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Sample records for amazon parrots amazona

  1. Osteoma in a blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, João Felipe Rito; Levy, Marcelo Guilherme Bezerra; Liparisi, Flavia; Romão, Mario Antonio Pinto

    2013-09-01

    Osteoma is an uncommon bone formation documented in avian species and other animals. A blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva) with clinical respiratory symptoms was examined because of a hard mass present on the left nostril. Radiographs suggested a bone tumor, and the mass was surgically excised. Histopathologic examination revealed features of an osteoma. To our knowledge, this is the first description of an osteoma in a blue-fronted Amazon parrot. Osteoma should be considered as a differential diagnosis in birds with respiratory distress and swelling of the nostril.

  2. Cloacolith in a blue-fronted amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufrère, Hugues; Nevarez, Javier; Tully, Thomas N

    2010-06-01

    A 4-year-old blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva) was admitted for vocalization secondary to constipation. Saline infusion cloacoscopy revealed the presence of a 2-cm-diameter cloacolith within the coprodeum that was obstructing the rectal opening. The cloacolith was fragmented with a pair of biopsy forceps and the pieces removed. The cloacolith was subsequently analyzed and was composed of 100% uric acid salts. The bird improved completely and was able to defecate normally after the procedure. Cloacoliths are relative uncommon cloacal conditions, and this case documents cloacoscopic findings, rectal obstruction, and confirmation of its uric acid composition by urolith analysis.

  3. A dermoid of the eye in a blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leber, A.C.; Bürge, T.

    1999-01-01

    A corneo-conjunctival dermoid is reported in a blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva). After laminar keratectomy, histology showed the epidermis with feather follicles and dermal connective tissue with lymph follicles and sebaceous glands.

  4. Intermittent bradyarrhythmia in a Hispaniolan Amazon parrot (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rembert, Melanie S; Smith, Julie A; Strickland, Keith N; Tully, Thomas N

    2008-03-01

    A clinically normal 2-year-old Hispaniolan Amazon parrot (Amazona ventralis) was found to have periodic second-degree atrioventricular (AV) block with variable nodal conductions while anesthetized with isoflurane during a thermal-support research project. Arrhythmias were observed on 5 successive weekly electrocardiograms. A complete cardiac evaluation, including a diagnostic electrocardiogram, revealed intermittent bradyarrhythmias ranging from a 2:1 to a 7:1 second-degree AV block, with concurrent hypotensive episodes during the nodal blocks. Results of a complete blood cell count, plasma biochemical profile, blood gas analysis, and atropine-response test, as well as radiography and auscultation, revealed no obvious cause for the arrhythmias. Echocardiography demonstrated cardiac wall thickness, chamber size, and systolic function similar to other psittacine birds. On return to the colony, the parrot continued to be outwardly asymptomatic despite the dramatic conduction disturbances. Although cardiac arrhythmias, including second-degree AV block, have been widely reported in birds, the wide variation of nodal conductions, the intermittent nature, and an arrhythmia with a 7:1 second-degree AV block that spontaneously reverts to normal as seen in this case have not been well documented in parrots.

  5. Single-Dose Pharmacokinetics of Piperacillin/Tazobactam in Hispaniolan Amazon Parrots ( Amazona ventralis )

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carpenter, James W; Tully, Thomas N; Gehring, Ronette; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon

    To determine the pharmacokinetics of piperacillin/tazobactam in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots ( Amazona ventralis ), 8 healthy adult parrots of both sexes were used in a 2-part study. In a pilot study, piperacillin (87 mg/kg) in combination with tazobactam (11 mg/kg) was administered intramuscularly

  6. Proventricular dilatation disease (PDD) and megaesophagus in a blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva) - case report.

    OpenAIRE

    Marietto-Goncalves, Guilherme Augusto; Zampoli Troncarelli, Marcella; Lopes Sequeira, Julio; Andreatti Filho, Raphael Lucio

    2009-01-01

    The present article relates the occurrence of Proventricular Dilatation Disease (PDD) in a 20 years old blue-fronted amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva). The bird was raised in captivity and was examined at the Ornitopathology Laboratory of São Paulo State University's Veterinarian Hospital, São Paulo State, Brazil. The parrot clinically presented regurgitation, tremors and dyspnea. This is the first case of PDD followed by megaesophagus in a blue-fronted amazon parrot (A. aestiva). This patholog...

  7. Antinociceptive effects of tramadol hydrochloride after intravenous administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geelen, Saskia; Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; Souza, Marcy J; Cox, Sherry; Keuler, Nicholas S; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R

    2013-02-01

    To determine the antinociceptive and sedative effects of tramadol in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) following IV administration. 11 healthy Hispaniolan Amazon parrots of unknown sex. Tramadol hydrochloride (5 mg/kg, IV) and an equivalent volume (≤ 0.34 mL) of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution were administered to parrots in a complete crossover study design. Foot withdrawal response to a thermal stimulus was determined 30 to 60 minutes before (baseline) and 15, 30, 60, 120, and 240 minutes after treatment administration; agitation-sedation scores were determined for parrots at each of those times. The estimated mean changes in temperature from the baseline value that elicited a foot withdrawal response were 1.65° and -1.08°C after administration of tramadol and saline solution, respectively. Temperatures at which a foot withdrawal response was elicited were significantly higher than baseline values at all 5 evaluation times after administration of tramadol and were significantly lower than baseline values at 30, 120, and 240 minutes after administration of saline solution. No sedation, agitation, or other adverse effects were observed in any of the parrots after administration of tramadol. Tramadol hydrochloride (5 mg/kg, IV) significantly increased the thermal nociception threshold for Hispaniolan Amazon parrots in the present study. Sedation and adverse effects were not observed. These results are consistent with results of other studies in which the antinociceptive effects of tramadol after oral administration to parrots were determined.

  8. Pharmacokinetics of nebulized terbinafine in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Lee C; Cox, Sherry K; Souza, Marcy J

    2012-09-01

    Aspergillosis is one of the most difficult diseases to treat successfully in avian species. Terbinafine hydrochloride offers numerous potential benefits over traditionally used antifungals for treatment of this disease. Adding nebulized antifungals to treatment strategies is thought to improve clinical outcomes in lung diseases. To determine plasma concentrations of terbinafine after nebulization, 6 adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots were randomly divided into 2 groups of 3. Each bird was nebulized for 15 minutes with 1 of 2 terbinafine solutions, one made with a crushed tablet and the second with raw drug powder. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at multiple time points up to 720 minutes after completing nebulization. Plasma and nebulization solutions were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The terbinafine concentration of the solution made with a crushed tablet (0.87 +/- 0.05 mg/mL) was significantly lower than was that made with raw powder (1.02 +/- 0.09 mg/mL). Plasma concentrations of terbinafine did not differ significantly between birds in the 2 groups. Plasma terbinafine concentrations in birds were maintained above in vitro minimum inhibitory concentrations for approximately 1 hour in birds nebulized with the crushed tablet solution and 4 hours in birds nebulized with the raw powder solution. Higher concentrations of solution, longer nebulization periods, or more frequent administration are likely needed to reach therapeutic plasma concentrations of terbinafine for clinically relevant periods in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots.

  9. Comparison of osmolality and refractometric readings of Hispaniolan Amazon parrot (Amazona ventralis) urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, A Paige; Grunkemeyer, Vanessa L; Fry, Michael M; Hall, James S; Bartges, Joseph W

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the relationship between osmolality and specific gravity of urine samples from clinically normal adult parrots and to determine a formula to convert urine specific gravity (USG) measured on a reference scale to a more accurate USG value for an avian species, urine samples were collected opportunistically from a colony of Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). Samples were analyzed by using a veterinary refractometer, and specific gravity was measured on both canine and feline scales. Osmolality was measured by vapor pressure osmometry. Specific gravity and osmolality measurements were highly correlated (r = 0.96). The linear relationship between refractivity measurements on a reference scale and osmolality was determined. An equation was calculated to allow specific gravity results from a medical refractometer to be converted to specific gravity values of Hispaniolan Amazon parrots: USGHAp = 0.201 +0.798(USGref). Use of the reference-canine scale to approximate the osmolality of parrot urine leads to an overestimation of the true osmolality of the sample. In addition, this error increases as the concentration of urine increases. Compared with the human-canine scale, the feline scale provides a closer approximation to urine osmolality of Hispaniolan Amazon parrots but still results in overestimation of osmolality.

  10. Pharmacokinetics of nalbuphine hydrochloride after intravenous and intramuscular administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Dominique L; Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; Klauer, Julia M; KuKanich, Butch; Barker, Steven A; Rodríguez-Ramos Fernández, Julia; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R

    2011-06-01

    To assess the pharmacokinetics of nalbuphine HCl after IV and IM administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 8 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots of unknown sex. Nalbuphine HCl (12.5 mg/kg) was administered IV and IM to all birds in a complete randomized crossover study design; there was a washout period of 21 days between subsequent administrations. Plasma samples were obtained from blood collected at predetermined time points for measurement of nalbuphine concentration by use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated by use of computer software. Nalbuphine was rapidly eliminated with a terminal half-life of 0.33 hours and clearance of 69.95 mL/min/kg after IV administration and a half-life of 0.35 hours after IM administration. Volume of distribution was 2.01 L/kg after IV administration. The fraction of the dose absorbed was high (1.03) after IM administration. No adverse effects were detected in the parrots during the study. In Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, nalbuphine appeared to have good bioavailability after IM administration and was rapidly cleared after IV and IM administration. Safety and analgesic efficacy of various nalbuphine treatment regimens in this species require further investigation to determine the potential for clinical palliation of signs of pain in psittacine species.

  11. Renal, gastrointestinal, and hemostatic effects of oral administration of meloxicam to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Bas; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Gustavsen, Kate; Owens, Sean D; Hass, Carlyle; Kass, Philip H; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R

    2015-04-01

    To investigate renal, gastrointestinal, and hemostatic effects associated with oral administration of multiple doses of meloxicam to healthy Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 12 Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. Birds were assigned to receive meloxicam oral suspension (1.6 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h) and 2.5 mL of tap water inserted into the crop by use of a gavage tube (n = 8) or the equivalent volume of tap water only (control group; 4) for 15 days. Urine and feces were collected 2 hours after treatment administration each day. Feces were evaluated for occult blood. Results of a CBC and serum biochemical analysis and measured N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAG) activity and whole blood clotting time were evaluated before, during, and after completion of treatments. Results of urinalysis and measured urine NAG activity were also evaluated. Birds treated with meloxicam had a significant increase in number of WBCs and decrease in PCV from before to after treatment. The PCV also decreased significantly, compared with results for the control group; however, WBC count and PCV for all birds remained within reference ranges throughout the study. One parrot treated with meloxicam had a single high value for urine NAG activity. Meloxicam administered orally at the dosage used in this study caused no apparent negative changes in several renal, gastrointestinal, or hemostatic variables in healthy Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. Additional studies to evaluate adverse effects of NSAIDs in birds will be needed.

  12. Pharmacokinetics of repeated oral administration of tramadol hydrochloride in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Marcy J; Gerhardt, Lillian; Cox, Sherry

    2013-07-01

    To determine the pharmacokinetics of tramadol hydrochloride (30 mg/kg) following twice-daily oral administration in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 9 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. Tramadol hydrochloride was administered to each parrot at a dosage of 30 mg/kg, PO, every 12 hours for 5 days. Blood samples were collected just prior to dose 2 on the first day of administration (day 1) and 5 minutes before and 10, 20, 30, 60, 90, 180, 360, and 720 minutes after the morning dose was given on day 5. Plasma was harvested from blood samples and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Degree of sedation was evaluated in each parrot throughout the study. No changes in the parrots' behavior were observed. Twelve hours after the first dose was administered, mean ± SD concentrations of tramadol and its only active metabolite M1 (O-desmethyltramadol) were 53 ± 57 ng/mL and 6 ± 6 ng/mL, respectively. At steady state following 4.5 days of twice-daily administration, the mean half-lives for plasma tramadol and M1 concentrations were 2.92 ± 0.78 hours and 2.14 ± 0.07 hours, respectively. On day 5 of tramadol administration, plasma concentrations remained in the therapeutic range for approximately 6 hours. Other tramadol metabolites (M2, M4, and M5) were also present. On the basis of these results and modeling of the data, tramadol at a dosage of 30 mg/kg, PO, will likely need to be administered every 6 to 8 hours to maintain therapeutic plasma concentrations in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots.

  13. Attempted semen collection using the massage technique in blue-fronted Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva aestiva).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Volpe, Angelique; Volker, Schmidt; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a technique for collecting semen from blue-fronted Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva aestiva) and to evaluate the samples that were collected. The massage method is the most common technique used to collect semen in birds and has been proven successful in several psittacine species; however, collection attempts in larger parrots have been unsatisfactory. Six blue-fronted Amazon parrot males, 3 paired with hens and 3 unpaired, were used in this study. The semen collection technique was revised to allow collection from individual birds by a single person. Semen collection was attempted from the 6 parrots on 52-56 occasions, which totaled 330 single attempts. Nineteen ejaculates were collected, and each bird produced at least 1 ejaculate that contained spermatozoa. Large ranges of sample volume (1-15.4 microL), sperm quality (motility = 2%-60%; live:dead ratio = 2:198 to 185:15), sperm concentration (0.79-3.3 x 10(6) sperm/mL), and contamination rate (0%-100%) were observed. Measured parameters did not appear to be significantly impacted by birds being paired or kept singly. Because of the relatively short acclimation period, the birds appeared to be sexually inactive for the majority of the study. Further research using sexually active birds will be necessary to determine standard spermatological parameters and verify the success of the methodology used here.

  14. Mycobacterium marinum infection in a blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, David E; Bemis, David A; Garner, Michael M

    2012-12-01

    A blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva) was presented with a granuloma involving the proximal rhinotheca and extending into the rostral sinuses. Mycobacterium marinum was diagnosed based on results of biopsy and culture. Treatment was initiated with clarithromycin, rifampin, and ethambutol, but the bird died 4 months after the onset of antimicrobial therapy. Additional granulomas were found in the left lung and liver on postmortem examination. Mycobacterial isolation on postmortem samples was unsuccessful. This is the first report of Mycobacterium marinum in a bird.

  15. Pharmacokinetics of terbinafine after oral administration of a single dose to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Erika E; Emery, Lee C; Cox, Sherry K; Souza, Marcy J

    2013-06-01

    To determine pharmacokinetics after oral administration of a single dose of terbinafine hydrochloride to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 6 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. A single dose of terbinafine hydrochloride (60 mg/kg) was administered orally to each bird, which was followed immediately by administration of a commercially available gavage feeding formula. Blood samples were collected at the time of drug administration (time 0) and 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours after drug administration. Plasma concentrations of terbinafine were determined via high-performance liquid chromatography. Data from 1 bird were discarded because of a possible error in the dose of drug administered. After oral administration of terbinafine, the maximum concentration for the remaining 5 fed birds ranged from 109 to 671 ng/mL, half-life ranged from 6 to 13.5 hours, and time to the maximum concentration ranged from 2 to 8 hours. No adverse effects were observed. Analysis of the results indicated that oral administration of terbinafine at a dose of 60 mg/kg to Amazon parrots did not result in adverse effects and may be potentially of use in the treatment of aspergillosis. Additional studies are needed to determine treatment efficacy and safety.

  16. Pharmacokinetics of long-acting nalbuphine decanoate after intramuscular administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; KuKanich, Butch; Heath, Timothy D; Krugner-Higby, Lisa A; Barker, Steven A; Brown, Carolyn S; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the pharmacokinetics of nalbuphine decanoate after IM administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 9 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots of unknown sex. Nalbuphine decanoate (37.5 mg/kg) was administered IM to all birds. Plasma samples were obtained from blood collected before (time 0) and 0.25, 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 96 hours after drug administration. Plasma samples were used for measurement of nalbuphine concentrations via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated with computer software. Plasma concentrations of nalbuphine increased rapidly after IM administration, with a mean concentration of 46.1 ng/mL at 0.25 hours after administration. Plasma concentrations of nalbuphine remained > 20 ng/mL for at least 24 hours in all birds. The maximum plasma concentration was 109.4 ng/mL at 2.15 hours. The mean terminal half-life was 20.4 hours. In Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, plasma concentrations of nalbuphine were prolonged after IM administration of nalbuphine decanoate, compared with previously reported results after administration of nalbuphine hydrochloride. Plasma concentrations that could be associated with antinociception were maintained for 24 hours after IM administration of 37.5 mg of nalbuphine decanoate/kg. Safety and analgesic efficacy of nalbuphine treatments in this species require further investigation to determine the potential for clinical use in pain management in psittacine species.

  17. Antinociceptive effects after oral administration of tramadol hydrochloride in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; Souza, Marcy J; Braun, Jana M; Cox, Sherry K; Keuler, Nicholas S; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate antinociceptive effects on thermal thresholds after oral administration of tramadol hydrochloride to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). Animals-15 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. 2 crossover experiments were conducted. In the first experiment, 15 parrots received 3 treatments (tramadol at 2 doses [10 and 20 mg/kg] and a control suspension) administered orally. In the second experiment, 11 parrots received 2 treatments (tramadol hydrochloride [30 mg/kg] and a control suspension) administered orally. Baseline thermal foot withdrawal threshold was measured 1 hour before drug or control suspension administration; thermal foot withdrawal threshold was measured after administration at 0.5, 1.5, 3, and 6 hours (both experiments) and also at 9 hours (second experiment only). For the first experiment, there were no overall effects of treatment, hour, period, or any interactions. For the second experiment, there was an overall effect of treatment, with a significant difference between tramadol hydrochloride and control suspension (mean change from baseline, 2.00° and -0.09°C, respectively). There also was a significant change from baseline for tramadol hydrochloride at 0.5, 1.5, and 6 hours after administration but not at 3 or 9 hours after administration. Tramadol at a dose of 30 mg/kg, PO, induced thermal antinociception in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. This dose was necessary for induction of significant and sustained analgesic effects, with duration of action up to 6 hours. Further studies with other types of noxious stimulation, dosages, and intervals are needed to fully evaluate the analgesic effects of tramadol hydrochloride in psittacines.

  18. Fluoroscopic study of the normal gastrointestinal motility and measurements in the Hispaniolan Amazon parrot (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufrère, Hugues; Nevarez, Javier; Taylor, W Michael; Jankowski, Gwendolyn; Rademacher, Nathalie; Gaschen, Lorrie; Pariaut, Romain; Tully, Thomas N

    2010-01-01

    Contrast fluoroscopy is a valuable tool to examine avian gastrointestinal motility. However, the lack of a standardized examination protocol and reference ranges prevents the objective interpretation of motility disorders and other gastrointestinal abnormalities. Our goals were to evaluate gastrointestinal motility in 20 Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) by contrast fluoroscopy. Each parrot was crop-fed an equal part mixture of barium sulfate and hand-feeding formula and placed in a cardboard box for fluoroscopy. Over a 3-h period, 1.5 minute segments of lateral and ventrodorsal fluoroscopy were recorded every 30 min. The gastric cycle and patterns of intestinal motility were described. The frequency of crop contractions, esophageal boluses, and gastric cycles were determined in lateral and ventrodorsal views. A range of 3.4-6.6 gastric cycles/min was noted on the lateral view and 3.0-6.6 gastric cycles/min on the ventrodorsal view. Circular measurements of the proventriculus diameter, ventriculus width, and length were obtained using the midshaft femoral diameter as a standard reference unit. The upper limits of the reference ranges were 3.6 and 4.7 femoral units for the proventriculus diameter in the lateral and ventrodorsal view, respectively. Two consecutive measurements were obtained and the measurement technique was found to have high reproducibility. In this study, we established a standardized protocol for contrast fluoroscopic examination of the gastrointestinal tract and a reliable measurement method of the proventriculus and ventriculus using femoral units in the Hispaniolan Amazon parrot.

  19. Antinociceptive effects of nalbuphine hydrochloride in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; KuKanich, Butch; Keuler, Nicholas S; Klauer, Julia M; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate the antinociceptive effects and duration of action of nalbuphine HCl administered IM on thermal thresholds in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 14 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots of unknown sex. 3 doses of nalbuphine (12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg, IM) and saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (control treatment) were evaluated in a blinded complete crossover experimental design by use of foot withdrawal threshold to a noxious thermal stimulus. Baseline data on thermal threshold were generated 1 hour before administration of nalbuphine or saline solution; thermal threshold measurements were obtained 0.5, 1.5, 3, and 6 hours after administration. Nalbuphine administered IM at 12.5 mg/kg significantly increased the thermal threshold (mean change, 2.4°C), compared with results for the control treatment, and significantly changed thermal threshold for up to 3 hours, compared with baseline results (mean change, 2.6° to 3.8°C). Higher doses of nalbuphine did not significantly change thermal thresholds, compared with results for the control treatment, but had a significant effect, compared with baseline results, for up to 3 and 1.5 hours after administration, respectively. Nalbuphine administered IM at 12.5 mg/kg significantly increased the foot withdrawal threshold to a thermal noxious stimulus in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. Higher doses of nalbuphine did not result in significantly increased thermal thresholds or a longer duration of action and would be expected to result in less analgesic effect than lower doses. Further studies are needed to fully evaluate the analgesic effects of nalbuphine in psittacine species.

  20. Effects of dopamine and dobutamine on isoflurane-induced hypotension in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnellbacher, Rodney W; da Cunha, Anderson F; Beaufrère, Hugues; Queiroz, Patricia; Nevarez, Javier G; Tully, Thomas N

    2012-07-01

    To assess the effects of dopamine and dobutamine on the blood pressure of isoflurane-anesthetized Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 8 Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. A randomized crossover study was conducted. Each bird was anesthetized (anesthesia maintained by administration of 2.5% isoflurane in oxygen) and received 3 doses of each drug during a treatment period of 20 min/dose. Treatments were constant rate infusions (CRIs) of dobutamine (5, 10, and 15 μg/kg/min) and dopamine (5, 7, and 10 μg/kg/min). Direct systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure measurements, heart rate, esophageal temperature, and end-tidal partial pressure of CO(2) were recorded throughout the treatment periods. Mean ± SD of the systolic, mean, and diastolic arterial blood pressures at time 0 (initiation of a CRI) were 132.9 ± 22.1 mm Hg, 116.9 ± 20.5 mm Hg, and 101.9 ± 22.0 mm Hg, respectively. Dopamine resulted in significantly higher values than did dobutamine for the measured variables, except for end-tidal partial pressure of CO(2). Post hoc multiple comparisons revealed that the changes in arterial blood pressure were significantly different 4 to 7 minutes after initiation of a CRI. Overall, dopamine at rates of 7 and 10 μg/kg/min and dobutamine at a rate of 15 μg/kg/min caused the greatest increases in arterial blood pressure. Dobutamine CRI at 5, 10, and 15 μg/kg/min and dopamine CRI at 5, 7, and 10 μg/kg/min may be useful in correcting severe hypotension in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots caused by anesthesia maintained with 2.5% isoflurane.

  1. Static and dynamic (18) FDG-PET in normal hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Marcy J; Wall, Jonathan S; Stuckey, Alan; Daniel, Gregory B

    2011-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is often used to stage and monitor human cancer and has recently been used in a similar fashion in veterinary medicine. The most commonly used radiopharmaceutical is 2-Deoxy-2-[(18) F]-Fluoro-d-glucose ((18) F-FDG), which is concentrated and trapped within cells that use glucose as their energy substrate. We characterized the normal distribution of (18) F-FDG in 10 healthy Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) by performing whole body PET scans at steady state, 60min after injection. Significant variability was found in the intestinal activity. Avian species are known to reflux fluid and electrolytes from their cloaca into their colon. To evaluate reflux as the cause of variability in intestinal distribution of (18) F-FDG, dynamic PET scans were performed on the coelomic cavity of six Hispaniolan Amazon parrots from time 0 to 60min postinjection of radiotracer. Reflux of radioactive material from the cloaca into the colon occurred in all birds to varying degrees and occurred before 60min. To evaluate the intestinal tract of clinical avian patients, dynamic scans must be performed starting immediately after injection so that increased radioactivity due to metabolism or hypermetabolic lesions such as cancer can be differentiated from increased radioactivity due to reflux of fluid from the cloaca. © 2010 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

  2. Pharmacokinetics of Compounded Intravenous and Oral Gabapentin in Hispaniolan Amazon Parrots ( Amazona ventralis ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baine, Katherine; Jones, Michael P; Cox, Sherry; Martín-Jiménez, Tomás

    2015-09-01

    Neuropathic pain is a manifestation of chronic pain that arises with damage to the somatosensory system. Pharmacologic treatment recommendations for alleviation of neuropathic pain are often multimodal, and the few reports communicating treatment of suspected neuropathic pain in avian patients describe the use of gabapentin as part of the therapeutic regimen. To determine the pharmacokinetics of gabapentin in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots ( Amazona ventralis ), compounded gabapentin suspensions were administered at 30 mg/kg IV to 2 birds, 10 mg/kg PO to 3 birds, and 30 mg/kg PO to 3 birds. Blood samples were collected immediately before and at 9 different time points after drug administration. Plasma samples were analyzed for gabapentin concentration, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated with both a nonlinear mixed-effect approach and a noncompartmental analysis. The best compartmental, oral model was used to simulate the concentration-time profiles resulting from different dosing scenarios. Mild sedation was observed in both study birds after intravenous injection. Computer simulation of different dosing scenarios with the mean parameter estimates showed that 15 mg/kg every 8 hours would be a starting point for oral dosing in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots based on effective plasma concentrations reported for human patients; however, additional studies need to be performed to establish a therapeutic dose.

  3. An outbreak of chlamydiosis in captive blue-fronted Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raso, Tânia de Freitas; Godoy, Sílvia Nery; Milanelo, Liliane; de Souza, Cláudia Almeida Igayara; Matuschima, Eliana Reiko; Araújo Júnior, João Pessoa; Pinto, Aramis Augusto

    2004-03-01

    Fifty-eight blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva) nestlings, recovered from the illegal trade, became ill at a wildlife rehabilitation center in São Paulo State, Brazil. Clinical signs observed were nonspecific, and the mortality rate was 96.5% despite initial treatment with norfloxacin. Postmortem examinations were performed on 10 birds. Liver and spleen smears showed structures suggestive of Chlamydophila psittaci in four cases. Diagnosis was confirmed by seminested polymerase chain reaction on tissue samples. Other birds from the same location showed no clinical signs of the disease, although high complement fixation titers to C. psittaci were found in 10 adult psittacines. All birds in the facility were treated with doxycycline. The two surviving nestlings did not recover after two doxycycline treatments and were euthanatized. The high mortality rate observed in this outbreak was attributed to poor conditions of husbandry and delays in the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. After diagnosis, improved control measures for chlamydiosis were instituted.

  4. Modified Schirmer tear test and rebound tonometry in blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário S.A. Falcão

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to describe the modified Schirmer tear test (mSTT, intraocular pressure (IOP by rebound tonometry and palpebral fissure length (PFL in blue-fronted Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva. Thirty-five healthy adult animals from a conservation breeding center in Brazil were used in this study. Modified Schirmer tear test, rebound tonometry and PFL measurements were performed in both eyes, with birds under physical restraint. Mean mSTT was 6.2±0.1mm/min and mean IOP was 6.4±0.1mmHg, while PFL was 10.1±0.1mm. A moderate correlation was seen between mSTT and PFL for OD (ρ=0.14 and OS (ρ=0.20. The results provide ophthalmic tests reference values for A. aestiva.

  5. Palpation- and ultrasound-guided brachial plexus blockade in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

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    da Cunha, Anderson F; Strain, George M; Rademacher, Nathalie; Schnellbacher, Rodney; Tully, Thomas N

    2013-01-01

    To compare palpation-guided with ultrasound-guided brachial plexus blockade in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. Prospective randomized experimental trial. Eighteen adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) weighing 252-295 g. After induction of anesthesia with isoflurane, parrots received an injection of lidocaine (2 mg kg(-1)) in a total volume of 0.3 mL at the axillary region. The birds were randomly assigned to equal groups using either palpation or ultrasound as a guide for the brachial plexus block. Nerve evoked muscle potentials (NEMP) were used to monitor effectiveness of brachial plexus block. The palpation-guided group received the local anesthetic at the space between the pectoral muscle, triceps, and supracoracoideus aticimus muscle, at the insertion of the tendons of the caudal coracobrachial muscle, and the caudal scapulohumeral muscle. For the ultrasound-guided group, the brachial plexus and the adjacent vessels were located with B-mode ultrasonography using a 7-15 MHz linear probe. After location, an 8-5 MHz convex transducer was used to guide injections. General anesthesia was discontinued 20 minutes after lidocaine injection and the birds recovered in a padded cage. Both techniques decreased the amplitude of NEMP. Statistically significant differences in NEMP amplitudes, were observed within the ultrasound-guided group at 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes after injection and within the palpation-guided group at 10, 15, and 20 minutes after injection. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups. No effect on motor function, muscle relaxation or wing droop was observed after brachial plexus block. The onset of the brachial plexus block tended to be faster when ultrasonography was used. Brachial plexus injection can be performed in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots and nerve evoked muscle potentials were useful to monitor the effects on nerve conduction in this avian species. Neither technique produced an effective block at the

  6. Sedative Effects of Intranasal Midazolam Administration in Wild Caught Blue-fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva) and Orange-winged Amazon (Amazona amazonica) Parrots.

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    Schaffer, Débora P H; de Araújo, Nayone L L C; Raposo, Ana Cláudia S; Filho, Emanoel F Martins; Vieira, João Victor R; Oriá, Arianne P

    2017-09-01

    Safe and effective sedation protocols are important for chemical restraint of birds in clinical and diagnostic procedures, such as clinical evaluations, radiographic positioning, and blood collection. These protocols may reduce stress and ease the management of wild-caught birds, which are susceptible to injury or death when exposed to stressful situations. We compare the sedative effect of intranasal midazolam in wild-caught blue-fronted (Amazona aestiva) and orange-winged (Amazona amazonica) Amazon parrots. Ten adult parrots of each species (n = 20), of unknown sex, weighing 0.337 ± 0.04 (blue-fronted) and 0.390 ± 0.03 kg (orange-winged), kg were used. Midazolam (2 mg/kg) was administered intranasally and the total volume of the drug was divided equally between the 2 nostrils. Onset time and total sedation time were assessed. Satisfactory sedation for clinical evaluation was induced in all birds. Onset time and total sedation times were similar in both species: 5.36 ± 1.16 and 25.40 ± 5.72 minutes, respectively, for blue-fronted Amazons and 5.09 ± 0.89 and 27.10 ± 3.73 minutes, respectively, for orange-winged Amazons. A total of 15 animals showed absence of vocalization, with moderate muscle relaxation and wing movement upon handling, and 2 animals presented with lateral recumbence, with intense muscle relaxation and no wing movement, requiring no restraint. Three blue-fronted Amazons had no effective sedation. Intranasally administered midazolam at a dose of 2 mg/kg effectively promoted sedative effects with a short latency time and fast recovery in wild-caught parrots.

  7. Plasma osmolality reference values in African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus erithacus), Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis), and red-fronted macaws (Ara rubrogenys).

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    Beaufrère, Hugues; Acierno, Mark; Mitchell, Mark; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Bryant, Heather; Tully, Thomas N

    2011-06-01

    Birds are routinely presented to veterinarians for dehydration. Success with these cases ultimately depends on providing replacement fluids and re-establishing fluid homeostasis. Few studies have been done to determine reference ranges for plasma osmolality in birds. The goals of this study were to determine reference values for plasma osmolality in 3 species of parrots and to provide recommendations on fluid selection for replacement therapy in these species. Blood samples were collected from 21 adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis), 21 Congo African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus erithacus), and 9 red-fronted macaws (Ara rubrogenys), and were placed into lithium heparin containers. Plasma osmolality was measured in duplicate with a freezing point depression osmometer. Summary statistics were computed from the average values. Reference ranges, calculated by using the robust method, were 288-324, 308-345, and 223-369 mOsm/kg in African grey parrots, Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, and red-fronted macaws, respectively. The mean +/- SD values were 306 +/- 7, 327 +/- 7, and 304 +/- 18 mOsm/kg in African grey parrots, Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, and red-fronted macaws, respectively. Comparisons with osmolality values in mammals and values previously reported for psittacine bird species suggest that plasma osmolality is slightly higher in parrots than in mammals, species-specific differences exist, and differences between reported values occur. Overall, fluids with an osmolarity close to 300-320 mOsm/L, such as Normosol-R, Plasmalyte-R, Plasmalyte-A, and NaCl 0.9%, can be recommended in parrots for fluid replacement therapy when isotonic fluids are required.

  8. Pharmacokinetics of butorphanol after intravenous, intramuscular, and oral administration in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

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    Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Flammer, Keven; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R; Barker, Steven A; Tully, Thomas N

    2011-09-01

    Previous studies have validated the clinical use of opioids with kaap-receptor affinities for pain management in birds. Butorphanol, a kappa opioid receptor agonist and a mu opioid receptor antagonist, is currently considered by many clinicians to be the opioid of choice for this use. However, despite studies reporting the analgesic properties of butorphanol in psittacine birds, dosing intervals have not been established for any psittacine species. The goals of this study in the Hispaniolan Amazon parrot (Amazona ventralis) were to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of butorphanol tartrate after intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM), and oral (PO) administration and to determine the bioavailability of butorphanol tartrate after oral administration. Twelve Hispaniolan Amazon parrots were used in the study, with a complete-crossover experimental design and a 3-month period separating each part of the study. The birds were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n = 4) for each stage. Butorphanol tartrate was administered once at a dose of 5 mg/kg in the basilic vein or pectoral muscles or as an oral solution delivered via feeding tube into the crop for the IV, IM, and PO studies, respectively. After butorphanol administration, blood samples were collected at 1, 5, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, and 240 minutes for the IV and IM studies and at 5, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240, and 300 minutes for the PO study. Because of the size limitation of the birds, naive pooling of datum points was used to generate a mean plasma butorphanol concentration at each time point. For each study, birds in each group (n = 4) were bled 3 times after dosing. Plasma butorphanol concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. Butorphanol tartrate was found to have high bioavailability and rapid elimination following IM administration. In contrast, oral administration resulted in low bioavailability (< 10%), thus

  9. Pharmacokinetics after oral and intravenous administration of a single dose of tramadol hydrochloride to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

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    Souza, Marcy J; Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R; Cox, Sherry K

    2012-08-01

    To determine pharmacokinetics after IV and oral administration of a single dose of tramadol hydrochloride to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 9 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (3 males, 5 females, and 1 of unknown sex). Tramadol (5 mg/kg, IV) was administered to the parrots. Blood samples were collected from -5 to 720 minutes after administration. After a 3-week washout period, tramadol (10 and 30 mg/kg) was orally administered to parrots. Blood samples were collected from -5 to 1,440 minutes after administration. Three formulations of oral suspension (crushed tablets in a commercially available suspension agent, crushed tablets in sterile water, and chemical-grade powder in sterile water) were evaluated. Plasma concentrations of tramadol and its major metabolites were measured via high-performance liquid chromatography. Mean plasma tramadol concentrations were > 100 ng/mL for approximately 2 to 4 hours after IV administration of tramadol. Plasma concentrations after oral administration of tramadol at a dose of 10 mg/kg were 100 ng/mL for approximately 6 hours after administration. Oral administration of the suspension consisting of the chemical-grade powder resulted in higher plasma tramadol concentrations than concentrations obtained after oral administration of the other 2 formulations; however, concentrations differed significantly only at 120 and 240 minutes after administration. Oral administration of tramadol at a dose of 30 mg/kg resulted in plasma concentrations (> 100 ng/mL) that have been associated with analgesia in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots.

  10. Pharmacokinetics of single oral dose of pimobendan in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

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    Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Beaufrère, Hugues; KuKanich, Butch; Barker, Steven A; Brandão, João; Paul-Murphy, Joanne; Tully, Thomas N

    2014-06-01

    Pimobendan is a phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor and calcium sensitizer with inotropic, lusitropic, and rasodilator properties used in the treatment of congestive heart failure. The mechanism of action is by inhibition of PDE III and V and by increasing intracellular calcium sensitivity in the cardiac myocardium. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies have been published in humans, dogs, and cats, but there are no studies in avian species. Pimobendan has been used in birds at the empirical dosage of 0.25 mg/kg q12h. To determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of pimobendan in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis), 3 pilot studies with 2 birds, each receiving 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg PO, provided the basis for the pivotal trials with 6 birds, each receiving 10 mg/kg PO using 2 different suspensions. Blood samples were obtained at 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 8, 12, and 18 hours after drug administration. Plasma concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) by use of electrospray ionization. Because of the erratic and low concentrations of pimobendan, pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using naive averaged analysis. Plasma concentrations after commercial pimobendan tablet suspension at 10 mg/kg reached a Cmax of 8.26 ng/mL at 3 hours with a terminal half-life of 2.1 hours, while concentrations after the bulk chemical suspension reached a Cmax of 1.28 ng/mL at 12 hours and had a terminal half-life of 2.3 hours. Further studies evaluating the effect of oral pimobendan in parrots are needed.

  11. Thromboelastography Values in Hispaniolan Amazon Parrots ( Amazona ventralis ): A Pilot Study.

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    Keller, Krista A; Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; Acierno, Mark J; Beaufrère, Hugues; Sinclair, Kristin M; Owens, Sean D; Paul-Murphy, Joanne; Tully, Thomas N

    2015-09-01

    Thromboelastography (TEG) provides a global assessment of coagulation, including the rate of clot initiation, clot kinetics, achievement of maximum clot strength, and fibrinolysis. Thromboelastography (TEG) is used with increasing frequency in the field of veterinary medicine, although its usefulness in avian species has not been adequately explored. The purpose of this preliminary study was to assess the applicability of TEG in psittacine birds. Kaolin-activated TEG was used to analyze citrated whole blood collected routinely from 8 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots ( Amazona ventralis ). The minimum and maximum TEG values obtained included time to clot initiation (2.6-15 minutes), clot formation time (4.3-20.8 minutes), α angle (12.7°-47.9°), maximum amplitude of clot strength (26.3-46.2 mm), and percentage of lysis 30 minutes after achievement of maximum amplitude (0%-5.3%). The TEG values demonstrated comparative hypocoagulability relative to published values in canine and feline species. Differences may be explained by either the in vitro temperature at which TEG is standardly performed or the method of activation used in this study. Although TEG may have significant advantages over traditional coagulation tests, including lack of need for species-specific reagents, further evaluation is required in a variety of avian species and while exploring various TEG methodologies before this technology can be recommended for use in clinical cases.

  12. Acetylcholinesterase concentrations in heparinized blood of Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

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    Tully, Thomas N; Osofsky, Anna; Jowett, Peter L H; Hosgood, Giselle

    2003-12-01

    Organophosphate and carbamate pesticides inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) at nerve synapses. Blood samples from 22 Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) were assayed for cholinesterase levels by two different techniques. Using the modified Michel method, the whole-blood cholinesterase activity levels ranged from 0.082 to 0.616 deltapH/hr with a mean value of 0.35 deltapH/hr. A reference range (0.08-0.62 deltapH/hr) for cholinesterase was established in birds. The modified Ellman spectrophotometric method was used to measure AChE activity by adding acetylthiocholine or pseudocholinesterase (plasma cholinesterase) activity by adding butyrylthiocholine. The reference range of the AChE activity using the modified Ellman spectrophotometric method was 0-1.12 micromol/ml/min with a mean of 0.48 micromol/ml/min, and for pseudocholinesterase the range was 0.09-0.98 micromol/ml/min with a mean of 0.53 micromol/ml/min.

  13. Determinination of plasma osmolality and agreement between measured and calculated values in healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

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    Acierno, Mark J; Mitchell, Mark A; Freeman, Diana M; Schuster, Patricia J; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Tully, Thomas N

    2009-09-01

    To determine plasma osmolality in healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) and validate osmolality equations in these parrots. 20 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. A blood sample (0.5 mL) was collected from the right jugular vein of each parrot and placed into a lithium heparin microtainer tube. Samples were centrifuged, and plasma was harvested and frozen at -30 degrees C. Samples were thawed, and plasma osmolality was measured in duplicate with a freezing-point depression osmometer. The mean value was calculated for the 2 osmolality measurements. Plasma osmolality values were normally distributed, with a mean +/- SD of 326.0 +/- 6.878 mOsm/kg. The equations (2 x [Na(+) + K(+)]) + (glucose/18), which resulted in bias of 2.3333 mOsm/kg and limits of agreement of -7.0940 to 11.7606 mOsm/kg, and (2 x [Na(+) + K(+)]) + (uric acid concentration/16.8) + (glucose concentration/18), which resulted in bias of 5.8117 mOsm/kg and limits of agreement of -14.6640 to 3.0406 mOsm/kg, yielded calculated values that were in good agreement with the measured osmolality. IV administration of large amounts of hypotonic fluids can have catastrophic consequences. Osmolality of the plasma from parrots in this study was significantly higher than that of commercially available prepackaged fluids. Therefore, such fluids should be used with caution in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots as well as other psittacines. Additional studies are needed to determine whether the estimation of osmolality has the same clinical value in psittacines as it does in other animals.

  14. Antinociceptive effects of long-acting nalbuphine decanoate after intramuscular administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

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    Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; Braun, Jana M; Steagall, Paulo V M; Keuler, Nicholas S; Heath, Timothy D; Krugner-Higby, Lisa A; Brown, Carolyn S; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the thermal antinociceptive effects and duration of action of nalbuphine decanoate after IM administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 10 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots of unknown sex. Nalbuphine decanoate (33.7 mg/kg) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution was administered IM in a randomized complete crossover experimental design (periods 1 and 2). Foot withdrawal threshold to a noxious thermal stimulus was used to evaluate responses. Baseline thermal withdrawal threshold was recorded 1 hour before drug or saline solution administration, and thermal foot withdrawal threshold measurements were repeated 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours after drug administration. Nalbuphine decanoate administered IM at a dose of 33.7 mg/kg significantly increased thermal foot withdrawal threshold, compared with results after administration of saline solution during period 2, and also caused a significant change in withdrawal threshold for up to 12 hours, compared with baseline values. Nalbuphine decanoate increased the foot withdrawal threshold to a noxious thermal stimulus in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots for up to 12 hours and provided a longer duration of action than has been reported for other nalbuphine formulations. Further studies with other types of nociceptive stimulation, dosages, and dosing intervals as well as clinical trials are needed to fully evaluate the analgesic effects of nalbuphine decanoate in psittacine birds.

  15. Pharmacokinetics of a Sustained-release Formulation of Meloxicam After Subcutaneous Administration to Hispaniolan Amazon Parrots (Amazona ventralis).

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    Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Court, Michael H; Zhu, Zhaohui; Summa, Noémie; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R

    2017-09-01

    Meloxicam has been shown to have a safe and favorable pharmacodynamic profile with individual variability in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). In the current study, we determined the pharmacokinetics of a sustained-release formulation of meloxicam after subcutaneous administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. Twelve healthy adult parrots, 6 males and 6 females, were used in the study. Blood samples were collected before (time 0) and at 0.5, 1, 2, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 hours after a single dose of the sustained-release meloxicam formulation (3 mg/kg SC). Plasma meloxicam concentrations were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by noncompartmental analysis. Plasma concentrations reached a mean C max of 23.4 μg/mL (range, 14.7-46.0 μg/mL) at 1.8 hours (range, 0.5-6 hours), with a terminal half-life of 7.4 hours (range, 1.4-40.9 hours). Individual variation was noticeable, such that some parrots (4 of 12 birds) had very low plasma meloxicam concentrations, similar to the high variability reported in a previous pharmacokinetic study of the standard meloxicam formulation in the same group of birds. Two birds developed small self-resolving scabs at the injection site. On the basis of these results, the sustained-release meloxicam formulation could be administered every 12 to 96 hours in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots to manage pain. Because of these highly variable results, the use of this formulation in this species cannot be recommended until further pharmacokinetic, safety, and pharmacogenomic evaluations are performed to establish accurate dosing recommendations and to understand the high pharmacokinetic variability.

  16. B-mode ultrasonography biometry of the Amazon Parrot (Amazona aestiva) eye.

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    Lehmkuhl, Ricardo C; Almeida, Mariana F; Mamprim, Maria J; Vulcano, Luiz C

    2010-09-01

    Ultrasonographic evaluation of the eye is a relatively recent addition to routine ophthalmic diagnostics in small animal ophthalmology. Some parameters for ophthalmic biometry have been established. There are few studies in clinical avian ophthalmology that describe ultrasound images of eye in some nocturnal avian species and in other birds that do not belong to the Brazilian fauna, but the psittacine family is not represented. The purpose of this study was to describe the following measurements: the distances between cornea and anterior lens capsule (D1) between the anterior and posterior lens capsule (D2), between posterior lens capsule and optic papilla (D3) and the axial length. Sixty four transpalpebral ocular ultrasound examinations were performed on 32 Blue fronted Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva) with no history of previous ophthalmic disease. The measurements were taken in sagital planes using a 10 MHz linear probe without a standoff pad. The mean values for the left eye were; D1 0.17 ± 0.03 cm, D2 0.35 ± 0.02 cm, D3 0.73 ± 0.04 cm and the axial length 1.26 ± 0.06 cm. In the right eye D1 0.17 ± 0.02 cm, D2 0.34 ± 0.02 cm, D3 0.74 ± 0.03 cm and the axial length 1.25 ± 0.05 cm. No significant statistical difference was observed among the birds or between the left and right eye. The description of these parameters will allow the veterinary practitioner to evaluate the structural changes that specific diseases may cause in these animals.

  17. Single-Dose Pharmacokinetics of Piperacillin/Tazobactam in Hispaniolan Amazon Parrots ( Amazona ventralis ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, James W; Tully, Thomas N; Gehring, Ronette; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon

    2017-06-01

    To determine the pharmacokinetics of piperacillin/tazobactam in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots ( Amazona ventralis ), 8 healthy adult parrots of both sexes were used in a 2-part study. In a pilot study, piperacillin (87 mg/kg) in combination with tazobactam (11 mg/kg) was administered intramuscularly (IM) to 2 birds, and blood samples were obtained at 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, and 10 hours after administration. Based on the results obtained, a main study was done in which piperacillin/tazobactam was administered at 2 different doses. In 3 birds, the initial dose of piperacillin (87 mg/kg)/tazobactam (11 mg/kg) IM was administered, and in 3 birds, the dose was doubled to piperacillin (174 mg/kg)/tazobactam (22 mg/kg) IM. In all 6 birds, blood samples were obtained at 0, 5, 15, and 30 minutes and at 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, and 4 hours after administration. Quantification of plasma piperacillin and tazobactam concentrations was determined by validated liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry assay. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by noncompartmental analysis. After intramuscular administration, the mean ± standard error values of T 1/2 (h) was 0.52 ± 0.05 and 0.32 ± 0.07, T max (h) was 0.28 ± 0.09 and 0.25 ± 0.10, C max (μg/mL) was 86.34 ± 20.62 and 9.03 ± 2.88, and C max /dose was 0.99 ± 0.24 and 0.83 ± 0.26 for piperacillin (87 mg/kg) and tazobactam (11 mg/kg), respectively. When the doses were doubled, the T 1/2 (h) was 0.65 ± 0.08 and 0.34 ± 0.02, T max (h) was 0.28 ± 0.12 and 0.14 ± 0.06, C max (μg/mL) was 233.0 ± 6.08 and 22.13 ± 2.35, and C max /dose was 1.34 ± 0.03 and 1.02 ± 0.11 for piperacillin and tazobactam, respectively. Results indicate that piperacillin is rapidly absorbed and reaches high initial concentrations; however, it is also rapidly eliminated in the Hispaniolan Amazon parrot, and tazobactam has similar pharmacokinetics as piperacillin. Administration of piperacillin at 87 mg/kg IM q3-4h is recommended for this species

  18. EFFECTS OF EXERCISE ON THE PLASMA LIPID PROFILE IN HISPANIOLAN AMAZON PARROTS (AMAZONA VENTRALIS) WITH NATURALLY OCCURRING HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsen, Kate A; Stanhope, Kimber L; Lin, Amy S; Graham, James L; Havel, Peter J; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R

    2016-09-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is common in psittacines, and Amazon parrots ( Amazona spp.) are particularly susceptible. Associations have been demonstrated between naturally occurring and experimentally induced hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis in psittacines. Daily exercise improves lipid metabolism in humans and other mammals, as well as pigeons and chickens, under varying experimental conditions. Hispaniolan Amazon parrots ( Amazona ventralis ) with naturally occurring hypercholesterolemia (343-576 mg/dl) were divided into two groups. An exercised group (n = 8) was housed as a flock and exercised daily with 30 min of aviary flight and 30 min walking on a rotating perch. A sedentary control group (n = 4) was housed in individual cages with no exercise regime. A plasma lipid panel, including total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides, was validated for this species. Body weight, chest girth, and the lipid panel were measured at 0, 61, and 105 days. Hematology and plasma biochemistry were measured at 0 and 105 days. Weight and girth were significantly lower in exercised than sedentary parrots at 61 and 105 days. HDL-C concentrations were significantly higher in exercised parrots at 61 days but returned to near baseline by 105 days. There were no significant changes in hematology, biochemistry, or other lipid panel parameters. Results were similar to studies in humans and animal models, in which increased HDL-C was the most consistent effect of exercise on circulating lipid and lipoprotein parameters. The return toward baseline HDL-C may have resulted from decreased participation in aviary flight. Additional investigation will be required to determine the amount of exercise and change in circulating lipid-related parameters necessary to improve long-term wellness in psittacine species predisposed to hypercholesterolemia.

  19. Sedation and physiologic response to manual restraint after intranasal administration of midazolam in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mans, Christoph; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Lahner, Lesanna L; Paul-Murphy, Joanne; Sladky, Kurt K

    2012-09-01

    Administration of intranasal midazolam (2 mg/kg) was evaluated for sedation and effects on cloacal temperature, respiratory rate, and heart rate in manually restrained Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). Adult parrots (n=9) were administered either midazolam (2 mg/kg) or an equal volume of saline solution intranasally before a 15-minute manual restraint in a complete crossover study. Respiratory rate and sedation scores were recorded before and during capture and during and after 15 minutes of manual restraint. Heart rate and cloacal temperature were recorded during manual restraint. After restraint, the parrots received intranasal flumazenil (0.05 mg/kg) or an equal volume of saline solution, and the recovery time was recorded. In those birds that received midazolam, sedation was observed within 3 minutes of administration, and vocalization, flight, and defense responses were significantly reduced during capture. During manual restraint, the mean rate of cloacal temperature increase was significantly slower and remained significantly lower in birds that received midazolam compared with controls. Mean respiratory rates were significantly lower for up to 12 minutes in parrots that received midazolam compared with those receiving saline solution. Flumazenil antagonized the effects of midazolam within 10 minutes. No overt clinical adverse effects to intranasal midazolam and flumazenil administration were observed. Further studies on the safety of intranasal midazolam and flumazenil in this species are warranted.

  20. Plasma Drug Concentrations of Orally Administered Rosuvastatin in Hispaniolan Amazon Parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufrère, Hugues; Papich, Mark G; Brandão, João; Nevarez, Javier; Tully, Thomas N

    2015-03-01

    Atherosclerotic diseases are common in pet psittacine birds, in particular Amazon parrots. While hypercholesterolemia and dyslipidemia have not definitely been associated with increased susceptibility to atherosclerosis in parrots, these are important and well-known risk factors in humans. Therefore statin drugs such as rosuvastatin constitute the mainstay of human treatment of dyslipidemia and the prevention of atherosclerosis. No pharmacologic studies have been performed in psittacine birds despite the high prevalence of atherosclerosis in captivity. Thirteen Hispaniolan Amazon parrots were used to test a single oral dose of 10 mg/kg of rosuvastatin with blood sampling performed according to a balanced incomplete block design over 36 hours. Because low plasma concentrations were produced in the first study, a subsequent pilot study using a dose of 25 mg/kg in 2 Amazon parrots was performed. Most plasma samples for the 10 mg/kg dose and all samples for the 25 mg/kg dose had rosuvastatin concentration below the limits of quantitation. For the 10 mg/kg study, the median peak plasma concentration and time to peak plasma concentration were 0.032 μg/mL and 2 hours, respectively. Our results indicate that rosuvastatin does not appear suitable in Amazon parrots as compounded and used at the dose in this study. Pharmacodynamic studies investigating lipid-lowering effects of statins rather than pharmacokinetic studies may be more practical and cost effective in future studies to screen for a statin with more ideal properties for potential use in psittacine dyslipidemia and atherosclerotic diseases.

  1. Pharmacokinetics of meloxicam after intravenous, intramuscular, and oral administration of a single dose to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molter, Christine M; Court, Michael H; Cole, Gretchen A; Gagnon, David J; Hazarika, Suwagmani; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R

    2013-03-01

    To compare pharmacokinetics after IV, IM, and oral administration of a single dose of meloxicam to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 11 healthy parrots. Cohorts of 8 of the 11 birds comprised 3 experimental groups for a crossover study. Pharmacokinetics were determined from plasma concentrations measured via high-performance liquid chromatography after IV, IM, and oral administration of meloxicam at a dose of 1 mg/kg. Initial mean ± SD plasma concentration of 17.3 ± 9.0 μg/mL was measured 5 minutes after IV administration, whereas peak mean concentration was 9.3 ± 1.8 μg/mL 15 minutes after IM administration. At 12 hours after administration, mean plasma concentrations for IV (3.7 ± 2.5 μg/mL) and IM (3.5 ± 2.2 μg/mL) administration were similar. Peak mean plasma concentration (3.5 ± 1.2 μg/mL) was detected 6 hours after oral administration. Absolute systemic bioavailability of meloxicam after IM administration was 100% but was lower after oral administration (range, 49% to 75%). Elimination half-lives after IV, IM, and oral administration were similar (15.9 ± 4.4 hours, 15.1 ± 7.7 hours, and 15.8 ± 8.6 hours, respectively). Pharmacokinetic data may provide useful information for use of meloxicam in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. A mean plasma concentration of 3.5 μg/mL would be expected to provide analgesia in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots; however, individual variation may result in some birds having low plasma meloxicam concentrations after IV, IM, or oral administration. After oral administration, meloxicam concentration slowly reached the target plasma concentration, but that concentration was not sustained in most birds.

  2. Pharmacokinetics of voriconazole after oral administration of single and multiple doses in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; Flammer, Keven; Papich, Mark G; Grooters, Amy M; Shaw, Shannon; Applegate, Jeff; Tully, Thomas N

    2010-04-01

    To determine the pharmacokinetics and safety of voriconazole administered orally in single and multiple doses in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 15 clinically normal adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. Single doses of voriconazole (12 or 24 mg/kg) were administered orally to 15 and 12 birds, respectively; plasma voriconazole concentrations were determined at intervals via high-pressure liquid chromatography. In a multiple-dose trial, voriconazole (18 mg/kg) or water was administered orally to 6 and 4 birds, respectively, every 8 hours for 11 days (beginning day 0); trough plasma voriconazole concentrations were evaluated on 3 days. Birds were monitored daily, and clinicopathologic variables were evaluated before and after the trial. Voriconazole elimination half-life was short (0.70 to 1.25 hours). In the single-dose experiments, higher drug doses yielded proportional increases in the maximum plasma voriconazole concentration (C(max)) and area under the curve (AUC). In the multiple-dose trial, C(max), AUC, and plasma concentrations at 2 and 4 hours were decreased on day 10, compared with day 0 values; however, there was relatively little change in terminal half-life. With the exception of 1 voriconazole-treated parrot that developed polyuria, adverse effects were not evident. In Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, oral administration of voriconazole was associated with proportional kinetics following administration of single doses and a decrease in plasma concentration following administration of multiple doses. Oral administration of 18 mg of voriconazole/kg every 8 hours would require adjustment to maintain therapeutic concentrations during long-term treatment. Safety and efficacy of voriconazole treatment in this species require further investigation.

  3. YERSINIA PSEUDOTUBERCULOSIS, SEROGROUP O:1A, INFECTION IN TWO AMAZON PARROTS (AMAZONA AESTIVA AND AMAZONA ORATRIX) WITH HEPATIC HEMOSIDEROSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galosi, Livio; Farneti, Silvana; Rossi, Giacomo; Cork, Susan Catherine; Ferraro, Stefano; Magi, Gian Enrico; Petrini, Stefano; Valiani, Andrea; Cuteri, Vincenzo; Attili, Anna-Rita

    2015-09-01

    Necropsies were conducted on a female blue-fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva) and a female yellow-headed Amazon (Amazona oratrix) that died after depression, ruffled feathers, diarrhea, and biliverdin in the urine. Gross and microscopic examinations revealed multifocal necrosis in the liver, spleen, lungs, kidneys, intestines, and heart caused by acute bacteremia. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, serogroup O:1a, was isolated by culturing from the visceral lesions in the liver, intestines, and spleen. Virulence gene analysis showed the presence of the inv gene and the complete pathogenicity island: IS100, psn, yptE, irp1, irp2 ybtP-ybtQ, ybtX-ybtS, and int asnT-Int. Histopathologic findings and chemical analysis also demonstrated hepatic hemosiderosis. As has been demonstrated in other species, hemosiderosis may predispose Amazona spp. to systemic infection with Y. pseudotuberculosis after enteric disease.

  4. Pharmacokinetics of butorphanol tartrate in a long-acting poloxamer 407 gel formulation administered to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laniesse, Delphine; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Knych, Heather K; Smith, Dale A; Mosley, Cornelia; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R; Beaufrère, Hugues

    2017-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine pharmacokinetics of butorphanol tartrate incorporated into poloxamer 407 (P407) after SC administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). ANIMALS 11 adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (6 males and 5 females; 11 to 27 years old). PROCEDURES A sterile formulation of butorphanol in P407 (But-P407) 25% (percentage determined as [weight of P407/weight of diluent] × 100]) was created (8.3 mg/mL). Five preliminary experiments (2 birds/experiment) were performed to determine the ideal dose for this species. The formulation then was administered (12.5 mg/kg, SC) to 8 birds. Blood samples were collected before (time 0) and 0.08, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours after drug administration. Some birds were used more than once, with a washout period of ≥ 3 months between subsequent treatments. Butorphanol concentrations were quantitated by use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed by use of noncompartmental analysis. RESULTS Maximal plasma butorphanol concentration was reached at 1.31 hours. Plasma concentrations of butorphanol remained > 100 ng/mL for > 3 hours (all birds) or > 4 hours (5/8 birds) but < 8 hours (all birds). Half-life of the terminal slope was 3.41 hours. No adverse effects were detected. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Butorphanol was absorbed well from the But-P407 25% by Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, and absorption followed a pharmacokinetic profile compatible with a sustained-release drug. A dose of 12.5 mg/kg, SC, would theoretically provide analgesia for 4 to 8 hours. No adverse effects were detected. Studies on the pharmacodynamics of this formulation are necessary to confirm the degree and duration of analgesia.

  5. Evaluation of the mydriatic effects of topical administration of rocuronium bromide in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petritz, Olivia A; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Gustavsen, Kate; Wiggans, K Tomo; Kass, Philip H; Houck, Emma; Murphy, Christopher J; Paul-Murphy, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE :To determine the mydriatic effects of topical rocuronium bromide administration in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) and to identify any adverse effects associated with treatment. Randomized crossover study. 8 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. Rocuronium bromide (20 μL/eye; 10 mg/mL) or saline (20 μL/eye; 0.9% NaCl) solution was administered in both eyes of each bird with a 26-day washout period. The birds were manually restrained in lateral recumbency with the apex of the cornea positioned upward for 2 minutes following administration in each eye. Infrared pupillometry and direct pupillary light reflex measurements were used to evaluate the mydriatic effects. Pupillary measurements were recorded prior to administration and every 20 minutes for 2 hours after administration, then hourly for a total of 7 hours. A brief physical examination was performed, direct pupillary light reflex was tested, and fluorescein staining was performed on each eye of each bird 24 hours after administration. A significant difference in pupillary diameter for the active versus control treatment group was noted from 20 to 360 minutes after drug administration, but not at 420 minutes. Minimal adverse effects were noted. Three birds had transient inferior eyelid paresis noted in both eyes after receiving rocuronium; 24 hours after the treatment, no differences in ocular measurements existed between the active and control treatments. Results suggested that topical rocuronium bromide administration may be safely used for pupillary dilation in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots and could be used for clinical evaluation, fundus imaging, and surgical interventions involving the lens and posterior segment in this species.

  6. The Efficacy and Safety of Topical Rocuronium Bromide to Induce Bilateral Mydriasis in Hispaniolan Amazon Parrots ( Amazona ventralis ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baine, Katherine; Hendrix, Diane V H; Kuhn, Sonia E; Souza, Marcy J; Jones, Michael P

    2016-03-01

    The efficacy and safety of topically applied rocuronium in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots ( Amazona ventralis ) was assessed in a group of 10 adult birds. A complete ophthalmic examination (including Schirmer tear test, ocular reflexes, applanation tonometry, fluorescein staining, and slit-lamp biomicroscopy) was performed, and rocuronium bromide (0.15 mg in both eyes) was administered. Pupillary light reflex (PLR) and pupillary diameter were recorded in a darkened room at the following time points: 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 220, 240, 300, and 360 minutes, and 24 hours. Fluorescein staining in both eyes was performed at 24 hours. By 10 minutes, PLR was absent in all birds (at 5 minutes, 8 birds; at 10 minutes, remaining 2 birds). Pupil diameter differed significantly from baseline at all time points. Additionally, PLR was decreased in 7/10 birds at 360 minutes and normal in all birds at 24 hours. Superficial corneal ulceration was observed at 24 hours in the left eye of 2/10 of the birds after fluorescein stain application. This study demonstrated that rocuronium bromide was an effective mydriatic agent in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots with rapid onset and prolonged duration of action.

  7. Chronic pulmonary interstitial fibrosis in a blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva aestiva).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, Olga; Kik, Marja J L; Passon-Vastenburg, Maartje H A C; Westerhof, Ineke; Lumeij, Johannes T; Schoemaker, Nico J

    2007-03-01

    A 30-yr-old blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazon aestiva aestiva) was presented to the clinic with a history of sneezing more often during the last 2 mo. Physical examination revealed only a mild nasal discharge. Complete hematologic and plasma biochemical examination showed no abnormalities. Computerized tomography (CT) of the complete bird showed generalized lung alterations consistent with lung fibrosis. Two lung biopsies were taken. The results of the histologic examination of the biopsies confirmed the tentative CT diagnosis of pulmonary interstitial fibrosis. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of chronic pulmonary interstitial fibrosis diagnosed by means of a lung biopsy in an avian species. The histologic characteristics are discussed and compared with those of human idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

  8. Behavioural and hormonal effects of member replacement in captive groups of blue-fronted amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva de Souza Matos, Laerciana; Palme, Rupert; Silva Vasconcellos, Angélica

    2017-05-01

    Social species in captivity may face allostatic overload due to artificial grouping and other social constraints. In rescue centres, groups of psittacines are constantly mixed due to the arrival and/or release of individuals; this procedure is potentially harmful to animal welfare. This study aimed at evaluating the possible impacts of mate replacement on the stress levels of captive blue-fronted amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva). During five weeks, we recorded agonistic interactions and dropping-glucocorticoid metabolites (GCM) concentrations of individuals allocated in a group whose members were kept constant and in a group subjected to frequent member replacement. In both groups, non-linear hierarchies developed, without sex differences regarding aggression or hierarchical positions. The replacement of individuals had no effect on the number of agonistic interactions or on the animals' stress levels. In both groups, higher-ranking individuals had higher stress loads than subordinates. Our study, the first to investigate the social dynamics of A. aestiva, indicated that introducing or removing individuals in captive groups does not seem to affect the welfare of the birds in the short term. This information favours release and reintroduction programs and is relevant for conservation management of this, and possibly other parrot species with similar environmental requirements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Genetic variability in three Amazon parrot species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IF. Lopes

    Full Text Available Parrots of the genus Amazona are among the most threatened species of the Order Pscittaciformes. This work describes allozyme polymorphisms in three Amazon parrot species - the Blue-fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva, the Orange-winged Amazon (Amazona amazonica, and the Festive Amazon (Amazona festiva -, and provides useful data for the evaluation of their genetic variability. We electrophoretically analyzed blood samples from 68 wild-caught individuals, maintained in captivity in three Brazilian zoos. Eight of the ten studied enzyme loci exhibited polymorphism. Glucosephosphate isomerase (Gpi proved to be a diagnostic locus for the identification of these Amazon species. The expected average heterozygosity of the Blue-fronted Amazon (0.060 differed significantly from the expected heterozygosities of the Orange-winged Amazon and the Festive Amazon (0.040 and 0.039, respectively. This result was discussed as a consequence of hybridization between two geographic A. aestiva subspecies, and alternatively as a particular trait of this species. Genetic variability of the Blue-fronted Amazon compared to birds in general is not low on a species-wide level, despite the fact that this parrot is one of the most illegally traded species. Allozyme analysis proved to be an useful tool in monitoring the genetic variation within the genus Amazona and can be applied in the management program of other threatened species of this genus.

  10. Genetic variability in three Amazon parrot species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, I F; Del Lama, M A; Del Lama, S N

    2007-12-01

    Parrots of the genus Amazona are among the most threatened species of the Order Pscittaciformes. This work describes allozyme polymorphisms in three Amazon parrot species--the Blue-fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva), the Orange-winged Amazon (Amazona amazonica), and the Festive Amazon (Amazona festiva) -, and provides useful data for the evaluation of their genetic variability. We electrophoretically analyzed blood samples from 68 wild-caught individuals, maintained in captivity in three Brazilian zoos. Eight of the ten studied enzyme loci exhibited polymorphism. Glucosephosphate isomerase (Gpi) proved to be a diagnostic locus for the identification of these Amazon species. The expected average heterozygosity of the Blue-fronted Amazon (0.060) differed significantly from the expected heterozygosities of the Orange-winged Amazon and the Festive Amazon (0.040 and 0.039, respectively). This result was discussed as a consequence of hybridization between two geographic A. aestiva subspecies, and alternatively as a particular trait of this species. Genetic variability of the Blue-fronted Amazon compared to birds in general is not low on a species-wide level, despite the fact that this parrot is one of the most illegally traded species. Allozyme analysis proved to be an useful tool in monitoring the genetic variation within the genus Amazona and can be applied in the management program of other threatened species of this genus.

  11. A new eimerian species (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the blue-fronted Amazon parrot Amazona aestiva L. (Aves: Psittacidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstatter, P G; Guaraldo, A M A

    2011-12-01

    The Neotropical psittacine species Amazona aestiva, commonly known as the blue-fronted Amazon, is one of the most common and best-known psittacine birds kept as a pet worldwide. However, very little is known about the diseases or parasites of these birds. In this study, we describe a new species, Eimeria aestivae, associated with these parrots. The new species is characterized by: ovoid smooth oocysts (n  =  60), 36.8 (33.2-41.5) × 23.7 (21.7-25.7) µm, length/width ratio  =  1.55; polar granule present; ellipsoidal sporocysts (n  =  25), 19.8 (17.5-21.6) × 9.3 (8.3-9.9) µm; Stieda, sub-Stieda body, and sporocyst residuum present. Sporozoites (n  =  20), 2 per sporocyst, elongate and curved, 17.6 (15.8-19.2) × 3.8 (3.2-4.8) µm; each with 2 refractile bodies. The oocysts of the other 2 eimerian species described for Amazona are larger than those of the presented species, but they all seem to be closely related because of some similarities among them.

  12. Rhabdomyolysis and Artifactual Increase in Plasma Bicarbonate Concentration in an Amazon Parrot (Amazona species).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leissinger, Mary K; Johnson, James G; Tully, Thomas N; Gaunt, Stephen D

    2017-09-01

    A 7-year-old male Amazon parrot housed outdoors presented with acute collapse, marked lethargy, and open-mouth breathing. The patient had stiffness of the pectoral muscles, and petechiation and ecchymosis noted around the eyes and beneath the mandible. Laboratory data revealed markedly increased aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase activity consistent with rhabdomyolysis, as well as markedly increased plasma bicarbonate concentration. Marked clinical improvement and resolution of laboratory abnormalities occurred with fluid therapy, administration of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medication, and husbandry modifications, including indoor housing and dietary alteration. A spurious increase in bicarbonate measurement as documented in equine and bovine cases of rhabdomyolysis also occurred in this avian patient and must be considered for accurate interpretation of acid-base status in exotic species presenting with consistent clinical signs.

  13. Basal cell carcinoma in a blue-fronted amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tell, L A; Woods, L; Mathews, K G

    1997-01-01

    Tumors of the integumentary system are relatively common in companion birds. Dermal tumors in pet birds can be epithelial, mesenchymal, or vascular in origin. Basal cell carcinomas appear to be extremely rare in birds. An adult female blue-fronted Amazon parrot was examined because it exhibited bilateral cervical masses that extended from the base of the skull to the ingluvial region. The tumors were removed by surgical excision. Microscopic examination of the masses revealed neoplastic epithelial cells that extended to all borders of the sections; scattered vessels with neoplastic cells within their lumens were also found. The histopathologic diagnosis was basal cell carcinoma. Six weeks postoperatively, the masses recurred and the bird was euthanatized. This report suggests that basal cell carcinomas should be considered as a differential for avian dermal tumors. This neoplastic condition can be aggressive and has the potential to metastasize.

  14. Effects of leuprolide acetate on selected blood and fecal sex hormones in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventrais).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaphake, Eric; Fecteau, Kellie; DeWit, Martine; Greenacre, Cheryl; Grizzle, Judith; Jones, Michael; Zagaya, Nancy; Abney, L Kim; Oliver, Jack

    2009-12-01

    The luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist leuprolide acetate is used commonly to anage reproductive problems in pet birds. To determine the effect of leuprolide acetate on plas a and fecal hormone levels in a psittacine species, a single 800 microg/kg dose of the 30-day depot form of leuprolide acetate was administered IM in 11 healthy, nonbreeding adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis), and plasma and fecal hormone levels were measured before and after leuprolide administration. At pooled baseline to 21 days postleuprolide acetate administration, sample collection day was significantly associated with plasma 17beta-estradiol and androstenedione levels and fecal 17beta-estradiol levels (evaluated in females only). Both plasma androstenedione and plasma 17beta-estradiol levels decreased significantly from baseline to a nadir at 7 days postleuprolide acetate administration but did not differ significantly 14 days later from that nadir or from pooled baseline samples, suggesting that the effect of leuprolide on hormone levels remained about 2 weeks. Fecal 17beta-estradiol levels increased significantly from the nadir at 7 days postleuprolide to 21 days postleuprolide administration, with trends of the level at 21 days postleuprolide being higher than the pooled baseline level and of decreasing levels from pooled baseline to 7 days postleuprolide administration. Plasma luteinizing hormone and fecal testosterone levels did not change significantly from baseline levels after leuprolide administration over the 2-day period. No significant correlations were found between plasma hormone and fecal hormone levels. These results suggest that measurement of plasma androstenedione, plasma 17beta-estradiol, and fecal 17beta-estradiol levels might be useful in assessing the effects of 30-day depot leuprolide acetate in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots.

  15. Chlamydophila psittaci in free-living Blue-fronted Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva) and Hyacinth macaws (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas Raso, Tânia; Seixas, Gláucia Helena Fernandes; Guedes, Neiva Maria Robaldo; Pinto, Aramis Augusto

    2006-10-31

    Chlamydophila psittaci (C. psittaci) infection was evaluated in 77 free-living nestlings of Blue-fronted Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva) and Hyacinth macaws (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Tracheal and cloacal swab samples from 32 wild parrot and 45 macaw nestlings were submitted to semi-nested PCR, while serum samples were submitted to complement fixation test (CFT). Although all 32 Amazon parrot serum samples were negative by CFT, cloacal swabs from two birds were positive for Chlamydophila DNA by semi-nested PCR (6.3%); these positive birds were 32 and 45 days old. In macaws, tracheal and cloacal swabs were positive in 8.9% and 26.7% of the samples, respectively. Complement-fixing antibodies were detected in 4.8% of the macaw nestlings; macaw nestlings with positive findings were between 33 and 88 days old. These results indicate widespread dissemination of this pathogen in the two evaluated psittacine populations. No birds had clinical signs suggestive of chlamydiosis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on C. psittaci in free-living Blue-fronted Amazon parrots and Hyacinth macaws in Brazil.

  16. Measuring the Level of Agreement Between Cloacal Gram's Stains and Bacterial Cultures in Hispaniolan Amazon Parrots ( Amazona ventralis ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Erika E; Mitchell, Mark A; Whittington, Julia K; Roy, Alma; Tully, Thomas N

    2014-12-01

    Cloacal or fecal Gram's stains and bacterial cultures are routinely performed during avian physical examinations to assess the microbial flora of the gastrointestinal tract. Although cloacal or fecal Gram's stains and bacterial cultures are considered routine diagnostic procedures, the level of agreement between the individual tests has not been determined. To investigate the level of agreement between results from Gram's stain and bacterial culture when used to assess cloacal or fecal samples from psittacine birds, samples were taken from 21 clinically healthy Hispaniolan Amazon parrots ( Amazona ventralis ) and tested by Gram's stain cytology and bacterial culture. Most bacteria (97.2%) identified by Gram's stain were gram positive. However, gram-negative organisms were identified in 7 of 21 (33.3%; 95% confidence interval: 13.3%-53.3%) birds. Escherichia coli was the only gram-negative organism identified on culture. Agreement between results of Gram's stain and culture was fair (weighted κ = 0.27). The results of this study suggest that Gram's stains and bacterial culture may need to be performed with a parallel testing strategy to limit the likelihood of misclassifying the microbial flora of psittacine patients.

  17. Impacts of animal traffic on the Brazilian Amazon parrots (Amazona species) collection of the Quinzinho de Barros Municipal Zoological Park, Brazil, 1986-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanstreels, Ralph Eric Thijl; Teixeira, Rodrigo Hidalgo Friciello; Camargo, Luis Carlos; Nunes, Adauto Luis Veloso; Matushima, Eliana Reiko

    2010-01-01

    Eleven species of Amazon parrots (genus Amazona) are known to occur in Brazil, and nest poaching and illegal traffic pose serious conservation threats to these species. When the illegal owners realize these animals are incompatible with their expectations and lifestyle, or when the police arrests traders and owners, these trafficked animals are often considered unfit for release and sent to local zoos and captive breeders. A retrospective survey of animal and necropsy records from 1986 to 2007 was used to evaluate the impacts of animal traffic on the population composition and mortality patterns of Amazon parrots at the Quinzinho de Barros Municipal Zoological Park, Sorocaba, Brazil. Data were obtained for 374 Amazon parrots of ten Brazilian species, and there was evidence that the studied population could be split into two major groups: a majority belonging to the Amazona aestiva species and a minority belonging to the remaining species. In comparison, the animals of the first group were more frequently admitted from traffic-related origins (98 vs. 75%), had a shorter lifespan (median 301 days vs. 848 days) and a higher mortality within the first year postadmission (54 vs. 37%), were less likely to receive expensive treatments, and were more frequently housed off-exhibit. On an average, parrots were found to have a short postadmission lifespan (median 356 days), with 92.5% of the birds dying within their first five years in captivity. The paper discusses the difficult dilemmas these incoming traffic-related animals pose to zoo management and official anti-traffic policies. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Pharmacokinetics of Levetiracetam in Healthy Hispaniolan Amazon Parrots ( Amazona ventralis ) After Oral Administration of a Single Dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnellbacher, Rodney; Beaufrère, Hugues; Vet, Dr Med; Arnold, Robert D; Tully, Thomas N; Mayer, Joerg; Divers, Stephen J

    2014-09-01

    Long-term anticonvulsive treatments have been poorly described in birds, and few pharmacokinetic studies have been performed, with mixed results. Levetiracetam, a new anticonvulsive drug, has shown good efficacy for monotherapy or adjunctive treatment of seizures in both human and veterinary medicine. To determine pharmacokinetics of levetiracetam in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots ( Amazona ventralis ), 20 healthy birds were randomly divided into 2 groups and administered either a 50 mg/kg (n = 10) or a 100 mg/kg (n = 10) oral dose of levetiracetam with no observable adverse effects. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at 12 time intervals (6 per group) for 16 hours. The concentration-time profiles resembled characteristic absorption, with maximum plasma concentrations of 61.0 μg/mL and 95.1 μg/mL at 60 minutes; terminal half-lives at 2.38 and 2.37 hours; volumes of distribution of 0.807 and 0.773 L/kg, with an area under the curve at 14 100 and 28 820 mg × min/L; and clearance rates of 3.65 and 3.60 mL/min per kg, respectively. Plasma concentrations were greater than 5.5 mg/L for up to 9.4 and 12 hours, suggesting an 8- and 12-hour oral dosing at 50 and 100 mg/kg, respectively, would be sufficient to maintain targeted values. Clinically, doses and frequencies may need escalation based on differences in species and individuals, and drug levels should be monitored.

  19. Radiography and image-intensified fluoroscopy of barium passage through the gastrointestinal tract in six healthy Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink-Nooteboom, Mariette; Lumeij, J T; Wolvekamp, W T C

    2003-01-01

    Gastrointestinal contrast studies were performed in six clinically healthy blue-fronted Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva) using radiography and image-intensified fluoroscopy. During examination, the birds were confined in a perspex cage. The quality of the lateral radiographs was adequate for assessment of the contrast medium-filled gastrointestinal tract. Thirty minutes after administration of 20 mL/kg of a 25% barium sulphate suspension directly in the crop, in all birds the ventriculus was totally outlined by barium. After 60 min, the small intestine was filled in five of six birds. After 180 min, the crop was empty in all birds. The barium-outlined ventriculus had differences in shape on radiographs of individual birds and also between birds. The colon and cloaca had further filling after 120 to 300 min. With image-intensified fluoroscopy, gastrointestinal motility was evaluated. Contractions of the crop were seen, and boluses of contrast medium passing through the esophagus toward the proventriculus were easily identified. Proventricular contractions were rarely noted, but ventriculus motility was present and clearly defined. The ventriculus had a mean of 3.7 contraction cycles/min. In the duodenum and small intestine, rapid antegrade and retrograde peristaltic movements in combination with segmental contractions were seen. In the colon, occasionally very slow peristaltic activity, mainly of segmental nature, was present. During the examinations, no defeacation was recorded. Confinement in a small perspex cage provides an adequate and handy radiological set-up for evaluation of gastrointestinal passage and motility in birds, minimizing the influences of stress and anesthesia.

  20. Evaluation of the agreement among three handheld blood glucose meters and a laboratory blood analyzer for measurement of blood glucose concentration in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acierno, Mark J; Mitchell, Mark A; Schuster, Patricia J; Freeman, Diana; Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; Tully, Thomas N

    2009-02-01

    To determine the degree of agreement between 3 commercially available point-of-care blood glucose meters and a laboratory analyzer for measurement of blood glucose concentrations in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 20 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. A 26-gauge needle and 3-mL syringe were used to obtain a blood sample (approx 0.5 mL) from a jugular vein of each parrot. Small volumes of blood (0.6 to 1.5 microL) were used to operate each of the blood glucose meters, and the remainder was placed into lithium heparin microtubes and centrifuged. Plasma was harvested and frozen at -30 degrees C. Within 5 days after collection, plasma samples were thawed and plasma glucose concentrations were measured by means of the laboratory analyzer. Agreement between pairs of blood glucose meters and between each blood glucose meter and the laboratory analyzer was evaluated by means of the Bland-Altman method, and limits of agreement (LOA) were calculated. None of the results of the 3 blood glucose meters agreed with results of the laboratory analyzer. Each point-of-care blood glucose meter underestimated the blood glucose concentration, and the degree of negative bias was not consistent (meter A bias, -94.9 mg/dL [LOA, -148.0 to -41.7 mg/dL]; meter B bias, -52 mg/dL [LOA, -107.5 to 3.5 mg/dL]; and meter C bias, -78.9 mg/dL [LOA, -137.2 to -20.6 mg/dL]). On the basis of these results, use of handheld blood glucose meters in the diagnosis or treatment of Hispaniolan Amazon parrots and other psittacines cannot be recommended.

  1. Isolation of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marietto-Gonçalves, Guilherme Augusto; de Almeida, Sílvia Maria; de Lima, Edna Tereza; Okamoto, Adriano Sakai; Pinczowski, Pedro; Andreatti Filho, Raphael Lucio

    2010-03-01

    Avian salmonellosis is a disease caused by bacteria of the genus Salmonella that can cause three distinct diseases in birds: pullorum diseases, fowl typhoid, and paratyphoid infection. Various wildlife species are susceptible to infections by Salmonella, regardless of whether they live in captivity or freely in the wild. The present study verified the presence of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in three captive specimens of Amazona aestiva. The study involved a total of 103 birds undergoing rehabilitation to prepare for living in the wild, after having been captured from animal traffickers and delivered to the Centrofauna Project of the Floravida Institute in Sao Paulo, Brazil. This is the first report of Salmonella Enteritidis isolation in A. aestiva that originated from capture associated with animal trafficking; Salmonella was detected during the study by the serologic method of rapid serum agglutination on a plate with bacterial isolate. The antimicrobial profile exam of the isolated samples demonstrated sensitivity to ampicillin, cefaclor, ciprofloxacin, and cloranfenicol. The three samples also presented resistance to more than four antibiotics. The presence of the genes invA and spvC was verified by PCR technique and was associated with virulence and absence of class 1 integron, a gene related to antimicrobial resistance. The commercial antigen for pullorum disease was shown to be a useful tool for rapid detection in the screening of Salmonella of serogroup D1 in Psittaciformes. New studies on Salmonella carriage in birds involved in trafficking must be performed to better understand their participation in the epidemiologic cycle of salmonellosis in humans and other animals.

  2. Measuring the level of agreement between a veterinary and a human point-of-care glucometer and a laboratory blood analyzer in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acierno, Mark J; Schnellbacher, Rodney; Tully, Thomas N

    2012-12-01

    Although abnormalities in blood glucose concentrations in avian species are not as common as they are in mammals, the inability to provide point-of-care glucose measurement likely results in underreporting and missed treatment opportunities. A veterinary glucometer that uses different optimization codes for specific groups of animals has been produced. To obtain data for a psittacine bird-specific optimization code, as well as to calculate agreement between the veterinary glucometer, a standard human glucometer, and a laboratory analyzer, blood samples were obtained from 25 Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) in a 2-phase study. In the initial phase, blood samples were obtained from 20 parrots twice at a 2-week interval. For each sample, the packed cell volume was determined, and the blood glucose concentration was measured by the veterinary glucometer. The rest of each sample was placed into a lithium heparin microtainer tube and centrifuged, and plasma was removed and frozen at -30 degrees C. Within 5 days, tubes were thawed, and blood glucose concentrations were measured with a laboratory analyzer. The data from both procedures were used to develop a psittacine bird-specific code. For the second phase of the study, the same procedure was repeated twice at a 2-week interval in 25 birds to determine agreement between the veterinary glucometer, a standard human glucometer, and a laboratory analyzer. Neither glucometer was in good agreement with the laboratory analyzer (veterinary glucometer bias, 9.0; level of agreement, -38.1 to 56.2; standard glucometer bias, 69.4; level of agreement -17.8 to 156.7). Based on these results, the use of handheld glucometers in the diagnostic testing of Hispaniolan Amazon parrots and other psittacine birds cannot be recommended.

  3. Health evaluation of free-ranging and captive blue-fronted Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva) in the Gran chaco, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deem, Sharon L; Noss, Andrew J; Cuéllar, Rosa Leny; Karesh, William B

    2005-12-01

    Bolivia has a total of 47 species of Psittacidae, seven of which have been identified in our study site, the semiarid Gran Chaco of the Isoso. One species, the blue-fronted parrot (Amazona aestiva), is frequently captured by local Isoseño Guaraní Indians for exploitation on the national and international market. These birds are often temporarily housed in small villages under unhygienic conditions with poultry and other domestic species. On occasion, these parrots escape back to the wild. Additionally, many of these birds are kept as pets or are used to lure wild. parrots within slingshot range for subsequent capture. In this study, we evaluated the health status, including the level of exposure to selected infectious agents, in the wild-caught captive birds and free-ranging birds. Physical examinations were performed, and blood was collected, from 54 live birds (20 captive and 34 free-ranging). Feces were collected from 15 birds (seven captive and eight free-ranging). Necropsies were also performed on four recently dead wild-caught birds. On serologic testing, no birds were found to have antibodies to avian influenza virus, Chlamydophila psittaci, infectious bronchitis virus, infectious bursal disease virus, infectious laryngotracheitis virus, Marek's disease virus, paramyxovirus-1, paramyxovirus-2, paramyxovirus-3, polyomavirus, eastern equine encephalitis virus, western equine encephalitis virus, or Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Positive antibody titers were found for psittacine herpesvirus (8/44, 18.2%), Aspergillus spp. (3/51, 5.9%), and Salmonella pullorum (33/49, 67.3%). All three of the birds that tested antibody positive for Aspergillus spp. were captive, whereas six of the eight and 15 of the 33 birds that tested positive for psittacine herpesvirus and S. pullorum, respectively, were wild.

  4. Optimized nested polymerase chain reaction for antemortem detection of Mycobacteria in Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva) and orange-winged Amazons (Amazona amazonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquião, Arianne Costa; Luna, Janaina Oliveira; Medina, Aziz Orro; Sanfilippo, Luiz Francisco; de Faria, Maria Jacinta; dos Santos, Manuel Armando Azevedo

    2014-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to optimize nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Mycobacterium avium complex and Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and apply them on samples from parrots. Results were negative for the presence of these Mycobacterium in the samples, and nested PCR was specific, faster, and more sensitive than other tests, thereby justifying its use in antemortem diagnosis.

  5. Radiographic evaluation of perching-joint angles in cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus), Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis), and barred owls (Strix varia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Glen; Lauer, Susanne K; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Nevarez, Javier; Tully, Thomas N; Hosgood, Giselle; Gaschen, Lorrie

    2009-06-01

    Information on perching-joint angles in birds is limited. Joint immobilization in a physiologic perching angle has the potential to result more often in complete restoration of limb function. We evaluated perching-joint angles in 10 healthy cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus), 10 Hispaniolan Amazons (Amazona ventralis), and 9 barred owls (Strix varia) and determined intra- and interobserver variability for goniometric measurements in 2 different radiographic projections. Intra- and interobserver variation was less than 7% for all stifle and intertarsal joint measurements but frequently exceeded 10% for the hip-joint measurements. Hip, stifle, and intertarsal perching angles differed significantly among cockatiels, Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, and barred owls. The accuracy of measurements performed on straight lateral radiographic projections with superimposed limbs was not consistently superior to measurements on oblique projections with a slightly rotated pelvis. Stifle and intertarsal joint angles can be measured on radiographs by different observers with acceptable variability, but intra- and interobserver variability for hip-joint-angle measurements is higher.

  6. CT-assisted versus silicone rubber cast morphometry of the lower respiratory tract in healthy amazons (genus Amazona) and grey parrots (genus Psittacus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krautwald-Junghanns, M.E.; Valerius, K.P.; Duncker, H.R.; Sohn, H.G.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the normal respiratory tract of grey parrots and amazons by using two different methods. The lower respiratory tract of five amazons and four grey parrots, all healthy, were investigated applying computerised tomography (CT). Volumes and densities of the body, the body cavities, the normal lungs, and the airsacs in the living animals were defined as reference values of healthy birds to give a basis for future CT-diagnosis of respiratory diseases and their precise locations in parrots. In a parallel study, the lung and air sac volumes of six amazons and two grey parrots were measured using silicone rubber casts produced after the method described byH.-R. Duncker. Values for identical respiratory structures gained by these different methods were compared

  7. Comparison of hematologic values in blood samples with lithium heparin or dipotassium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid anticoagulants in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Mitchell, Mark A; Gaunt, Stephen D; Beaufrère, Hugues; Tully, Thomas N

    2008-06-01

    Blood samples were collected from 20 Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) and were divided into tubes that contained dipotassium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (K2EDTA) and lithium heparin. Complete blood cell counts were determined in each sample within 2 hours of collection. The level of agreement in results was moderate for plasma protein, packed cell volume (PCV), and leukocyte, monocyte, and lymphocyte counts between the anticoagulants. Plasma protein and PCV values were significantly lower in samples with lithium heparin than in those with K2EDTA, whereas lymphocyte numbers were significantly higher in lithium heparin samples than in K2EDTA samples. The level of agreement was good for the other cell types (heterophils, eosinophils, and basophils) when comparing the different anticoagulants. The poor level of agreement between anticoagulants with the increase in thrombocyte clumping in lithium heparin samples indicates that the use of lithium heparin as anticoagulant may affect thrombocyte count. No negative effects on morphology and staining of blood cells were apparent in smears from heparin samples compared with K2EDTA samples. Within the different values compared, the limits of agreement are small enough to be confident that lithium heparin can be used for routine CBC counts in a clinical setting. The use of the same anticoagulant should be recommended to follow trends within the same patient, especially when considering plasma protein concentration, PCV, and lymphocyte count.

  8. Plasma protein concentrations of the young and adult Amazona brasiliensis parrots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Elizabeth Moreira Dos Santos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The Red-tailed Amazon parrot (Amazona brasiliensis is an endangered species of the Psittacine family, and for which various data are important for a comprehensive preservation plan. Data about plasma protein gel electrophoresis of Amazon parrot blood are scarce. The purpose of this study was to determine plasma protein concentrations and concentrations of major protein bands in blood of young and adult Red-tailed Amazon parrot (Amazona brasiliensis. Materials and Methods. Blood samples from eight young and eight adult healthy free-living parrots were obtained. Plasma protein concentration and fractions were determined using sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare variables. Results and Conclusions. Six major protein bands with the following molecular weights were identified by SDS-PAGE: 170 kDa, 117 kDa, 85 kDa (putative ovotransferrin, 60 kDa, 45 kDa and 23 kDa. Adult parrots had significantly higher concentrations of total proteins, albumin and other proteins with similar mobility (around 60 kDa. Young birds had significantly higher levels of 23kDa proteins. The concentration of putative ovotransferrin (85 kDa was not different between young and adult parrots. Plasma protein gel electrophoresis patterns in Red-tailed Amazon parrots are similar between young and adult animals, but specific protein bands differ in their absolute concentrations. This finding should be taken into consideration when clinical pathology data are analysed.

  9. Blood-gas and electrolyte values for Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva Valores de gases sangüíneos e eletrólitos de papagaios-verdadeiros (Amazona aestiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria V. Paula

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to provide reference data for blood gas/acid-base status and electrolytes for non-anesthetized Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva. Thirty-five adult parrots from Tietê ecologic park were utilized. Arterial blood (0.3ml samples were anaerobically collected from the superficial ulnar artery in heparinized (sodium heparin 1-ml plastic syringes. The samples were immediately analyzed through a portable analyzer (i-STAT*, Abbot, Illinois, USA with cartridges (EG7+. These data were grouped in such a way as to present both mean and standard deviation: body weight (360±37g, respiratory rate (82±33 b/m, temperature (41.8±0.6°C, hydrogen potential (7.452±0.048, carbon dioxide partial pressure (22.1±4.0mmHg, oxygen partial pressure (98.1±7.6mmHg, base excess (-7.9±3.1, plasma concentration of bicarbonate ions (14.8±2.8mmol/L, oxygen saturation (96.2±1.1%, plasma concentration of sodium (147.4±2.2mmol/L, plasma concentration of potassium (3.5±0.53mmol/L, plasma concentration of calcium (0.8±0.28mmol/L, hematocrit (38.7±6.2% and concentration of hemoglobin (13.2±2.1g/dl. This study led us to conclude that, although the results obtained showed hypocapnia and low values of bicarbonate and base excess, when compared to other avian species, these data are very similar. Besides, in spite of the equipment being approved only for human beings, it was considered simple and very useful in the analysis of avian blood samples. By using this equipment we were able to provide references data for non-anaesthetized Amazon parrots.O objetivo deste trabalho foi estabelecer dados de referência do equilíbrio ácido-básico e eletrólitos de papagaios (Amazonas aestiva não anestesiados. Foram utilizados trinta e cinco papagaios oriundos do Parque ecológico do Tietê. Amostras de sangue (0,3ml da artéria superficial ulnar foram coletadas em seringas plásticas (1ml heparinizadas. As amostras foram analisadas imediatamente, usando um analisador port

  10. Health and Reproductive Assessment of Selected Puerto Rican Parrots ( Amazona vittata ) in Captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clubb, Susan; Velez, Jafet; Garner, Michael M; Zaias, Julia; Cray, Carolyn

    2015-12-01

    The Puerto Rican parrot ( Amazona vittata ) has become an iconic and high-profile conservation species. The cornerstone of the recovery plan for this critically endangered species is an active captive breeding program, management of the wild population, and a long-term reintroduction program. In 2002, 40 adult Puerto Rican parrots that had not produced viable offspring were selected for reproductive assessment at 2 aviary populations in Puerto Rico (Iguaca and Río Abajo), which are the only sources of parrots for release. The goal was to enhance reproductive potential and produce productive pairings in an attempt to augment the population growth and provide ample individuals for reintroduction. Seven Hispanolian Amazon parrots ( Amazona ventralis ) that were used as surrogate parents for the Puerto Rican parrots were also included in the study. This assessment included physical examination, endoscopic evaluation, hematologic and plasma biochemical profiles, viral screening, and hormonal assays. Results of general physical examination and hematologic and plasma biochemical testing revealed overall good health and condition of this subset of the population of Puerto Rican parrots; no major infectious diseases were found. Endoscopic examination also revealed overall good health and condition, especially of females. The apparent low fertility of male birds warrants further investigation. The findings helped to define causes of reproductive failure in the selected pairs and individual birds. New pairings resulting from the assessment helped to augment reproduction of this critically endangered species.

  11. Effects of mydriatic agents in cockatoos, African gray parrots, and Blue-fronted Amazon parrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramer, J C; Paul-Murphy, J; Brunson, D; Murphy, C J

    1996-01-15

    To compare, in psittacines, the mydriatic effects of several topically applied curariform, sympathomimetic, and parasympatholytic drugs with and without the addition of surface-acting penetrating agents. Prospective, randomized controlled trial. 10 adult cockatoos (Cacatua sulphurea subspecies), 2 adult African gray parrots (Psittacus erithacus), and 3 adult Blue-fronted Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva). Three curariform drugs (d-tubocurarine, pancuronium, and vecuronium bromide) and 2 autonomic drugs (atropine and phenylephrine hydrochloride) were evaluated. Drugs were tested with and without the addition of a surface-acting penetrating agent, either saponin or benzalkonium chloride. The agent that resulted in the most significant change in pupillary diameter with the fewest systemic side effects in the cockatoos then was evaluated for its effects in the African gray parrots and the Blue-fronted Amazon parrots. During each drug trial, 1 eye was randomly selected to receive the control drug (0.9% NaCl), and the opposite eye was selected to receive the test drug. Each pupil was videotaped 5 (cockatoos only), 15, 30, 45, 60, and 75 minutes after treatment. Pupil diameters were measured by use of a computerized image analysis system. Data for pupil size were analyzed by means of repeated measures ANOVA. Vecuronium without the addition of a surface-acting penetrating agent produced the most consistent and greatest pupillary dilatation in all 3 species with the fewest systemic side effects. Vecuronium is potentially a clinically useful, topical mydriatic agent for use in avian species. Documented differences in the prevalence of systemic side effects between species suggests that caution should be applied when applying this drug bilaterally.

  12. Worldwide distribution of non–native Amazon parrots and temporal trends of their global trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mori, E.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alien species are the second leading cause of the global biodiversity crisis, after habitat loss and fragmentation. Popular pet species, such as parrots and parakeets (Aves, Psittaciformes, are often introduced outside their native range as a result of the pet trade. On escape from captivity, some such species, such as the ring–necked parakeet and the monk parakeet, are highly invasive and successfully compete with native species. Populations of Amazon parrots (Amazona spp. can be found throughout the world, but data on their status, distribution and impact are incomplete. We gathered and reviewed the available information concerning global trade, distribution, abundance and ecology of Amazon parrots outside their native range. Our review shows that at least nine species of Amazon parrots have established populations outside their original range of occurrence throughout the world (in Europe, South Africa, the Caribbean islands, Hawaii, and North and South America. Their elusive behaviour and small population size suggest that the number of alien nuclei could be underestimated or at undetected. Despite international trade bans, the large trade of wild–caught Amazon parrots in past decades appears to have contributed to the establishment of alien populations worldwide. Establishment success seems to differ geographically. While European populations are still small and growing slowly, USA populations are large and expanding geographically. This difference is not related to large propagule pressure (trade but possibly to a better niche match between native and introduced ranges. Amazona aestiva is the most frequently encountered Amazona parrot, with at least eight alien populations reported to date. All these populations, with the exception of those in the USA where the climate is more suitable for their establishment, are composed of a low number of individuals even though they have been established for a long period of time. Further research

  13. Vertebral chondrosarcoma in a blue-fronted parrot (Amazona aestiva)

    OpenAIRE

    Blume, Guilherme Reis; Oliveira, Ayisa Rodrigues de; Mattioli, Mariana Portugal; Oliveira, Letícia Batelli de; Reis Junior, Janildo Ludolf; Sant'Ana, Fabiano José Ferreira de

    2015-01-01

    Chondrosarcoma is a malignant mesenchymal tumor in which the neoplastic cells produce cartilaginous matrix and is uncommonly described in birds. This report describes the clinical and pathological findings of one case of chondrosarcoma in a blue-fronted parrot (Amazona aestiva). Macroscopically a 3.6x3.5x1.8cm, nodular, ulcerated, and firm mass was identified in the dorsal synsacrum. Microscopically, the mass was composed of a monomorphic proliferation of pleomorphic spindle chondrocytes with...

  14. Avian pox in blue-fronted Amazon parrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, S E; Lowenstine, L J; Ardans, A A

    1981-12-01

    During a 1-month period at a quarantine station, an epornitic of avian pox occurred in blue-fronted Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva). Clinical signs included conjunctivitis, blepharitis, and varying degrees of anorexia and respiratory distress. Lesions included periocular ulcerations and scabs and necrotic plaques in the oral cavity. Histologically, the lesions consisted of epithelial hyperplasia, secondary inflammatory changes, and eosinophilic inclusions which, by electron microscopy, were shown to contain poxvirus. When chicken embryos were inoculated with material from eyelid scabs and pharyngeal plaques, lesions of avian pox developed on the chorioallantoic membrane. The death rate of infected birds was high because of secondary bacterial and fungal infections, but uncomplicated cases were usually self-limiting. Periocular lesions also developed in 2 other species of psittacine birds housed in the same facility.

  15. Vertebral chondrosarcoma in a blue-fronted parrot (Amazona aestiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Reis Blume

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Chondrosarcoma is a malignant mesenchymal tumor in which the neoplastic cells produce cartilaginous matrix and is uncommonly described in birds. This report describes the clinical and pathological findings of one case of chondrosarcoma in a blue-fronted parrot (Amazona aestiva. Macroscopically a 3.6x3.5x1.8cm, nodular, ulcerated, and firm mass was identified in the dorsal synsacrum. Microscopically, the mass was composed of a monomorphic proliferation of pleomorphic spindle chondrocytes with abundant cartilaginous matrix, consistent with chondrosarcoma

  16. Multifragment alleles in DNA fingerprints of the parrot, Amazona ventralis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, M.K.; White, B.N.

    1991-01-01

    Human DNA probes that identify variable numbers of tandem repeat loci are being used to generate DNA fingerprints in many animal and plant species. In most species the majority of the sc rable autoradiographic bands of the DNA fingerprint represent alleles from numerous unlinked loci. This study was initiated to use DNA fingerprints to determine the amount of band-sharing among captive Hispaniolan parrots (Amazona ventralis) with known genetic relationships. This would form the data base to examine DNA fingerprints of the closely related and endangered Puerto Rican parrot (A. vittata) and to estimate the degree of inbreeding in the relic population. We found by segregation analysis of the bands scored in the DNA fingerprints of the Hispaniolan parrots that there may be as few as two to five loci identified by the human 33.15 probe. Furthermore, at one locus we identified seven alleles, one of which is represented by as many as 19 cosegregating bands. It is unknown how common multiband alleles might be in natural populations, and their existence will cause problems in the assessment of relatedness by band-sharing analysis. We believe, therefore, that a pedigree analysis should be included in all DNA fingerprinting studies, where possible, in order to estimate the number of loci identified by a minisatellite DNA probe and to examine the nature of their alleles.

  17. Agreement between direct and indirect blood pressure measurements obtained from anesthetized Hispaniolan Amazon parrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acierno, Mark J; da Cunha, Anderson; Smith, Julie; Tully, Thomas N; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Serra, Verna; Mitchell, Mark A

    2008-11-15

    To determine the level of agreement between direct and indirect blood pressure measurements obtained from healthy Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) anesthetized with isoflurane. Validation study. 16 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. Parrots were anesthetized, and a 26-gauge, 19-mm catheter was placed percutaneously in the superficial ulnar artery for direct measurement of systolic, mean, and diastolic arterial pressures. Indirect blood pressure measurements were obtained with a Doppler ultrasonic flow detector and an oscillometric unit. The Bland-Altman method was used to compare direct and indirect blood pressure values. There was substantial disagreement between direct systolic arterial blood pressure and indirect blood pressure measurements obtained with the Doppler detector from the wing (bias, 24 mm Hg; limits of agreement, -37 to 85 mm Hg) and from the leg (bias, 14 mm Hg; limits of agreement, -14 to 42 mm Hg). Attempts to obtain indirect blood pressure measurements with the oscillometric unit were unsuccessful. Results suggested that there was substantial disagreement between indirect blood pressure measurements obtained with a Doppler ultrasonic flow detector in anesthetized Hispaniolan Amazon parrots and directly measured systolic arterial blood pressure.

  18. Protein requirements for Blue-fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva) growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carciofi, A C; Sanfilippo, L F; de-Oliveira, L D; do Amaral, P P; Prada, F

    2008-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the protein requirements for hand-rearing Blue-fronted Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva). Forty hatchlings were fed semi-purified diets containing one of four (as-fed basis) protein levels: 13%, 18%, 23% and 28%. The experiment was carried out in a randomized block design with the initial weight of the nestling as the blocking factor and 10 parrots per protein level. Regression analysis was used to determine relationships between protein level and biometric measurements. The data indicated that 13% crude protein supported nestling growth with 18% being the minimum tested level required for maximum development. The optimal protein concentration for maximum weight gain was 24.4% (p = 0.08; r(2) = 0.25), tail length 23.7% (p = 0.09; r(2) = 0.19), wing length 23.0% (p = 0.07; r(2) = 0.17), tarsus length 21.3% (p = 0.06; r(2) = 0.10) and tarsus width 21.4% (p = 0.07; r(2) = 0.09). Tarsus measurements were larger in males (p < 0.05), indicating that sex must be considered when studying developing psittacines. These results were obtained using a highly digestible protein and a diet with moderate metabolizable energy levels.

  19. Learning generalization in problem solving by a blue-fronted parrot (Amazona aestiva).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mendonça-Furtado, Olívia; Ottoni, Eduardo B

    2008-10-01

    Pepperberg (The Alex studies: cognitive and communicative abilities of gray parrots. Harvard University Press, Cambridge;1999) showed that some of the complex cognitive capabilities found in primates are also present in psittacine birds. Through the replication of an experiment performed with cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus oedipus) by Hauser et al. (Anim Behav 57:565-582; 1999), we examined a blue-fronted parrot's (Amazona aestiva) ability to generalize the solution of a particular problem in new but similar cases. Our results show that, at least when it comes to solving this particular problem, our parrot subject exhibited learning generalization capabilities resembling the tamarins'.

  20. Analgesic effects of intramuscular administration of meloxicam in Hispaniolan parrots (Amazona ventralis) with experimentally induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Gretchen A; Paul-Murphy, Joanne; Krugner-Higby, Lisa; Klauer, Julia M; Medlin, Scott E; Keuler, Nicholas S; Sladky, Kurt K

    2009-12-01

    OBJECTIVE-To evaluate the analgesic efficacy of meloxicam in parrots with experimentally induced arthritis, with extent of weight bearing and rotational perch walking used as outcome measures. ANIMALS-15 adult Hispaniolan parrots (Amazona ventralis). PROCEDURES-Arthritis was experimentally induced via intra-articular injection of microcrystalline sodium urate suspension (MSU) into 1 intertarsal joint. Parrots were treated in a crossover design. Five treatments were compared as follows: meloxicam (4 dosages) at 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/kg (IM, q 12 h, 3 times) and 0.03 mL of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (IM, q 12 h, 3 times). The first treatment was given 6 hours following MSU administration. Lameness was assessed by use of a biomechanical perch to record weight-bearing load and a rotational perch to determine dexterity. Feces were collected to assay for occult blood. RESULTS-Parrots treated with meloxicam at 1.0 mg/kg had significantly better return to normal (baseline) weight bearing on the arthritic pelvic limb, compared with control parrots or parrots treated with meloxicam at 0.05, 0.1, and 0.5 mg/kg. All fecal samples collected from parrots following induction of arthritis and treatment with meloxicam had negative results for occult blood. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE-Meloxicam administered at 1.0 mg/kg, IM, every 12 hours effectively relieved arthritic pain in parrots.

  1. Urofecal steroid profiles of captive Blue-fronted parrots (Amazona aestiva) with different reproductive outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ricardo J G; Christofoletti, Mauricio D; Blank, Marcel H; Duarte, José Mauricio B

    2018-02-07

    Despite Psitaciformes (parrots) being the third largest nonpasserine order (398 species), it currently ranks second in number of threatened species (28%) according to the Internatinal Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) criteria. Since most of the literature concerning reproductive endocrinology in avian species derives from domestic and song birds, it is puzzling that advances in reproductive science for the Psitaciformes order lags far behind, in spite of the growing threats against them. In order to expand our knowledge of Neotropical parrots (Psittacidae), we examined annual changes in urofecal sex steroid metabolites of Blue-fronted amazon pairs (Amazona aestiva) exhibiting successful (nestlings) and unsuccessful breeding (infertile or no eggs). Urofecal samples were collected over a year from eight breeding pairs housed under the same environmental and management conditions. Fecal androgen and progestagen concentrations were determined in males and females, respectively, by enzyme immunoassays previously validated for this species. All eggs were registered between late winter and mid-spring, and egg-laying intervals varied between females (range: 1-8 days; average 3.60 ± 0.51 days). Similar profiles of urofecal progestagens were observed in reproductively successful females and females producing infertile eggs, with progestagen peaks preceding egg laying events (1.77 ± 0.50 days). In contrast, non-laying females had no rises in progestagens during the year. Successful and unsuccessful males did not displayed distinct annual patterns of androgen production, and apart from the peaks during the breeding season, more than half of the individuals intriguingly presented significant increases from late summer to early autumn, a period without reproductive activity. Finally, we noticed that samples with progestagen levels exceeding 40 ng/g had very high probability (>97.5%) to be from females in pre-laying or laying phases, suggesting a feasible

  2. [Detection of psittacid herpesvirus 1 in Amazon parrots with cloacal papilloma (internal papillomatosis of parrots, IPP) in an aviary of different psittacine species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legler, Marko; Kothe, Ruth; Rautenschlein, Silke; Kummerfeld, Norbert

    2008-12-01

    Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva aestiva;Amazona ochrocephala, n=6) from an aviary with different psittacine species (n=100) were submitted to the Clinic for Pet Animals, Reptiles, Pet- and Wild birds with the clinical picture ofa cloacal prolaps. The cloacal mucosa showed papillomas, and internal papillomatosis of parrots (IPP) was suspected. Hepatomegaly was detected in the radiographs of the clinically diseased amazon parrots, indicating the involvement of the liver in the disease process. The cloacal area was enlarged and showed higher densities in the radiographic picture. One of the amazons had an increased level of bile acids in the plasma supporting the suspicion of the involvement of the liver. Macroscopical and histological investigation of amazons with cloacal prolaps revealed a papillomic adenoma of the cloacal mucosa accompanied by varying degrees of bile duct carcinomas in the liver and adenocarcinomas of the pancreas. Herpesvirus genome was detected by nested PCR in cloacal swabs, liver, and cloacal tissue samples. Sequencing of part of the herpesvirus DNA-polymerase gene indicated 95% homology of the detected herpesviruses with the Psittacid Herpesvirus (PsHV) 1. No cytopathic herpesvirus was recovered from cloacal swabs and liver samples after up to four passages in chicken embryofibroblast cultures. Cloacal and choanal swabs, which were taken from the remaining 47 healthy amazon parrots and 5 Green-winged Macaws (Ara chloroptera) of the aviary, were negative for herpesvirus in the nested PCR. Only birds with cloacal papillomas and the Green-winged Macaws were tested positive for herpesvirus DNA in the nested PCR. We may speculate that there is correlation between the infection with PsHV-1 and the development of cloacal adenomas, adenocarcinomas in the pancreas and carcinomas of the bile ducts. Our results indicate that there may be a higher susceptibility in certain amazon species, while other species may not get infected even if housed in close

  3. Estimation of intrathoracic arterial diameter by means of computed tomographic angiography in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufrère, Hugues; Rodriguez, Daniel; Pariaut, Romain; Gaschen Dvm, Lorrie; Schnellbacher, Rodney; Nevarez, Javier G; Tully, Thomas N

    2011-02-01

    To establish a computed tomography (CT)-angiography protocol and measure the diameters of major arteries in parrots. 13 Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 16-slice CT scanning was used to measure the apparent diameter of the ascending aorta, abdominal aorta, pulmonary arteries, and brachiocephalic trunk. Before scanning, all birds underwent ECG and echocardiographic assessment and were considered free of detectable cardiovascular diseases. Each bird was anesthetized, and a precontrast helical CT scan was performed. Peak aortic enhancement was established with a test bolus technique via dynamic axial CT scan over a predetermined single slice. An additional bolus of contrast medium was then injected, and a helical CT-angiography scan was performed immediately afterward. Arterial diameter measurements were obtained by 2 observers via various windows before and after injection, and intra- and interobserver agreement was assessed. Reference limits were determined for arterial diameter measurements before and after contrast medium administration in pulmonary, mediastinal, and manual angiography windows. Ratios of vertebral body diameter to keel length were also calculated. Intraobserver agreement was high (concordance correlation coefficients ≥ 0.95); interobserver agreement was medium to high (intraclass correlation coefficients ≥ 0.65). CT-angiography was safe and is of potential diagnostic value in parrots. We recommend performing the angiography immediately after IV injection of 3 mL of iohexol/kg. Arterial diameter measurements at the described locations were reliable.

  4. [Pilot study of echocardiographic studies using color- and pulsed-wave spectral Doppler methods in blue-crowned amazons (Amazona ventralis) and blue-fronted amazons (Amazona a. aestiva)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pees, M; Straub, J; Schumacher, J; Gompf, R; Krautwald-Junghanns, M E

    2005-02-01

    Colour-flow and pulsed-wave spectral Doppler echocardiography was performed on 6 healthy, adult Hispaniolan amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) and 6 blue-fronted amazon parrots (Amazona a. aestiva) to establish normal reference values. Birds were anesthetized with isoflurane in oxygen and placed in dorsal recumbency. An electrocardiogram was recorded continuously and birds were imaged with a micro-phased-array scanner with a frequency of 7.0 MHz. After assessment of cardiac function in 2-D-echocardiography, blood flow across the left and the right atrioventricular valve and across the aortic valve was determined using color-flow and pulsed-wave spectral Doppler echocardiography. Diastolic inflow (mean value +/- standard deviation) into the left ventricle was 0.17 +/- 0.02 m/s (Hispaniolan amazons) and 0.18 +/- 0.03 m/s (Blue fronted amazons). Diastolic inflow into the right ventricle was 0.22 +/- 0.05 m/s (Hispaniolan amazons) and 0.22 +/- 0.04 m/s (Blue fronted amazons). Velocity across the aortic valve was 0.84 +/- 0.07 m/s (Hispaniolan amazons) and 0.83 +/- 0.08 m/s (Blue fronted amazons). Systolic pulmonary flow could not be detected in any of the birds in this study. No significant differences were evident between the two species examined. Results of this study indicate that Doppler echocardiography is a promising technique to determine blood flow in the avian heart. Further studies in other avian species are needed to establish reference values for assessment of cardiac function in diseased birds.

  5. Effect of age on seed digestion in parrots (Amazona aestiva).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendramin-Gallo, M; Pessutti, C; Pezzato, A C; Vicentini-Paulino, M L

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the capacity of adult (more than 3 yr old) and young (less than 1 yr old) true parrots to digest seeds that are normally included in their diet in captivity, particularly soybean, sunflower, and corn. All the seeds were offered for 5 d with an interval of 15 d between different diets. The seeds of soybean and corn were boiled for 15 min and soaked in water at ambient temperature for 12 h before being fed to the birds. There were no differences in the digestibilities of crude protein and fats (ether extract) among animals, but the digestibilities of dry matter and crude fiber by the adult animals were higher than those of the young ones. The digestibility of carbohydrate (nitrogen-free extract) by adult birds was higher only for sunflower seeds. It is concluded that the capacity of parrots to digest fiber may change according to the age of the animal. Since the digestion of fiber depends on the action of microorganisms, these results suggest that the colonization of the gastrointestinal tract is delayed or very slow in young parrots.

  6. Reference intervals of plasma calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium for African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus) and Hispaniolan parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Fernanda M; Gaunt, Stephen D; Kearney, Michael T; Rich, Gregory A; Tully, Thomas N

    2009-12-01

    Calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), and magnesium (Mg) are important elements for body homeostasis in several diseases associated with imbalances in the plasma concentration of these ions. This is the first published report of reference intervals for Mg in association with Ca and P levels for psittacine species. One milliliter of blood was collected from 26 Hispaniolan parrots (Amazona ventralis) and 24 African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus). The plasma concentrations of Ca, P, and Mg were determined for each sample. Statistical analyses were performed including all data (analysis 1) and after exclusion of the subjects with Ca > or = 14.00 mg/dl (3.5 mmol) (analysis 2). The data from analysis 1 have a narrower interval than that observed in analysis 2. Following the normality test (Shapiro-Wilk, alpha = 0.05), the univariate and mean procedures were run. For the reference intervals, the lower and upper values were used, after elimination of the outliers calculated by Blom scores from the ranked variables. The analysis 1 references for the Hispaniolans were Ca = 8.80-10.40 mg/dl (2.20-2.60 mmol/L), P = 1.80-4.40 mg/dl (0.58-1.42 mmol/L), Mg = 1.80-3.10 mg/dl (0.74-1.27 mmol/L), and Ca:P ratio = 2.62-5.39; for the African greys analysis 1 references were Ca = 8.20-20.20 mg/dl (2.05-5.05 mmol/L), P = 2.50-5.90 mg/dl (0.81-1.91 mmol/L), Mg = 2.10-3.40 mg/dl (0.82-1.4 mmol/L), and Ca:P ratio = 1.81-3.77. The analysis 2 references for the Hispaniolans were Ca = 8.80-10.30 mg/dl (2.20-2.58 mmol/L), P = 1.80-3.80 mg/dl (0.58-1.23 mmol/L), Mg = 1.90-3.00 mg/dl (0.82-1.07 mmol/L), Ca:P ratio = 2.62-5.39; for the African greys analysis 2 references were Ca = 1.07 mmol/L), Ca:P ratio = 1.67-3.50. The results of this study are important for evaluating Mg concentrations in relation to the Ca and P parameters in psittacines. This information will be particularly helpful for veterinarians evaluating the hypocalcemic syndrome in African grey parrots and other disease processes

  7. Non-Invasive Measurement of Adrenocortical Activity in Blue-Fronted Parrots (Amazona aestiva, Linnaeus, 1758.

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    João C P Ferreira

    Full Text Available Parrots kept in zoos and private households often develop psychological and behavioural disorders. Despite knowing that such disorders have a multifactorial aetiology and that chronic stress is involved, little is known about their development mainly due to a poor understanding of the parrots' physiology and the lack of validated methods to measure stress in these species. In birds, blood corticosterone concentrations provide information about adrenocortical activity. However, blood sampling techniques are difficult, highly invasive and inappropriate to investigate stressful situations and welfare conditions. Thus, a non-invasive method to measure steroid hormones is critically needed. Aiming to perform a physiological validation of a cortisone enzyme immunoassay (EIA to measure glucocorticoid metabolites (GCM in droppings of 24 Blue-fronted parrots (Amazona aestiva, two experiments were designed. During the experiments all droppings were collected at 3-h intervals. Initially, birds were sampled for 24 h (experiment 1 and one week later assigned to four different treatments (experiment 2: Control (undisturbed, Saline (0.2 mL of 0.9% NaCl IM, Dexamethasone (1 mg/kg IM and Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH; 25 IU IM. Treatments (always one week apart were applied to all animals in a cross-over study design. A daily rhythm pattern in GCM excretion was detected but there were no sex differences (first experiment. Saline and dexamethasone treatments had no effect on GCM (not different from control concentrations. Following ACTH injection, GCM concentration increased about 13.1-fold (median at the peak (after 3-9 h, and then dropped to pre-treatment concentrations. By a successful physiological validation, we demonstrated the suitability of the cortisone EIA to non-invasively monitor increased adrenocortical activity, and thus, stress in the Blue-fronted parrot. This method opens up new perspectives for investigating the connection between behavioural

  8. Non-Invasive Measurement of Adrenocortical Activity in Blue-Fronted Parrots (Amazona aestiva, Linnaeus, 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, João C P; Fujihara, Caroline J; Fruhvald, Erika; Trevisol, Eduardo; Destro, Flavia C; Teixeira, Carlos R; Pantoja, José C F; Schmidt, Elizabeth M S; Palme, Rupert

    2015-01-01

    Parrots kept in zoos and private households often develop psychological and behavioural disorders. Despite knowing that such disorders have a multifactorial aetiology and that chronic stress is involved, little is known about their development mainly due to a poor understanding of the parrots' physiology and the lack of validated methods to measure stress in these species. In birds, blood corticosterone concentrations provide information about adrenocortical activity. However, blood sampling techniques are difficult, highly invasive and inappropriate to investigate stressful situations and welfare conditions. Thus, a non-invasive method to measure steroid hormones is critically needed. Aiming to perform a physiological validation of a cortisone enzyme immunoassay (EIA) to measure glucocorticoid metabolites (GCM) in droppings of 24 Blue-fronted parrots (Amazona aestiva), two experiments were designed. During the experiments all droppings were collected at 3-h intervals. Initially, birds were sampled for 24 h (experiment 1) and one week later assigned to four different treatments (experiment 2): Control (undisturbed), Saline (0.2 mL of 0.9% NaCl IM), Dexamethasone (1 mg/kg IM) and Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH; 25 IU IM). Treatments (always one week apart) were applied to all animals in a cross-over study design. A daily rhythm pattern in GCM excretion was detected but there were no sex differences (first experiment). Saline and dexamethasone treatments had no effect on GCM (not different from control concentrations). Following ACTH injection, GCM concentration increased about 13.1-fold (median) at the peak (after 3-9 h), and then dropped to pre-treatment concentrations. By a successful physiological validation, we demonstrated the suitability of the cortisone EIA to non-invasively monitor increased adrenocortical activity, and thus, stress in the Blue-fronted parrot. This method opens up new perspectives for investigating the connection between behavioural

  9. Isolation and molecular identification of lactic acid bacteria and Bifidobacterium spp. from faeces of the blue-fronted Amazon parrot in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegretti, L; Revolledo, L; Astolfi-Ferreira, C S; Chacón, J L; Martins, L M; Seixas, G H F; Ferreira, A J P

    2014-12-01

    In Brazil, the blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva) is a common pet. The faecal microbiota of these birds include a wide variety of bacterial species, the majority of which belong to the Gram-positive lactic acid bacteria (LAB) clade. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in the diversity and abundance of LAB and Bifidobacterium spp. in the cloacae between wild and captive birds and to select, identify and characterise LAB for consideration as a parrot probiotic. Cloacal swabs were collected from 26 wild and 26 captive birds. Bacterial DNA was extracted, and the 16S rRNA genes were amplified. The numbers of PCR-positive Enterococcus, Pediococcus, and Lactobacillus species isolated from wild and captive birds were significantly different (P<0.05). Enterococcus was the most frequently isolated genus, followed by Pediococcus, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus and Bifidobacterium. Enterococcus faecium, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus coryniformis, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis and Bifidobacterium bifidum were the most frequently isolated species from all birds. This study increases our understanding of the faecal microbiota, and may help to improve the nutrition and habitat management of captive and wild parrots. The bacterial population identified in the faecal microbiota of clinically healthy wild and captive parrots can serve as a database to analyse variations in the gut microbiota of pathogen-infected parrots and to develop probiotics specific to these genera.

  10. Effects of Hurricane Georges on habitat use by captive-reared Hispaniolan Parrots (Amazona ventralis) released in the Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, T.H.; Collazo, J.A.; Vilella, F.J.; Guerrero, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    We radio-tagged and released 49 captive-reared Hispaniolan Parrots (Amazona ventralis) in Parque Nacional del Este (PNE), Dominican Republic, during 1997 and 1998. Our primary objective was to develop a restoration program centered on using aviary-reared birds to further the recovery of the critically endangered Puerto Rican Parrot (A. vittata). Hurricane Georges made landfall over the release area on 22 September 1998 with sustained winds of 224 km/h, providing us with a unique opportunity to quantify responses of parrots to such disturbances. Quantitative data on such responses by any avian species are scarce, particularly for Amazona species, many of which are in peril and occur in hurricane-prone areas throughout the Caribbean. Mean home ranges of 18 parrots monitored both before and after the hurricane increased (P = 0.08) from 864 ha (CI = 689-1039 ha) pre-hurricane to 1690 ha (CI = 1003-2377 ha) post-hurricane. The total area traversed by all parrots increased > 300%, from 4884 ha pre-hurricane to 15,490 ha post-hurricane. Before Hurricane Georges, parrot activity was concentrated in coastal scrub, tall broadleaf forest, and abandoned agriculture (conucos). After the hurricane, parrots concentrated their activities in areas of tall broadleaf forest and abandoned conucos. Topographic relief, primarily in the form of large sinkholes, resulted in "resource refugia" where parrots and other frugivores foraged after the hurricane. Habitat use and movement patterns exhibited by released birds highlight the importance of carefully considering effects of season, topography, and overall size of release areas when planning psittacine restorations in hurricane-prone areas. ?? The Neotropical Ornithological Society.

  11. Granular cell tumor in an endangered Puerto Rican Amazon parrot (Amazon vittata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quist, C.F.; Latimer, K.S.; Goldade, S.L.; Rivera, A.; Dein, F.J.

    1999-01-01

    A 3 cm diameter mass from the metacarpus of a Puerto Rican Amazon parrot was diagnosed as a granular cell tumour based on light microscopy. The cytoplasmic granules were periodic-acid Schiff positive and diastase resistant. Ultrastructural characteristics of the cells included convoluted nuclei and the presence of numerous cytoplasmic tertiary lysosomes. This is only the second granular cell tumour reported in a bird. We speculate that most granular cell tumours are derived from cells that are engaged in some type of cellular degradative process, creating a similar morphologic appearance, but lacking a uniform histogenesis.

  12. Clinical-pathological aspects of Blue-fronted Parrots parrots (Amazona aestiva, Linne 1758 coming traffickin arrests from the State of Paraíba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Antunes Silva Siqueira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Siqueira R.A.S., de Lucena R.B., Cavalcanti T.A., Luna A.C. de L., Firmino M. de O. & Guerra R.R. [Clinical-pathological aspects of Blue-fronted Parrots parrots (Amazona aestiva, Linne 1758 coming traffickin arrests from the State of Paraíba, Brazil.] Aspectos clinico-patológicos em papagaios-verdadeiros (Amazona aestiva, L., 1758 oriundos de apreensões do tráfico no estado da Paraíba, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(4:439-444, 2016. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Veterinárias, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Estadual do Ceará, Av. Silas Munguba, 1700, Fortaleza, CE 60740-000, Brasil. E-mail: siqueiraras@gmail.com The objective of this study was to describe the clinical and pathological characteristics of true parrots (Amazona aestiva arising from trafficking seized by the Wild Animals Triage Center (CETAS in the State of Paraíba, Brazil. In order to establish the real condition which they were. The study was developed at CETAS in the Municipality of Cabedelo in the State of Paraíba. Fifteen birds from seizures were used, and nine of them were anesthetized. Blood samples were collected, body weight was checked and liver biopsy was performed. In the other six birds, that died, a necroscopic examination was performed. The results indicated that the birds had a poor body condition. Histopathological and serological findings showed very poor health conditions, and indicated the need to develop a health recovery work to reintroduce and release these birds in the wild.

  13. Spectral tuning of Amazon parrot feather coloration by psittacofulvin pigments and spongy structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinbergen, Jan; Wilts, Bodo D.; Stavenga, Doekele G.

    2013-01-01

    The feathers of Amazon parrots are brightly coloured. They contain a unique class of pigments, the psittacofulvins, deposited in both barbs and barbules, causing yellow or red coloured feathers. In specific feather areas, spongy nanostructured barb cells exist, reflecting either in the blue or

  14. DEVELOPMENT AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE BRACHIAL PLEXUS IN BLUE-FRONTED PARROT (Amazona aestiva, Linnaeus, 1758

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    Rayssa Marley Nóbrega da Silva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Local anesthetic procedures are commonly used in domestic and wild birds, because of its low cost and fast induction, as long as applied with great precision, which requires specific anatomical knowledge of the site of incision. This study aimed to establish the origin and distribution of the brachial plexus of the Blue-fronted Parrot (Amazona aestiva by anatomic dissection of the skin and musculature of 22 specimens (17 males and 5 females from the Wild Animals Screening Center of the Federal District after death by natural causes. The dissection work promoted the isolation of the forming roots of the brachial plexus, as well as its ramifications. The brachial plexus was formed by four trunks, including the ventral spinal cord rami segments from C9 to C10, C10 to C11, C11 to T1 and T1 to T2, which joined into a short common trunk, branched into dorsal and ventral cords. The thin nerves subcoracoideus and subscapularis and the branch to the scapulohumeralis muscle originated from the common trunk. The dorsal cord originated the anconeal, axillaris and radialis nerves, while the ventral cord gave origin for the pectoralis cranialis, pectoralis caudalis, coracobrachialis and medianoulnaris. These branches innervated the muscles of the extensor and flexor compartments of the forelimb, pectoral muscles and overlying skin.

  15. Use of phenol red thread tests to evaluate tear production in clinically normal Amazon parrots and comparison with Schirmer tear test findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Eric S; Carboni, Deborah A; Kearney, Michael T; Tully, Thomas N

    2009-11-15

    To determine phenol red thread test (PRTT) values in eyes of clinically normal Hispaniolan Amazon parrots before and after topical application of an ophthalmic anesthetic agent and compare findings with Schirmer tear test (STT) values. Evaluation study. 24 Amazona ventralis parrots from a research colony. On 4 occasions (1-week intervals), all birds underwent a thorough ophthalmic examination of both eyes, which included (in sequence) performance of a PRTT and an STT; topical ocular application of proparacaine hydrochloride; and performance of another PRTT and another STT. Correlations between PRTT and STT values recorded with and without topical anesthesia were assessed. Without topical anesthesia, mean +/- SD PRTT value was 12.5 +/- 5.0 mm/15 s (range, 1 to 25 mm/15 s). With topical anesthesia, the PRTT value was 12.6 +/- 5.4 mm/15 s (range, 2 to 24 mm/15 s). Without topical anesthesia, mean STT value was 7.9 +/- 2.6 mm/min (range, 0 to 13 mm/min). With topical anesthesia, the STT value was 5.1 +/- 3.3 mm/min (range, 0 to 18 mm/min). The correlation of PRTT and STT values recorded with or without topical anesthesia was weak (r = 0.51 and r = 0.32, respectively). Results indicated that the PRTT and STT were both viable methods for measurement of tear production in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. Topical application of an ophthalmic anesthetic agent did not have a significant effect on the PRTT values but significantly decreased the STT values.

  16. Spectral tuning of Amazon parrot feather coloration by psittacofulvin pigments and spongy structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinbergen, Jan; Wilts, Bodo D; Stavenga, Doekele G

    2013-12-01

    The feathers of Amazon parrots are brightly coloured. They contain a unique class of pigments, the psittacofulvins, deposited in both barbs and barbules, causing yellow or red coloured feathers. In specific feather areas, spongy nanostructured barb cells exist, reflecting either in the blue or blue-green wavelength range. The blue-green spongy structures are partly enveloped by a blue-absorbing, yellow-colouring pigment acting as a spectral filter, thus yielding a green coloured barb. Applying reflection and transmission spectroscopy, we characterized the Amazons' pigments and spongy structures, and investigated how they contribute to the feather coloration. The reflectance spectra of Amazon feathers are presumably tuned to the sensitivity spectra of the visual photoreceptors.

  17. Population size of Cuban Parrots Amazona leucocephala and Sandhill Cranes Grus canadensis and community involvement in their conservation in northern Isla de la Juventud, Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, X.G.; Alvarez, V.B.; Wiley, J.W.; Rosales, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    The Cuban Sandhill Crane Grus canadensis nesiotes and Cuban Parrot Amazona leucocephala palmarum are considered endangered species in Cuba and the Isla de la Juventud (formerly Isla de Pinos). Coincident with a public education campaign, a population survey for these species was conducted in the northern part of the Isla de la Juventud on 17 December 1995, from 06hoo to 10hoo. Residents from throughout the island participated, manning 98 stations, with 1-4 observers per station. Parrots were observed at 60 (61.2%) of the stations with a total of 1320, maximum (without correction for duplicate observations), and 1100, minimum (corrected), individuals counted. Sandhill cranes were sighted at 38 (38.8%) of the stations, with a total of 115 individuals. Cranes and parrots co-occurred at 20 (20.4%) of the stations.

  18. A Case Report of Avian Polyomavirus Infection in a Blue Fronted Parrot (Amazona aestiva Associated with Anemia

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    Natalia Azevedo Philadelpho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An adult Blue Fronted Amazon parrot (A. aestiva presenting with emesis, apathy, undigested seed in feces, and severe anemia was treated for approximately 2 months. Upon radiographic examination, an enlarged kidney was the only alteration. PCR for avian Bornavirus, Circovirus, and Polyomavirus was performed for the feces and blood. The results were positive for APV in both samples and negative for the other viruses. After 6 months, the feces from the same animal were negative for APV. Because the animal was positive for APV in both the feces and the blood, it is likely that these clinical symptoms were due to Polyomavirus infection. Severe anemia is an unusual clinical sign of Polyomavirus, and this study aims to identify novel differential diagnostic criteria for the disease.

  19. The effect of premedication with ketamine, alone or with diazepam, on anaesthesia with sevoflurane in parrots (Amazona aestiva).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Valéria Veras; Otsuki, Denise Aya; Auler Júnior, José Otávio Costa; Nunes, Talyta Lins; Ambrósio, Aline Magalhães; Fantoni, Denise Tabacchi

    2013-07-17

    Premedication is rarely used in avian species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of premedication on the quality of sevoflurane induction and anaesthesia in parrots. We hypothesised that premedication would facilitate handling and decrease the minimum anaesthetic dose (MAD). Thirty-six adult parrots were randomly distributed in three groups: group S (n = 12) was premedicated with NaCl 0.9%; group KS (n = 12) was premedicated with 10 mg.kg-1 ketamine; and group KDS (n = 12) was premedicated with 10 mg.kg-1 ketamine and 0.5 mg.kg-1 diazepam, delivered intramuscularly. After induction using 4.5% sevoflurane introduced through a facemask, the MAD was determined for each animal. The heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), systolic arterial blood pressure (SAP), and cloacal temperature (CT) were recorded before premedication (T0), 15 minutes after premedication (T1), and after MAD determination (T2). Arterial blood gas analyses were performed at T0 and T2. The quality of anaesthesia was evaluated using subjective scales based on animal behaviour and handling during induction, maintenance, and recovery. Statistical analyses were performed using analysis of variance or Kruskal-Wallis tests followed by Tukey's or Dunn's tests. The minimal anaesthetic doses obtained were 2.4 ± 0.37%, 1.7 ± 0.39%, and 1.3 ± 0.32% for groups S, KS, and KDS, respectively. There were no differences in HR, RR, or CT among groups, but SAP was significantly lower in group S. Sedation was observed in both the premedicated S-KS and S-KDS groups. There were no differences in the quality of intubation and recovery from anaesthesia among the three groups, although the induction time was significantly shorter in the pre-medicated groups, and the KS group showed less muscle relaxation. Ketamine alone or the ketamine/diazepam combination decreased the MAD of sevoflurane in parrots (Amazona aestiva). Ketamine alone or in combination with diazepam promoted a good

  20. Population genetic structure of the blue-fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva, Psittacidae: Aves) based on nuclear microsatellite loci: implications for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, K C E; Seixas, G H F; Berkunsky, I; Collevatti, R G; Caparroz, R

    2008-09-09

    The blue-fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva) is a widely distributed Neotropical parrot and one of the most captured parrots in nature to supply the illegal trade of wild animals. The objectives of the present study were to analyze the genetic structure of A. aestiva to identify management units and support conservation planning and to verified if A. aestiva populations have undergone a recent bottleneck due to habitat loss and capture for the pet trade. The genetic structure was accessed by analyzing six microsatellite loci in 74 individuals of A. aestiva, including samples from the two subspecies (A. a. aestiva and A. a. xanthopteryx), from five populations: four in Brazil and one in Argentina. A significant genetic differentiation (theta = 0.007, p = 0.005) could be detected only between the most distant populations, Tocantins and Argentina, localized at the northeast and southwest limits of the sample sites, respectively. There was no evidence of inbreeding within or between populations, suggesting random mating among individuals. These results suggest a clinal distribution of genetic variability, as observed for variation in plumage color of the two A. aestiva subspecies. Bottleneck analysis did not show a recent reduction in population size. Thus, for the management and conservation of the species, the populations from Argentina and Tocantins should be considered as different management units, and the other populations from the center of the geographical distribution as another management unit.

  1. Analogical reasoning in amazons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obozova, Tanya; Smirnova, Anna; Zorina, Zoya; Wasserman, Edward

    2015-11-01

    Two juvenile orange-winged amazons (Amazona amazonica) were initially trained to match visual stimuli by color, shape, and number of items, but not by size. After learning these three identity matching-to-sample tasks, the parrots transferred discriminative responding to new stimuli from the same categories that had been used in training (other colors, shapes, and numbers of items) as well as to stimuli from a different category (stimuli varying in size). In the critical testing phase, both parrots exhibited reliable relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) behavior, suggesting that they perceived and compared the relationship between objects in the sample stimulus pair to the relationship between objects in the comparison stimulus pairs, even though no physical matches were possible between items in the sample and comparison pairs. The parrots spontaneously exhibited this higher-order relational responding without having ever before been trained on RMTS tasks, therefore joining apes and crows in displaying this abstract cognitive behavior.

  2. Factors influencing density of the Northern Mealy Amazon in three forest types of a modified rainforest landscape in Mesoamerica

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Ángel. De Labra-Hernández; Katherine Renton

    2017-01-01

    The high rate of conversion of tropical moist forest to secondary forest makes it imperative to evaluate forest metric relationships of species dependent on primary, old-growth forest. The threatened Northern Mealy Amazon (Amazona guatemalae) is the largest mainland parrot, and occurs in tropical moist forests of Mesoamerica that are increasingly being converted to secondary forest. However, the consequences of forest conversion for this recently taxonomically separated parrot species are poo...

  3. Retrospective study of ocular disorders in Amazon parrots Estudo retrospectivo das alterações oculares observadas em papagaios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Hvenegaard

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study was conducted to identify the occurrence and types of ocular disorders in 57 Amazon parrots admitted to the Ophthalmology Service, Veterinary Teaching Hospital, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of São Paulo, Brazil from 1997 to 2006. The most frequent observed disorder was cataracts, present in 24 of the 114 examined eyes (57 parrots. Uveitis, ulcerative keratitis and keratoconjunctivitis were frequently diagnosed as well. The cornea was the most affected ocular structure, with 28 reported disorders. Uveal disorders also were commonly observed. Conjunctiva and eyelid disorders were diagnosed in lower frequency. Results suggest that cataracts are common and that cornea, lens and uvea are the most affected ocular structures in Amazon parrots.Realizou-se estudo retrospectivo para identificar a ocorrência e os tipos de alterações oculares observadas em 57 papagaios atendidos no Serviço de Oftalmologia do Hospital Veterinário da Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia da Universidade de São Paulo (USP, de 1997-2006. Catarata em diferentes estágios de evolução foi a alteração ocular mais frequentemente diagnosticada, sendo observada em 24 dos 114 olhos examinados. Uveíte, ceratite ulcerativa e ceratoconjuntivite foram também diagnosticadas. A córnea foi a estrutura ocular mais acometida (28 registros. Alterações uveais foram frequentemente observadas. Alterações das pálpebras e conjuntiva foram observadas em menor freqüência. Concluí-se que catarata foi a alteração mais frequentemente observada e que a córnea, lente e úvea são as estruturas oculares mais susceptíveis a alterações em papagaios.

  4. Systemic candidosis and concomitant aspergillosis and zygomycosis in two Amazon parakeets (Amazona aestiva).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, L; Gómez-Villamandos, J C; Jensen, H E

    1998-01-01

    Systemic candidosis and concomitant aspergillosis and zygomycosis were diagnosed immunohistochemically in two Amazon parakeets (Amazona aestiva). In the bird with systemic candidosis, subacute necrotic lesions were present in the lung and the gastrointestinal tract, whereas chronic giant cell-containing granulomas were located in the liver, heart, spleen and on the serosal lining of the small intestine. Although the lesions in the liver, heart and spleen most likely developed as a result of haematogenous spread, the granulomas on the serosal surface may have developed after a local transmural intestinal invasion. In the second bird, aspergillosis and zygomycosis were restricted to the lung, whereas some zygomycetes were found in the air sacs as well as in the heart and kidneys. In all organs the zygomycotic lesions were dominated by thrombosing vasculitis, supporting haematogenous dissemination.

  5. Phenotypical characterization of Candida spp. isolated from crop of parrots (Amazona spp. Caracterização fenotípica de Candida spp. isoladas de inglúvio de papagaios (Amazona spp.

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    Renata G. Vieira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to characterize Candida isolates from crop of parrots. Forty baby parrots of genus Amazona, species aestiva and amazonica that were apprehended from wild animal traffic were used: 18 presented ingluvitis and 22 other alterations, but showing general debilitation. Samples were seeded on Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol after be obtained by the introduction of urethral probe through the esophagus. Based on morphology and biochemical reactions (API 20C Candida was confirmed; it was still searched the production of proteinase and phospholipase, virulence factors for Candida species. Candida spp. were isolated from 57.5% parrots, being 72.2% from birds with ingluvitis and 45.5% from without ones. Twenty-five strains of Candida were isolated, 60% and 40%, respectively from parrots with and without ingluvitis, and were speciated: 28% C. humicola, 24% C. parapsilosis, 20% C. guilliermondii, 20% C. famata, and 8% C. albicans. These results demonstrate that C. albicans is not the most frequent species isolated, and it is the first report that shows C. guilliermondii, C. famata, and C. humicola causing infection in parrots. Many isolates presented filamentation (76%, 100% produced proteinase and 68% phospholipase. The observation of Candida spp. producing virulence factors reinforce the pathogenic role of these yeasts in the cases studied.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi caracterizar cepas de Candida spp. isoladas de inglúvio de papagaios. Foram utilizados 40 papagaios do gênero Amazona, espécies aestiva e amazonica, apreendidos de tráfico de animais selvagens: 18 apresentavam ingluvite e 22 outras alterações, mas todos mostrando sinais de debilitação geral. Colheram-se as amostras clínicas através da introdução de sonda uretral no esôfago dos animais e estas foram semeadas em ágar Sabouraud dextrose acrescido de cloranfenicol. A identificação das espécies de Candida foi baseada em caracter

  6. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in a canary (Serinus canana L.) and a blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona amazona aestiva).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoop, Richard K

    2002-01-01

    I report two cases of mycobacteriosis in pet birds due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis and discuss the zoonotic implications. The canary with a tuberculous knot in the lung is the first description of M. tuberculosis in a nonpsittacine bird species.

  7. Equações de predição dos valores energéticos dos alimentos para papagaios verdadeiros (Amazona aestiva Predition equation of energetic values of feeds for blue-fronted parrot (Amazona aestiva

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    Carlos Eduardo do Prado Saad

    2007-06-01

    the data set from the metabolism assay and proximal analyses of 16 feeds (sunflower seed, oat, egg yolk, integral egg, egg white, wheat germen, wheat bran, triturated corn, jellied corn, sunflower bran, yeast, citric pulp, papaya, banana, soybean meal, extruded soybean. The prediction equations of the apparent metabolizable energy (AME, apparent nitrogen corrected (AMEn, true (TME and true nitrogen corrected (TMEn for blue fronted parrots (Amazon aestiva adults in the maintenance. Based on the chemical analyses of 16 feeds and in the of metabolizable energy values (AME, TME, AMEn and TMEn obtained from the assays with parrots, the prediction equations were determined. The parameters used for the calculations of the equations were Organic Matter (OM, Crude Protein (CP, Crude Energy (CE, Crude Fiber (CF, Ethereal Extract (EE, Ashes (As and Free Nitrogen Extractive (FNE, analyzed in the feds. The equations to predict the metabolizable energy of the groups of feeds were determined through simple and multiple linear regressions, by using the method of stepwise of the SAS statistical package (SAS INSTITUTE, 1995. Accord to the equation it was concluded that : 1 - EE was the variable that was better correlated with the metabolizable energy (AME, AMEn, TME and TMEn with high positive correlation; 2 - although many equations showed the R² above 0,90, none of them was able to predict the metabolizable energy for all feeds evaluated, probably due to the heterogeneous nature of the nutrients in the feeds.

  8. Neogene vegetation development in the Amazon Basin: evidence from marine well-2, Foz do Amazonas (Brazil)

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    Bogota-Angel, Raul; Chemale Junior, Farid; Davila, Roberto; Soares, Emilson; Pinto, Ricardo; Do Carmo, Dermeval; Hoorn, Carina

    2014-05-01

    Origen and development of the highly diverse Amazon tropical forest has mostly been inferred from continental sites. However, sediment records in the marine Foz do Amazonas Basin can provide important information to better understand the influence of the Andes uplift and climate change on its plant biomes evolution since the Neogene. Sediment analyses of samples from BP-Petrobras well 1 and 2, drilled in the Amazon Fan, allowed to infer the onset of the transcontinental Amazon river and the fan phase during the middle to late Miocene (c. 10.5 Ma). As part of the CLIMAMAZON research programme we performed pollen analysis on the 10.5 to 0.4 Ma time interval. 76 ditch cutting samples of the upper 4165 m sediments of well 2 permitted us to infer changes in floral composition in the Amazon Basin. The palynological spectra across this interval (nannofossil based age model) include pollen, fern spores, dinocysts and foram lignings. When possible pollen and fern spores were grouped in four vegetation types: estuarine, tropical, mountain forest and high mountain open treeless vegetation. Pollen is generally corroded and reflects the effects of sediment transportation while reworked material is also common. Good pollen producers such as Poaceae, Asteraceae and Cyperaceae are common and reflect indistinctive vegetation types particularly those associated to riverine systems. Rhizophora/Zonocostites spp. indicate "close-distance" mangrove development. Tropical forest biomes are represented by pollen that resemble Moraceae-Urticaceae, Melastomataceae-Combretaceae, Sapotaceae, Alchornea, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae, Bignoniaceae, Mauritia and Arecaceae. Myrica, and particularly sporadic occurrences of fossil fern spores like Lophosoria, and Cyathea suggest the development of a moist Andean forest in areas above 1000 m. First indicators of high altitudes appear in the last part of late Miocene with taxa associated to current Valeriana and particularly Polylepis, a neotropical taxon

  9. Analgesic effects of carprofen and liposome-encapsulated butorphanol tartrate in Hispaniolan parrots (Amazona ventralis) with experimentally induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul-Murphy, Joanne R; Sladky, Kurt K; Krugner-Higby, Lisa A; Stading, Ben R; Klauer, Julia M; Keuler, Nicholas S; Brown, Carolyn S; Heath, Timothy D

    2009-10-01

    To evaluate the microcrystalline sodium urate (MSU) method for inducing arthritis in parrots and to compare the analgesic efficacy of long-acting liposome-encapsulated butorphanol (LEBT), carprofen, or a combination of both. 20 Hispaniolan parrots. MSU was injected into a tibiotarsal-tarsometatarsal (intertarsal) joint to induce arthritis (time 0). Four treatments were compared (LEBT [15 mg/kg, SC] administered once at time 0; injections of carprofen [3 mg/kg, IM, q 12 h] starting at time 0; administration of LEBT plus carprofen; and a control treatment of saline [0.9% NaCl] solution). Weight load testing and behavioral scoring were conducted at 0, 2, 6, 26, and 30 hours. Injection of MSU into the intertarsal joint induced arthritis, which resolved within 30 hours. Treatment with LEBT or LEBT plus carprofen resulted in significantly greater weight-bearing load on the limb with induced arthritis, compared with the control treatment. Treatment with carprofen alone caused a slight but nonsignificant improvement in weight-bearing load on the arthritic limb, compared with the control treatment. Behaviors associated with motor activity and weight bearing differed between the control and analgesic treatments. Butorphanol was an effective treatment for pain associated with arthritis, but carprofen administered every 12 hours was insufficient. Injection of MSU to induce arthritis in a single joint was a good method for evaluating tonic pain in parrots, and measurement of the weight-bearing load was accurate for assessment of arthritic pain; however, behavioral changes associated with pain were subtle.

  10. Crop damage of Eriotheca gracilipes (Bombacaceae by the Blue-Fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva, Psittacidae, in the Brazilian Cerrado

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    J Ragusa-Netto

    Full Text Available Seed predation has major effects on the reproductive success of individuals, spatial patterns of populations, genetic variability, interspecific interactions and ultimately in the diversity of tree communities. At a Brazilian savanna, I evaluated the proportional crop loss of Eriotheca gracilipes due the Blue-Fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva during a fruiting period. Also, I analyzed the relationship between proportional crop loss to Amazons and both fruit crop size and the distance from the nearest damaged conspecific. Trees produced from 1 to 109 fruits, so that Amazons foraged more often on trees bearing larger fruit crop size, while seldom visited less productive trees. Moreover, the relationship between fruit crop sizes and the number of depredated fruits was significant. However, when only damaged trees were assessed, I found a negative and significant relation between fruit crop size and proportional crop loss to Blue-Fronted Amazons. Taking into account this as a measure more directly related to the probability of seed survival, a negative density dependent effect emerged. Also, Amazons similarly damaged the fruit crops of either close or distant neighboring damaged trees. Hence, in spite of Blue-Fronted Amazons searched for E. gracilipes bearing large fruit crops, they were swamped due to the presence of more fruits than they could eat. Moderate seed predation by Blue-Fronted Amazons either at trees with large fruit crops or in areas where fruiting trees were aggregated implies in an enhanced probability of E. gracilipes seed survival and consequent regeneration success.

  11. Crop damage of Eriotheca gracilipes (Bombacaceae) by the Blue-Fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva, Psittacidae), in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragusa-Netto, J

    2014-11-01

    Seed predation has major effects on the reproductive success of individuals, spatial patterns of populations, genetic variability, interspecific interactions and ultimately in the diversity of tree communities. At a Brazilian savanna, I evaluated the proportional crop loss of Eriotheca gracilipes due the Blue-Fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva) during a fruiting period. Also, I analyzed the relationship between proportional crop loss to Amazons and both fruit crop size and the distance from the nearest damaged conspecific. Trees produced from 1 to 109 fruits, so that Amazons foraged more often on trees bearing larger fruit crop size, while seldom visited less productive trees. Moreover, the relationship between fruit crop sizes and the number of depredated fruits was significant. However, when only damaged trees were assessed, I found a negative and significant relation between fruit crop size and proportional crop loss to Blue-Fronted Amazons. Taking into account this as a measure more directly related to the probability of seed survival, a negative density dependent effect emerged. Also, Amazons similarly damaged the fruit crops of either close or distant neighboring damaged trees. Hence, in spite of Blue-Fronted Amazons searched for E. gracilipes bearing large fruit crops, they were swamped due to the presence of more fruits than they could eat. Moderate seed predation by Blue-Fronted Amazons either at trees with large fruit crops or in areas where fruiting trees were aggregated implies in an enhanced probability of E. gracilipes seed survival and consequent regeneration success.

  12. Factors influencing density of the Northern Mealy Amazon in three forest types of a modified rainforest landscape in Mesoamerica

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    Miguel Ángel. De Labra-Hernández

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The high rate of conversion of tropical moist forest to secondary forest makes it imperative to evaluate forest metric relationships of species dependent on primary, old-growth forest. The threatened Northern Mealy Amazon (Amazona guatemalae is the largest mainland parrot, and occurs in tropical moist forests of Mesoamerica that are increasingly being converted to secondary forest. However, the consequences of forest conversion for this recently taxonomically separated parrot species are poorly understood. We measured forest metrics of primary evergreen, riparian, and secondary tropical moist forest in Los Chimalapas, Mexico. We also used point counts to estimate density of Northern Mealy Amazons in each forest type during the nonbreeding (Sept 2013 and breeding (March 2014 seasons. We then examined how parrot density was influenced by forest structure and composition, and how parrots used forest types within tropical moist forest. Overall, parrot density was high in the breeding season, with few parrots present during the nonbreeding season. During the breeding season, primary forest had significantly greater density of 18.9 parrots/km² in evergreen forest and 35.9 parrots/km² in riparian forest, compared with only 3.4 parrots/km² in secondary forest. Secondary forest had significantly lower tree species richness, density, diameter, total height, and major branch ramification height, as well as distinct tree species composition compared with both types of primary forest. The number of parrots recorded at point counts was related to density of large, tall trees, characteristic of primary forest, and parrots used riparian forest more than expected by availability. Hence, the increased conversion of tropical moist forest to secondary forest is likely to lead to reduced densities of forest-dependent species such as the Northern Mealy Amazon. Furthermore, the species' requirement for primary tropical moist forest highlights the need to reevaluate

  13. Carotenoid pigments and the selectivity of psittacofulvin-based coloration systems in parrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, K J; Nogare, M C

    2004-07-01

    Carotenoid pigments are commonly used as colorants of feathers and bare parts by birds. However, parrots (Aves: Psittaciformes) use a novel class of plumage pigments (called psittacofulvins) that, like carotenoids, are lipid-soluble and red, orange, or yellow in color. To begin to understand how and why parrots use these pigments and not carotenoids in their feathers, we must first describe the distribution of these two types of pigments in the diet, tissues, and fluids of these birds. Here, we studied the carotenoid content of blood in five species of parrots with red in their plumage to see if they show the physiological ability to accumulate carotenoids in the body. Although Scarlet (Ara macao) and Greenwing Macaws (Ara chloroptera) and Eclectus (Eclectus roratus), African Gray (Psittacus erithacus) and Blue-fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva) Parrots all use psittacofulvins to color their feathers red, we found that they also circulated high concentrations of both dietary (lutein, zeaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin) and metabolically derived (anhydrolutein, dehydrolutein) carotenoids through blood at the time of feather growth, at levels comparable to those found in many other carotenoid-colored birds. These results suggest that parrots have the potential to use carotenoids for plumage pigmentation, but preferentially avoid depositing them in feathers, which is likely under the control of the maturing feather follicle. As there is no evidence of psittacofulvins in parrot blood at the tune of feather growth, we presume that these pigments are locally synthesized by growing feathers within the follicular tissue.

  14. Description of a new species of Microglanis (Siluriformes: Pseudopimelodidae from the Amazon basin, Amazonas State, Brazil

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    Lucas Ribeiro Jarduli

    Full Text Available The first species of Microglanis from the rio Amazonas, Amazonas State, Brazil is described. This species differs from all congeners by the forked caudal fin, and color pattern of the supraoccipital region consisting of two elliptical and juxtaposed pale spots, besides a combination of morphometrics characters.

  15. Haematological reference for red-browed parrot ( Amazona rhodocorytha , Salvadori, 1890 captive in the Atlantic Forest in Eastern Brazil

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    R.H. Mello

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT To conduct the survey were used 35 (thirty-five red-browned parrots (A. rhodocorytha, adults, captive, of both genders and clinically healthy, belonging to the live collection of the Museum of Biology Teacher Mello Leitao, located in Santa Teresa, Espírito Santo, Brazil. Harvests were performed in the morning, by puncture of the brachial vein getting 0.5mL of blood stored in EDTA for a period no longer than 6 hours. Blood smears of fresh material were made at collection, stained using the method of May-Grunwald-Giemsa. Analysis of blood elements was done by cell counting in a mirrored Neubauer chamber using Natt and Herrick solution at a ratio of 2:200 as diluent. For the analysis of the methodology, homoglobinometry cyanide hemoglobin using commercial kits by colorimetry on a semi-automatic biochemical analyzer was used. After completion of the statistical data the following parameters were obtained (mean±standard deviation: Erythrocytes (x106/μl: 2.68±0.56; Hemoglobin (g/dl: 14.27±0.69; Hematocrit (%: 53±3.38; Mean corpuscular volume (fl: 206.7±45.82; Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (pg: 56.4±14.46; Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (%: 27.5±1.19; Thrombocytes (x3/μl: 25.8 ± 10.5; Total plasma protein (g/dl 5.4±0.5; Leukocytes (x103/dl: 3.1±2; Heterophile (/uL: 1937±1676; Lymphocytes (/uL: 1144±599; Monocytes (/uL: 24.4 ± 28.2; Basophils (/uL: 42.2±46.2; Eosinophils (/uL: 11.7±19.9. In the relation between males and females, no significant differences were found in any hematological parameter evaluated.

  16. Snakebites as a largely neglected problem in the Brazilian Amazon: highlights of the epidemiological trends in the State of Amazonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, Esaú Samuel; Sampaio, Vanderson; Sachett, Jaqueline; Castro, Daniel Barros de; Noronha, Maria das Dores Nogueira; Lozano, Jorge Luis López; Muniz, Emiro; Ferreira, Luiz Carlos de Lima; Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães de; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Envenoming snakebites are thought to be a particularly important threat to public health worldwide, especially in rural areas of tropical and subtropical countries. The true magnitude of the public health threat posed by snakebites is unknown, making it difficult for public health officials to optimize prevention and treatment. The objective of this work was to conduct a systematic review of the literature to gather data on snakebite epidemiology in the Amazon region and describe a case series of snakebites from epidemiological surveillance in the State of Amazonas (1974-2012). Only 11 articles regarding snakebites were found. In the State of Amazonas, information regarding incidents involving snakes is scarce. Historical trends show an increasing number of cases after the second half of the 1980s. Snakebites predominated among adults (20-39 years old; 38%), in the male gender (78.9%) and in those living in rural areas (85.6%). The predominant snake envenomation type was bothropic. The incidence reported by the epidemiological surveillance in the State of Amazonas, reaching up to 200 cases/100,000 inhabitants in some areas, is among the highest annual snakebite incidence rates of any region in the world. The majority of the cases were reported in the rainy season with a case-fatality rate of 0.6%. Snakebite envenomation is a great disease burden in the State of Amazonas, representing a challenge for future investigations, including approaches to estimating incidence under-notification and case-fatality rates as well as the factors related to severity and disabilities.

  17. Distribution of species and antimicrobial resistance among enterococci isolated from the fecal microbiota of captive blue-fronted parrot (Amazona aestiva) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Andréa de Andrade Rangel de; Faria, Adriana Rocha; Pinto, Tatiana de Castro Abreu; Merquior, Vânia Lúcia Carreira; Neves, Daniel Marchesi; Costa, Rodrigo de Cerqueira da; Teixeira, Lúcia Martins

    2018-02-15

    Enterococcal strains recovered from fecal samples of captive blue-fronted parrots (Amazona aestiva) assisted at two wild animal screening centers in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were identified as Enterococcus hirae (the predominant species; 75.3%), followed by Enterococcus faecalis (17.3%), Enterococcus casseliflavus (4.8%), Enterococcus gallinarum (1.7%), and Enterococcus hermanniensis (0.9%). All strains were susceptible to linezolid and teicoplanin. Rates of nonsusceptibility (including resistant and intermediate categories) to other 16 antimicrobials tested varied from 69.3% to 0.4%, A considerable proportion (48.0%) of the strains was multidrug-resistant and diverse genetic determinants associated with antimicrobial resistance were identified. Tetracycline-resistant strains carried the tet(M) and/or tet(L) genes. Macrolides resistance was associated with the erm(B), erm(A) and mefA genes, while 43.2% of the isolates were negative for the investigated genes. High-level resistance to gentamicin associated with the aac(6')-le-aph(2″)-la gene was detected in one E. faecalis strain. The two strains presenting high-level resistance to streptomycin were negative for the ant(6')-Ia, ant(3')-Ia, ant(9')-Ia and ant(9')-Ib genes. The vat(D) gene was found in all the 47 quinupristin/dalfopristin resistant strains identified as non-E. faecalis. Analysis of PFGE profiles of E. hirae strains after restriction with SmaI demonstrated the occurrence of five clonal groups. The predominant E. hirae clone was distributed among birds in the two institutions, suggesting that this clone was well adapted to the host and environments investigated. The four clonal groups identified among E. faecalis were composed by small numbers of strains and, generally, restricted to birds in the same sector. The occurrence of enterococcal strains exhibiting antimicrobial resistance traits and carrying genetic determinants that represent potential threats to the health of both humans and animals, in

  18. Biological behavior of Trypanosoma cruzi stocks obtained from the State of Amazonas, Western Brazilian Amazon, in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Magalhães, Laylah Kelre Costa; Oliveira, Josué Costa; Guerra, Jorge Augusto de Oliveira; Silveira, Henrique; Ferreira, Luiz Carlos de Lima; Toledo, Max Jean de Ornelas; Barbosa, Maria das Graças Vale

    2012-01-01

    The biological diversity of circulating Trypanosoma cruzi stocks in the Amazon region most likely plays an important role in the peculiar clinic-epidemiological features of Chagas disease in this area. Seven stocks of T. cruzi were recently isolated in the State of Amazonas, Brazil, from humans, wild mammals, and triatomines. They belonged to the TcI and Z3 genotypes and were biologically characterized in Swiss mice. Parasitological and histopathological parameters were determined. Four stocks did not promote patent parasitemia in mice. Three stocks produced low parasitemia, long pre-patent periods, and a patent period of 1 day or oscillating parasitemia. Maximum parasitemia ranged from 1,400 to 2,800 trypomastigotes/0.1 mL blood. Mice inoculated with the T. cruzi stocks studied showed low positivity during fresh blood examinations, ranging from 0% to 28.6%. In hemoculture, positivity ranged from 0% to 100%. Heart tissue parasitism was observed in mice inoculated with stocks AM49 and AM61. Stock AM49 triggered a moderate inflammatory process in heart tissue. A mild inflammatory process was observed in heart tissue for stocks AM28, AM38, AM61, and AM69. An inflammatory process was frequently observed in skeletal muscle. Examinations of brain tissue revealed inflammatory foci and gliosis in mice inoculated with stock AM49. Biological and histopathological characterization allowed us to demonstrate the low infectivity and virulence of T. cruzi stocks isolated from the State of Amazonas.

  19. Duet function in the yellow-naped amazon, Amazona auropalliata: evidence from playbacks of duets and solos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlin, Christine R; Wright, Timothy F

    2012-01-01

    The question of why animals participate in duets is an intriguing one, as many such displays appear to be more costly to produce than individual signals. Mated pairs of yellow-naped amazons, Amazona auropalliata, give duets on their nesting territories. We investigated the function of those duets with a playback experiment. We tested two hypotheses for the function of those duets: the joint territory defense hypothesis and the mate-guarding hypothesis, by presenting territorial pairs with three types of playback treatments: duets, male solos, and female solos. The joint territory defense hypothesis suggests that individuals engage in duets because they appear more threatening than solos and are thus more effective for the establishment, maintenance and/or defense of territories. It predicts that pairs will be coordinated in their response (pair members approach speakers and vocalize together) and will either respond more strongly (more calls and/or more movement) to duet treatments than to solo treatments, or respond equally to all treatments. Alternatively, the mate-guarding hypothesis suggests that individuals participate in duets because they allow them to acoustically guard their mate, and predicts uncoordinated responses by pairs, with weak responses to duet treatments and stronger responses by individuals to solos produced by the same sex. Yellow-naped amazon pairs responded to all treatments in an equivalently aggressive and coordinated manner by rapidly approaching speakers and vocalizing more. These responses generally support the joint territory defense hypothesis and further suggest that all intruders are viewed as a threat by resident pairs.

  20. Effect of anesthesia, positioning, time, and feeding on the proventriculus: keel ratio of clinically healthy parrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, Sophie E; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R; Yandell, Brian S; Adams, William M

    2010-01-01

    Healthy, adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) were imaged on three occasions to determine the effects of anesthesia, patient rotation, feeding, and short/long-term temporal factors on the proventriculus:keel ratio. Increasing rotation up to 15 degrees from right lateral resulted in increased inability to measure the proventriculus in up to 44% of birds, meaning that the proventriculus:keel ratio could not be calculated from those radiographs. There was a significant difference between the proventriculus:keel ratio for individual parrots when quantified 3 weeks apart. Despite this difference, all ratios remained within normal limits. No significant effect was identified due to anesthesia, feeding, fasting, or repeated imaging through an 8-h period. Interobserver agreement for measurability and correlation for the proventriculus:keel ratio values was high. It is recommended that the proventriculus:keel ratio be calculated from anesthetized parrots to attain images in true lateral recumbency. Ratio fluctuations within the normal range between radiographs obtained on different dates may be observed in normal parrots.

  1. Papagaio-de-peito-roxo Amazona vinacea (Kuhl (Aves: Psittacidae no norte do Espírito Santo: redescoberta e conservação Vinaceous Amazon Amazona vinacea (Kuhl (Aves: Psittacidae in the northern region of Espirito Santo state, southeastern Brazil: rediscovery and conservation

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    Lucas A. Carrara

    2008-03-01

    endangered in Brazil and at the international level. Lack of recent reports north of Rio de Janeiro state, including the northern portion of Espírito Santo state (where it had been found probably till 1991 suggested the species had vanished from this part of the range. The present paper reports the rediscovery of A. vinacea in Alto Rio Novo region, northwestern Espírito Santo. Two flocks were seen in two different places, the largest one with 28 parrots was found in December 2005. The flocks of A. vinacea were eating seeds of Anadenanthera sp. (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae, a new resource for this parrot. Historical data list places up to 35 km from the two localities where the flocks were now found, stressing its regional importance for the Vinaceous Amazon. However, the continuous habitat degradation of the last forest remnants in the region and illegal capture of nestlings are considered the main constrain for this population's conservation. As recently as December 2002, the Pontões Capixabas National Park has been created. It is the first Conservation Unit in the mountains of northern Espírito Santo state. Luckily, it protects a historical place of the Vinaceous Amazon in the region and encompasses forested remnants suitable for the species. Its current limit is some 10 km apart from one of the places where the parrot was found in this study. Besides the conservation, data gathering on the Vinaceous Amazon populations in northwestern Espírito Santo state and the nearby region of Minas Gerais state are critical for the species future in the area. A management plan could be then established, aiming to conserve the current northernmost currently known population of this parrot.

  2. Hepatic hemosiderosis in red-spectacled Amazons (Amazona pretrei) and correlation with nutritional aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Larissa Quinto; Strefezzi, Ricardo de Francisco; Catão-Dias, José Luiz; Trindade, Michele Martins; Fighera, Rafael Almeida; Kommers, Glaucia Denise; Lovato, Maristela

    2010-12-01

    Alimentary habits of free-living Psittaciformes vary significantly among different species. Amazona pretrei is under risk of extinction and has very specific free-living dietary habits, which are based on Paraná pine seeds. Hemosiderosis is a pathologic process characterized by intracellular accumulation of iron without other evident lesions. It is associated with increased prevalence of infections, neoplasms, and hepatopathies. The purpose of this study was to quantify hepatic hemosiderin deposits in captive A. pretrei and verify their association with nutritional parameters. Liver samples were processed for histopathology and stained with Prussian blue. The sections were analyzed by computerized morphometry to quantify the hepatic hemosiderin deposits. The hepatic hemosiderosis rates showed positive correlation with age and time in captivity. These results suggest that the menus and commercial rations for Psittacidae must be carefully revised.

  3. Archaeometric study of Amazon ceramic; Estudo arqueometrico de cermicas do Amazonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabino, Claudia de Vilhena Schayer; Amaral, Angela Maria [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Poirior, Andre Pierre Prous [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Museu de Historia Natural; Guapindaia, Vera [Museu Emilio Goeldi, Belem, PA (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    There is no evidence of urban civilization in Brazilian prehistory; most inhabitants lived in tribal organization, probably with regional economic integration among several independent tribes. There are few evidences of seasonal migrations between the coast and the inland of southern Brazil. Some specialized horticulturists competed among themselves but other groups lived more isolatedly and probably peacefully, in the upper interfluvial regions. The chiefdom system is supposed to have existed only along the Amazon River. In this region, some pottery makers may have been specialized craftsmen and finest ceramics, that should have been exported from one village/region to another, can be found. In this study we tested some limited possibilities in three different cultural and regional contexts to see if application of analytic analysis in economically and politically 'simple' societies should give any results. (author)

  4. Actinella species (Bacillariophyta from an Amazon black water floodplain lake (Amazonas - Brazil Espécies de Actinella (Bacillariophyta de um lago de inundação amazônico de águas pretas (Amazonas - Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Melo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Actinella Lewis was studied using planktonic samples from a black water floodplain lake in Central Amazon region. For species identification the taxa were morphological and morphometricaly analyzed on base in light microscope (LM and scanning electronic microscope (SEM. Five species were registered: Actinella brasiliensis Grunow, A. guianensis Grunow, A. gracile Kociolek, A. mirabilis (Eulenstein ex Grunow Grunow and A. robusta Hustedt. A. gracile is reported for the first time for Amazon State and black water systems and it is firstly documented with SEM. In addition, a review of geographic distribution of Actinella species in Brazilian Amazon region is given.O gênero Actinella Lewis foi estudado a partir de amostras coletadas em um lago de inundação de águas pretas na Amazônia Central. Para a identificação das espécies as características morfológicas e morfométricas dos táxons foram analisadas em microscopia óptica (MO e eletrônica de varredura (MEV. Cinco espécies foram identificadas: Actinella brasiliensis Grunow, A. guianensis Grunow, A. gracile Kociolek, A. mirabilis (Eulenstein ex Grunow Grunow e A. robusta Hustedt. A. gracile é referida pela primeira vez para o estado do Amazonas e para ambientes de águas pretas, sendo documentada pela primeira vez em MEV. Em adição, uma revisão sobre a distribuição geográfica das espécies de Actinella na região da Amazônia brasileira é apresentada.

  5. Arboviral diseases in the Western Brazilian Amazon: a perspective and analysis from a tertiary health & research center in Manaus, State of Amazonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourão, Maria Paula Gomes; Bastos, Michele de Souza; Figueiredo, Regina Maria Pinto de; Gimaque, João Bosco de Lima; Alves, Valquíria do Carmo Rodrigues; Saraiva, Maria das Graças Gomes; Figueiredo, Mário Luis Garcia; Ramasawmy, Rajendranath; Nogueira, Maurício Lacerda; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    2015-01-01

    The Fundação de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado (FMT-HVD), located in Manaus, the capital of the State of Amazonas (Western Brazilian Amazon), is a pioneering institution in this region regarding the syndromic surveillance of acute febrile illness, including arboviral infections. Based on the data from patients at the FMT-HVD, we have detected recurrent outbreaks in Manaus by the four dengue serotypes in the past 15 years, with increasing severity of the disease. This endemicity has culminated in the simultaneous circulation of all four serotypes in 2011, the first time this has been reported in Brazil. Between 1996 and 2009, 42 cases of yellow fever (YF) were registered in the State of Amazonas, and 71.4% (30/42) were fatal. Since 2010, no cases have been reported. Because the introduction of the yellow fever virus into a large city such as Manaus, which is widely infested by Aedes mosquitoes, may pose a real risk of a yellow fever outbreak, efforts to maintain an appropriate immunization policy for the populace are critical. Manaus has also suffered silent outbreaks of Mayaro and Oropouche fevers lately, most of which were misdiagnosed as dengue fever. The tropical conditions of the State of Amazonas favor the existence of other arboviruses capable of producing human disease. Under this real threat, represented by at least 4 arboviruses producing human infections in Manaus and in other neighboring countries, it is important to develop an efficient public health surveillance strategy, including laboratories that are able to make proper diagnoses of arboviruses.

  6. Arboviral diseases in the Western Brazilian Amazon: a perspective and analysis from a tertiary health & research center in Manaus, State of Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Paula Gomes Mourão

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Fundação de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado (FMT-HVD, located in Manaus, the capital of the State of Amazonas (Western Brazilian Amazon, is a pioneering institution in this region regarding the syndromic surveillance of acute febrile illness, including arboviral infections. Based on the data from patients at the FMT-HVD, we have detected recurrent outbreaks in Manaus by the four dengue serotypes in the past 15 years, with increasing severity of the disease. This endemicity has culminated in the simultaneous circulation of all four serotypes in 2011, the first time this has been reported in Brazil. Between 1996 and 2009, 42 cases of yellow fever (YF were registered in the State of Amazonas, and 71.4% (30/42 were fatal. Since 2010, no cases have been reported. Because the introduction of the yellow fever virus into a large city such as Manaus, which is widely infested by Aedes mosquitoes, may pose a real risk of a yellow fever outbreak, efforts to maintain an appropriate immunization policy for the populace are critical. Manaus has also suffered silent outbreaks of Mayaro and Oropouche fevers lately, most of which were misdiagnosed as dengue fever. The tropical conditions of the State of Amazonas favor the existence of other arboviruses capable of producing human disease. Under this real threat, represented by at least 4 arboviruses producing human infections in Manaus and in other neighboring countries, it is important to develop an efficient public health surveillance strategy, including laboratories that are able to make proper diagnoses of arboviruses.

  7. Avaliação nutricional de rações comerciais e semente de girassol para papagaios-verdadeiros (Amazona aestiva Nutricional evaluation of commercial foods and sunflower seed for blue-fronted parrot (Amazona aestiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo do Prado Saad

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Neste experimento utilizou-se de 12 papagaios adultos, distribuídos em blocos ao acaso em seis tratamentos (T1-Ração extrusada para psitacídeos - A, T2 -Ração peletizada para psitacídeos-B, T3 - Ração extrusada para psitacídeos-C, T4 - Ração para cães linha prêmio; T5- Ração para cães linha econômica e T6 - Semente de Girassol, durante três períodos de colheita, totalizando seis repetições por tratamento. Avaliaram-se os valores de energia metabolizável aparente e verdadeira (EMA e EMV e corrigidas pelo nitrogênio (EMAn e EMVn; coeficientes de digestibilidade dos nutrientes (energia bruta - EB, matéria seca - MS, matéria orgânica -MO, fibra bruta-FB e extrato etéreo - EE, balanço de nitrogênio e proteína metabolizável das dietas testadas. As médias foram comparadas pelo teste SNK. Os resultados obtidos permitiram concluir que 1 os valores de EMA e EMV foram mais altos que EMAn e EMVn. 2 A semente de girassol apresentou a mais alta digestibilidade aparente e verdadeira da matéria seca e da matéria orgânica. 3 A digestibilidade dos lipídeos de todas as dietas foi alta (média de 92,62%. 4 O balanço de nitrogênio (aparente e verdadeiro foi positivo para todas as aves.In this experiment twelve adult parrots were used in a randomized block design distributed in six treatments (T1- Extruded food for psittacines-A, T2- Pellet food for psittacines-B, T3- Extruded food for psittacines-C, T4- Dog food premium line, T5- Dog food economic line and T6- Sunflower seed during three harvest periods, in six replication for treatment. The values of apparent and true metabolizable energy (AME and TME were determined and they were corrected by nitrogen (AMEn and TMEn, nutrients digestibility coefficients (GE-Gross Energy, OM-Organic Matter, CF-Crude Fiber and EE-Ether Extract, nitrogen balance and metabolizable protein. The data were analyzed by SNK test. The results allow to conclude that: 1 the values of AME e TME were

  8. Digestibilidade e retenção de nitrogênio de alimentos para papagaios verdadeiros (Amazona aestiva Digestibility and protein retention of foods for blue-fronted parrot (Amazona aestiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo do Prado Saad

    2007-10-01

    nitrogênio para papagaios.Were used 34 blue fronted parrot, distributed in blocks with 17 treatments (T1 - reference diet, T2 - sunflower seed, T3 - oat, T4 - egg yolk, T5 - integral egg, T6 - egg white, T7 - wheat germen, T8 - wheat bran, T9 - triturated corn, T10 - jellied corn, T11 - sunflower bran, T12 - yeast, T13 - citric pulp, T14 - papaya, T15 - banana, T16 - soy bran, T17 - extruded soy during three periods, totaling six repetitions (102 experimental units. For foods evaluation the substitution methodology was used. They were appraised the digestibility coefficients of the dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM and the protein retention of the evaluated foods. Were compared the treatments two to 17. The treatment 1 (reference diet it was just used for the substitution calculations, not being part of the statistical analyses. The averages were compared by the test Scott-Knott. The obtained results allowed to conclude that: 1 - foods as the jellied corn, the egg yolk and the sunflower seed, as well as the oat, integral egg, triturated corn, papaya and banana, they possess high DM and OM digestibility for parrots, could be considered as good choice options for the composition of a complete diet; 2 - foods as the citric pulp and the sunflower bran presented low apparent and true digestibility of the DM and OM and they should be used in low levels and with moderation in the formulation of rations for these birds; 3 - the true nitrogen retention was positive for all the birds, what suggests that the same ones can be depositing still tissues, however, due to the high variation coefficient, this measured it seems not to be adapted to express the real nitrogen retention coefficient for parrots.

  9. Late Miocene onset of the Amazon River and the Amazon deep-sea fan: Evidence from the Foz do Amazonas Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Figueiredo, J.; Hoorn, C.; van der Ven, P.; Soares, E.

    2009-01-01

    New biostratigraphic, isotopic, and well log data from exploration wells on the outer continental shelf and uppermost Amazon deep-sea fan, Brazil, reveal that the Amazon River was initiated as a transcontinental river between 11.8 and 11.3 Ma ago (middle to late Miocene), and reached its present

  10. Parrots Eat Nutritious Foods despite Toxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilardi, James D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Generalist herbivores are challenged not only by the low nitrogen and high indigestibility of their plant foods, but also by physical and chemical defenses of plants. This study investigated the foods of wild parrots in the Peruvian Amazon and asked whether these foods contain dietary components that are limiting for generalist herbivores (protein, lipids, minerals) and in what quantity; whether parrots chose foods based on nutrient content; and whether parrots avoid plants that are chemically defended. Methodology/Principal Findings We made 224 field observations of free-ranging parrots of 17 species in 8 genera foraging on 102 species of trees in an undisturbed tropical rainforest, in two dry seasons (July-August 1992–1993) and one wet season (January-February1994). We performed laboratory analyses of parts of plants eaten and not eaten by parrots and brine shrimp assays of toxicity as a proxy for vertebrates. Parrots ate seeds, fruits, flowers, leaves, bark, and insect larvae, but up to 70% of their diet comprised seeds of many species of tropical trees, in various stages of ripeness. Plant parts eaten by parrots were rich in protein, lipid, and essential minerals, as well as potentially toxic chemicals. Seeds were higher than other plant materials in protein and lipid and lower in fiber. Large macaws of three species ate foods higher in protein and lipids and lower in fiber compared to plant parts available but not eaten. Macaws ate foods that were lower in phenolic compounds than foods they avoided. Nevertheless, foods eaten by macaws contained measurable levels of toxicity. Macaws did not appear to make dietary selections based on mineral content. Conclusions/Significance Parrots represent a remarkable example of a generalist herbivore that consumes seeds destructively despite plant chemical defenses. With the ability to eat toxic foods, rainforest-dwelling parrots exploited a diversity of nutritious foods, even in the dry season when food was

  11. Parrots eat nutritious foods despite toxins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D Gilardi

    Full Text Available Generalist herbivores are challenged not only by the low nitrogen and high indigestibility of their plant foods, but also by physical and chemical defenses of plants. This study investigated the foods of wild parrots in the Peruvian Amazon and asked whether these foods contain dietary components that are limiting for generalist herbivores (protein, lipids, minerals and in what quantity; whether parrots chose foods based on nutrient content; and whether parrots avoid plants that are chemically defended.We made 224 field observations of free-ranging parrots of 17 species in 8 genera foraging on 102 species of trees in an undisturbed tropical rainforest, in two dry seasons (July-August 1992-1993 and one wet season (January-February1994. We performed laboratory analyses of parts of plants eaten and not eaten by parrots and brine shrimp assays of toxicity as a proxy for vertebrates. Parrots ate seeds, fruits, flowers, leaves, bark, and insect larvae, but up to 70% of their diet comprised seeds of many species of tropical trees, in various stages of ripeness. Plant parts eaten by parrots were rich in protein, lipid, and essential minerals, as well as potentially toxic chemicals. Seeds were higher than other plant materials in protein and lipid and lower in fiber. Large macaws of three species ate foods higher in protein and lipids and lower in fiber compared to plant parts available but not eaten. Macaws ate foods that were lower in phenolic compounds than foods they avoided. Nevertheless, foods eaten by macaws contained measurable levels of toxicity. Macaws did not appear to make dietary selections based on mineral content.Parrots represent a remarkable example of a generalist herbivore that consumes seeds destructively despite plant chemical defenses. With the ability to eat toxic foods, rainforest-dwelling parrots exploited a diversity of nutritious foods, even in the dry season when food was scarce for other frugivores and granivores.

  12. Action of Brazilian propolis on hematological and serum biochemical parameters of Blue-fronted Amazons (Amazona aestiva, Linnaeus, 1758) in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Cínthia R B; Putarov, Thaila C; Fruhvald, Erika; Destro, Flavia C; Marques Filho, Wolff C; Thomazini, Camila M; Barbosa, Tatiana S; Orsi, Ricardo O; Siqueira, Edson R

    2014-07-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of propolis use on hematological and serum biochemical parameters in Blue-fronted Amazons (Amazona aestiva). For this, 12 adult birds were distributed randomly into individual cages, divided into treatments with different propolis levels (A = 0.0%; B = 0.5%; and C = 1.0%), in 3 distinct phases (I, II, and III), with 15-d duration for phases I and III and 30 d for phase II, totaling 60 d. In phases I and III, all birds received treatment A ration, and in phase II received A, B, or C (4 birds per treatment). At the end of each phase, blood was collected for biochemical and hematological evaluations. The variables were analyzed by ANOVA (P < 0.05). Results suggest that 0.5% propolis reduced lactate dehydrogenase levels, whereas treatment B augmented hemoglobin concentrations and eosinophil count. It is concluded that 0.5% propolis improves levels of lactate dehydrogenase, hemoglobin, and eosinophils. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  13. Tertiary tectonism in the Tapajos River Area, Amazon Basin; Tectonismo terciario na area do Rio Tapajos, Bacia do Amazonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Travassos, W.A.S. [PETROBRAS, Belem, PA (Brazil). Distrito de Exploracao do Norte; Morais Barbosa Filho, C. de [PETROBRAS, Manaus, AM (Brazil). Distrito de Exploracao da Amazonia Ocidental

    1990-07-01

    Studies of a deformed sedimentary zone occurred during the tertiary period on the Amazon Basin, its localization on the region of the Tapajos River are discussed. The origin, characteristics and identification of these zone through seismic, gravimetric and aero-magnetometric surveys are also presented. 17 figs., 25 refs.

  14. Status and conservation of parrots and parakeets in the Greater Antilles, Bahama Islands, and Cayman Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    In the 1490s a minimum of 28 species of psittacines occurred in the West Indies. Today, only 43% (12) of the species survive. All macaws and most parakeet species have been lost. Although the surviving parrot fauna of the Greater Antilles, Cayman Islands, and Bahama Islands has fared somewhat better than that of the Lesser Antilles, every species has undergone extensive reductions of populations and all but two have undergone extensive reductions in range, mostly as a result of habitat loss, but also from persecution as agricultural pests, conflicts with exotic species, harvesting for pets, and natural disasters. The Cayman Brac Parrot Amazona leucocephala hesterna with its tiny population (less than 150 individuals in the wild) and range, and the Puerto Rican Parrot A. vittata, with about 22-23 birds in the wild and 56 individuals in captivity, must be considered on the verge of extinction and in need of (in the latter's case, continuing) aggressive programmes of research and management. Other populations declining in numbers and range include the Yellow-billed Amazona collaria, and Black-billed A. agilis Parrots of Jamaica, Hispaniolan Parakeet Aratinga chloroptera, Hispaniolan Parrot Amazona ventralis, Cuban Parrot A. leucocephala leucocephala and, most seriously, Cuban Parakeet Aratinga euops. The population of the Grand Cayman Parrot (Amazona leucocephala caymanensis), although numbering only about 1,000 birds, appears stable and the current conservation programme gives hope for the survival of the race. An active conservation and public education programme has begun for the Bahama Parrot A. l. bahamensis, which still occurs in good numbers on Great Inagua Island, but is threatened on Abaco Island. Recommendations for conservation of parrots and parakeets in the region include (1) instituting long-term programmes of research to determine distribution, status, and ecology of each species; (2) developing conservation programmes through education and management

  15. U-Pbdating on detrital zircon and Nd and Hf isotopes related to the provenance of siliciclastic rocks of the Amazon Basin: Implications for the origin of Proto-Amazonas River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Elton Luiz; Silva Souza, Valmir; Nogueira, Afonso C. R.; Ventura Santos, Roberto; Poitrasson, Franck; Vieira Cruz, Lucieth; Mendes Conceição, Anderson

    2014-05-01

    Previous provenance studies along the Amazonas river have demonstrated that the Amazon drainage basin has been reorganized since the Late Cretaceous with the uplift of the Andes and the establishment of the transcontinental Amazon fluvial system from Late Miocene to Late Pleistocene (Hoorn et al., 1995; Potter, 1997, Wesselingh et al., 2002; Figueiredo et al. 2009, Campbell et al., 2006, Nogueira et al. 2013).There is a lack of data from Eastern and Central Amazonia and only limited core data from the Continental Platform near to current Amazonas river mouth. Central Amazonia is strategic to unveil the origin of Amazonas River because it represents the region where the connection of the Solimões and Amazonas basin can be studied through time (Nogueira et al. 2013). Also, there is a shortage of information on the old Precambrian and Paleozoic sediment sources relative to Cretaceous and Miocene siliciclastic deposits of the Solimões and Amazonas basins. We collected stratigraphic data, detrital zircon U-Pb ages and Nd and Hf isotopes from Precambrian, Paleozoic, Cretaceous and Miocene siliciclastic deposits of the Northwestern border of Amazonas Basin. They are exposed in the Presidente Figueiredo region and in the scarps of Amazon River, and occur to the east of the Purus Arch. This Northwest-Southeast trending structural feature that divides the Solimões and Amazonas basin was active at various times since the Paleozoic. Detrital zircon ages for the Neoproterozoic Prosperança Formation yielded a complex signature, with different populations of Neoproterozoic (550, 630 and 800 Ma) and Paleoproterozoic to Archean sources (1.6, 2.1 and 2.6 Ga). Also Nd and Hf isotopes show two groups of TDM model ages between 1.4 to 1.53 Ga and 2.2 and 3.1 Ga. Sediments typical of Paleozoic sedimentary rocks of the Nhamundá and Manacapuru Formations revealed NdTDM model ages of 1.7, 2.2 and 2.7 Ga, but Hf isotopes and U-Pb zircon ages are more varied. They characterize a

  16. Impact of nest predators, competitors, and ectoparasites on Pearly-eyed Thrashers, with comments on the potential implications for Puerto Rican Parrot recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne J. Arendt

    2000-01-01

    Over the past 17 years, research on a rain forest population of the Pearly-eyed Thrasher (Margarops fuscatus), with additional observations on nesting Puerto Rican Parrots (Amazona vittata) within the Sierra de Luquillo, Puerto Rico, has shown that reproductive success of thrashers and parrots is often greatly reduced as a result of the additive effects of a diverse...

  17. As traduções de Bates: dois naturalistas no Rio Amazonas Bates's translations: two naturalists in the Amazon River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Carneiro Rodrigues

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho analisam-se duas traduções do relato da viagem do naturalista Henry Walter Bates pela Amazônia, uma publicada em 1944 na Coleção Brasiliana feita pelo naturalista Candido de Mello-Leitão, outra editada em 1979 na Coleção Reconquista do Brasil, assinada por Regina Regis Junqueira. O objetivo do artigo é problematizar a demarcação de limites nítidos entre uma ética da diferença e uma ética da igualdade, pois, em ambos os textos, tanto ocorre um movimento no sentido de preservar a alteridade do texto e do autor, quanto no de domesticar o texto. A análise busca também evidenciar que cada tradução, realizada a partir de diferentes projetos editoriais e tradutórios, acaba por suscitar diferentes imagens do naturalista e dos lugares por ele visitados.Two translations of the travel writing by the naturalist Henry Walter Bates in the Amazon are analyzed in this work: one published in 1944 in the Brasiliana Collection by the naturalist Candido de Mello-Leitão, and another edited in 1979 in the Reconquista do Brasil Collection, signed by Regina Regis Junqueira. The purpose of this study is to examine the delimitation of clear boundaries between an ethics of difference and an ethics of equality, since the two texts present a movement that both preserves the otherness of the text and the author and domesticates the text. The analysis also aims to evidence that each translation, carried out from different editorial and translational projects, ultimately projects different images of naturalist and the places visited by him.

  18. Pre- and Post-Hurricane Fruit Availability: Implications for Puerto Rican Parrots in the Luquillo Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    JR WUNDERLE

    1999-01-01

    Fruit availability on 25 plant species, consumed or potentially consumed by the Puerto Rican Parrot (Amazona vittata), was studied to document the seasonal and annual variation in fruit production in the Luquillo Mountains. In the 33 months before Hurricane Hugo, an annual cycle in the number of species with ripe fruit was evident, with a peak in October-February and a...

  19. The major floods in the Amazonas river and tributaries (Western Amazon Basin) during the 1970-2012 period : a focus on the 2012 flood

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza, J. C.; Ronchail, J.; Frappart, F.; Lavado, W.; Santini, William; Guyot, Jean-Loup

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the authors analyze the origin of the extreme floods in the Peruvian Amazonas River during the 1970-2012 period, focusing on the recent April 2012 flooding (55 400 m(3) s(-1)). Several hydrological variables, such as rainfall, terrestrial water storage, and discharge, point out that the unprecedented 2012 flood is mainly related to an early and abundant wet season over the north of the basin. Thus, the peak of the Maranon River, the northern contributor of the Amazonas, occurred...

  20. DNA Barcoding Identifies Illegal Parrot Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Priscila F M; Oliveira-Marques, Adriana R; Matsumoto, Tania E; Miyaki, Cristina Y

    2015-01-01

    Illegal trade threatens the survival of many wild species, and molecular forensics can shed light on various questions raised during the investigation of cases of illegal trade. Among these questions is the identity of the species involved. Here we report a case of a man who was caught in a Brazilian airport trying to travel with 58 avian eggs. He claimed they were quail eggs, but authorities suspected they were from parrots. The embryos never hatched and it was not possible to identify them based on morphology. As 29% of parrot species are endangered, the identity of the species involved was important to establish a stronger criminal case. Thus, we identified the embryos' species based on the analyses of mitochondrial DNA sequences (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene [COI] and 16S ribosomal DNA). Embryonic COI sequences were compared with those deposited in BOLD (The Barcode of Life Data System) while their 16S sequences were compared with GenBank sequences. Clustering analysis based on neighbor-joining was also performed using parrot COI and 16S sequences deposited in BOLD and GenBank. The results, based on both genes, indicated that 57 embryos were parrots (Alipiopsitta xanthops, Ara ararauna, and the [Amazona aestiva/A. ochrocephala] complex), and 1 was an owl. This kind of data can help criminal investigations and to design species-specific anti-poaching strategies, and demonstrate how DNA sequence analysis in the identification of bird species is a powerful conservation tool. © The American Genetic Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Unrewarded Object Combinations in Captive Parrots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Marie Isabel Auersperg

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In primates, complex object combinations during play are often regarded as precursors of functional behavior. Here we investigate combinatory behaviors during unrewarded object manipulation in seven parrot species, including kea, African grey parrots and Goffin cockatoos, three species previously used as model species for technical problem solving. We further examine a habitually tool using species, the black palm cockatoo. Moreover, we incorporate three neotropical species, the yellow- and the black-billed Amazon and the burrowing parakeet. Paralleling previous studies on primates and corvids, free object-object combinations and complex object-substrate combinations such as inserting objects into tubes/holes or stacking rings onto poles prevailed in the species previously linked to advanced physical cognition and tool use. In addition, free object-object combinations were intrinsically structured in Goffin cockatoos and in kea.

  2. 78 FR 15624 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Yellow-Billed Parrot With Special Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ..., Sturm College of Law, requesting that we list 14 parrot species under the Act. The petition clearly...; Koenig 2001, p. 212). Amazona species tend to lay one egg every other day, and the female alone incubates... translates to 5 to 9 million saplings harvested annually from Cockpit Country alone (Tole 2006, pp. 790, 799...

  3. Lago Amazonas: fact or fancy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuomisto, H.; Ruokolainen, K.

    1992-01-01

    It has been suggested that a huge lake, Lago Amazonas, covered a large part of the Amazon basin until as recently as two thousand years ago. According to this hypothesis, the topmost sediments in western Amazonia are almost universally young deposit of lacustrine and deltaic origin. The hypothesis has gained some attention among biologists because of its implications for biological phenomena in Amazonia, especially bio geography and bio diversity. According to the available geological data, however, Amazonia is geologically far more complex than assumed by the lake hypothesis. This paper discussed the weaknesses of the Lago Amazonas hypothesis, and indicate alternative explanations of the surface geology that are based on tectonically controlled fluvial deposition. Some aspects of radiocarbon dating method are also presented. (author)

  4. LBA-ECO LC-07 Amazon Floodplain Lake Chlorophyll from MODIS, Para, Brazil: 2002-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains chlorophyll concentration maps of the Amazon River floodplain region from Parintins (Amazonas) to Almeirim (Para). These chlorophyll fraction...

  5. LBA-ECO LC-07 Amazon Floodplain Lake Chlorophyll from MODIS, Para, Brazil: 2002-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains chlorophyll concentration maps of the Amazon River floodplain region from Parintins (Amazonas) to Almeirim (Para). These chlorophyll...

  6. Evaluation of the introduction of cogeneration for refrigeration in the fisheries sector of the Amazon; Avaliacao da introducao da cogeracao para refrigeracao no setor pesqueiro do Amazonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Ricardo Wilson Aguiar da [Universidade Estadual do Amazonas (UEA), Manaus (Brazil)], e-mail: rcruz@uea.edu.br; Nebra, Silvia Azucena [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica], e-mail: sanebra@fem.unicamp.br; Cartaxo, Elizabeth Ferreira [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil)], e-mail: ecartaxo@ufam.edu.br

    2004-07-01

    This work analyses the opportunity to introduce cogeneration for the production of aquammonia absorption refrigeration in the autonomous Amazons State power system, by one hand as a means to improve its efficiency and by another, solve the deficiency the State has to store its fish-ing production. (author)

  7. Sideropenia sem anemia em doadores de sangue do Hemocentro do Amazonas - Hemoam Sideropenia without anemia in blood donors of the Amazon Blood Bank - Hemoam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leny N. M. Passos

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Uma doaç��o de aproximadamente 475mL de sangue depleta em média 242 ± 17 mg de ferro do doador, o que pode ter conseqüências variáveis em suas reservas e na sua saúde. Tivemos por objetivo avaliar se doadores de sangue do Hemocentro do Amazonas - Hemoam desenvolvem sideropenia sem anemia após doações consecutivas. A ferritina sérica foi medida em 528 doadores de sangue, do sexo masculino, com idade entre 18 a 61 anos, divididos em 313 doadores de repetição, com 4 ou mais doações regulares, e 215 primodoadores, que compareceram ao Hemocentro do Amazonas no período de setembro de 2001 a junho de 2002. Depleção do depósito de ferro, definida por níveis de ferritina menores de 20 ng/L, foi encontrada em 7,4% [16/215] dos primodoadores e em 48,6% [152/313] dos doadores de repetição. Utilizando-se de um critério mais rigoroso, como valores de ferritina A blood donation of 475 mL could deplete 242 ± 17 mg of iron from blood donors. The objective of this report is to evaluate if blood donors could develop sideropenia without anemia after several donations. Serum levels of ferritin were measured in 528 male blood donors, with ages ranging from 18 to 61 years old. A total of 313 of them had made 4 or more donations and 215 of them were first time donors. They donated blood in the Hemocentro do Amazonas - Hemoam, from September 2001 to June 2002. Deletion of iron stores characterized by serum ferritin levels of less than 20 ng/L was found in 7.4% (16/215 of first time donors, and in 48.6% (152/313 of multiple donors. With more stringent criteria of ferritin values less than 12 ng/L, 3.7% (8/215 of first-time donors as opposed to 24.9% (78/313 of multiple donors showed severe depletions. We concluded that multiple donors, after more than 5 repeated donations, are at risk of depleted iron and ferritin levels. It is important to implant protocols of iron supplementation for these donors to avoid damage to their health and

  8. Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in rural villages of the Bolivian Amazon Prevalência da infecção pelo papilomavirus humano nas aldeias rurais do Amazonas Boliviano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Cervantes

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer constitutes a major health problem in developing countries like Bolivia. The roles of certain genotypes of human papillomaviruses (HPVs in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer is well established. The prevalence of HPV infection among sexually active women varies greatly. Information regarding HPV infection in Bolivia is very much scarce, specially in regions like the Amazonian lowland. We studied 135 healthy women living in four rural localities of the Bolivian Amazon. Presence of HPV in DNA extracted from cervical swabs was analyzed using a reverse line hybridization assay. The estimated overall HPV infection prevalence among the studied rural localities was 5.9% (ranging from 0-16.6%. These values were unexpectedly low considering Bolivia has a high incidence of cervical cancer. The fact that Amazonian people seem to be less exposed to HPV, makes it likely that some other risk factors including host lifestyle behaviors and genetic background may be involved in the development of cervical cancer in this population.O câncer cervical constitui problema de saúde da maior importância nos países em desenvolvimento tais como a Bolívia. O papel de certos genótipos de papilomavirus humano (HPVs na patologia do câncer cervical está bem estabelecido. A prevalência da infecção pelo HPV nas mulheres sexualmente ativas varia amplamente. Contudo, as informações existentes acerca da infecção pelo HPV na Bolivia são muito escassas, especialmente nas zonas rurais, nomeadamente na região amazônica do país. Foram estudadas 135 mulheres saudáveis, residentes em quatro localidades do Amazonas Boliviano. Foi detectada a presença de HPV no DNA extraído de esfregaços cervicais, utilizando o método de hibridização em linha reversa. A prevalência da infecção por HVP, encontrada nas localidades rurais, foi de 5,9% (variação entre 0-16,6%. Estes valores foram inesperadamente baixos, uma vez que a Bolívia é um país com alta

  9. Avaliação do gasto e Consumo voluntário de rações balanceadas e semente de girassol para papagaios-verdadeiros (Amazona aestiva Voluntary intake of commercial foods and sunflower seed for blue-fronted parrot (Amazona aestiva

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    Carlos Eduardo do Prado Saad

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Utilizou-se de 12 papagaios adultos, distribuídos em blocos ao acaso em seis tratamentos (Ração extrusada para psitacídeos, Ração peletizada para psitacídeos, Ração comercial extrusada para psitacídeos, Ração extrusada para cães linha prêmio; Ração extrusada para cães linha econômica e Semente de Girassol, durante três períodos de cinco dias de colheita, com 7 dias de adaptação entre colheitas, totalizando seis repetições por tratamento, em que foram avaliados o gasto total (matéria seca - MS e matéria natural - MN e o consumo total de MN, MS, proteína bruta (PB, energia metabolizável aparente e verdadeira corrigidas pelo N (EMAn e EMVn, cálcio (Ca e fósforo (P, por ave e por quilograma de peso metabólico. As médias obtidas foram comparadas pelo teste SNK. Os resultados obtidos permitiram concluir que: 1- os consumos médios de MS foram influenciados negativamente pelo teor de energia metabolizável da dieta; 2- o alto consumo das aves recebendo semente de girassol sugere que, além da densidade energética, a palatabilidade da dieta tem grande influência no consumo voluntário; 3- todas as dietas testadas atenderam as necessidades diárias de proteína bruta; 4- o consumo de cálcio da semente de girassol não atendeu a necessidade diária do elemento. 5- o tamanho do grânulo parece interferir no gasto e desperdício de ração pelas aves.Were used 12 adult parrots, distributed in blocks in six treatments (Extruded food for psittacines, Pelleted food for psittacines, Extruded commercial food for psittacines, Extruded dogs food premium line; Extruded dogs food economic line and Sunflower Seed. during three periods, in six repetitions for treatment. The total expense (dry matter evaporates - DM and natural matter - NM and intake of NM, DM, crude protein (CP apparent and true metabolizable energy N corrected (AME n and TMEn, calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P, was evaluated for bird and for kilogram of metabolic size

  10. Energia metabolizável de alimentos utilizados na formulação de rações para papagaios-verdadeiros (Amazona aestiva Metabolizable energy of raw feeds utilized in commercial rations for blue-fronted parrot (Amazona aestiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo do Prado Saad

    2008-04-01

    para galiformes domésticos, principalmente frango de corte, sugerindo que as extrapolações dos dados de digestibilidade e energia dos alimentos para aves domésticas podem ser utilizadas para papagaios, como forma inicial no cálculo de dietas, até que uma tabela de alimentos para psitacídeos seja definitivamente elaborada.A total of 34 blue fronted parrot were allotted in blocks with 17 treatments (T1 - reference diet, T2 - sunflower seed, T3 - oat, T4 - egg yolk, T5 - integral egg, T6 - egg white, T7 - wheat germen, T8 - wheat bran, T9 triturated corn, T10 - jellied corn, T11 - sunflower bran, T12 - yeast, T13 - citric pulp, T14 - papaya, T15 - banana, T16 - soy bran, T17 extruded soy during three periods, totaling six repetitions (102 experimental units. For feedstuffs evaluation by using a substitution methodology. Were determined the metabolizable coefficients of crude energy (apparent - CMAE, true - CMVE, apparent corrected by N - CMAnE and true corrected by N - CMVnE and the values of metabolizable energy (apparent - EMA, true - EMV, apparent nitrogen corrected - EMAn and true nitrogen corrected - EMVn of the tested feedstuffs. All feedstuffs were statistically analyzed. The metabolizable coefficients of EB were compared by the Scott-Knott test , while for the energetics feedstuffs values were analyzed as a descriptive analysis (means and standard deviation. The obtained results allowed to conclude that: 1 - the apparent metabolizable energy of the sunflower seed shown high value and the use of this feed as a only feed source should be used in medium period to avoid the obesity in the birds in maintenance state ; 2 - the energetic feeds as the triturated corn, wheat bran, wheat germen, soybean meal and extruded soy for parrots were similar the those found in the literature for domestic birds, mainly broiler chickens, suggesting that the extrapolation the digestibility energy data of domestic birds mainly broilers should be used for parrots ratios

  11. Extension of geographic distribution of Chrysobrycon hesperus and C. myersi (Characiformes, Characidae, Stevardiinae for several drainages flowing into the Amazon River Basin in Peru and Colombia Extensión de la distribución geográfica de Chrysobrycon hesperus y C. myersi (Characiformes, Characidae, Stevardiinae para varios drenajes fluyendo hacia la cuenca del Amazonas en Perú y Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Anyelo Vanegas-Ríos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The geographic distribution of Chrysobrycon hesperus (Böhlke and C. myersi Weitzman and Menezes is extended to new localities from the upper Amazon Basin in Peru and Colombia. Chrysobrycon hesperus is recorded for the first time for the Putumayo River Basin in Colombia.Se amplía la distribución geográfica de Chrysobrycon hesperus (Böhlke y C. myersi Weitzman y Menezes para nuevas localidades de la cuenca alta del Amazonas en Perú y Colombia. Chrysobrycon hesperus se registra por primera vez para la cuenca del río Putumayo en Colombia.

  12. Modelling sustainable international tourism demand to the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Divino (Jose Angelo); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe Amazon rainforest is one of the world’s greatest natural wonders and holds great importance and significance for the world’s environmental balance. Around 60% of the Amazon rainforest is located in the Brazilian territory. The two biggest states of the Amazon region are Amazonas (the

  13. Insecta, Coleoptera, Elmidae, Amazon region

    OpenAIRE

    Passos, Maria Inês; Fernandes, André; Hamada, Neusa; Nessimian, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    A list of Elmidae species from Amazon is presented. The list was prepared based on a literature survey and examination of the entomological collection of Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA). The list includes 102 species, with ten new occurrences recorded, being one for the Amazon (which includes areas of Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Guyana, French Guyana, Peru, Suriname and Venezuela) three for the Amazonas state, and six for other localities in Brazil. Reports about species bib...

  14. GIS (Geographic Information Systems) based calculation on hydrocarbon generated volume: Amazon Basin example; O uso de SIG no calculo de hidrocarbonetos gerados: exemplo da Bacia do Amazonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrinha, Saulo; Simoes, Leonardo; Goncalves, Felix T.T.; Carneiro, Jason T.G. [Petroleum Geoscience Technology Ltda. (PGT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The calculation of the volume of hydrocarbons generated from a particular source rock a sedimentary basin provides numerical data that help to better describe the petroleum system, and evaluate its potential. Among the various methodologies developed for calculating the volume of oil there is a proposal by Schmoker (1994), which has the advantage to take into account the occurrence of the source rock area in the basin, and the spatial variations in the main geological parameters. Using the tools of a GIS, through the manipulation of georeferred maps, it is possible to calculate the volume of oil generated in a way that would be virtually impossible by using punctual data, only. Even the discretiation maps in minors areas allows, via attribute table in the GIS, the application of a Monte Carlo simulation, which allows to incorporate all the uncertainties related to the input data in the calculation, obtaining distributions of volumes associated with various parts of the final map being integrated throughout the basin. Isopac and maturation maps (Gonzaga et al., 2000), along with TOC data from Barreirinha formation, Amazon Basin, have been scanned and georeferred and, once in the GIS database, were treated in order to spatially distribute the geological properties of the source rock. Then, such maps were handled in accordance with Schmoker (1994) method, leading to a map of mass and distribution of oil generated in the basin at the regional scale. (author)

  15. The mystery of the 'resin-of-canuaru': a medicine used by caboclos river-dwellers of the Amazon, Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, E; Santos, J de F L; Souza, S M; Lago, J H G

    2012-12-18

    'Resin-of-canuaru' is a medicine utilized by caboclos living in the Amazon Region, Brazil. There is a mystery regarding its origin because the caboclos maintain that this substance is derived only from animal secretions (from a frog called canuaru), whereas the historic literature claims that 'resin-of-canuaru' is derived solely from a plant exudate (resin). Based on our ethnographic studies, we hypothesized that this substance is a combination of both. Because the past reports on this resiniferous material in the literature are based solely on observations, we aimed to present ethnographic, zoological and chemical data to try to elucidate the origin of the 'resin-of-canuaru'. Ethnographic techniques and methods were applied, including participant observation, the use of field diaries and informal and unstructured interviews. The canuaru frog (Trachycephalus resinifictrix Goeldi, 1907) and 'resin-of-canuaru' were collected for taxonomic identification and chemical analysis, respectively. The resiniferous 'resin-of-canuaru' was extracted using MeOH and then analyzed by silica gel TLC and NMR. Canuaru frogs live in tree cavities and secrete a large amount of substances during spawning, resulting in a resiniferous material. NMR analysis of the MeOH extract of this crude material showed peaks assigned to 3,4-secofriedel-4(23)-en-3-oic acid (putranjuvic acid) and its methyl ester derivative (methyl putranjivate) and to biogenetic precursor of these two compounds (a lactone derivative), which is formed by the oxidation of friedelin. Based on evidence that Protium species accumulate primarily tetracyclic/pentacyclic triterpenoids and that the co-occurrence of the compounds listed above is rarely described in plant species, we suggest that these compounds could be products of the biotransformation of friedelin by the frog. According to our data, the 'resin-of-canuaru' seems to have both animal and vegetal origins. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. First record of Vampyrodes caraccioli (Thomas, 1889) (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) in the state of Amazonas and its updated distribution in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Gerson; Santos, Tamily; Velazco, Paúl

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: The present note reports the first record of Vampyrodes caraccioli in the Brazilian state of Amazonas, and the central Amazon region, based on 44 specimens caught in the Auati-Paraná Extractive Reserve, north bank of the Solimões/Amazonas River. Our record fills a distribution gap of this species in the Brazilian Amazon and illustrates that the current knowledge on the distribution of Amazonian bats is far from complete.

  17. Os sistemas agroflorestais como alternativa de sustentabilidade em ecossistemas de várzea no Amazonas The Agroforestry systems as an alternative of sustainable land use in várzea (floodplain ecosystems in Amazon State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albejamere Pereira de Castro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Os sistemas agroflorestais (SAFs representam uma alternativa agroecológica de produção, sob regime sustentável, para os agricultores familiares na várzea dos Rios Solimões/Amazonas, principalmente no que se refere ao manejo florestal, à diversidade de produtos e à geração de renda. Diante disso, o objetivo deste trabalho foi compreender as diferentes formas de apropriação e de manejo dos recursos naturais através dos SAFs, nos subsistemas roça, sítio e lagos, como componente para a sustentabilidade dos agricultores familiares da localidade Costa da Terra Nova, município do Careiro da Várzea, Amazonas. O método empregado foi o Estudo de Caso com aplicação de questionários, entrevistas e observação participante. A produção familiar na Costa da Terra Nova é representada pelos SAFs, constituído pelos os subsistemas: roça quintal e lago, que proporcionam produtos tanto para subsistência quanto para comercialização local, e estabelecendo a agricultura como fundamental atividade na localidade. O principal produto para comercialização é obtido das hortaliças cultivadas na época da vazante no subsistema roça nas comunidades São Francisco e Nossa Senhora da Conceição; e do extrativismo pesqueiro no subsistema lago, na época da cheia, principalmente na comunidade São José. A criação de animal se dá no subsistema sítio e é apenas para subsistência, sendo as aves e os suínos os principais animais domésticos criados nas três comunidades. Portanto os SAFs tradicionais, constituídos pelos subsistemas, roça, sitio e lago, são responsáveis pela sustentabilidade socioeconômica da localidade pesquisada, servindo, como alternativa agrícola melhor adaptada às condições locais das áreas de várzea na Amazônia.The Agroforest Systems (SAF's presents an agro ecological alternative of production under sustainable basis for the families farmers, in the várzea (floodplain of the Solimões/Amazonas Rivers

  18. Limnological characterization of floodplain lakes in Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve, Central Amazon (Amazonas State, Brazil Caracterização limnológica dos lagos da planície de inundação na Reserva de Desenvolvimento Sustentável Mamirauá, Amazônia Central (Estado do Amazonas, Brasil

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    Adriana Gomes Affonso

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This paper examines the spatial and temporal variation of limnological characteristics of floodplain lakes in the Solimões and Japurá confluence, an undisturbed region - the Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve (MSDR; METHODS: We analyzed surface temperature, conductivity, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity and transparency, and surface water samples were collected for determination of suspended inorganic and organic matter, chlorophyll-a, pheophytin, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, organic and inorganic carbon, in two phases of the hydrograph stage, 2009 high water phase, 2008, 2009 and 2010 low water phases; RESULTS: The results showed that the studied water bodies have high variability in all measured variables: a between hydrograph phases; b among main rivers; and c between opposite margins of Japurá River; CONCLUSIONS: This shows the remarkable influence of the flood pulse and the primary water source on the limnology of this system. The monitoring of physical and chemical limnological variables in Mamirauá will serve as future reference for comparison with disturbed areas, such as the Lower Amazon, and as a baseline for modeling the effects of climate change and anthropogenic influences on Amazon aquatic ecosystem.OBJETIVO: Esse trabalho investiga a variação temporal e espacial de algumas características limnológicas dos lagos da planície de inundação da região de confluência dos Rios Japurá e Solimões, onde está localizada a Reserva de Desenvolvimento Sustentável Mamirauá (RDSM; MÉTODOS: Analisaram-se temperatura, condutividade, pH, oxigênio dissolvido, turbidez e transparência da água em três profundidades (superfície, Secchi e no limite da zona fótica e coletadas amostras de água na superfície para a determinação de material orgânico e inorgânico em suspensão, clorofila-a, feofitina, nitrogênio e fósforo total, carbono orgânico e inorgânico dissolvido, em duas fases da hidrógrafa, água alta

  19. Modelagem Sísmica via métodos das diferenças finitas: caso da bacia do Amazonas Seismic Modeling by finites difference method: case of Amazon basin

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    Lindemberg Lima Fernandes

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem por objetivo apresentar os resultados da modelagem sísmica em meios com fortes descontinuidades de propriedades físicas, com ênfase na existência de difrações e múltiplas reflexões, tendo a Bacia do Amazonas como referência à modelagem. As condições de estabilidade e de fronteiras utilizadas no cálculo do campo de ondas sísmicas foram analisadas numericamente pelo método das diferenças finitas, visando melhor compreensão e controle da interpretação de dados sísmicos. A geologia da Bacia do Amazonas é constituída por rochas sedimentares depositadas desde o Ordoviciano até o Recente que atingem espessuras da ordem de 5 km. Os corpos de diabásio, presentes entre os sedimentos paleozóicos, estão dispostos na forma de soleiras, alcançam espessuras de centenas de metros e perfazem um volume total de aproximadamente 90000 Km³. A ocorrência de tais estruturas é responsável pela existência de reflexões múltiplas durante a propagação da onda sísmica o que impossibilita melhor interpretação dos horizontes refletores que se encontram abaixo destas soleiras. Para representar situações geológicas desse tipo foram usados um modelo (sintético acústico de velocidades e um código computacional elaborado via método das diferenças finitas com aproximação de quarta ordem no espaço e no tempo da equação da onda. A aplicação dos métodos de diferenças finitas para o estudo de propagação de ondas sísmicas melhorou a compreensão sobre a propagação em meios onde existem heterogeneidades significativas, tendo como resultado boa resolução na interpretação dos eventos de reflexão sísmica em áreas de interesse. Como resultado dos experimentos numéricos realizados em meio de geologia complexa, foi observada a influência significativa das reflexões múltiplas devido à camada de alta velocidade, isto provocou maior perda de energia e dificultou a interpretação dos alvos. Por esta raz

  20. Uma proposta de avaliação integrada de risco do uso de agrotóxicos no estado do Amazonas, Brasil A proposal for integrated risk assessment of pesticide use in Amazon State, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Viviana Waichman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante os últimos 30 anos, o aumento da população humana no Amazonas introduziu a necessidade de produção adicional de alimentos e levou o governo do estado a desenvolver programas para aumentar e melhorar a produção agrícola. A produção de hortaliças não tradicionais apresentou vários problemas desconhecidos para os agricultores da região, uma vez que estas culturas não são bem adaptadas às condições locais. A suscetibilidade a insetos, fungos e outras pragas, e a competição com vegetação nativa vem forçando os agricultores a usar intensivamente os agrotóxicos. Os agricultores não estavam preparados para o uso adequado desta tecnologia ignorando os riscos dos agrotóxicos para saúde humana e o ambiente. Os agricultores não usam equipamento de proteção individual, porque é caro, desconfortável e inadequado para o clima quente da região. A falta treinamento e o escasso conhecimento sobre os perigos dos agrotóxicos contribuem para a manipulação incorreta durante a preparação, aplicação e disposição das embalagens vazias. Nestas condições, a exposição dos agricultores, suas famílias, consumidores e ambiente é alta. Como um primeiro passo para o entendimento deste problema e a proposição de soluções é proposta a realização de uma avaliação integrada de risco. As três fases do processo, formulação de problema, avaliação da exposição, e caracterização de risco são detalhadas. Programas de educação, treinamento e informação fazem parte das estratégias para a redução do risco do uso de agrotóxicos permitindo o desenvolvimento de uma agricultura ambientalmente sustentável.During the last 30 years, the increase of the human population in the Amazon introduced the need for additional food production and caused the state government to implement programs to increase and improve agricultural production. The production of nontraditional crops introduced several problems unknown to

  1. Extensive consumption of Tabebuia aurea (Manso Benth. & Hook. (Bignoniaceae nectar by parrots in a tecoma savanna in the southern Pantanal (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ragusa-Netto

    Full Text Available Neotropical parrots forage for various food items such as seeds, fruit pulp, flowers, young leaves, and even arthropods. While foraging, many species wander over large areas that include both open and closed habitats. In this study, I examined parrot foraging activity during a brief synchronous and massive flowering in August 1998 in a tecoma savanna (dominated by Tabebuia aurea in the southern Pantanal. Six parrot species, ranging from the small Brotogeris chiriri to the large Amazona aestiva, foraged for T. aurea nectar, but Nandayus nenday was by far the major nectar consumer, and the results of each of their visits, like those of the other species, was damage of a substantial proportion of the existing flower crop. Parrots foraged mostly during the afternoon, when nectar concentration tended to be higher. Nevertheless, compared to bird-pollinated flowers, which produce copious nectar, T. aurea had a smaller mean nectar volume per flower. Hence, presumably the amount of damage wreaked by these parrots resulted from their efforts to obtain part of their daily energy and water requirements. Thus, the synchronous and massive flowering occurring in such a brief period in the dry season may be related to, among other factors, the necessity of satiating predators such as parrots, which are still abundant in the Pantanal.

  2. Extensive consumption of Tabebuia aurea (Manso) Benth. & Hook. (Bignoniaceae) nectar by parrots in a Tecoma savanna in the southern Pantanal (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragusa-Netro, J

    2005-05-01

    Neotropical parrots forage for various food items such as seeds, fruit pulp, flowers, young leaves, and even arthropods. While foraging, many species wander over large areas that include both open and closed habitats. In this study, I examined parrot foraging activity during a brief synchronous and massive flowering in August 1998 in a tecoma savanna (dominated by Tabebuia aurea) in the southern Pantanal. Six parrot species, ranging from the small Brotogeris chiriri to the large Amazona aestiva, foraged for T. aurea nectar, but Nandayus nenday was by far the major nectar consumer, and the results of each of their visits, like those of the other species, was damage of a substantial proportion of the existing flower crop. Parrots foraged mostly during the afternoon, when nectar concentration tended to be higher. Nevertheless, compared to bird-pollinated flowers, which produce copious nectar, T. aurea had a smaller mean nectar volume per flower. Hence, presumably the amount of damage wreaked by these parrots resulted from their efforts to obtain part of their daily energy and water requirements. Thus, the synchronous and massive flowering occurring in such a brief period in the dry season may be related to, among other factors, the necessity of satiating predators such as parrots, which are still abundant in the Pantanal.

  3. Nest poaching in Neotropical parrots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, T.F.; Toft, C.A.; Enkerlin-Hoeflich, E.; Gonzalez-Elizondo, J.; Albornoz, M.; Rodriguez-Ferraro, A.; Rojas-Suarez, F.; Sanz, V.; Trujillo, A.; Beissinger, S.R.; Berovides A., V.; Galvez A., X.; Brice, A.T.; Joyner, K.; Eberhard, J.; Gilardi, J.; Koenig, S.E.; Stoleson, S.; Martuscelli, P.; Meyers, J.M.; Renton, K.; Rodriguez, A.M.; Sosa-Asanza, A.C.; Vilella, F.J.; Wiley, J.W.

    2001-01-01

    Although the poaching of nestlings for the pet trade is thought to contribute to the decline of many species of parrots, its effects have been poorly demonstrated. We calculated rates of mortality due to nest poaching in 23 studies of Neotropical parrots, representing 4024 nesting attempts in 21 species and 14 countries. We also examined how poaching rates vary with geographic region, presence of active protection programs, conservation status and economic value of a species, and passage of the U.S. Wild Bird Conservation Act. The average poaching rate across all studies was 30% of all nests observed. Thirteen studies reported poaching rates of >20%, and four reported rates of >70%. Only six studies documented no nest poaching. Of these, four were conducted on islands in the Caribbean region, which had significantly lower poaching rates than the mainland Neotropics. The other two studies that showed no poaching were conducted on the two species with the lowest economic value in our sample (U.S. retail price). In four studies that allowed direct comparison between poaching at sites with active nest protection versus that at unprotected sites, poaching rates were significantly lower at protected sites, suggesting that active protection efforts can be effective in reducing nest poaching. In those studies conducted both before and after the passage of the U.S. Wild Bird Conservation Act, poaching rates were found to be significantly lower following its enactment than in the period before. This result supports the hypothesis that the legal and illegal parrot trades are positively related, rather than inversely related as has been suggested by avicultural interests. Overall, our study indicates that poaching of parrot nestlings for economic gain is a widespread and biologically significant source of nest mortality in Neotropical parrots.

  4. LBA-ECO LC-03 SAR Images, Land Cover, and Biomass, Four Areas across Brazilian Amazon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides three related land cover products for four study areas across the Brazilian Amazon: Manaus, Amazonas; Tapajos National Forest, Para...

  5. LBA-ECO LC-24 Historical Roads of the Legal Amazon: 1968-1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains ESRI shapefiles of historical roads (basin-wide federal and state roads) in nine Brazilian states for the Legal Amazon: Amazonas, Para, Acre,...

  6. LBA-ECO LC-03 Hypsography, Rivers, Roads, and DEM, Four Areas across Brazilian Amazon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides four related spatial data products for four study areas across the Brazilian Amazon: Manaus, Amazonas; Tapajos National Forest, Para...

  7. LBA Regional Boundary for the Legal Amazon of Brazil, 8-km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The Legal Amazon of Brazil is defined by law to include the states of Acre, Amapa, Amazonas, Para, Rondonia, Roraima, Mato Grosso, Maranhao, and Tocantins...

  8. LBA Regional Boundary for the Legal Amazon of Brazil, 8-km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Legal Amazon of Brazil is defined by law to include the states of Acre, Amapa, Amazonas, Para, Rondonia, Roraima, Mato Grosso, Maranhao, and Tocantins [Fundacao...

  9. LBA-ECO LC-03 SAR Images, Land Cover, and Biomass, Four Areas across Brazilian Amazon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides three related land cover products for four study areas across the Brazilian Amazon: Manaus, Amazonas; Tapajos National Forest, Para Western...

  10. LBA-ECO LC-03 Hypsography, Rivers, Roads, and DEM, Four Areas across Brazilian Amazon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides four related spatial data products for four study areas across the Brazilian Amazon: Manaus, Amazonas; Tapajos National Forest, Para Western...

  11. LBA-ECO LC-24 Historical Roads of the Legal Amazon: 1968-1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains ESRI shapefiles of historical roads (basin-wide federal and state roads) in nine Brazilian states for the Legal Amazon: Amazonas,...

  12. Insecta, Coleoptera, Elmidae, Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passos, M. I. S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A list of Elmidae species from Amazon is presented. The list was prepared based on a literature surveyand examination of the entomological collection of Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA. The listincludes 102 species, with ten new occurrences recorded, being one for the Amazon (which includes areas ofBrazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Guyana, French Guyana, Peru, Suriname and Venezuela three for the Amazonas state,and six for other localities in Brazil. Reports about species bibliography contents were also included, as well asavailable species municipalities distributional data.

  13. Importância do método de gota espessa de sangue no diagnóstico de filárias simpátricas no Amazonas, Brasil The importance of thick blood film method for sympatric filarial diagnosis in Amazon basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen F Medeiros

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Esse trabalho relata os métodos de diagnósticos para filárias humanas no sangue, referindo-se a importância do método de gota espessa em relação aos métodos de filtração em membrana de policarbonato e Knott na diferenciação das espécies de microfilárias, principalmente em áreas de ocorrência de mais de uma espécie, como em regiões do Amazonas. Lâminas com microfilárias de Mansonella ozzardi foram montadas e fotografadas pelos diferentes métodos de diagnósticos. O método da gota espessa de sangue é o mais confiável, pois permite visualizar com nitidez o espaço cefálico e caudal, disposição dos núcleos caudais e formato da cauda, que são características morfológicas que diferenciam as espécies de microfilárias sanguíneas que ocorrem no Amazonas.In this work, the visual diagnostic methods for human filarias in the blood are evaluated. The thick blood film method is more faithful to identify the microfilariae species if compared to policarbonate membrane filtration and Knott methods, especially in areas where more than one species occur, as in Amazon basin. Slides with Mansonella ozzardi microfilariae were mounted and photographed by different diagnosis methods. The thick blood film method is much easier to see the diagnostic morphological characters as cephalic and caudal space, pattern of nucleation of the tail and tail shape that can separate the blood Amazonian microfilariae species.

  14. Niche restriction and conservatism in a neotropical psittacine: the case of the Puerto Rican parrot

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Thomas H.; Collazo, Jaime A.; Dinsmore, Stephen J.; Llerandi-Roman, I. C.

    2014-01-01

    The factors which govern species‘ distribution and abundance are myriad, and together constitute the ecological niche of a given species. Because abiotic factors are arguably the most profound of the factors influencing niche boundaries and thus, species distributions, substantial changes in either climatic or habitat-related parameters can be expected to produce interrelated and profound niche shifts. Habitat loss and degradation can also effectively induce a de facto climate change by forcing populations to relocate to environmentally suboptimal habitats. Populations experiencing niche shifts due to range restrictions and geographic isolation become subject to a suite of factors that may act synergistically to amplify deleterious ecological effects of habitat loss. These factors tend to exert a greater influence on populations of rare or endemic species with inherently restricted ranges. The Puerto Rican parrot (Amazona vittata) is an example of a tropical, insular, endemic and critically-endangered species that has suffered from extensive habitat loss and degradation over the past century, resulting in a single relict wild population restricted for more than 70 years to the montane rainforest of the Luquillo Mountains in northeastern Puerto Rico. In this chapter, we examine the current ecological situation of this geographically and demographically isolated parrot population by reviewing the history of landscape-level changes in and around the Luquillo Mountains, and concurrent biotic and abiotic limiting factors in relation to both historical population trajectory and current prognosis for species recovery. We used a decade (2000-2009) of empirical data on parrot fledgling survival together with long-term climatological data to model effects of local climate on fledgling survival and gain insights into its influence on population growth. We also modeled hypothetical survival of parrot fledglings in the lowlands surrounding the Luquillo Mountains, areas

  15. Intraspecific associations of individual brownheaded parrots ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stuart Taylor, Michael R. Perrin. Abstract. Brown headed parrots (Poicephalus cryptoxanthus) are often seen in large feeding flocks during summer and in pairs during winter. This has led to the ... Some of these constraints are discussed in the context of the life history strategy of the brown headed parrot. Key words: group ...

  16. [Nature and civilization: the decorative panels of the Teatro Amazonas foyer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daou, Ana Maria Lima

    2007-12-01

    The decorative panels in the foyer of the Teatro Amazonas, inaugurated in 1896, stand out from the rest of the building's ornamental iconography. The rubber trade brought great wealth to the capitals of Pará and Amazonas and as these cities gained national and international fame, their urban fabric and forms of sociability underwent significant changes. The article looks for parallels between the landscape representations of Amazonian nature adorning the building's foyer, the construction of the modern city, and social uses of the Teatro Amazonas, symbol of the era and emblem of the newly rich elite, who were then taking their place on the regional and national stages. The Teatro Amazonas formed the center of the era's social life and its foyer played host to veritable rituals of 'civilization', in which Brazilian and foreign guests enjoyed the fine setting of Amazon's nature as represented in the decorative wall panels.

  17. Health regionalization in Amazonas: progress and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnelo, Luiza; Sousa, Amandia Braga Lima; Silva, Clayton de Oliveira da

    2017-04-01

    This paper analyses the health services regionalization process in the State of Amazonas through a case study covering the health sub-region Manaus Surroundings. This is a qualitative, descriptive and analytical research, which data were collected using interviews, documents and Internet reviews, oriented by the guiding concept of health regionalization. Study findings revealed a social setting dominated by asymmetry, verticality, competitiveness and fragile multilateral relations among municipalities, associated to a bureaucratic profile of local institutions operating in the region under study. The political agents have limited acknowledgement of the sociopolitical and institutional conditions in which they operate. They usually impute healthcare networks' management and operational issues to the natural and geographical characteristics of the Amazon region, but their financing, governance and technical capacity are insufficient to overcome them.

  18. Mixing in the Amazon estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, M. O.

    2010-05-01

    The research area of this work is located at the estuary of the Amazon River (Brazil), near the river mouth. The results of air movement analysis on the surface atmospheric circulation over the Mouth of the Amazonas River, salinity and temperature measures as well as measurements of currents, carried out along a longitudinal section in the navigation canal region of the Northern Bar of the Amazon River (Barra Norte do Rio Amazonas) in June 2006, during the river flood season in the quadrature tide. The dynamics effects affect hydrodynamic,meteorological and hydrographical parameters at the river mouth. The conclusion drawn include that: a) the saline wedge-type stratification can be detected approximately 100km away from the mouth of the Amazon River during the end of the rainy season in the quadrature tide; b) probably, at the Amazon estuary the quadrature entrainment processes are dominant and they are the ones responsible for increased salinity detected in the surface layer, whereas turbulence scattering mixing is not so important. c) The large flow of fresh water from the Amazon River at the end of the rainy season implies the displacement of the saline front position over the internal Amazon continental platform, and d) The tidal wave shows a positive asymmetry in the canal, with floods lasting less than in the ebb tide. This asymmetry decreases towards the ocean, eventually becoming reversed in the presence of a saline wedge. The speeds, however, have a negative asymmetry, with more intense ebb tides, due to the river flow and is more evident by the existence of quadrature tides.

  19. Johann Jacob Friedrich Wilhelm Parrot / Tõivo Sarmet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sarmet, Tõivo

    2006-01-01

    Tartu Ülikooli rektorit Johann Jacob Friedrich Wilhelm Parrot loetakse Venemaa alpinismiajaloo alusepanijaks ja tema tähelepanuväärseimaks mägironimisalaseks teoks oli tõus Suur-Araratile 1829. aastal

  20. Putative Adult Neurogenesis in Old World Parrots: The Congo African Grey Parrot (Psittacus erithacus and Timneh Grey Parrot (Psittacus timneh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedzisai Mazengenya

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, we examined for the first time, the potential for adult neurogenesis throughout the brain of the Congo African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus and Timneh grey parrot (Psittacus timneh using immunohistochemistry for the endogenous markers proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, which labels proliferating cells, and doublecortin (DCX, which stains immature and migrating neurons. A similar distribution of PCNA and DCX immunoreactivity was found throughout the brain of the Congo African grey and Timneh grey parrots, but minor differences were also observed. In both species of parrots, PCNA and DCX immunoreactivity was observed in the olfactory bulbs, subventricular zone of the lateral wall of the lateral ventricle, telencephalic subdivisions of the pallium and subpallium, diencephalon, mesencephalon and the rhombencephalon. The olfactory bulb and telencephalic subdivisions exhibited a higher density of both PCNA and DCX immunoreactive cells than any other brain region. DCX immunoreactive staining was stronger in the telencephalon than in the subtelencephalic structures. There was evidence of proliferative hot spots in the dorsal and ventral poles of the lateral ventricle in the Congo African grey parrots at rostral levels, whereas only the dorsal accumulation of proliferating cells was observed in the Timneh grey parrot. In most pallial regions the density of PCNA and DCX stained cells increased from rostral to caudal levels with the densest staining in the nidopallium caudolaterale (NCL. The widespread distribution of PCNA and DCX in the brains of both parrot species suggest the importance of adult neurogenesis and neuronal plasticity during learning and adaptation to external environmental variations.

  1. Shale tectonics and structural deformation on the Amazon submarine fan: preliminaries results; Processo de argilocinese e estruturacao do pacote sedimentar da regiao do leque submarino do Amazonas: resultados preliminares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Valterlene de; Silva, Cleverson Guizan [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Lab. de Geologia Marinha (LAGEMAR); Reis, Antonio Tadeu dos [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Oceanografia

    2004-07-01

    The Amazon Submarine Fan, part of the Amazon Mouth Basin, is strongly affected by shale tectonics. Preliminary analysis of about 9.000 Km of multichannel seismic lines allowed us to map three main structural domains: a proximal extensive province largely dominated by seaward-dipping listric normal faults soling into a decollement level (mobile shale, Neomiocene in age) and associated rollovers; an intermediate rigid gliding province, and a lowermost compressive front, dominated by thrust faults. An important point about gravity tectonics in this area is that the morphology of the base of the mobile level seems to have influenced the development of the structural styles. For instance, listric faults lying at the upslope limit of the extensional province are arranged along a step-like morphology of the decollement level. As well as that, we observed that the gradient of the decollement level is more important on the northwestern portion of the fan, where the distance between the extensive and the compressive province is larger (of about 40 Km) than on the southeastern portion of the fan (about 25 Km large). Then, on the basis of the basal level gradient and the structures disposition we can segment the fan area into two structural compartments: a northwest and a southeast compartment. (author)

  2. The challenge: implement a management system integrated into QSMS in a work of ducts in the Amazon; O desafio: implementar um sistema de gestao integrada em QSMS (Qualidade, Seguranca, Meio Ambiente e Saude) em uma obra de dutos no Amazonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riquena, Renata M.P.T.; Araujo, Carlos Magno de A. [Ciclo Gestao Empresarial, Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    To manage changes in a scene with variable for uncontrollable times, was the challenge lived for a team of 8 professionals to implement a System of Integrated Management (SGI) in QSMS (Quality, Security, Environment and Health) in a workmanship of ducts in Amazon, next to a work force that arrived the 8,000 people more than, made use in a geographic extension of more than 600km, in remote localities, with communication difficulties. The state of Amazon possess a great cultural diversity and with this context, it was entered into an alliance experience and abilities of the most diverse parts of the country, added the much heat, rain, mud, stress, homesickness. The work if developed in the period of September of 2006 the December of 2007, and the results reached for the team, in this period, had demonstrated that SGI is possible, either where surrounding it will be, or which the transport of the organization, but will have a strong work in team, determination, flexibility, humility, allied the ability, the process could be of high value added for the enterprise. The numbers of 2007 had shown that the performance of an organization not only depends on resources, are material or financial, but mainly of the human resources. (author)

  3. Two new Morganella species from the Brazilian Amazon rainforest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo DS

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Two new Morganella species, M. albostipitata and M. rimosa were found during studies of gasteroid fungi in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest, Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve, Amazonas State, Brazil. The new taxa are described, and illustrated with photographs and line drawings, and taxonomical comments are made.

  4. Breeding biology of African grey parrot ( Psittacus erithacus ) in Kom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parrots are considered a globally threatened group but, despite that, little is known about the ecology and biology of many species in the wild, this is the case for African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus). The aim of this work was to study the reproductive biology of the wild grey parrot and its involvement in the conservation ...

  5. Polymorphic DNA microsatellite markers for forensic individual identification and parentage analyses of seven threatened species of parrots (family Psittacidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Jan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The parrot family represents one of the bird group with the largest number of endangered species, as a result of habitat destruction and illegal trade. This illicit traffic involves the smuggling of eggs and animals, and the laundering through captive breeding facilities of wild-caught animals. Despite the huge potential of wildlife DNA forensics to determine with conclusive evidence illegal trade, current usage of DNA profiling approaches in parrots has been limited by the lack of suitable molecular markers specifically developed for the focal species and by low cross-species polymorphism. In this study, we isolated DNA microsatellite markers in seven parrot species threatened with extinction (Amazona brasiliensis, A. oratrix, A. pretrei, A. rhodocorytha, Anodorhynchus leari, Ara rubrogenys and Primolius couloni. From an enriched genomic library followed by 454 pyrosequencing, we characterized a total of 106 polymorphic microsatellite markers (mostly tetranucleotides in the seven species and tested them across an average number of 19 individuals per species. The mean number of alleles per species and across loci varied from 6.4 to 8.3, with the mean observed heterozygosities ranging from 0.65 to 0.84. Identity and parentage exclusion probabilities were highly discriminatory. The high variability displayed by these microsatellite loci demonstrates their potential utility to perform individual genotyping and parentage analyses, in order to develop a DNA testing framework to determine illegal traffic in these threatened species.

  6. Habitat distribution for non-native Amazona viridigenalis within San Diego County using Maxent predictive model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meseck, Kristin April

    Human propagated changes to the environment have adversely affected certain species while advantaging other species. Psittacines, or species that fall within the parrot family, have been found to be well adapted to modified environments. Over time, transportation of various parrot species for use in the exotic pet trade has caused accidental releases of individual parrots, resulting in species groups forming and colonizing in new, non-native environments, specifically urban and suburban ones. Amazona viridigenalis, the Red-crowned parrot, is a species that has adapted to living in several regions within the United States including Texas, Florida, and California. This species is endangered within its native range in the lowlands of eastern Mexico, yet has the largest population of any other psittacine species in California. Despite this interesting dichotomy this species remains severely understudied in its new range. Using geographic information systems and Maxent predictive model, this research aims to achieve a greater understanding of the extent of habitat suitable to the Amazona viridigenalis within San Diego County and the habitat variables that enable its establishment success. Presence locations where individuals of the species were using habitat were collected along with 12 important variables that represent Red-crowned parrot habitat elements. These were used in the creation of a predictive habitat model utilizing Maxent machine-learning technique. Three models were created using three different background extents from which the pseudo-absence points were generated. These models were tested for statistical significance and predictive accuracy. It was found that model performance significantly decreased with a decrease in size of model extent. The largest extent was chosen to model habitat using the five variables that were found to be the least correlated, achieved the most gain, and had the most explanatory power for the earlier models. The final model

  7. Survival of captive-reared Hispaniolan Parrots released in Parque Nacional del Este, Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collazo, J.A.; White, T.H.; Vilella, F.J.; Guerrero, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    We report first-year survival rates of 49 captive-reared Hispaniolan Parrots (Amazona ventralis) released in Parque Nacional del Este, Dominican Republic. Our goal was to learn about factors affecting postrelease survival. Specifically, we tested if survival was related to movements and whether modifying prerelease protocols influenced survival rates. We also estimated survival in the aftermath of Hurricane Georges (22 September 1998). Twenty-four parrots, fitted with radio-transmitters, were released between 14 September and 12 December 1997. Twenty-five more were released between 29 June and 16 September 1998. First-year survival rates were 30% in 1997 and 29% in 1998. Survival probability was related to bird mobility. In contrast to birds released in 1997, none of the 25 parrots released in 1998 suffered early postrelease mortality (i.e., 3-5 days after release). Two adjustments to prerelease protocols (increased exercise and reduced blood sampling) made in 1998 may have contributed to differences in mobility and survival between years. The reduction of early postrelease mortality in 1998 was encouraging, as was the prospect for higher first-year survival (e.g., 30% to 65%). Only one death was attributed to the immediate impact of the hurricane. Loss of foraging resources was likely a major contributor to ensuing mortality. Birds increased their mobility, presumably in search of food. Survival rates dropped 23% in only eight weeks posthurricane. This study underscores the value of standardized prerelease protocols, and of estimating survival and testing for factors that might influence it. Inferences from such tests will provide the best basis to make adjustments to a release program.

  8. Illegal and legal parrot trade shows a long-term, cross-cultural preference for the most attractive species increasing their risk of extinction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L Tella

    Full Text Available Illegal trade constitutes a major threat for a variety of wildlife. A criminology framework has been recently applied to parrot poaching in Mexico, suggesting an opportunistic crime in which the most abundant and accessible species, and not the rare or highly priced species, were poached more often. We analyzed this information, together with additional long-term data (1981-2005 on both the legal and illegal trade of the 22 Mexican parrot species (n = 31,019 individuals, using multivariate statistics and hypothesis-testing approaches. Our results showed a selective capture of parrot species attending to their attractiveness. Parrot species widely differed in attractiveness to people (as reflected by their combined measures of body size, coloration, and ability to imitate human speech, and their attractiveness strongly correlated with their prices both in the Mexican and US markets. The most attractive and valuable species (amazons and macaws were disproportionally caught attending to the number of years they were legally trapped. Similar patterns were found for parrots poached for the domestic Mexican market, for those smuggled to the USA, and for those legally exported before or after 1992, when the USA ban led parrot exports to be mostly directed to European countries. Finally, the long-term cross-cultural preference for the most attractive species has led them to be among the most threatened species today. Since current parrot poaching mostly responds to local demand, socio-ecological work is needed to reverse the long-standing pet-keeping tradition that may decimate the most desired species in Neotropical countries.

  9. Illegal and legal parrot trade shows a long-term, cross-cultural preference for the most attractive species increasing their risk of extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tella, José L; Hiraldo, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Illegal trade constitutes a major threat for a variety of wildlife. A criminology framework has been recently applied to parrot poaching in Mexico, suggesting an opportunistic crime in which the most abundant and accessible species, and not the rare or highly priced species, were poached more often. We analyzed this information, together with additional long-term data (1981-2005) on both the legal and illegal trade of the 22 Mexican parrot species (n = 31,019 individuals), using multivariate statistics and hypothesis-testing approaches. Our results showed a selective capture of parrot species attending to their attractiveness. Parrot species widely differed in attractiveness to people (as reflected by their combined measures of body size, coloration, and ability to imitate human speech), and their attractiveness strongly correlated with their prices both in the Mexican and US markets. The most attractive and valuable species (amazons and macaws) were disproportionally caught attending to the number of years they were legally trapped. Similar patterns were found for parrots poached for the domestic Mexican market, for those smuggled to the USA, and for those legally exported before or after 1992, when the USA ban led parrot exports to be mostly directed to European countries. Finally, the long-term cross-cultural preference for the most attractive species has led them to be among the most threatened species today. Since current parrot poaching mostly responds to local demand, socio-ecological work is needed to reverse the long-standing pet-keeping tradition that may decimate the most desired species in Neotropical countries.

  10. Caracterização do uso de malhadeiras pela frota pesqueira que desembarca em Manaus e Manacapuru, Amazonas Characterization of gillnet fisheries landed in Manaus and Manacapuru, Central Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdelira Lia Araújo Fernandes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A malhadeira é um apetrecho de pesca frequentemente utilizado na pesca regional. O presente estudo visa verificar características das malhadeiras utilizadas nos diversos subsistemas da Amazônia Central, seu uso e a aplicação de normas legais relacionadas. Os dados foram obtidos por meio de entrevistas com pescadores em Manaus entre 1994 e 2004 e em Manacapuru entre 2001 e 2004. Os resultados indicaram que o apetrecho responde em média a 14% da produção pesqueira de Manaus, com tendência a diminuição e a 24,5% de Manacapuru, com estabilidade interanual. As freqüências modais recentes do tamanho de malha estiveram entre 50-60 mm no desembarque em Manaus, mas em Manacapuru foram mais diversas, entre 20 mm e 90 mm. A moda do comprimento das redes foi de 100 m em ambos portos, mas se em Manaus correspondem a cerca de 90% das registradas, em Manacapuru não são nem 50% do total. Quanto à freqüência de ocorrência de uso da malhadeira nos subsistemas da Amazônia Central que desembarcaram em Manaus, destaca-se o rio Purus (47,8%, enquanto que para Manacapuru predominou explotação no Baixo Solimões (94,3%. A composição das capturas variou entre os anos analisados, destacando cinco principais pescados que compõem mais de 70% das capturas: tambaqui, aruanã, tucunaré, curimatá, pirapitinga. Com relação às restrições no tamanho de malha, a maioria dos apetrechos têm tamanho de malha passível de uso ilegal, similarmente aos comprimentos das mesmas. Concluiu-se que há grande diversidade de formas de uso do apetrecho, sendo necessário gerar normas legais mais efetivas e compatíveis com a realidade pesqueira, cultural e sócio-econômica da Amazônia.The gillnet is frequently used in Amazon commercial and artisanal fishing. The present study aims to verify characteristics of the gill-nets of gillnets found in various Central Amazon subsystems, their use, and compliance with related legal norms. Daily Interviews were made from

  11. Core and Shell Song Systems Unique to the Parrot Brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukta Chakraborty

    Full Text Available The ability to imitate complex sounds is rare, and among birds has been found only in parrots, songbirds, and hummingbirds. Parrots exhibit the most advanced vocal mimicry among non-human animals. A few studies have noted differences in connectivity, brain position and shape in the vocal learning systems of parrots relative to songbirds and hummingbirds. However, only one parrot species, the budgerigar, has been examined and no differences in the presence of song system structures were found with other avian vocal learners. Motivated by questions of whether there are important differences in the vocal systems of parrots relative to other vocal learners, we used specialized constitutive gene expression, singing-driven gene expression, and neural connectivity tracing experiments to further characterize the song system of budgerigars and/or other parrots. We found that the parrot brain uniquely contains a song system within a song system. The parrot "core" song system is similar to the song systems of songbirds and hummingbirds, whereas the "shell" song system is unique to parrots. The core with only rudimentary shell regions were found in the New Zealand kea, representing one of the only living species at a basal divergence with all other parrots, implying that parrots evolved vocal learning systems at least 29 million years ago. Relative size differences in the core and shell regions occur among species, which we suggest could be related to species differences in vocal and cognitive abilities.

  12. Core and Shell Song Systems Unique to the Parrot Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Mukta; Walløe, Solveig; Nedergaard, Signe; Fridel, Emma E.; Dabelsteen, Torben; Pakkenberg, Bente; Bertelsen, Mads F.; Dorrestein, Gerry M.; Brauth, Steven E.; Durand, Sarah E.; Jarvis, Erich D.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to imitate complex sounds is rare, and among birds has been found only in parrots, songbirds, and hummingbirds. Parrots exhibit the most advanced vocal mimicry among non-human animals. A few studies have noted differences in connectivity, brain position and shape in the vocal learning systems of parrots relative to songbirds and hummingbirds. However, only one parrot species, the budgerigar, has been examined and no differences in the presence of song system structures were found with other avian vocal learners. Motivated by questions of whether there are important differences in the vocal systems of parrots relative to other vocal learners, we used specialized constitutive gene expression, singing-driven gene expression, and neural connectivity tracing experiments to further characterize the song system of budgerigars and/or other parrots. We found that the parrot brain uniquely contains a song system within a song system. The parrot “core” song system is similar to the song systems of songbirds and hummingbirds, whereas the “shell” song system is unique to parrots. The core with only rudimentary shell regions were found in the New Zealand kea, representing one of the only living species at a basal divergence with all other parrots, implying that parrots evolved vocal learning systems at least 29 million years ago. Relative size differences in the core and shell regions occur among species, which we suggest could be related to species differences in vocal and cognitive abilities. PMID:26107173

  13. The "Parrot Math" Attack on Memorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Quirk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Constructivist math educators regularly cite Parrot Math by Thomas C. O'Brien. Although this paper promotes constructivist "activity-based" learning over direct instruction, it's primary claim to fame is the open hostility to memorization. Professor O'Brien rejects "memorization and parrot-like drill " in favor of "children's invented strategies." He references a paper by Kamii and Dominick as evidence of "considerable research" showing that mastery of the standard algorithms of arithmetic is harmful for children. [See The Bogus Research in Kamii and Dominick's Harmful Algorithms Papers

  14. New sedimentological and palynological data from surface Miocene strata in the central Amazonas Basin area

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, Emílio Alberto Amaral; Dino, Rodolfo; Soares, Dominicky Peres; Antonioli, Luzia; Silva, Marco Antônio Lima da

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The scarcity of stratigraphic data has hindered the demarcation of the outcropping area of Miocene deposits of the Amazon Basin, represented informally by the Novo Remanso Formation. Moreover, this unit is characterized by a sparse and irregular geographic distribution due to its sedimentological features and rare fossil content. Miocene deposits cropping out in central Amazonas Basin area were described in sedimentological terms and analyzed palynologically. All analyses were undert...

  15. HIV/AIDS epidemic in the State of Amazonas: characteristics and trends from 2001 to 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Romina do Socorro Marques de; Benzaken, Adele Schwartz; Saraceni, Valeria; Sabidó, Meritxell

    2015-01-01

    A scoping review was conducted to describe the epidemiological characteristics of the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic in the State of Amazonas, Brazil, from 2001 to 2012, and temporary patterns were estimated from surveillance data. The results suggest that in its third decade, the Amazon HIV/AIDS epidemic is far from being stabilized and displays rising AIDS incidence and mortality rates and late diagnoses. The data suggest that AIDS cases ...

  16. A review of the taxonomic status and biology of the Cape Parrot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A review of the taxonomic status and biology of the Cape Parrot Poicephalus robustus , with reference to the Brown-necked Parrot P. fuscicollis fuscicollis and the Grey-headed Parrot P. f. suahelicus.

  17. Seleção de ideótipos de espécies florestais de múltiplo uso em planícies fluviais do Baixo Amazonas, Pará Selection of multipurpose forest species ideotypes of the floodplains in the Low Amazon Basin, Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Beatriz Martínez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa objetivou selecionar ideótipos arbóreos de múltiplo uso, baseado em informações etnobotânicas de comunidades ribeirinhas de planícies fluviais do Baixo Amazonas, Pará, para uso em sistemas silvipastoris. Como essas áreas foram antropizadas pela agricultura seguida da pecuária, esses sistemas são considerados alternativas viáveis para sua recuperação. Por meio de pesquisa participativa junto aos ribeirinhos, foi utilizado um questionário semi-estruturado para determinar as espécies arbóreas de maior importância para essas populações, enfocando sua finalidade e formas de uso, consumidor destino e a abundância nas comunidades estudadas. As espécies florestais de interesse dos ribeirinhos concentraram-se nas frutíferas, para alimentação humana e animal, seguidas daquelas com função madeireira. Em sua grande maioria, essas espécies são utilizadas internamente na propriedade, não gerando produtos excedentes e foram consideradas, pelos entrevistados como de “grande" abundância na região.The objective of this research was to select multipurpose arboreal ideotypes for use in silvipastoral systems. Selection of ideotypes was based on ethnobotanical information from riverside communities of Lower Amazon river floodplains, in Pará. Since these areas had been impacted by agriculture followed by ranching, the silvipastoral systems are considered viable alternatives for recuperating them. Through participatory research among the riverside inhabitants, a semi-structured questionnaire was used to determine the tree species of greatest importance to those populations, with focus on their purpose and forms of use, consumer destination and abundance in the communities studied. The forest species of interest to riverside people are most often fruit-producing species for human and animal food, followed by those for timber. The great majority of these species are employed internally on the property. They do not generate

  18. Core and shell song systems unique to the parrot brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakraborty, Mukta; Harpøth, Solveig Walløe; Nedergaard, Signe

    2015-01-01

    The ability to imitate complex sounds is rare, and among birds has been found only in parrots, songbirds, and hummingbirds. Parrots exhibit the most advanced vocal mimicry among non-human animals. A few studies have noted differences in connectivity, brain position and shape in the vocal learning...... systems of parrots relative to songbirds and hummingbirds. However, only one parrot species, the budgerigar, has been examined and no differences in the presence of song system structures were found with other avian vocal learners. Motivated by questions of whether there are important differences...... contains a song system within a song system. The parrot "core" song system is similar to the song systems of songbirds and hummingbirds, whereas the "shell" song system is unique to parrots. The core with only rudimentary shell regions were found in the New Zealand kea, representing one of the only living...

  19. Lead exposure among children from native communities of the Peruvian Amazon basin Exposición al plomo en niños de comunidades indígenas de la cuenca del Amazonas en el Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Anticona

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess potential risk factors associated with elevated blood lead levels (BLLs among children in two communities from the Corrientes River basin in the Peruvian Amazon. METHODS: Children aged 0-17 years were screened for BLLs, hemoglobin levels, and anthropometric measures. Dwelling, family, and child data were collected through a parental questionnaire. Statistical analysis included descriptive and bivariate analysis. Multiple linear and logistic regressions using generalized estimating equations were also conducted to determine associated risk factors. A map of each community was drawn to examine the spatial distribution of BLLs. RESULTS: Of 208 children (88 from 23 households of the Peruanito community and 120 from 28 households of Santa Isabel, 27.4% had BLLs > 10 µg/dL. The geometric mean (± standard deviation BLL was 8.7 ± 4.0 µg/dL (range 3.0-26.8 µg/dL. In the total population, linear regression analysis indicated that age was positively associated with BLLs (P 10 µg/dL than girls (P 10 µg/dL had 45.0% higher odds of presenting BLLs > 10 µg/dL than children whose mothers had BLLs 10 µg/dL were the main risk factors for elevated BLLs. The higher risk in boys 7-17 years suggests that exposure could be related to specific activities in this group, such as fishing and hunting. Continuous monitoring of BLLs in the Corrientes River population is recommended.OBJETIVO: Evaluar los potenciales factores de riesgo asociados con niveles elevados de plomo en sangre (Pbs en niños de dos comunidades de la cuenca del río Corrientes en la Amazonia peruana. MÉTODOS: Se estudiaron de manera sistemática los niveles de PbS, la concentración de hemoglobina y las medidas antropométricas en niños de 0 a 17 años. A través de un cuestionario efectuado a los padres se recopilaron datos sobre la vivienda, la familia y los niños. El análisis estadístico incluyó el análisis descriptivo y de dos variables. También se llevaron a

  20. Endangered plant-parrot mutualisms: seed tolerance to predation makes parrots pervasive dispersers of the Parana pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tella, José L; Dénes, Francisco V; Zulian, Viviane; Prestes, Nêmora P; Martínez, Jaime; Blanco, Guillermo; Hiraldo, Fernando

    2016-08-22

    Parrots are largely considered plant antagonists as they usually destroy the seeds they feed on. However, there is evidence that parrots may also act as seed dispersers. We evaluated the dual role of parrots as predators and dispersers of the Critically Endangered Parana pine (Araucaria angustifolia). Eight of nine parrot species predated seeds from 48% of 526 Parana pines surveyed. Observations of the commonest parrot indicated that 22.5% of the picked seeds were dispersed by carrying them in their beaks. Another five parrot species dispersed seeds, at an estimated average distance of c. 250 m. Dispersal distances did not differ from those observed in jays, considered the main avian dispersers. Contrary to jays, parrots often dropped partially eaten seeds. Most of these seeds were handled by parrots, and the proportion of partially eaten seeds that germinated was higher than that of undamaged seeds. This may be explained by a predator satiation effect, suggesting that the large seeds of the Parana pine evolved to attract consumers for dispersal. This represents a thus far overlooked key plant-parrot mutualism, in which both components are threatened with extinction. The interaction is becoming locally extinct long before the global extinction of the species involved.

  1. A Survey of African Grey Parrots ( Psittacus erithacus ) Trade and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intensive field based African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus) trade and trafficking survey lasting 14 days was undertaken on the request of the Pheasant Conservation Group; International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), to determine the existence or non-existence of parrots trapping, ...

  2. Challenges and conservation implications of the parrot trade in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Humans in every culture exploit wildlife resources around them to satisfy their immediate needs using many different methods. Similarly, parrots are exploited in Cameroon in various ways, for both consumptive and non-consumptive uses, by many cultures there. Trading in parrots is the biggest form of wild bird exploitation, ...

  3. Trade of parrots in urban areas of Madagascar | Reuter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The live capture of parrots is causing increasing concern across Africa. In Madagascar, home to three species of parrot (Coracopsis nigra, C. vasa, Agapornis canus), no study has examined how these species are being extracted from the wild and traded. In this study, we examined the procurement, length of ownership, and ...

  4. Atributos químicos, físico-hídricos e mineralogia da fração argila em solos do Baixo Amazonas: Serra de Parintins Chemical, physical and hydric attributes and mineralogy of clay fractions in soils of lower Amazon: Serra de Parintins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Dalmo de Oliveira Marquesi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Estudos sobre os atributos dos solos amazônicos geram informações para compor um levantamento atual sobre suas condições frente às várias formas de alterações que estão sujeitos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever e avaliar a evolução química, físico-hídrica, bem como a mineralogia de Latossolos no Baixo Amazonas como forma de entender as variações desses atributos em diferentes coberturas vegetais. Coletaram-se amostras deformadas e indeformadas para análises físicas, químicas, mineralógicas e hídricas, em dois pontos de uma topossequência na Serra de Parintins: platô e vertente, sendo três perfis de solo em cada posição. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que a floresta predominante sobre os perfis do topo e vertente promove condições físicas e hídricas adequadas para uma boa agregação, maior intensidade de poros grandes, maior condutividade hidráulica saturada (Ko e melhor retenção hídrica dos solos. Fato semelhante ocorrendo com as áreas de capoeira, apresentando boa permeabilidade, porosidade e retenção de água no solo. O acúmulo de carbono é maior dos perfis da vertente, decrescendo em profundidade, relacionando-se diretamente com Ko e com o sistema radicular. A análise mineralógica da fração argila indicou a caulinita como argilomineral predominante, seguido pelos minerais gibbsita, goethita, quartzo e anatásio, não havendo variações ao longo da paisagem. A Serra de Parintins possui um solo pobre em nutrientes, ácido, com textura média a muito argilosa com acúmulo de plintita nos horizontes subsuperficiais, evitando o fenômeno de terras caídas. Um gradiente elevado de umidade volumétrica é observado nos horizontes subsuperficiais, havendo mais água retida, quando comparado com horizontes superficiais.The latest studies of attributes of soil of the Amazonian ecosystems provide information to make up a survey on these soil conditions in the face of several forms of changes they

  5. Characterization of Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894 (Diptera:Culicidae larval habitats near the Amazon River in Colombia Caracterización preliminar de los sitios de cría de Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus (Skuse, 1894 (Diptera: Culicidae en el municipio de Leticia, Amazonas, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Alberto Olano

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Because the role of Aedes albopictus as an incriminated vector of several viral pathogens, its control is important to human health. To establish appropriate control methods, characterization of the larval habitats is a necessary first step.
    Objective. Habitats of the immature stages of Ae. albopictus were characterized with respect to physical-chemical parameters and by floral and faunal arrays present.
    Materials and methods. Leticia is located at the southernmost tip of Colombia on the banks of the Amazon River. In the urban area, 154 houses were inspected in December 2002 and January 2003. Physical-chemical data were collected, including exposure to sunlight, location, container size and material, water conductivity, and dissolved oxygen. Macroinvertebrates and plankton samples were taken at each positive larval site. The results were compared using descriptive analysis, principal component analysis, classification dendrograms, and diversity indexes.
    Results. Twenty-one habitats were found positive for Diptera, and 13 were positive for Ae. albopictus larvae. Most of the positive habitats (92% were located near the houses--they were small or medium size receptacles located in the shade. This water generally had low conductivity and low turbidity, although high values of these parameters were also identified. The habitats had low diversity indexes for macroinvertebrates and high diversity indexes for plankton. In the principal component analysis, significant correlation was found with mites, oligochaetes and hemipterans (the macroinvertebrates and with bacilarophyceaes, clorophyceaes and cianophyceas (the algal forms.
    Conclusion. In Leticia, females of Ae. albopictus were found in newly established habitats with sufficient availability of resources, low conductivity, and turbidity, lower intra-and interspecific competition.Introducción. Dada la importancia de Aedes albopictus en la salud pública, es necesario

  6. Mapeamento da antiga cobertura vegetal de várzea do Baixo Amazonas a partir de imagens históricas (1975-1981 do Sensor MSS-Landsat Mapping ancient vegetation cover of the Amazon floodplain using historical MSS/Landsat images (1975-1981

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Fróes Renó

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo apresenta um mapa da cobertura vegetal da planície de inundação do Rio Amazonas entre as cidades de Parintins (AM e Almeirim (PA, com base em imagens Landsat-MSS adquiridas entre 1975 e 1981. O processamento digital dessas imagens envolveu a transformação para imagens-fração de vegetação, solo e água escura (sombra, seguido da aplicação de técnicas de segmentação e classificação por região. O mapa resultante da classificação foi organizado em quatro classes de cobertura do solo: floresta de várzea, vegetação não-florestal de várzea, solo exposto e água aberta. A precisão do mapa foi estimada a partir de dois tipos de informações coletadas em campo: 1 pontos de descrição: para validação das classes de cobertura não sujeitas a grandes alterações, como é o caso dos corpos d'água permanentes, e identificação de indicadores dos tipos de cobertura original presentes na paisagem na ocasião da obtenção das imagens (72 pontos; 2 entrevistas com moradores antigos para a recuperação da memória sobre a cobertura vegetal existente há 30 anos (44 questionários. Ao todo foram coletadas informações em 116 pontos distribuídos ao longo da área de estudo. Esses pontos foram utilizados para calcular o Índice Kappa de concordância entre os dados de campo e o mapa resultante da classificação automática, cujo valor (0,78 indica a boa qualidade do mapa de cobertura vegetal da várzea. Os resultados mostram que a região possuía uma cobertura florestal de várzea de aproximadamente 8.650 km2 no período de aquisição das imagens.This study presents a vegetation map of the Amazon River floodplain between the towns of Parintins (AM and Almeirim (PA, based on Landsat-MSS scenes from 1975 to 1981. Digital processing involved the transformation of multispectral images into fraction-images of vegetation, soil and dark water (shadow, followed by the application of segmentation and region

  7. Hypoxia adaptation in fish of the Amazon: a never-ending task

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A.L. Val*, M.N.P. Silva and V.M.F. Almeida-Val. National Institute for Research in the Amazon, Alameda Cosme Ferreira, 1756,69083-000 Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. E-mail: dalval@inpa.gov.br ...... (Prochilodontidae) at two phases of migration. Compo Biochem. Physiol. 83B: 65'Hi67. VAN WAVERSVELD, J., ADDINK, ...

  8. Parrot Beak Nails Revisited: Case Series and Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Stella X; Cohen, Philip R

    2018-03-01

    The term "parrot beak nail" describes a morphologic change of the nail plate characterized by excessive forward curvature. It may be associated with systemic disease or, most commonly, occurs as an idiopathic finding complicated by delayed nail plate trimming. The characteristics of parrot beak nails in ten men are described, and the features of this acquired nail deformity are reviewed. Of the ten patients, six presented with concurrent neuropathies that resulted in frequent foot injuries or falls. While the true incidence of parrot beak nails is unknown, this nail deformity occurred in 2.1 % of patients seen by a single physician during a 3-month period. In conclusion, parrot beak nails secondary to poor nail care may lead to functional impairment, tissue injury, and subsequent infections. Therefore, it is important for clinicians to look for these nail lesions on cutaneous examination and recommend frequent nail trimmings to individuals with parrot beak nails.

  9. The Visibility of Work among Ticuna Women in the Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraildes Caldas Torres

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the Amazon Indian craftsmanship, done by Ticuna Women. Crafts are shown to be an important product in the strong positive development in the rural Amazon community. It works with data observed and collected in research done as a consultant for Sebrae/Amazonas in 2004. It shows how women work is an organizing element of the domestic economy for the Ticuna ethnicity. A principal feature of the sexual division of labor places women as having more responsibility for family maintenance.

  10. Auction on the Amazon river; Auktion am Amazonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Tilman

    2011-02-15

    The world market is in a period of transition. While the number of wind turbines in the USA is decreasing because of the continuing poor state of the economy, South America is heading for new horizons.

  11. The allometry of parrot BMR: seasonal data for the Greater Vasa Parrot, Coracopsis vasa, from Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovegrove, Barry G; Perrin, Mike R; Brown, Mark

    2011-12-01

    In this study we examined the allometry of basal metabolic rate (BMR) of 31 parrot species. Unlike previous reports, we show that parrots per se do not display BMRs that are any different to other captive-raised birds of their body size. An ordinary least squares regression fitted the data best and body mass explained 95% of the variation in BMR. There was no phylogenetic signal in the BMR data. We also provide new data for the Greater Vasa Parrot (Coracopsis vasa) of Madagascar. We tested the hypotheses that C. vasa may, because of its insular existence, display conservative energetic traits (low BMR, use of adaptive heterothermy) similar to those observed in several Malagasy mammals. However, this was not the case. C. vasa had a higher BMR than other parrots, especially during summer, when BMR was up-regulated by 50.5% and was 95.7% higher than predicted from an ordinary least squares (OLS) allometry of parrots (BMR = 0.042M (b) (0.649) , BMR in Watts, M (b) in grammes). Compared with BMR data for 94 captive-raised bird species, the winter and summer BMRs were, respectively, 45.5 and 117.8% higher than predicted by a phylogenetic generalised least squares (PGLS) allometry (BMR = 0.030M (b) (0.687) , BMR in Watts, M (b) in grammes). The summer up-regulation of BMR is the highest recorded for a bird of any size to date. We suggest that the costs of a high summer BMR may be met by the unusual cooperative breeding system of C. vasa in which groups of males feed the female and share paternity. The potential breeding benefits of a high summer BMR are unknown.

  12. The Parrot UAV Controlled by PID Controllers

    OpenAIRE

    Koszewnik Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the process of modeling and designing control laws for four-rotor type of the Parrot UAV. The state space model is obtained by using several phenomena like gyroscopic effects for rigid bodies, propellers and rotors. The obtained model has been used to design PID control laws for roll, pitch, yaw angle and altitude, respectively. The numerical simulations of the closed loop model are shown that system in satisfy way stabilize flight of the quadro-rotor in all considered dire...

  13. The Parrot UAV Controlled by PID Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koszewnik Andrzej

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the process of modeling and designing control laws for four-rotor type of the Parrot UAV. The state space model is obtained by using several phenomena like gyroscopic effects for rigid bodies, propellers and rotors. The obtained model has been used to design PID control laws for roll, pitch, yaw angle and altitude, respectively. The numerical simulations of the closed loop model are shown that system in satisfy way stabilize flight of the quadro-rotor in all considered directions.

  14. [Nesting habitat characterization for Amazona oratrix (Psittaciformes: Psittacidae) in the Central Pacific, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monterrubio-Rico, Tiberio C; Álvarez-Jara, Margarito; Tellez-Garcia, Loreno; Tena-Morelos, Carlos

    2014-09-01

    The nesting requirements of the Yellow-headed Parrot (Amazona oratrix) are poorly understood, despite their broad historical distribution, high demand for pet trade and current endangered status. Information concerning their nesting requirements is required in order to design specific restoration and conser- vation actions. To assess this, we studied their nesting ecology in the Central Pacific, Michoacan, Mexico during a ten year period. The analyzed variables ranged from local scale nest site characteristics such as nesting tree species, dimensions, geographic positions, diet and nesting forest patches structure, to large scale features such as vegetation use and climatic variables associated to the nesting tree distributions by an ecological niche model using Maxent. We also evaluated the parrot tolerance to land management regimes, and compared the Pacific nest trees with 18 nest trees recorded in an intensively managed private ranch in Tamaulipas, Gulf of Mexico. Parrots nested in tall trees with canopy level cavities in 92 nest-trees recorded from 11 tree species. The 72.8% of nesting occurred in trees of Astronium graveolens, and Enterolobium cyclocarpum which qualified as key- stone trees. The forests where the parrots nested, presented a maximum of 54 tree species, 50% of which were identified as food source; besides, these areas also had a high abundance of trees used as food supply. The lowest number of tree species and trees to forage occurred in an active cattle ranch, whereas the highest species rich- ness was observed in areas with natural recovery. The nesting cavity entrance height from above ground of the Pacific nesting trees resulted higher than those found in the Gulf of Mexico. We hypothesize that the differences may be attributed to Parrot behavioral differences adapting to differential poaching pressure and cavity avail- ability. Nesting trees were found in six vegetation types; however the parrots preferred conserved and riparian semi

  15. Parrots as key multilinkers in ecosystem structure and functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Guillermo; Hiraldo, Fernando; Rojas, Abraham; Dénes, Francisco V; Tella, José L

    2015-09-01

    Mutually enhancing organisms can become reciprocal determinants of their distribution, abundance, and demography and thus influence ecosystem structure and dynamics. In addition to the prevailing view of parrots (Psittaciformes) as plant antagonists, we assessed whether they can act as plant mutualists in the dry tropical forest of the Bolivian inter-Andean valleys, an ecosystem particularly poor in vertebrate frugivores other than parrots (nine species). We hypothesised that if interactions between parrots and their food plants evolved as primarily or facultatively mutualistic, selection should have acted to maximize the strength of their interactions by increasing the amount and variety of resources and services involved in particular pairwise and community-wide interaction contexts. Food plants showed different growth habits across a wide phylogenetic spectrum, implying that parrots behave as super-generalists exploiting resources differing in phenology, type, biomass, and rewards from a high diversity of plants (113 species from 38 families). Through their feeding activities, parrots provided multiple services acting as genetic linkers, seed facilitators for secondary dispersers, and plant protectors, and therefore can be considered key mutualists with a pervasive impact on plant assemblages. The number of complementary and redundant mutualistic functions provided by parrots to each plant species was positively related to the number of different kinds of food extracted from them. These mutually enhancing interactions were reflected in species-level properties (e.g., biomass or dominance) of both partners, as a likely consequence of the temporal convergence of eco-(co)evolutionary dynamics shaping the ongoing structure and organization of the ecosystem. A full assessment of the, thus far largely overlooked, parrot-plant mutualisms and other ecological linkages could change the current perception of the role of parrots in the structure, organization, and

  16. From drought to flooding: understanding the abrupt 2010–11 hydrological annual cycle in the Amazonas River and tributaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinoza, Jhan Carlo; Ronchail, Josyane; Drapeau, Guillaume; Guyot, Jean Loup; Martinez, Jean Michel; Santini, William; Vauchel, Philippe; Espinoza, Raúl; Junquas, Clementine; Lavado, Waldo; Ordoñez, Julio

    2012-01-01

    In this work we document and analyze the hydrological annual cycles characterized by a rapid transition between low and high flows in the Amazonas River (Peruvian Amazon) and we show how these events, which may impact vulnerable riverside residents, are related to regional climate variability. Our analysis is based on comprehensive discharge, rainfall and average suspended sediment data sets. Particular attention is paid to the 2010–11 hydrological year, when an unprecedented abrupt transition from the extreme September 2010 drought (8300 m 3 s −1 ) to one of the four highest discharges in April 2011 (49 500 m 3 s −1 ) was recorded at Tamshiyacu (Amazonas River). This unusual transition is also observed in average suspended sediments. Years with a rapid increase in discharge are characterized by negative sea surface temperature anomalies in the central equatorial Pacific during austral summer, corresponding to a La Niña-like mode. It originates a geopotential height wave train over the subtropical South Pacific and southeastern South America, with a negative anomaly along the southern Amazon and the southeastern South Atlantic convergence zone region. As a consequence, the monsoon flux is retained over the Amazon and a strong convergence of humidity occurs in the Peruvian Amazon basin, favoring high rainfall and discharge. These features are also reported during the 2010–11 austral summer, when an intense La Niña event characterized the equatorial Pacific. (letter)

  17. From drought to flooding: understanding the abrupt 2010-11 hydrological annual cycle in the Amazonas River and tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo Espinoza, Jhan; Ronchail, Josyane; Loup Guyot, Jean; Junquas, Clementine; Drapeau, Guillaume; Martinez, Jean Michel; Santini, William; Vauchel, Philippe; Lavado, Waldo; Ordoñez, Julio; Espinoza, Raúl

    2012-06-01

    In this work we document and analyze the hydrological annual cycles characterized by a rapid transition between low and high flows in the Amazonas River (Peruvian Amazon) and we show how these events, which may impact vulnerable riverside residents, are related to regional climate variability. Our analysis is based on comprehensive discharge, rainfall and average suspended sediment data sets. Particular attention is paid to the 2010-11 hydrological year, when an unprecedented abrupt transition from the extreme September 2010 drought (8300 m3 s-1) to one of the four highest discharges in April 2011 (49 500 m3 s-1) was recorded at Tamshiyacu (Amazonas River). This unusual transition is also observed in average suspended sediments. Years with a rapid increase in discharge are characterized by negative sea surface temperature anomalies in the central equatorial Pacific during austral summer, corresponding to a La Niña-like mode. It originates a geopotential height wave train over the subtropical South Pacific and southeastern South America, with a negative anomaly along the southern Amazon and the southeastern South Atlantic convergence zone region. As a consequence, the monsoon flux is retained over the Amazon and a strong convergence of humidity occurs in the Peruvian Amazon basin, favoring high rainfall and discharge. These features are also reported during the 2010-11 austral summer, when an intense La Niña event characterized the equatorial Pacific.

  18. The ceramic artifacts in archaeological black earth (terra preta from Lower Amazon Region, Brazil: chemistry and geochemical evolution Artefatos cerâmicos em sítios arqueológicos com terra preta na região do baixo Amazonas, Brasil: composição química e evolução geoquímica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcondes Lima da Costa

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper carried out a chemical investigation of archaeological ceramic artifacts found in archaeological sites with Black Earth (ABE in the Lower Amazon Region at Cachoeira-Porteira, State of Pará, Brazil. The ceramic artifacts, mostly of daily use, belong to Konduri culture (from 900 to 400 years BP. They are constituted of SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, Na2O and P2O5; SiO2 and Al2O3 together add up to 80 % and indicate influence of acid rocks, transformed into clay minerals basically kaolinite. The relative high contents of P2O5 (2.37 % in average come out as (Al,Fe-phosphate, an uncommon fact in primitive red ceramics, but found in some roman and egyptian archaeological sites. The contents of the trace elements are similar or below the Earth's crust average. This chemical composition (except P2O5 detaches saprolite material derived acid igneous rocks or sedimentary ones as the main raw material of the ceramics. The contents of K, Na and Ca represent the feldspars and rock fragments possibly introduced into saprolitic groundmass, indicated by mineralogical studies. The presence of cauixi and cariapé as well as quartz sand was confirmed by optical microscope, SEM analyses and by the high silica contents of ceramic fragments. Phosphorus was possibly incorporated into groundmass during cooking of foods, and ABE soil profile formation developed on yellow Latosols. The raw materials and its tempers (cauixi, or cariapé, feldspar, crushed rocks, old ceramic artifacts and quartz fragments are found close to the sites and therefore and certainly came from them.Neste trabalho realizou-se a caracterização química de fragmentos de artefatos cerâmicos encontrados em sítios arqueológicos com terra preta no Baixo Amazonas (Cachoeira-Porteira, Pará, Brasil, representativos da cultura Konduri (de 900 a 400 anos AP. Esses fragmentos são constituídos de SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, Na2O e P2O5, sendo que SiO2 e Al2O3, juntos, perfazem mais de 80 % em peso. Os teores

  19. Tuberculosis in indigenous children in the Brazilian Amazon Tuberculosis en niños indígenas en el Amazonas Brasileño Tuberculose em crianças indígenas da Amazônia brasileira

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    Caroline Gava

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Assess the epidemiological aspects of tuberculosis in Brazilian indigenous children and actions to control it. METHODS: An epidemiological study was performed with 356 children from 0 to 14 years of age in Rondônia State, Amazon, Brazil, during the period 1997-2006. Cases of TB reported to the Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System were divided into indigenous and non-indigenous categories and analyzed according to sex, age group, place of residence, clinical form, diagnostic tests and treatment outcome. A descriptive analysis of cases and hypothesis test (χ² was carried out to verify if there were differences in the proportions of illness between the groups investigated. RESULTS: A total of 356 TB cases were identified (125 indigenous, 231 non-indigenous of which 51.4% of the cases were in males. In the indigenous group, 60.8% of the cases presented in children aged 0-4 years old. The incidence mean was much higher among indigenous; in 2001, 1,047.9 cases/100,000 inhabitants were reported in children aged OBJETIVO: Evaluar los aspectos epidemiológicos de la tuberculosis en niños indígenas brasileños y las acciones para su control. MÉTODOS: Estudio epidemiológico con [356] niños de 0 a 14 años de edad, en Rondonia, Amazonas, Brasil, de 1997 a 2006. Los casos registrados en el Sistema de Información de Agravios de Notificación, se clasificaron en indígenas y no indígenas, y se analizaron según sexo, grupo etario, lugar de residencia, forma clínica, exámenes diagnósticos y resultado del tratamiento. Se realizó análisis descriptivo de los casos y prueba de hipótesis (χ² para verificar si hubo diferencias en las proporciones de la enfermedad entre los grupos investigados. RESULTADOS: Se identificaron 356 casos de tuberculosis (125 indígenas y 231 no indígenas, de los cuales, 51,4% en niños varones. En los indígenas, 60,8% de los casos fueron notificados en OBJETIVO: Avaliar os aspectos epidemiológicos da

  20. Parrot Interpreter: Representation, Extinction and the Electronic Information Environment

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    Paul Carter

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Humans, it seems, can’t get enough of parrots. Ethnography, folklore, psychology, and, of course, imaginative literature all offer copious evidence of our fantasy of living with, communicating with and even being parrots. The natural history of parrots and the cultural history of parrots present something of a conundrum: on the one hand, a massive destructiveness (illegal bird and feather trade, environment destruction, scientific collections; on the other, an often erotically inflected sympathetic identification leading to the production of new forms. It’s strange to realise that Europe is infested with a shadow population of captive and inbred budgerigars, whose numbers far exceed those remaining in the wild and who can never return to their origins. If, as our privileged other, our uncanny mimic and double, the parrot still fails to survive, what does this tell us about our economy of desire? It seems that to know is to consume and destroy; and that the apparent contrast between the operations of the rainforest loggers and bird-trappers and the sentimental representations and transformations parrot suffers in human society is overdrawn. How is this contradiction to be explained?

  1. A new species of Tropidopedia from the Amazon rainforest, Brazil (Hymenoptera: Apidae), with a revised phylogenetic overview of the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlmann, Thiago; De Oliveira, Marcio L

    2015-10-15

    We describe a new species of the bee tribe Tapinotaspidini, Tropidopedia guaranae Mahlmann & Oliveira sp. n. from the Amazon rainforest, Amazonas, Brazil. We emend the phylogenetic tree of Aguiar & Melo (2007) to include the new species and comment upon some characters presented by those authors.

  2. Anatomy of a bottleneck: diagnosing factors limiting population growth in the Puerto Rican parrot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beissenger, S.R.; Wunderle, J.M.; Meyers, J.M.; Saether, B.-E.; Engen, S.

    2008-01-01

    The relative importance of genetic, demographic, environmental, and catastrophic processes that maintain population bottlenecks has received little consideration. We evaluate the role of these factors in maintaining the Puerto Rican Parrot (Amazona vittata) in a prolonged bottleneck from 1973 through 2000 despite intensive conservation efforts. We first conduct a risk analysis, then examine evidence for the importance of specific processes maintaining the bottleneck using the multiple competing hypotheses approach, and finally integrate these results through a sensitivity analysis of a demographic model using life-stage simulation analysis (LSA) to determine the relative importance of genetic, demographic, environmental, and catastrophic processes on population growth. Annual population growth has been slow and variable (1.0 6 5.2 parrots per year, or an average k?1.05 6 0.19) from 16 parrots (1973) to a high of 40-42 birds (1997-1998). A risk analysis based on population prediction intervals (PPI) indicates great risk and large uncertainty, with a range of 22?83 birds in the 90% PPI only five years into the future. Four primary factors (reduced hatching success due to inbreeding, failure of adults to nest, nest failure due to nongenetic causes, and reduced survival of adults and juveniles) were responsible for maintaining the bottleneck. Egghatchability rates were low (70.6% per egg and 76.8% per pair), and hatchability increased after mate changes, suggesting inbreeding effects. Only an average of 34% of the population nested annually, which was well below the percentage of adults that should have reached an age of first breeding (41-56%). This chronic failure to nest appears to have been caused primarily by environmental and/or behavioral factors, and not by nest-site scarcity or a skewed sex ratio. Nest failure rates from nongenetic causes (i.e., predation, parasitism, and wet cavities) were low (29%) due to active management (protecting nests and fostering

  3. DOSAGEM DE METABÓLITOS DE GLUCOCORTICOIDES E PROGESTERONA EM FEZES DE PAPAGAIO-VERDADEIRO (AMAZONA AESTIVA

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    Caroline Junko Fujihara

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were to evaluate fecal concentrations of metabolites of glucocorticoids, measured by enzyme immunoassay with a cortisol antibody and by radioimmunoassay with a corticosterone antibody, and progesterone by radioimmunoassay with a progesterone antibody in blue-fronted parrot (Amazona aestiva after ACTH challenge. The adrenal stimulation with ACTH (25 UI/animal resulted in an increase of fecal glucocorticoids metabolites concentration, but it did not affect the concentrations of fecal progesterone metabolites. Although there were no synchronized peaks of glucocorticoid metabolites excretion measured by enzyme immunoassay and radioimmunoassay, there were two peaks of excretion, one at 2-4 hours and other at 8-10 hours. Despite the occurrence of peaks, the analysis of fecal glucocorticoids metabolites and progesterone metabolites showed no effect of group (control and treatment, moment (hours of sampling and sex.

  4. Natureza e civilização: os painéis decorativos do Salão Nobre do Teatro Amazonas Nature and civilization: the decorative panels of the Teatro Amazonas foyer

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    Ana Maria Lima Daou

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Os painéis decorativos do salão nobre do Teatro Amazonas singularizam-se em relação ao restante da iconografia que decora o edifício, inaugurado em 1896. Na ocasião, as capitais do Pará e do Amazonas, enriquecidas pela economia gomífera, passaram por significativas transformações no tecido urbano e nas formas de sociabilidade, projetando-se nacional e internacionalmente. O artigo procura identificar paralelos entre as representações paisagísticas da natureza amazônica que decoram o salão nobre do edifício, a construção da cidade moderna e os usos sociais do Teatro Amazonas, símbolo do período e emblema da elite enriquecida que se afirmava no cenário regional e nacional. O Teatro Amazonas ocupou o centro da vida social da época, e em seu salão nobre ocorreram verdadeiros rituais de 'civilização' em que os convidados - brasileiros ou estrangeiros - tinham como cenário privilegiado a natureza amazônica representada nos painéis parietais decorativos.The decorative panels in the foyer of the Teatro Amazonas, inaugurated in 1896, stand out from the rest of the building's ornamental iconography. The rubber trade brought great wealth to the capitals of Pará and Amazonas and as these cities gained national and international fame, their urban fabric and forms of sociability underwent significant changes. The article looks for parallels between the landscape representations of Amazonian nature adorning the building's foyer, the construction of the modern city, and social uses of the Teatro Amazonas, symbol of the era and emblem of the newly rich elite, who were then taking their place on the regional and national stages. The Teatro Amazonas formed the center of the era's social life and its foyer played host to veritable rituals of 'civilization', in which Brazilian and foreign guests enjoyed the fine setting of Amazon's nature as represented in the decorative wall panels.

  5. Chagas disease in the State of Amazonas: history, epidemiological evolution, risks of endemicity and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Maria das Graças Vale; Ferreira, João Marcos Bemfica Barbosa; Arcanjo, Ana Ruth Lima; Santana, Rosa Amélia Gonçalves; Magalhães, Laylah Kelre Costa; Magalhães, Laise Kelma Costa; Mota, Daniel Testa; Fé, Nelson Ferreira; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Silveira, Henrique; Guerra, Jorge Augusto de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Chagas disease (CD) is a parasitic infection that originated in the Americas and is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. In the last few years, the disease has spread to countries in North America, Asia and Europe due to the migration of Latin Americans. In the Brazilian Amazon, CD has an endemic transmission, especially in the Rio Negro region, where an occupational hazard was described for piaçaveiros (piassaba gatherers). In the State of Amazonas, the first chagasic infection was reported in 1977, and the first acute CD case was recorded in 1980. After initiatives to integrate acute CD diagnostics with the malaria laboratories network, reports of acute CD cases have increased. Most of these cases are associated with oral transmission by the consumption of contaminated food. Chronic cases have also been diagnosed, mostly in the indeterminate form. These cases were detected by serological surveys in cardiologic outpatient clinics and during blood donor screening. Considering that the control mechanisms adopted in Brazil's classic transmission areas are not fully applicable in the Amazon, it is important to understand the disease behavior in this region, both in the acute and chronic cases. Therefore, the pursuit of control measures for the Amazon region should be a priority given that CD represents a challenge to preserving the way of life of the Amazon's inhabitants.

  6. Chagas disease in the State of Amazonas: history, epidemiological evolution, risks of endemicity and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria das Graças Vale Barbosa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease (CD is a parasitic infection that originated in the Americas and is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. In the last few years, the disease has spread to countries in North America, Asia and Europe due to the migration of Latin Americans. In the Brazilian Amazon, CD has an endemic transmission, especially in the Rio Negro region, where an occupational hazard was described for piaçaveiros (piassaba gatherers. In the State of Amazonas, the first chagasic infection was reported in 1977, and the first acute CD case was recorded in 1980. After initiatives to integrate acute CD diagnostics with the malaria laboratories network, reports of acute CD cases have increased. Most of these cases are associated with oral transmission by the consumption of contaminated food. Chronic cases have also been diagnosed, mostly in the indeterminate form. These cases were detected by serological surveys in cardiologic outpatient clinics and during blood donor screening. Considering that the control mechanisms adopted in Brazil's classic transmission areas are not fully applicable in the Amazon, it is important to understand the disease behavior in this region, both in the acute and chronic cases. Therefore, the pursuit of control measures for the Amazon region should be a priority given that CD represents a challenge to preserving the way of life of the Amazon's inhabitants.

  7. A new species of Cerqueirellum Py-Daniel, 1983 (Diptera: Simuliidae and proven new vector of mansonelliasis from the Ituxi River, Amazon basin, Brazil Uma nova espécie de Cerqueirellum Py-Daniel, 1983 (Diptera, Simuliidae e provável novo vetor de mansonelose no rio Ituxi, Amazonas, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Arley Costa Pessoa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the genus Cerqueirellum Py-Daniel, 1983 (Diptera: Simuliidae is described. The adults are similar to the species C. oyapockense (Floch & Abonnenc, 1946 and C. roraimense (Nunes de Mello, 1974, of which the females are similar, and the males present discrete differences. The main differences of this new species to others of the genus Cerqueirellum are the integument of the larva recovered from stout spines and long cephalic trichomes in the pupa. Some females were infected with Mansonella ozzardii (Manson, 1897 (Nematoda, Onchocercidae and probably transmit mansonelliasis in the Ituxi river, state of Amazonas, Brazil.Uma nova espécie de pium do gênero Cerqueirellum Py-Daniel, 1983 (Diptera: Simuliidae é descrito. Os adultos são similares às espécies C. oyapockense (Floch & Abonnenc, 1946 e C. roraimense (Nunes de Mello, 1974, cujas fêmeas são indistinguíveis e os machos apresentam discretas diferenças. As principais diferenças dessa nova espécie para as outras espécies do gênero Cerqueirellum são o tegumento da larva recoberto de fortes espinhos e os longos tricomas cefálicos nas pupas. Algumas fêmeas foram encontradas infectadas com Mansonella ozzardi (Manson, 1897 (Nematoda, Onchocercidae e provavelmente estão transmitindo mansonelose no rio Ituxi, estado do Amazonas, Brasil.

  8. Sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae from Central Amazonia and four new records for the Amazonas state, Brazil

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    Veracilda R. Alves

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sand flies from Central Amazonia and four new records for the Amazonas state, Brazil. A survey was conducted in May and June 2008 to study the fauna of insects in Central Amazonia, Brazil. As part of the survey, we report here that sixty species of phlebotomine were identified, totaling 13,712 specimens from 13 genera. The collection sites were located at the border between the states of Pará and Amazonas, comprising three municipalities from the Amazonas state (Borba, Maués, and Nhamundá. Malaise, CDC and Shannon traps were used to collect the insects. Most of the sand flies were collected by CDC traps (89.5%, while Malaise and Shannon traps collected 7% and 3.5%, respectively. The most abundant genera, representing 97.1% of the total sand flies identified were: Trichopygomyia Barretto, 1962 (47.6%, Psathyromyia Barretto, 1962 (17.9%, Psychodopygus Mangabeira, 1941 (17.5% and Trichophoromyia Barretto, 1962 (14.3%. The genera with the largest number of species identified were: Psychodopygus (14, Psathyromyia (10, Evandromyia Mangabeira, 1941 (7, Trichophoromyia (5 and Trichopygomyia (5. The most abundant species was Trichopygomyia trichopyga (Floch & Abonnenc, 1945, which represented 29% of the total sand flies identified. Here we also report new records for four species in the Amazonas state: Ps. complexus (Mangabeira, 1941, Ps. llanosmartinsi Fraiha & Ward, 1980, Ty. pinna (Feliciangeli, Ramirez-Pérez & Ramirez, 1989, and Th. readyi (Ryan, 1986. The results of this study provide new, additional information on the distribution of sand flies in the Amazon and increase the number of species in the Amazonas state from 127 to 131.

  9. APLICAÇÃO DE IMAGENS IKONOS II E TM/LANDSAT-5 NA ELABORAÇÃO DE UMA BASE CARTOGRÁFICA PARA A RESERVA DE DESENVOLVIMENTO SUSTENTÁVEL MAMIRAUÁ – AMAZONAS / APPLICATION OF IKONOS II AND TM/LANDSAT-5 SATELLITES DATA FOR DIGITAL BASE MAPPING THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT RESERVE MAMIRAUÁ, AMAZON, BRAZIL

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    Josimara Martins Dias

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper has as purpose present the methodology developed to produce an updated digital map base support for participatory management Mamirauá Reserve of Sustainable Development in the state of Amazonas, Braszil. Because this protected área is situated within an area of flooded forest, both the physical landscape and social organization often change, and the dynamic demand the systematic update of cartographic databases. This work has images of orbital sensors IKONOS II and LANDSAT 5 TM, interviews with users and collecting spatial data in the Mamirauá Reserve. This work obtained a cartographic base at 1:100.000 scale and a geodatabase compatible with the local references, with which is possible to generate thematic maps updated to support dialogue in the sustainable management programs of the Mamirauá Reserve and minimize conflicts with communities.

  10. Radioactive background of Granito Madeira, north Amazonas, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Vanderlei; Pereira, Claubia; Martins, Agnaldo Kenji, E-mail: vandermoura@gmail.com, E-mail: claubia@nuclear.ufmg.br, E-mail: amartins@mtaboca.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Mineracao Taboca S.A., Presidente Figueiredo, AM (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides, such as the uranium and thorium decay chains, are present in rocks and soils. But its distribution is not homogeneous: it depends on the type of rock being that those of volcanic origin have higher concentrations of uranium and thorium. These are NORM. Locations with NORM present higher dose rates than the world average. Thus, the determination of the natural radioactivity of a NORM region is of extreme importance since it provides data for the estimation of human exposure to natural radiation. In addition, if there is a mining company exploring NORM, the background radiation estimation should be considered in the decommissioning and future planning. There are places in Brazil, such as Granito Madeira in the state of Amazonas, in the north of Brazil, where NORM is present. It is an extremely remote area located within the Amazon Forest currently in the process of open cast mining. In this study, the iodide scintillator detector was used to measure and map the natural background radiation of the Granito Madeira using a scintillator detector of sodium iodide that was transported in tracks within the forest. The data obtained were georeferenced, classified and used to obtain the annual dose related to gamma radiation. The results are presented in frequency histograms and maps. The annual average was (6.0 ± 3.0) mSv.y{sup -1}. These data were compared to those available from other regions with NORM in Brazil and the 2010 UNSCEAR report. (author)

  11. Radioactive background of Granito Madeira, north Amazonas, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, Vanderlei; Pereira, Claubia; Martins, Agnaldo Kenji

    2017-01-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides, such as the uranium and thorium decay chains, are present in rocks and soils. But its distribution is not homogeneous: it depends on the type of rock being that those of volcanic origin have higher concentrations of uranium and thorium. These are NORM. Locations with NORM present higher dose rates than the world average. Thus, the determination of the natural radioactivity of a NORM region is of extreme importance since it provides data for the estimation of human exposure to natural radiation. In addition, if there is a mining company exploring NORM, the background radiation estimation should be considered in the decommissioning and future planning. There are places in Brazil, such as Granito Madeira in the state of Amazonas, in the north of Brazil, where NORM is present. It is an extremely remote area located within the Amazon Forest currently in the process of open cast mining. In this study, the iodide scintillator detector was used to measure and map the natural background radiation of the Granito Madeira using a scintillator detector of sodium iodide that was transported in tracks within the forest. The data obtained were georeferenced, classified and used to obtain the annual dose related to gamma radiation. The results are presented in frequency histograms and maps. The annual average was (6.0 ± 3.0) mSv.y -1 . These data were compared to those available from other regions with NORM in Brazil and the 2010 UNSCEAR report. (author)

  12. Surface ozone in the urban area of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, R. A. F. D.; Costa, P. S.; Silva, C.; Godoi, R. M.; Martin, S. T.; Tota, J.; Barbosa, H. M.; Pauliquevis, T.; Ferreira De Brito, J.; Artaxo, P.; Manzi, A. O.; Wolf, S. A.; Cirino, G. G.

    2014-12-01

    When nitrogen oxides from vehicle and industrial emissions mix with volatile organic compounds from trees and plants with exposure to sunlight, a chemical reaction occurs contributing to ground-level ozone pollution. The preliminary results of the surface ozone study in urban area of Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil, are presented for the first intensive operating period (IOP1) of the GoAmazon experiment (February/March 2014). Photochemical ozone production was found to be a regular process, with an afternoon maximum of the ozone mixing ratio of lower than 20 ppbv for cloudy days or clear sky weather. Typical ozone concentrations at mid-day were low (about 10 ppb). On the other hand, several high-value ozone episodes with surface ozone mixing ratios up to three times larger were registered during the dry season of 2013 (September/October). At the beginning of the wet season, the ozone concentration in Manaus decreased significantly, but diurnal variations can be found during the days with rainfall and other fast changes of meteorological conditions. Possible explanations of the nature of pulsations are discussed. Photochemical ozone production by local urban plumes of Manaus is named as a first possible source of the ozone concentration and biomass burning or power plant emissions are suggested as an alternative or an additional source.

  13. Neisseria meningitidis: a neglected cause of infectious haemorrhagic fever in the amazon rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, David E; Silva, Luciete A

    2007-12-01

    Neisseria meningitidis has not been seen as a significant cause of infectious haemorrhagic fever in the Amazon inlands; most reported cases are from the city of Manaus, the capital of the State of Amazonas. This picture is sustained by the lack of reliable microbiology laboratories, the perception of the health care workers, and the difficult to reach medical assistance; thus the number of confirmed cases is even lower with no reference of the strains phenotype. We report here the investigation of a case of suspected meningococcemia and his close contacts in a rural community in the Coari Lake, up the Amazon River.

  14. Affect and risk and benefit perception of individuals related to açaí, Coari County, State of Amazonas

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Geina Faria dos; Salay, Elisabete

    2014-01-01

    The affect can influence health risk and benefit perceptions and consumer behavior. Açaí is widely consumed in the Amazon region. Acute Chagas disease outbreaks involving açaí have been reported. The objective of this study was to identify affect related to açaí. The relationship between affect and consumer perception of risks and benefits and socioeconomic characteristics were also studied. Data collection was performed in the city of Coari, Amazonas State, through interviews with 250 subjec...

  15. Grey Parrots Psittacus erithacus in Kampala, Uganda – are they ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The globally Vulnerable Grey Parrot (Psittacus erithacus) has been seen in Kampala, Uganda's capital city, in increasing numbers in recent years. This apparently new behaviour of a typically forest species is helped by the presence of many large trees, which provide roosting and nesting sites, and fruiting trees where they ...

  16. Abundance, movements and habitat use by African Grey Parrots ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Populations of African Grey Parrots are threatened by increased forest loss and the pet trade. Budongo forest reserve has, for over 60 years, been subjected to selective logging. Mabira forest reserve faces human pressures characterised by extractive disturbances, and agricultural activities with increased boundary ...

  17. The feeding ecology of Meyer's Parrot Poicephalus meyeri in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diet of Meyer's Parrot Poicephalus meyeri in the Okavango Delta, Botswana, was distinctly seasonal, comprising 71 different food items from 37 tree species in 16 families. During 480 road transects over 24 months, food item preferences closely tracked fruiting phenology, resulting in significant positive correlations ...

  18. Breeding ecology of the Seychelles Black Parrot Coracopsis barklyi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge of breeding ecology is required for many conservation interventions. The Seychelles Black Parrot Coracopsis barklyi, endemic to the island of Praslin, is vulnerable to extinction. We aimed to improve understanding of C. barklyi breeding ecology to aid conservation planning. We present the results of four years of ...

  19. Nest niche dynamics of Meyer's Parrot Poicephalus meyeri in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meyer's Parrot Poicephalus meyeri is the only cavity-nesting bird species that breeds during winter in the Okavango Delta. This is facilitated by exclusive access to arthropod larvae incubating inside and feeding on fruits and pods in their diet. To minimise predation risk and overcome low overnight temperatures they have ...

  20. Insights into the feeding ecology of the Seychelles Black Parrot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Insights into the feeding ecology of the Seychelles Black Parrot Coracopsis barklyi using two monitoring approaches. ... The incidental method is not suitable for quantitative conclusions but complements the transect method, providing information about rarely occurring feeding events. Keywords: Coracopsis barklyi, feeding ...

  1. Breeding biology of African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus) in Kom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    3Department of Physiology and Animal Production, Faculty of Agronomy and Agricultural Sciences, ... cause of nest loss in many birds (Nilsson, .... The eggs observed in abandoned nests were measured using a calliper. The duration of the nesting cycle of grey parrot (GP) in the study area was calculated based on the time ...

  2. Book Review: Parrots of Africa, Madagascar and the Mascarene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Book Title: Parrots of Africa, Madagascar and the Mascarene Islands. Book Author: Mike R. Perrin. 2012, Wits University Press, P.O. Wits, 2050, Johannesburg, South Africa 638 pages, hardcover. ISBN 978-1-86814-552-2. Price R450.

  3. Parent–offspring recognition in the Brown-headed Parrot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recognition by vocal characteristics between parents and their offspring is thought to be ubiquitous in colonially nesting avian species. The Brown-headed Parrot Poicephalus cryptoxanthus nests in hollows in trees. However, when the chicks fledge they leave the nest and for the following three weeks spend their time in a ...

  4. Flocking dynamics and roosting behaviour of Meyer's parrot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For most of the year, Meyer's parrots in the Okavango Delta do not form large feeding flocks, and groups larger than two or three are probably the result of opportunistic aggregation at favoured food items after dispersion from communal roosts. Communal roosting likely does not facilitate flocking unless the food resources ...

  5. Psittacid herpesviruses associated with mucosal papillomas in neotropical parrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styles, Darrel K; Tomaszewski, Elizabeth K; Jaeger, Laurie A; Phalen, David N

    2004-07-20

    Mucosal papillomas are relatively common lesions in several species of captive neotropical parrots. They cause considerable morbidity and in some cases, result in mortality. Previous efforts to identify papillomavirus DNA and proteins in these lesions have been largely unsuccessful. In contrast, increasing evidence suggests that mucosal papillomas may contain psittacid herpesviruses (PsHVs). In this study, 41 papillomas from 30 neotropical parrots were examined by PCR with PsHV-specific primers. All 41 papillomas were found to contain PsHV DNA. This 100% prevalence of PsHV infection in the papilloma population was found to be significantly higher than PsHV infection prevalence observed in other surveys of captive parrots. PsHV genotypes 1, 2, and 3, but not 4 were found in these lesions. Psittacus erithacus papillomavirus DNA and finch papillomavirus DNA were not found in the papillomas. A papilloma from a hyacinth macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) was found to contain cells that had immunoreactivity to antiserum made to the common antigenic region of human papillomavirus (HPV) L1 major capsid protein. However, four other mucosal papillomas were negative for this immunoreactivity, and negative control tissues from a parrot embryo showed a similar staining pattern to that seen in the cloaca papilloma of the hyacinth macaw, strongly suggesting that the staining seen in hyacinth macaw papilloma was nonspecific. Based on these findings, it was concluded that specific genotypes of PsHV play a direct role in the development of mucosal papillomas of neotropical parrots and there is no evidence to suggest the concurrent presence of a papillomavirus in these lesions.

  6. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-living Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from central Amazon, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, P S; Albuquerque, G R; da Silva, V M F; Martin, A R; Marvulo, M F V; Souza, S L P; Ragozo, A M A; Nascimento, C C; Gennari, S M; Dubey, J P; Silva, J C R

    2011-12-29

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important pathogen in aquatic mammals and its presence in these animals may indicate the water contamination of aquatic environment by oocysts. Serum samples from 95 free-living Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from the Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve (RDSM), Tefé, Amazonas, Central Amazon, Brazil were tested for T. gondii antibodies using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies (MAT ≥ 25) to T. gondii were found in 82 (86.3%) dolphins with titers of 1:25 in 24, 1:50 in 56, and 1:500 in 2. Results suggest a high level contamination of the aquatic environment of the home range of these animals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Electric power universalization: a political analysis of the energy distribution and its socio-environmental importance for the Amazon state, Brazil; Universalizacao da energia eletrica: uma analise politica da distribuicao de energia e da sua importancia socio-ambiental para o Amazonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valois Coelho, Ilsa Maria [Centro Universitario Nilton Lins, Manaus, AM (Brazil)], e-mail: Ivalois@horizon.com.br; Cartaxo, Elizabeth Ferreira [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil)], e-mail: Ecartaxo@ufam.edu.br

    2004-07-01

    The global distribution of electric energy in this article, attend to the electric and social exclusion and to regional inequalities in developing countries, with the objective to put up arguments about the question of the social and environmental injustice. It considers the need to plan the balance between the nature budget and the society budget without forgetting the fundamental principles of the thermodynamic and powerful interests involved. Alert to dangers of the exploit the natural resources looking for more energy. Although, the article shows up, the importance of the energy in developing societies. It gives information from IBGE and MME, about the relation between electric exclusion and social exclusion, calling attention to the impossibility to see concrete solutions, out of the social-economic context. Difficulties to construct Amazon indicators were improved on partly by own estimate, because the importance of the Amazon region to the environmental sustainability and the demographic, social and economic difficulties to the electric energy distribution for all Brazilian people. (author)

  8. Deforestation, drainage network, indigenous status, and geographical differences of malaria in the State of Amazonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrazas, Wagner Cosme Morhy; Sampaio, Vanderson de Souza; de Castro, Daniel Barros; Pinto, Rosemary Costa; de Albuquerque, Bernardino Cláudio; Sadahiro, Megumi; Dos Passos, Ricardo Augusto; Braga, José Ueleres

    2015-09-30

    Malaria is a major public health problem worldwide. In Brazil, an average of 420,000 cases of malaria have been reported annually in the last 12 years, of which 99.7 % occurred in the Amazon region. This study aimed to analyse the distribution of malaria in the State of Amazonas and the influence of indigenous malaria in this scenario, to evaluate the correlation between incidence rates and socio-economic and environmental factors, and to evaluate the performance of health surveillance services. This ecological study used secondary data obtained from the SIVEP-MALARIA malaria surveillance programme. The relationship between demographic, socio-economic and environmental factors, the performance of health surveillance services and the incidence of malaria in Amazonas, a multiple linear regression model was used. The crude rate of malaria in Amazonas was 4142.72 cases per 100,000 inhabitants between 2003 and 2012. The incidence rates for the indigenous and non-indigenous populations were 12,976.02 and 3749.82, respectively, with an indigenous population attributable fraction of only 8 %. The results of the linear regression analysis indicated a negative correlation between the two socio-economic indicators (municipal human development index (MHDI) and poverty rate) and the incidence of malaria in the period. With regard to the environmental indicators (average annual deforestation rate and percentage of areas under the influence of watercourses), the correlation with the incidence rate was positive. The findings underscore the importance of implementing economic and social development policies articulated with strategic actions of environmental protection and health care for the population.

  9. Description of Trichophoromyia uniniensis, a new phlebotomine species (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) of Amazonas State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladeia-Andrade, Simone; Fé, Nelson Ferreira; Sanguinette, Cristiani de Castilho; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando

    2014-08-29

    A new species of phlebotomine sand flies belonging to Trichophoromyia Barretto, 1962 genus is described, based on males collected in Jaú National Park, Amazonas state, Brazil. The Sand flies were mounted in Canada balsam. They were measured with a binocular Olympus CH-2 microscope with the aid of a micrometer objective and the drawings were done with the help of a camera lucida. This new species named Trichophoromyia uniniensis sp. nov. is closely related to Trichophoromyia omagua (Martins, Llanos & Silva, 1976). The former can be distinguished from the latter by the shape of its paramere that has the lower apical region turned up in the new species. With the new species here described a total of 39 species belonging to the Trichophoromyia genus are now known, most of them present in the Amazon rainforest.

  10. Malaria in the State of Amazonas: a typical Brazilian tropical disease influenced by waves of economic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Vanderson Souza; Siqueira, André Machado; Alecrim, Maria das Graças Costa; Mourão, Maria Paula Gomes; Marchesini, Paola Barbosa; Albuquerque, Bernardino Cláudio; Nascimento, Joabi; Figueira, Élder Augusto Guimarães; Alecrim, Wilson Duarte; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães

    2015-01-01

    In Brazil, more than 99% of malaria cases are reported in the Amazon, and the State of Amazonas accounts for 40% of this total. However, the accumulated experience and challenges in controlling malaria in this region in recent decades have not been reported. Throughout the first economic cycle during the rubber boom (1879 to 1912), malaria was recorded in the entire state, with the highest incidence in the villages near the Madeira River in the Southern part of the State of Amazonas. In the 1970s, during the second economic development cycle, the economy turned to the industrial sector and demanded a large labor force, resulting in a large migratory influx to the capital Manaus. Over time, a gradual increase in malaria transmission was observed in peri-urban areas. In the 1990s, the stimulation of agroforestry, particularly fish farming, led to the formation of permanent Anopheline breeding sites and increased malaria in settlements. The estimation of environmental impacts and the planning of measures to mitigate them, as seen in the construction of the Coari-Manaus gas pipeline, proved effective. Considering the changes occurred since the Amsterdam Conference in 1992, disease control has been based on early diagnosis and treatment, but the development of parasites that are resistant to major antimalarial drugs in Brazilian Amazon has posed a new challenge. Despite the decreased lethality and the gradual decrease in the number of malaria cases, disease elimination, which should be associated with government programs for economic development in the region, continues to be a challenge.

  11. Tectonics and paleogeography along the Amazon river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, João Batista Sena; Léa Bemerguy, Ruth; Hasui, Yociteru; da Silva Borges, Maurício

    2001-09-01

    The main structural and geomorphological features along the Amazon River are closely associated with Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonic events. The Mesozoic tectonic setting is characterised by the Amazonas and Marajó Basins, two distinct extensional segments. The Amazonas Basin is formed by NNE-SSW normal faults, which control the emplacement of dolerite dykes and deposition of the sedimentary pile. In the more intense tectonic phase (mid-Late Cretaceous), the depocentres were filled with fluvial sequences associated with axial drainage systems, which diverge from the Lower Tapajós Arch. During the next subsidence phase, probably in the Early Tertiary, and under low rate extension, much of the drainage systems reversed, directing the paleo-Amazon River to flow eastwards. The Marajó Basin encompasses NW-SE normal faults and NE-SW strike-slip faults, with the latter running almost parallel to the extensional axes. The normal faults controlled the deposition of thick rift and post-rift sequences and the emplacement of dolerite dykes. During the evolution of the basin, the shoulder (Gurupá Arch) became distinct, having been modelled by drainage systems strongly controlled by the trend of the strike-slip faults. The Arari Lineament, which marks the northwest boundary of the Marajó Basin, has been working as a linkage corridor between the paleo and modern Amazon River with the Atlantic Ocean. The neotectonic evolution since the Miocene comprises two sets of structural and geomorphological features. The older set (Miocene-Pliocene) encompasses two NE-trending transpressive domains and one NW-trending transtensive domain, which are linked to E-W and NE-SW right-lateral strike-slip systems. The transpressive domains display aligned hills controlled by reverse faults and folds, and are separated by large plains associated with pull-apart basins along clockwise strike-slip systems (e.g. Tupinambarana Lineament). Many changes were introduced in the landscape by the

  12. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) From the Northwestern Brazilian Amazon: Padauari River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, R S G; Hutchings, R W; Menezes, I S; Motta, M de A; Sallum, M A M

    2016-11-01

    The mosquito fauna (Culicidae) from remote northern areas of the State of Amazonas were sampled using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Shannon, Malaise, and Suspended traps, together with net sweeping and immature collections. One hundred and seven collections were performed in five localities along the Padauari River, State of Amazonas, Brazil, during June 2010. The 20,557 mosquitoes collected are distributed in 17 genera, representing 117 different species, of which four are new distributional records for the State of Amazonas. Furthermore, there are 10 morphospecies that may represent undescribed new taxa, eight of which are also new records for the State of Amazonas. The genus Culex had the highest number of species and the largest number of individuals. Aedes and Psorophora both represented 10% of the total sample and had the second highest number of species and individuals. The most abundant species was Culex (Melanoconion) gnomatos Sallum, Hutchings & Ferreira, followed by Aedes (Ochlerotatus) fulvus (Wiedemann), Culex (Melanoconion) vaxus Dyar, Culex (Melanoconion) portesi Senevet & Abonnenc, Psorophora (Janthinosoma) amazonica Cerqueira, Culex (Culex) mollis Dyar & Knab, Psorophora (Janthinosoma) albigenu (Peryassú), and Culex (Melanoconion) theobaldi Lutz. The epidemiological and ecological implications of mosquito species found are discussed and are compared with other mosquito inventories from the Amazon region. The results represent the most diverse standardized inventory of mosquitoes along the Padauari River, with the identification of 127 species-level taxa distributed in five localities, within two municipalities (Barcelos and Santa Isabel do Rio Negro). © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. G. F. Parrot and the theory of unconscious inferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allik, Jüri; Konstabel, Kenn

    2005-01-01

    In 1839, Georg Friedrich Parrot (1767-1852) published a short note about a peculiar visual phenomenon--the diminishing of the size of external objects situated at a relatively small distance from the window of a fast-moving train. For the explanation of this illusion, Parrot proposed a concept of unconscious inferences, a very rapid syllogistic conclusion from two premises, which anticipated the revival of Alhazen's theory of unconscious inferences by Hermann von Helmholtz, Wilhelm Wundt, and John Stuart Mill. He also advanced the notion that the speed of mental processes is not infinitely high and that it can be measured by means of systematic experimentation. Although Parrot was only partly correct in the description of the movement-induced changes of the perceived size, his general intention to understand basic mechanisms of the human mind was in harmony with the founding ideas of experimental psychology: it is possible to study the phenomena of the mind in the same general way that the physical world is studied, either in terms of mechanical or mathematical laws. 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Aves de la ribera colombiana del Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugand Armando

    1946-08-01

    Full Text Available Las 106 especies y subespecies que se mencionan en este trabajo constituyen una lista preliminar de la fauna ornitológica de la región más meridional de Colombia, esto es, la ribera izquierda del rio Amazonas entre la boca del Atacuari y la población de Leticia, capital de la Intendencia del Amazonas, en el extrema sur del territorio que en Colombia llamamos comúnmente "Trapecio Amazónico". La lista esta compuesta principalmente por las colecciones hechas en Leticia y la Isla Ronda par el senor Carlos Lehmann en octubre y noviembre de 1939 y par uno de nosotros -José I. Borrero- en Leticia, Isla Mocagua, Hamacayacu y Loretoyacu en marzo y abril del presente año. Los ejemplares que mencionamos en dicha lista se hallan en la colección ornitológica del Instituto de Ciencias Naturales.

  15. Geochemical Signature of Amazon Tropical Rainforest Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José João Lelis Leal de Souza

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Evaluating soil geochemical diversity in the Amazon Basin has been a challenge largely because most study sites have been at the edge of the basin and it is difficult to get samples in such a region. Here we show that even among the most weathered soils, physicochemical soil properties express lithology. Our results are based on topsoil samples collected from different locations in minimally disturbed areas in the state of Amazonas, Brazil. Soil properties were measured using methods which are suitable for highly developed soils. The Chemical Index Alteration and Weathering Index of Parker was calculated based on the content of metal(loids in soils determined by X-ray fluorescence. Descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, and Principal Component Analysis (PCA were performed on data. In general, Amazon rainforest soils are more deeply weathered than soils in other Brazilian biomes and tropical rainforests in Asia and Africa. The high coefficient of variation of metal(loid contents express pedogenesis and parent material diversity. Correlation analysis indicated that the tri-pentavalent elements are strongly associated with Al and Fe contents in the topsoil. In contrast, mono-divalent elements are correlated with sand and silt fractions. According to PCA, five soil groups with defined geochemical compositions and degrees of weathering could be identified: i acidic sandy podzolized soils; ii acidic loamy ferralitic soils with the highest content of tri-pentavalent ions; iii acidic clayey kaolinitic soils with low metal(loid contents; iv acidic loamy kaolinitic soils with low metal(loid contents; and v silty neutral 2:1 clay soils. This study is the first effort to analyze the geochemical diversity in Amazon rainforest soils. These data are extremely valuable in determining the geochemical background for these soil types and this region. Geochemical variability can be predicted to some extent by lithology and pedogenesis, which can be

  16. Hepatitis D virus and hepatitis B virus infection in Amerindian communities of the Amazonas state, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Filippo Villa, Diana; Cortes-Mancera, Fabian; Payares, Edra; Montes, Neyla; de la Hoz, Fernando; Arbelaez, Maria Patricia; Correa, Gonzalo; Navas, Maria-Cristina

    2015-10-24

    In Colombia, cases of Hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection have been officially described since 1985 mainly in Amerindian population from Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (North Caribbean Coast), Uraba (North West), and Amazon (South East). The last official report of a clinical case of HDV infection in Colombia was registered in 2005. The aims of this study were to identify cases of HDV and/or Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in asymptomatic Amerindians from Amazonas state, South East Colombia, and to describe the circulating viral genotypes in this population. The study population was recruited in 19 Amerindian communities in the Amazonas state. Individuals over 18 years old were screened by rapid test for Hepatitis B surface Antigen (HBsAg). Blood samples obtained from individuals positives for HBsAg in the rapid-test assay were analyzed for HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HDV IgM/IgG by ELISA. The detection of HBV DNA and HDV RNA was performed by PCR amplification. The viral genotype was determined by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. A total of 23/861 individuals were positive for HBsAg detection by rapid test. Serological and/or molecular markers of HDV infection were demonstrated in 43.5 % (10/23) of samples from Amerindians. The phylogenetic analysis demonstrated the exclusive circulation of HBV subgenotype F1b of and HDV 3 in this population. A high frequency of HBV/HDV infection was found in Amerindian population from Amazonas State, Colombia (43.5 %, 10/23). Nine cases were identified in a population of 861 asymptomatic Amerindian individuals; one symptomatic case (with diagnosis of end-stage hepatic disease) was also identified in the study. The circulation of HDV 3 and HBV subgenotype F1b suggests a constant flow of these viral genotypes as a result of the interaction of the Amerindian populations from Amazon basin. Further studies are necessary to confirm whether HBV subgenotype F1b is the prevalent in the population from South East region in Colombia.

  17. Conservation Concern for the Deteriorating Geographical Range of the Grey Parrot in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon A. Tamungang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for information on Grey Parrot distribution and vegetation associations for informed management and policy decisions was the basis for this study. A nationwide survey of the Grey Parrot population and habitat status was carried out, using questionnaire and point count methods. From the results, the extent of the contemporary range of the parrots was restricted to Southern Cameroon, which harbours the rainforest. Regional parrot population means ranged from 3,487 parrots in the Littoral to 1,351,275 parrots in the East Regions. The extent of the contemporary range as a percentage of the whole country was 25.4% and as a percentage of the regions with rainforest was 44.5%. The historic range of the bird has been reduced by over 55.5%. Estimated percentage of forest lost per region ranged from 20.4% in the Centre to 57.1% in the East and South Regions. At a global level, Cameroon contributed 9% to the total extent of the range of the Grey Parrot in Africa. The range is increasingly fragmented, contracted, and lost through land-based socioeconomic activities. These degradation pressures on the range called for urgent conservation considerations for long-term survival of the parrot species and its associated biodiversity in Cameroon.

  18. The feather damaging Grey parrot: an analysis of its behaviour and needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zeeland, Y.R.A.

    2013-01-01

    With an estimated prevalence of 10-15%, feather damaging behaviour (FDB) is a common behavioural disorder in captive parrots (in particular Grey parrots, the species studied in this thesis) that may have aesthetic, medical and welfare consequences and often results in relinquishment or euthanasia.

  19. Application of Richards\\'s growth model to Brown-headed Parrot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of Richards\\'s growth model to Brown-headed Parrot Poicephalus cryptoxanthus nestlings. ... Stuart Taylor, Michael R Perrin. Abstract. We generated a generalised growth curve for the Brown-headed Parrot Poicephalus cryptoxanthus. The growth model correlated well with the data from captive-bred chicks and ...

  20. Sex differences in behavioural and neural responsiveness to mate calls in a parrot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eda-Fujiwara, Hiroko; Satoh, Ryohei; Hata, Yuka; Yamasaki, Marika; Watanabe, Aiko; Zandbergen, Matthijs A.; Okamoto, Yasuharu; Miyamoto, Takenori; Bolhuis, Johan J.

    2016-01-01

    Vocalisation in songbirds and parrots has become a prominent model system for speech and language in humans. We investigated possible sex differences in behavioural and neural responsiveness to mate calls in the budgerigar, a vocally-learning parrot. Males and females were paired for 5 weeks and

  1. Andean contributions to the biogeochemistry of the amazon river system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available LA CONTRIBUTION ANDINE A LA BIOGEOCHIMIE DE L’AMAZONE. Les fleuves andins ont vraisemblablement un rôle déterminant sur la biogéochimie de l’Amazone au Brésil. Les données disponibles sur le C organique, le NO3- et le PO43- des fleuves andins montrent des concentrations très variables et ne révèlent aucune relation avec leur altitude ou leur position dans le bassin. En général, les concentrations des fleuves andins sont semblables à celles du chenal principal et de ses principaux affluents. L’explication des phénomènes d’altération du matériel provenant des Andes ne peut être que spéculative. Cependant, l’atténuation du signal andin est liée à la décomposition et à l’ajout de matériel en aval des Andes. Les analyses de 13C sur la matière organique particulaire ou soluble du chenal principal de l’Amazone mettent en évidence qu’une fraction andine persiste dans le système fluvial qui se jette dans l’océan Atlantique. En 1994, un nouveau programme international de recherche a commencé pour mieux caractériser la biogéochimie des fleuves andins. CONTRIBUCIÓN ANDINA A LA BIOGEOQUÍMICA DEL RÍO AMAZONAS. Los ríos andinos podrían ejercer una influencia significativa sobre la biogeoquímica del Río Amazonas. Las concentraciones en C orgánico, NO3- y PO43- de los ríos andinos son altamente variables y no presentan claros patrones geográficos o altitudinos. En general, las concentraciones presentan valores similares a aquéllos observados en el Río Amazonas. Actualmente sólo existen explicaciones especulativas de los procesos que modifican el material de origen andino sin embargo, la atenuación de la señal andina es una consecuencia del proceso de descomposición y de la añadidura de materiales provenientes de las planicies bajas. El contenido de 13C en el material orgánico del Río Amazonas constituye una evidencia concreta de que cierta fracción del material andino persiste y es transportado hacia el

  2. Natural variation of selenium in Brazil nuts and soils from the Amazon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Junior, E C; Wadt, L H O; Silva, K E; Lima, R M B; Batista, K D; Guedes, M C; Carvalho, G S; Carvalho, T S; Reis, A R; Lopes, G; Guilherme, L R G

    2017-12-01

    Brazil nut tree (Bertholletia excelsa) is native of the Amazon rainforest. Brazil nuts are consumed worldwide and are known as the richest food source of selenium (Se). Yet, the reasoning for such Se contents is not well stablished. We evaluated the variation in Se concentration of Brazil nuts from Brazilian Amazon basin, as well as soil properties, including total Se concentration, of the soils sampled directly underneath the trees crown, aiming to investigate which soil properties influence Se accumulation in the nuts. The median Se concentration in Brazil nuts varied from 2.07 mg kg - 1 (in Mato Grosso state) to 68.15 mg kg - 1 (in Amazonas state). Therefore, depending on its origin, a single Brazil nut could provide from 11% (in the Mato Grosso state) up to 288% (in the Amazonas state) of the daily Se requirement for an adult man (70 μg). The total Se concentration in the soil also varied considerably, ranging from <65.76 to 625.91 μg kg - 1 , with highest Se concentrations being observed in soil samples from the state of Amazonas. Se accumulation in Brazil nuts generally increased in soils with higher total Se content, but decreased under acidic conditions in the soil. This indicates that, besides total soil Se concentration, soil acidity plays a major role in Se uptake by Brazil nut trees, possibly due to the importance of this soil property to Se retention in the soil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The unsustainability of the implantation of the 'Luz para todos' programme in the Amazonas state; A (in)sustentabilidade da implantacao do programa Luz para Todos no estado do Amazonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcante, Andreia Santos; Cartaxo, Elizabeth Ferreira [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This article brings to discuss the policy of universalization of the supply of electrical energy 'Luz para todos' showing the significance of this proposal of the government, in a short time, bring electricity to more than 10 million people who still live in the darkness. It features the efficiency of this action of the government from the reality experienced in the context Amazon, which show a framework for various characteristics and natural, cultural and focused on the issue geospatial. This involves understanding the multitude of climates and geographical characteristics, cultural and social constitute major obstacles for the implementation of policies homogeneous, demonstrating that the potential for development of each region has different dynamics, which should influence in the formulation of policies. While electricity is essential for the economic progress of a country, the expansion of its services to society must be viewed with great discretion, in order to prevent the exploitation and consumption exacerbated of natural resources and waste of energy. With this reading, the work he proposes to show the inconsistencies of the program in the state of Amazonas, on presentation of data from the Companhia Energetica do Amazonas (CEAM), showing thus obstacles to the achievement of the goals outlined in the State. Considering the environmental importance that the Amazon represents for Brazil and for the world, emerges is the need for a differentiated look for the region, taking into account their unique reality. It is believed that is the acceptance of their characteristics that we can really promote a development that is sustainable for the Amazon. (author)

  4. The Amazon River reversal explained by tectonic and surface processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacek, V.

    2014-12-01

    The drainage pattern in Amazonia was expressively modified during the mountain building of central and northern Andes. In Early Miocene, the fluvial systems in western Amazonia flowed to the foreland basins and northward to the Caribbean. By Late Miocene the drainage reversal occurred and formed the transcontinental Amazon River, connecting the Andes and the equatorial Atlantic margin. This event is recorded in the stratigraphic evolution of the Foz do Amazonas Basin by the onset of Andean-derived sedimentation. Additionally, an abrupt increase in sedimentation rate after the reversal occurred in the Foz do Amazonas Basin. Based on three-dimensional numerical models that couple surface processes, flexural isostasy and crustal thickening due to orogeny, I concluded that the Miocene drainage reversal can be explained by the flexural and surface processes response to the Andes formation with no need to invoke dynamic topography induced by mantle convection, as previously proposed. I observed that the instant of drainage reversal is directly linked to the rate of crustal thickening in the orogeny, the rate of erosion and, mainly, the efficiency of sediment transport. Moreover, the numerical experiments were able to predict the increase in sedimentation rate in the Amazon fan after the drainage reversal of the Amazon River as observed in the Late Miocene-Pliocene sedimentary record. However, the present numerical model fails to fully reproduce the evolution of the Pebas system, a megawetland in western Amazonia that preceded the drainage reversal. Therefore, further investigation is necessary to evaluate the mechanisms that generated and sustained the Pebas system.

  5. Late Neogene Sequence Stratigraphic Evolution of the Foz do Amazonas Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorini, Christian; Haq, Bilal U.; Tadeu dos Reis, Antonio; Guizan Silva, Cleverson; Cruz, Alberto; Soares, Emilson; Grangeon, Didier

    2014-05-01

    The margin of the Foz do Amazonas Basin saw a shift from predominantly carbonate to siliciclastic sedimentation in the early late Miocene. By this time the Amazon shelf had also been incised by a canyon that allowed direct influx of sediment to the basin floor, thus confirming that the paleo-Amazon fan had already initiated by that time (9.5-8.3Ma). Above this interval, during a prolonged lowstand, Messinian third-order sequences are preserved only in the incised-valley fills of the canyon with no equivalent strata on the shelf. Third and fourth-order sequences younger than Messinian are preserved on the shelf after sea-level rise above the shelf by early Pliocene. Sequences younger than 3.8 Ma often show fourth-order cyclicity with average duration of 400 kyr (larger scale eccentricity cycles) often preserved in high sedimentation rate areas of river deltas. Mass wasting and transportation of slope sediments to the basin began to play an important role in sediment dispersal at least as far back as mid Pliocene, after rapid progradation had produced steeper slopes 23 more prone to failure.

  6. The hybrid generation systems of Campinas-Amazonas and Joanes-Para

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moszkowicz, M.; Ribeiro, C. M.; Borba, A. J. V. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Electrica (CEPEL), (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    The Brazilian Amazon region is an ideal location for isolated mini-grid systems. Thousands of Diesel systems have been installed to supply electricity to this sparsely populated region. However, the availability of renewable resources makes the Amazon well-suited to renewable energy systems. This paper describes the technical characteristics and touches economic aspects of two hybrid systems being installed in this region through the cooperative effort of multiple partners: Brazilian CEPEL/ELETROBRAS and State Electric Utilities and U.S. Department of Energy, through NREL. It focuses on the market potential for hybrid systems in Northern Brazil and discusses the configuration of the two prototypes, the effort to implement both systems and the preliminary results of these projects. [Espanol] La region Brasilena del Amazonas es un lugar ideal para los sistemas aislados de mini-red. Se han instalado miles de sistemas Diesel para proporcionar electricidad a esta region escasamente poblada. Sin embargo, la disponibilidad de fuentes renovables hacen la Amazonia muy adecuada para sistemas renovables de energia. Este articulo describe las caracteristicas tecnicas y toca aspectos economicos de dos sistemas hibridos que se estan instalando en esta region mediante el esfuerzo cooperativo de multiples participantes: La brasilena CEPEL/ELECTROBRAS y las Empresas Electrica Estatales, el U.S. Departament of Energy, a traves de NREL. Se enfoca al mercado potencial de sistemas hibridos en Brasil del Norte y analiza la configuracion de los dos prototipos, el esfuerzo de instaurar ambos sistemas y los resultados preliminares de estos proyectos.

  7. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    in African grey (Psittacus erythacus) and amazon (Amazona spp) parrots. Avian Pathology, 19: 661 - 667. OIE (2012): World Organization for Animal. Health. Newcastle disease. Manual of diagnostic tests and vaccines for terrestrial animals, Biological. Standards Commission, World. Organization for Animal Health,. Paris ...

  8. Cloacal impaction with cloacolith in a black-legged seriema ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ibrahim Eldaghayes

    2017-12-07

    Dec 7, 2017 ... A 5-year-old intact female black-legged seriema (Chunga burmeisteri) was presented for behavioral changes and slight decrease in activity (minor ... panel did not reveal any abnormalities as compared to reference individuals from .... Cloacolith in a blue-fronted Amazon parrot. (Amazona aestiva). J. Avian ...

  9. Thromboelastography in Selected Avian Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sophie Susanna Strindberg; Nielsen, Tenna W; Ribeiro, Ângela M

    2015-01-01

    ) (n = 13), helmeted Guinea fowl ( Numida meleagris ) (n = 12), Amazon parrots (Amazona species) (n = 9), Humboldt penguins ( Spheniscus humboldti ) (n = 6), and domestic chickens (n = 16). Activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, and fibrinogen were measured as a means of comparison...

  10. Chlorococcales (Algee: Chlorophyceae found in aquatic environments of the Colombian Amazon basin Chlorococcales (Algee: Chlorophyceae found in aquatic environments of the Colombian Amazon basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núñez Avellaneda Marcela

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Ten taxa of algae belonging to the order Chlorococcales are recorded for the first time from the Colombian Amazon basin. Two of these, Nephrocytium limneticum and Sorastrum americanum var. americanum, are recorded for the first time in Colombia.Se registran por primera vez para la Amazonia colombiana 10 taxones de Chlorococcales del fitoplancton y ticoplancton encontrados en algunos lagos del río Amazonas y del río Cotuhé, afluente del río Putumayo. Nephrocytium limneticum y Sorastrum americanum varo americanum son primeros registros para Colombia.

  11. HYPOCALCEMIC SYNDROME IN AFRICAN GREY PARROT (PSITTACUS ERITHACUS ERITHACUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Filipović

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A seven-year-old male African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus erithacus was presented to the Surgery Clinic of Veterinary Faculty of the University of Sarajevo. The presenting complaint was several seizures observed two days ago. The bird was kept indoors without any other bird species, and fed whole-seed diet with no vitamin and mineral supplementation. Blood biochemistry analysis revealed hypocalcemia. The treatment consisted of oral administration of calcium and vitamins A and D. The applied therapy resulted in very fast positive response and prevented recurrence of seizures.

  12. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) of the state of Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianizella, Sergio L; Martins, Thiago F; Onofrio, Valeria C; Aguiar, Nair O; Gravena, Waleska; do Nascimento, Carlos A R; Neto, Laérzio C; Faria, Diogo L; Lima, Natália A S; Solorio, Monica R; Maranhão, Louise; Lima, Ivan J; Cobra, Iury V D; Santos, Tamily; Lopes, Gerson P; Ramalho, Emiliano E; Luz, Hermes R; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2018-02-01

    The tick fauna of Brazil is currently composed by 72 species. The state of Amazonas is the largest of Brazil, with an area of ≈ 19% of the Brazilian land. Besides its vast geographic area, only 19 tick species have been reported for Amazonas. Herein, lots containing ticks from the state of Amazonas were examined in three major tick collections from Brazil. A total of 5933 tick specimens were examined and recorded, comprising 2693 males, 1247 females, 1509 nymphs, and 484 larvae. These ticks were identified into the following 22 species: Amblyomma cajennense sensu lato, Amblyomma calcaratum, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma dissimile, Amblyomma dubitatum, Amblyomma geayi, Amblyomma goeldii, Amblyomma humerale, Amblyomma latepunctatun, Amblyomma longirostre, Amblyomma naponense, Amblyomma oblongoguttatum, Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma rotundatum, Amblyomma scalpturatum, Amblyomma varium, Dermacentor nitens, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, Ixodes cf. Ixodes fuscipes, Ixodes luciae, Rhipicephalus microplus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato. Ticks were collected from 17 (27.4%) out of the 62 municipalities that currently compose the state of Amazonas. The following four species are reported for the first time in the state of Amazonas: A. coelebs, A. dubitatum, H. juxtakochi, and Ixodes cf. I. fuscipes. The only tick species previously reported for Amazonas and not found in the present study is Amblyomma parvum. This study provides a great expansion of geographical and host records of ticks for the state of Amazonas, which is now considered to have a tick fauna composed by 23 species. It is noteworthy that we report 1391 Amblyomma nymphs that were identified to 13 different species.

  13. Growth curves and their implications in hand-fed Monk parrots (Myiopsitta monachus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petzinger C

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Christina Petzinger,1,2 J Jill Heatley,3 John E Bauer1,2 1Comparative Animal Nutrition Research Laboratory, Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, 2Intercollegiate Faculty of Nutrition, Texas A&M University, 3Zoological Medicine Service, Department of Small Animal Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA Abstract: Monk parrots (Myiopsitta monachus were hand-fed over two chick seasons spanning of 2010 to 2011. Information from the growth curve of chicks hand-fed in 2010 was used to develop a feeding protocol for the 2011 season (Protocol-2011. This protocol addressed the problems of delayed followed by excessive growth experienced by parrots hand fed in 2010. Monk parrots that were hand-fed in 2011 following the new protocol experienced delayed growth after 20 days of age. However, some Monk parrots were fed in excess of Protocol-2011 and did not experience a major delay in growth. The energy requirement equations used to construct Protocol-2011 were low when compared to adult Monk parrot maintenance energy requirements. The data suggest that growing birds do not require approximately twice their adult maintenance energy requirements, as is the case for growing dogs. Additionally, there appear to be fluctuations in energy needs as Monk parrots grow. A major increase in energy needs occurred between days 18 and 23 posthatching, which corresponds to feather development and growth in Monk parrot chicks. Thus, multiple equations estimating energy requirements, rather than just one equation, are likely needed from hatching to fledging in order to ensure adequate energy is provided to chicks. More research on the energy requirements of growing Monk parrots, especially around the time of fledging and weaning, is needed to improve hand-fed methods and potentially the adult health of hand-fed birds. Keywords

  14. Indications of regional scale groundwater flows in the Amazon Basins: Inferences from results of geothermal studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Elizabeth T.; Hamza, Valiya M.

    2012-08-01

    The present work deals with determination groundwater flows in the Amazon region, based on analysis of geothermal data acquired in shallow and deep wells. The method employed is based on the model of simultaneous heat transfer by conduction and advection in permeable media. Analysis of temperature data acquired in water wells indicates down flows of groundwaters with velocities in excess of 10-7 m/s at depths less than 300 m in the Amazonas basin. Bottom-hole temperature (BHT) data sets have been used in determining characteristics of fluid movements at larger depths in the basins of Acre, Solimões, Amazonas, Marajó and Barreirinhas. The results of model simulations point to down flow of groundwaters with velocities of the order of 10-8 to 10-9 m/s, at depths of up to 4000 m. No evidence has been found for up flow typical of discharge zones. The general conclusion compatible with such results is that large-scale groundwater recharge systems operate at both shallow and deep levels in all sedimentary basins of the Amazon region. However, the basement rock formations of the Amazon region are relatively impermeable and hence extensive down flow systems through the sedimentary strata are possible only in the presence of generalized lateral movement of groundwater in the basal parts of the sedimentary basins. The direction of this lateral flow, inferred from the basement topography and geological characteristics of the region, is from west to east, following roughly the course of surface drainage system of the Amazon River, with eventual discharge into the Atlantic Ocean. The estimated flow rate at the continental margin is 3287 m3/s, with velocities of the order of 218 m/year. It is possible that dynamic changes in the fluvial systems in the western parts of South American continent have been responsible for triggering alterations in the groundwater recharge systems and deep seated lateral flows in the Amazon region.

  15. Avaliação da condutividade hidraulica do solo saturada utilizando dois métodos de laboratório numa topossequência com diferentes coberturas vegetais no Baixo Amazonas Evaluation of the saturated hydraulic conductivity using two laboratory methods in a topossequence with different vegetation cover in the lower Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Dalmo de Oliveira Marques

    2008-01-01

    decreasing head permeameter method (PCD and their applicability and variability to Amazon soils. 125 undisturbed soil samples were collected with an Uhland soil sampler using volumetric rings of 0,072 m height and 0,069 m in diameter. Soil porosity was also estimated by volumetric ring samples collected at the same spots where Ko was evaluated. Disturbed soil samples were also collected for chemical and particle size analysis at the same spots. The results showed that the PCC method was more appropriate for the studied soils Oxisols, leading to the lowest coefficient of variation and standard deviation throughout the topographic sequence. The Ko values were distributed among P1(2,65 to 3,34 cm day-1, P2(2,85 to 3,38 cm day-1, P3(2,86 to 3,63 cm day-1, P4(2,75 to 3,49 cm day-1, P5(2,38 to 3,83 cm day-1 and P6 (2,47 to 3,52 cm day-1; having a tendency to show higher Ko values at soil surface. The use of Ko as a parameter for hydraulic analysis in soils with high porosity in the surface layer and high clay content in the subsoil, as is the case in the Amazon, must be undertaken with caution to avoid compacting the sample and porous discontinuities. Throughout the studied topographic sequence, changes of saturated hydraulic conductivity were more related to changes in soil physical properties than to changes in vegetation cover throughout the studied topographic sequence.

  16. The ceramic artifacts in archaeological black earth (terra preta from lower Amazon region, Brazil: mineralogy Artefatos cerâmicos em sítios arqueológios com terra preta na região do baixo Amazonas, Brasil: mineralogia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcondes Lima da Costa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Several archaeological black earth (ABE sites occur in the Amazon region. They contain fragments of ceramic artifacts, which are very important for the archaeological purpose. In order to improve the archaeological study in the region we carried out a detailed mineralogical and chemical study of the fragments of ceramic artifacts found in the two ABE sites of Cachoeira-Porteira, in the Lower Amazon Region. Their ceramics comprise the following tempers: cauixi, cariapé, sand, sand +feldspars, crushed ceramic and so on and are composed of quartz, clay equivalent material (mainly burned kaolinite, feldspars, hematite, goethite, maghemite, phosphates, anatase, and minerals of Mn and Ba. Cauixi and cariapé, siliceous organic compounds, were found too. The mineralogical composition and the morphology of their grains indicate a saprolite (clayey material rich on quartz derived from fine-grained felsic igneous rocks or sedimentary rocks as source material for ceramic artifacts, where silica-rich components such cauixi, cariapé and/or sand (feldspar and rock fragments were intentionally added to them. The high content of (Al,Fe-phosphates, amorphous to low crystalline, must be product of the contact between the clayey matrix of pottery wall and the hot aqueous solution formed during the daily cooking of animal foods (main source of phosphor. The phosphate crystallization took place during the discharge of the potteries put together with waste of organic material from animal and vegetal origin, and leaving to the formation of the ABE-soil profile.Sítios arqueológicos com Terra Preta, denominados de Terra Preta de Índio ou ainda Terra Preta Arqueológica (TPA são muito freqüentes na Amazônia. As TPA geralmente contém fragmentos de vasos cerâmicos, por vezes abundantes, além de líticos, que são materiais de grande importância para os estudos arqueológicos. Para consubstanciar esses estudos, realizou-se pesquisas mineralógicas e químicas em

  17. The problem of gravity field representation in the Amazon region: alternatives evaluation; O problema da representacao do campo de gravidade na regiao amazonica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sa, Nelsi Cogo de [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. Astronomico e Geofisico. Dept. de Geofisica

    1997-07-01

    The Amazonic region is a large segment of South American Plate which contains important geologic and tectonic units, among them, the sedimentary basins: Acre, Parecis-Alto Xingu, Alto Tapajos, Amazonas, Marajo and Boa Vista; and the cratons Rio Branco and Amazonas. Although there are very interesting geophysical investigations in this region, besides its potentialities in oil and mineral prospecting, a very little was done about the regional geophysical survey. Because of the large extension and the geographical peculiarities of this region, the basic geophysical surveys have not been done yet. Today, the aerogeophysical surveys and the geophysical satellite missions are beginning a new phase in collecting data of the gravity and magnetic field of the Earth. The analysis of the existing alternatives for the representation of the gravity field in the Amazonic region, presented in this paper, suggest a combined solution of satellite gradiometry and airborne gravimetry. (author)

  18. CDF software distribution on the grid using Parrot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compostella, G.; /INFN, CNAF; Pagan Griso, S.; /Padua U.; Lucchesi, D.; /Padua U.; Sfiligoi, I.; /Fermilab; Thain, D.; /Notre Dame U.

    2010-01-01

    Large international collaborations that use decentralized computing models are becoming a custom rather than an exception in High Energy Physics. A good computing model for such big collaborations has to deal with the distribution of the experiment-specific software around the world. When the CDF experiment developed its software infrastructure, most computing was done on dedicated clusters. As a result, libraries, configuration files and large executables were deployed over a shared file system. In order to adapt its computing model to the Grid, CDF decided to distribute its software to all European Grid sites using Parrot, a user-level application capable of attaching existing programs to remote I/O systems through the filesystem interface. This choice allows CDF to use just one centralized source of code and a scalable set of caches all around Europe to efficiently distribute its code and requires almost no interaction with the existing Grid middleware or with local system administrators. This system has been in production at CDF in Europe since almost two years. Here, we present CDF implementation of Parrot and some comments on its performances.

  19. New lipid-dependent Malassezia species from parrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabañes, F Javier; Coutinho, S Dall' Acqua; Puig, Laura; Bragulat, M Rosa; Castellá, Gemma

    2016-01-01

    All the currently recognized Malassezia species have been isolated from mammals. However, only a few of them have been isolated from birds. In fact, birds have been less frequently studied as carriers of Malassezia yeasts than mammals. In this study we describe two new taxa, Malassezia brasiliensis sp. nov. and Malassezia psittaci sp. nov. The isolates studied in this publication were isolated from pet parrots from Brazil. They were characterized using the current morphological and physiological identification scheme. DNA sequencing and analysis of the D1/D2 regions of the 26S rRNA gene, the ITS-5.8S rRNA gene sequences and the β-tubulin gene were also performed. The strains proposed as new species did not completely fit the phenotypic profiles of any the described species. The validation of these new species was supported by analysis of the genes studied. The multilocus sequence analysis of the three loci provides robust support to delineate these species. These studies confirm the separation of these two new species from the other species of the genus Malassezia, as well as the presence of lipid-dependent Malassezia yeasts on parrots. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Briófitas de Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil Bryophytes from Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Yano; Paulo Eduardo A.S. Câmara

    2004-01-01

    Foram listadas 74 espécies de briófitas para a cidade de Manaus, Amazonas, sendo 41 espécies de musgos distribuídos em 24 gêneros e 15 famílias e 33 hepáticas em 17 gêneros e sete famílias. Destas, 17 espécies de briófitas são ocorrências novas para Manaus e para o estado do Amazonas. T. ligulaefolium (Bartr.) Buck é uma ocorrência nova para o Brasil. São apresentadas associações com outras briófitas e comparação com outras espécies urbanas.This survey lists 74 species of bryophytes from Mana...

  1. The Amazon river breeze and the local boundary layer. I - Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira, Amauri P.; Fitzjarrald, David R.

    1993-01-01

    Observations of the diurnal evolution of the planetary boundary layer over the Amazon rain forest, made at sites close to the confluence of the Solimoes and Negro rivers (approximately at 3 deg S, 60 deg W) near Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, show the existence of a diurnal rotation of the wind near the surface and the frequent presence of low-level nocturnal wind maxima. These circulations are shown to be plausibly explained as elements of a river and land breeze circulation induced by the thermal contrast between the rivers and the adjacent forest.

  2. The Amazon river breeze and the local boundary layer: I. Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira Oliveira, Amauri; Fitzjarrald, David R.

    1993-02-01

    Observations of the diurnal evolution of the planetary boundary layer over the Amazon rain forest, made at sites close to the confluence of the Solimões and Negro rivers (approximately at 3°S, 60°W) near Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, show the existence of a diurnal rotation of the wind near the surface and the frequent presence of low-level nocturnal wind maxima. These circulations are shown to be plausibly explained as elements of a river and land breeze circulation induced by the thermal contrast between the rivers and the adjacent forest.

  3. Outbreak of acute Chagas disease associated with oral transmission in the Rio Negro region, Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza-Lima, Rita de Cássia de; Barbosa, Maria das Graças Vale; Coura, José Rodrigues; Arcanjo, Ana Ruth Lima; Nascimento, Adelaide da Silva; Ferreira, João Marcos Bemfica Barbosa; Magalhães, Laylah Kelre; Albuquerque, Bernardino Cláudio de; Araújo, Guilherme Alfredo Novelino; Guerra, Jorge Augusto de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Chagas disease is considered as emerging in the Brazilian Amazon, usually occurring in acute outbreaks. We describe 17 cases of acute Chagas disease in Rio Negro, Amazonas. There were 15 males (average age, 31.3 years), all positive for Trypanosoma cruzi in fresh blood smear examination, and 14 positive by xenodiagnosis and PCR. The top clinical manifestations were fever, asthenia, abdominal pain, and palpitations. Electrocardiograms featured low-voltage QRS, anterosuperior divisional block, and right bundle branch block associated with anterosuperior divisional block. All patients had consumed açaí products from Monte Alegre in the rural area around Santa Izabel do Rio Negro, Brazil.

  4. Tegumentary leishmaniasis in the State of Amazonas: what have we learned and what do we need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Jorge Augusto de Oliveira; Maciel, Marcel Gonçalves; Guerra, Marcus Vinítius de Farias; Talhari, Anette Chursciack; Prestes, Suzane Ribeiro; Fernandes, Marcos Antonio; Da-Cruz, Alda Maria; Martins, Alessandra; Coelho, Leíla Ines de Aguiar Raposo Camara; Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra; Barbosa, Maria das Graças Vale

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the occurrence of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) in the State of Amazonas, Brazil, in the last 30 years with emphasis on the last 10 years (2001 to 2010). The disease was predominantly observed in males (76.2%), in the 21- to 30-year-old age group (26.6%) and in extractive workers (43.7%); 3.3% of the cases were the mucosal form. The endemic channel shows the disease seasonality, with a predominance of cases at the beginning and end of each year. The number of cases by municipality in the period of 2001-2010 shows the maintenance of the endemic in the localities where the highest numbers of cases have always been registered, namely, Manaus, Rio Preto da Eva, Itacoatiara and Presidente Figueiredo. The comparison of data from 2001 to 2005 and from 2006 to 2010 showed the emergence of this disease in municipalities that had been previously unaffected. In the last years, there has been a significant increase in the activities of control, diagnosis and treatment of leishmaniasis in the State of Amazonas. In conclusion, the historical series of ATL analyzed in this study suggests that the transmission foci remain and are even expanding, though without continuous transmission in the intra- or peridomicile settings. Moreover, the disease will persist in the Amazon while the factors associated with infection acquisition relative to forest exploitation continue to have economic appeal. There is a real expectation of wide variations in disease incidence that can be influenced by climate and economic aspects.

  5. Tegumentary leishmaniasis in the State of Amazonas: what have we learned and what do we need?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Augusto de Oliveira Guerra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the occurrence of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL in the State of Amazonas, Brazil, in the last 30 years with emphasis on the last 10 years (2001 to 2010. The disease was predominantly observed in males (76.2%, in the 21- to 30-year-old age group (26.6% and in extractive workers (43.7%; 3.3% of the cases were the mucosal form. The endemic channel shows the disease seasonality, with a predominance of cases at the beginning and end of each year. The number of cases by municipality in the period of 2001-2010 shows the maintenance of the endemic in the localities where the highest numbers of cases have always been registered, namely, Manaus, Rio Preto da Eva, Itacoatiara and Presidente Figueiredo. The comparison of data from 2001 to 2005 and from 2006 to 2010 showed the emergence of this disease in municipalities that had been previously unaffected. In the last years, there has been a significant increase in the activities of control, diagnosis and treatment of leishmaniasis in the State of Amazonas. In conclusion, the historical series of ATL analyzed in this study suggests that the transmission foci remain and are even expanding, though without continuous transmission in the intra- or peridomicile settings. Moreover, the disease will persist in the Amazon while the factors associated with infection acquisition relative to forest exploitation continue to have economic appeal. There is a real expectation of wide variations in disease incidence that can be influenced by climate and economic aspects.

  6. Briófitas de Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil Bryophytes from Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Yano

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram listadas 74 espécies de briófitas para a cidade de Manaus, Amazonas, sendo 41 espécies de musgos distribuídos em 24 gêneros e 15 famílias e 33 hepáticas em 17 gêneros e sete famílias. Destas, 17 espécies de briófitas são ocorrências novas para Manaus e para o estado do Amazonas. T. ligulaefolium (Bartr. Buck é uma ocorrência nova para o Brasil. São apresentadas associações com outras briófitas e comparação com outras espécies urbanas.This survey lists 74 species of bryophytes from Manaus, Amazonas, namely, 41 species of mosses distributed in 24 genera and 15 families and 33 liverworts in 17 genera and seven families, of which, 17 species are new occurrences to Manaus. T. Ligulaefolium (Bartr. Buck is new occurrence to Brazil. Associations with other bryophytes and comparison with other regions are presented.

  7. Programming Amazon EC2

    CERN Document Server

    Vliet, Jurg

    2011-01-01

    If you plan to use Amazon Web Services to run applications in the cloud, the end-to-end approach in this book will save you needless trial and error. You'll find practical guidelines for designing and building applications with Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) and a host of supporting AWS tools, with a focus on critical issues such as load balancing, monitoring, and automation. How do you move an existing application to AWS, or design your application so that it scales effectively? How much storage will you require? Programming Amazon EC2 not only helps you get started, it will also keep y

  8. Evolution of craniofacial novelty in parrots through developmental modularity and heterochrony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokita, Masayoshi; Kiyoshi, Takuya; Armstrong, Kyle N

    2007-01-01

    Parrots (order Psittaciformes) have developed novel cranial morphology. At the same time, they show considerable morphological diversity in the cranial musculoskeletal system, which includes two novel structures: the suborbital arch and the musculus (M.) pseudomasseter. To understand comprehensively the evolutionary pattern and process of novel cranial morphology in parrots, phylogenetic and developmental studies were conducted. Firstly, we undertook phylogenetic analyses based on mitochondrial ribosomal RNA gene sequences to obtain a robust phylogeny among parrots, and secondly we surveyed the cranial morphology of parrots extensively to add new information on the character states. Character mapping onto molecular phylogenies indicated strongly the repeated evolution of both the suborbital arch and the well-developed M. pseudomasseter within parrots. These results also suggested that the direction of evolutionary change is not always identical in the two characters, implying that these characters are relatively independent or decoupled structures behaving as separate modules. Finally, we compared the developmental pattern of jaw muscles among bird species and found a difference in the timing of M. pseudomasseter differentiation between the cockatiel Nymphicus hollandicus (representative of a well-developed condition) and the peach-faced lovebird Agapornis roseicollis (representative of an underdeveloped condition). On the basis of this study, we suggest that in the development of novel traits, modularity and heterochrony facilitate the diversification of parrot cranial morphology.

  9. Amazonas project: Application of remote sensing techniques for the integrated survey of natural resources in Amazonas. [Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The use of LANDSAT multispectral scanner and return beam vidicon imagery for surveying the natural resources of the Brazilian Amazonas is described. Purposes of the Amazonas development project are summarized. The application of LANDSAT imagery to identification of vegetation coverage and soil use, identification of soil types, geomorphology, and geology and highway planning is discussed. An evaluation of the worth of LANDSAT imagery in mapping the region is presented. Maps generated by the project are included.

  10. [The emergence of Aids in Amazonas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Michele Rocha; Schweickardt, Júlio César

    2016-01-26

    This article analyzes the historical, social, and political context in which Aids emerged in the Brazilian state of Amazonas, and how local responses were shaped by changes taking place on a national political level. Documental sources from governmental and non-governmental institutions were researched, and the information was supplemented and clarified by oral sources - testimonials of activists and health professionals/managers who have led the organization of healthcare for people with HIV/Aids in the state. This research reveals that the lack of coordination between healthcare institutions and the dearth of any real political will to fight the epidemic in the state have hampered the planning and execution of public strategies and actions covering the whole welfare system in the state.

  11. The costs of REDD: lessons from Amazonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, Virgilio M.; Ribenboim, Gabriel [Amazonas Sustainable Foundation (Brazil); Mea, Rosana Della [Rainforest Concern (Brazil); Grieg-Gran, Maryanne

    2009-11-15

    Reducing tropical deforestation is a major climate and development issue: forest clearing is responsible for roughly a fifth of greenhouse gas emissions, and the forest-dependent poor number over a billion. In the runup to the Copenhagen climate summit, REDD – reducing emissions from deforestation and (forest) degradation by providing incentives to tropical forest countries – has been touted as one of the most cost-effective mitigation mechanisms on the table. But the benefits would be only temporary if forests saved today are cleared once incentives cease. Would the expense of maintaining such incentives over decades raise the price to uncompetitive levels? A forest reserve in Amazonas, Brazil, offers some of the first real-world data on the costs of REDD. Even with pessimistic assumptions about future pressures, the project's carbon cuts look highly affordable.

  12. Malaria in the State of Amazonas: a typical Brazilian tropical disease influenced by waves of economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderson Souza Sampaio

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, more than 99% of malaria cases are reported in the Amazon, and the State of Amazonas accounts for 40% of this total. However, the accumulated experience and challenges in controlling malaria in this region in recent decades have not been reported. Throughout the first economic cycle during the rubber boom (1879 to 1912, malaria was recorded in the entire state, with the highest incidence in the villages near the Madeira River in the Southern part of the State of Amazonas. In the 1970s, during the second economic development cycle, the economy turned to the industrial sector and demanded a large labor force, resulting in a large migratory influx to the capital Manaus. Over time, a gradual increase in malaria transmission was observed in peri-urban areas. In the 1990s, the stimulation of agroforestry, particularly fish farming, led to the formation of permanent Anopheline breeding sites and increased malaria in settlements. The estimation of environmental impacts and the planning of measures to mitigate them, as seen in the construction of the Coari-Manaus gas pipeline, proved effective. Considering the changes occurred since the Amsterdam Conference in 1992, disease control has been based on early diagnosis and treatment, but the development of parasites that are resistant to major antimalarial drugs in Brazilian Amazon has posed a new challenge. Despite the decreased lethality and the gradual decrease in the number of malaria cases, disease elimination, which should be associated with government programs for economic development in the region, continues to be a challenge.

  13. UMA NOVA ESPÉCIE DE SPASALUS (COLEOPTERA PASSALIDAE) DO ALTO RIO NEGRO. AMAZONAS, BRASIL.

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca,Claudio Ruy Vasconcelos da

    1992-01-01

    Spasalus ellanae, uma nova eepécie PASSALIDAE (COLEOPTERA) alto rio Negro, Amazonas, Brasil, é descrita e ilustrada. Spasalus ellanae n. sp. from Negro river, Amazonas, Brazil, is described and illustrated.

  14. Xiphidorus amazonensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Longidoridae) from the Brazilian Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uesugi, C. H.; Huang, C. S.; Cares, J. E.

    1985-01-01

    Xiphidorus amazonensis n. sp. was found in the rhizospheres of Jatropha curcas, Musa sp., Anona muricata, Cassia tora, Panicum laxum, Paspalum fasciculatum, Aeschynomene sensitiva, Saccharum officinarum, Manihot esculenta, Abelmoschus esculentus, Tamarindus indica, Mangifera indica, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Commelina sp., Cyperus rotundus, Fimbristylis miliacea, Citrus sinensis, and Eichhornia crassipes on the Amazon River island of Xiborena, approximately 40 km southeast of Manaus, capital of the State of Amazonas. The type habitat is flooded annually for about 6 months by the Amazon River. Xiphidorus amazonensis n. sp. differs from the closely related species Xiphidorus yepesara Monteiro, 1976 by the larger size, by a, b, and c values, and by the rounded tail terminus. It also resembles Xiphidorus tucumanensis Chaves and Coomans, 1984, but can be distinguished by its larger size, larger a, b, and c values, more conical female tail, bilobed amphidial pouch, and the presence of a spermatheca full of sperm. PMID:19294098

  15. Seeing REDD in the Amazon: a win for people, trees and climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, Virgilio M.

    2009-03-15

    Tucked away in a tangle of Brazilian rainforest, a quiet revolution is unfolding. In Amazonas, the country's biggest state, people are using an approach called REDD to conserve their forests in return for credit. This project's success has huge implications for reducing deforestation, cutting emissions and eradicating poverty, and its time has definitely come. Between 1990 and 2005, over a million square kilometres of forest were lost in the tropics. Half that was in the Amazon. Deforestation accounts for over 17 per cent of global greenhouse gas emissions, so a curb on felling is key to successfully mitigating climate change. But the Amazon is prey to unsustainable development, and the costs of inaction and laissez-faire are higher than those of stopping deforestation. REDD is the most promising solution yet for this volatile mix of issues.

  16. Measurements of atmospheric hydrocarbons and biogenic emission fluxes in the Amazon boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, P. R.; Greenberg, J. P.; Westberg, C. E.

    1988-01-01

    Tropospheric mixing ratios of methane, C2-C10 hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide were measured over the Amazon tropical forest near Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, in July and August 1985. The measurements, consisting mostly of altitude profiles of these gases, were all made within the atmospheric boundary layer up to an altitude of 1000 m above ground level. Data characterize the diurnal hydrocarbon composition of the boundary layer. Biogenic emissions of isoprene control hydroxyl radical concentrations over the forest. Biogenic emission fluxes of isoprene and terpenes are estimated to be 25,000 micrograms/sq m per day and 5600 micrograms/sq m per day, respectively. This isoprene emission is equivalent to 2 percent of the net primary productivity of the tropical forest. Atmospheric oxidation of biogenic isoprene and terpenes emissions from the Amazon forest may account for daily increases of 8-13 ppb for carbon monoxide in the planetary boundary layer.

  17. Implications of Scientific Collaboration Networks on Studies of Aquatic Vertebrates in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinero, María Celeste; Michalski, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    The quantity of wildlife extracted from the Amazon has increased in the past decades as a consequence of an increase in human population density and income growth. To evaluate the spatial distribution of studies on subsistence and/or commercial hunting conducted in the Brazilian Amazon, we selected eight mid-sized and large-bodied aquatic vertebrate species with a history of human exploitation in the region. We used a combination of searches in the gray and scientific literature from the past 24 years to provide an updated distributional map of studies on the target species. We calculated the distances between the study sites and the locations of the research institutes/universities that the first and last authors of the same study were affiliated to. For the period of 1990 to 2014, we found 105 studies on the subsistence and/or commercial hunting of aquatic vertebrates in the Brazilian Amazon in 271 locations that involved 43 institutions (37 Brazilian and 6 international). The spatial distribution of the studies across the Brazilian Amazon varied, but over 80% took place in the northeast and central Amazon, encompassing three States of the Legal Brazilian Amazon (Amazonas, 51.42%; Pará, 19.05%; and Amapá, 16.19%). Over half of the research study sites (52.91%) were within 500 km of the research institute/university of the first or last authors. Some research institutes/universities did not have any inter-institutional collaborations, while others collaborated with eight or more institutes. Some research institutes/universities conducted many studies, had an extensive collaboration network, and contributed greatly to the network of studies on Amazonian aquatic vertebrates. Our research contributes to the knowledge of studies on the subsistence and/or commercial hunting of the most exploited aquatic vertebrates of the Brazilian Amazon, illustrates the impact that collaboration networks have on research, and highlights potential areas for improvement and the

  18. USE OF SCALED SEMIVARIOGRAMS IN THE PLANNING SAMPLE OF SOIL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES IN SOUTHERN AMAZONAS, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanildo Amorim de Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The lack of information concerning the variability of soil properties has been a major concern of researchers in the Amazon region. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial variability of soil chemical properties and determine minimal sampling density to characterize the variability of these properties in five environments located in the south of the State of Amazonas, Brazil. The five environments were archaeological dark earth (ADE, forest, pasture land, agroforestry operation, and sugarcane crop. Regular 70 × 70 m mesh grids were set up in these areas, with 64 sample points spaced at 10 m distance. Soil samples were collected at the 0.0-0.1 m depth. The chemical properties of pH in water, OM, P, K, Ca, Mg, H+Al, SB, CEC, and V were determined at these points. Data were analyzed by descriptive and geostatistical analyses. A large part of the data analyzed showed spatial dependence. Chemical properties were best fitted to the spherical model in almost all the environments evaluated, except for the sugarcane field with a better fit to the exponential model. ADE and sugarcane areas had greater heterogeneity of soil chemical properties, showing a greater range and higher sampling density; however, forest and agroforestry areas had less variability of chemical properties.

  19. Habitat Preferences of the Grey Parrot in Heterogeneous Vegetation Landscapes and Their Conservation Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon A. Tamungang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The wild Grey Parrot Psittacus erithacus Linnaeus suffers from many habitat use challenges in the wake of extensive deforestation in its endemic range of West and Central African rainforests. To determine effects of these challenges on the bird species, seasonal densities of the Grey Parrot were determined using line transects in major heterogeneous vegetation types in the Korup Rainforest, south-western Cameroon. Results of the study highlight habitat preferences of this species on a seasonal base and under different situations of human activity intensity in the landscape. This information can be used to understand the causes of changes in the distribution and abundance of endangered species and also to determine sustainable conservation strategies. It is concluded that the parrot needs diverse vegetation types for survival in the wild state, as it depends on specific tree species for specific habitat resources such as food, roosts, security, and nests at specific periods of the year. Hence, the continuous survival of the Grey Parrot in the range states is not certain, if sustainable measures are not taken to conserve the parrot and its habitat resources both in and outside protected areas.

  20. Application of DNA fingerprinting to the recovery program of the endangered Puerto Rican parrot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, M.K.; White, B.N.

    1992-01-01

    The Puerto Rican parrot was reduced to 13 animals in 1975 and as a conservation measure, a captive population was established from a few founders taken from the wild between 1973 and 1983. The number of successful breeding pairs in captivity has been !ow, and the captive breeding program has not been as productive as that of the closely related Hispaniolan parrot. Therefore, a genetic study was initiated to examine the relative levels of relatedness of the captive founders using levels of bandsharing in DNA fingerprints. Unrelated captive founder Puerto Rican parrots had the same average level of bandsharing (0.41) as second-degree relatives of the Hispaniolan parrot (0.38, P > 0,05), with an inbreeding coefficient of 0.04. High levels of bandsharing (>40%) between pairs of males and females correlated with reproductive failure, suggesting that inbreeding depression is partly responsible for the !ow number of' breeding pairs. Consequently, DNA profiling can be used to guide the captive breeding program for the Puerto Rican parrot, and other endangered species, by identifying pairs of males and females with low levels of bandsharing.

  1. Mucosal Leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis and Leishmania (Viannia guyanensis in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Augusto de Oliveira Guerra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis is a parasite recognized as the most important etiologic agent of mucosal leishmaniasis (ML in the New World. In Amazonia, seven different species of Leishmania, etiologic agents of human Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, have been described. Isolated cases of ML have been described for several different species of Leishmania: L. (V. panamensis, L. (V. guyanensis and L. (L. amazonensis. METHODOLOGY: Leishmania species were characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR of tissues taken from mucosal biopsies of Amazonian patients who were diagnosed with ML and treated at the Tropical Medicine Foundation of Amazonas (FMTAM in Manaus, Amazonas state, Brazil. Samples were obtained retrospectively from the pathology laboratory and prospectively from patients attending the aforementioned tertiary care unit. RESULTS: This study reports 46 cases of ML along with their geographical origin, 30 cases caused by L. (V. braziliensis and 16 cases by L. (V. guyanensis. This is the first record of ML cases in 16 different municipalities in the state of Amazonas and of simultaneous detection of both species in 4 municipalities of this state. It is also the first record of ML caused by L. (V. guyanensis in the states of Pará, Acre, and Rondônia and cases of ML caused by L. (V. braziliensis in the state of Rondônia. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: L. (V. braziliensis is the predominant species that causes ML in the Amazon region. However, contrary to previous studies, L. (V. guyanensis is also a significant causative agent of ML within the region. The clinical and epidemiological expression of ML in the Manaus region is similar to the rest of the country, although the majority of ML cases are found south of the Amazon River.

  2. The Amazon and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    The climatologies of cloudiness and precipitation for the Amazon, are reviewed and the physical causes of some of the observed features and those which are not well known are explained. The atmospheric circulation over the Amazon is discussed on the large scale tropical circulations forced by deep diabatic heating sources. Weather deforestation which leads to a reduction in evapotranspiration into the atmosphere, and a reduction in precipitation and its implicated for the gobal climate is discussed. It is indicated that a large scale clearing of tropical rainforests there would be a reduction in rainfall which would have global effects on climate and weather both in the tropical and extratropical regions.

  3. Culicidae (Diptera: Culicomorpha from the central Brazilian Amazon: Nhamundá and Abacaxis Rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Sá Gomes Hutchings

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito fauna (Culicidae from remote areas along the geographical limits of the State of Amazonas were assessed by employing CDC, Shannon, Malaise and Suspended traps, together with net sweeping and immature collections. Two hundred and six collections were performed in seven localities along the Nhamundá and Abacaxis Rivers, State of Amazonas, Brazil, during May and June 2008. The northernmost locality was 120 km from Nhamundá, whereas the southernmost locality was 150 km from the mouth of the Abacaxis River. The 5,290 mosquitoes collected are distributed in 16 genera, representing 109 different species, of which eight are new distributional records for the State of Amazonas. Furthermore, there are nine morphospecies which may represent undescribed new taxa, five of which are also new records for the State of Amazonas. Culex presented the highest number of species and the largest number of individuals. Anopheles, which represents 3% of the total sample, had the second highest number of species, followed by Wyeomyia. Psorophora and Aedes, represent the third and fourth largest number of individuals. The most abundant species was Cx. (Mel. vaxus Dyar, 1920 followed by Cx. (Mel. eknomios Forattini & Sallum, 1992, Cx. (Cux. mollis Dyar & Knab, 1906, Cx. (Mel. theobaldi Lutz, 1904, and Cx. (Cux. declarator Dyar & Knab, 1906. The epidemiological and ecological implications of mosquito species found are discussed and are compared with other mosquito inventories from the Amazon region. The results presented represent the largest standardized inventory of mosquitoes of the Nhamundá and Abacaxis rivers, with the identification of 118 species level taxa distributed in seven localities, within four municipalities (Nhamundá, Maués, Borba, Nova Olinda do Norte, of which we have only few or no records in the published literature.

  4. Larva of Palaemnema brasiliensis Machado (Odonata: Platystictidae), from Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiss, Ulisses Gaspar; Hamada, Neusa

    2016-02-09

    The larva of Palaemnema brasiliensis Machado, 2009 is described and illustrated based on last-instar larvae and exuviae of reared larvae collected in a blackwater stream in Barcelos and Presidente Figueiredo municipalities, Amazonas state, Brazil. The larva of P. brasiliensis can be distinguished from the two South American species of the genus with described larvae (P. clementia Selys and P. mutans Calvert), mainly by presence of a single obtuse cusp on the labial palp, the presence and configuration of setae in the caudal lamellae, and the proportional length of terminal filaments of the caudal lamellae. The family is recorded here for the first time in Brazilian state of Amazonas.

  5. Diatoms from the Colombian and Peruvian Amazon: the Genera Encyonema, Encyonopsis and Gomphonema (Cymbellales: Bacillariophyceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia A Vouilloud

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Diatoms from the Colombian and Peruvian Amazon: the Genera Encyonema, Encyonopsis and Gomphonema (Cymbellales, Bacillariophyceae. The diatom flora of the Colombian and Peruvian Amazon is far less studied than the flora of the Brazilian sector of the basin. Here we present results related to the genera Encyonema, Encyonopsis and Gomphonema. Plankton and periphyton samples were collected in lotic and lentic waterbodies from the Amazonian-Andean region, the Amazon River, Japurá River and Porvenir River basins during 1993, 1994, 2001 and 2003. At each sampling station pH, temperature, water transparency and conductivity were registered. Samples were analyzed with phase contrast microscope (LM and scanning electron microscope (SEM. Ten taxa are new records for the area; Encyonema for the Peruvian and Colombian Amazon and Encyonopsis for the Colombian Sector. Encyonema neogracile var. tenuipunctatum, E. vulgare, Encyonopsis frequentis, Gomphonema augur var. sphaerophorum and G. contraturris are recorded for the first time in Colombia; Encyonema venezolanum and G. neoapiculatum in Colombia and Peru and the latter also for Amazonia. E. angustecapitatum was mentioned in Colombia before at a pond located at 3000m asl. We describe a new species from Porvenir River, Amazonas, Colombia: Encyonema amazonianum. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (1: 45-62. Epub 2010 March 01.La flora diatomológica de la Amazonia Colombiana y Peruana está mucho menos estudiada que la flora del sector brasilero. Se presentan los resultados de los géneros Encyonema, Encyonopsis y Gomphonema. Muestras de plancton y perifiton fueron colectadas en ambientes lóticos y lénticos de la región amazónica-andina, en los ríos Amazonas, Japurá y Porvenir durante 1993, 1994, 2001 y 2003. En cada estación de muestreo se realizaron mediciones de pH, temperatura, transparencia del agua y conductividad. Las muestras fueron analizadas con microscopio óptico con contraste de fases y microscopio electr

  6. Vocal Modification Abilities and Brain Structures in Parrots – how do they Correlate?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harpøth, Solveig Walløe

    independent studies where I 1) compare the level of vocal complexity (i.e. modification of the contact call in response to playback stimuli) with the social complexity of four different parrot species, 2) correlate the vocal modification ability of parrots with a brain region involved in vocal learning, i...... comes a need for higher communicative complexity. We compared four different parrot species, (peach-­fronted conure, Aratinga aurea; cockatiel, Nymphicus hollandicus; peach-­faced lovebird, Agapornis roseicollis; budgerigar, Melopsittacus undulatus) with different levels of social complexity. They had...... their vocal modification ability tested through semi-interactive playback experiments. We found that the species with the highest level of social complexity (i.e. peach-­fronted conure) was also the species making the biggest change to the contact call in response to playback stimuli. The budgerigar appears...

  7. The Amazon's energetic paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Marcos Vinicius Miranda da; Bermann, Celio

    1999-01-01

    The main energy sources in Amazon region are hydroelectric, biomass, and natural gas. Although abundance of these resources, the energy consumption in this region is one of the most low of Brazil. The article overviews this paradox. In this context, economical, geopolitical, and technical aspects are presented

  8. Amazon Paleofires Records: Comparison Between Land Use Change and Palaeoclimatic Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, R. C.; Turcq, B.; Moreira, L. S.; Rodrigues, R. D. A.; Simões Filho, F. L.; Martins, G. S.; Santos, A. B.; Barbosa, M.; da Conceição, M. C. G.; Rodrigues, R. D. C.; Evangelista, H.; Moreira-Turcq, P. F.; Penido, Y. P.; Sifeddine, A.; Seoane, J.

    2014-12-01

    Interpreting the geological record of Amazon biomass combustion requires comparing charcoal accumulation rates in various biomes at different time scales. Charcoal accumulation rates, a proxy for palaeofire records, were obtained in sediment cores from Amazon lakes surrounded by several vegetation types and from a reservoir in an intense land use change region. The records presented in this study were obtained in the following areas i) a reservoir in Alta Floresta region (northern Mato Grosso State); ii) Lago do Saci (southern Pará State), a lake close to Alta Floresta and located at the southern border of Pará State; iii) a bog in an ecotone area in the Humaitá region (southern Amazonas State); iv) lakes in lateritic iron crust of the Carajás Hills (southeastern Pará State); v) Lago Comprido, a floodplain lake close to the Amazon River and surrounded by tropical rain forest (Monte Alegre, Pará State; vi) Lagoa da Pata in the Morro dos Seis Lagos alkaline complex (São Gabriel da Cachoeira, Amazonas State) and vii) Lago Caracaranã, a secluded lake in the northern Amazon cerrado (Roraima State). The highest charcoal accumulation rates were observed for modern records related to an intense change in land use at Alta Floresta, which had no precedent during the Holocene history of the Amazon. High charcoal accumulation rates that were observed in the Carajás region during low lake level phases in the Amazon in the mid-Holocene were comparable to those at the onset of the human settlement in Alta Floresta region. An increase in charcoal accumulation rate was observed in the late Holocene when the lake level was high, suggesting an interaction between climates and human presence. Low charcoal accumulation rates are typical of modern high rainfall environments, as observed in Lagoa da Pata where the environment is not susceptible to occurrences of wildfires even during relatively drier climatic phases. Low charcoal accumulation rates also exist in the relatively

  9. Internal seed dispersal by parrots: an overview of a neglected mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Guillermo; Bravo, Carolina; Pacifico, Erica C; Chamorro, Daniel; Speziale, Karina L; Lambertucci, Sergio A; Hiraldo, Fernando; Tella, José L

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact that parrots (Psitacifformes) are generalist apex frugivores, they have largely been considered plant antagonists and thus neglected as seed dispersers of their food plants. Internal dispersal was investigated by searching for seeds in faeces opportunistically collected at communal roosts, foraging sites and nests of eleven parrot species in different habitats and biomes in the Neotropics. Multiple intact seeds of seven plant species of five families were found in a variable proportion of faeces from four parrot species. The mean number of seeds of each plant species per dropping ranged between one and about sixty, with a maximum of almost five hundred seeds from the cacti Pilosocereus pachycladus in a single dropping of Lear's Macaw (Anodorhynchus leari). All seeds retrieved were small (<3 mm) and corresponded to herbs and relatively large, multiple-seeded fleshy berries and infrutescences from shrubs, trees and columnar cacti, often also dispersed by stomatochory. An overview of the potential constraints driving seed dispersal suggest that, despite the obvious size difference between seeds dispersed by endozoochory and stomatochory, there is no clear difference in fruit size depending on the dispersal mode. Regardless of the enhanced or limited germination capability after gut transit, a relatively large proportion of cacti seeds frequently found in the faeces of two parrot species were viable according to the tetrazolium test and germination experiments. The conservative results of our exploratory sampling and a literature review clearly indicate that the importance of parrots as endozoochorous dispersers has been largely under-appreciated due to the lack of research systematically searching for seeds in their faeces. We encourage the evaluation of seed dispersal and other mutualistic interactions mediated by parrots before their generalized population declines contribute to the collapse of key ecosystem processes.

  10. Internal seed dispersal by parrots: an overview of a neglected mutualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Blanco

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that parrots (Psitacifformes are generalist apex frugivores, they have largely been considered plant antagonists and thus neglected as seed dispersers of their food plants. Internal dispersal was investigated by searching for seeds in faeces opportunistically collected at communal roosts, foraging sites and nests of eleven parrot species in different habitats and biomes in the Neotropics. Multiple intact seeds of seven plant species of five families were found in a variable proportion of faeces from four parrot species. The mean number of seeds of each plant species per dropping ranged between one and about sixty, with a maximum of almost five hundred seeds from the cacti Pilosocereus pachycladus in a single dropping of Lear’s Macaw (Anodorhynchus leari. All seeds retrieved were small (<3 mm and corresponded to herbs and relatively large, multiple-seeded fleshy berries and infrutescences from shrubs, trees and columnar cacti, often also dispersed by stomatochory. An overview of the potential constraints driving seed dispersal suggest that, despite the obvious size difference between seeds dispersed by endozoochory and stomatochory, there is no clear difference in fruit size depending on the dispersal mode. Regardless of the enhanced or limited germination capability after gut transit, a relatively large proportion of cacti seeds frequently found in the faeces of two parrot species were viable according to the tetrazolium test and germination experiments. The conservative results of our exploratory sampling and a literature review clearly indicate that the importance of parrots as endozoochorous dispersers has been largely under-appreciated due to the lack of research systematically searching for seeds in their faeces. We encourage the evaluation of seed dispersal and other mutualistic interactions mediated by parrots before their generalized population declines contribute to the collapse of key ecosystem processes.

  11. Two new parrots (Psittaciformes) from the Lower Eocene Fur Formation of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waterhouse, David; Lindow, Bent Erik Kramer; Zelenkov, Nikita

    2008-01-01

    Two new fossil psittaciform birds from the Lower Eocene ‘Mo Clay' (Fur Formation) of Denmark (c. 54 Ma) are described. An unnamed specimen is assigned to the extinct avian family of stem-group parrots, Pseudasturidae (genus and species incertae sedis), while a second (Mopsitta tanta gen. et sp. nov.......) is the largest fossil parrot yet known. Both specimens are the first fossil records of these birds from Denmark. Although the phylogenetic position of Mopsitta is unclear (it is classified as family incertae sedis), this form is phylogenetically closer to Recent Psittacidae than to other known Palaeogene...

  12. A visibilidade do trabalho das mulheres ticunas da Amazônia The visibility of work among ticuna women in the Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraildes Caldas Torres

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo se ocupa de uma análise do artesanato indígena da Amazônia, confeccionado pelas mulheres ticunas, o qual se apresenta como um produto importante no desenvolvimento sustentado da comunidade rural Bom Caminho, no estado do Amazonas. Trata-se de um cotejamento de dados observados e coletados no processo de consultoria realizada ao Sebrae/Amazonas no ano de 2004. Mostra o trabalho das mulheres como o elemento ordenador da economia doméstica na etnia ticuna, sob o primado de uma divisão sexual do trabalho que credita a elas responsabilidade maior pela manutenção da família.This paper analyzes the Amazon Indian craftsmanship, done by Ticuna Women. Crafts are shown to be an important product in the strong positive development in the rural Amazon community. It works with data observed and collected in research done as a consultant for Sebrae/Amazonas in 2004. It shows how women work is an organizing element of the domestic economy for the Ticuna ethnicity. A principal feature of the sexual division of labor places women as having more responsibility for family maintenance.

  13. The recent extreme hydrological events in the Western Amazon Basin: The role of the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, J.; Ronchail, J.; Guyot, J.; Santini, W.; Lavado, W.; Ore-Hybam Observatory

    2013-05-01

    The Peruvian Amazonas River, the main western tributary of the Amazon basin, has a huge drainage (750 000 km2, 50% of which lies in the Andes) and a mean discharge estimated in 32 000 m3/s, which correspond to 15% of the Amazon discharge at the estuary. Recently, in a context of significant discharge diminution during the low-water season (1970-2012), severe hydrological events, as intense droughts and floods, have been reported in the Peruvian Amazonas River. As they have not been always observed in other regions of the Amazon basin and because they have strong impacts on vulnerable riverside residents, we shall focus on the origin and the predictability of the western Amazon extremes, providing a review of the main findings about the climate features during recent extreme hydrological events in western Amazon. While the lowest discharge value was observed in September 2010 (8 300 m3/s) at the hydrological Tamshiyacu station (near to Iquitos city), a rapid transition toward a high discharge was noticed in April 2011 (45 000 m3/s). Finally, in April 2012, during the on going high waters period, the Amazonas River is experimenting its historical highest discharge (55 000 m3/s). Our work is based on several datasets including in-situ discharge and rainfall information from ORE-HYBAM observatory. Extreme droughts (1995, 2005 and 2010) are generally associated with positive SST anomalies in the tropical North Atlantic and weak trade winds and water vapor transport toward the western Amazon, which, in association with increased subsidence over central and southern Amazon, explain the lack of rainfall and very low discharge values. But, in 1998, toward the end of the 1997-98 El Niño event, the drought has been more likely related to an anomalous divergence of water vapor in the western Amazon that is characteristic of a warm event in the Pacific. The years with a rapid transition form low waters to very high floods (e.g. September 2010 to April 2011) are characterized

  14. Verbreiting und Vorkommen einiger Pauropodenarten im Brasilianischen Amazonas-Gebiet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hüther, Walter

    1985-01-01

    The material studied was taken by Berlese-Tullgren funnels. From the about 60 pauropod species occurring in the Brazilian Amazonas region, this paper deals only with 23 species belonging to 6 genera. Only 3 species are spread all over the region, 15 species are restricted to one locality. The mean

  15. Rabia silvestre en la provincia de Condorcanqui, departamento de Amazonas

    OpenAIRE

    Condori, Rene E.; Díaz Olivera, Albina

    2005-01-01

    Desde el 04 noviembre de 2004 hasta el 17 febrero de 2005 el Laboratorio de Zoonosis Virales del Centro Nacional de Salud Pública, Instituto Nacional de Salud, ha recepcionado muestras encefálicas (cerebro) de murciélagos, porcinos, bovinos y canes procedentes de la provincia de Condorcanqui, departamento de Amazonas, para confirmar la presencia del virus de la Rabia.

  16. THE INSURGENT ARCHITECTS' RIGHT TO THE CITY IN THE BRAZILIAN AMAZON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Schor

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Right to the City is not only a theoretical concept but also a political ideal. This paper will present empirical research and theoretical aspects ofo this right, and possibilities of change, through an analysis of a group of cities in the Brazilian Amazon, those located along the rivers Solimões and Amazonas, Amazonas state, Brazil. Cities have an in si and a per si character. Considering the in si character a city can be studied and comprehended in itself, its morphological structures (physical, imaginary and its fluxes (of things, people and power. This understanding is a necessary first movement for change and how this understanding is done, the methodological procedures, will limit or expand transformative possibilities. The revolutionary force of the Right to the City is to comprehend the city per si, as entity that can influence and take lead on the changes that transform the premises of the future. Areas with low city density, as the Amazon, a city itself has an important (usevalue. The functions that are intrinsic to cities are  available in definite places/locations. These cities are special places, still opened to change, for the handcuffs of private property of land as defined by capitalism are not fully established. Land property in most of the cities in the western section of the Brazilian Amazon is not defined by law: houses and gardens merge. The socioecological relationships that define this diverse socio-biodiversity may give interesting insights to the discussion of the Right to the City world-wide.

  17. An association between feather damaging behavior and corticosterone metabolite excretion in captive African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus

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    Pierluca Costa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus are kept as pets and are frequently hand-reared. It has been observed that hand-reared African grey parrots may develop behavioral disorders such as feather damaging behavior (FDB. It is well known that chronic stress is involved in behavioral disorders in captive parrots. The main glucocorticoid in birds is corticosterone; its quantification provides information about adrenocortical activity and is considered to be a reliable indicator of stress levels in birds. We analyzed the differences in the excretion of corticosterone metabolites (CM in the droppings of African grey parrots characterized by: 1. different rearing histories (parent rearing vs. hand rearing; and 2. the presence or absence of FDB in hand-reared parrots. Methods A total of 82 African grey parrots that were kept in captivity were considered. According to breeding methods, three groups of birds were defined: 1. The parent-reared (PR parrots included birds kept in pairs (n = 30 pairs with a conspecific partner of the opposite sex. All of these birds were healthy and never showed FDB signs; 2. The healthy hand-reared parrots (H-HR included pet parrots individually kept, that were hand-reared and did not display any sign of FDB (n = 11, 7 males and 4 females; 3. The FDB hand-reared parrot (FDB-HR included pet parrots individually kept, that were hand-reared and displayed FDB (n = 11, 7 males and 4 females. Droppings were collected in the morning over three alternating days in autumn 2014 and spring 2015. The CM were determined using a multi-species corticosterone enzyme immunoassay kit. Split-plot repeated-measure ANOVA was used to examine any differences using group, season and group × season as the main factors. Results Different quantities of CM in droppings were found for the three groups. The mean CM value was 587 ng/g in the PR parrots, 494 ng/g in the H-HR parrots and 1,744 ng/g in the FDB-HR parrots, irrespective of the

  18. Plant food resources and the diet of a parrot community in a gallery forest of the southern Pantanal (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragusa-Netto, J; Fecchio, A

    2006-11-01

    Neotropical parrots usually forage in forest canopies for nectar, flowers, leaves, fruit pulp, and seeds. As they have no all-purpose territories, these birds usually exploit vegetation mosaics in order to use plentiful resources as they become available. In this study we examine the use of a gallery forest in the southern Pantanal (Brazil) by a diverse parrot community that ranged from Brotogeris chiriri (a small species) to Ara chloroptera (a large one). Plant food resources principally used by parrots were abundantly available during the rainy season (fleshy fruits), the annual floods (fleshy fruits), and the dry season (flowers). While both smaller and larger species foraged on fruits, parakeets largely consumed the pulp, while larger parrot species used pulp and seeds. In the dry season parakeets foraged extensively on nectar, especially Inga vera nectar that was abundantly available during the last two months of the dry season, the harshest period of the year. Among larger parrots, only Propyrrhura auricollis frequently harvested nectar. Fruits maturing during floods, despite being fish- or water- dispersed were extensively used by the parrots. Hence, unlike what happens in most other Neotropical dry forests, occurrence of a fruiting peak during the annual flooding, which occurs in the transition from the wet to the dry season, constitutes an extra and significant episode of food availability, since in this period, fruit production normally declines. Therefore, the unique and abundant availability of flowers and fruits in this gallery forest may account for the presence of large parrot populations in the southern Pantanal.

  19. Epidemiology of infectious meningitis in the State of Amazonas, Brazil

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    Maria das Graças Gomes Saraiva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In the State of Amazonas, particularly in the capital Manaus, meningitis has affected populations of different cultures and social strata over the years. Bacterial meningitis is caused by several different species and represents a major issue of public health importance. The present study reports the meningitis case numbers with different etiologies in Amazonas from January 1976 to December 2012. METHODS: Since the 1970s, the (currently named Tropical Medicine Foundation of Doutor Heitor Vieira Dourado [Fundação de Medicina Tropical Doutor Heitor Vieira Dourado (FMT-HVD] has remained a reference center in Amazonas for the treatment of meningitis through the diagnosis and notification of cases and the confirmation of such cases using specific laboratory tests. RESULTS: The foundation has achieved coverage of over 90% of the state medical records for many years. Between 1990 and 2012, meningitis cases caused by Haemophilus influenzae decreased with the introduction of the H. influenzae vaccine. Meningococcal disease previously had a higher frequency of serogroup B disease, but starting in 2008, the detection of serogroup C increased gradually and has outpaced the detection of serogroup B. Recently, surveillance has improved the etiological definition of viral meningitis at FMT-HVD, with enteroviruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV and varicella zoster virus (VZV prevailing in this group of pathogens. With the advent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, cryptococcal meningitis has become an important disease in Amazonas. Additionally, infectious meningitis is an important burden in the State of Amazonas. CONCLUSIONS: Changes in the epidemiological profile for the different etiology-defined cases are the result of continuous epidemiological surveillance and laboratory capacity improvements and control measures, such as Haemophilus influenzae vaccination.

  20. Epidemiology of infectious meningitis in the State of Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Maria das Graças Gomes; Santos, Eyde Cristianne Saraiva; Saraceni, Valéria; Rocha, Lívia Laura dos Santos; Monte, Rossicléia Lins; Albuquerque, Bernardino Cláudio de; Bastos, Michele de Souza; Santos, Marcelo Cordeiro dos; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Mourão, Maria Paula Gomes; Guerra, Marcus Vinitius de Farias; Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães de

    2015-01-01

    In the State of Amazonas, particularly in the capital Manaus, meningitis has affected populations of different cultures and social strata over the years. Bacterial meningitis is caused by several different species and represents a major issue of public health importance. The present study reports the meningitis case numbers with different etiologies in Amazonas from January 1976 to December 2012. Since the 1970s, the (currently named) Tropical Medicine Foundation of Doutor Heitor Vieira Dourado [Fundação de Medicina Tropical Doutor Heitor Vieira Dourado (FMT-HVD)] has remained a reference center in Amazonas for the treatment of meningitis through the diagnosis and notification of cases and the confirmation of such cases using specific laboratory tests. The foundation has achieved coverage of over 90% of the state medical records for many years. Between 1990 and 2012, meningitis cases caused by Haemophilus influenzae decreased with the introduction of the H. influenzae vaccine. Meningococcal disease previously had a higher frequency of serogroup B disease, but starting in 2008, the detection of serogroup C increased gradually and has outpaced the detection of serogroup B. Recently, surveillance has improved the etiological definition of viral meningitis at FMT-HVD, with enteroviruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) prevailing in this group of pathogens. With the advent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), cryptococcal meningitis has become an important disease in Amazonas. Additionally, infectious meningitis is an important burden in the State of Amazonas. Changes in the epidemiological profile for the different etiology-defined cases are the result of continuous epidemiological surveillance and laboratory capacity improvements and control measures, such as Haemophilus influenzae vaccination.

  1. Feather damaging behaviour in parrots: a review with consideration of comparative aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zeeland, Y.R.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314101160; Spruijt, B.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/07079202X; Rodenburg, T.B.; Riedstra, B.; Buitenhuis, B.; van Hierden, Y.M.; Korte, S.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/088952827; Lumeij, J.T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073286826

    2009-01-01

    Feather damaging behaviour in parrots: A review with consideration of comparative aspects Yvonne R.A. van Zeelanda, , , Berry M. Spruitb, T. Bas Rodenburgc, Bernd Riedstrad, Yvonne M. van Hierdene, Bart Buitenhuisf, S. Mechiel Korteg, h and Johannes T. Lumeija aDivision of Zoological Medicine,

  2. Vines and canopy contact: a route for snake predation on parrot nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SUSAN E. KOENIG; JOSEPH M. WUNDERLE; ERNESTO C. ENKERLINHOEFLICH

    2007-01-01

    Ornithologists have hypothesized that some tropical forest birds avoid snake predation by nesting in isolated trees that do not have vines and canopy contact with neighbouring trees. Here we review two complementary studies that support this hypothesis by demonstrating (1) that an abundance of vines and an interlocking canopy characterized Jamaican Black-billed Parrot...

  3. Feather damaging behaviour in parrots: A review with consideration of comparative aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeland, van Y.R.A.; Spruit, B.M.; Rodenburg, T.B.; Riedstra, B.; Hierden, van Y.M.; Buitenhuis, A.J.; Korte, S.M.; Lumeij, J.T.

    2009-01-01

    Feather damaging behaviour (also referred to as feather picking or feather plucking) is a behavioural disorder that is frequently encountered in captive parrots. This disorder has many characteristics that are similar to trichotillomania, an impulse control disorder in humans. Unfortunately, to date

  4. Feather damaging behaviour in parrots : A review with consideration of comparative aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zeeland, Yvonne R. A.; Spruit, Berry M.; Rodenburg, T. Bas; Riedstra, Bernd; van Hierden, Yvonne M.; Buitenhuis, Bart; Korte, S. Mechiel; Lumeij, Johannes T.

    2009-01-01

    Feather damaging behaviour (also referred to as feather picking or feather plucking) is a behavioural disorder that is frequently encountered in captive parrots. This disorder has many characteristics that are similar to trichotillomania, an impulse control disorder in humans. Unfortunately, to date

  5. Prevalence and Genotyping of Cryptosporidium Infection in Pet Parrots in North China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Zhang, Nian-Zhang; Zhao, Guang-Hui; Zhao, Quan; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidiosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by Cryptosporidium spp., sometimes leading to severe diarrhea in humans and animals. In the present study, 311 parrots, belonging to four species, namely, Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), Lovebirds (Agapornis sp.), Alexandrine parakeets (Psittacula eupatria), and Cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus), from Beijing and Weifang cities, were examined for Cryptosporidium spp. infection. Blood samples of each bird were examined using enzyme linked...

  6. Artificial Cavities and Nest Site Selection by Puerto Rican Parrots: a Multiscale Assessment

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    Thomas H. White, Jr.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined nest site selection by Puerto Rican Parrots, a secondary cavity nester, at several spatial scales using the nest entrance as the central focal point relative to 20 habitat and spatial variables. The Puerto Rican Parrot is unique in that, since 2001, all known nesting in the wild has occurred in artificial cavities, which also provided us with an opportunity to evaluate nest site selection without confounding effects of the actual nest cavity characteristics. Because of the data limitations imposed by the small population size of this critically endangered endemic species, we employed a distribution-free statistical simulation approach to assess site selection relative to characteristics of used and unused nesting sites. Nest sites selected by Puerto Rican Parrots were characterized by greater horizontal and vertical visibility from the nest entrance, greater density of mature sierra palms, and a more westerly and leeward orientation of nest entrances than unused sites. Our results suggest that nest site selection in this species is an adaptive response to predation pressure, to which the parrots respond by selecting nest sites offering advantages in predator detection and avoidance at all stages of the nesting cycle. We conclude that identifying and replicating the “nest gestalt” of successful nesting sites may facilitate conservation efforts for this and other endangered avian species.

  7. Parasite diversity in Oxydoras niger (Osteichthyes: Doradidae) from the basin of Solimões River, Amazonas state, Brazil, and the relationship between monogenoidean and condition factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A M O; Tavares-Dias, M; Jerônimo, G T; Martins, M L

    2011-08-01

    This study describes the parasitic fauna of Oxydoras niger from the Coari Lake, tributary of the medium Solimões River, State of Amazonas, Brazil, and the relationship between the number of Monogenoidea and the condition factor. From a total of 27 examined fish, 70.3% were parasitised by at least one parasite species as follows: Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Protozoa), Chilodonella sp. (Protozoa), Cosmetocleithrum gussevi, C. confusus, C. parvum and Cosmetocleithrum sp. (Monogenoidea), Paracavisona impudica (Acanthocephala), Cucullanus grandistomis (Nematoda), Proteocephalus kuyukuyu (Cestoda) and Dadaytrema sp. (Digenea). Monogenoidea helminthes were the most prevalent parasite when compared to protozoan and intestinal helminthes. This study showed that O. niger has a great parasite diversity composed mainly of monogenoideans followed by acanthocephalan and digenean. This is the first record of Dadaytrema in O. niger from the Brazilian Amazon. There was a positive correlation between the number of monogenoideans and the condition factor (Kn) of fish, and with this mean intensity of infection, fish welfare was not affected.

  8. Phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Lábrea, state of Amazonas, Brazil, with a description of Evandromyia (Aldamyia) apurinan Shimabukuro, Figueira & Silva, sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueira, Elder Augusto Guimarães; Silva, Glacicleide; Chagas, Erica Cristina da Silva; Shimabukuro, Paloma Helena Fernandes

    2013-05-01

    An entomological survey was conducted from July-December 2009 and September-December 2010, as part of the epidemiological monitoring of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in the municipality of Lábrea, state of Amazonas (AM), Brazil. Sandflies were collected using CDC light traps installed in intra and peridomiciliary locations, as well as the border of forested areas around houses where autochthonous cases of ACL were recorded. A total of 510 sandflies belonging to 26 species were collected. The most abundant species was Nyssomyia antunesi (44.5%) followed by Evandromyia walkeri (10.6%) and Micropygomyia rorotaensis (9.8%). Here we also describe Evandromyia (Aldamyia) apurinan sp. nov. and report new records for Trichophoromyia flochi and Evandromyia sipani in AM and Brazil, respectively. Our results describe the composition of the sandfly fauna in the south of AM and suggest Ny. antunesi as the putative vector in the transmission of Leishmania in this area of the Amazon Region.

  9. Phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae from Lábrea, state of Amazonas, Brazil, with a description of Evandromyia (Aldamyia apurinan Shimabukuro, Figueira & Silva, sp. nov.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elder Augusto Guimarães Figueira

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available An entomological survey was conducted from July-December 2009 and September-December 2010, as part of the epidemiological monitoring of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL in the municipality of Lábrea, state of Amazonas (AM, Brazil. Sandflies were collected using CDC light traps installed in intra and peridomiciliary locations, as well as the border of forested areas around houses where autochthonous cases of ACL were recorded. A total of 510 sandflies belonging to 26 species were collected. The most abundant species was Nyssomyia antunesi (44.5% followed by Evandromyia walkeri (10.6% and Micropygomyia rorotaensis (9.8%. Here we also describe Evandromyia (Aldamyia apurinan sp. nov. and report new records for Trichophoromyia flochi and Evandromyia sipani in AM and Brazil, respectively. Our results describe the composition of the sandfly fauna in the south of AM and suggest Ny. antunesi as the putative vector in the transmission of Leishmania in this area of the Amazon Region.

  10. From "flowery hell" to the hope of sanitation: Science, Nature, and Health in the State of Amazonas during Brazilian First Republic (1890-1930

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    Nísia Trindade Lima

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the first two decades of the 20th century, publications of Euclides da Cunha, Alberto Rangel and Carlos Chagas about the Amazon presented from different perspectives a critique of what they considered unrealistic visions originated in the travel accounts of naturalists of 18th and 19th centuries. Alternatively, they proposed the analysis of the region from the perspective of new scientific knowledge, which included several areas - from geology to tropical medicine. Recent studies have indicated the need for more research on the institutions and local scientific practices, both in the development of ideas about the region and the definition of public policies. This article is proposed on this perspective, to reflect on the different ideas that were built by the medical-scientific thought about Nature and Society in the state of Amazonas during the Brazilian First Republic, when the rise and decline of the Amazonian rubber was experienced. It is understood that local physicians actively participated in scientific discussions related to tropical medicine, and put into practice the main theses about control and prevention of endemic diseases like malaria and yellow fever. This set of ideas and practices contributed to the definition of sanitation of the city of Manaus and the hinterland of state of Amazonas.

  11. Assessing the use of forest islands by parrot species in a neotropical savanna

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    Igor Berkunsky

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the effect of habitat fragmentation is a fundamental yet complicated aim of many ecological studies. Beni savanna is a naturally fragmented forest habitat, where forest islands exhibit variation in resources and threats. To understand how the availability of resources and threats affect the use of forest islands by parrots, we applied occupancy modeling to quantify use and detection probabilities for 12 parrot species on 60 forest islands. The presence of urucuri (Attalea phalerata and macaw (Acrocomia aculeata palms, the number of tree cavities on the islands, and the presence of selective logging,and fire were included as covariates associated with availability of resources and threats. The model-selection analysis indicated that both resources and threats variables explained the use of forest islands by parrots. For most species, the best models confirmed predictions. The number of cavities was positively associated with use of forest islands by 11 species. The area of the island and the presence of macaw palm showed a positive association with the probability of use by seven and five species, respectively, while selective logging and fire showed a negative association with five and six species, respectively. The Blue-throated Macaw (Ara glaucogularis, the critically endangered parrot species endemic to our study area, was the only species that showed a negative association with both threats. Monitoring continues to be essential to evaluate conservation and management actions of parrot populations. Understanding of how species are using this natural fragmented habitat will help determine which fragments should be preserved and which conservation actions are needed.

  12. CINEMA NO AMAZONAS: o imaginário colonizado navegando numa sociologia de ausências e emergências

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    Rafael de Figueiredo Lopes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo propõe uma reflexão sobre o Cinema no Amazonas, apresentando aspectos da produção audiovisual desde o início do século XX à contemporaneidade, dando ênfase a produção de cineastas locais. Propomos a configuração de um “ecossistema comunicacional” a partir da relação entre contexto histórico, artistas, meio ambiente, políticas públicas, estéticas e ideologias. A abordagem teórico-metodológica parte da ideia de sociologia das ausências e emergências, de Boaventura de Sousa Santos, em diálogo com autores amazônicos, como João de Jesus Paes Loureiro, e de teóricos da cultura e do audiovisual. Além da pesquisa bibliográfica foi realizado um estudo de campo para mapear a situação do setor audiovisual regional. Percebe-se que, por diversos fatores ao longo da história, o cinema amazonense é um segmento que se mantém praticamente imperceptível ou ignorado, pois além de estar apartado do sistema industrial de produção, distribuição e exibição, ainda não conquistou o reconhecimento do público regional.   PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Ecossistemas comunicacionais; Sociologia das emergências; cinema no Amazonas; Imaginário.     ABSTRACT This paper proposes a reflection on the Cinema in the Amazon, presenting aspects of audiovisual production since the beginning of the twentieth century to the contemporary, emphasizing the production of local filmmakers. We propose setting up a “communication ecosystem” from the relationship between historical context, artists, environment, public policy, aesthetics and ideologies. The theoretical and methodological approach of the idea of ​​sociology of absences and emergencies, Boaventura de Sousa Santos, in dialogue with Amazonian authors like Paes Loureiro, and theorists of culture and audiovisual. In addition to the literature search was conducted a field study to map the situation of the regional audiovisual sector. It is perceived that by various factors

  13. Forcing and mixing processes in the Amazon estuary: a study case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizerra, M.O.M.; Pontes, R.K. da S.; Carmo, A.M.C.; Rosario, R.P.; Gallo, M.N.; Vinzon, S.B.

    2008-01-01

    The research area of this paper is located at the estuary of the Amazon River (Brazil), more precisely at the river mouth (parallels 00 0 30 ' N and 1 0 30 ' N meridians 049 0 00 ' W and 050 0 00 ' W). This paper presents the results of air movement analysis on the surface atmospheric circulation over the Mouth of the Amazon River, salinity and temperature measures as well as measurements of currents, carried out along a longitudinal section in the navigation canal region of the Northern Bar of the Amazon River (Barra Norte do Rio Amazonas) in June 2006, during the river flood season in the quadrature tide. This paper purports to contribute towards better interpreting the dynamic effect in hydrodynamic, meteorological and hydro geographical parameters at the river mouth. The conclusion drawn from an examination of the issues and related research is that: a) the saline wedge-type stratification can be seen approximately 100 km away from the mouth of the Amazon River during the end of the rainy season in the quadrature tide; b) probably, at Amazon estuary quadrature entrainment processes are predominant and are the responsible for increased salinity in surface layer, whereas turbulence scattering mixing is secondary to it. c) The large flow of fresh water from the Amazon River at the end of the rainy season implies the displacement of the front saline position over the internal Amazon continental platform. d) The tidal wave shows a positive asymmetry in the canal, with floods lasting less than the ebb tide. This asymmetry in the canal, with floods lasting less than the ebb tide. This asymmetry decreases towards the ocean, eventually becoming reversed in the presence of a saline wedge. The speeds, however, have a negative asymmetry, with more intense ebb tides, due to the river flow and is more evident by the existence of quadrature tides. e) The progressive behavior of the tidal wave in its propagation in the Northern Channel as well as the effect of morphology on

  14. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhout van Solinge, T.

    2015-01-01

    This essay takes a (green) criminological and multidisciplinary perspective on deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, by focusing on the crimes and damages that are associated with Amazonian deforestation. The analysis and results are partly based on longer ethnographic stays in North Brazil (Amazon

  15. Severity of Scorpion Stings in the Western Brazilian Amazon: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Amanda M.; Sampaio, Vanderson S.; Mendonça, Iran; Fé, Nelson F.; Sachett, Jacqueline; Ferreira, Luiz Carlos L.; Feitosa, Esaú; Wen, Fan Hui; Lacerda, Marcus; Monteiro, Wuelton

    2015-01-01

    Background Scorpion stings are a major public health problem in Brazil, with an increasing number of registered cases every year. Affecting mostly vulnerable populations, the phenomenon is not well described and is considered a neglected disease. In Brazil, the use of anti-venom formulations is provided free of charge. The associate scorpion sting case is subject to compulsory reporting. This paper describes the epidemiology and identifies factors associated with severity of scorpions stings in the state of Amazonas, in the Western Brazilian Amazon. Methodology/Principal Findings This study included all cases of scorpion stings in the state of Amazonas reported to the Brazilian Diseases Surveillance System from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2014. A case-control study was conducted to identify factors associated with scorpions sting severity. A total of 2,120 cases were reported during this period. The mean incidence rate in the Amazonas was 7.6 per 100,000 inhabitants/year. Scorpion stings showed a large spatial distribution in the state and represent a potential occupational health problem for rural populations. There was a positive correlation between the absolute number of cases and the altimetric river levels in the Central (p<0.001; Rs = 0.479 linear) and Southwest (p = 0.032; linear Rs = 0.261) regions of the state. Cases were mostly classified as mild (68.6%), followed by moderate (26.8%), and severe (4.6%). The overall lethality rate was 0.3%. Lethality rate among children ≤10 years was 1.3%. Age <10 years [OR = 2.58 (95%CI = 1.47–4.55; p = 0.001)], stings occurring in the rural area [OR = 1.97 (95%CI = 1.18–3.29; p = 0.033) and in the South region of the state [OR = 1.85 (95%CI = 1.17–2.93; p = 0.008)] were independently associated with the risk of developing severity. Conclusions/Significance Scorpion stings show an extensive distribution in the Western Brazilian Amazon threatening especially rural populations, children ≤10 in particular. Thus

  16. Diatoms from the Colombian and Peruvian Amazon: the Genera Encyonema, Encyonopsis and Gomphonema (Cymbellales: Bacillariophyceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouilloud, Amelia A; Sala, Silvia E; Avellaneda, Marcela Núñez; Duque, Santiago R

    2010-03-01

    The diatom flora of the Colombian and Peruvian Amazon is far less studied than the flora of the Brazilian sector of the basin. Here we present results related to the genera Encyonema, Encyonopsis and Gomphonema. Plankton and periphyton samples were collected in lotic and lentic waterbodies from the Amazonian-Andean region, the Amazon River, Japurá River and Porvenir River basins during 1993, 1994, 2001 and 2003. At each sampling station pH, temperature, water transparency and conductivity were registered. Samples were analyzed with phase contrast microscope (LM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Ten taxa are new records for the area; Encyonema for the Peruvian and Colombian Amazon and Encyonopsis for the Colombian Sector. Encyonema neogracile var. tenuipunctatum, E. vulgare, Encyonopsis frequentis, Gomphonema augur var. sphaerophorum and G. contraturris are recorded for the first time in Colombia; Encyonema venezolanum and G. neoapiculatum in Colombia and Peru and the latter also for Amazonia. E. angustecapitatum was mentioned in Colombia before at a pond located at 3000 m asl. We describe a new species from Porvenir River, Amazonas, Colombia: Encyonema amazonianum.

  17. Palms of riverine communities as a sustainable resource in the Brazilian Amazon

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    Ires Paula de Andrade Miranda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Amazon, approximately 30% of the population is agglomerated in small villages or isolated areas. One of the most serious problems is the lack of electricity, where reduced supply and frequent rationing reduce life quality and prevent the instalation of industries that could raise the value of renewable regional products. Consequently, the pursuit of better socioeconomic conditions promote the quick depletion of natural resources, which invariably results in the accelerated destruction of local ecosystems. Oil palms, that are mainly used for basic nutrition of local populations, could also form the basis for models of self-sustained technological and industrial development. A quantitative survey of native species of oil palms offers an alternative for sustained development based on a technological and industrial model because this resource occurs in populated areas in the Amazon, which facilitates retaining the people in the field, preventing the depletion of natural ecosystems. This study presents the activities that were used to identify the potential of biomass of Euterpe precatoriaMart and other oil palms available in riverside communities in the state of Amazonas (Brazil. These activities are associated with the possibilities of using palm species for sustainable development of energy generation. It was possible to identify the conditions for a sustainable supply of biomass as an alternative energy source which contributes to the Energy Universalization Program in the Brazilian Amazon.

  18. The effects on Amazon floodplains of the dynamics between the water and land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Helena Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Waters and lands in the Amazon, especially near the Solimões/Amazonas Rivers, are very dynamic, recreating the landscapes along the rivers’ paths. The waters transport and deposit eroded materials, causing changes in the lifestyles of the meadow’s residents. In addition to this, there are the recent climatic changes caused by the El Niño phenomenon, intensifying the meadows’ transformations. This research explored the quantitative and qualitative values of knowledge of local people in order to understand the environment in which they live. With an understanding of the islands’ environmental system and the perceptions of seventeen female farmers of the amazon meadow, coupled with appropriate theory and methods, it was possible to explore and execute this research. Valha-me-Deus and Chaves, both in the county of Jurupis, PA, were the islands chosen for the study. The goal of the study was to characterize the dynamics of the waters and lands of the Amazon River together with the re-creation of the river islands and the effects of climate change over the floodplains. The data show meaningful changes in the studied environmental systems, resulting in irreversible losses in the cultivation of food crops such as papaya, cocoa, manioc and bananas, especially after the intense river flooding of 2009.

  19. New sedimentological and palynological data from surface Miocene strata in the central Amazonas Basin area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emílio Alberto Amaral Soares

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The scarcity of stratigraphic data has hindered the demarcation of the outcropping area of Miocene deposits of the Amazon Basin, represented informally by the Novo Remanso Formation. Moreover, this unit is characterized by a sparse and irregular geographic distribution due to its sedimentological features and rare fossil content. Miocene deposits cropping out in central Amazonas Basin area were described in sedimentological terms and analyzed palynologically. All analyses were undertaken in samples collected at the Uatumã River banks (Itapiranga and São Sebastião do Uatumã cities. Lithostratigraphic data shows that Novo Remanso Formation consists of sandstones, with subordinate conglomerates and pelites, characteristic of a meandering fluvial paleosystem, with fluvial channel, point bar, floodplain and crevasse splay facies. The palynoflora retrieved from five samples consists exclusively of continental-origin palynomorphs dominated by angiosperms species. Trilete spores are well represented, while gymnosperms pollen grains are minor components. The presence of Psilastephanoporites tesseroporus, Syncolporites poricostatus, Jandufouria seamrogiformis and Polypodiaceoisporites potoniei ensure these deposits fits into the Grimsdalea magnaclavata palynozone (Regali et al. 1974a, b, and the Grimsdalea magnaclavata/Crassoretitriletes vanraadshooveni palynozones of Jaramillo et al. (2011 considered Middle Miocene age. This age is confirmed by the zonation of Jaramillo et al. (2011, based on the LADs of Bombacacidites baumfalki (11.57Ma and Crototricolpites annemariae (12.91Ma; and the FAD of Psilastephanoporites tesseroporus (14.00Ma. With these new data presented herein, it is possible to assume that the Miocene strata represented by the Novo Remanso Formation covers a larger area in the basin than previously considered, and that it may be extended for about 300 km until the Manacapuru village, indicating a Miocene subsidence phase.

  20. Molecular typing of environmental Cryptococcus neoformans/C. gattii species complex isolates from Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Gleica Soyan Barbosa; Freire, Ana Karla Lima; Bentes, Amaury Dos Santos; Pinheiro, José Felipe de Souza; de Souza, João Vicente Braga; Wanke, Bodo; Matsuura, Takeshi; Jackisch-Matsuura, Ani Beatriz

    2016-08-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are the main causative agents of cryptococcosis, a systemic fungal disease that affects internal organs and skin, and which is acquired by inhalation of spores or encapsulated yeasts. It is currently known that the C. neoformans/C. gattii species complex has a worldwide distribution, however, some molecular types seem to prevail in certain regions. Few environmental studies of Cryptococcus have been conducted in the Brazilian Amazon. This is the first ecological study of the pathogenic fungi C. neoformans/C. gattii species complex in the urban area of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. A total of 506 samples from pigeon droppings (n = 191), captive bird droppings (n = 60) and tree hollows (n = 255) were collected from June 2012 to January 2014 at schools and public buildings, squares, pet shops, households, the zoo and the bus station. Samples were plated on niger seed agar (NSA) medium supplemented with chloramphenicol and incubated at 25°C for 5 days. Dark-brown colonies were isolated and tested for thermotolerance at 37°C, cycloheximide resistance and growth on canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue agar. Molecular typing was done by PCR-RFLP. Susceptibility to the antifungal drugs amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole and ketoconazole was tested using Etest(®) strips. In total, 13 positive samples were obtained: one tree hollow (C. gattiiVGII), nine pigeon droppings (C. neoformansVNI) and three captive bird droppings (C. neoformansVNI). The environmental cryptococcal isolates found in this study were of the same molecular types as those responsible for infections in Manaus. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. HIV/AIDS epidemic in the State of Amazonas: characteristics and trends from 2001 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Romina do Socorro Marques de; Benzaken, Adele Schwartz; Saraceni, Valeria; Sabidó, Meritxell

    2015-01-01

    A scoping review was conducted to describe the epidemiological characteristics of the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic in the State of Amazonas, Brazil, from 2001 to 2012, and temporary patterns were estimated from surveillance data. The results suggest that in its third decade, the Amazon HIV/AIDS epidemic is far from being stabilized and displays rising AIDS incidence and mortality rates and late diagnoses. The data suggest that AIDS cases are hitting mostly young adults and have recently shifted toward men, both homosexual and heterosexual. AIDS cases among the indigenous people have remained stable and low. However, the epidemic has disseminated to the interior of the state, which adds difficulties to its control, given the geographical isolation, logistical barriers, and culturally and ethnically diverse population. Antiretroviral (ARV) therapy has been decentralized, but peripheral ARV services are still insufficient and too distant from people who need them. Recently, the expansion of point-of-care (POC) rapid HIV testing has been contributing to overcoming logistical barriers. Other new POC devices, such as the PIMA CD4 analyzer, will bring the laboratory to the patient. AIDS uniquely coexists with other tropical infections, sharing their epidemiological profiles. The increased demand for HIV/AIDS care services can only be satisfied through increased decentralization to peripheral health units, which can also naturally integrate care with other tropical infections and can promote a shift from vertical to integrated programming. Future challenges involve building surveillance data on HIV case notification and covering the spectrum of engagement in care, including adherence to treatment and follow-up loss.

  2. HIV/AIDS epidemic in the State of Amazonas: characteristics and trends from 2001 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina do Socorro Marques de Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A scoping review was conducted to describe the epidemiological characteristics of the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS epidemic in the State of Amazonas, Brazil, from 2001 to 2012, and temporary patterns were estimated from surveillance data. The results suggest that in its third decade, the Amazon HIV/AIDS epidemic is far from being stabilized and displays rising AIDS incidence and mortality rates and late diagnoses. The data suggest that AIDS cases are hitting mostly young adults and have recently shifted toward men, both homosexual and heterosexual. AIDS cases among the indigenous people have remained stable and low. However, the epidemic has disseminated to the interior of the state, which adds difficulties to its control, given the geographical isolation, logistical barriers, and culturally and ethnically diverse population. Antiretroviral (ARV therapy has been decentralized, but peripheral ARV services are still insufficient and too distant from people who need them. Recently, the expansion of point-of-care (POC rapid HIV testing has been contributing to overcoming logistical barriers. Other new POC devices, such as the PIMA CD4 analyzer, will bring the laboratory to the patient. AIDS uniquely coexists with other tropical infections, sharing their epidemiological profiles. The increased demand for HIV/AIDS care services can only be satisfied through increased decentralization to peripheral health units, which can also naturally integrate care with other tropical infections and can promote a shift from vertical to integrated programming. Future challenges involve building surveillance data on HIV case notification and covering the spectrum of engagement in care, including adherence to treatment and follow-up loss.

  3. Ecoturismo: etnodesenvolvimento e inclusão social no Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivani Ferreira de Faria

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The tourism which is practiced in the State of Amazonas (Brazil is an international tourism. The great majority of the touristic infra-structure belongs to regional political oligarchies and to foreign undertakers/corporations that aim at immediate gain and capital accumulation, regarding the traditional populations (natives and river-bank inhabitants as cheap labour, excluding them of all and any process of planning and/or management of the (ecotouristic activities. This research analyses the forms of insertion of the traditional populations in the existing ecotouristic activities and their perceptions about these activities. It also discusses the conceptions of ecotourism, native ecotourism, native tourism, ethnic tourism and ethnotourism and points out the proceeding for the planning of ecotourism in Amazonas

  4. Briófitas de Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Yano,Olga; Câmara,Paulo Eduardo A.S.

    2004-01-01

    Foram listadas 74 espécies de briófitas para a cidade de Manaus, Amazonas, sendo 41 espécies de musgos distribuídos em 24 gêneros e 15 famílias e 33 hepáticas em 17 gêneros e sete famílias. Destas, 17 espécies de briófitas são ocorrências novas para Manaus e para o estado do Amazonas. T. ligulaefolium (Bartr.) Buck é uma ocorrência nova para o Brasil. São apresentadas associações com outras briófitas e comparação com outras espécies urbanas.

  5. The changing Amazon forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Oliver L; Lewis, Simon L; Baker, Timothy R; Chao, Kuo-Jung; Higuchi, Niro

    2008-05-27

    Long-term monitoring of distributed, multiple plots is the key to quantify macroecological patterns and changes. Here we examine the evidence for concerted changes in the structure, dynamics and composition of old-growth Amazonian forests in the late twentieth century. In the 1980s and 1990s, mature forests gained biomass and underwent accelerated growth and dynamics, all consistent with a widespread, long-acting stimulation of growth. Because growth on average exceeded mortality, intact Amazonian forests have been a carbon sink. In the late twentieth century, biomass of trees of more than 10cm diameter increased by 0.62+/-0.23tCha-1yr-1 averaged across the basin. This implies a carbon sink in Neotropical old-growth forest of at least 0.49+/-0.18PgCyr-1. If other biomass and necromass components are also increased proportionally, then the old-growth forest sink here has been 0.79+/-0.29PgCyr-1, even before allowing for any gains in soil carbon stocks. This is approximately equal to the carbon emissions to the atmosphere by Amazon deforestation. There is also evidence for recent changes in Amazon biodiversity. In the future, the growth response of remaining old-growth mature Amazon forests will saturate, and these ecosystems may switch from sink to source driven by higher respiration (temperature), higher mortality (as outputs equilibrate to the growth inputs and periodic drought) or compositional change (disturbances). Any switch from carbon sink to source would have profound implications for global climate, biodiversity and human welfare, while the documented acceleration of tree growth and mortality may already be affecting the interactions among millions of species.

  6. Termites (Isoptera) From The Lower Jspura River, Amazonas State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Constantino, Reginaldo

    1991-01-01

    Seventy species of termites were colected in primary forests on the lower Japurá River, Amazonas State, Brazil. Seven new species, Orthognathotermes humilis, sp. n., Spinitennes longiceps, sp. n., Annitermes gnomus, sp. n., Araujotermes nanus, sp. n., Embiratermes ignotus, sp. n., Subulitennes constricticeps, sp. n., and Syntermes robustus, sp.n., are described. The imago of Cavitermes parvicavus is described for the first time Drawings ofthe soldiers' head., ...

  7. Nutrient and phytoplankton biomass in the Amazon River shelf waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria L.S. Santos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon River estuary is notable at the Amazon Continental Shelf, where the presence of the large amount of water originating from the Amazon during the river's falling discharge period was made evident by the low salinity values and high nutrient levels. Even so, the presence of oceanic waters in the shelf area was significant. Dissolved organic nitrogen was the predominant species of the nitrogen cycle phases, followed by total particulate nitrogen, nitrate, ammonium and nitrite. The chlorophyll a data in the eutrophic area indicated that there is sufficient nitrogen in the area to withstand productivity, though dissolved inorganic nitrogen removal processes are faster than regeneration or mineralization. The anomalous amounts of inorganic dissolved nitrogen showed more removal than addition. The simulations with the bidimensional MAAC-2D model confirmed that high nutrient waters are displaced northwest-ward (two cores at 2.5ºN-50ºW and 4ºN-51ºW by the stronger NBC during falling river discharge. During high river flow period these nutrient-rich lenses are distributed around 0.5ºN-48.5ºW as well as along the shallow Amazonian shelf (20m-50m depth, 1ºN-3.5ºN, as a result of the spreading of Amazon freshwater outflow.O estuário do rio Amazonas é notável na Plataforma Continental do Amazonas, onde a presença das águas fluviais foi detectada, mesmo durante o período da diminuição da descarga desse rio, pelos baixos valores de salinidade e altos valores de nutrientes. Contudo, a presença das águas oceânicas também foi marcante. Em relação às fases do ciclo do nitrogênio, o nitrogênio orgânico dissolvido foi a forma predominante, seguido do nitrogênio total particulado, nitrato, amônia e nitrito. Os dados de clorofila a indicaram uma área eutrófica onde há nitrogênio embora os valores da anomalia do nitrogênio inorgânico dissolvido tenham mostrado que ocorre maior remoção do que adição dessa forma nitrogenada

  8. Amazônia em transe: Tensões políticas e estéticas do documentário Amazonas, Amazonas, de Glauber Rocha

    OpenAIRE

    Mendonça, Rosiel do Nascimento; UFAM - Universidade Federal do Amazonas; do Amaral, Vinicius Alves; UFAM - Universidade Federal do Amazonas

    2016-01-01

    DOI: 10.12957/revmar.2016.20879O projeto de pesquisa intitulado “Amazônya de Glauber Rocha” pretende investigar o impacto da breve estadia no Amazonas em 1965 na obra e na trajetória do cineasta baiano. Tanto essa passagem quanto seu resultado imediato, o filme Amazonas, Amazonas (1966), carecem de maiores estudos. Por meio de um leque variado de documentos, tentamos apresentar neste texto o principal foco da pesquisa até o momento: as tensões políticas e estéticas que cercaram a produção do ...

  9. Georges Frédéric Parrot' prantsuse nimest, päritolust ja retoorikast: rektori tervituskõne keisrile ja selle lausumiskontekstid / Marge Käsper, Epi Tohvri

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Käsper, Marge, 1973-

    2015-01-01

    G. F. Parrot' nimest. G. F. Parrot' päritolu sotsiaalkogukondlikust rollist ja selle retoorikast. Aleksander I kasvatusest ja valgustuse retoorikast. Keiser Aleksander I-le sügavat mõju avaldanud kõnest

  10. Electric power and traditional communities in the state of Amazonas: learning from the experience of the Roque Community in the Middle Jurua extractive reserve; Energia eletrica e as populacoes tradicionais do Estado do Amazonas: aprendizados a partir da experiencia na Comunidade do Roque na Reserva Extrativista do Medio Jurua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Celia Salama

    2010-09-15

    This work aims to bring new ideas for expanding access to electricity services to traditional communities in the state of Amazonas including strategies for income generation and improvement of local living conditions. To this end, the main achievements in the community of Roque in the implementation of the project Vegetable Oil for Electricity Generation and Valuation of Biodiversity in Isolated Communities of Extractive Reserve in the Middle Jurua, Carauari, Amazon state were identified and evaluated. Based on the results, a proposal for planning electrification works is formulated that takes into account local knowledge on socioeconomic and environmental conditions. In order to be implemented, such a proposal will require an improvement of the existing regulatory system and the establishment of partnerships or institutional articulation with broad stake holder involvement, including representatives of communities and local power utilities. (author)

  11. The influence of the Amazonian floodplain ecosystems on the trace element dynamics of the Amazon River mainstem (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viers, Jérôme; Barroux, Guénaël; Pinelli, Marcello; Seyler, Patrick; Oliva, Priscia; Dupré, Bernard; Boaventura, Geraldo Resende

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to forecast the role of riverine wetlands in the transfer of trace elements. One of the largest riverine wetlands in the world is the floodplain (várzea) of the Amazon River and its tributaries (Junk and Piedade, 1997). The central Amazon wetlands are constituted by a complex network of lakes and floodplains, named várzeas, that extend over more than 300,000 km2 (Junk, W.J., The Amazon floodplain--a sink or source for organic carbon? In Transport of Carbon and Minerals in Major World Rivers, edited by E.T. Degens, S. Kempe, R. Herrera, SCOPE/UNEP; 267-283, 1985.) and are among the most productive ecosystems in the world due to the regular enrichment in nutrients by river waters In order to understand if the adjacent floodplain of Amazon River have a significant influence on the trace element concentrations and fluxes of the mainstem, the concentrations of selected elements (i.e., Al, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Mo, Rb, Sr, Ba, and U) have been measured in the Amazon River water (Manacapuru Station, Amazonas State, Brazil) and in lake waters and plants (leaves) from a várzea(Ilha de Marchantaria, Amazonas State, Brazil) during different periods of the hydrological cycle. Four plant species (two perennial species: Pseudobombax munguba and Salix humboldtiana, and two annual herbaceous plants: Echinochloa polystachya and Eichhornia crassipes) were selected to represent the ecological functioning of the site. Time series obtained for dissolved Mn and Cu (River water could not be explained by tributary mixing or instream processes only. Therefore, the contribution of the waters transiting the floodplains should be considered. These results suggest that the chemical composition of the waters draining these floodplains is controlled by reactions occurring at sediment-water and plant-water interfaces. Trace elements concentrations in the plants (leaves) vary strongly with hydrological seasonality. Based on the concentration data and the biological

  12. A new species of the armored catfish Parotocinclus (Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae, from the Amazon basin in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Lehmann A.

    Full Text Available A new species of hypoptopomatine cascudinho is described from a creek tributary to the Amazon River in Leticia, Amazonas Departament, Colombia. The new species of Parotocinclus is distinguished from congeners from northeastern to southeastern Brazilian rivers in having the cheek canal plate elongated posteriorly on the ventral surface of head and contacting the cleithrum. It is diagnosed from P. collinsae (Essequibo River basin, Guiana and P. halbothi (rio Trombetas basin, Brazil and Marowijne River, Suriname, by having a triangular patch of dark pigmentation on the anterior portion of the dorsal-fin membrane, by the absence of unicuspid accessory teeth on both the premaxilla and dentary, and by having a Y-shaped light mark on the snout. The new species of Parotocinclus is distinguished from all remaining congeners by having a pigmentation pattern consisting of conspicuous dark dots smaller than a pupil diameter, broadly distributed dorsally and ventrally.

  13. Similarity between trace-element composition of river and seabed sediments in the Amazon system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, E. S. B.; Fernandes, E. A. N.; Oliveira, H.

    1996-03-01

    The aim of this paper was to study the elemental composition of sediments in the Amazon ecosystem by comparing bottom samples from the shelf with those from the floodplain of the Rio Amazonas. Trace elements measured by neutron activation analysis were used. The system is divided into three parts: the basin, including tributaries from the pre-Andean region to Óbidos; the delta—plain region between Óbidos and the mouth; and the continental shelf. Significant correlation was found between the shelf and floodplain sediments, especially those samples close to the mouth. In the shelf surface samples, Ta, Eu, La, and Ce (in this order) have the lowest coefficients of variation in concentration, whereas Hf, Br, and Cs have the greatest.

  14. Outbreak of acute Chagas disease associated with oral transmission in the Rio Negro region, Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cassia de Souza-Lima

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Chagas disease is considered as emerging in the Brazilian Amazon, usually occurring in acute outbreaks. Methods We describe 17 cases of acute Chagas disease in Rio Negro, Amazonas. Results There were 15 males (average age, 31.3 years, all positive for Trypanosoma cruzi in fresh blood smear examination, and 14 positive by xenodiagnosis and PCR. The top clinical manifestations were fever, asthenia, abdominal pain, and palpitations. Electrocardiograms featured low-voltage QRS, anterosuperior divisional block, and right bundle branch block associated with anterosuperior divisional block. Conclusions All patients had consumed açaí products from Monte Alegre in the rural area around Santa Izabel do Rio Negro, Brazil.

  15. Molecular comparison of topotypic specimens confirms Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus dunhami Causey (Diptera: Culicidae in the Colombian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy Ruiz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus dunhami Causey in Colombia (Department of Amazonas is confirmed for the first time through direct comparison of mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase I (COI barcodes and nuclear rDNA second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2 sequences with topotypic specimens of An. dunhami from Tefé, Brazil. An. dunhami was identified through retrospective correlation of DNA sequences following misidentification as Anopheles nuneztovari s.l. using available morphological keys for Colombian mosquitoes. That An. dunhami occurs in Colombia and also possibly throughout the Amazon Basin, is of importance to vector control programs, as this non-vector species is morphologically similar to known malaria vectors including An. nuneztovari, Anopheles oswaldoi and Anopheles trinkae. Species identification of An. dunhami and differentiation from these closely related species are highly robust using either DNA ITS2 sequences or COI DNA barcode. DNA methods are advocated for future differentiation of these often sympatric taxa in South America.

  16. The oil industry and his environmental impacts in the Amazon region -local study: Urucu and Jurua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Junior, A.B. de.

    1991-04-01

    The oil exploration and production, from the point of view of the main interactions with the environment, in the Amazon Region considering as reference the performance of PETROBRAS in the areas of the Urucu and Jurua rivers, in the Middle Solimoes, in the State of Amazonas are described. The paper comprises basically two sections. The first one is divided into four topics that refer to the analysis of prospecting, drilling, production and oil transportation. The second section of this work is more concerned to the analysis of the local and regional repercussions and expectations in the social and economical level, after the Urucu and Jurua areas were confirmed as another Brazilian oil province. (author)

  17. Fluorescence lifetime evaluation of whole soils from the Amazon rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolodelli, Gustavo; Tadini, Amanda Maria; Nogueira, Marcelo Saito; Pratavieira, Sebastião; Mounier, Stephane; Huaman, Jose Luis Clabel; Dos Santos, Cléber Hilário; Montes, Célia Regina; Milori, Débora Marcondes Bastos Pereira

    2017-08-20

    Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFS) is a new tool that can be used to investigate processes of interaction between metal ions and organic matter (OM) in soils, providing a specific analysis of the structure and dynamics of macromolecules. To the best of our knowledge, there are no studies in the literature reporting the use of this technique applied to whole/non-fractionated soil samples, making it a potential method for use in future studies. This work describes the use of TRFS to evaluate the fluorescence lifetimes of OM of whole soils from the Amazon region. Analysis was made of pellets of soils from an oxisol-spodosol system, collected in São Gabriel da Cachoeira (Amazonas, Brazil). The fluorescence lifetimes in the oxisol-spodosol system were attributed to two different fluorophores. One was related to complexation of an OM fraction with metals, resulting in a shorter fluorophore lifetime. A short fluorescence lifetime (2-12 ns) could be associated with simpler structures of the OM, while a long lifetime (19-66 ns) was associated with more complex OM structures. This new TRFS technique for analysis of the fluorescence lifetime in whole soil samples complies with the principles of green chemistry.

  18. Social isolation shortens telomeres in African Grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus erithacus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Aydinonat

    Full Text Available Telomeres, the caps of eukaryotic chromosomes, control chromosome stability and cellular senescence, but aging and exposure to chronic stress are suspected to cause attrition of telomere length. We investigated the effect of social isolation on telomere length in the highly social and intelligent African Grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus erithacus. Our study population consisted of single-housed (n = 26 and pair-housed (n = 19 captive individuals between 0.75 to 45 years of age. Relative telomere length of erythrocyte DNA was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. We found that telomere length declined with age (p<0.001, and socially isolated parrots had significantly shorter telomeres compared to pair-housed birds (p<0.001 - even among birds of similar ages. Our findings provide the first evidence that social isolation affects telomere length, which supports the hypothesis that telomeres provide a biomarker indicating exposure to chronic stress.

  19. Vocal Modification Abilities and Brain Structures in Parrots – how do they Correlate?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harpøth, Solveig Walløe

    .e. the oval nucleus of the mesopallium, MO and 3) investigate the effect of long-­term social and sound-isolation on the vocal modification ability and on the contact call of the peach-­fronted conure, Aratinga aurea. Article 1: The social complexity hypothesis states that with a complex social structure......Behavioral capability and related brain structures has been linked many times. It is a relationship that may vary between individuals and species, depending on for example the level of sociality. This PhD-­thesis investigates this relationship using parrots as experimental subjects. Parrots...... to have the least complex social structure and it was also the species that showed the least change to the contact call. The cockatiel and the peach-faced lovebird both show intermediary social complexity, and they also showed intermediary changes to their contact call, compared to the peach...

  20. [Socio-ecological super-determination of health in rural areas in Humaitá, State of Amazonas, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütz, Gabriel Eduardo; Mello, Marcia Gomide da Silva; de Carvalho, Marcia Aparecida Ribeiro; Câmara, Volney de Magalhães

    2014-10-01

    The scope of this article is to apply a trans-disciplinary socio-ecological approach to discuss the super-determination of health in rural areas of the southern Amazon region from a case study developed in Humaitá in the State of Amazonas in Brazil. Field data were collected using ethnographic techniques applied during three expeditions in Humaitá's rural area between 2012 and 2014. Based on the 'socio-ecological metabolism' analytical category, a descriptive and theoretical analysis of four crucial components in the process of super-determination of local health are presented: (1) the composition of the local rural population; (2) fixed and changing territorial aspects; (3) construction of socio-ecological identities; (4) ethnic conflict between Indians and non-Indians. The conclusion reached is that the incorporation of a socio-ecological approach in territorial-based health research provides input for analyses of the local health situation through the systematization of information related to the process of super-determination of health. It also helps in the construction of trans-disciplinarity, which is a necessary epistemological condition for addressing the complex reality at the interfaces of social production, the environment and health.

  1. Interaction of landscape varibles on the potential geographical distribution of parrots in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plasencia–Vázquez, A. H.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The loss, degradation, and fragmentation of forested areas are endangering parrot populations. In this study, we determined the influence of fragmentation in relation to vegetation cover, land use, and spatial configuration of fragments on the potential geographical distribution patterns of parrots in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. We used the potential geographical distribution for eight parrot species, considering the recently published maps obtained with the maximum entropy algorithm, and we incorporated the probability distribution for each species. We calculated 71 metrics/variables that evaluate forest fragmentation, spatial configuration of fragments, the ratio occupied by vegetation, and the land use in 100 plots of approximately 29 km², randomly distributed within the presence and absence areas predicted for each species. We also considered the relationship between environmental variables and the distribution probability of species. We used a partial least squares regression to explore patterns between the variables used and the potential distribution models. None of the environmental variables analyzed alone determined the presence/absence or the probability distribution of parrots in the Peninsula. We found that for the eight species, either due to the presence/absence or the probability distribution, the most important explanatory variables were the interaction among three variables, particularly the interactions among the total forest area, the total edge, and the tropical semi–evergreen medium– height forest. Habitat fragmentation influenced the potential geographical distribution of these species in terms of the characteristics of other environmental factors that are expressed together with the geographical division, such as the different vegetation cover ratio and land uses in deforested areas.

  2. Plant food resources and the diet of a parrot community in a gallery forest of the southern Pantanal (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ragusa-Netto

    Full Text Available Neotropical parrots usually forage in forest canopies for nectar, flowers, leaves, fruit pulp, and seeds. As they have no all-purpose territories, these birds usually exploit vegetation mosaics in order to use plentiful resources as they become available. In this study we examine the use of a gallery forest in the southern Pantanal (Brazil by a diverse parrot community that ranged from Brotogeris chiriri (a small species to Ara chloroptera (a large one. Plant food resources principally used by parrots were abundantly available during the rainy season (fleshy fruits, the annual floods (fleshy fruits, and the dry season (flowers. While both smaller and larger species foraged on fruits, parakeets largely consumed the pulp, while larger parrot species used pulp and seeds. In the dry season parakeets foraged extensively on nectar, especially Inga vera nectar that was abundantly available during the last two months of the dry season, the harshest period of the year. Among larger parrots, only Propyrrhura auricollis frequently harvested nectar. Fruits maturing during floods, despite being fish- or water- dispersed were extensively used by the parrots. Hence, unlike what happens in most other Neotropical dry forests, occurrence of a fruiting peak during the annual flooding, which occurs in the transition from the wet to the dry season, constitutes an extra and significant episode of food availability, since in this period, fruit production normally declines. Therefore, the unique and abundant availability of flowers and fruits in this gallery forest may account for the presence of large parrot populations in the southern Pantanal.

  3. Violence against Amazon women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Vera Lúcia de Azevedo; Souza, Maria de Lourdes de; Monticelli, Marisa; Oliveira, Marília de Fátima Vieira de; Souza, Carlos Benedito Marinho de; Costa, Carlos Alberto Leal da; Brüggemann, Odaléa Maria

    2009-01-01

    This quantitative and exploratory study analyzed violence against Amazon women presented in print media according to type and severity, and whether aggressors fell under the Maria da Penha law. A total of 181 issues of a regional newspaper were consulted. Based on content analysis, 164 items addressing violence against women were selected and 46 were included in the corpus of analysis. Results were gathered in three thematic groups: women killed with cruelty, sexual violence against women regardless of age, and violence against women and the limitations of the Maria da Penha law. Violence against these women varied in terms of form and severity, including up to homicide. Women are submitted to sexual violence from childhood through adulthood. The enforcement of this law shows the community it has a means to cope with this social phenomenon.

  4. Composição florística de plantas daninhas em um lago do Rio Solimões, Amazonas Floristic composition of weeds in a lake of Solimoes River, Amazonas, Brazil

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    S.M.F. Albertino

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available As áreas inundáveis localizadas na bacia dos rios Amazonas e Solimões são denominadas várzeas. A inundação é um evento natural que promove mudanças na estrutura e composição florística dessas comunidades. O conhecimento da diversidade de espécies é de fundamental importância para o entendimento da dinâmica da regeneração natural de espécies nos ecossistemas amazônicos. Este trabalho teve como objetivo levantar a composição florística do solo do fundo do lago do Manaquiri-AM, em um período de seca excepcional, ocorrida em 2005, na Amazônia. Foram realizadas coletas de material botânico em duas áreas do lago, em novembro de 2005; para a amostragem, utilizou-se um quadrado de madeira de 0,36 m², atirado aleatoriamente por 20 vezes em cada local de estudo. A vegetação emergente foi de 5.958 indivíduos, distribuídos em sete famílias e nove espécies. As famílias mais representativas em número de espécies foram Poaceae e Cyperaceae. Cyperus esculentus e Luziola spruceana foram as mais frequentes, e Mimosa pudica e Alternanthera sessilis, as de maior abundância. C. esculentus e M. pudica apresentaram maior número de indivíduos, de densidade e de valor de importância. As espécies de plantas encontradas neste estudo mantiveram sua capacidade de crescer e se desenvolver mesmo após longo período submersas.The swamps located at the basins of the Amazonas and Solimões rivers are denominated "várzeas". In these areas, flooding is a natural event that changes the structure and composition of the local plants. Thus, knowing the species diversity in these Amazon region areas is extremely important to understand the dynamics of the natural regeneration of the Amazon ecosystem species. Accordingly, the goal of this study was to survey the soil floristic composition at the bottom of the Manaquiri Lake, Amazon, during an exceptional dry period in 2005. Plants were collected in two areas of the lake in November 2005. Flora

  5. Temporal distribution of tuberculosis in the State of Amazonas, Brazil

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    Marlucia da Silva Garrido

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is one of the infectious diseases that contributes most to the morbidity and mortality of millions of people worldwide. Brazil is one of 22 countries that accounts for 80% of the tuberculosis global burden. The highest incidence rates in Brazil occur in the States of Amazonas and Rio de Janeiro. The aim of this study was to describe the temporal distribution of TB in the State of Amazonas. Between 2001 and 2011, 28,198 cases of tuberculosis were reported in Amazonas, distributed among 62 municipalities, with the capital Manaus reporting the highest (68.7% concentration of cases. Tuberculosis was more prevalent among males (59.3% aged 15 to 34 years old (45.5%, whose race/color was predominantly pardo (64.7% and who had pulmonary TB (84.3%. During this period, 81 cases of multidrug-resistant TB were registered, of which the highest concentration was reported from 2008 onward (p = 0.002. The municipalities with the largest numbers of indigenous individuals affected were São Gabriel da Cachoeira (93%, Itamarati (78.1%, and Santa Isabel do Rio Negro (70.1%. The future outlook for this region includes strengthening the TB control at the primary care level, by expanding diagnostic capabilities, access to treatment, research projects developed in collaboration with the Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado Tropical Medicine Foundation .;Fundação de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado (FMT-HVD.; and financing institutions, such as the project for the expansion of the Clinical Research Center and the creation of a hospital ward for individuals with transmissible respiratory diseases, including TB.

  6. Temporal distribution of tuberculosis in the State of Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Marlucia da Silva; Bührer-Sékula, Samira; Souza, Alexandra Brito de; Ramasawmy, Rajendranath; Quincó, Patrícia de Lima; Monte, Rossicleia Lins; Santos, Lucilaide Oliveira; Perez-Porcuna, Tomás Maria; Martinez-Espínosa, Flor Ernestina; Saraceni, Valéria; Cordeiro-Santos, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the infectious diseases that contributes most to the morbidity and mortality of millions of people worldwide. Brazil is one of 22 countries that accounts for 80% of the tuberculosis global burden. The highest incidence rates in Brazil occur in the States of Amazonas and Rio de Janeiro. The aim of this study was to describe the temporal distribution of TB in the State of Amazonas. Between 2001 and 2011, 28,198 cases of tuberculosis were reported in Amazonas, distributed among 62 municipalities, with the capital Manaus reporting the highest (68.7%) concentration of cases. Tuberculosis was more prevalent among males (59.3%) aged 15 to 34 years old (45.5%), whose race/color was predominantly pardo (64.7%) and who had pulmonary TB (84.3%). During this period, 81 cases of multidrug-resistant TB were registered, of which the highest concentration was reported from 2008 onward (p = 0.002). The municipalities with the largest numbers of indigenous individuals affected were São Gabriel da Cachoeira (93%), Itamarati (78.1%), and Santa Isabel do Rio Negro (70.1%). The future outlook for this region includes strengthening the TB control at the primary care level, by expanding diagnostic capabilities, access to treatment, research projects developed in collaboration with the Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado Tropical Medicine Foundation .;Fundação de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado (FMT-HVD).; and financing institutions, such as the project for the expansion of the Clinical Research Center and the creation of a hospital ward for individuals with transmissible respiratory diseases, including TB.

  7. Presencia de Aedes albopictus en Leticia, Amazonas, Colombia

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    Iván Darío Vélez

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available La especie Aedes albopictus es un eficiente vector del dengue en Asia y, posiblemente, de otros arbovirus incluyendo la fiebre amarilla y la encefalitis. En la ultima década se ha extendido la distribución de A. albopictus a las Américas. En la ciudad de Tabatinga, Brasil, muy cerceide la frontera con Colombia, se ha informado la presencia de esta especie en 1996 y, posteriormente, en octubre de 1997. En marzo de 1998, en desarrollo de un e&udio sobre enfermedades tropicales realizado por el Programa de Estudio y Cotítrol de Enfermedades Tropicales, PECET, de la Universidad de Antioquia y la secretaría de Salud del Amazonas, se capturaron 8 ejemplares adultos de A. albopictus en la ciudad de Leticia, departamento del Amazonas, siendo éste el primer hallazgo de esta especie en Colombia. La presencia en Colombia de A. albopictus vuelve más complejo el problema del dengue por la mayor adaptación de este vector a climas más fríos, la capacidad de transmisión transovariana, la buena capacidad vectorial para transmitir los cuatro serotipos del virus y la mayor dificultad para su control dado que sus criaderos están en áreas peridomésticas y rurales. La distribución de esta especie tanto en zonas selváticas como rurales y urbanas presenta un peligro potencial de urbanizar la transmisión de la fiebre amarilla. Se presenta el plan de contingencia que se debe implementar por parte de la Secretaría de Salud del Amazonas con miras a evitar la propagación de este vector a otras regiones del país.

  8. Miconia papillosperma (Melastomataceae, Miconieae): a new species from Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelangeli, Fabián A; Goldenberg, Renato

    2016-01-01

    Miconia papillosperma, a new species of Melastomataceae shrubs from Northern Brazil is described and illustrated. This new species is characterized by elliptic lanceolate leaves with the only pair of secondary veins running close to the margin. It is also unique in having seeds with a papillose testa, a character until now unknown in the Miconieae. The description of this new species from a relatively well collected area near a major road north of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, is further evidence of our lack of knowledge on plants in many Neotropical areas.

  9. Avifauna of the Pongos Basin, Amazonas Department, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Daniel M.; O'Neill, John P.; Foster, Mercedes S.; Mark, Todd; Dauphine, Nico; Franke, Irma J.

    2009-01-01

    We provide an inventory of the avifauna of the Pongos Basin, northern Amazonas Department, Peru based on museum specimens collected during expeditions spanning >60 years within the 20th century. Four hundred and thirty-eight species representing 52 families are reported. Differences between lowland and higher elevation avifaunas were apparent. Species accounts with overviews of specimen data are provided for four species representing distributional records, two threatened species, and 26 species of Nearctic and Austral migrants, of which six are considered probable migrants.

  10. A emergência da Aids no Amazonas

    OpenAIRE

    Kadri,Michele Rocha; Schweickardt,Júlio César

    2016-01-01

    Resumo O artigo analisa o contexto histórico, social e político do surgimento da Aids no Amazonas e como as respostas locais foram moldadas pelas mudanças ocorridas na política nacional. Para isso, utilizou-se pesquisa de fontes documentais – de instituições governamentais e não governamentais – complementadas e esclarecidas por fonte oral – relatos de gestores/profissionais de saúde que lideraram a organização da assistência aos soropositivos no estado e ativistas. A partir...

  11. A emergência da Aids no Amazonas

    OpenAIRE

    Kadri, Michele Rocha; Schweickardt, Júlio César

    2016-01-01

    Resumo O artigo analisa o contexto histórico, social e político do surgimento da Aids no Amazonas e como as respostas locais foram moldadas pelas mudanças ocorridas na política nacional. Para isso, utilizou-se pesquisa de fontes documentais – de instituições governamentais e não governamentais – complementadas e esclarecidas por fonte oral – relatos de gestores/profissionais de saúde que lideraram a organização da assistência aos soropositivos no estado e ativistas. A partir desse levantament...

  12. Time scale and conditions of weathering under tropical climate: Study of the Amazon basin with U-series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosseto, A.; Bourdon, B.; Gaillardet, J.; Allègre, C. J.; Filizola, N.

    2006-01-01

    The Rio Solimões/Amazonas (Amazon River) and its major tributaries have been analyzed for U-series nuclides. 238U- 234U- 230Th- 226Ra disequilibria have been measured in the dissolved (0.2 μm) as well as bed sands. U-series disequilibria are closely related to major and trace element compositions and therefore reflect elemental fractionation during chemical weathering. Moreover, while the dissolved load records present-day weathering, suspended particles integrate the erosion history over much longer time scales (>100 ka). Lowland rivers are characterized by long time scales of chemical erosion (⩾100 ka) resulting in a high weathering intensity. Moreover, exchange between suspended particles and the dissolved load may explain the U-series signature for these rivers. By combining U-series and Pb isotopes in suspended particles, we show that erosion in the Rio Madeira basin occurred as a multi-step process, whereby the pristine continental crust was eroded several hundreds of Ma ago to produce sediments that have then been integrated in the Cordillera by crustal shortening and are currently eroded. In contrast, recent erosion of a pristine crust is more likely for the Rio Solimões/Amazonas (rivers draining the Andes (Solimões/Amazonas, Madeira) suggest time scales of weathering ranging between 4 and 20 ka. This indicates that suspended particles transported by those rivers are not stored for long periods in the Andean foreland basin and the tropical plain. The sediments delivered to the ocean have resided only a few ka in the Amazon basin (6.3 ± 1 ka for the Rio Amazonas at Óbidos). Nevertheless, a large fraction of the sediments coming out from the Andes are trapped in the foreland basin and may never reach the ocean. Erosion in the Andes is not operating in steady state. U-series systematics shows unambiguously that rivers are exporting a lot more sediments than predicted by steady-state erosion and that is a consequence of soil destruction greater than

  13. Dynamics of Dissolved Organic Matter in Amazon Basin: Insights into Negro River Contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Turcq, P.; Perez, M. P.; Benedetti, M.; Oliveira, M. A.; Lagane, C.; Seyler, P.; Oliveira, E.

    2006-12-01

    mean annual water input to Amazonas of 15%, the Negro River contributes with about 38% of the total organic dissolved carbon transported by the Amazon River.

  14. A profile of scorpionism, including the species of scorpions involved, in the State of Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Cícero Lucinaldo Soares de Oliveira; Fé, Nelson Ferreira; Sampaio, Iracilda; Tadei, Wanderli Pedro

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated scorpionism profile in the State of Amazonas, Brazil. Data referring to stinging incidents were obtained from the National Databank of Major Causes of Morbidity. Information on the scorpion species involved was obtained from the Amazonas State health units. Amazonas has a scorpionism rate of 8.14 cases/100,000 inhabitants. Some municipalities (e.g., Apuí) presented higher rates (273 cases/100,000 inhabitants). Most species involved in envenomation belonged to the genus Tityus. Our results reaffirm the notion of scorpionism being a public health hazard and provide data that can guide public policy aimed at scorpionism prevention and treatment.

  15. Hydrologic resilience and Amazon productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlström, Anders; Canadell, Josep G; Schurgers, Guy; Wu, Minchao; Berry, Joseph A; Guan, Kaiyu; Jackson, Robert B

    2017-08-30

    The Amazon rainforest is disproportionately important for global carbon storage and biodiversity. The system couples the atmosphere and land, with moist forest that depends on convection to sustain gross primary productivity and growth. Earth system models that estimate future climate and vegetation show little agreement in Amazon simulations. Here we show that biases in internally generated climate, primarily precipitation, explain most of the uncertainty in Earth system model results; models, empirical data and theory converge when precipitation biases are accounted for. Gross primary productivity, above-ground biomass and tree cover align on a hydrological relationship with a breakpoint at ~2000 mm annual precipitation, where the system transitions between water and radiation limitation of evapotranspiration. The breakpoint appears to be fairly stable in the future, suggesting resilience of the Amazon to climate change. Changes in precipitation and land use are therefore more likely to govern biomass and vegetation structure in Amazonia.Earth system model simulations of future climate in the Amazon show little agreement. Here, the authors show that biases in internally generated climate explain most of this uncertainty and that the balance between water-saturated and water-limited evapotranspiration controls the Amazon resilience to climate change.

  16. Seven new species of Lachesilla (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Lachesillidae, in the group forcepeta from the Amazon Basin Sete espécies novas de Lachesilla Westwood (Psocodea:'Psocoptera': Lachesillidae do grupo forcepeta da Bacia Amazônica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso N. García Aldrete

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Seven new species of Lachesilla in the group forcepeta, from the Amazon Basin in Brazil, Colombia and Peru, are here described and illustrated: L. amacayacuensis sp. n. (type locality: Colombia, Amazonas, Leticia, Amacayacú; L.bulbosiforceps sp. n. (type locality: Peru, Cuzco; L. cuzcoensis sp. n. (type locality: Peru, Cuzco; L. marabaensis sp. n. (type locality: Brasil, Pará, Marabá, Serra Norte; L. pilosiforceps sp. n. (type locality: Brasil, Pará, Oriximiná, Rio Trombetas; L. pilosipenna sp. n. (type locality: Peru, Cuzco; L. squamiforceps sp. n. (type locality: Colombia, Amazonas, Leticia. The Amazon Basin is the second most rich world area for species of Lachesilla.São descritas e ilustradas sete espécies de Lachesilla do grupo forcepeta, provenientes da bacia amazônica do Brasil, Colômbia e Peru: L. amacayacuensis sp. n. (localidade-tipo: Colômbia, Amazonas, Leticia, Amacayacú; L. bulbosiforceps sp. n. (localidade-tipo: Peru, Cuzco; L. cuzcoensis sp. n. (localidade-tipo: Peru, Cuzco; L. marabaensis sp. n. (localidade-tipo: Brasil, Pará, Marabá, Serra Norte; L. pilosiforceps sp. n. (localidade-tipo: Brasil, Pará, Oriximiná, Rio Trombetas; L. pilosipenna sp. n. (localidade-tipo: Peru, Cuzco; L. squamiforceps sp. n. (localidade-tipo: Colômbia, Amazonas, Letícia. A região amazônica é a segunda mais rica em número de espécies de Lachesilla.

  17. A emergência da Aids no Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Rocha Kadri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O artigo analisa o contexto histórico, social e político do surgimento da Aids no Amazonas e como as respostas locais foram moldadas pelas mudanças ocorridas na política nacional. Para isso, utilizou-se pesquisa de fontes documentais – de instituições governamentais e não governamentais – complementadas e esclarecidas por fonte oral – relatos de gestores/profissionais de saúde que lideraram a organização da assistência aos soropositivos no estado e ativistas. A partir desse levantamento revelou-se que a desarticulação entre as instituições de assistência e cuidado e principalmente a falta de priorização política para combate à epidemia no Amazonas têm dificultado o planejamento e execução de ações e estratégias públicas com abrangência em toda a rede de assistência no estado.

  18. Lidar Comparison for GoAmazon 2014/15 Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Henrique MJ [Universidade de Sao Paulo; Barja, B [Universidade de Sao Paulo; Landulfo, E [Universidade de Sao Paulo

    2016-04-01

    The Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15 (GoAmazon 2014/15) experiment uses the city of Manaus, Amazonas (AM), Brazil, in the setting of the surrounding green ocean as a natural laboratory for understanding the effects of present and future anthropogenic pollution on the aerosol and cloud life cycle in the tropics. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) supported this experiment through the deployment of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s first Mobile Facility (AMF-1) in the city of Manacapuru, which is 100 km downwind of Manaus, from January 1 2014 to December 31 2015. During the second Intensive Operational Period (IOP) from August 15 to October 15 2014, three lidar systems were operated simultaneously at different experimental sites, and an instrument comparison campaign was carried out during the period October 4 to 10, during which the mobile lidar system from Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares-Universidade de São Paulo was brought from the T2 site (Iranduba) to the other sites (T3 [Manacapuru] and then T0e-Embrapa). In this report we present the data collected by the mobile lidar system at the DOE-ARM site and compare its measurements with those from the micro-pulse lidar system running at that site.

  19. Review of Studies on Visual Perception in Grey Parrots (Psittacus erithacus: The Muller-Lyer Illusion, Amodal and Modal Completion

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    Irene M. Pepperberg

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Few avian studies on optical illusions are directly comparable to those with humans. Grey parrots that have some referential use of English speech, however, allow for such comparative studies, as these birds can be tested just as are humans, by asking them to describe exactly what they have seen. Here I review two studies, one on the Müller-Lyer illusion (Pepperberg, Vicinay, & Cavanagh, 2008, one on amodal and modal perception (Pepperberg & Nakayama, 2016, that demonstrate similarities between human and Grey parrot perceptual abilities.

  20. Descrição anatômica de esqueletos de papagaios do gênero Amazona através da utilização de radiografias

    OpenAIRE

    Cavinatto,Carla C.; Armando,Alexandre P.R.N.; Cruz,Layla K.S.; Lima,Eduardo M.M. de; Santana,Marcelo I.S.

    2016-01-01

    Resumo: O esqueleto de papagaios da espécie Amazona aestiva foi descrito e comparado com representantes de outras espécies do gênero Amazona. Para tanto, foram utilizados 22 exemplares da espécie Amazona aestiva; dois das espécies Amazona vinacea; Amazona rhodocorythae, Amazona farinosa, além de um exemplar das espécies Amazona brasiliensis e Amazona pretrei, doados após morte natural pelo Criadouro Poços de Caldas. Foram realizadas radiografias de corpo inteiro, variando de decúbito lateral ...

  1. Environmental isolation of Cryptococcus gattii VGII from indoor dust from typical wooden houses in the deep Amazonas of the Rio Negro basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito-Santos, Fábio; Barbosa, Gláucia Gonçalves; Trilles, Luciana; Nishikawa, Marília Martins; Wanke, Bodo; Meyer, Wieland; Carvalho-Costa, Filipe Anibal; Lazéra, Márcia dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Cryptococcosis is a human fungal infection of significant mortality and morbidity, especially in the meningoencephalitis form. Cryptococcosis is distributed worldwide and its agents, C. neoformans and C. gattii, present eight major molecular types-VNI-VNIV and VGI-VGIV respectively. The primary cryptococcosis caused by molecular type VGII (serotype B, MAT alpha) prevails in immunocompetent patients in the North and Northeast of Brazil, revealing an endemic regional pattern to this molecular type. Since 1999, C. gattii VGII has been involved in an ongoing outbreak in Canada, and is expanding to the Northwest of the United States, two temperate regions. Exposure to propagules dispersed in the environment, related to various organic substrates, mainly decomposing wood in and around dwellings, initiates the infection process. The present study investigated the presence of the agents of cryptococcosis in dust from dwellings in the upper Rio Negro, municipality of Santa Isabel do Rio Negro in Amazonas state. Indoor dust was collected from 51 houses, diluted and plated on bird seed agar. Dark brown colonies were identified phenotypically, and genotypically by URA5 restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The mating type was identified using pheromone-specific primers. Three of the 51 houses were positive for C. gattii molecular type VGII, MATα and MATa, showing a high prevalence of this agent. MLST studies identified eight subtypes, VGIIb (ST7), VGIIa (ST20), (ST5) and 5 new subtypes unique to the region. For the first time in the state of Amazonas, C. gattii VGII MATα and MATa were isolated from the environment and correlates with endemic cryptococcosis in this state. This is the first description of MLST subtypes on environmental isolates in the Brazilian Amazon, indicating domiciliary dust as a potential source for human infection with different subtypes of C. gattii VGII MATα and MATa.

  2. A fauna de parasitas do tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum (Cuvier, 1818 (Characiformes: Characidae do médio rio Solimões, Estado do Amazonas (AM e do baixo rio Amazonas, Estado do Pará (PA, e seu potencial como indicadores biológicos The fauna of parasites of the tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum (Cuvier, 1818 (Characiformes: Characidae from middle Solimões River and lower Amazonas River and their potential as biological indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Fischer

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram examinados brânquias, fossas nasais e intestinos de tambaquis (Colossoma macropomum capturados em duas localidades na Amazônia, próximas aos municípios de Tefé/Coari, no médio rio Solimões, Estado do Amazonas e de Santarém no baixo rio Amazonas, Estado do Pará. Nove espécies de parasitas foram encontradas: três da classe Monogenoidea; Anacanthorus spathulatus, Linguadactyloides brinkmanni e Notozothecium sp.; uma de Trematoda da família Paramphistomidae; uma do filo Acanthocephala, Neoechinorhynchus buttnerae, duas do filo Nematoda, Spirocamallanus sp. e Procamallanus sp. e duas da subclasse Copepoda, Gamidactylus jaraquensis e Perulernaea gamitanae. Foram registradas pela primeira vez parasitando o tambaqui, o monogenético Notozothecium sp., espécimens imaturos da família Paramphistomidae, larvas do nematóide Procamallanus sp. e o copépodo Gamidactylus jaraquensis. Os paranfistomídeos e Procamallanus sp. foram encontrados apenas nos hospedeiros da região de Tefé/Coari. Foi observada pouca variabilidade na composição da parasitofauna do tambaqui, entre os dois locais estudados. As espécies Anacanthorus spathulatus, Notozothecium sp., Neoechinorhynchus buttnerae e Perulernaea gamitanae, apresentaram bom potencial como indicadores biológicos para o tambaqui.Specimens of Colossoma macropomum, an Amazonian characoid, captured at two different sites, one near the towns of Tefé and Coari in the middle Solimões River, state of Amazonas, and the other near the town of Santarém, lower Amazon River, state of Pará, were examined for parasites. Nine parasite species were found. Three belong to the class Monogenoidea: Anacanthorus spathulatus, Linguadactyloides brinkmanni and Notozothecium sp. Immature specimens belonging to class Trematoda, family Paramphistomidae were found. One belongs to the phylum Acanthocephala, Neoechinorhynchus buttnerae. Two belong to the phylum Nematoda, Spirocamallanus sp. and Procamallanus sp

  3. Interpretive analysis of the textual codes in the Parrot and Merchant story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Najafi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Narratology is a brunch of semiology which considers any kind of narrative, literary or non literary, verbal or visual, story or non story and after this specifies the plot. One of the most important subjects in narratology is the interpretation of textual cods which based on can be understood a lot of hidden meanings. Molavi expresses a lot of mystic points in Mathnavi in narrative form which some of his ideas can be realized in the first study but these ideas aren’t all of subjects which he wants to say and a complex of different meaning is hidden in any narrative which can be revealed by consideration of cods.     In terminology of semiology, code is a special situation in historical process of all of indexes and signs which specified for synchronized analyze. In review of literary texts textual cods are more important. Textual cods are the cods which their ambit is more extended than few special text and links these texts to each other in an interpretational form. Aesthetic cods are a group of textual cods which are used in different arts like: poem, painting, theater, music and so on.       The style of expression of aesthetic cods is the same style of art and literature. In the review of Mathnavi's narratives paying attention to narrative cods and using them can be considered as paralinguistic signs. Narrative cods contain interpretational form which used by authors and commentators of texts. In the story of parrot and merchant the textual cods are as follows:   - Parrot: in this story parrot is a symbolic code which shows all of human soul's features.   - Merchant: in this story merchant act as a cultural code which indicates rich who always are solicitous about their finance and are unaware of spiritual world.    - India: in this story India as a signifier code indicates spiritual world. Hermeneutic cods   Molana uses codes which act as turning point and addressed can understand hidden meanings which haven

  4. GoAmazon – Scaling Amazon Carbon Water Couplings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubey, Manvendra Krishna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-06

    Forests soak up 25% of the carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted by anthropogenic fossil energy use (10 Gt C y-1) moderating its atmospheric accumulation. How this terrestrial CO2 uptake will evolve with climate change in the 21st century is largely unknown. Rainforests are the most active ecosystems with the Amazon basin storing 120 Gt C as biomass and exchanging 18 Gt C y-1 of CO2 via photosynthesis and respiration and fixing carbon at 2-3 kg C m-2 y-1. Furthermore, the intense hydrologic and carbon cycles are tightly coupled in the Amazon where about half of the water is recycled by evapotranspiration and the other half imported from the ocean by Northeasterly trade winds. Climate models predict a drying in the Amazon with reduced carbon uptake while observationally guided assessments indicate sustained uptake. We will resolve this huge discrepancy in the size and sign of the future Amazon carbon cycle by performing the first simultaneous regional scale high frequency measurements of atmospheric CO2, H2O, HOD, CH4, N2O and CO at the T3 site in Manacupuru, Brazil as part of DOE's GoAmazon project. Our data will be used to inform and develop DOE's CLM on the tropical carbon-water couplings at the appropriate grid scale (10-50km). Our measurements will also validate the CO2 data from Japan's GOSAT and NASA's imminent OCO-2 satellite (launch date July 2014).

  5. Power microgeneration in isolated small community in the Amazon with hydrokinetics and diesel-electric generators; Micro-geracao de eletricidade em pequenas comunidades isoladas da Amazonia com grupos-geradores hidrocineticos e grupo dieseletrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Ricardo Wilson Aguiar da

    2005-07-15

    This paper proposes a system, in a certain way a hybrid system, that can supply electric energy to small communities among those typically established along Amazonas river margins, which consists of parallel hydro kinetics turbine power sets, usually known in Amazon as 'cata-agua' (in Portuguese), and set on parallel to an existing Diesel power set. Besides the poor benefit of surplus of electric energy most of the time, the hybrid systems can be built by the communities itself. The work elects social, economic and technical parameters for this purpose. (author)

  6. Amazon Fund: financing deforestation avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Marcovitch

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon Fund, created in 2008 by the Brazilian Federal Government, is managed by Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Econômico e Social (BNDES. It is a pioneering initiative to fundraise and manage financial resources to cut back deforestation and support sustainable development for 30 million inhabitants in the Amazon Biome. The Amazon Fund has already received more than R$ 1.7 billion in grants (about USD 787 million. This essay analyzes the Amazon Fund's governance and management with focus on its operation and from its stakeholders' perspectives. A combination of research methods includes: documental research, in-depth interviews, and speech analysis. The study offers a comparative analysis of strengths and weaknesses related to its governance. Furthermore, it proposes ways to improve its management towards greater effectiveness. The essay also includes an assessment of the government of Norway, a major donor to the fund. The governments of Norway and Germany, in partnership with Brazil, reveal how important it is to experiment with new means of international cooperation to successfully reduce greenhouse gas emissions through rainforest preservation.

  7. The Amazon Basin in transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric A. Davidson; Alessandro C. de Araujo; Paulo Artaxo; Jennifer K. Balch; I. Foster Brown; Mercedes M.C. Bustamente; Michael T. Coe; Ruth S. DeFriess; Michael Keller; Marcos Longo; J. William Munger; Wilfrid Schroeder; Britaldo Soares-Filho; Carlos M. Souza, Jr.; Steven C. Wofsy

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural expansion and climate variability have become important agents of disturbance in the Amazon basin. Recent studies have demonstrated considerable resilience of Amazonian forests to moderate annual drought, but they also show that interactions between deforestation, fire and drought potentially lead to losses of carbon storage and changes in regional...

  8. Spatial and Molecular Epidemiology of Giardia intestinalis Deep in the Amazon, Brazil.

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    Beatriz Coronato Nunes

    Full Text Available Current control policies for intestinal parasitosis focuses on soil-transmitted helminths, being ineffective against Giardia intestinalis, a highly prevalent protozoon that impacts children's nutritional status in developing countries. The objective of this study was to explore spatial and molecular epidemiology of Giardia intestinalis in children of Amerindian descent in the Brazilian Amazon.A cross sectional survey was performed in the Brazilian Amazon with 433 children aged 1 to 14 years. Fecal samples were processed through parasitological techniques and molecular characterization. Prevalence of G. intestinalis infection was 16.9% (73/433, reaching 22.2% (35/158 among children aged 2-5 years, and a wide distribution throughout the city with some hot spots. Positivity-rate was similar among children living in distinct socioeconomic strata (48/280 [17.1%] and 19/116 [16.4%] below and above the poverty line, respectively. Sequencing of the β-giardin gene revealed 52.2% (n = 12 of assemblage A and 47.8% (n = 11 of assemblage B with high haplotype diversity for the latter. The isolates clustered into two well-supported G. intestinalis clades. A total of 38 haplotypes were obtained, with the following subassemblages distribution: 5.3% (n = 2 AII, 26.3% (n = 10 AIII, 7.9% (n = 3 BIII, and 60.5% (n = 23 new B genotypes not previously described.Giardia intestinalis infection presents a high prevalence rate among Amerindian descended children living in Santa Isabel do Rio Negro/Amazon. The wide distribution observed in a small city suggests the presence of multiple sources of infection, which could be related to environmental contamination with feces, possibly of human and animal origin, highlighting the need of improving sanitation, safe water supply and access to diagnosis and adequate treatment of infections.

  9. Two new species of Euptychia Hübner, 1818 from the upper Amazon basin (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neild, Andrew F E; Nakahara, Shinichi; Zacca, Thamara; Fratello, Steven; Lamas, Gerardo; Le Crom, Jean-François; Dolibaina, Diego R; Dias, Fernando M S; Casagrande, Mirna M; Mielke, Olaf H H; Espeland, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Two new species of Euptychia Hübner, 1818 are described from the upper Amazon basin: Euptychia attenboroughi Neild, Nakahara, Fratello & Le Crom, sp. n. (type locality: Amazonas, Venezuela), and Euptychia sophiae Zacca, Nakahara, Dolibaina & Dias, sp. n. (type locality: Acre, Brazil). Their unusual facies prompted molecular and phylogenetic analyses of one of the species resulting in support for their classification in monophyletic Euptychia. Diagnostic characters for the two species are presented based on wing morphology, wing pattern, presence of androconial patches on the hindwing, and genitalia. Our results indicate that the projection of the tegumen above the uncus, previously considered a synapomorphy for Euptychia, is not shared by all species in the genus. The adults and their genitalia are documented, and distribution data and a map are provided.

  10. Colisepticemia em Papagaio verdadeiro ("Amazona aestiva" - Relato de Caso

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    Júlio Lopes Sequeira

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Colibacilose é o termo comumente empregado para designar as infecções por Escherichia coli nos animais, sendo a colisepticemia um dos quadros causados por esta. Durante muito tempo a E. coli foi considerada um microrganismo não patogênico, porém alguns sorogrupos começaram a ser associado com diversas patologias no homem e nos animais domésticos. O presente artigo relata a ocorrência de colisepticemia em um Papagaio verdadeiro (Amazona aestiva atendido no Laboratório de Ornitopatologia do Hospital Veterinário da Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia da Universidade Estadual Paulista (FMVZ-UNESP, campus Botucatu-SP, Brasil.

  11. Before the flood: Miocene otoliths from eastern Amazon Pirabas Formation reveal a Caribbean-type fish fauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Orangel; Schwarzhans, Werner; Moraes-Santos, Heloísa; Nepomuceno, Aguinaldo

    2014-12-01

    The Pirabas Formation of Early Miocene age represents the final stage of the central western Atlantic carbonate platform in northeastern South America, predating the emplacement of the Amazon delta system. The otolith-based fossil fish fauna is represented by 38 species typical of a shallow marine environment. A total of 18 species are described new to science from the families Congridae, Batrachoididae, Bythitidae, Sciaenidae and Paralichthyidae. The fish fauna was associated with high benthic and planktic primary productivity including seagrass meadows, calcareous algae and suspension-feeders. The break of todays shallow marine bioprovince at the Amazonas delta mouth is not evident from the fish fauna of the Pirabas Fm., which shows good correlation with the Gatunian/proto-Caribbean bioprovince known from an only slightly younger time window in Trinidad and Venezuela. Differences observed to those Early Miocene faunal associations are interpreted to be mainly due to stratigraphic and geographic and not environmental differences. We postulate that the emergence of the Amazonas river mouth close to its present day location has terminated the carbonate cycle of the Pirabas Fm. and pushed back northwards a certain proportion of the fish fauna here described.

  12. Development of microsatellite markers for Hyacinth macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) and their cross-amplification in other parrot species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Helder E; Presti, Flavia T; Wasko, Adriane P; Pinhal, Danillo

    2015-12-01

    Hyacinth macaw Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus is the largest parrot of the world and is considered vulnerable to extinction due to its habitat loss and illegal trade associated to the international pet market demand. Genetic studies on this species are still incipient to generate a consistent characterization of the population dynamics and to develop appropriate conservation strategies. In this sense, microsatellite markers may support the detection of a population genetic structure for this bird species. However, at this time, none Hyacinth macaw species-specific primers for microsatellite loci have been so far established. This study aimed to develop and characterize polymorphic microsatellite markers for A. hyacinthinus and to check for their cross-amplification in other parrot species. Sequences containing repeated dinucleotide motifs were prospected and optimized from a genomic library that was enriched for microsatellites using magnetic beads. The analyses of 43-57 samples from wild individuals of three distinct Brazilian subpopulations led to the characterization of five polymorphic microsatellite loci. Allele richness per locus ranged from two to 12. Three loci exhibited observed heterozygosity values higher than 50%, but the overall average value among all loci was close to 45%. In addition, successful primer cross-amplification was verified in seven other investigated species of Neotropical parrots. The newly developed markers have shown to be potentially useful for in situ and ex situ population studies to support future conservation actions of Hyacinth macaw and other parrots.

  13. Effects of dietary supplementation of golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) egg on survival, pigmentation and antioxidant activity of Blood parrot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Song; Liu, Qiao; Wang, Yue; Zhao, Liu-Lan; Wang, Yan; Yang, Shi-Yong; Du, Zong-Jun; Zhang, Jia-En

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effects of supplementing golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) eggs powder (EP) in the diet as a source of natural carotenoids on survival, pigmentation and antioxidant activity of Blood parrot. A total of 90 fish were divided into three treatment groups with three replicates per treatment. Blood parrot were fed with diets containing 0 (control), 5 % (EP 5 %), and 15 % (EP 15 %) dry powder of golden apple snail egg for 60 days, and nine fish per group were sampled at 20, 40, and 60 days. No differences in survival of the fish among treatments were found throughout the experiment. The body coloration of Blood parrot was enhanced in the skin and caudal fin with increasing content of golden apple snail egg powder in the diet. At the end of the experiment, the carotenoid content in the caudal fin and the number of scale chromatophores of the fish fed dietary with EP were higher (P  0.05) in CAT activities. Results demonstrated that golden apple snail eggs can be used as a colorant to promote the pigmentation efficacy of Blood parrot.

  14. Comparative brain morphology of Neotropical parrots (Aves, Psittaciformes) inferred from virtual 3D endocasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carril, Julieta; Tambussi, Claudia Patricia; Degrange, Federico Javier; Benitez Saldivar, María Juliana; Picasso, Mariana Beatriz Julieta

    2016-08-01

    Psittaciformes are a very diverse group of non-passerine birds, with advanced cognitive abilities and highly developed locomotor and feeding behaviours. Using computed tomography and three-dimensional (3D) visualization software, the endocasts of 14 extant Neotropical parrots were reconstructed, with the aim of analysing, comparing and exploring the morphology of the brain within the clade. A 3D geomorphometric analysis was performed, and the encephalization quotient (EQ) was calculated. Brain morphology character states were traced onto a Psittaciformes tree in order to facilitate interpretation of morphological traits in a phylogenetic context. Our results indicate that: (i) there are two conspicuously distinct brain morphologies, one considered walnut type (quadrangular and wider than long) and the other rounded (narrower and rostrally tapered); (ii) Psittaciformes possess a noticeable notch between hemisphaeria that divides the bulbus olfactorius; (iii) the plesiomorphic and most frequently observed characteristics of Neotropical parrots are a rostrally tapered telencephalon in dorsal view, distinctly enlarged dorsal expansion of the eminentia sagittalis and conspicuous fissura mediana; (iv) there is a positive correlation between body mass and brain volume; (v) psittacids are characterized by high EQ values that suggest high brain volumes in relation to their body masses; and (vi) the endocranial morphology of the Psittaciformes as a whole is distinctive relative to other birds. This new knowledge of brain morphology offers much potential for further insight in paleoneurological, phylogenetic and evolutionary studies. © 2015 Anatomical Society.

  15. Choline Essentiality and Its Requirement in Diets for Juvenile Parrot Fish (

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    Sanaz Khosravi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A 12-wk feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the essentiality of choline supplementation in diets for parrot fish. Five isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets were supplemented with 0 (as control, 500, 1,000, and 2,000 mg choline per kg diet, and a positive control diet without choline contained 0.3% of 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol as choline biosynthesis inhibitor (designated as Con, C500, C1000, C2000 and Con+, respectively. Triplicate groups of fish (body weight, 8.8±0.01 g were fed one of the experimental diets at a rate of 4% body weight twice daily. The fish fed Con+ diet revealed significantly lower growth performance and feed utilization efficiency than other fish groups. Supplementation of choline to the basal diet did not significantly influence fish growth. The highest liver lipid content was observed in fish fed the Con+ diet and inversely correlated with liver choline concentration although the differences were not significant. Also, significantly higher liver linoleic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid contents were found in fish fed the Con+ diet. Innate immune parameters including respiratory burst and myeloperoxidase activities were not significantly affected by dietary choline levels. The findings in this study conclude that choline concentration of approximately 230 mg kg−1 diet meets the requirement of parrot fish.

  16. Ocorrência do molusco asiático Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774 (Bivalvia, Corbiculidae no baixo rio Negro, Amazônia central Occurrence of the Asian mollusc Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774 (Bivalvia, Corbiculidae in the lower Rio Negro, Central Amazon Region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Mansur Pimpão

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O rio Negro é um dos maiores afluentes do rio Amazonas, mas poucos moluscos foram registrados até o momento para aquele rio, representados apenas por gastrópodes. Foi registrada a presença do molusco bivalve exótico Corbicula fluminea na margem esquerda do baixo rio Negro, no lago do Tupé e no Catalão - margem direita do rio Negro, todas localidades no município de Manaus, Brasil. O registro foi realizado por meio da coleta de conchas e espécimes vivos. É o primeiro registro de C. fluminea para o estado do Amazonas e Amazônia central.The Rio Negro is one of the biggest Rio Amazonas tributaries. Few molluscs have been registered to that river yet, represented only by gastropods. It is reported the occurrence of the exotic bivalve mollusc Corbicula fluminea in left bank margin of Rio Negro, Lago do Tupé and Catalão - right bank margin of Rio Negro, all localities in the municipality of Manaus, Brazil. The species is recorded by a collection of shells and specimens alive. This is the first occurrence of C. fluminea in the Amazon State and Central Amazon.

  17. The paleozoic of Amazonas basin south edge: Tapajos river, Para state; O paleozoico da borda sul da bacia do Amazonas: rio Tapajos, estado do Para

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Nilo Siguehiko [Petrobras E e P, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Exploracao. Estratigrafia e Sedimentologia Geologia Aplicada a Exploracao], E-mail: nilo@petrobras.com.br; Winter, Wilson Rubem [Petrobras, Campoas dos Goytacases, RJ (Brazil). Exploracao. Sedimentologia e Estratigrafia], E-mail: winter@petrobras.com.br; Wanderley Filho, Joaquim Ribeiro; Cacela, Alessandra Suzely Moda [Petrobras, Manaus, AM (Brazil). Exploracao. Unidade de Operacoes de Exploracao e Producao da Amazonia], Emails: jwand@petrobras.com.br, alessandra.suzely@petrobras.com.br

    2009-11-15

    The intracratonic Amazonas Basin covers an area close to 500.000km{sup 2} shared between the Amazonas and Para states. The phanerozoic stratigraphic framework is up to 6.000m thick and may be subdivided into two, first order depositional sequences: the Paleozoic sequence, intruded by diabase dikes and sills and the Mesozoic-Cenozoic sequence. Analyzing the stratigraphic framework, the great tectonic influence on the basin development can be appreciated. The mainly NW-SE structural directions of the basement, which mark the boundaries of the geochronological provinces of the Amazonas, are clearly identified along the Tapajos River. The Paleozoic sequence outcrops on the southern border of the Amazonas Basin embraces potential source rocks, reservoirs and seal rocks. They can be subdivided in three, second order sequences, limited by regional unconformities, as: the Ordovician/Devonian, which corresponds to the Pitinga lithostratigraphic formation; the Devonian-Tournaisian, which corresponds to the Maecuru, Erere, Barreirinha and Curiri formations and, the Pensylvanian-Permian that are represented by the Monte Alegre and Itaituba formations. This field trip guide presents these classic lithostratigraphic outcrop units, together with a brief sedimentological description and an analysis of their positioning related to sequence stratigraphical concepts. (author)

  18. Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15 High-Volume Filter Sampling: Atmospheric Particulate Matter of an Amazon Tropical City and its Relationship to Population Health Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, C. M. [Federal Univ. of Amazonas (Brazil); Santos, Erickson O. [Federal Univ. of Amazonas (Brazil); Fernandes, Karenn S. [Federal Univ. of Amazonas (Brazil); Neto, J. L. [Federal Univ. of Amazonas (Brazil); Souza, Rodrigo A. [Univ. of the State of Amazonas (Brazil)

    2016-08-01

    Manaus, the capital of the Brazilian state of Amazonas, is developing very rapidly. Its pollution plume contains aerosols from fossil fuel combustion mainly due to vehicular emission, industrial activity, and a thermal power plant. Soil resuspension is probably a secondary source of atmospheric particles. The plume transports from Manaus to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility ARM site at Manacapuru urban pollutants as well as pollutants from pottery factories along the route of the plume. Considering the effects of particulate matter on health, atmospheric particulate matter was evaluated at this site as part of the ARM Facility’s Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15 (GoAmazon 2014/15) field campaign. Aerosol or particulate matter (PM) is typically defined by size, with the smaller particles having more health impact. Total suspended particulate (TSP) are particles smaller than 100 μm; particles smaller than 2.5 μm are called PM2.5. In this work, the PM2.5 levels were obtained from March to December of 2015, totaling 34 samples and TSP levels from October to December of 2015, totaling 17 samples. Sampling was conducted with PM2.5 and TSP high-volume samplers using quartz filters (Figure 1). Filters were stored during 24 hours in a room with temperature (21,1ºC) and humidity (44,3 %) control, in order to do gravimetric analyses by weighing before and after sampling. This procedure followed the recommendations of the Brazilian Association for Technical Standards local norm (NBR 9547:1997). Mass concentrations of particulate matter were obtained from the ratio between the weighted sample and the volume of air collected. Defining a relationship between particulate matter (PM2.5 and TSP) and respiratory diseases of the local population is an important goal of this project, since no information exists on that topic.

  19. Preliminary Measurements Of N2O Partial Pressures In Rivers of Amazon Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, C. B.; Rasera, M. F.; Krusche, A. V.; Victoria, R. L.; Richey, J. E.; Cunha, H. B.; Gomes, B. M.

    2006-12-01

    The concentrations of nitrous oxide (N2O), an important component of the greenhouse effect and with a long residence time in the atmosphere, have significantly increased in this century. The reasons for this atmospheric increase in N2O are still partially unexplained. This uncertainty is worse in relation to aquatic environments. Here we report on preliminary measurements of N2O partial pressures in rivers of the Amazon basin. The study areas are in the state of Rondonia (rivers Ji Parana, Urupa, Comemoracao and Pimenta Bueno) and Amazonas (rivers Solimoes and Negro). The rivers were sampled from October 2005 to April 2006, using with immersion pumps, lowered in the middle of the channel to 60% of total depth. Water was pumped directly into a 1 l plastic bottle, which was overflown three times before closing. Using syringes, 60 ml of N2 were injected into the bottle, simultaenously to the withdrawn of 60 ml of sample. N2O was extracted into these 60 ml of N2 by shaking vigorously for 2 minutes. With the same syringes, the gas was taken from the bottles and injected into sealed evacuated 25 ml vials. Atmospheric samples were taken from one meter above the water column and stored the same way. N2O partial pressures were determined on a Shimadzu GC-14 Green House Gas Analyzer. All rivers showed little variations in N2O partial pressures. Average values in the rivers of Rondonia were around 0.41 ± 0.07 μ atm (n=46), whereas the Solimoes and Negro rivers, in the state of Amazonas, showed values around 0.43 ± 0.08 μ atm (n=131). Atmospheric averages were approximately 0.34 ± 0.04 μ atm (n=58) and 0.32 ± 0.03 μ atm (n=134) in the states of Rondonia and Amazonas, respectively. This means that, although these waters are supersatured in CO2, making evasive fluxes of this gas an important component of the C cycle in this basin, the same does not occur in the N cycle. Small differences in partial pressures of N2O between water and air will result in small fluxes of

  20. Lipid metabolic dose response to dietary alpha-linolenic acid in monk parrot (Myiopsitta monachus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzinger, Christina; Heatley, J J; Bailey, Christopher A; Bauer, John E

    2014-03-01

    Monk parrots (Myiopsitta monachus) are susceptible to atherosclerosis, a progressive disease characterized by the formation of plaques in the arteries accompanied by underlying chronic inflammation. The family of n-3 fatty acids, especially eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA), have consistently been shown to reduce atherosclerotic risk factors in humans and other mammals. Some avian species have been observed to convert α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3, ALA) to EPA and DHA (Htin et al. in Arch Geflugelk 71:258-266, 2007; Petzinger et al. in J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr, 2013). Therefore, the metabolic effects of including flaxseed oil, as a source of ALA, in the diet at three different levels (low, medium, and high) on the lipid metabolism of Monk parrots was evaluated through measuring plasma total cholesterol (TC), free cholesterol (FC), triacylglycerols (TAG), and phospholipid fatty acids. Feed intake, body weight, and body condition score were also assessed. Thus the dose and possible saturation response of increasing dietary ALA at constant linoleic acid (18:2n-6, LNA) concentration on lipid metabolism in Monk parrots (M. monachus) was evaluated. Calculated esterified cholesterol in addition to plasma TC, FC, and TAG were unaltered by increasing dietary ALA. The high ALA group had elevated levels of plasma phospholipid ALA, EPA, and docosapentaenoic acid (DPAn-3, 22:5n-3). The medium and high ALA groups had suppressed plasma phospholipid 20:2n-6 and adrenic acid (22:4n-6, ADA) compared to the low ALA group. When the present data were combined with data from a previous study (Petzinger et al. in J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr, 2013) a dose response to dietary ALA was observed when LNA was constant. Plasma phospholipid ALA, EPA, DPAn-3, DHA, and total n-3 were positively correlated while 20:2n-6, di-homo-gamma-linoleic acid (20:3n-6Δ7), arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), ADA, and total n-6 were inversely correlated with dietary en% ALA.

  1. Evidence of tutoring in the development of subsong in newly-fledged Meyer's Parrots Poicephalus meyeri

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    Simone Masin

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Subsongs are vocal trials uttered by young birds to practice songs. Among songbirds, subsongs are displayed by individuals in their first year of life. Studies on Zebra Finches Poephila guttata suggest that the juveniles learn their songs from a vocal tutor, their father. In this study we examine the subsongs in six captive-born Meyer's Parrots Poicephalus meyeri, from fledging time to weaning. Recordings of songs from chicks and fathers were analyzed for similarities in frequency and time parameters. With age, the subsongs of the chicks became more similar to the vocalizations of the fathers with 20% similarity rating in the first week after fledging to 100% at weaning time. Moreover, fledged chicks were exposed to a wide range of stimuli from several species of parrots breeding pairs caged nearby but chicks exclusively learned their fathers' songs. Our data support the hypothesis that Meyer's Parrots are vocal learners and use their father as their tutor.Os ''subsongs'' são ensaios vocais emitidos pelas aves jovens para exercitar suas vozes. Nos pássaros canoros, ''subsongs'' são exibidos por indivíduos em seu primeiro ano de vida. Estudos com Poephila guttata sugerem que os jovens aprendem seus cantos de um tutor vocal, seu pai. Neste trabalho examinamos os ''subsongs'' em seis papagaios Poicephalus meyeri nascidos em cativeiro, desde a saída do ninho até a emancipação. Gravações dos cantos dos filhotes e dos pais foram analisadas para medir as similaridades nos parâmetros de freqüência e tempo. Com a idade, os ''subsongs'' dos filhotes viraram mais semelhantes às vocalizações dos pais, com 20% de similaridade na primeira semana após a saída do ninho até 100% na hora da emancipação. Ademais, os filhotes foram expostos a uma grande variedade de estímulos de várias outras espécies de papagaios nidificando em gaiolas vizinhas, mas eles aprenderam somente os cantos de seus pais. Nossos dados confirmam a hipótese de que

  2. [New record of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762), in the urban area of La Pedrera, Amazonas, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Gil, Yesika; Brochero, Helena

    2008-12-01

    Before 2005, Aedes aegypti had not been recorded in the Colombian province of Amazonas. Because this species has been increasing its range throughout Colombia, an entomological surveillance program has been routinely directed toward detecting it presence in Amazonas by the Amazonas State Health Authority. Surveillance data were used as the basis for recording Aedes aegypti in Amazonas Province. Household surveys of Ae. aegypti larvae were conducted by trained personnel belonging to the Amazonas State Health Authority. The following standard larval indices were estimated: house index (HI)--the percentage of premises with positive containers, the container index (CI)--the percentage of positive containers among the water-holding containers, and the Breteau index (BI)--the number of positive containers per 100 premises. Residents were questioned concerning their perception of mosquito presence in their houses. Subsequently, control activities were undertaken to reduce the mosquito's infestation. Aedes aegypti was found in the urban area of the village of La Pedrera. During the first household survey, the indices were HI=29.6%, CI=9.0% and, BI=40.8%. After control activities, these values decreased; however, elimination of the infestation was not possible in this geographical area. The community recognizes the mosquito immature forms in water containers in houses and associated them as vectors of several diseases. The presence of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes in the village La Pedrera was verified. Aedes albopictus was not found in this area.

  3. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in the Amazonas State, Brazil, 2000-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, M da S; Bührer-Sékula, S; Souza, A B; de Oliveira, G P; Antunes, I A; Mendes, J M; Saraceni, V; Martinez-Espinosa, F E; Ramasawmy, R

    2015-05-01

    Amazonas is facing increasing challenges in tuberculosis (TB) control, with nearly 3000 cases per year, and multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) may jeopardise the TB control programme. To assess the number of MDR-TB cases in the Amazonas and to improve estimates of the burden of TB. The Brazilian National Mandatory Disease Reporting System (SINAN) and the Brazilian Epidemiological Surveillance System of Multidrug Resistance (TBMR) were searched for MDR-TB cases in the State of Amazonas from 2000 to 2011. Eighty-one MDR-TB cases were notified. The rates of primary MDR-TB, initial MDR-TB during the first treatment regimen and acquired MDR-TB were respectively 3.8%, 13.7% and 82.7%; 26.9% of previously treated patients had ⩾ 4 treatment cycles. The MDR-TB cases reported 263 contacts, only 35.0% of whom were examined. The cure and death rates among the 81 patients with MDR-TB were respectively 45.7% and 25.9%. The number of MDR-TB cases seems incompatible with the high TB prevalence in the Amazonas. Most patients were unaware of contact with TB patients. TB is endemic in the Amazonas. This highlights the need for improving resistance investigation among all TB cases.

  4. The Socioeconomic Factors and the Indigenous Component of Tuberculosis in Amazonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Daniel Barros de; Pinto, Rosemary Costa; Albuquerque, Bernardino Cláudio de; Sadahiro, Megumi; Braga, José Ueleres

    2016-01-01

    Despite the availability of tuberculosis prevention and control services throughout Amazonas, high rates of morbidity and mortality from tuberculosis remain in the region. Knowledge of the social determinants of tuberculosis in Amazonas is important for the establishment of public policies and the planning of effective preventive and control measures for the disease. To analyze the relationship of the spatial distribution of the incidence of tuberculosis in municipalities and regions of Amazonas to the socioeconomic factors and indigenous tuberculosis component, from 2007 to 2013. An ecological study was conducted based on secondary data from the epidemiological surveillance of tuberculosis. A linear regression model was used to analyze the relationship of the annual incidence of tuberculosis to the socioeconomic factors, performance indicators of health services, and indigenous tuberculosis component. The distribution of the incidence of tuberculosis in the municipalities of Amazonas was positively associated with the Gini index and the population attributable fraction of tuberculosis in the indigenous peoples, but negatively associated with the proportion of the poor and the unemployment rate. The spatial distribution of tuberculosis in the different regions of Amazonas was heterogeneous and closely related with the socioeconomic factors and indigenous component of tuberculosis.

  5. Ecohydrology of a Dammed Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpe, K. A.; Kaplan, D. A.

    2016-12-01

    The Amazon River watershed is the world's largest river basin and provides >US$30 billion/yr in ecosystem services to local populations, national societies and humanity at large. Construction of >30 large hydroelectric dams and >170 small dams in the Brazilian Amazon is currently underway as a result of governmental plans geared toward increased energy security, economic growth, improved living standards and industrialization. Changes in the Amazon's freshwater ecosystems from the development of hydropower will have a cascade of physical, ecological, and social effects at local to global scales. Here we demonstrate the extensive and large-scale effects of hydroelectric dams in the Amazon region on hydrologic parameters calculated using the Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (IHA) method applied to 33 small and large dams in the Brazilian Amazon. Our analysis provides the first holistic assessment of hydrological alterations (HA) caused by Amazonian dams and offers insight on the primary physical and management drivers of dam impacts. Across sites, results show that dams have affected all ecologically important flow characteristics (i.e., magnitude, duration, timing, frequency and rate of change of pulse events). While each dam/river system are unique, some dams cause substantially greater HA. The "worst" dams were Balbina (HA=108%), Manso (HA=62%), and Serra da Mesa (HA=48%). All three are "large" dams with substantial reservoirs, however Serra da Mesa produces 6 times more electricity than either Balbina or Manso, with lower impact. The most dramatic dam-induced shifts in hydrologic regime were related to the frequency/duration and frequency/rate of change of pulse events. HA on rivers with multiple dams was only 8% higher than those with individual dams. Dam elevation and reservoir area were the best environmental predictors of HA. Results suggest that hydrological impacts from dams are similar among temperate and tropical climates (i.e., peak flows are often

  6. Geoquímica de rios de água preta do sudeste do Amazonas: origem, fluxo dos elementos e consumo de CO2 Geochemistry of black water rivers from the southeastern of the Amazonas State: source, element fluxes and consumption of CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson da Silva Lages

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi examinada a composição química das águas dos afluentes da margem direita do rio Madeira que drenam as rochas do Escudo Brasileiro. O estudo foi realizado no município de Apuí no sudeste do estado do Amazonas, Brasil. Foram analisados pH, condutividade, as concentrações de SiO2 e de íons dissolvidos (Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, HCO3-, Cl-, NO3- e SO4(2- em quatro épocas do ano segundo o índice pluviométrico: chuvosa, transição para a estiagem, estiagem e transição para a chuvosa. As águas são diluídas, mais concentradas em HCO3- e SiO2 e representam o típico ambiente de intensa lixiviação que afeta as rochas na Amazônia. Apesar da química das águas terem influência da sazonalidade, foram identificadas variações em função da litologia. As taxas de exportação de cátions e de erosão química das rochas são baixas e refletem a estabilidade tectônica da região e o manto intempérico que dificulta a interação da água com o substrato rochoso.This work examined the chemical composition of waters from tributaries of the right bank of the Madeira River which drain silicaterocks of the Brazilian Craton. The study was conducted at the municipalityof Apui, in the southeastern of the Amazonas State, Brazil. There were analyzed pH, conductivity, SiO2 and dissolved ions (Na+, K+, Mg2+ e Ca2+, HCO3-, Cl-, NO3- and SO4(2- in the four pluviometric seasons of the Amazon region: rainy, transition to the dry, dry and transition to the rainy. The waters are diluted, have high HCO3-and SiO2 concentration and represent the typical environment of intense leaching that affects the rocks in the Amazon. Although the chemical composition reveals seasonal influences, it was identified variation due to lithological composition. The rate of exportation of cations and the chemical erosion are low in consequence of the tectonic stability of the region and the weathering mantle, which hinders the interaction of water with the

  7. Quality of the Solimões River water for domestic use by the riverine community situated in Manacapuru-Amazonas-Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoja, N G P; Castro, L M; Rocha, S D; Silva, J A; Ribeiro, J S P; Donald, A R; Silva, L M; Oliveira, T C S

    2016-06-01

    The Amazon has the largest watershed in the world, with abundant fresh water reserves. Such abundance contrasts with the quality of the water consumed in the riverine communities. This work highlights the importance of assessing the quality of water of the Solimões River in the stretch situated opposite the Community Nossa Senhora das Graças-Costa do Pesqueiro, in front of the town of Manacapuru-Amazonas-Brazil. The research aimed to evaluate environmental indicators for the quality of the river water as well as in households in this community, according to the regional seasonality. The monitored parameters such as conductivity, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, color, pH, nitrate, nitrite, and sulfate were compared with the water quality standards in force in Brazil. Values well above the maximum level allowed (MLA) for color and turbidity parameters were found in some households, indicating that the water collected from the river is not getting appropriate treatment. The analysis of the correlation matrix of the parameters in the flood period of the river evidenced high correlation among dissolved oxygen (D.O), NO3 (-), Cl(-), SO4 (2-), and color. In this study, by principal component analysis (PCA), it was observed that the characteristics of the water, obtained from the river to be consumed in the households, in the flood period showed similarities with the river water samples, indicating absence of efficient treatment for human consumption.

  8. Luces y sombras de la amazona de cómic Wonder Woman, la mujer maravilla = Lights and shadows of the comic Wonderwoman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.ª Inmaculada Concepción Marfil Díaz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available La mujer constituye una parte determinante que sustenta el tejido social de todas las culturas y, sin embargo, no ha sido protagonista principal en el mundo del cómic de superhéroes. Pero hay excepciones, como Wonder Woman, la Mujer Maravilla. ¿Qué sucede con este personaje que forma trinidad con Batman y Superman sin apenas resonancia en el universo del cómic? ¿Qué relación existe entre el mito y el cómic? ¿Quién crea esta superheroina? Este trabajo es una aproximación al mito de las amazonas junto a la evolución de este personaje de cómic norteamericano.Even though women are crucial to the sustainability of the social fabric in every culture, they have not been the main protagonists in the world of Comic Superheroes. There are, of course, exceptions such as Wonder Woman but, who is this character that, in spite of forming a trinity with Batman and Superman, has hardly had any relevance in the universe of Comics? What is the relationship between the myth and the comic? Who created this Superheroine? This work intends to shed a light on the myth of the Amazons as well as on the evolution of this American comic character.

  9. Direct observation of syringeal muscle function in songbirds and a parrot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Goller, Franz

    2002-01-01

    . In parrots (cockatiels, Nymphicus hollandicus), direct observations show that even during quiet respiration the lateral tympaniform membranes (LTMs) are partially adducted into the tracheal lumen to form a narrow slot. Contraction of the superficial intrinsic muscle, m. syringealis superficialis, adducts......The role of syringeal muscles in controlling the aperture of the avian vocal organ, the syrinx, was evaluated directly for the first time by observing and filming through an endoscope while electrically stimulating different muscle groups of anaesthetised birds. In songbirds (brown thrashers......, Toxostoma rufum, and cardinals, Cardinalis cardinalis), direct observations of the biomechanical effects of contraction largely confirm the functions of the intrinsic syringeal muscles proposed from indirect studies. Contraction of the dorsal muscles, m. syringealis dorsalis (dS) and m. tracheobronchialis...

  10. Direct observation of syringeal muscle function in songbirds and a parrot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Goller, Franz

    2002-01-01

    . Under the experimental conditions used in this study, full constriction of the syringeal lumen could not be achieved by stimulating adductor muscles. Full closure may require simultaneous activation of extrinsic syringeal muscles or the supine positioning of the bird may have exerted excessive tension....... In parrots (cockatiels, Nymphicus hollandicus), direct observations show that even during quiet respiration the lateral tympaniform membranes (LTMs) are partially adducted into the tracheal lumen to form a narrow slot. Contraction of the superficial intrinsic muscle, m. syringealis superficialis, adducts...... the LTMs further into the tracheal lumen but does not close the syringeal aperture fully. The intrinsic deep muscle, m. syringealis profundus, abducts the LTMs through cranio-laterad movement of a paired, protruding half-ring. The weakly developed extrinsic m. sternotrachealis seems to increase tension...

  11. Vocal imitation in parrots allows addressing of specific individuals in a dynamic communication network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balsby, Thorsten Johannes Skovbjerg; Momberg, Jane Vestergaard; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    Parrots in captivity are known for their ability to vocally imitate humans and recently it has been shown that wild-living orange-fronted conures are able to immediately imitate other individuals´ contact calls. The function of this exceptional ability to imitate remains unclear. However, orangeâ......€“fronted conures live in fission-fusion flocks where they encounter many different individuals every day, and it is possible that their vocal imitation ability is a flexible means to address a specific individual within a flock. We tested this via playback to short-term captive wild conures. Test birds were placed...... together in pairs in outdoor aviaries to form simple flocks. To simulate imitation of a specific individual these pairs received playback of contact calls that primarily imitate one of the two birds. Overall, individuals that received simulated vocal imitations of its calls responded more frequently...

  12. Modern sedimentation in the Lower Negro River, Amazonas State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzinelli, Elena; Igreja, Hailton

    2002-05-01

    The Negro River, which flows through the north central Amazon Basin, is one of the largest tributaries of the Amazon. The name "Negro" comes from the colour of its water, which reflects the large quantity of dissolved humic acids and iron oxides that also gives the water its characteristic acid pH. The river is estimated to have the fifth largest water discharge in the world, about 30,000 m 3/s. The Negro River is characterized by a high dissolved load but a low energy system. Neotectonics and water quality are the principal factors that control the modern sedimentation in the Lower Negro River. The Lower Negro River is controlled largely by a NW-SE tectonic lineament, that is a segment of a major tectonic transcurrent dextral megasystem of the Amazon Basin. Neotectonism in this area is responsible for the depth of the river and for the occurrence of steep "falésias" (cliffs), along some parts of its borders. It also seems that neotectonics have influenced the origin of the Anavilhanas Islands, which are a series of anastomosed, elongated silty clayey channel bars, with internal round or long narrow lakes. The "igapó", which is the forested area flooded during part of the year, appears to have a neotectonic origin as well. Igapós are located on intermediate blocks between the high blocks of the "terra firme" and the low blocks of the channel. The absence of clastic sediments carried in suspension is related to the rare appearance of floodplains, which are limited to very thin layers of fine sediments, located on the abrasion shelfs carved in clastic deposits of the Alter do Chão Formation. Sand bars occur in places along the base of the cliffs and along the edges of the channel system. These sand bars are composed of quartz sand, derived from the reworking of the sand of the Alter do Chão Formation.

  13. Rethinking the strategy of Amazon.com

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heng, Michael S.H.

    2001-01-01

    The strategic challenge facing Amazon.com is that it is not able to convincethe investment community that it is able to generate profits in the long run. The doubtof investors is well grounded. This paper argues that Amazon should make a strategicshift to operate as a provider of technical services

  14. Selective logging in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. P. Asner; D. E. Knapp; E. N. Broadbent; P. J. C. Oliveira; M Keller; J. N. Silva

    2005-01-01

    Amazon deforestation has been measured by remote sensing for three decades. In comparison, selective logging has been mostly invisible to satellites. We developed a large-scale, high-resolution, automated remote-sensing analysis of selective logging in the top five timber-producing states of the Brazilian Amazon. Logged areas ranged from 12,075 to 19,823 square...

  15. [A health survey in riverine communities in Amazonas State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Abel Santiago Muri; Fernandes, Tiótrefis Gomes; Parente, Rosana Cristina Pereira; Secoli, Silvia Regina

    2018-02-19

    Population-based health surveys are important tools for identifying disease determinants, especially in regions with widely dispersed populations and low health system coverage. The aim of this study was to describe the principal methodological aspects and to describe the socioeconomic, demographic, and health characteristics of the riverine populations of Coari, Amazonas State, Brazil. This was a population-based cross-sectional study in river-dwelling communities in the rural area of Coari, from April to July 2015. The probabilistic cluster sample consisted of 492 individuals. The results showed that the majority of the river-dwellers were females (53%), had up to 9 years of schooling (68.5%), and earned a monthly family income equivalent to one-third the minimum wage. The health problems reported in the previous 30 days featured conditions involving pain (45.2%). The main healthcare resources were allopathic medicines (70.3%), exceeding herbal remedies (44.3%). The river-dwellers travel an average of 60.4km and take some 4.2 hours to reach the urban area of Coari. The riverine population generally presents low economic status and limited access to the urban area. Health problems are mostly solved with allopathic medicines. Geographic characteristics, as barriers to access to health services and to improvements in living conditions for the riverine population, can limit the collection of epidemiological data on these populations.

  16. Electrocardiographic parameters in captive, clinically healthy, Amazona ochrocephala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Guerrero S

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To stablish the electrocardiographic parameters of individuals of the species Amazona ochrocephala, from the Unidad de Rescate y Rehabilitacion de Animales Silvestres at the Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Materials and methods. The electrocardiographic examination was performed under inhaled anesthesia with isoflurane. Leads I, II, III, aVL, aVR and aVF were measured. Results. Electrocardiographic parameters obtained in Lead II. P wave Duration: 0.015-0.044 s, P wave amplitude: 0.031 to 0.6 mv, R wave duration: 0.015-0.022 s, amplitude R: 0.034-0.038 mv, S wave Duration: 0.019- 0.042 s, amplitude S: 0.194-0.815 mv, T wave Duration: 0.025-0.064 s, T-wave amplitude: 0.010 to 0.5 mv, PQ Duration: 0.021-0.076 s, QRS Duration: 0.036-0.068 s, QT Duration: 0.070-0.015 s, RR Duration: 0.104-0.324 s, EEM: -111° to -80°, FC: 240-600 ppm. Conclusions. The results showed different values for amplitude and duration of the P, R and T waves in comparison to those obtained in other studies. However, they were similar for heart rate, MEA and duration of the PQ/R, QT and QRS segments.

  17. Uranium isotopes in groundwater occurring at Amazonas State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Márcio Luiz; Bonotto, Daniel Marcos

    2015-03-01

    This paper reports the behavior of the dissolved U-isotopes (238)U and (234)U in groundwater providing from 15 cities in Amazonas State, Brazil. The isotope dilution technique accompanied by alpha spectrometry were utilized for acquiring the U content and (234)U/(238)U activity ratio (AR) data, 0.01-1.4µgL(-1) and 1.0-3.5, respectively. These results suggest that the water is circulating in a reducing environment and leaching strata containing minerals with low uranium concentration. A tendency to increasing ARs values following the groundwater flow direction is identified in Manaus city. The AR also increases according to the SW-NE directions: Uarini→Tefé; Manacapuru→Manaus; Presidente Figueiredo→São Sebastião do Uatumã; and Boa Vista do Ramos→Parintins. Such trends are possibly related to several factors, among them the increasing acid character of the waters. The waters analyzed are used for human consumption and the highest dissolved U content is much lower than the maximum established by the World Health Organization. Therefore, in view of this radiological parameter they can be used for drinking purposes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Abiotic variability among different aquatic systems of the central Amazon floodplain during drought and flood events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affonso, A G; Queiroz, H L; Novo, E M L M

    2015-11-01

    This paper examines water properties from lakes, (depression lakes, sensu Junk et al., 2012), channels (scroll lakes with high connectivity, sensu Junk et al., 2012) and paleo-channels (scroll lakes with low connectivity-sensu Junk et al., 2012, locally called ressacas) located in Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve, in Central Amazon floodplain, Amazonas, Brazil. We analysed surface temperature, conductivity, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, transparency, suspended inorganic and organic matter, chlorophyll-a, pheophytin, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, organic and inorganic carbon in 2009 high water phase, 2009 and 2010 low water phases. Multivariate statistical analyses of 24 aquatic systems (6 ressacas, 12 lakes and 6 channels, 142 samples) were applied to the variables in order to: 1) quantify differences among aquatic system types; 2) assess how those differences are affected in the different phases of the hydrological year. First, we analysed the entire set of variables to test for differences among phases of the hydrological year and types of aquatic systems using a PERMANOVA two-way crossed design. The results showed that the all measured limnological variables are distinct regarding both factors: types of aquatic systems and hydrological phases. In general, the magnitude and amplitude of all variables were higher in the low water phase than in the high water phase, except for water transparency in all aquatic system's types. PERMANOVA showed that the differences between aquatic system's types and hydrological phases of all variables were highly significant for both main factors (type and phase) and for the type x phase interaction. Limnological patterns of Amazon floodplain aquatic systems are highly dynamic, dependent on the surrounding environment, flood pulse, main river input and system type. These patterns show how undisturbed systems respond to natural variability in such a diverse environment, and how distinct are those aquatic systems

  19. Mortality Predictors in Patients with Severe Dengue in the State of Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Rosemary Costa; Castro, Daniel Barros de; Albuquerque, Bernardino Cláudio de; Sampaio, Vanderson de Souza; Passos, Ricardo Augusto Dos; Costa, Cristiano Fernandes da; Sadahiro, Megumi; Braga, José Ueleres

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is a major public health problem in tropical and subtropical areas worldwide. There is a lack of information on the risk factors for death due to severe dengue fever in developing countries, including Brazil where the state of Amazonas is located. This knowledge is important for decision making and the implementation of effective measures for patient care. This study aimed to identify factors associated with death among patients with severe dengue, in Amazonas from 2001 to 2013. We conducted a retrospective cohort study based on secondary data from the epidemiological surveillance of dengue provided by the Fundação de Vigilância em Saúde do Amazonas, FVS (Health Surveillance Foundation) of the Secretaria de Saúde do Amazonas, SUSAM (Health Secretariat of the State of Amazonas). Data on dengue cases were obtained from the SINAN (Notifiable Diseases Information System) and SIM (Mortality Information System) databases. We selected cases of severe dengue with laboratory confirmation, including dengue-related deaths of residents in the state of Amazonas from January 1, 2001, to December 31, 2013. The explanatory variables analyzed were sex, age, level of education, spontaneous hemorrhagic manifestations, plasma extravasation and platelet count. Patients who died due to severe dengue had more hematuria, gastrointestinal bleeding, and thrombocytopenia than the survivors. Considering the simultaneous effects of demographic and clinical characteristics with a multiple logistic regression model, it was observed that the factors associated with death were age >55 years (odds ratio [OR] 4.98), gastrointestinal bleeding (OR 10.26), hematuria (OR 5.07), and thrombocytopenia (OR 2.55). Gastrointestinal bleeding was the clinical sign most strongly associated with death, followed by hematuria and age >55 years. The study results showed that the best predictor of death from severe dengue is based on the characteristic of age >55 years, together with the clinical signs of

  20. Deforestation effects on Amazon forest resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemp, D. C.; Schleussner, C.-F.; Barbosa, H. M. J.; Rammig, A.

    2017-06-01

    Through vegetation-atmosphere feedbacks, rainfall reductions as a result of Amazon deforestation could reduce the resilience on the remaining forest to perturbations and potentially lead to large-scale Amazon forest loss. We track observation-based water fluxes from sources (evapotranspiration) to sinks (rainfall) to assess the effect of deforestation on continental rainfall. By studying 21st century deforestation scenarios, we show that deforestation can reduce dry season rainfall by up to 20% far from the deforested area, namely, over the western Amazon basin and the La Plata basin. As a consequence, forest resilience is systematically eroded in the southwestern region covering a quarter of the current Amazon forest. Our findings suggest that the climatological effects of deforestation can lead to permanent forest loss in this region. We identify hot spot regions where forest loss should be avoided to maintain the ecological integrity of the Amazon forest.

  1. Terrestrial Carbon Sinks in the Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado Region Predicted from MODIS Satellite Data and Ecosystem Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, C.; Klooster, S.; Huete, A.; Genovese, V.; Bustamante, M.; Ferreira, L. Guimaraes; deOliveira, R. C., Jr.; Zepp, R.

    2009-01-01

    A simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation cover from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to estimate monthly carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado regions over the period 2000-2004. Net ecosystem production (NEP) flux for atmospheric CO2 in the region for these years was estimated. Consistently high carbon sink fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems on a yearly basis were found in the western portions of the states of Acre and Rondonia and the northern portions of the state of Par a. These areas were not significantly impacted by the 2002-2003 El Nino event in terms of net annual carbon gains. Areas of the region that show periodically high carbon source fluxes from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere on yearly basis were found throughout the state of Maranhao and the southern portions of the state of Amazonas. As demonstrated though tower site comparisons, NEP modeled with monthly MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) inputs closely resembles the measured seasonal carbon fluxes at the LBA Tapajos tower site. Modeling results suggest that the capacity for use of MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) data to predict seasonal uptake rates of CO2 in Amazon forests and Cerrado woodlands is strong.

  2. Terrestrial carbon sinks in the Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado region predicted from MODIS satellite data and ecosystem modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Potter

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation cover from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS was used to estimate monthly carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado regions over the period 2000–2004. Net ecosystem production (NEP flux for atmospheric CO2 in the region for these years was estimated. Consistently high carbon sink fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems on a yearly basis were found in the western portions of the states of Acre and Rondônia and the northern portions of the state of Pará. These areas were not significantly impacted by the 2002–2003 El Niño event in terms of net annual carbon gains. Areas of the region that show periodically high carbon source fluxes from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere on yearly basis were found throughout the state of Maranhão and the southern portions of the state of Amazonas. As demonstrated though tower site comparisons, NEP modeled with monthly MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI inputs closely resembles the measured seasonal carbon fluxes at the LBA Tapajos tower site. Modeling results suggest that the capacity for use of MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI data to predict seasonal uptake rates of CO2 in Amazon forests and Cerrado woodlands is strong.

  3. Time trends and changes in the distribution of malaria cases in the Brazilian Amazon Region, 2004-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isac da SF Lima

    Full Text Available Recent efforts to reduce malaria incidence have had some successes. Nevertheless, malaria persists as a significant public health problem in the Brazilian Amazon. The objective of this study was to describe changes in malaria case characteristics and to identify trends in malaria incidence in the Brazilian Amazon. This study used data from the Malaria Epidemiological Surveillance and Case Notification Information System from 2004 to 2013. The annual parasite incidence (API was calculated and joinpoint regression was used to assess the trends in API over time. There was a sharp increase in API in the state of Acre, followed by two periods of decrease. Pará also presented inconsistent decreases over the study period. Amapá, Amazonas, Rondônia, and Roraima showed statistically significant decreases over the period. The sharpest decrease occurred in Rondônia, with a reduction of 21.7% in the average annual percent change (AAPC (AAPC: -21.7%; 95% confidence interval: -25.4%, -17.8%; p < 0.05. This panorama of malaria incidence highlights the importance of integrating evidence-based malaria surveillance and control. Malaria is highly preventable, and eliminating its transmission should be a goal in coming decades.

  4. An Atlantic influence on Amazon rainfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jin-Ho [University of Maryland, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, College Park, MD (United States); Zeng, Ning [University of Maryland, Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, College Park, MD (United States); University of Maryland, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, College Park, MD (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Rainfall variability over the Amazon basin has often been linked to variations in Pacific sea surface temperature (SST), and in particular, to the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). However, only a fraction of Amazon rainfall variability can be explained by ENSO. Building upon the recent work of Zeng (Environ Res Lett 3:014002, 2008), here we provide further evidence for an influence on Amazon rainfall from the tropical Atlantic Ocean. The strength of the North Atlantic influence is found to be comparable to the better-known Pacific ENSO connection. The tropical South Atlantic Ocean also shows some influence during the wet-to-dry season transition period. The Atlantic influence is through changes in the north-south divergent circulation and the movement of the ITCZ following warm SST. Therefore, it is strongest in the southern part of the Amazon basin during the Amazon's dry season (July-October). In contrast, the ENSO related teleconnection is through anomalous east-west Walker circulation with largely concentrated in the eastern (lower) Amazon. This ENSO connection is seasonally locked to boreal winter. A complication due to the influence of ENSO on Atlantic SST causes an apparent North Atlantic SST lag of Amazon rainfall. Removing ENSO from North Atlantic SST via linear regression resolves this causality problem in that the residual Atlantic variability correlates well and is in phase with the Amazon rainfall. A strong Atlantic influence during boreal summer and autumn is particularly significant in terms of the impact on the hydro-ecosystem which is most vulnerable during the dry season, as highlighted by the severe 2005 Amazon drought. Such findings have implications for both seasonal-interannual climate prediction and understanding the longer-term changes of the Amazon rainforest. (orig.)

  5. Atua??o governamental do setor de agropecu?ria e pesca no estado do Amazonas

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, Allan Castro da

    2015-01-01

    O presente trabalho tem como objeto de estudo a rela??o entre ?rg?os governamentais envolvidos no setor agropecu?rio e pesqueiro a partir dos pontos de vista geogr?fico e da gest?o territorial e sua atua??o no Estado do Amazonas, exemplificada pelos ?rg?os federais e estaduais situados no Amazonas, em especial a SEPROR e a Superintend?ncia da Agricultura e suas respectivas autarquias. O objetivo da pesquisa ? termos uma compreens?o do processo de como o Estado opera s...

  6. [Characterization of hepatitis C virus in chronic hepatitis patients: genotypes in the State of Amazonas, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Ana Ruth; Almeida, Carlos Mauríco de; Fraporti, Liziara; Garcia, Nadja; Lima, Tatiane Amábili de; Maia, Laura Patrícia Viana; Torres, Kátia Luz; Tarragô, Andréa Monteiro; Victória, Flamir; Victória, Marilu; Tateno, Adriana; Levi, José Eduardo; Talhari, Sinésio; Malheiro, Adriana

    2011-10-01

    In the State of Amazonas, data regarding the prevalence of different genotypes of hepatitis C virus remains scarce. The genotype of 69 HCV positive patients was determined. An in-house standardized nested-PCR was used to detect HCV RNA. Genotype assignment was based on type-specific motifs on the sequenced amplicons delimited by primers HC11/HC18 from the 5' untranslated region. Of the 69 patients studied, 65.2% were male and 34.8% were female. Genotype 1 showed the greatest prevalence, followed by 3 and 2. These data suggesting that Manaus is the point of arrival of HCV in the State of Amazonas.

  7. Development of microsatellite markers for Hyacinth macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) and their cross-amplification in other parrot species

    OpenAIRE

    da Silva, Helder E.; Presti, Flavia T.; Wasko, Adriane P.; Pinhal, Danillo

    2015-01-01

    Background Hyacinth macaw Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus is the largest parrot of the world and is considered vulnerable to extinction due to its habitat loss and illegal trade associated to the international pet market demand. Genetic studies on this species are still incipient to generate a consistent characterization of the population dynamics and to develop appropriate conservation strategies. In this sense, microsatellite markers may support the detection of a population genetic structure fo...

  8. Getting started With Amazon Redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Getting Started With Amazon Redshift is a step-by-step, practical guide to the world of Redshift. Learn to load, manage, and query data on Redshift.This book is for CIOs, enterprise architects, developers, and anyone else who needs to get familiar with RedShift. The CIO will gain an understanding of what their technical staff is working on; the technical implementation personnel will get an in-depth view of the technology, and what it will take to implement their own solutions.

  9. How many more dams in the Amazon?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tundisi, J.G.; Goldemberg, J.; Matsumura-Tundisi, T.; Saraiva, A.C.F.

    2014-01-01

    The Amazon watershed harbors a megadiversity of terrestrial and aquatic plants and animals. Mechanisms that sustain this biodiversity are the water level fluctuations the fluvial dynamics and the intense gene flux due to permanent integration of climatological, geomorphological and biological components of the system. The construction of hydroelectric reservoirs to support economic development of Brazil and other countries that share the Amazon basin will interfere with the ecological dynamics of this ecosystem changing the hydrological, hydrosocial and fundamental processes. Furthermore the construction of Andean reservoirs can disrupt the connectivity with the lower Amazon ecosystem. Principles of ecohydrologies, ecological engineering and preservation of key river basins, have to be applied in order to optimize energy production and promote conservation practices. Long term planning and integration of countries that share the Amazon basin is a strategic decision to control and develop the hydropower exploitation in the region. - Highlights: • The Amazon basin is an ecosystem of megadiversity. • The demand for energy threatens this ecosystem. • Climate, water, forests and floodplain interacts in the Amazon basin. • Dams in the Amazon basin will impact the hydrological and biological systems. • Ecohydrological principles and ecological engineering technology are necessary

  10. Chain of commercialization of Podocnemis spp. turtles (Testudines: Podocnemididae) in the Purus River, Amazon basin, Brazil: current status and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoja-Lima, Jackson; Aride, Paulo H R; de Oliveira, Adriano T; Félix-Silva, Daniely; Pezzuti, Juarez C B; Rebêlo, George H

    2014-01-27

    Consumption of turtles by natives and settlers in the Amazon and Orinoco has been widely studied in scientific communities. Accepted cultural customs and the local dietary and monetary needs need to be taken into account in conservation programs, and when implementing federal laws related to consumption and fishing methods. This study was conducted around the Purus River, a region known for the consumption and illegal trade of turtles. The objective of this study was to quantify the illegal turtle trade in Tapauá and to understand its effect on the local economy. This study was conducted in the municipality of Tapauá in the state of Amazonas, Brazil. To estimate turtle consumption, interviews were conducted over 2 consecutive years (2006 and 2007) in urban areas and isolated communities. The experimental design was randomized with respect to type of household. To study the turtle fishery and trade chain, we used snowball sampling methodology. During our study period, 100% of respondents reported consuming at least three species of turtles (Podocnemis spp.). Our estimates indicate that about 34 tons of animals are consumed annually in Tapauá along the margins of a major fishing river in the Amazon. At least five components related to the chain of commercialization of turtles on the Purus River are identified: Indigenous Apurinã and (2) residents of bordering villages (communities); (3) of local smugglers buy and sell turtles to the community in exchange for manufactured goods, and (4) regional smugglers buy in Tapauá, Lábrea, and Beruri to sell in Manaus and Manacapuru; Finally, (5) there are professional fishermen. We quantify the full impact of turtle consumption and advocate the conservation of the region's turtle populations. The Brazilian government should initiate a new turtle consumption management program which involves the opinions of consumers. With these measures the conservation of freshwater turtles in the Brazilian Amazon, is possible.

  11. Damming the rivers of the Amazon basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latrubesse, Edgardo M; Arima, Eugenio Y; Dunne, Thomas; Park, Edward; Baker, Victor R; d'Horta, Fernando M; Wight, Charles; Wittmann, Florian; Zuanon, Jansen; Baker, Paul A; Ribas, Camila C; Norgaard, Richard B; Filizola, Naziano; Ansar, Atif; Flyvbjerg, Bent; Stevaux, Jose C

    2017-06-14

    More than a hundred hydropower dams have already been built in the Amazon basin and numerous proposals for further dam constructions are under consideration. The accumulated negative environmental effects of existing dams and proposed dams, if constructed, will trigger massive hydrophysical and biotic disturbances that will affect the Amazon basin's floodplains, estuary and sediment plume. We introduce a Dam Environmental Vulnerability Index to quantify the current and potential impacts of dams in the basin. The scale of foreseeable environmental degradation indicates the need for collective action among nations and states to avoid cumulative, far-reaching impacts. We suggest institutional innovations to assess and avoid the likely impoverishment of Amazon rivers.

  12. Applicability of laws and regulations of the Brazilian power sector in the Western Amazon; Aplicabilidade das leis e normas do setor eletrico brasileiro nos estados da Amazonia Ocidental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valois, I.M. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Fac. de Tecnologia], E-mail: ivalois@ufam.edu.br; Cartaxo, E.F. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (NIEMA/UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Fac. de Tecnologia. Nucleo de Energia, Meio Ambiente e Agua], E-mail: ecartaxo@ufam.edu.br

    2009-07-01

    This analysis is developed within a broad context that is characterized by efficient use of electricity in a region environmentally and socially diverse. It considers that energy efficiency is required throughout the process from generation to power consumption, resulting in an interdisciplinary view of the problems reported here. With this guiding principle, the article analyzes the crises of electricity and makes a historical account of some important legal provisions to the environmental and social problems of the state. It assumes that the applicability of the Electric Sector Legislation, in Amazon, becomes inadequate, once in the depopulated endless area, the solutions do not come, simply, by modern technologies where either the traditional ones have place. Studies carried out by the Federal University of Amazonas bring subsidies to the analysis, which aims to create a forum for discussion about the practice of treating as equal parts of deep diversity. (author)

  13. Perception of local inhabitants regarding the socioeconomic impact of tourism focused on provisioning wild dolphins in Novo Airão, Central Amazon, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Luiz C P S; Zappes, Camilah A; Oliveira, Rafael G; Andriolo, Artur; Azevedo, Alexandre de F

    2013-01-01

    Botos (Inia geoffrensis) are currently provisioned for use in tourist attractions in five sites in the Brazilian Amazon. Despite the known negative effects associated with human-wild dolphin interactions, this activity has been regulated and licensed in the Anavilhanas National Park in Novo Airão, Amazonas State, Brazil. We present an updated evaluation of the perception of the local community concerning the possible socioeconomic impacts of this tourism in Novo Airão. In April 2011, 45 interviews were conducted with inhabitants. A small segment of Novo Airão perceives currently itself as being economically dependent on the botos feeding tourism. Despite that, the economic benefits of this controversial activity apparently are not shared among most inhabitants, and botos feeding tourism is perceived as generating diverse negative effects. We conclude that if the activity was banned or modified into a less impacting tourist activity, this action would probably not majorly affect the lives of the general population.

  14. Cytogenetic variation of repetitive DNA elements in Hoplias malabaricus (Characiformes - Erythrinidae) from white, black and clear water rivers of the Amazon basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Fabíola Araújo Dos; Marques, Diego Ferreira; Terencio, Maria Leandra; Feldberg, Eliana; Rodrigues, Luís Reginaldo R

    2016-03-01

    Hoplias malabaricus is a common fish species occurring in white, black and clear water rivers of the Amazon basin. Its large distribution across distinct aquatic environments can pose stressful conditions for dispersal and creates possibilities for the emergence of local adaptive profiles. We investigated the chromosomal localization of repetitive DNA markers (constitutive heterochromatin, rDNA and the transposable element REX-3) in populations from the Amazonas river (white water), the Negro river (black water) and the Tapajós river (clear water), in order to address the variation/association of cytogenomic features and environmental conditions. We found a conserved karyotypic macrostructure with a diploid number of 40 chromosomes (20 metacentrics + 20 submetacentrics) in all the samples. Heteromorphism in pair 14 was detected as evidence for the initial differentiation of an XX/XY system. Minor differences detected in the amount of repetitive DNA markers are interpreted as possible signatures of local adaptations to distinct aquatic environments.

  15. New Records of Social Wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae, Polistinae in Amazonas State, Brazil

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    Alexandre Somavilla

    2013-07-01

    Resumo. Nesse trabalho registramos a ocorrência de Clypearia apicipennis (Spinola, 1851, Leipomeles pusilla (Ducke, 1904, Metapolybia nigra Richards, 1978, Parachartergus richardsi Willink, 1951 e Pseudopolybia langi Bequaert, 1944 pela primeira vez no estado do Amazonas e incluímos notas de distribuição.

  16. A industria do turismo: Pespectiva de desenvolvimento para o Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana D\\u0092Arc Ribeiro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic evaluation on the tourism industry as a sustainable alternative for the Amazonian men, with a domestic and international retrospective on the market. In Brazil, globalization allied to technological advance of the communication come to the meet a large consumption associated to the opening of new frontier and the strongthening of International Institutions like United Nations Organization and Non Government Organizations (NG’S with also a large flux of available forreign funds for investments. As a model of recently discoverede exotic sights the Amazon region has show outstanding opportunities providing the visitor with a unique natural scene. Their ecosystems diversity of habitats, species and the socio cultural diversity could be one of the sustainable ways for its population, as long as, quality service, cultural and enviromental preservation were associated with.

  17. Chemical composition of black-watered rivers in the Amazons Region (Brazil)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horbe, Adriana M.C.; Santos, Ana G. da Silva [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Dept. de Geociencias], e-mail: ahorbe@ufam.edu.br

    2009-07-01

    Most investigations addressing Amazonian water chemistry are focused on the Solimoes, Amazonas and Negro rivers. Knowledge of the chemical composition of their smaller tributaries is restricted to some few, punctual data. The smaller rivers, that only present inputs from their catchments, are very important to understand the overall mechanisms controlling the chemistry of larger rivers of the region. With this objective the chemical composition of the principal Solimoes river black-watered tributaries in the western Brazilian Amazon during the low water period were determined. The data reveal the black water chemical composition to be highly variable and strongly influenced by the local geological environment: the Badajos basin being chemically more diluted; the Coari basin presenting higher SiO{sub 2} contents, as well as smaller lakes having higher pH, conductivity, Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+} and Sr, yet not as much as those found in the Solimoes river. The chemical composition of these waters is compatible with the low physical erosion and the region's highly leached tropical environment from which most soluble elements were quickly removed. (author)

  18. Impact of functional determinants on 5.5-year mortality in Amazon riparian elderly

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    Tiago C. Antonini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To ascertain whether modifiable physical performance–based measurements predicted 5.5-year mortality in a riparian elderly cohort in the Amazon rainforest region. Methods A longitudinal study evaluating the impact of functional determinants on 5.5-year mortality in a riparian elderly cohort from Maués City in the state of Amazonas, Brazil, was performed. The study was a follow-up of a previous observational investigation that evaluated various fitness tests in 630 Amazonian riparian elderly (291 males and 339 females aged 72.3 ± 8.0 (60–99 years old. The cohort was selected for its adverse environmental conditions, which increased the risk of falls yet required maintenance of good physical condition for carrying out relatively rigorous daily activities, and restricted access to specialized health services. Official death records were obtained from the Maués Municipal Health Department. Results A total of 80 study participants (12.7% died over the 5.5-year study period. Kaplan-Meier regression analysis showed significant association between Timed Up and Go (TUG test scores ≥ 14 seconds and mortality risk, independent of sex, age, and other health variables. Conclusions The study results suggest that the TUG test can be used as an indicator for initiating therapeutic and preventive actions, including conducting exercises or physical activities adapted to the health and functional conditions of the elderly, by identifying elderly people with a higher relative risk of mortality.

  19. Efficiency of boron application in an Oxisol cultivated with banana in the Central Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Adônis; de Castro, César; Fageria, Nand K

    2010-12-01

    In the Amazon region, there is no information on the fertilization of banana plants with boron (B). Besides this, the extractant (hot water) currently used to test B concentrations has many limitations. The aim of this work was to study the effect of B on the fruit yield and quality of banana plants of the Cavendish (AAA) sub-group, grown in dystrophic Yellow Latosol (Oxisol or Xanthic Ferralsol), in the Amazonas State, Brazil. The experimental design was completely randomized split plot in a 4 x 2 factorial scheme, composed of four B rates (0, 4, 8 and 12 kg ha-1) and two harvest cycles (sub-treatments), with four replicates. The B availability in the soil was determined by three extractants: Mehlich 3, hot water and KCl 1.0 mol L-1. The application of B influences the fruit yield, pulp/peel ratio, pulp resistance and B content in the leaves and fruits. The KCl 1.0 mol L-1 extractant was similar to the hot water in the evaluation of available B. To obtain maximum yield, it is necessary to apply 4.1 and 6.1 kg ha-1 of B in the first and second cycles, respectively.

  20. Chemical composition of black-watered rivers in the Amazons Region (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horbe, Adriana M.C.; Santos, Ana G. da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Most investigations addressing Amazonian water chemistry are focused on the Solimoes, Amazonas and Negro rivers. Knowledge of the chemical composition of their smaller tributaries is restricted to some few, punctual data. The smaller rivers, that only present inputs from their catchments, are very important to understand the overall mechanisms controlling the chemistry of larger rivers of the region. With this objective the chemical composition of the principal Solimoes river black-watered tributaries in the western Brazilian Amazon during the low water period were determined. The data reveal the black water chemical composition to be highly variable and strongly influenced by the local geological environment: the Badajos basin being chemically more diluted; the Coari basin presenting higher SiO 2 contents, as well as smaller lakes having higher pH, conductivity, Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ and Sr, yet not as much as those found in the Solimoes river. The chemical composition of these waters is compatible with the low physical erosion and the region's highly leached tropical environment from which most soluble elements were quickly removed. (author)

  1. Impacts of stocking on the genetic diversity of Colossoma macropomum in central Amazon, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Queiroz, C A; Sousa, N R; da Silva, G F; Inoue, L A K A

    2016-04-07

    Tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) is the main fish species farmed on a commercial scale in northern Brazil. In view of the current scenario of Brazilian aquaculture, studies on the genetic improvement and reproductive management of captive tambaqui are crucial in identifying the genetic variability of broodstocks and devising management practices. Genetic diversity of three tambaqui broodstocks in western Amazon was evaluated using molecular markers. Fin samples were collected from 89 fish; 38 from Balbina, 30 from a hatchery in Rio Preto da Eva, and 21 from the experimental farm of the Federal University of Amazonas (UFAM). Ten primers were used for the analysis of diversity and genetic structure. Of the 152 bands produced, 146 were polymorphic. The proportion of polymorphic loci showed little variation among the three stocks. The lowest and highest rates were found in the Rio Preto da Eva (80.92%) and Balbina (85.53%) stocks, respectively. Heterozygosity (H) and Shannon (I) indices were similar among the stocks; the lowest values were found in Balbina (H = 0.279 and I = 0.419), and the highest in UFAM (H = 0.294 and I = 0.439). Following analysis of the genetic structure and relationship, the sample was divided into two groups, with the Balbina stock clearly deviating from the others. The results suggest that, to increase genetic variability, molecular information may be used instead of replacement of wild breeders. The groups characterized here can be used in genetic improvement programs with other tambaqui broodstocks from different areas of South America.

  2. O Boi-Bumbá de Parintins, Amazonas: breve história e etnografia da festa Boi-Bumbá in Parintins, Amazonas: a brief history and ethnography of the festival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Laura Viveiros de Castro Cavalcanti

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available O festival dos Bois-Bumbás de Parintins (AM alcançou nos últimos anos dimensões massivas, conjugando, de modo inesperado e criativo, padrões e temas culturais tradicionais a procedimentos e abordagens modernizantes. É hoje uma das grandes manifestações populares do Norte do Brasil, atraindo milhares de pessoas não só de Manaus (a capital do estado e cidades próximas, como de diversas partes do país. O artigo analisa-o a partir de uma perspectiva antropológica, centrada no estudo dos rituais. Tece considerações sobre o estudo e a história do folguedo no Brasil. Empreende uma etnografia do festival, situando-o no contexto da região amazônica e examinando a trajetória percorrida desde sua criação aos dias atuais. Sugere, finalmente, a interpretação do Bumbá como um novo nativismo que, ao valorizar as raízes regionais indígenas, afirma positivamente uma identidade cultural cabocla.In recent years, the Boi-Bumbá festival in Parintins, in the state of Amazonas, has reached massive proportions. In surprising and creative ways, the festival mixes traditional cultural patterns and themes together with modernizing procedures and approaches. It has now become a major expression of popular culture in North Brazil, drawing thousands of people not only from the state capital of Manaus and nearby cities but also from all over the country. The article analyzes the Boi-Bumbá from an anthropological perspective, centered on the study of rituals and including observations on the study and history of folguedo in Brazil. Looking from an ethnographic angle, the article situates the festival in the context of the Amazon and examines the road taken from its creation to today. In conclusion, the Bumbá is interpreted as a new nativism that serves as a positive affirmation of cabocla cultural identity by valuing indigenous regional roots.

  3. Ginandromorfo de Arsenura armida (Cramer de Querari, São Gabriel da Cachoeira, Amazonas, Brasil (Lepidoptera, Saturniidae, Arsenurinae Gynandromorph of Arsenura armida (Cramer from Querari, São Gabriel da Cachoeira, Amazonas State, Brazil (Lepidoptera, Saturniidae, Arsenurinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina da Silva Motta

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of a rare ginandromorph specimen of Saturniidae collected in the State of Amazonas, Brazil is reported. This is the first unique deposit of a gynandromorph in the Collection of the National Institute for Amazonian Research.

  4. The environmental and social impact of electric energy generation in villages and states of the interior of Amazonas state, Brazil; O impacto socio-ambiental da geracao de energia eletrica nas vilas e municipios do interior do estado do Amazonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Andre Frazao; Cavaliero, Carla Kazue Nakao [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos

    2004-07-01

    The interior of the State of Amazonas is nowadays socio and economically stagnant in consequence of various structural problems. The lack of a reliable source of electricity in these areas is one of these problems, and it has been causing several environment and social problems for the local population. To show, in a historic context, the consequences of this scenario to the country side of the State of Amazonas, is the goal of this article. (author)

  5. Entre Amazonas y Grifos. Viaje por las imágenes de frontera en el siglo IV a.C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Conde, Margarita

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon imagery started population Greek vases at the end of the VII century B.C. Being of a polysemic nature, they personify the absolute otherness for the ideal Greek citizen, due to their representation of all the antithetical values: they are women, barbarian, undomesticated. Through the following centuries they are endowed with new meanings, especially in the IV century B.C., a time of profound geopolitical changes. The graphical representation of the struggle for the control of gold between Arimaspi, fierce one-eyed warriors, and Gryps, fearsome hybrid beings that extract it from the earth and guard it, starts towards the end of the vi century B.C., but it will also become a favourite theme of the Greek painters in the iv century B.C., mainly intended for the peripheral areas. We analyze the distribution area of vases decorated with both themes at both ends of the Mediterranean, and its meaning. Amazonomachy and Grypomachy, frontier imagery, seem to act as essential elements in the building of the Greek identity.La imagen de las Amazonas comienza a poblar los vasos griegos desde fines del siglo VII a.C. De naturaleza polisémica, encarnan la alteridad absoluta para el ideal ciudadano griego, pues representan todos los valores antitéticos: son mujeres, bárbaras, no domesticadas. A lo largo de los siglos se dotan de nuevos significados, especialmente en el siglo IV a.C., época de profundas mutaciones geopolíticas. La representación de la lucha por el control del oro entre Arimaspos, feroces guerreros de un solo ojo y Grifos, temibles seres híbridos que lo arrancan de la tierra y custodian, nace a fines del siglo VI a.C. pero será también en el siglo IV a.C. cuando se convierta en un tema predilecto de los pintores griegos, destinado a las áreas periféricas. Analizamos el área de distribución de los vasos decorados con ambos temas en los dos extremos del Mediterráneo y su significado. Amazonomaquias y Grifomaquias, im

  6. The Amazon Region; A Vision of Sovereignty

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-06

    XVII, XVIII and XIX centuries, thirty-seven fortifications had been established to defend the Amazon Region. At the end of the XVII century, iron ...Community to drive the Brazilian Government to interrupt the project "Grande Carajas " (Great Carajas ), and thus trying to inhibit the planned search...oxygen production potential in the Amazon region. Ironically , however, in order to allow plants to grow, part of the forest would have to be

  7. Cárie dentária e necessidade de tratamento odontológico entre os índios Baniwa do Alto Rio Negro, Amazonas Dental caries and need for dental care among the Baniwa Indians, Rio Negro, Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Clemente Gomes Carneiro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisas epidemiológicas em comunidades indígenas no Brasil têm evidenciado forte relação entre a deterioração da saúde bucal e o consumo de itens industrializados (e do açúcar refinado em particular, aliados à precariedade da atenção odontológica. Este estudo abordou a população Baniwa do pólo-base de Tunuí-Cachoeira, São Gabriel da Cachoeira, Amazonas, Brasil. Foi realizado inquérito transversal sobre as condições de saúde bucal, de acordo com critérios da OMS. Foram observadas as condições dentárias e a necessidade de tratamento, examinando-se 590 indivíduos (49,2% da população > 2 anos. A média de dentes atacados pela doença cárie foi 6,0, 8,2 e 22,1 nas faixas etárias 12-14, 15-19 e mais de 50 anos, respectivamente. O maior valor de ceo-d (5,3 foi encontrado na idade de 5 anos. Do total de pessoas examinadas, 73,6% apresentaram alguma necessidade de tratamento cirúrgico-restaurador. Os indivíduos entre 15-19 anos apresentam as mais elevadas freqüências de restaurações. O CPO-D da população Baniwa é elevado, o que deve estar relacionado a processos recentes de mudanças socioeconômicas, particularmente na dieta. Enfatiza-se a necessidade de ampliação da atenção à saúde bucal, considerando-se a complexidade da questão sociocultural dos povos indígenas.Epidemiologic research conducted with Indian communities in Brazil has shown strong correlation between the deterioration of their oral health and the consumption of industrial products, sugar in particular, added to the lack of structure of oral health care. This study was carried out among the Baniwa Indians from the Tunuí-Cachoeira region, São Gabriel da Cachoeira, Northwestern Amazon, Brazil. A cross-sectional survey was conducted according to the criteria established by the WHO, focusing on dental caries and need for dental treatment. A total of 590 individuals were examined (49.2% of the population older than 2 years. The mean numbers

  8. Historical analysis of the records of sylvan yellow fever in the State of Amazonas, Brazil, from 1996 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Maria das Graças Gomes; Amorim, Raul Diniz Souza; Moura, Marco Antônio Sabóia; Santos, Eyde Cristianne Saraiva dos; Sampaio, Leônidas Sales; Barbosa, Maria das Graças Vale; Bührer-Sékula, Samira

    2013-01-01

    Yellow fever is a non-contagious infectious disease, highly lethal, transmitted by the Aedes, Haemagogus and Sabethes. Descriptive retrospective study of the yellow fever cases in Amazonas, between 1996 and 2009. Forty two cases of yellow fever were confirmed, with 30 deaths, 10% of which were foreigners. The presence of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in both rural Amazonas and its capital demonstrates the dispersion of these vectors and underscores the need for better and continuous epidemiological and entomological control.

  9. Patterned-string tasks: relation between fine motor skills and visual-spatial abilities in parrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasheninnikova, Anastasia

    2013-01-01

    String-pulling and patterned-string tasks are often used to analyse perceptual and cognitive abilities in animals. In addition, the paradigm can be used to test the interrelation between visual-spatial and motor performance. Two Australian parrot species, the galah (Eolophus roseicapilla) and the cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus), forage on the ground, but only the galah uses its feet to manipulate food. I used a set of string pulling and patterned-string tasks to test whether usage of the feet during foraging is a prerequisite for solving the vertical string pulling problem. Indeed, the two species used techniques that clearly differed in the extent of beak-foot coordination but did not differ in terms of their success in solving the string pulling task. However, when the visual-spatial skills of the subjects were tested, the galahs outperformed the cockatiels. This supports the hypothesis that the fine motor skills needed for advanced beak-foot coordination may be interrelated with certain visual-spatial abilities needed for solving patterned-string tasks. This pattern was also found within each of the two species on the individual level: higher motor abilities positively correlated with performance in patterned-string tasks. This is the first evidence of an interrelation between visual-spatial and motor abilities in non-mammalian animals.

  10. Theoretical morphology and development of flight feather vane asymmetry with experimental tests in parrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feo, Teresa J; Prum, Richard O

    2014-06-01

    Asymmetry in flight feather vane width is a major functional innovation associated with the evolution of flight in the ancestors of birds. However, the developmental and morphological basis of feather shape is not simple, and the developmental processes involved in vane width asymmetry are poorly understood. We present a theoretical model of feather morphology and development that describes the possible ways to modify feather development and produce vane asymmetry. Our model finds that the theoretical morphospace of feather shape is redundant, and that many different combinations of parameters could be responsible for vane asymmetry in a given feather. Next, we empirically measured morphological and developmental model parameters in asymmetric and symmetric feathers from two species of parrots to identify which combinations of parameters create vane asymmetry in real feathers. We found that both longer barbs, and larger barb angles in the relatively wider trailing vane drove asymmetry in tail feathers. Developmentally, longer barbs were the result of an offset of the radial position of the new barb locus, whereas larger barb angles were produced by differential expansion of barbs as the feather unfurls from the tubular feather germ. In contrast, the helical angle of barb ridge development did not contribute to vane asymmetry and could be indicative of a constraint. This research provides the first comprehensive description of both the morphological and developmental modifications responsible for vane asymmetry within real feathers, and identifies key steps that must have occurred during the evolution of vane asymmetry. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Limited Dispersal and Significant Fine - Scale Genetic Structure in a Tropical Montane Parrot Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Klauke

    Full Text Available Tropical montane ecosystems are biodiversity hotspots harbouring many endemics that are confined to specific habitat types within narrow altitudinal ranges. While deforestation put these ecosystems under threat, we still lack knowledge about how heterogeneous environments like the montane tropics promote population connectivity and persistence. We investigated the fine-scale genetic structure of the two largest subpopulations of the endangered El Oro parakeet (Pyrrhura orcesi endemic to the Ecuadorian Andes. Specifically, we assessed the genetic divergence between three sites separated by small geographic distances but characterized by a heterogeneous habitat structure. Although geographical distances between sites are small (3-17 km, we found genetic differentiation between all sites. Even though dispersal capacity is generally high in parrots, our findings indicate that dispersal is limited even on this small geographic scale. Individual genotype assignment revealed similar genetic divergence across a valley (~ 3 km distance compared to a continuous mountain range (~ 13 km distance. Our findings suggest that geographic barriers promote genetic divergence even on small spatial scales in this endangered endemic species. These results may have important implications for many other threatened and endemic species, particularly given the upslope shift of species predicted from climate change.

  12. Prevalence and Genotyping of Cryptosporidium Infection in Pet Parrots in North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Zhang, Nian-Zhang; Zhao, Guang-Hui; Zhao, Quan; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidiosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by Cryptosporidium spp., sometimes leading to severe diarrhea in humans and animals. In the present study, 311 parrots, belonging to four species, namely, Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), Lovebirds (Agapornis sp.), Alexandrine parakeets (Psittacula eupatria), and Cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus), from Beijing and Weifang cities, were examined for Cryptosporidium spp. infection. Blood samples of each bird were examined using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and fecal samples were examined by Sheather's sugar flotation technique. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection were 3.22% (10/311) and 0.64% (2/311) by ELISA and Sheather's sugar flotation technique, respectively. Seroprevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in different breeds varied from 0 to 15.39%. Sequencing analysis showed that both positive samples from fecal samples belonged to Cryptosporidium avian genotype V. This is the first report of Cryptosporidium avian genotype V in Budgerigars. The results of the present study provided foundation-data for prevention and control of cryptosporidiosis in pet birds in China.

  13. Gut microbiome of the critically endangered New Zealand parrot, the kakapo (Strigops habroptilus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Waite

    Full Text Available The kakapo, a parrot endemic to New Zealand, is currently the focus of intense research and conservation efforts with the aim of boosting its population above the current 'critically endangered' status. While virtually nothing is known about the microbiology of the kakapo, given the acknowledged importance of gut-associated microbes in vertebrate nutrition and pathogen defense, it should be of great conservation value to analyze the microbes associated with kakapo. Here we describe the first study of the bacterial communities that reside within the gastrointestinal tract (GIT of both juvenile and adult kakapo. Samples from along the GIT, taken from the choana (≈ throat, crop and faeces, were subjected to 16 S rRNA gene library analysis. Phylogenetic analysis of >1000 16 S rRNA gene clones, derived from six birds, revealed low phylum-level diversity, consisting almost exclusively of Firmicutes (including lactic acid bacteria and Gammaproteobacteria. The relative proportions of Firmicutes and Gammaproteobacteria were highly consistent among individual juveniles, irrespective of sampling location, but differed markedly among adult birds. Diversity at a finer phylogenetic resolution (i.e. operational taxonomic units (OTUs of 99% sequence identity was also low in all samples, with only one or two OTUs dominating each sample. These data represent the first analysis of the bacterial communities associated with the kakapo GIT, providing a baseline for further microbiological study, and facilitating conservation efforts for this unique bird.

  14. Patterned-string tasks: relation between fine motor skills and visual-spatial abilities in parrots.

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    Anastasia Krasheninnikova

    Full Text Available String-pulling and patterned-string tasks are often used to analyse perceptual and cognitive abilities in animals. In addition, the paradigm can be used to test the interrelation between visual-spatial and motor performance. Two Australian parrot species, the galah (Eolophus roseicapilla and the cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus, forage on the ground, but only the galah uses its feet to manipulate food. I used a set of string pulling and patterned-string tasks to test whether usage of the feet during foraging is a prerequisite for solving the vertical string pulling problem. Indeed, the two species used techniques that clearly differed in the extent of beak-foot coordination but did not differ in terms of their success in solving the string pulling task. However, when the visual-spatial skills of the subjects were tested, the galahs outperformed the cockatiels. This supports the hypothesis that the fine motor skills needed for advanced beak-foot coordination may be interrelated with certain visual-spatial abilities needed for solving patterned-string tasks. This pattern was also found within each of the two species on the individual level: higher motor abilities positively correlated with performance in patterned-string tasks. This is the first evidence of an interrelation between visual-spatial and motor abilities in non-mammalian animals.

  15. Mid-Late Pleistocene OSL chronology in western Amazonia and implications for the transcontinental Amazon pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Dilce F.; Cohen, Marcelo C. L.; Tatumi, Sonia H.; Sawakuchi, André O.; Cremon, Édipo H.; Mittani, Juan C. R.; Bertani, Thiago C.; Munita, Casimiro J. A. S.; Tudela, Diego R. G.; Yee, Márcio; Moya, Gabriela

    2015-12-01

    The origin of the transcontinental Amazon drainage system remains unrevealed. Sedimentary deposits formed from the Neogene in the Amazonas and Solimões Basins constitute natural archives for reconstructing this event in space and time. However, paleoenvironmental and chronological analyses focusing on these deposits, or even their basic mapping, are still scarce to allow such investigation. In this context, primary interests are fluvial strata related to the lithostratigraphic Içá Formation, mapped over a widespread area in western Amazonian lowlands. Although long regarded as Plio-Pleistocene in age, this unit has not yet been dated and its overall depositional setting remains largely undescribed. The main goal of the present work is to contribute for improving facies analysis and chronology of these deposits, approaching an area in southwestern Amazonia and another in northern Amazonia, which are located more than 1000 km apart. Despite this great distance, the sedimentological and chronological characteristics of deposits from these two areas are analogous. Hence, facies analysis revealed paleoenvironments including active channel, abandoned channel, point bar, crevasse splay and floodplain, which are altogether compatible with meandering fluvial systems. Similarly, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating revealed thirty three ages ranging from 65.4 ± 16.9 to 219.6 ± 25.1 ky (in addition to three outliners of 54.0 ± 7.6, 337.3 ± 36.9 and 346.6 ± 48.6 ky), and nine 97.1 ± 9.9 to 254.8 ± 23.8 ky for the areas in southwestern and northern Amazonia, respectively. These data lead to establish that deposits mapped as Içá Formation over a vast area of western Brazilian Amazonia have a Mid-Late Pleistocene age, rather than the previously inferred Plio-Pleistocene age. It follows that if Plio-Pleistocene deposits exist in this region they remain to be dated and must be restricted to a narrow belt in western Amazonia, as well as isolated occurrences

  16. Lutzomyia reducta Feliciangeli et al., 1988, a host of Leishmania amazonensis, sympatric with two other members of the Flaviscutellata complex in southern Amazonas and Rondônia, Brazil (Diptera: Psychodidae Lutzomyia reducta Feliciangeli et al., 1988 um hospedeiro de Leishmania amazonensis, simpátrico com duas outras espécies do complexo flaviscutellata no sul do Amazonas e Rondônica, Brasil (Diptera: Psychodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Freitas

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available A member of the Lutzomyia flaviscutellata complex from Rondônia and southern Amazonas States, Brazil, is so close to the Venezuelan Lutzomyia olmeca recuta Feliciangeli et al., 1988, that it is regarded as belonging to the same species. Since this phlebotomine co-extis with L. olmeca nociva in Brazil, the subspecific status of the former is untenable and is rased to specific rank, as Lutzomyia reducta. The Brazilian material is described and illustrated, and compared with specimens of L. o. nociva and L. flaviscutellata from the same area. Keys to the known taxa of the flaviscutellata complex are presented. Leishmania amazonensis was isolated from one heavily infected specimen of L. reducta, making this the third species of the flaviscutellata complex to be implicated as a vector of this parasite in Brazil. The relative abundance of the three sympatric flaviscutellata complex species varies locally and appears to be related to soil drainage. L. reducta constituted about 25% if all phlebotomines captured in Disney traps at poorly drained and well drained site, but appears not to coloniza areas subject to periodic flooding. L. olmeca nociva was restricted to poorly drained areas not subject to flooding, whereas L. flaviscutellata was ubiquitous L. reducta has never been detected north of the Amazon river in Brazil, but absence of recosrds from western and northwestern Amazonas State may reflect lack of collecting in these areas.Um flebotomíneo do complexo Lutzomyia flaviscutellata, de Rondônia e sul do Amazonas, Brasil é tão parecido com Lutzomyia olmeca reducta, que é considerado como sendo da mesma espécie. Este flebotomíneo ocorre junto com L. olmeca nociva, portanto o nome é emendado para o nível de espécie, como Lutzomyia reducta. O material do Brasil é descrito e ilustrado, e comparado com exemplares de L. o. nociva e L. flaviscutellata da mesma área. Chaves para as espécies e subespécies do complexo flaviscutellata são inclu

  17. Aproveitamento do Óleo das Amêndoas de Tucumã do Amazonas na Produção de Biodiesel The use of tucumã of amazonas kernel oil in the biodiesel production

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    Banny Silva Barbosa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A falta de disponibilidade de energia elétrica é um dos principais motivos pelo baixo Índice de Desenvolvimento Humano das comunidades isoladas localizadas na Amazônia. O biodiesel produzido a partir de óleos vegetais extraídos de espécies oleaginosas nativas de forma sustentada é uma das melhores alternativas energéticas para a região. O tucumã do amazonas, Astrocaryum aculeatum, é uma espécie de palmeira que produz um fruto muito apreciado na região, a partir do qual se obtém uma amêndoa com alto teor de óleo. Nesse estudo, foi avaliada a produção de biodiesel etílico, a partir de diferentes lotes de óleos de tucumã do amazonas, com índices de acidez baixos e elevados, pela transesterificação por catálise básica e ácida homogêneas, respectivamente. Na catálise ácida, foram testados HCl e H2SO4 como catalisadores nas concentrações de 0,0625 a 1,000 M, empregando etanol hidratado na proporção molar de 1:6 e a reação conduzida a 90 ºC por 24 h. Na catálise básica, foram testados NaOH e KOH, nas proporções de 0,5 a 2,0 %, empregando etanol anidro na proporção molar de 1:12 e a reação conduzida a 80 ºC por 2 h. O biodiesel obtido em cada experimento foi analisado por métodos físicos (massa específica e cromatográficos (CLAE em fase reversa. Análises cromatográficas indicaram que as melhores conversões foram alcançadas por amostras de biodiesel com massas específicas inferiores a 0,87 g.cm-1. As amostras de biodiesel obtidas com melhor qualidade foram obtidas utilizando-se os catalisadores ácidos a 1,0 M com rendimentos superiores a 90%. No caso da catálise básica, obteve-se biodiesel de boa qualidade empregando-se o catalisador NaOH a 2,0%, porém com rendimento inferior a 60 %. Contudo, em ambos os casos, foi possível identificar um excelente potencial de produção de biocombustível, a partir do óleo das amêndoas de tucumã.The shortage of electricity is a major reason for the low

  18. A mística do Pirarucu: pesca, ethos e paisagem em comunidades rurais do baixo Amazonas

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    Rui Sérgio S. Murrieta

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo é uma análise das práticas e significados que permeiam a pesca do pirarucu nas comunidades rurais da Ilha de Ituqui, no Baixo Amazonas, Pará. O pirarucu é o maior peixe de escamas da Amazônia e também um valioso produto de mercado devido ao seu papel privilegiado na culinária local. A pesca do Pirarucu é uma das atividades mais antigas no Baixo Amazonas, remontando a tempos pré-coloniais. Para os pescadores que habitam a ilha de Ituqui, a captura do pirarucu pode representar não apenas o retorno econômico garantido de uma jornada de trabalho, como também revestir-se de uma série de significados e vivências ontologicamente estruturadas no dia-a-dia e na identidade dos pescadores. Conflitos sociais e disputas pessoais são intensificadas ou reduzidas, afeições são confirmadas e laços sociais refeitos através das práticas e encontros vivenciados durante uma viagem de pesca aos lagos próximos. Além da prática em si, tais viagens tornam-se referências mnemônicas e afetivas da paisagem, do evento de captura e do próprio sentido de lugar; resultando numa unidade processual conectada a muitas esferas pessoais e sociais de significado, as quais são de difícil compartimentalização. No meio de tantos aspectos motivadores, disputas e pescarias "irracionais" acontecem em Ituqui. Locais de pescaria são possessivamente guardados e "fronteiras territoriais" sutilmente estabelecidas entre comunidades e famílias. O direito ao recurso e, por extensão, aos significados e emoções que ele incorpora, torna-se um luxo ferozmente protegido por alguns. O decréscimo da população de pirarucus, as novas tecnologias de pesca, a alta demanda do mercado pelo peixe e a "mística" que ainda permeia a captura do animal colocaram muitos pescadores num dilema em que a sobrevivência desta atividade parece colidir com o que os desenvolvimentistas e ambientalistas chamam de "racionalidade" da conservação.This article aims to

  19. Ultrastructure and ssrRNA sequencing of Myxidium amazonense n. sp. a myxosporean parasite of Corydoras melini from the Rio Negro river, Amazonas state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Patrick D; Silva, Marcia R M; Maia, Antônio A M; Adriano, Edson A

    2015-12-01

    In a survey of myxozoan parasites of ornamental freshwater fish from the Rio Negro river, it was found that seven of 30 (23.3 %) Corydoras melini specimens examined had plasmodia of a new Myxidium species (Myxidium amazonense n. sp.) in the gallbladder. The fish were caught in the Rio Negro river, in the municipality of Santa Isabel do Rio Negro, in the state of Amazonas, Brazil. The plasmodia had a tubular shape, which was organized as a spiral spring with several turns in the gallbladder. The development of the myxospores was asynchronic, with disporic pansporoblasts. Mature myxospores were elongated, with 17.0 ± 0.9 (16.1-17.9) μm in length and 3.7 ± 0.7 (3.0-4.4) μm in width, and lightly arcuate from the valval view, with their bodies tapering slowly until ending in rounded extremities. The valval surface had nine to ten grooves in each valve. The polar capsules, one at either end of the spore, had a length of 5.4 ± 0.5 (4.9-5.9) μm and a width of 3.4 ± 0.6 (2.8-4.0) μm. Ultrastructural analysis showed that the wall of the plasmodia had numerous microvilli-like structures, pinocytotic canals, and cytoplasmic bridges connecting the pansporoblasts to each other and to the ectoplasm zone. Phylogenetic analysis, based on a small subunit ribosomal RNA (ssrRNA), identified the new species as a sister species of Myxidiumceccarelli, the unique South American Myxidium species whose ssrRNA sequence is available in the NCBI database. This study is the first description of Myxidium species in ornamental freshwater fish from Amazon.

  20. Home-based counseling and testing for HIV and syphilis - an evaluation of acceptability and quality control, in remote Amazonas State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Luciana Viana da Costa; Sabidó, Meritxell; Galbán, Enrique; Guerra, Jorge Augusto de Oliveira; Mabey, David; Peeling, Rosanna W; Benzaken, Adele Schwartz

    2015-03-01

    Home-based, voluntary counselling and testing (HBCT) can help scale up early diagnosis. We aimed to evaluate the acceptance of HBCT for HIV and syphilis, estimate the prevalence among home-tested individuals and assess the performance of point-of-care testing by health staff using dried tube specimens (DTS) in a remote municipality of the Amazon region. Community health teams conducted door-to-door outreach in the urban area of São Gabriel da Cachoeira, Amazonas. HBCT for HIV and syphilis was offered to all residents aged ≥15 years. To provide an external quality assurance (EQA) of the healthcare workers' (HCW') ability to perform testing, DTS panels of reference samples were reconstituted and tested by the workers. HBCT was offered to 1752 individuals and accepted by 1501 (85.6%). Those tested had a median age 32.0 years, 64.4% were women and 85.1% were indigenous; none were previously tested using a rapid test. The prevalence of HIV was 0.37% in men and 0.0% in women; the prevalence of syphilis was 1.12% in men and 2.69% in women. Eleven HCW tested 44 DTS samples for HIV and 44 for syphilis. EQA testing revealed that workers interpreted 55.8% and 90.7% of HIV and syphilis reference samples correctly. HBCT was acceptable and successful in reaching untested individuals. However, there were concerns with the quality of test performance, highlighting the need for continual evaluation and retraining of community HCW. As Brazil scales up HIV and syphilis testing, our findings highlight how HBCT can maximise coverage in similar remote areas and improve knowledge about prevalence of these infections. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Hansen's disease in the state of Amazonas: policy and institutional treatment of a disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweickardt, Julio Cesar; Xerez, Luena Matheus de

    2015-12-01

    This article discusses the historical aspects of the policies for controlling Hansen's disease in the state of Amazonas from the second half of the nineteenth century until the dismantling of this model in 1978. We present the historical changes in the local institutions and policies, and their relationship with national policies. The history and policies related to Hansen's disease in the state of Amazonas are analyzed through the following institutions: Umirisal, the Oswaldo Cruz Dispensary, the Paricatuba Leprosarium, the Antônio Aleixo Colony, and the Gustavo Capanema Preventorium. We seek to show that these institutions cared for the people who suffered from Hansen's disease and those related to them, and were also responsible for carrying out the policies for fighting and controlling the disease.

  2. Laimosemion leticia (Teleostei: Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae), a new species from the upper Rio Amazonas, Southern Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdesalici, Stefano

    2016-03-02

    Laimosemion leticia is described from the Rio Tacana drainage, upper Rio Amazonas basin, Southern Colombia. The new species was found in a shallow swamp within a tropical rainforest in the vicinity of Leticia, capital of the department of Amazonas and southernmost municipality of Colombia. This miniature species is considered to be a member of the Owiyeye subgenus, which is diagnosed by a unique frontal squamation. Laimosemion leticia can be distinguished from all other species of the genus by the unique colour pattern on the unpaired fins. The new species appears related to L. jauaperi, L. uatuman and L. ubim due to the similar flank colour pattern in males, but is easy distinguished by coloration of the unpaired fins and morphological characters.

  3. Microsatellite loci for tucumã of Amazonas (Astrocaryum aculeatum) and amplification in other Arecaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Santiago L Ferreyra; de Macêdo, Jeferson L Vasconcelos; Lopes, Maria T Gomes; Batista, Jacqueline S; Formiga, Kyara M; da Silva, Perla Pimentel; Saulo-Machado, Antonio C; Veasey, Elizabeth Ann

    2012-12-01

    Microsatellite loci were developed for tucumã of Amazonas (Astrocaryum aculeatum), and cross-species amplification was performed in six other Arecaceae, to investigate genetic diversity and population structure and to provide support for natural populations management. • Fourteen microsatellite loci were isolated from a microsatellite-enriched genomic library and used to characterize two wild populations of tucumã of Amazonas (Manaus and Manicoré cities). The investigated loci displayed high polymorphism for both A. aculeatum populations, with a mean observed heterozygosity of 0.498. Amplification rates ranging from 50% to 93% were found for four Astrocaryum species and two additional species of Arecaceae. • The information derived from the microsatellite markers developed here provides significant gains in conserved allelic richness and supports the implementation of several molecular breeding strategies for the Amazonian tucumã.

  4. Vulnerability of groundwater to contamination in the municipality of Humaitá, Amazonas

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    Miqueias Lima Duarte

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater has been used intensively throughout Brazil. In southern Amazonas state, the water supplies of some municipalities are derived exclusively from wells. Yet this region generally has no wastewater treatment, leading to potential contamination of the underground water. We classified and mapped the vulnerability of groundwater supplies to contamination in the urban and peri-urban area of Humaitá in southern Amazonas State. We used the GOD method (Groundwater occurrence; Overall Lithology of the unsaturated zone; Depth of the water table to score vulnerability classes. The results revealed the existence of average and high vulnerability of aquifer contamination in the area, indicating the fragility of the aquifer system that supplies the municipality, and showing the need for public policies aimed at the protection of the region’s groundwater resources.

  5. Pfatp6 molecular profile of Plasmodium falciparum isolates in the western Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasil, Larissa W; Areas, André L L; Melo, Gisely C; Oliveira, Cintia M C; Alecrim, Maria G C; Lacerda, Marcus V G; O'Brien, Connor; Oelemann, Walter M R; Zalis, Mariano G

    2012-04-10

    Anti-malarial drug resistance has emerged as one of the biggest challenges confronting the worldwide effort to control malaria. The appearance of chloroquine and multi-drug resistance had devastating effects on therapeutic efficacy of former first-line agents. Artemisinin has proven to be an excellent therapeutic alternative to fill the void in chemotherapeutic options left by resistance mechanisms. At the time of introduction, no resistance to artemisinins had been recorded, and artemisinins demonstrated excellent parasite reduction rates. In an attempt to protect artemisinin efficacy, the World Health Organization (WHO) made artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) its official first-line treatment recommendation for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum in 2006. In Brazil, artemether/lumefantrine became the Brazilian Malaria Control Programme's official treatment recommendation in 2007. The sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ - ATPase ortholog of P. falciparum (pfatp6) has been suggested as one of the targets of artemisinins. Consequently, pfatp6 gene polymorphisms are being investigated as markers of artemisinin resistance elsewhere. The goal of this work was to describe the molecular profile of pfatp6 in P. falciparum isolates from different localities in the Amazonas State. DNA polymorphisms of the pfatp6 gene in 80 P. falciparum isolates from 11 municipalities of the Amazonas State (Western Brazilian Amazon), before and after the introduction of ACT in the Brazilian anti-malarial guidelines, were analysed by automatic sequencing. Mutations in the pfatp6 gene were searched using Mutation Surveyor v3.25 software. The P. falciparum pfatp6 gene presented polymorphisms at codons 37, 630 and 898. The R37K mutation was found in 16% of the samples, A630S in 32% and I898I in 52%. No S769N mutation, however, was detected in the analysed samples. Despite the small number of samples, data presented here provide baseline information about polymorphisms of pfatp6 gene

  6. Pfatp6 molecular profile of Plasmodium falciparum isolates in the western Brazilian Amazon

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    Brasil Larissa W

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anti-malarial drug resistance has emerged as one of the biggest challenges confronting the worldwide effort to control malaria. The appearance of chloroquine and multi-drug resistance had devastating effects on therapeutic efficacy of former first-line agents. Artemisinin has proven to be an excellent therapeutic alternative to fill the void in chemotherapeutic options left by resistance mechanisms. At the time of introduction, no resistance to artemisinins had been recorded, and artemisinins demonstrated excellent parasite reduction rates. In an attempt to protect artemisinin efficacy, the World Health Organization (WHO made artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT its official first-line treatment recommendation for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum in 2006. In Brazil, artemether/lumefantrine became the Brazilian Malaria Control Programme's official treatment recommendation in 2007. The sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ - ATPase ortholog of P. falciparum (pfatp6 has been suggested as one of the targets of artemisinins. Consequently, pfatp6 gene polymorphisms are being investigated as markers of artemisinin resistance elsewhere. The goal of this work was to describe the molecular profile of pfatp6 in P. falciparum isolates from different localities in the Amazonas State. Methods DNA polymorphisms of the pfatp6 gene in 80 P. falciparum isolates from 11 municipalities of the Amazonas State (Western Brazilian Amazon, before and after the introduction of ACT in the Brazilian anti-malarial guidelines, were analysed by automatic sequencing. Mutations in the pfatp6 gene were searched using Mutation Surveyor v3.25 software. Results The P. falciparum pfatp6 gene presented polymorphisms at codons 37, 630 and 898. The R37K mutation was found in 16% of the samples, A630S in 32% and I898I in 52%. No S769N mutation, however, was detected in the analysed samples. Conclusion Despite the small number of samples, data presented here

  7. Trichomonas vaginalis and associated factors among women living with HIV/AIDS in Amazonas, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Leila Cristina Ferreira; Miranda,Angélica Espinosa; Batalha,Rosieny Santos; Monte,Rossicléia Lins; Talhari,Sinésio

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to determine the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis and its associated factors among women living with HIV attending an AIDS clinic in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional study among women attending an AIDS clinic in Manaus between March and December 2010 for gynecological examination were invited to participate. Enrolled patients answered a face-to-face interview including demographic, behavioral and clinical data. They also underwent a gynecological ...

  8. Ultraviolet vision, fluorescence and mate choice in a parrot, the budgerigar Melopsittacus undulatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearn, S M; Bennett, A T; Cuthill, I C

    2001-11-07

    As in many parrots, the plumage of the budgerigar Melopsittacus undulatus reflects near-ultraviolet (UVA) wavelengths (300-400 nm) and exhibits UVA-induced fluorescence. However, there have, to our knowledge, been no tests of whether the yellow fluorescence observed under intense UVA illumination has any role in signalling. Four experiments were carried out on wild-type budgerigars, where the presence and absence of UV reflectance and fluorescence were manipulated using filters. Few studies have attempted to separate the contribution of UV reflectance to plumage hue as opposed to brightness or distinguish between a role in sexual as opposed to social preferences. However, our first experiments show that not only do females consistently prefer UV-reflecting males, but also that the observed preferences are due to removal of UV affecting the perceived hue rather than brightness. Furthermore, we found no effect of the light environment on male response to females, suggesting that the female preferences relate to plumage colour per se. Whilst UV reflectance appears important in heterosexual choice by females, it has no detectable influence on same-sex association preferences. The results from the second series of experiments suggest that enhancement of the budgerigar's yellow coloration through fluorescence has no effect on male attractiveness. However, the fluorescent plumage may play a role in signalling by virtue of the fact that it absorbs UVA and so increases contrast with nearby UV-reflecting plumage. Our study provides convincing evidence that UV reflectances can play a role in mate choice in non-passerines, but no evidence that the yellow fluorescence observed under UVA illumination is itself important as a signal.

  9. Comparison of two analyzers to determine selected venous blood analytes of Quaker parrots (Myiopsitta monachus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettenmund, Christy L; Heatley, J Jill; Russell, Karen E

    2014-06-01

    Point of care devices can assess electrolyte, blood gas, biochemical, and hematologic values in a critical care setting. Although these devices are commonly used in humans and companion mammals, few studies have assessed their use in avian species. This study compares electrolyte, hemoglobin (Hgb), hematocrit (Hct), acid-base, and venous blood gas parameters between the i-STAT and IRMA TruPoint blood gas analysis systems for 35 Quaker parrots. Agreement between the two analyzers and the effect of gender, time lag between sample analysis, and cartridge expiration were evaluated. Male birds had increased Hgb and Hct compared with females, independent of analyzer method. In expired i-STAT cartridges, only glucose significantly increased. Packed cell volume determined by centrifugation was higher than Hct, as calculated by either analyzer. The analyzers had good agreement for total carbon dioxide, bicarbonate, pH, and Hgb, fair agreement for potassium (K), ionized calcium (iCa), venous partial pressure of carbon dioxide, and base excess, and poor agreement for sodium (Na), venous partial pressure of oxygen (PO2), and oxygen saturation (SO2). Values for Na, iCa, PO2, and SO2 were significantly higher on the IRMA than the i-STAT, while K was significantly lower on the IRMA when compared with the i-STAT. The time lag between sample analyses on the i-STAT and IRMA did not be correlate to any analyte changes. Despite these differences, both the i-STAT and the IRMA appear to be acceptable clinical tools in avian critical care, although reference ranges for each analyzer should be created.

  10. Progression of the load of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases in the State of Amazonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Marilaine; Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Moura, Marco Antonio Saboia; Santos, Eyde Cristianne Saraiva; Saraceni, Valéria; Saraiva, Maria Graças Gomes

    2015-01-01

    In the State of Amazonas, Brazil, urban expansion together with precarious basic sanitation conditions and human settlement on river banks has contributed to the persistence of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases. Time series of the recorded cases of cholera, typhoid fever, hepatitis A and leptospirosis are described, using data from different levels of the surveillance systems. The sources for intestinal parasitosis prevalence data (non-compulsory reporting in Brazil) were Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE), Literatura Latino-Americana (LILACS) and the annals of major scientific meetings. Relevant papers and abstracts in all languages were accessed by two independent reviewers. The references cited by each relevant paper were scrutinized to locate additional papers. Despite its initial dissemination across the entire State of Amazonas, cholera was controlled in 1998. The magnitude of typhoid fever has decreased; however, a pattern characterized by eventual outbreaks still remains. Leptospirosis is an increasing cause of concern in association with the annual floods. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites is high regardless of the municipality and the characteristics of areas and populations. The incidence of hepatitis A has decreased over the past decade. A comparison of older and recent surveys shows that the prevalence of intestinal parasitic diseases has remained constant. The load of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases ranks high among the health problems present in the State of Amazonas. Interventions aiming at basic sanitation and vaccination for hepatitis A were formulated and implemented, but assessment of their effectiveness in the targeted populations is still needed.

  11. [Characterization of the family health strategy in Amazonas state, Brazil: an analysis of implementation and impact].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Hadelândia Milon; Gonçalves, Maria Jacirema Ferreira; Pires, Rodrigo Otávio Moretti

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the implementation of the Family Health Program (FHP) in municipalities (counties) in the State of Amazonas, Brazil, analyzing potential population coverage, evidence of change in the health care model, and impact (2004 and 2008). Implementation was classified as fair versus unsatisfactory. The findings showed an increase in the number of municipalities with the FHP implemented, as well as in the program's coverage (which nevertheless was less than 50% of the population). Concerning change in the health care model, no municipalities were observed with a high rate of change. As for impact, there was a decrease in low impact and an increase in high impact. The final classification did not show a statistically significant change from one year to the next, and unsatisfactory implementation prevailed in the municipalities of the State of Amazonas. Evaluation of the FHP is not simple, since there are various factors involved in the issue. Further studies could reveal the factors that explain the program's suboptimal implementation in the State of Amazonas.

  12. USE OF SCALED SEMIVARIOGRAMS IN THE PLANNING SAMPLE OF SOIL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES IN SOUTHERN AMAZONAS, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Eleotério de Aquino

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There is a great lack of information from soil surveys in the southern part of the State of Amazonas, Brazil. The use of tools such as geostatistics may improve environmental planning, use and management. In this study, we aimed to use scaled semivariograms in sample design of soil physical properties of some environments in Amazonas. We selected five areas located in the south of the state of Amazonas, Brazil, with varied soil uses, such as forest, archaeological dark earth (ADE, pasture, sugarcane cropping, and agroforestry. Regular mesh grids were set up in these areas with 64 sample points spaced at 10 m from each other. At these points, we determined the particle size composition, soil resistance to penetration, moisture, soil bulk density and particle density, macroporosity, microporosity, total porosity, and aggregate stability in water at a depth of 0.00-0.20 m. Descriptive and geostatistical analyses were performed. The sample density requirements were lower in the pasture area but higher in the forest. We concluded that managed-environments had differences in their soil physical properties compared to the natural forest; notably, the soil in the ADE environment is physically improved in relation to the others. The physical properties evaluated showed a structure of spatial dependence with a slight variability of the forest compared to the others. The use of the range parameter of the semivariogram analysis proved to be effective in determining an ideal sample density.

  13. The Vine Trust's Amazon Hope boats--providing a dental service on the Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Shona M C

    2013-01-01

    The Vine Trust's Amazon Hope Project is a medical and dental programme providing healthcare to communities along the Amazon River in Peru. Volunteers from the UK and other countries work alongside Peruvian staff employed by their partner organization, Union Biblica del Peru, to provide a health service from a boat which serves communities on several tributaries who otherwise would have no other access to care. The dental programme involves a basic restorative and extraction service, with scope to develop a preventive programme. Dentists'and DCPs' skills are transferable globally: this article illustrates how one volunteer dental project is working to provide relevant and sustainable dental health care in the Amazon jungle.

  14. Eight New Species of Charinus Simon, 1892 (Arachnida: Amblypygi: Charinidae Endemic for the Brazilian Amazon, with Notes on Their Conservational Status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Ponce de Leão Giupponi

    Full Text Available Eight new species of Charinus Simon, 1892 are described for the Brazilian Amazon, from the states of Pará (C. bichuetteae sp. n., C. bonaldoi sp. n., C. carajas sp. n., C. ferreus sp. n., C. guto sp. n. and C. orientalis sp. n. and Amazonas (Charinus brescoviti sp. n. and C. ricardoi sp. n.. All new species can be differentiated from the other species of the genus by the number of pseudo-articles in basitibia IV, the presence/absence of median eyes, and the shape of the female gonopod. Brazil now becomes the country with the largest diversity of Amblypygi in the world, with 25 known species. Half of the new species described here have a high degree of endangerment: C. bichuetteae sp. n. is threatened by the flood caused by the hydroelectric dam of Belo Monte, and C. carajas sp. n., C. ferreus sp. n. and C. orientalis sp. n. are endangered by the iron mining in Carajás municipality and surroundings. The Charinus species here described are endemic to the Amazon Region, so in order to assure their preservation, it is strongly recommended a special care with their habitats (type localities which are facing increasing rates of destruction and deforestation.

  15. Eight New Species of Charinus Simon, 1892 (Arachnida: Amblypygi: Charinidae) Endemic for the Brazilian Amazon, with Notes on Their Conservational Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giupponi, Alessandro Ponce de Leão; de Miranda, Gustavo Silva

    2016-01-01

    Eight new species of Charinus Simon, 1892 are described for the Brazilian Amazon, from the states of Pará (C. bichuetteae sp. n., C. bonaldoi sp. n., C. carajas sp. n., C. ferreus sp. n., C. guto sp. n. and C. orientalis sp. n.) and Amazonas (Charinus brescoviti sp. n. and C. ricardoi sp. n.). All new species can be differentiated from the other species of the genus by the number of pseudo-articles in basitibia IV, the presence/absence of median eyes, and the shape of the female gonopod. Brazil now becomes the country with the largest diversity of Amblypygi in the world, with 25 known species. Half of the new species described here have a high degree of endangerment: C. bichuetteae sp. n. is threatened by the flood caused by the hydroelectric dam of Belo Monte, and C. carajas sp. n., C. ferreus sp. n. and C. orientalis sp. n. are endangered by the iron mining in Carajás municipality and surroundings. The Charinus species here described are endemic to the Amazon Region, so in order to assure their preservation, it is strongly recommended a special care with their habitats (type localities) which are facing increasing rates of destruction and deforestation.

  16. Eight New Species of Charinus Simon, 1892 (Arachnida: Amblypygi: Charinidae) Endemic for the Brazilian Amazon, with Notes on Their Conservational Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giupponi, Alessandro Ponce de Leão; de Miranda, Gustavo Silva

    2016-01-01

    Eight new species of Charinus Simon, 1892 are described for the Brazilian Amazon, from the states of Pará (C. bichuetteae sp. n., C. bonaldoi sp. n., C. carajas sp. n., C. ferreus sp. n., C. guto sp. n. and C. orientalis sp. n.) and Amazonas (Charinus brescoviti sp. n. and C. ricardoi sp. n.). All new species can be differentiated from the other species of the genus by the number of pseudo-articles in basitibia IV, the presence/absence of median eyes, and the shape of the female gonopod. Brazil now becomes the country with the largest diversity of Amblypygi in the world, with 25 known species. Half of the new species described here have a high degree of endangerment: C. bichuetteae sp. n. is threatened by the flood caused by the hydroelectric dam of Belo Monte, and C. carajas sp. n., C. ferreus sp. n. and C. orientalis sp. n. are endangered by the iron mining in Carajás municipality and surroundings. The Charinus species here described are endemic to the Amazon Region, so in order to assure their preservation, it is strongly recommended a special care with their habitats (type localities) which are facing increasing rates of destruction and deforestation. PMID:26885641

  17. Molecular identification and successful treatment of Chlamydophila psittaci (genotype B) in a clinically affected Congo African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus erithacus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razmyar, J.; Rajabioun, M.; Zaeemi, M.; Afshari, A.

    2016-01-01

    Avian chlamydiosis is caused by Chlamydiophila psittaci with the highest infection rate in parrots (Psittacidae) and pigeons (Columbiformes). A two-year-old Congo African grey parrot was examined since the bird had shown clinical signs of anorexia, depression, diarrhea, and mild dyspnea and based on biochemical and hemathological analysis the bird was diagnosed as having anemia, leukocytosis, heterophilia, lymphopenia and monocytosis. With regards to clinical and paraclinical findings, the case was diagnosed to be carrying Chlamydiophila spp. In addition, choanal cleft and cloaca swabs were positive for Chlamydiophila spp. in a diagnostic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (600 bp amplicon). Polymerase chain reaction products were typed by ompA gene-based PCR, using CTU/CTL primers (1050 bp amplicon). The PCR product sequence was compared with the sequences obtained from GenBank. The phylogenetic tree has revealed 100% identity with genotype B obtained from previous studies. The bird was hospitalized and treated with doxycycline regimen for 45 days, with a weekly sampling process to trace the presence of C. psittaci DNA in faecal and choanal swabs, this process continued to the point where the specimens turned negative after two weeks. Laboratory and radiology results were within normal limits after the treatment. Genotype B is predominantly isolated from Columbidae and there have not been any reports regarding the clinically affected African gray parrot with this genotype. Subsequently, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of chlamydiosis by genotype B on Congo African grey parrot. PMID:28224015

  18. Evapotranspiration seasonality across the Amazon Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Maeda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Evapotranspiration (ET of Amazon forests is a main driver of regional climate patterns and an important indicator of ecosystem functioning. Despite its importance, the seasonal variability of ET over Amazon forests, and its relationship with environmental drivers, is still poorly understood. In this study, we carry out a water balance approach to analyse seasonal patterns in ET and their relationships with water and energy drivers over five sub-basins across the Amazon Basin. We used in situ measurements of river discharge, and remotely sensed estimates of terrestrial water storage, rainfall, and solar radiation. We show that the characteristics of ET seasonality in all sub-basins differ in timing and magnitude. The highest mean annual ET was found in the northern Rio Negro basin (∼ 1497 mm year−1 and the lowest values in the Solimões River basin (∼ 986 mm year−1. For the first time in a basin-scale study, using observational data, we show that factors limiting ET vary across climatic gradients in the Amazon, confirming local-scale eddy covariance studies. Both annual mean and seasonality in ET are driven by a combination of energy and water availability, as neither rainfall nor radiation alone could explain patterns in ET. In southern basins, despite seasonal rainfall deficits, deep root water uptake allows increasing rates of ET during the dry season, when radiation is usually higher than in the wet season. We demonstrate contrasting ET seasonality with satellite greenness across Amazon forests, with strong asynchronous relationships in ever-wet watersheds, and positive correlations observed in seasonally dry watersheds. Finally, we compared our results with estimates obtained by two ET models, and we conclude that neither of the two tested models could provide a consistent representation of ET seasonal patterns across the Amazon.

  19. Amazon Plume Salinity Response to Ocean Teleconnections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Tyaquiçã

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Pacific and Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST variability strongly influences rainfall changes in the Amazon River basin, which impacts on the river discharge and consequently the sea surface salinity (SSS in the Amazon plume. An Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF analysis was performed using 46 years of SST, rainfall, and SSS datasets, in order to establish the relationship between these variables. The first three modes of SST/rainfall explained 87.83% of the total covariance. Pacific and Atlantic SSTs led Amazon basin rainfall events by 4 months. The resultant SSS in the western tropical North Atlantic (WTNA lagged behind basin rainfall by 3 months, with 75.04% of the total covariance corresponding to the first four EOF modes. The first EOF mode indicated a strong SSS pattern along the coast that was connected to negative rainfall anomalies covering the Amazon basin, linked to El Niño events. A second pattern also presented positive SSS anomalies, when the rainfall was predominantly over the northwestern part of the Amazon basin, with low rainfall around the Amazon River mouth. The pattern with negative SSS anomalies in the WTNA was associated with the fourth mode, when positive rainfall anomalies were concentrated in the northwest part of South America. The spatial rainfall structure of this fourth mode was associated with the spatial rainfall distribution found in the third EOF mode of SST vs. rainfall, which was a response to La Niña Modoki events. A statistical analysis for the 46 year period and monthly anomaly composites for 2008 and 2009 indicated that La Niña Modoki events can be used for the prediction of low SSS patterns in the WNTA.

  20. The Amazon, measuring a mighty river

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1967-01-01

    The Amazon, the world's largest river, discharges enough water into the sea each day to provide fresh water to the City of New York for over 9 years. Its flow accounts for about 15 percent of all the fresh water discharged into the oceans by all the rivers of the world. By comparison, the Amazon's flow is over 4 times that of the Congo River, the world's second largest river. And it is 10 times that of the Mississippi, the largest river on the North American Continent.

  1. Greenhouse problem in the Amazon jungle clearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, E.J.; Margulis, S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the contribution of Amazon jungle clearing to the greenhouse problem and makes an assessment of long-run prospects. The introductory sections pose the problem from both international and Brazilian perspectives. The next section describes major features of the Amazonia ecosystems and presents methods and evidence on deforestation and on its impact on carbon dioxide emissions. Based upon cross-section information for a sample of municipalities in the Brazilian Amazon, the following section estimates elasticities of deforestation in relation to major economic factors- government policies included- and uses them to make projections for the future pace of deforestation. The last section discusses policy alternatives to slow down forest conversion

  2. Molecular Comparison of Topotypic Specimens Confirms Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) dunhami Causey (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Colombian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Causey was first described from Tefé, Amazonas (AM), Brazil (Causey 1945), but was placed in synonymy with the malaria vec- tor Anopheles nuneztovari...collected in four departments in Colombia (Antio- quia, Amazonas , Caquetá and Norte de Santander) in 2006 as part of the PhD study of Ruiz (2010). Of...574 mosquitoes collected in Amazonas , where An. nunezto- vari s.l. is unreported, two specimens were keyed out as An. nuneztovari s.l. using the

  3. Feasibility of transesophageal echocardiography in birds without cardiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufrère, Hugues; Pariaut, Romain; Nevarez, Javier G; Tully, Thomas N

    2010-03-01

    To establish a technique of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in birds without cardiac disease and describe the imaging planes obtained. Validation study. 18 birds including 3 pigeons (Columbia livia), 3 barred owls (Strix varia), 2 red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), 1 goose (Anser anser), 1 mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos), 1 Muscovy duck (Cairina moschata), 2 brown pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis), 2 Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis), 2 red-fronted macaws (Ara rubrogenys), and 1 military macaw (Ara militaris). For each bird, anesthesia was induced and maintained by use of isoflurane. A pediatric, multiplane transesophageal ultrasound probe was passed into the esophagus and adjusted to the level of the heart for echocardiography. Probe positions were recorded via fluoroscopy, and associated imaging planes were described. TEE was performed successfully in all birds except the pelicans, 1 Hispaniolan Amazon parrot, and the red-fronted macaws. Five imaging planes of the heart were consistently viewed from 3 positions of the probe (identified as caudal, middle, and cranial positions relative to the cardiac silhouette). M-mode echocardiography of the left ventricle and the aortic root was performed. Color flow and spectral Doppler ultrasonographic images of in- and outflow regions were obtained. One Hispaniolan Amazon parrot died as a result of esophageal perforation. TEE examination of birds was feasible and provided a larger number of imaging planes with better resolution and details than those typically achieved via a transcoelomic approach. However, TEE should be performed with caution in psittacines.

  4. A Conceptual model of Ecophysiological Function across the Amazon Basin using a Synthesis of Observed and Model Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, I. T.; Denning, A. S.; Harper, A. B.

    2008-12-01

    Observations of the seasonal cycle of Net Ecosystem Exchange of Carbon (NEE) are variable across the Amazon Basin. NEE has been observed to be nearly uniform through the year at sites such as Cueiras Reserve in Amazonas. A pattern of efflux during the wet season and uptake during seasonal drought has been observed at multiple sites in the Tapajos River National Forest, while the opposite pattern (uptake during wet season, efflux during seasonal drought) has been observed at several sites in Mato Grosso . Using a synthesis of eddy covariance flux observations from multiple sites across vegetation and moisture gradients in the Amazon basin and a biophysical model (Simple Biosphere Model, SiB), we construct a conceptual model of the patterns of ecophysiological function that determine annual cycles and interannual variability in observed NEE across tropical Amazonia. We identify several factors that determine the behavior of Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and respiration fluxes, while NEE is determined by their sum. We evaluate our conceptual model across a pseudo-latitudinal gradient from extremely wet (more than 2000 mm annual precipitation) in the north to drier cerrado (savanna) regions in the south. In the extremely wet regions near the equator we find little or no stress on photosynthesis and, subsequently, little or no variability in annual cycles of energy or carbon flux. In these regions NEE is determined by vegetation response to high-frequency meteorological events. As precipitation decreases, the flux seasonality increases and phase relationships between GPP and respiration determine annual NEE cycles. As GPP/respiration cycles transition from an out-of-phase relationship in wetter regions to an in-phase pattern in the cerrado, NEE changes from dry to wet season carbon uptake.

  5. Estrutura populacional, razão sexual e abundância de Podocnemis sextuberculata (Testudines, Podocnemididae na Reserva de Desenvolvimento Sustentável Mamirauá, Amazonas, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Fachín-Terán

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied turtles in the focal area of the Reserva de Desenvolvimento Sustentável Mamirauá from September 1996 through August 1998. The reserve is located in the western part of the Brazilian