For Pb, no evident sources could be identified so far as it was spread evenly along the monitoring sites. Traffic-related elements such as Zn, Ba and Sb presented high concentrations in plants exposed in sites near to heavy traffic avenues (cars, buses and trucks) and

  18. Evaluation of natural radioactivity in superficial and underground drinking water, from the Caetite region, BA; Avaliacao da radioatividade natural em aguas potaveis, de superficie e subterraneas da regiao de Caetite, BA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Luciana Sousa

    2011-07-01

    Brazil has the seventh greatest geological uranium reserve in the world with approximately 310 thousand tons. The Lagoa Real Uranium Province, in the region of Caetite and Lagoa Real, situated in South Center Bahia, is considered the most important monomineralic province in Brazil. Urban population who lives in the uranium district in the cities of Caetite, Lagoa Real and Livramento de Nossa Senhora uses drinking water originated from public supply. In the rural area, characterized by frequent draughts, residents receive water from digged and drilled wells and from small dams and reservoirs, as well, which are supplied by the rains. This work determined the levels of total alpha and beta radioactivity and the uranium concentrations in several kinds of water consumed by urban and rural population from the Lagoa Real Uranium Province. Total {alpha} and {beta} activities were determined with a low-level gas flow proportional detector. The uranium concentrations were determined with an inductive coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). The results obtained were confronted with the latest World Health Organization's recommendations from 2011, the ordinance number 2914 of December 12 2011 from the Health Ministry and CONAMA's resolutions. Natural radiation levels varied from 0,0041 {+-} 0,0004 Bq.L{sup -1} to 0,80 {+-} 0,04 Bq.L{sup -1} for total alpha activity and from 0,045 {+-} 0,003 to 3,00 {+-} 0,2 Bq.L{sup -1} for total beta activity. Having the WHO and the HM as parameter, just two underground water samples, one located in the city of Lagoa Real and the other in the city of Caetite presented total alpha concentration above the value of 0,5 Bq.L{sup -1} described in its recommendations, 0,80 {+-} 0,040 Bq.L{sup -1} and 0,57 {+-} 0,03 Bq.L{sup -1} respectively. For total beta three samples presented radioactivity levels above the 1 Bq.L{sup -1} limit recommended by the WHO and established by the Health Ministry; 3,00 {+-} 0,2 Bq.L{sup -1}; 1,63 {+-} 0

  19. Isoprene photochemistry over the Amazon rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingjun; Brito, Joel; Dorris, Matthew R.; Rivera-Rios, Jean C.; Seco, Roger; Bates, Kelvin H.; Artaxo, Paulo; Duvoisin, Sergio; Keutsch, Frank N.; Kim, Saewung; Goldstein, Allen H.; Guenther, Alex B.; Manzi, Antonio O.; Souza, Rodrigo A. F.; Springston, Stephen R.; Watson, Thomas B.; McKinney, Karena A.; Martin, Scot T.

    2016-05-01

    Isoprene photooxidation is a major driver of atmospheric chemistry over forested regions. Isoprene reacts with hydroxyl radicals (OH) and molecular oxygen to produce isoprene peroxy radicals (ISOPOO). These radicals can react with hydroperoxyl radicals (HO2) to dominantly produce hydroxyhydroperoxides (ISOPOOH). They can also react with nitric oxide (NO) to largely produce methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) and methacrolein (MACR). Unimolecular isomerization and bimolecular reactions with organic peroxy radicals are also possible. There is uncertainty about the relative importance of each of these pathways in the atmosphere and possible changes because of anthropogenic pollution. Herein, measurements of ISOPOOH and MVK + MACR concentrations are reported over the central region of the Amazon basin during the wet season. The research site, downwind of an urban region, intercepted both background and polluted air masses during the GoAmazon2014/5 Experiment. Under background conditions, the confidence interval for the ratio of the ISOPOOH concentration to that of MVK + MACR spanned 0.4-0.6. This result implies a ratio of the reaction rate of ISOPOO with HO2 to that with NO of approximately unity. A value of unity is significantly smaller than simulated at present by global chemical transport models for this important, nominally low-NO, forested region of Earth. Under polluted conditions, when the concentrations of reactive nitrogen compounds were high (>1 ppb), ISOPOOH concentrations dropped below the instrumental detection limit (Amazon rainforest.

  20. Phenotypic characterization of Leishmania spp. causing cutaneous leishmaniasis in the lower Amazon region, western Pará state, Brazil, reveals a putative hybrid parasite, Leishmania (Viannia guyanensis × Leishmania (Viannia shawi shawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennings Yara Lins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We phenotypically characterized 43 leishmanial parasites from cutaneous leishmaniasis by isoenzyme electrophoresis and the indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (23 McAbs. Identifications revealed 11 (25.6% strains of Leishmania (V. braziliensis, 4 (9.3% of L. (V. shawi shawi, 7 (16.3% of L. (V. shawi santarensis, 6 (13.9% of L. (V. guyanensis and L. (V. lainsoni, 2 (4.7% of L. (L. amazonensis, and 7 (16.3% of a putative hybrid parasite, L. (V. guyanensis/L. (V. shawi shawi. McAbs detected three different serodemes of L. (V. braziliensis: I-7, II-1, and III-3 strains. Among the strains of L. (V. shawi we identified two populations: one (7 strains expressing the B19 epitope that was previously considered to be species-specific for L. (V. guyanensis. We have given this population sub-specific rank, naming it L. (V. s. santarensis. The other one (4 strains did not express the B19 epitope like the L. (V. shawi reference strain, which we now designate as L. (V. s. shawi. For the first time in the eastern Brazilian Amazon we register a putative hybrid parasite (7 strains, L. (V. guyanensis/L. (V. s. shawi, characterized by a new 6PGDH three-band profile at the level of L. (V. guyanensis. Its PGM profile, however, was very similar to that of L. (V. s. shawi. These results suggest that the lower Amazon region – western Pará state, Brazil, represents a biome where L. (V. guyanensis and L. (V. s. shawi exchange genetic information.

  1. Physicochemical parameters of Amazon Melipona honey

    OpenAIRE

    Ligia Bicudo de Almeida-Muradian; Adriana Hitomi Matsuda; Deborah Helena Markowicz Bastos

    2007-01-01

    Stingless bees produce a honey that is different from the Apis honey in terms of composition. There aren't enough data to establish quality control parameters for this product, mainly due to lack of research results. The aim of this work is to evaluate some physicochemical parameters that can be used for the characterization and for the quality control of the Meliponinae honey. Four different samples were collected in the Amazon region of Brazil in 2004 (Melipona compressipes manaoense bee an...

  2. Comparações entre as propriedades químicas de solos das regiões da floresta amazônica e do cerrado do Brasil Central Comparisons of chemical properties of forest (Amazon region and savanna soils (central region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L.I. Demattê

    1993-09-01

    e para os solos argilosos a muito argilosos, o teor de carbono orgânico é sempre mais elevado na região de cerrado. Não houve diferenças significativas entre o teor de carbono orgânico dos solos com vegetação de cerrado e cerradão. Por outro lado, o teor de carbono orgânico dos latossolos da região Amazônica é mais elevado do que dos PVA.Chemical properties were studied in soil samples from two main fisiographic regions of Brazil: the Amazon region represented by the tropical rain forests and the Brazilian central region represented by the savanna (cerrado vegetation. For this study 17 profiles were selected from the Triângulo Mineiro area: 6 profiles from Goias state, and 5 profiles from the south eastern part of the Mato Grosso State. Most of the profiles are oxisols from medium to clayey texture. For the Amazon region 76 profiles were selected (38 oxisols and 38 ultisols located from Para to Acre States. The following depths were selected: 0-10 cm; 10-40 cm; 40-80 cm and 80-100 cm. The litter layer was not studied. The savanna region has soil in a more advanced weathered stage than the Amazon region. The Ki index of savanna soils varies from 6.0 to 1.5 and of Amazon soils the variation is from 1.3 to 2.5 that included Oxisols (Ki from 1.3 to 2.0 and Ultisols (Ki above 2.0. This indicates that the clay mineralogy of savanna soils is represented by an oxidic mineralogy that is more stable than in the Amazon region represented by a caulinitic mineralogy with 2:1 contribution. The Amazon soils are more acid and present exchangeable At in higher amounts than savanna soils with a direct effect on chemical management. Soils pH correction requires more lime in Amazon soils than in the savanna. The are great differences in both regions between base saturation and pH index. In Amazon soils the pH increase follows the base saturation while this does not occur in savanna soils. In sandy soils the organic carbon is higher in Amazon for all depths studied. In

  3. Proliferation of Hydroelectric Dams in the Andean Amazon and Implications for Andes-Amazon Connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N.

    2012-01-01

    Due to rising energy demands and abundant untapped potential, hydropower projects are rapidly increasing in the Neotropics. This is especially true in the wet and rugged Andean Amazon, where regional governments are prioritizing new hydroelectric dams as the centerpiece of long-term energy plans. However, the current planning for hydropower lacks adequate regional and basin-scale assessment of potential ecological impacts. This lack of strategic planning is particularly problematic given the intimate link between the Andes and Amazonian flood plain, together one of the most species rich zones on Earth. We examined the potential ecological impacts, in terms of river connectivity and forest loss, of the planned proliferation of hydroelectric dams across all Andean tributaries of the Amazon River. Considering data on the full portfolios of existing and planned dams, along with data on roads and transmission line systems, we developed a new conceptual framework to estimate the relative impacts of all planned dams. There are plans for 151 new dams greater than 2 MW over the next 20 years, more than a 300% increase. These dams would include five of the six major Andean tributaries of the Amazon. Our ecological impact analysis classified 47% of the potential new dams as high impact and just 19% as low impact. Sixty percent of the dams would cause the first major break in connectivity between protected Andean headwaters and the lowland Amazon. More than 80% would drive deforestation due to new roads, transmission lines, or inundation. We conclude with a discussion of three major policy implications of these findings. 1) There is a critical need for further strategic regional and basin scale evaluation of dams. 2) There is an urgent need for a strategic plan to maintain Andes-Amazon connectivity. 3) Reconsideration of hydropower as a low-impact energy source in the Neotropics. PMID:22529979

  4. Proliferation of hydroelectric dams in the Andean Amazon and implications for Andes-Amazon connectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Finer

    Full Text Available Due to rising energy demands and abundant untapped potential, hydropower projects are rapidly increasing in the Neotropics. This is especially true in the wet and rugged Andean Amazon, where regional governments are prioritizing new hydroelectric dams as the centerpiece of long-term energy plans. However, the current planning for hydropower lacks adequate regional and basin-scale assessment of potential ecological impacts. This lack of strategic planning is particularly problematic given the intimate link between the Andes and Amazonian flood plain, together one of the most species rich zones on Earth. We examined the potential ecological impacts, in terms of river connectivity and forest loss, of the planned proliferation of hydroelectric dams across all Andean tributaries of the Amazon River. Considering data on the full portfolios of existing and planned dams, along with data on roads and transmission line systems, we developed a new conceptual framework to estimate the relative impacts of all planned dams. There are plans for 151 new dams greater than 2 MW over the next 20 years, more than a 300% increase. These dams would include five of the six major Andean tributaries of the Amazon. Our ecological impact analysis classified 47% of the potential new dams as high impact and just 19% as low impact. Sixty percent of the dams would cause the first major break in connectivity between protected Andean headwaters and the lowland Amazon. More than 80% would drive deforestation due to new roads, transmission lines, or inundation. We conclude with a discussion of three major policy implications of these findings. 1 There is a critical need for further strategic regional and basin scale evaluation of dams. 2 There is an urgent need for a strategic plan to maintain Andes-Amazon connectivity. 3 Reconsideration of hydropower as a low-impact energy source in the Neotropics.

  5. New classification of natural breeding habitats for Neotropical anophelines in the Yanomami Indian Reserve, Amazon Region, Brazil and a new larval sampling methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Ribas, Jordi; Oliveira-Ferreira, Joseli; Rosa-Freitas, Maria Goreti; Trilla, Lluís; Silva-do-Nascimento, Teresa Fernandes

    2015-09-01

    Here we present the first in a series of articles about the ecology of immature stages of anophelines in the Brazilian Yanomami area. We propose a new larval habitat classification and a new larval sampling methodology. We also report some preliminary results illustrating the applicability of the methodology based on data collected in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest in a longitudinal study of two remote Yanomami communities, Parafuri and Toototobi. In these areas, we mapped and classified 112 natural breeding habitats located in low-order river systems based on their association with river flood pulses, seasonality and exposure to sun. Our classification rendered seven types of larval habitats: lakes associated with the river, which are subdivided into oxbow lakes and nonoxbow lakes, flooded areas associated with the river, flooded areas not associated with the river, rainfall pools, small forest streams, medium forest streams and rivers. The methodology for larval sampling was based on the accurate quantification of the effective breeding area, taking into account the area of the perimeter and subtypes of microenvironments present per larval habitat type using a laser range finder and a small portable inflatable boat. The new classification and new sampling methodology proposed herein may be useful in vector control programs. PMID:26517655

  6. Palm oil as a sustainable energy alternative in degraded areas of the Amazon region; O dende como alternativa energetica sustentavel em areas degradadas na Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villela, Alberto Arruda

    2009-02-15

    Bio fuels are important tools in reducing emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG); however, to minimize the conflict with food crops, energy crops with high efficiency and capacity to absorb Co2, such as the oil palm, should be prioritized. The European Union intends to replace 10% of liquid fossil fuel demand with bio fuels by 2020. According to studies conducted by the European Commission, this will entail the annual import of more than 3 million tonnes of palm oil, the most produced and least expensive vegetable oil in the world. 87% of global production comes from Indonesia and Malaysia, where the relentless expansion of oil palm cultivation has caused extensive forest devastation, threatening biodiversity and increasing GHG emissions. The Netherlands, a large importer of oil palm products, developed a methodology (Cramer) for the certification of sustainable bio energy production, assessing economic, social, environmental aspects, as well as GHG emissions, throughout the supply chain. It sets a mandatory minimum 30% reduction of GHG emissions in the bio-energy chain for use in transport and 70% for use in heat and power generation, as compared to the chain of the fossil counterpart. This dissertation shows that oil and bio diesel (ethyl ester) from palm grown in the Amazon meets this GHG mitigation criterion when degraded areas are utilized for cultivation, but not when forests are razed for that purpose. (author)

  7. New classification of natural breeding habitats for Neotropical anophelines in the Yanomami Indian Reserve, Amazon Region, Brazil and a new larval sampling methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Ribas, Jordi; Oliveira-Ferreira, Joseli; Rosa-Freitas, Maria Goreti; Trilla, Lluís; Silva-do-Nascimento, Teresa Fernandes

    2015-09-01

    Here we present the first in a series of articles about the ecology of immature stages of anophelines in the Brazilian Yanomami area. We propose a new larval habitat classification and a new larval sampling methodology. We also report some preliminary results illustrating the applicability of the methodology based on data collected in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest in a longitudinal study of two remote Yanomami communities, Parafuri and Toototobi. In these areas, we mapped and classified 112 natural breeding habitats located in low-order river systems based on their association with river flood pulses, seasonality and exposure to sun. Our classification rendered seven types of larval habitats: lakes associated with the river, which are subdivided into oxbow lakes and nonoxbow lakes, flooded areas associated with the river, flooded areas not associated with the river, rainfall pools, small forest streams, medium forest streams and rivers. The methodology for larval sampling was based on the accurate quantification of the effective breeding area, taking into account the area of the perimeter and subtypes of microenvironments present per larval habitat type using a laser range finder and a small portable inflatable boat. The new classification and new sampling methodology proposed herein may be useful in vector control programs.

  8. Sensitivity of the Amazon rainforest to convective storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negron Juarez, R. I.; Chambers, J. Q.; Rifai, S. W.; Urquiza Munoz, J. D.; Tello, R.; Alegria Munoz, W.; Marra, D.; Ribeiro, G.; Higuchi, N.

    2012-12-01

    The Amazon rainforest is the largest contiguous continental tropical forest in the world and is a world center of carbon storage, biodiversity, biogeochemical cycles and biogeophysical processes that affect the Earth climate system. Yet anthropogenic activities have produced changes in the forest-climate system. Consequently, an increase in rainfall in both the Western and Central Amazon and a decrease in the Eastern Amazon are expected due to these anthropogenic activities. While the projected decrease in rainfall has been discussed under the context of drought, deforestation, and fires, the effect of an increase in rainfall, and associated convective processes, on forest ecosystems has been overlooked. Across the Amazon rainforest, Western Amazonia has the highest precipitation rates, wood productivity, soil fertility, recruitment and mortality rates. Yet our field-measured tree mortality data from blowdowns that occurred in Western and Central Amazonia do not show a statistical difference in tree mortality between these regions. However, downburst velocities associated with these disturbances were calculated to be lower in Western Amazonia than in the Central Amazon. This suggests the Western Amazon is more highly sensitive to intense convective systems. This result is particularly relevant given the expected increase in rainfall in the Western and Central Amazon. The increase in rainfall is associated with more intense convective systems that in turn imply an increase in low level jet stream (LLJ) intensity east of the Andes. The presence of the LLJ is the main cause of squall lines and an increase in LLJ intensity will therefore cause increased propagation of squall lines into the Amazon basin. More frequent and active squall lines have the potential to increase the intensity and frequency of downbursts responsible for large forest blowdowns that will affect the biogeophysical feedbacks on the forest ecosystem and carbon budget.

  9. Introduction: Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Scot T.; Artaxo, Paulo; Machado, L.A. T.; Manzi, A.; Souza, Rodrigo A.; Schumacher, Courtney; Wang, J.; Andreae, M. O.; Barbosa, Henrique; Fan, Jiwen; Fisch, G.; Goldstein, Allen H.; Guenther, A.; Jimenez, J. L.; Poschl, U.; Silva Dias, Maria Assuncao F.; Smith, J. N.; Wendisch, Manfred

    2016-04-19

    The Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) Experiment was carried out in the environs of Manaus, Brazil, in the central region of the Amazon basin during two years from 1 January 2014 through 31 December 2015. The experiment focused on the complex interactions among vegetation, atmospheric chemistry, and aerosol production on the one hand and their connections to aerosols, clouds, and precipitation on the other. The objective was to understand and quantify these linked processes, first under natural conditions to obtain a baseline and second when altered by the effects of human activities. To this end, the pollution plume from the Manaus metropolis, superimposed on the background conditions of the central Amazon basin, served as a natural laboratory. The present paper, as Introduction to the GoAmazon2014/5 Special Issue, presents the context and motivation of the GoAmazon2014/5 Experiment. The nine research sites, including the characteristics and instrumentation of each site, are presented. The sites range from time point zero (T0) upwind of the pollution, to T1 in the midst of the pollution, to T2 just downwind of the pollution, to T3 furthest downwind of the pollution (70 km). In addition to the ground sites, a low-altitude G-159 Gulfstream I (G1) observed the atmospheric boundary layer and low clouds, and a high-altitude Gulfstream G550 (HALO) operated in the free troposphere. During the two- year experiment, two Intensive Operating Periods (IOP1 and IOP2) also took place that included additional specialized research instrumentation at the ground sites as well as flights of the two aircraft. GoAmazon2014/5 IOP1 was carried out from 1 February to 31 March 2014 in the wet season. GoAmazon2014/5 IOP2 was conducted from 15 August to 15 October 2014 in the dry season. The G1 aircraft flew during both IOP1 and IOP2, and the HALO aircraft flew during IOP2. In the context of the Amazon basin, the two IOPs also correspond to the clean and

  10. Introduction: Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, S. T.; Artaxo, P.; Machado, L. A. T.; Manzi, A. O.; Souza, R. A. F.; Schumacher, C.; Wang, J.; Andreae, M. O.; Barbosa, H. M. J.; Fan, J.; Fisch, G.; Goldstein, A. H.; Guenther, A.; Jimenez, J. L.; Pöschl, U.; Silva Dias, M. A.; Smith, J. N.; Wendisch, M.

    2016-04-01

    The Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) Experiment was carried out in the environs of Manaus, Brazil, in the central region of the Amazon basin for 2 years from 1 January 2014 through 31 December 2015. The experiment focused on the complex interactions among vegetation, atmospheric chemistry, and aerosol production on the one hand and their connections to aerosols, clouds, and precipitation on the other. The objective was to understand and quantify these linked processes, first under natural conditions to obtain a baseline and second when altered by the effects of human activities. To this end, the pollution plume from the Manaus metropolis, superimposed on the background conditions of the central Amazon basin, served as a natural laboratory. The present paper, as the introduction to the special issue of GoAmazon2014/5, presents the context and motivation of the GoAmazon2014/5 Experiment. The nine research sites, including the characteristics and instrumentation of each site, are presented. The sites range from time point zero (T0) upwind of the pollution, to T1 in the midst of the pollution, to T2 just downwind of the pollution, to T3 furthest downwind of the pollution (70 km). In addition to the ground sites, a low-altitude G-159 Gulfstream I (G-1) observed the atmospheric boundary layer and low clouds, and a high-altitude Gulfstream G550 (HALO) operated in the free troposphere. During the 2-year experiment, two Intensive Operating Periods (IOP1 and IOP2) also took place that included additional specialized research instrumentation at the ground sites as well as flights of the two aircraft. GoAmazon2014/5 IOP1 was carried out from 1 February to 31 March 2014 in the wet season. GoAmazon2014/5 IOP2 was conducted from 15 August to 15 October 2014 in the dry season. The G-1 aircraft flew during both IOP1 and IOP2, and the HALO aircraft flew during IOP2. In the context of the Amazon basin, the two IOPs also correspond to the clean and

  11. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhout van Solinge, T.

    2015-01-01

    This essay takes a (green) criminological and multidisciplinary perspective on deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, by focusing on the crimes and damages that are associated with Amazonian deforestation. The analysis and results are partly based on longer ethnographic stays in North Brazil (Amazon

  12. Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15 – Scaling Amazon Carbon Water Couplings Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubey, Manvendra [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Parket, Harrison [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Myers, Katherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rahn, Thom [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Christoffersson, B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wunch, Debra [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Wennberg, Paul [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Forests soak up 25% of the carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted by anthropogenic fossil energy use (10 Gt C y-1), moderating its atmospheric accumulation. How this terrestrial CO2 uptake will evolve with climate change in the 21st Century is largely unknown. Rainforests are the most active ecosystems, with the Amazon basin storing 120 Gt C as biomass and exchanging 18 Gt C y-1 of CO2 via photosynthesis and respiration and fixing carbon at 2-3 kg C m-2 y-1. Furthermore, the intense hydrologic and carbon cycles are tightly coupled in the Amazon where about half of the water is recycled by evapotranspiration and the other half imported from the ocean by Northeasterly trade winds. Climate models predict a drying in the Amazon with reduced carbon uptake while observationally guided assessments indicate sustained uptake. We set out to resolve this huge discrepancy in the size and sign of the future Amazon carbon cycle by performing the first simultaneous regional-scale high-frequency measurements of atmospheric CO2, H2O, HOD, CH4, N2O, and CO at the T3 site in Manacupuru, Brazil, as part of DOE's GoAmazon 2014/15 project. Our data will be used to inform and develop DOE's Community Land Model (CLM) on the tropical carbon-water couplings at the appropriate grid scale (10-50 km). Our measurements will also validate the CO2 data from Japan's Greenhouse gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) and NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO)-2 satellite (launched in July, 2014). Our data addresses these science questions: 1. How does ecosystem heterogeneity and climate variability influence the rainforest carbon cycle? 2. How well do current tropical ecosystem models simulate the observed regional carbon cycle? 3. Does nitrogen deposition (from the Manaus, Brazil, plume) enhance rainforest carbon uptake?

  13. Serum estradiol-17beta, vaginal cytology and vulval appearance as predictors of estrus cyclicity in the female collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) from the eastern Amazon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Pedro; Galvez, Hugo; Guimaraes, Diva Anelie; Lopez-Gatius, Fernando; Lopez-Bejar, Manel

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the characteristics of estrus in the female collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) from the eastern Amazon. Two consecutive experiments were performed. The objective of the first experiment was to assess the efficacy of estrus diagnosis by serum estradiol-17beta measurements, vaginal cytology and vulval appearance. The second experiment was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of these features for predicting the period of mating acceptance. In Experiment 1, we monitored 56 presumptive estruses in 14 captive females. Estrus was characterized by the reddish and tumescent appearance of the vulva, the presence of vaginal mucus and vaginal opening, which persisted for 4, 4, 2, and 2 days, respectively. In vaginal smears, superficial plus intermediate cells became predominant (accounting for 60% of all cells) for a 4-day period, from 2 days before the estradiol-17beta peak. Superficial cells did not attain their maximum density (45% of all cells) until approximately 1 day before the serum estradiol-17beta peak. Following estrus, superficial and intermediate cells were notably reduced and the appearance of the vulval appearance was characterized by a pale, non-tumescent vulva and vaginal closure. A complete concordance in estrus diagnosis by the 3 methodologies was observed in 35 (62.5%) of the total 56 estrus predictions. In Experiment 2, mating was confirmed in 10 out of the 14 cyclic females. Sexual receptivity was observed in the last third of the period during which secondary estrus signs were shown. In conclusion, examining the vulval appearance and taking a vaginal smear constitutes a useful method of detecting estrus and predicting the period of male acceptance of the collared peccary female. Estrus was indicated by a predominance of superficial cells, and a proportion of superficial plus intermediate cells higher than 60% in the vaginal smear.

  14. Spatiotemporal variability of methane over the Amazon from satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Igor Oliveira; de Souza, Rodrigo Augusto Ferreira; Andreoli, Rita Valéria; Kayano, Mary Toshie; Costa, Patrícia dos Santos

    2016-07-01

    The spatiotemporal variability of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) in the atmosphere over the Amazon is studied using data from the space-borne measurements of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder on board NASA's AQUA satellite for the period 2003-12. The results show a pronounced variability of this gas over the Amazon Basin lowlands region, where wetland areas occur. CH4 has a well-defined seasonal behavior, with a progressive increase of its concentration during the dry season, followed by a decrease during the wet season. Concerning this variability, the present study indicates the important role of ENSO in modulating the variability of CH4 emissions over the northern Amazon, where this association seems to be mostly linked to changes in flooded areas in response to ENSO-related precipitation changes. In this region, a CH4 decrease (increase) is due to the El Niño-related (La Niña-related) dryness (wetness). On the other hand, an increase (decrease) in the biomass burning over the southeastern Amazon during very dry (wet) years explains the increase (decrease) in CH4 emissions in this region. The present analysis identifies the two main areas of the Amazon, its northern and southeastern sectors, with remarkable interannual variations of CH4. This result might be useful for future monitoring of the variations in the concentration of CH4, the second-most important greenhouse gas, in this area.

  15. Ten years experience with Jorge Lobo's disease in the state of Acre, Amazon region, Brazil Dez anos de experiência com a Doença de Jorge Lobo no estado do Acre, região amazônica, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    William John Woods; Andréa de Faria Fernandes Belone; Léia Borges Carneiro; Patrícia Sammarco Rosa

    2010-01-01

    Jorge Lobo's disease is a cutaneous and subcutaneous mycosis that affects patients in the Amazon region. The number of patients is relatively small, but the real situation of the disease as public health problem is not known, because Jorge Lobo's disease is not a notifiable disease. This study aims to report the clinical evolution in patients affected and to determine the prevalence and areas of occurrence of the disease. A retrospective study was carried out based on the analysis of the clin...

  16. Chagas disease and globalization of the Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceño-León, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    The increasing number of autochthonous cases of Chagas disease in the Amazon since the 1970s has led to fear that the disease may become a new public health problem in the region. This transformation in the disease's epidemiological pattern in the Amazon can be explained by environmental and social changes in the last 30 years. The current article draws on the sociological theory of perverse effects to explain these changes as the unwanted result of the shift from the "inward" development model prevailing until the 1970s to the "outward" model that we know as globalization, oriented by industrial forces and international trade. The current article highlights the implementation of five new patterns in agriculture, cattle-raising, mining, lumbering, and urban occupation that have generated changes in the environment and the traditional indigenous habitat and have led to migratory flows, deforestation, sedentary living, the presence of domestic animals, and changes in the habitat that facilitate colonization of human dwellings by vectors and the domestic and work-related transmission of the disease. The expansion of Chagas disease is thus a perverse effect of the globalization process in the Amazon. PMID:17308715

  17. Methane emissions from floodplain trees of the Amazon basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangala, Sunitha; Bastviken, David; Enrich-Prast, Alex; Gauci, Vincent

    2016-04-01

    Wetlands are the largest source of methane to the atmosphere, but emission estimates are highly uncertain leading to large discrepancies between emission inventories and much larger estimates of the Amazon methane source derived at larger scales. We examined methane emissions from all emission pathways including aquatic surfaces, emergent soils and herbaceous vegetation and more than 2000 trees from 13 locations across the central Amazon floodplain in 2014. Our data are the first measurements of stem emission from emergent portions of inundated trees in the Amazon and they demonstrate that regionally, tree stems are the dominant means of emissions for soil produced methane to the atmosphere. Emissions via the range of egress pathways varied substantially between sample locations and water-table exerted some control over emissions from ~2m below the soil surface upto 0.5-1m of inundation. Higher water (upto ~10m of inundation) exerted no further control over emissions. Applying our measurements to models of whole tree emission and scaling to the entire Amazon lowland basin demonstrates the significant contribution of trees to regional emissions that can close the Amazon basin methane budget.

  18. First record of notoedric mange in ocelot (Leopardus pardalis Linnaeus, 1758 in the amazon region, Brazil Primeiro relato de sarna notoédrica em jaguatirica (Leopardus pardalis Linnaeus, 1758 na região amazônica, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Scofield

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a case of notoedric mange in an ocelot (Leopardus pardalis in the Brazilian Amazon region. A young male of approximately four months of age that was illegally kept as a pet was apprehended in Altamira, State of Pará, northern Brazil. The animal was transported to the Mangal das Garças Park in the state's capital city of Belém. The ocelot had pruritus and lesions suggestive of scabies in the head. Skin scraping material was examined under optic microscopy. There was seen a large number of eggs, larvae, nymphs and adult mites. The mean female and male sizes were 230.2 × 200.4 µm and 137.6 × 104.9 µm. Based on the morphologic characteristics and morphometric analysis, this mite was classified as Notoedres cati. This is the first report of notoedric mange in L. pardalis from Brazilian Amazon.O presente estudo descreve um caso de sarna notoédrica em uma jaguatirica (Leopardus pardalis na região da Amazônia Brasileira. Um macho jovem com aproximadamente quatro meses de idade, ilegalmente mantido como animal de estimação, foi apreendido em uma residência em Altamira, Estado do Pará, Brasil. O animal foi transportado para o Parque Mangal das Garças, município de Belém, estado do Pará. A jaguatirica apresentava prurido e lesões sugestivas de escabiose na cabeça, por isso um raspado cutâneo foi realizado e examinado ao microscópio óptico. Foi observado um grande número de ovos, larvas, ninfas e ácaros adultos. Os exemplares fêmeas mediram em média 230,2 × 200,4 µm, e os exemplares machos mensuraram 137,6 × 104,9 µm. Com base nas características morfológicas e análises morfométricas, o ácaro foi classificado como Notoedres cati. Esse é o primeiro relato da sarna notoédrica em L. pardalis na Amazônia Brasileira.

  19. Field detection of eastern equine encephalitis virus in the Amazon Basin region of Peru using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction adapted for field identification of arthropod-borne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Guinn, Monica L; Lee, John S; Kondig, John P; Fernandez, Roberto; Carbajal, Faustino

    2004-02-01

    In support of efforts to develop rapid diagnostic assays for use in the field, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays were developed to detect arboviruses circulating in the Amazon Basin region of Peru. Previous knowledge of arthropod/pathogen relationships allowed a focused evaluation to be conducted in November 2000 that assessed the feasibility and reliability of a mobile, rapid, field-expedient RT-PCR diagnostic system aimed at detecting eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) in Culex (Melanoconion) pedroi mosquitoes. Modifications were made to a commercially available mobile molecular laboratory kit and assay procedures were tailored for use under harsh environmental conditions with field-collected and field-processed mosquitoes. From CO2 baited mosquito light traps, 3,227 Cx. (Mel.) pedroi mosquitoes were collected and sorted into 117 pools. The pools were processed and assayed in the field by RT-PCR and five of those pools were found positive for EEEV. Laboratory sequence analysis confirmed the presence of two distinct subtypes of EEEV.

  20. Snake venomics and antivenomics of Bothrops atrox venoms from Colombia and the Amazon regions of Brazil, Perú and Ecuador suggest the occurrence of geographic variation of venom phenotype by a trend towards paedomorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Vitelbina; Cid, Pedro; Sanz, Libia; De La Torre, Pilar; Angulo, Yamileth; Lomonte, Bruno; Gutiérrez, José María; Calvete, Juan J

    2009-11-01

    The venom proteomes of Bothrops atrox from Colombia, Brazil, Ecuador, and Perú were characterized using venomic and antivenomic strategies. Our results evidence the existence of two geographically differentiated venom phenotypes. The venom from Colombia comprises at least 26 different proteins belonging to 9 different groups of toxins. PI-metalloproteinases and K49-PLA(2) molecules represent the most abundant toxins. On the other hand, the venoms from Brazilian, Ecuadorian, and Peruvian B. atrox contain predominantly PIII-metalloproteinases. These toxin profiles correlate with the venom phenotypes of adult and juvenile B. asper from Costa Rica, respectively, suggesting that paedomorphism represented a selective trend during the trans-Amazonian southward expansion of B. atrox through the Andean Corridor. The high degree of crossreactivity of a Costa Rican polyvalent (Bothrops asper, Lachesis stenophrys, Crotalus simus) antivenom against B. atrox venoms further evidenced the close evolutionary kinship between B. asper and B. atrox. This antivenom was more efficient immunodepleting proteins from the venoms of B. atrox from Brazil, Ecuador, and Perú than from Colombia. Such behaviour may be rationalized taking into account the lower content of poorly immunogenic toxins, such as PLA(2) molecules and PI-SVMPs in the paedomorphic venoms. The immunological profile of the Costa Rican antivenom strongly suggests the possibility of using this antivenom for the management of snakebites by B. atrox in Colombia and the Amazon regions of Ecuador, Perú and Brazil. PMID:19665598

  1. Amazon: Is Profitability a Possibility?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett DENNIS

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In today’s society, companies seem to all be following the same trend; growth in profitability at all cost. Higher profits, for the most part, leads to more investors and more potential financing. Amazon.com appears to be breaking that trend, however. Their strategy seems to be growth, but not in profits. We would like to look into how and why Amazon is growing at such a fast pace, while their profits are staying steady at a very low level. Is profitability a possibility for Amazon? We believe that a marginal increase in price could accomplish just that, with a minimal impact to consumers.

  2. Interactions among Amazon land use, forests and climate: prospects for a near-term forest tipping point

    OpenAIRE

    Nepstad, Daniel C.; Stickler, Claudia M.; Filho, Britaldo Soares-; Merry, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Some model experiments predict a large-scale substitution of Amazon forest by savannah-like vegetation by the end of the twenty-first century. Expanding global demands for biofuels and grains, positive feedbacks in the Amazon forest fire regime and drought may drive a faster process of forest degradation that could lead to a near-term forest dieback. Rising worldwide demands for biofuel and meat are creating powerful new incentives for agro-industrial expansion into Amazon forest regions. For...

  3. The impact of Amazonian deforestation on Amazon basin rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spracklen, D. V.; Garcia-Carreras, L.

    2015-11-01

    We completed a meta-analysis of regional and global climate model simulations (n = 96) of the impact of Amazonian deforestation on Amazon basin rainfall. Across all simulations, mean (±1σ) change in annual mean Amazon basin rainfall was -12 ± 11%. Variability in simulated rainfall was not explained by differences in model resolution or surface parameters. Across all simulations we find a negative linear relationship between rainfall and deforestation extent, although individual studies often simulate a nonlinear response. Using the linear relationship, we estimate that deforestation in 2010 has reduced annual mean rainfall across the Amazon basin by 1.8 ± 0.3%, less than the interannual variability in observed rainfall. This may explain why a reduction in Amazon rainfall has not consistently been observed. We estimate that business-as-usual deforestation (based on deforestation rates prior to 2004) would lead to an 8.1 ± 1.4% reduction in annual mean Amazon basin rainfall by 2050, greater than natural variability.

  4. Analogical reasoning in amazons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obozova, Tanya; Smirnova, Anna; Zorina, Zoya; Wasserman, Edward

    2015-11-01

    Two juvenile orange-winged amazons (Amazona amazonica) were initially trained to match visual stimuli by color, shape, and number of items, but not by size. After learning these three identity matching-to-sample tasks, the parrots transferred discriminative responding to new stimuli from the same categories that had been used in training (other colors, shapes, and numbers of items) as well as to stimuli from a different category (stimuli varying in size). In the critical testing phase, both parrots exhibited reliable relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) behavior, suggesting that they perceived and compared the relationship between objects in the sample stimulus pair to the relationship between objects in the comparison stimulus pairs, even though no physical matches were possible between items in the sample and comparison pairs. The parrots spontaneously exhibited this higher-order relational responding without having ever before been trained on RMTS tasks, therefore joining apes and crows in displaying this abstract cognitive behavior. PMID:26084679

  5. Andes hantavirus variant in rodents, southern Amazon Basin, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razuri, Hugo; Tokarz, Rafal; Ghersi, Bruno M; Salmon-Mulanovich, Gabriela; Guezala, M Claudia; Albujar, Christian; Mendoza, A Patricia; Tinoco, Yeny O; Cruz, Christopher; Silva, Maria; Vasquez, Alicia; Pacheco, Víctor; Ströher, Ute; Guerrero, Lisa Wiggleton; Cannon, Deborah; Nichol, Stuart T; Hirschberg, David L; Lipkin, W Ian; Bausch, Daniel G; Montgomery, Joel M

    2014-02-01

    We investigated hantaviruses in rodents in the southern Amazon Basin of Peru and identified an Andes virus variant from Neacomys spinosus mice. This finding extends the known range of this virus in South America and the range of recognized hantaviruses in Peru. Further studies of the epizoology of hantaviruses in this region are warranted.

  6. Extreme Drought Events Revealed in Amazon Tree Ring Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, H. S.; Baker, P. A.; Guilderson, T. P.

    2010-12-01

    The Amazon basin is a center of deep atmospheric convection and thus acts as a major engine for global hydrologic circulation. Yet despite its significance, a full understanding of Amazon rainfall variability remains elusive due to a poor historical record of climate. Temperate tree rings have been used extensively to reconstruct climate over the last thousand years, however less attention has been given to the application of dendrochronology in tropical regions, in large part due to a lower frequency of tree species known to produce annual rings. Here we present a tree ring record of drought extremes from the Madre de Dios region of southeastern Peru over the last 190 years. We confirm that tree ring growth in species Cedrela odorata is annual and show it to be well correlated with wet season precipitation. This correlation is used to identify extreme dry (and wet) events that have occurred in the past. We focus on drought events identified in the record as drought frequency is expected to increase over the Amazon in a warming climate. The Cedrela chronology records historic Amazon droughts of the 20th century previously identified in the literature and extends the record of drought for this region to the year 1816. Our analysis shows that there has been an increase in the frequency of extreme drought (mean recurrence interval = 5-6 years) since the turn of the 20th century and both Atlantic and Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) forcing mechanisms are implicated.

  7. Molecular Identification and Historic Demography of the Marine Tucuxi (Sotalia guianensis at the Amazon River’s Mouth by Means of Mitochondrial Control Region Gene Sequences and Implications for Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Mark Shostell

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2005, three fishermen, with artisan fishing vessels and drift gillnets, accidentally captured around 200 dolphins between Vigia and Salinópolis in the Amazon River estuary. The dolphins died and they then prepared their vaginas and penises in order to sell them in the Ver-ao-Peso market in the city of Belem within the Brazilian state of Pará. We randomly sampled a minimal quantity of tissue of these sexual organs from 78 of these 200 dolphins and we determined the following results after sequencing 689 base pairs (bp from the mitochondrial control region gene: (1 96.15% (75/78 of these dolphins belonged to the species Sotalia guianensis. The other species detected were Steno brenadensis, Stenella coeruleoalba and Tursiops truncatus; (2 The levels of gene diversity found in this sample of S. guianensis were high (33 haplotypes, haplotype diversity of 0.917 and nucleotide diversity of 0.0045 compared to gene diversities found in other Brazilian S. guianensis locations; (3 All the population genetics methods employed indicated a clear population expansion in this population. This population expansion could have begun 400,000 years ago; (4 The haplotype divergence within this population could have begun around 2.1 millions of years ago (MYA, with posterior splits around 2.0–1.8 MYA, 1.7–1.8 MYA, 1–1.5 MYA, 0.6–0.8 MYA, 0.4–0.2 MYA and 0.16–0.02 MYA, all during the Pleistocene.

  8. Performance of an immunochromatography test for vivax malaria in the Amazon region, Brazil Desempenho de um teste de imunocromatografia para malária por P. vivax na Amazônia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Ferreira Figueiredo Filho

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the ICT malaria Pf/PvTM test for vivax malaria diagnosis in Belém, Amazon region, Brazil. The results of blood malaria parasites examination using an immunochromatography test were compared with thick blood film (TBF examination. It was also evaluated the performance of this test storaged at three different temperatures (25°C, 30°C, and 37°C for 24 hours before use. Overall sensitivity of ICT Pf/PvTM was 61.8% with a specificity of 100%, positive and negative predictive value of 100% and 71.8%, respectively and accuracy of 80.6%. The test sensitivity was independent of the parasite density. This test needs to be further reviewed in order to have better performance for P. vivax malaria diagnosis.Avaliação do teste ICT malaria Pf/PvTM para o diagnóstico da malária por P. vivax em Belém, Estado do Pará. Foram comparados os resultados do teste imunocromatográfico com a gota espessa (GE e avaliados o comportamento desse teste, estocado a três temperaturas distintas (25(0C/ 30(0C/ 37(0C, 24 horas antes de seu uso. A sensibilidade do ICT malaria Pf/PvTM foi de 61,8% com especificidade de 100%, valores preditivo positivo e negativo de 100% e 71,8%, respectivamente, e acurácia de 80,67%. A sensibilidade desse teste foi independente da densidade parasitária. Este teste necessita de reavaliação para melhorar o seu comportamento no diagnóstico da malária por P. vivax.

  9. PHENOTYPIC CHARACTERIZATION OF FRUIT FROM MAURITIA FLEXUOSA L.F. (ARECACEAE) “AGUAJE” OF NINE COMMUNITIES OF DATEM DEL MARAÑON - LORETO REGION, PERUVIAN AMAZON.

    OpenAIRE

    Sissy Alvarez; Cristhian Chavarry; Antonietta Gutiérrez-Rosati

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize phenotypically, through morphological and physicochemical variables, fruits of nine natural populations of Mauritia flexuosa L.f. (Arecaceae) of DATEM del Marañón located in the Loreto region of Peru. To achieve the goal twelve variables were analyzed. Three principal components explained 91.22 % of the total variability. In the dendrogram with an Euclidean distance of 0.95, three population groups were visualized. Group I expressed the highest concen...

  10. Assessment of radioactivity level in granite stones sold to ornamental and building purposes in Brazilian Amazon region (Belem, PA, Brazil): a cross sectional study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiroz, Y.M.; Santos, R.J.C.; Teixeira, C.E.C., E-mail: cecteixeira@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade da Amazonia (UNAMA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas e da Saude. Lab. de Radiologia

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this work was evaluate the level of radioactivity in granite sold in the region of Belem (Para, Brazil) using a Geiger-Mueller detector. The results showed that only 5 from 57 samples of 35 types of granite evaluated had count rates above that measured in the background. However, the counting statistics suggests that the measured radiation values in these 5 samples are not due random fluctuations inherent in such measures. (author)

  11. Surveying the area of deforestation of the Amazon by LANDSAT satellite imagery. [Mato grosso, Goias and Para, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Tardin, A. T.; Dossantos, A. P.; Lee, D. C. L.; Soaresmaia, F. C.; Mendonca, F. J.; Assuncao, G. V.; Rodrigues, J. E.; Demouraabdon, M.; Novaes, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    LANDSAT imagery was used to determine the amount of deforestation in a study area comprising 55 million hectares of the Amazon region. Results show that more than 4 million hectares were deforested. Maps and pictures of the deforested area in relation to the total area of the Amazon are included.

  12. Ecological diversity of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission in the Amazon basin. The main scenaries in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coura, J R; Junqueira, A C V

    2015-11-01

    The ecological diversity of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission in the Brazilian Amazon region is directly interlinked with the parasite's extensive reservoir, composed of 33 species of wild mammals within the following orders: Marsupialia, Chiroptera, Rodentia, Xenarthra, Carnivora and Primates; and of 16 species of wild triatomines, of which ten may be infected with T. cruzi. Four scenarios for the diversity of T. cruzi transmission in the Brazilian Amazon region are evident: (i) T. cruzi transmission between vectors and wild mammals, which is characterized as a wild enzooty encompassing the entire Amazon basin; (ii) accidental T. cruzi transmission from vectors and wild mammals to humans, when they invade the wild ecotope or when these vectors and wild mammals invade human homes; (iii) occupational Chagas disease among piassava (Leopoldinia piassaba) palm fiber gatherers, transmitted by the vector Rhodnius brethesi, for which these palm trees are the specific ecotope; (IV) oral T. cruzi transmission to humans through food contamination, particularly in juices from plants such as assai, which today is considered to be endemic in the Brazilian Amazon region, with more than 1500 cases notified.

  13. PHENOTYPIC CHARACTERIZATION OF FRUIT FROM MAURITIA FLEXUOSA L.F. (ARECACEAE “AGUAJE” OF NINE COMMUNITIES OF DATEM DEL MARAÑON - LORETO REGION, PERUVIAN AMAZON.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sissy Alvarez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize phenotypically, through morphological and physicochemical variables, fruits of nine natural populations of Mauritia flexuosa L.f. (Arecaceae of DATEM del Marañón located in the Loreto region of Peru. To achieve the goal twelve variables were analyzed. Three principal components explained 91.22 % of the total variability. In the dendrogram with an Euclidean distance of 0.95, three population groups were visualized. Group I expressed the highest concentration of â-carotene (p0.10. This research will be useful for the selection of aguaje germplasm in Peru.

  14. Albedo da cultura da soja em área de avanço da fronteira agrícola na Amazônia Albedo of soybean crop in the frontier region of the Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo J. de O. P. de Souza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O avanço da fronteira agrícola na Amazônia pode acarretar graves impactos ambientais, constituindo a mudança no albedo da superfície um dos principais forçantes. Avaliou-se, neste trabalho, o albedo da soja (Glycine Max (L. Merryl, plantada em condições naturais de campo, na cidade de Paragominas, PA, região com grande avanço da fronteira agrícola na Amazônia, e se observou relação direta entre o albedo da soja e o seu índice de área foliar, valor máximo diário variando entre 0,24 e 0,25 associado a um IAF de 7,17 correspondente a 1297,62 graus-dia acumulados. Em termos médios, encontrou-se que a o estádio fenológico mais critico da cultura, tendo como base a mudança no albedo, é o estádio fenológico de frutificação na qual a mesma apresenta um albedo médio máximo de 23,3% (± 0,0007. Modelos empíricos foram ajustados para simular a variação diária do albedo em função do IAF e umidade do solo, ao longo do ciclo, e a variação diurna do albedo na elevação solar, para cada estádio fenológico da soja.Soybean expansion in the Amazon has been increasing considerably in recent years, the consequences of which can be serious environmental impacts. In this paper the soybean albedo (Glycine Max (L. Merryl was evaluated, which was planted in natural field conditions in Paragominas city (PA, a region representative of agricultural expansion in Amazon. A direct relationship was observed between soybean albedo and its leaf area index (LAI, showing a daily maximum value between 0.24 and 0.25 associated to a LAI of 7.17, when soybean has accumulated 1297.62 degree-days. It was found that the most critical phase of the crop, based on change in surface albedo, is the fruitification phase, when albedo shows a maximum mean value of 0.23 (± 0.0007. Empirical models were fitted to simulate the daily variation of the albedo as a function of LAI and soil humidity during the cycle, and to simulate the diurnal variation of the

  15. Future of oil and gas development in the western Amazon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The western Amazon is one of the world’s last high-biodiversity wilderness areas, characterized by extraordinary species richness and large tracts of roadless humid tropical forest. It is also home to an active hydrocarbon (oil and gas) sector, characterized by operations in extremely remote areas that require new access routes. Here, we present the first integrated analysis of the hydrocarbon sector and its associated road-building in the western Amazon. Specifically, we document the (a) current panorama, including location and development status of all oil and gas discoveries, of the sector, and (b) current and future scenario of access (i.e. access road versus roadless access) to discoveries. We present an updated 2014 western Amazon hydrocarbon map illustrating that oil and gas blocks now cover 733 414 km2, an area much larger than the US state of Texas, and have been expanding since the last assessment in 2008. In terms of access, we documented 11 examples of the access road model and six examples of roadless access across the region. Finally, we documented 35 confirmed and/or suspected untapped hydrocarbon discoveries across the western Amazon. In the Discussion, we argue that if these reserves must be developed, use of the offshore inland model—a method that strategically avoids the construction of access roads—is crucial to minimizing ecological impacts in one of the most globally important conservation regions. (letter)

  16. Modification of Atmospheric Circulations and Transports due to Amazon Deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badger, A.; Dirmeyer, P.

    2013-12-01

    Land-use change (LUC) has generally been considered a local environmental issue, but it is now becoming a force of global importance. LUC occurs on local scales, with real world social and economic benefits, that can potentially cause ecological degradation. Large-scale LUC, such as deforestation in the Amazon, can have a significant local affect on the climate and has the potential to impact the regional and global climate systems. Previous climate modeling studies have shown non-local responses due to Amazon deforestation, however, a common flaw in these studies is the use of prescribed ocean conditions, which can dampen the global response. Using fully coupled modeling simulations with the Community Earth System Model version 1.2.0, the Amazon rainforest has been replaced with a distribution of representative tropical crops. The degree of modification to the general circulation due to heating anomalies in the tropics as a response to the removal of the Amazon rainforest is quantified. Most notably, modifications to the Hadley and Walker circulations, the two fundamental circulations mediating the climate at low latitudes, occur. Coupling these circulation changes with sensible heat and latent heat fluxes, atmospheric transports of heat and moisture are affected both regionally and globally.

  17. Molecular evidence of mother-to-child transmission of HTLV-IIc in the Kararao Village (Kayapo in the Amazon Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishak Ricardo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood samples from native Indians in the Kararao village (Kayapo, were analysed using serological and molecular methods to characterize infection and analyse transmission of HTLV-II. Specific reactivity was observed in 3/26 individuals, of which two samples were from a mother and child. RFLP analysis of the pX and env regions confirmed HTLV-II infection. Nucleotide sequence of the 5' LTR segment and phylogenetic analysis showed a high similarity (98% between the three samples and prototype HTLV-IIa (Mot, and confirmed the occurrence of the HTLV-IIc subtype. There was a high genetic similarity (99.9% between the mother and child samples and the only difference was a deletion of two nucleotides (TC in the mother sequence. Previous epidemiological studies among native Indians from Brazil have provided evidence of intrafamilial and vertical transmission of HTLV-IIc. The present study now provides molecular evidence of mother-to-child transmission of HTLV-IIc, a mechanism that is in large part responsible for the endemicity of HTLV in these relatively closed populations. Although the actual route of transmission is unknown, breast feeding would appear to be most likely.

  18. Morphological aspects of Henneguya aequidens n. sp. (Myxozoa: Myxobolidae) in Aequidens plagiozonatus Kullander, 1984 (Teleostei: Cichlidae) in the Amazon region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videira, Marcela; Velasco, Michele; Azevedo, Rodney; Silva, Reinaldo; Gonçalves, Evonnildo; Matos, Patrícia; Matos, Edilson

    2015-03-01

    A new species of Myxosporea, Henneguya aequidens sp. n. (Myxozoa: Myxobolidae), was described based on its ultrastructural features. This is a parasite of the freshwater fish Aequidens plagiozonatus, in the Peixe-boi River, Pará, Brazil. This parasite was found in the gills, in the form of whitish ellipsoid cysts with mature spores inside them. The average spore body was 15 ± 0.9 μm in length (n = 30) and 6 ± 0.8 μm in width (n = 30), and the tail measured 27 ± 0.5 μm in length (n = 15). The spores showed typical features of the genus Henneguya with two valves of equal size and two symmetrical polar capsules of 3 ± 0.3 μm in length and 2 ± 0.3 μm in width. Each polar capsule had a polar filament forming a helix from the apical region to the polar caps, with four to six turns. Based on the ultrastructural differences in morphology of these spores, the location of the parasite, and its host specificity, this parasite was described as a new species.

  19. The ceramic artifacts in archaeological black earth (terra preta) from Lower Amazon Region, Brazil: chemistry and geochemical evolution Artefatos cerâmicos em sítios arqueológicos com terra preta na região do baixo Amazonas, Brasil: composição química e evolução geoquímica

    OpenAIRE

    Marcondes Lima da Costa; Dirse Clara Kern; Alice Helena Eleotério Pinto; Jorge Raimundo da Trindade Souza

    2004-01-01

    This paper carried out a chemical investigation of archaeological ceramic artifacts found in archaeological sites with Black Earth (ABE) in the Lower Amazon Region at Cachoeira-Porteira, State of Pará, Brazil. The ceramic artifacts, mostly of daily use, belong to Konduri culture (from 900 to 400 years BP). They are constituted of SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, Na2O and P2O5; SiO2 and Al2O3 together add up to 80 % and indicate influence of acid rocks, transformed into clay minerals basically kaolinite. T...

  20. Prevalence of hepatitis A virus infection: the paradoxical example of isolated communities in the western Brazilian Amazon region Prevalência da infecção pelo vírus da hepatite A: o exemplo paradoxal de comunidades isoladas na região Amazônica Ocidental Brasileira

    OpenAIRE

    Wornei Silva Miranda Braga; Fabiane Giovanella Borges; Gildo Maia de Barros Júnior; Ana Cristina de Souza Martinho; Ivo Seixas Rodrigues; Eliete Pereira de Azevedo; Gustavo Henrique Nolasco Grimmer Davis; Manoel Bezerra de Queiroz; Simone Helena Derzi dos Santos; Thiago Vitoriano Barbosa; Márcia da Costa Castilho

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence of hepatitis A virus infection in the rural area of Lábrea, in the western Brazilian Amazon region. Communities and households were selected randomly. Serum samples were analyzed by means of the immunoenzymatic method for the presence of total antibodies against HAV. The study included 1,499 individuals. The prevalence of anti-HAV was 74.6% (95% CI 72.3-76.8). Univariate analysis showed associations with age (chi-square for linear trend = 496.003, p < 0.001...

  1. Sistema de saúde universal e território: desafios de uma política regional para a Amazônia Legal Universal health systems and territory: challenges for a regional policy in the Brazilian Legal Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza d'Ávila Viana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta os resultados de uma pesquisa sobre a política federal de saúde para a Amazônia Legal de 2003 a 2005, visando fornecer subsídios para o desenvolvimento de políticas regionais na saúde. Tal região é marcada por uma dinâmica peculiar, extensa área de fronteira e indicadores sociais desfavoráveis. A metodologia envolveu: análise documental e financeira, observação participante, entrevistas com dirigentes federais de vários ministérios, secretários estaduais e municipais de saúde da Amazônia; caracterização de situações geográficas na Amazônia e estudos de campo em 15 municípios. Observou-se uma baixa institucionalidade da política de saúde para a Amazônia, no período, por dificuldades estruturais, institucionais e políticas. A identificação de seis situações geográficas foi útil para a sistematização de diferenças nos usos do território que repercutem na saúde e devem ser considerados na condução de políticas públicas. Há certo distanciamento entre as ações federais e a dinâmica territorial, expressa no descolamento entre a política em curso e seu reconhecimento pelos gestores locais. Além da construção de uma política regional para a Amazônia, fica evidente a necessidade de políticas diferenciadas dentro da região.This article presents the results of a study on Federal health policy in the Brazilian Legal Amazon (BLA from 2003 to 2005, aimed at backing the development of regional health policies. The region has peculiar dynamics, an extensive border area, and adverse social indicators. The methodology included documental and financial analysis, participatory observation, interviews with heads of various Federal Ministries and State and Municipal health secretaries from the BLA; characterization of geographic situations in the BLA; and field studies in 15 municipalities. Institutional consolidation of health policy proved to be low in the Amazon during the study period

  2. Genetic variability of aguaje Mauritia flexuosa L.f (Arecaceae) in Peruviam Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Odicio Guevara, Joel Esteban

    2014-01-01

    The multipurpose tresses (MPTs) play an important role in the inhabitant’s life of the Amazon region. Nowadays Mauritia flexuosa L.f (Arecaceae) is one of the most socioeconomically important palm in the Peruvian Amazon. The selective harvesting of female palm to obtain a precious fruit is currently leading to a fast decline of natural populations with consequent genetic erosion. To support the germplam conservation of this species it is important determine its genetic variability. In this se...

  3. Concentration of Access to Information and Communication Technologies in the Municipalities of the Brazilian Legal Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    de Brito, Silvana Rossy; da Silva, Aleksandra do Socorro; Cruz, Adejard Gaia; Monteiro, Maurílio de Abreu; Vijaykumar, Nandamudi Lankalapalli; da Silva, Marcelino Silva; Costa, João Crisóstomo Weyl Albuquerque; Francês, Carlos Renato Lisboa

    2016-01-01

    This study fills demand for data on access and use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in the Brazilian legal Amazon, a region of localities with identical economic, political, and social problems. We use the 2010 Brazilian Demographic Census to compile data on urban and rural households (i) with computers and Internet access, (ii) with mobile phones, and (iii) with fixed phones. To compare the concentration of access to ICT in the municipalities of the Brazilian Amazon with o...

  4. Influence Deforestation on Hydrological Cycle at Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J. C.; Beltrao, J.; Gandu, A. W.

    2007-05-01

    The last three decades, the Amazon Basin has been affected for the occupation with consequence large deforestation. The principal area deforested is located from Maranhao state to Rondonia state. This area is common called "Arc Deforestation", and representing the transition between two important Brazilian ecosystems, Amazon Forest and Savanna Region. Theses ecosystems have precious biodiversity, and it has population about 10.331.000. The objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of arc deforestation on the hydrological cycle at Amazon basin, using BRAMS (Brazilian developments on the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System) including a model of dynamic vegetation, called GEMTM (General Energy and Mass Transport Model). In this study, numerical simulations were performed with a high spatial resolution regional model that allows capture some mesoscale aspects associated to the land used, topography, coastlines and large rivers. In order to predict the impact of the arc deforestation over the hydrological cycle, it was run two model simulations, conducted over a one-year period. In the first simulation, designated "control", it was used the scenarios derived from Soares Filho (2002), for the year 2002, in governance situation. In the second simulation called "deforestation", it was used the scenarios for the 2050, derived from results of Soares-Filho with governance, too. The higher-resolution regional modeling revealed important features of the deforestation process, displaying some associated mesoscale effects that are not typically represented in similar Global Circulation Model simulations. Near coastal zones and along large rivers, deforestation resulted in reduced precipitation. However, it was predicted increased precipitation over mountainous areas, especially on mountain slopes facing river valleys. Then, these higher-resolution simulations showed that, in general, orography, coastline profile and large river distribution play important roles in

  5. Patents on periphery of the Amazon rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Emanoel G; Araújo, José R G; Monroe, Paulo H M; de O Nascimento, Ivaneide; Aguiar, Alana C F

    2009-06-01

    In the humid tropics, on the edges of the Amazon forest, the technological challenges to establishing and maintaining productive and sustainable agricultural systems have yet to be overcome. The groups involved in agriculture in the north of Brazil still engage in the practice of slash and burn in order to prepare and fertilize the soil. This produces negative effects for the local and global environment, without the counter-effect of providing social benefits to rural communities. Whether this process continues is of fundamental importance to many countries because it means that slash and burn agriculture is advancing on the Amazon rainforest, with a negative effect on every dimension of national policy. Beyond social political problems the biggest challenge for researchers in the field of tropical agriculture is to offer technological alternatives that can sustain agriculture in soils derived from sedimentary rocks that have been subjected to a high degree of weathering. In this article patented information is also discussed. Experiments undertaken in this region recommend taking advantage of the rapid growth of plants in the tropics. We aimed at proposing a suitable alternative system for a sustainable soil management in the particular conditions of humid tropics, named as "no-till in alley cropping using tree leguminous mulch." This system offers the advantages of: bringing together, in the same space and at the same time, the processes of cultivation and the regeneration of soil fertility. PMID:20653534

  6. Remote tropical and sub-tropical responses to Amazon deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badger, Andrew M.; Dirmeyer, Paul A.

    2016-05-01

    Replacing natural vegetation with realistic tropical crops over the Amazon region in a global Earth system model impacts vertical transport of heat and moisture, modifying the interaction between the atmospheric boundary layer and the free atmosphere. Vertical velocity is decreased over a majority of the Amazon region, shifting the ascending branch and modifying the seasonality of the Hadley circulation over the Atlantic and eastern Pacific oceans. Using a simple model that relates circulation changes to heating anomalies and generalizing the upper-atmosphere temperature response to deforestation, agreement is found between the response in the fully-coupled model and the simple solution. These changes to the large-scale dynamics significantly impact precipitation in several remote regions, namely sub-Saharan Africa, Mexico, the southwestern United States and extratropical South America, suggesting non-local climate repercussions for large-scale land use changes in the tropics are possible.

  7. Genetic Characterisation of Plasmodium falciparum Isolates with Deletion of the pfhrp2 and/or pfhrp3 Genes in Colombia: The Amazon Region, a Challenge for Malaria Diagnosis and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorado, Erika Jimena; Okoth, Sheila Akinyi; Montenegro, Lidia Madeline; Diaz, Gustavo; Barnwell, John W; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Murillo Solano, Claribel

    2016-01-01

    Most Plasmodium falciparum-detecting rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) target histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2). However, P. falciparum isolates with deletion of the pfhrp2 gene and its homolog gene, pfhrp3, have been detected. We carried out an extensive investigation on 365 P. falciparum dried blood samples collected from seven P. falciparum endemic sites in Colombia between 2003 and 2012 to genetically characterise and geographically map pfhrp2- and/or pfhrp3-negative P. falciparum parasites in the country. We found a high proportion of pfhrp2-negative parasites only in Amazonas (15/39; 38.5%), and these parasites were also pfhrp3-negative. These parasites were collected between 2008 and 2009 in Amazonas, while pfhrp3-negative parasites (157/365, 43%) were found in all the sites and from each of the sample collection years evaluated (2003 to 2012). We also found that all pfhrp2- and/or pfhrp3-negative parasites were also negative for one or both flanking genes. Six sub-population clusters were established with 93.3% (14/15) of the pfhrp2-negative parasites grouped in the same cluster and sharing the same haplotype. This haplotype corresponded with the genetic lineage BV1, a multidrug resistant strain that caused two outbreaks reported in Peru between 2010 and 2013. We found this BV1 lineage in the Colombian Amazon as early as 2006. Two new clonal lineages were identified in these parasites from Colombia: the genetic lineages EV1 and F. PfHRP2 sequence analysis revealed high genetic diversity at the amino acid level, with 17 unique sequences identified among 53 PfHRP2 sequences analysed. The use of PfHRP2-based RDTs is not recommended in Amazonas because of the high proportion of parasites with pfhrp2 deletion (38.5%), and implementation of new strategies for malaria diagnosis and control in Amazonas must be prioritised. Moreover, studies to monitor and genetically characterise pfhrp2-negative P. falciparum parasites in the Americas are warranted, given the extensive

  8. Genetic Characterisation of Plasmodium falciparum Isolates with Deletion of the pfhrp2 and/or pfhrp3 Genes in Colombia: The Amazon Region, a Challenge for Malaria Diagnosis and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorado, Erika Jimena; Okoth, Sheila Akinyi; Montenegro, Lidia Madeline; Diaz, Gustavo; Barnwell, John W; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Murillo Solano, Claribel

    2016-01-01

    Most Plasmodium falciparum-detecting rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) target histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2). However, P. falciparum isolates with deletion of the pfhrp2 gene and its homolog gene, pfhrp3, have been detected. We carried out an extensive investigation on 365 P. falciparum dried blood samples collected from seven P. falciparum endemic sites in Colombia between 2003 and 2012 to genetically characterise and geographically map pfhrp2- and/or pfhrp3-negative P. falciparum parasites in the country. We found a high proportion of pfhrp2-negative parasites only in Amazonas (15/39; 38.5%), and these parasites were also pfhrp3-negative. These parasites were collected between 2008 and 2009 in Amazonas, while pfhrp3-negative parasites (157/365, 43%) were found in all the sites and from each of the sample collection years evaluated (2003 to 2012). We also found that all pfhrp2- and/or pfhrp3-negative parasites were also negative for one or both flanking genes. Six sub-population clusters were established with 93.3% (14/15) of the pfhrp2-negative parasites grouped in the same cluster and sharing the same haplotype. This haplotype corresponded with the genetic lineage BV1, a multidrug resistant strain that caused two outbreaks reported in Peru between 2010 and 2013. We found this BV1 lineage in the Colombian Amazon as early as 2006. Two new clonal lineages were identified in these parasites from Colombia: the genetic lineages EV1 and F. PfHRP2 sequence analysis revealed high genetic diversity at the amino acid level, with 17 unique sequences identified among 53 PfHRP2 sequences analysed. The use of PfHRP2-based RDTs is not recommended in Amazonas because of the high proportion of parasites with pfhrp2 deletion (38.5%), and implementation of new strategies for malaria diagnosis and control in Amazonas must be prioritised. Moreover, studies to monitor and genetically characterise pfhrp2-negative P. falciparum parasites in the Americas are warranted, given the extensive

  9. Results of the application of persistent scatterers interferometry for surface displacements monitoring in the Azul open pit manganese mine (Carajás Province, Amazon region) using TerraSAR-X data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Carolina d. A.; Paradella, Waldir R.; Mura, José C.; Gama, Fabio F.; dos Santos, Athos R.; Silva, Guilherme G.

    2014-10-01

    Brazil has 10% of global Mn reserves with its most important mine located in the Amazon region. The Azul deposit is related to sandstones and siltstones of the Águas Claras Formation (Archean), situated in the central portion of the Carajás Strike-Slip System. Vale S.A. mining company operates the Azul mining complex with three simultaneous excavations (mines 1, 2 and 3) conducted on rock materials of low geomechanical qualities. Mining operations are openpit, with 4-8 m-high benches and depth of 80 m. A stack of 19 TerraSAR-X (TSX) images was used for the investigation covering the period of March 20-October 4, 2012. In order to minimize the topography phase error in the interferometric process, a high resolution DEM was generated based on a panchromatic GeoEye-1 stereo pair. Persistent Scatterers Interferometry (PSI) analysis was carried out using the IPTA (Interferometric Point Target Analysis) software and led to the detection of 40,193 point-wise persistent scatterers (PS), with an average density of 5,387 PS/km2. It was concluded that most of the mining area can be considered stable during the TSX coverage. High deformation rates related to settlements were mapped over a waste pile, while small deformation rates were detected along the north and south flanks of mine 1and were interpreted as cut slope movements toward the center of the pit. Despite only ground-based radar measurements were available for a short time period during the TSX coverage, and covering a sector of bench walls along the south flank of mine 1, the PSs movement patterns showed concordance with the field measurements. The investigation emphasized the important role that PSI technique can play in planning and risk assessment in this mining area. Monitoring of this type of deformation by PSI can usefully complement other commonly used field geotechnical measurements due to the synoptic SAR coverage over a dense grid, providing ground deformation data independently of field access and with

  10. Genetic Characterisation of Plasmodium falciparum Isolates with Deletion of the pfhrp2 and/or pfhrp3 Genes in Colombia: The Amazon Region, a Challenge for Malaria Diagnosis and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorado, Erika Jimena; Okoth, Sheila Akinyi; Montenegro, Lidia Madeline; Diaz, Gustavo; Barnwell, John W.; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Murillo Solano, Claribel

    2016-01-01

    Most Plasmodium falciparum-detecting rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) target histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2). However, P. falciparum isolates with deletion of the pfhrp2 gene and its homolog gene, pfhrp3, have been detected. We carried out an extensive investigation on 365 P. falciparum dried blood samples collected from seven P. falciparum endemic sites in Colombia between 2003 and 2012 to genetically characterise and geographically map pfhrp2- and/or pfhrp3-negative P. falciparum parasites in the country. We found a high proportion of pfhrp2-negative parasites only in Amazonas (15/39; 38.5%), and these parasites were also pfhrp3-negative. These parasites were collected between 2008 and 2009 in Amazonas, while pfhrp3-negative parasites (157/365, 43%) were found in all the sites and from each of the sample collection years evaluated (2003 to 2012). We also found that all pfhrp2- and/or pfhrp3-negative parasites were also negative for one or both flanking genes. Six sub-population clusters were established with 93.3% (14/15) of the pfhrp2-negative parasites grouped in the same cluster and sharing the same haplotype. This haplotype corresponded with the genetic lineage BV1, a multidrug resistant strain that caused two outbreaks reported in Peru between 2010 and 2013. We found this BV1 lineage in the Colombian Amazon as early as 2006. Two new clonal lineages were identified in these parasites from Colombia: the genetic lineages EV1 and F. PfHRP2 sequence analysis revealed high genetic diversity at the amino acid level, with 17 unique sequences identified among 53 PfHRP2 sequences analysed. The use of PfHRP2-based RDTs is not recommended in Amazonas because of the high proportion of parasites with pfhrp2 deletion (38.5%), and implementation of new strategies for malaria diagnosis and control in Amazonas must be prioritised. Moreover, studies to monitor and genetically characterise pfhrp2-negative P. falciparum parasites in the Americas are warranted, given the extensive

  11. Estabilidade térmica da zeólita A sintetizada a partir de um rejeito de caulim da Amazônia Thermal stability of the zeolite A synthesized after kaolin waste from Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. B. Maia

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Zeólita A foi calcinada nas temperaturas de 200, 400, 600, 800 e 1000 °C/2 h para estudar sua estabilidade térmica. A síntese foi feita a partir de um rejeito de beneficiamento de caulim para a produção de papel de uma empresa mineradora localizada na região Amazônica. A caracterização da zeólita A calcinada nas diferentes temperaturas foi realizada por difração de raios X e microscopia eletrônica de varredura. A zeólita A permaneceu estável até 600 °C, havendo apenas variações nas intensidades dos picos em função da temperatura. A 800 °C o padrão de difração apresentado pelo material continuava sendo da zeólita A mas com ausência de alguns picos. A 1000 °C foi constatado que o produto de calcinação era constituído de nefelina, mulita e provavelmente sodalita. Essa zeólita também foi aquecida em mais duas temperaturas, 900 e 950 °C, com o objetivo de confirmar os dois picos exotérmicos observados em curva de análise térmica diferencial. Os produtos de calcinação nessas temperaturas eram constituídos de nefelina, sodalita e mulita.Zeolite A was calcined at 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 °C for 2h to evaluate its thermal stability. The zeolite A was synthesized using kaolin waste from kaolin processing industries for paper coating located in the Amazon region. Both zeolite A and further calcined products were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The zeolite A structure remained stable up to 600 °C, where only small variations in peak intensities were observed. At 800 °C the diffraction pattern still exhibited zeolite A but with the absence of some peaks. At 1000 °C nepheline, mullite and probably sodalite were formed. The zeolite A was also heated at 900 and 950 °C to check the two exothermic peaks observed in the DTA curve. The X-ray diffraction analysis indicated the presence of nepheline, sodalite and mullite.

  12. Amazon Fund: financing deforestation avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Marcovitch

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon Fund, created in 2008 by the Brazilian Federal Government, is managed by Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Econômico e Social (BNDES. It is a pioneering initiative to fundraise and manage financial resources to cut back deforestation and support sustainable development for 30 million inhabitants in the Amazon Biome. The Amazon Fund has already received more than R$ 1.7 billion in grants (about USD 787 million. This essay analyzes the Amazon Fund's governance and management with focus on its operation and from its stakeholders' perspectives. A combination of research methods includes: documental research, in-depth interviews, and speech analysis. The study offers a comparative analysis of strengths and weaknesses related to its governance. Furthermore, it proposes ways to improve its management towards greater effectiveness. The essay also includes an assessment of the government of Norway, a major donor to the fund. The governments of Norway and Germany, in partnership with Brazil, reveal how important it is to experiment with new means of international cooperation to successfully reduce greenhouse gas emissions through rainforest preservation.

  13. Transport of hazardous materials in the Amazon area; Transporte de produtos perigosos na regiao Amazonica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Wallace de Castro [FURNAS Centrais Eletricas S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Fernandes, Elton; Nassi, Carlos David [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE)

    2008-07-01

    Amongst several exploratory sources of the subject 'hazardous materials transport', it is distinguished: 'the threat to the environment'. This paper presents an exploratory investigation of this subject line in the Amazon region. In view of the diversity of 'existing hazardous materials' and the raised dimension of the oil transport and its derivatives in this context, this paper focused in these products. Regarding to the geographic region, the approach was given to the State of Amazon, considering the amplitude of this State in the Amazon region and the availability of data. Therefore, this work explores and analyzes macro aspects inherent to the State of Amazon pertinent to the oil transport and its derivatives. In the macro context, it is observed the necessity of a higher control in the transport of hazardous materials in the region. The absence of registered data and the unfamiliarity on the risks related to the transport of hazardous materials by authorities and transporters indicate a relative absence of qualification in the region to deal with the monitoring of the transport of hazardous materials. So far, it is not possible up till now to make any evaluation of the environment threats of accidents with transport of hazardous materials in the Amazon region.(author)

  14. Projections of future meteorological drought and wet periods in the Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Philip B; Brando, Paulo; Asner, Gregory P; Field, Christopher B

    2015-10-27

    Future intensification of Amazon drought resulting from climate change may cause increased fire activity, tree mortality, and emissions of carbon to the atmosphere across large areas of Amazonia. To provide a basis for addressing these issues, we examine properties of recent and future meteorological droughts in the Amazon in 35 climate models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). We find that the CMIP5 climate models, as a group, simulate important properties of historical meteorological droughts in the Amazon. In addition, this group of models reproduces observed relationships between Amazon precipitation and regional sea surface temperature anomalies in the tropical Pacific and the North Atlantic oceans. Assuming the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 scenario for future drivers of climate change, the models project increases in the frequency and geographic extent of meteorological drought in the eastern Amazon, and the opposite in the West. For the region as a whole, the CMIP5 models suggest that the area affected by mild and severe meteorological drought will nearly double and triple, respectively, by 2100. Extremes of wetness are also projected to increase after 2040. Specifically, the frequency of periods of unusual wetness and the area affected by unusual wetness are projected to increase after 2040 in the Amazon as a whole, including in locations where annual mean precipitation is projected to decrease. Our analyses suggest that continued emissions of greenhouse gases will increase the likelihood of extreme events that have been shown to alter and degrade Amazonian forests.

  15. Achieving zero deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon: What is missing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Moutinho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Amazon deforestation causes severe climatic and ecological disruptions, with negative consequences for the livelihood of forest-dependent peoples. To avoid further disruptions, Brazil will need to take bold steps to eliminate both illegal and legal Amazon deforestation over the short term. Amazon deforestation declined by 70% between 2005 and 2014 due to drops in commodity prices and interventions by federal and state governments, such as law enforcement campaigns and credit restrictions for landowners who deforest illegally. Despite these impressive achievements, Brazil still deforests 5,000 km2 of Amazonian forests each year. How then will Brazil eliminate Amazon deforestation altogether if the country is only committed to cut illegal deforestation by 2030—as stated in its Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (iNDC to the 2015 climate change treaty meeting in Paris? Here we provide an analysis of the major socio-economic-political threats that could constrain Brazil from achieving its current goals. We then propose six fundamental strategies to help Brazil achieve a more ambitious goal to eliminate all major legal and illegal Amazon deforestation. These strategies involve bringing social and environmental safeguards to the infrastructure plans in the region, consolidating and expanding positive incentives for the production of sustainable commodities, establishing a new policy to guarantee the social and environmental sustainability of rural settlements, fully implementing the national legislation protecting forests (the Forest Code, protecting the land rights of indigenous people and traditional communities, and expanding the existing network of protected areas, allocating the 80 million hectares of not designated public forests as protected areas or areas for sustainable use of timber and non-timber forest products. The implementation of these strategies however depends on the formulation of a new development paradigm that

  16. Does Land Tenure Insecurity Drive Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon?

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio ARAUJO; Araujo Bonjean, Catherine; Combes, Jean-Louis; Combes Motel, Pascale; Eustaquio J. REIS

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight the detrimental impact of land tenure insecurity on deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. It is related to recent controversies about the detrimental impact of land laws on deforestation, which seem to legitimize land encroachments. The latter is mainly the result of land tenure insecurity which is a key characteristic of this region and results from a long history of interactions between rural social unrest and land reforms or land laws. A simple mo...

  17. On the sources of hydrological prediction uncertainty in the Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    R. C. D. Paiva; Collischonn, W.; Bonnet, M.P.; L. G. G. de Gonçalves

    2012-01-01

    Recent extreme events in the Amazon River basin and the vulnerability of local population motivate the development of hydrological forecast systems (HFSs) using process based models for this region. In this direction, the knowledge of the source of errors in HFSs may guide the choice on improving model structure, model forcings or developing data assimilation (DA) systems for estimation of initial model states. We evaluate the relative importance of hydrologic initial conditions (ICs) an...

  18. Monitoring the Amazon plume northwestward transport along Lagrangian pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Severine; Gaultier, Lucile; Vandemark, Douglas; Lee, Tong; Gierach, Michelle

    2016-04-01

    Large rivers are important to marine air-sea interactions and local biogeochemistry. By modifying the local and regional sea surface salinity (SSS), the freshwater inputs associated with major river plumes cause the formation of a layer near the surface with salinity stratification but near-uniform temperature, known as the barrier layer (BL). The BL prevent exchanges between the warm mixed layer and the cold ocean interior, and thus affect the vertical mixing of heat between the mixed layer and the thermocline. This can have an important impact on air-sea interactions such as hurricanes intensification. Our study focuses on the Amazon and Orinoco rivers, respectively the first and fourth world's largest rivers in terms of discharge. Amazon-Orinoco waters are carried northwestward by the North Brazilian Current (NBC) during the first part of the year and then eastward along the North Equatorial Counter Current. The hurricane season in the tropical Atlantic extends from June through November, the period of Amazon-Orinoco plume maximum northwestward extension, on a hurricane route. Being able to monitor the spatial and temporal dispersal of the Amazon and Orinoco river plumes is therefore important to better understand their impact on barrier layer thickness and SST variation at seasonal to interannual time scales. Variations from year to year in spatial extent of the plume may result from several processes including changes in Amazon discharge, ocean advection, turbulent mixing, and wind field. Satellite remote sensing data provide several means to visualize the surface dispersal of the Amazon plume, with ocean color data being the first to track it in the tropical Atlantic ocean further than 1000 km from shore. With the launches of the ESA Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and the NASA Aquarius/SAC-D missions, we are now able to use the SSS observations in combination with ocean color, altimetry and sea surface temperature observations to track surface plume

  19. O impacto da infecção por Chlamydia em populações indígenas da Amazônia brasileira Dissemination of Chlamydia infection among native Indian groups of the Brazilian Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marluísa de Oliveira Guimarães Ishak

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available A disseminação das bactérias do gênero Chlamydia no Brasil, inclusive na região Amazônica, é pouco conhecida. Este estudo soroepidemiológico incluiu 2.086 amostras de soro de populações indígenas da Amazônia brasileira, empregando metodologia de triagem pela imunofluorescência indireta para pesquisa de anticorpos. Usou-se o sorotipo L2 da C. trachomatis como substrato; a seguir, para os quinze sorotipos de C. trachomatis e para a C. pneumoniae, discriminou-se a sororreatividade pela microimunofluorescência específica. A prevalência média de anticorpos para Chlamydia foi de 48,6%. Sua variação entre as comunidades indicou as que não tiveram contato com as bactérias e aquelas em que quase todos os testados tiveram. Por meio da titulação dos anticorpos IgG e a presença de IgM específica nas amostras com títulos altos viu-se que 6,1% dos infectados persistiam com a infecção, servindo de reservatórios à disseminação das espécies de Chlamydia. Pela resposta à C. trachomatis, evidenciou-se a circulação dos sorotipos A, B, Ba, D, E, G, H, I e L1. Ademais, constatou-se que há C. pneumoniae na região. As duas espécies causariam impacto significativo no hospedeiro humano.Knowledge is limited on the spread of bacteria from genus Chlamydia in Brazil. This study included a sero-epidemiological survey of 2,086 samples from native Indian populations of the Brazilian Amazon region. Sera were screened using indirect immunofluorescence assay for detection of antibodies to C. trachomatis serotype L2, followed by microimmunofluorescence assay using fifteen C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae serotypes as antigen substrates. Antibody prevalence was 48.6%, but there was a large prevalence range among the groups, including those that had never been challenged with the bacteria, as well as those in which almost all individuals had been infected. Titration of IgG antibodies and detection of specific IgM in high-titer samples showed the

  20. Current Characterization at the Amazon estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, M. O.

    2009-04-01

    February to May, the plume goes northwest towards the Caribbean. As to classification according to salinity stratification, at the quadrature the Amazon estuary is considered as "Saline Wedge" type (highly stratified estuary), salinity at 120 Km way from river moth standing out, whereas at sysygy it can be classified as well mixed (Limeburner et al. 1991e 1992; Patchineelam, 2004). Fresh water is everywhere in the river area, salty or mixed water is located in the ocean. In this estuary 90 Km away from the mouth surface water salinity is less than 0.05 and bottom salinity at 14 m deep is about 19 at high water on quadrature at the end of the rainy season. This behavior produces marked difference in the vertical salinity profile, showing the current is moving in the opposite direction (river fresh water and salty water brought by the tide). In this scenario, speed shearing at the interface produces interfacial friction stress that, from the entrainment process carries portions of water from the sea to the upper part. Usually, therefore, in "saline wedge" (highly stratified estuary) type estuaries, when river discharge is more intensive than the tide wave, entrainment is the predominant mechanism; and the greater tide amplitude is, the greater will its influence be to produce turbulent scattering and mixing be. Probably, at Amazon estuary quadrature entrainment processes are predominant and are the ones responsible for increased salinity in surface layer, whereas turbulence scattering mixing is secondary to it. "Saline wedge" (highly stratified estuary) type estuaries are typical of large fluvial discharge and microtide regions. But although the Amazon estuary is a macrotide region, this stratification is due to the river's exceptional discharge. Due to the remarkable river plume discharge on the platform, the tide - a dominant in macrotide region estuarine circulation - now has a secondary role, albeit not a negligible one, with quadrature amplitudes varying from 2 m to 90

  1. Oil and gas projects in the Western Amazon: threats to wilderness, biodiversity, and indigenous peoples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Finer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The western Amazon is the most biologically rich part of the Amazon basin and is home to a great diversity of indigenous ethnic groups, including some of the world's last uncontacted peoples living in voluntary isolation. Unlike the eastern Brazilian Amazon, it is still a largely intact ecosystem. Underlying this landscape are large reserves of oil and gas, many yet untapped. The growing global demand is leading to unprecedented exploration and development in the region. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We synthesized information from government sources to quantify the status of oil development in the western Amazon. National governments delimit specific geographic areas or "blocks" that are zoned for hydrocarbon activities, which they may lease to state and multinational energy companies for exploration and production. About 180 oil and gas blocks now cover approximately 688,000 km(2 of the western Amazon. These blocks overlap the most species-rich part of the Amazon. We also found that many of the blocks overlap indigenous territories, both titled lands and areas utilized by peoples in voluntary isolation. In Ecuador and Peru, oil and gas blocks now cover more than two-thirds of the Amazon. In Bolivia and western Brazil, major exploration activities are set to increase rapidly. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Without improved policies, the increasing scope and magnitude of planned extraction means that environmental and social impacts are likely to intensify. We review the most pressing oil- and gas-related conservation policy issues confronting the region. These include the need for regional Strategic Environmental Impact Assessments and the adoption of roadless extraction techniques. We also consider the conflicts where the blocks overlap indigenous peoples' territories.

  2. Oil frontiers and indigenous resistance in the Peruvian Amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orta-Martinez, Marti [ICTA, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Finer, Matt [Save America' s Forests, 4 Library Court. NW, Washington DC 20003 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    The Peruvian Amazon is culturally and biologically one of the most diverse regions on Earth. Since the 1920s oil exploration and extraction in the region have threatened both biodiversity and indigenous peoples, particularly those living in voluntary isolation. We argue that the phenomenon of peak oil, combined with rising demand and consumption, is now pushing oil extraction into the most remote corners of the world. Modern patterns of production and consumption and high oil prices are forcing a new oil exploratory boom in the Peruvian Amazon. While conflicts spread on indigenous territories, new forms of resistance appear and indigenous political organizations are born and become more powerful. The impacts of oil exploration and exploitation and indigenous resistance throughout the oil history of the Peruvian Amazon are reviewed here, focusing on the Achuar people in Rio Corrientes. The driving forces, impacts, and responses to the current oil exploration boom are analyzed from an environmental justice perspective. We conclude that, in a context of peak oil and growing global demand for oil, such devastating effects for minor quantities of oil are likely to increase and impact other remote parts of the world. (author)

  3. Artisanal fisheries of the Xingu River basin in Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, V J; Almeida, M C; Cruz, R E A; Nunes, L G

    2015-08-01

    The present study characterises the commercial fisheries of the basin of the Xingu River, a major tributary of the Amazon River, between the towns of Gurupá (at the mouth of the Amazon) and São Félix do Xingu. Between April, 2012, and March, 2014, a total of 23,939 fishing trips were recorded, yielding a total production of 1,484 tons of fish, harvested by almost three thousand fishers. The analysis of the catches emphasizes the small-scale and artisanal nature of the region's fisheries, with emphasis on the contribution of the motorised canoes powered by "long-tail" outboard motors. Larger motorboats operate only at the mouth of the Xingu and on the Amazon. Peacock bass (Cichla spp.), croakers (Plagioscion spp.), pacu (a group containing numerous serrasalmid species), aracu (various anostomids), and curimatã (Prochilodus nigricans) together contributed more than 60% of the total catch. Mean catch per unit effort was 18 kg/fisher-1.day-1, which varied among fishing methods (type of vessel and fishing equipment used), river sections, and time of the year. In most cases, yields varied little between years (2012 and 2013). The technical database provided by this study constitutes an important resource for the regulation of the region's fisheries, as well as for the evaluation of future changes resulting from the construction of the Belo Monte dam on the Xingu River.

  4. Estimation of the evapotranspiration in the Amazon Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The establishment of a water balance for the Amazon Basin constitutes a problem of difficult solution, not only on the account of its extension and characteristics, but also for lack of sufficient meteorological and hydrological data. In an attempt to estimate the magnitude of the main components of the water balance, a study was made with data from the Brazilian Amazon Region and from some observation stations in other countries. An energy balance was made and based on this balance the water balance of the region was established, having the Penman method been adapted to forest conditions. The data obtained indicate that 90% of the evaportranspiration is due to the energy balance. The evaportranspiration in this area should be very close to the potential evaportranspiration, and the average found was of the order of 4mm/day, i.e., 1460mm/year. As a first approximation it was found that the Amazon Basin system receives 14,4X1012m3 water/year through precipitation, this total being balanced by a surface discharge of 5,5 x1012m3 /year and an evaportranspiration of 8,9x1012m3/year. Since transpiration by plants represents 61,8% of the water balance, all seems to indicate that intensive deforestation shall bring about alterations of the hydrological cycle

  5. Rethinking the strategy of Amazon.com

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heng, Michael S.H.

    2001-01-01

    The strategic challenge facing Amazon.com is that it is not able to convincethe investment community that it is able to generate profits in the long run. The doubtof investors is well grounded. This paper argues that Amazon should make a strategicshift to operate as a provider of technical services

  6. Reserves protect against deforestation fires in the Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Marion Adeney

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Reserves are the principal means to conserve forests and biodiversity, but the question of whether reserves work is still debated. In the Amazon, fires are closely linked to deforestation, and thus can be used as a proxy for reserve effectiveness in protecting forest cover. We ask whether reserves in the Brazilian Amazon provide effective protection against deforestation and consequently fires, whether that protection is because of their location or their legal status, and whether some reserve types are more effective than others. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Previous work has shown that most Amazonian fires occur close to roads and are more frequent in El Niño years. We quantified these relationships for reserves and unprotected areas by examining satellite-detected hot pixels regressed against road distance across the entire Brazilian Amazon and for a decade with 2 El Niño-related droughts. Deforestation fires, as measured by hot pixels, declined exponentially with increasing distance from roads in all areas. Fewer deforestation fires occurred within protected areas than outside and the difference between protected and unprotected areas was greatest near roads. Thus, reserves were especially effective at preventing these fires where they are known to be most likely to burn; but they did not provide absolute protection. Even within reserves, at a given distance from roads, there were more deforestation fires in regions with high human impact than in those with low impact. The effect of El Niño on deforestation fires was greatest outside of reserves and near roads. Indigenous reserves, limited-use reserves, and fully protected reserves all had fewer fires than outside areas and did not appear to differ in their effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taking time, regional factors, and climate into account, our results show that reserves are an effective tool for curbing destructive burning in the Amazon.

  7. Pathways of clay mineral transport in the coastal zone of the Brazilian continental shelf from Ceará to the mouth of the Amazon River

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais, J. O.; Tintelnot, M.; Irion, G.; Souza Pinheiro, L.

    2006-03-01

    The transport pathways of fine sediments (fraction coagulation of individual clay mineral groups. By contrast, our experiments with river bank samples show that selective coagulation does not occur in Amazon River sediments. A more appropriate explanation for observed variations in clay mineral composition off the Amazon mouth seems to be, similarly to that for the shelf between Ceará and the Amazon mouth, a mixing of Amazon sediments with suspended material of the North Brazil Current. This interpretation is supported by data on clay mineral composition east and south of the Amazon mouth, showing more affinity to sediments of the North Brazil Current than to the suspended load of the Amazon River. Additionally, relatively low sedimentation rates and low concentrations of fine-grained sediments on the shelf suggest that high riverine input by the Amazon River does not overprint the sediments of the North Brazil Current in this region. The strong North Brazil Current shunts the Amazon suspended load in a north-westerly direction along the north-eastern coast of South America. Hence, stronger sedimentation of Amazon sediments would occur only west of the river mouth.

  8. Confluence of the Amazon and Topajos Rivers, Brazil, South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    This view shows the confluence of the Amazon and the Topajos Rivers at Santarem, Brazil (2.0S, 55.0W). The Am,azon flows from lower left to upper right of the photo. Below the river juncture of the Amazon and Tapajos, there is considerable deforestation activity along the Trans-Amazon Highway.

  9. Modeling River Hydrologic Regime and Spawning of Migratory Catfishes in Southeastern Peruvian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canas, C. M.; Waylen, P. R.

    2008-05-01

    Seasonal hydrologic conditions and catfish larvae production were evaluated in the Madre de Dios River in order to determine whether environmental conditions influence the reproductive activity of a group of large, commercially important catfishes, in the Southeastern Peruvian Amazon. A simple stochastic model of floods is presented to describe the influence of the natural high flow regime on observed patterns of catfish larvae release and drifting. Daily river stage records at Puerto Maldonado are related to weekly larval catches to determine the association between flood and spawning events. On the basis of hydroclimatologic characteristics of Andean- Amazon regions, available long-term historical rainfall records are employed to approximate the likely inter- annual variability of floods within this Amazon headwater basin. Major larval drift appeared associated with stages of over the 5 m, or "Biologic Hydrologic Significant Events" (BSE), which act as triggers, or a reasonable surrogates, for spawning responses of these species. The timing of BSEs, estimated from the historical rainfall records, appear to be uniformly distributed during the rain season and their inter-arrival times exponential. These observations provided the basis of the stochastic model describing the likelihood of volumes of larvae releases from the headwater region to lowland Amazon. The ecologically significant role of the hydroclimatology of this region in the complete life cycle of this important Amazon fish resource is illustrated.

  10. A GCM investigation of impact of aerosols on the precipitation in Amazon during the dry to wet transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yu; Liou, K. N.; Jiang, J. H.; Fu, R.; Lu, Sarah; Xue, Y.

    2016-06-01

    The climatic effects of aerosols on the precipitation over the Amazon during the dry to wet transition period have been investigated using an atmospheric general circulation model, NCEP/AGCM, and the aerosol climatology data. We found increased instability during the dry season and delayed wet season onset with aerosols included in the model simulation, leading to the delay of the maximum precipitation over the Amazon by about half a month. In particular, our GCM simulations show that surface solar flux is reduced in the Amazon due to the absorption and scattering of the solar radiation by aerosols, leading to decreased surface temperature. Reduced surface solar flux is balanced by decreases in both surface sensible heat and latent heat fluxes. During the wet season, the subtropical system over the Amazon has a shallower convection. With the inclusion of aerosols in the simulation, precipitation in the rainy season over the Amazon decreases in the major rainfall band, which partially corrects the overestimate of the simulated precipitation in that region. The reduced surface temperature by aerosols is also coupled with a warming in the middle troposphere, leading to increased atmosphere stability and moisture divergence over the Amazon. However, during the dry season when the convective system is stronger over the Amazon, rainfall increases in that region due to the warming of the air over the upper troposphere produced by biomass burning aerosols, which produces an anomalous upward motion and a convergence of moisture flux over the Amazon and draws the moisture and precipitation further inland. Therefore, aerosol effects on precipitation depend on the large-scale atmospheric stability, resulting in their different roles over the Amazon during the dry and wet seasons.

  11. Getting started With Amazon Redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Getting Started With Amazon Redshift is a step-by-step, practical guide to the world of Redshift. Learn to load, manage, and query data on Redshift.This book is for CIOs, enterprise architects, developers, and anyone else who needs to get familiar with RedShift. The CIO will gain an understanding of what their technical staff is working on; the technical implementation personnel will get an in-depth view of the technology, and what it will take to implement their own solutions.

  12. Equity valuation : Amazon.com

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Pedro José Simões

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation is performed towards the final goal of achieving a value for Amazon.com. For this, all the relevant methods were explored and described, in order to check/choose which ones were the most appropriate. For this evaluation it was chosen the APV method and multiple valuations. After the valuation a VAR analysis was performed and a comparison with the reports released from investment banks was done. The target price achieved was 376.78 euros giving a BUY/ HOLD r...

  13. Amazon SimpleDB LITE

    CERN Document Server

    Chaganti, Prabhakar

    2011-01-01

    This focused book is an extracted LITE version of Packt's full: Amazon SimpleDB Developer Guide. It concentrates on getting a grounding in the value of SimpleDB, and shows how to set up an AWS account, enable a SimpleDB service for the account, and install and set up libraries for Java, PHP, and Python. If you are a developer wanting to get to grips with a primer into SimpleDB, then this book is for you. You do not need to know anything about SimpleDB to read and learn from this book, and no basic knowledge is strictly necessary.

  14. Comparative analysis of photovoltaic electric power storage systems by using batteries and hydrogen, at remote communities of the Amazon region; Analise comparativa de sistemas de armazenamento de energia eletrica fotovoltaica por meio de baterias e hidrogenio, em localidades isoladas da regiao Amazonica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furlan, Andre Luis [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica; Neves Junior, Newton Pimenta [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Gleb Wataghin. Lab. de Hidrogenio]. E-mail: andrelf@fem.unicamp.br

    2008-07-01

    In this work, comparative analyses of photovoltaic power storage were made, first by the traditional means employing lead-acid batteries, and second by means of electrolytic hydrogen which was later reconverted to power in a fuel cell. In order to design the two systems, it was used a load profile of the communities in Amazon region and by means of a mathematical model, implemented in a spreadsheet, that considers the several devices and their efficiencies in order to make it possible to specify the system components. The results were employed to evaluate the economic viability of the two systems in remote communities. Considering the present conditions, it was verified that the battery system is slightly advantageous. However, it was also observed that a minor cost reduction of the electrolizers/buffer/fuel cell would make the hydrogen system very competitive, becoming the best option for photovoltaic power storage. (author)

  15. Contrasting Strategies of Tree Function in a Seasonal Amazon Rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, V. Y.; Oliveira, R.; Agee, E.; Brum, M., Jr.; Saleska, S. R.; Fatichi, S.; Ewing, G.

    2015-12-01

    The increased frequency and severity of drought conditions in the Amazon Basin region have emphasized the question of rainforest vulnerability and resilience to heat and drought-induced stresses. However, what emerges from much research is that the impacts of droughts, essential controlling factors of the rainforest function, and variability of tree-scale strategies are yet to be fully understood. We present here a preliminary analysis of hydraulic relations of a seasonal Amazon rainforest using a set of ecohydrologic data collected through the GoAmazon project over dry and wet seasons. Expressions of different hydraulic strategies are identified that convey different implications for tree resilience during short- (diurnal) and longer-term (seasonal) stress periods. These hydraulic strategies appear to be inter-related with the tree growth and non-structural carbohydrate dynamics, contributing to the understanding of trait coordination at the whole-plant scale. Integration of individual responses is conducted over a range of wood density and exposure conditions. The results of this research thus shed light on the implication of variations in the rainforest function for future stresses, vital for predictive models of ecosystem dynamics of next generation.

  16. North Tropical Atlantic influence on western Amazon fire season variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Katia; Baethgen, Walter; Bernardes, Sergio; DeFries, Ruth; DeWitt, David G.; Goddard, Lisa; Lavado, Waldo; Lee, Dong Eun; Padoch, Christine; Pinedo-Vasquez, Miguel; Uriarte, Maria

    2011-06-01

    The prevailing wet climate in the western Amazon is not favorable to the natural occurrence of fires. Nevertheless, the current process of clearing of humid forests for agriculture and cattle ranching has increased the vulnerability of the region to the spread of fires. Using meteorological stations precipitation and the Moderate Resolution Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Active-Fires (AF) during 2000-2009, we show that fire anomalies vary closely with July-August-September (JAS) precipitation variability as measured by the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). The precipitation variability is, in turn, greatly determined by sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the North Tropical Atlantic (NTA). We develop a linear regression model to relate local fire activity to an index of the NTA-SST. By using seasonal forecasts of SST from a coupled model, we are able to predict anomalous JAS fire activity as early as April. We applied the method to predict the severe 2010 JAS season, which indicated strongly positive seasonal fire anomalies within the 95% prediction confidence intervals in most western Amazon. The spatial distribution of predicted SPI was also in accordance with observed precipitation anomalies. This three months lead time precipitation and fire prediction product in the western Amazon could help local decision makers to establish an early warning systems or other appropriate course of action before the fire season begins.

  17. Ballast water: a threat to the Amazon Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Newton Narciso; Botter, Rui Carlos; Folena, Rafael Dompieri; Pereira, José Pinheiro Fragoso Neto; da Cunha, Alan Cavalcanti

    2014-07-15

    Ballast water exchange (BWE) is the most efficient measure to control the invasion of exotic species from ships. This procedure is being used for merchant ships in national and international voyages. The ballast water (BW) salinity is the main parameter to evaluate the efficacy of the mid-ocean ballast water exchange. The vessels must report to the Port State Control (PSC), via ballast water report (BWR), where and how the mid-ocean BWE was performed. This measure allows the PSC to analyze this information before the ship arrives at the port, and to decide whether or not it should berth. Ship BW reporting forms were collected from the Captaincy of Santana and some ships were visited near the Port of Santana, located in Macapá (Amazon River), to evaluate the BW quality onboard. We evaluated data submitted in these BWR forms and concluded that the BWE efficacy might be compromised, because data contained in these BWR indicate that some ships did not change their BW. We found mistakes in filling the BWR forms and lack of information. Moreover, these ships had discharged BW with high level of salinity, Escherichia coli and total coliforms into the Amazon River. We concluded that the authorities of the Amazon Region need to develop more efficient proceedings to evaluate the ballast water reporting forms and BW quality, as there is potential risk of future invasion of exotic species in Brazilian ports.

  18. Chagas disease and globalization of the Amazon La enfermedad de Chagas y la globalización de la Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Briceño-León

    2007-01-01

    The increasing number of autochthonous cases of Chagas disease in the Amazon since the 1970s has led to fear that the disease may become a new public health problem in the region. This transformation in the disease's epidemiological pattern in the Amazon can be explained by environmental and social changes in the last 30 years. The current article draws on the sociological theory of perverse effects to explain these changes as the unwanted result of the shift from the "inward" development mod...

  19. Lessons from the Rain Forest : Experiences of the Pilot Program to Conserve the Amazon and Atlantic Forests of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    The largest hydrographic basin in the world, the Amazon is the source of 20 percent of all the fresh water on the planet. The Basin covers some 600 million hectares in nine countries, over half of which are located within Brazil's national boundaries. A striking characteristic of the Amazon region is its tremendous biodiversity, which includes an estimated 50,000 species of plants, 3,000 s...

  20. Pecuarização na Amazônia e consumo de carne: o que está por trás? Grassification of the Amazon region and meat consumption: what is behind?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Bordini Prado

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O artigo discute o avanço da fronteira agropecuária para dentro da floresta Amazônica, motivado, em grande parte, pelo aumento do consumo de carne bovina e por sua ineficiência na produção de proteínas. A metodologia constou de levantamento bibliográfico e de dados secundários e de campo no município de Xapuri, Acre, onde o fenômeno da pecuarização é bastante intenso, inclusive na Reserva Extrativista Chico Mendes. Em Xapuri, foram entrevistados diferentes atores sociais sobre a motivação para a introdução da pecuária no município e na reserva Chico Mendes. Resultados indicaram fatores históricos, de mercado econômico e de consumo como os principais propulsores. A redução do consumo de carne e seus derivados poderia diminuir a pressão sobre a floresta Amazônica, bem como políticas de incentivo às atividades extrativas.The article discusses the increased grassification and deforestation of the Amazon Forest, related to cattle breeding and motivated by increased meat consumption and its inefficiency in protein production. Methods consisted of literature review, data collection and fieldwork in the municipality of Xapuri, State of Acre, where the grassification process is very intense, even at the Chico Mendes Extractivist Reserve. In Xapuri, different social actors were interviewed about their reasons to introduce cattle breeding in the municipality and inside the Chico Mendes Reserve. Results indicated historical, economic and consumer market factors as the main causes. The reduction in meat consumption and incentives for extractivist products might reduce pressure on the Amazon forest.

  1. Caracterização física e química de terras pretas arqueológicas e de solos não antropogênicos na região de Manicoré, Amazonas = Physical and chemical characterization of archaeological dark earths and nonanthropogenic soils the Manicore region, Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Dayron Rodrigues Soares

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Os solos predominantes na região Amazônica pertencem à classe dos Latossolos e Argissolos, caracterizado por seu alto grau de intemperismo e baixa fertilidade natural, em contraste, ocorrem às terras pretas arqueológicas com elevada fertilidade natural e alto teor de matéria orgânica. Objetivou-se com este estudo caracterizar quanto aos atributos físicos e químicos as terras pretas arqueológicas e os solos não antropogênicos da região de Manicoré, AM. Foram amostrados quatro sítios de Terras Pretas Arqueológicas e quatro solos não antropogênicos distribuídos na região de Manicoré, sul do Amazonas. Nesses locais foram abertas trincheiras e os perfis foram caracterizados morfologicamente e coletados por horizonte. Foramrealizadas análises físicas (textura e densidade do solo e químicas (pH em água, Ca, Mg, K, e Al trocáveis, P disponível, e C orgânico. Os valores de pH, carbono orgânico, soma de bases e V% das terras pretas arqueológicas foram superiores aos observados para solos não antropogênicos da região de Manicoré, AM. Os solos não antropogênicos apresentaram maiores valores de densidade do solo quando comparados às áreas de terra preta arqueológica. Os maiores teores de matéria orgânica do solo foram encontrados nas áreas de terra preta arqueológica. As terras pretas arqueológicas deste estudo apresentam atributos químicos e físico-químicos superiores aos solos não antropogênicos, conferindo-lhes maior fertilidade.The predominant soils in the Amazon region belong to the class of Oxisols and Ultisols, characterized by its high degree of weathering and low natural fertility, in contrast, occur at Archaeological Dark Earths soils with high fertility and high organic matter content. The aim of this study was the physical and chemical characterization of archaeological dark earths and non-anthropogenic soils in the southern Amazon. Four archaeological sites with dark earths and four non

  2. Concentration of Access to Information and Communication Technologies in the Municipalities of the Brazilian Legal Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brito, Silvana Rossy; da Silva, Aleksandra do Socorro; Cruz, Adejard Gaia; Monteiro, Maurílio de Abreu; Vijaykumar, Nandamudi Lankalapalli; da Silva, Marcelino Silva; Costa, João Crisóstomo Weyl Albuquerque; Francês, Carlos Renato Lisboa

    2016-01-01

    This study fills demand for data on access and use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in the Brazilian legal Amazon, a region of localities with identical economic, political, and social problems. We use the 2010 Brazilian Demographic Census to compile data on urban and rural households (i) with computers and Internet access, (ii) with mobile phones, and (iii) with fixed phones. To compare the concentration of access to ICT in the municipalities of the Brazilian Amazon with other regions of Brazil, we use a concentration index to quantify the concentration of households in the following classes: with computers and Internet access, with mobile phones, with fixed phones, and no access. These data are analyzed along with municipal indicators on income, education, electricity, and population size. The results show that for urban households, the average concentration in the municipalities of the Amazon for computers and Internet access and for fixed phones is lower than in other regions of the country; meanwhile, that for no access and mobile phones is higher than in any other region. For rural households, the average concentration in the municipalities of the Amazon for computers and Internet access, mobile phones, and fixed phones is lower than in any other region of the country; meanwhile, that for no access is higher than in any other region. In addition, the study shows that education and income are determinants of inequality in accessing ICT in Brazilian municipalities and that the existence of electricity in rural households is directly associated with the ownership of ICT resources.

  3. Nutritional assessment of adult patients admitted to a hospital of the Amazon region Evaluación nutricional de pacientes adultos ingresados en un hospital de la región amazónica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Acuña

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Changes in nutritional status are important in clinical practice because they relate to an increase in morbidity and mortality. Studies about nutritional problems in hospitalized adults have been reported since the 1970s. The prevalence of malnutrition has varied from 10 to 70%, depending on the diagnostic criteria used. The hospital studied and the duration of admission. Aim: To assess, in the first day of hospital stay, the nutritional status of adults admitted to undergo elective surgery in a public hospital of the State of Acre, Amazon Region, Brazil. Study design: Sectional study from April 7 to May 22, 2002. Patients and methods: 155 consecutive nutritional evaluations were performed using several parameters - global subjective assessment (GSA, anthropometric measurement and some laboratory tests. For the diagnosis of malnutrition the Index Suggestive of Malnutrition (ISM, as proposed by Waitzberg, was adopted. In the evaluation of obesity the BMI (Body Mass Index, with cutoffs suggested by WHO was used. Results: 75.2% were women. Average age was 34.4 ± 10.1 years. Mulatto (63.1% was the prevailing racial group. Gynecological (43.6% was the most frequent surgery. ISM disclosed a 12.1% prevalence of malnutrition. BMI classified 2.0% of the patients as grade I overweight and 15.4% as being obese. Among 76 patients classified as normal by BMI, 15 (19.7% were considered malnourished by ISM criteria. Concordance between ISM and BMI was weak (k = 0.07. GSA classified 100% of the cases as well nourished. Conclusion: Lack of a golden standard to make the diagnosis of changes in nutritional status has been one of the determinants of the wide variations observed in the pertinent literature and it has hindred valid comparisons. The present study suggests that BMI should be used as an indicator of proportion and not of nutritional status. GSA underestimates the diagnosis of malnutrition. This paper concludes that establishing uniform standards for

  4. Forecasting terrestrial water storage changes in the Amazon Basin using Atlantic and Pacific sea surface temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. de Linage

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Floods and droughts frequently affect the Amazon River basin, impacting transportation, river navigation, agriculture, and ecosystem processes within several South American countries. Here we examined how sea surface temperatures (SSTs influence interannual variability of terrestrial water storage anomalies (TWSAs in different regions within the Amazon basin and propose a modeling framework for inter-seasonal flood and drought forecasting. Three simple statistical models forced by a linear combination of lagged spatial averages of central Pacific (Niño 4 index and tropical North Atlantic (TNAI index SSTs were calibrated against a decade-long record of 3°, monthly TWSAs observed by the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE satellite mission. Niño 4 was the primary external forcing in the northeastern region of the Amazon basin whereas TNAI was dominant in central and western regions. A combined model using the two indices improved the fit significantly (p < 0.05 for at least 64% of the grid cells within the basin, compared to models forced solely with Niño 4 or TNAI. The combined model explained 66% of the observed variance in the northeastern region, 39% in the central and western regions, and 43% for the Amazon basin as a whole with a 3 month lead time between the SST indices and TWSAs. Model performance varied seasonally: it was higher than average during the rainfall wet season in the northeastern Amazon and during the dry season in the central and western regions. The predictive capability of the combined model was degraded with increasing lead times. Degradation was smaller in the northeastern Amazon (where 49% of the variance was explained using an 8 month lead time vs. 69% for a 1 month lead time compared to the central and western Amazon (where 22% of the variance was explained at 8 months vs. 43% at 1 month. These relationships may enable the development of an early warning system for flood and drought risk. This work also

  5. River discharge and flood inundation over the Amazon based on IPCC AR5 scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Rodrigo; Sorribas, Mino; Jones, Charles; Carvalho, Leila; Melack, John; Bravo, Juan Martin; Beighley, Edward

    2015-04-01

    Climate change and related effects over the hydrologic regime of the Amazon River basin could have major impacts over human and ecological communities, including issues with transportation, flood vulnerability, fisheries and hydropower generation. We examined future changes in discharge and floodplain inundation within the Amazon River basin. We used the hydrological model MGB-IPH (Modelo de Grandes Bacias - Instituto de Pesquisas Hidráulicas) coupled with a 1D river hydrodynamic model simulating water storage over the floodplains. The model was forced using satellite based precipitation from the TRMM 3B42 dataset, and it had a good performance when validated against discharge and stage measurements as well as remotely sensed data, including radar altimetry-based water levels, gravity anomaly-based terrestrial water storage and flood inundation extent. Future scenarios of precipitation and other relevant climatic variables for the 2070 to 2100 time period were taken from five coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) from IPCC's Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). The climate models were chosen based on their ability to represent the main aspects of recent (1970 to 2000) Amazon climate. A quantile-quantile bias removal procedure was applied to climate model precipitation to mitigate unreliable predictions. The hydrologic model was then forced using past observed climate data altered by delta change factors based on the past and future climate models aiming to estimate projected discharge and floodplain inundation in climate change scenario at several control points in the basin. The climate projections present large uncertainty, especially the precipitation rate, and predictions using different climate models do not agree on the sign of changes on total Amazon flood extent or discharge along the main stem of the Amazon River. However, analyses of results at different regions indicate an increase

  6. Implications of Scientific Collaboration Networks on Studies of Aquatic Vertebrates in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinero, María Celeste; Michalski, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    The quantity of wildlife extracted from the Amazon has increased in the past decades as a consequence of an increase in human population density and income growth. To evaluate the spatial distribution of studies on subsistence and/or commercial hunting conducted in the Brazilian Amazon, we selected eight mid-sized and large-bodied aquatic vertebrate species with a history of human exploitation in the region. We used a combination of searches in the gray and scientific literature from the past 24 years to provide an updated distributional map of studies on the target species. We calculated the distances between the study sites and the locations of the research institutes/universities that the first and last authors of the same study were affiliated to. For the period of 1990 to 2014, we found 105 studies on the subsistence and/or commercial hunting of aquatic vertebrates in the Brazilian Amazon in 271 locations that involved 43 institutions (37 Brazilian and 6 international). The spatial distribution of the studies across the Brazilian Amazon varied, but over 80% took place in the northeast and central Amazon, encompassing three States of the Legal Brazilian Amazon (Amazonas, 51.42%; Pará, 19.05%; and Amapá, 16.19%). Over half of the research study sites (52.91%) were within 500 km of the research institute/university of the first or last authors. Some research institutes/universities did not have any inter-institutional collaborations, while others collaborated with eight or more institutes. Some research institutes/universities conducted many studies, had an extensive collaboration network, and contributed greatly to the network of studies on Amazonian aquatic vertebrates. Our research contributes to the knowledge of studies on the subsistence and/or commercial hunting of the most exploited aquatic vertebrates of the Brazilian Amazon, illustrates the impact that collaboration networks have on research, and highlights potential areas for improvement and the

  7. Implications of Scientific Collaboration Networks on Studies of Aquatic Vertebrates in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinero, María Celeste; Michalski, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    The quantity of wildlife extracted from the Amazon has increased in the past decades as a consequence of an increase in human population density and income growth. To evaluate the spatial distribution of studies on subsistence and/or commercial hunting conducted in the Brazilian Amazon, we selected eight mid-sized and large-bodied aquatic vertebrate species with a history of human exploitation in the region. We used a combination of searches in the gray and scientific literature from the past 24 years to provide an updated distributional map of studies on the target species. We calculated the distances between the study sites and the locations of the research institutes/universities that the first and last authors of the same study were affiliated to. For the period of 1990 to 2014, we found 105 studies on the subsistence and/or commercial hunting of aquatic vertebrates in the Brazilian Amazon in 271 locations that involved 43 institutions (37 Brazilian and 6 international). The spatial distribution of the studies across the Brazilian Amazon varied, but over 80% took place in the northeast and central Amazon, encompassing three States of the Legal Brazilian Amazon (Amazonas, 51.42%; Pará, 19.05%; and Amapá, 16.19%). Over half of the research study sites (52.91%) were within 500 km of the research institute/university of the first or last authors. Some research institutes/universities did not have any inter-institutional collaborations, while others collaborated with eight or more institutes. Some research institutes/universities conducted many studies, had an extensive collaboration network, and contributed greatly to the network of studies on Amazonian aquatic vertebrates. Our research contributes to the knowledge of studies on the subsistence and/or commercial hunting of the most exploited aquatic vertebrates of the Brazilian Amazon, illustrates the impact that collaboration networks have on research, and highlights potential areas for improvement and the

  8. Estudio etnobotánico y del potencial de uso de la familia Annonaceae en la Amazonía colombiana con énfasis en la región de Araracuara y el municipio de Leticia Estudio etnobotánico y del potencial de uso de la familia Annonaceae en la Amazonía colombiana con énfasis en la región de Araracuara y el municipio de Leticia

    OpenAIRE

    Leiva Pablo; Valderrama Sepúlveda Nancy; Varón López Fernando

    2000-01-01

    The Annonaceae family, characterized by 206 species in Colombia and 17 in its Amazon region, is worldwide known by its fruits, some species have anticancerous and insecticide properties, others are characterized by their strong fibers and others like Rollinia mucosa or Amazon anon by its exquisite fruit. By the etnobotanic approximation laying emphasis on the Amazon regin the Uitoto community knew how to use the natural resourses, using the anonaceas; moreover, we
    report the specie...

  9. The Scenario of Brazilian Amazon Transportation Infrastructure in the Natural Hazards Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Almeida Flores

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of a region is related, in part, to its ability to establish relations with other regions and the efficiency with which it operates internally and streamlines their intra relations. The study of the impacts in the availability of transport infrastructure in regional development interests by the influence it has on the location decisions of investment. The network of transport infrastructure in the Brazilian Amazon region is susceptible to interruptions in its functioning by pressures arising from the interaction of coupled human and natural systems, impacting regional development mainly by isolating regions raising concerns about human security of local residents and the economic development to the extent that regional production does not circulates temporarily, eliminating one of the economy dynamics main stages. The susceptibility indicators of transport infrastructure system in the Amazon are unclear and this study presents disruptions causes, frequency, potential risks and impacts in this system functioning.

  10. A second hydrocarbon boom threatens the Peruvian Amazon: trends, projections, and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Peruvian Amazon is home to extraordinary biological and cultural diversity, and vast swaths of this mega-diverse region remain largely intact. Recent analysis indicates, however, that the rapid proliferation of oil and gas exploration zones now threatens the region's biodiversity, indigenous peoples, and wilderness areas. To better elucidate this dynamic situation, we analyzed official Peruvian government hydrocarbon information and generated a quantitative analysis of the past, present, and future of oil and gas activities in the Peruvian Amazon. We document an extensive hydrocarbon history for the region-over 104 000 km of seismic lines and 679 exploratory and production wells-highlighted by a major exploration boom in the early 1970s. We show that an unprecedented 48.6% of the Peruvian Amazon has been recently covered by oil and gas concessions, up from just 7.1% in 2003. These oil and gas concessions overlap 17.1% of the Peruvian Amazon protected area system and over half of all titled indigenous lands. Moreover, we found that up to 72% of the Peruvian Amazon has been zoned for hydrocarbon activities (concessions plus technical evaluation agreements and proposed concessions) in the past two years, and over 84% at some point during the past 40 years. We project that the recent rapid proliferation of hydrocarbon zones will lead to a second exploration boom, characterized by over 20 000 km of new seismic testing and construction of over 180 new exploratory wells in remote, intact, and sensitive forest areas. As the Peruvian Amazon oil frontier rapidly expands, we conclude that a rigorous policy debate is urgently needed in order to avoid the major environmental impacts associated with the first exploration boom of the 1970s and to minimize the social conflict that recently led to deadly encounters between indigenous protesters and government forces.

  11. The expansion of the economic frontier and the diffusion of violence in the Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Patrícia Feitosa; Xavier, Diego Ricardo; Rican, Stephane; de Matos, Vanderlei Pascoal; Barcellos, Christovam

    2015-06-01

    Over the last few decades, the occupation of the Amazon and the expansion of large-scale economic activities have exerted a significant negative impact on the Amazonian environment and on the health of the Amazon's inhabitants. These processes have altered the context of the manifestation of health problems in time and space and changed the characteristics of the spatial diffusion of health problems in the region. This study analyzed the relationships between the various economic processes of territorial occupation in the Amazon and the spatial diffusion of homicidal violence through the configuration of networks of production, as well as the movements of population and merchandise. Statistical data on violence, deforestation, the production of agricultural items, and socio-economic variables, georeferenced and available for the 771 municipalities of the Legal Amazon were used in this study. The results suggest that the diffusion of violence closely follows the economic expansion front, which is related to deforestation and livestock production but has little relation to grain production, demonstrating steps and typologies of recent occupation in the Amazon that promote violence. These spatial patterns reveal environmental and socio-economic macro-determinants that materialize in geographic space through the construction of highways and the formation of city networks. PMID:26024359

  12. Modeling Amazon Deforestation for Policy Purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Granger, Clive W.J.; Lykke E. Andersen

    2006-01-01

    Brazil has long ago removed most of the perverse government incentives that stimulated massive deforestation in the Amazon in the 70s and 80s, but one highly controversial policy remains: Road building. While data is now abundantly available due to the constant satellite surveillance of the Amazon, the analytical methods typically used to analyze the impact of roads on natural vegetation cover are methodologically weak and not very helpful to guide public policy. This paper discusses the resp...

  13. Antibacterial activity of Brazilian Amazon plant extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Ivana Barbosa Suffredini; Mateus Luís Barradas Paciencia; Antonio Drauzio Varella; Riad Naim Younes

    2006-01-01

    Infections caused by multiresistant bacteria are a widespread problem, especially in intensive care units. New antibiotics are necessary, and we need to search for alternatives, including natural products. Brazil is one of the hottest spots in the world in terms of biodiversity, but little is known about the chemical and pharmacological properties of most of the plants found in the Amazon rain forest and the Atlantic Forest. We screened 1,220 organic and aqueous extracts, obtained from Amazon...

  14. Medicinal plants used in Rondônia, Western Amazon, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    M.R.A. Santos; Lima, M. R.; C.L.L.G. Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    This study refers to the use of medicinal plants by populations in the Western Amazon and provides information that can be used in phytochemical studies. It draws upon the traditional knowledge regarding the use of medicinal plants in five regions of the state of Rondônia, in the Brazilian Amazon, focusing on native species. The field research was carried out in five municipalities of the state of Rondônia: Ariquemes, Buritis, Candeias do Jamari, Cujubim and Itapoa do Oeste, characterized by ...

  15. Description of Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) nautaensis n. sp. (Diptera: Psychodidae) from the Peruvian Amazon Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Roberto; Lopez, Victor; Cardenas, Roldan; Requena, Edwin

    2015-07-01

    A new species of sand fly, which we describe as Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) nautaensis n. sp., was collected in the northern Peruvian Amazon Basin. In this region of Peru, cutaneous leishmaniasis is transmitted primarily by anthropophilic sand flies; however, zoophilic sand flies of the subgenus Trichophoromyia may also be incriminated in disease transmission. Detection of Leishmania spp. in Lutzomyia auraensis Mangabeira captured in the southern Peruvian Amazon indicates the potential of this and other zoophilic sand flies for human disease transmission, particularly in areas undergoing urban development. Herein, we describe Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) nautaensis n. sp., and report new records of sand flies in Peru. PMID:26335468

  16. Description of Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) nautaensis n. sp. (Diptera: Psychodidae) from the Peruvian Amazon Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Roberto; Lopez, Victor; Cardenas, Roldan; Requena, Edwin

    2015-07-01

    A new species of sand fly, which we describe as Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) nautaensis n. sp., was collected in the northern Peruvian Amazon Basin. In this region of Peru, cutaneous leishmaniasis is transmitted primarily by anthropophilic sand flies; however, zoophilic sand flies of the subgenus Trichophoromyia may also be incriminated in disease transmission. Detection of Leishmania spp. in Lutzomyia auraensis Mangabeira captured in the southern Peruvian Amazon indicates the potential of this and other zoophilic sand flies for human disease transmission, particularly in areas undergoing urban development. Herein, we describe Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) nautaensis n. sp., and report new records of sand flies in Peru.

  17. Potential hydrologic changes in the Amazon by the end of the 21st century and the groundwater buffer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study contributes to the discussions on the future of the Amazon rainforest under a projected warmer-drier climate from the perspectives of land hydrology. Using IPCC HadGEM2-ES simulations of the present and future Amazon climate to drive a land hydrology model that accounts for groundwater constraint on land drainage, we assess potential hydrologic changes in soil water, evapotranspiration (ET), water table depth, and river discharge, assuming unchanged vegetation. We ask: how will ET regimes shift at the end of the 21st century, and will the groundwater help buffer the anticipated water stress in some places-times? We conducted four 10 yr model simulations, at the end of 20th and 21st century, with and without the groundwater. Our model results suggest that, first, over the western and central Amazon, ET will increase due to increased potential evapotranspiration (PET) with warmer temperatures, despite a decrease in soil water; that is, ET will remain PET or atmospheric demand-limited. Second, in the eastern Amazon dry season, ET will decrease in response to decreasing soil water, despite increasing PET demand; that is, ET in these regions-seasons will remain or become more soil water or supply-limited. Third, the area of water-limited regions will likely expand in the eastern Amazonia, with the dry season, as indicated by soil water store, even drier and longer. Fourth, river discharge will be significantly reduced over the entire Amazon but particularly so in the southeastern Amazon. By contrasting model results with and without the groundwater, we found that the slow soil drainage constrained by shallow groundwater can buffer soil water stress, particularly in southeastern Amazon dry season. Our model suggests that, if groundwater buffering effect is accounted for, the future Amazon water stress may be less than that projected by most climate models. (letter)

  18. Potential Hydrologic Changes in the Amazon By the End of the 21st Century and the Groundwater Buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Y. N.; Fan, Y.; Miguez-Macho, G.

    2014-12-01

    This study contributes to the discussions on the future of the Amazon rainforest under a projected warmer-drier climate from the perspectives of land hydrology. Using IPCC HadGEM2-ES simulations of the present and future Amazon climate to drive a land hydrology model that accounts for groundwater constraint on land drainage, we assess potential hydrologic changes in soil water, evapotranspiration (ET), water table depth, and river discharge, assuming unchanged vegetation. We ask: how will ET regimes shift at the end of the 21st century, and will the groundwater help buffer the anticipated water stress in some places-times? We conducted four 10yr model simulations, at the end of 20th and 21st century, with and without the groundwater. Our model results suggest that, first, over the western and central Amazon, ET will increase due to increased potential evapotranspiration (PET) with warmer temperatures, despite a decrease in soil water; that is, ET will remain atmosphere or demand-limited. Second, in the eastern Amazon dry season, ET will decrease in response to decreasing soil water, despite increasing PET demand; that is, ET in these regions-seasons will remain or become more soil water or supply-limited. Third, the area of water-limited regions will likely expand in the eastern Amazonia, with the dry season, as indicated by soil water store, even drier and longer. Fourth, river discharge will be significantly reduced over the entire Amazon but particularly so in the southeastern Amazon. By contrasting model results with and without the groundwater, we found that the slow soil drainage constrained by a shallow groundwater can buffer soil water stress, particularly in southeastern Amazon dry season. Our model suggests that, if the groundwater buffering effect is accounted for, the future Amazon water stress may be less than projected by most climate models.

  19. Bold enterprise in Amazon basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, D.

    1980-08-30

    The aim of the Jari project in Brazil is to produce food and forest products for world markets by developing a 15,000 square km tract in the Amazon basin. A pumpmill and power plant came on stream in 1979 and since then have been meeting production targets of high quality bleached pulp. The key to the success of the project has been the introduction of a fast-growing hardwood native to S.E. Asia- Gmelina arborea which reaches a height of 30 m after 10 years, and is suitable for most wood products: pulp, sawn timber, veneer, plywood and particleboard. It is stated that preparations are under-way to introduce Jari hardwood to European markets.

  20. A social-ecological database to advance research on infrastructure development impacts in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker Lima, Joanna M; Valle, Denis; Moretto, Evandro Mateus; Pulice, Sergio Mantovani Paiva; Zuca, Nadia Lucia; Roquetti, Daniel Rondinelli; Beduschi, Liviam Elizabeth Cordeiro; Praia, Amanda Salles; Okamoto, Claudia Parucce Franco; da Silva Carvalhaes, Vinicius Leite; Branco, Evandro Albiach; Barbezani, Bruna; Labandera, Emily; Timpe, Kelsie; Kaplan, David

    2016-01-01

    Recognized as one of the world's most vital natural and cultural resources, the Amazon faces a wide variety of threats from natural resource and infrastructure development. Within this context, rigorous scientific study of the region's complex social-ecological system is critical to inform and direct decision-making toward more sustainable environmental and social outcomes. Given the Amazon's tightly linked social and ecological components and the scope of potential development impacts, effective study of this system requires an easily accessible resource that provides a broad and reliable data baseline. This paper brings together multiple datasets from diverse disciplines (including human health, socio-economics, environment, hydrology, and energy) to provide investigators with a variety of baseline data to explore the multiple long-term effects of infrastructure development in the Brazilian Amazon. PMID:27575915

  1. Diversity and complexity of the Araracuara sandstone flora and vegetation in the Colombian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Cleef; M.V. Arbelaez Velasquez

    2005-01-01

    Insular open vegetation of the western Guayana Shield in Colombia (c.150-1000 m) surrounded by NW Amazon rain forest (over 3000 mm annual precipitation) has been botanically unexplored until the early 1990¿s. During recent botanical exploration of the sandstone plateaus of the Araracuara region a to

  2. Ranching in the Amazon basin - Large-scale changes observed by AVHRR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malingreau, J. P.; Tucker, C. J.

    1990-01-01

    The contribution that AVHRR data can make to resolving the controversy about the deforestation of the Amazon region is discussed. The most significant types of information which such data can supply are pointed out. A color composite is shown and discussed, showing how it points out areas of deforestation.

  3. Governance of global climate change in the Brazilian Amazon: the case of Amazonian municipalities of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Inoue

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With regards to the debate about governance of climate change, it should be assumed that the Amazon region plays an important role, as this large area is highly vulnerable to its effects. In this sense, this article aims to discuss how some Amazonian municipalities of Brazil have been taking part in the complexes and multilayered processes of climate governance.

  4. Simulated Changes in Northwest U.S. Climate in Response to Amazon Deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerical models have long predicted that the deforestation of the Amazon would lead to large regional changes in precipitation and temperature, but the extratropical effects of deforestation have been a matter of controversy. This paper investigates the simulated impacts of defo...

  5. Off-Farm Work among Rural Households: A Case Study in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanWey, Leah; Vithayathil, Trina

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes off-farm work among subsistence-level farmers in the Santarem region of the Brazilian Amazon. We build on the literature on rural livelihoods in the Global South by exploring how the opportunity to work off the farm is embedded in social relationships. We additionally differentiate our analysis by type of off-farm work, and…

  6. Regeneration in canopy gaps of tierra-firme forest in the Peruvian Amazon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Rune Juelsborg; Jovanovic, Milos; Meilby, Henrik;

    2013-01-01

    the regeneration dynamics of logging gaps with naturally occuring canopy gaps. In the concession of Consorcio Forestal Amazonico in the region of Ucayali in the Peruvian Amazon, a total of 210 circular sample plots were established in 35 gaps in unmanaged natural forest and 35 canopy gaps in forest managed...

  7. Physicochemical parameters of Amazon Melipona honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Bicudo de Almeida-Muradian

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Stingless bees produce a honey that is different from the Apis honey in terms of composition. There aren't enough data to establish quality control parameters for this product, mainly due to lack of research results. The aim of this work is to evaluate some physicochemical parameters that can be used for the characterization and for the quality control of the Meliponinae honey. Four different samples were collected in the Amazon region of Brazil in 2004 (Melipona compressipes manaoense bee and Melipona seminigra merribae bee. Honey analyses were performed as described by the official methods. The mean results were: moisture (30.13%, pH (3.65, acidity (24.57 mEq/kg, water activity (0.75, fructose (31.91%, glucose (29.30% and sucrose (0.19%. These results reinforce the need for a specific regulation for stingless bee honey. This will only be feasible when enough data is available to establish upper and lower limits for the physicochemical parameters used for quality control.

  8. On the sources of hydrological prediction uncertainty in the Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. D. Paiva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent extreme events in the Amazon River basin and the vulnerability of local population motivate the development of hydrological forecast systems (HFSs using process based models for this region. In this direction, the knowledge of the source of errors in HFSs may guide the choice on improving model structure, model forcings or developing data assimilation (DA systems for estimation of initial model states. We evaluate the relative importance of hydrologic initial conditions (ICs and model meteorological forcings (MFs errors (precisely precipitation as sources of stream flow forecast uncertainty in the Amazon River basin. We used a hindcast approach developed by Wood and Lettenmaier (2008 that contrasts Ensemble Streamflow Prediction (ESP and a reverse Ensemble Streamflow Prediction (reverse-ESP. Simulations were performed using the physically-based and distributed hydrological model MGB-IPH, comprising surface energy and water balance, soil water, river and floodplain hydrodynamics processes. Model was forced using TRMM 3B42 precipitation estimates. Results show that uncertainty on initial conditions play an important role for discharge predictability even for large lead times (~1 to 3 months on main Amazonian Rivers. ICs of surface waters state variables are the major source of hydrological forecast uncertainty, mainly in rivers with low slope and large floodplains. ICs of groundwater state variables are important mostly during low flow period and southeast part of the Amazon, where lithology and the strong rainfall seasonality with a marked dry season may be the explaining factors. Analyses indicate that hydrological forecasts based on a hydrological model forced with historical meteorological data and optimal initial conditions, may be feasible. Also, development of DA methods is encouraged for this region.

  9. On the sources of hydrological prediction uncertainty in the Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. D. Paiva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent extreme events in the Amazon River basin and the vulnerability of local population motivate the development of hydrological forecast systems using process based models for this region. In this direction, the knowledge of the source of errors in hydrological forecast systems may guide the choice on improving model structure, model forcings or developing data assimilation systems for estimation of initial model states. We evaluate the relative importance of hydrologic initial conditions and model meteorological forcings errors (precipitation as sources of stream flow forecast uncertainty in the Amazon River basin. We used a hindcast approach that compares Ensemble Streamflow Prediction (ESP and a reverse Ensemble Streamflow Prediction (reverse-ESP. Simulations were performed using the physically-based and distributed hydrological model MGB-IPH, comprising surface energy and water balance, soil water, river and floodplain hydrodynamics processes. The model was forced using TRMM 3B42 precipitation estimates. Results show that uncertainty on initial conditions plays an important role for discharge predictability, even for large lead times (∼1 to 3 months on main Amazonian Rivers. Initial conditions of surface waters state variables are the major source of hydrological forecast uncertainty, mainly in rivers with low slope and large floodplains. Initial conditions of groundwater state variables are important, mostly during low flow period and in the southeast part of the Amazon where lithology and the strong rainfall seasonality with a marked dry season may be the explaining factors. Analyses indicate that hydrological forecasts based on a hydrological model forced with historical meteorological data and optimal initial conditions may be feasible. Also, development of data assimilation methods is encouraged for this region.

  10. Severe convection features in the Amazon Basin: a TRMM-based 15-year evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira Nunes, Ana; Silva Dias, Maria; Anselmo, Evandro; Rodriguez, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    Rainfall in the Amazon Basin is very heterogeneous, mainly because the area encompassed is quite large. Among the systems responsible for rainfall, some stand out as extreme storm events. This study presents a criterion for identifying potentially severe convection in the Amazon region from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) database, specifically from Precipitation Features (PF) - 1998-2012 - generated and stored by the University of Utah. The seasonal and spatial distributions are similar to distributions of Mesoscale Convective Systems already catalogued in previous studies based on GOES satellite images. The seasons with the highest number of cases are austral spring, winter, and fall. With the Amazon region divided into six subregions and cases accumulated by quarter (JFM, AMJ, JAS, OND) the south of the Amazon subregion (SA) accounts for the largest number of cases with the OND quarter with higher occurrence and the lowest in AMJ. Different diurnal cycles of potentially severe convection are observed across the region with the more western areas, closer to the Andes, favoring nighttime cases, especially in the austral spring and summer. The diurnal cycle of the number of the most extreme cases is more pronounced than the diurnal cycle when a large collection of deep convection cases are included.

  11. Business as Usual: Amazon.com and the Academic Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ullen, Mary K.; Germain, Carol Anne

    2002-01-01

    In 1999, Steve Coffman proposed that libraries form a single interlibrary loan based entity patterned after Amazon.com. This study examined the suitability of Amazon.com's Web interface and record enhancements for academic libraries. Amazon.com could not deliver circulating monographs in the University at Albany Libraries' collection quickly…

  12. Annual Carbon Emissions from Deforestation in the Amazon Basin between 2000 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiao-Peng; Huang, Chengquan; Saatchi, Sassan S; Hansen, Matthew C; Townshend, John R

    2015-01-01

    Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) is considered one of the most cost-effective strategies for mitigating climate change. However, historical deforestation and emission rates-critical inputs for setting reference emission levels for REDD+-are poorly understood. Here we use multi-source, time-series satellite data to quantify carbon emissions from deforestation in the Amazon basin on a year-to-year basis between 2000 and 2010. We first derive annual deforestation indicators by using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Vegetation Continuous Fields (MODIS VCF) product. MODIS indicators are calibrated by using a large sample of Landsat data to generate accurate deforestation rates, which are subsequently combined with a spatially explicit biomass dataset to calculate committed annual carbon emissions. Across the study area, the average deforestation and associated carbon emissions were estimated to be 1.59 ± 0.25 M ha•yr(-1) and 0.18 ± 0.07 Pg C•yr(-1) respectively, with substantially different trends and inter-annual variability in different regions. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon increased between 2001 and 2004 and declined substantially afterwards, whereas deforestation in the Bolivian Amazon, the Colombian Amazon, and the Peruvian Amazon increased over the study period. The average carbon density of lost forests after 2005 was 130 Mg C•ha(-1), ~11% lower than the average carbon density of remaining forests in year 2010 (144 Mg C•ha(-1)). Moreover, the average carbon density of cleared forests increased at a rate of 7 Mg C•ha(-1)•yr(-1) from 2005 to 2010, suggesting that deforestation has been progressively encroaching into high-biomass lands in the Amazon basin. Spatially explicit, annual deforestation and emission estimates like the ones derived in this study are useful for setting baselines for REDD+ and other emission mitigation programs, and for evaluating the performance of such efforts.

  13. Basin-Wide Amazon Forest Tree Mortality From a Large 2005 Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negron Juarez, R. I.; Chambers, J. Q.; Guimaraes, G.; Zeng, H.; Raupp, C.; Marra, D. M.; Ribeiro, G.; Saatchi, S. S.; Higuchi, N.

    2010-12-01

    Blowdowns are a recurrent characteristic of Amazon forests and are produced, among others, by squall lines. Squall lines are aligned clusters (typical length of 1000 km, width of 200 km) of deep convective cells that produce heavy rainfall during the dry season and significant rainfall during the wet season. These squall lines (accompanied by intense downbursts from convective cells) have been associated with large blowdowns characterized by uprooted, snapped trees, and trees being dragged down by other falling trees. Most squall lines in Amazonia form along the northeastern coast of South America as sea breeze-induced instability lines and propagate inside the continent. They occur frequently (~4 times per month), and can reach the central and even extreme western parts of Amazonia. Squall lines can also be generated inside the Amazon and propagate toward the equator. In January 2005 a squall line propagated from south to north across the entire Amazon basin producing widespread forest tree mortality and contributed to the elevated mortality observed that year. Over the Manaus region (3.4 x104 km2), disturbed forest patches generated by the squall produced a mortality of 0.3-0.5 million trees, equivalent to 30% of the observed annual deforestation reported in 2005 over the same area. The elevated mortality observed in the Central Amazon in 2005 is unlikely to be related to the 2005 Amazon drought since drought did not affect Central or Eastern Amazonia. Assuming a similar rate of forest mortality across the basin, the squall line could have potentially produced tree mortality estimated at 542 ± 121 million trees, equivalent to 23% of the mean annual biomass accumulation estimated for these forests. Our results highlight the vulnerability of Amazon trees to wind-driven mortality associated with convective storms. This vulnerability is likely to increase in a warming climate with models projecting an increase in storm intensity.

  14. Annual Carbon Emissions from Deforestation in the Amazon Basin between 2000 and 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Peng Song

    Full Text Available Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+ is considered one of the most cost-effective strategies for mitigating climate change. However, historical deforestation and emission rates-critical inputs for setting reference emission levels for REDD+-are poorly understood. Here we use multi-source, time-series satellite data to quantify carbon emissions from deforestation in the Amazon basin on a year-to-year basis between 2000 and 2010. We first derive annual deforestation indicators by using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Vegetation Continuous Fields (MODIS VCF product. MODIS indicators are calibrated by using a large sample of Landsat data to generate accurate deforestation rates, which are subsequently combined with a spatially explicit biomass dataset to calculate committed annual carbon emissions. Across the study area, the average deforestation and associated carbon emissions were estimated to be 1.59 ± 0.25 M ha•yr(-1 and 0.18 ± 0.07 Pg C•yr(-1 respectively, with substantially different trends and inter-annual variability in different regions. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon increased between 2001 and 2004 and declined substantially afterwards, whereas deforestation in the Bolivian Amazon, the Colombian Amazon, and the Peruvian Amazon increased over the study period. The average carbon density of lost forests after 2005 was 130 Mg C•ha(-1, ~11% lower than the average carbon density of remaining forests in year 2010 (144 Mg C•ha(-1. Moreover, the average carbon density of cleared forests increased at a rate of 7 Mg C•ha(-1•yr(-1 from 2005 to 2010, suggesting that deforestation has been progressively encroaching into high-biomass lands in the Amazon basin. Spatially explicit, annual deforestation and emission estimates like the ones derived in this study are useful for setting baselines for REDD+ and other emission mitigation programs, and for evaluating the performance of such

  15. Annual Carbon Emissions from Deforestation in the Amazon Basin between 2000 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiao-Peng; Huang, Chengquan; Saatchi, Sassan S; Hansen, Matthew C; Townshend, John R

    2015-01-01

    Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) is considered one of the most cost-effective strategies for mitigating climate change. However, historical deforestation and emission rates-critical inputs for setting reference emission levels for REDD+-are poorly understood. Here we use multi-source, time-series satellite data to quantify carbon emissions from deforestation in the Amazon basin on a year-to-year basis between 2000 and 2010. We first derive annual deforestation indicators by using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Vegetation Continuous Fields (MODIS VCF) product. MODIS indicators are calibrated by using a large sample of Landsat data to generate accurate deforestation rates, which are subsequently combined with a spatially explicit biomass dataset to calculate committed annual carbon emissions. Across the study area, the average deforestation and associated carbon emissions were estimated to be 1.59 ± 0.25 M ha•yr(-1) and 0.18 ± 0.07 Pg C•yr(-1) respectively, with substantially different trends and inter-annual variability in different regions. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon increased between 2001 and 2004 and declined substantially afterwards, whereas deforestation in the Bolivian Amazon, the Colombian Amazon, and the Peruvian Amazon increased over the study period. The average carbon density of lost forests after 2005 was 130 Mg C•ha(-1), ~11% lower than the average carbon density of remaining forests in year 2010 (144 Mg C•ha(-1)). Moreover, the average carbon density of cleared forests increased at a rate of 7 Mg C•ha(-1)•yr(-1) from 2005 to 2010, suggesting that deforestation has been progressively encroaching into high-biomass lands in the Amazon basin. Spatially explicit, annual deforestation and emission estimates like the ones derived in this study are useful for setting baselines for REDD+ and other emission mitigation programs, and for evaluating the performance of such efforts. PMID

  16. Distribution of Aboveground Live Biomass in the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saatchi, S. S.; Houghton, R. A.; DosSantos Alvala, R. C.; Soares, J. V.; Yu, Y.

    2007-01-01

    The amount and spatial distribution of forest biomass in the Amazon basin is a major source of uncertainty in estimating the flux of carbon released from land-cover and land-use change. Direct measurements of aboveground live biomass (AGLB) are limited to small areas of forest inventory plots and site-specific allometric equations that cannot be readily generalized for the entire basin. Furthermore, there is no spaceborne remote sensing instrument that can measure tropical forest biomass directly. To determine the spatial distribution of forest biomass of the Amazon basin, we report a method based on remote sensing metrics representing various forest structural parameters and environmental variables, and more than 500 plot measurements of forest biomass distributed over the basin. A decision tree approach was used to develop the spatial distribution of AGLB for seven distinct biomass classes of lowland old-growth forests with more than 80% accuracy. AGLB for other vegetation types, such as the woody and herbaceous savanna and secondary forests, was directly estimated with a regression based on satellite data. Results show that AGLB is highest in Central Amazonia and in regions to the east and north, including the Guyanas. Biomass is generally above 300Mgha(sup 1) here except in areas of intense logging or open floodplains. In Western Amazonia, from the lowlands of Peru, Ecuador, and Colombia to the Andean mountains, biomass ranges from 150 to 300Mgha(sup 1). Most transitional and seasonal forests at the southern and northwestern edges of the basin have biomass ranging from 100 to 200Mgha(sup 1). The AGLB distribution has a significant correlation with the length of the dry season. We estimate that the total carbon in forest biomass of the Amazon basin, including the dead and below ground biomass, is 86 PgC with +/- 20% uncertainty.

  17. Distribution of K, eU and Th and evaluation of annual radiation dose in the region of the Serra do Carambei Granite - PR; Distribuicao de K, eU e eTh e avaliacao da dose anual de radiacao na regiao do Granito Serra do Carambei - PR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godoy, Luiz C., E-mail: luizcgodoy@brturbo.com.br [Departamento de Geociencias, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Bittencourt, Andre V.L., E-mail: andre@ufpr.br [Laboratorio de Pesquisas Hidrogeologicas - LPH, Departamento de Geologia, Universidade Federal do Parana, Centro Politecnico, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Santos, Leonardo J.C., E-mail: santos@ufpr.br [Laboratorio de Biogeografia e Solos - LABS, Departamento de Geografia, Universidade Federal do Parana, Centro Politecnico, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Ferreira, Francisco J.F., E-mail: francisco.ferreira@ufpr.br [Laboratorio de Pesquisas em Geofisica Aplicada - LPGA, Departamento de Geologia, Universidade Federal do Parana, Centro Politecnico, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2011-04-15

    is study was conducted in an area of 14 km in length oriented in the NNE direction by 7.3 km wide, covering the totality of the Serra do Carambei Granite and adjacent units. Located in the northern region of the Alagados dam, Parana State, this granite contains relatively high concentrations of K, eU and eTh, known since the 1970s through airborne and terrestrial gamma-ray spectrometry surveys. Recent radiochemical tests conducted on 61 samples of geological materials such as rocks (17 samples) and material of the weathering mantle and alluvial deposits (44 samples), confirmed the occurrence of radioactive anomalies in this granite, especially in thorium and uranium. The contents of K, eU and eTh obtained in gamma-ray spectrometry survey and radiochemical tests, converted to annual radiation dose (ARD), allowed to evaluate the intensity of natural radiation, whose levels relatively high in certain regions of the study area, can offer hazard to the local populations. The analysis and interpretation of data, as well the preparation of contour maps of K, eU and eTh were fundamental to understand the behavior and mobility of radionuclides in different environmental compartments of the area. (author)

  18. Simulating SOC changes in 11 land use change chronosequences from the Brazilian Amazon with RothC and Century models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerri, C.E.P.; Easter, M.; Paustian, K.; Killian, K.; Coleman, K.; Bernoux, M.; Falloon, P.; Powlson, D.S.; Batjes, N.H.; Milne, E.; Cerri, C.C.

    2007-01-01

    Land use and land cover changes in the Brazilian Amazon have major implications for regional and global carbon (C) cycling. Cattle pasture represents the largest single use (about 70%) of this once-forested land in most of the region. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of

  19. The AmazonFACE research program: assessing the effects of increasing atmospheric CO2 on the ecology and resilience of the Amazon forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapola, David; Quesada, Carlos; Norby, Richard; Araújo, Alessandro; Domingues, Tomas; Hartley, Iain; Kruijt, Bart; Lewin, Keith; Meir, Patrick; Ometto, Jean; Rammig, Anja

    2016-04-01

    The existence, magnitude and duration of a supposed "CO2 fertilization" effect in tropical forests remains largely undetermined, despite being suggested for nearly 20 years as a key knowledge gap for understanding the future resilience of Amazonian forests and its impact on the global carbon cycle. Reducing this uncertainty is critical for assessing the future of the Amazon region as well as its vulnerability to climate change. The AmazonFACE (Free-Air CO2 Enrichment) research program is an integrated model-experiment initiative of unprecedented scope in an old-growth Amazon forest near Manaus, Brazil - the first of its kind in tropical forest. The experimental treatment will simulate an atmospheric CO2 concentration [CO2] of the future in order to address the question: "How will rising atmospheric CO2 affect the resilience of the Amazon forest, the biodiversity it harbors, and the ecosystem services it provides, in light of projected climatic changes?" AmazonFACE is divided into three phases: (I) pre-experimental ecological characterization of the research site; (II) pilot experiment comprised of two 30-m diameter plots, with one treatment plot maintained at elevated [CO2] (ambient +200 ppmv), and the other control plot at ambient [CO2]; and (III) a fully-replicated long-term experiment comprised of four pairs of control/treatment FACE plots maintained for 10 years. A team of scientists from Brazil, USA, Australia and Europe will employ state-of-the-art methods to study the forest inside these plots in terms of carbon metabolism and cycling, water use, nutrient cycling, forest community composition, and interactions with environmental stressors. All project phases also encompass ecosystem-modeling activities in a way such that models provide hypothesis to be verified in the experiment, which in turn will feed models to ultimately produce more accurate projections of the environment. Resulting datasets and analyses will be a valuable resource for a broad community

  20. Evaluation of the activity concentration of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb in sediments from Antarctica in the Admiralty bay region; Avaliacao da concentracao de atividade de Ra-226, Ra-228 e Pb-210 em sedimentos provenientes da Antartica na regiao da baia do Almirantado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora, Tamires de Araujo

    2015-07-01

    The natural radionuclides from radioactive series of {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U and {sup 232}Th have been applied as tracers in environmental studies for understanding the dynamics that occur in both marine and terrestrial environment, as for example, in research of oceanic processes and management of the coastal region. In the marine environment, these radionuclides can be used to estimate biogeochemical fluxes of marine particles and nutrients that occur in the water column as well as in the sediment. Several research works applied the distribution and the respective disequilibrium degree of natural radionuclides in the environment, including geochronological models for obtaining historical information on samples of certain sediment profile. In this study we performed a radiochemical characterization of the distribution of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb from a sedimentary column called 1B (248 cm long) collected in the Admiralty Bay, Antarctic Peninsula region. The methodology used included the acid leaching of sediment samples followed by the radiochemical sequential separation of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra by co-precipitation with Ba(Ra)SO{sub 4} and {sup 210}Pb by co-precipitation with PbCrO{sub 4}. All measurements were carried out by counting of gross alpha and gross beta measures in a low background gas flow proportional detector. The activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb were used to estimate the unsupported {sup 210}Pb activities present in sediment profile 1 B. Based on unsupported {sup 210}Pb data and the application of the CIC model (Constant Initial Concentration), it was possible to determine the sedimentation rate of 0.59 ± 0.05 cm /year. (author)

  1. Model for the isotopic fractionation of water in the Amazon basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two models on the isotopic fractionation of water are presented. In the first model. It is assumed that the only source of water vapour for the Amazon region is the Atlantic Ocean, introduced by the predominant easterly winds. The second model contains the assumption that the forest also serves as a source of water vapour contributing an equal volume of water to the regional rains as the vapour of oceanic origin. (Author)

  2. Greenhouse problem in the Amazon jungle clearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the contribution of Amazon jungle clearing to the greenhouse problem and makes an assessment of long-run prospects. The introductory sections pose the problem from both international and Brazilian perspectives. The next section describes major features of the Amazonia ecosystems and presents methods and evidence on deforestation and on its impact on carbon dioxide emissions. Based upon cross-section information for a sample of municipalities in the Brazilian Amazon, the following section estimates elasticities of deforestation in relation to major economic factors- government policies included- and uses them to make projections for the future pace of deforestation. The last section discusses policy alternatives to slow down forest conversion

  3. Rethinking the strategy of Amazon.com

    OpenAIRE

    Heng, Michael S.H.

    2001-01-01

    The strategic challenge facing Amazon.com is that it is not able to convince the investment community that it is able to generate profits in the long run. The doubt of investors is well grounded. This paper argues that Amazon should make a strategic shift to operate as a provider of technical services and business consulting in the area of business-to-consumer e-commerce. At the same time it should reduce the range of the items sold on-line to, say, books and CDs, and treat this part of its b...

  4. Simulating SOC changes in 11 land use change chronosequences from the Brazilian Amazon with RothC and Century models

    OpenAIRE

    Cerri, C. E. P.,; Easter, M.; K. Paustian; Killian, K.; Coleman, K.; Bernoux, MARTIAL,; P. Falloon; D. S. Powlson; Batjes, N.; Milne, E.; Cerri, C.C.

    2007-01-01

    Land use and land cover changes in the Brazilian Amazon have major implications for regional and global carbon (C) cycling. Cattle pasture represents the largest single use (about 70%) of this once-forested land in most of the region. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the RothC and Century models at estimating soil organic C (SOC) changes under forest-to-pasture conditions in the Brazilian Amazon. We used data from 11 site-specific 'forest to pasture' chronosequ...

  5. Evaluation of seawater contamination with benzene, toluene and xylene in the Ubatuba north coast, SP region, and study of their removal by ionizing radiation; Avaliacao da contaminacao da agua do mar por benzeno, tolueno e xileno na regiao de Ubatuba, litoral norte (SP) e estudo da degradacao destes compostos por radiacao ionizante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Kelly Cristina Santana de

    2006-07-01

    A major concern with leaking petroleum is the environmental contamination by the toxic and low water-soluble components such as benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX). These hydrocarbons have relatively high pollution potential because of their significant toxicity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the contamination of seawater by the main pollutants of the output and transport of petroleum, such as benzene, toluene, and xylene, and their removal by the exposure to the ionizing radiation. The studied region was Ubatuba region, SP, between 23 deg 26'S and 23 deg 46'S of latitude and 45 deg 02'W and 45 deg 11'W of longitude, area of carry and output of petroleum, and samples were collected from November, 2003 to July, 2005. For BTX in seawater analysis, the Purge and Trap concentrator with FIDGC detector showed significantly higher sensibility than Head Space concentrator with MSGC detector. The minimal detected limits (MDL) obtained at FIDGC were of 0.50 {mu}g/L for benzene, 0.70 {mu}g/L for toluene, and 1.54 {mu}g/L for xylene, and the obtained experimental variability was 15%. While the concentrator type Headspace system with MS detector showed higher MLD, about of 9.30 mg/L for benzene, 8.50 mg/L for toluene, and 9.80 mg/L for xylene, and 10% of experimental variability. In the studied area the benzene concentration varied from 1.0 {mu}g/L to 2.0 {mu}g/L, the concentration of toluene varied from < 0.70 {mu}g/L to 3.24 {mu}g/L and the maximum value of xylene observed was of 2.92 {mu}g/L. The seawater samples contaminated with BTX standard and exposed to ionizing radiation using a source of {sup 60}Co, presented a removal from 10% to 40% of benzene at 20 kGy absorbed doses and concentration of 35.1 mg/L and 70.2 mg/L, respectively; from 20% to 60% of toluene removal with 15 kGy absorbed dose and from 20% to 80% of xylene with 15 kGy absorbed dose in similar concentrations. (author)

  6. Field evaluation of traditionally used plant-based insect repellents and fumigants against the malaria vector Anopheles darlingi in Riberalta, Bolivian Amazon.

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Sarah J.; Hill, Nigel; Ruiz, Carmen; Cameron, Mary M.

    2007-01-01

    Inexpensive insect repellents may be needed to supplement the use of impregnated bed-nets in the Amazon region, where the primary malaria vector, Anopheles darlingi (Root), is exophilic and feeds in the early evening. Three plants that are traditionally used to repel mosquitoes in Riberalta, Bolivian Amazon, were identified by focus group, and then they were tested against An. darlingi as well as Mansonia indubitans (Dyar & Shannon)/Mansonia titillans (Walker). Cymbopogon citratus (Staph), Gu...

  7. Characterization of kaolin wastes from kaolin mining industry from the amazon region as raw material for pozzolans production; Caracterizacao dos residuos cauliniticos das industrias de mineracao de caulim da amazonia como materia-prima para producao de pozolanas de alta reatividade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barata, M.S.; Angelica, R.S., E-mail: msb@amazon.com.br, E-mail: angelica@ufpa.br [Instituto de Geociencias, Universidade Federal do Para, Belem, PA (Brazil)

    2012-01-15

    Capim and Jari are the two most important kaolin mining districts of the Brazilian Amazon region. They encompass the major Brazilian reserves of high quality kaolin for the paper coating industry. The kaolin is mined and processed by three major companies responsible for about 500,000 ton of a residue mainly composed of kaolinite. The wastes come mainly from the centrifugation phase of the kaolin beneficiation process and their final destinations are huge sedimentation basins that occupy large areas. The main purpose of this work is to evaluate the physical, chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the kaolin wastes processed from the Capim and Jari region, in order to obtain meta kaolinite, a high reactive pozzolans for the cement industry. When incorporated to ordinary Portland cement such pozzolans increases the concrete and mortars performance. All the residues studied in this work were characterized by means of: X-ray diffraction analysis, differential thermal analysis, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and laser diffraction. Both residues are mainly constitutes by at least 92% of low granulometry kaolinite with specific surface area above 8 m2 /g and mean diameter below 1 {mu}m. Free silica (quartz) contents are below 3%. The high concentration of kaolinite in these residues dispenses rigid control parameters for removal of impurities usually employed in pozzolans production. The Jari kaolin exhibits high disordered kaolinite in comparison with the high ordered kaolinite of the Capim region and gives rise to higher desidroxilation degree at lower temperatures. It points to energy saving and reducing costs during the production of a pozzolans. The results are satisfactory and reveal that both kaolin wastes are excellent raw material for the production of high reactive meta kaolin. (author)

  8. Modeling Potential Impacts of Planting Palms or Tree in Small Holder Fruit Plantations on Ecohydrological Processes in the Central Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Kunert

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Native fruiting plants are widely cultivated in the Amazon, but little information on their water use characteristics can be found in the literature. To explore the potential impacts of plantations on local to regional water balance, we studied plant water use characteristics of two native fruit plants commonly occurring in the Amazon region. The study was conducted in a mixed fruit plantation containing a dicot tree species (Cupuaçu, Theobroma grandiflorum and a monocot palm species (Açai, Euterpe oleracea close to the city of Manaus, in the Central Amazon. Scaling from sap flux measurements, palms had a 3.5-fold higher water consumption compared to trees with a similar diameter. Despite the high transpiration rates of the palms, our plantation had only one third of the potential water recycling capacity of natural forests in the area. Converting natural forest into such plantations will thus result in significantly higher runoff rates.

  9. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Poecilia formosa (Amazon molly).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Xiao; Xia, Yan; Xu, Qiwu; Zhang, Jianguo

    2016-09-01

    The Amazon molly, Poecilia formosa, a member of the Poeciliidae family, is a freshwater fish reproducing through gynogenesis. The complete mitochondrial genome of the P. formosa is determined for the first time in this study. It is a circular molecule of 16 542 bp in length, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 1 putative control region. The overall base composition of the genome is A (29.59%), T (27.57%), C (28.27%), and G (14.57%) with 42.84% GC content, which is lower than the content of AT. Most protein-coding genes started with a traditional ATG codon except for COX2, ND5 and ND6, which initiated with ATA, GTG and TTA, respectively. The stop codon was a single T- - base in most of the protein-coding genes, but COX2 and ATP8 both employed TAA and ND2 terminated with AGG codon. Phylogenetic tree was constructed based on the complete mitogenome of P. formosa and closely related 11 chondrichthian species to assess their phylogenic relationship and evolution. The complete mitochondrial genome of the amazon molly would help to study the evolution of Poeciliidae family. PMID:26260185

  10. Cloudiness over the Amazon rainforest: Meteorology and thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collow, Allison B. Marquardt; Miller, Mark A.; Trabachino, Lynne C.

    2016-07-01

    Comprehensive meteorological observations collected during GOAmazon2014/15 using the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Mobile Facility no. 1 and assimilated observations from the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 are used to document the seasonal cycle of cloudiness, thermodynamics, and precipitation above the Amazon rainforest. The reversal of synoptic-scale vertical motions modulates the transition between the wet and dry seasons. Ascending moist air during the wet season originates near the surface of the Atlantic Ocean and is advected into the Amazon rainforest, where it experiences convergence and, ultimately, precipitates. The dry season is characterized by weaker winds and synoptic-scale subsidence with little or no moisture convergence accompanying moisture advection. This combination results in the drying of the midtroposphere during June through October as indicated by a decrease in liquid water path, integrated water, and the vertical profile of water vapor mixing ratio. The vertical profile of cloud fraction exhibits a relatively consistent decline in cloud fraction from the lifting condensation level (LCL) to the freezing level where a minimum is observed, unlike many other tropical regions. Coefficients of determination between the LCL and cloud fractional coverage suggest a relatively robust relationship between the LCL and cloudiness beneath 5 km during the dry season (R2 = 0.42) but a weak relationship during the wet season (0.12).

  11. Oil generation potential assessment and paleoenvironmental interpretation based on bio markers and stable carbon isotopes of the Pliensbachian - lower Toarcian (Lower Jurassic) of the Peniche region (Lusitanian Basin, Portugal); Avaliacao do potencial gerador de petroleo e interpretacao paleoambiental com base em biomarcadores e isotopos estaveis de carbono da secao Pliensbaquiano - Toarciano inferior (Jurassico Inferior) da regiao de Peniche (Bacia Lusitanica, Portugal)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luiz Carlos Veiga de; Rodrigues, Rene; Duarte, Luis Vitor; Lemos, Valesca Brasil [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Gerencia de Bioestratigrafia e Paleoecologia]. E-mail: lcveiga@petrobras.com.br

    2006-05-15

    The Lusitanian Basin (Portugal) is located on the western margin of the Iberian Plate with maximum sedimentary thickness around 5 km. In spite of containing promising petroleum systems and more than a hundred wells, its hydrocarbon generation potential has not been fully evaluated yet. These sediments range from upper Triassic to upper Cretaceous, mainly from the Jurassic age. The Lower Jurassic is particularly well represented in the Lusitanian Basin, specifically in the Peniche region, where there are more than 450 m thick outcrops of carbonate rocks aged between Sinemurian and Toarcian. This study presents the evaluation of the hydrocarbon generation potential of the Pliensbachian . lower Toarcian of the Peniche section; which includes the Vale das Fontes Formation, Lemede Formation and Cabo Carvoeiro Formation (CC1 and CC2 members) based on 233 rock samples analyzed for total organic carbon (TOC), Rock-Eval pyrolysis and bio markers. Available data of oxygen and carbon stable isotopes were also used in the paleoenvironmental interpretation. Marls and limestones with the bituminous facies (Mlbf) of the Vale das Fontes Formation, present the highest TOC values, up to 14.95%, corresponding to the ibex (upper part), davoei and margaritatus ammonites zones and part of the NJ4a and NJ4b nanno fossils bio zones (Pliensbachian). In thermal immature sections (T max about 430 deg C), this member also shows high S{sub 2} values (10 to 50 mgHC/g rock) and Hydrogen index (HI: 200 to 555 mgHC/g TOC). The correlation between HI x OI shows that type II kerogen is predominant in the portion of the section where TOC values are higher. The good positive correlation between TOC values and the bio markers ratio P/nC17 and sterane (C{sub 27}/C{sub 29}) throughout the Mlbf Member suggests a gradual increase of anoxia and higher contribution of algae in relation to terrestrial organic matter. Usually {delta}{sup 18}O variations observed in the basins of the Iberian Peninsula have been

  12. The Late Miocene paleogeography of the Amazon Basin and the evolution of the Amazon River system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latrubesse, Edgardo M.; Cozzuol, Mario; da Silva-Caminha, Silane A. F.; Rigsby, Catherine A.; Absy, Maria Lucia; Jaramillo, Carlos

    2010-05-01

    basin, and became instead an erosional area that contributed sediments to the Amazon fluvial system. At that time, the lowland fluvial systems of southwestern Amazonia (the Purus, Jurua and Javarí basins) become isolated from the Andes by the newly formed north-flowing Ucayali system and south-east flowing Madre de Dios System. It was during the early Pliocene that the Amazon fluvial system integrated regionally and acquired its present appearance, and also when it started to drain water and sediments on a large scale to the Atlantic Ocean.

  13. The Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO in the remote Amazon Basin: overview of first results from ecosystem ecology, meteorology, trace gas, and aerosol measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Andreae

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon Basin plays key roles in the carbon and water cycles, climate change, atmospheric chemistry, and biodiversity. It already has been changed significantly by human activities, and more pervasive change is expected to occur in the next decades. It is therefore essential to establish long-term measurement sites that provide a baseline record of present-day climatic, biogeochemical, and atmospheric conditions and that will be operated over coming decades to monitor change in the Amazon region as human perturbations increase in the future. The Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO has been set up in a pristine rain forest region in the central Amazon Basin, about 150 km northeast of the city of Manaus. An ecological survey including a biodiversity assessment has been conducted in the forest region surrounding the site. Two 80 m towers have been operated at the site since 2012, and a 325 m tower is nearing completion in mid-2015. Measurements of micrometeorological and atmospheric chemical variables were initiated in 2012, and their range has continued to broaden over the last few years. The meteorological and micrometeorological measurements include temperature and wind profiles, precipitation, water and energy fluxes, turbulence components, soil temperature profiles and soil heat fluxes, radiation fluxes, and visibility. A tree has been instrumented to measure stem profiles of temperature, light intensity, and water content in cryptogamic covers. The trace gas measurements comprise continuous monitoring of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, and ozone at 5 to 8 different heights, complemented by a variety of additional species measured during intensive campaigns (e.g., VOC, NO, NO2, and OH reactivity. Aerosol optical, microphysical, and chemical measurements are made above the canopy as well as in the canopy space. They include light scattering and absorption, aerosol fluorescence, number and volume size distributions, chemical

  14. No greens in the forest? Note on the limited consumption of greens in the Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Katz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of greens is reported as being very minor among Amazonian Indians. The authors of this article present a new review of this subject, based on fieldwork with Amerindians and other populations in different parts of the Brazilian Amazon and French Guiana. Written sources on Brazilian, Peruvian, Columbian and Venezuelan Amazon were also reviewed. The consumption of cultivated, semi-cultivated and wild species of greens was taken into account here, as the data specific to wild greens is very scarce. It is confirmed that greens are not commonly eaten among native Amazonians and that some ethnic groups do not consume them at all. The consumed species are usually young shoots of weeds or cassava leaves. Common in the Belém region are some specific aromatic plants, which have been diffused to other parts of the Amazon, together with introduced plants such as kale and coriander. Migrants from Northeastern Brazil settled in the Amazon consume some cultivated greens, especially aromatic plants. Maroons are the ones who use more greens in their diet. Native Amazonian people, who supplement agriculture with game and fish, follow a hunter-gatherer pattern, preferring wild fruit and tubers to greens.

  15. Local and remote climatic impacts due to land use degradation in the Amazon "Arc of Deforestation"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Maria Elisa Siqueira; Pereira, Gabriel; da Rocha, Rosmeri Porfírio

    2016-08-01

    Many numerical studies, among them, global and regional models, have been used to simulate climatic impact due to Amazon deforestation. Most of them did not consider deforestation as usually observed and the induced dynamic changes. The present study explores the physical impacts due to Amazon deforestation by considering local and remote changes in the circulation and thermodynamics. For this, numerical experiments were conducted with RegCM3 using a relatively fine horizontal grid spacing (50 km), more realistic deforested areas (similar to the highway-network-shaped), and an updated land use map. The studied period was 2001-2006 October-March. As in most previous studies focusing on Amazon deforestation, the RegCM3-simulated air temperature increases over degraded areas, ranging from 1.0 to 2.5 °C, and precipitation decreases of around 10 %. This result is mainly related to depletion in evapotranspiration rates provided by lesser soil water extraction by the degraded vegetation. The weakening of upward motion in the mid-upper troposphere is an associated mechanism that explains the precipitation decrease after Amazon deforestation. A new result is the simulated precipitation increase, about 10 %, over the eastern South America and the adjacent South Atlantic Ocean. In these areas, the precipitation increase during October-March is associated with intensification of upper-level high pressure (the Bolivian high) coupled with negative geopotential height anomalies southeastward of the center of the high.

  16. Ecosystem Diversity and Heterogeneity Determine the Resilience of the Amazon to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorcroft, P. R.; Levine, N. M.; Longo, M.; Powell, T.; Zhang, K.

    2015-12-01

    Amazon Forests, which play a vital role in global water, energy and carbon cycling, are predicted to experience both longer and more intensive dry seasons by the end of the 21st century. However, the climate sensitivity of this ecosystem remains uncertain: several studies have predicted large-scale die-back of the Amazon, while several more recent studies predict that the biome will remain largely intact. In this study we use an individual-based terrestrial ecosystem model to explore the sensitivity and ecological resilience of these forests to changes in climate. Our results show that water stress operating at the scale of individual plants, combined with spatial variation in soil texture, strongly influence the ecosystem's resilience to changes in dry season length. Further analysis shows that two key traits influencing the climatic sensitivity of individuals within the plant canopy are their phenology and hydraulic architecture. In contrast to existing predictions of either stability or catastrophic biomass loss, our analyses indicate that, as a result of these effects of ecosystem diversity and heterogeneity, the Amazon forest's response to a drying regional climate is likely to be an immediate, graded, heterogeneous transition from high biomass moist forests to transitional dry forests and woody savannah ecosystems. While fire, logging and other anthropogenic disturbances may exacerbate the impacts of climate-induced changes, our analysis indicates considerable spatial variation in the vulnerability of Amazon forests to human induced climate change.

  17. The Expansion of the Economic Frontier and the Diffusion of Violence in the Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Feitosa Souza

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, the occupation of the Amazon and the expansion of large-scale economic activities have exerted a significant negative impact on the Amazonian environment and on the health of the Amazon’s inhabitants. These processes have altered the context of the manifestation of health problems in time and space and changed the characteristics of the spatial diffusion of health problems in the region. This study analyzed the relationships between the various economic processes of territorial occupation in the Amazon and the spatial diffusion of homicidal violence through the configuration of networks of production, as well as the movements of population and merchandise. Statistical data on violence, deforestation, the production of agricultural items, and socio-economic variables, georeferenced and available for the 771 municipalities of the Legal Amazon were used in this study. The results suggest that the diffusion of violence closely follows the economic expansion front, which is related to deforestation and livestock production but has little relation to grain production, demonstrating steps and typologies of recent occupation in the Amazon that promote violence. These spatial patterns reveal environmental and socio-economic macro-determinants that materialize in geographic space through the construction of highways and the formation of city networks.

  18. The Expansion of the Economic Frontier and the Diffusion of Violence in the Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Patrícia Feitosa; Xavier, Diego Ricardo; Rican, Stephane; de Matos, Vanderlei Pascoal; Barcellos, Christovam

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few decades, the occupation of the Amazon and the expansion of large-scale economic activities have exerted a significant negative impact on the Amazonian environment and on the health of the Amazon’s inhabitants. These processes have altered the context of the manifestation of health problems in time and space and changed the characteristics of the spatial diffusion of health problems in the region. This study analyzed the relationships between the various economic processes of territorial occupation in the Amazon and the spatial diffusion of homicidal violence through the configuration of networks of production, as well as the movements of population and merchandise. Statistical data on violence, deforestation, the production of agricultural items, and socio-economic variables, georeferenced and available for the 771 municipalities of the Legal Amazon were used in this study. The results suggest that the diffusion of violence closely follows the economic expansion front, which is related to deforestation and livestock production but has little relation to grain production, demonstrating steps and typologies of recent occupation in the Amazon that promote violence. These spatial patterns reveal environmental and socio-economic macro-determinants that materialize in geographic space through the construction of highways and the formation of city networks. PMID:26024359

  19. Climatic and ecological future of the Amazon: likelihood and causes of change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Cook

    2010-05-01

    season rainfall, which is when fire danger reaches its peak. Because the southern Amazon is also under intense human influence as a result of deforestation and land use, added pressure to the region's ecosystems from climate change may subject the region to profound changes in the 21st century.

  20. Suspected Lead Poisoning in an Amazon Parrot

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Lawrence J.

    1986-01-01

    A double yellow headed Amazon parrot (Amazona ochrocephala tresmariae) of unknown age and sex was examined for an acute onset of anorexia, listlessness, central nervous system signs and diarrhea. A tentative diagnosis of lead toxicosis was achieved based on radiographs, clinical pathology and response to therapy. Chelation therapy (Calcium EDTA) and supportive measures resulted in an uneventful recovery.

  1. Does the Amazon suffer from BSE prevention?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elferink, E.V.; Nonhebel, S.; Schoot Uiterkamp, A.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    In the last decade, large-scale production of soybeans has been a major driver of the enhanced deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. We show that these soybeans are mainly exported to the EU to substitute for the BSE related banned meat and bone meal in livestock feed. This strongly suggests a link

  2. Amazon Flooded Forest. Teacher Resource Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvall, Todd

    This teacher's resource guide was created to accompany the Amazon Flooded Forest exhibit at the Oregon Zoo. The enclosed lessons and activities are designed to extend into several aspects of daily curriculum including science, math, reading, writing, speaking, and geography. The materials are intended for use in grades 3-6 although most activities…

  3. Deforestation crimes and conflicts in the Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhout van Solinge, T.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores and explains deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon rainforest. It primarily takes a green criminological perspective and looks at the harm that is inflicted on many of the Amazon’s inhabitants, including indigenous populations such as ‘uncontacted’ tribes of hunters-gatherers,

  4. Concentration of Access to Information and Communication Technologies in the Municipalities of the Brazilian Legal Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Rossy de Brito

    Full Text Available This study fills demand for data on access and use of information and communication technologies (ICT in the Brazilian legal Amazon, a region of localities with identical economic, political, and social problems. We use the 2010 Brazilian Demographic Census to compile data on urban and rural households (i with computers and Internet access, (ii with mobile phones, and (iii with fixed phones. To compare the concentration of access to ICT in the municipalities of the Brazilian Amazon with other regions of Brazil, we use a concentration index to quantify the concentration of households in the following classes: with computers and Internet access, with mobile phones, with fixed phones, and no access. These data are analyzed along with municipal indicators on income, education, electricity, and population size. The results show that for urban households, the average concentration in the municipalities of the Amazon for computers and Internet access and for fixed phones is lower than in other regions of the country; meanwhile, that for no access and mobile phones is higher than in any other region. For rural households, the average concentration in the municipalities of the Amazon for computers and Internet access, mobile phones, and fixed phones is lower than in any other region of the country; meanwhile, that for no access is higher than in any other region. In addition, the study shows that education and income are determinants of inequality in accessing ICT in Brazilian municipalities and that the existence of electricity in rural households is directly associated with the ownership of ICT resources.

  5. Concentration of Access to Information and Communication Technologies in the Municipalities of the Brazilian Legal Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brito, Silvana Rossy; da Silva, Aleksandra do Socorro; Cruz, Adejard Gaia; Monteiro, Maurílio de Abreu; Vijaykumar, Nandamudi Lankalapalli; da Silva, Marcelino Silva; Costa, João Crisóstomo Weyl Albuquerque; Francês, Carlos Renato Lisboa

    2016-01-01

    This study fills demand for data on access and use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in the Brazilian legal Amazon, a region of localities with identical economic, political, and social problems. We use the 2010 Brazilian Demographic Census to compile data on urban and rural households (i) with computers and Internet access, (ii) with mobile phones, and (iii) with fixed phones. To compare the concentration of access to ICT in the municipalities of the Brazilian Amazon with other regions of Brazil, we use a concentration index to quantify the concentration of households in the following classes: with computers and Internet access, with mobile phones, with fixed phones, and no access. These data are analyzed along with municipal indicators on income, education, electricity, and population size. The results show that for urban households, the average concentration in the municipalities of the Amazon for computers and Internet access and for fixed phones is lower than in other regions of the country; meanwhile, that for no access and mobile phones is higher than in any other region. For rural households, the average concentration in the municipalities of the Amazon for computers and Internet access, mobile phones, and fixed phones is lower than in any other region of the country; meanwhile, that for no access is higher than in any other region. In addition, the study shows that education and income are determinants of inequality in accessing ICT in Brazilian municipalities and that the existence of electricity in rural households is directly associated with the ownership of ICT resources. PMID:27035577

  6. Land-use and climate change risks in the Amazon and the need of a novel sustainable development paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Carlos A; Sampaio, Gilvan; Borma, Laura S; Castilla-Rubio, Juan Carlos; Silva, José S; Cardoso, Manoel

    2016-09-27

    For half a century, the process of economic integration of the Amazon has been based on intensive use of renewable and nonrenewable natural resources, which has brought significant basin-wide environmental alterations. The rural development in the Amazonia pushed the agricultural frontier swiftly, resulting in widespread land-cover change, but agriculture in the Amazon has been of low productivity and unsustainable. The loss of biodiversity and continued deforestation will lead to high risks of irreversible change of its tropical forests. It has been established by modeling studies that the Amazon may have two "tipping points," namely, temperature increase of 4 °C or deforestation exceeding 40% of the forest area. If transgressed, large-scale "savannization" of mostly southern and eastern Amazon may take place. The region has warmed about 1 °C over the last 60 y, and total deforestation is reaching 20% of the forested area. The recent significant reductions in deforestation-80% reduction in the Brazilian Amazon in the last decade-opens up opportunities for a novel sustainable development paradigm for the future of the Amazon. We argue for a new development paradigm-away from only attempting to reconcile maximizing conservation versus intensification of traditional agriculture and expansion of hydropower capacity-in which we research, develop, and scale a high-tech innovation approach that sees the Amazon as a global public good of biological assets that can enable the creation of innovative high-value products, services, and platforms through combining advanced digital, biological, and material technologies of the Fourth Industrial Revolution in progress.

  7. Land-use and climate change risks in the Amazon and the need of a novel sustainable development paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Carlos A.; Sampaio, Gilvan; Borma, Laura S.; Castilla-Rubio, Juan Carlos; Silva, José S.; Cardoso, Manoel

    2016-01-01

    For half a century, the process of economic integration of the Amazon has been based on intensive use of renewable and nonrenewable natural resources, which has brought significant basin-wide environmental alterations. The rural development in the Amazonia pushed the agricultural frontier swiftly, resulting in widespread land-cover change, but agriculture in the Amazon has been of low productivity and unsustainable. The loss of biodiversity and continued deforestation will lead to high risks of irreversible change of its tropical forests. It has been established by modeling studies that the Amazon may have two “tipping points,” namely, temperature increase of 4 °C or deforestation exceeding 40% of the forest area. If transgressed, large-scale “savannization” of mostly southern and eastern Amazon may take place. The region has warmed about 1 °C over the last 60 y, and total deforestation is reaching 20% of the forested area. The recent significant reductions in deforestation—80% reduction in the Brazilian Amazon in the last decade—opens up opportunities for a novel sustainable development paradigm for the future of the Amazon. We argue for a new development paradigm—away from only attempting to reconcile maximizing conservation versus intensification of traditional agriculture and expansion of hydropower capacity—in which we research, develop, and scale a high-tech innovation approach that sees the Amazon as a global public good of biological assets that can enable the creation of innovative high-value products, services, and platforms through combining advanced digital, biological, and material technologies of the Fourth Industrial Revolution in progress. PMID:27638214

  8. Land-use and climate change risks in the Amazon and the need of a novel sustainable development paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Carlos A; Sampaio, Gilvan; Borma, Laura S; Castilla-Rubio, Juan Carlos; Silva, José S; Cardoso, Manoel

    2016-09-27

    For half a century, the process of economic integration of the Amazon has been based on intensive use of renewable and nonrenewable natural resources, which has brought significant basin-wide environmental alterations. The rural development in the Amazonia pushed the agricultural frontier swiftly, resulting in widespread land-cover change, but agriculture in the Amazon has been of low productivity and unsustainable. The loss of biodiversity and continued deforestation will lead to high risks of irreversible change of its tropical forests. It has been established by modeling studies that the Amazon may have two "tipping points," namely, temperature increase of 4 °C or deforestation exceeding 40% of the forest area. If transgressed, large-scale "savannization" of mostly southern and eastern Amazon may take place. The region has warmed about 1 °C over the last 60 y, and total deforestation is reaching 20% of the forested area. The recent significant reductions in deforestation-80% reduction in the Brazilian Amazon in the last decade-opens up opportunities for a novel sustainable development paradigm for the future of the Amazon. We argue for a new development paradigm-away from only attempting to reconcile maximizing conservation versus intensification of traditional agriculture and expansion of hydropower capacity-in which we research, develop, and scale a high-tech innovation approach that sees the Amazon as a global public good of biological assets that can enable the creation of innovative high-value products, services, and platforms through combining advanced digital, biological, and material technologies of the Fourth Industrial Revolution in progress. PMID:27638214

  9. Transport of North African dust from the Bodélé depression to the Amazon Basin: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ben-Ami

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Through long-range transport of dust, the North-African desert supplies essential minerals to the Amazon rain forest. Since North African dust reaches South America mostly during the Northern Hemisphere winter, the dust sources active during winter are the main contributors to the forest. Given that the Bodélé depression area in southwestern Chad is the main winter dust source, a close link is expected between the Bodélé emission patterns and volumes and the mineral supply flux to the Amazon.

    Until now, the particular link between the Bodélé and the Amazon forest was based on sparse satellite measurements and modeling studies. In this study, we combine a detailed analysis of space-borne and ground data with reanalysis model data and surface measurements taken in the central Amazon during the Amazonian Aerosol Characterization Experiment (AMAZE-08 in order to explore the validity and the nature of the proposed link between the Bodélé depression and the Amazon forest.

    This case study follows the dust events of 11–16 and 18–27 February 2008, from the emission in the Bodélé over West Africa (most likely with contribution from other dust sources in the region the crossing of the Atlantic Ocean, to the observed effects above the Amazon canopy about 10 days after the emission. The dust was lifted by surface winds stronger than 14 m s−1, usually starting early in the morning. The lofted dust, mixed with biomass burning aerosols over Nigeria, was transported over the Atlantic Ocean, and arrived over the South American continent. The top of the aerosol layer reached above 3 km, and the bottom merged with the boundary layer. The arrival of the dusty air parcel over the Amazon forest increased the average concentration of aerosol crustal elements by an order of magnitude.

  10. Richness of Marchantiophyta and Bryophyta in a protected area of the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Priscila Costa Macedo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The bryophytes of Gurupi Biological Reserve represent an important component of the biodiversity of the Amazon in the Brazilian state of Maranhão. This study aimed to investigate the richness of bryophytes (Marchantiophyta and Bryophyta from Gurupi Biological Reserve and compare it with that found in other surveys conducted in Maranhão and in the northeastern part of the state of Pará, because the latter shows similarities with the study area in terms of vegetation, geography, demography, and history of occupation. We recorded 983 occurrences of bryophytes (549 Marchantiophyta and 434 Bryophyta corresponding to 62 species (43 liverworts and 19 mosses, 39 genera, and 12 families. Of those 62 species, 25 have previously been collected from all regions of Brazil, two are restricted to two regions, and four are restricted to the northern (Amazon region. The bryophyte species identified within the reserve correspond to 28.9% of the known bryophytes in Maranhão and 31.3% of the known bryophytes in northeastern Pará, the reserve therefore more closely resembling the latter area. The exclusively Amazonian elements found in the reserve underscore their affinity for this biome and their presence in the state of Maranhão. The importance of this conservation area to Maranhão and to the Amazon region of the state is confirmed by the high number of new records for the state (41 species, five of which are also new records for northeastern Brazil.

  11. Trans-Amazon Drilling Project (TADP): origins and evolution of the forests, climate, and hydrology of the South American tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, P. A.; Fritz, S. C.; Silva, C. G.; Rigsby, C. A.; Absy, M. L.; Almeida, R. P.; Caputo, M.; Chiessi, C. M.; Cruz, F. W.; Dick, C. W.; Feakins, S. J.; Figueiredo, J.; Freeman, K. H.; Hoorn, C.; Jaramillo, C.; Kern, A. K.; Latrubesse, E. M.; Ledru, M. P.; Marzoli, A.; Myrbo, A.; Noren, A.; Piller, W. E.; Ramos, M. I. F.; Ribas, C. C.; Trnadade, R.; West, A. J.; Wahnfried, I.; Willard, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    This article presents the scientific rationale for an ambitious ICDP drilling project to continuously sample Late Cretaceous to modern sediment in four different sedimentary basins that transect the equatorial Amazon of Brazil, from the Andean foreland to the Atlantic Ocean. The goals of this project are to document the evolution of plant biodiversity in the Amazon forests and to relate biotic diversification to changes in the physical environment, including climate, tectonism, and the surface landscape. These goals require long sedimentary records from each of the major sedimentary basins across the heart of the Brazilian Amazon, which can only be obtained by drilling because of the scarcity of Cenozoic outcrops. The proposed drilling will provide the first long, nearly continuous regional records of the Cenozoic history of the forests, their plant diversity, and the associated changes in climate and environment. It also will address fundamental questions about landscape evolution, including the history of Andean uplift and erosion as recorded in Andean foreland basins and the development of west-to-east hydrologic continuity between the Andes, the Amazon lowlands, and the equatorial Atlantic. Because many modern rivers of the Amazon basin flow along the major axes of the old sedimentary basins, we plan to locate drill sites on the margin of large rivers and to access the targeted drill sites by navigation along these rivers.

  12. Interactions among Amazon land use, forests and climate: prospects for a near-term forest tipping point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepstad, Daniel C; Stickler, Claudia M; Filho, Britaldo Soares-; Merry, Frank

    2008-05-27

    Some model experiments predict a large-scale substitution of Amazon forest by savannah-like vegetation by the end of the twenty-first century. Expanding global demands for biofuels and grains, positive feedbacks in the Amazon forest fire regime and drought may drive a faster process of forest degradation that could lead to a near-term forest dieback. Rising worldwide demands for biofuel and meat are creating powerful new incentives for agro-industrial expansion into Amazon forest regions. Forest fires, drought and logging increase susceptibility to further burning while deforestation and smoke can inhibit rainfall, exacerbating fire risk. If sea surface temperature anomalies (such as El Niño episodes) and associated Amazon droughts of the last decade continue into the future, approximately 55% of the forests of the Amazon will be cleared, logged, damaged by drought or burned over the next 20 years, emitting 15-26Pg of carbon to the atmosphere. Several important trends could prevent a near-term dieback. As fire-sensitive investments accumulate in the landscape, property holders use less fire and invest more in fire control. Commodity markets are demanding higher environmental performance from farmers and cattle ranchers. Protected areas have been established in the pathway of expanding agricultural frontiers. Finally, emerging carbon market incentives for reductions in deforestation could support these trends. PMID:18267897

  13. Trans-Amazon Drilling Project (TADP): origins and evolution of the forests, climate, and hydrology of the South American tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, P.A.; Fritz, S.C.; Silva, C.G.; Rigsby, C.A.; Absy, M.L.; Almeida, R.P.; Caputo, M.C.; Chiessi, C.M.; Cruz, F.W.; Dick, C.W.; Feakins, S.J.; Figueiredo, J.; Freeman, K.H.; Hoorn, C.; Jaramillo, C.A.; Kern, A.; Latrubesse, E.M.; Ledru, M.P.; Marzoli, A.; Myrbo, A.; Noren, A.; Piller, W.E.; Ramos, M.I.F.; Ribas, C.C.; Trinadade, R.; West, A.J.; Wahnfried, I.; Willard, Debra A.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the scientific rationale for an ambitious ICDP drilling project to continuously sample Late Cretaceous to modern sediment in four different sedimentary basins that transect the equatorial Amazon of Brazil, from the Andean foreland to the Atlantic Ocean. The goals of this project are to document the evolution of plant biodiversity in the Amazon forests and to relate biotic diversification to changes in the physical environment, including climate, tectonism, and the surface landscape. These goals require long sedimentary records from each of the major sedimentary basins across the heart of the Brazilian Amazon, which can only be obtained by drilling because of the scarcity of Cenozoic outcrops. The proposed drilling will provide the first long, nearly continuous regional records of the Cenozoic history of the forests, their plant diversity, and the associated changes in climate and environment. It also will address fundamental questions about landscape evolution, including the history of Andean uplift and erosion as recorded in Andean foreland basins and the development of west-to-east hydrologic continuity between the Andes, the Amazon lowlands, and the equatorial Atlantic. Because many modern rivers of the Amazon basin flow along the major axes of the old sedimentary basins, we plan to locate drill sites on the margin of large rivers and to access the targeted drill sites by navigation along these rivers.

  14. Papagaio-de-peito-roxo Amazona vinacea (Kuhl (Aves: Psittacidae no norte do Espírito Santo: redescoberta e conservação Vinaceous Amazon Amazona vinacea (Kuhl (Aves: Psittacidae in the northern region of Espirito Santo state, southeastern Brazil: rediscovery and conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas A. Carrara

    2008-03-01

    endangered in Brazil and at the international level. Lack of recent reports north of Rio de Janeiro state, including the northern portion of Espírito Santo state (where it had been found probably till 1991 suggested the species had vanished from this part of the range. The present paper reports the rediscovery of A. vinacea in Alto Rio Novo region, northwestern Espírito Santo. Two flocks were seen in two different places, the largest one with 28 parrots was found in December 2005. The flocks of A. vinacea were eating seeds of Anadenanthera sp. (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae, a new resource for this parrot. Historical data list places up to 35 km from the two localities where the flocks were now found, stressing its regional importance for the Vinaceous Amazon. However, the continuous habitat degradation of the last forest remnants in the region and illegal capture of nestlings are considered the main constrain for this population's conservation. As recently as December 2002, the Pontões Capixabas National Park has been created. It is the first Conservation Unit in the mountains of northern Espírito Santo state. Luckily, it protects a historical place of the Vinaceous Amazon in the region and encompasses forested remnants suitable for the species. Its current limit is some 10 km apart from one of the places where the parrot was found in this study. Besides the conservation, data gathering on the Vinaceous Amazon populations in northwestern Espírito Santo state and the nearby region of Minas Gerais state are critical for the species future in the area. A management plan could be then established, aiming to conserve the current northernmost currently known population of this parrot.

  15. Exploring the Geomorphology of the Amazon's Planalto with Imaging Radar: Understanding the Origins of the Modern Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, K. C.; Campbell, K.; Islam, R.; Azarderakhsh, M.; Cracraft, J.

    2013-12-01

    Amazonia is Earth's most iconic center of biological diversity and endemism and, owing to its contributions to global systems ecology, is arguably Earth's most important terrestrial biome . Amazonia includes a vast landscape of mostly lowland rainforest found in Brazil, Peru, Colombia, Ecuador, Bolivia, and Venezuela. It harbors the world's highest species diversity, the largest fresh-water ecosystem in the world, and contributes substantially to shaping the Earth's atmospheric gasses and oceans and consequently its climate. Despite this global importance, we still have an incomplete understanding of how this biodiversity-rich biome developed over time. Knowing its history is crucially important for understanding how the short and long-term effects of biodiversity loss and climate change will impact the region, and the globe, in the future. Hence, we seek to understand the evolutionary and environmental-ecological history of Amazonia over the past 10 million years through a comparative approach that integrates across the disciplines of systematic biology, population biology, ecosystem structure and function, geology, Earth systems modeling and remote sensing, and paleoenvironmental history. During springtime 2013, the NASA/JPL airborne imaging radar, UAVSAR, conducted airborne studies over many regions of South America including portions of the western Amazon basin. We utilize UAVSAR imagery acquired over the Madre de Dios region of southeastern Peru in an assessment of the underlying geomorphology of the Amazon's planalto, its relationship to the current distribution of vegetation, and its relationship to geologic processes through deep time. In the late Neogene, the Amazonian lowlands comprised either a series of independent basins or a single sedimentary basin. The Amazonian planalto is variously described as either an erosional surface or a surface of deposition. We employ UAVSAR data collections to assess (1) the utility of these high quality imaging radar

  16. Exploring the Geomorphology of the Amazon's Planalto and Understanding the Origin of the Modern Amazon Basin with Imaging Radar:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, R.; McDonald, K. C.; Azarderakhsh, M.; Campbell, K.; Cracraft, J.; Carnaval, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Amazon basin is a biodiversity biome and plays a significant role into shaping the earth's climate, ocean and atmospheric gases. Understanding the history of the formation of the basin is essential to our understanding of the region's biodiversity loss and response to climate change. Ancient River channels in lowland Amazonia exhibit right angle branching structures as well as intricately intertwined channels. Past research has attributed these characteristic as a result of subsurface faults but makes it difficult to validate this augment due to dense vegetation and sedimentation. We seek to employ remote sensing techniques for examining geomorphological features and the relationship to evolutionary processes that shaped biodiversity in the modern Amazon River Basin. We utilize UAVSAR imagery gathered from the NASA/JPL airborne imaging radar over the Planalto, in the Madre de Dios region of Southeastern Peru in an assessment of the underlying geomorphology, its relationship to the current distribution of vegetation, and geologic processes through deep time. In the late Neogene, the Amazonian lowlands comprised either a series of independent basins or a single sedimentary basin. The Amazonian Planalto is variously described as either erosional surface or a surface of deposition. We employ UAVSAR data collection to assess (1) the utility of these radar data for use in identifying associated geomorphologic features, and (2) UAVSAR's utility in aiding interpretation of ALOS PALSAR and STRM datasets to support a basin-wide characterization. We derive maps of river networks using a canny based edge detection method applied on the UAVSAR backscatter images. We develop an algorithm, which separates the river networks into various catchments based on connected component and then calculates angles at each branch point. We then assess distribution of right angle branching structure throughout the entire region. The results of the analysis will have a major impact on

  17. Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15 Terrestrial Ecosystem Project (Geco) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardine, Kolby [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-06-01

    In conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility GoAmazon campaign, the Terrestrial Ecosystem Science (TES)-funded Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon 2014/15) terrestrial ecosystem project (Geco) was designed to: • evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of leaf-level algorithms for biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emissions in Amazon forests near Manaus, Brazil, and • conduct mechanistic field studies to characterize biochemical and physiological processes governing leaf- and landscape-scale tropical forest BVOC emissions, and the influence of environmental drivers that are expected to change with a warming climate. Through a close interaction between modeling and observational activities, including the training of MS and PhD graduate students, post-doctoral students, and technicians at the National Institute for Amazon Research (INPA), the study aimed at improving the representation of BVOC-mediated biosphere-atmosphere interactions and feedbacks under a warming climate. BVOCs can form cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) that influence precipitation dynamics and modify the quality of down welling radiation for photosynthesis. However, our ability to represent these coupled biosphere-atmosphere processes in Earth system models suffers from poor understanding of the functions, identities, quantities, and seasonal patterns of BVOC emissions from tropical forests as well as their biological and environmental controls. The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN), the current BVOC sub-model of the Community Earth System Model (CESM), was evaluated to explore mechanistic controls over BVOC emissions. Based on that analysis, a combination of observations and experiments were studied in forests near Manaus, Brazil, to test existing parameterizations and algorithm structures in MEGAN. The model was actively modified as needed to improve tropical BVOC emission simulations on

  18. [Historical review of the distribution of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) darlingi (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Peruvian Amazon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Roberto; Vera, Hubert; Calderón, Guillermo

    2014-04-01

    Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) darlingi has been reported since 1931 in border areas of the department of Loreto, mainly along the borders with Brazil and Colombia. In 1994, during an outbreak of malaria, An. darlingi was found in neighboring towns to Iquitos. At present, its distribution has expanded considerably in Loreto. This paper reviews literature available for all possible information on the distribution of mosquitoes, particularly anopheline in the Amazon region of the country, with special emphasis on An darlingi. Entomological collections were also conducted in the departments of Madre de Dios and Ucayali in order to know and verify the distribution of An. darlingi. At present, the distribution of the species is confined to localities in southeastern Peru with Bolivia border towns, in a town near the Abujao River in the department of Ucayali, and widely in the northeastern region of the Amazon basin of Loreto in Peru. PMID:25123872

  19. Modelling basin-wide variations in Amazon forest photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Lina; Lloyd, Jon; Domingues, Tomas; Fyllas, Nikolaos; Patino, Sandra; Dolman, Han; Sitch, Stephen

    2010-05-01

    Given the importance of Amazon rainforest in the global carbon and hydrological cycles, there is a need to use parameterized and validated ecosystem gas exchange and vegetation models for this region in order to adequately simulate present and future carbon and water balances. Recent research has found major differences in above-ground net primary productivity (ANPP), above ground biomass and tree dynamics across Amazonia. West Amazonia is more dynamic, with younger trees, higher stem growth rates and lower biomass than central and eastern Amazon (Baker et al. 2004; Malhi et al. 2004; Phillips et al. 2004). A factor of three variation in above-ground net primary productivity has been estimated across Amazonia by Malhi et al. (2004). Different hypotheses have been proposed to explain the observed spatial variability in ANPP (Malhi et al. 2004). First, due to the proximity to the Andes, sites from western Amazonia tend to have richer soils than central and eastern Amazon and therefore soil fertility could possibly be highly related to the high wood productivity found in western sites. Second, if GPP does not vary across the Amazon basin then different patterns of carbon allocation to respiration could also explain the observed ANPP gradient. However since plant growth depends on the interaction between photosynthesis, transport of assimilates, plant respiration, water relations and mineral nutrition, variations in plant gross photosynthesis (GPP) could also explain the observed variations in ANPP. In this study we investigate whether Amazon GPP can explain variations of observed ANPP. We use a sun and shade canopy gas exchange model that has been calibrated and evaluated at five rainforest sites (Mercado et al. 2009) to simulate gross primary productivity of 50 sites across the Amazon basin during the period 1980-2001. Such simulation differs from the ones performed with global vegetation models (Cox et al. 1998; Sitch et al. 2003) where i) single plant functional

  20. Impact of Manaus City on the Amazon Green Ocean atmosphere: Ozone production, precursor sensitivity and aerosol load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhn, U.; Ganzeveld, L.N.

    2010-01-01

    As a contribution to the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia – Cooperative LBA Airborne Regional Experiment (LBA-CLAIRE-2001) field campaign in the heart of the Amazon Basin, we analyzed the temporal and spatial dynamics of the urban plume of Manaus City during the wet-to-dry sea

  1. The structure and use of shape-based noun classes in Miraña (North West Amazon)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seifart, Frank

    2005-01-01

    Miraña, an endangered Witotoan language spoken in the Colombian Amazon region, has an inventory of over 60 noun class markers, most of which denote the shape of nominal referents. Class markers in this language are ubiquitous in their uses for derivational purposes in nouns and for agreement marking

  2. Global Economic Integration and Local Community Resilience: Road Paving and Rural Demographic Change in the Southwestern Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perz, Stephen G.; Cabrera, Liliana; Carvalho, Lucas Araujo; Castillo, Jorge; Barnes, Grenville

    2010-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed an expansion in international investment in large-scale infrastructure projects with the goal of achieving global economic integration. We focus on one such project, the Inter-Oceanic Highway in the "MAP" region, a trinational frontier where Bolivia, Brazil, and Peru meet in the southwestern Amazon. We adopt a…

  3. Sediment budget in the Ucayali River basin, an Andean tributary of the Amazon River

    OpenAIRE

    W. Santini; Martinez, J. -M.; Espinoza-Villar, R.; G. Cochonneau; Vauchel, P.; Moquet, J.-S.; Baby, P.; Espinoza, J.-C.; Lavado, W.; Carranza, J.; Guyot, J.-L.

    2015-01-01

    Formation of mountain ranges results from complex coupling between lithospheric deformation, mechanisms linked to subduction and surface processes: weathering, erosion, and climate. Today, erosion of the eastern Andean cordillera and sub-Andean foothills supplies over 99% of the sediment load passing through the Amazon Basin. Denudation rates in the upper Ucayali basin are rapid, favoured by a marked seasonality in this region and extreme precipitation cells above sedimentary strata, uplifted...

  4. Land-use systems affect Archaeal community structure and functional diversity in western Amazon soils

    OpenAIRE

    Acácio Aparecido Navarrete; Rodrigo Gouvêa Taketani; Lucas William Mendes; Fabiana de Souza Cannavan; Fatima Maria de Souza Moreira; Siu Mui Tsai

    2011-01-01

    The study of the ecology of soil microbial communities at relevant spatial scales is primordial in the wide Amazon region due to the current land use changes. In this study, the diversity of the Archaea domain (community structure) and ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (richness and community composition) were investigated using molecular biology-based techniques in different land-use systems in western Amazonia, Brazil. Soil samples were collected in two periods with high precipitation (March 2008 a...

  5. Moving Frontiers in the Amazon: Brazilian Small-Scale Gold Miners in Suriname

    OpenAIRE

    Marjo de Theije; Marieke Heemskerk

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the national, local, and personal frontiers that Brazilian small-scale gold miners – called garimpeiros – cross in their quest for gold in the larger Amazon region. Ethnographic research was conducted among garimpeiros and mining service providers in Suriname. In the past three decades, thousands of Brazilian migrants have entered Suriname and consequently affected its society, economy, and culture. It is argued that in the absence of strong state control, these garimpei...

  6. Manaus city Flow Warning system and extreme events monitoring in the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A. L. M. R.; Oliveira, D.; Oliveira, M. A.; Moreira, D.; Maciel, J. S. C.

    2012-04-01

    The Amazon basin is the biggest watershed in the world, in the center of this basin, there is a city called Manaus, with population next to 2 million habitants. Manaus city is bounded by Negro River; one of the main rivers in Amazon, this river has its level checked by Fluvial Station in the Manaus harbor, which has a range of 100 years of hydrological data records. The hydrological cycle in the region next to Manaus has certain regularity, its common variety is considered of 7 months of rising river, in other words, the fluvial quotes rising and 5 months of falling (ebb). Although, the water level variation in Manaus Harbor, from its draft to flow can achieve the variation up to 16 meters of water level height, this difference can affect all the Amazon region, happening impacts such as the interference of regional agriculture and fluvial transportation, besides the economic activities in the harbor and local population welfare, arising from extreme events. Considering the relevance of prediction and accompanying of flows and drafts, the Geologic Survey of Brazil implemented, since 1989, a warning system to these extreme events. This paper focused to demonstrate the a warning system implemented from equations based on the Manaus Harbor quotes, since Negro River has a regular hydrological cycle, thus, it is possible to predict the highest quotes in the hydrological year, in advance till 75 days with accurate prediction, in a gap of 45 to 15 days before the flow. This paper presents, also, the biggest events occurred in a hundred years of records collected by Manaus Harbor, as example, the draft happened in December 2010 and the flow in June 2009, as well demonstrating the values and impacts in the Amazon region.

  7. Palms of riverine communities as a sustainable resource in the Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Ires Paula de Andrade Miranda; Edelcílio Marques Barbosa; Afonso Rabelo; Filomena Ferreira Santiago

    2014-01-01

    In the Amazon, approximately 30% of the population is agglomerated in small villages or isolated areas. One of the most serious problems is the lack of electricity, where reduced supply and frequent rationing reduce life quality and prevent the instalation of industries that could raise the value of renewable regional products. Consequently, the pursuit of better socioeconomic conditions promote the quick depletion of natural resources, which invariably results in the accelerated destruct...

  8. Morbidity and mortality disparities among colonist and indigenous populations in the Ecuadorian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, William Kuang-Yao; Erlien, Christine; Bilsborrow, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    Rural populations living in the northern Ecuadorian Amazon (NEA) experience the highest health burden of any region in the country. Two independent studies of colonist and indigenous groups living in the NEA are used to compare their morbidity and mortality experiences. Colonist data are from a probability sample of land plots in 1999, while indigenous data are from a representative sample of the five largest ethnicities (Quichua, Shuar, Huaorani, Cofan, Secoya) collected in 2001. Poisson reg...

  9. Economic causes of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon: A panel data analysis for the 2000s

    OpenAIRE

    Hargrave, Jorge; Kis-Katos, Krisztina

    2011-01-01

    We use under-explored municipality level datasets to assess the recent economic and policy determinants of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. We estimate yearly panel data models (from 2002 to 2009) for 457 municipalities in the region. The results show that recent deforestation is related to economic incentives, and especially to fluctuations in product (meat and soybean) prices. Moreover, we document that the increasing monitoring efforts of the Brazilian environmental police (IBAMA) we...

  10. Conservation Efforts and Malaria in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Micah B.; Olson, Sarah H.; Vittor, Amy Y.; Barcellos, Christovam; Patz, Jonathan A.; Pan, William

    2014-01-01

    We respond to Valle and Clark,1 who assert that “conservation efforts may increase malaria burden in the Brazilian Amazon,” because the relationship between forest cover and malaria incidence was stronger than the effect of the deforestation rate.1 We contend that their conclusion is flawed because of limitations in their methodology that we discuss in detail. Most important are the exclusion of one-half the original data without a discussion of selection bias, the lack of model adjustment for either population growth or migration, and the crude classifications of land cover and protected areas that lead to aggregation bias.1 Of greater significance, we stress the need for caution in the interpretation of data that could have profound effects on regional land use decisions. PMID:24277787

  11. Lateritinga project: a geochemical orientation study for Amazon lateritic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this project is the development of systematic geochemical orientation survey in lateritic weathered terrain, like those form Amazon Region. The main selected targets (sheets) are: Turiacu, Cajuapara and Serra dos Carajas, with 690 samples collected (soils and lateritic rocks). For the Aurizona-Serra do Pirocaua target (Turiacu sheet), within the purpose of this work, 49 samples were collected in a 100x 200m regular grid. From all samples the fraction minor than 200 mesh was taken to analyses (by XRF, AA, OES, ICP and fire assay) for SiO sub(2), Fe sub(2) O sub(3), TiO sub(2), P sub(2) O sub(5), Sr, Ba, Y, Nb, Zr, Ga, Sc, Ni, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, V, As, Bi, Pt, Pd, Th, Au and REE, as well for their mineralogy by XRD. The chemical results were submitted to statistical treatment with the Geoquant-software for IBM-compatible microcomputer. (author)

  12. Ideal sweetness of mixed juices from Amazon fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela De Grandi Castro Freitas

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Ready-to-drink fruit juices represent a large share of the market and are an important target for product development. The mixture of fruits can bring about improvements to nutritional and sensory aspects of these beverages while making used of the wide variety of exotic fruits from the Amazon region. Therefore, it is necessary to select mixed fruits and determine their ideal sweetness according to consumer acceptance. Consumers in the city of Belém (Brazil evaluated five different concentrations of sugar using the just-about-right scale in two blends selected by preference ranking. For the cupuassu-acerola-açai blend, the optimum concentration of sugar was 9.5 g/100 mL, and for the soursop-camucamu-yellow mombin blend, it was 10.7 g/100 mL.

  13. Degradação de pastagens na Região Amazônica: propriedades físicas do solo e crescimento de raízes Pasture degradation in the Amazon region: soil physical properties and root growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Marques Lopes Muller

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar: (i a relação entre a degradação de pastagens de colonião manejadas com queima, e as modificações nas propriedades físicas e morfológicas de um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo da Amazônia; (ii o crescimento radicular de pastagens com diferentes níveis de degradação; (iii o potencial de recuperação de pastagens degradadas de colonião com a introdução de andropógon. Numa propriedade rural da Região de Marabá, PA, foram estudados quatro tipos de pastagem: pastagem produtiva de colonião (Panicum maximum Jacq.; pastagem de colonião em declínio produtivo; pastagem de colonião degradada (capoeira; pastagem de colonião degradada e recuperada com andropógon (Andropogon gayanus Kunth. Como referência das propriedades do solo antes do desmatamento, estudou-se, também, uma reserva de mata nativa. A queima das pastagens foi prática usual, e apesar disso, estas não foram adubadas. A degradação da pastagem diminuiu a cobertura do solo e o deixou exposto à chuva e ao pisoteio do gado, o que resultou em aumento da densidade do solo na camada superficial e diminuição do grau de floculação da argila e da porosidade total. A diminuição da produção da parte aérea na pastagem degradada foi acompanhada de diminuição do número de raízes no perfil do solo, e da concentração do sistema radicular próximo à superfície. O andropógon demonstrou bom potencial para recuperação das áreas de pastagens degradadas, na Região Amazônica.The objective of this study was to evaluate: (i the relation between the degradation of burned Guinea grass pastures and the modifications of some physical and morphological properties of an Amazonian Ultisol; (ii the root growth of pastures in different degradation stages; and (iii the potential of rehabilitation of degraded Guinea grass pastures by introducing Gamba grass. On a farm at the eastern Amazon, region of Marabá, PA, Brazil, four pasture types were

  14. Prevalence of HTLV-I antibody among two distinct ethnic groups inhabiting the Amazon region of Brazil Prevalência do anticorpo HTLV-I em dois grupos étnicos distintos habitando a região da Amazônia Brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Nakauchi

    1992-08-01

    Full Text Available HTLV-I seroprevalences of 3.63% (02/55, 12.19% (10/82 and 13.88% (10/72 were demonstrated among Tiryio, Mekranoiti and Xicrin Amazonian Indians, respectively, by the Western blotting enzyme assay (WBEI. By indirect immuno electron microscopy (IIEM, 2 Tiriyo, 9 Mekranoiti and 6 Xicrin Amerindians were reactive. Of 44 serum samples from Japanese immigrants, none reacted by any of the techniques before mentioned. One, 8 and 6 serum samples from Tiryio, Mekranoiti and Xicrin Indians, respectively, were both WBEI and IIEM positive. Our results strongly suggest that HTLV-I and/or an HTLV-I antigenic variant circulate (s among populations living in the Amazon region of Brazil.Soroprevalências para HTLV-I de 3,63% (02/55, 12,9% (10/82 e 13,88% (10/72 foram demonstradas entre os Tiryió, Mekranoiti e Xicrin, respectivamente - indígenas habitantes da Amazônia -, utilizando-se a técnica de "Western Blot" (WBEI. Por outro lado, a imunomicroscopia eletrônica indireta (IIME revelou como positivos 2 Tiryió, 9 Mekranoiti e 6 Xicrins. Das 44 amostras de soro oriundas de migrantes japoneses, nenhuma resultou positiva pelas duas técnicas antes mencionadas. Foram reativos por ambos os métodos, 1, 8 e 6 amostras dos índios Tiryió, Mekranoiti e Xicrin, respectivamente. Nossos resultados representam uma forte evidência de que o HTV-I e/ou variante(s antigenicamente similar(es circula(m entre populações que habitam a região amazônica do Brasil.

  15. Declining fertility on the frontier: the Ecuadorian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, David L; Pan, William K Y; Bilsborrow, Richard E

    2006-09-01

    This paper examines farm and household characteristics associated with a rapid fertility decline in a forest frontier of the Ecuadorian Amazon. The Amazon basin and other rainforests in the tropics are among the last frontiers in the ongoing global fertility transition. The pace of this transition along agricultural frontiers will likely have major implications for future forest transitions, rural development, and ultimately urbanization in frontier areas. The study here is based upon data from a probability sample of 172 women who lived on the same farm in 1990 and 1999. These data are from perhaps the first region-wide longitudinal survey of fertility in an agricultural frontier. Descriptive analyses indicate that fertility has plummeted in the region, which is surprising since it had remained high and unchanging among migrant colonists up to 1990. Thus only half of the women in our sample reported having a birth during the 1990-1999 time period, and most women report in 1999 that they do not want to have any more children. Analyses, controlling for women's age, corroborate hypotheses about land-fertility relations. For example, women from households with a legal land title had fewer than half as many children as those from households without a title. Large cattle (pasture) holdings and hiring laborers to work on the farm (which may replace household labor) are both related to socio-economic status that is traditionally associated with lower fertility. Similarly, distance to the nearest community center is positively related to fertility. Factors negatively related to fertility include increasing temporary out-migration of adult men or women from the household, asset accumulation, and access to electricity. PMID:19657468

  16. Antibacterial activity of Brazilian Amazon plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Barbosa Suffredini

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Infections caused by multiresistant bacteria are a widespread problem, especially in intensive care units. New antibiotics are necessary, and we need to search for alternatives, including natural products. Brazil is one of the hottest spots in the world in terms of biodiversity, but little is known about the chemical and pharmacological properties of most of the plants found in the Amazon rain forest and the Atlantic Forest. We screened 1,220 organic and aqueous extracts, obtained from Amazon and Atlantic rain forest plants, against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and E. coli. Seventeen organic and aqueous extracts obtained from 16 plants showed activity against both Gram-positive bacteria. None of the extracts showed relevant activity against the Gram-negative E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  17. Acid rain in an Amazon rainforest

    OpenAIRE

    Haines, Bruce; Jordan, Carl; Clark, Howard; Clark, Kathleen E.

    2011-01-01

    Acid rain is reported from the Amazon territory of Venezuela. The volume weighted average pHwas 4.7 for 70 storms sampled from January 1979 through February 1980. At this location,remote from point sources of industrial pollution, acid rain might result from naturalbiogeochemical processes in the rainforest, from global atmospheric pollution, or from somecombination of natural and polliition processes.DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0889.1983.tb00011.x

  18. Deforestation crimes and conflicts in the Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Boekhout van Solinge, T.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores and explains deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon rainforest. It primarily takes a green criminological perspective and looks at the harm that is inflicted on many of the Amazon’s inhabitants, including indigenous populations such as ‘uncontacted’ tribes of hunters-gatherers, the oldest human societies. The green criminological perspective also implies that the definition of victimisation is being enlarged: not only (future) humans, but also non-humans can be considered...

  19. Potential groundwater contribution to Amazon evapotranspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Climate and land ecosystem models simulate a dry-season vegetation stress in the Amazon forest, but observations show enhanced growth in response to higher radiation under less cloudy skies, indicating an adequate water supply. Proposed mechanisms include larger soil water store and deeper roots in nature and the ability of roots to move water up and down (hydraulic redistribution. Here we assess the importance of the upward soil water flux from the groundwater driven by capillarity. We present a map of water table depth from observations and groundwater modeling, and a map of potential capillary flux these water table depths can sustain. The maps show that the water table beneath the Amazon can be quite shallow in lowlands and river valleys (<5 m in 36% and <10 m in 60% of Amazonia. The water table can potentially sustain a capillary flux of >2.1 mm day−1 to the land surface averaged over Amazonia, but varies from 0.6 to 3.7 mm day−1 across nine study sites. Current models simulate a large-scale reduction in dry-season photosynthesis under today's climate and a possible dieback under projected future climate with a longer dry season, converting the Amazon from a net carbon sink to a source and accelerating warming. The inclusion of groundwater and capillary flux may modify the model results.

  20. Large expansion of oil industry in the Ecuadorian Amazon: biodiversity vulnerability and conservation alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessmann, Janeth; Fajardo, Javier; Muñoz, Jesús; Bonaccorso, Elisa

    2016-07-01

    Ecuador will experience a significant expansion of the oil industry in its Amazonian region, one of the most biodiverse areas of the world. In view of the changes that are about to come, we explore the conflicts between oil extraction interests and biodiversity protection and apply systematic conservation planning to identify priority areas that should be protected in different oil exploitation scenarios. First, we quantified the current extent of oil blocks and protected zones and their overlap with two biodiversity indicators: 25 ecosystems and 745 species (whose distributions were estimated via species distribution models). With the new scheme of oil exploitation, oil blocks cover 68% (68,196 km(2)) of the Ecuadorian Amazon; half of it occupied by new blocks open for bids in the southern Amazon. This region is especially vulnerable to biodiversity losses, because peaks of species diversity, 19 ecosystems, and a third of its protected zones coincide spatially with oil blocks. Under these circumstances, we used Marxan software to identify priority areas for conservation outside oil blocks, but their coverage was insufficient to completely represent biodiversity. Instead, priority areas that include southern oil blocks provide a higher representation of biodiversity indicators. Therefore, preserving the southern Amazon becomes essential to improve the protection of Amazonian biodiversity in Ecuador, and avoiding oil exploitation in these areas (33% of the extent of southern oil blocks) should be considered a conservation alternative. Also, it is highly recommended to improve current oil exploitation technology to reduce environmental impacts in the region, especially within five oil blocks that we identified as most valuable for the conservation of biodiversity. The application of these and other recommendations depends heavily on the Ecuadorian government, which needs to find a better balance between the use of the Amazon resources and biodiversity conservation.

  1. Large expansion of oil industry in the Ecuadorian Amazon: biodiversity vulnerability and conservation alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessmann, Janeth; Fajardo, Javier; Muñoz, Jesús; Bonaccorso, Elisa

    2016-07-01

    Ecuador will experience a significant expansion of the oil industry in its Amazonian region, one of the most biodiverse areas of the world. In view of the changes that are about to come, we explore the conflicts between oil extraction interests and biodiversity protection and apply systematic conservation planning to identify priority areas that should be protected in different oil exploitation scenarios. First, we quantified the current extent of oil blocks and protected zones and their overlap with two biodiversity indicators: 25 ecosystems and 745 species (whose distributions were estimated via species distribution models). With the new scheme of oil exploitation, oil blocks cover 68% (68,196 km(2)) of the Ecuadorian Amazon; half of it occupied by new blocks open for bids in the southern Amazon. This region is especially vulnerable to biodiversity losses, because peaks of species diversity, 19 ecosystems, and a third of its protected zones coincide spatially with oil blocks. Under these circumstances, we used Marxan software to identify priority areas for conservation outside oil blocks, but their coverage was insufficient to completely represent biodiversity. Instead, priority areas that include southern oil blocks provide a higher representation of biodiversity indicators. Therefore, preserving the southern Amazon becomes essential to improve the protection of Amazonian biodiversity in Ecuador, and avoiding oil exploitation in these areas (33% of the extent of southern oil blocks) should be considered a conservation alternative. Also, it is highly recommended to improve current oil exploitation technology to reduce environmental impacts in the region, especially within five oil blocks that we identified as most valuable for the conservation of biodiversity. The application of these and other recommendations depends heavily on the Ecuadorian government, which needs to find a better balance between the use of the Amazon resources and biodiversity conservation

  2. Surface water dynamics in Amazon, Congo, and Lake Chad Wetlands from remote sensing and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, H.; Getirana, A.; Jasinski, M. F.

    2013-05-01

    The capability of satellites to understand and monitor surface water dynamics in tropical wetlands is presented by analysis various remote sensing technologies over the Amazon, Congo, and Lake Chad regions. Although different in size and location, all these basins are tropical, representing riparian tropical, swamp tropical and inland Saharan wetlands, respectively. First, yearly flooding in the Logone floodplain is investigated using Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+). Flooding has a direct impact on agricultural, pastoral and fishery systems in the Lake Chad Basin. Since the flooding extent, depth, and duration are highly variable, flood inundation mapping facilitates efficient use of water resources and have more knowledge of the coupled human-natural system in the Logone floodplain. Flood maps are generated from 33 multi-temporal ETM+ images acquired during the period 2006 to 2008. The maximum flooding extent in the study area increases up to ~5.8K km2 in late October 2008. A strong correlation is observed between the flooding extents and water height variations in both the floodplain and the river. Second, interferometric processing of JERS-1 SAR data from the central portions of both Amazon and Congo Wetlands provides centimeter-scale measurements of water level change. The Amazon is marked by a myriad of floodplain channels, but the Congo has comparatively few. Amazon floodplain channels, lakes and pans are well interconnected, whereas the Congo wetlands are expanses with few boundaries or flow routes. The hydraulic processes that build the Amazon floodplain are not similarly apparent in the Congo. Third, we evaluate the potential of large altimetry datasets as a complementary gauging network capable of providing water discharge in ungauged regions. A rating-curve-based methodology is adopted to derive water discharge from altimetric data provided by the Envisat satellite within the Amazon basin. From a global-scale perspective, the stage

  3. Organofunctionalized Amazon smectite for dye removal from aqueous medium-Kinetic and thermodynamic adsorption investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to examine the adsorption behavior of Sumifix Brilliant Orange 3R textile dye from aqueous solution on smectite sample, an abundant Amazon clay. The original smectite clay mineral has been collected from Amazon region, Brazil. The compound 2-aminomethylpyridine was anchored onto smectite surface by heterogeneous route. The ability of these materials to remove the Sumifix Brilliant Orange 3R textile dye from aqueous solution was followed by a series of adsorption isotherms, using a batchwise process. The maximum number of moles adsorbed was determined to be 1.26 and 2.07 mmol g-1 for natural and modified clay samples, respectively. The energetic effects caused by dye cations adsorption were determined through calorimetric titrations. Thermodynamics indicated the existence of favorable conditions for such dye-nitrogen interactions.

  4. Forest response to increased disturbance in the Central Amazon and comparison to Western Amazonian forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Holm

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Uncertainties surrounding vegetation response to increased disturbance rates associated with climate change remains a major global change issue for Amazon forests. Additionally, turnover rates computed as the average of mortality and recruitment rates in the Western Amazon basin are doubled when compared to the Central Amazon, and notable gradients currently exist in specific wood density and aboveground biomass (AGB between these two regions. This study investigates the extent to which the variation in disturbance regimes contributes to these regional gradients. To address these issues, we evaluated disturbance-recovery processes under two scenarios of increased disturbance rates in a complex Central Amazon forest using first ZELIG-TROP, a dynamic vegetation gap model which we calibrated using long-term inventory data, and second using the Community Land Model (CLM, a global land surface model that is part of the Community Earth System Model (CESM. Upon doubling the mortality rate in the Central Amazon to mirror the natural disturbance regime in the Western Amazon of ∼2% mortality, at steady-state, AGB significantly decreased by 41.9% and there was no significant difference between the modeled AGB of 104 Mg C ha−1 and empirical AGB from the western Amazon datasets of 107 Mg C ha−1. We confirm that increases in natural disturbance rates in the Central Amazon will result in terrestrial carbon loss associated with higher turnover. However, different processes were responsible for the reductions in AGB between the models and empirical datasets. We observed that with increased turnover, the subsequent decrease in wood density drives the reduction in AGB in empirical datasets. However, decrease in stand basal area was the driver of the drop in AGB in ZELIG-TROP, and decreased leaf area index (LAI was the driver in CLM. Further comparisons found that stem density, specific wood density, and basal area growth rates differed between the two

  5. The Northwest Amazon in Perspective: A Reading from the 5th-6th Centuries to 1767

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Pierre Goulard

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The history of northwestern South America, focusing on the Amazon basin, is put into perspective using the prevalent models of social organization in the lowlands of the Amazon for more than a thousand years. The proposed analysis makes it possible to understand the modes and periods of occupation of this territory. The article concludes that the region should be perceived as a whole, irrespective of which populations inhabited it in the different periods. Thus it is apparent that several waves of occupation took place. The first, Arawakan, wave established a spatial scheme that was retained by the following ones, adapting it to their needs. Furthermore, the author proposes approaching the installation of the Jesuit missions with the same perspective, since they also appropriated the spatial arrangement they found upon their arrival. Only after their expulsion did the partitioning of the territory begin according to European criteria.

  6. Los antis: la Amazonía como frontera y mundo desconocido en dos fuentes coloniales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Zanelli

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper seeks to explore the development of the Amazon region, specifically from the use of the Quechua word anti, from which the toponym Andes, in two veryrepresentative colonial texts such as the Huarochiri Manuscript (1608 and the two sides of the Comments actual Incas (1609 and 1617, founding text of Peruvian letters written by the mestizo chronicler Garcilaso de la Vega. This word means the limit or border of the Amazonian world, hence Antisuyo to designate the eastern part of the Inca empire which borders the Amazon but that clearly does not. This space is characterized by coincidence in the three texts as a wild, wild and not-well known Amazonia is represented as an area which is outside the controlled space, both known and cultivated by the people who worship the huaca Pariacaca in Huarochiri provinces as "civilized" Inca Garcilaso.

  7. Ecosystem heterogeneity determines the ecological resilience of the Amazon to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Naomi M; Zhang, Ke; Longo, Marcos; Baccini, Alessandro; Phillips, Oliver L; Lewis, Simon L; Alvarez-Dávila, Esteban; Segalin de Andrade, Ana Cristina; Brienen, Roel J W; Erwin, Terry L; Feldpausch, Ted R; Monteagudo Mendoza, Abel Lorenzo; Nuñez Vargas, Percy; Prieto, Adriana; Silva-Espejo, Javier Eduardo; Malhi, Yadvinder; Moorcroft, Paul R

    2016-01-19

    Amazon forests, which store ∼ 50% of tropical forest carbon and play a vital role in global water, energy, and carbon cycling, are predicted to experience both longer and more intense dry seasons by the end of the 21st century. However, the climate sensitivity of this ecosystem remains uncertain: several studies have predicted large-scale die-back of the Amazon, whereas several more recent studies predict that the biome will remain largely intact. Combining remote-sensing and ground-based observations with a size- and age-structured terrestrial ecosystem model, we explore the sensitivity and ecological resilience of these forests to changes in climate. We demonstrate that water stress operating at the scale of individual plants, combined with spatial variation in soil texture, explains observed patterns of variation in ecosystem biomass, composition, and dynamics across the region, and strongly influences the ecosystem's resilience to changes in dry season length. Specifically, our analysis suggests that in contrast to existing predictions of either stability or catastrophic biomass loss, the Amazon forest's response to a drying regional climate is likely to be an immediate, graded, heterogeneous transition from high-biomass moist forests to transitional dry forests and woody savannah-like states. Fire, logging, and other anthropogenic disturbances may, however, exacerbate these climate change-induced ecosystem transitions.

  8. Use of Poisson spatiotemporal regression models for the Brazilian Amazon Forest: malaria count data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Achcar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Malaria is a serious problem in the Brazilian Amazon region, and the detection of possible risk factors could be of great interest for public health authorities. The objective of this article was to investigate the association between environmental variables and the yearly registers of malaria in the Amazon region using Bayesian spatiotemporal methods. METHODS: We used Poisson spatiotemporal regression models to analyze the Brazilian Amazon forest malaria count for the period from 1999 to 2008. In this study, we included some covariates that could be important in the yearly prediction of malaria, such as deforestation rate. We obtained the inferences using a Bayesian approach and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC methods to simulate samples for the joint posterior distribution of interest. The discrimination of different models was also discussed. RESULTS: The model proposed here suggests that deforestation rate, the number of inhabitants per km², and the human development index (HDI are important in the prediction of malaria cases. CONCLUSIONS: It is possible to conclude that human development, population growth, deforestation, and their associated ecological alterations are conducive to increasing malaria risk. We conclude that the use of Poisson regression models that capture the spatial and temporal effects under the Bayesian paradigm is a good strategy for modeling malaria counts.

  9. Deforestation monitoring in the Amazon River estuary by multi-temporal Envisat ScanSAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, F.; Ishwaran, N.; Brito Pezzuti, J. C.

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we have capitalized on the all-weather, all-day operational capability of spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems and used multi-temporal (from 2002 to 2006), multi-track (track 174, 360 and 447) Envisat ScanSAR amplitude images for deforestation mapping and change detection in the Amazon River estuary. A synergistic approach to deforestation mapping was adopted using SAR backscattering anomalies, the neighbouring forest constraint and DEM-derived slopes based on the three following characteristics: (1) backscattering is reduced in regions suspected to have undergone deforestation; (2) open regions without neighbouring forests were identified for removal; and (3) false-alarms linked to water bodies are mitigated using the shape threshold of flat-slope objects. Our results show that deforestation in the Amazon River estuary continues to be a serious problem, particularly along the rivers, streams or roads, which are more susceptible to anthropogenic activities than other areas. Up to 2006, the deforested portion accounts for 4.6 per cent (3,096,000 pixels) of the entire study site of approximately 458,000 square kilometers (67,320,000 pixels). However, this figure, validated by Landsat ETM images, may have overestimated deforestation to some extent. Nevertheless, multi-temporal analysis using SAR systems, as done in this study, have a clear potential for surveillance of deforestation in the Amazon, particularly in light of the frequent cloud cover typical of the area and the limitations of deforestation monitoring by means of optical satellite imagery.

  10. Ecosystem heterogeneity determines the ecological resilience of the Amazon to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Naomi M; Zhang, Ke; Longo, Marcos; Baccini, Alessandro; Phillips, Oliver L; Lewis, Simon L; Alvarez-Dávila, Esteban; Segalin de Andrade, Ana Cristina; Brienen, Roel J W; Erwin, Terry L; Feldpausch, Ted R; Monteagudo Mendoza, Abel Lorenzo; Nuñez Vargas, Percy; Prieto, Adriana; Silva-Espejo, Javier Eduardo; Malhi, Yadvinder; Moorcroft, Paul R

    2016-01-19

    Amazon forests, which store ∼ 50% of tropical forest carbon and play a vital role in global water, energy, and carbon cycling, are predicted to experience both longer and more intense dry seasons by the end of the 21st century. However, the climate sensitivity of this ecosystem remains uncertain: several studies have predicted large-scale die-back of the Amazon, whereas several more recent studies predict that the biome will remain largely intact. Combining remote-sensing and ground-based observations with a size- and age-structured terrestrial ecosystem model, we explore the sensitivity and ecological resilience of these forests to changes in climate. We demonstrate that water stress operating at the scale of individual plants, combined with spatial variation in soil texture, explains observed patterns of variation in ecosystem biomass, composition, and dynamics across the region, and strongly influences the ecosystem's resilience to changes in dry season length. Specifically, our analysis suggests that in contrast to existing predictions of either stability or catastrophic biomass loss, the Amazon forest's response to a drying regional climate is likely to be an immediate, graded, heterogeneous transition from high-biomass moist forests to transitional dry forests and woody savannah-like states. Fire, logging, and other anthropogenic disturbances may, however, exacerbate these climate change-induced ecosystem transitions. PMID:26711984

  11. Synoptic patterns of atmospheric circulation associated with intense precipitation events over the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Eliane Barbosa; Lucio, Paulo Sérgio; Santos e Silva, Cláudio Moisés

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study is to characterize the atmospheric patterns associated with the occurrence of intense precipitation events (IPE) in different sub-regions of the Brazilian Amazon. Intense rainfall cases over six sub-regions were selected from a precipitation data set for the period from 1983 to 2012. The composition technique was used to characterize the prevailing atmospheric patterns for the occurrence of IPE. In the south of the Amazon, the composition fields showed a favorable configuration for the formation of the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ). Along the coast, the intense precipitation events must be associated with mesoscale systems, such as squall lines. In the northwest, they are apparently associated with the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and/or local convection. The results reveal the complexity of the synoptic environment associated with the formation and development of weather systems that produce heavy rainfall in the Amazon Basin. Several factors can interfere as conditions in large-scale, local conditions and thermodynamic factors.

  12. Anthropogenic Effects on the Mixing State of Aerosols over Manaus during the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon) Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraund, M. W.; Pham, D.; Harder, T.; O'Brien, R.; Wang, B.; Laskin, A.; Gilles, M. K.; Moffet, R.

    2015-12-01

    The role that anthropogenic aerosols play in cloud formation is uncertain and contributes largely to the uncertainty in predicting future climate. One region of particular importance is the Amazon rainforest, which accounts for over half of the world's rainforest. During GoAmazon2014/15 IOP2, aerosol samples were collected at multiple sites in and around the rapidly growing industrial city of Manaus in the Amazon basin. Manaus is of scientific interest due to the pristine nature of the surrounding rainforest and the high levels of pollution coming from the city in the form of SO2, NOx, and soot. Some sites, such as the Terrestrial Ecosystem Science center (TES, also designated ZF2) located to the north of Manaus, represent air masses which have not interacted with emissions from the city. The comparison of pristine atmosphere with heavy pollution allows both for the determination of a natural baseline level of pollutants, as well as the study of pollutant's impact on the conversion of biogenic volatile organic compounds to secondary organic aerosols. Towards this goal, samples from ZF2 and other unpolluted sites will be compared to samples from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) climate research facility in Manacapuru (T3), which is southwest (downwind) of Manaus. Spatially resolved spectra were recorded at the sub-particle level using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) at the carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen K-absorption edges. Scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX) was also performed on to characterize higher Z elements. These two techniques together will allow for the mass fraction of atmospherically relevant elements to be determined on a per-particle basis. We will apply established procedures to determine the mixing state index for samples collected at ZF2 and T3 using elemental mass fractions. Preliminary results will be presented which focus on investigating the difference between mixing

  13. Forest Understory Fire in the Brazilian Amazon in ENSO and Non-ENSO Years: Area Burned and Committed Carbon Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, A.; Nepstad, D.; Ver-Diaz, M. Del. C.

    2004-01-01

    "Understory fires" that burn the floor of standing forests are one of the most important types of forest impoverishment in the Amazon, especially during the severe droughts of El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) episodes. However, we are aware of no estimates of the areal extent of these fires for the Brazilian Amazon and, hence, of their contribution to Amazon carbon fluxes to the atmosphere. We calculated the area of forest understory fires for the Brazilian Amazon region during an El Nino (1998) and a non El Nino (1995) year based on forest fire scars mapped with satellite images for three locations in eastern and southern Amazon, where deforestation is concentrated. The three study sites represented a gradient of both forest types and dry season severity. The burning scar maps were used to determine how the percentage of forest that burned varied with distance from agricultural clearings. These spatial functions were then applied to similar forest/climate combinations outside of the study sites to derive an initial estimate for the Brazilian Amazon. Ninety-one percent of the forest area that burned in the study sites was within the first kilometer of a clearing for the non ENSO year and within the first four kilometers for the ENSO year. The area of forest burned by understory forest fire during the severe drought (ENSO) year (3.9 millions of hectares) was 13 times greater than the area burned during the average rainfall year (0.2 million hectares), and twice the area of annual deforestation rate. Dense forest was, proportionally, the forest area most affected by understory fires during the El Nino year, while understory fires were concentrated in transitional forests during the year of average rainfall. Our estimate of aboveground tree biomass killed by fire ranged from 0.06 Pg to 0.38 Pg during the ENSO and from 0,004 Pg to 0,024 Pg during the non ENSO.

  14. Chemodiversity of dissolved organic matter in the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsior, Michael; Valle, Juliana; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Hertkorn, Norbert; Bastviken, David; Luek, Jenna; Harir, Mourad; Bastos, Wanderley; Enrich-Prast, Alex

    2016-07-01

    Regions in the Amazon Basin have been associated with specific biogeochemical processes, but a detailed chemical classification of the abundant and ubiquitous dissolved organic matter (DOM), beyond specific indicator compounds and bulk measurements, has not yet been established. We sampled water from different locations in the Negro, Madeira/Jamari and Tapajós River areas to characterize the molecular DOM composition and distribution. Ultrahigh-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) combined with excitation emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) revealed a large proportion of ubiquitous DOM but also unique area-specific molecular signatures. Unique to the DOM of the Rio Negro area was the large abundance of high molecular weight, diverse hydrogen-deficient and highly oxidized molecular ions deviating from known lignin or tannin compositions, indicating substantial oxidative processing of these ultimately plant-derived polyphenols indicative of these black waters. In contrast, unique signatures in the Madeira/Jamari area were defined by presumably labile sulfur- and nitrogen-containing molecules in this white water river system. Waters from the Tapajós main stem did not show any substantial unique molecular signatures relative to those present in the Rio Madeira and Rio Negro, which implied a lower organic molecular complexity in this clear water tributary, even after mixing with the main stem of the Amazon River. Beside ubiquitous DOM at average H / C and O / C elemental ratios, a distinct and significant unique DOM pool prevailed in the black, white and clear water areas that were also highly correlated with EEM-PARAFAC components and define the frameworks for primary production and other aspects of aquatic life.

  15. Common vampire bat attacks on humans in a village of the Amazon region of Brazil Agressões de morcegos hematófagos a pessoas em um povoado da região amazônica do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Schneider

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Many people in Amazonian communities have reported bat bites in the last decade. Bites by vampire bats can potentially transmit rabies to humans. The objective of this study was to analyze factors associated with bat biting in one of these communities. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a village of gold miners in the Amazonian region of Brazil (160 inhabitants. Bats were captured near people's houses and sent to a lab. Of 129 people interviewed, 41% had been attacked by a bat at least once, with 92% of the bites located on the lower limbs. A logistic regression found that adults were bitten around four times more often than children (OR = 3.75, CI 95%: 1.46-9.62, p = 0.036. Males were bitten more frequently than females (OR = 2.08, CI 95%: 0.90-4.76, p = 0.067. Nine Desmodus rotundus and three frugivorous bats were captured and tested negative for rabies. The study suggests that, in an area of gold miners, common vampire bats are more likely to attack adults and males. The control strategy for human rabies developed in this region should therefore place special emphasis on adult males. There should also be more research on how the search for gold in the Amazonian region places people and the environment at risk.Agressões de morcegos a pessoas vêm sendo notificadas em várias comunidades amazônicas nesta última década. Isto constitui um risco potencial para a raiva humana transmitida por morcegos. O objetivo deste estudo foi de analisar fatores associados a estas agressões em uma destas comunidades. Foi realizado um estudo transversal em um povoado de garimpeiros na Região Amazônica brasileira (160 habitantes. Foi realizada a captura de morcegos junto às casas e foram enviadas amostras para o laboratório. Das 129 pessoas entrevistas, 41% foram agredidas por morcegos pelo menos uma vez, com 92% das mordidas localizadas nos dedos dos pés. Por meio de regressão logística, encontrou-se que adultos eram agredidos ao redor de

  16. Descarte de peixes na pesca comercial em Tefé, médio Solimões, Amazônia Central = Discarded catches from commercial fisheries in the middle Solimões river, Central Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandick da Silva Batista

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Descartes são comuns na pesca comercial, sendo avaliados para apoiar o manejo da pesca na região. Por meio de acompanhamentos diários das pescarias da frota comercial de Tefé, foi descrito o descarte de pescado no médio Solimões. Utilizando análises de correlação e covariância, foram avaliados fatores que determinam o descarte com três modalidades distintas de pesca. Os pescadores selecionaram o pescado no momento da captura por espécie e tamanho. As espécies de pescados mais descartados foram jaraquis, tucunarés e branquinhas, porém os mais freqüentes, no descarte, foram espécies dos Siluriformes. Os apetrechos de pesca analisados apresentaram diferenças nas características de seu descarte. O descarte foi menor na enchente-cheia (5-17% da captura, conforme apetrecho que durante a vazante-seca (20-62%, conforme apetrecho. Discards are common in commercial fishery, and are evaluated in order to support fisheries management in the region. Fish discards in themiddle Solimões River were described through daily monitoring of fishing activities by the commercial fleet of the town of Tefé. By making use of analyses of correlation and covariance, determinant factors for discards in three different types of fisheries wereevaluated. The crew selected the fish at the moment of capture, by species and size. Among the most discarded fish species were jaraquis Semaprochilodus spp., tucunarés Cichla spp. and branquinhas Curimatidae; however, the most frequently discarded were Siluriform species. The fishing gear analyzed featured differences in their discarding characteristics. Discard was lower during the flood period (5-17% of catches, depending on gear than during the dry season (20-62% of catches, depending on gear.

  17. Medicinal plants used in Rondônia, Western Amazon, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R.A. Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study refers to the use of medicinal plants by populations in the Western Amazon and provides information that can be used in phytochemical studies. It draws upon the traditional knowledge regarding the use of medicinal plants in five regions of the state of Rondônia, in the Brazilian Amazon, focusing on native species. The field research was carried out in five municipalities of the state of Rondônia: Ariquemes, Buritis, Candeias do Jamari, Cujubim and Itapoa do Oeste, characterized by primary economic sectors: agriculture, cattle farming, plant extraction and mineral exploration. Structured interviews were applied to 227 persons chosen because of their prestige in the communities in relation to the knowledge and use of medicinal plants, identifying the therapeutic purpose, parts of the plant used and methods of preparation. The species were taxonomically identified. The ethnobotanic knowledge (inferred by the number of uses of medicinal plants per person was correlated with the Brazilian region of origin, age, and gender of the interviewees. According to the collected data, 34 botanical families and 53 native species were identified. Of the 53 species, only 7 occur exclusively in the Amazon Forest: Theobroma grandiflorum (Willd. ex Spreng. K. Schum., Psidium densicomum Mart. ex DC, Piper cavalcantei Yunck., Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Wardlew., Euterpe oleracea Mart., Croton cajucara Benth., Baccharis altimontana G. Heiden. The most common disorders treated with the plants were kidney problems, influenza, generalized infections and inflammations, malaria and high blood pressure. Leaves were the most used parts in preparations. Barks, fruits, roots, flowers, stems, seeds, oils, buds, tubercles, and rhizomes were also mentioned. Thirteen forms of preparations were recorded, and infusion and decoction were the most used. Syrups, juices, flour, sap, oil and parts of the plant blended with milk, honey and coffee or flamed, macerated and

  18. Observational Constraints on Terpene Oxidation with and without Anthropogenic Influence in the Amazon using Speciated Measurements from SV-TAG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, L.; Isaacman, G. A.; Kreisberg, N. M.; Liu, Y.; McKinney, K. A.; de Sá, S. S.; Martin, S. T.; Alexander, M. L.; Palm, B. B.; Hu, W.; Campuzano Jost, P.; Day, D. A.; Jimenez, J. L.; Viegas, J.; Springston, S. R.; Wurm, F.; Ferreira De Brito, J.; Artaxo, P.; Manzi, A. O.; Machado, L.; Longo, K.; Oliveira, M. B.; Souza, R. A. F. D.; Hering, S. V.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2014-12-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from the Amazon forest represent the largest regional source of organic carbon emissions to the atmosphere. These BVOC emissions dominantly consist of volatile and semi-volatile terpenoid compounds that undergo chemical transformations in the atmosphere to form oxygenated condensable gases and secondary organic aerosol (SOA). However, the oxidation pathways of these compounds are still not well understood, and are expected to differ significantly between "pristine" conditions, as is common in Amazonia, and polluted conditions caused by emissions from growing cities. Our focus is to elucidate how anthropogenic emissions influence BVOC chemistry and BSOA formation through speciated measurements of their oxidation products. We have deployed the Semi-Volatile Thermal desorption Aerosol Gas Chromatograph (SV-TAG) at the rural T3 site located west of the urban center of Manaus, Brazil as part of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon) 2014 field campaign to measure hourly concentrations of semi-volatile BVOCs and their oxidation products during the wet and dry seasons. Primary BVOC concentrations measured by the SV-TAG include sesquiterpenes and diterpenes, which have rarely been speciated with high time-resolution. We observe sesquiterpenes to be anti-correlated with ozone, indicative of sesquiterpene oxidation playing a major role in the regional oxidant budget. The role of sesquiterpenes in atmospheric SOA formation are of interest due to their high aerosol yields and high reactivity with ozone, relative to more commonly measured BVOCs (e.g. monoterpenes). We explore relative concentrations of sesquiterpenes and monoterpenes and their roles as precursors to SOA formation by combining SV-TAG measurements with those from an additional suite of VOC and particle measurements deployed in the Amazon. We also report the first ever hourly observations of the gas-particle partitioning of speciated terpene oxidation products in the Amazon

  19. Occurrence of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Railliet, 1898 larvae (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae infecting Achatina (Lissachatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda in the Amazon region Ocorrência de Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Railliet, 1898 (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae infectando o Achatina (Lissachatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda na região amazônica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanny Maria de Andrade-Porto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Achatina fulica or "giant African snail" is an exotic species, considered to be one of the world's hundred most invasive species, causing serious environmental damages. In the present study we report, for the first time, the occurrence of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus infecting A.fulica in the Amazon region. This nematode is described parasitizing mainly the pulmonary system of felines, which causes "aelurostrongilose", also known as feline cardio-pulmonary strongyloidosis. New morphometric data of third stage larvae are presented herein. The present study demonstrated that 40% of all the snails were infected by A. abstrusus. Achatina fulica specimens were collected from three different areas in Manaus namely: rural; east and west areas. The east area presents the highest prevalence of 80%. The large number of A.fulica found in inhabited areas increases the chances of emergent zoonoses, which highlights the need of further studies so as to better control this disease.Achatina fulica ou "caramujo africano" é uma espécie exótica, considerada uma das cem piores espécies invasoras do mundo, causando sérios danos ambientais. No presente estudo foi registrado, pela primeira vez, a ocorrência do Aelurostrongylus abstrusus infectando o A.fulica na região amazônica. Esse nematóide é descrito parasitando principalmente o sistema pulmonar de felinos, causando a "aelurostrongilose", também conhecida como estrongiloidose cardio-pulmonar felina. Novos dados morfométricos de larvas de terceiro estágio são apresentados. Dos 45 caramujos coletados, 40% estavam infectados por larvas de A. abstrusus. Especimens de Achatina fulica foram coletados em três áreas da cidade de Manaus: rural, leste e oeste. A zona leste apresentou a maior prevalência de 80%. O grande número de A.fulica encontrado em áreas habitadas aumenta as chances de ocorrência de zoonoses emergentes e destaca a necessidade de mais estudos para o melhor controle da doença.

  20. Inadequate management of natural ecosystem in the Brazilian Amazon region results in the emergence and reemergence of arboviruses Gestão imprópria do ecossistema natural na Amazônia brasileira resulta na emergência e reemergência de arbovírus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro F. C. Vasconcelos

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 187 different species of arboviruses and other viruses in vertebrates were identified at the Evandro Chagas Institute (IEC from 1954 to 1998, among more than 10,000 arbovirus strains isolated from humans, hematophagous insects, and wild and sentinel vertebrates. Despite intensive studies in the Brazilian Amazon region, especially in Pará State, very little is known about most of these viruses, except for information on date, time, source, and method of isolation, as well as their capacity to infect laboratory animals. This paper reviews ecological and epidemiological data and analyzes the impact of vector and host population changes on various viruses as a result of profound changes in the natural environment. Deforestation, mining, dam and highway construction, human colonization, and urbanization were the main manmade environmental changes associated with the emergence and/or reemergence of relevant arboviruses, including some known pathogens for humans.Um total de 187 diferentes espécies de arbovírus, além de outros vírus de vertebrados, foram identificados pelo Instituto Evandro Chagas (IEC no período de 1954 a 1998, entre as mais de 10.000 cepas de vírus isoladas de seres humanos, insetos hematófagos e vertebrados-sentinela e silvestres. Apesar dos estudos intensivos realizados na Amazônia brasileira, sobretudo no Estado do Pará, pouco se sabe a respeito da maioria desses vírus, com exceção de dados a respeito de data, hora, fonte e método de isolamento, assim como a capacidade de infectar animais laboratoriais. Os autores fazem uma revisão dos dados ecológicos e epidemiológicos e procuram associar o impacto, sobre os diversos vírus, das mudanças populacionais dos vetores e hospedeiros induzidas por profundas alterações no meio ambiente. O desmatamento, o uso do subsolo, a construção de represas e de rodovias, a colonização humana e a urbanização foram as principais modificações ambientais

  1. Micorriza arbuscular em cupuaçu e pupunha cultivados em sistema agroflorestal e em monocultivo na Amazônia Central Arbuscular mycorrhiza in cupuaçu and peach palm cultivated in agroforestry and monoculture systems in the Central Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pereira da Silva Junior

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a colonização micorrízica arbuscular em pupunha (Bactris gasipaes Kunth e cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum (Willd ex Spring K. Schum cultivados em sistema agroflorestal e em monocultivo na Amazônia Central, em duas épocas do ano, e também identificar características anatômicas da formação dessa simbiose nessas espécies. Foram realizadas coletas de solo e raízes em duas estações, seca e chuvosa. A colonização micorrízica arbuscular no cupuaçu e na pupunha é alterada pelo sistema de manejo adotado, com taxas maiores de colonização no monocultivo. A densidade total dos esporos de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares sob o cupuaçu não é alterada pelo sistema de manejo ou pela época do ano, ao contrário do que ocorre sob a pupunha. Nessa cultura, a densidade de esporos foi maior sob sistema agroflorestal no período seco. A colonização micorrízica na pupunha apresenta dois padrões anatômicos, Paris e Arum, enquanto no cupuaçu ocorre o padrão Arum.The objective of this work was to evaluate the arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization in peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth and cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum (Willd ex Spring K. Schum, in agroforestry systems and monoculture in the Central Amazon region, and to identify anatomic characteristics of mycorrhizal colonization in these species. Soil and root samples were collected in the field, in the dry and rainy season. Mycorrhizal root colonization of cupuaçu and peach palm is affected by the management systems, with higher colonization rates in the monoculture system. Total spore density of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi under cupuaçu is not affected by management systems or season, but under peach palm this variation is season dependent. Mycorrhizal colonization of Arum and Paris types occur in peach palm, and only Arum type occurs in cupuaçu.

  2. Leishmaniose cutânea na Amazônia: isolamento de Leishmania (Viannia lainsoni do roedor Agouti paca (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae, no estado do Pará, Brasil Cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Amazon Region: isolation of Leishmania (Viannia lainsoni from the rodent Agouti paca (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae in Pará State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando T. Silveira

    1991-02-01

    Full Text Available Fez-se o registro, pela primeira vez, do isolamento de Leishmania (V. lainsoni de um mamífero silvestre, o roedor Agouti paca (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae, no Estado do Pará, Brasil. As amostras do parasita foram isoladas da pele, aparentemente íntegra, de 3 espécimes desse roedor, capturados no município de Tucuruí (ilha de Tocantins, em área que seria inundada pela formação do lago da hidrelétrica construída naquele município. Nenhum isolamento foi obtido de vísceras de qualquer dos animais. A identificação das amostras de L. (V. lainsoni baseou-se na morfologia de amastigotas e promastigotas, no comportamento da infecção em "hamsters", na análise bioquímica de isoenzimas e, ainda, através de testes com anticorpos monoclonais. A natureza inaparente da infecção nos animais faz supor que o mamífero em questão possa representar um hospedeiro definitivo do parasita na região Amazônica.The isolation of Leishmania (V. lainsoni is recorded for the first time from a wild animal, the rodent Agouti paca (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae, from Pará State, north Brazil. Isolates of the parasite were made from apparently normal skin of 3 specimens of this rodent captured on the Island of Tocantins, in the municipality of Tucuruí, an area subsequently flooded in the formation of the lake associated with the Tucuruí hydroeletric dam. No isolations were made from the viscera. Identification of the parasite was in each case based on morphology of the amastigotes and promastigotes, behavior of the organism in hamsters, isoenzymes profiles and the use of monoclonal antibodies. The inapparent nature of the infection leads us to suggest that the "paca", Agouti paca, represents a primitive host of L. (V. lainsoni in the Amazon Region.

  3. Alternatives to deforestation: Steps toward sustainable use of the Amazon Rain Forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high rate of deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon over the past two decades has jeopardized genetic diversity, contributed to regional and global climate change, caused erosion and flooding, destroyed forest resources, spread disease, and increased poverty. This book presents a selection of papers from an international conference that explored alternatives to deforestation of tropical forests. The alternatives described include natural forest management, agroforestry systems, and forest reestablishment on degraded pastures. The book should be useful to scientists, regional planners, and the broad scientific audience

  4. Logistics at the Amazon forest: the challenge of Urucu-Manaus pipeline construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Ricardo Magalhaes; Araujo, Jorge Marques de; Barbosa, Gilberto Rodrigues; Campos, Marcos Zeferino Teixeira [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The predominant difficulties and logistics complexities at the Amazon Region, required of the technical body responsible for the construction of the Undertaking Urucu-Manaus Pipeline, technological knowledge and a profound background of the regional particularities, qualities that were determinants for the execution of this significant work. The logistics solutions, supported on an accurate and adequate planning for people, equipment and material mobilization for several front services, were planned considering the constant climatic variables, river flood and dry periods and with the monitoring daily routines of the communities located around the pipeline construction influence area. (author)

  5. The Role of Lakes and Rivers as Sources of Evaporated Water to the Atmosphere in the Amazon Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due its magnitude, the water cycle in the Amazon basin plays a key role in the biogeochemical cycles of the region, as well as affecting regional and global climate. Despite its importance, the Amazon region is under constant pressure because of its natural resources, and deforestation accounts for a major part of this human influence. The continental freshwater system in the region is not highly threatened, although human occupation follows roads and rivers pathways. Several urban and agricultural activities take place by the river's banks. Over the past 30 years, riparian regions have been cleared for agriculture and human settlements, and the floodplains are being intensely used for cattle grazing during the low water season and for fishing during high water, putting at risk highly diverse and abundant fisheries stocks in the region as whole. The floodplains are an important spawning habitat for several species. Thus understanding of biogeochemical and nutrient dynamic of the floodplains is crucial to sustain the ecological health of those systems. Identification of physical process patterns (i.e, evaporation, wind, water current) and sources of water to the floodplains are key to this knowledge. The main objective of this work was to investigate the role of the Amazon floodplains lakes and rivers as sources of evaporated water to the atmosphere. (author)

  6. The last mile in the Brazilian Amazon – A potential pathway for universal electricity access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brazilian rural electrification initiative Luz Para Todos – LPT (Light for All) has attracted attention internationally due to its ambitious targets and significant achievements in the last decade. The initiative has proved effective in its first phase, which has been developed through the extension of the grid. Yet, there are still important challenges to provide the service to inhabitants of remote areas in the Brazilian Amazon. We identify these challenges within institutional, technology, and funding structures operating within LPT. In line with these challenges, we propose a pathway to facilitate the achievement of universal electricity access in remote areas of the region. The proposed pathway is based on three key leverage points: (i) rules guiding the relationship among new agents and communities; (ii) the implementation of small-scale power generation technologies based on local resources; and (iii) optimized subsidies. It has the potential to allow (i) a better dimensioning of off-grid solutions considering local resources and realities, (ii) the creation of adapted institutions capable of implementing and operating the required systems and, (iii) an effective operation of off-grid solutions. -- Highlights: •There are important challenges to provide universal electricity access in the Amazon. •We propose a pathway to facilitate universal electricity access in remote areas of the Amazon. •The pathway allows a transition to a more knowledge-driven and participatory system

  7. Near real time detection of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon using MODIS imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egídio Arai

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to provide near real time information about deforestation detection (DETER in the entire Brazilian Amazon using MODIS high temporal resolution images. It is part of the operational deforestation monitoring project to estimate the annual deforestation rate in the Brazilian Amazon (PRODES. A rapid deforestation detection method was designed to support land use policies in this region. In order to evaluate the proposed method a test site was selected covering a Landsat ETM+ scene (227/68 located in Mato Grosso State. For this purpose a multitemporal series of MODIS surface reflectance images (MOD09 and the corresponding ETM+ images from June to October 2002 were analyzed. It was found that small deforested areas (lower than 15 ha were detected by MODIS images with lower accuracy when compared with ETM+ images. As the deforested areas increase MODIS and ETM+ results tend to converge. This procedure showed to be adequate to operationally detect and monitor deforested areas and has been used since 2004 as part of a government plan to control the Amazon deforestation.

  8. Asynchronous Amazon forest canopy phenology indicates adaptation to both water and light availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amazon forests represent nearly half of all tropical vegetation biomass and, through photosynthesis and respiration, annually process more than twice the amount of estimated carbon (CO2) from fossil fuel emissions. Yet the seasonality of Amazon canopy cover, and the extent to which seasonal fluctuations in water availability and photosynthetically available radiation influence these processes, is still poorly understood. Implementing six remotely sensed data sets spanning nine years (2003–2011), with reported field and flux tower data, we show that southern equatorial Amazon forests exhibit a distinctive seasonal signal. Seasonal timing of water availability, canopy biomass growth and net leaf flush are asynchronous in regions with short dry seasons and become more synchronous across a west-to-east longitudinal moisture gradient of increasing dry season. Forest cover is responsive to seasonal disparities in both water and solar radiation availability, temporally adjusting net leaf flush to maximize use of these generally abundant resources, while reducing drought susceptibility. An accurate characterization of this asynchronous behavior allows for improved understanding of canopy phenology across contiguous tropical forests and their sensitivity to climate variability and drought. (letter)

  9. Road building, land use and climate change: prospects for environmental governance in the Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perz, Stephen; Brilhante, Silvia; Brown, Foster; Caldas, Marcellus; Ikeda, Santos; Mendoza, Elsa; Overdevest, Christine; Reis, Vera; Reyes, Juan Fernando; Rojas, Daniel; Schmink, Marianne; Souza, Carlos; Walker, Robert

    2008-05-27

    Some coupled land-climate models predict a dieback of Amazon forest during the twenty-first century due to climate change, but human land use in the region has already reduced the forest cover. The causation behind land use is complex, and includes economic, institutional, political and demographic factors. Pre-eminent among these factors is road building, which facilitates human access to natural resources that beget forest fragmentation. While official government road projects have received considerable attention, unofficial road building by interest groups is expanding more rapidly, especially where official roads are being paved, yielding highly fragmented forest mosaics. Effective governance of natural resources in the Amazon requires a combination of state oversight and community participation in a 'hybrid' model of governance. The MAP Initiative in the southwestern Amazon provides an example of an innovative hybrid approach to environmental governance. It embodies a polycentric structure that includes government agencies, NGOs, universities and communities in a planning process that links scientific data to public deliberations in order to mitigate the effects of new infrastructure and climate change. PMID:18267915

  10. The size distribution of organic carbon in headwater streams in the Amazon basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, Joana D'Arc; Luizão, Flávio Jesus; Piedade, Maria Teresa Fernandez

    2016-06-01

    Despite the strong representativeness of streams in the Amazon basin, their role in the accumulation of coarse particulate organic carbon (CPOC), fine particulate organic carbon (FPOC), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in transport, an important energy source in these environments, is poorly known. It is known that the arboreal vegetation in the Amazon basin is influenced by soil fertility and rainfall gradients, but would these gradients promote local differences in organic matter in headwater streams? To answer this question, 14 low-order streams were selected within these gradients along the Amazon basin, with extensions that varied between 4 and 8 km. The efficiency of the transformation of particulate into dissolved carbon fractions was assessed for each stream. The mean monthly benthic organic matter storage ranged between 1.58 and 9.40 t ha(-1) month(-1). In all locations, CPOC was the most abundant fraction in biomass, followed by FPOC and DOC. Rainfall and soil fertility influenced the distribution of the C fraction (p = 0.01), showing differentiated particulate organic carbon (POC) storage and DOC transportation along the basin. Furthermore, the results revealed that carbon quantification at the basin level could be underestimated, ultimately influencing the global carbon calculations for the region. This is especially due to the fact that the majority of studies consider only fine particulate organic matter and dissolved organic matter, which represent less than 50 % of the stored and transported carbon in streambeds.

  11. Globalization of the Amazon soy and beef industries: opportunities for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepstad, Daniel C; Stickler, Claudia M; Almeida, Oriana T

    2006-12-01

    Amazon beef and soybean industries, the primary drivers of Amazon deforestation, are increasingly responsive to economic signals emanating from around the world, such as those associated with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, "mad cow disease") outbreaks and China's economic growth. The expanding role of these economic "teleconnections" (coupled phenomena that take place in distant places on the planet) led to a 3-year period (2002-2004) of historically high deforestation rates. But it also increases the potential for large-scale conservation in the region as markets and finance institutions demand better environmental and social performance of beef and soy producers. Cattle ranchers and soy farmers who have generally opposed ambitious government regulations that require forest reserves on private property are realizing that good land stewardship-including compliance with legislation-may increase their access to expanding domestic and international markets and to credit and lower the risk of "losing" their land to agrarian reform. The realization of this potential depends on the successful negotiation of social and environmental performance criteria and an associated system of certification that are acceptable to both the industries and civil society. The foot-and-mouth eradication system, in which geographic zones win permission to export beef, may provide an important model for the design of a low-cost, peer-enforced, socioenvironmental certification system that becomes the mechanism by which beef and soy industries gain access to markets outside the Amazon. PMID:17181794

  12. Succession-inducing disturbances and the old-growth forest mosaic of a Central Amazon landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, J. Q.; Negron Juarez, R. I.; Marra, D.; Roberts, D. A.; Di Vittorio, A. V.; Higuchi, N.; Trumbore, S.

    2011-12-01

    Old-growth forest ecosystems comprise a mosaic of patches in different successional stages, with the fraction of the landscape in any particular state relatively constant over large temporal and spatial scales. Tropical forest studies commonly assume that plots covering only a small fraction of the landscape representatively sample this mosaic, and that departures from steady-state represent trends. Here a critical test of this equilibrium assumption for a Central Amazon old-growth forest landscape is carried out by combining extensive forest field plot data, remote sensing analysis to generate disturbance probability distribution functions, and simulation modeling to place plot-level results into a landscape context. Results show that succession-inducing disturbances had a return frequency of ~100 years, and that these episodic events have been poorly sampled by existing forest sample plots. Overall, key ecosystem attributes of small patches are expected to constantly change in the Central Amazon, and long significant trends can result from purely stochastic processes. The role of episodic disturbances will be discussed in terms of Amazon forest carbon balance, and regional tree diversity patterns.

  13. Diagnosing nonlinearities in the local and remote responses to partial Amazon deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badger, Andrew M.; Dirmeyer, Paul A.

    2016-08-01

    Using a set of fully coupled climate model simulations, the response to partial deforestation over the Amazon due to agricultural expansion has been analyzed. Three variations of 50% deforestation (all of western half, all of eastern half, and half of each grid box) were compared with total deforestation to determine the degree and character of nonlinearity of the climate response to partial deforestation. A metric is developed to quantify the degree and distribution of nonlinearity in the response, applicable to any variable. The metric also quantifies whether the response is saturating or accelerating, meaning significantly either more or less than 50% of the simulated response to total deforestation is attained at 50% deforestation. The spatial structure of the atmospheric response to Amazon deforestation reveals large areas across the tropics that exhibit a significant nonlinear component, particularly for temperature and geopotential height. Over the domain between 45°S and 45°N across all longitudes, 50% deforestation generally provides less than half of the total response to deforestation over oceans, indicating the marine portion of climate system is somewhat resilient to progressive deforestation. However, over continents there are both accelerating and saturating responses to 50% Amazon deforestation, and the response is different depending on whether the eastern or western half of Amazonia is deforested or half of the forest is removed uniformly across the region.

  14. Palms of riverine communities as a sustainable resource in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ires Paula de Andrade Miranda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Amazon, approximately 30% of the population is agglomerated in small villages or isolated areas. One of the most serious problems is the lack of electricity, where reduced supply and frequent rationing reduce life quality and prevent the instalation of industries that could raise the value of renewable regional products. Consequently, the pursuit of better socioeconomic conditions promote the quick depletion of natural resources, which invariably results in the accelerated destruction of local ecosystems. Oil palms, that are mainly used for basic nutrition of local populations, could also form the basis for models of self-sustained technological and industrial development. A quantitative survey of native species of oil palms offers an alternative for sustained development based on a technological and industrial model because this resource occurs in populated areas in the Amazon, which facilitates retaining the people in the field, preventing the depletion of natural ecosystems. This study presents the activities that were used to identify the potential of biomass of Euterpe precatoriaMart and other oil palms available in riverside communities in the state of Amazonas (Brazil. These activities are associated with the possibilities of using palm species for sustainable development of energy generation. It was possible to identify the conditions for a sustainable supply of biomass as an alternative energy source which contributes to the Energy Universalization Program in the Brazilian Amazon.

  15. Matter, Space, Energy, and Political Economy: The Amazon in the World-System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen G. Bunker

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many authors have attempted co-incorporate the local into the global. World-systems analysis, though, is rooted in processes of production, and all production remains profoundly local. Understanding the expansion and intensification of the social and material relations of capitalism that have created and sustain the dynamic growth of the world-system from the local to the global requires analysis of material processes of natural and social production in space as differentiated by topography, hydrology, climate, and absolute distance betweenplaces. In this article, I consider some of the spatio-material configurations chat have struc-tured local effects on global formations within a single region, the Amazon Basin. I first detail and criticize the tendency in world system and globalization analysis, and in the modern social sciences generally, to use spatial metaphors without examining how space affects the material processes around which social actors organize economy and policy. I next examine thework of some earlier social scientists who analyzed specific materio-spatial configurations as these structured human social, economic, and political activities and organization, searching for possible theoretical or methodological tools for building from local to global analysis. I then review some recent analyses of spatio-material determinants of social and economic organiza-tion in the Amazon Basin. Finally, I show that the 400-year-long sequence of extractive econ-omies in the Amazon reflected the changing demands of expanded industrial production in the core, and how such processes can best be understood by focusing our analysis on spatio-material configurations of local extraction, transport, and production. The Amazon is but one of the specific environments that have supplied raw materials to changing global markets, but close consideration of how its material and spatial attributes shaped the global economy provides insights into the ways

  16. Increased Frequency of Large Blowdown Formation in Years With Hotter Dry Seasons in the Northwestern Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifai, S. W.; Anderson, L. O.; Bohlman, S.

    2015-12-01

    Blowdowns, which are large tree mortality events caused by downbursts, create large pulses of carbon emissions in the short term and alter successional dynamics and species composition of forests, thus affecting long term biogeochemical cycling of tropical forests. Changing climate, especially increasing temperatures and frequency of extreme climate events, may cause changes in the frequency of blowdowns, but there has been little spatiotemporal analysis to associate the interannual variation in the frequency of blowdowns with annual climate parameters. We mapped blowdowns greater than 25 ha using a time series of Landsat images from 1984-2012 in the northwestern Amazon to estimate the annual size distribution of these blowdowns. The difference in forest area affected by blowdowns between the years with the highest and lowest blowdown activity were on the order of 10 - 30 times greater depending on location. Spatially, we found the probability of large blowdowns to be higher in regions with higher annual rainfall. Temporally, we found a positive correlation between the probability of large blowdown events and maximum dry season air temperature (R2 = 0.1-0.46). Mean and maximum blowdown size also increased with maximum dry season air temperature. The strength of these relationships varied between scene locations which may be related to cloud cover obscuring the land surface in the satellite images, or biophysical characteristics of the sites. Potentially, elevated dry season temperatures during the transition from the dry season to the wet season (October - December) may exacerbate atmospheric instabilities, which promote downburst occurrences. Most global circulation models predict dry season air temperatures to increase 2-5 ℃ in the northwestern Amazon by 2050. Should the blowdown disturbance regime continue increasing with elevated dry season temperatures, the northwestern Amazon is likely to experience more catastrophic tree mortality events which has direct

  17. The ceramic artifacts in archaeological black earth (terra preta from lower Amazon region, Brazil: mineralogy Artefatos cerâmicos em sítios arqueológios com terra preta na região do baixo Amazonas, Brasil: mineralogia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcondes Lima da Costa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Several archaeological black earth (ABE sites occur in the Amazon region. They contain fragments of ceramic artifacts, which are very important for the archaeological purpose. In order to improve the archaeological study in the region we carried out a detailed mineralogical and chemical study of the fragments of ceramic artifacts found in the two ABE sites of Cachoeira-Porteira, in the Lower Amazon Region. Their ceramics comprise the following tempers: cauixi, cariapé, sand, sand +feldspars, crushed ceramic and so on and are composed of quartz, clay equivalent material (mainly burned kaolinite, feldspars, hematite, goethite, maghemite, phosphates, anatase, and minerals of Mn and Ba. Cauixi and cariapé, siliceous organic compounds, were found too. The mineralogical composition and the morphology of their grains indicate a saprolite (clayey material rich on quartz derived from fine-grained felsic igneous rocks or sedimentary rocks as source material for ceramic artifacts, where silica-rich components such cauixi, cariapé and/or sand (feldspar and rock fragments were intentionally added to them. The high content of (Al,Fe-phosphates, amorphous to low crystalline, must be product of the contact between the clayey matrix of pottery wall and the hot aqueous solution formed during the daily cooking of animal foods (main source of phosphor. The phosphate crystallization took place during the discharge of the potteries put together with waste of organic material from animal and vegetal origin, and leaving to the formation of the ABE-soil profile.Sítios arqueológicos com Terra Preta, denominados de Terra Preta de Índio ou ainda Terra Preta Arqueológica (TPA são muito freqüentes na Amazônia. As TPA geralmente contém fragmentos de vasos cerâmicos, por vezes abundantes, além de líticos, que são materiais de grande importância para os estudos arqueológicos. Para consubstanciar esses estudos, realizou-se pesquisas mineralógicas e químicas em

  18. Mortality due to diseases of the circulatory system among the elderly population in Brazilian Amazon: temporal and spatial analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Vila Real Nunes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Circulatory Diseases (CD are the major cause of death among the elderly population in Brazilian Amazon. OBJECTIVE: to analyze standardized mortality rates of diseases of the circulatory system (DCS, according to the main causes of death among the elderly, in microregions of the Brazilian Amazon, in the period of 1998 - 2007. METHODS: ecological study of mortality rates distribution standardized by CD and corrected by deaths from poorly defined causes among the elderly (> 65 years of age who lived in Brazilian Amazon in the period of 1998 - 2007. The analysis were carried out by the linear regression, trend, and spatial distribution of Kernel. RESULTS: We verified an increasing trend in mortality by CD (β1 = 28.34 p = 0.01, due to the increasing trend in the States of Maranhão and Tocantins. The central region of Mato Grosso, Northern Tocantins, Eastern Pará and Southwestern Maranhão present hot spots with the highest mortality rates. Males present higher rates when compared to females all over the region; rates of mortality due to acute myocardial infarction and hypertensive disease present the same spatial standard of the CD group and the rates of cerebrovascular diseases present a different spatial distribution standard. Increment in mortality rates according to age was observed: the greater the age, the higher is mortality by CD. CONCLUSION: The Brazilian Amazon presents an increasing trend with high rates of mortality by the circulatory diseases, and the geographic areas with the highest rates are around the Brazilian Amazon, in the states of Tocantins, Maranhão and Mato Grosso.

  19. Copepods and fishes in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Vernon E.

    1998-06-01

    The Amazon basin comprises the largest river ecosystem in the world (7 million km 2) with annual high and low water peaks and a constant temperature near 29°C. Some 2000 fish species and 40 species of free-living copepods are known to occur in Amazonia. The free-living forms serve as food for most larval fishes and some adults, but they also transmit several parasites including representatives of the nematode family Camallanidae. About three dozen species of parasitic copepods have been described from the Brazilian Amazon. Females of Amazonian parasitic copepods are found on skin, gill filaments, gill rakers or within the nasal fossae. Parasitic copepods are found on fishes that are from a few millimeters long up to those over 2 m in length and they are usually quite host specific. All have body pigmentation in different patterns and colors (frequently blues, such as cerulean, cobalt, spectrum, smalt or campanula). It is suggested that the coloration serves to attract specific host fish. Copepods have evolved adaptations for attachment and feeding, especially in the second antennae and endopods. Examples of progenesis, phoresis and commensalism are shown. Some species produce pathology such as a tourniquet effect, hyperplasia, blood loss and anemia, and can kill fishes by limiting their respiration.

  20. The recent extreme hydrological events in the Western Amazon Basin: The role of the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, J.; Ronchail, J.; Guyot, J.; Santini, W.; Lavado, W.; Ore-Hybam Observatory

    2013-05-01

    The Peruvian Amazonas River, the main western tributary of the Amazon basin, has a huge drainage (750 000 km2, 50% of which lies in the Andes) and a mean discharge estimated in 32 000 m3/s, which correspond to 15% of the Amazon discharge at the estuary. Recently, in a context of significant discharge diminution during the low-water season (1970-2012), severe hydrological events, as intense droughts and floods, have been reported in the Peruvian Amazonas River. As they have not been always observed in other regions of the Amazon basin and because they have strong impacts on vulnerable riverside residents, we shall focus on the origin and the predictability of the western Amazon extremes, providing a review of the main findings about the climate features during recent extreme hydrological events in western Amazon. While the lowest discharge value was observed in September 2010 (8 300 m3/s) at the hydrological Tamshiyacu station (near to Iquitos city), a rapid transition toward a high discharge was noticed in April 2011 (45 000 m3/s). Finally, in April 2012, during the on going high waters period, the Amazonas River is experimenting its historical highest discharge (55 000 m3/s). Our work is based on several datasets including in-situ discharge and rainfall information from ORE-HYBAM observatory. Extreme droughts (1995, 2005 and 2010) are generally associated with positive SST anomalies in the tropical North Atlantic and weak trade winds and water vapor transport toward the western Amazon, which, in association with increased subsidence over central and southern Amazon, explain the lack of rainfall and very low discharge values. But, in 1998, toward the end of the 1997-98 El Niño event, the drought has been more likely related to an anomalous divergence of water vapor in the western Amazon that is characteristic of a warm event in the Pacific. The years with a rapid transition form low waters to very high floods (e.g. September 2010 to April 2011) are characterized

  1. Diversity of palm uses in the western Amazon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paniagua Zambrana, N.Y.; Byg, A.; Svenning, J.-C.;

    2007-01-01

    Abstract  We used palm knowledge to understand the interaction between people and the rainforests and the factors that influence this dynamic process. We interviewed 278 informants in 12 villages in the Pastaza and Madidi areas of the western Amazon basin. Together they used 38 different palm......, the great variation in the knowledge they possess, and the fact that the differences between villages is so great, are important elements to consider when developing management plans for the sustainable use of the rainforest resources in the western Amazon. Keywords  Local knowledge - Palms - Western Amazon...

  2. Mapping fire events in the transition of Amazon and Cerrado biome using remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes Daldegan, G.; Roberts, D. A.; Peterson, S.; Ribeiro, F.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract to AGU Fire is considered one of the determinant factors that have shaped Cerrado biome, the Brazilian Savanna, considered the most biodiverse savanna in the world. At the same time, fire has not acted a major role during the evolution of the Amazon Forest due to the strong capacity it has to resist burning. Recently, with the expansion of the agricultural activities in the central Brazil, about 49% of the Cerrado has been converted to other uses and as deforestation vector runs towards the Amazon Forest it modifies the natural moist microclimate in the edges of the forest, increasing the likelihood of wildfires. Every year these ecosystems suffer with several fire events responsible for large burned areas, causing losses of biomass, biodiversity, soil nutrients, and releasing tons of CO2 that help climate change. The occurrence of fires has a direct relationship with the climate of the central portion of the south american continent, charaterized by a two seasons regime, wet and dry, each one lasting around 6 months. In this region is located the ecotone of these two majors Brazilians ecosystems. In the Cerrado biome fire is often used to manage pasture, stimulating the regrowth of natural grasses used as pasture and also to open new areas for agriculture. There are researches showing that people have been traditionally using fire as a lower cost way to manage their lands for different purposes. In the Amazon forest the cycle of deforestation started around the 60's with incentives from the federal government to populate the region in the middle of the last century, and most recently by the progress of the commodities prices, such as soybean and sugar-cane, that has occupied vast areas of the Cerrado and is marching towards the forest. In the Amazon, fire is frequently used to further open the areas that were previously logged selectively and then converted to agricultural uses.Given the ecological importance of the Amazon Forest and Cerrado biome and the

  3. Climate response to Amazon forest replacement by heterogeneous crop cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Badger

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous modeling studies with atmospheric general circulation models and basic land surface schemes to balance energy and water budgets have shown that by removing the natural vegetation over the Amazon, the region's climate becomes warmer and drier. In this study we use a fully coupled Earth System Model and replace tropical forests by a distribution of six common tropical crops with variable planting dates, physiological parameters and irrigation. There is still general agreement with previous studies as areal averages show a warmer (+1.4 K and drier (−0.35 mm day−1 climate. Using an interactive crop model with a realistic crop distribution shows that regions of vegetation change experience different responses dependent upon the initial tree coverage and whether the replacement vegetation is irrigated, with seasonal changes synchronized to the cropping season. Areas with initial tree coverage greater than 80% show an increase in coupling with atmosphere after deforestation, suggesting land use change could heighten sensitivity to climate anomalies, while irrigation acts to dampen coupling with atmosphere.

  4. Babesia bovis infection in cattle in the southwestern Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Luciana G; Rocha, Rodrigo B; Barbieri, Fábio da S; Ribeiro, Elisana S; Vendrami, Fabiano B; Souza, Gislaine C R; Giglioti, Rodrigo; Regitano, Luciana C A; Falcoski, Thaís O R S; Tizioto, Polyana C; Oliveira, Márcia C S

    2013-02-01

    The present study provides the first epidemiological data on infection with Babesia bovis in cattle raised in the southwestern Brazilian Amazon. Blood clot samples were filtered through nylon cloth before being submitted to DNA extraction. PCR and nested-PCR were applied to assess the frequency of infection with B. bovis in calves with ages from 4 to 12 months bred in 4 microregions each in the states of Rondônia and Acre. After the DNA was extracted from the samples, the infection in cattle was investigated by amplification of the "rap1" gene from B. bovis. The DNA amplification results revealed a frequency of infection with B. bovis of 95.1% (272/286) in the samples from Rondônia and 96.1% (195/203) in those from Acre. The high frequency of B. bovis infection in the animals with ages from 4 to 12 months indicates a situation of enzootic stability in the regions studied. The infection rates are comparable to those detected by immunodiagnostic techniques in other endemic regions of Brazil. PMID:23312480

  5. Molecular cytogenetic characterization of the Amazon River dolphin Inia geoffrensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifácio, Heidi L; da Silva, Vera M F; Martin, Anthony R; Feldberg, Eliana

    2012-09-01

    Classical and molecular cytogenetic (18S rDNA, telomeric sequence, and LINE-1 retrotransposon probes) studies were carried out to contribute to an understanding of the organization of repeated DNA elements in the Amazon River dolphin (boto, Inia geoffrensis). Twenty-seven specimens were examined, each presenting 2n = 44 chromosomes, the karyotype formula 12m + 14sm + 6st + 10t + XX/XY, and fundamental number (FN) = 74. C-positive heterochromatin was observed in terminal and interstitial positions, with the occurrence of polymorphism. Interstitial telomeric sequences were not observed. The nucleolar organizer region (NOR) was located at a single site on a smallest autosomal pair. LINE-1 was preferentially distributed in the euchromatin regions, with the greatest accumulation on the X chromosome. Although the karyotype structure in cetaceans is considered to be conserved, the boto karyotype demonstrated significant variations in its formula, heterochromatin distribution, and the location of the NOR compared to other cetacean species. These results contribute to knowledge of the chromosome organization in boto and to a better understanding of karyoevolution in cetaceans.

  6. A Novel Tetraether Membrane Lipid Record from the Amazon Fan: The Influence of Changes in Sediment Supply on Estimates of Palaeo-Temperature, pH and Wetland Extent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendle, J. A.; Weijers, J. W.; Sinninghe-Damste, J. S.; Maslin, M.; Ettwein, V.; Hopmans, E. C.; Boot, C. S.; Schouten, S.; Pancost, R. D.

    2007-12-01

    Reconstructing Amazon basin paleoclimatic change is important because the region is a major component of the global carbon and hydrological cycles. Moreover, the region's tropical wetlands represent a major source of atmospheric methane. In order to provide a multiproxy 35 kyr record of terrestrial paleoclimatic change from the Amazon basin, analysis of glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) was carried out on sediment recovered from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 942 (Amazon Fan). The GDGTs include those with methyl-branched alkyl components, derived from unknown terrestrial bacteria (present worldwide in peat bogs and soils) which have been fluvially transported from the Amazon basin and sequestered in the Amazon fan. The catchment area supplying sediment to the Amazon fan covers a large portion of South America, including vast areas of tropical forests and wetlands; hence proxy records from ODP 942 potentially provide a spatially averaged terrestrial signal of major significance. We use recently developed indices that predict changes in: the relative fluvial input of terrestrial organic material; annual mean air temperature (MAT) and soil pH. We also use the ratios of certain alcohols as qualitative proxies for the relative inputs of wetland material. The Amazon basin shows a glacial to interglacial temperature increase of around 5°C; consistent with pollen and other geochemical records. However, this is followed by an apparent drop of 11°C at the start of the Holocene. We discuss how this seemingly counter intuitive result may be explained by changes in sediment supply from the Andean region relative to the warmer eastern Amazonia. In the glacial the soil pH increases dramatically from 13 to 11 kyr; possibly related to an (inferred) ~40 percent decrease in effective moisture in the Amazon basin. A post-glacial increase in wetland biomarkers suggests that the propagation of tropical wetlands, on continental shelves, may have been a key source of the

  7. Saving the Other Amazon: Changing Understandings of Nature and Wilderness among Indigenous Leaders in the Ecuadorian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliet S. Erazo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article examines a new set of policies embraced by indigenous leaders in the Upper Napo region of the Ecuadorian Amazon, driven, in part, by a growing appreciation for “wilderness” —large areas where humans exercise a very light touch. In the past few years, leaders have pursued wilderness conservation initiatives while simultaneously promoting petroleum extraction in their own backyards. Both political positions run counter to those pursued in previous decades, when opposition to both oil development and strict forms of conservation within their territory was strong. To address this reversal, I trace some of the development interventions and North-South collaborations that have contributed to the emergence of “nature” as a meaningful imaginary for Amazonian indigenous leaders and for a new generation of young people, drawing connections to William Cronon’s critical analysis of how wilderness conservation became a priority in the United States. I conclude that more than two decades of conservationist interventions in the Upper Napo region have led to some largely unintended consequences, as Amazonian leaders increasingly subscribe to Northern environmentalists’ romanticization of “the Amazon” as a wild place, one that therefore must be distant from the places where they work and live.

  8. Potential groundwater contribution to Amazon evapotranspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Climate and land ecosystem models simulate a dry-season vegetation stress in the Amazon forest, but observations do not support these results, indicating adequate water supply. Proposed mechanisms include larger soil water store and deeper roots in nature and the ability of roots to move water up and down (hydraulic redistribution, both absent in the models. Here we provide a first-order assessment of the potential importance of the upward soil water flux from the groundwater driven by capillarity. We present a map of equilibrium water table depth from available observations and a groundwater model simulation constrained by these observations. We then present a map of maximum capillary flux these water table depths, combined with the fine-textured soils in the Amazon, can potentially support. The maps show that the water table beneath the Amazon can be shallow in lowlands and river valleys (<5 m in 36% and <10 m in 60% of Amazonia. These water table depths can potentially accommodate a maximum capillary flux of 2.1 mm day−1 to the land surface averaged over Amazonia, but varies from 0.6 to 3.7 mm day−1 across nine study sites.

    We note that the results presented here are based on limited observations and simple equilibrium model calculations, and as such, have important limitations and must be interpreted accordingly. The potential capillary fluxes are not indicative of their contribution to the actual evapotranspiration, and they are only an assessment of the possible rate at which this flux can occur, to illustrate the power of soil capillary force acting on a shallow water table in fine textured soils. They may over-estimate the actual flux where the surface soils remain moist. Their contribution to the actual evapotranspiration can only be assessed through fully coupled model simulation of the dynamic feedbacks between soil water and groundwater with sub-daily climate forcing. The equilibrium water table

  9. Evidence of Apeu Virus Infection in Wild Monkeys, Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Danilo B; Luiz, Ana Paula Moreira Franco; Fagundes, Alexandre; Pinto, Carla Amaral; Bonjardim, Cláudio A; Trindade, Giliane S; Kroon, Erna G; Abrahão, Jônatas S; Ferreira, Paulo C P

    2016-03-01

    Orthobunyaviruses are arboviruses in which at least 30 members are human pathogens. The members of group C orthobunyaviruses were first isolated in the Brazilian Amazon in 1950, since that time little information is accumulated about ecology and the medical impact of these virus groups in Brazil. Herein, we describe the evidence of Apeu virus (APEUV; an Orthobunyavirus member) infection in wild monkeys from the Brazilian Amazon forest. APEUV was detected by using a neutralizing antibody in serum and its RNA, suggesting past and acute infection of Amazonian monkeys by this virus. These results altogether represent an important contribution of orthobunyavirus ecology in the Amazon and an update about recent circulation and risk for humans with expansion of the cities to Amazon forest.

  10. Conservation efforts may increase malaria burden in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Valle

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Large-scale forest conservation projects are underway in the Brazilian Amazon but little is known regarding their public health impact. Current literature emphasizes how land clearing increases malaria incidence, leading to the conclusion that forest conservation decreases malaria burden. Yet, there is also evidence that proximity to forest fringes increases malaria incidence, which implies the opposite relationship between forest conservation and malaria. We compare the effect of these environmental factors on malaria and explore its implications. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using a large malaria dataset (~1,300,000 positive malaria tests collected over ~4.5 million km(2, satellite imagery, permutation tests, and hierarchical Bayesian regressions, we show that greater forest cover (as a proxy for proximity to forest fringes tends to be associated with higher malaria incidence, and that forest cover effect was 25 times greater than the land clearing effect, the often cited culprit of malaria in the region. These findings have important implications for land use/land cover (LULC policies in the region. We find that cities close to protected areas (PA's tend to have higher malaria incidence than cities far from PA's. Using future LULC scenarios, we show that avoiding 10% of deforestation through better governance might result in an average 2-fold increase in malaria incidence by 2050 in urban health posts. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that cost analysis of reduced carbon emissions from conservation efforts in the region should account for increased malaria morbidity, and that conservation initiatives should consider adopting malaria mitigation strategies. Coordinated actions from disparate science fields, government ministries, and global initiatives (e.g., Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation; Millenium Development Goals; Roll Back Malaria; and Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, will be required to

  11. Reserves Protect against Deforestation Fires in the Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    J Marion Adeney; Christensen, Norman L.; Pimm, Stuart L

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reserves are the principal means to conserve forests and biodiversity, but the question of whether reserves work is still debated. In the Amazon, fires are closely linked to deforestation, and thus can be used as a proxy for reserve effectiveness in protecting forest cover. We ask whether reserves in the Brazilian Amazon provide effective protection against deforestation and consequently fires, whether that protection is because of their location or their legal status, and whether...

  12. Declining fertility on the frontier: the Ecuadorian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, David L.; Pan, William K. Y.; Bilsborrow, Richard E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines farm and household characteristics associated with a rapid fertility decline in a forest frontier of the Ecuadorian Amazon. The Amazon basin and other rainforests in the tropics are among the last frontiers in the ongoing global fertility transition. The pace of this transition along agricultural frontiers will likely have major implications for future forest transitions, rural development, and ultimately urbanization in frontier areas. The study here is based upon data fr...

  13. Amazon's Profit Falls, but Beats Expectations,as Company Invests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Fpr Amazon.com, down is the new up.The Internet retailer said Tuesday that its second-quarter profit dropped by 8 percent, which might seem like bad news.But the decline was not nearly as much as Amazon, or analysts, had expected, and the profit was being sacrificed for what the company said was a good cause, new investments in technology and warehouses.Revenue continued to be strong, rising 51 percent.

  14. Archaeometric study of Amazon ceramic; Estudo arqueometrico de cermicas do Amazonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabino, Claudia de Vilhena Schayer; Amaral, Angela Maria [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Poirior, Andre Pierre Prous [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Museu de Historia Natural; Guapindaia, Vera [Museu Emilio Goeldi, Belem, PA (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    There is no evidence of urban civilization in Brazilian prehistory; most inhabitants lived in tribal organization, probably with regional economic integration among several independent tribes. There are few evidences of seasonal migrations between the coast and the inland of southern Brazil. Some specialized horticulturists competed among themselves but other groups lived more isolatedly and probably peacefully, in the upper interfluvial regions. The chiefdom system is supposed to have existed only along the Amazon River. In this region, some pottery makers may have been specialized craftsmen and finest ceramics, that should have been exported from one village/region to another, can be found. In this study we tested some limited possibilities in three different cultural and regional contexts to see if application of analytic analysis in economically and politically 'simple' societies should give any results. (author)

  15. Erosion of particulate organic material from an Andean river and its delivery to the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kathryn; Hilton, Robert; West, A. Joshua; Robles Caceres, Arturo; Grocke, Darren; Marthews, Toby; Asner, Greg; New, Mark; Mahli, Yadvinder

    2016-04-01

    Organic carbon and nutrients discharged by mountainous rivers can play an important role in biogeochemical cycles from regional to global scales. The eastern Andes host productive forests on steep, rapidly eroding slopes, a combination that is primed to deliver sediment, carbon and nutrients to the lowland Amazon River. We quantify clastic sediment and particulate organic carbon (POC) discharge for the Kosñipata River, Peru, an Andean tributary of the Madre de Dios River, using suspended sediment samples and discharge measurements over one year at two gauging stations. Calculations of sediment yield on the basis of this data suggest that the Madre de Dios basin may have erosion rates ˜10 times greater than the Amazon Basin average. The total POC yield over the sampling period was up to five times higher than the yield in the lowland Amazon Basin, with most POC (70-80%) exported between December and March in the wet season. We use radiocarbon, stable C isotopes and C/N ratios to distinguish between the erosion and discharge of POC from sedimentary rocks (petrogenic POC) and POC eroded from the modern terrestrial biosphere, from vegetation and soil (biospheric POC). We find that biospheric POC discharge was significantly enhanced during flood events, over that of clastic sediment and petrogenic POC. The ultimate fate of the eroded POC may play a central role in the net carbon budget of Andean forest. In these forests, net productivity minus heterotrophic respiration is close to zero at the scale of forest plots, and the erosion of biospheric POC by this Andean river is sufficiently rapid that its fate downstream (sedimentary burial/preservation versus oxidation/degradation) may determine whether the mountain forest is a carbon sink or source to the atmosphere. In addition, the measured discharge of petrogenic POC suggests that fluxes from the Andes may be considerably higher than measured downstream in the Madeira River. If this petrogenic POC is oxidised rather

  16. Simian malaria at two sites in the Brazilian Amazon: I-The infection rates of Plasmodium brasilianum in non-human primates

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Lourenço-de-Oliveira; Leonidas M. Deane

    1995-01-01

    The parasite that causes simian malaria in the Brazilian Amazon, Plasmodium brasilianum, is infective to man. In this region, where humans live within and in close proximity to the forest, it was suspected that this parasite could be the cause of a zoonosis. A study was performed in the areas surrounding two hydroelectric plants in the Amazon, Balbina and Samuel, aiming at determining the zoonotic potential of this parasite. P. brasilianum was detected in, respectively, 15.8% and 9.9% of 126 ...

  17. Evolution of Land Use in the Brazilian Amazon: From Frontier Expansion to Market Chain Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana S. Soler

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural census data and fieldwork observations are used to analyze changes in land cover/use intensity across Rondônia and Mato Grosso states along the agricultural frontier in the Brazilian Amazon. Results show that the development of land use is strongly related to land distribution structure. While large farms have increased their share of annual and perennial crops, small and medium size farms have strongly contributed to the development of beef and milk market chains in both Rondônia and Mato Grosso. Land use intensification has occurred in the form of increased use of machinery, labor in agriculture and stocking rates of cattle herds. Regional and national demands have improved infrastructure and productivity. The data presented show that the distinct pathways of land use development are related to accessibility to markets and processing industry as well as to the agricultural colonization history of the region. The data analyzed do not provide any indication of frontier stagnation, i.e., the slowdown of agricultural expansion, in the Brazilian Amazon. Instead of frontier stagnation, the data analyzed indicate that intensification processes in consolidated areas as well as recent agricultural expansion into forest areas are able to explain the cycle of expansion and retraction of the agricultural frontier into the Amazon region. The evolution of land use is useful for scenario analysis of both land cover change and land use intensification and provides insights into the role of market development and policies on land use.

  18. Spatial variability of soil carbon stock in the Urucu river basin, Central Amazon-Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceddia, Marcos Bacis; Villela, André Luis Oliveira; Pinheiro, Érika Flávia Machado; Wendroth, Ole

    2015-09-01

    The Amazon Forest plays a major role in C sequestration and release. However, few regional estimates of soil organic carbon (SOC) stock in this ecoregion exist. One of the barriers to improve SOC estimates is the lack of recent soil data at high spatial resolution, which hampers the application of new methods for mapping SOC stock. The aims of this work were: (i) to quantify SOC stock under undisturbed vegetation for the 0-30 and the 0-100 cm under Amazon Forest; (ii) to correlate the SOC stock with soil mapping units and relief attributes and (iii) to evaluate three geostatistical techniques to generate maps of SOC stock (ordinary, isotopic and heterotopic cokriging). The study site is located in the Central region of Amazon State, Brazil. The soil survey covered the study site that has an area of 80 km(2) and resulted in a 1:10,000 soil map. It consisted of 315 field observations (96 complete soil profiles and 219 boreholes). SOC stock was calculated by summing C stocks by horizon, determined as a product of BD, SOC and the horizon thickness. For each one of the 315 soil observations, relief attributes were derived from a topographic map to understand SOC dynamics. The SOC stocks across 30 and 100 cm soil depth were 3.28 and 7.32 kg C m(-2), respectively, which is, 34 and 16%, lower than other studies. The SOC stock is higher in soils developed in relief forms exhibiting well-drained soils, which are covered by Upland Dense Tropical Rainforest. Only SOC stock in the upper 100 cm exhibited spatial dependence allowing the generation of spatial variability maps based on spatial (co)-regionalization. The CTI was inversely correlated with SOC stock and was the only auxiliary variable feasible to be used in cokriging interpolation. The heterotopic cokriging presented the best performance for mapping SOC stock.

  19. Cartography of affections in the Bragantine Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ênio José da Costa Brito

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This communication synthetically presents some elements of Jerônimo Silva e Silva’s ethnographic research. Actually it is the outlines of his doctoral thesis Cartography of affections in the encantaria: religious masters narratives from Bragantine Amazon. Silva lines out an ethnography via a cartographic flow having in mind to capture its live forces or movers. Using hermeneutics data from these narratives and living with some religious agents in situ – Pajé-Exorcista Cristino, Pajé Edvaldo, Mãe Terezinha, Mãe Lourdes, Rezadeira Luiza, Mãe Ana e Experiente Zé Maria – he unveils a plurality of relationships between people and incantation. Using some local technical concepts like corda (rope, linha (line, viração (breeze he discloses a rich social complexity in this religion of the incantation.

  20. Fog and rain in the Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anber, Usama; Gentine, Pierre; Wang, Shuguang; Sobel, Adam H

    2015-09-15

    The diurnal and seasonal water cycles in the Amazon remain poorly simulated in general circulation models, exhibiting peak evapotranspiration in the wrong season and rain too early in the day. We show that those biases are not present in cloud-resolving simulations with parameterized large-scale circulation. The difference is attributed to the representation of the morning fog layer, and to more accurate characterization of convection and its coupling with large-scale circulation. The morning fog layer, present in the wet season but absent in the dry season, dramatically increases cloud albedo, which reduces evapotranspiration through its modulation of the surface energy budget. These results highlight the importance of the coupling between the energy and hydrological cycles and the key role of cloud albedo feedback for climates over tropical continents. PMID:26324902

  1. Bold enterprise in Amazon basin. [Gmelina arborea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, D.

    1980-08-30

    The aim of the Jari project in Brazil is to produce food and forest products for world markets by developing a 15,000 square km tract in the Amazon basin. A pulpmill and power plant came on stream in 1979 and since then have been meeting production targets of high quality bleached pulp. The key to the success of the project has been the introduction of a fast-growing hardwood native to S.E. Asia, Gmelina arborea, which reaches a height of 30 m after 10 years, and is suitable for most wood products, pulp, sawn timber, veneer, plywood, and particleboard. It is stated that preparations are under-way to introduce Jari hardwood to European markets.

  2. Dimethyl sulfide in the Amazon rain forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, K.; Yañez-Serrano, A. M.; Williams, J.; Kunert, N.; Jardine, A.; Taylor, T.; Abrell, L.; Artaxo, P.; Guenther, A.; Hewitt, C. N.; House, E.; Florentino, A. P.; Manzi, A.; Higuchi, N.; Kesselmeier, J.; Behrendt, T.; Veres, P. R.; Derstroff, B.; Fuentes, J. D.; Martin, S. T.; Andreae, M. O.

    2015-01-01

    Surface-to-atmosphere emissions of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) may impact global climate through the formation of gaseous sulfuric acid, which can yield secondary sulfate aerosols and contribute to new particle formation. While oceans are generally considered the dominant sources of DMS, a shortage of ecosystem observations prevents an accurate analysis of terrestrial DMS sources. Using mass spectrometry, we quantified ambient DMS mixing ratios within and above a primary rainforest ecosystem in the central Amazon Basin in real-time (2010-2011) and at high vertical resolution (2013-2014). Elevated but highly variable DMS mixing ratios were observed within the canopy, showing clear evidence of a net ecosystem source to the atmosphere during both day and night in both the dry and wet seasons. Periods of high DMS mixing ratios lasting up to 8 h (up to 160 parts per trillion (ppt)) often occurred within the canopy and near the surface during many evenings and nights. Daytime gradients showed mixing ratios (up to 80 ppt) peaking near the top of the canopy as well as near the ground following a rain event. The spatial and temporal distribution of DMS suggests that ambient levels and their potential climatic impacts are dominated by local soil and plant emissions. A soil source was confirmed by measurements of DMS emission fluxes from Amazon soils as a function of temperature and soil moisture. Furthermore, light- and temperature-dependent DMS emissions were measured from seven tropical tree species. Our study has important implications for understanding terrestrial DMS sources and their role in coupled land-atmosphere climate feedbacks.

  3. Spatiotemporal patterns of tropical deforestation and forest degradation in response to the operation of the Tucuruí hydroelectricdam in the Amazon basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Gang; Powers, Ryan P.; Carvalho, de Luis M.T.; Mora, Brice

    2015-01-01

    The planned construction of hundreds of hydroelectric dams in the Amazon basin has the potential to provide invaluable ‘clean’ energy resources for aiding in securing future regional energy needs and continued economic growth. These mega-structures, however, directly and indirectly interfere with na

  4. Changes in soil physical and chemical properties in long term improved natural and traditional agroforestry management systems of cacao genotypes in Peruvian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditional slash and burn agriculture practiced in the Peruvian Amazon region is leading to soil degradation and deforestation of native forest flora. The only way to stop such destructive processes is through the adoptation of sustainable alternatives such as growing crops in agroforestry systems....

  5. Immunomodulatory and toxicological evaluation of the fruit seeds from Platonia insignis, a native species from Brazilian Amazon Rainforest

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Karina M.F. Lustosa; Daniel D.R. Arcanjo; Rayra G. Ribeiro; Klinger Antonio F. Rodrigues; Flávia Franceli B. Passos; Celyane A. Piauilino; José Couras Silva-Filho; Bruno Q. Araújo; José S. Lima-Neto; Joaquim S. Costa-Júnior; Fernando Aécio A. Carvalho; Antônia Maria das Graças L. Citó

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The “bacuri” (Platonia insignis Mart., Clusiaceae) is a native tropical fruit from the Brazilian Amazon and Northeast Regions. Its seeds are used to treat inflammatory diseases, diarrhea and skin problems in traditional medical practices. Regarding its widespread medicinal uses, it is important to evaluate the biological and toxicological potential of this species. This way, the aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro cytotoxic and immunomodulatory effects of the hexanic ex...

  6. Reforestation feasibility in area formerly used for cattle rasing in the state of Rondônia, Northwest Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Michelliny de Matos Bentes Gama; Rodrigo Barros Rocha; Ana Karina Dias Salman; Ângelo Mansur Mendes; Marivaldo Rodrigues Figueiró

    2013-01-01

    Little knowledge on initial behavior of native tree species in recovering landscapes in the Amazon is a current concern for expanding reforestation in the region. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the establishment of native tree species that could be used for reforestation in area previously covered by a pasture of brachiaria grass (Brachiaria brizantha) destined for intensive cattle rasing in the State of Rondônia. For this, there were performed previous diagnostic of landscape ch...

  7. Birds of Two Oceans? Trans-Andean and Divergent Migration of Black Skimmers (Rynchops niger cinerascens) from the Peruvian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa C Davenport; Goodenough, Katharine S.; Haugaasen, Torbjørn

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal flooding compels some birds that breed in aquatic habitats in Amazonia to undertake annual migrations, yet we know little about how the complex landscape of the Amazon region is used seasonally by these species. The possibility of trans-Andes migration for Amazonian breeding birds has largely been discounted given the high geographic barrier posed by the Andean Cordillera and the desert habitat along much of the Pacific Coast. Here we demonstrate a trans-Andes route for Black Skimmer...

  8. A new genus of Entomobryinae (Collembola, Entomobryidae) from Brazilian Amazon with body scales and dental spines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipola, Nikolas Gioia; Morais, José Wellington De; Bellini, Bruno Cavalcante

    2016-01-01

    A new monotypic genus of Entomobryinae from Brazilian Amazon is described and illustrated. Amazhomidia gen. nov. is similar to other genera of the subfamily, especially to Sinhomidia Zhang, in presence of apically pointed scales on body dorsally and spines on dens. It differs from all other genera of Entomobryinae by the combination of: bifurcate prelabral chaetae, cephalic groove with scale-like chaetae and two transverse rows macrochaetae present on anterior central region of the abdominal IV segment. Amazhomidia ducke sp. nov., the type species of the new genus is described. An identification key to the genera of Entomobryidae with scales and dental spines is also provided. PMID:27394776

  9. Mycocinogenic yeasts isolated from Amazon soils of the Maracá Ecological Station, Roraima-Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vital Marcos José Salgado

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The 240 yeasts isolated from soils of the Maracá Ecological Station in the Brazilian Amazon were identified and screened for mycocin production. These strains included 82% of ascomycetous and 18% basidiomicetous affinities and the prevalent species were Candida etchellsii, Candida famata, Candida robusta, Candida rugosa, Candida valida, Debaryomyces hansenii, Cryptococcus albidus, Cryptococcus laurentii, Rhodotorula glutinis, Rhodotorula minuta and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. Mycocins able to kill some yeasts were produced by 6 strains identified as Issatchenkia sp., Saccharomyces exiguus?, Williopsis saturnus, var. subsufficiens, and 3 W. saturnus according to 26S rDNA D1/D2 region sequence and phenotypic data.

  10. Unofficial Road Building in the Amazon: Socioeconomic and Biophysical Explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perz, Stephen G.; Caldas, Marcellus M.; Arima, Eugenio; Walker, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Roads have manifold social and environmental impacts, including regional development, social conflicts and habitat fragmentation. 'Road ecology' has emerged as an approach to evaluate the various ecological and hydrological impacts of roads. This article aims to complement road ecology by examining the socio-spatial processes of road building itself. Focusing on the Brazilian Amazon, a heavily-studied context due to forest fragmentation by roads, the authors consider non-state social actors who build 'unofficial roads' for the purpose of gaining access to natural resources to support livelihoods and community development. They examine four case studies of roads with distinct histories in order to explain the socio-spatial processes behind road building in terms of profit maximization, land tenure claims, co-operative and conflictive political ecologies, and constraints as well as opportunities afforded by the biophysical environment. The study cases illustrate the need for a multi-pronged theoretical approach to understanding road building, and call for more attention to the role of non-state actors in unofficial road construction.

  11. Ten years experience with Jorge Lobo's disease in the state of Acre, Amazon region, Brazil Dez anos de experiência com a Doença de Jorge Lobo no estado do Acre, região amazônica, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William John Woods

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Jorge Lobo's disease is a cutaneous and subcutaneous mycosis that affects patients in the Amazon region. The number of patients is relatively small, but the real situation of the disease as public health problem is not known, because Jorge Lobo's disease is not a notifiable disease. This study aims to report the clinical evolution in patients affected and to determine the prevalence and areas of occurrence of the disease. A retrospective study was carried out based on the analysis of the clinical records, which included a collection of photographs of patients in the Department of Sanitary Dermatology, in Rio Branco, and patients seen in the interior of the state. In a decade, in Rio Branco, 249 cases of the disease were reported, 30 were females and 219 males. Of these patients, 153 had localized lesions, 94 of them were on one ear, 55 had multifocal lesions and 41 had disseminated lesions. The average time between the onset of symptoms and diagnosis was 19 years. The average age at the time of diagnosis was 53 years, and ages ranged from 14 to 96 years.A doença de Jorge Lobo é micose cutânea e subcutânea que afeta pessoas na região Amazônica. O número de pacientes é relativamente pequeno, no entanto, a real prevalência da doença como problema de saúde pública é pouco conhecida. A doença de Jorge Lobo não é de notificação compulsória. Este estudo teve como objetivo determinar a prevalência, as áreas de ocorrência da doença de Jorge Lobo, além de sua evolução clínica. Um estudo retrospectivo foi desenvolvido com base na análise de prontuários de pacientes, incluindo documentação fotográfica dos mesmos, que foram atendidos no Departamento de Dermatologia Sanitária em Rio Branco e no interior do Estado. Foram registrados 249 casos em uma década em Rio Branco, 30 mulheres e 219 homens. Do total 153 apresentavam lesões localizadas, 94 lesões em apenas uma orelha, 55 lesões multifocais e 41 lesões disseminadas. A

  12. Composição mineral de uma linhagem de Pleurotus ostreatus cultivada em resíduos madeireiros e agroindustriais da região amazônica Mineral composition of Pleurotus ostreatus strain grown in wood and agroindustrial residues from the Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceci Sales-Campos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Os cogumelos do gênero Pleurotus são cultivados em diversos substratos lignocelulósicos, dada a atividade decompositora desses organismos proveniente de seu metabolismo enzimático. O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar a composição mineral de Pleurotus ostreatus e dos substratos de cultivo preparados à base de resíduos madeireiros e agroindustriais da região amazônica. Foram analisados macro (P, K, Ca e Mg e micronutrientes (Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn e Na dos cogumelos e dos substratos. Os substratos foram formulados a partir da serragem de Simarouba amara Aubl. (marupá, Ochroma piramidale Cav. ex. Lam. (pau de balsa e de bagaços de Bactris gasipaes Kunth (pupunheira e de Saccharum officinarum (cana-de-açúcar. As amostras foram solubilizadas mediante digestão ácida (nítrico-peridrol. Os elementos Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn e Mn foram determinados por espectrometria de absorção atômica; o Na e K, por emissão atômica e o P, por colorimetria. A composição mineral do cogumelo variou com o substrato de cultivo. Os diferentes substratos possibilitaram a produção de um cogumelo rico em K, P, Mg e Fe, essenciais à nutrição e à saúde humana. O potássio foi o mineral de maior teor no cogumelo em todos os substratos testados (36,83-42,18 g.kg-1, seguido de fósforo (6,95-10,60 g.kg-1 e do magnésio (1,57-2,50 g.kg-1.Mushrooms belonging to the Pleurotus gender are grown in several lignocellulosic substrates due to the decomposing activity of these organisms that result from their enzymatic metabolism. The objective of the present study was to analyze the mineral composition of Pleurotus ostreatus and the cultivation substrates prepared with wood and agroindustrial residues from the Amazon region. Macro (P, K, Ca and Mg and micronutrients (Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn and Na of mushroom and substrates were analyzed. Substrates were formulated from Simarouba amara Aubl. and Ochroma piramidale Cav. ex. Lam. sawdust and crushed Bactris gasipaes Kunth

  13. Prevalência e gravidade da cárie dentária e necessidade de tratamento em crianças de 12 anos de município de pequeno porte inserido no contexto amazônico Prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs among 12-year-old children in a small-sized municipality in the Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Tobias

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento da prevalência da cárie dentária em municípios inseridos no contexto amazônico é pouco observado na literatura científica. O presente estudo visa investigar a prevalência e necessidade de tratamento da população de crianças de 12 anos de Rio Preto da Eva, Amazonas no ano de 2007, segundo o sexo e o tipo de localidade (rural e urbana. O estudo transversal foi de natureza descritiva e exploratória com a coleta de dados primários da doença, cujo desenho teve como base o levantamento epidemiológico SB-Brasil 2003. A amostra foi constituída por 344 crianças nas residências e escolas na zona rural e urbana do município. O índice CPO-D geral encontrado foi de 3,73 (+0,17 com predomínio do componente cariado. O percentual de crianças livres de cárie nas zonas urbana e rural foi de 12,5 e 13,6, respectivamente. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre os sexos e os tipos de localidade. Na zona rural existem cerca de duas vezes mais dentes com necessidade de tratamento do que na zona urbana. O tratamento restaurador representou a maior necessidade de tratamento desta população (86,2%. A prevalência de cárie na população de 12 anos de idade, em Rio Preto da Eva-AM, é moderada e o CPO-D médio encontrado está acima da meta estabelecida para o ano 2.000 pela FDI/OMS. Os dados evidenciam a necessidade de implementação de medidas de atenção à saúde bucal que sejam capazes de intervir nos determinantes da cárie dentária na população estudada.Scientific literature encloses little knowledge on the prevalence of dental caries in municipalities in the Amazon region. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence and treatment needs in the population of 12-year-old children in the municipality of Rio Preto da Eva, Amazonas, in the year 2007, according to gender and type of locality (rural or urban. This was a cross-sectional study of descriptive and exploratory nature with collection of

  14. Color change using HSB color system of dental resin composites immersed in different common Amazon region beverages Alteração de cor de resinas compostas imersas em diferentes bebidas comuns da região Amazônica, utilizando o sistema de cor HSB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora da Costa e Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate in vitro the color stability of composite resins when exposed to beverages with high coloring contents from the Amazon region. 240 samples from four different composite brands (Natural Look, Z350, 4Seasons and Opallis of hue A3 were fabricated using an acrylic matrix. The samples were stored in distilled water at 37ºC for 24 hours. The initial color (T0 was registered using a Canon EOS Rebel XTi 10 mp camera, and then the samples were divided into four groups (n=15: G1 (coffee, G2 (açaí juice, G3 (energetic guaraná and G4 (control - distilled water. The samples were exposed to solutions of DES (6hs and RE (18hs and placed in a double boiler under constant agitation, at 37ºC for 30 days. The samples were immersed in the coloring solutions for 15 minutes daily. After 7, 15 and 30 days, new photographic registers were made (T1, T2 and T3. The images were analyzed using Corel PHOTO-PAINT 12 software to identify the colors through the HSB system. The Kruskal-Wallis and t tests (pEste estudo propôs avaliar in vitro a estabilidade de cor de alguns compósitos quando expostos a bebidas da Região Amazônica com alto teor de corante. Foram confeccionados 240 corpos de prova (CP de quatro resinas (Natural Look, Z350, 4Seasons e Opallis no matiz A3 utilizando uma matriz de acrílico. As amostras foram armazenadas em água deionizada a 37ºC por 24 horas. A cor inicial das resinas (T0 foi registrada utilizando a máquina Canon EOS Rebel XTi 10Mp, e em seguida os CP foram divididos em 4 grupos (n=15: G1 (café, G2 (suco de açaí, G3 (guaraná energético e G4 (controle - água destilada. Os CP foram submetidos às soluções DES (6hs e RE (18hs e colocados em banho-maria, sob constante agitação, à temperatura de 37ºC durante 30 dias. Diariamente os corpos de prova foram imersos nas soluções corantes durante 15 minutos. Após 7, 15 e 30 dias realizaram-se novos registros fotográficos (T1, T2 e T3. As

  15. Oil and gas projects in Amazon: an environmental challenge; Projetos de petroleo e gas na Amazonia: um desafio ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taam, Mauricio [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Cabral, Nelson [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Regional Norte SMS ; Cardoso, Vanderlei [TRANSPETRO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Gerencia de Seguranca, Meio Ambiente e Saude

    2004-07-01

    In the heart of the Amazon forest, some 600 km from the city of Manaus, the Brazilian Oil Company - PETROBRAS - is developing the 'URUCU PROJECT'. Consisting on 3 oil and gas production fields and 3 natural gas processing plant, 2 huge pipelines crossing the dense Amazon forest and its rivers and going towards COARI - the Fluvial Terminal of Solimoes river. Then, vessels and ferries, loads LGN to the north region and oil to feed the Manaus refinery plant. In a near future natural gas pipelines will connect COARI to Manaus and URUCU to Porto Velho. The whole project will allow energy supply to the less developed and isolated region of Brazil, and brings relief for the local population, but represents one of the biggest challenges for the oil and gas industry in terms of environmental sustainability for projects in very sensitive areas. The paper concludes that it is viable to face such a challenges counting on an Environmental Management System tailored to fit the region peculiarities, including a high level of Preparedness and Response for oil incidents, and last but never least assuming a respectful attitude towards the Amazon and its people. (author)

  16. Spatial and temporal vegetation change in Southern Brazilian Amazon using GIS and NOAA /AVHRR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazadi, S.; Yoshikawa, S.

    2007-05-01

    Over the past two decades, environmental alteration in the Amazon Basin due to land development, population increase, and the consequent deforestation, has become a serious ecological problem in this region known to be, both climatologically and biogenetically, one of the most important regions in the world. In Mato Grosso, the Brazilian state with the highest deforestation rate, vegetation cover change has been reported to occur over large areas due to the introduction of large-scale mechanized agriculture, extensive cattle ranching and slash-and-burn cultivation. Spatial and temporal land cover (vegetation) change is noted to potentially set up temperature increase and rainfall decrease. We stress on the importance of vegetation change information as crucial inputs for eco-climatic analysis of these spatial patterns of change and their temporal trend at local scale, as well as for real-time monitoring or detection of the deforestation events for appropriate action by the Brazilian government. In this study, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is performed onto NOAA AVHRR remote-sensed and multi- spectral data covering the 1981-2003 period, using GIS. Our investigation focuses on developing a vegetation quantification algorithm for change detection in the vegetation cover over every few years, using the PCA first component, which is shown to characterize the overall vegetation cover types. Land cover features and their spatio-temporal change over the Southern Brazilian Amazon are analyzed and discussed, and their relationships with global and regional eco-climatic phenomena is highlighted.

  17. Multisensor observations of the Amazon-Orinoco river plume interactions with hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reul, Nicolas; Quilfen, Yves; Chapron, Bertrand; Fournier, Severine; Kudryavtsev, Vladimir; Sabia, Roberto

    2014-12-01

    An analysis is presented for the spatial and intensity distributions of North Atlantic extreme atmospheric events crossing the buoyant Amazon-Orinoco freshwater plume. The sea surface cooling amplitude in the wake of an ensemble of storm tracks traveling in that region is estimated from satellite products for the period 1998-2012. For the most intense storms, cooling is systematically reduced by ˜50% over the plume area compared to surroundings open-ocean waters. Historical salinity and temperature observations from in situ profiles indicate that salt-driven vertical stratification, enhanced oceanic heat content, and barrier-layer presence within the plume waters are likely key oceanic factors to explain these results. Satellite SMOS surface salinity data combined with in situ observations are further used to detail the oceanic response to category 4 hurricane Igor in 2010. Argo and satellite measurements confirm the haline stratification impact on the cooling inhibition as the hurricane crossed the river plume. Over this region, the SSS mapping capability is further tested and demonstrated to monitor the horizontal distribution of the vertical stratification parameter. SMOS SSS data can thus be used to consistently anticipate the cooling inhibition in the wake of TCs traveling over the Amazon-Orinoco plume region.

  18. Soil Organic Matter Dynamics from Forest to Pasture Conversion in the Brazilian Amazon using Modelling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerri, C. P.; Easter, M.; Paustian, K.; Coleman, K.; Bernoux, M.; Melillo, J.; Cerri, C. C.

    2006-12-01

    Land use and land cover changes in the Brazilian Amazon have major implications for regional and even global carbon cycling. Cattle pasture represents the largest single use (about 70%) of this once-forested land in most of the region. The main objective of this study was to use a modelling approach to examine the dynamics of soil carbon when forest is converted to pasture in the Brazilian Amazon. We used data from eleven site- specific `forest to pasture' chronosequences with the Century Ecosystem Model and the Rothamsted Carbon Model. The Century and RothC models predicted that forest clearance and conversion to well managed pasture would cause an initial decline in soil C stocks (0-20 cm depth), followed by a slow rise to levels exceeding those under native forest. The only exception to this pattern was found for a chronosequence in Suia-Missu, which is under degraded pasture. Statistical tests were applied to determine levels of agreement between simulated soil organic carbon stocks and observed stocks for all the sites within the 11 chronosequences in the Brazilian Amazon. The models also provided reasonable estimates (coefficient of correlation = 0.8) of the microbial biomass C in the 0-10 cm soil layer for two chronosequences when compared with available measured data. The Century model adequately predicted the magnitude and the overall trend in 13C for the six chronosequences where measured 13C data were available. Our results suggest that modelling techniques can be successfully used for monitoring soil C stocks and changes, allowing both the identification of current patterns in the soil and the prediction of future conditions.

  19. The role of clouds in the surface energy balance over the Amazon forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deforestation in the Amazon region will initially impact the energy balance at the land surface through changes in land cover and surface hydrology. However, continuation of this human activity will eventually lead to atmospheric feedbacks, including changes in cloudiness which may play an important role in the final equilibrium of solar and terrestrial radiation at the surface. In this study, the different components of surface radiation over an undisturbed forest in the Amazon region are computed using data from the Amazon region micrometerological experiment (ARME). Several measures of cloudiness are defined: two estimated from the terrestrial radiation measurements, and one from the solar radiation measurements. The sensitivity of the surface fluxes of solar and terrestrial radiation to natural variability in cloudiness is investigated to infer the potential role of the cloudiness feedback in the surface energy balance. The results of this analysis indicate that a 1% decrease in cloudiness would increase net solar radiation by ca. 1.6 W/m2. However, the overall magnitude of this feedback, due to total deforestation of the Amazon forest, is likely to be of the same order as the magnitude of the decrease in net solar radiation due to the observed increase in surface albedo following deforestation. Hence, the total change in net solar radiation is likely to have a negligible magnitude. In contrast to this conclusion, we find that terrestrial radiation is likely to be more strongly affected; reduced cloudiness will decrease net terrestrial radiation; a 1% decrease in cloudiness induces a reduction in net terrestrial radiation of ca. 0.7 W/m2; this process augments the similar effects of the predicted warming and drying in the boundary layer. Due to the cloudiness feedback, the most significant effect of large-scale deforestation on the surface energy balance is likely to be in the modification of the terrestrial radiation field rather than the classical albedo

  20. 77 FR 14852 - Advanced Growing Systems, Inc., Advantage Capital Development Corp., Amazon Biotech, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Advanced Growing Systems, Inc., Advantage Capital Development Corp., Amazon Biotech, Inc., Andover... of current and accurate information concerning the securities of Amazon ] Biotech, Inc. because...

  1. Radionuclide tracers of sediment-water interactions on the Amazon shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Willard S.; DeMaster, David J.; Smoak, Joseph M.; McKee, Brent A.; Swarzenski, Peter W.

    1996-04-01

    resuspend the top 35 em of sediment over the entire shelf each year, or mix the surface layer (SL, the region of uniform sedimentary 210Pb depth profiles) to a depth of 90 cm annually. Such mixing would turn over the entire SL every 1-2 years. Desorption of sedimentary radium isotopes must be accompanied by the desorption of other exchangeable species including phosphate, cesium and cadmium. Correlations among phosphate and radium isotopes, infer that phosphate is being released from bottom sediments as the sediments are resuspended into the water column. As was the case for 226Ra, bottom sediment must be repeatedly suspended into the water column to release all of the exchangeable phosphate. The desorption of 224Ra from shelf sediments provides a tracer of the Amazon plume into the Atlantic. In July and September 1989, the ship crossed the Demerara retroflection 380 km from the Amazon shelf and excess 224Ra activities up to 8 dpm 100 kg -1 were measured. It was concluded that these waters were 80 em s -1 would be required to advect the water this distance in releases during August 1989.

  2. Use of morphometric soil aggregates parameters to evaluate the reclamation process in mined areas located at amazon forest - Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, A. I.; Fengler, F. H.; Longo, R. M.; Mello, G. F.; Damame, D. B.; Crowley, D. E.

    2015-12-01

    Brazil has a high mineral potential that have been explored over the years. A large fraction of these mineral resources are located in Amazon region, which is known for its large biodiversity and world climate importance. As the policies that control the Amazon preservation are relatively new, several mining activities have been exploring the Amazon territory, promoting a large process of degradation. Once the mining activities have a high potential of environmental changes the government created polices to restrain the mining in Amazon forests and obligate mining companies to reclaim theirs minded areas. However, the measurement of reclamation development still is a challenging task for the Professionals involved. The volume and complexity of the variables, allied to the difficulty in identifying the reclamation of ecosystem functionalities are still lack to ensure the reclamation success. In this sense this work aims to investigate the representativeness of morphometric soil aggregates parameters in the understanding of reclamation development. The study area is located in the National Forest of Jamari, State of Rondônia. In the past mining companies explored the region producing eight closed mines that are now in reclamation process. The soil aggregates morphometric measurements: geometric mean diameter (GMD), aggregate circularity index, and aggregate roundness, were choose based in its obtaining facility, and their association to biological activity. To achieve the proposed objective the aggregates of eight sites in reclamation, from different closed mines, where chosen and compared to Amazon forest and open mine soil aggregates. The results were analyzed to one way ANOVA to identifying differences between areas in reclamation, natural ecosystem, and open mine. It was obtained differences for GMD and circularity index. However, only the circularity index allowed to identifying differences between the reclamation sites. The results allowed concluding: (1

  3. Impacts of climate variability and extreme events on the terrestrial carbon cycle of the Amazon basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, A. B.; Cox, P.; Wiltshire, A.; Friedlingstein, P.; Jones, C. D.; Mercado, L.; Groenendijk, M.; Sitch, S.

    2013-12-01

    Several climate models predict reduced dry season rainfall in the Amazon region as a consequence of climate change. Drier dry seasons could have profound negative consequences for the forest, since soil moisture levels are already near their lower limit during this time of the year. Two recent dry season droughts (during 2005 and 2010) could provide insight into the future of the region. These droughts were associated with sea surface temperature anomalies in the tropical North Atlantic Ocean. Additionally, El Niño-related temperature anomalies in the tropical Pacific Ocean can lead to drought in the northern Amazon. In this work, we use a land surface model with updated physiology and vegetation dynamics to investigate responses of the Amazon terrestrial carbon cycle to recent droughts. JULES (the Joint UK Land-Environment Simulator) is the land surface model in the Hadley Centre Earth System Model. Several recent model developments have improved its ability to replicate seasonal cycles of land fluxes in tropical forests, such as new plant functional types, plant trait-based physiological parameters, and a multi-layer canopy with two-stream radiation and sunfleck penetration. In addition, several non-standard updates to JULES can improve the model in this region: including a representation of deeper soils and efficient roots, and parameter optimization. The soil and rooting adjustments are based on previous work with the Simple Biosphere (SiB3) model, which has been tested extensively in the Amazon. SiB3 can include a climate-derived, spatially varying predictor of forest drought resistance, which enabled it to simulate forest response to persistent soil moisture deficits during two rainfall exclusion projects in the Amazon. We ran JULES from pre-industrial to present day, forced with observed climate, atmospheric CO2, and land use. A mixture of satellite- and ground-based observations was used to validate JULES seasonal cycles of surface fluxes, phenology

  4. Ocorrência do molusco asiático Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774 (Bivalvia, Corbiculidae no baixo rio Negro, Amazônia central Occurrence of the Asian mollusc Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774 (Bivalvia, Corbiculidae in the lower Rio Negro, Central Amazon Region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Mansur Pimpão

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O rio Negro é um dos maiores afluentes do rio Amazonas, mas poucos moluscos foram registrados até o momento para aquele rio, representados apenas por gastrópodes. Foi registrada a presença do molusco bivalve exótico Corbicula fluminea na margem esquerda do baixo rio Negro, no lago do Tupé e no Catalão - margem direita do rio Negro, todas localidades no município de Manaus, Brasil. O registro foi realizado por meio da coleta de conchas e espécimes vivos. É o primeiro registro de C. fluminea para o estado do Amazonas e Amazônia central.The Rio Negro is one of the biggest Rio Amazonas tributaries. Few molluscs have been registered to that river yet, represented only by gastropods. It is reported the occurrence of the exotic bivalve mollusc Corbicula fluminea in left bank margin of Rio Negro, Lago do Tupé and Catalão - right bank margin of Rio Negro, all localities in the municipality of Manaus, Brazil. The species is recorded by a collection of shells and specimens alive. This is the first occurrence of C. fluminea in the Amazon State and Central Amazon.

  5. Programming Amazon Web Services S3, EC2, SQS, FPS, and SimpleDB

    CERN Document Server

    Murty, James

    2009-01-01

    With this book, you'll learn how companies can take advantage of Amazon Web Services (AWS) to rent" computing power, data storage and bandwidth on Amazon's vast network infrastructure. Programming Amazon Web Services gives developers the background and technical detail they need for using Amazon's subscription-based Simple Storage Service (S3), Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2), Simple Queue Service (SQS), Flexible Payments Service (FPS), and SimpleDB to build web-scale business applications. "

  6. Cytogenetic analysis of the Amazon stingless bee Melipona seminigra merrillae reveals different chromosome number for the genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izaura Bezerra Francini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetic analysis of the Amazon stingless bee Melipona seminigra merrillae, by conventional Giemsa staining and C-banding, revealed a different chromosome number for Melipona: 2n = 22 for females and diploid drones while the haploid drones present n = 11. There is no evidence of B chromosomes. This result contrasts with previous studies, in which the chromosome number of 19 Melipona species was determined as 2n = 18 for females and n = 9 for haploid males. Based on cytogenetic information available for other Melipona species, we propose that M. s. merrillae has a more derived diploid number. This indicates that chromosome number is not a conservative characteristic within the genus as previously thought. Cytogenetic data for stingless bees are scarce, especially in Amazon region. Additional studies will be very important in order to promote Melipona karyoevolution discussion and consequently a taxonomy review.

  7. Cytogenetic characterization of the strongly electric Amazonian eel, Electrophorus electricus (Teleostei, Gymnotiformes, from the Brazilian rivers Amazon and Araguaia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia B.A. Fonteles

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A karyotype analysis of the electric eel, Electrophorus electricus (Teleostei, Gymnotiformes, a strongly electric fish from northern South America, is presented. Two female specimens were analyzed, one from the Amazon River and one from the Araguaia River. The specimens had a chromosomal number of 2n = 52 (42M-SM + 10A. C-bands were present in a centromeric and pericentromeric position on part of the chromosomes; some interstitial C-bands were also present. Heteromorphic nucleolus organizer regions (NORs were detected in two chromosome pairs of the specimen from the Amazon River. The chromosome number and karyotype characteristics are similar to those of other Gymnotidae species. The genera Electrophorus and Gymnotus are positioned as the basal lineages in the Gymnotiformes phylogeny.

  8. A Decision Support System for Land Allocation under Multiple Objectives in Public Production Forests in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco W. Lentini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Logging in natural forests is a vital economic activity in the Brazilian Amazon. However, illegal and unplanned logging is exhausting forests rapidly. In 2006, a new forestry law in Brazil (Lei 11,284/2006 established the legal framework to develop state and national public forests for multiple uses. To support public forest planning efforts, we combine spatially explicit data on logging profits, biodiversity, and potential for community use for use within a forest planning optimization model. While generating optimal land use configurations, the model enables an assessment of the market and nonmarket tradeoffs associated with different land use priorities. We demonstrate the model's use for Faro State Forest, a 636,000 ha forest embedded within a large mosaic of conservation units recently established in the state of Pará. The datasets used span the entire Brazilian Amazon, implying that the analysis can be repeated for any public forest planning effort within the region.

  9. Seasonality and interannual variability of CH4 fluxes from the eastern Amazon Basin inferred from atmospheric mole fraction profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Luana S.; Gatti, Luciana V.; Gloor, Manuel; Miller, John B.; Domingues, Lucas G.; Correia, Caio S. C.; Borges, Viviane F.

    2016-01-01

    The Amazon Basin is an important region for global CH4 emissions. It hosts the largest area of humid tropical forests, and around 20% of this area is seasonally flooded. In a warming climate it is possible that CH4 emissions from the Amazon will increase both as a result of increased temperatures and precipitation. To examine if there are indications of first signs of such changes we present here a 13 year (2000-2013) record of regularly measured vertical CH4 mole fraction profiles above the eastern Brazilian Amazon, sensitive to fluxes from the region upwind of Santarém (SAN), between SAN and the Atlantic coast. Using a simple mass balance approach, we find substantial CH4 emissions with an annual average flux of 52.8 ± 6.8 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 over an area of approximately 1 × 106 km2. Fluxes are highest in two periods of the year: in the beginning of the wet season and during the dry season. Using a CO:CH4 emission factor estimated from the profile data, we estimated a contribution of biomass burning of around 15% to the total flux in the dry season, indicating that biogenic emissions dominate the CH4 flux. This 13 year record shows that CH4 emissions upwind of SAN varied over the years, with highest emissions in 2008 (around 25% higher than in 2007), mainly during the wet season, representing 19% of the observed global increase in this year.

  10. Genotoxic potential generated by biomass burning in the Brazilian Legal Amazon by Tradescantia micronucleus bioassay: a toxicity assessment study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artaxo Paulo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Brazilian Amazon has suffered impacts from non-sustainable economic development, especially owing to the expansion of agricultural commodities into forest areas. The Tangará da Serra region, located in the southern of the Legal Amazon, is characterized by non-mechanized sugar cane production. In addition, it lies on the dispersion path of the pollution plume generated by biomass burning. The aim of this study was to assess the genotoxic potential of the atmosphere in the Tangará da Serra region, using Tradescantia pallida as in situ bioindicator. Methods The study was conducted during the dry and rainy seasons, where the plants were exposed to two types of exposure, active and passive. Results The results showed that in all the sampling seasons, irrespective of exposure type, there was an increase in micronucleus frequency, compared to control and that it was statistically significant in the dry season. A strong and significant relationship was also observed between the increase in micronucleus incidence and the rise in fine particulate matter, and hospital morbidity from respiratory diseases in children. Conclusions Based on the results, we demonstrated that pollutants generated by biomass burning in the Brazilian Amazon can induce genetic damage in test plants that was more prominent during dry season, and correlated with the level of particulates and elevated respiratory morbidity.

  11. Spatial Variability of the Background Diurnal Cycle of Deep Convection around the GoAmazon2014/15 Field Campaign Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burleyson, Casey D.; Feng, Zhe; Hagos, Samson M.; Fast, Jerome D.; Machado, Luiz; Martin, Scot T.

    2016-07-22

    The Amazon rainforest is one of a few regions of the world where continental tropical deep convection occurs. The Amazon’s isolation makes it challenging to observe, but also creates a unique natural laboratory to study anthropogenic impacts on clouds and precipitation in an otherwise pristine environment. Extensive measurements were made upwind and downwind of the large city of Manaus, Brazil during the Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon 2014-2015 (GoAmazon2014/5) field campaign. In this study, 15 years of high-resolution satellite data are analyzed to examine the spatial and diurnal variability of convection occurring around the GoAmazon2014/5 sites. Interpretation of anthropogenic differences between the upwind (T0) and downwind (T1-T3) sites is complicated by naturally-occurring spatial variability between the sites. During the rainy season, the inland propagation of the previous day’s sea-breeze front happens to be in phase with the background diurnal cycle near Manaus, but is out of phase elsewhere. Enhanced convergence between the river-breezes and the easterly trade winds generates up to 10% more frequent deep convection at the GoAmazon2014/5 sites east of the river (T0a, T0t/k, and T1) compared to the T3 site which was located near the western bank. In general, the annual and diurnal cycles during 2014 were representative of the 2000-2013 distributions. The only exceptions were in March when the monthly mean rainrate was above the 95th percentile and September when both rain frequency and intensity were suppressed. The natural spatial variability must be accounted for before interpreting anthropogenically-induced differences among the GoAmazon2014/5 sites.

  12. No Free Lunch - Trading Away Ecosystem Services from Agriculture in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaks, D.; Foley, J.

    2008-12-01

    In the age of globalization, many crops and animal products are transported across the long distances for consumption elsewhere. The alteration of water, soil and climate systems from agricultural practices can be attributed to both exporting and importing countries. Quantities of water, carbon and nutrients (e.g. nitrog