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Sample records for amazon molly poecilia

  1. Microsatellites for the gynogenetic Amazon molly, Poecilia formosa

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 85; Issue 1. Microsatellites for the gynogenetic Amazon molly, Poecilia formosa: useful tools for detection of mutation rate, ploidy determination and overall genetic diversity. Kathrin P. Lampert Dunja K. Lamatsch Susanne Schories Armin Hopf Francisco J. García De León ...

  2. Microsatellites for the gynogenetic Amazon molly, Poecilia formosa ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    reproductive biology of a mixed species reproductive com- plex, and also into the genetic mechanism underlying cancer formation. P. formosa, the Amazon molly, is a small ... A higher number of microchro- mosomes correlates with an increased risk of developing skin cancer (Schartl et al. 1997). Amazon mollies occur in ...

  3. Amazon Molly, Poecilia formosa, as a model for studies of the effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodhead, A.D.; Setlow, R.B.; Hart, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    It is suggested that the viviparous teleost, Poecilia formosa, (Amazon molly) may have wide potential use for aquatic radiation studies. The Amazon molly is a naturally occurring gynogenetic species, in which the eggs are activated after mating with the males of closely related species, without the subsequent genetic contribution from the male. The offspring of a single original female constitute a clone, having identical genotypes. Clones of the genetically homogeneous Amazon molly may prove to be equally as valuable to aquatic radiobiologists as the inbred rodent lines have been to mammalian studies. In many other respects the Amazon molly is a satisfactory laboratory animal. It is robust, easy to rear, and has large broods of young when fully grown. Maintenance costs are low. Details are given of the conditions under which colonies reproduce

  4. Development of thyroid neoplasia in old age in the Amazon molly, Poecilia formosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhead, A.D. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY); Setlow, R.B.; Hart, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    In a previous paper we have described the appearance of a thyrotrophin sensitive thyroid neoplasm in a few senile individuals from a laboratory population of guppies, Lebistes reticulatus (Peters). Material has now been examined from the closely related species, Poecilia formosa, the Amazon molly, in which the incidence of thyroid neoplasms in the senile fish of our clones approaches 100 percent. The spontaneous growth seen in the old mollies was large, occupying much of the pharyngeal region. It was formed of three zones; at the center were inactive follicles with flattened epithelial cells enclosing a dense uneroded colloid. Peripherally, there was an area which microfollicles predominated, and the follicular epithelial cells frequently were swollen and balloon-like. The outermost area of the growth contained many afollicular groups of epithelial cells, lying amongst a great deal of loose connective tissue. The thyroid tissue was invasive, destroying muscle and bone. We have suggested that the spontaneous thyroid neoplasia in old P. formosa and L. reticulatus arise in a similar way. They develop as a result of the inability of the aging thyroid to respond to thyrotrophic hormone. Under continued pituitary stimulation the thyroid cells greatly proliferate and hypertrophy, and form a neoplasia. The appearance is described of massive thyroid growths which were experimentally induced by the injection into young mollies of cells with damaged DNA. There were striking differences between the induced and the spontaneous thyroid growths. The neoplasia of old fish was highly variable in structure, but the induced neoplasia had a regular appearance. Neoplastic tissue closely resembled normal thyroid tissue--but the growth was exuberant and highly invasive. We suggest that the differences between the neoplasm of old age and the induced neoplasm may reflect a different hormonal status.

  5. Aging changes in the kidneys of two poeciliid fishes, the guppy Poecilia reticulatus and the Amazon molly P. formosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhead, A.D.; Pond, V.; Dailey, K.

    1983-01-01

    Histological surveys of the kidneys of two poeciliid fishes, the Amazon molly Poecilia formosa and the guppy P. reticulatus, throughout their lifespans showed no regular aging trends. Few kidney lesions were found in the Amazon molly until very late in life, 60 months or more, when obsolescent glomeruli and dilated renal tubules occurred. Guppies showed involutional changes of the renal system earlier, and the lesions became more severe with age, particularly in male fish. Hemopoietic tissue was reduced in amount in older fish of both species. Guppies of a year and older had marked accumulation of melanin in the melanomacrophage centers of the kidney, and the amount present increased with age. By contrast, there was little melanin deposition in mollies until almost the end of the lifespan. Hyaline droplets were consistently seen in the renal tubules of the mollies, but were rare in guppies. The degenerative changes in the kidneys of these two teleosts are similar to those seen in the kidneys of aging mammals. Despite the loss of normal structure in older fish, it seemed unlikely that degeneration of the kidney was directly involved in aging and death.

  6. Allele-specific expression at the androgen receptor alpha gene in a hybrid unisexual fish, the Amazon molly (Poecilia formosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangjun Zhu

    Full Text Available The all-female Amazon molly (Poecilia formosa is the result of a hybridization of the Atlantic molly (P. mexicana and the sailfin molly (P. latipinna approximately 120,000 years ago. As a gynogenetic species, P. formosa needs to copulate with heterospecific males including males from one of its bisexual ancestral species. However, the sperm only triggers embryogenesis of the diploid eggs. The genetic information of the sperm donor typically will not contribute to the next generation of P. formosa. Hence, P. formosa possesses generally one allele from each of its ancestral species at any genetic locus. This raises the question whether both ancestral alleles are equally expressed in P. formosa. Allele-specific expression (ASE has been previously assessed in various organisms, e.g., human and fish, and ASE was found to be important in the context of phenotypic variability and disease. In this study, we utilized Real-Time PCR techniques to estimate ASE of the androgen receptor alpha (arα gene in several distinct tissues of Amazon mollies. We found an allelic bias favoring the maternal ancestor (P. mexicana allele in ovarian tissue. This allelic bias was not observed in the gill or the brain tissue. Sequencing of the promoter regions of both alleles revealed an association between an Indel in a known CpG island and differential expression. Future studies may reveal whether our observed cis-regulatory divergence is caused by an ovary-specific trans-regulatory element, preferentially activating the allele of the maternal ancestor.

  7. Amazon Molly, Poecilia formosa, as a model for studies of the effects of ionizing radiation. [Radiosensitivity of Poecilia formosa, Carassius auratus, Ictalurus punctatus, and Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in laboratory environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhead, A.D.; Setlow, R.B.; Hart, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    It is suggested that the viviparous teleost, Poecilia formosa, (Amazon molly) may have wide potential use for aquatic radiation studies. The Amazon molly is a naturally occurring gynogenetic species, in which the eggs are activated after mating with the males of closely related species, without the subsequent genetic contribution from the male. The offspring of a single original female constitute a clone, having identical genotypes. Clones of the genetically homogeneous Amazon molly may prove to be equally as valuable to aquatic radiobiologists as the inbred rodent lines have been to mammalian studies. In many other respects the Amazon molly is a satisfactory laboratory animal. It is robust, easy to rear, and has large broods of young when fully grown. Maintenance costs are low. Details are given of the conditions under which colonies reproduce.

  8. Response to and recovery from acute sublethal gamma radiation in the Amazon molly, Poecilia formosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhead, A.D.; Setlow, R.B.

    1979-05-01

    Acute irradiation of the Amazon molly with a sublethal dose of 1,000 rad caused some damage to the intestinal tract and to the haematopoietic system. Histologically, the intestine appeared to have regenerated by the end of a week; damage to the haematopoietic tissue appeared more slowly, but repair was almost complete some two months later. Nevertheless, recovery to the intestine cannot have been entirely completed in seven days, since the fish did not feed well for the following two weeks. After this, there were no obvious deleterious effects upon the survival and viability of the fish, although irradiated fish weighed less at the termination of the experiment.

  9. Sequence Evolution and Expression of the Androgen Receptor and Other Pathway-Related Genes in a Unisexual Fish, the Amazon Molly, Poecilia formosa, and Its Bisexual Ancestors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangjun Zhu

    Full Text Available The all-female Amazon molly (Poecilia formosa originated from a single hybridization of two bisexual ancestors, Atlantic molly (Poecilia mexicana and sailfin molly (Poecilia latipinna. As a gynogenetic species, the Amazon molly needs to copulate with a heterospecific male, but the genetic information of the sperm-donor does not contribute to the next generation, as the sperm only acts as the trigger for the diploid eggs' embryogenesis. Here, we study the sequence evolution and gene expression of the duplicated genes coding for androgen receptors (ars and other pathway-related genes, i.e., the estrogen receptors (ers and cytochrome P450, family19, subfamily A, aromatase genes (cyp19as, in the Amazon molly, in comparison to its bisexual ancestors. Mollies possess-as most other teleost fish-two copies of the ar, er, and cyp19a genes, i.e., arα/arβ, erα/erβ1, and cyp19a1 (also referred as cyp19a1a/cyp19a2 (also referred to as cyp19a1b, respectively. Non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs among the ancestral bisexual species were generally predicted not to alter protein function. Some derived substitutions in the P. mexicana and one in P. formosa are predicted to impact protein function. We also describe the gene expression pattern of the ars and pathway-related genes in various tissues (i.e., brain, gill, and ovary and provide SNP markers for allele specific expression research. As a general tendency, the levels of gene expression were lowest in gill and highest in ovarian tissues, while expression levels in the brain were intermediate in most cases. Expression levels in P. formosa were conserved where expression did not differ between the two bisexual ancestors. In those cases where gene expression levels significantly differed between the bisexual species, P. formosa expression was always comparable to the higher expression level among the two ancestors. Interestingly, erβ1 was expressed neither in brain nor in gill in the

  10. SUBACTUTE HEMATOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF THE YUCATAN SAILFIN MOLLY (POECILIA VELIFERA) EXPOSED TO CADMIUM CHLORIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study focuses on the subacute hematological responses of the Yucatan sailfin molly, Poecilia velifera, exposed to cadmium chloride. Previous studies in other teleosts and mammals have suggested that exposure to cadmium chloride results in a leucocytic response. Fish were exp...

  11. Compensatory growth response of sailfin molly, Poecilia latipinna (Lesueur, 1821 to starvation and refeeding

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    Vahid Morshedi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Compensatory growth response and body composition of male sailfin molly, Poecilia latipinna subjected to short-term starvation and subsequent feeding were studied for 54 days. Four feeding schedules were used in this study: C, Control (were fed to apparent satiation throughout the experiment; T1, Treatment 1 (3 days Starvation and 6 days refeeding; T2, Treatment 2 (6 days Starvation and 12 days refeeding; T3, Treatment 3 (9 days Starvation and 18 days refeeding. At the end of the experiment, the starved fish gained a body weight comparable to that of the control fish. There were no differences in condition factor, specific growth rate and weight gain between the starved and control fish at the end of the experiment. Daily feed intake was significantly higher in T3 than that in the control. Short-term starvation did not influence protein, lipid and ash contents. Moisture content of T2 and T3 fish were significantly higher than those of T1 and control fish. The results indicated that complete compensation occurred in the starved fish and that this species can tolerate to short term starvation without any significant effects on growth and feeding performance.

  12. Microsatellites for the gynogenetic Amazon molly, Poecilia formosa ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... University of Wuerzburg, Biozentrum, Am Hubland, 97074 Wuerzburg, Germany; Freshwater Biology, Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Vautierstraat 29, 1000 Brussels, Belgium; Centro de Investigaciones Biol´ogicas del Noreste, S.C. (CIBNOR, S.C.), Col. Playa Palo de Santa Rita, La Paz, BCS, México 23090 ...

  13. Microsatellites for the gynogenetic Amazon molly, Poecilia formosa ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    useful tools for detection of mutation rate, ... The male's. ∗For correspondence. Email: kathrin.lampert@biozentrum.uni-wuerzburg.de. genetic material is usually excluded from the oocyte and does not contribute to the offsprings' genomes. In very rare cases ... generally considered the most powerful tools for population-.

  14. Parasites in sexual and asexual mollies (Poecilia, Poeciliidae, Teleostei): a case for the Red Queen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobler, Michael; Schlupp, Ingo

    2005-06-22

    The maintenance of sexual reproduction in the face of its supposed costs is a major paradox in evolutionary biology. The Red Queen hypothesis, which states that sex is an adaptation to fast-evolving parasites, is currently one of the most recognized explanations for the ubiquity of sex and predicts that asexual lineages should suffer from a higher parasite load if they coexist with closely related sexuals. We tested this prediction using four populations of the sexual fish species Poecilia latipinna and its asexual relative Poecilia formosa. Contrary to expectation, no differences in parasite load could be detected between the two species.

  15. The effects of sodium perchlorate on the liver of Molly Fish ( Poecilia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adult male molly fishes were reared up to ten days in control water or in water containing sodium perchlorate at concentrations of 1, 5, 25 and 125 ppm. Remarkable steatosis, fibrosis, hyperemia and necrosis were distinguished in parallel with increasing sodium perchlorate concentrations. The striking cellular damages ...

  16. Assays to Detect UV-reflecting Structures and Determine their Importance in Mate Preference using the Sailfin Molly Poecilia latipinna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankison, Shala J; Palmer, Meredith S

    2016-09-14

    Many organisms use cues and signals beyond human sensitivity during social interactions. It is important to take into account how organisms perceive their worlds when trying to understand their behavior and ecology. Sensitivity to the ultraviolet spectrum (UV; 300 - 400 nm) is found across multiple genera of birds, fish, reptiles, amphibians, and even mammals. This protocol describes a technique for examining organisms for the presence of UV-reflecting structures and a method for testing whether these cues are used as social signals in the context of mate choice. A spectrophotometer is used to detect the presence of UV reflectance and variation in reflective intensity between individuals and sexes. An example of this technique is presented in which a dichotomous mate choice test exposes sexually receptive individuals to opposite sex individuals whose visual appearance can be manipulated by filters that either transmit full spectrum or block UV wavelengths. This system allowed for the determination that female, but not male, sailfin mollies (Poecilia latipinna) were using UV markings as part of their mating decisions. These types of studies serve to expand our knowledge of the range of organisms that utilize UV and provide insight into how UV plays a role in their lives.

  17. Otolith morphology and hearing abilities in cave- and surface-dwelling ecotypes of the Atlantic molly, Poecilia mexicana (Teleostei: Poeciliidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz-Mirbach, Tanja; Ladich, Friedrich; Riesch, Rüdiger; Plath, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Cave fish have rarely been investigated with regard to their inner ear morphology, hearing abilities, and acoustic communication. Based on a previous study that revealed morphological differences in the saccular otolith between a cave and two surface populations of Poecilia mexicana, we checked for additional differences in utricular and lagenar otoliths and tested whether different populations have similar hearing sensitivities. We found pronounced differences in the shape of all three otoliths. Otoliths of the saccule and lagena from cave fish differed from those of surface fish in the features of the face oriented towards the sensory epithelium. In addition, otoliths of the utricle and lagena were significantly heavier in cave fish. Auditory sensitivities were measured between 100 and 1500 Hz, utilizing the auditory evoked potential recording technique. We found similar hearing abilities in cave and surface fish, with greatest sensitivity between 200 and 300 Hz. An acoustic survey revealed that neither ecotype produced species-specific sounds. Our data indicate that cave dwelling altered the otolith morphology in Atlantic mollies, probably due to metabolic differences. Different otolith morphology, however, did not affect general auditory sensitivity or acoustic behavior. PMID:20430090

  18. Using video playback to study the effect of an audience on male mating behavior in the Sailfin molly (Poecilia latipinna).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowicz, A M; Plath, M; Schlupp, I

    2010-09-01

    Sexual conflict in poeciliid fishes is well-documented, particularly male sexual harassment and its effects on females. For instance, male attempts to force copulations influence female feeding, energy allocation, and preference for shoaling partners. However, there has been little research conducted to determine how the social environment shapes the occurrence and intensity of sexual harassment. In this study we ask whether an audience male influences the sexual behaviors of a focal male, the correlated feeding time reduction of female Poecilia latipinna, and if the size of the audience male (larger or smaller than the focal male) influences these behaviors. We presented a video of a male, either smaller or larger than the focal male, or an empty tank (control) to a female interacting with a male or female partner and measured feeding times and sexual behaviors. We found that male sexual behaviors increased in the presence of an audience male, especially if the audience male was larger than the focal male. Females fed more in the presence of a partner female than in the presence of a male, which was independent of the audience (i.e., video treatment). Focal female aggression towards the partner female increased with the size of the audience male. The present study shows that an audience male has multiple interacting influences on both male and female behavior. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. MDMA (Ecstasy or Molly)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sold in capsules. But this is mostly a marketing gimmick—testing on "Molly" seized by police shows ... and norepinephrine . Let's take a look at the importance of these chemicals: Serotonin —plays a role in ...

  20. Brain nonapeptide and gonadal steroid responses to deprivation of heterosexual contact in the black molly

    OpenAIRE

    Kulczykowska, Ewa; Kalamarz-Kubiak, Hanna; Nietrzeba, Marta; Gozdowska, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fish may respond to different social situations with changes in both physiology and behaviour. A unique feature of fish is that social interactions between males and females strongly affect the sexual characteristics of individuals. Here we provide the first insight into the endocrine background of two phenomena that occur in mono-sex groups of the black molly (Poecilia sphenops): masculinization in females and same-sex sexual behaviour, manifested by gonopodial displays towards same...

  1. Euclinostomum heterostomum infection in guppies Poecilia reticulata cultured in Southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suanyuk, Naraid; Mankhakhet, Suchanya; Soliman, Hatem; Saleh, Mona; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2013-05-27

    During April to June 2009 and February 2010 to February 2011, numerous digenetic trematode metacercariae were observed embedded in the muscles of guppies Poecilia reticulata cultured at Kidchakan Supamattaya Aquatic Animal Health Research Center, Songkhla, southern Thailand. A total of 424 guppies were examined to identify the parasite and to study its pathogenicity. Based on conventional parasitological techniques, the parasitic digenean found in the guppies was identified as Euclinostomum heterostomum Rudolphi, 1809. Histological analysis revealed numerous metacercariae embedded in the fish muscle. A life cycle study indicated that the snail Indoplanorbis exustus was the first intermediate host, with the guppies serving as the second intermediate host. No E. heterostomum metacercariae were found in cohabited fish species, giant sailfin molly Poecilia velifera or platy Xiphophorus maculatus, which indicated that the guppy was the only suitable fish host present.

  2. Insights into the Social Behavior of Surface and Cave-Dwelling Fish (Poecilia mexicana in Light and Darkness through the Use of a Biomimetic Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bierbach

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Biomimetic robots (BRs are becoming more common in behavioral research and, if they are accepted as conspecifics, allow for new forms of experimental manipulations of social interactions. Nevertheless, it is often not clear which cues emanating from a BR are actually used as communicative signals and how species or populations with different sensory makeups react to specific types of BRs. We herein present results from experiments using two populations of livebearing fishes that differ in their sensory capabilities. In the South of Mexico, surface-dwelling mollies (Poecilia mexicana successfully invaded caves and adapted to dark conditions. While almost without pigment, these cave mollies possess smaller but still functional eyes. Although previous studies found cave mollies to show reduced shoaling preferences with conspecifics in light compared to surface mollies, it is assumed that they possess specialized adaptations to maintain some kind of sociality also in their dark habitats. By testing surface- and cave-dwelling mollies with RoboFish, a BR made for use in laboratory experiments with guppies and sticklebacks, we asked to what extent visual and non-visual cues play a role in their social behavior. Both cave- and surface-dwelling mollies followed the BR as well as a live companion when tested in light. However, when tested in darkness, only surface-dwelling fish were attracted by a live conspecific, whereas cave-dwelling fish were not. Neither cave- nor surface-dwelling mollies were attracted to RoboFish in darkness. This is the first study to use BRs for the investigation of social behavior in mollies and to compare responses to BRs both in light and darkness. As our RoboFish is accepted as conspecific by both used populations of the Atlantic molly only under light conditions but not in darkness, we argue that our replica is providing mostly visual cues.

  3. Cytotoxic Compounds from Brucea mollis

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    Mai Hung Thanh TUNG

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ten compounds, including soulameanone (1, isobruceine B (2, 9-methoxy-canthin-6-one (3, bruceolline F (4, niloticine (5, octatriacontan-1-ol (6, bombiprenone (7, α-tocopherol (8, inosine (9, and apigenin 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (10, were isolated from the leaves, stems, and roots of Brucea mollis Wall. ex Kurz. Their structures were determined using one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. All compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against KB (human carcinoma of the mouth, LU-1 (human lung adenocarcinoma, LNCaP (human prostate adeno-carcinoma, and HL-60 (human promyelocytic leukemia cancer cell lines. Compound 2 showed significant cytotoxic activity against KB, LU-1, LNCaP, and HL-60 cancer cells with IC50 values of 0.39, 0.40, 0.34, and 0.23 μg/mL, respectively. In addition, compounds 3 and 5 showed significant cytotoxic activity against KB, LU-1, LNCaP, and HL-60 cancer cells with IC50 values around 1–4 μg/mL. Compounds 9-methoxycanthin-6-one (3 and niloticine (5 have been discovered for the first time from the Brucea genus.

  4. Mollie Stevens Smart (1916-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Laura S; Prochaska, James O

    2013-09-01

    Presents an obituary for Mollie Stevens Smart (1916-2012). Mollie attended the University of Toronto, from which she graduated with honors in psychology at age 20 in 1936. She studied and worked at the Merrill-Palmer Institute in Detroit, earning a master's degree in child development from the University of Michigan in 1941. She earned her doctorate in educational psychology at the University of Delhi in 1969. An author, teacher, and mentor, Mollie won Fulbright research grants to India and New Zealand and lectured in the United States, India, New Zealand, Canada, and China. She wrote 26 books, most co-authored with her husband, Russell (Rus) C. Smart. Beginning in the 1940s, when Freudian theory had a strong grip on the popular view of child development, the books placed the developing child in the context of family and community systems. The Smarts' best-selling college textbook Children: Development and Relationships (1967, 1973, 1977, 1982) was based on the theories of Erik Erikson and Jean Piaget. Mollie was a member of the American Psychological Association throughout her professional career and held memberships also in the Society for Research in Child Development, the National Council on Family Relations, the Groves Conference on Marriage and Family, and the Fulbright Association. After moving to Ridgefield, Washington, in 2003 with her daughter Ellen following Rus's death in 1996, she applied her great knowledge to advise a community-based organization that serves the needs of new babies born into destitute families. Mollie died at home in Ridgefield on October 22, 2012, at age 96. © 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Sequencing and characterization of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata transcriptome

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    Rodd F Helen

    2011-04-01

    a congeneric species, the sailfin molly (Poecilia latipinna. Over 40% of reads from the sailfin molly sample aligned to the guppy transcriptome. Conclusions We show that next-generation sequencing provided a reliable and broad reference transcriptome. This resource allowed us to identify candidate gene variants, SNPs in coding regions, and sex-specific gene expression, and permitted quantitative analysis of differential gene expression.

  6. Sequencing and characterization of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) transcriptome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    sailfin molly (Poecilia latipinna). Over 40% of reads from the sailfin molly sample aligned to the guppy transcriptome. Conclusions We show that next-generation sequencing provided a reliable and broad reference transcriptome. This resource allowed us to identify candidate gene variants, SNPs in coding regions, and sex-specific gene expression, and permitted quantitative analysis of differential gene expression. PMID:21507250

  7. Colorful invasion in permissive Neotropical ecosystems: establishment of ornamental non-native poeciliids of the genera Poecilia/Xiphophorus (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae and management alternatives

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    André Lincoln Barroso Magalhães

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Headwater creeks are environments susceptible to invasion by non-native fishes. We evaluated the reproduction of 22 populations of the non-native livebearers guppy Poecilia reticulata, black molly Poecilia sphenops, Yucatan molly Poecilia velifera, green swordtail Xiphophorus hellerii, southern platyfish Xiphophorus maculatus, and variable platyfish Xiphophorus variatus during an annual cycle in five headwater creeks located in the largest South American ornamental aquaculture center, Paraíba do Sul River basin, southeastern Brazil. With few exceptions, females of most species were found reproducing (stages 2, 3, 4 all year round in the creeks and gravid females of all species showed small sizes indicating stunting. Juveniles were frequent in all sites. The fecundity of the six poeciliids was always low in all periods. The sex ratio was biased for females in most species, both bimonthly as for the whole period. Water temperature, water level and rainfall were not significantly correlated with reproduction in any species. Therefore, most populations appeared well established. The pertinence of different management actions, such as devices to prevent fish escape, eradication with rotenone and research about negative effects on native species, is discussed in the light of current aquaculture practices in the region.

  8. Brain nonapeptide and gonadal steroid responses to deprivation of heterosexual contact in the black molly

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    Ewa Kulczykowska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fish may respond to different social situations with changes in both physiology and behaviour. A unique feature of fish is that social interactions between males and females strongly affect the sexual characteristics of individuals. Here we provide the first insight into the endocrine background of two phenomena that occur in mono-sex groups of the black molly (Poecilia sphenops: masculinization in females and same-sex sexual behaviour, manifested by gonopodial displays towards same-sex tank mates and copulation attempts in males. In socially controlled situations, brain neurohormones impact phenotypic sex determination and sexual behaviour. Among these hormones are the nonapeptides arginine vasotocin (AVT and isotocin (IT, counterparts of the well-known mammalian arginine vasopressin and oxytocin, respectively. To reveal potential hormone interactions, we measured the concentrations of bioactive AVT and IT in the brain, along with those of the sex steroids 17β-estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone in the gonads, of females, masculinized females, males displaying same-sex sexual behaviour and those who did not. These data were supplemented by morphological and histological analyses of the gonads. Correlations between brain nonapeptides and gonadal steroids strongly suggest a cross talk between hormonal systems. In the black molly, the masculinization process was associated with the production of brain AVT and gonadal steroids, whereas same-sex sexual behaviour involves both brain nonapeptides, but neither of the sex steroids. This study extends current knowledge of endocrine control of phenotypic sex and sexual behaviour in fish and for the first time links brain nonapeptides with the occurrence of male-male sexual behaviour in lower vertebrates.

  9. A new species of Poecilia from Honduras (Teleostei: Poeciliidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poeser, F.N.

    2011-01-01

    A new species of Poecilia from the Atlantic slopes of Honduras is described and assigned to the subgenus Mollienesia. Poecilia hondurensis, new species, differs from all congeners in the combination of having tricuspid teeth on the inner of both jaws and lacking a prominent spine or hook on the

  10. Biostimulant on faveiro (Dimorphandra mollis Benth. seeds and seedling vigor

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    Tathiana Elisa Masetto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to verify the effects of biostimulant doses, applied through seeds, on faveiro (Dimorphandra mollis Benth. seeds and seedlings vigor. Seeds were previously sulfuric acid scarified in two consecutive years experiments. On 2006 August (first experiment seeds were submitted on Stimulate®: 0; 3.5; 7.0; 10.5 and 14 mL.0.5 Kg-1 doses (first experiment; and seeds picked in August, 2007, were Stimulate:0; 15; 20 and 25 mL.0.5Kg-1 of seeds treated (second experiment. After the biostimulant treatment seeds were sowed in cells trays containing 1:1 (v:v distroferric red latosol + plantmax®. The effect of different Stimulate® doses on Dimorphandra mollis seeds collected in different years were evaluated on the emergency percentage, speed emergency index, root length, aerial part height and dry seedling weight. It was conducted on entirely casualized with four repetitions of 25 seeds each treatment. The 14 mL (2006 lot and 15 mL (2007 lot 0.5Kg-1 of seeds doses provided larger percentage (50% and 66%, respectively and speed emergency indexes (0.67 and 0.9 respectively. The 20 mL.0.5Kg-1 of seeds dose treatment favored the aerial part length, but it didn't influenced the other Dimorphandra mollis seedlings vigor indexes.

  11. How accurate is MOLLI T1 mapping in vivo? Validation by spin echo methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell A Cooper

    Full Text Available T1 mapping is a promising quantitative tool for assessing diffuse cardiomyopathies. The purpose of this study is to quantify in vivo accuracy of the Modified Look-Locker Inversion Recovery (MOLLI cardiac T1 mapping sequence against the spin echo gold standard, which has not been done previously. T1 accuracy of MOLLI was determined by comparing with the gold standard inversion recovery spin echo sequence in the calf muscle, and with a rapid inversion recovery fast spin echo sequence in the heart. T1 values were obtained with both conventional MOLLI fitting and MOLLI fitting with inversion efficiency correction. In the calf (n = 6, conventional MOLLI fitting produced inconsistent T1 values with error ranging from 8.0% at 90° to 17.3% at 30°. Modified MOLLI fitting with inversion efficiency correction improved error to under 7.4% at all flip angles. In the heart (n = 5, modified MOLLI fitting with inversion correction reduced T1 error to 5.5% from 14.0% by conventional MOLLI fitting. This study shows that conventional MOLLI fitting can lead to significant in vivo T1 errors when not accounting for the lower adiabatic inversion efficiency often experienced in vivo.

  12. Accuracy, precision, and reproducibility of four T1 mapping sequences: a head-to-head comparison of MOLLI, ShMOLLI, SASHA, and SAPPHIRE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roujol, Sébastien; Weingärtner, Sebastian; Foppa, Murilo; Chow, Kelvin; Kawaji, Keigo; Ngo, Long H; Kellman, Peter; Manning, Warren J; Thompson, Richard B; Nezafat, Reza

    2014-09-01

    To compare accuracy, precision, and reproducibility of four commonly used myocardial T1 mapping sequences: modified Look-Locker inversion recovery (MOLLI), shortened MOLLI (ShMOLLI), saturation recovery single-shot acquisition (SASHA), and saturation pulse prepared heart rate independent inversion recovery (SAPPHIRE). This HIPAA-compliant study was approved by the institutional review board. All subjects provided written informed consent. Accuracy, precision, and reproducibility of the four T1 mapping sequences were first compared in phantom experiments. In vivo analysis was performed in seven healthy subjects (mean age ± standard deviation, 38 years ± 19; four men, three women) who were imaged twice on two separate days. In vivo reproducibility of native T1 mapping and extracellular volume (ECV) were measured. Differences between the sequences were assessed by using Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon rank sum tests (phantom data) and mixed-effect models (in vivo data). T1 mapping accuracy in phantoms was lower with ShMOLLI (62 msec) and MOLLI (44 msec) than with SASHA (13 msec; P higher precision than SAPPHIRE (6.8 msec; P = .002) and SASHA (8.7 msec; P .05) and ECV quantification (∼0.01-0.02; P > .05). SASHA and SAPPHIRE yield higher accuracy, lower precision, and similar reproducibility compared with MOLLI and ShMOLLI for T1 measurement. Different sequences yield different ECV values; however, all sequences have similar reproducibility for ECV quantification.

  13. Effect of Heating on the Viscosity and Rheology of Grewia mollis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determined the effect of concentration and prolonged heating on the rheological properties of gums from Grewia mollis, Bombax ceiba and their binary mixtures. After extraction, the gums were divided into four batches each. The binary mixture was obtained by triturating Grewia mollis and Bombax ceiba gum in a ...

  14. Note on the distribution of ectopic thyroid tissue in five species of poeciliid fishes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhead, A.D.; Bryant, P.C.

    1982-01-01

    The intraperitoneal injection of polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons in young Amazon mollies induces proliferation of ectopic thyroid tissue in the spleen. The authors have surveyed untreated mollies, Poecilia formosa, and four closely related poeciliid fishes to see if ectopic thyroid tissue occurs normally in the spleen. If this were the case, it is possible that the tissue may have been stimulated to proliferate by the injected compounds. We found no instances of ectopic thyroid at any site in 50 untreated Amazon mollies examined nor in some 50 spleens dissected from other untreated fish. Splenic thyroid tissue was found in five guppies from 50 surveyed, but did not occur in other species.

  15. Santal monohydrate, an isoflavone isolated from Wyethia mollis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle S. Knight

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The title compound [systematic name: 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-5-hydroxy-7-methoxy-4H-chromen-4-one monohydrate], C16H12O6·H2O, is a monohydrate of a natural product santal isolated from Wyethia mollis. In the santal molecule, the dihedral angle between the benzoquinone and dihydroxyphenyl fragments is 53.9 (1° and an intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bond occurs. In the crystal, O—H...O hydrogen bonds link the components into corrugated layers parallel to the ac plane. The short distance of 3.474 (5 Å between the centroids of the benzene rings in neighbouring santal molecules reveals then existence of π–π interactions within the layers.

  16. Brightness illusion in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrillo, Christian; Miletto Petrazzini, Maria Elena; Bisazza, Angelo

    2016-02-01

    A long-standing debate surrounds the issue of whether human and nonhuman species share similar perceptual mechanisms. One experimental strategy to compare visual perception of vertebrates consists in assessing how animals react in the presence of visual illusions. To date, this methodological approach has been widely used with mammals and birds, while few studies have been reported in distantly related species, such as fish. In the present study we investigated whether fish perceive the brightness illusion, a well-known illusion occurring when 2 objects, identical in physical features, appear to be different in brightness. Twelve guppies (Poecilia reticulata) were initially trained to discriminate which rectangle was darker or lighter between 2 otherwise identical rectangles. Three different conditions were set up: neutral condition between rectangle and background (same background used for both darker and lighter rectangle); congruent condition (darker rectangle in a darker background and lighter rectangle in a lighter background); and incongruent condition (darker rectangle in a lighter background and lighter rectangle in a darker background). After reaching the learning criterion, guppies were presented with the illusory pattern: 2 identical rectangles inserted in 2 different backgrounds. Guppies previously trained to select the darker rectangle showed a significant choice of the rectangle that appears to be darker by human observers (and vice versa). The human-like performance exhibited in the presence of the illusory pattern suggests the existence of similar perceptual mechanisms between humans and fish to elaborate the brightness of objects. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Gametic isolation in guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludlow, A M; Magurran, A E

    2006-10-07

    Post-mating reproductive isolating mechanisms may be among the earliest reproductive barriers to emerge among incipient species. Trinidadian guppy, Poecilia reticulata, populations in the Caroni and Oropouche drainages in Northern Trinidad exhibit marked genetic divergence and provide an ideal system in which to search for these barriers. We inseminated virgin females with equal amounts of sperm from two males, a 'native' male from the female's own population and a 'foreign' male from the other drainage. Artificial insemination ensured that mating order and mate choice did not affect the outcome. Paternities were assigned to the resulting broods using microsatellite markers. As predicted, sperm from native males had precedence over foreign sperm. Moreover, this effect was symmetrical for both drainages. In contrast, we detected no native sperm precedence in controls, in which females received sperm from the same and another population within the same drainage. Our results show that gametic isolation can arise between geographically proximate, though genetically divergent, populations of a single species and highlight the potential role of this process in speciation.

  18. EXOCRINE PANCREATIC CARCINOGENESIS IN THE GUPPY POECILIA RETICULATA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exocrine pancreatic neoplasms developed in the guppy Poecilia reticulata following exposure to the direct acting carcinogen, methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM-Ac). Fish 6- to 10-days old were exposed to nominal, nontoxic concentrations of 4 and 10 mg MAM-Ac 1-1 for 2 h and then tr...

  19. EXOCRINE PANCREATIC CARCINOGENESIS IN THE GUPPY (POECILIA RETICULATA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exocrine pancreatic neoplasms developed in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) following exposure to the direct acting carcinogen, methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM-Ac). Fish 6- to 10-days old were exposed to nominal, nontoxic concentrations of 4 and 10 mg MAM-Ac/L for 2 hr and then t...

  20. Food and Feeding Habits of the Guppy, Poecilia reticulata , from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The food and feeding habits of the Guppy, Poecilia reticulata, from drainage canal systems in Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria, was investigated over a period of 24 months. Fish samples were collected monthly from 15 study sites. A total of 2400 fish stomachs were analyzed using the numerical and frequency of occurrence ...

  1. Molly users versus nonusers in a sample of college alcohol drinkers: Differences in substance-related harms and sensation seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden-Carmichael, Ashley N; Stamates, Amy L; Sheehan, Brynn E; Lau-Barraco, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    Molly is one form of MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) that is touted to be more "pure" and potentially less harmful than other forms, such as ecstasy. Media reports and case studies suggest that this drug is popular among college students and is related to adverse health problems. The current study sought to address the knowledge gaps about Molly by examining whether users differ in substance use outcomes and sensation seeking than nonusers. Specifically, this study tested whether Molly users engaged in heavier use of other substances and experienced more substance-related harms in general than nonusers. Further, the current study investigated whether Molly users exhibited higher levels of sensation seeking than nonusers. Lastly, this study examined whether Molly user status would be associated with substance-related harms beyond the confounding influence of other substance use and trait sensation seeking. Participants were 710 (71.9% female) college alcohol drinkers who completed self-report surveys about substance use (i.e., Molly, alcohol, and other drug use), substance-related problems, and sensation seeking. Results revealed that approximately 12% of the sample reported lifetime Molly use. Molly users compared with nonusers reported higher levels of other drug use, alcohol use, substance-related problems, and sensation seeking. Further, Molly users reported experiencing poorer substance use outcomes (e.g., blacking out, academic/occupational problems, and withdrawal symptoms) after accounting for sensation seeking and other substance use. These findings indicate that Molly users are higher in sensation seeking and that use is uniquely related to greater risk for substance-related harms. These preliminary findings demonstrate a need for correcting possible misperceptions regarding the purity of Molly and educating users on the potential for experiencing associated harms. Such information could be used to develop efficacious prevention programming for

  2. Evaluation of the immunotoxicological effects of Dimorphandra mollis Benth., Fabaceae, in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia A. O. Feres

    Full Text Available Dimorphandra mollis Benth., Fabaceae, also known as "faveira" or "fava-d'anta", is a plant common to the central woodsy meadow region of Brazil. It is well known for its antioxidant, antiplatelet and, principally, vasoprotective properties. Its principal component is rutin. The objective of this study is the evaluation of the safety of the use of the dried D. mollis extract in rodents. The rutin content of the standardized extract was 76.0±3%. With respect to the biochemical and hematological parameters evaluated, no alterations in the groups of rats that received 1000 and 2000 mg/kg doses of D. mollis were observed, but an increase in eosinophiles occurred. Hyperactivity of the white splenic pulp was detected in the group that received the 2000 mg/kg dose of D. mollis. In the evaluation of the lymphproliferative response with 1000 and 2000 mg/kg, no alterations were observed, and a decrease in IgG was only observed in the studies with a 2000 mg/kg dose. The results obtained with rodents suggest that no toxicity exists with the administration of dried D. mollis extract in a 1000 mg/kg dose.

  3. A modified version of the Molly rumen model to quantify methane emissions from sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetharaniam, I; Vibart, R E; Hanigan, M D; Janssen, P H; Tavendale, M H; Pacheco, D

    2015-07-01

    We modified the rumen submodel of the Molly dairy cow model to simulate the rumen of a sheep and predict its methane emissions. We introduced a rumen hydrogen (H2) pool as a dynamic variable, which (together with the microbial pool in Molly) was used to predict methane production, to facilitate future consideration of thermodynamic control of methanogenesis. The new model corrected a misspecification of the equation of microbial H2 utilization in Molly95, which could potentially give rise to unrealistic predictions under conditions of low intake rates. The new model included a function to correct biases in the estimation of net H2 production based on the default stoichiometric relationships in Molly95, with this function specified in terms of level of intake. Model parameters for H2 and methane production were fitted to experimental data that included fresh temperate forages offered to sheep at a wide range of intake levels and then tested against independent data. The new model provided reasonable estimates relative to the calibration data set, but a different parameterization was needed to improve its predicted ability relative to the validation data set. Our results indicate that, although feedback inhibition on H2 production and methanogen activity increased with feeding level, other feedback effects that vary with diet composition need to be considered in future work on modeling rumen digestion in Molly.

  4. Karyotypic studies of Cratylia argentea (Desv.) O. Kuntze and C. mollis Mart. ex Benth. (Fabaceae - Papilionoideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, S M; Torres, G A; Sobrinho, F S; Pereira, A V; Davide, L C

    2007-09-30

    Cratylia argentea and C. mollis (Fabaceae-Papilionoideae) are legume shrubs native to the Cerrado and Caatinga, respectively. Both species show great resistance to drought and high nutritive value, which makes them a valuable forage resource in tropical regions. Cytogenetic studies were carried out on accessions of C. argentea and C. mollis from Germplasm Banks of Embrapa Gado de Leite (Juiz de Fora, MG) and Embrapa Semi-Arido (Petrolina, PE), respectively. Root tips were treated with 3 mM 8-hydroxyquinoline and slides were made using the air-dry technique. Karyotype description for each accession took into account the following features: chromosome number; total length, relative length and arm ratio of each chromosome; haploid set length, and degree of asymmetry. Mitotic metaphases in both species showed 2n = 22 chromosomes, where this is the first report of diploid number for C. mollis. Chromosome length was also quite similar for the two species, ranging from 5.08 to 2.50 microm in C. argentea and 5.12 to 2.51 microm in C. mollis, with haploid sets of equal size, measuring 38.10 and 37.85 microm, respectively. However, they did not show the same karyotypic formula, which was 5 m + 4 sm + 2 st for C. argentea and 7 m + 2 sm + 2 st for C. mollis. This indicates the occurrence of rearrangements within chromosomes I and VI. Both karyotypes showed a tendency for asymmetry.

  5. Physicochemical Properties and Fatty Acid Profiles of Elaeagnus mollis Diels Nut Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shaohua; Yang, Ruinan; Dong, Caiwen; Yang, Qingping

    2015-01-01

    The physicochemical properties, fatty acid profiles, content of tocopherol and sterol of the oils extracted from the nuts of Elaeagnus mollis Diels grown in different regions of China were studied in this work. The results indicated that the Elaeagnus mollis Diels nut oils contained about 0.2% sterols and the tocopherol contents were in the range of 119.6-128.6mg/100g. The nut oils were all rich in unsaturated fatty acids, especially oleic acid and linoleic acid. Furthermore, the main triacylglycerols species of the nut oils were all dilinoleoyl-monoolein (LOL), dioleoyl-monolinoleoyl (OLO) and trilinoleate (LLL). This work might be useful for developing applications for Elaeagnus mollis Diels nut oil.

  6. Postglacial recolonization and the biogeography of Palmaria mollis (Rhodophyta) along the Northeast Pacific coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindstrom, S.C; Olsen, J.L.; Stam, W.T.

    1997-01-01

    We used random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers to examine the distribution of genotypes of Palmaria mollis (Setchell et Gardner) van der Meer et Bird, a red alga. We sampled populations along the Northeast Pacific coast from northern Washington to southwestern Alaska, an area extensively

  7. Acute toxicity of trichlorofon on four viviparous fish: Poecilia latipinna, Poecilia reticulata, Gambusia holbrooki and Xiphophorus helleri (Cyprinodontiformes: Poecilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Forouhar Vajargah

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine toxicity and safety margins of trichlorofon in different species as trichlorofon toxicity has a large variation in the susceptibility of different species. Methods: In this research, four viviparous aquarium fish were exposed to trichlorofon for 96 h. LC50 of 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h were attained by probit analysis software SPSS Version 16. Fish samples were exposed to different concentrations of trichlorofon (5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/L for 96 h and mortality were recorded, separately. Results: The 96 h LC50 of Poecilia latipinna, Poecilia reticulata, Gambusia holbrooki and Xiphophorus helleri were 9.80, 9.80, 9.95 and 7.99 mg/L, respectively. Conclusions: According to the results of this research, LC50 values indicated Xiphophorus helleri was the most resistant and Gambusia holbrooki, with a few differences, was the most sensitive species compared with the fishes examined.

  8. Selección sexual en Poecilia reticulata (Guppys)

    OpenAIRE

    Barreiro Buceta, Paula

    2013-01-01

    [ES] Del análisis de la literatura se puede concluir que las hembras de Poecilia reticulata al seleccionar a sus parejas con fines reproductivos, tienden a escoger machos con una ornamentación llamativa y a individuos que realicen movimientos destacables a la hora de efectuar el cortejo. No obstante, nuestros resultados muestran que la respuesta de selección de las hembras es muy variable, sin que se pueda definir ningún patrón concreto de selección o característica de los machos, tanto de co...

  9. Experience-Dependent Color Constancy in Guppies (Poecilia reticulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. E. Intskirveli

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the ability to recognize the color of surfaces in fish (Poecilia reticulata, bred from birth in conditions of artificial light with constant spectral content. The capacity for color constancy significantly deteriorated when compared that to the control group. Further alteration of lighting conditions and transfer into natural daylight conditions restored the suppressed function to its normal level. We suggest that the color constancy function belongs in the visual system-response functions, the full development of which requires the accumulation of individual visual experience.

  10. Female guppies Poecilia reticulata prefer males that can learn fast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shohet, A J; Watt, P J

    2009-10-01

    The role of learning ability as a potentially desirable male trait in sexual selection was investigated in the guppy Poecilia reticulata. Mate preference tests and the rate at which a male learnt two mazes were used to determine whether female preference was related to male learning ability. In addition, male body size and saturation of the orange patches were measured. Female preference was found to be related to rate of learning, such that males that learnt the mazes faster were found to be more attractive to females, but was not found to be related to body size or saturation.

  11. Pharmaceutical Properties and Applications of a Natural Polymer from Grewia mollis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elijah I. Nep

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of naturally occurring biocompatible materials has been the focus of recent research activity in the design of dosage forms for immediate and controlled release formulations. Grewia gum is an intracellular gum obtained by extraction from the inner stem bark of the shrub Grewia mollis (Malvaceae. It grows abundantly (wild or cultivated in the middle belt region of Nigeria, and the mucilage has been used by indigenes of this belt as thickener in soups. Grewia gum has been investigated for potential applications in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The industrial extrapolation of the applications of the gum has, however, been slowed by the limited structural, toxicological, and stability data available on the gum. This paper highlights ethnobotanical uses of G. mollis shrub and discusses the structural features, functional properties, and applications of grewia gum with emphases on its pharmaceutical potentials.

  12. EFFECT OF LIGHT AND GIBERELLIC ACID (AG3 ON THE GERMINATION OF MINTHOSTACHYS MOLLIS (LABIATAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Fernando Suárez Peñaranda

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Minthostachys mollis (Kunth Griseb. o muña es un arbusto perenne que crece naturalmente en las región andina de Colombia; esta especie es ampliamente utilizada por las comunidades rurales en donde es valorada por sus propiedades medicinales para tratar diferentes afecciones y como control de larvas de insectos transmisores de enfermedades; sin embargo, las poblaciones naturales de esta planta han sido fuertemente reducidas por acción antrópica, por lo tanto, es necesario generar tecnologías de propagación que permitan la recuperación y conservación de las poblaciones naturales. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto de la luz (luz roja, luz blanca, luz natural y del ácido giberélico (0, 5, 15, 25 ppm en el proceso de germinación de M. mollis. Se encontró un efecto negativo de la oscuridad en el proceso de germinación y no se observó efecto del AG3 sobre la germinación de M. mollis en presencia de la luz. Los porcentajes de germinación obtenidos en los tratamientos de iluminación fueron superiores al 80% sobresaliendo el tratamiento de luz roja que arrojó los mejores resultados tanto en el porcentaje como en la velocidad de germinación. Los resultados indican que la germinación en M. mollis es dependiente de la luz debido a que sus semillas son fotoblásticas positivas.

  13. Cloning of allene oxide cyclase gene from Leymus mollis and analysis of its expression in wheat?Leymus chromosome addition lines

    OpenAIRE

    Eltayeb Habora, Mohamed Elsadig; Eltayeb, Amin Elsadig; Oka, Mariko; Tsujimoto, Hisashi; Tanaka, Kiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Leymus mollis (Triticeae; Poaceae) is a useful genetic resource for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) breeding via wide hybridization to introduce its chromosomes and integrate its useful traits into wheat. Leymus mollis is highly tolerant to abiotic stresses such as drought and salinity and resistant to various diseases, but the genetic mechanisms controlling its physiological tolerance remain largely unexplored. We identified and cloned an allene oxide cyclase (AOC) gene from L. mollis that was ...

  14. Molly Users versus Non-users in a Sample of College Alcohol Drinkers: Differences in Substance-Related Harms and Sensation Seeking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden-Carmichael, Ashley N.; Stamates, Amy L.; Sheehan, Brynn E.; Lau-Barraco, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    Background Molly is one form of MDMA that is touted to be more “pure” and potentially less harmful than other forms, such as ecstasy. Media reports and case studies suggest this drug is popular among college students and is related to adverse health problems. The current study sought to address the gaps in our knowledge about Molly by examining whether users differ in substance use outcomes and sensation seeking than non-users. Specifically, we tested whether Molly users engaged in heavier use of other substances and experienced more substance-related harms in general than non-users. Further, we investigated whether Molly users exhibited higher levels of sensation seeking than non-users. Lastly, we examined whether Molly user status would be associated with substance-related harms beyond the confounding influence of other substance use and trait sensation seeking. Methods Participants were 710 (71.9% female) college alcohol drinkers who completed self-report surveys about substance use (i.e., Molly, alcohol, other drug use), substance-related problems, and sensation seeking. Results Results revealed that approximately 12% of our sample reported lifetime Molly use. Molly users compared to non-users reported higher levels of other drug use, alcohol use, substance-related problems, and sensation seeking. Further, Molly users reported experiencing poorer substance use outcomes (e.g., blacking out, academic/occupational problems, withdrawal symptoms) after accounting for sensation seeking and other substance use. Conclusions Our findings indicate that Molly users are higher in sensation seeking and use is uniquely related to greater risk for substance-related harms. These preliminary findings demonstrate a need for correcting possible misperceptions regarding the purity of Molly and educating users on the potential for experiencing associated harms. Such information could be used to develop efficacious prevention programming for college students. PMID:26820396

  15. Laterality enhances numerical skills in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eDadda

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been hypothesized that cerebral lateralization can significantly enhance cognition and that this was one of the primary selective forces shaping its wide-spread evolution amongst vertebrate taxa. Here we tested this hypothesis by examining the link between cerebral lateralization and numerical discrimination. Guppies, Poecilia reticulata, were sorted into left, right and non-lateralized groups using a standard mirror test and their numerical discrimination abilities tested in both natural shoal choice and abstract contexts. Our results show that strongly lateralized guppies have enhanced numerical abilities compared to non-lateralized guppies irrespective of context. These data provide further credence to the notion that cerebral lateralization can enhance cognitive efficiency

  16. Acute toxicity of Amanranthus viridus extract on guppies, Poecilia reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsirapoj, S; Sudthonghong, C; Bullangpoti, V

    2010-01-01

    Many Thai plant species shows the responsible for controlling insects from the host plants. To avoid potential toxic pollutant contaminating aquatic ecosystems, this present study was investigated for acute toxicity from Amaranthus viridis to Guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata) were selected for the bioassay experiments. The experiments were repeated 5 times and the 1-, 3- and 24-h LC50 was determined for the guppies. The acute toxicity experiments were carried out by static method and behavioral changes in guppies were determined for Amaranthus viridis concentration extract which extracted by Soxhlet's extraction method with ethanol as solvent. Water temperature was regulated at 20 +/- 1 degrees C. Data obtained from the acute toxicity tests were evaluated using the Probit analysis statistical method. The 24-h LC50 value for guppy was estimated as ca. 947 mg L(-1) (r2 = 0.95). However, in this concentration, no mortality was observed at higher concentration for 30 second.

  17. Familiarity affects collective motion in shoals of guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Scarlet; Lukeman, Ryan; Schaerf, Timothy M; Ward, Ashley J W

    2017-09-01

    The coordinated and synchronized movement of animals in groups often referred to as collective motion emerges through the interactions between individual animals within the group. Factors which affect these interactions have the potential to shape collective movement. One such factor is familiarity, or the tendency to bias behaviour towards individuals as a result of social recognition. We examined the effect of familiarity on the expression of collective motion in small shoals of female guppies ( Poecilia reticulata ). Groups comprising familiar individuals were more strongly polarized than groups of unfamiliar individuals, particularly when in novel surroundings. The ability to form more strongly polarized shoals potentially promotes information transfer and enhances the anti-predator benefits of grouping.

  18. Fruit consumption and seed ispersal of Dimorphandra mollis Benth. (Leguminosae by the lowland tapir in the Cerrado of Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. X. A. Bizerril

    Full Text Available Fruit phenology observations and consumption of Dimorphandra mollis (Leguminosae were analyzed during seven months in an area of cerrado stricto sensu. We analysed 81 fecal samples collected at six different places of lowland tapirs (Tapirus terrestris in central Brazilian cerrado. In addition, from the feces of five tapirs at the Brasília Zoo to which fruit had been offered, seeds were collected and used in germination tests. The results suggest that the tapir is an important fruit consumer and a potential seed disperser of D. mollis. In the field, however, fruit consumption was found to be very low, probably because of both fruit palatability and the low density of frugivores, especially tapirs. The possibility that the original dispersal agents of D. mollis seeds belonged to the South American Pleistocene megafauna is discussed.

  19. Cytogenetic and molecular identification of a wheat-Leymus mollis alien multiple substitution line from octoploid Tritileymus x Triticum durum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Y H; Zhao, J X; Du, W L; Li, Y L; Wang, J; Wang, L M; Wu, J; Cheng, X N; Yang, Q H; Chen, X H

    2014-05-23

    Leymus mollis (Trin.) Pilger (NsNsXmXm, 2n = 28), a wild relative of common wheat, possesses many traits that are potentially valuable for wheat improvement. In order to exploit and utilize the useful genes of L. mollis, we developed a multiple alien substitution line, 10DM50, from the progenies of octoploid Tritileymus M842-16 x Triticum durum cv. D4286. Genomic in situ hybridization analysis of mitosis and meiosis (metaphase I), using labeled total DNA of Psathyrostachys huashanica as probe, showed that the substitution line 10DM50 was a cytogenetically stable alien substitution line with 36 chromosomes from wheat and three pairs of Ns genome chromosomes from L. mollis. Simple sequence repeat analysis showed that the chromosomes 3D, 6D, and 7D were absent in 10DM50. Expressed sequence tag-sequence tagged sites analysis showed that new chromatin from 3Ns, 6Ns, and 7Ns of L. mollis were detected in 10DM50. We deduced that the substitution line 10DM50 was a multiple alien substitution line with the 3D, 6D, and 7D chromosomes replaced by 3Ns, 6Ns, and 7Ns from L. mollis. 10DM50 showed high resistance to leaf rust and significantly improved spike length, spikes per plant, and kernels per spike, which are correlated with higher wheat yield. These results suggest that line 10DM50 could be used as intermediate material for transferring desirable traits from L. mollis into common wheat in breeding programs.

  20. Description of Poecilia (Acanthophacelus) wingei n. sp. from the Paría Peninsula, Venezuela, including notes on Acanthophacelus Eigenmann, 1907 and other subgenera of Poecilia Bloch and Schneider, 1801 (Teleostei, Cyprinodontiformes, Poeciliidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poeser, F.N.; Kempkes, M.; Isbrücker, I.J.H.

    2005-01-01

    The taxonomy of the common guppy, Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859, is reviewed and the closely related Campoma guppy, P. wingei n. sp., is described. Formerly, the common guppy was not judged to be closely related to any other species of Poecilia, but the new species is the second species to be

  1. Programming Amazon EC2

    CERN Document Server

    Vliet, Jurg

    2011-01-01

    If you plan to use Amazon Web Services to run applications in the cloud, the end-to-end approach in this book will save you needless trial and error. You'll find practical guidelines for designing and building applications with Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) and a host of supporting AWS tools, with a focus on critical issues such as load balancing, monitoring, and automation. How do you move an existing application to AWS, or design your application so that it scales effectively? How much storage will you require? Programming Amazon EC2 not only helps you get started, it will also keep y

  2. The effect of growth regulators on post-harvest Alchemilla mollis (Bauser Rothm. leaf longevity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janowska Beata

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaves of Alchemilla mollis (Bauser Rothm. were the subject of the study. The leaves were harvested early in the morning from the department’s ornamental plant collection. Selected leaves were fully-developed and showed no signs of damage or discolouring. Gibberellic acid (GA3, benzyladenine (BA, meta-methoxytopolin (MemT and its riboside (MemTR at concentrations of 25, 50 and 75 mg dm−3 were applied in the form of solutions to four-hour leaf-conditioning in the room at a temperature of 18-20°C. After conditioning, the leaves were placed in distilled water. Leaves put into distilled water immediately after cutting served as the control. The post-harvest longevity of leaves of Alchemilla mollis was 7.2-11.8 days. The conditioning of leaves in gibberellic acid solutions at concentrations of 25-50 mg dm−3, benzyladenine at concentrations of 25 mg dm−3 and meta-methoxytopolin and its riboside at concentrations of 75 mg dm−3 extended the post-harvest longevity of leaves by 10.1-81.9%. The conditioning of leaves in gibberellic acid at a concentration of 50 mg dm−3 inhibited the degradation of chlorophyll, as indicated by the highest SPAD index values.

  3. Acute and chronic toxicological studies of Dimorphandra mollis in experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Féres, C A O; Madalosso, R C; Rocha, O A; Leite, J P V; Guimarães, T M D P; Toledo, V P P; Tagliati, C A

    2006-12-06

    Dimorphandra mollis Benth. (Caesalpiniaceae), known as "faveira" or "fava d'anta" is a common plant in central Brazilian cerrado that is used mainly as a vasoprotector. Its main marker is rutin. The present study aimed to evaluate the security of Dimorphandra mollis dry extract in rodents. The extract presented a rutin content of 76+/-3%. Acute and chronic (180 days) toxicity was evaluated after per os administration. In acute toxicity, 3500 and 5000 mg/kg doses presented reversible effects. In chronic toxicity, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg doses did not provoke significant changes in body weight of the animals and in water and food consumption. Behavioral reversible changes and in blood count parameters (hemoglobin, hematocrit and red cells decrease and platelets increase in male in rats) were observed only in 2000 mg/kg dose. In biochemical evaluation, the results varied a lot considering doses and sex, without a linear profile. Some parameters showed a significant difference but without a clinical correlation. In histopathological examination, lung hemorrhage was observed in 2000 mg/kg dose. In conclusion, the study suggest that the extract is safe in a 1000 mg/kg dose, whereas for 2000 mg/kg dose further studies are needed. In long-term use, caution is required.

  4. Evaluation of extracts from Coccoloba mollis using the Salmonella/microsome system and in vivo tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Stefanini Tsuboy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The common everyday use of medicinal plants is an ancient, and still very widespread practice, whereby the need for studies on their possible toxicity and mutagenic properties. The species Coccoloba mollis has been much used in phytotherapy, mainly in cases involving loss of memory and stress. In order to investigate its genotoxic and mutagenic potential, ethanolic extracts from the leaves and roots underwent Salmonella/microsome assaying (TA98 and TA100 strains, with and without exogenous metabolism - S9, besides comet and micronucleus tests in vivo.There was no significant increase in the number of revertants/plate of Salmonella strains in any of the analyzed root-extract concentrations, although the extract itself was extremely toxic to the Salmonella TA98 strain in the tests carried out with S9 (doses varying from 0.005 to 0.5 µg/plate. On the other hand, the leaf-extract induced mutations in the TA98 strain in the absence of S9 in the highest concentration evaluated, although at very low mutagenic potency (0.004 rev/µg. Furthermore, there was no statistically significant increase in the number of comets and micronuclei, in treatments involving Swiss mice. It was obvious that extracts of Coccoloba mollis, under the described experimental conditions, are not mutagenic.

  5. Optimization of Variables for Aqueous Extraction of Gum from Grewia mollis Powder

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    Emmanuel Panyoo Akdowa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Grewia gum is a polysaccharide derived from the inner stem bark of the edible plant Grewia mollis. Juss (family Tiliaceae. It is a savanna shrub that grows wildly but is usually cultivated in Nigeria and Northern part of Cameroon. The main goal of the present study was to investigate the effect of aqueous extraction conditions on the extraction yield and physicochemical properties of the Grewia mollis. The studied aqueous extraction variables were water/powder (W/P ratio (10 : 1–80 : 1 w/p, temperature (25.0–85.0∘C, time (1–3 h, and pH (4.0–10.0. The results indicated that the aqueous extraction variables exhibited the least significant (P<0.05 effect on the yield and the viscosity of the gum. The result shows that the ratio of extraction is the main factor affecting the extraction of gum. The optimized extraction condition for higher viscosity was at the powder/water ratio of 1 : 55.4, pH of 7, time of 1 h, and temperature of 50∘C. However, the optimized extraction condition for higher yield was at the powder/water ratio of 1 : 80, pH of 4, time of 3 h, and temperature of 73∘C.

  6. A qualidade do solo afeta a germinação das sementes e o desenvolvimento das plântulas de Dimorphandra mollis Benth. (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae)

    OpenAIRE

    Fagundes,Marcílio; Camargos,Maria Gisely; Costa,Fernanda Vieira da

    2011-01-01

    Os frutos de Dimorphandra mollis são coletados de forma indiscriminada para fins comerciais, comprometendo a viabilidade das populações naturais. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da qualidade do solo na germinação das sementes e no desenvolvimento de plântulas de D. mollis. Solos de três procedências (cerrado arenoso, cerrado argiloso e mata seca) foram usados como substratos nos testes de germinação e desenvolvimento das plântulas. As sementes de D. mollis apresentaram maior g...

  7. Shortened Modified Look-Locker Inversion recovery (ShMOLLI for clinical myocardial T1-mapping at 1.5 and 3 T within a 9 heartbeat breathhold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greiser Andreas

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background T1 mapping allows direct in-vivo quantitation of microscopic changes in the myocardium, providing new diagnostic insights into cardiac disease. Existing methods require long breath holds that are demanding for many cardiac patients. In this work we propose and validate a novel, clinically applicable, pulse sequence for myocardial T1-mapping that is compatible with typical limits for end-expiration breath-holding in patients. Materials and methods The Shortened MOdified Look-Locker Inversion recovery (ShMOLLI method uses sequential inversion recovery measurements within a single short breath-hold. Full recovery of the longitudinal magnetisation between sequential inversion pulses is not achieved, but conditional interpretation of samples for reconstruction of T1-maps is used to yield accurate measurements, and this algorithm is implemented directly on the scanner. We performed computer simulations for 100 msIn-vivo myocardial T1-mapping using this method and the previous gold-standard (MOLLI was performed in 10 healthy volunteers at 1.5T and 3T, 4 volunteers with contrast injection at 1.5T, and 4 patients with recent myocardial infarction (MI at 3T. Results We found good agreement between the average ShMOLLI and MOLLI estimates for T1 In-vivo, ShMOLLI measurements required 9.0 ± 1.1 s (MOLLI = 17.6 ± 2.9 s. Average healthy myocardial T1 s by ShMOLLI at 1.5T were 966 ± 48 ms (mean ± SD and 1166 ± 60 ms at 3T. In MI patients, the T1 in unaffected myocardium (1216 ± 42 ms was similar to controls at 3T. Ischemically injured myocardium showed increased T1 = 1432 ± 33 ms (p in-vivo variability within ShMOLLI T1-maps was only 14% (1.5T or 18% (3T higher than the MOLLI maps, but the MOLLI acquisitions were twice longer than ShMOLLI acquisitions. Conclusion ShMOLLI is an efficient method that generates immediate, high-resolution myocardial T1-maps in a short breath-hold with high precision. This technique provides a valuable

  8. HISTOLOGICAL CHANGES IN POECILIA RETICULATA AFTER INTERACTION OF IONIZING RADIATION AND ZINC SULFID

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    Michaela Špalková

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In our experiment we have studied interaction of ionizing radiation and zinc at Poecilia reticulata. Fish were irradiated with a 20 Gy of gamma-rays. Zinc sulphate in concentration 25 mg.l-1 was added to water in aquarium. Food intake, clinicl symptoms and histological changes were followed after gamma-irradiation and zinc sulfid in guppy Poecilia reticulata. In the first days timidity and lethargy were observed. The most prominent clinical symptoms observed were emaciation, hampered breathing and haemorrhages. Histological findings corresponded with these symptoms.doi:10.5219/228

  9. Geographical variation in allometry in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egset, C K; Bolstad, G H; Rosenqvist, G; Endler, J A; Pélabon, C

    2011-12-01

    Variation in static allometry, the power relationship between character size and body size among individuals at similar developmental stages, remains poorly understood. We tested whether predation or other ecological factors could affect static allometry by comparing the allometry between the caudal fin length and the body length in adult male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) among populations from different geographical areas, exposed to different predation pressures. Neither the allometric slopes nor the allometric elevations (intercept at constant slope) changed with predation pressure. However, populations from the Northern Range in Trinidad showed allometry with similar slopes but lower intercepts than populations from the Caroni and the Oropouche drainages. Because most of these populations are exposed to predation by the prawn Macrobrachium crenulatum, we speculated that the specific selection pressures exerted by this predator generated this change in relative caudal fin size, although effects of other environmental factors could not be ruled out. This study further suggests that the allometric elevation is more variable than the allometric slope. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2011 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  10. Aerial jumping in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata.

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    Daphne Soares

    Full Text Available Many fishes are able to jump out of the water and launch themselves into the air. Such behavior has been connected with prey capture, migration and predator avoidance. We found that jumping behavior of the guppy Poecilia reticulata is not associated with any of the above. The fish jump spontaneously, without being triggered by overt sensory cues, is not migratory and does not attempt to capture aerial food items. Here, we use high speed video imaging to analyze the kinematics of the jumping behavior P. reticulata. Fish jump from a still position by slowly backing up while using its pectoral fins, followed by strong body trusts which lead to launching into the air several body lengths. The liftoff phase of the jump is fast and fish will continue with whole body thrusts and tail beats, even when out of the water. This behavior occurs when fish are in a group or in isolation. Geography has had substantial effects on guppy evolution, with waterfalls reducing gene flow and constraining dispersal. We suggest that jumping has evolved in guppies as a behavioral phenotype for dispersal.

  11. Aerial Jumping in the Trinidadian Guppy (Poecilia reticulata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Daphne; Bierman, Hilary S.

    2013-01-01

    Many fishes are able to jump out of the water and launch themselves into the air. Such behavior has been connected with prey capture, migration and predator avoidance. We found that jumping behavior of the guppy Poecilia reticulata is not associated with any of the above. The fish jump spontaneously, without being triggered by overt sensory cues, is not migratory and does not attempt to capture aerial food items. Here, we use high speed video imaging to analyze the kinematics of the jumping behavior P. reticulata. Fish jump from a still position by slowly backing up while using its pectoral fins, followed by strong body trusts which lead to launching into the air several body lengths. The liftoff phase of the jump is fast and fish will continue with whole body thrusts and tail beats, even when out of the water. This behavior occurs when fish are in a group or in isolation. Geography has had substantial effects on guppy evolution, with waterfalls reducing gene flow and constraining dispersal. We suggest that jumping has evolved in guppies as a behavioral phenotype for dispersal. PMID:23613883

  12. Exploring the solitaire illusion in guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miletto Petrazzini, Maria Elena; Parrish, Audrey E; Beran, Michael J; Agrillo, Christian

    2018-02-01

    The solitaire illusion is a numerosity illusion that occurs when the spatial arrangement of items influences quantity estimation. To date, this illusion has been reported in monkeys, although it seems to be weaker compared with its prevalence in humans, and no study has investigated whether nonprimate species perceive it. In the present work, we asked whether a more distantly related species, fish, perceived the solitaire illusion. To achieve this goal, adult guppies ( Poecilia reticulata ) were trained to select the array containing the larger quantity of black dots in the presence of 2 mixed arrays containing white and black dots. After reaching the learning criterion, guppies were presented with novel dot quantities, including test trials with 2 solitaire arrangements. The overall performance of the subjects indicated that they perceived the illusion, although analyses at the individual level indicated interindividual differences. These results align with recent evidence from nonhuman primates suggesting that distantly related species also may perceive this illusion, even though numerosity misperception arising from the solitaire arrangement appears to be less robust than in human and nonhuman primates. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Flash Extraction and Physicochemical Characterization of Oil from Elaeagnus mollis Diels Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Lina; Wang, Lin; Ding, Qingzhen; Wu, Yanwen; Ouyang, Jie

    2017-04-03

    A flash extraction method was used to isolate Elaeagnus mollis oil (EMO). The optimal extraction parameters, sample/solvent ratio and extraction temperature, were determined to be 1:10 (g/mL) and 40°C, respectively. Especially, the extraction yield reached 49.30% when the extraction time was as short as 2 min. No obvious difference was observed in fatty acid composition, iodine value, saponification number, total phenolic content and tocopherol content between flash-extracted EMO and Soxhlet-extracted EMO, but their physicochemical values were lower than those of cold-pressed EMO. Cold-pressed EMO had higher oxidation stability, DPPH (1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activities than flash-extracted EMO and Soxlet extracted EMO. The flash extraction is demonstrated to be an alternative, efficient method for the vegetable oil production.

  14. Constituintes químicos das folhas e do caule de Coccoloba mollisCasaretto (Polygonaceae

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    Patrícia Emanuella S. Oliveira

    Full Text Available O estudo químico das frações neutra em hexano das folhas e em diclorometano do caule de Coccoloba mollis resultou no isolamento de um triterpeno pentacíclico (simiarenol, que pela primeira vez ocorre em Polygonaceae, dois fitoesteróides (sitostenona e sitosterol, um diterpeno (trans-fitol e de um benzenóide (ácido vanílico que está sendo descrito pela vez neste gênero. A identificação estrutural destes compostos foi feita com base na análise dos dados espectrais (IV, EM e RMN, incluindo DEPT e HMQC, bem como pela comparação com dados descritos na literatura.

  15. The Amazon and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    The climatologies of cloudiness and precipitation for the Amazon, are reviewed and the physical causes of some of the observed features and those which are not well known are explained. The atmospheric circulation over the Amazon is discussed on the large scale tropical circulations forced by deep diabatic heating sources. Weather deforestation which leads to a reduction in evapotranspiration into the atmosphere, and a reduction in precipitation and its implicated for the gobal climate is discussed. It is indicated that a large scale clearing of tropical rainforests there would be a reduction in rainfall which would have global effects on climate and weather both in the tropical and extratropical regions.

  16. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Plectranthus mollis (Lamiaceae from Western Ghats region, Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh K. Joshi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Plectranthus is a large and widespread genus with a diversity of ethnobotanical uses. In traditional medicine P. mollis has been used against snakebites, respiratory stimulant and vasoconstrictor, cardiac depressant, cure for haemorrahage, treatment of mental retardation and rheumatism. P. mollis is reported to exhibit relaxant activity on smooth and skeletal muscles, and has cytotoxic and anti-tumour promoting activity, and can be used in the treatment of cancer. The aim of the present study was to identify chemical composition of the essential oil of P. mollis and to evaluate antimicrobial efficacy of the oil. The essential oil of the flowering aerial parts of P. mollis as obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Twentyseven compounds were identified, which comprised 98.6% of the total constituents. The main compound was identified as fenchone (32.3%, followed by α-humulene (17.3%, piperitenone oxide (8.5%, cis-piperitone oxide (6.0% and E-β-farnesene (5.9%. The oil was found rich in oxygenated monoterpenes type constituents (52.0%, followed by sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (40.2%, oxygenated sesquiterpenes (4.9%, and monoterpene hydrocarbons (1.5%. Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of P. mollis was tested against six Gram-positive and eight Gram negative bacteria, and three fungi, by using the tube dilution method. The oil was active against the tested Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and fungi at a concentration range of 0.065±0.008-0.937±0.139mg/mL, 0.468±0.069-3.333±0.527 mg/mL and 0.117±0.0170.338±0.062mg/mL respectively. The present study revealed that the oil constituents somehow were qualitatively similar and quantitatively different than earlier reports from different parts of the world. The essential oil of P. mollis has found to be antimicrobial activity which can be

  17. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Plectranthus mollis (Lamiaceae) from Western Ghats Region, Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Rajesh K

    2014-06-01

    Plectranthus is a large and widespread genus with a diversity of ethnobotanical uses. In traditional medicine P. mollis has been used against snakebites, respiratory stimulant and vasoconstrictor, cardiac depressant, cure for haemorrahage, treatment of mental retardation and rheumatism. P. mollis is reported to exhibit relaxant activity on smooth and skeletal muscles, and has cytotoxic and anti-tumour promoting activity, and can be used in the treatment of cancer. The aim of the present study was to identify chemical composition of the essential oil of P. mollis and to evaluate antimicrobial efficacy of the oil. The essential oil of the flowering aerial parts of P. mollis was obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Twenty-seven compounds were identified, which comprised 98.6% of the total constituents. The main compound was identified as fenchone (32.3%), followed by alpha-humulene (17.3%), piperitenone oxide (8.5%), cis-piperitone oxide (6.0%) and E-beta-farnesene (5.9%). The oil was found rich in oxygenated monoterpenes type constituents (52.0%), followed by sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (40.2%), oxygenated sesquiterpenes (4.9%), and monoterpene hydrocarbons (1.5%). Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of P. mollis was tested against six Gram-positive and eight Gram-negative bacteria, and three fungi, by using the tube dilution method. The oil was active against the tested Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and fungi at a concentration range of 0.065 +/- 0.008-0.937 +/- 0.139 mg/mL, 0.468 +/- 0.069-3.333 +/- 0.527 mg/mL and 0.117 +/- 0.017-0.338 +/- 0.062 mg/mL, respectively. The present study revealed that the oil constituents somehow were qualitatively similar and quantitatively different than earlier reports from different parts of the world. The essential oil of P. mollis has found to be antimicrobial activity

  18. Influence of Tribulus terrestris on testicular enzyme in fresh water ornamental fish Poecilia latipinna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, P; Subramanian, P

    2011-12-01

    The influence of Tribulus terrestris on the activities of testicular enzyme in Poecilia latipinna was assessed in lieu of reproductive manipulation. Different concentrations of (100, 150, 200, 250, and 300 mg) Tribulus terrestris extract and of a control were tested for testicular activity of enzymes in Poecilia latipinna for 2 months. The testis and liver were homogenized separately in 0.1 mol/l potassium phosphate buffer (0.1 mol/l, pH 7.2). The crude homogenate was centrifuged, and supernatant obtained was used as an enzyme extract for determination of activities. The activities of testicular functional enzyme ALP, ACP, SDH, LDH, and G6PDH levels were changed to different extent in treated groups compared with that of the control. The total body weight and testis weight were increased with the Tribulus terrestris-treated fish (Poecilia latipinna). These results suggest that Tribulus terrestris induced the testicular enzyme activity that may aid in the male reproductive functions. It is discernible from the present study that Tribulus terrestris has the inducing effect on reproductive system of Poecilia latipinna.

  19. PROLIFERATIVE LESIONS IN SWIMBLADDER OF JAPANESE MEDAKA ORYZIAS LATIPES AND GUPPY POECILIA RETICULATA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirteen cases of proliferative lesions of the swimbladder were encountered in Japanese medaka Oryzias latipes and guppy Poecilia reticulata from about 10,000 medaka and 5,000 guppies used in carcinogenicity tests and histologically examined. Two of the four cases from medaka and...

  20. Mutational changes in the courtship activity of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) after X-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, M.; Schroeder, J.H.

    1980-07-01

    The courtship activity of male F2 descendants of irradiated and control guppies, Poecilia reticulata, of the inbred strain Istanbul was compared. The results of Spieser and Schroeder (1978), who found a decrease in courtship activity of descendants of irradiated guppies, were confirmed under more natural conditions.

  1. Studies of In Vitro Embryo Culture of Guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, LiLi; Lee, Ki-Young

    2014-09-01

    Different with other fishes, the guppies (Poecilia reticulata) is ovoviviparity, which retain their fertilized eggs within the follicle throughout gestation. The synchronously growing diplotene oocytes store nutrients in droplets and yolk, before their maturation and fertilization. The lecithotrophic strategy of development entails the provisioning of embryos with resources from the maternal yolk deposit rather than from a placenta, it allows the extracorporeal culture of guppy embryo. Studies on their early development of live bearers like the guppy including lineage tracing and genetic manipulations, have been limited. Therefore, to optimize conditions of embryo in vitro culture, explanted embryos from pregnant females were incubated in embryo medium (L-15 medium, supplemented with 5, 10, 15, 20% fetal bovine serum, respectively). We investigated whether the contents of FBS in vitro culture medium impact the development of embryos, and whether they would hatch in vitro. Our study found that in 5% of FBS of the medium, although embryos developed significantly slower in vitro than in the ovary, it was impossible to exactly quantify the developmental delay in culture, due to the obvious spread in developmental stage within each batch of eggs, and embryos can only be maintained until the early-eyed. And although in culture with 20% FBS the embryos can sustain rapid development of early stage, but cannot be cultured for the entire period of their embryonic development and ultimately died. In the medium with 10% and 15% FBS, the embryos seems well developed, even some can continue to grow after follicle ruptures until it can be fed. We also observed that embryonic in these two culture conditions were significantly different in development speed, in 15% it is faster than 10%. But 10% FBS appears to be more optimizing condition than 15% one on development process of embryos and survival rate to larvae stage.

  2. Protective immunization against Tetrahymena sp. infection in guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chettri, J Kumar; Leibowitz, M Pimenta; Ofir, R; Zilberg, D

    2009-08-01

    Systemic tetrahymenosis constitutes a serious problem in guppy (Poecilia reticulata) production worldwide and no therapeutic solution is available for this disease. Three immunization trials were conducted, testing the effectiveness of different Tetrahymena preparations applied by intraperitoneal injection (IP) with or without Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) and with or without booster dose. In trial 1, immunization with the pathogenic Tet-NI 6 lysate and live attenuated Tet-NI 1 did not provide significant protection from infection, although infection rates were significantly lower in the Tet-NI 6-immunized group than in controls. In trial 2, mortality in Tet-NI 6 + FCA-immunized fish was 10%, significantly lower than in all other treatment groups, including Tet-NI 6 lysate, live attenuated Tet-NI 1 and controls (77, 67 and 73%, respectively). In trial 3, the lowest mortality rates were obtained in the Tet-NI 6 + FCA + booster-immunized group (15%). These levels were lower but not significantly different from the non-boostered Tet-NI 6-immunized group (28%) and the groups immunized with Tet-NI 1, with and without booster (32 and 34%, respectively). Mortality in these four groups was significantly lower than in controls, including adjuvant- and PBS-injected groups (72 and 81%, respectively). Body homogenates of immunized fish immobilized Tetrahymena in-vitro, as compared to no or very little immobilization in controls. Lysozyme levels in the Tet-NI 6 + FCA + booster group were significantly higher than in all other treatments in trial 2 and controls in trial 3. There was no significant difference in anti-protease activity among the differently immunized fish. We conclude that immunization with Tetrahymena lysates in FCA confers a high degree of protection from infection, suggesting this preparation as a basis for vaccine development.

  3. The Amazon's energetic paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Marcos Vinicius Miranda da; Bermann, Celio

    1999-01-01

    The main energy sources in Amazon region are hydroelectric, biomass, and natural gas. Although abundance of these resources, the energy consumption in this region is one of the most low of Brazil. The article overviews this paradox. In this context, economical, geopolitical, and technical aspects are presented

  4. USE OF THE JAPANESE MEDAKA (ORYZIAS LATIPES) AND GUPPY (POECILIA RETICULATA) IN CARCINOGENESIS TESTING UNDER NATIONAL TOXICOLOGY PROGRAM PROTOCOLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    that are economical, sensitive, and scientifically acceptable. Among small fish models, the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) is preeminent for investigating effects of carcinogenic and/or toxic waterborne hazards to humans. The guppy (Poecilia reticulata), although less widely u...

  5. Effect of light and gibberellic acid (AG3) on the germination of minthostachys mollis kunth. Griseb. (labiatae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, Diego; Fernandez Alonso, Jose Luis; Melgarejo, Luz Marina

    2011-01-01

    Minthostachys mollis (Kunth) griseb, is a perennial shrub that grows in the Andean region of Colombia; this species is widely used by rural communities where it is valued for its medicinal properties. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of light (red light, white light, and natural light) and gibberellic acid (0, 5, 15, 25 ppm) on the process of germination of M. mollis. We found a strong inhibition of germination under conditions of darkness. We do not observe effect of AG3 on germination. The germination percentages obtained were above 80% (positive photoblastic seeds) for the three proposed lighting treatments where red-light treatment had a most significant effect on the germination process.

  6. Estudo do sistema de reprodução da fava-d'anta (Dimorphandra mollis Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.D.R. Mendes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Entre as plantas nativas de uso medicinal do Cerrado brasileiro encontra-se a fava-d'anta (Dimorphandra mollis Benth com alto potencial econômico por possuir inúmeras potencialidades medicinais e fitoquímicas. A indústria extrai dos frutos os princípios ativos rutina, quercetina, e ramnose, dentre outros, usados na fabricação de medicamentos e cosméticos, principalmente no exterior. O conhecimento do sistema reprodutivo da espécie é fundamental para sua conservação e manejo. O presente trabalho objetivou determinar as características morfométricas das flores e caracterizar o sistema reprodutivo da D. mollis em área de Cerrado inalterada antropomorficamente, no município de Olhos D'água - MG. Para as características morfométricas, diâmetro da flor, comprimento da flor, do ovário, e da antera, foram utilizadas cinco flores em pré-antese. Para a determinação do sistema reprodutivo utilizou-se a razão pólen:óvulo (P:O, em 40 flores. As flores da D. mollis apresentaram comprimento da flor de 3,00 mm, diâmetro da flor de 2,00 mm, comprimento do óvulo de 2,60 mm, comprimento da antera de 1,57 mm, e o número de óvulos e de anteras foram 20 e 5,8, respectivamente. A razão P:O foi 765,030, sendo que esse índice não é afetado pelas características morfométricas. O sistema reprodutivo da D. mollis foi classificado como alógama facultativa.

  7. Effective population size and genetic structure of a Piute ground squirrel (Spermophilus mollis) population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolin, Michael F.; Van Horne, Beatrice; Berger, Michael D.

    2001-01-01

    Piute ground squirrels (Spermophilus mollis) are distributed continuously in habitat dominated by native shrubs and perennial grasses in the Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area in Idaho, U.S.A. This habitat is being fragmented and replaced by exotic annual plants, changing it to a wildfire-dominated system that provides poor habitat for ground squirrels. To assess potential effects of this fragmentation on ground squirrel populations, we combined an estimate of effective population size (Ne) based upon a demographic study with a population genetic analysis. The study area included three subpopulations separated from each other by 8–13 km. The ratio of effective population size to census number (Ne/N) was 0.57. Combining Ne/N with dispersal distances from a radio-tracking study, we calculated that neighborhood size was 62.2 ha, which included between 204 and 480 individuals. Our population genetic analysis (based on randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and microsatellite markers) showed relatively low levels of genetic differentiation (Qpopulations 0.07–0.10) between subpopulations and no inbreeding within subpopulations (f = 0.0003). These estimates of population subdivision translate into an effective migration rate (Nem) of 2.3–3.3 per year, which represents a high level of gene flow. Invasion by exotics will reduce the overall productivity of the habitat, and will lead to isolation among subpopulations if favorable habitat patches become isolated.

  8. Emergência e desenvolvimento inicial de sementes de Dimorphandra mollis Benth. em campo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. SOUZA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Dimorphandra mollis Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae é uma espécie arbórea, encontrada no bioma Cerrado, utilizada na recuperação de áreas degradadas e na ornamentação. Dos frutos, extrai-se a rutina, um bioflavonoide utilizado na indústria farmacêutica, o qual atua na permeabilidade e na resistência dos vasos capilares. Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo verificar os efeitos do tipo de solo e de adubos sobre a emergência e o vigor da fava-d’anta semeada diretamente no campo. O delineamento experimental adotado foi em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 4 x 2 (quatro tipos de adubação e dois tipos de solo, com sete repetições de cinco sementes cada. Foram avaliadas as seguintes características: emergência, primeira contagem da emergência, índice de velocidade de emergência, altura e diâmetro da plântula. Não houve interação significativa entre os fatores, tipo de solo e adubos. Os melhores resultados para emergência e IVE são obtidos quando a semeadura é realizada em solo local.

  9. Erich Fromm's productivity: creativity as exemplified by Joyce's blooming of Leopold and Molly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, Valentina

    2005-01-01

    According to Erich Fromm, the productive character expresses what he called the life force in ways that are, by nature, artistic in quality. His valuing of the vital and the artistic, fueled by this life force in our potential to be human, serves as the cornerstone of his model of psychoanalysis. Gilbert Rose, author of Necessary Illusion: Art as "Witness", also has identified the parallel between analytic and artistic processes, building on the assumption that the therapeutic alliance and the aesthetic alliance are one and the same. In elaborating this assumption and extending the parallel between Rose and Fromm, I draw the conclusion that the qualities of relationships have an impact on one's ability to express oneself creatively, to live an artistic life--that is, to live productively. Psychoanalysis is, in practice, a process that is artistic, creative, and re-creative in nature. To the degree that authentic expression of emotionally charged implicit knowledge of the ineffable (the emotional life that resides deep in the bodymind) results in transformation and healing, the process is artistic in nature. This process is exemplified by examining the life and literary creations of James Joyce, especially Joyce's characters of Molly and Leopold Bloom in Ulysses.

  10. Malaria Disease Mapping in Malaysia based on Besag-York-Mollie (BYM) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azah Samat, Nor; Mey, Liew Wan

    2017-09-01

    Disease mapping is the visual representation of the geographical distribution which give an overview info about the incidence of disease within a population through spatial epidemiology data. Based on the result of map, it helps in monitoring and planning resource needs at all levels of health care and designing appropriate interventions, tailored towards areas that deserve closer scrutiny or communities that lead to further investigations to identify important risk factors. Therefore, the choice of statistical model used for relative risk estimation is important because production of disease risk map relies on the model used. This paper proposes Besag-York-Mollie (BYM) model to estimate the relative risk for Malaria in Malaysia. The analysis involved using the number of Malaria cases that obtained from the Ministry of Health Malaysia. The outcomes of analysis are displayed through graph and map, including Malaria disease risk map that constructed according to the estimation of relative risk. The distribution of high and low risk areas of Malaria disease occurrences for all states in Malaysia can be identified in the risk map.

  11. Santal monohydrate, an isoflavone isolated from Wye­thia mollis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Kyle S.; Smith, Cole T.; Waddell, Thomas G.; Noll, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    The title compound [systematic name: 3-(3,4-di­hydroxy­phen­yl)-5-hy­droxy-7-meth­oxy-4H-chromen-4-one monohydrate], C16H12O6·H2O, is a monohydrate of a natural product santal isolated from Wye­thia mollis. In the santal mol­ecule, the dihedral angle between the benzo­quinone and di­hydroxy­phenyl fragments is 53.9 (1)° and an intra­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bond occurs. In the crystal, O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the components into corrugated layers parallel to the ac plane. The short distance of 3.474 (5) Å between the centroids of the benzene rings in neighbouring santal mol­ecules reveals then existence of π–π inter­actions within the layers. PMID:24764982

  12. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhout van Solinge, T.

    2015-01-01

    This essay takes a (green) criminological and multidisciplinary perspective on deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, by focusing on the crimes and damages that are associated with Amazonian deforestation. The analysis and results are partly based on longer ethnographic stays in North Brazil (Amazon

  13. Pengaruh ukuran tubuh ikan Poecilia reticulata pada daya pemangsaannya terhadap larva Culex quinquefasciatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noer Moehammadi

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to know the influence of poecilia reticulata body size, in the feeding capacity on Culex quinquifasciatus larvae. The research was experimental method with Complete Random Design., each treatment with 5 replications. The taken body size of Poecilia reticulata were; 1,50 cm; 2.50 cm; and 3.50 cm. the size of fish €™s body was measured from the tip of snout up to the end of fin (cm. The feeding capacity was determined by subtracting the first amount of larvae which was given the rest of larvae after 24 hours. The result showed that the difference of size of Poecilia reticulate body was significantly different in the feeding capacity on Culex quinquifasciatus larvae. The fish whose body size was 1.50 cm had the lowest feeding capacity by eating 77.2 larvae for average, and the highest one was the fist which body size was 2.50 cm by eating 113.6 larvae for average, subsequently the feeding capacity decrease to the fish which body size was 3.50 cm because of eating 100,6 larvae for 24 hours.

  14. The changing Amazon forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Oliver L; Lewis, Simon L; Baker, Timothy R; Chao, Kuo-Jung; Higuchi, Niro

    2008-05-27

    Long-term monitoring of distributed, multiple plots is the key to quantify macroecological patterns and changes. Here we examine the evidence for concerted changes in the structure, dynamics and composition of old-growth Amazonian forests in the late twentieth century. In the 1980s and 1990s, mature forests gained biomass and underwent accelerated growth and dynamics, all consistent with a widespread, long-acting stimulation of growth. Because growth on average exceeded mortality, intact Amazonian forests have been a carbon sink. In the late twentieth century, biomass of trees of more than 10cm diameter increased by 0.62+/-0.23tCha-1yr-1 averaged across the basin. This implies a carbon sink in Neotropical old-growth forest of at least 0.49+/-0.18PgCyr-1. If other biomass and necromass components are also increased proportionally, then the old-growth forest sink here has been 0.79+/-0.29PgCyr-1, even before allowing for any gains in soil carbon stocks. This is approximately equal to the carbon emissions to the atmosphere by Amazon deforestation. There is also evidence for recent changes in Amazon biodiversity. In the future, the growth response of remaining old-growth mature Amazon forests will saturate, and these ecosystems may switch from sink to source driven by higher respiration (temperature), higher mortality (as outputs equilibrate to the growth inputs and periodic drought) or compositional change (disturbances). Any switch from carbon sink to source would have profound implications for global climate, biodiversity and human welfare, while the documented acceleration of tree growth and mortality may already be affecting the interactions among millions of species.

  15. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) From the Northwestern Brazilian Amazon: Padauari River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, R S G; Hutchings, R W; Menezes, I S; Motta, M de A; Sallum, M A M

    2016-11-01

    The mosquito fauna (Culicidae) from remote northern areas of the State of Amazonas were sampled using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Shannon, Malaise, and Suspended traps, together with net sweeping and immature collections. One hundred and seven collections were performed in five localities along the Padauari River, State of Amazonas, Brazil, during June 2010. The 20,557 mosquitoes collected are distributed in 17 genera, representing 117 different species, of which four are new distributional records for the State of Amazonas. Furthermore, there are 10 morphospecies that may represent undescribed new taxa, eight of which are also new records for the State of Amazonas. The genus Culex had the highest number of species and the largest number of individuals. Aedes and Psorophora both represented 10% of the total sample and had the second highest number of species and individuals. The most abundant species was Culex (Melanoconion) gnomatos Sallum, Hutchings & Ferreira, followed by Aedes (Ochlerotatus) fulvus (Wiedemann), Culex (Melanoconion) vaxus Dyar, Culex (Melanoconion) portesi Senevet & Abonnenc, Psorophora (Janthinosoma) amazonica Cerqueira, Culex (Culex) mollis Dyar & Knab, Psorophora (Janthinosoma) albigenu (Peryassú), and Culex (Melanoconion) theobaldi Lutz. The epidemiological and ecological implications of mosquito species found are discussed and are compared with other mosquito inventories from the Amazon region. The results represent the most diverse standardized inventory of mosquitoes along the Padauari River, with the identification of 127 species-level taxa distributed in five localities, within two municipalities (Barcelos and Santa Isabel do Rio Negro). © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Tank cultivation of the red algae Palmaria mollis: Effects of nutrients on growth rate, biochemical quality, and epiphytic growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben, D.; Langdon, C. J.

    2016-02-01

    Pacific dulse (Palmaria mollis) is a candidate for aquaculture production in Oregon due to its high protein content, fast growth rate, and ability to fare in cold water conditions. Current cultivation methods use the F/2 medium to supply nutrients to macroalgae cultures. The F/2 medium is a costly mixture of nitrate, phosphate, trace metals and vitamins. The F/2 medium has been the standard for microalgae cultivation, but research has lacked on the necessity of all or part of this mixture for macroalgae cultivation. This study is designed to contribute to the development of Pacific dulse cultivation by measuring how different fertilizer regimens affect the growth, biochemical composition, and quality of Palmaria mollis (C-3 variety) in hopes to reduce the production cost. I hypothesis that dulse will not require additional nutrients during summer cultivation, due to summer upwelling conditions. Experiments were conducted in a flow-through water system, controlling for flow rate, stocking density, and nutrient supplementation. To test this, two replicates of four nutrient regimes were organized: no supplemental nutrients, all nutrients (standard F/2 medium), nitrate/phosphate only, and nitrate/phosphate with trace metals. Each tank was monitored weekly for color quality, epiphytic growth, specific growth rate, production and a final biochemical analysis. This study has preliminarily concluded that supplemental nutrients have no significant effect on production or biochemical quality, but does have an effect quality of epiphytic growth.

  17. Acute and sub-chronic toxicity evaluations of aqueous extract from stem bark of Grewia mollis (Malvaceae in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongri Adarki

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Different parts of Grewia mollis Juss. (Malvaceae are commonly used in folk medicine to treat several ailments, including diarrhea, ulcers, rickets, cough and fever. Although several studies have proved its therapeutic effectiveness, there are very few toxicological studies on the plant. Objectives: This study was carried out to evaluate the acute and sub-chronic toxicity of the aqueous extract of G. mollis stem bark (GM in animals. Methods: In the acute study, rats were orally administrated with GM at doses of 150, 300, 600, 1200, 2400, 4800 and 9600 mg/kg to determine the oral medial lethal dose (LD50. In the chronic study, rats received three doses of GM (150, 300 and 600 mg/kg for 28 days. After the treatments, food intake, body weights, biochemical, hematological and histopathological parameters were analyzed. Results: The LD50 was estimated to be >9600 mg/kg. No significant alterations in the animal’s body weight gain, relative organs weight, serum biochemical analysis, hematological or histopathological analyses of liver, kidneys, lungs, heart and spleen were observed. Conclusions: The results of this study provided evidence that oral administration of GM at dose of 600 mg/kg is relatively safe in rats and may not exert severe toxic effects.

  18. MDMA (ecstasy/molly) use among African Americans: The perceived influence of hip-hop/rap music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigg, Khary K; Estreet, Anthony T

    2018-02-12

    Over the past two decades, the demographic profile of MDMA (ecstasy/molly) users has changed. In particular, African American MDMA use has risen in some cities. One explanation of this new trend is the drug's recent popularity (as molly) in hip-hop/rap (HHR) music. Several top rappers endorse the drug as a way to have fun or get women "loose." There are currently no studies, however, that investigate the extent to which African American MDMA users listen to HHR music or the influence that these pro-MDMA messages have on their use of the drug. To address this gap, the current study used survey data to (a) identify the extent to which HHR music is listened to by African American MDMA users and (b) assess the perceived influence of HHR music on their decision to begin using. Qualitative interview data are also presented to contextualize the influence of these messages on their use of MDMA. The findings of this study suggest that African American MDMA users are high consumers of HHR music and that pro-MDMA messages in HHR music are influencing their expectations of the drug and their decision to initiate use. These findings add to the limited amount of research on African American MDMA use and have the potential to inform future interventions.

  19. Insecta, Coleoptera, Elmidae, Amazon region

    OpenAIRE

    Passos, Maria Inês; Fernandes, André; Hamada, Neusa; Nessimian, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    A list of Elmidae species from Amazon is presented. The list was prepared based on a literature survey and examination of the entomological collection of Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA). The list includes 102 species, with ten new occurrences recorded, being one for the Amazon (which includes areas of Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Guyana, French Guyana, Peru, Suriname and Venezuela) three for the Amazonas state, and six for other localities in Brazil. Reports about species bib...

  20. Evaluation of predictions of volatile fatty acid production rates by the Molly cow model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, S; Gregorini, P; Hanigan, M D

    2014-01-01

    Predicting ruminal volatile fatty acid (VFA) production is important, as VFA are an energy source to the animal, affect nutrient partitioning, and dictate methane production. The VFA production submodel in the Molly cow model was evaluated using data from 8 publications that reported VFA production rates for cattle. Evaluations were conducted with ruminal water balance predictions enabled and the ruminal VFA stoichiometry coefficients set to "mixed" for all diets, or "mixed" when forage represented between 20 and 80% of the diet, "concentrate" when 80% forage. Prediction errors were relatively insensitive to changes in VFA coefficients by diet type. Root mean square prediction errors (RMSPE) were 63, 63, and 49% for acetate, propionate, and butyrate production rates, respectively. A large proportion of the error was slope bias for acetate and butyrate, and a modest proportion for propionate. Because interconversions between acetate and propionate represent approximately 15% of the variation in net production rates, lack of such consideration in the model may contribute to the substantial model prediction errors. The potential of using thermodynamic equations to predict interconversions was assessed using observed ruminal pH and VFA concentrations from 2 studies and assuming constant hydrogen pressure and concentrations of CO₂, H₂O, adenosine diphosphate, ATP, and inorganic P. Rate constants for conversion of acetate to propionate and propionate to acetate were derived independently from the control treatments and used to predict the fluxes for the other treatment. The observed changes in VFA concentrations and pH explained the observed changes in conversion of acetate to propionate, but overpredicted the change in the propionate to acetate flux in one study. When applied to the other study, the equations predicted the increase in propionate to acetate flux, but failed to predict the observed reduction in acetate to propionate flux. The inability to predict

  1. Analogical reasoning in amazons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obozova, Tanya; Smirnova, Anna; Zorina, Zoya; Wasserman, Edward

    2015-11-01

    Two juvenile orange-winged amazons (Amazona amazonica) were initially trained to match visual stimuli by color, shape, and number of items, but not by size. After learning these three identity matching-to-sample tasks, the parrots transferred discriminative responding to new stimuli from the same categories that had been used in training (other colors, shapes, and numbers of items) as well as to stimuli from a different category (stimuli varying in size). In the critical testing phase, both parrots exhibited reliable relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) behavior, suggesting that they perceived and compared the relationship between objects in the sample stimulus pair to the relationship between objects in the comparison stimulus pairs, even though no physical matches were possible between items in the sample and comparison pairs. The parrots spontaneously exhibited this higher-order relational responding without having ever before been trained on RMTS tasks, therefore joining apes and crows in displaying this abstract cognitive behavior.

  2. Violence against Amazon women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Vera Lúcia de Azevedo; Souza, Maria de Lourdes de; Monticelli, Marisa; Oliveira, Marília de Fátima Vieira de; Souza, Carlos Benedito Marinho de; Costa, Carlos Alberto Leal da; Brüggemann, Odaléa Maria

    2009-01-01

    This quantitative and exploratory study analyzed violence against Amazon women presented in print media according to type and severity, and whether aggressors fell under the Maria da Penha law. A total of 181 issues of a regional newspaper were consulted. Based on content analysis, 164 items addressing violence against women were selected and 46 were included in the corpus of analysis. Results were gathered in three thematic groups: women killed with cruelty, sexual violence against women regardless of age, and violence against women and the limitations of the Maria da Penha law. Violence against these women varied in terms of form and severity, including up to homicide. Women are submitted to sexual violence from childhood through adulthood. The enforcement of this law shows the community it has a means to cope with this social phenomenon.

  3. Cloning of allene oxide cyclase gene from Leymus mollis and analysis of its expression in wheat-Leymus chromosome addition lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltayeb Habora, Mohamed Elsadig; Eltayeb, Amin Elsadig; Oka, Mariko; Tsujimoto, Hisashi; Tanaka, Kiyoshi

    2013-03-01

    Leymus mollis (Triticeae; Poaceae) is a useful genetic resource for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) breeding via wide hybridization to introduce its chromosomes and integrate its useful traits into wheat. Leymus mollis is highly tolerant to abiotic stresses such as drought and salinity and resistant to various diseases, but the genetic mechanisms controlling its physiological tolerance remain largely unexplored. We identified and cloned an allene oxide cyclase (AOC) gene from L. mollis that was strongly expressed under salt stress. AOC is involved in biosynthesis of jasmonic acid, an important signaling compound that mediates a wide range of adaptive responses. LmAOC cDNA consisted of 717 bp, coding for a protein with 238 amino acids that was highly similar to AOCs from barley (Hordeum vulgare) and other monocots. Subcellular localization using Nicotiana benthamiana confirmed it as a chloroplast-localized protein. LmAOC was found to be a multiple-copy gene, and that some copies were conserved and efficiently expressed in wheat-Leymus chromosome addition lines. LmAOC expression was upregulated under drought, heat, cold and wounding stresses, and by jasmonic acid and abscisic acid. Our results suggest that LmAOC plays an important role in L. mollis adaptation to abiotic stresses and it could be useful for wheat improvement.

  4. Cloning of allene oxide cyclase gene from Leymus mollis and analysis of its expression in wheat–Leymus chromosome addition lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltayeb Habora, Mohamed Elsadig; Eltayeb, Amin Elsadig; Oka, Mariko; Tsujimoto, Hisashi; Tanaka, Kiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Leymus mollis (Triticeae; Poaceae) is a useful genetic resource for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) breeding via wide hybridization to introduce its chromosomes and integrate its useful traits into wheat. Leymus mollis is highly tolerant to abiotic stresses such as drought and salinity and resistant to various diseases, but the genetic mechanisms controlling its physiological tolerance remain largely unexplored. We identified and cloned an allene oxide cyclase (AOC) gene from L. mollis that was strongly expressed under salt stress. AOC is involved in biosynthesis of jasmonic acid, an important signaling compound that mediates a wide range of adaptive responses. LmAOC cDNA consisted of 717 bp, coding for a protein with 238 amino acids that was highly similar to AOCs from barley (Hordeum vulgare) and other monocots. Subcellular localization using Nicotiana benthamiana confirmed it as a chloroplast-localized protein. LmAOC was found to be a multiple-copy gene, and that some copies were conserved and efficiently expressed in wheat–Leymus chromosome addition lines. LmAOC expression was upregulated under drought, heat, cold and wounding stresses, and by jasmonic acid and abscisic acid. Our results suggest that LmAOC plays an important role in L. mollis adaptation to abiotic stresses and it could be useful for wheat improvement. PMID:23641183

  5. Actividad antimicótica del aceite esencial de las hojas de Minthostachys mollis (muña comparado con el Fluconazol en cultivo de Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine M Alcalá-Marcos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo.- Demostrar el efecto antimicótico del aceite esencial de las hojas de Minthostachys mollis (muña en comparación con el Fluconazol en cultivo de Candida albicans. Materiales y Método.- Estudio experimental. El efecto antimicótico se estudió midiendo 80 halos de inhibición distribuidos en 5 grupos mediante el método Kirby-Bauer. Se utilizó una cepa clínica de Candida albicans. Los grupos de estudio fueron grupo muña 25% (GM25%, grupo muña 50% (GM50%, grupo muña 100% (GM100%, un grupo control positivo (Fluconazol, y un grupo control negativo (aceite mineral. El análisis estadístico se realizó mediante la Prueba de Kruskal-Wallis y el Test de Dunn usando el paquete SPSS v.17.0. Se consideró un nivel de significancia  0,05.Conclusión.- El aceite esencial de las hojas de Minthostachys mollis (al 100% tuvo mayor efecto contra la Candida albicans que el Fluconazol; además, el efecto antimicótico del Fluconazol fue mayor que la Minthostachys mollis al 25%, y fue el mismo que la Minthostachys mollis al 50%.

  6. ACTIVIDAD ANTIMICÓTICA DEL ACEITE ESENCIAL DE LAS HOJAS DE Minthostachys mollis (MUÑA COMPARADO CON EL FLUCONAZOL EN CULTIVO DE Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine M Alcalá-Marcos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo.- Demostrar el efecto antimicótico del aceite esencial de las hojas de Minthostachys mollis (muña en comparación con el Fluconazol en cultivo de Candida albicans. Materiales y Método.- Estudio experimental. El efecto antimicótico se estudió midiendo 80 halos de inhibición distribuidos en 5 grupos mediante el método Kirby-Bauer. Se utilizó una cepa clínica de Candida albicans. Los grupos de estudio fueron grupo muña 25% (GM25%, grupo muña 50% (GM50%, grupo muña 100% (GM100%, un grupo control positivo (Fluconazol, y un grupo control negativo (aceite mineral. El análisis estadístico se realizó mediante la Prueba de Kruskal-Wallis y el Test de Dunn usando el paquete SPSS v.17.0. Se consideró un nivel de significancia 0,05.Conclusión.- El aceite esencial de las hojas de Minthostachys mollis (al 100% tuvo mayor efecto contra la Candida albicans que el Fluconazol; además, el efecto antimicótico del Fluconazol fue mayor que la Minthostachys mollis al 25%, y fue el mismo que la Minthostachys mollis al 50%.

  7. Development and Molecular Cytogenetic Identification of a Novel Wheat-Leymus mollis Lm#7Ns (7D Disomic Substitution Line with Stripe Rust Resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofei Yang

    Full Text Available Leymus mollis (2n = 4x = 28, NsNsXmXm possesses novel and important genes for resistance against multi-fungal diseases. The development of new wheat-L. mollis introgression lines is of great significance for wheat disease resistance breeding. M11003-3-1-15-8, a novel disomic substitution line of common wheat cv. 7182 -L. mollis, developed and selected from the BC1F5 progeny between wheat cv. 7182 and octoploid Tritileymus M47 (2n = 8x = 56, AABBDDNsNs, was characterized by morphological and cytogenetic identification, analysis of functional molecular markers, genomic in situ hybridization (GISH, sequential fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH-genomic in situ hybridization (GISH and disease resistance evaluation. Cytological observations suggested that M11003-3-1-15-8 contained 42 chromosomes and formed 21 bivalents at meiotic metaphase I. The GISH investigations showed that line contained 40 wheat chromosomes and a pair of L. mollis chromosomes. EST-STS multiple loci markers and PLUG (PCR-based Landmark Unique Gene markers confirmed that the introduced L. mollis chromosomes belonged to homoeologous group 7, it was designated as Lm#7Ns. While nulli-tetrasomic and sequential FISH-GISH analysis using the oligonucleotide Oligo-pSc119.2 and Oligo-pTa535 as probes revealed that the wheat 7D chromosomes were absent in M11003-3-1-15-8. Therefore, it was deduced that M11003-3-1-15-8 was a wheat-L. mollis Lm#7Ns (7D disomic substitution line. Field disease resistance demonstrated that the introduced L. mollis chromosomes Lm#7Ns were responsible for the stripe rust resistance at the adult stage. Moreover, M11003-3-1-15-8 had a superior numbers of florets. The novel disomic substitution line M11003-3-1-15-8, could be exploited as an important genetic material in wheat resistance breeding programs and genetic resources.

  8. Effect of Temperature on Reproduction and Sex Ratio of Guppy (Poecilia reticulata Peters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Arfah

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Water temperature could affect the reproduction of broodstock and sex ratio of progeny.  In this study, broodstock of guppy (Poecilia reticulata Peters was reared in different temperature to determine its effect on reproduction of broodstock and sex ratio of their progeny. The result of study show that broodstock reared at 27°C produced more fry (16 males mean than that of 30°C (10 males, while broodstock reared at 33°C produced no progeny.  Percentage of male fish produced by broodstock reared at 30°C is higher than that of 27°C.  Incubation time of embryo before birth is sorter in broodstock reared at 30°C (4-12 days compared with 27°C (18-22 days.  However, several progeny of broodstock reared at 30°C had abnormal vertebrae. Keywords: guppy, Poecilia reticulata, sex reversal, reproduction, monosex   ABSTRAK Suhu air inkubasi diduga dapat mempengaruhi reproduksi induk ikan dan nisbah kelamin keturunannya.  Pada penelitian ini, induk ikan gapi (Poecilia reticulata Peters dipelihara pada suhu 27°C, 30°C dan suhu 33°C untuk mengetahui pengaruhnya terhadap reproduksi dan rasio kelamin keturunannya.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa induk ikan gapi yang dipelihara pada suhu 27°C menghasilkan anak lebih banyak (rata-rata 16 ekor daripada di suhu 30°C (10 ekor, sementara induk gagal melahirkan pada suhu pemeliharaan 33°C. Proporsi anak jantan yang dihasilkan oleh induk yang dipelihara pada suhu 30°C lebih banyak dibandingkan pada suhu 27°C.  Waktu inkubasi embrio sebelum dilahirkan oleh induk yang dipelihara pada suhu 30°C lebih singkat, yaitu 4-12 hari, dibandingkan pada  suhu 27°C, 18-22 hari.  Namun demikian beberapa anak ikan yang lahir dari induk yang dipelihara pada suhu suhu 30°C mengalami abnormalitas pada bagian tulang belakangnya.  Kata kunci: ikan gapi, Poecilia reticulata, sex reversal, reproduksi, monoseks

  9. Aging changes in the heart of a poeciliid fish, the guppy Poecilia reticulatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhead, A.D.

    1984-01-01

    Histological surveys of the hearts of guppies Poecilia reticulatus throughout their lifespan showed no aging changes until the fish were three years old. In younger fishes the hearts were healthy, even in the three individuals with wasting disease, where there was considerable loss of muscle throughout the body. There was a loss of muscle fibers in the ventricle in old fish, and deposition of collagen in the bulbus arteriosus. Guppies of three years and older also had a marked accumulation of melanomacrophages in the atrium. It seems unlikely that degeneration of the heart is involved in mortality of guppies in the wild.

  10. Quantitative assessment of hepatic function: modified look-locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) sequence for T1 mapping on Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced liver MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jeong Hee [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Min; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Paek, Munyoung [Siemens Healthcare, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    To determine whether multislice T1 mapping of the liver using a modified look-locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) sequence on gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used as a quantitative tool to estimate liver function and predict the presence of oesophageal or gastric varices. Phantoms filled with gadoxetic acid were scanned three times using MOLLI sequence to test repeatability. Patients with chronic liver disease or liver cirrhosis who underwent gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI including MOLLI sequence at 3 T were included (n = 343). Pre- and postcontrast T1 relaxation times of the liver (T1liver), changes between pre- and postcontrast T1liver (ΔT1liver), and adjusted postcontrast T1liver (postcontrast T1liver-T1spleen/T1spleen) were compared among Child-Pugh classes. In 62 patients who underwent endoscopy, all T1 parameters and spleen sizes were correlated with varices. Phantom study showed excellent repeatability of MOLLI sequence. As Child-Pugh scores increased, pre- and postcontrast T1liver were significantly prolonged (P < 0.001), and ΔT1liver and adjusted postcontrast T1liver decreased (P< 0.001). Adjusted postcontrast T1liver and spleen size were independently associated with varices (R{sup 2} = 0.29, P < 0.001). T1 mapping of the liver using MOLLI sequence on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI demonstrated potential in quantitatively estimating liver function, and adjusted postcontrast T1liver was significantly associated with varices. (orig.)

  11. Isolation and molecular cytogenetic characterization of a wheat - Leymus mollis double monosomic addition line and its progenies with resistance to stripe rust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaofei; Li, Xin; Wang, Changyou; Chen, Chunhuan; Tian, Zengrong; Ji, Wanquan

    2017-12-01

    A common wheat - Leymus mollis (2n = 4x = 28, NsNsXmXm) double monosomic addition line, M11003-4-3-8/13/15 (2n = 44 = 42T.a + L.m2 + L.m3), with stripe rust resistance was developed (where T.a represents Triticum aestivum chromosome, L.m represents L. mollis chromosome, and L.m2/3 represents L. mollis chromosome of homoeologous groups 2 and 3). The progenies of line M11003-4-3-8/13/15 were characterized by cytological observation, specific molecular markers, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). Among the progenies, there existed five different types (I, II, III, IV, and V) of chromosome constitution, the formulas of which were 2n = 44 = 42T.a + 1L.m2 + 1L.m3, 2n = 43 = 42T.a + 1L.m2, 2n = 43 = 42T.a + 1L.m3, 2n = 42 = 42T.a, and 2n = 44 = 42T.a + 2L.m2, respectively. Field disease screening showed that types I and III showed high resistance to stripe rust, while types II, IV, and V were susceptible. Leymus mollis was almost immune to stripe rust, whereas the wheat parent, cultivar 7182, was susceptible. Therefore, we concluded that the stripe rust resistance originated from L. mollis. These various lines could be further fully exploited as important disease resistance materials to enrich wheat genetic resources.

  12. Potencial tecnológico do galactomanano de sementes de faveiro (Dimorphandra mollis para uso na indústria de alimentos Seeds of faveiro (Dimorphandra mollis as a potential source of galactomannan for the food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Regina PANEGASSI

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de gomas de sementes tem trazido muitos benefícios à indústria de alimentos, melhorando as propriedades dos produtos, principalmente pelo seu poder espessante, estabilizante e geleificante. Gomas obtidas a partir do endosperma de sementes de leguminosas são compostas por manose e galactose (galactomanano. A partir da trituração e posterior peneiramento das sementes de faveiro (Dimorphandra mollis, espécie brasileira que ocorre com alta freqüência nos cerrados e caatinga, foi obtido um extrato rico em galactomanano (83,2% com proporção manose:galactose 2,7. Esses parâmetros são comparáveis aos obtidos para os galactomananos de uso consagrado em formulações de alimentos, tais como a goma guar com 78-82% de rendimento e razão manose galactose igual a 2 e a goma locusta com 88% de rendimento e razão manose:galactose igual a 4. Ensaios biológicos demonstraram que a goma do faveiro é considerada praticamente atóxica. Esses resultados sugerem que a goma de Dimorphandra mollis apresenta potencial para ser utilizada em formulações de alimentos. Além disso, como é espécie já utilizada para a extração de rutina e também espécie de larga ocorrência em ecossistemas de grande importância tais como o Cerrado e a Caatinga, sua exploração poderia ser feita de forma ecologicamente sustentável.The use of seed gums has brought a lot of benefits to the food industry, improving their properties primarily for their ability of thickening, stabilising and gelling. The gums obtained from the endosperm of legume seeds are composed of mannose and galactose in different proportions. Using a procedure of grinding and milling, an extract rich in galactomannan (83.2%, with a mannose:galactose ratio of 2.7, was obtained from faveiro (Dimorphandra mollis, which is a Brazilian species native to the savannah and caatinga environments. The yield and composition obtained were comparable to the commercially exploited gums of guar

  13. Conservação de Dimorphandra mollis benth. (fabaceae baseada na estrutura genética de populações naturais Conservation of Dimorphandra mollis Benth. (fabaceae based on the genetic structure of natural populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cecília Gonçalves

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Dimorphandra mollis é uma espécie nativa do Cerrado com grande potencial econômico e tem sido alvo de intensa exploração, principalmente de seus frutos por causa do princípio ativo do composto rutina, importante para a produção de fármacos. Algumas propostas têm surgido para uma coleta controlada desses frutos, de forma a minimizar a perda de diversidade genética, entretanto existem poucas informações sobre aspectos ecológicos e genéticos da espécie. Nesse sentido, realizou-se o estudo da estrutura genética por meio de marcadores aloenzimáticos, visando dar subsídios a propostas de conservação de populações naturais de D. mollis. Dez locos polimórficos foram utilizados para estimar as frequências alélicas referentes a 180 indivíduos, distribuídos em três populações naturais (Campina Verde, Vargem da Cruz e Pau de Fruta no Município de Jequitaí, Norte de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Os resultados indicam alta diversidade genética da espécie ( ou = 0,463, sendo pequena a variabilidade genética entre populações ( > ou = 0,025. Foi verificada ausência de endogamia dentro das populaçõe s( ou = -0,018 ( 0,007. O fluxo gênico estimado no conjunto das populações foi alto, com igual a 4,0, e suficiente para contrapor os efeitos da deriva genética. a alta diversidade genética nas populações da espécie indica potencial para a conservação genética in situ e também para o seu manejo. As estratégias de manejo da espécie devem considerar o tamanho efetivo populacional, no intuito de manter os níveis de variabilidade genética observados e a regeneração natural nas áreas. Palavras-chave: Fava d'anta, Marcadores aloenzimáticos e Variabilidade genética.Dimorphandra mollis is a native species of Cerrado and has high economic value due to the active compound Rutin present in its fruit, which has made it a target of intense commercial exploitation. Some proposals to minimize the negatives genetic

  14. The effect of social environment on alternative mating tactics in male Endler’s guppy, Poecilia wingei

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řežucha, Radomil; Reichard, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 2 (2014), s. 195-202 ISSN 0003-3472 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/1163 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : alternative mating tactics * courtship * experience * Poecilia wingei * sneaking * social environment Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.137, year: 2014

  15. Uptake and elimination of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) at sublethal and lethal aqueous concentrations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eck, van J.M.C.; Koelmans, A.A.; Deneer, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    The kinetics of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene in guppies (Poecilia reticulata) have been studied in an accumulation and elimination experiment. At a sublethal exposure, uptake and elimination rate constants of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene were determined, employing a first-order one-compartment model. The

  16. Hydrologic resilience and Amazon productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlström, Anders; Canadell, Josep G; Schurgers, Guy; Wu, Minchao; Berry, Joseph A; Guan, Kaiyu; Jackson, Robert B

    2017-08-30

    The Amazon rainforest is disproportionately important for global carbon storage and biodiversity. The system couples the atmosphere and land, with moist forest that depends on convection to sustain gross primary productivity and growth. Earth system models that estimate future climate and vegetation show little agreement in Amazon simulations. Here we show that biases in internally generated climate, primarily precipitation, explain most of the uncertainty in Earth system model results; models, empirical data and theory converge when precipitation biases are accounted for. Gross primary productivity, above-ground biomass and tree cover align on a hydrological relationship with a breakpoint at ~2000 mm annual precipitation, where the system transitions between water and radiation limitation of evapotranspiration. The breakpoint appears to be fairly stable in the future, suggesting resilience of the Amazon to climate change. Changes in precipitation and land use are therefore more likely to govern biomass and vegetation structure in Amazonia.Earth system model simulations of future climate in the Amazon show little agreement. Here, the authors show that biases in internally generated climate explain most of this uncertainty and that the balance between water-saturated and water-limited evapotranspiration controls the Amazon resilience to climate change.

  17. Toxicity response of Poecilia reticulata Peters 1859 (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae to some agricultural pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALIAKBAR HEDAYATI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Hedayati A, Tarkhani R, Shadi A. 2012. Mortality response of Poecilia reticulata Peters 1859 (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae to some agricultural pesticides. Nusantara Bioscience 4: 6-10. This research was performed to determine and compare acute toxicity of diazinon and deltamethrin as potential dangerous organic pesticides to assess mortality effects of these chemicals to the freshwater guppy Poecilia reticulata. LC50 of 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, and 96 h was attained by probit analysis by Finney’s and using the maximum-likelihood procedure (SPSS. The 24-96 h LC50 for the diazinon were 40.9±0.98, 33.2±0.84, 23.2±0.74 and 16.8±0.57 ppm respectively. The 24-96 h LC50 for the deltamethrin were 0.297±0.13, 0.236±0.16, 0.204±0.47 and 0.195±0.06 ppm respectively. In the present study, LC50 values indicated that deltamethrin was more toxic than diazinon to this species. LC50 values obtained in the present study were different from the corresponding values that have been published in the literature for other species of fish.

  18. Adaptation of the gill epithelium of an euryhaline fish, the guppy (Poecilia vivipara, to freshwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Maria Teixeira de Sabóia-Moraes

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available O peixe eurihalino sul-americano Poecilia vivipara (BLOCH; SNEIDER, 1801, o guppy, é encontrado tanto em estuários quanto em águas de rios, o que sugere uma alta adaptabilidade aos diferentes ambientes de salinidade. Neste trabalho, estudamos a adaptação do epitélio interlamelar, do arco e do rastelo das brânquias dos peixes de estuário de água doce. Os resultados revelam que o epitélio branquial de Poecilia vivipara pode ajustar-se à água doce, diminuindo a proporção volumétrica (PV de células mucosas do epitélio interlamelar e aumentando a PV de células clorídricas. No entanto, não houve nenhuma evidência de alteração morfológica semelhante na região do rastelo branquial. O epitélio do rastelo branquial parece ser parte de um compartimento diferente que é menos sensível a variações de salinidade.

  19. Detection of "bath salts" and other novel psychoactive substances in hair samples of ecstasy/MDMA/"Molly" users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamar, Joseph J; Salomone, Alberto; Vincenti, Marco; Cleland, Charles M

    2016-04-01

    Ecstasy (MDMA) in the US is commonly adulterated with other drugs, but research has not focused on purity of ecstasy since the phenomenon of "Molly" (ecstasy marketed as pure MDMA) arose in the US. We piloted a rapid electronic survey in 2015 to assess use of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) and other drugs among 679 nightclub/festival-attending young adults (age 18-25) in New York City. A quarter (26.1%) of the sample provided a hair sample to be analyzed for the presence of select synthetic cathinones ("bath salts") and some other NPS. Samples were analyzed using fully validated UHPLC-MS/MS methods. To examine consistency of self-report, analyses focused on the 48 participants with an analyzable hair sample who reported lifetime ecstasy/MDMA/Molly use. Half (50.0%) of the hair samples contained MDMA, 47.9% contained butylone, and 10.4% contained methylone. Of those who reported no lifetime use of "bath salts", stimulant NPS, or unknown pills or powders, about four out of ten (41.2%) tested positive for butylone, methylone, alpha-PVP, 5/6-APB, or 4-FA. Racial minorities were more likely to test positive for butylone or test positive for NPS after reporting no lifetime use. Frequent nightclub/festival attendance was the strongest predictor of testing positive for MDMA, butylone, or methylone. Results suggest that many ecstasy-using nightclub/festival attendees may be unintentionally using "bath salts" or other NPS. Prevention and harm reduction education is needed for this population and "drug checking" (e.g., pill testing) may be beneficial for those rejecting abstinence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cytotoxicity of the methanol extracts of Elephantopus mollis, Kalanchoe crenata and 4 other Cameroonian medicinal plants towards human carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuete, Victor; Fokou, Fabrice W; Karaosmanoğlu, Oğuzhan; Beng, Veronique P; Sivas, Hülya

    2017-05-25

    Cancer still constitutes one of the major health concerns globally, causing serious threats on patients, their families, and the healthcare system. In this study, the cytotoxicity of the methanol extract of Elephantopus mollis whole plant (EMW), Enantia chlorantha bark (ECB), Kalanchoe crenata leaves (KCL), Lophira alata bark (LAB), Millettia macrophylla leaves (MML) and Phragmanthera capitata leaves (PCL) towards five human solid cancer cell lines and normal CRL2120 fibroblasts, was evaluated. Extracts were subjected to qualitative chemical screening of their secondary metabolite contents using standard methods. The cytotoxicity of samples was evaluated using neutral red uptake (NR) assay meanwhile caspase activation was detected by caspase-Glo assay. Flow cytometry was used to analyze the cell cycle distribution and the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) whilst spectrophotometry was used to measure the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of polyphenols, triterpenes and sterols in all extracts. The IC 50 values of the best samples ranged from 3.29 μg/mL (towards DLD-1 colorectal adenocarcinoma cells) to 24.38 μg/mL (against small lung cancer A549 cells) for EMW, from 2.33 μg/mL (mesothelioma SPC212 cells) to 28.96 μg/mL (HepG2 hepatocarcinoma) for KCL, and from 0.04 μg/mL (towards SPC212 cells) to 0.55 μg/mL (towards A549 cells) for doxorubicin. EMW induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells mediated by MMP loss and increased ROS production whilst KCL induced apoptosis via ROS production. This study provides evidences of the cytotoxicity of the tested plant extract and highlights the good activity of Elephantopus mollis and Kalanchoe crenata. They deserve more exploration to develop novel cytotoxic drugs.

  1. Mixing in the Amazon estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, M. O.

    2010-05-01

    The research area of this work is located at the estuary of the Amazon River (Brazil), near the river mouth. The results of air movement analysis on the surface atmospheric circulation over the Mouth of the Amazonas River, salinity and temperature measures as well as measurements of currents, carried out along a longitudinal section in the navigation canal region of the Northern Bar of the Amazon River (Barra Norte do Rio Amazonas) in June 2006, during the river flood season in the quadrature tide. The dynamics effects affect hydrodynamic,meteorological and hydrographical parameters at the river mouth. The conclusion drawn include that: a) the saline wedge-type stratification can be detected approximately 100km away from the mouth of the Amazon River during the end of the rainy season in the quadrature tide; b) probably, at the Amazon estuary the quadrature entrainment processes are dominant and they are the ones responsible for increased salinity detected in the surface layer, whereas turbulence scattering mixing is not so important. c) The large flow of fresh water from the Amazon River at the end of the rainy season implies the displacement of the saline front position over the internal Amazon continental platform, and d) The tidal wave shows a positive asymmetry in the canal, with floods lasting less than in the ebb tide. This asymmetry decreases towards the ocean, eventually becoming reversed in the presence of a saline wedge. The speeds, however, have a negative asymmetry, with more intense ebb tides, due to the river flow and is more evident by the existence of quadrature tides.

  2. Insecta, Coleoptera, Elmidae, Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passos, M. I. S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A list of Elmidae species from Amazon is presented. The list was prepared based on a literature surveyand examination of the entomological collection of Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA. The listincludes 102 species, with ten new occurrences recorded, being one for the Amazon (which includes areas ofBrazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Guyana, French Guyana, Peru, Suriname and Venezuela three for the Amazonas state,and six for other localities in Brazil. Reports about species bibliography contents were also included, as well asavailable species municipalities distributional data.

  3. GoAmazon – Scaling Amazon Carbon Water Couplings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubey, Manvendra Krishna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-06

    Forests soak up 25% of the carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted by anthropogenic fossil energy use (10 Gt C y-1) moderating its atmospheric accumulation. How this terrestrial CO2 uptake will evolve with climate change in the 21st century is largely unknown. Rainforests are the most active ecosystems with the Amazon basin storing 120 Gt C as biomass and exchanging 18 Gt C y-1 of CO2 via photosynthesis and respiration and fixing carbon at 2-3 kg C m-2 y-1. Furthermore, the intense hydrologic and carbon cycles are tightly coupled in the Amazon where about half of the water is recycled by evapotranspiration and the other half imported from the ocean by Northeasterly trade winds. Climate models predict a drying in the Amazon with reduced carbon uptake while observationally guided assessments indicate sustained uptake. We will resolve this huge discrepancy in the size and sign of the future Amazon carbon cycle by performing the first simultaneous regional scale high frequency measurements of atmospheric CO2, H2O, HOD, CH4, N2O and CO at the T3 site in Manacupuru, Brazil as part of DOE's GoAmazon project. Our data will be used to inform and develop DOE's CLM on the tropical carbon-water couplings at the appropriate grid scale (10-50km). Our measurements will also validate the CO2 data from Japan's GOSAT and NASA's imminent OCO-2 satellite (launch date July 2014).

  4. Amazon Fund: financing deforestation avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Marcovitch

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon Fund, created in 2008 by the Brazilian Federal Government, is managed by Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Econômico e Social (BNDES. It is a pioneering initiative to fundraise and manage financial resources to cut back deforestation and support sustainable development for 30 million inhabitants in the Amazon Biome. The Amazon Fund has already received more than R$ 1.7 billion in grants (about USD 787 million. This essay analyzes the Amazon Fund's governance and management with focus on its operation and from its stakeholders' perspectives. A combination of research methods includes: documental research, in-depth interviews, and speech analysis. The study offers a comparative analysis of strengths and weaknesses related to its governance. Furthermore, it proposes ways to improve its management towards greater effectiveness. The essay also includes an assessment of the government of Norway, a major donor to the fund. The governments of Norway and Germany, in partnership with Brazil, reveal how important it is to experiment with new means of international cooperation to successfully reduce greenhouse gas emissions through rainforest preservation.

  5. The Amazon Basin in transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric A. Davidson; Alessandro C. de Araujo; Paulo Artaxo; Jennifer K. Balch; I. Foster Brown; Mercedes M.C. Bustamente; Michael T. Coe; Ruth S. DeFriess; Michael Keller; Marcos Longo; J. William Munger; Wilfrid Schroeder; Britaldo Soares-Filho; Carlos M. Souza, Jr.; Steven C. Wofsy

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural expansion and climate variability have become important agents of disturbance in the Amazon basin. Recent studies have demonstrated considerable resilience of Amazonian forests to moderate annual drought, but they also show that interactions between deforestation, fire and drought potentially lead to losses of carbon storage and changes in regional...

  6. Occurrence of sea spider Endeis mollis Carpenter (Arthropoda: Pycnogonida on the test panels submerged in Gulf of Mannar, southeast coast of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Satheesh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sea spiders (Pycnogonids are exclusively marine arthropods with worldwide distribution. Pycnogonida remains one of the poorly investigated groups encountered in fouling communities. In the present study, distribution pycnogonid species Endeis mollis associated with the fouling community developed on test panels submerged at Kudankulam coast, Gulf of Mannar was studied for a period of two years. Throughout the period of investigation, Endeis mollis was observed on the test panels. A maximum of 55 individuals per square dm was observed during pre-monsoon season and a minimum of 9 individuals per square dm during monsoon season. Results of this study on seasonal distribution are of considerable interest because so little has been documented on the ecology of Pycnogonids in India.

  7. Verificação da atividade antibacteriana de sabonete líquido contendo extrato glicólico de Dimorphandra mollis Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KETYLIN FERNANDA MIGLIATO

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Dimorphandra mollis Benth., Compositae, falsobarbatimão, é utilizada topicamente como cicatrizante, adstringente e antimicrobiano. No presente estudo, verificou-se a atividade antibacteriana de sabonete líquido contendo extrato glicólico de D. mollis (EGD em diferentes concentrações (8, 15 e 20% e em diferentes pHs (6 e 8. Foram preparadas cinco formulações (F de sabonete: F1 - triclosan (0,1%, F2 - EGD (8%, F3 - EGD (15%, F4 - EGD (20% e F5 - sem conservante. Cascas de D. mollis foram secas em estufa de ar circulante e pulverizadas. Os extratos brutos foram preparados por turbo-extração utilizando-se etanol. Após filtração, os extratos foram concentrados em evaporador rotatório, liofilizados e ressuspendidos em propilenoglicol para a obtenção do extrato glicólico. A atividade antibacteriana foi verificada pelo método de difusão em ágar, empregando cilindros em placa. Placas contendo Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Escherichia coli foram incubadas a 37ºC durante 24 horas. Após incubação, as leituras foram realizadas com paquímetro, observando-se o diâmetro do halo de inibição de crescimento bacteriano. Verificouse que o sabonete líquido contendo triclosan provocou inibição do crescimento bacteriano em ambos os pHs; já os sabonetes sem conservante e contendo EGD, independente da concentração e do pH empregados, não apresentaram atividade antibacteriana. Palavras-chave: Atividade antibacteriana. Sabonete líquido. Dimorphandra mollis Benth.

  8. Acute toxicity evaluation of cutting fluids used in manufacturing processes to Poecilia reticulata and Daphnia magna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Gerson Matias

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Grinding operations are very significant among the manufacturing processes of the metal-mechanic industry. In conventional grinding, cutting fluids are of great concern for improving productivity, but also for being hazardous to the environment. In order to contribute to the knowledge of the actual toxic effects of these products in aquatic environments, the present work assesses the toxicity potential through acute toxicity tests of three different kinds of cutting fluids, with three different usage times. The tests were carried out using the fish Poecilia reticulate and the microcrustacean Daphnia magna as test organisms. These tests made it possible to determine the Median Lethal Concentration (LC50 for the fish and the Median Effective Concentration (EC50 for the microcrustacean. The results indicate that, after storage, the toxicity potential of cutting fluids decreases. However, in the three situations investigated, the product presented a high toxicity potential, which reinforces the need of special care in its handling, usage and disposal.

  9. Female mate preference explains countergradient variation in the sexual coloration of guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deere, Kerry A; Grether, Gregory F; Sun, Aida; Sinsheimer, Janet S

    2012-05-07

    We tested the hypothesis that mate choice is responsible for countergradient variation in the sexual coloration of Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata). The nature of the countergradient pattern is that geographical variation in the carotenoid content of the orange spots of males is counterbalanced by genetic variation in drosopterin production, resulting in a relatively uniform pigment ratio. A female hue preference could produce this pattern, because hue is the axis of colour variation most directly affected by the pigment ratio. To test this hypothesis, we crossed two populations differing in drosopterin production and produced an F(2) generation with variable drosopterin levels. When the carotenoid content of the orange spots was held constant, female guppies preferred males with intermediate drosopterin levels. This shows that females do not simply prefer males with greater orange spot pigment content; instead, the ratio of the pigments also affects male attractiveness. To our knowledge, this is the first direct evidence for a hypothesized agent of countergradient sexual selection.

  10. Variation in anti-predator behavior among five strains of inbred guppies, Poecilia reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Bronwyn H; Martell, Christopher M; Brodie, Edmund D

    2006-09-01

    Quantitative genetic studies frequently utilize inbred strains of animals as tools for partitioning the direct and indirect effects of genes from environmental effects in generating an observed phenotype, however, this approach is rarely applied to behavioral studies. Guppies, Poecilia reticulata, perform a set of anti-predator behaviors that may provide an ideal system to study how complex behavioral traits are generated. To assess the utility of ornamental guppies in quantitative genetics studies of behavior, we assayed five morphologically distinct strains of ornamental guppies for response to predator cues and for variation in response among strains. Despite individual variation, all five strains responded to predator cues and differences among strains were found for all assayed behaviors, including measures of boldness and predator avoidance.

  11. Effect of gamma-irradiation on the differential leukocyte count in fish Poecilia reticulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Renčko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the effect of a single gamma-irradiation with a 60Co source at a dose of 20 Gy (1.05 Gy/min on the guppy Poecilia reticulata (females, n = 60, which has not been determined before in this fish. We observed food intake, clinical symptoms, pathological-anatomical and histological changes and differential leukocyte count in the irradiated guppies compared to the control ones. In the first days, timidity and lethargy were observed. The most prominent clinical symptoms observed were exophthalmia, emaciation and intravital haemorrhages. Livers of irradiated guppies were characterized by hepatic steatosis. Leukogram determinations were carried out on days 3, 7, 10, 15, and 20. Relative lymphopaenia was observed in irradiated fish and the mean relative monocyte count in irradiated guppies increased from 8.7 to 20.6 within 3 days. Other important values obtained from the leukogram included relative neutropaenia, eosinopaenia and basopaenia, observed on day 3 after irradiation.

  12. Guppies (Poecilia reticulata) introducing an alien parasite, Camallanus cotti (Nematoda: Camallanidae) to Africa, the first report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakol, Sareh; Halajian, Ali; Smit, Willem J; Hoffman, Andre; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J

    2017-12-01

    Introduced alien fish species and their associated parasites may result in a serious threat to indigenous biodiversity. Furthermore, this may have negative impacts on cultured fish as well as on native parasitic fauna. In the present study, the invasive Asian nematode, Camallanus cotti Fujita, 1927 (Nematoda: Camallanidae), is reported from the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) for the first time in Africa. This parasite is assumed to be introduced into Africa along with the introduction of exotic poeciliid fishes, which are known to be the most common hosts of C. cotti in ornamental fish industry worldwide.The presence of this parasite in both aquarium-cultured fish as well as fish from natural waterbodies is evidence of the introduction of the alien organisms due to insufficient prophylactic veterinary control during transfer of non-native hosts between countries and the spread of them by the anthropogenic introduction to natural systems.

  13. Accumulation of dieldrin in an alga (Scenedesmus obliquus), Daphnia magna, and the guppy (Poecilia reticulata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinert, Robert E.

    1972-01-01

    Scenedesmus obliquus, Daphnia magna, and Poecilia reticulata accumulated dieldrin directly from water; average concentration factors (concentration in organism, dry weight, divided by concentration in water) were 1282 for the alga, 13,954 for D. magna, and 49,307 (estimated) for the guppy. The amount accumulated by each species at equilibrium (after about 1.5, 3-4, and 18 days, respectively) was directly proportional to the concentration of dieldrin in the water. Daphnia magna and guppies accumulated more dieldrin from water than from food that had been exposed to similar concentrations in water. When guppies were fed equal daily rations of D. magna containing different concentrations of insecticide, the amounts of dieldrin accumulated by the fish were directly proportional to the concentration in D. magna; when two lots of guppies were fed different quantities of D. magna (10 and 20 organisms per day) containing identical concentrations of dieldrin, however, the amounts accumulated did not differ substantially.

  14. Juvenile compensatory growth has negative consequences for reproduction in Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Sonya K; Arendt, Jeffrey D; Chandramouli, Radhika; Reznick, David N

    2010-08-01

    Compensatory or 'catch-up' growth may be an adaptive mechanism that buffers the growth trajectory of young organisms from deviations caused by reduced food availability. Theory generally assumes that rapid juvenile compensatory growth impacts reproduction only through its positive effects on age and size at maturation, but potential reproductive costs to juvenile compensatory growth remain virtually unexplored. We used a food manipulation experiment to examine the reproductive consequences of compensatory growth in Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata). Compensatory growth did not affect adult growth rates, litter production rates or investment in offspring size. However, compensatory growth had negative effects on litter size, independent of the effects of female body length, resulting in a 20% decline in offspring production. We discuss potential mechanisms behind this observed cost to reproduction.

  15. Sexual conflict and the function of genitalic claws in guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Lucia; Cheng, Yun Yun; Rodd, F Helen; Rowe, Locke

    2013-10-23

    Poeciliid fish, freshwater fish with internal fertilization, are known for the diversity of structures on the male intromittent organ, the gonopodium. Prominent among these, in some species, is a pair of claws at its tip. We conducted a manipulative study of these claws in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata, to determine if these aid in transferring sperm to resistant females. We compared the sperm transfer rates of clawed versus surgically declawed males attempting to mate with either receptive or unreceptive (i.e. resistant) females. Our analyses demonstrate that the gonopodial claws function to increase sperm transfer to unreceptive females during uncooperative matings but not during receptive matings. Up to threefold more sperm were transferred to unreceptive females by clawed than declawed males. These data suggest that the claw is a sexually antagonistic trait, functioning to aid in transferring sperm to resistant females, and implicate sexual conflict as a selective force in the diversification of the gonopodium in the Poeciliidae.

  16. Environmental and physiological conditions affecting Tetrahymena sp. infection in guppies, Poecilia reticulata Peters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta Leibowitz, M; Ariav, R; Zilberg, D

    2005-09-01

    Parasitic infections caused by Tetrahymena sp. constitute a serious problem in guppies, Poecilia reticulata. Tetrahymena was isolated from skin lesions of naturally infected guppies in a commercial aquaculture farm, cultured in vitro and used in subsequent experimental infections. In addition to guppies, angelfish, Pterophyllum scalare, platyfish, Xiphophorus maculates, and neontetra, Paracheirodon innesi, were susceptible, whereas tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus xO. aureus) was resistant. The ciliate had a high affinity for dead fish. Skin abrasion did not affect the infection, but fish with gas bubble disease exhibited a significantly higher infection than non-affected fish. Infection was significantly higher when fish were exposed to high levels of ammonia, high organic load and low water temperatures. Under shipment conditions, infection was significantly elevated. Full recovery was achieved at a low fish density. Results suggest that poor environmental and physiological conditions enhance infection with Tetrahymena sp.

  17. Anti-Inflammatory Activity and Changes in Antioxidant Properties of Leaf and Stem Extracts from Vitex mollis Kunth during In Vitro Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Alfredo Morales-Del-Rio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitex mollis is used in traditional Mexican medicine for the treatment of some ailments. However, there are no studies on what happens to the anti-inflammatory activity or antioxidant properties and total phenolic content of leaves and stem extracts of Vitex mollis during the digestion process; hence, this is the aim of this work. Methanolic, acetonic, and hexanic extracts were obtained from both parts of the plant. Extract yields and anti-inflammatory activity (elastase inhibition were measured. Additionally, changes in antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS and total phenols content of plant extracts before and after in vitro digestion were determined. The highest elastase inhibition to prevent inflammation was presented by hexanic extracts (leaf = 94.63% and stem = 98.30%. On the other hand, the major extract yield (16.14%, antioxidant properties (ABTS = 98.51% and DPPH = 94.47% of inhibition, and total phenols (33.70 mg GAE/g of dried sample were showed by leaf methanolic extract. Finally, leaf and stem methanolic extracts presented an antioxidant activity increase of 35.25% and 27.22%, respectively, in comparison to their initial values after in vitro digestion process. All samples showed a decrease in total phenols at the end of the digestion. These results could be the basis to search for new therapeutic agents from Vitex mollis.

  18. Biomarkers of waterborne copper exposure in the guppy Poecilia vivipara acclimated to salt water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Anderson Abel de Souza [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Oceanografia Biológica, Av. Itália km 8, 96201-900 Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Hoff, Mariana Leivas Müller [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Av. Itália km 8, 96201-900 Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Klein, Roberta Daniele [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas – Fisiologia Animal Comparada, Av. Itália km 8, 96201-900 Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Cardozo, Janaina Goulart [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Av. Itália km 8, 96201-900 Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Giacomin, Marina Mussoi [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas – Fisiologia Animal Comparada, Av. Itália km 8, 96201-900 Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Pinho, Grasiela Lopes Leães [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Instituto de Oceanografia, Av. Itália km 8, 96201-900 Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); and others

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: •Acute effects of waterborne copper were evaluated in the estuarine guppy Poecilia vivipara. •Fishes were acutely exposed to waterborne copper in salt water. •Waterborne copper affects the response of several biochemical and genetic endpoints. •Catalase, reactive oxygen species, antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation are responsive to copper exposure. •Copper exposure induces DNA damages in fish erythrocytes. -- Abstract: The responses of a large suite of biochemical and genetic parameters were evaluated in tissues (liver, gills, muscle and erythrocytes) of the estuarine guppy Poecilia vivipara exposed to waterborne copper in salt water (salinity 24 ppt). Activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase), metallothionein-like protein concentration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP), and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were evaluated in liver, gills, and muscle. Comet assay score and nuclear abnormalities and micronucleated cell frequency were analyzed in peripheral erythrocytes. The responses of these parameters were evaluated in fish exposed (96 h) to environmentally relevant copper concentrations (5, 9 and 20 μg L{sup −1}). In control and copper-exposed fish, no mortality was observed over the experimental period. Almost all biochemical and genetic parameters proved to be affected by waterborne copper exposure. However, the response of catalase activity in liver, ROS, ACAP and LPO in muscle, gills and liver, and DNA damages in erythrocytes clearly showed to be dependent on copper concentration in salt water. Therefore, the use of these parameters could be of relevance in the scope of biomonitoring programs in salt water environments contaminated with copper.

  19. Influence of Triazine Herbicide Exposure on Guppies (Poecilia sphenops) Aromatase Activities, Altered Sex Steroid Concentration and Vitellogenin Induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasanth, S; Arul, G; Karthikeyeni, S; Kumar, T S V; Vignesh, V; Manimegalai, M; Bupesh, G; Thirumurugan, R; Subramanian, P

    2015-01-01

    Atrazine, a herbicide is one the most toxic and sustaining pollutants in aquatic environment. It is detectable in surface water and in underground sources of drinking water. Many studies indicate that atrazine might be a potent endocrine disrupting xenobiotic. There are limited studies have revealed that the effects of atrazine on sex steroids hormones, vitellogenin and induction of aromatase, gonadosomatic index and hepatosomatic index. In this study, juvenile Poecilia sphenops fish was exposed to three different (0.83, 1.25 and 2.5 ppm) concentration of atrazine for 100 d. Changes in plasma and gonadal content and concentrations of sex steroids and vitellogenin protein in poecilia sphenops under laboratory conditions were assessed. The low level of the atrazine show estrogenic effect in males, as determined by a shortage of testosterone induction. Present study suggests that low induction of plasma vitellogenin and aromatase in male fish become suitable biomarkers of exposure to estrogenic chemicals.

  20. MIOGÊNESE DO TECIDO MUSCULAR BRANQUIAL DO PEIXE EURIALINO Poecilia vivipara (Cyprinodontiformes, Poeciliidae) EXPOSTO À SALINIDADE

    OpenAIRE

    ADRIANA MARIA ANTUNES; THIAGO LOPES ROCHA; JOSÉ OSCAR RODRIGUES MORAIS; SIMONE MARIA TEIXEIRA SABÓIA-MORAIS

    2011-01-01

    The teleost Poecilia vivipara are characterized as euryhaline, in other words, they modulate gill cell behavior to survive in environments with varying salinity. P.vivipara gills have a set of striated skeletal muscles, abductor and adductor muscles, which plays an important role in the respiration process. This study aimed todescribe the morphology of gill muscles during the early stages of development and perform an initial morphological characterization of adults P.vivipara. Moreover, it ...

  1. Genetic variability in three Amazon parrot species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IF. Lopes

    Full Text Available Parrots of the genus Amazona are among the most threatened species of the Order Pscittaciformes. This work describes allozyme polymorphisms in three Amazon parrot species - the Blue-fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva, the Orange-winged Amazon (Amazona amazonica, and the Festive Amazon (Amazona festiva -, and provides useful data for the evaluation of their genetic variability. We electrophoretically analyzed blood samples from 68 wild-caught individuals, maintained in captivity in three Brazilian zoos. Eight of the ten studied enzyme loci exhibited polymorphism. Glucosephosphate isomerase (Gpi proved to be a diagnostic locus for the identification of these Amazon species. The expected average heterozygosity of the Blue-fronted Amazon (0.060 differed significantly from the expected heterozygosities of the Orange-winged Amazon and the Festive Amazon (0.040 and 0.039, respectively. This result was discussed as a consequence of hybridization between two geographic A. aestiva subspecies, and alternatively as a particular trait of this species. Genetic variability of the Blue-fronted Amazon compared to birds in general is not low on a species-wide level, despite the fact that this parrot is one of the most illegally traded species. Allozyme analysis proved to be an useful tool in monitoring the genetic variation within the genus Amazona and can be applied in the management program of other threatened species of this genus.

  2. Genetic variability in three Amazon parrot species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, I F; Del Lama, M A; Del Lama, S N

    2007-12-01

    Parrots of the genus Amazona are among the most threatened species of the Order Pscittaciformes. This work describes allozyme polymorphisms in three Amazon parrot species--the Blue-fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva), the Orange-winged Amazon (Amazona amazonica), and the Festive Amazon (Amazona festiva) -, and provides useful data for the evaluation of their genetic variability. We electrophoretically analyzed blood samples from 68 wild-caught individuals, maintained in captivity in three Brazilian zoos. Eight of the ten studied enzyme loci exhibited polymorphism. Glucosephosphate isomerase (Gpi) proved to be a diagnostic locus for the identification of these Amazon species. The expected average heterozygosity of the Blue-fronted Amazon (0.060) differed significantly from the expected heterozygosities of the Orange-winged Amazon and the Festive Amazon (0.040 and 0.039, respectively). This result was discussed as a consequence of hybridization between two geographic A. aestiva subspecies, and alternatively as a particular trait of this species. Genetic variability of the Blue-fronted Amazon compared to birds in general is not low on a species-wide level, despite the fact that this parrot is one of the most illegally traded species. Allozyme analysis proved to be an useful tool in monitoring the genetic variation within the genus Amazona and can be applied in the management program of other threatened species of this genus.

  3. Red Sea Suberea mollis Sponge Extract Protects against CCl4-Induced Acute Liver Injury in Rats via an Antioxidant Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Aymn T; El-Shitany, Nagla A; Shaala, Lamiaa A; Ali, Soad S; Azhar, Esam I; Abdel-Dayem, Umama A; Youssef, Diaa T A

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that marine sponges and their active constituents exhibited several potential medical applications. This study aimed to evaluate the possible hepatoprotective role as well as the antioxidant effect of the Red Sea Suberea mollis sponge extract (SMSE) on carbon tetrachloride- (CCl4-) induced acute liver injury in rats. In vitro antioxidant activity of SMSE was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) assay. Rats were orally administered three different concentrations (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) of SMSE and silymarin (100 mg/kg) along with CCl4 (1 mL/kg, i.p., every 72 hr) for 14 days. Plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and total bilirubin were measured. Hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), nitric oxide (NO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) were also measured. Liver specimens were histopathologically examined. SMSE showed strong scavenging activity against free radicals in DPPH assay. SMSE significantly reduced liver enzyme activities. Moreover, SMSE significantly reduced hepatic MDA formation. In addition, SMSE restored GSH, NO, SOD, GPx, and CAT. The histopathological results confirmed these findings. The results of this study suggested a potent protective effect of the SMSE against CCl4-induced hepatic injury. This may be due to its antioxidant and radical scavenging activity.

  4. Red Sea Suberea mollis Sponge Extract Protects against CCl4-Induced Acute Liver Injury in Rats via an Antioxidant Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aymn T. Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated that marine sponges and their active constituents exhibited several potential medical applications. This study aimed to evaluate the possible hepatoprotective role as well as the antioxidant effect of the Red Sea Suberea mollis sponge extract (SMSE on carbon tetrachloride- (CCl4- induced acute liver injury in rats. In vitro antioxidant activity of SMSE was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH assay. Rats were orally administered three different concentrations (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of SMSE and silymarin (100 mg/kg along with CCl4 (1 mL/kg, i.p., every 72 hr for 14 days. Plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and total bilirubin were measured. Hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA, reduced glutathione (GSH, nitric oxide (NO, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and catalase (CAT were also measured. Liver specimens were histopathologically examined. SMSE showed strong scavenging activity against free radicals in DPPH assay. SMSE significantly reduced liver enzyme activities. Moreover, SMSE significantly reduced hepatic MDA formation. In addition, SMSE restored GSH, NO, SOD, GPx, and CAT. The histopathological results confirmed these findings. The results of this study suggested a potent protective effect of the SMSE against CCl4-induced hepatic injury. This may be due to its antioxidant and radical scavenging activity.

  5. Encapsulation into Stealth Liposomes Enhances the Antitumor Action of Recombinant Cratylia mollis Lectin Expressed in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha, Cássia R. A.; da Silva, Luís C. N.; Almeida, Fábio J. F.; Ferraz, Milena S.; Varejão, Nathalia; Cartaxo, Marina F. de Souza; de Miranda, Rita de Cássia M.; de Aguiar, Francisco C. A.; Santos, Noemia P. da Silva; Coelho, Luana C. B. B.; Santos-Magalhães, Nereide S.; Correia, Maria T. dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the in vivo antitumor potential of the recombinant lectin from seeds of Cratylia mollis (rCramoll) expressed in Escherichia coli, free or encapsulated in stealth liposomes, using mice transplanted with sarcoma 180. rCramoll-loaded stealth liposomes (rCramoll-lipo) were formulated by hydration of the lipid film followed by cycles of freezing and thawing, and about 60% of rCramoll was encapsulated. This novel preparation showed particle size, polydispersity index, and pH suitable for the evaluation of antitumor activity in vivo. Tumor growth inhibition rates were 59% for rCramoll and 75% for rCramoll-lipo. Histopathological analysis of the experimental groups showed that both free and encapsulated lectin caused no changes in the kidneys of animals. Hematological analysis revealed that treatment with rCramoll-lipo significantly increased leukocyte concentration when compared with the untreated and rCramoll group. In conclusion, the encapsulation of rCramoll in stealth liposomes improves its antitumor activity without substantial toxicity; this approach was more successful than the previous results reported for pCramoll loaded into conventional liposomes. At this point, a crucial difference between the antitumor action of free and encapsulated rCramoll was found along with their effects on immune cells. Further investigations are required to elucidate the mechanism(s) of the antitumor effect induced by rCramoll. PMID:27695439

  6. Ecohydrology of a Dammed Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpe, K. A.; Kaplan, D. A.

    2016-12-01

    The Amazon River watershed is the world's largest river basin and provides >US$30 billion/yr in ecosystem services to local populations, national societies and humanity at large. Construction of >30 large hydroelectric dams and >170 small dams in the Brazilian Amazon is currently underway as a result of governmental plans geared toward increased energy security, economic growth, improved living standards and industrialization. Changes in the Amazon's freshwater ecosystems from the development of hydropower will have a cascade of physical, ecological, and social effects at local to global scales. Here we demonstrate the extensive and large-scale effects of hydroelectric dams in the Amazon region on hydrologic parameters calculated using the Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (IHA) method applied to 33 small and large dams in the Brazilian Amazon. Our analysis provides the first holistic assessment of hydrological alterations (HA) caused by Amazonian dams and offers insight on the primary physical and management drivers of dam impacts. Across sites, results show that dams have affected all ecologically important flow characteristics (i.e., magnitude, duration, timing, frequency and rate of change of pulse events). While each dam/river system are unique, some dams cause substantially greater HA. The "worst" dams were Balbina (HA=108%), Manso (HA=62%), and Serra da Mesa (HA=48%). All three are "large" dams with substantial reservoirs, however Serra da Mesa produces 6 times more electricity than either Balbina or Manso, with lower impact. The most dramatic dam-induced shifts in hydrologic regime were related to the frequency/duration and frequency/rate of change of pulse events. HA on rivers with multiple dams was only 8% higher than those with individual dams. Dam elevation and reservoir area were the best environmental predictors of HA. Results suggest that hydrological impacts from dams are similar among temperate and tropical climates (i.e., peak flows are often

  7. Rethinking the strategy of Amazon.com

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heng, Michael S.H.

    2001-01-01

    The strategic challenge facing Amazon.com is that it is not able to convincethe investment community that it is able to generate profits in the long run. The doubtof investors is well grounded. This paper argues that Amazon should make a strategicshift to operate as a provider of technical services

  8. Selective logging in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. P. Asner; D. E. Knapp; E. N. Broadbent; P. J. C. Oliveira; M Keller; J. N. Silva

    2005-01-01

    Amazon deforestation has been measured by remote sensing for three decades. In comparison, selective logging has been mostly invisible to satellites. We developed a large-scale, high-resolution, automated remote-sensing analysis of selective logging in the top five timber-producing states of the Brazilian Amazon. Logged areas ranged from 12,075 to 19,823 square...

  9. Deforestation effects on Amazon forest resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemp, D. C.; Schleussner, C.-F.; Barbosa, H. M. J.; Rammig, A.

    2017-06-01

    Through vegetation-atmosphere feedbacks, rainfall reductions as a result of Amazon deforestation could reduce the resilience on the remaining forest to perturbations and potentially lead to large-scale Amazon forest loss. We track observation-based water fluxes from sources (evapotranspiration) to sinks (rainfall) to assess the effect of deforestation on continental rainfall. By studying 21st century deforestation scenarios, we show that deforestation can reduce dry season rainfall by up to 20% far from the deforested area, namely, over the western Amazon basin and the La Plata basin. As a consequence, forest resilience is systematically eroded in the southwestern region covering a quarter of the current Amazon forest. Our findings suggest that the climatological effects of deforestation can lead to permanent forest loss in this region. We identify hot spot regions where forest loss should be avoided to maintain the ecological integrity of the Amazon forest.

  10. An Atlantic influence on Amazon rainfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jin-Ho [University of Maryland, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, College Park, MD (United States); Zeng, Ning [University of Maryland, Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, College Park, MD (United States); University of Maryland, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, College Park, MD (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Rainfall variability over the Amazon basin has often been linked to variations in Pacific sea surface temperature (SST), and in particular, to the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). However, only a fraction of Amazon rainfall variability can be explained by ENSO. Building upon the recent work of Zeng (Environ Res Lett 3:014002, 2008), here we provide further evidence for an influence on Amazon rainfall from the tropical Atlantic Ocean. The strength of the North Atlantic influence is found to be comparable to the better-known Pacific ENSO connection. The tropical South Atlantic Ocean also shows some influence during the wet-to-dry season transition period. The Atlantic influence is through changes in the north-south divergent circulation and the movement of the ITCZ following warm SST. Therefore, it is strongest in the southern part of the Amazon basin during the Amazon's dry season (July-October). In contrast, the ENSO related teleconnection is through anomalous east-west Walker circulation with largely concentrated in the eastern (lower) Amazon. This ENSO connection is seasonally locked to boreal winter. A complication due to the influence of ENSO on Atlantic SST causes an apparent North Atlantic SST lag of Amazon rainfall. Removing ENSO from North Atlantic SST via linear regression resolves this causality problem in that the residual Atlantic variability correlates well and is in phase with the Amazon rainfall. A strong Atlantic influence during boreal summer and autumn is particularly significant in terms of the impact on the hydro-ecosystem which is most vulnerable during the dry season, as highlighted by the severe 2005 Amazon drought. Such findings have implications for both seasonal-interannual climate prediction and understanding the longer-term changes of the Amazon rainforest. (orig.)

  11. Aspects of reproductive ecology and benthic-pelagic coupling in the sub-antarctic sea cucumber Pseudostichopus mollis (Theel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Andrew; Neal, Lance

    2012-07-01

    For deeper regions of the continental shelf environmental cues entraining reproduction in echinoderms are often absent, which contributes to adoption of continuous reproduction, having larger eggs, and a lecithotrophic mode of larval development. In the present study the sub-Antarctic sea cucumber Pseudostichopus mollis from the family Synallactidae was obtained during June (winter) and September (spring) from a depth of approximately 300 m north of the Auckland Islands in an area abundant in biogenic sediments. Samples were processed for body indices and gonad development. Features characteristic of non-continuous reproduction were exhibited. Although a larger egg size was found (212±14 μm), two distinct winter cohorts of oocytes occurred (41-81 and 161-201 μm) and body wall weight fluctuations (7.6% increase in males and 27.5% reduction in females) coincided with changes in gonad indices between sample dates. For males gonad as a proportion of body wall weight decreased from 3.31±0.9 to 2.11±0.37% and for females it increased from 1.59±0.28 to 2.5±0.30%. For both sample dates the gonad of males maintained mature spermatozoa whereas female gonad shifted from mainly recovery and growth of oocytes to growth and advanced growth of mature oocytes. In habitats with low or variable food availability intermittent reproduction is predicted as resources are too low for a high reproductive effort and too erratic for synchrony. A pattern of reproduction where fluctuations in seasonal organic input into an accumulated benthic food source initiates and synchronises gametogenesis for future spawning is proposed.

  12. Getting started With Amazon Redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Getting Started With Amazon Redshift is a step-by-step, practical guide to the world of Redshift. Learn to load, manage, and query data on Redshift.This book is for CIOs, enterprise architects, developers, and anyone else who needs to get familiar with RedShift. The CIO will gain an understanding of what their technical staff is working on; the technical implementation personnel will get an in-depth view of the technology, and what it will take to implement their own solutions.

  13. The Genome of the Trinidadian Guppy, Poecilia reticulata, and Variation in the Guanapo Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Künstner

    Full Text Available For over a century, the live bearing guppy, Poecilia reticulata, has been used to study sexual selection as well as local adaptation. Natural guppy populations differ in many traits that are of intuitively adaptive significance such as ornamentation, age at maturity, brood size and body shape. Water depth, light supply, food resources and predation regime shape these traits, and barrier waterfalls often separate contrasting environments in the same river. We have assembled and annotated the genome of an inbred single female from a high-predation site in the Guanapo drainage. The final assembly comprises 731.6 Mb with a scaffold N50 of 5.3 MB. Scaffolds were mapped to linkage groups, placing 95% of the genome assembly on the 22 autosomes and the X-chromosome. To investigate genetic variation in the population used for the genome assembly, we sequenced 10 wild caught male individuals. The identified 5 million SNPs correspond to an average nucleotide diversity (π of 0.0025. The genome assembly and SNP map provide a rich resource for investigating adaptation to different predation regimes. In addition, comparisons with the genomes of other Poeciliid species, which differ greatly in mechanisms of sex determination and maternal resource allocation, as well as comparisons to other teleost genera can begin to reveal how live bearing evolved in teleost fish.

  14. Investigation of LC50, NOEC and LOEC of Glyphosate, Deltamethrin and Pretilachlor in Guppies (Poecilia Reticulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sadeghi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of pesticides is very prevalent in surface waters of Iran. These toxic substances may accumulate in the food chain and cause serious ecological and health problems. The aim of this study was to determine the acute toxicity of glyphosate, deltamethrin and pretilachlor as potential dangerous organic pesticides to assess lethal effects of these chemicals agents to the Guppy (Poecilia reticulata. Methods: Fish samples were exposed to different concentrations of glyphosate (41% (0, 2, 5, 10, 15 and 25 ppm, deltamethrin (2.5% (0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.04, 0.10 and 0.30 ppm and pretilachlor (50% (0, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 ppm for 96 h and cumulative mortality of the guppies was calculated with 24 h intervals. Results: LC50-96h was 12.01±1.00, 0.08±0.47 and 8.24±0.42 for glyphosate, deltamethrin and pretilachlor respectively. The very low LC50 obtained for glyphosate (12.01±1.00 ppm, deltamethrin (0.08±0.47 ppm and pretilachlor (8.24±0.42 ppm indicate that glyphosate, deltamethrin and pretilachlor are highly toxic to guppies. Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that deltamethrin and glyphosate had the lowest and highest rate of mortality on the guppy respectively.

  15. Experimental study to evaluate the pathogenicity of Streptococcus iniae in Guppy (Poecilia reticulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Adel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus iniae has emerged as an important fish pathogen over the last decade in farmed rainbow trout in Iran. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the pathogenicity of S. iniae in Poecilia reticulata. Atotal of 60 apparently healthy P. reticulata were obtained from ornamental fish pet store and injected intraperitoneally with 1.5×106 cfu of bacteria. For 14 days after challenge, the rate of mortality and clinical signs were recorded. The first clinical signs was observed in challenged fish 48 hrs after injection of S. iniae and first mortality was observed 72 hrs after injection. No significant differences in mortality and clinical signs between both sexes were observed. Streptococcus iniae was collected from internal organs of fishes challenged, and was confirmed using the conventional biochemical tests and PCR. It is concluded that, P. reticulata is susceptible to streptococcosis and can play an important role in transmission of the disease to other ornamental fish species and also cultured fish.

  16. The MC1R gene in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata: Genotypic and phenotypic polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokoyama Jun

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The guppy (Poecilia reticulata is an important model organism for studying sexual selection; male guppies have complex and conspicuous pigmentation, and female guppies exhibit preferences for males with specific color spots. Understanding the genetic basis underlying pigmentation variation in the guppy is important for exploring the factors causing the maintenance of color polymorphism in wild populations. Findings We focused on the melanic black pigmentation of guppies, and examined genetic variations in the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R gene because variation in this gene is known to contribute to polymorphism of melanin pigmentation in several animal species. The complete coding sequence of the guppy MC1R gene was determined, and two different MC1R alleles (963 and 969 bp were found in wild populations. Ornamental strain guppies with a 963-bp MC1R tended to show less black pigmentation than those with a 969-bp MC1R, although the association between MC1R genotype and black pigmentation disappeared in the F2 offspring. Conclusions The guppy MC1R gene showed variation in the five wild Trinidadian populations we examined, and these populations also differed in terms of allele frequencies. We identified a significant association between black pigmentation and MC1R genotype in fish obtained from aquarium shops. However, the results from F2 families suggest that there are other genes that modify the effects of the MC1R gene.

  17. Direct and indirect ecosystem effects of evolutionary adaptation in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassar, Ronald D; Ferriere, Regis; López-Sepulcre, Andrés; Marshall, Michael C; Travis, Joseph; Pringle, Catherine M; Reznick, David N

    2012-08-01

    Ecological and evolutionary processes may interact on the same timescale, but we are just beginning to understand how. Several studies have examined the net effects of adaptive evolution on ecosystem properties. However, we do not know whether these effects are confined to direct interactions or whether they propagate further through indirect ecological pathways. Even less well understood is how the combination of direct and indirect ecological effects of the phenotype promotes or inhibits evolutionary change. We coupled mesocosm experiments and ecosystem modeling to evaluate the ecological effects of local adaptation in Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata). The experiments show that guppies adapted to life with and without predators alter the ecosystem directly through differences in diet. The ecosystem model reveals that the small total indirect effect of the phenotype observed in the experiments is likely a combination of several large indirect effects that act in opposing directions. The model further suggests that these indirect effects can reverse the direction of selection that direct effects alone exert back on phenotypic variation. We conclude that phenotypic divergence can have major effects deep in the web of indirect ecological interactions and that even small total indirect effects can radically change the dynamics of adaptation.

  18. Brain size affects the behavioural response to predators in female guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Bijl, Wouter; Thyselius, Malin; Kotrschal, Alexander; Kolm, Niclas

    2015-08-07

    Large brains are thought to result from selection for cognitive benefits, but how enhanced cognition leads to increased fitness remains poorly understood. One explanation is that increased cognitive ability results in improved monitoring and assessment of predator threats. Here, we use male and female guppies (Poecilia reticulata), artificially selected for large and small brain size, to provide an experimental evaluation of this hypothesis. We examined their behavioural response as singletons, pairs or shoals of four towards a model predator. Large-brained females, but not males, spent less time performing predator inspections, an inherently risky behaviour. Video analysis revealed that large-brained females were further away from the model predator when in pairs but that they habituated quickly towards the model when in shoals of four. Males stayed further away from the predator model than females but again we found no brain size effect in males. We conclude that differences in brain size affect the female predator response. Large-brained females might be able to assess risk better or need less sensory information to reach an accurate conclusion. Our results provide experimental support for the general idea that predation pressure is likely to be important for the evolution of brain size in prey species. © 2015 The Authors.

  19. Histopathological changes in Poecilia latipinna male gonad due to Tribulus terrestris administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, P; Ramesh, R; Subramanian, P

    2012-05-01

    Tribulus terrestris is a traditionally known non-toxic aphrodisiac herb for maleness. It was experimented recently to understand the effect and mechanism on mono sex production in Poecilia latipinna. It would help to develop a new eco-friendly way to masculinize P. latipinna, since males have higher commercial value than females. The different concentration (100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 mg/L) of T. terrestris extract and a control were tested for their effect on sex transformation/reversal in P. latipinna by immersing the newly born young ones in the respective concentrations for 2 mo. The obtained results indicate that a dose dependant masculinization is obtained due to T. terrestris administration, which improved the male proportion. Histological results revealed that the testes of fish treated with T. terrestris extract contained all stages of spermatogenesis, clearly demonstrating that the administration of T. terrestris extract to P. latipinna stimulated spermatogenesis. Thus, it is discernible that 0-d-old hatchlings of P. latipinna exposed to T. terrestris extract orient/reverse their sex more towards maleness besides yielding better growth and spermatogenesis which is a mandate for fancy fish industry.

  20. Effect of nonylphenol on plasma vitellogenin of male adult guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei-Hui; Wang, Zhen-Rui

    2005-02-01

    Adult male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) were exposed to 4-nonylphenol (NP) at nominal concentrations of 10, 60, and 150 microg/L for 7, 14, or 21 days. Significant induction of vitellogenin (VTG) was found in male guppies exposed to 1 microg/L of 17beta-estradiol and 60 or 150 microg/L of NP after 7, 14, or 21 days. Maximum induction was seen after 14 days of treatment at these concentrations. On the other hand, significant induction of VTG in male guppies exposed to 10 microg/L of NP was observed only after 21 days of treatment. A time-dependent tendency of reduction of the gonadosomatic index (GSI) in male guppies treated with 17beta-estradiol or NP was observed, but no corresponding concentration-dependent tendency was detected. There were also no differences in the liver somatic index (LSI) of male fish treated with various concentrations of NP during the above-mentioned exposure periods. Preliminary data presented in this study strongly suggests that measurement of plasma VTG induction in male guppies is a suitable and rather sensitive indicator of exposure to estrogenic chemicals. (c) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Sexual characteristics of male guppies Poecilia reticulata serve as effect biomarkers of estrogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hua; Li, Yun; Wang, Wei; Zhao, Fei; Gao, Su; Ru, Shaoguo

    2017-10-01

    Guppies (Poecilia reticulata) are considered a candidate model species for the identification and testing of endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Male guppies may be used to address the challenge of making potential linkages between alterations of biomarkers, both at the cellular and organ level, and adverse outcomes. In the present study, a predictive relationship between sex characteristics and reproductive output was observed in male guppies that underwent a long-term toxicity test with 0.5 μg/L 17β-estradiol administered during the juvenile period. Radioimmunoassay and western blot analyses demonstrated that 17β-estradiol exposure caused a significant increase in testicular 17β-estradiol levels as well as the induction of exposure biomarkers, namely hepatic vitellogenin. Exposure to 17β-estradiol also caused a significant decrease in testosterone levels, which consequently reduced the gonadosomatic index, sperm counts, and the coloration index. These changes of male sexual characteristics further translated into adverse influences on reproduction, as measured by a decrease in off spring production and survival rate. Our results suggest that the above-mentioned sexual characteristics of male guppies may be considered potential in vivo biomarkers of estrogen effects on reproduction.

  2. The effects of inbreeding on disease susceptibility: Gyrodactylus turnbulli infection of guppies, Poecilia reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallbone, Willow; van Oosterhout, Cock; Cable, Jo

    2016-08-01

    Inbreeding can threaten population persistence by reducing disease resistance through the accelerated loss of gene diversity (i.e. heterozygosity). Such inbreeding depression can affect many different fitness-related traits, including survival, reproductive success, and parasite susceptibility. Empirically quantifying the effects of inbreeding on parasite resistance is therefore important for ex-situ conservation of vertebrates. The present study evaluates the disease susceptibility of individuals bred under three different breeding regimes (inbred, crossed with full siblings; control, randomly crossed mating; and fully outbred). Specifically, we examined the relationship between inbreeding coefficient (F-coefficient) and susceptibility to Gyrodactylus turnbulli infection in a live bearing vertebrate, the guppy Poecilia reticulata. Host-breeding regime significantly affected the trajectories of parasite population growth on individual fish. Inbred fish showed significantly higher mean parasite intensity than fish from the control and outbred breeding regimes, and in addition, inbred fish were slower in purging their gyrodactylid infections. We discuss the role of inbreeding on the various arms of the immune system, and argue that the increased disease susceptibility of inbred individuals could contribute to the extinction vortex. This is one of the first studies to quantify the effects of inbreeding and breeding regime on disease susceptibility in a captive bred vertebrate of wild origin, and it highlights the risks faced by small (captive-bred) populations when exposed to their native parasites. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Efficacy of commercially available products against Gyrodactylus turnbulli infections on guppies Poecilia reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelkle, Bettina; Snellgrove, Donna; Jones, Lewis L; Cable, Jo

    2015-07-23

    The demand for ornamental fish has led to a steep rise in aquaculture for the hobbyist trade, promoting the emergence, persistence and spread of various infectious diseases. Complete control of disease outbreaks with antibiotics and chemical-based medicines is rare, but plant compounds may herald potential alternatives effective against a range of pathogens. Melafix® and Pimafix® are formulated with the essential oils cajuput (Melaleuca cajuputi) and West Indian bay (Pimenta racemosa) and are marketed against bacterial and fungal infections, respectively. Previous experiments showed high efficacy of emulsified cajuput oil against gyrodactylids; the current study tested Melafix® and Pimafix® and their individual compounds against Gyrodactylus turnbulli infecting the guppies Poecilia reticulata. In particular, a combination treatment of Melafix® and Pimafix® was highly effective at reducing in vitro survival of parasites from 15 to 2 h and eradicating 95% of gyrodactylids in vivo. The unexpected high efficacy of this combination treatment is likely explained by the high content of terpenes and phenol propanoids in the cajuput and West Indian bay oils, as well as the anti-helminthic properties of the emulsifier Crovol PK 70. Hence, Melafix® and Pimafix® effectively reduce gyrodactylid burdens on fish, increasing the chances of efficient disease control in ornamental fish.

  4. The effects of different predator species on antipredator behavior in the Trinidadian guppy, Poecilia reticulata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botham, M. S.; Kerfoot, C. J.; Louca, V.; Krause, J.

    2006-09-01

    Different types of predators often elicit different antipredator responses in a common type of prey. Alternatively, some prey species may adopt a general response, which provides limited protection from many different types of predator. The Trinidadian guppy, Poecilia reticulata, is faced with a wide range of different predators throughout its range and is known to display varying levels of antipredator behavior depending on the predator assemblage. Pike cichlids, Crenicichla frenata, are regarded as the primary aquatic guppy predator in streams in the northern mountain range in Trinidad. As such, they are seen to be responsible for many of the differences in morphology, life history traits, and behavior between guppy populations from areas with few predators and those from areas with many pike cichlids. In this study we investigated how guppies responded when faced with different predator species using three common aquatic predators. We exposed shoals of ten guppies to one out of four treatments: no predator (control), pike cichlid, acara cichlid ( Aequidens pulcher), and wolf fish ( Hoplias malabaricus); and we made behavioral observations on both focal individuals and the shoal as a whole. Guppies showed significantly greater levels of predator inspection and shoaling behavior, foraged less, spent more time in the surface water, and stayed in significantly larger shoals when faced with pike cichlids than in other treatments. We discuss these results in the context of multiple predator effects.

  5. Selection by parasites in spate conditions in wild Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oosterhout, C; Mohammed, R S; Hansen, H; Archard, G A; McMullan, M; Weese, D J; Cable, J

    2007-06-01

    Gyrodactylids are ubiquitous fish parasites and yet, with the notable exception of Gyrodactylus salaris, few studies have reported the effect of these parasites on host survival in natural populations. Here, we assess the impact of the parasite load of gyrodactylids (G. turnbulli and G. bullatarudis) on the survival and migration of guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in their natural habitat of the Aripo River in Trinidad. The recapture rate of males declined by 19% with every additional parasite, a remarkably high figure given that the parasite load in this study ranged from zero to 20 worms. In addition, with an increased number of parasites, males were more prone to be recovered downstream. In contrast, no effect of parasitism was observed in females. The mean parasite load sharply declined after a series of flushing events during heavy seasonal downpours. The parasite load varied significantly between fish depending on their location in the river, and the size of the fish explained variation in parasite load between individuals. The present study indicates that tropical gyrodactylid parasites can play an important role in the ecology of natural fish populations, causing intense bouts of natural selection in guppies during heavy rains in the wet season.

  6. Impacts of the antidepressant fluoxetine on the anti-predator behaviours of wild guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saaristo, Minna; McLennan, Alisha; Johnstone, Christopher P; Clarke, Bradley O; Wong, Bob B M

    2017-02-01

    Chemical pollution from pharmaceuticals is increasingly recognised as a major threat to aquatic communities. One compound of great concern is fluoxetine, which is one of the most widely prescribed psychoactive drugs in the world and frequently detected in the environment. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 28-d fluoxetine exposure at two environmentally relevant levels (measured concentrations: 4ng/L and 16ng/L) on anti-predator behaviour in wild guppies (Poecilia reticulata). This was achieved by subjecting fluoxetine-exposed and unexposed guppies to a simulated bird strike and recording their subsequent behavioural responses. We found that exposure to fluoxetine affected the anti-predator behaviour of guppies, with exposed fish remaining stationary for longer (i.e. 'freezing' behaviour) after the simulated strike and also spending more time under plant cover. By contrast, control fish were significantly more active and explored the tank more, as indicated by the distance covered per minute over the period fish spent swimming. Furthermore, behavioural shifts were sex-dependent, with evidence of a non-monotonic dose-response among the fluoxetine-exposed fish. This is one of the first studies to show that exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of fluoxetine can alter the anti-predator behaviour of adult fish. In addition to the obvious repercussions for survival, impaired anti-predator behaviour can have direct impacts on fitness and influence the overall population dynamics of species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Brain size does not impact shoaling dynamics in unfamiliar groups of guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrschal, Alexander; Szorkovszky, Alexander; Romenskyy, Maksym; Perna, Andrea; Buechel, Severine D; Zeng, Hong-Li; Pelckmans, Kristiaan; Sumpter, David; Kolm, Niclas

    2018-02-01

    Collective movement is achieved when individuals adopt local rules to interact with their neighbours. How the brain processes information about neighbours' positions and movements may affect how individuals interact in groups. As brain size can determine such information processing it should impact collective animal movement. Here we investigate whether brain size affects the structure and organisation of newly forming fish shoals by quantifying the collective movement of guppies (Poecilia reticulata) from large- and small-brained selection lines, with known differences in learning and memory. We used automated tracking software to determine shoaling behaviour of single-sex groups of eight or two fish and found no evidence that brain size affected the speed, group size, or spatial and directional organisation of fish shoals. Our results suggest that brain size does not play an important role in how fish interact with each other in these types of moving groups of unfamiliar individuals. Based on these results, we propose that shoal dynamics are likely to be governed by relatively basic cognitive processes that do not differ in these brain size selected lines of guppies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Countergradient variation in the sexual coloration of guppies (Poecilia reticulata): drosopterin synthesis balances carotenoid availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grether, Gregory F; Cummings, Molly E; Hudon, Jocelyn

    2005-01-01

    Trinidad guppies (Poecilia reticulata) are distributed along an environmental gradient in carotenoid availability that limits the carotenoid content of the orange spots of males. The amount of synthetic red pteridines (drosopterins) in the orange spots covaries with the carotenoid content, such that the ratio of the two types of pigments is roughly conserved across streams. Carotenoids and drosopterins have different spectral properties and thus the ratio of the two types of pigments affects the shape of the orange spot reflectance spectrum. Geographic conservation of the carotenoid:drosopterin ratio suggests that males may be under selection to maintain a particular hue. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the pigmentation and coloration of guppies from six streams in the field to that of second-generation descendants of the same populations raised on three dietary carotenoid levels in the laboratory. The results show clearly that the geographic variation in drosopterin production is largely genetic and that the hue of the orange spots is conserved among populations in the field, relative to the laboratory diet groups. This is a countergradient pattern because genetic differences between populations in drosopterin production mask the effect of carotenoid availability on the hue of the orange spots. The potential for countergradient sexual selection to contribute to reproductive isolation between populations is discussed.

  9. Proteomic and histopathological response in the gills of Poecilia reticulata exposed to glyphosate-based herbicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Thiago Lopes; Santos, Ana Paula Rezende Dos; Yamada, Áureo Tatsumi; Soares, Célia Maria de Almeida; Borges, Clayton Luiz; Bailão, Alexandre Melo; Sabóia-Morais, Simone Maria Teixeira

    2015-07-01

    Glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH) are one of the most used herbicide nowadays, whilst there is growing concern over their impact on aquatic environment. Since data about the early proteomic response and toxic mechanisms of GBH in fish is very limited, the aim of this study was to investigate the early toxicity of GBH in the gills of guppies Poecilia reticulata using a proteomic approach associated with histopathological index. Median lethal concentration (LC50,96 h) was determined and LC50,96h values of guppies exposed to GBH were 3.6 ± 0.4 mg GLIL(-1). Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis associated with mass spectrometry, 14 proteins regulated by GBH were identified, which are involved in different cell processes, as energy metabolism, regulation and maintenance of cytoskeleton, nucleic acid metabolism and stress response. Guppies exposed to GBH at 1.82 mg GLIL(-1) showed time-dependent histopathological response in different epithelial and muscle cell types. The histopathological indexes indicate that GBH cause regressive, vascular and progressive disorders in the gills of guppies. This study helped to unravel the molecular and tissue mechanisms associated with GBH toxicity, which are potential biomarkers for biomonitoring water pollution by herbicides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Parasites pitched against nature: Pitch Lake water protects guppies (Poecilia reticulata) from microbial and gyrodactylid infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelkle, Bettina; Mohammed, Ryan S; Coogan, Michael P; McMullan, Mark; Gillingham, Emma L; VAN Oosterhout, Cock; Cable, Joanne

    2012-11-01

    SUMMARY The enemy release hypothesis proposes that in parasite depleted habitats, populations will experience relaxed selection and become more susceptible (or less tolerant) to pathogenic infections. Here, we focus on a population of guppies (Poecilia reticulata) that are found in an extreme environment (the Pitch Lake, Trinidad) and examine whether this habitat represents a refuge from parasites. We investigated the efficacy of pitch in preventing microbial infections in Pitch Lake guppies, by exposing them to dechlorinated water, and reducing gyrodactylid infections on non-Pitch Lake guppies by transferring them to Pitch Lake water. We show that (i) natural prevalence of ectoparasites in the Pitch Lake is low compared to reference populations, (ii) Pitch Lake guppies transferred into aquarium water develop microbial infections, and (iii) experimentally infected guppies are cured of their gyrodactylid infections both by natural Pitch Lake water and by dechlorinated water containing solid pitch. These results indicate a role for Pitch Lake water in the defence of guppies from their parasites and suggest that Pitch Lake guppies might have undergone enemy release in this extreme environment. The Pitch Lake provides an ideal ecosystem for studies on immune gene evolution in the absence of parasites and long-term evolutionary implications of hydrocarbon pollution for vertebrates.

  11. Combined effects of flow condition and parasitism on shoaling behaviour of female guppiesPoecilia reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockley, F A; Wilson, C A M E; Graham, N; Cable, J

    2014-01-01

    Group living in fish can provide benefits of protection from predators and some parasites, more efficient foraging for food, increased mating opportunities and enhanced energetic benefit when swimming. For riverine species, shoaling behaviour can be influenced by various environmental stressors, yet little is known how flow rate might influence the shoaling of diseased fish shoals. In view of the increasingly unpredictable flow rates in streams and rivers, this study aimed to assess the combined effect of flow condition and parasitism on the shoaling behaviour of a model fish species. Shoal size, shoal cohesion and time spent shoaling of female guppies Poecilia reticulata were compared when infected with the directly transmitted ectoparasite Gyrodactylus turnbulli under flow and static conditions. Flow condition was an important factor in influencing shoaling behaviour of guppies with the fish forming larger shoals in the absence of flow. When a shoal member was infected with G. turnbulli , shoal cohesion was reduced, but the magnitude of this effect was dependent on flow condition. In both flow and static conditions, bigger fish formed larger shoals than smaller counterparts. Future changes to stream hydrology with more frequent flooding and drought events will affect the shoaling tendency of fish. During high-flow events, diseased fish may not be able to keep up with shoal mates and therefore have a higher risk of predation. Additionally, these findings may be important for aquaria and farmed species where an increase in flow rate may reduce aggregation in fish.

  12. How many more dams in the Amazon?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tundisi, J.G.; Goldemberg, J.; Matsumura-Tundisi, T.; Saraiva, A.C.F.

    2014-01-01

    The Amazon watershed harbors a megadiversity of terrestrial and aquatic plants and animals. Mechanisms that sustain this biodiversity are the water level fluctuations the fluvial dynamics and the intense gene flux due to permanent integration of climatological, geomorphological and biological components of the system. The construction of hydroelectric reservoirs to support economic development of Brazil and other countries that share the Amazon basin will interfere with the ecological dynamics of this ecosystem changing the hydrological, hydrosocial and fundamental processes. Furthermore the construction of Andean reservoirs can disrupt the connectivity with the lower Amazon ecosystem. Principles of ecohydrologies, ecological engineering and preservation of key river basins, have to be applied in order to optimize energy production and promote conservation practices. Long term planning and integration of countries that share the Amazon basin is a strategic decision to control and develop the hydropower exploitation in the region. - Highlights: • The Amazon basin is an ecosystem of megadiversity. • The demand for energy threatens this ecosystem. • Climate, water, forests and floodplain interacts in the Amazon basin. • Dams in the Amazon basin will impact the hydrological and biological systems. • Ecohydrological principles and ecological engineering technology are necessary

  13. Composición química y actividad antimicrobiana del aceite esencial de Plectranthus mollis (Lamiaceae) de la región de los Ghats occidentales, Karnataka, India

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Rajesh K.

    2014-01-01

    Plectranthus es un género grande y extenso con una diversidad de usos etnobotánicos. En la medicina tradicional P. mollis se ha utilizado contra las mordeduras de serpiente, como estimulante respiratorio y vasoconstrictor, depresor cardiaco, cura para hemorragias, tratamiento del retraso mental y el reumatismo. Se informó que P. mollis presenta actividad relajante sobre los músculos lisos y esqueléticos, y tiene actividad promotora citotóxica y anti - tumoral, además puede ser utilizado en el...

  14. Damming the rivers of the Amazon basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latrubesse, Edgardo M; Arima, Eugenio Y; Dunne, Thomas; Park, Edward; Baker, Victor R; d'Horta, Fernando M; Wight, Charles; Wittmann, Florian; Zuanon, Jansen; Baker, Paul A; Ribas, Camila C; Norgaard, Richard B; Filizola, Naziano; Ansar, Atif; Flyvbjerg, Bent; Stevaux, Jose C

    2017-06-14

    More than a hundred hydropower dams have already been built in the Amazon basin and numerous proposals for further dam constructions are under consideration. The accumulated negative environmental effects of existing dams and proposed dams, if constructed, will trigger massive hydrophysical and biotic disturbances that will affect the Amazon basin's floodplains, estuary and sediment plume. We introduce a Dam Environmental Vulnerability Index to quantify the current and potential impacts of dams in the basin. The scale of foreseeable environmental degradation indicates the need for collective action among nations and states to avoid cumulative, far-reaching impacts. We suggest institutional innovations to assess and avoid the likely impoverishment of Amazon rivers.

  15. Culicidae (Diptera: Culicomorpha from the central Brazilian Amazon: Nhamundá and Abacaxis Rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Sá Gomes Hutchings

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito fauna (Culicidae from remote areas along the geographical limits of the State of Amazonas were assessed by employing CDC, Shannon, Malaise and Suspended traps, together with net sweeping and immature collections. Two hundred and six collections were performed in seven localities along the Nhamundá and Abacaxis Rivers, State of Amazonas, Brazil, during May and June 2008. The northernmost locality was 120 km from Nhamundá, whereas the southernmost locality was 150 km from the mouth of the Abacaxis River. The 5,290 mosquitoes collected are distributed in 16 genera, representing 109 different species, of which eight are new distributional records for the State of Amazonas. Furthermore, there are nine morphospecies which may represent undescribed new taxa, five of which are also new records for the State of Amazonas. Culex presented the highest number of species and the largest number of individuals. Anopheles, which represents 3% of the total sample, had the second highest number of species, followed by Wyeomyia. Psorophora and Aedes, represent the third and fourth largest number of individuals. The most abundant species was Cx. (Mel. vaxus Dyar, 1920 followed by Cx. (Mel. eknomios Forattini & Sallum, 1992, Cx. (Cux. mollis Dyar & Knab, 1906, Cx. (Mel. theobaldi Lutz, 1904, and Cx. (Cux. declarator Dyar & Knab, 1906. The epidemiological and ecological implications of mosquito species found are discussed and are compared with other mosquito inventories from the Amazon region. The results presented represent the largest standardized inventory of mosquitoes of the Nhamundá and Abacaxis rivers, with the identification of 118 species level taxa distributed in seven localities, within four municipalities (Nhamundá, Maués, Borba, Nova Olinda do Norte, of which we have only few or no records in the published literature.

  16. Miogênese do tecido muscular branquial do peixe eurialino poecilia vivipara (cyprinodontiformes, poeciliidae) exposto à salinidade

    OpenAIRE

    Antunes, Adriana Maria; Rocha, Thiago Lopes; Morais, José Oscar Rodrigues; Sabóia-Morais, Simone Maria Teixeira

    2011-01-01

    v. 12, n. 3, p.478-486, jul./set. 2011. Os teleósteos Poecilia vivipara, conhecidos popularmente como guarus, são caracterizados como eurialinos, ou seja, eles modulam o comportamento celular branquial para sobreviver em ambientes com variações de salinidade. As brânquias do P.vivipara possuem um conjunto de músculos estriados esqueléticos, os músculos adutores e abdutores, que têm papel importante no processo de respiração. O presente trabalho teve como objetivos principais descrever a mo...

  17. The Amazon Region; A Vision of Sovereignty

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-06

    XVII, XVIII and XIX centuries, thirty-seven fortifications had been established to defend the Amazon Region. At the end of the XVII century, iron ...Community to drive the Brazilian Government to interrupt the project "Grande Carajas " (Great Carajas ), and thus trying to inhibit the planned search...oxygen production potential in the Amazon region. Ironically , however, in order to allow plants to grow, part of the forest would have to be

  18. Sexual characteristics are altered by 4-tert-octylphenol and 17beta-estradiol in the adult male guppy (Poecilia reticulata)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, G; Baatrup, E

    2001-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are believed to interfere with animal reproduction, but only few biomarkers above the cellular level have been developed to assess the adverse effects of these chemicals. Using the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) as a model organism, studies have been undertaken ...

  19. Relative importance of the area and intensity of the orange spots of male guppies Poecilia reticulata as mating traits preferred by females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karino, K; Shimada, Y; Kudo, H; Sato, A

    2010-07-01

    Digitally modified videos of male guppies Poecilia reticulata were used to examine the relative importance of the area and intensity of the orange spots as mating traits preferred by females. The females prioritized the area of the orange spots over intensity for their mate preference.

  20. Complexities of gene expression patterns in natural populations of an extremophile fish (Poecilia mexicana, Poeciliidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passow, Courtney N; Brown, Anthony P; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Yee, Muh-Ching; Sockell, Alexandra; Schartl, Manfred; Warren, Wesley C; Bustamante, Carlos; Kelley, Joanna L; Tobler, Michael

    2017-08-01

    Variation in gene expression can provide insights into organismal responses to environmental stress and physiological mechanisms mediating adaptation to habitats with contrasting environmental conditions. We performed an RNA-sequencing experiment to quantify gene expression patterns in fish adapted to habitats with different combinations of environmental stressors, including the presence of toxic hydrogen sulphide (H 2 S) and the absence of light in caves. We specifically asked how gene expression varies among populations living in different habitats, whether population differences were consistent among organs, and whether there is evidence for shared expression responses in populations exposed to the same stressors. We analysed organ-specific transcriptome-wide data from four ecotypes of Poecilia mexicana (nonsulphidic surface, sulphidic surface, nonsulphidic cave and sulphidic cave). The majority of variation in gene expression was correlated with organ type, and the presence of specific environmental stressors elicited unique expression differences among organs. Shared patterns of gene expression between populations exposed to the same environmental stressors increased with levels of organismal organization (from transcript to gene to physiological pathway). In addition, shared patterns of gene expression were more common between populations from sulphidic than populations from cave habitats, potentially indicating that physiochemical stressors with clear biochemical consequences can constrain the diversity of adaptive solutions that mitigate their adverse effects. Overall, our analyses provided insights into transcriptional variation in a unique system, in which adaptation to H 2 S and darkness coincide. Functional annotations of differentially expressed genes provide a springboard for investigating physiological mechanisms putatively underlying adaptation to extreme environments. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Low Predictability of Colour Polymorphism in Introduced Guppy (Poecilia reticulata) Populations in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Celestino; Chavarría, Carmen; Sharpe, Diana M T; De León, Luis Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Colour polymorphism is a recurrent feature of natural populations, and its maintenance has been studied in a range of taxa in their native ranges. However, less is known about whether (and how) colour polymorphism is maintained when populations are removed from their native environments, as in the case of introduced species. We here address this issue by analyzing variation in colour patterns in recently-discovered introduced populations of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) in Panama. Specifically, we use classic colour analysis to estimate variation in the number and the relative area of different colour spots across low predation sites in the introduced Panamanian range of the species. We then compare this variation to that found in the native range of the species under low- and high predation regimes. We found aspects of the colour pattern that were both consistent and inconsistent with the classical paradigm of colour evolution in guppies. On one hand, the same colours that dominated in native populations (orange, iridescent and black) were also the most dominant in the introduced populations in Panama. On the other, there were no clear differences between either introduced-low and native low- and high predation populations. Our results are therefore only partially consistent with the traditional role of female preference in the absence of predators, and suggest that additional factors could influence colour patterns when populations are removed from their native environments. Future research on the interaction between female preference and environmental variability (e.g. multifarious selection), could help understand adaptive variation in this widely-introduced species, and the contexts under which variation in adaptive traits parallels (or not) variation in the native range.

  2. Spatial discounting of food and social rewards in guppies (Poecilia reticulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly eMühlhoff

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In temporal discounting, animals trade off the time to obtain a reward against the quality of a reward, choosing between a smaller reward available sooner versus a larger reward available later. Similar discounting can apply over space, when animals choose between smaller and closer versus larger and more distant rewards. Most studies of temporal and spatial discounting in nonhuman animals use food as the reward, and it is not established whether animals trade off other preferred stimuli in similar ways. Here, we offered female guppies (Poecilia reticulata a spatial discounting task in which we measured preferences for a larger reward as the distance to it increased relative to a closer but smaller reward. We tested whether the fish discounted reward types differently by offering subjects either food items or same-sex conspecifics as rewards. Before beginning the discounting tasks, we conducted validation tests to ensure that subjects equally valued the food and social stimuli in the quantities provided. In the discounting task, subjects switched their preferences from the larger to the smaller reward as the distance to the larger reward increased (spatial discounting, but the pattern and magnitude of discounting did not differ across the two reward types. These findings indicate that guppies show similar patterns of discounting food and social rewards in a spatial task. In an analysis of travel times, however, the fish swam faster to food rewards than to shoaling partners. This difference in travel times implies that fish temporally discounted social rewards less steeply than food rewards. Thus, reward type influences temporal discounting, suggesting a dissociation between temporal and spatial discounting. Our results illustrate how animals adjust choices and travel times depending on both the type of cost (time, distance and benefits (food, social partners.

  3. Low Predictability of Colour Polymorphism in Introduced Guppy (Poecilia reticulata) Populations in Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Celestino; Chavarría, Carmen; Sharpe, Diana M. T.; De León, Luis Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Colour polymorphism is a recurrent feature of natural populations, and its maintenance has been studied in a range of taxa in their native ranges. However, less is known about whether (and how) colour polymorphism is maintained when populations are removed from their native environments, as in the case of introduced species. We here address this issue by analyzing variation in colour patterns in recently-discovered introduced populations of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) in Panama. Specifically, we use classic colour analysis to estimate variation in the number and the relative area of different colour spots across low predation sites in the introduced Panamanian range of the species. We then compare this variation to that found in the native range of the species under low- and high predation regimes. We found aspects of the colour pattern that were both consistent and inconsistent with the classical paradigm of colour evolution in guppies. On one hand, the same colours that dominated in native populations (orange, iridescent and black) were also the most dominant in the introduced populations in Panama. On the other, there were no clear differences between either introduced-low and native low- and high predation populations. Our results are therefore only partially consistent with the traditional role of female preference in the absence of predators, and suggest that additional factors could influence colour patterns when populations are removed from their native environments. Future research on the interaction between female preference and environmental variability (e.g. multifarious selection), could help understand adaptive variation in this widely-introduced species, and the contexts under which variation in adaptive traits parallels (or not) variation in the native range. PMID:26863538

  4. The acute toxicity of clove oil to fish Danio rerio and Poecilia reticulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Doleželová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Clove oil (active substance eugenol is an anaesthetic used in aquaculture for stress prevention and prevention of mechanical damage during veterinary procedures. The aim of this study was to determine the acute toxicity of clove oil in two aquarium fish species - zebrafish (Danio rerio and guppy (Poecilia reticulata, which are considered the most commonly used model organisms in toxicity testing. The semi-static method according to OECD no. 203 (Fish, Acute toxicity test was used for testing the toxicity of clove oil for juvenile fish. A series of 5 acute toxicity tests was performed, with 10 fish of both species used for each concentration and for the control. The results obtained (number of dead individuals at particular test concentrations were subjected to a probit analysis using the EKO-TOX 5.2 program in order to determine 96hLC50 clove oil values. The significance of the difference between 96hLC50 values in D. rerio and P. reticulata was tested using the Mann-Whitney non-parametric test. The 96hLC50 mean value for clove oil was 18.2 ± 5.52 mg·l–1 in juvenile D. rerio and 21.7 ± 0.8 mg·l–1 in P. reticulata. In spite of variability in clove oil composition, acute toxicity values of clove oil for juvenile stages of both fish species were comparable. The results did not show different sensitivities to clove oil in tested fish species. This is the first similar study in these fish species.

  5. Predicting the direction of ornament evolution in Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Darrell J; Reznick, David N; Grether, Gregory F; Endler, John A

    2009-12-22

    Sexual selection is thought to be opposed by natural selection such that ornamental traits express a balance between these two antagonistic influences. Phenotypic variation among populations may indicate local shifts in this balance, or that different stable 'solutions' are possible, but testing these alternatives presents a major challenge. In the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a small freshwater fish with male-limited ornamental coloration, these issues can be addressed by transplanting fish among sites of varying predation pressure, thus effectively manipulating the strength and nature of natural selection. Here, we contrast the evolutionary outcome of two such introductions conducted in the Trinidadian El Cedro and Aripo Rivers. We use sophisticated colour appraisal methods that account for full spectrum colour variation and which incorporate the very latest visual sensitivity data for guppies and their predators. Our data indicate that ornamentation evolved along different trajectories: whereas Aripo males evolved more numerous and/or larger orange, black and iridescent markings, El Cedro males only evolved more extensive and brighter iridescence. Examination of the El Cedro experiment also revealed little or no ornamental evolution at the control site over 29 years, which contrasts markedly with the rapid (approx. 2-3 years) changes reported for introduction populations. Finally, whole colour-pattern analysis suggested that the greatest visual difference between El Cedro introduction and control fish would be perceived by the two most salient viewers: guppies and the putatively dangerous predator Crenicichla alta. We discuss whether and how these evolutionary trajectories may result from founder effects, population-specific mate preferences and/or sensory drive.

  6. Invasion success and genetic diversity of introduced populations of guppies Poecilia reticulata in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, Anna K; Breden, Felix; Alexander, Heather J; Chan, Woon-Khiong; Thakurta, Sumita G; Brooks, Robert

    2005-10-01

    High genetic diversity is thought to characterize successful invasive species, as the potential to adapt to new environments is enhanced and inbreeding is reduced. In the last century, guppies, Poecilia reticulata, repeatedly invaded streams in Australia and elsewhere. Quantitative genetic studies of one Australian guppy population have demonstrated high additive genetic variation for autosomal and Y-linked morphological traits. The combination of colonization success, high heritability of morphological traits, and the possibility of multiple introductions to Australia raised the prediction that neutral genetic diversity is high in introduced populations of guppies. In this study we examine genetic diversity at nine microsatellite and one mitochondrial locus for seven Australian populations. We used mtDNA haplotypes from the natural range of guppies and from domesticated varieties to identify source populations. There were a minimum of two introductions, but there was no haplotype diversity within Australian populations, suggesting a founder effect. This was supported by microsatellite markers, as allelic diversity and heterozygosity were severely reduced compared to one wild source population, and evidence of recent bottlenecks was found. Between Australian populations little differentiation of microsatellite allele frequencies was detected, suggesting that population admixture has occurred historically, perhaps due to male-biased gene flow followed by bottlenecks. Thus success of invasion of Australia and high additive genetic variance in Australian guppies are not associated with high levels of diversity at molecular loci. This finding is consistent with the release of additive genetic variation by dominance and epistasis following inbreeding, and with disruptive and negative frequency-dependent selection on fitness traits.

  7. Evolution of MHC class IIB in the genome of wild and ornamental guppies, Poecilia reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oosterhout, C; Joyce, D A; Cummings, S M

    2006-08-01

    This is the first study to quantify genomic sequence variation of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in wild and ornamental guppies, Poecilia reticulata. We sequenced 196-219 bp of exon 2 MHC class IIB (DAB) in 56 wild Trinidadian guppies and 14 ornamental strain guppies. Each of two natural populations possessed high allelic richness (15-16 alleles), whereas only three or fewer DAB alleles were amplified from ornamental guppies. The disparity in allelic richness between wild and ornamental fish cannot be fully explained by fixation of alleles by inbreeding, nor by the presence of non-amplified sequences (ie null alleles). Rather, we suggest that the same allele is fixed at duplicated MHC DAB loci owing to gene conversion. Alternatively, the number of loci in the ornamental strains has contracted during >100 generations in captivity, a hypothesis consistent with the accordion model of MHC evolution. We furthermore analysed the substitution patterns by making pairwise comparisons of sequence variation at the putative peptide binding region (PBR). The rate of non-synonymous substitutions (dN) only marginally exceeded synonymous substitutions (dS) in PBR codons. Highly diverged sequences showed no evidence for diversifying selection, possibly because synonymous substitutions have accumulated since their divergence. Also, the substitution pattern of similar alleles did not show evidence for diversifying selection, plausibly because advantageous non-synonymous substitutions have not yet accumulated. Intermediately diverged sequences showed the highest relative rate of non-synonymous substitutions, with dN/dS>14 in some pairwise comparisons. Consequently, a curvilinear relationship was observed between the dN/dS ratio and the level of sequence divergence.

  8. Transcriptome assemblies for studying sex-biased gene expression in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Eshita; Künstner, Axel; Fraser, Bonnie A; Zipprich, Gideon; Kottler, Verena A; Henz, Stefan R; Weigel, Detlef; Dreyer, Christine

    2014-05-26

    Sexually dimorphic phenotypes are generally associated with differential gene expression between the sexes. The study of molecular evolution and genomic location of these differentially expressed, or sex-biased, genes is important for understanding inter-sexual divergence under sex-specific selection pressures. Teleost fish provide a unique opportunity to examine this divergence in the presence of variable sex-determination mechanisms of recent origin. The guppy, Poecilia reticulata, displays sexual dimorphism in size, ornaments, and behavior, traits shaped by natural and sexual selection in the wild. To gain insight into molecular mechanisms underlying the guppy's sexual dimorphism, we assembled a reference transcriptome combining genome-independent as well as genome-guided assemblies and analyzed sex-biased gene expression between different tissues of adult male and female guppies. We found tissue-associated sex-biased expression of genes related to pigmentation, signal transduction, and spermatogenesis in males; and growth, cell-division, extra-cellular matrix organization, nutrient transport, and folliculogenesis in females. While most sex-biased genes were randomly distributed across linkage groups, we observed accumulation of ovary-biased genes on the sex linkage group, LG12. Both testis-biased and ovary-biased genes showed a significantly higher rate of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions (dN/dS) compared to unbiased genes. However, in somatic tissues only female-biased genes, including those co-expressed in multiple tissues, showed elevated ratios of non-synonymous substitutions. Our work identifies a set of annotated gene products that are candidate factors affecting sexual dimorphism in guppies. The differential genomic distribution of gonad-biased genes provides evidence for sex-specific selection pressures acting on the nascent sex chromosomes of the guppy. The elevated rates of evolution of testis-biased and female-biased genes indicate

  9. Cysteine proteases and acid phosphatases contribute to Tetrahymena spp. pathogenicity in guppies, Poecilia reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibowitz, M Pimenta; Ofir, R; Golan-Goldhirsh, A; Zilberg, D

    2009-12-03

    Systemic tetrahymenosis caused by the protozoan parasite Tetrahymena spp. is a serious problem in guppy (Poecilia reticulata) farms worldwide. There is no therapeutic solution for the systemic form of this disease. Guppies severely infected with Tetrahymena spp. were imported by a commercial ornamental fish farm and brought to our laboratory. Tetrahymena sp. (Tet-NI) was isolated and in vitro cultured. Isolates maintained in culture for different time periods (as reflected by different numbers of passages in culture) were analyzed-Tet-NI 1, 4, 5 and 6, with Tet-NI 1 being cultured for the longest period (about 15 months, 54 passages) and Tet-NI 6 for the shortest (2.5 months, 10 passages). Controlled internal infection was successfully achieved by IP injection with most isolates, except for Tet-NI 1 which produced no infection. The isolate Tet-NI 6 induced the highest infection rates in internal organs (80% vs. 50% and 64% for Tet-NI 4 and 5, respectively) and mortality rates (67% vs. 20% and 27% for Tet-NI 4 and 5, respectively, and 6.7% for Tet-NI 1). The correlation between pathogenicity and Tetrahymena enzymatic activity was studied. Electrophoretic analyses revealed at least two bands of gelanolytic activity in Tet-NI 4 and 5, three bands in Tet-NI 6, and no activity in Tet-NI 1. Total inhibition of gelanolytic activity was observed after pretreatment of Tet-NI 6 with E-64, a highly selective cysteine protease inhibitor. Using hemoglobin as a substrate, Tet-NI 6 had two bands of proteolytic activity and no bands were observed in Tet-NI 1. A correlation was observed between pathogenicity and acid phosphatase activities (analyzed by commercial fluorescence kit) for Tet-NI 1 and Tet-NI 6.

  10. Evolution of juvenile growth rates in female guppies (Poecilia reticulata): predator regime or resource level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Jeffrey D; Reznick, David N

    2005-02-07

    Recent theoretical and empirical work argues that growth rate can evolve and be optimized, rather than always being maximized. Chronically low resource availability is predicted to favour the evolution of slow growth, whereas attaining a size-refuge from mortality risk is predicted to favour the evolution of rapid growth. Guppies (Poecilia reticulata) evolve differences in behaviour, morphology and life-history traits in response to predation, thus demonstrating that predators are potent agents of selection. Predators in low-predation environments prey preferentially on small guppies, but those in high-predation environments appear to be non-selective. Because guppies can outgrow their main predator in low- but not high-predation localities, we predict that predation will select for higher growth rates in the low-predation environments.However, low-predation localities also tend to have lower productivity than high-predation localities, yield-ing the prediction that guppies from these sites should have slower growth rates. Here we compare the growth rates of the second laboratory-born generation of guppies from paired high- and low-predation localities from four different drainages. In two out of four comparisons, guppies from high-predation sites grew significantly faster than their low-predation counterparts. We also compare laboratory born descendants from a field introduction experiment and show that guppies introduced to a low-predation environment evolved slower growth rates after 13 years, although this was evident only at the high food level. The weight of the evidence suggests that resource availability plays a more important role than predation in shaping the evolution of growth rates.

  11. Reasons for the Invasive Success of a Guppy (Poecilia reticulata) Population in Trinidad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievers, Caya; Willing, Eva-Maria; Hoffmann, Margarete; Dreyer, Christine; Ramnarine, Indar; Magurran, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of non-native species into new habitats poses a major threat to native populations. Of particular interest, though often overlooked, are introductions of populations that are not fully reproductively isolated from native individuals and can hybridize with them. To address this important topic we used different approaches in a multi-pronged study, combining the effects of mate choice, shoaling behaviour and genetics. Here we present evidence that behavioural traits such as shoaling and mate choice can promote population mixing if individuals do not distinguish between native and foreign conspecifics. We examined this in the context of two guppy (Poecilia reticulata) populations that have been subject to an introduction and subsequent population mixing event in Trinidad. The introduction of Guanapo River guppies into the Turure River more than 50 years ago led to a marked reduction of the original genotype. In our experiments, female guppies did not distinguish between shoaling partners when given the choice between native and foreign individuals. Introduced fish are therefore likely to benefit from the protection of a shoal and will improve their survival chances as a result. The additional finding that male guppies do not discriminate between females on the basis of origin will further increase the process of population mixing, especially if males encounter mixed shoals. In a mesocosm experiment, in which the native and foreign populations were allowed to mate freely, we found, as expected on the basis of these behavioural interactions, that the distribution of offspring genotypes could be predicted from the proportions of the two types of founding fish. This result suggests that stochastic and environmental processes have reinforced the biological ones to bring about the genetic dominance of the invading population in the Turure River. Re-sampling the Turure for genetic analysis using SNP markers confirmed the population mixing process and showed

  12. Tracking the startle response of guppies Poecilia reticulata in three dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanesyan, A; Rodd, F H; Ryu, W S

    2015-10-01

    A three-dimensional analysis of startle behaviours of guppies Poecilia reticulata, in dyads or alone, from two populations that show distinct differences in shoaling behaviour was performed. During the first few seconds after a startling stimulus, changes in behaviour, which could be critical if an individual is to survive a predatory attack, and the interactions between pairs of P. reticulata were examined. The enhanced social interactions immediately after the stimulus, as a proxy for shoaling behaviour, and their dissipation were quantified. Social (individuals tested in dyads) v. asocial (tested alone) responses to the startling stimulus were also compared. The three-dimensional reconstruction, from a two-camera, high-frame-rate tracking system allowed for the tracking of the individuals' speed and speed recovery and, for P. reticulata in dyads, interindividual distance and orientation. For the dyads from the high-predation population, the closer the individuals were to each other, the more likely they were to be parallel, but no correlation was found for the low-predation P. reticulata. The startle response of P. reticulata comprised the following sequence: freezing, darting and skittering and recovery to pre-stimulus swimming behaviour. Upon repeated encounters with the stimulus, a reduced shoaling and startle response was observed, although the rate of reduction was faster in P. reticulata from the high-predation population than those from the low-predation population. The results are discussed in light of what is known about the anti-predator behaviour of this species. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  13. Reasons for the invasive success of a guppy (Poecilia reticulata population in Trinidad.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caya Sievers

    Full Text Available The introduction of non-native species into new habitats poses a major threat to native populations. Of particular interest, though often overlooked, are introductions of populations that are not fully reproductively isolated from native individuals and can hybridize with them. To address this important topic we used different approaches in a multi-pronged study, combining the effects of mate choice, shoaling behaviour and genetics. Here we present evidence that behavioural traits such as shoaling and mate choice can promote population mixing if individuals do not distinguish between native and foreign conspecifics. We examined this in the context of two guppy (Poecilia reticulata populations that have been subject to an introduction and subsequent population mixing event in Trinidad. The introduction of Guanapo River guppies into the Turure River more than 50 years ago led to a marked reduction of the original genotype. In our experiments, female guppies did not distinguish between shoaling partners when given the choice between native and foreign individuals. Introduced fish are therefore likely to benefit from the protection of a shoal and will improve their survival chances as a result. The additional finding that male guppies do not discriminate between females on the basis of origin will further increase the process of population mixing, especially if males encounter mixed shoals. In a mesocosm experiment, in which the native and foreign populations were allowed to mate freely, we found, as expected on the basis of these behavioural interactions, that the distribution of offspring genotypes could be predicted from the proportions of the two types of founding fish. This result suggests that stochastic and environmental processes have reinforced the biological ones to bring about the genetic dominance of the invading population in the Turure River. Re-sampling the Turure for genetic analysis using SNP markers confirmed the population mixing

  14. Phenotypic plasticity changes correlations of traits following experimental introductions of Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handelsman, Corey A; Ruell, Emily W; Torres-Dowdall, Julián; Ghalambor, Cameron K

    2014-11-01

    Colonization of novel environments can alter selective pressures and act as a catalyst for rapid evolution in nature. Theory and empirical studies suggest that the ability of a population to exhibit an adaptive evolutionary response to novel selection pressures should reflect the presence of sufficient additive genetic variance and covariance for individual and correlated traits. As correlated traits should not respond to selection independently, the structure of correlations of traits can bias or constrain adaptive evolution. Models of how multiple correlated traits respond to selection often assume spatial and temporal stability of trait-correlations within populations. Yet, trait-correlations can also be plastic in response to environmental variation. Phenotypic plasticity, the ability of a single genotype to produce different phenotypes across environments, is of particular interest because it can induce population-wide changes in the combination of traits exposed to selection and change the trajectory of evolutionary divergence. We tested the ability of phenotypic plasticity to modify trait-correlations by comparing phenotypic variance and covariance in the body-shapes of four experimental populations of Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) to their ancestral population. We found that phenotypic plasticity produced both adaptive and novel aspects of body-shape, which was repeated in all four experimental populations. Further, phenotypic plasticity changed patterns of covariance among morphological characters. These findings suggest our ability to make inferences about patterns of divergence based on correlations of traits in extant populations may be limited if novel environments not only induce plasticity in multiple traits, but also change the correlations among the traits. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Vulnerability of the mosquito larvae to the guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in the presence of alternative preys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Barnali; Aditya, Gautam; Banerjee, Samir

    2008-09-01

    The predatory potential of the larvivorous fishes can be affected by the presence of alternative preys. In the present study the predation pattern of the sewage dwelling Poecilia reticulata (Peters 1872) on the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say 1823 (Diptera: Culicidae) was evaluated in the presence of alternative preys. The predation of Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae by different size groups of R. reticulata fishes was evaluated. In addition to this, the niche breadth (N) and diet breadth (B) were measured following Manly's selectivity index (Si) as an indicator of variation of such predation pattern in the presence of alternative prey types, like chironomid larvae and tubificid worms. The consumption of IV instar Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae by individual P. reticulata ranged between 65 and 84 in a 3 h feeding period and varied with the size of fish (F2,33 = 34.91; p < 0.001). The selectivity coefficient revealed a significantly low preference for the Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae (0.16, CL: 0.05-0.27; p < 0.05) compared to the chironomid larvae and tubificid worms, when all the three prey types were present. The niche breadth (N) and diet breadth (B) ranged from 0.77 to 0.92 and 0.69 to 0.93, respectively. The total consumption of all the prey types varied with the predator density, but the selectivity index for the mosquito larvae was significantly low in all the instances. P. reticulata can consume a good number of mosquito larvae, with the consumption rate varying with the body size. P. reticulata fishes exhibit low preference for mosquito larvae as prey in the presence of alternative controphic preys like chironomid larvae and tubificid worms. Though establishment and sustenance of P. reticulata in new habitats will be favoured by the presence of alternative preys, but vulnerability of mosquito larvae may be reduced with availability of multiple preys in natural conditions.

  16. Low Predictability of Colour Polymorphism in Introduced Guppy (Poecilia reticulata Populations in Panama.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celestino Martínez

    Full Text Available Colour polymorphism is a recurrent feature of natural populations, and its maintenance has been studied in a range of taxa in their native ranges. However, less is known about whether (and how colour polymorphism is maintained when populations are removed from their native environments, as in the case of introduced species. We here address this issue by analyzing variation in colour patterns in recently-discovered introduced populations of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata in Panama. Specifically, we use classic colour analysis to estimate variation in the number and the relative area of different colour spots across low predation sites in the introduced Panamanian range of the species. We then compare this variation to that found in the native range of the species under low- and high predation regimes. We found aspects of the colour pattern that were both consistent and inconsistent with the classical paradigm of colour evolution in guppies. On one hand, the same colours that dominated in native populations (orange, iridescent and black were also the most dominant in the introduced populations in Panama. On the other, there were no clear differences between either introduced-low and native low- and high predation populations. Our results are therefore only partially consistent with the traditional role of female preference in the absence of predators, and suggest that additional factors could influence colour patterns when populations are removed from their native environments. Future research on the interaction between female preference and environmental variability (e.g. multifarious selection, could help understand adaptive variation in this widely-introduced species, and the contexts under which variation in adaptive traits parallels (or not variation in the native range.

  17. Cultivo de Poecilia reticulata (Pisces:Poecilidae en cuerpos de agua tropicales,Veracruz,México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Devezé Murillo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Los peces ornamentales cultivados se han popularizado como mascotas,generando una demanda local que no se ha podido cubrir con la producción de México y por lo tanto deben importarse.Poecilia reticulata "guppy ",es un pez muy popular en el ámbito acuarístico,hoy en día se ha logrado desarrollar una gran cantidad de variedades según su coloración,tipo y forma de cola.Son peces vivíparos que toleran un ámbito extremo de temperatura,siendo la más adecuada entre 25ºC y 28ºC.El tiempo que tardan las hembras en expulsar a las crías una vez que quedan preñadas,oscila entre los 25 y 30 días dependiendo de la temperatura.En esta investigación,el ciclo reproductivo completo se desarrolló en jaulas flotantes,en una laguna tropical situada en la Llanura Costera del Golfo Sur, Veracruz, México.Se diseñó la infraestructura necesaria para producir guppys (P.reticulata incluyendo el manejo de reproductores,crianza,engorda,alimentación y comercialización,evaluando su factibilidad técnica y financiera.Se realizó un estudio de mercado,a través de una encuesta aplicada a los propietarios de los 22 acuarios existentes en la Ciudad de Veracruz,México.Se analizaron las frecuencias de oferta y demanda de cada especie con respecto a la temporada del año,lugar de origen y resistencia al manejo.Las características hidrobiológicas presentaron valores medios de temperatura (31.4ºC,oxígeno disuelto (4.5 mgl-1y pH (6.8.Con los datos obtenidos en campo se realizó un modelo para producción de P.reticulata ,obteniendo una relación beneficio/costo=1.16,correspondiente al ingreso mínimo potencial con una ganancia bruta de US$257.67, proporcionando empleo a dos personas El aprovechamiento de cuerpos de agua en regiones tropicales a través de la producción de peces de ornato representa una alternativa para disminuir la presión sobre las poblaciones silvestres y las tierras de cultivo,proporcionar fuentes de empleo e incrementar los ingresos para

  18. Reproductive biology of Poecilia sphenops Valenciennes, 1846 (Cyprinidontiformes: Poeciliidae at the Emiliano Zapata Reservoir in Morelos, Mexico

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    José L. Gómez-Márquez

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Poecilia sphenops is a native species recently recorded in the Balsas basin and the Amacuzac River in Morelos (Mexico, in which it is abundant and widely distributed. This study analyzed some aspects of the reproductive biology of Poecilia sphenops from the Emiliano Zapata Reservoir, in Central Mexico. Specimens were collected using a 20 m-long seine with a 5 mm mesh size, from January to December 2006. A total of 581 specimens were collected: 407 females (70.0%, 83 males (14.3% and 91 individuals with no differentiated sex (15.7%. Fish ranged from 20 to 96 mm in total length and 0.01 to 13.07 g in body weight. The female to male sex ratio (4.9:1 deviated significantly from the unity (χ2= 214.2, p<0.05. Monthly variations in gonadosomatic (GSI and hepatosomatic (HSI indexes and ovarian development stages showed that P. sphenops spawning season occurred between July and October, concurring with the rainy season. Another reproduction peak was registered in February. The largest length registered for males and females was 96 mm and 83 mm, respectively.

  19. Effects of extreme habitat conditions on otolith morphology: a case study on extremophile live bearing fishes (Poecilia mexicana, P. sulphuraria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz-Mirbach, Tanja; Riesch, Rüdiger; García de León, Francisco J; Plath, Martin

    2011-12-01

    Our study was designed to evaluate if, and to what extent, restrictive environmental conditions affect otolith morphology. As a model, we chose two extremophile livebearing fishes: (i) Poecilia mexicana, a widespread species in various Mexican freshwater habitats, with locally adapted populations thriving in habitats characterized by the presence of one (or both) of the natural stressors hydrogen sulphide and darkness, and (ii) the closely related Poecilia sulphuraria living in a highly sulphidic habitat (Baños del Azufre). All three otolith types (lapilli, sagittae, and asterisci) of P. mexicana showed a decrease in size ranging from the non-sulphidic cave habitat (Cueva Luna Azufre), to non-sulphidic surface habitats, to the sulphidic cave (Cueva del Azufre), to sulphidic surface habitats (El Azufre), to P. sulphuraria. Although we found a distinct differentiation between ecotypes with respect to their otolith morphology, no clear-cut pattern of trait evolution along the two ecological gradients was discernible. Otoliths from extremophiles captured in the wild revealed only slight similarities to aberrant otoliths found in captive-bred fish. We therefore hypothesize that extremophile fishes have developed coping mechanisms enabling them to avoid aberrant otolith growth - an otherwise common phenomenon in fishes reared under stressful conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of increased energy, pleasure, emotional warmth, and distorted sensory and time perception. MDMA was initially popular in ... irritability impulsiveness and aggression depression sleep problems anxiety memory and attention problems decreased appetite decreased interest in ...

  1. Modelling sustainable international tourism demand to the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Divino (Jose Angelo); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe Amazon rainforest is one of the world’s greatest natural wonders and holds great importance and significance for the world’s environmental balance. Around 60% of the Amazon rainforest is located in the Brazilian territory. The two biggest states of the Amazon region are Amazonas (the

  2. Efficacy of garlic based treatments against monogenean parasites infecting the guppy (Poecilia reticulata (Peters)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridman, S; Sinai, T; Zilberg, D

    2014-06-16

    Monogenean infections of commercially farmed fishes are responsible for significant economic losses. Garlic (Allium sativum) is a well-known spice which also possesses anti-microbial and anti-parasitical properties. The current work aimed to test the efficacy of garlic-based treatments against infection with monogenean sp. in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata). Clipped sections of tail fins of guppies heavily infected with Gyrodactylus turnbulli were exposed to aqueous garlic extract (7.5 to 30 mL L(-1)) and visually observed under a dissecting microscope. Results revealed that exposure to garlic caused detachment of parasite and cessation of movement indicating death. A positive correlation was seen between garlic concentration and time to detachment and death of parasites, which, at the highest concentration of 30 mL L(-1), occurred at 4.1 and 8.6 min, respectively. Bathing in aqueous garlic extract (7.5 and 12.5 mL L(-1)) was tested in guppies infected with G. turnbulli. Prior acute toxicity tests revealed the maximum tolerance levels of guppies to garlic extract to be 12.5 mL L(-1) for 1h. Bathing of infected fish in garlic extract (7.5 and 12.5 mL L(-1)) significantly (pgarlic powder-supplemented diet were tested on guppies infected with G. turnbulli and Dactylogyrus sp. Fish were fed with food containing 10% and 20% dry garlic powder for 14 days. Groups fed with garlic supplemented diets showed significantly reduced (pgarlic did not appear to affect palatability. Fresh crushed garlic was added at a level of 1 gL(-1) and applied as an indefinite bath for 14 days. This treatment was seen to significantly reduce (pgarlic-fed group, as compared to control. These findings demonstrate the potential of garlic as a natural alternative to currently used chemical treatments for monogenean sp. infection in the guppy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of sodium fluoride in gill epithelium of Guppy fish (Poecilia vivipara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Breseghelo

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O flúor é muito utilizado pelo homem e facilmente encontrado na natureza. Por isso, vários estudos foram realizados visando a toxicidade e o seu efeito cumulativo nos tecidos animais. É descrito que o fluoreto de sódio pode ser empregado no controle do hospedeiro da esquistossomose (Biomphalaria glabrata. Visando a preservação do meio aquático, propõe-se a verificação do efeito do fluoreto de sódio em peixes (Poecilia vivipara. Dez peixes foram submetidos à água declorinada (GC e o restante foi submetido à água contendo fluoreto de sódio na concentração de 5 ppm (GE, por vinte e um dias. Após esse período, os animais foram sacrificados e suas brânquias foram retiradas. As brânquias foram fixadas, pós-fixadas e desidratadas de acordo com o protocolo das técnicas de histoquímica e análise ultra-estrutural, respectivamente. As peças foram diafanizadas em xilol. Para observação histológica das células mucosas e células do cloro, foi utilizada a técnica de coloração de Hematoxilina + eosina. E para a detecção histoquímica de glicoconjugados utilizou-se as técnicas de P.A.S., P.A.S + amilase salivar, P.A.S. + acetilação, P.A.S. + acetilação reversível, alcian Blue (AB pH 2,5 + metilação, AB pH 2,5 + metilação reversível, AB pH 2,5 e AB pH 0,5. Observou-se aumento na secreção de muco e na quantidade de células mucosas do epitélio branquial, além de diferenças na reatividade histoquímica das células mucosas do GE comparados ao GC, sugerindo uma resposta adaptativa desses animais ao novo ambiente.

  4. Self-Reported Ecstasy/MDMA/"Molly" Use in a Sample of Nightclub and Dance Festival Attendees in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamar, Joseph J; Acosta, Patricia; Ompad, Danielle C; Cleland, Charles M

    2017-01-02

    Ecstasy (MDMA) use has regained popularity in the United States, particularly in the form of "Molly," which is often marketed as pure MDMA. Surveys have generally not included "Molly" in the definition of ecstasy, so rates of use may be underestimated. As popularity of ecstasy increases, research is needed to examine use among those at highest risk for use-nightlife attendees. We surveyed 679 young adults (age 18-25) entering nightclubs and festivals holding electronic dance music (EDM) parties in New York City in 2015. A variation of time-space sampling was utilized. We examined prevalence and correlates of self-reported lifetime ecstasy use. Self-reported lifetime ecstasy use was common (42.8%, 95% CI: 32.8, 52.7). Use was most common among older participants, frequent party attendees, and those reporting higher levels of exposure to users. Those surveyed outside of festivals were less likely to report use compared to those surveyed outside of nightclubs (AOR = 0.37, p = .015). Over a third of ecstasy users (36.8%)reported use in pill, powder, and crystal form. Ecstasy users were also more likely to report use of other drugs, including novel psychoactive substances (e.g., 2C series drugs, synthetic cathinones ["bath salts"]). Half (50.4%) reported suspecting (21.9%) or finding out (28.5%) that their ecstasy had ever contained a drug other than MDMA. A large percentage of nightlife attendees in NYC report lifetime ecstasy use. Findings should inform prevention and harm reduction programming. Further research is needed as ecstasy continues to change (e.g., in form, purity, and name).

  5. The Vine Trust's Amazon Hope boats--providing a dental service on the Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Shona M C

    2013-01-01

    The Vine Trust's Amazon Hope Project is a medical and dental programme providing healthcare to communities along the Amazon River in Peru. Volunteers from the UK and other countries work alongside Peruvian staff employed by their partner organization, Union Biblica del Peru, to provide a health service from a boat which serves communities on several tributaries who otherwise would have no other access to care. The dental programme involves a basic restorative and extraction service, with scope to develop a preventive programme. Dentists'and DCPs' skills are transferable globally: this article illustrates how one volunteer dental project is working to provide relevant and sustainable dental health care in the Amazon jungle.

  6. INFECÇÃO COM TROFOZOÍTOS DE Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (CILIOPHORA EM Poecilia vivipara (POECILIIDAE COMO HOSPEDEIRO EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION WITH TROPHOZOITES OF Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (CILIOPHORA IN Poecilia vivipara (POECILIIDAE AS AN EXPERIMENTAL HOST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Camaras Berestinas

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho estudou o grau de parasitismo em Poecilia vivipara infectado experimentalmente com trofozoítos de Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. Em frascos de 400 mL de água com aeração constante foram acondicionados quatro peixes, com duas réplicas e adicionadas as quantidades de 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 e 20 trofozoítos/peixe. Os valores médios da temperatura da água, pH e oxigênio dissolvido foram de 19,5±0,39ºC, 6,35±0,09 e 7,02±0,45mg/L, respectivamente. Antes de se proceder à infecção, os animais foram tratados com solução de formalina 1:4000 durante uma hora por dois dias consecutivos. Obtiveram-se os parasitos de cinco alevinos de Salminus brasiliensis infectados, mantidos em placas de Petri com água por trinta minutos. Coletaram-se os trofozoítos com pipeta Pasteur e adicionou-se o número respectivo em cada tratamento. Para evitar que os parasitos ficassem aderidos às placas, cada uma foi mantida no respectivo frasco durante o período. Após sete dias, os peixes foram sacrificados e examinados, exceto os expostos a 20 trofozoítos/peixe, os quais morreram em dois dias. O valor médio do tratamento com 20 trofozoítos/peixe foi significativamente maior (P<0,05 do que os tratamentos 0, 1, 2, 4, 8 e 16. Indica-se o inóculo entre 1 e 16 trofozoítos/ peixe como viável para o estudo de infecção experimental na espécie estudada, pelo fato de os peixes permanecerem parasitados durante todo o período experimental. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, infecção experimental, Poecilia vivipara This experiment studied the parasitic degree in Poecilia vivipara experimentally infected by Ichthyophthirius multifiliis trophozoites. In flasks with 400 mL of water, four fish were maintained with constant aeration in two replicates and added 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 20 trophozoites/fish. Mean values of water temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen were 19.5±0.39ºC, 6.35±0.09 and 7.02±0.45mg/L, respectively. Before experimental

  7. Evapotranspiration seasonality across the Amazon Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Maeda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Evapotranspiration (ET of Amazon forests is a main driver of regional climate patterns and an important indicator of ecosystem functioning. Despite its importance, the seasonal variability of ET over Amazon forests, and its relationship with environmental drivers, is still poorly understood. In this study, we carry out a water balance approach to analyse seasonal patterns in ET and their relationships with water and energy drivers over five sub-basins across the Amazon Basin. We used in situ measurements of river discharge, and remotely sensed estimates of terrestrial water storage, rainfall, and solar radiation. We show that the characteristics of ET seasonality in all sub-basins differ in timing and magnitude. The highest mean annual ET was found in the northern Rio Negro basin (∼ 1497 mm year−1 and the lowest values in the Solimões River basin (∼ 986 mm year−1. For the first time in a basin-scale study, using observational data, we show that factors limiting ET vary across climatic gradients in the Amazon, confirming local-scale eddy covariance studies. Both annual mean and seasonality in ET are driven by a combination of energy and water availability, as neither rainfall nor radiation alone could explain patterns in ET. In southern basins, despite seasonal rainfall deficits, deep root water uptake allows increasing rates of ET during the dry season, when radiation is usually higher than in the wet season. We demonstrate contrasting ET seasonality with satellite greenness across Amazon forests, with strong asynchronous relationships in ever-wet watersheds, and positive correlations observed in seasonally dry watersheds. Finally, we compared our results with estimates obtained by two ET models, and we conclude that neither of the two tested models could provide a consistent representation of ET seasonal patterns across the Amazon.

  8. Amazon Plume Salinity Response to Ocean Teleconnections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Tyaquiçã

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Pacific and Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST variability strongly influences rainfall changes in the Amazon River basin, which impacts on the river discharge and consequently the sea surface salinity (SSS in the Amazon plume. An Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF analysis was performed using 46 years of SST, rainfall, and SSS datasets, in order to establish the relationship between these variables. The first three modes of SST/rainfall explained 87.83% of the total covariance. Pacific and Atlantic SSTs led Amazon basin rainfall events by 4 months. The resultant SSS in the western tropical North Atlantic (WTNA lagged behind basin rainfall by 3 months, with 75.04% of the total covariance corresponding to the first four EOF modes. The first EOF mode indicated a strong SSS pattern along the coast that was connected to negative rainfall anomalies covering the Amazon basin, linked to El Niño events. A second pattern also presented positive SSS anomalies, when the rainfall was predominantly over the northwestern part of the Amazon basin, with low rainfall around the Amazon River mouth. The pattern with negative SSS anomalies in the WTNA was associated with the fourth mode, when positive rainfall anomalies were concentrated in the northwest part of South America. The spatial rainfall structure of this fourth mode was associated with the spatial rainfall distribution found in the third EOF mode of SST vs. rainfall, which was a response to La Niña Modoki events. A statistical analysis for the 46 year period and monthly anomaly composites for 2008 and 2009 indicated that La Niña Modoki events can be used for the prediction of low SSS patterns in the WNTA.

  9. The Amazon, measuring a mighty river

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1967-01-01

    The Amazon, the world's largest river, discharges enough water into the sea each day to provide fresh water to the City of New York for over 9 years. Its flow accounts for about 15 percent of all the fresh water discharged into the oceans by all the rivers of the world. By comparison, the Amazon's flow is over 4 times that of the Congo River, the world's second largest river. And it is 10 times that of the Mississippi, the largest river on the North American Continent.

  10. Greenhouse problem in the Amazon jungle clearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, E.J.; Margulis, S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the contribution of Amazon jungle clearing to the greenhouse problem and makes an assessment of long-run prospects. The introductory sections pose the problem from both international and Brazilian perspectives. The next section describes major features of the Amazonia ecosystems and presents methods and evidence on deforestation and on its impact on carbon dioxide emissions. Based upon cross-section information for a sample of municipalities in the Brazilian Amazon, the following section estimates elasticities of deforestation in relation to major economic factors- government policies included- and uses them to make projections for the future pace of deforestation. The last section discusses policy alternatives to slow down forest conversion

  11. Nutritional Evaluation of Raw Materials Entering the Structure to Mixed Fodder for the Specie Poecilia reticulata (Guppy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Gruber

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the ornamental pisciculture is a especial emphasis on the exterior shape and color to the fishes, issues that are dependent directly to the structure of compound feeds in relation to the nutritional characteristics of the raw materials.Own research or focused on analyzing the crude chemical composition with Weende scheme (water content and dry matter, crude ash, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, SEN of raw materials can be used in the structure of a compound feeds for the Poecilia reticulata (guppy species, for most of these materials there are no current data in the literature.These materials were analyzed: gelatin, wheat flour, sunflower meal, soybean meal, meal Spirulina platensis, carrot (Daucus carota, Pangasius fillet, Daphnia pulex, grount dandelion (Taraxacum officinale, grount nettle (Urtica dioica and yeast.

  12. Spinal deformities in a wild line of Poecilia wingei bred in captivity: report of cases and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbuatti, Alessio; Della Salda, Leonardo; Romanucci, Mariarita

    2013-03-01

    To describe the occurrence of various spinal deformations in a captive-bred wild line of Poecilia wingei (P. wingei). Fish belonging to a wild line of P. wingei caught from Laguna de Los Patos, Venezuela, were bred in an aquarium home-breeding system during a period of three years (2006-2009). The spinal curvature was observed to study spinal deformities in P. wingei. Out of a total of 600 fish, 22 showed different types of deformities (scoliosis, lordosis, kyphosis), with a higher incidence in females. Growth, swimming and breeding of deformed fish were generally normal. Possible causes for spinal curvature in fish are discussed on the basis of the current literature. While it is not possible to determine the exact cause(s) of spinal deformities observed in the present study, traumatic injuries, nutritional imbalances, genetic defects or a combination of these factors can be supposed to be involved in the pathogenesis of such lesions.

  13. Multiple pigment cell types contribute to the black, blue, and orange ornaments of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottler, Verena A; Koch, Iris; Flötenmeyer, Matthias; Hashimoto, Hisashi; Weigel, Detlef; Dreyer, Christine

    2014-01-01

    The fitness of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) highly depends on the size and number of their black, blue, and orange ornaments. Recently, progress has been made regarding the genetic mechanisms underlying male guppy pigment pattern formation, but we still know little about the pigment cell organization within these ornaments. Here, we investigate the pigment cell distribution within the black, blue, and orange trunk spots and selected fin color patterns of guppy males from three genetically divergent strains using transmission electron microscopy. We identified three types of pigment cells and found that at least two of these contribute to each color trait. Further, two pigment cell layers, one in the dermis and the other in the hypodermis, contribute to each trunk spot. The pigment cell organization within the black and orange trunk spots was similar between strains. The presence of iridophores in each of the investigated color traits is consistent with a key role for this pigment cell type in guppy color pattern formation.

  14. Effects of the 2,4-D herbicide on gills epithelia and liver of the fish Poecilia vivipara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana F. Vigário

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, usually named 2,4-D is one of the most widely used herbicides in the world. Acute toxicity of 2,4-D herbicide was investigated through its effects on guppies (Poecilia vivipara Bloch et Schneider 1801. Fish were exposed to the herbicide at concentrations of 10, 20 and 40µl per liter of water for 24 hours to determine its effects on gills and liver epithelia. The estimated LC50 was 34.64µl of 2,4-D per liter of water. Histochemical analyses and Feulgen's reaction were conducted to detect glycoconjugates and DNA, respectively, in gills and liver epithelia. Histochemistry revealed qualitative variations of glycoconjugates present on mucous cells and granules. The four types of mucous cells contained neutral granules, acids, or both. Increasing amounts of syalomucins were observed from the control group to the group exposed to the highest concentration of 2,4-D, suggesting increased mucous viscosity and the formation of plaques that could inhibit gas exchange and osmoregulation. Lamellar fusion observed in the group exposed to 40µl of 2,4-D suggests a defense mechanism. Hepatocytes showed vacuolization in the 10 and 20µl/L groups. The 40 µl/L group showed normal hepatocytes as well as changed ones, many Ito cells, micronuclei, and nuclear swelling. These effects may be associated with toxicity or adaptative processes to cellular stress. The data from this study indicates the importance of assessing similar risks to aquatic species and suggests that Poecilia vivipara is an adequate biological model for analysis of environmental contamination.

  15. Genome-scale data reveal that endemic Poecilia populations from small sulphidic springs display no evidence of inbreeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Anthony P; Greenway, Ryan; Morgan, Samuel; Quackenbush, Corey R; Giordani, Luca; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Tobler, Michael; Kelley, Joanna L

    2017-10-01

    Populations with limited ranges can be highly vulnerable to changes in their environment and are, thus, of high conservation concern. Populations that experience human-induced range reductions are often highly inbred and lack genetic diversity, but it is unknown whether this is also the case for populations with naturally small ranges. The fishes Poecilia sulphuraria (listed as critically endangered) and Poecilia thermalis, which are endemic to small hydrogen sulphide-rich springs in southern Mexico, are examples of such populations with inherently small habitats. We used geometric morphometrics and population genetics to quantify phenotypic and genetic variation within and among two populations of P. sulphuraria and one population of P. thermalis. Principal component analyses revealed phenotypic and genetic differences among the populations. Evidence for inbreeding was low compared to populations that have undergone habitat reduction. The genetic data were also used to infer the demographic history of these populations to obtain estimates for effective population sizes and migration rates. Effective population sizes were large given the small habitats of these populations. Our results imply that these three endemic extremophile populations should each be considered separately for conservation purposes. Additionally, this study suggests that populations in naturally small habitats may have lower rates of inbreeding and higher genetic diversity than expected, and therefore may be better equipped to handle environmental perturbations than anticipated. We caution, however, that the inferred lack of inbreeding and the large effective population sizes could potentially be a result of colonization by genetically diverse ancestors. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Poecilia picta, a Close Relative to the Guppy, Exhibits Red Male Coloration Polymorphism: A System for Phylogenetic Comparisons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna K Lindholm

    Full Text Available Studies on the evolution of female preference and male color polymorphism frequently focus on single species since traits and preferences are thought to co-evolve. The guppy, Poecilia reticulata, has long been a premier model for such studies because female preferences and orange coloration are well known to covary, especially in upstream/downstream pairs of populations. However, focused single species studies lack the explanatory power of the comparative method, which requires detailed knowledge of multiple species with known evolutionary relationships. Here we describe a red color polymorphism in Poecilia picta, a close relative to guppies. We show that this polymorphism is restricted to males and is maintained in natural populations of mainland South America. Using tests of female preference we show female P. picta are not more attracted to red males, despite preferences for red/orange in closely related species, such as P. reticulata and P. parae. Male color patterns in these closely related species are different from P. picta in that they occur in discrete patches and are frequently Y chromosome-linked. P. reticulata have an almost infinite number of male patterns, while P. parae males occur in discrete morphs. We show the red male polymorphism in P. picta extends continuously throughout the body and is not a Y-linked trait despite the theoretical prediction that sexually-selected characters should often be linked to the heterogametic sex chromosome. The presence/absence of red male coloration of P. picta described here makes this an ideal system for phylogenetic comparisons that could reveal the evolutionary forces maintaining mate choice and color polymorphisms in this speciose group.

  17. Poecilia picta, a Close Relative to the Guppy, Exhibits Red Male Coloration Polymorphism: A System for Phylogenetic Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, Anna K.; Sandkam, Ben; Pohl, Kristina; Breden, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Studies on the evolution of female preference and male color polymorphism frequently focus on single species since traits and preferences are thought to co-evolve. The guppy, Poecilia reticulata, has long been a premier model for such studies because female preferences and orange coloration are well known to covary, especially in upstream/downstream pairs of populations. However, focused single species studies lack the explanatory power of the comparative method, which requires detailed knowledge of multiple species with known evolutionary relationships. Here we describe a red color polymorphism in Poecilia picta, a close relative to guppies. We show that this polymorphism is restricted to males and is maintained in natural populations of mainland South America. Using tests of female preference we show female P. picta are not more attracted to red males, despite preferences for red/orange in closely related species, such as P. reticulata and P. parae. Male color patterns in these closely related species are different from P. picta in that they occur in discrete patches and are frequently Y chromosome-linked. P. reticulata have an almost infinite number of male patterns, while P. parae males occur in discrete morphs. We show the red male polymorphism in P. picta extends continuously throughout the body and is not a Y-linked trait despite the theoretical prediction that sexually-selected characters should often be linked to the heterogametic sex chromosome. The presence/absence of red male coloration of P. picta described here makes this an ideal system for phylogenetic comparisons that could reveal the evolutionary forces maintaining mate choice and color polymorphisms in this speciose group. PMID:26529081

  18. Charcoal chronology of the Amazon forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goulart, Ana Carolina; Macario, Kita D.; Scheel-Ybert, Rita; Alves, Eduardo Q.; Bachelet, Caroline; Pereira, Bruna B.; Levis, Carolina; Marimon Junior, Ben Hur; Marimon, Beatriz S.; Quesada, Carlos Alberto; Feldpausch, Ted R.

    2017-01-01

    The Amazon region holds a wide variety of ethnic groups and microclimates, enabling different interactions between humans and environment. To better understand the evolution of this region, ancient remains need to be analysed by all possible means. In this context, the study of natural and/or

  19. Geological development of amazon and orinoco basins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, F.P.; Hoorn, C.; Albert, J.S.; Reis, R.E.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter examines the geological development of the Orinoco and Amazon River basins. It analyzes the evolution of aquatic Amazonian ecosystems from the Late Cretaceous to the Quaternary period and provides and considers the potential impacts on the development of modern Amazonian fish faunas. It

  20. Deforestation crimes and conflicts in the Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhout van Solinge, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/156696207

    2010-01-01

    This article explores and explains deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon rainforest. It primarily takes a green criminological perspective and looks at the harm that is inflicted on many of the Amazon’s inhabitants, including indigenous populations such as ‘uncontacted’ tribes of hunters-gatherers,

  1. Principal Connection / Amazon and the Whole Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerr, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    A recent controversy over Amazon's culture has strong implications for the whole child approach, and it offers powerful lessons for principals. A significant difference between the culture of so many businesses today and the culture at good schools is that in good schools, the welfare of the employees is very important. Student success is the…

  2. Land Use Dynamics in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Walker

    1996-01-01

    The articles presented in this special issue of Ecological Economics address the important theme of land use dynamics as it pertains to the Brazilian Amazon. Much environmental change is an ecological artifact of human agency, and such agency is often manifested in land use impacts, particularly in tropical areas. The critical problem of tropical deforestation is but...

  3. Does the Amazon suffer from BSE prevention?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elferink, E.V.; Nonhebel, S.; Schoot Uiterkamp, A.J.M.

    In the last decade, large-scale production of soybeans has been a major driver of the enhanced deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. We show that these soybeans are mainly exported to the EU to substitute for the BSE related banned meat and bone meal in livestock feed. This strongly suggests a link

  4. Diversity of epiphytic bryophytes across the Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mota de Oliveira, S.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis reports on the first systematic sampling, species identification and analysis of community composition of epiphytic bryophytes in nine localities across the Amazon basin. Eight trees were sampled per locality, from the base to the outer canopy in five height zones. The sampling resulted

  5. Causes and impacts of the 2005 Amazon drought

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng Ning; Yoon, Jin-Ho [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, University of Maryland, MD 20742 (United States); Marengo, Jose A; Nobre, Carlos A [CPTEC, INPE, Cachoeira Paulista (Brazil); Subramaniam, Ajit [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, NY 10964 (United States); Mariotti, Annarita [Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, University of Maryland, MD 20742 (United States); Neelin, J David [Department Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences and Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)], E-mail: zeng@atmos.umd.edu

    2008-01-15

    A rare drought in the Amazon culminated in 2005, leading to near record-low streamflows, small Amazon river plume, and greatly enhanced fire frequency. This episode was caused by the combination of 2002-03 El Nino and a dry spell in 2005 attributable to a warm subtropical North Atlantic Ocean. Analysis for 1979-2005 reveals that the Atlantic influence is comparable to the better-known Pacific linkage. While the Pacific influence is typically locked to the wet season, the 2005 Atlantic impact concentrated in the Amazon dry season when its hydroecosystem is most vulnerable. Such mechanisms may have wide-ranging implications for the future of the Amazon rainforest.

  6. Causes and impacts of the 2005 Amazon drought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Ning; Yoon, Jin-Ho; Marengo, Jose A; Nobre, Carlos A; Subramaniam, Ajit; Mariotti, Annarita; Neelin, J David

    2008-01-01

    A rare drought in the Amazon culminated in 2005, leading to near record-low streamflows, small Amazon river plume, and greatly enhanced fire frequency. This episode was caused by the combination of 2002-03 El Nino and a dry spell in 2005 attributable to a warm subtropical North Atlantic Ocean. Analysis for 1979-2005 reveals that the Atlantic influence is comparable to the better-known Pacific linkage. While the Pacific influence is typically locked to the wet season, the 2005 Atlantic impact concentrated in the Amazon dry season when its hydroecosystem is most vulnerable. Such mechanisms may have wide-ranging implications for the future of the Amazon rainforest

  7. [Folklore and popular medicine in the Amazon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrique, Márcio Couto

    2009-01-01

    This discussion of the relations between folklore and popular medicine in the Amazon takes Canuto Azevedo's story "Filhos do boto" (Children of the porpoise) as an analytical reference point. Replete with elements of cultural reality, folk tales can serve as historical testimonies expressing clashes between different traditions. Folk records are fruit of what is often a quarrelsome dialogue between folklorists, social scientists, physicians, and pajés and their followers, and their analysis should take into account the conditions under which they were produced. Based on the imaginary attached to the figure of the porpoise--a seductive creature with healing powers--the article explores how we might expand knowledge of popular medicine as practiced in the Amazon, where the shamanistic rite known as pajelança cabocla has a strong presence.

  8. Low coverage sequencing of three echinoderm genomes: the brittle star Ophionereis fasciata, the sea star Patiriella regularis, and the sea cucumber Australostichopus mollis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Kyle A; Nossa, Carlos W; Sewell, Mary A; Putnam, Nicholas H; Ryan, Joseph F

    2016-01-01

    There are five major extant groups of Echinodermata: Crinoidea (feather stars and sea lillies), Ophiuroidea (brittle stars and basket stars), Asteroidea (sea stars), Echinoidea (sea urchins, sea biscuits, and sand dollars), and Holothuroidea (sea cucumbers). These animals are known for their pentaradial symmetry as adults, unique water vascular system, mutable collagenous tissues, and endoskeletons of high magnesium calcite. To our knowledge, the only echinoderm species with a genome sequence available to date is Strongylocentrotus pupuratus (Echinoidea). The availability of additional echinoderm genome sequences is crucial for understanding the biology of these animals. Here we present assembled draft genomes of the brittle star Ophionereis fasciata, the sea star Patiriella regularis, and the sea cucumber Australostichopus mollis from Illumina sequence data with coverages of 12.5x, 22.5x, and 21.4x, respectively. These data provide a resource for mining gene superfamilies, identifying non-coding RNAs, confirming gene losses, and designing experimental constructs. They will be important comparative resources for future genomic studies in echinoderms.

  9. Acid rain in an Amazon rainforest

    OpenAIRE

    Haines, Bruce; Jordan, Carl; Clark, Howard; Clark, Kathleen E.

    2011-01-01

    Acid rain is reported from the Amazon territory of Venezuela. The volume weighted average pHwas 4.7 for 70 storms sampled from January 1979 through February 1980. At this location,remote from point sources of industrial pollution, acid rain might result from naturalbiogeochemical processes in the rainforest, from global atmospheric pollution, or from somecombination of natural and polliition processes.DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0889.1983.tb00011.x

  10. Health Concerns in the Amazon Region

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-09

    Residents of the Amazon region of South America contend with a number of health threats - from mosquito-borne diseases to difficulty accessing doctors and healthcare facilities in such a vast area. This podcast helps explore some of the health issues in the region and what's being done to address them.  Created: 4/9/2009 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 4/9/2009.

  11. Petrobras eyes LNG project in Amazon region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The Brazilian state oil company has proved gas reserves in the Rio Urucu area of the Amazon jungle totaling 1.84 tcf. That compares with 3.08 tcf contained in the offshore Campos basin, source of most of Brazil's oil and gas production. The environmentally sensitive Urucu region is one of the most dense, remote jungles in the world. Because of environmental concerns about pipelines in the rain forest and a government emphasis on boosting the natural gas share of Brazil's energy mix, a small liquefied natural gas project is shaping up as the best option for developing and marketing Urucu gas. The amazon campaign underscores a government initiative to boost Brazilian consumption of natural gas. In Brazil natural gas accounts for only 4% of primary energy consumption. Some years ago, the government set an official goal of boosting the gas share of the primary energy mix to 10% by 2000. The paper discusses current drilling activities, gas production and processing, the logistics of the upper Amazon, and gas markets

  12. Isoprene photochemistry over the Amazon rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingjun; Brito, Joel; Dorris, Matthew R; Rivera-Rios, Jean C; Seco, Roger; Bates, Kelvin H; Artaxo, Paulo; Duvoisin, Sergio; Keutsch, Frank N; Kim, Saewung; Goldstein, Allen H; Guenther, Alex B; Manzi, Antonio O; Souza, Rodrigo A F; Springston, Stephen R; Watson, Thomas B; McKinney, Karena A; Martin, Scot T

    2016-05-31

    Isoprene photooxidation is a major driver of atmospheric chemistry over forested regions. Isoprene reacts with hydroxyl radicals (OH) and molecular oxygen to produce isoprene peroxy radicals (ISOPOO). These radicals can react with hydroperoxyl radicals (HO2) to dominantly produce hydroxyhydroperoxides (ISOPOOH). They can also react with nitric oxide (NO) to largely produce methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) and methacrolein (MACR). Unimolecular isomerization and bimolecular reactions with organic peroxy radicals are also possible. There is uncertainty about the relative importance of each of these pathways in the atmosphere and possible changes because of anthropogenic pollution. Herein, measurements of ISOPOOH and MVK + MACR concentrations are reported over the central region of the Amazon basin during the wet season. The research site, downwind of an urban region, intercepted both background and polluted air masses during the GoAmazon2014/5 Experiment. Under background conditions, the confidence interval for the ratio of the ISOPOOH concentration to that of MVK + MACR spanned 0.4-0.6. This result implies a ratio of the reaction rate of ISOPOO with HO2 to that with NO of approximately unity. A value of unity is significantly smaller than simulated at present by global chemical transport models for this important, nominally low-NO, forested region of Earth. Under polluted conditions, when the concentrations of reactive nitrogen compounds were high (>1 ppb), ISOPOOH concentrations dropped below the instrumental detection limit (Amazon rainforest.

  13. Introduction: Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, S. T.; Artaxo, P.; Machado, L. A. T.; Manzi, A. O.; Souza, R. A. F.; Schumacher, C.; Wang, J.; Andreae, M. O.; Barbosa, H. M. J.; Fan, J.; Fisch, G.; Goldstein, A. H.; Guenther, A.; Jimenez, J. L.; Pöschl, U.; Silva Dias, M. A.; Smith, J. N.; Wendisch, M.

    2016-04-01

    The Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) Experiment was carried out in the environs of Manaus, Brazil, in the central region of the Amazon basin for 2 years from 1 January 2014 through 31 December 2015. The experiment focused on the complex interactions among vegetation, atmospheric chemistry, and aerosol production on the one hand and their connections to aerosols, clouds, and precipitation on the other. The objective was to understand and quantify these linked processes, first under natural conditions to obtain a baseline and second when altered by the effects of human activities. To this end, the pollution plume from the Manaus metropolis, superimposed on the background conditions of the central Amazon basin, served as a natural laboratory. The present paper, as the introduction to the special issue of GoAmazon2014/5, presents the context and motivation of the GoAmazon2014/5 Experiment. The nine research sites, including the characteristics and instrumentation of each site, are presented. The sites range from time point zero (T0) upwind of the pollution, to T1 in the midst of the pollution, to T2 just downwind of the pollution, to T3 furthest downwind of the pollution (70 km). In addition to the ground sites, a low-altitude G-159 Gulfstream I (G-1) observed the atmospheric boundary layer and low clouds, and a high-altitude Gulfstream G550 (HALO) operated in the free troposphere. During the 2-year experiment, two Intensive Operating Periods (IOP1 and IOP2) also took place that included additional specialized research instrumentation at the ground sites as well as flights of the two aircraft. GoAmazon2014/5 IOP1 was carried out from 1 February to 31 March 2014 in the wet season. GoAmazon2014/5 IOP2 was conducted from 15 August to 15 October 2014 in the dry season. The G-1 aircraft flew during both IOP1 and IOP2, and the HALO aircraft flew during IOP2. In the context of the Amazon basin, the two IOPs also correspond to the clean and

  14. Introduction: Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Martin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5 Experiment was carried out in the environs of Manaus, Brazil, in the central region of the Amazon basin for 2 years from 1 January 2014 through 31 December 2015. The experiment focused on the complex interactions among vegetation, atmospheric chemistry, and aerosol production on the one hand and their connections to aerosols, clouds, and precipitation on the other. The objective was to understand and quantify these linked processes, first under natural conditions to obtain a baseline and second when altered by the effects of human activities. To this end, the pollution plume from the Manaus metropolis, superimposed on the background conditions of the central Amazon basin, served as a natural laboratory. The present paper, as the introduction to the special issue of GoAmazon2014/5, presents the context and motivation of the GoAmazon2014/5 Experiment. The nine research sites, including the characteristics and instrumentation of each site, are presented. The sites range from time point zero (T0 upwind of the pollution, to T1 in the midst of the pollution, to T2 just downwind of the pollution, to T3 furthest downwind of the pollution (70 km. In addition to the ground sites, a low-altitude G-159 Gulfstream I (G-1 observed the atmospheric boundary layer and low clouds, and a high-altitude Gulfstream G550 (HALO operated in the free troposphere. During the 2-year experiment, two Intensive Operating Periods (IOP1 and IOP2 also took place that included additional specialized research instrumentation at the ground sites as well as flights of the two aircraft. GoAmazon2014/5 IOP1 was carried out from 1 February to 31 March 2014 in the wet season. GoAmazon2014/5 IOP2 was conducted from 15 August to 15 October 2014 in the dry season. The G-1 aircraft flew during both IOP1 and IOP2, and the HALO aircraft flew during IOP2. In the context of the Amazon basin, the two IOPs also

  15. In vitro and in vivo efficacy of garlic compounds against Gyrodactylus turnbulli infecting the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelkle, Bettina; Snellgrove, Donna; Cable, Joanne

    2013-11-15

    Traditional compounds used to treat fish diseases in aquaculture and the ornamental fish industry (such as formalin and malachite green) can be more toxic to the hosts than their parasites. With the reviviscence in the use of herbal products, various botanicals have been heralded as cures for particular pathogens, but the efficacy of these compounds for parasitic worms is questionable. Here, we tested a range of garlic (Allium sativum) products against a major aquarium pathogen, Gyrodactylus turnbulli, infecting the guppy (Poecilia reticulata). All garlic products significantly reduced parasite mean survival time in vitro, from 13 h to <1 h. In fully randomised trials, the number of parasites was also significantly reduced on infected fish exposed to garlic from different sources. Two garlic treatments (minced and granule forms) reduced worm burdens by 66% and 75% after three doses, whereas Chinese freeze-dried garlic and allyl disulphide were 95% effective after a single application. In fact, Chinese freeze dried garlic was equally effective as Levamisole, a licensed livestock dewormer that is highly effective against G. turnbulli but not routinely prescribed for use in fish; hence, garlic may be a potential alternative treatment for gyrodactylosis. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The utility of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) and medaka (Oryzias latipes) in evaluation of chemicals for carcinogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissling, Grace E; Bernheim, Naomi J; Hawkins, William E; Wolfe, Marilyn J; Jokinen, Micheal P; Smith, Cynthia S; Herbert, Ronald A; Boorman, Gary A

    2006-07-01

    There has been considerable interest in the use of small fish models for detecting potential environmental carcinogens. In this study, both guppies (Poecilia reticulata) and medaka (Oryzias latipes) were exposed in the aquaria water to three known rodent carcinogens for up to 16 months. Nitromethane, which caused mammary gland tumors by inhalation exposure in female rats, harderian gland and lung tumors in male and female mice, and liver tumors in female mice by inhalation, failed to increase tumors in either guppies or medaka. Propanediol, which when given in the feed was a multisite carcinogen in both sexes of rats and mice, caused increased liver tumors in male guppies and male medaka. There was reduced survival in female guppies and no increased tumors in female medaka. 1,2,3-Trichloropropane, which when administered by oral gavage was a multisite carcinogen in both sexes of rats and mice, caused an increased incidence of tumors in the liver of both male and female guppies and medaka and in the gallbladder of male and female medaka. The results of this study demonstrate that for these three chemicals, under these specific exposure conditions, the fish appear less sensitive and have a narrower spectrum of tissues affected than rodents. These results suggest that fish models are of limited utility in screening unknown chemicals for potential carcinogenicity.

  17. Effects of Gamma-Irradiation on Microbial Contamination and on Histological Changes of Muscle in Poecilia reticulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Beňová

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the effect of gamma-irradiation on the microbial skin and organ contamination and on the histological changes of fish skeletal musculature. The aquarium fish Poecilia reticulata were exposed to the radiation effect of 60Co at the doses of 20 and 30 Gy (11.36 Gy/min. Frequent intravital haemorrhages were observed from day 8 after the exposure. A general long-term body fading appeared from day 10 to day 30 of the experiment. Microbiological and histological examinations were done on days 7, 14, 21 and 28. Individual muscle cells were bound together into fascicles surrounded by connective tissue. No significant morphological changes were observed on skeletal muscle cells, except for more watery connective tissue. The presence of Escherichia coli and Aeromonas hydrophila was proved in the body surface samples and in aquarium water based on the microbiological test. A moderate increase of the number of E. coli and A. hydrophila was observed in the intestines in both exposed groups (20 and 30 Gy depending on the time that elapsed from the exposure (from 1 × 101 to 6 × 103 CFU. However, the heart, liver and musculature remained sterile. No microbial contamination of musculature was found for the intravital ionizing radiation dose of 30 Gy even for the single specimen killed on day 28 from the exposure.

  18. Multiple pigment cell types contribute to the black, blue, and orange ornaments of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena A Kottler

    Full Text Available The fitness of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata highly depends on the size and number of their black, blue, and orange ornaments. Recently, progress has been made regarding the genetic mechanisms underlying male guppy pigment pattern formation, but we still know little about the pigment cell organization within these ornaments. Here, we investigate the pigment cell distribution within the black, blue, and orange trunk spots and selected fin color patterns of guppy males from three genetically divergent strains using transmission electron microscopy. We identified three types of pigment cells and found that at least two of these contribute to each color trait. Further, two pigment cell layers, one in the dermis and the other in the hypodermis, contribute to each trunk spot. The pigment cell organization within the black and orange trunk spots was similar between strains. The presence of iridophores in each of the investigated color traits is consistent with a key role for this pigment cell type in guppy color pattern formation.

  19. Investigation of acute toxicity of Jatropha gossypifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae) and Cleome viscosa L. (Capparidacae) extract on guppies, Poecilia reticulate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriarcharungroj, Sudatip; Chuaysuwan, Varithorn; Sudthonghong, Chaiwud; Bullangpoti, Vasakorn

    2008-01-01

    Jotropha gossypifolio L. (Etphorbiaceae) and Cleome viscosa, L. (Capparidacae), Thai-plant species, have phytocidal chemical components and responsible for controlling and repelling insects from the host plants. To avoid potential toxic pollutant contaminating aquatic ecosystems, this present study was investigated for acute toxicity. Guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata) were selected for the bioassay experiments. The experiments were repeated 5 times and the 24-h LC50 was determined for the guppies. The acute toxicity experiments were carried out by static method and behavioral changes in guppies were determined for each Jatropha gossypifolia L. and Cleome viscosa, L. concentration extract which extracted by Soxhlet extraction method with ethanol as solvent. Water temperature was regulated at 20 +/- 1 degrees C. Data obtained from the acute toxicity tests were evaluated using the probit analysis statistical method. The 24-h LC50 value for guppy was estimated as ca. 3100 ppm (r2=0.95) and 5300 ppm ((r2=0.96) for Jatropha gossypifolia L. and Cleome viscosa, L. extract, respectively. However, in this concentration, no mortality was observed at higher concentration for 30 second.

  20. Morphologic analysis of developmental phases and gill ontogenesis in neotropical species Poecilia vivipara (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae exposed to different salinities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago L. Rocha

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated and characterized the different phases of development and the cell types present in the gill epithelium of embryos, larvae, and fingerlings of guppy (Poecilia vivipara Bloch & Schneider, 1801 specimens exposed to water with salinity ranging from 0‰ to 20‰. The development of P. vivipara was classified into eight phases. The yolk was intensely eosinophilic, with glycidic and lipidic components between phases 1 to 7. After the development of their branchial epithelium, the presence of pavement cells, mitochondria-rich cells, and mucous cells (MCs was observed. The understanding of ontogenesis indicates the sequence of cellular origin. Only type IV MCs located in the gill rays was detected from phase 3 through phase 7. Other types of MCs were observed only when the fingerlings were exposed to salinity changes and showed to be lectin-reactive, thus indicating that P. vivipara modulates the cellular behavior when submitted to salinity changes. Exposure to variable saline concentrations did not interfere in the initial development of guppies. The presence of a yolk sac until the fingerling phase characterized this species as ovoviviparous.

  1. Beauty in the eyes of the beholders: colour vision is tuned to mate preference in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandkam, Benjamin; Young, C Megan; Breden, Felix

    2015-02-01

    A broad range of animals use visual signals to assess potential mates, and the theory of sensory exploitation suggests variation in visual systems drives mate preference variation due to sensory bias. Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata), a classic system for studies of the evolution of female mate choice, provide a unique opportunity to test this theory by looking for covariation in visual tuning, light environment and mate preferences. Female preference co-evolves with male coloration, such that guppy females from 'low-predation' environments have stronger preferences for males with more orange/red coloration than do females from 'high-predation' environments. Here, we show that colour vision also varies across populations, with 'low'-predation guppies investing more of their colour vision to detect red/orange coloration. In independently colonized watersheds, guppies expressed higher levels of both LWS-1 and LWS-3 (the most abundant LWS opsins) in 'low-predation' populations than 'high-predation' populations at a time that corresponds to differences in cone cell abundance. We also observed that the frequency of a coding polymorphism differed between high- and low-predation populations. Together, this shows that the variation underlying preference could be explained by simple changes in expression and coding of opsins, providing important candidate genes to investigate the genetic basis of female preference variation in this model system. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Pigment Pattern Formation in the Guppy, Poecilia reticulata, Involves the Kita and Csf1ra Receptor Tyrosine Kinases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottler, Verena A.; Fadeev, Andrey; Weigel, Detlef; Dreyer, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Males of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) vary tremendously in their ornamental patterns, which are thought to have evolved in response to a complex interplay between natural and sexual selection. Although the selection pressures acting on the color patterns of the guppy have been extensively studied, little is known about the genes that control their ontogeny. Over 50 years ago, two autosomal color loci, blue and golden, were described, both of which play a decisive role in the formation of the guppy color pattern. Orange pigmentation is absent in the skin of guppies with a lesion in blue, suggesting a defect in xanthophore development. In golden mutants, the development of the melanophore pattern during embryogenesis and after birth is affected. Here, we show that blue and golden correspond to guppy orthologs of colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor a (csf1ra; previously called fms) and kita. Most excitingly, we found that both genes are required for the development of the black ornaments of guppy males, which in the case of csf1ra might be mediated by xanthophore–melanophore interactions. Furthermore, we provide evidence that two temporally and genetically distinct melanophore populations contribute to the adult camouflage pattern expressed in both sexes: one early appearing and kita-dependent and the other late-developing and kita-independent. The identification of csf1ra and kita mutants provides the first molecular insights into pigment pattern formation in this important model species for ecological and evolutionary genetics. PMID:23666934

  3. A glyphosate-based herbicide induces histomorphological and protein expression changes in the liver of the female guppy Poecilia reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Ana Paula Rezende; Rocha, Thiago Lopes; Borges, Clayton Luiz; Bailão, Alexandre Melo; de Almeida Soares, Célia Maria; de Sabóia-Morais, Simone Maria Teixeira

    2017-02-01

    Glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH) are among the most common herbicides found in aquatic systems, but limited data are available about their mode of action and hepatotoxicity in fish. This study investigated the hepatotoxicity induced by GBH in the guppy Poecilia reticulata using a histopathological assessment associated with a proteomic approach. Guppies were exposed to GBH for 24 h at 1.8 mg of glyphosate L -1 , corresponding to 50% of the LC 50, 96 h . The results indicate that the GBH at 1.8 mg of glyphosate L -1 induce the development of hepatic damage in P. reticulata, which is exposure-time dependent. The histopathological indexes demonstrate that GBH cause inflammatory, regressive, vascular and progressive disorders in the liver of guppies. Using 2D gel electrophoresis associated with mass spectrometry, 18 proteins that changed by GBH were identified and were related to the cellular structure, motility and transport, energy metabolism and apoptosis. The results show that the acute exposure to GBH causes hepatic histopathological damage related to protein expression profile changes in P. reticulata, indicating that a histopathological assessment associated with a proteomic analysis provides a valuable approach to assess the toxic effects of GBH in sentinel fish species. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Molecular characterization and confocal laser scanning microscopic study of Pygidiopsis macrostomum (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) parasites of guppies Poecilia vivipara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, J N; Costa, V S; Mantovani, C; Barros, E; Santos, E G N; Mafra, C L; Santos, C P

    2017-02-01

    Pygidiopsis macrostomum and Ascocotyle (Phagicola) pindoramensis (Digenea: Heterophyidae) parasitize guppies as intermediate hosts and, respectively, fish-eating mammals or birds as definitive hosts. Heterophyids have zoonotic potential, and molecular studies associated with morphological and ecological aspects have helped to clarify their taxonomy and phylogeny. Poecilia vivipara naturally parasitized by metacercariae of both species (100% prevalence) exhibit no external signs of parasitism. In this work, four new sequences of P. macrostomum (18S rDNA, 28S rDNA and ITS2 rDNA) and one new sequence of A. (P.) pindoramensis (mtDNA cox-1) are presented. Phylogeny reconstructions linked P. macrostomum to other heterophyids, but the separation of the Heterophyidae and Opisthorchiidae remains unclear. Additionally, we used indirect immunocytochemistry and the phalloidin-fluorescence techniques allied with confocal laser scanning microscopy to describe muscular and neuronal structures of P. macrostomum. A complex arrangement of muscular fibres is associated with the tegument, suckers, gut and reproductive system. Radial fibres around the ventral sucker are thick, branched and extend to the body wall. High-resolution confocal imaging revealed a typical digenean muscular arrangement and important heterophyid morphological traits. These data will support future control measures to reduce the parasitism in guppies reared in fish farming systems, especially for aquarium and experimental purposes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Chronic effects of Cd on the reproduction of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) through Cd-accumulated midge larvae (Chironomus yoshimatsui)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatakeyama, S.; Yasuno, M.

    1987-12-01

    Chronic effects of Cd on the growth and reproduction of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) were studied using a food chain model, midge larvae as prey and guppy as predator. The transfer rate of Cd from the midge to the guppy was between 0.5 and 1% during the 30-day experiment. Growth rate of the guppy fed Cd-accumulated midge larvae (270 micrograms/g dry wt) for 30 days was not impaired. Cumulative numbers of fry produced by the guppy fed Cd-accumulated midge larvae (210 micrograms/g) for 2 months decreased to ca. 80% of the control. Guppies had been fed the Cd-accumulated midges from 30 days old for 7 months. Cumulative numbers of fry produced by the guppy fed midge larvae-accumulated 500, 800, and 1300 micrograms Cd/g for 6 months decreased to 79, 65, and 55% of the control, respectively. Similar effects of Cd on the reproduction of guppy were shown between the guppies fed the Cd-accumulated midge larvae (500 micrograms Cd/g) and exposed to 10 or 20 micrograms Cd/liter for the 6 months. The Cd concentrations of the digestive tract, liver, and kidney increased strongly, indicating that such Cd accumulation was brought on mainly through the Cd-accumulated midges. Mortality of the female guppies fed larvae-accumulated 1300 micrograms Cd/g increased abruptly from the 6 months of the experiment, whereas no male guppy died during the experiment.

  6. Phenotypic plasticity in adult life-history strategies compensates for a poor start in life in Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Sonya K

    2010-12-01

    Low food availability during early growth and development can have long-term negative consequences for reproductive success. Phenotypic plasticity in adult life-history decisions may help to mitigate these potential costs, yet adult life-history responses to juvenile food conditions remain largely unexplored. I used a food-manipulation experiment with female Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) to examine age-related changes in adult life-history responses to early food conditions, whether these responses varied across different adult food conditions, and how these responses affected overall reproductive success. Guppy females reared on low food as juveniles matured at a later age, at a smaller size, and with less energy reserves than females reared on high food as juveniles. In response to this setback, they changed their investment in growth, reproduction, and fat storage throughout the adult stage such that they were able to catch up in body size, increase their reproductive output, and restore their energy reserves to levels comparable to those of females reared on high food as juveniles. The net effect was that adult female guppies did not merely mitigate but surprisingly were able to fully compensate for the potential long-term negative effects of poor juvenile food conditions on reproductive success.

  7. The genetic and environmental basis of adaptive differences in shoaling behaviour among populations of Trinidadian guppies, Poecilia reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, M; Ghalambor, C K; Reznick, D N

    2009-09-01

    The degree of plasticity an individual expresses when moving into a new environment is likely to influence the probability of colonization and potential for subsequent evolution. Yet few empirical examples exist where the ancestral and derived conditions suggest a role for plasticity in adaptive genetic divergence of populations. Here we explore the genetic and plastic components of shoaling behaviour in two pairs of populations of Poecilia reticulata (Trinidadian guppies). We contrast shoaling behaviour of guppies derived from high- and low-predation populations from two separate drainages by measuring the shoaling response of second generation laboratory-reared individuals in the presence and absence of predator induced alarm pheromones. We find persistent differences in mean shoaling cohesion that suggest a genetic basis; when measured under the same conditions high-predation guppies form more cohesive shoals than low-predation guppies. Both high and low-predation guppies also exhibit plasticity in the response to alarm pheromones, by forming tighter, more cohesive shoals. These patterns suggest a conserved capacity for adaptive behavioural plasticity when moving between variable predation communities that are consistent with models of genetic accommodation.

  8. Cholinergic alterations by exposure to pesticides used in control vector: Guppies fish (Poecilia reticulta) as biological model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Ibarra, G A; Rodríguez-Sánchez, E J; Ventura-Ramón, H G; Díaz-Resendiz, K J G; Girón-Pérez, M I

    2018-02-01

    Spinosad and temephos are two of the most used pesticides in Mexico for the control of vector causing disease such as dengue, chikungunya and Zika. The aim of this study was to compare the neurotoxic effects of these two pesticides using guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata) as a model organism. Guppies were exposed for 7 and 21 days to technical grade temephos and spinosad at 1.0 and 0.07 g/L, respectively, (10 and 0.5 mg/L of active substance; concentrations recommended by the Ministery of Health of the State (Secretaría de Salud de Nayarit (SSN) Mexico)). Subsequently, acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE) and acetylcholine concentrations (ACh) in muscle tissue were determined. Temephos exposure decreased AChE activity and increased ACh concentration, whereas exposure to spinosad only increased ACh concentration. Though cholinergic alterations were more severe in fish exposed to temephos, both pesticides were equally lethal during the first seven days after exposure. Nonetheless, temephos was more lethal after 21 days.

  9. MIOGÊNESE DO TECIDO MUSCULAR BRANQUIAL DO PEIXE EURIALINO Poecilia vivipara (Cyprinodontiformes, Poeciliidae EXPOSTO À SALINIDADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANA MARIA ANTUNES

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The teleost Poecilia vivipara are characterized as euryhaline, in other words, they modulate gill cell behavior to survive in environments with varying salinity. P.vivipara gills have a set of striated skeletal muscles, abductor and adductor muscles, which plays an important role in the respiration process. This study aimed todescribe the morphology of gill muscles during the early stages of development and perform an initial morphological characterization of adults P.vivipara. Moreover, it aimed to analyze the effects of different concentrations of salinity on the morphological characteristics of muscle fibers in fingerlings´ gills. Results showed that the muscle fibers are formed between phases 2 and 3 of embryonic development. At this stage of development, gill muscles are inserted into the basal portion of gill filament, possibly in the bulkhead of cartilage that supports the gills, and organized in musclebundles located along the gill filament. This morphological organization remains in adults. An increase in the diameter of the fibers and muscle bundles was observed in fingerlings exposed to concentrations of sea salt, which allows relating the body size of P.vivipara with the degree of salinity of the environment where theylive.

  10. Food Security, Fisheries and Aquaculture in the Bolivian Amazon ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    scale aquaculture value chains in two pilot areas: capture fisheries in the northern Bolivian Amazon (Paiche) and pond aquaculture of native fish in the Marmoré basin in the northeastern Amazon. The team will analyze the nutritional value of ...

  11. Amazon soils : a reconnaissance of the soils of the Brazilian Amazon region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sombroek, W.G.

    1966-01-01

    The study deals with soils of the Brazilian part of the Amazon basin. Most soils are Latosols, some with soft or hardened plinthite. The Latosols are characterized by a latosolic B horizon as defined in Brazil.

    Plinthite, its formation and morphology were extensively described. Five main

  12. Metagenome sequencing of the microbial community of two Brazilian anthropogenic Amazon dark earth sites, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Leandro Nascimento; de Souza, Rosineide Cardoso; de Souza Cannavan, Fabiana; Patricio, André; Pylro, Victor Satler; Hanada, Rogério Eiji; Mui, Tsai Siu

    2016-12-01

    The Anthropogenic Amazon Dark Earth soil is considered one of the world's most fertile soils. These soils differs from conventional Amazon soils because its higher organic content concentration. Here we describe the metagenome sequencing of microbial communities of two sites of Anthropogenic Amazon Dark Earth soils from Amazon Rainforest, Brazil. The raw sequence data are stored under Short Read Accession number: PRJNA344917.

  13. Socio-ecological costs of Amazon nut and timber production at community household forests in the Bolivian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soriano Candia, M.; Mohren, G.M.J.; Ascarrunz, Nataly; Dressler, W.H.; Pena Claros, M.

    2017-01-01

    The Bolivian Amazon holds a complex configuration of people and forested landscapes in which communities hold secure tenure rights over a rich ecosystem offering a range of livelihood income opportunities. A large share of this income is derived from Amazon nut (Bertholletia excelsa). Many

  14. Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15 – Scaling Amazon Carbon Water Couplings Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubey, Manvendra [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Parket, Harrison [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Myers, Katherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rahn, Thom [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Christoffersson, B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wunch, Debra [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Wennberg, Paul [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Forests soak up 25% of the carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted by anthropogenic fossil energy use (10 Gt C y-1), moderating its atmospheric accumulation. How this terrestrial CO2 uptake will evolve with climate change in the 21st Century is largely unknown. Rainforests are the most active ecosystems, with the Amazon basin storing 120 Gt C as biomass and exchanging 18 Gt C y-1 of CO2 via photosynthesis and respiration and fixing carbon at 2-3 kg C m-2 y-1. Furthermore, the intense hydrologic and carbon cycles are tightly coupled in the Amazon where about half of the water is recycled by evapotranspiration and the other half imported from the ocean by Northeasterly trade winds. Climate models predict a drying in the Amazon with reduced carbon uptake while observationally guided assessments indicate sustained uptake. We set out to resolve this huge discrepancy in the size and sign of the future Amazon carbon cycle by performing the first simultaneous regional-scale high-frequency measurements of atmospheric CO2, H2O, HOD, CH4, N2O, and CO at the T3 site in Manacupuru, Brazil, as part of DOE's GoAmazon 2014/15 project. Our data will be used to inform and develop DOE's Community Land Model (CLM) on the tropical carbon-water couplings at the appropriate grid scale (10-50 km). Our measurements will also validate the CO2 data from Japan's Greenhouse gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) and NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO)-2 satellite (launched in July, 2014). Our data addresses these science questions: 1. How does ecosystem heterogeneity and climate variability influence the rainforest carbon cycle? 2. How well do current tropical ecosystem models simulate the observed regional carbon cycle? 3. Does nitrogen deposition (from the Manaus, Brazil, plume) enhance rainforest carbon uptake?

  15. Proliferation of hydroelectric dams in the Andean Amazon and implications for Andes-Amazon connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N

    2012-01-01

    Due to rising energy demands and abundant untapped potential, hydropower projects are rapidly increasing in the Neotropics. This is especially true in the wet and rugged Andean Amazon, where regional governments are prioritizing new hydroelectric dams as the centerpiece of long-term energy plans. However, the current planning for hydropower lacks adequate regional and basin-scale assessment of potential ecological impacts. This lack of strategic planning is particularly problematic given the intimate link between the Andes and Amazonian flood plain, together one of the most species rich zones on Earth. We examined the potential ecological impacts, in terms of river connectivity and forest loss, of the planned proliferation of hydroelectric dams across all Andean tributaries of the Amazon River. Considering data on the full portfolios of existing and planned dams, along with data on roads and transmission line systems, we developed a new conceptual framework to estimate the relative impacts of all planned dams. There are plans for 151 new dams greater than 2 MW over the next 20 years, more than a 300% increase. These dams would include five of the six major Andean tributaries of the Amazon. Our ecological impact analysis classified 47% of the potential new dams as high impact and just 19% as low impact. Sixty percent of the dams would cause the first major break in connectivity between protected Andean headwaters and the lowland Amazon. More than 80% would drive deforestation due to new roads, transmission lines, or inundation. We conclude with a discussion of three major policy implications of these findings. 1) There is a critical need for further strategic regional and basin scale evaluation of dams. 2) There is an urgent need for a strategic plan to maintain Andes-Amazon connectivity. 3) Reconsideration of hydropower as a low-impact energy source in the Neotropics.

  16. Proliferation of hydroelectric dams in the Andean Amazon and implications for Andes-Amazon connectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Finer

    Full Text Available Due to rising energy demands and abundant untapped potential, hydropower projects are rapidly increasing in the Neotropics. This is especially true in the wet and rugged Andean Amazon, where regional governments are prioritizing new hydroelectric dams as the centerpiece of long-term energy plans. However, the current planning for hydropower lacks adequate regional and basin-scale assessment of potential ecological impacts. This lack of strategic planning is particularly problematic given the intimate link between the Andes and Amazonian flood plain, together one of the most species rich zones on Earth. We examined the potential ecological impacts, in terms of river connectivity and forest loss, of the planned proliferation of hydroelectric dams across all Andean tributaries of the Amazon River. Considering data on the full portfolios of existing and planned dams, along with data on roads and transmission line systems, we developed a new conceptual framework to estimate the relative impacts of all planned dams. There are plans for 151 new dams greater than 2 MW over the next 20 years, more than a 300% increase. These dams would include five of the six major Andean tributaries of the Amazon. Our ecological impact analysis classified 47% of the potential new dams as high impact and just 19% as low impact. Sixty percent of the dams would cause the first major break in connectivity between protected Andean headwaters and the lowland Amazon. More than 80% would drive deforestation due to new roads, transmission lines, or inundation. We conclude with a discussion of three major policy implications of these findings. 1 There is a critical need for further strategic regional and basin scale evaluation of dams. 2 There is an urgent need for a strategic plan to maintain Andes-Amazon connectivity. 3 Reconsideration of hydropower as a low-impact energy source in the Neotropics.

  17. Actividad antimicótica in vitro y metabolitos del aceite esencial de las hojas de Minthostachys Mollis (muña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Cano

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Demostrar la actividad antimicótica in vitro y la elucidación de algunos de los metabolitos del aceite esencial de hojas de Minthostachys mollis (muña proveniente del distrito de Huacrapuquio (2700 msnm, Junín. Materiales y métodos. El aceite esencial se obtuvo por el método de destilación por arrastre de vapor de agua. Este fue sometido a análisis físico-químico y determinación de la composición química mediante cromatografía de gases. Mediante el método de agar en difusión se evaluó la inhibición del crecimiento fúngico de Candida albicans y también por el método de dilución en tubo para Trichophytun tonsurans, Trichophytun mentagrophytes, Microsporun canis. Resultados. Se encontraron los siguientes monoterpenos: pulegona, mentona, limoneno y mirceno. El aceite esencial de muña inhibió completamente el desarrollo de T. tonsurasn, T. mentagrophytes y M. canis con ambos métodos de evaluación y dosis, para C. albicans se logró un halo de inhibición de 30 mm para el aceite esencial al 100% y de 35 mm al 50%. Conclusiones. Se demostró la actividad antimicótica del aceite esencial de muña, probablemente por la acción de los monoterpenos encontrados.

  18. Characterization of the unfolding process of the tetrameric and dimeric forms of Cratylia mollis seed lectin (CRAMOLL 1): effects of natural fragmentation on protein stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varejão, Nathalia; Correia, Maria Tereza S; Foguel, Debora

    2011-08-30

    pCRAMOLL 1 is a major, non-glycosylated isolectin found in seeds of Cratylia mollis, which belongs to the Leguminosae family and the Diocleinae subtribe. The lectin (~25 kDa) consists of 236 amino acids, sharing 82% identity and virtually identical topological architecture with concanavalin A. Both lectins also share the same pH-dependent dimer-tetramer equilibrium and the ability to recognize Glc/Man moieties. Intricate post-translational events occurring in Diocleinae seed cotyledons result in a mixture of intact and fragmented monomers within the oligomeric assemblies of pCRAMOLL 1. In an earlier report, we demonstrated the production, purification, and characterization of the bacterially expressed form of CRAMOLL 1 (rCRAMOLL 1). The recombinant lectin retained sugar-binding activity and several other biophysical properties of pCRAMOLL 1, but its tetramers, which are composed of intact monomers only, show little enhancement in stability when probed with acidification, high temperatures, or hydrostatic pressure. Here we examined the urea-induced unfolding of the nonfragmented tetramers and dimers of rCRAMOLL 1 and compared this behavior with that of the mixed plant lectin counterparts. Using fluorescence, circular dichroism, size-exclusion chromatography, and chemical cross-linking experiments, we posited that the absence of fragmentation lent greater firmness to tetramers, but not to dimers. Dimeric and tetrameric pCRAMOLL 1 unfolded via a compact monomeric intermediate. In contrast, dimers of rCRAMOLL 1 behaved similarly to the plant dimer counterpart, but its tetrameric form remarkably showed no evidence of such partially unfolded monomers. By analyzing the crystal structure of pCRAMOLL 1, we were able to dissect the importance of the fragmentation to lectin stability.

  19. Forecasting Malaria in the Western Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, W. K.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Pizzitutti, F.; Berky, A.; Feingold, B.; Mena, C.; Janko, M.

    2017-12-01

    Reported cases of malaria in the western Amazon regions of Peru, Colombia and Ecuador have more than tripled since 2011. Responding to this epidemic has been challenging given large-scale environmental impacts and demographic changes combined with changing financial and political priorities. In Peru alone, malaria cases increased 5-fold since 2011. Reasons include changes in the Global Malaria Fund, massive flooding in 2012, the "mega" El Nino in 2016, and continued natural resource extraction via logging and mining. These challenges prompted the recent creation of the Malaria Cero program in 2017 with the goal to eradicate malaria by 2021. To assist in malaria eradiation, a team of investigators supported by NASA have been developing an Early Warning System for Malaria. The system leverages demographic, epidemiological, meteorological and land use/cover data to develop a four-component system that will improve detection of malaria across the western Amazon Basin. System components include a land data assimilation system (LDAS) to estimate past and future hydrological states and flux, a seasonal human population model to estimate population at risk and spatial connectivity to high risk transmission areas, a sub-regional statistical model to identify when and where observed malaria cases have exceeded those expected, and an Agent Based Model (ABM) to integrate human, environmental, and entomological transmission dynamics with potential strategies for control. Data include: daily case detection reports between 2000 and 2017 from all health posts in the region of Loreto in the northern Peruvian Amazon; LDAS outputs (precipitation, temperature, humidity, solar radiation) at a 1km and weekly scale; satellite-derived estimates of land cover; and human population size from census and health data. This presentation will provide an overview of components, focusing on how the system identifies an outbreak and plans for technology transfer.

  20. Geochemical Signature of Amazon Tropical Rainforest Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José João Lelis Leal de Souza

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Evaluating soil geochemical diversity in the Amazon Basin has been a challenge largely because most study sites have been at the edge of the basin and it is difficult to get samples in such a region. Here we show that even among the most weathered soils, physicochemical soil properties express lithology. Our results are based on topsoil samples collected from different locations in minimally disturbed areas in the state of Amazonas, Brazil. Soil properties were measured using methods which are suitable for highly developed soils. The Chemical Index Alteration and Weathering Index of Parker was calculated based on the content of metal(loids in soils determined by X-ray fluorescence. Descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, and Principal Component Analysis (PCA were performed on data. In general, Amazon rainforest soils are more deeply weathered than soils in other Brazilian biomes and tropical rainforests in Asia and Africa. The high coefficient of variation of metal(loid contents express pedogenesis and parent material diversity. Correlation analysis indicated that the tri-pentavalent elements are strongly associated with Al and Fe contents in the topsoil. In contrast, mono-divalent elements are correlated with sand and silt fractions. According to PCA, five soil groups with defined geochemical compositions and degrees of weathering could be identified: i acidic sandy podzolized soils; ii acidic loamy ferralitic soils with the highest content of tri-pentavalent ions; iii acidic clayey kaolinitic soils with low metal(loid contents; iv acidic loamy kaolinitic soils with low metal(loid contents; and v silty neutral 2:1 clay soils. This study is the first effort to analyze the geochemical diversity in Amazon rainforest soils. These data are extremely valuable in determining the geochemical background for these soil types and this region. Geochemical variability can be predicted to some extent by lithology and pedogenesis, which can be

  1. Necrotizing fasciitis of soft tissues. Diagnostic imaging findings and literature review; Le fascite necrotizzante dei tessuti molli. Ruolo della diagnostica per immagini e revisione della letteratura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parenti, G.C.; Marri, C. [Ospedale Civile S. Maria delle Croci, Ravenna (Italy). Servizio di Radiodiagnostica; Calandra, G. [Ospedale Civile S. Maria delle Croci, Ravenna (Italy). Unita' operativa di Pronto Soccorso; Morisi, C. [Ospedale Civile S. Maria delle Croci, Ravenna (Italy). Servizio di Anatomia Patologica; Zabberoni, W. [Ospedale Civile S. Maria delle Croci, Ravenna (Italy). Div. di Malattie Infettive, Gruppo di rilevamento dati sulle INPS-ASL

    2000-05-01

    maggio 1991 a febbraio 1998 sono giunti alla nostra osservazione 130 casi di infezioni necrotizzanti progressive dei tessuti molli; in 32 casi l'eta' era compresa fra 22 e 84 anni; la diagnosi istologica retrospettiva e' risultata quella della fascite necrotizzante. Le sedi interessate dal processo sono state: arti (26/32), regioni cervicale (5/32) e perineale (1/32). Diciannove pazienti (19/32) sono stati sottoposti d'urgenza a esame radiografico eseguito anche per lo studio dei tessuti molli. L'esame ecografico e' stato eseguito d'urgenza in tutti i 32 pazienti. La valutazione dei pazienti con sospetto di infezioni necrosanti progressive e' affidata di solito a un gruppo di operatori esperti in diagnostica ecografica dei tessuti molli perischeletrici. L'esame TC e' stato eseguito in 9 casi (9/32); a ognuno di questi pazienti e' stato somministrato mdc iodato per via endovenosa. Con gli esami ecografico ed eco color Doppler, nel sospetto di fascite necrotizzante, e' possibile offrire indicazioni utili e affidabili per il corretto e rapido orientamento diagnostico; in particolare tale metodica e' in grado di rilevare precocemente alterazioni al tessuto adiposo sottocutaneo (28/32), alla fascia (18/32) e al tessuto molecolare (15/32). E' stata riscontrata buona correlazione tra alterazione tissutale rilevata con l'esame ecografico e reperto istologico; l'ecografia non ha evidenziato alterazioni al tessuto adiposo sottocutaneo (3/32) e al tessuto molecolare (8/32) in 11 casi pur evidenti all'esame istologico. La TC con mdc puo' essere utile per la migliore definizione dell'estensione della malattia e per la dimostrazione di eventuali complicanze, soprattutto in sedi difficili da raggiungere con l'ecografia. Le probabilita' di guarigione per i pazienti affetti da fascite necrotizzante sono direttamente proporzionali alla precocita' della diagnosi e all

  2. [The Amazon Sanitation Plan (1940-1942)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Rômulo de Paula; Hochman, Gilberto

    2007-12-01

    The article addresses the Amazon Sanitation Plan and the political context in which it was formulated between 1940 and 1941. It examines the role of Getúlio Vargas, the activities of the plan's main protagonists (such as Evandro Chagas, João de Barros Barreto, and Valério Konder), its key proposals, and its demise as of 1942 upon creation of the Special Public Health Service (Sesp), which grew out of cooperation agreements between Brazil and the US following both nations' involvement in World War II. A reproduction of the Plan as published in the Arquivos de Higiene in 1941 is included.

  3. The Amazon reveals its secrets--partly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Julio L.

    2000-01-01

    The role of the tropics in global climate change during glacial cycles is hotly debated in paleoclimate cycles today. Records from South America have not provided a clear picture of tropical climate change. In his Perspective, Betancourt highlights the study by Maslin and Burns, who have deduced the outflow of the Amazon over the past 14,000 years. This may serve as a proxy that integrates hydrology over the entire South American tropics, although the record must be interpreted cautiously because factors other than rainfall may contribute to the variability in outflow.

  4. Predation risk and abiotic habitat parameters affect personality traits in extremophile populations of a neotropical fish (Poecilia vivipara).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer-Trembo, Carolin; Petry, Ana Cristina; Gomes Silva, Guilherme; Vurusic, Sebastijan Martin; Gismann, Jakob; Baier, Jasmin; Krause, Sarah; Iorio, Julia de Araujo Cardoso; Riesch, Rüdiger; Plath, Martin

    2017-08-01

    Understanding whether and how ambient ecological conditions affect the distribution of personality types within and among populations lies at the heart of research on animal personality. Several studies have focussed on only one agent of divergent selection (or driver of plastic changes in behavior), considering either predation risk or a single abiotic ecological factor. Here, we investigated how an array of abiotic and biotic environmental factors simultaneously shape population differences in boldness, activity in an open-field test, and sociability/shoaling in the livebearing fish Poecilia vivipara from six ecologically different lagoons in southeastern Brazil. We evaluated the relative contributions of variation in predation risk, water transparency/visibility, salinity (ranging from oligo- to hypersaline), and dissolved oxygen. We also investigated the role played by environmental factors for the emergence, strength, and direction of behavioral correlations. Water transparency explained most of the behavioral variation, whereby fish from lagoons with low water transparency were significantly shyer, less active, and shoaled less than fish living under clear water conditions. When we tested additional wild-caught fish from the same lagoons after acclimating them to homogeneous laboratory conditions, population differences were largely absent, pointing toward behavioral plasticity as a mechanism underlying the observed behavioral differences. Furthermore, we found correlations between personality traits (behavioral syndromes) to vary substantially in strength and direction among populations, with no obvious associations with ecological factors (including predation risk). Altogether, our results suggest that various habitat parameters simultaneously shape the distribution of personality types, with abiotic factors playing a vital (as yet underestimated) role. Furthermore, while predation is often thought to lead to the emergence of behavioral syndromes, our data

  5. Reproduction potentiated in nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans) and guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata) by adding a synthetic peptide to their aqueous environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Keith G; Zimmerman, Brian; Dudley, Ed; Newton, Russell P; Hart, John E

    2015-03-01

    Ambient exposure to a short synthetic peptide has enhanced fecundity (number of offspring) in invertebrates and vertebrates, ostensibly by disinhibiting reproduction. In separate experiments, nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans) and guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata) were exposed via their aqueous environment to a dissolved synthetic hexamer (6mer) peptide, IEPVFT (EPL036), at a concentration of 1 μmol l(-1). In the case of the worms, peptide was added to their aqueous buffer daily throughout the experiment (14 days); for the guppies, peptide administration was on the first 15 alternate days in a 50 week experiment. Fecundity rose by 79% among the worms. The number of descendants of the treated guppies was more than four times that of controls by week 26 (103 versus 25, including 72 juveniles versus 6), with 15.4% more estimated biomass in the test tank in total (i.e. including founders). It was deduced that treated females bred earlier, at a smaller size, and had larger brood sizes. The total number of fish in the control tank had caught up by termination, but biomass continued to lag the test tank. There were no overt signs of toxicity among either the worms or the fish. Bioinformatics has been unilluminating in explaining these results in terms, for example, of mimicry of an endogenous regulator. A mass spectrometric campaign to identify a receptor, using murine brain for expediency, proved inconclusive. Molecular modelling in silico indicated unexpectedly that the hexamer EPL036 might be acting as an antagonist, to pro-fecundity effect; that is, as a blocker of an inhibitor. This suggests that there awaits discovery an evolutionarily conserved reproductive inhibitor and its (anti-fecundity) receptor. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Gender-specific histopathological response in guppies Poecilia reticulata exposed to glyphosate or its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Adriana Maria; Rocha, Thiago Lopes; Pires, Fernando Santiago; de Freitas, Meire Alves; Leite, Vanessa Rafaela Milhomem Cruz; Arana, Sarah; Moreira, Paulo César; Sabóia-Morais, Simone Maria Teixeira

    2017-09-01

    Ecotoxicity of glyphosate (GLY) and its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) was investigated in guppies, Poecilia reticulata. We tested the effects of these chemicals on the gills and liver of both male and female guppies using qualitative and quantitative histopathological analyses associated with histopathological condition indexes. Both genders showed similar median lethal concentration (LC 50 ) at 96 h for GLY (68.78 and 70.87 mg l -1 ) and AMPA (180 and 164.32 mg l -1 ). However, the histopathological assessment of both fish organs exposed to sublethal concentrations of GLY (35 mg l -1 ) and AMPA (82 mg l -1 ) for 96 h showed a tissue- and gender-specific histopathological response. In both exposure assays, fish presented mainly progressive changes, such as proliferation of the interlamellar epithelium, partial and total fusion of secondary lamellae. The liver showed mainly regressive changes, such as steatosis, pyknotic nuclei and high distribution of collagen fibers. Unusually large hepatocytes as degenerated cells were also detected. Histopathological changes in gills were similar for the males and females, but the liver response was different between the genders. The hepatic inflammatory changes were more common in males. The increase in the area of hepatocyte vacuoles is gender dependent with higher values in the male compared to the female guppies exposed to GLY and AMPA. Multiparametric analysis indicated that the male guppies are more sensitive than females, particularly in the presence of AMPA. Our study shows that the histopathological assessment associated with gender-specific response can be successfully used in ecotoxicological assessment of GLY and the metabolite AMPA. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Contrasting Population and Diet Influences on Gut Length of an Omnivorous Tropical Fish, the Trinidadian Guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandonà, Eugenia; Auer, Sonya K; Kilham, Susan S; Reznick, David N

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is advantageous for organisms that live in variable environments. The digestive system is particularly plastic, responding to changes in diet. Gut length is the result of a trade-off between maximum nutrient absorption and minimum cost for its maintenance and it can be influenced by diet and by evolutionary history. We assessed variation in gut length of Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) as a function of diet, season, ontogeny, and local adaptation. Populations of guppies adapted to different predation levels have evolved different life history traits and have different diets. We sampled guppies from sites with low (LP) and high predation (HP) pressure in the Aripo and Guanapo Rivers in Trinidad. We collected fish during both the dry and wet season and assessed their diet and gut length. During the dry season, guppies from HP sites fed mostly on invertebrates, while guppies in the LP sites fed mainly on detritus. During the wet season, the diet of LP and HP populations became very similar. We did not find strong evidence of an ontogenetic diet shift. Gut length was negatively correlated with the proportion of invertebrates in diet across fish from all sites, supporting the hypothesis that guppy digestive systems adapt in length to changes in diet. Population of origin also had an effect on gut length, as HP and LP fish maintained different gut lengths even in the wet season, when their diets were very similar and individuals in both types of populations fed mostly on detritus. Thus, both environment and population of origin influenced guppies gut length, but population of origin seemed to have a stronger effect. Our study also showed that, even in omnivorous fish, gut length adapted to different diets, being more evident when the magnitude of difference between animal and plant material in the diet was very large.

  8. Contrasting Population and Diet Influences on Gut Length of an Omnivorous Tropical Fish, the Trinidadian Guppy (Poecilia reticulata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Zandonà

    Full Text Available Phenotypic plasticity is advantageous for organisms that live in variable environments. The digestive system is particularly plastic, responding to changes in diet. Gut length is the result of a trade-off between maximum nutrient absorption and minimum cost for its maintenance and it can be influenced by diet and by evolutionary history. We assessed variation in gut length of Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata as a function of diet, season, ontogeny, and local adaptation. Populations of guppies adapted to different predation levels have evolved different life history traits and have different diets. We sampled guppies from sites with low (LP and high predation (HP pressure in the Aripo and Guanapo Rivers in Trinidad. We collected fish during both the dry and wet season and assessed their diet and gut length. During the dry season, guppies from HP sites fed mostly on invertebrates, while guppies in the LP sites fed mainly on detritus. During the wet season, the diet of LP and HP populations became very similar. We did not find strong evidence of an ontogenetic diet shift. Gut length was negatively correlated with the proportion of invertebrates in diet across fish from all sites, supporting the hypothesis that guppy digestive systems adapt in length to changes in diet. Population of origin also had an effect on gut length, as HP and LP fish maintained different gut lengths even in the wet season, when their diets were very similar and individuals in both types of populations fed mostly on detritus. Thus, both environment and population of origin influenced guppies gut length, but population of origin seemed to have a stronger effect. Our study also showed that, even in omnivorous fish, gut length adapted to different diets, being more evident when the magnitude of difference between animal and plant material in the diet was very large.

  9. The agricultural contaminant 17β-trenbolone disrupts male-male competition in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkins, Patrick; Saaristo, Minna; Bertram, Michael G; Tomkins, Raymond B; Allinson, Mayumi; Wong, Bob B M

    2017-11-01

    Despite a growing literature highlighting the potential impact of human-induced environmental change on mechanisms of sexual selection, relatively little is known about the effects of chemical pollutants on male-male competition. One class of environmental pollutant likely to impact male competitive interactions is the endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), a large and heterogeneous group of chemical contaminants with the potential to influence morphology, physiology and behaviour at minute concentrations. One EDC of increasing concern is the synthetic, androgenic steroid 17β-trenbolone, which is used globally to promote growth in beef cattle. Although 17β-trenbolone has been found to cause severe morphological and behavioural abnormalities in fish, its potential impact on male-male competition has yet to be investigated. To address this, we exposed wild male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) to an environmentally realistic concentration of 17β-trenbolone (average measured concentration: 8 ng/L) for 21 days using a flow-through system. We found that, in the presence of a competitor, 17β-trenbolone-exposed males carried out more frequent aggressive behaviours towards rival males than did unexposed males, as well as performing less courting behaviour and more sneak (i.e., coercive) mating attempts towards females. Considering that, by influencing mating outcomes, male-male competition has important consequences for population dynamics and broader evolutionary processes, this study highlights the need for greater understanding of the potential impact of EDCs on the mechanisms of sexual selection. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Temporal dynamics of epidermal responses of guppies Poecilia reticulata to a sublethal range of waterborne zinc concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghiu, C; Marcogliese, D J; Scott, M E

    2009-12-01

    This study assessed the histological changes in the epidermis of guppies Poecilia reticulata induced by waterborne zinc (Zn). Laboratory-reared P. reticulata fry were maintained individually in separate vessels containing artificial water (8 microg l(-1) Zn) to which 0, 15, 30, 60 or 120 microg l(-1) Zn was added. Their epidermal response to Zn was monitored regularly over 4 weeks. Compared with controls, mucus was rapidly released and mucous cell numbers decreased at all concentrations. Thereafter mucous release, epidermal thickness, numbers and size of mucous cells fluctuated at a rate that varied with Zn concentration, but fluctuations declined after day 18. Results clearly highlight the dynamic nature of the epidermal response to sublethal concentrations of waterborne Zn. In general, low concentrations of Zn induced a rapid response with reduced numbers and size of mucous cells and shift in mucin composition, and a subsequent thickening of the epidermis. Epidermal thickness and mucous cell area fluctuated over time but were normal after a month of exposure to low Zn concentrations. The number of mucous cells, however, remained low. Virtually all mucous cells from fish maintained in 15 and 60 microg l(-1) Zn contained acidic mucins throughout the month, whereas fish maintained at 30 microg l(-1) Zn responded by production of neutral mucins during the first 12 days followed by a mixture of neutral and acidic mucins. At 120 microg l(-1) Zn, the most dramatic effects were the gradual but sustained decrease in numbers and area of mucous cells, and the shift to acidic mucins in these cells. Thus, as concentration of Zn increased, the epidermal responses indicated a disturbed host response (dramatic decline in mucous cell numbers, with mixed composition of mucins), which may have been less effective in preventing Zn uptake across the epithelium.

  11. Structure of the female gonoduct of the viviparous teleost Poecilia reticulata (Poeciliidae) during nongestation and gestation stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campuzano-Caballero, Juan Carlos; Uribe, Mari Carmen

    2014-03-01

    Female teleosts do not have oviducts because Müllerian ducts do not develop. Instead, the caudal region of the ovary, the gonoduct, connects to the exterior. Because of the lack of oviducts in viviparous teleosts, the embryos develop in the ovary, as an intraovarian gestation, unique in vertebrates. This is the first study to address the histology of the gonoduct in a viviparous teleost. The gonoduct of Poecilia reticulata was analyzed during previtellogenesis, vitellogenesis, and gestation. The gonoduct lacks germinal cells. From deep to superficial, the wall has simple cuboidal or columnar epithelium, loose connective tissue, longitudinal layer of smooth muscle, and visceral peritoneum. Cells of the immune system occur in the lumen and in the mucosa. The gonoduct was divided in three regions: 1) cephalic, 2) middle, and 3) caudal. At the initial part of each region, thin mucosal folds extend into the lumen. The cephalic region forms a tubular structure with light and irregular folds. The middle region has a wider lumen and is more irregular due to ventral invaginations and irregular and short mucosal folds; beneath the epithelium there are melano-macrophage centers. The caudal region is delimited from the middle region by folds; however, they are thinner than these of the other regions. Ventral invaginations form exocrine glands, and the smooth muscle is thicker than in the other regions. During gestation, cells of the immune system are abundant; melano-macrophage centers become larger and the glands exhibit desquamated cells. These observations suggest roles of the gonoduct in reducing the diameter of the lumen; receiving sperm during vitellogenesis; producing secretions, more abundant during vitellogenesis; and in immunological activity throughout the reproductive cycle. The ciliated epithelium and the thick muscle of the caudal region may be involved during birth. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Carbon uptake by mature Amazon forests has mitigated Amazon nations' carbon emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Oliver L; Brienen, Roel J W

    2017-12-01

    Several independent lines of evidence suggest that Amazon forests have provided a significant carbon sink service, and also that the Amazon carbon sink in intact, mature forests may now be threatened as a result of different processes. There has however been no work done to quantify non-land-use-change forest carbon fluxes on a national basis within Amazonia, or to place these national fluxes and their possible changes in the context of the major anthropogenic carbon fluxes in the region. Here we present a first attempt to interpret results from ground-based monitoring of mature forest carbon fluxes in a biogeographically, politically, and temporally differentiated way. Specifically, using results from a large long-term network of forest plots, we estimate the Amazon biomass carbon balance over the last three decades for the different regions and nine nations of Amazonia, and evaluate the magnitude and trajectory of these differentiated balances in relation to major national anthropogenic carbon emissions. The sink of carbon into mature forests has been remarkably geographically ubiquitous across Amazonia, being substantial and persistent in each of the five biogeographic regions within Amazonia. Between 1980 and 2010, it has more than mitigated the fossil fuel emissions of every single national economy, except that of Venezuela. For most nations (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname) the sink has probably additionally mitigated all anthropogenic carbon emissions due to Amazon deforestation and other land use change. While the sink has weakened in some regions since 2000, our analysis suggests that Amazon nations which are able to conserve large areas of natural and semi-natural landscape still contribute globally-significant carbon sequestration. Mature forests across all of Amazonia have contributed significantly to mitigating climate change for decades. Yet Amazon nations have not directly benefited from providing this global scale

  13. Carbon uptake by mature Amazon forests has mitigated Amazon nations’ carbon emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver L. Phillips

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several independent lines of evidence suggest that Amazon forests have provided a significant carbon sink service, and also that the Amazon carbon sink in intact, mature forests may now be threatened as a result of different processes. There has however been no work done to quantify non-land-use-change forest carbon fluxes on a national basis within Amazonia, or to place these national fluxes and their possible changes in the context of the major anthropogenic carbon fluxes in the region. Here we present a first attempt to interpret results from ground-based monitoring of mature forest carbon fluxes in a biogeographically, politically, and temporally differentiated way. Specifically, using results from a large long-term network of forest plots, we estimate the Amazon biomass carbon balance over the last three decades for the different regions and nine nations of Amazonia, and evaluate the magnitude and trajectory of these differentiated balances in relation to major national anthropogenic carbon emissions. Results The sink of carbon into mature forests has been remarkably geographically ubiquitous across Amazonia, being substantial and persistent in each of the five biogeographic regions within Amazonia. Between 1980 and 2010, it has more than mitigated the fossil fuel emissions of every single national economy, except that of Venezuela. For most nations (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname the sink has probably additionally mitigated all anthropogenic carbon emissions due to Amazon deforestation and other land use change. While the sink has weakened in some regions since 2000, our analysis suggests that Amazon nations which are able to conserve large areas of natural and semi-natural landscape still contribute globally-significant carbon sequestration. Conclusions Mature forests across all of Amazonia have contributed significantly to mitigating climate change for decades. Yet Amazon nations

  14. Patents on periphery of the Amazon rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Emanoel G; Araújo, José R G; Monroe, Paulo H M; de O Nascimento, Ivaneide; Aguiar, Alana C F

    2009-06-01

    In the humid tropics, on the edges of the Amazon forest, the technological challenges to establishing and maintaining productive and sustainable agricultural systems have yet to be overcome. The groups involved in agriculture in the north of Brazil still engage in the practice of slash and burn in order to prepare and fertilize the soil. This produces negative effects for the local and global environment, without the counter-effect of providing social benefits to rural communities. Whether this process continues is of fundamental importance to many countries because it means that slash and burn agriculture is advancing on the Amazon rainforest, with a negative effect on every dimension of national policy. Beyond social political problems the biggest challenge for researchers in the field of tropical agriculture is to offer technological alternatives that can sustain agriculture in soils derived from sedimentary rocks that have been subjected to a high degree of weathering. In this article patented information is also discussed. Experiments undertaken in this region recommend taking advantage of the rapid growth of plants in the tropics. We aimed at proposing a suitable alternative system for a sustainable soil management in the particular conditions of humid tropics, named as "no-till in alley cropping using tree leguminous mulch." This system offers the advantages of: bringing together, in the same space and at the same time, the processes of cultivation and the regeneration of soil fertility.

  15. Drought sensitivity of the Amazon rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Oliver L; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Lewis, Simon L; Fisher, Joshua B; Lloyd, Jon; López-González, Gabriela; Malhi, Yadvinder; Monteagudo, Abel; Peacock, Julie; Quesada, Carlos A; van der Heijden, Geertje; Almeida, Samuel; Amaral, Iêda; Arroyo, Luzmila; Aymard, Gerardo; Baker, Tim R; Bánki, Olaf; Blanc, Lilian; Bonal, Damien; Brando, Paulo; Chave, Jerome; de Oliveira, Atila Cristina Alves; Cardozo, Nallaret Dávila; Czimczik, Claudia I; Feldpausch, Ted R; Freitas, Maria Aparecida; Gloor, Emanuel; Higuchi, Niro; Jiménez, Eliana; Lloyd, Gareth; Meir, Patrick; Mendoza, Casimiro; Morel, Alexandra; Neill, David A; Nepstad, Daniel; Patiño, Sandra; Peñuela, Maria Cristina; Prieto, Adriana; Ramírez, Fredy; Schwarz, Michael; Silva, Javier; Silveira, Marcos; Thomas, Anne Sota; Steege, Hans Ter; Stropp, Juliana; Vásquez, Rodolfo; Zelazowski, Przemyslaw; Alvarez Dávila, Esteban; Andelman, Sandy; Andrade, Ana; Chao, Kuo-Jung; Erwin, Terry; Di Fiore, Anthony; Honorio C, Eurídice; Keeling, Helen; Killeen, Tim J; Laurance, William F; Peña Cruz, Antonio; Pitman, Nigel C A; Núñez Vargas, Percy; Ramírez-Angulo, Hirma; Rudas, Agustín; Salamão, Rafael; Silva, Natalino; Terborgh, John; Torres-Lezama, Armando

    2009-03-06

    Amazon forests are a key but poorly understood component of the global carbon cycle. If, as anticipated, they dry this century, they might accelerate climate change through carbon losses and changed surface energy balances. We used records from multiple long-term monitoring plots across Amazonia to assess forest responses to the intense 2005 drought, a possible analog of future events. Affected forest lost biomass, reversing a large long-term carbon sink, with the greatest impacts observed where the dry season was unusually intense. Relative to pre-2005 conditions, forest subjected to a 100-millimeter increase in water deficit lost 5.3 megagrams of aboveground biomass of carbon per hectare. The drought had a total biomass carbon impact of 1.2 to 1.6 petagrams (1.2 x 10(15) to 1.6 x 10(15) grams). Amazon forests therefore appear vulnerable to increasing moisture stress, with the potential for large carbon losses to exert feedback on climate change.

  16. Size distribution of Amazon River bed sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, C.F.; Meade, R.H.; Curtis, W.F.; Bosio, N.J.; Landim, P.M.B.

    1980-01-01

    The first recorded observations of bed material of the Amazon River were made in 1843 by Lt William Lewis Herndon of the US Navy, when he travelled the river from its headwaters to its mouth, sounding its depths, and noting the nature of particles caught in a heavy grease smeared to the bottom of his sounding weight1. He reported the bed material of the river to be mostly sand and fine gravel. Oltman and Ames took samples at a few locations in 1963 and 1964, and reported the bed material at O??bidos, Brazil, to be fine sands, with median diameters ranging from 0.15 to 0.25 mm (ref. 2). We present here a summary of particle-size analyses of samples of streambed material collected from the Amazon River and its major tributaries along a reach of the river from Iquitos in Peru, ???3,500 km above Macapa?? Brazil, to a point 220 km above Macapa??3. ?? 1980 Nature Publishing Group.

  17. Ovarian structure and oogenesis of the extremophile viviparous teleost Poecilia mexicana (Poeciliidae) from an active sulfur spring cave in Southern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Martínez, Aarón; Hernández-Franyutti, Arlette; Uribe, Mari Carmen; Contreras-Sánchez, Wilfrido Miguel

    2017-12-01

    The structure of the ovary and oogenesis of Poecilia mexicana from an active sulfur spring cave is documented. Poecilia mexicana is the only poeciliid adapted to a subterranean environment with high hydrogen sulfide levels and extreme hypoxic conditions. Twenty females were captured throughout one year at Cueva del Azufre, located in the State of Tabasco in Southern Mexico. Ovaries were processed with histological techniques. P. mexicana has a single, ovoid ovary with ovigerous lamella that project to the ovarian lumen. The ovarian wall presents abundant loose connective tissue, numerous melanomacrophage centers and large blood vessels, possibly associated with hypoxic conditions. The germinal epithelium bordering the ovarian lumen contains somatic and germ cells forming cell nests projecting into the stroma. P. mexicana stores sperm in ovarian folds associated with follicles at different developmental phases. Oogenesis in P. mexicana consisted of the following stages: (i) oogonial proliferation, (ii) chromatin nucleolus, (iii) primary growth, subdivided into: (a) one nucleolus, (b) multiple nucleoli, (c) droplet oils-cortical alveoli steps; (iv) secondary growth, subdivided in: (a) early secondary growth, (b) late secondary growth, and (c) full grown. Follicular atresia was present in all stages of follicular development; it was characterized by oocyte degeneration, where follicle cells hypertrophy and differentiate in phagocytes. The ovary and oogenesis are similar to these seen in other poeciliids, but we found frequent atretic follicles, melanomacrophage centers, reduced fecundity and increased of offspring size. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The Legal Protection of Ecoturism on Amazon State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Dias Cabral

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the legislation on ecotourism in the Amazon, which stands as polo Brazilian and global ecotourism. An answer search the following questioning: analyzing the social, environmental and cultural aspects, we can say that the Brazilian legal system and legislation promote Amazon Ecotourism? The methodology is deductive, with doctrinal, legislative and interdisciplinary research, as it quotes the thought of some tourismologists, agronomists and environmentalists. There in the text some concepts and brief history on Ecotourism, relevant legislation in international, national and state level, comments on prospects for the Amazon Ecotourism.

  19. Diversity of palm uses in the western Amazon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paniagua Zambrana, N.Y.; Byg, A.; Svenning, J.-C.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract  We used palm knowledge to understand the interaction between people and the rainforests and the factors that influence this dynamic process. We interviewed 278 informants in 12 villages in the Pastaza and Madidi areas of the western Amazon basin. Together they used 38 different palm......, the great variation in the knowledge they possess, and the fact that the differences between villages is so great, are important elements to consider when developing management plans for the sustainable use of the rainforest resources in the western Amazon. Keywords  Local knowledge - Palms - Western Amazon...

  20. Radium and barium in the Amazon River system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, W.S.; Edmond, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Data for 226 Ra and 228 Ra in the Amazon River system show that the activity of each radium isotope is strongly correlated with barium concentrations. Two trends are apparent, one for rivers which drain shield areas and another for all other rivers. These data suggest that there has been extensive fractionation of U, Th, and Ba during weathering in the Amazon basin. The 226 Ra data fit a flux model for the major ions indicating that 226 Ra behaves conservatively along the main channel of the Amazon River

  1. Trace elements distribution in the Amazon floodplain soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, E.A.N.; Ferraz, E.S.B.; Oliveira, H.

    1994-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis was performed on aluvial soil samples from several sites on the foodplains of the Amazon River and its major tributaries for trace elements determination. The spatial and temporal variations of chemical composition of floodland sediments in the Amazon basin are discussed. No significant difference was found in trace elemental distribution in the floodland soils along the Amazon main channel, even after the source material has been progressively diluted with that from lowland draining tributaries. It was also seen that the average chemical composition of floodplain soils compares well with that of the suspended sedimets. (author) 12 refs.; 5 figs.; 2 tabs

  2. Amazon River investigations, reconnaissance measurements of July 1963

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltman, Roy Edwin; Sternberg, H. O'R.; Ames, F.C.; Davis, L.C.

    1964-01-01

    The first measurements of the flow of the Amazon River were made in July 1963 as a joint project of the University of Brazil, the Brazilian Navy, and the U.S. Geological Survey. The discharge of the Amazon River at Obidos was 7,640,000 cfs at an annual flood stage somewhat lower than the average. For comparison the maximum known discharge of the Mississippi River at Vicksburg is about 2,300,000 cfs. Dissolved-solids concentrations and sediment loads of the Amazon River and of several major tributaries were found to be low.

  3. The Amazon continuum dataset: quantitative metagenomic and metatranscriptomic inventories of the Amazon River plume, June 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satinsky, Brandon M; Zielinski, Brian L; Doherty, Mary; Smith, Christa B; Sharma, Shalabh; Paul, John H; Crump, Byron C; Moran, Mary Ann

    2014-01-01

    The Amazon River is by far the world's largest in terms of volume and area, generating a fluvial export that accounts for about a fifth of riverine input into the world's oceans. Marine microbial communities of the Western Tropical North Atlantic Ocean are strongly affected by the terrestrial materials carried by the Amazon plume, including dissolved (DOC) and particulate organic carbon (POC) and inorganic nutrients, with impacts on primary productivity and carbon sequestration. We inventoried genes and transcripts at six stations in the Amazon River plume during June 2010. At each station, internal standard-spiked metagenomes, non-selective metatranscriptomes, and poly(A)-selective metatranscriptomes were obtained in duplicate for two discrete size fractions (0.2 to 2.0 μm and 2.0 to 156 μm) using 150 × 150 paired-end Illumina sequencing. Following quality control, the dataset contained 360 million reads of approximately 200 bp average size from Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya, and viruses. Bacterial metagenomes and metatranscriptomes were dominated by Synechococcus, Prochlorococcus, SAR11, SAR116, and SAR86, with high contributions from SAR324 and Verrucomicrobia at some stations. Diatoms, green picophytoplankton, dinoflagellates, haptophytes, and copepods dominated the eukaryotic genes and transcripts. Gene expression ratios differed by station, size fraction, and microbial group, with transcription levels varying over three orders of magnitude across taxa and environments. This first comprehensive inventory of microbial genes and transcripts, benchmarked with internal standards for full quantitation, is generating novel insights into biogeochemical processes of the Amazon plume and improving prediction of climate change impacts on the marine biosphere.

  4. LBA-ECO LC-07 JERS-1 SAR Wetlands Masks and Land Cover, Amazon Basin: 1995-1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides three Amazon Basin wetland image products: (1) a Central Amazon Wetlands Mask, (2) a Central Amazon Wetlands Vegetative-hydrologic...

  5. LBA-ECO LC-07 JERS-1 SAR Wetlands Masks and Land Cover, Amazon Basin: 1995-1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides three Amazon Basin wetland image products: (1) a Central Amazon Wetlands Mask, (2) a Central Amazon Wetlands Vegetative-hydrologic Land Cover...

  6. Tectonics and paleogeography along the Amazon river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, João Batista Sena; Léa Bemerguy, Ruth; Hasui, Yociteru; da Silva Borges, Maurício

    2001-09-01

    The main structural and geomorphological features along the Amazon River are closely associated with Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonic events. The Mesozoic tectonic setting is characterised by the Amazonas and Marajó Basins, two distinct extensional segments. The Amazonas Basin is formed by NNE-SSW normal faults, which control the emplacement of dolerite dykes and deposition of the sedimentary pile. In the more intense tectonic phase (mid-Late Cretaceous), the depocentres were filled with fluvial sequences associated with axial drainage systems, which diverge from the Lower Tapajós Arch. During the next subsidence phase, probably in the Early Tertiary, and under low rate extension, much of the drainage systems reversed, directing the paleo-Amazon River to flow eastwards. The Marajó Basin encompasses NW-SE normal faults and NE-SW strike-slip faults, with the latter running almost parallel to the extensional axes. The normal faults controlled the deposition of thick rift and post-rift sequences and the emplacement of dolerite dykes. During the evolution of the basin, the shoulder (Gurupá Arch) became distinct, having been modelled by drainage systems strongly controlled by the trend of the strike-slip faults. The Arari Lineament, which marks the northwest boundary of the Marajó Basin, has been working as a linkage corridor between the paleo and modern Amazon River with the Atlantic Ocean. The neotectonic evolution since the Miocene comprises two sets of structural and geomorphological features. The older set (Miocene-Pliocene) encompasses two NE-trending transpressive domains and one NW-trending transtensive domain, which are linked to E-W and NE-SW right-lateral strike-slip systems. The transpressive domains display aligned hills controlled by reverse faults and folds, and are separated by large plains associated with pull-apart basins along clockwise strike-slip systems (e.g. Tupinambarana Lineament). Many changes were introduced in the landscape by the

  7. The Legal Protection of Ecoturism on Amazon State

    OpenAIRE

    Bárbara Dias Cabral

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the legislation on ecotourism in the Amazon, which stands as polo Brazilian and global ecotourism. An answer search the following questioning: analyzing the social, environmental and cultural aspects, we can say that the Brazilian legal system and legislation promote Amazon Ecotourism? The methodology is deductive, with doctrinal, legislative and interdisciplinary research, as it quotes the thought of some tourismologists, agronomists and environmentalists. There in the ...

  8. Spatial Pattern of Standing Timber Value across the Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Sadia E.; Ewers, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    The Amazon is a globally important system, providing a host of ecosystem services from climate regulation to food sources. It is also home to a quarter of all global diversity. Large swathes of forest are removed each year, and many models have attempted to predict the spatial patterns of this forest loss. The spatial patterns of deforestation are determined largely by the patterns of roads that open access to frontier areas and expansion of the road network in the Amazon is largely determine...

  9. Mining drives extensive deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Sonter, Laura J.; Herrera, Diego; Barrett, Damian J.; Galford, Gillian L.; Moran, Chris J.; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S.

    2017-01-01

    Mining poses significant and potentially underestimated risks to tropical forests worldwide. In Brazil’s Amazon, mining drives deforestation far beyond operational lease boundaries, yet the full extent of these impacts is unknown and thus neglected in environmental licensing. Here we quantify mining-induced deforestation and investigate the aspects of mining operations, which most likely contribute. We find mining significantly increased Amazon forest loss up to 70 km beyond mining lease boun...

  10. Wetlands the primary source of Amazon Basin methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2012-11-01

    The Amazon basin is an important sink of carbon dioxide, but it is also a substantial source of atmospheric methane. Tropical wetlands, including those in the Amazon, are one of the largest sources of biogenic methane and globally represent roughly 13% of annual emissions of the greenhouse gas. Other sources of methane include fossil fuel or biomass burning. Through two intensive atmospheric methane sampling campaigns, Beck et al. determined the sources of Amazonian methane.

  11. Trace elements distribution in bottom sediments from Amazon River estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara, L.B.L.S.; Nadai Fernandes, E. de; Oliveira, H. de; Bacchi, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    The Amazon River discharges into a dynamic marine environment where there have been many interactive processes affecting dissolved and particulate solids, either those settling on the shelf or reaching the ocean. Trace elemental concentration, especially of the rare earth elements, have been determined by neutron activation analysis in sixty bottom sediment samples of the Amazon River estuary, providing information for the spatial and temporal variation study of those elements. (author). 16 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

  12. Reserves Protect against Deforestation Fires in the Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Adeney, J. Marion; Christensen, Norman L.; Pimm, Stuart L.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reserves are the principal means to conserve forests and biodiversity, but the question of whether reserves work is still debated. In the Amazon, fires are closely linked to deforestation, and thus can be used as a proxy for reserve effectiveness in protecting forest cover. We ask whether reserves in the Brazilian Amazon provide effective protection against deforestation and consequently fires, whether that protection is because of their location or their legal status, and whether...

  13. Cartography of affections in the Bragantine Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ênio José da Costa Brito

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This communication synthetically presents some elements of Jerônimo Silva e Silva’s ethnographic research. Actually it is the outlines of his doctoral thesis Cartography of affections in the encantaria: religious masters narratives from Bragantine Amazon. Silva lines out an ethnography via a cartographic flow having in mind to capture its live forces or movers. Using hermeneutics data from these narratives and living with some religious agents in situ – Pajé-Exorcista Cristino, Pajé Edvaldo, Mãe Terezinha, Mãe Lourdes, Rezadeira Luiza, Mãe Ana e Experiente Zé Maria – he unveils a plurality of relationships between people and incantation. Using some local technical concepts like corda (rope, linha (line, viração (breeze he discloses a rich social complexity in this religion of the incantation.

  14. Is the Amazon Rainforest Drying Out?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saatchi, S.; Xu, L.; Bloom, A. A.; Konings, A. G.; Yang, Y.; Aragão, L. E.; Fu, R.; Worden, J. R.; Schimel, D.

    2017-12-01

    Hotter droughts are the emerging characteristics of recent climate conditions, causing increased aridity over many land areas, broad-scale die-off, and pervasive mortality in forest ecosystems globally. Using a suite of eco-hydrological measurements from satellite observations combined with ecosystem data assimilation model, we show the Amazon forests, under recent changes in climate, have been consistently losing water in vegetation from increased leaf temperature. These long-term changes have caused a decline in evapotranspiration with consequences of changing the seasonality of precipitation by increasing the dry season length and delaying the wet season arrival. Three severe droughts (2005, 2010, 2015), occurring on the background of this long-term warming have an unprecedented legacy resulting in longer delays in recharging of water storage and recovery of forests after drought induced disturbances (4-5 years after each drought). The paper discusses the evidences of eco-hydrological changes pointing to the drying of forests of Amazonia.

  15. Fragmentation of Andes-to-Amazon connectivity by hydropower dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Elizabeth P; Jenkins, Clinton N; Heilpern, Sebastian; Maldonado-Ocampo, Javier A; Carvajal-Vallejos, Fernando M; Encalada, Andrea C; Rivadeneira, Juan Francisco; Hidalgo, Max; Cañas, Carlos M; Ortega, Hernan; Salcedo, Norma; Maldonado, Mabel; Tedesco, Pablo A

    2018-01-01

    Andes-to-Amazon river connectivity controls numerous natural and human systems in the greater Amazon. However, it is being rapidly altered by a wave of new hydropower development, the impacts of which have been previously underestimated. We document 142 dams existing or under construction and 160 proposed dams for rivers draining the Andean headwaters of the Amazon. Existing dams have fragmented the tributary networks of six of eight major Andean Amazon river basins. Proposed dams could result in significant losses in river connectivity in river mainstems of five of eight major systems-the Napo, Marañón, Ucayali, Beni, and Mamoré. With a newly reported 671 freshwater fish species inhabiting the Andean headwaters of the Amazon (>500 m), dams threaten previously unrecognized biodiversity, particularly among endemic and migratory species. Because Andean rivers contribute most of the sediment in the mainstem Amazon, losses in river connectivity translate to drastic alteration of river channel and floodplain geomorphology and associated ecosystem services.

  16. Socio-ecological costs of Amazon nut and timber production at community household forests in the Bolivian Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Soriano

    Full Text Available The Bolivian Amazon holds a complex configuration of people and forested landscapes in which communities hold secure tenure rights over a rich ecosystem offering a range of livelihood income opportunities. A large share of this income is derived from Amazon nut (Bertholletia excelsa. Many communities also have long-standing experience with community timber management plans. However, livelihood needs and desires for better living conditions may continue to place these resources under considerable stress as income needs and opportunities intensify and diversify. We aim to identify the socioeconomic and biophysical factors determining the income from forests, husbandry, off-farm and two keystone forest products (i.e., Amazon nut and timber in the Bolivian Amazon region. We used structural equation modelling tools to account for the complex inter-relationships between socioeconomic and biophysical factors in predicting each source of income. The potential exists to increase incomes from existing livelihood activities in ways that reduce dependency upon forest resources. For example, changes in off-farm income sources can act to increase or decrease forest incomes. Market accessibility, social, financial, and natural and physical assets determined the amount of income community households could derive from Amazon nut and timber. Factors related to community households' local ecological knowledge, such as the number of non-timber forest products harvested and the number of management practices applied to enhance Amazon nut production, defined the amount of income these households could derive from Amazon nut and timber, respectively. The (inter relationships found among socioeconomic and biophysical factors over income shed light on ways to improve forest-dependent livelihoods in the Bolivian Amazon. We believe that our analysis could be applicable to other contexts throughout the tropics as well.

  17. Socio-ecological costs of Amazon nut and timber production at community household forests in the Bolivian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohren, Frits; Ascarrunz, Nataly; Dressler, Wolfram; Peña-Claros, Marielos

    2017-01-01

    The Bolivian Amazon holds a complex configuration of people and forested landscapes in which communities hold secure tenure rights over a rich ecosystem offering a range of livelihood income opportunities. A large share of this income is derived from Amazon nut (Bertholletia excelsa). Many communities also have long-standing experience with community timber management plans. However, livelihood needs and desires for better living conditions may continue to place these resources under considerable stress as income needs and opportunities intensify and diversify. We aim to identify the socioeconomic and biophysical factors determining the income from forests, husbandry, off-farm and two keystone forest products (i.e., Amazon nut and timber) in the Bolivian Amazon region. We used structural equation modelling tools to account for the complex inter-relationships between socioeconomic and biophysical factors in predicting each source of income. The potential exists to increase incomes from existing livelihood activities in ways that reduce dependency upon forest resources. For example, changes in off-farm income sources can act to increase or decrease forest incomes. Market accessibility, social, financial, and natural and physical assets determined the amount of income community households could derive from Amazon nut and timber. Factors related to community households’ local ecological knowledge, such as the number of non-timber forest products harvested and the number of management practices applied to enhance Amazon nut production, defined the amount of income these households could derive from Amazon nut and timber, respectively. The (inter) relationships found among socioeconomic and biophysical factors over income shed light on ways to improve forest-dependent livelihoods in the Bolivian Amazon. We believe that our analysis could be applicable to other contexts throughout the tropics as well. PMID:28235090

  18. Variabilidade genética de populações de fava d'anta (Dimorphandra mollis da região norte do Estado de Minas Gerais Genetic variability of fava d'anta (Dimorphandra mollis populations ine northern Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Alves de Oliveira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Fava d'anta (Dimorphandra mollis Benth é uma planta nativa do Cerrado brasileiro utilizada na extração da rutina, quercetina e ramnose, produtos usados nas indústrias farmacêuticas e de cosméticos. O norte do Estado de Minas Gerais produz cerca de 23% da rutina nacional. A obtenção dessa espécie tem sido de forma predatória pelos extrativistas, e estudos da variabilidade genética dessas populações podem fornecer subsídios para estratégias de conservação e manutenção da espécie. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a diversidade genética dessa planta por meio da técnica de RAPD. Para isso, foram coletadas folhas jovens de fava d'anta em sete localidades diferentes (Januária, Patis, Mirabela, Lontra, CAA, Jequitaí e Morro Alto da região Norte de Minas Gerais. Nessa análise, testaram-se 43 primers. A análise de variância molecular (AMOVA indicou que 10,3% e 89,7% da variação genética foi distribuída entre e dentro das populações, respectivamente. A diversidade genética de Nei (Ĥe variou de 0,1736 (população de Morro Alto a 0,2867 (população de Mirabela. Já a análise genética permitiu a construção de um dendrograma com formação de grupos distintos, cujas informações poderão ser utilizadas na criação de um banco de germoplasma e contribuir para a preservação da espécie.Fava D'anta (Dimorphandra mollis Benth is a native plant of the Brazilian open pasture used in the extraction of the active principles rutin, quercetin and ramnose, products used in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. The exploitation of the fava d'anta for the extraction of these principles has been carried out through predatory exploration, and the study of the genetic variability could be important to provide strategies of conservation and maintenance of the species. The objective of this work was to analyze the genetic diversity of this species by means of the RAPD technique. Young fava d'anta leaves were harvested in

  19. LBA-ECO CD-01 Meteorological Data, Tapajos and Amazon Rivers, Santarem, Brazil: 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains meteorological data collected around the confluence of the Tapajos River with the Amazon River in the Amazon Basin near Santarem, Brazil, in...

  20. LBA-ECO CD-01 Meteorological Data, Tapajos and Amazon Rivers, Santarem, Brazil: 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains meteorological data collected around the confluence of the Tapajos River with the Amazon River in the Amazon Basin near Santarem,...

  1. 77 FR 14852 - Advanced Growing Systems, Inc., Advantage Capital Development Corp., Amazon Biotech, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] Advanced Growing Systems, Inc., Advantage Capital Development Corp., Amazon Biotech, Inc., Andover Holdings, Inc. a/k/a Andover Energy Holdings, Inc... securities of Amazon [[Page 14853

  2. LBA-ECO LC-07 Amazon Floodplain Lake Chlorophyll from MODIS, Para, Brazil: 2002-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set, LBA-ECO LC-07 Amazon Floodplain Lake Chlorophyll from MODIS, Para, Brazil: 2002-2003, contains chlorophyll concentration maps of the Amazon River...

  3. Effects of intraspecific variation in reproductive traits, pectoral fin use and burst swimming on metabolic rates and swimming performance in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jon Christian; Banet, Amanda I.; Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen

    2013-01-01

    of reproductive traits, pectoral fin use and burse-assisted swimming on swimming metabolic rate, standard metabolic rate (MO2std) and prolonged swimming performance (Ucrit). Reproductive traits included reproductive allocation and pregnancy stage, the former defined as the mass of the reproductive tissues divided...... by the total body mass. Results showed that the metabolic rate increased curvilinearly with swimming speed. The slope of the relationship was used as an index of swimming cost. There was no evidence that reproductive traits correlated with swimming cost, MO2std or Ucrit. In contrast, data revealed strong...... effects of pectoral fin use on swimming cost and Ucrit. Poecilia reticulata employed body-caudal fin (BCF) swimming at all tested swimming speeds; however, fish with a high simultaneous use of the pectoral fins exhibited increased swimming cost and decreased Ucrit. These data indicated that combining BCF...

  4. The role of predation in variation in body shape in guppies Poecilia reticulata: a comparison of field and common garden phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, J G; Di Nardo, P; Rodd, F H

    2009-10-01

    The body shapes of both wild-caught and laboratory-reared male and female Trinidadian guppies Poecilia reticulata from two low-predation and two high-predation populations were studied, but predation regime did not seem to be the most important factor affecting body shape. Instead, complicated patterns of plasticity in body shape among populations and the sexes were found. In particular, populations differed in the depth of the caudal peduncle, which is the muscular region just anterior to the tail fin rays and from which most swimming power is generated. Strikingly, the direction of population differences in caudal peduncle depth observed in wild-caught individuals was reversed when P. reticulata were raised in a common laboratory environment.

  5. Granular cell tumor in an endangered Puerto Rican Amazon parrot (Amazon vittata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quist, C.F.; Latimer, K.S.; Goldade, S.L.; Rivera, A.; Dein, F.J.

    1999-01-01

    A 3 cm diameter mass from the metacarpus of a Puerto Rican Amazon parrot was diagnosed as a granular cell tumour based on light microscopy. The cytoplasmic granules were periodic-acid Schiff positive and diastase resistant. Ultrastructural characteristics of the cells included convoluted nuclei and the presence of numerous cytoplasmic tertiary lysosomes. This is only the second granular cell tumour reported in a bird. We speculate that most granular cell tumours are derived from cells that are engaged in some type of cellular degradative process, creating a similar morphologic appearance, but lacking a uniform histogenesis.

  6. Programming Amazon Web Services S3, EC2, SQS, FPS, and SimpleDB

    CERN Document Server

    Murty, James

    2009-01-01

    With this book, you'll learn how companies can take advantage of Amazon Web Services (AWS) to rent" computing power, data storage and bandwidth on Amazon's vast network infrastructure. Programming Amazon Web Services gives developers the background and technical detail they need for using Amazon's subscription-based Simple Storage Service (S3), Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2), Simple Queue Service (SQS), Flexible Payments Service (FPS), and SimpleDB to build web-scale business applications. "

  7. Cell phone-generated radio frequency electromagnetic field effects on the locomotor behaviors of the fishes Poecilia reticulata and Danio rerio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David; Lee, Joshua; Lee, Imshik

    2015-01-01

    The locomotor behavior of small fish was characterized under a cell phone-generated radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF). The trajectory of movement of 10 pairs of guppy (Poecilia reticulate) and 15 pairs of Zebrafish (Danio rerio) in a fish tank was recorded and tracked under the presence of a cell phone-generated RF EMF. The measures were based on spatial and temporal distributions. A time-series trajectory was utilized to emphasize the dynamic nature of locomotor behavior. Fish movement was recorded in real-time. Their spatial, velocity, turning angle and sinuosity distribution were analyzed in terms of F(v,x), P[n(x,t)], P(v), F (θ) and F(s), respectively. In addition, potential temperature elevation caused by a cellular phone was also examined. We demonstrated that a cellular phone-induced temperature elevation was not relevant, and that our measurements reflected RF EMF-induced effects on the locomotor behavior of Poecilia reticulata and Danio rerio. Fish locomotion was observed under normal conditions, in the visual presence of a cell phone, after feeding, and under starvation. Fish locomotor behavior was random both in normal conditions and in the presence of an off-signaled cell phone. However, there were significant changes in the locomotion of the fish after feeding under the RF EMF. The locomotion of the fed fish was affected in terms of changes in population and velocity distributions under the presence of the RF EMF emitted by the cell phone. There was, however, no significant difference in angular distribution.

  8. Distribution of guppies Poecilia reticulata (Peters, 1860) and Phalloceros caudimaculatus (Hensel, 1868) along a polluted stretch of the Paraíba do Sul River, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, F G; Peixoto, M G; Pinto, B C T; Teixeira, T P

    2009-02-01

    Cyprinodontiformes fishes (guppies) are widely distributed in Neotropical regions and use deteriorated microhabitats in rivers where few species can occur. This study was carried out in a stretch of the Paraíba do Sul River in bracketing a large urban-industrial complex. The aim was to assess eventual effects that the industrial complex could have on distribution of two closely related fish species of guppies, Phalloceros caudimaculatus and Poecilia reticulata. The area was divided into three zones: Z1, 40 km upriver of the major urban-industrial complex of Volta Redonda; Z2, just down river of the complex; and Z3, 30 km down river of the complex. Six sites (two in each zone) were sampled monthly between November 1998 and October 1999, using a standardized fishing effort with cast net throws, trays lifts and seine hauls, covering different microhabitats, that is, riffles, pools and the proximity of the river's margins. Poecilia reticulata was widely distributed, peaking at Z2, the most polluted area, while P. caudimaculatus showed the highest abundance at Z3, being almost absent in Z1. Both species occurred in high numbers throughout the year but they were scarce between April and June. Females outnumbered males for both species in most size classes and at all sites. Juveniles were more abundant than adults, with non-pregnant females outnumbering pregnant ones. Condition factor was always higher in males than females but only males P. reticulata showed significant difference among the three zones, with the highest values at Z2. The higher number of females confirms the expectation that these species can use very polluted areas and that availability of food provided by organic loads allowed their distribution all over the area. Although these two species have shown indication of spatial separation in the study area, their similar seasonal patterns of occurrence suggest that they respond in a similar way to changes in environmental conditions.

  9. Distribution of guppies Poecilia reticulata (Peters, 1860 and Phalloceros caudimaculatus (Hensel, 1868 along a polluted stretch of the Paraíba do Sul River, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FG. Araújo

    Full Text Available Cyprinodontiformes fishes (guppies are widely distributed in Neotropical regions and use deteriorated microhabitats in rivers where few species can occur. This study was carried out in a stretch of the Paraíba do Sul River in bracketing a large urban-industrial complex. The aim was to assess eventual effects that the industrial complex could have on distribution of two closely related fish species of guppies, Phalloceros caudimaculatus and Poecilia reticulata. The area was divided into three zones: Z1, 40 km upriver of the major urban-industrial complex of Volta Redonda; Z2, just down river of the complex; and Z3, 30 km down river of the complex. Six sites (two in each zone were sampled monthly between November 1998 and October 1999, using a standardized fishing effort with cast net throws, trays lifts and seine hauls, covering different microhabitats, that is, riffles, pools and the proximity of the river's margins. Poecilia reticulata was widely distributed, peaking at Z2, the most polluted area, while P. caudimaculatus showed the highest abundance at Z3, being almost absent in Z1. Both species occurred in high numbers throughout the year but they were scarce between April and June. Females outnumbered males for both species in most size classes and at all sites. Juveniles were more abundant than adults, with non-pregnant females outnumbering pregnant ones. Condition factor was always higher in males than females but only males P. reticulata showed significant difference among the three zones, with the highest values at Z2. The higher number of females confirms the expectation that these species can use very polluted areas and that availability of food provided by organic loads allowed their distribution all over the area. Although these two species have shown indication of spatial separation in the study area, their similar seasonal patterns of occurrence suggest that they respond in a similar way to changes in environmental conditions.

  10. Regional nitrous oxide flux in Amazon basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felippe, Monica Tais Siqueira D'Amelio

    2010-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) is the third most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas. Globally, the main sources of N 2 O are nitrification and denitrification in soils. About two thirds of the soil emissions occur in the tropics and approximately 20% originate in wet rain forest ecosystems, like the Amazon forest. The work presented here involves aircraft vertical profiles of N 2 O from the surface to 4 km over two sites in the Eastern and Central Amazon: Tapajos National Forest (2000-2009) and Cuieiras Biologic Reserve (2004-2007), and the estimation of N 2 O fluxes for regions upwind of these sites using two methods: Column Integration Technique and Inversion Model - FLEXPART. To our knowledge, these regional scale N 2 O measurements in Amazonia are unique and represent a new approach to looking regional scale emissions. For the both methods, the fluxes upwind of Cuieiras Biologic Reserve exhibited little seasonality, and the annual mean was 1.9 ±1.6 mgN 2 Om -2 day -1 for the Column Integration Technique and 2.3±0.9 mgN 2 Om -2 day -1 for Inversion Model - FLEXPART. For fluxes upwind of Tapajos Nacional Forest, the Inversion Model - FLEXPART presented about half (0.9±1.7 mgN 2 Om -2 day -1 ) of the Column Integration Technique (2.0±1.1 mgN 2 Om -2 day -1 ) for the same period (2004-2008). One reason could be because the inversion model does not consider anthropic activities, once it had a good representation for less impacted area. Both regions presented similar emission during wet season. By Column Integration Technique, fluxes upwind Tapajos Nacional Forest were similar for dry and wet seasons. The dry season N 2 O fluxes exhibit significant correlations with CO fluxes, indicating a larger than expected source of N 2 O from biomass burning. The average CO:N 2 O ratio for all 38 profiles sampled during the dry season was 82±69 mol CO:molN 2 O and suggests a larger biomass burning contribution to the global N 2 O budget than previously reported. (author)

  11. Carbon Emissions from Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, C.; Klooster, S.; Genovese, V.

    2009-01-01

    A simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation greenness from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to estimate monthly carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado regions over the period 2000-2002. The NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) model estimates of annual forest production were used for the first time as the basis to generate a prediction for the standing pool of carbon in above-ground biomass (AGB; gC/sq m) for forested areas of the Brazilian Amazon region. Plot-level measurements of the residence time of carbon in wood in Amazon forest from Malhi et al. (2006) were interpolated by inverse distance weighting algorithms and used with CASA to generate a new regional map of AGB. Data from the Brazilian PRODES (Estimativa do Desflorestamento da Amazonia) project were used to map deforested areas. Results show that net primary production (NPP) sinks for carbon varied between 4.25 Pg C/yr (1 Pg=10(exp 15)g) and 4.34 Pg C for the region and were highest across the eastern and northern Amazon areas, whereas deforestation sources of CO2 flux from decomposition of residual woody debris were higher and less seasonal in the central Amazon than in the eastern and southern areas. Increased woody debris from past deforestation events was predicted to alter the net ecosystem carbon balance of the Amazon region to generate annual CO2 source fluxes at least two times higher than previously predicted by CASA modeling studies. Variations in climate, land cover, and forest burning were predicted to release carbon at rates of 0.5 to 1 Pg C/yr from the Brazilian Amazon. When direct deforestation emissions of CO2 from forest burning of between 0.2 and 0.6 Pg C/yr in the Legal Amazon are overlooked in regional budgets, the year-to-year variations in this net biome flux may appear to be large, whereas our model results implies net biome fluxes had actually been relatively consistent from

  12. The impact of Amazonian deforestation on Amazon basin rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spracklen, D. V.; Garcia-Carreras, L.

    2015-11-01

    We completed a meta-analysis of regional and global climate model simulations (n = 96) of the impact of Amazonian deforestation on Amazon basin rainfall. Across all simulations, mean (±1σ) change in annual mean Amazon basin rainfall was -12 ± 11%. Variability in simulated rainfall was not explained by differences in model resolution or surface parameters. Across all simulations we find a negative linear relationship between rainfall and deforestation extent, although individual studies often simulate a nonlinear response. Using the linear relationship, we estimate that deforestation in 2010 has reduced annual mean rainfall across the Amazon basin by 1.8 ± 0.3%, less than the interannual variability in observed rainfall. This may explain why a reduction in Amazon rainfall has not consistently been observed. We estimate that business-as-usual deforestation (based on deforestation rates prior to 2004) would lead to an 8.1 ± 1.4% reduction in annual mean Amazon basin rainfall by 2050, greater than natural variability.

  13. Methane emissions from floodplain trees of the Amazon basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangala, Sunitha; Bastviken, David; Enrich-Prast, Alex; Gauci, Vincent

    2016-04-01

    Wetlands are the largest source of methane to the atmosphere, but emission estimates are highly uncertain leading to large discrepancies between emission inventories and much larger estimates of the Amazon methane source derived at larger scales. We examined methane emissions from all emission pathways including aquatic surfaces, emergent soils and herbaceous vegetation and more than 2000 trees from 13 locations across the central Amazon floodplain in 2014. Our data are the first measurements of stem emission from emergent portions of inundated trees in the Amazon and they demonstrate that regionally, tree stems are the dominant means of emissions for soil produced methane to the atmosphere. Emissions via the range of egress pathways varied substantially between sample locations and water-table exerted some control over emissions from ~2m below the soil surface upto 0.5-1m of inundation. Higher water (upto ~10m of inundation) exerted no further control over emissions. Applying our measurements to models of whole tree emission and scaling to the entire Amazon lowland basin demonstrates the significant contribution of trees to regional emissions that can close the Amazon basin methane budget.

  14. Kinematic and geochronological constraints on shear deformation in the Ferriere-Mollières shear zone (Argentera-Mercantour Massif, Western Alps): implications for the evolution of the Southern European Variscan Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonetti, Matteo; Carosi, Rodolfo; Montomoli, Chiara; Langone, Antonio; D'Addario, Enrico; Mammoliti, Elisa

    2018-02-01

    In the Western Alps, a steeply dipping km-scale shear zone (the Ferriere-Mollières shear zone) cross-cuts Variscan migmatites in the Argentera-Mercantour External Crystalline Massif. Structural analysis joined with kinematic vorticity and finite strain analyses allowed to recognize a high-temperature deformation associated with dextral transpression characterized by a variation in the percentage of pure shear and simple shear along a deformation gradient. U-Th-Pb dating of syn-kinematic monazites was performed on mylonites. The oldest 340 Ma ages were obtained in protomylonites, whereas ages of 320 Ma were found in mylonites from the core of the shear zone. These ages indicate that the Ferriere-Mollières shear zone is a still preserved Variscan shear zone. Ages of 320 Ma obtained in this work are in agreement with ages of the dextral transpressional shear zones occurring in the Maures-Tanneron Massif and Corsica-Sardinia. However, transpression in the Argentera-Mercantour Massif started earlier than in other sectors of the southern Variscan Belt. This is possibly caused by the curvature of the belt triggering the progressive migration of shear deformation. Our data allow a correlation between the Argentera-Mercantour Massif and other segments of the Southern European Variscan Belt, in particular with Maures-Tanneron Massif and Corsica-Sardinia, and contribute to fill a gap in the age of activity and in the kinematics of the flow of the system of dextral shear zones of the southern portion of the EVSZ.

  15. Carbon Tetrachloride Emissions from the Amazon Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, K.; Chambers, J. Q.; Higuchi, N.; Jardine, A. B.; Martin, S. T.; Manzi, A. O.

    2014-12-01

    As a chemically inert greenhouse gas in the troposphere with lifetimes up to 50 years but active in ozone destruction in the stratosphere, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) plays a major role in the atmospheric chlorine budget and is widely considered strictly of anthropogenic origin deriving from numerous industrial processes and products. However, satellite remote sensing studies have shown higher concentrations at the Equator, and earlier work has suggested possible biogenic sources. Here we present highly vertically-resolved atmospheric gradients of CCl4 within and above a primary rainforest ecosystem from three towers in the Central Amazon. The observed buildup of CCl4 mixing ratios near the top of the main canopies provides new evidence for a potentially large biogenic source from the Basin. By demonstrating the need to represent tropical forests as biogenic sources of CCl4, our study may help narrow the gap between remote sensing observations of CCl4 and emission, chemistry, and transport models and therefore lead to improved predictions of its role in atmospheric chemistry and climate.

  16. Physicochemical parameters of Amazon Melipona honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Bicudo de Almeida-Muradian

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Stingless bees produce a honey that is different from the Apis honey in terms of composition. There aren't enough data to establish quality control parameters for this product, mainly due to lack of research results. The aim of this work is to evaluate some physicochemical parameters that can be used for the characterization and for the quality control of the Meliponinae honey. Four different samples were collected in the Amazon region of Brazil in 2004 (Melipona compressipes manaoense bee and Melipona seminigra merribae bee. Honey analyses were performed as described by the official methods. The mean results were: moisture (30.13%, pH (3.65, acidity (24.57 mEq/kg, water activity (0.75, fructose (31.91%, glucose (29.30% and sucrose (0.19%. These results reinforce the need for a specific regulation for stingless bee honey. This will only be feasible when enough data is available to establish upper and lower limits for the physicochemical parameters used for quality control.

  17. Resilience of Amazon forests emerges from plant trait diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakschewski, Boris; von Bloh, Werner; Boit, Alice; Poorter, Lourens; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Heinke, Jens; Joshi, Jasmin; Thonicke, Kirsten

    2016-11-01

    Climate change threatens ecosystems worldwide, yet their potential future resilience remains largely unquantified. In recent years many studies have shown that biodiversity, and in particular functional diversity, can enhance ecosystem resilience by providing a higher response diversity. So far these insights have been mostly neglected in large-scale projections of ecosystem responses to climate change. Here we show that plant trait diversity, as a key component of functional diversity, can have a strikingly positive effect on the Amazon forests' biomass under future climate change. Using a terrestrial biogeochemical model that simulates diverse forest communities on the basis of individual tree growth, we show that plant trait diversity may enable the Amazon forests to adjust to new climate conditions via a process of ecological sorting, protecting the Amazon's carbon sink function. Therefore, plant trait diversity, and biodiversity in general, should be considered in large-scale ecosystem projections and be included as an integral part of climate change research and policy.

  18. Reexamining the late Cenozoic geologic evolution of the Amazon basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigsby, C. A.; Latrubesse, E. M.; Baker, P. A.; Silva, C. G.

    2010-12-01

    The recent geologic evolution of the Amazon basin has been the focus of many recent studies. Our own research and our review of the literature suggest a need for reevaluation of many aspects of this history including several key questions: What was the timing of Andean uplift (especially, the Western Cordillera)? What is the relationship between the northernmost Solimões Formation and northern Andean tectonic activity? What is the precise age of the lowermost levels of the Solimões Formation? Were there marine incursions? Are tidal deposits recorded in Amazonia? Was there a very large, long-lived, Miocene "Pebas" megalake in the western Amazon? When did the trans-continental, eastern outlet, Amazon drainage become established? What is the antiquity of the Amazon fan? Correct answers to these questions are essential in order to gain a better understanding of the climatic and biogeographic history of the Amazon basin. Although several authors have suggested the existence of late Miocene tidal sediments deposited during a sea-level high stand and marine transgressions into the Amazon basin from the north (Caribbean Sea) or from the south (Paranáense Sea), both the existence of a late Miocene seaway through western Amazonia and the existence of thousands of square kilometers affected by tides are difficult to support. The faunal composition and pollen content of the upper Miocene Solimões Formation are inconsistent with tidal/marine environments. And, as we have demonstrated, deposits in Peruvian Amazonia that have been attributed to Miocene tidal environments are actually fluvial sediments that have been environmentally and chronologically misinterpreted. Further, the existence of a giant paleolake in western Amazonia during the middle to late Miocene is inconsistent with our paleoenvironmental reconstructions of shifting rivers in aggradational conditions - reconstructions that are consistent with the interpretations of the Solimões Formation in other parts of

  19. Boundary layer ozone - An airborne survey above the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Gerald L.; Browell, Edward V.; Warren, Linda S.

    1988-01-01

    Ozone data obtained over the forest canopy of the Amazon Basin during July and August 1985 in the course of NASA's Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment 2A are discussed, and ozone profiles obtained during flights from Belem to Tabatinga, Brazil, are analyzed to determine any cross-basin effects. The analyses of ozone data indicate that the mixed layer of the Amazon Basin, for the conditions of undisturbed meteorology and in the absence of biomass burning, is a significant sink for tropospheric ozone. As the coast is approached, marine influences are noted at about 300 km inland, and a transition from a forest-controlled mixed layer to a marine-controlled mixed layer is noted.

  20. Radium-226 in waters of the Amazon river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirshova, M.P.; Vinogradova, A.S.; Popov, N.I.

    1987-01-01

    Analysis of the Amazon river waters for 226 Ra content is carried out. Exploration works are carried out in the framework of the soviet investigations of the Amazon river in 1983 by the Academy of Science of USSR on board a research ship ''Professor Schtokman'' with the agreement and participation of brazilian scientists. Radium determination has been carried out in reference with equilibrium radon preliminary accumulated in samples (30 y) tightly closed. The general 226 Ra concentrations observed in the Amazon waters exceed 4-6 times the values known before relating to a ''diluted'' element fraction. It happens due to the presence of the river suspended matter in the water analysed; it is a carrier of additional quantities of 226 Ra, and considerable. The mixture zone of river and ocean waters is shown to be no ''geochemical barrier'' on the way to the ocean for river radium inlike the other microelements of the river run-off

  1. A century of Amazon burning driven by Atlantic climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makou, M.; Thompson, L. G.; Davis, M. E.; Eglinton, T. I.

    2011-12-01

    Very little is known about annual burning trends in the Amazon Basin prior to remote sensing of fires beginning in the late 1970's. Fires reduce Amazon forest biomass and species richness, release pollutant aerosols, and impact the carbon cycle, compelling further investigation of fire-climate dynamics. We measured organic compounds derived from vegetation burning in ice core samples from the Quelccaya Ice Cap in Peru at better than annual resolution to reconstruct wet and dry season burning throughout the Twentieth Century. Variations in the abundance of methyl hexadecanoate, which is produced by thermal alteration of vascular plant alkanoic acids, were used as a proxy for past fire activity. Concentrations of this compound in Quelccaya ice varied strongly on seasonal, interannual, and decadal time scales over the last 100 years, with high-amplitude dry season variability and muted, decadal-scale changes in wet season fire activity. Decade-long periods of repeatedly enhanced burning occurred during the 1930's and 1960's when dry season precipitation was perpetually reduced, as evidenced by low stages of the Rio Negro. These decadal trends suggest that changes in dry season precipitation drive fire activity in the western Amazon and highlight the potential of Amazon forests to undergo repeated strong burning. Fires occurred during years when sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the north tropical Atlantic were elevated and the north-south tropical Atlantic SST gradient was enhanced; this SST pattern likely displaced the intertropical convergence zone northward, driving subsidence and drought in the western and southern Amazon basin. Thus, our novel ice core record suggests that Amazon forest fire activity during the Twentieth Century was driven primarily by Atlantic climate processes, and future forest health will depend heavily on the evolution of tropical climate.

  2. Forest disappearance by firewood consumption in the Amazon estuary

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuchiya, Akio; Hiraoka, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Deforestation of flooded (várzea) and non-flooded (terra firme) forests caused by firewood consumption at tile factories (olaria) was investigated in Abaetetuba Island at the Amazon estuary. Várzea is spatially limited, the area is only 3% of the whole Amazon, however, it is heavily influenced by human activities, especially by the cultivation of acaí palm (Euterpe oleracea Mart.). The trees are cut down for the olarias. The number of tree species are small, and they have less wood density th...

  3. The Visibility of Work among Ticuna Women in the Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraildes Caldas Torres

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the Amazon Indian craftsmanship, done by Ticuna Women. Crafts are shown to be an important product in the strong positive development in the rural Amazon community. It works with data observed and collected in research done as a consultant for Sebrae/Amazonas in 2004. It shows how women work is an organizing element of the domestic economy for the Ticuna ethnicity. A principal feature of the sexual division of labor places women as having more responsibility for family maintenance.

  4. Transferrin polymorphism in Amazon turtle (Podocnemis expansa) stocks

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, Aylton Saturnino; Jamieson, Alan; Raposo, José Carlos Paula; Vieira, Alvaro Alves

    1996-01-01

    The transferrin gene locus (Tf) was investigated in five populations of the Amazon turtle (Podocnemis expansa) sampled from five geographical areas in the Amazon region. This locus was polymorphic, showing three genotypes (Tfª Tfª, Tfª Tf b and Tf b Tf b), presumably encoded by two co-dominant alleles, Tfª and Tf b. All populations showed good genetic balance according to Hardy-Weinberg expectations, and may sustain the hypothesis of a single stock in the area investigated. The data are consi...

  5. Assessing the Amazon Cloud Suitability for CLARREO's Computational Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldin, Daniel; Vakhnin, Andrei A.; Currey, Jon C.

    2015-01-01

    In this document we compare the performance of the Amazon Web Services (AWS), also known as Amazon Cloud, with the CLARREO (Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory) cluster and assess its suitability for computational needs of the CLARREO mission. A benchmark executable to process one month and one year of PARASOL (Polarization and Anistropy of Reflectances for Atmospheric Sciences coupled with Observations from a Lidar) data was used. With the optimal AWS configuration, adequate data-processing times, comparable to the CLARREO cluster, were found. The assessment of alternatives to the CLARREO cluster continues and several options, such as a NASA-based cluster, are being considered.

  6. Beginning Amazon Web Services with Node.js

    CERN Document Server

    Shackelford, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Beginning Amazon Web Services with Node.js teaches any novice Node.js developer to configure, deploy, and maintain scalable small to large scale Node.js applications in Amazon Web Services. Hosting a Node.js application in a production environment usually means turning to PaaS hosting, but this approach brings problems. Deploying Node.js directly to AWS solves the problems you encounter in these situations, enabling you to cut out the middle man. You will begin with a basic RESTful web service in Node.js, using the popular Express.js framework, pre-built and ready to run in your local env

  7. Osteoma in a blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, João Felipe Rito; Levy, Marcelo Guilherme Bezerra; Liparisi, Flavia; Romão, Mario Antonio Pinto

    2013-09-01

    Osteoma is an uncommon bone formation documented in avian species and other animals. A blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva) with clinical respiratory symptoms was examined because of a hard mass present on the left nostril. Radiographs suggested a bone tumor, and the mass was surgically excised. Histopathologic examination revealed features of an osteoma. To our knowledge, this is the first description of an osteoma in a blue-fronted Amazon parrot. Osteoma should be considered as a differential diagnosis in birds with respiratory distress and swelling of the nostril.

  8. Amazon Forests Response to Droughts: A Perspective from the MAIAC Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Jian; Myneni, Ranga; Lyapustin, Alexei; Wang, Yujie; Park, Taejin; Chi, Chen; Yan, Kai; Knyazikhin, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Amazon forests experienced two severe droughts at the beginning of the 21st century: one in 2005 and the other in 2010. How Amazon forests responded to these droughts is critical for the future of the Earth's climate system. It is only possible to assess Amazon forests' response to the droughts in large areal extent through satellite remote sensing. Here, we used the Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation index (VI) data to assess Amazon forests' response to droughts, and compared the results with those from the standard (Collection 5 and Collection 6) MODIS VI data. Overall, the MAIAC data reveal more realistic Amazon forests inter-annual greenness dynamics than the standard MODIS data. Our results from the MAIAC data suggest that: (1) the droughts decreased the greenness (i.e., photosynthetic activity) of Amazon forests; (2) the Amazon wet season precipitation reduction induced by El Niño events could also lead to reduced photosynthetic activity of Amazon forests; and (3) in the subsequent year after the water stresses, the greenness of Amazon forests recovered from the preceding decreases. However, as previous research shows droughts cause Amazon forests to reduce investment in tissue maintenance and defense, it is not clear whether the photosynthesis of Amazon forests will continue to recover after future water stresses, because of the accumulated damages caused by the droughts.

  9. Germinação, vigor e sanidade de sementes de fava d'anta (Dimorphandra mollis Benth. obtidas de frutos coletados no solo e na planta Germination, vigor and sanity of "fava d'anta" (Dimorphandra mollis Benth. seeds obtained from fruits collected both in the soil and in the plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Araujo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade fisiológica e sanitária das sementes obtidas a partir de frutos maduros coletados no solo e nas plantas de fava d'anta, espécie medicinal nativa do Cerrado, ameaçada de extinção, cujos frutos são ricos em rutina. O delineamento experimental empregado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 10 repetições. Cada repetição foi constituída de uma caixa gerbox contendo 15 sementes cada. A qualidade fisiológica foi determinada por meio de testes de germinação e vigor, avaliando-se a porcentagem de germinação, o índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG e a massa seca das raízes primárias. A qualidade sanitária foi determinada pela identificação dos microorganismos patogênicos associados às sementes, bem como pela porcentagem de ocorrência destes em cada parcela. Os fungos identificados nas sementes pertencem aos gêneros Fusarium, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Colletrotrichum, Helminthosporium, Nigrospora, Penicillum, Phoma e Phomopsis. Sementes oriundas de frutos coletados no solo foram mais contaminadas por agentes patogênicos e apresentaram germinação (56,67%, vigor e sanidade inferiores às sementes obtidas de frutos coletados na planta.The aim of this work was to evaluate the physiological and sanitary quality of seeds obtained from mature fruits collected in the soil and in "fava d'anta" plants. Dimorphandra mollis constitutes an endangered medicinal species native to cerrado and presents fruits rich in rutin. The experimental design was completely randomized, with 10 replicates. Each replicate consisted of a gerbox containing 15 seeds each. Physiological quality was assessed through germination and vigor tests by evaluating germination percentage, germination velocity index (GVI, and primary root dry matter. Sanitary quality was evaluated by identifying pathogenic microorganisms associated with the seeds, as well as their occurrence percentage in each plot. The

  10. Jotï ecogony, Venezuelan Amazon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zent, Egleé L

    2013-01-01

    The current environmental crisis permeates the discourse and concerns of people all over the world. Consideration of diverse environmental ethics showing the alternative ways in which people conceptualize and relate to nature and natural resources are critical for bringing about more sustainable human behaviors. After a brief review of Western historical notions of nature, this work explores the ecogony, or causal reasons, that trigger the behavior of the Jotï, an Amerindian people of the Venezuelan Amazon, with other entities and the forest that they inhabit. The analysis presented synthesizes 15 years of transdisciplinary ethno-ecological research comprising quantitative and qualitative methods (collection of herbarium voucher specimens, floristic inventories in forest plots, structured interviews focused on plot vegetation, semi-structured interviews of life-histories, participant observation, time allocation studies, food resource accounting, focal person following observations, garden crop inventories and censuses, mapping of wild resource harvest locations, among others). Jotï pragmatic and ideological tenets generate a distinctive environmental ethics based on ecogonic nodes. Notions of interdependence, humanity and person are articulated on a daily basis through several dynamics: (1) hyper-awareness of all living things’ dependence on each other and other elements of the biophysical environment at macroscales and microscales, (2) the construction of human spiritual, conscious, physical and agentive constituents from a variety of diverse botanical and zoological species and mineral components of their homeland, and (3) an understanding of the aggregate surroundings, including a significant portion of the biotic and abiotic components, as potential subjects with awareness, creativity and moral stances. This condition of interdependence confers rights and duties on all the parts. Jotï horizontal communications with and among life-forms sustain their

  11. Jotï ecogony, Venezuelan Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zent, Egleé L.

    2013-03-01

    The current environmental crisis permeates the discourse and concerns of people all over the world. Consideration of diverse environmental ethics showing the alternative ways in which people conceptualize and relate to nature and natural resources are critical for bringing about more sustainable human behaviors. After a brief review of Western historical notions of nature, this work explores the ecogony, or causal reasons, that trigger the behavior of the Jotï, an Amerindian people of the Venezuelan Amazon, with other entities and the forest that they inhabit. The analysis presented synthesizes 15 years of transdisciplinary ethno-ecological research comprising quantitative and qualitative methods (collection of herbarium voucher specimens, floristic inventories in forest plots, structured interviews focused on plot vegetation, semi-structured interviews of life-histories, participant observation, time allocation studies, food resource accounting, focal person following observations, garden crop inventories and censuses, mapping of wild resource harvest locations, among others). Jotï pragmatic and ideological tenets generate a distinctive environmental ethics based on ecogonic nodes. Notions of interdependence, humanity and person are articulated on a daily basis through several dynamics: (1) hyper-awareness of all living things’ dependence on each other and other elements of the biophysical environment at macroscales and microscales, (2) the construction of human spiritual, conscious, physical and agentive constituents from a variety of diverse botanical and zoological species and mineral components of their homeland, and (3) an understanding of the aggregate surroundings, including a significant portion of the biotic and abiotic components, as potential subjects with awareness, creativity and moral stances. This condition of interdependence confers rights and duties on all the parts. Jotï horizontal communications with and among life-forms sustain their

  12. Particle growth kinetics over the Amazon rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinterich, T.; Andreae, M. O.; Artaxo, P.; Kuang, C.; Longo, K.; Machado, L.; Manzi, A. O.; Martin, S. T.; Mei, F.; Pöhlker, C.; Pöhlker, M. L.; Poeschl, U.; Shilling, J. E.; Shiraiwa, M.; Tomlinson, J. M.; Zaveri, R. A.; Wang, J.

    2016-12-01

    Aerosol particles larger than 100 nm play a key role in global climate by acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Most of these particles, originated from new particle formation or directly emitted into the atmospheric, are initially too small to serve as CCN. These small particles grow to CCN size mainly through condensation of secondary species. In one extreme, the growth is dictated by kinetic condensation of very low-volatility compounds, favoring the growth of the smallest particles; in the other extreme, the process is driven by Raoult's law-based equilibrium partitioning of semi-volatile organic compound, favoring the growth of larger particles. These two mechanisms can lead to very different production rates of CCN. The growth of particles depends on a number of parameters, including the volatility of condensing species, particle phase, and diffusivity inside the particles, and this process is not well understood in part due to lack of ambient data. Here we examine atmospheric particle growth using high-resolution size distributions measured onboard the DOE G-1 aircraft during GoAmazon campaign, which took place from January 2014 to December 2015 near Manaus, Brazil, a city surrounded by natural forest for over 1000 km in every direction. City plumes are clearly identified by the strong enhancement of nucleation and Aitken mode particle concentrations over the clean background. As the plume traveled downwind, particle growth was observed, and is attributed to condensation of secondary species and coagulation (Fig.1). Observed aerosol growth is modeled using MOSAIC (Model for Simulating Aerosol Interactions and Chemistry), which dynamically partitions multiple compounds to all particle size bins by taking into account compound volatility, gas-phase diffusion, interfacial mass accommodation, particle-phase diffusion, and particle-phase reaction. The results from both wet and dry seasons will be discussed.

  13. Biomedical cloud computing with Amazon Web Services.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent A Fusaro

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this overview to biomedical computing in the cloud, we discussed two primary ways to use the cloud (a single instance or cluster, provided a detailed example using NGS mapping, and highlighted the associated costs. While many users new to the cloud may assume that entry is as straightforward as uploading an application and selecting an instance type and storage options, we illustrated that there is substantial up-front effort required before an application can make full use of the cloud's vast resources. Our intention was to provide a set of best practices and to illustrate how those apply to a typical application pipeline for biomedical informatics, but also general enough for extrapolation to other types of computational problems. Our mapping example was intended to illustrate how to develop a scalable project and not to compare and contrast alignment algorithms for read mapping and genome assembly. Indeed, with a newer aligner such as Bowtie, it is possible to map the entire African genome using one m2.2xlarge instance in 48 hours for a total cost of approximately $48 in computation time. In our example, we were not concerned with data transfer rates, which are heavily influenced by the amount of available bandwidth, connection latency, and network availability. When transferring large amounts of data to the cloud, bandwidth limitations can be a major bottleneck, and in some cases it is more efficient to simply mail a storage device containing the data to AWS (http://aws.amazon.com/importexport/. More information about cloud computing, detailed cost analysis, and security can be found in references.

  14. Biomedical cloud computing with Amazon Web Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusaro, Vincent A; Patil, Prasad; Gafni, Erik; Wall, Dennis P; Tonellato, Peter J

    2011-08-01

    In this overview to biomedical computing in the cloud, we discussed two primary ways to use the cloud (a single instance or cluster), provided a detailed example using NGS mapping, and highlighted the associated costs. While many users new to the cloud may assume that entry is as straightforward as uploading an application and selecting an instance type and storage options, we illustrated that there is substantial up-front effort required before an application can make full use of the cloud's vast resources. Our intention was to provide a set of best practices and to illustrate how those apply to a typical application pipeline for biomedical informatics, but also general enough for extrapolation to other types of computational problems. Our mapping example was intended to illustrate how to develop a scalable project and not to compare and contrast alignment algorithms for read mapping and genome assembly. Indeed, with a newer aligner such as Bowtie, it is possible to map the entire African genome using one m2.2xlarge instance in 48 hours for a total cost of approximately $48 in computation time. In our example, we were not concerned with data transfer rates, which are heavily influenced by the amount of available bandwidth, connection latency, and network availability. When transferring large amounts of data to the cloud, bandwidth limitations can be a major bottleneck, and in some cases it is more efficient to simply mail a storage device containing the data to AWS (http://aws.amazon.com/importexport/). More information about cloud computing, detailed cost analysis, and security can be found in references.

  15. Viruses and bacteria in floodplain lakes along a major Amazon tributary respond to distance to the Amazon River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Rafael M; Roland, Fábio; Cardoso, Simone J; Farjalla, Vinícius F; Bozelli, Reinaldo L; Barros, Nathan O

    2015-01-01

    In response to the massive volume of water along the Amazon River, the Amazon tributaries have their water backed up by 100s of kilometers upstream their mouth. This backwater effect is part of the complex hydrodynamics of Amazonian surface waters, which in turn drives the variation in concentrations of organic matter and nutrients, and also regulates planktonic communities such as viruses and bacteria. Viruses and bacteria are commonly tightly coupled to each other, and their ecological role in aquatic food webs has been increasingly recognized. Here, we surveyed viral and bacterial abundances (BAs) in 26 floodplain lakes along the Trombetas River, the largest clear-water tributary of the Amazon River's north margin. We correlated viral and BAs with temperature, pH, dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), phosphorus, nitrogen, turbidity, water transparency, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2), phytoplankton abundance, and distance from the lake mouth until the confluence of the Trombetas with the Amazon River. We hypothesized that both bacterial and viral abundances (VAs) would change along a latitudinal gradient, as the backwater effect becomes more intense with increased proximity to the Amazon River; different flood duration and intensity among lakes and waters with contrasting sources would cause spatial variation. Our measurements were performed during the low water period, when floodplain lakes are in their most lake-like conditions. Viral and BAs, DOC, pCO2, and water transparency increased as distance to the Amazon River increased. Most viruses were bacteriophages, as viruses were strongly linked to bacteria, but not to phytoplankton. We suggest that BAs increase in response to DOC quantity and possibly quality, consequently leading to increased VAs. Our results highlight that hydrodynamics plays a key role in the regulation of planktonic viral and bacterial communities in Amazonian floodplain lakes.

  16. in guppies (Poecilia reticuillta)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lonckheere test for ordered alternatives (Seigel & Castelian. 1988) including the data from pairs where males did not difkr in mating success. The results of this analysis did not differ from the results of pairwise analysis and are therefore not pre- sented here. We adju~ted tilt.: 0.05 u.-It.:vel of acceptance for the number.

  17. Photovoltaics and eco-tourism in the Peruvian Amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, D. [Dulas Ltd. (United Kingdom)

    2000-04-01

    The Explorama company caters for tourists in the jungles along the Amazon in Peru where the mains electricity (if present at all) is notoriously unreliable. The company therefore generates electricity through photovoltaic cells so that the tourists can enjoy home comforts such as lights, fans, air-conditioning, radio, freezers and refrigerators. The paper discusses the various units supplying the electric power. (uk)

  18. Palm diversity and abundance in the Colombian Amazon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Henrik; Copete, Juan Carlos; Pedersen, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    We studied diversity and abundance of palms in the eastern Colombian Amazon in 71 transects, 61 measuring 5×500 m and 10 transects measuring 4×500 m, innventoring a total of 17.25 hectares. We found a total of 74 species in 21 genera. In terra firme we found 68 species in 20 genera and an average...

  19. Spatial pattern of standing timber value across the Brazilian Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia E Ahmed

    Full Text Available The Amazon is a globally important system, providing a host of ecosystem services from climate regulation to food sources. It is also home to a quarter of all global diversity. Large swathes of forest are removed each year, and many models have attempted to predict the spatial patterns of this forest loss. The spatial patterns of deforestation are determined largely by the patterns of roads that open access to frontier areas and expansion of the road network in the Amazon is largely determined by profit seeking logging activities. Here we present predictions for the spatial distribution of standing value of timber across the Amazon. We show that the patterns of timber value reflect large-scale ecological gradients, determining the spatial distribution of functional traits of trees which are, in turn, correlated with timber values. We expect that understanding the spatial patterns of timber value across the Amazon will aid predictions of logging movements and thus predictions of potential future road developments. These predictions in turn will be of great use in estimating the spatial patterns of deforestation in this globally important biome.

  20. Spatial pattern of standing timber value across the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sadia E; Ewers, Robert M

    2012-01-01

    The Amazon is a globally important system, providing a host of ecosystem services from climate regulation to food sources. It is also home to a quarter of all global diversity. Large swathes of forest are removed each year, and many models have attempted to predict the spatial patterns of this forest loss. The spatial patterns of deforestation are determined largely by the patterns of roads that open access to frontier areas and expansion of the road network in the Amazon is largely determined by profit seeking logging activities. Here we present predictions for the spatial distribution of standing value of timber across the Amazon. We show that the patterns of timber value reflect large-scale ecological gradients, determining the spatial distribution of functional traits of trees which are, in turn, correlated with timber values. We expect that understanding the spatial patterns of timber value across the Amazon will aid predictions of logging movements and thus predictions of potential future road developments. These predictions in turn will be of great use in estimating the spatial patterns of deforestation in this globally important biome.

  1. The Amazon region: tropical deforestation, biogeochemical cycles and the climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabat, P.; Andreae, M.O.; Silva-Dias, M.A.; Veraart, J.A.; Brink, N.J.

    2003-01-01

    The biogeochemical cycling of carbon, water, energy, aerosols, and trace gases in the Amazon Basin, and the interactions between deforestation, rainfall and climate were all investigated in this programme as a part of an integrated cluster of inter-linked and complementary research projects. These

  2. Favourable geological environment for uranium in Amazon State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenker, A.O.

    1982-01-01

    According to the synthesis of the Basic Projects of DNPM/CPRM in Amazon and in the creation of 1 : 2500000 scale map, it was possible to separate the several geological environments known in the region as for the favourableness to storage uraniferous mineralizations. (A.B.) [pt

  3. Future of oil and gas development in the western Amazon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finer, Matt; Babbitt, Bruce; Novoa, Sidney; Ferrarese, Francesco; Pappalardo, Salvatore Eugenio; Marchi, Massimo De; Saucedo, Maria; Kumar, Anjali

    2015-01-01

    The western Amazon is one of the world’s last high-biodiversity wilderness areas, characterized by extraordinary species richness and large tracts of roadless humid tropical forest. It is also home to an active hydrocarbon (oil and gas) sector, characterized by operations in extremely remote areas that require new access routes. Here, we present the first integrated analysis of the hydrocarbon sector and its associated road-building in the western Amazon. Specifically, we document the (a) current panorama, including location and development status of all oil and gas discoveries, of the sector, and (b) current and future scenario of access (i.e. access road versus roadless access) to discoveries. We present an updated 2014 western Amazon hydrocarbon map illustrating that oil and gas blocks now cover 733 414 km 2 , an area much larger than the US state of Texas, and have been expanding since the last assessment in 2008. In terms of access, we documented 11 examples of the access road model and six examples of roadless access across the region. Finally, we documented 35 confirmed and/or suspected untapped hydrocarbon discoveries across the western Amazon. In the Discussion, we argue that if these reserves must be developed, use of the offshore inland model—a method that strategically avoids the construction of access roads—is crucial to minimizing ecological impacts in one of the most globally important conservation regions. (letter)

  4. Neogene origins and implied warmth tolerance of Amazon tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Christopher W; Lewis, Simon L; Maslin, Mark; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2012-01-01

    Tropical rain forest has been a persistent feature in South America for at least 55 million years. The future of the contemporary Amazon forest is uncertain, however, as the region is entering conditions with no past analogue, combining rapidly increasing air temperatures, high atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, possible extreme droughts, and extensive removal and modification by humans. Given the long-term Cenozoic cooling trend, it is unknown whether Amazon forests can tolerate air temperature increases, with suggestions that lowland forests lack warm-adapted taxa, leading to inevitable species losses. In response to this uncertainty, we posit a simple hypothesis: the older the age of a species prior to the Pleistocene, the warmer the climate it has previously survived, with Pliocene (2.6-5 Ma) and late-Miocene (8-10 Ma) air temperature across Amazonia being similar to 2100 temperature projections under low and high carbon emission scenarios, respectively. Using comparative phylogeographic analyses, we show that 9 of 12 widespread Amazon tree species have Pliocene or earlier lineages (>2.6 Ma), with seven dating from the Miocene (>5.6 Ma) and three >8 Ma. The remarkably old age of these species suggest that Amazon forests passed through warmth similar to 2100 levels and that, in the absence of other major environmental changes, near-term high temperature-induced mass species extinction is unlikely.

  5. Mayaro Virus Infection, Amazon Basin Region, Peru, 2010–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siles, Crystyan; Guevara, Carolina; Vilcarromero, Stalin; Jhonston, Erik J.; Ramal, Cesar; Aguilar, Patricia V.; Ampuero, Julia S.

    2013-01-01

    During 2010–2013, we recruited 16 persons with confirmed Mayaro virus infection in the Peruvian Amazon to prospectively follow clinical symptoms and serologic response over a 12-month period. Mayaro virus infection caused long-term arthralgia in more than half, similar to reports of other arthritogenic alphaviruses. PMID:24210165

  6. Two new Morganella species from the Brazilian Amazon rainforest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo DS

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Two new Morganella species, M. albostipitata and M. rimosa were found during studies of gasteroid fungi in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest, Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve, Amazonas State, Brazil. The new taxa are described, and illustrated with photographs and line drawings, and taxonomical comments are made.

  7. Long-term decline of the Amazon carbon sink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brienen, R J W; Phillips, O L; Feldpausch, T R; Gloor, E; Baker, T R; Lloyd, J; Lopez-Gonzalez, G; Monteagudo-Mendoza, A; Malhi, Y; Lewis, S L; Vásquez Martinez, R; Alexiades, M; Álvarez Dávila, E; Alvarez-Loayza, P; Andrade, A; Aragão, L E O C; Araujo-Murakami, A; Arets, E J M M; Arroyo, L; Aymard C, G A; Bánki, O S; Baraloto, C; Barroso, J; Bonal, D; Boot, R G A; Camargo, J L C; Castilho, C V; Chama, V; Chao, K J; Chave, J; Comiskey, J A; Cornejo Valverde, F; da Costa, L; de Oliveira, E A; Di Fiore, A; Erwin, T L; Fauset, S; Forsthofer, M; Galbraith, D R; Grahame, E S; Groot, N; Hérault, B; Higuchi, N; Honorio Coronado, E N; Keeling, H; Killeen, T J; Laurance, W F; Laurance, S; Licona, J; Magnussen, W E; Marimon, B S; Marimon-Junior, B H; Mendoza, C; Neill, D A; Nogueira, E M; Núñez, P; Pallqui Camacho, N C; Parada, A; Pardo-Molina, G; Peacock, J; Peña-Claros, M; Pickavance, G C; Pitman, N C A; Poorter, L; Prieto, A; Quesada, C A; Ramírez, F; Ramírez-Angulo, H; Restrepo, Z; Roopsind, A; Rudas, A; Salomão, R P; Schwarz, M; Silva, N; Silva-Espejo, J E; Silveira, M; Stropp, J; Talbot, J; ter Steege, H; Teran-Aguilar, J; Terborgh, J; Thomas-Caesar, R; Toledo, M; Torello-Raventos, M; Umetsu, R K; van der Heijden, G M F; van der Hout, P; Guimarães Vieira, I C; Vieira, S A; Vilanova, E; Vos, V A; Zagt, R J

    2015-03-19

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide records indicate that the land surface has acted as a strong global carbon sink over recent decades, with a substantial fraction of this sink probably located in the tropics, particularly in the Amazon. Nevertheless, it is unclear how the terrestrial carbon sink will evolve as climate and atmospheric composition continue to change. Here we analyse the historical evolution of the biomass dynamics of the Amazon rainforest over three decades using a distributed network of 321 plots. While this analysis confirms that Amazon forests have acted as a long-term net biomass sink, we find a long-term decreasing trend of carbon accumulation. Rates of net increase in above-ground biomass declined by one-third during the past decade compared to the 1990s. This is a consequence of growth rate increases levelling off recently, while biomass mortality persistently increased throughout, leading to a shortening of carbon residence times. Potential drivers for the mortality increase include greater climate variability, and feedbacks of faster growth on mortality, resulting in shortened tree longevity. The observed decline of the Amazon sink diverges markedly from the recent increase in terrestrial carbon uptake at the global scale, and is contrary to expectations based on models.

  8. Backwater effects in the Amazon River basin of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, R.H.; Rayol, J.M.; Da Conceicao, S.C.; Natividade, J.R.G.

    1991-01-01

    The Amazon River mainstem of Brazil is so regulated by differences in the timing of tributary inputs and by seasonal storage of water on floodplains that maximum discharges exceed minimum discharges by a factor of only 3. Large tributaries that drain the southern Amazon River basin reach their peak discharges two months earlier than does the mainstem. The resulting backwater in the lowermost 800 km of two large southern tributaries, the Madeira and Puru??s rivers, causes falling river stages to be as much as 2-3 m higher than rising stages at any given discharge. Large tributaries that drain the northernmost Amazon River basin reach their annual minimum discharges three to four months later than does the mainstem. In the lowermost 300-400 km of the Negro River, the largest northern tributary and the fifth largest river in the world, the lowest stages of the year correspond to those of the Amazon River mainstem rather than to those in the upstream reaches of the Negro River. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  9. People, soil and manioc interactions in the upper Amazon region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peña Venegas, C.P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Clara Patricia Peña Venegas (2015). People, soil and manioc interactions in the upper Amazon region. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, The Netherlands, with summaries in English and Dutch, 210 pp. The presence of anthropogenic soils, or Amazonian Dark

  10. Kindling: The Amazon e-Reader as an Educational Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezicki, Colin

    2011-01-01

    The revolutionary electronic reading device, Amazon's Kindle, is already obsolete. Such is the breakneck speed of technology that the machine touted to spell the death of printed books is already heading for the scrap heap, replaced by e-readers like the iPad that access the Internet, make phone calls, download movies, and connect users with all…

  11. Cytotoxic Constituents of Pachyrhizus tuberosus from Peruvian Amazon

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Leuner, O.; Havlík, J.; Buděšínský, Miloš; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Chu, J.; Bradshaw, T. D.; Hummelová, J.; Mikšátková, P.; Lapčík, O.; Valterová, Irena; Kokoška, L.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 10 (2013), s. 1423-1426 ISSN 1934-578X Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA525/09/0994 Program:GA Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : Pachyrrhizus sp. * Amazon ian yam bean * isoflavonoid * rotenoid Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.924, year: 2013

  12. Placentation in dolphins from the Amazon River Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Silva, Vera M F; Carter, Anthony M; Ambrosio, Carlos E

    2007-01-01

    A recent reassessment of the phylogenetic affinities of cetaceans makes it timely to compare their placentation with that of the artiodactyls. We studied the placentae of two sympatric species of dolphin from the Amazon River Basin, representing two distinct families. The umbilical cord branched...

  13. Condition and fate of logged forests in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory P. Asner; Eben N. Broadbent; Paulo J. C. Oliveira; Michael Keller; David E. Knapp; Jose N. M. Silva

    2006-01-01

    The long-term viability of a forest industry in the Amazon region of Brazil depends on the maintenance of adequate timber volume and growth in healthy forests. Using extensive high-resolution satellite analyses, we studied the forest damage caused by recent logging operations and the likelihood that logged forests would be cleared within 4 years after timber harvest....

  14. Commons management and ecotourism: Ethnographic evidence from the Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stronza, Amanda Lee

    2010-01-01

    TThe paper evaluates the relationship between ecotourism and commons management. Social and economic impacts of ecotourism in an indigenous village in the Peruvian Amazon are considered in relation to opportunities for collective action to manage common pool resources, including wildlife, forests,

  15. Food Security, Fisheries and Aquaculture in the Bolivian Amazon ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Dieta del paiche - Arapaima aff. gigas (Osteoglossiformes: Arapaimidae) en el lago El Mentiroso, Río Madre de Dios (Bolivia). Download PDF. Studies. Food security and nutritional status in fishing communities in Bolivia's Northern Amazon : results of a household survey. Download PDF. Briefs. Pêches, aquaculture et bien ...

  16. Helping the Amazon's Caboclos riverine communities cope with ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-11-15

    Nov 15, 2013 ... Riverine communities are known to be adaptable to hydro-climatic changes. However, they are experiencing higher and longer tides and floods. A research project is developing an early warning system and tools to help these communities in the Delta of the Amazon River adapt to extreme events.

  17. Food Security, Fisheries and Aquaculture in the Bolivian Amazon ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Indigenous communities involved in fisheries and aquaculture are among the most food insecure in the Bolivian Amazon. Although fish could be the main source of protein, it is often not part of the local diet. This project - supported by the Canadian International Food Security Research Fund (CIFSRF), a joint program of ...

  18. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon: A Classroom Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijman, Jan; Hill, A. David

    1991-01-01

    Presents a classroom project dealing with tropical deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Addresses environmental consequences and economic, social, and political causes. Involves both lectures and individual research and reports by student groups on deforestation causes. Includes a note-playing activity in which students make recommendations for…

  19. Learning big data with Amazon Elastic MapReduce

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Amarkant

    2014-01-01

    This book is aimed at developers and system administrators who want to learn about Big Data analysis using Amazon Elastic MapReduce. Basic Java programming knowledge is required. You should be comfortable with using command-line tools. Prior knowledge of AWS, API, and CLI tools is not assumed. Also, no exposure to Hadoop and MapReduce is expected.

  20. The Impacts of Amazon Deforestation on Pacific Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Leah

    Variability in eastern Pacific sea surface temperatures (SSTs) associated with the El Nino Southern Oscillation are known to affect Amazonian precipitation, but to what extent do changing Amazonian vegetation and rainfall impact eastern Pacific SST? The Amazon rainforest is threatened by many factors including climate change and clearing for agricultural reasons. Forest fires and dieback are more likely due to increased frequency and intensity of droughts in the region. It is possible that extensive Amazon deforestation can enhance El Nino conditions by weakening the Walker circulation. Correlations between annual rainfall rates over the Amazon and other atmospheric parameters (global precipitation, surface air temperature, low cloud amount, 500 hPa vertical velocity, surface winds, and 200 hPa winds) over the eastern Pacific indicate strong relationships among these fields. Maps of these correlations (teleconnection maps) reveal that when the Amazon is rainy SSTs in the central and eastern Pacific are cold, rainfall is suppressed over the central and eastern Pacific, low clouds are prominent over the eastern and southeastern Pacific, and subsidence over the central and eastern Pacific is enhanced. Precipitation in the Amazon is also consistent with a strong Walker circulation (La Nina conditions), manifest as strong correlations with the easterly surface and westerly 200 hPa zonal winds. Coupling between Amazon rainfall and these fields are seen in observations and model data. Correlations were calculated using data from observations, reanalysis data, two models under the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project/Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5/AMIP), and an AMIP run with the model used in this study, the Community Earth System Model (CESM1.1.1). Although the correlations between Amazon precipitation and the aforementioned fields are strong, they do not show causality. In order to investigate the impact of tropical South American deforestation on the

  1. Achieving zero deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon: What is missing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Moutinho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Amazon deforestation causes severe climatic and ecological disruptions, with negative consequences for the livelihood of forest-dependent peoples. To avoid further disruptions, Brazil will need to take bold steps to eliminate both illegal and legal Amazon deforestation over the short term. Amazon deforestation declined by 70% between 2005 and 2014 due to drops in commodity prices and interventions by federal and state governments, such as law enforcement campaigns and credit restrictions for landowners who deforest illegally. Despite these impressive achievements, Brazil still deforests 5,000 km2 of Amazonian forests each year. How then will Brazil eliminate Amazon deforestation altogether if the country is only committed to cut illegal deforestation by 2030—as stated in its Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (iNDC to the 2015 climate change treaty meeting in Paris? Here we provide an analysis of the major socio-economic-political threats that could constrain Brazil from achieving its current goals. We then propose six fundamental strategies to help Brazil achieve a more ambitious goal to eliminate all major legal and illegal Amazon deforestation. These strategies involve bringing social and environmental safeguards to the infrastructure plans in the region, consolidating and expanding positive incentives for the production of sustainable commodities, establishing a new policy to guarantee the social and environmental sustainability of rural settlements, fully implementing the national legislation protecting forests (the Forest Code, protecting the land rights of indigenous people and traditional communities, and expanding the existing network of protected areas, allocating the 80 million hectares of not designated public forests as protected areas or areas for sustainable use of timber and non-timber forest products. The implementation of these strategies however depends on the formulation of a new development paradigm that

  2. Priority Areas for Establishing National Forests in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto Veríssimo

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Brazil will benefit if it gains control of its vast Amazonian timber resources. Without immediate planning, the fate of much of the Amazon will be decided by predatory and largely unregulated timber interests. Logging in the Amazon is a transient process of natural resource mining. Older logging frontiers are being exhausted of timber resources and will face severe wood shortages within 5 yr. The Brazilian government can avoid the continued repetition of this process in frontier areas by establishing a network of National Forests (Florestas Nacionais or Flonas to stabilize the timber industry and simultaneously protect large tracts of forest. Flonas currently comprise less than 2% of the Brazilian Amazon (83,000 km2. If all these forests were used for sustainable logging, they would provide less than 10% of the demand for Amazonian timber. To sustainably supply the present and near-future demand for timber, approximately 700,000 km2 of the Amazon forest needs to be brought into well-managed production. Brazil's National Forest Program, launched in 2000, is designed to create at least 400,000 km2 of new Flonas. Objective decision-making tools are needed to site these new national forests. We present here a method for optimally locating the needed Flonas that incorporates information on existing protected areas, current vegetation cover, areas of human occupation, and timber stocks. The method combines these data in a spatial database that makes it possible to model the economic potential of the region's various forests as a function of their accessibility and timber values while constraining model solutions for existing areas of protection or human occupation. Our results indicate that 1.15 x 106 km2 of forests (23% of the Brazilian Amazon could be established as Flonas in a manner that will promote sustainable forest management; these Flonas would also serve as buffer zones for fully protected areas such as parks and reserves.

  3. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-living Amazon river dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from central Amazon, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important pathogen in aquatic mammals and its presence in these animals may indicate water contamination of aquatic environment by oocysts. Serum samples from 95 dolphins from free-living Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from Sustainable Development Reserve Mamirauá (...

  4. Comportamento, sobrevivência e desenvolvimento de lebistes, Poecilia reticulata, submetidos a agentes utilizados na profilaxia de doenças - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i4.1183 Behaviour, survival, and development of guppies, Poecilia reticulata, submitted to agents used in the prophylaxis of diseases - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i4.1183

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Rogério Boscolo

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o comportamento, a sobrevivência e desenvolvimento de larvas saudáveis de Poecilia reticulata submetidas à profilaxia contra bactérias, fungos e parasitas, foi conduzido no Laboratório de Aqüicultura da Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Estado do Paraná, um experimento delineado ao acaso com 6 tratamentos (controle, azul de metileno, cloranfenicol, formalina, KMnO4 e NaCl e 4 repetições. Os banhos profiláticos variaram conforme o tratamento, de 30 minutos a 48 horas. Posteriormente, avaliou-se, por 20 dias, o desenvolvimento dos animais. A análise comportamental realizada durante o banho mostrou que, quando expostos à formalina, os animais perdiam o senso de direção e chocavam-se contra a parede. O desenvolvimento das larvas no tratamento com cloranfenicol apresentou-se melhor (P Aiming to evaluate the behavioural, survival and developmental responses of healthy larvae of Poecilia reticulata subjected to the prophyllatic against bacteria, fungi and parasites, a randomized experiment was carried out at the Aquaculture Laboratory of the State University of Maringá, state of Paraná, using six treatments (control, methylene blue, chloramphenicol, formalin, KMnO4 and NaCl and four repetitions. Length prophylactic treatment varied from 30 minutes to 48 hours. After bath treatment, animals’ growth was evaluated during the following 20 days. Behavioural analysis during bath treatment showed that when the animals were exposed to formalin, they lost their sense of direction and collided against the wall. In the treatment with chloramphenicol, development of the larvae was better (P < 0.05 when treated with formalin. In relation to survival, there were no differences between the treatments. Thus, any methodology may be applied in this study when related to survival. Prophylaxis with chloramphenicol is the preferred treatment to formalin when evaluating growth

  5. Late Miocene onset of the Amazon River and the Amazon deep-sea fan: Evidence from the Foz do Amazonas Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Figueiredo, J.; Hoorn, C.; van der Ven, P.; Soares, E.

    2009-01-01

    New biostratigraphic, isotopic, and well log data from exploration wells on the outer continental shelf and uppermost Amazon deep-sea fan, Brazil, reveal that the Amazon River was initiated as a transcontinental river between 11.8 and 11.3 Ma ago (middle to late Miocene), and reached its present

  6. The Late Miocene paleogeography of the Amazon Basin and the evolution of the Amazon River system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latrubesse, Edgardo M.; Cozzuol, Mario; da Silva-Caminha, Silane A. F.; Rigsby, Catherine A.; Absy, Maria Lucia; Jaramillo, Carlos

    2010-05-01

    basin, and became instead an erosional area that contributed sediments to the Amazon fluvial system. At that time, the lowland fluvial systems of southwestern Amazonia (the Purus, Jurua and Javarí basins) become isolated from the Andes by the newly formed north-flowing Ucayali system and south-east flowing Madre de Dios System. It was during the early Pliocene that the Amazon fluvial system integrated regionally and acquired its present appearance, and also when it started to drain water and sediments on a large scale to the Atlantic Ocean.

  7. Histopathological alterations observed in the liver of Poecilia vivipara (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae as a tool for the environmental quality assessment of the Cachoeira River, BA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DV Paulo

    Full Text Available Histopathological alterations in liver have been widely used as a tool in studies for monitoring environmental quality. To evaluate the environmental quality in the Cachoeira river, five spots were monitored between the municipal districts of Itapé and Ilhéus, using liver histological analysis. The species chosen for analysis was Poecilia vivipara due to the fact that it is one of the most abundant in the sampling. The routine technique of inclusion and impregnation in paraffin was used, and the cuts were stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin (H & E. Histopathological alterations in the liver were evaluated semi-quantitatively and based on the severity of the lesions. The results of the histopathological alteration frequency together with the average taken from the Histopathological Alteration Index from points 1 (Vila de Itapé and 2 (Fazenda Santa Amélia showed that in this area the environment is more threatened because of some stressor agent, possibly contaminants that seem to be acting in the environment and endangering the health of fish. The statistic results demonstrated that there were no significant differences among points 1, 2 and 4, which means they are very similar to one another, and are ecologically endangered.

  8. Histopathological alterations observed in the liver of Poecilia vivipara (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae) as a tool for the environmental quality assessment of the Cachoeira River, BA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulo, D V; Fontes, F M; Flores-Lopes, F

    2012-02-01

    Histopathological alterations in liver have been widely used as a tool in studies for monitoring environmental quality. To evaluate the environmental quality in the Cachoeira river, five spots were monitored between the municipal districts of Itapé and Ilhéus, using liver histological analysis. The species chosen for analysis was Poecilia vivipara due to the fact that it is one of the most abundant in the sampling. The routine technique of inclusion and impregnation in paraffin was used, and the cuts were stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin (H & E). Histopathological alterations in the liver were evaluated semi-quantitatively and based on the severity of the lesions. The results of the histopathological alteration frequency together with the average taken from the Histopathological Alteration Index from points 1 (Vila de Itapé) and 2 (Fazenda Santa Amélia) showed that in this area the environment is more threatened because of some stressor agent, possibly contaminants that seem to be acting in the environment and endangering the health of fish. The statistic results demonstrated that there were no significant differences among points 1, 2 and 4, which means they are very similar to one another, and are ecologically endangered.

  9. Gradient Evolution of Body Colouration in Surface- and Cave-Dwelling Poecilia mexicana and the Role of Phenotype-Assortative Female Mate Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bierbach

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecological speciation assumes reproductive isolation to be the product of ecologically based divergent selection. Beside natural selection, sexual selection via phenotype-assortative mating is thought to promote reproductive isolation. Using the neotropical fish Poecilia mexicana from a system that has been described to undergo incipient ecological speciation in adjacent, but ecologically divergent habitats characterized by the presence or absence of toxic H2S and darkness in cave habitats, we demonstrate a gradual change in male body colouration along the gradient of light/darkness, including a reduction of ornaments that are under both inter- and intrasexual selection in surface populations. In dichotomous choice tests using video-animated stimuli, we found surface females to prefer males from their own population over the cave phenotype. However, female cave fish, observed on site via infrared techniques, preferred to associate with surface males rather than size-matched cave males, likely reflecting the female preference for better-nourished (in this case: surface males. Hence, divergent selection on body colouration indeed translates into phenotype-assortative mating in the surface ecotype, by selecting against potential migrant males. Female cave fish, by contrast, do not have a preference for the resident male phenotype, identifying natural selection against migrants imposed by the cave environment as the major driver of the observed reproductive isolation.

  10. Whole toxicity removal for industrial and domestic effluents treated with electron beam radiation, evaluated with Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia similis and Poecilia reticulata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrely, Sueli Ivone

    2001-01-01

    Several studies have been performed in order to apply ionizing radiation to treat real complexes effluents from different sources, at IPEN. This paper shows the results of such kind of application devoted to influents and effluents from Suzano Wastewater Treatment Plant, Sao Paulo, Suzano WTP, from SABESP. The purpose of the work was to evaluate the radiation technology according to ecotoxicological aspects. The evaluation was carried out on the toxicity bases which included three sampling sites as follows: complex industrial effluents; domestic sewage mixed to the industrial discharge (GM) and final secondary effluent. The tested-organisms for toxicity evaluation were: the marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri, the microcrustacean Daphnia similis and the guppy Poecilia reticulata. The fish tests were applied only for secondary final effluents. The results demonstrated the original acute toxicity levels as well as the efficiency of electron beam for its reduction. An important acute toxicity removal was achieved: from 75% up to 95% with 50 kGy (UNA), 20 kGy (GM) and 5.0 kGy for the final effluent. The toxicity removal was a consequence of several organic solvents decomposed by radiation and acute toxicity reduction was about 95%. When the toxicity was evaluated for fish the radiation efficiency reached from 40% to 60%. The hypothesis tests showed a statistical significant removal in the developed studies condition. No residual hydrogen peroxide was found after 5.0 kGy was applied to final effluent. (author)

  11. Activity determination of Na+ K+ - ATPase and Mg++ - ATPase enzymes in the gill of Poecilia vivipara (Osteichthyes, Cyprinodontiformes in different salinities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaral Marcelo da Cunha

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to know the tolerance mechanisms through the salinity variation by Na+ K+ - ATPase and Mg++ - ATPase and enzymes encountered in the gills of Poecilia vivipara. In field, the presence of this species was observed in salinities of 0 and 28?. In laboratory, these fish were maintained in aquarium with mean salinity of 30? and positive responses were obtained. Some adult specimens, collected in a lagoon of the Coqueiros Beach, were utilized as matrixes. In the experiments the specimens used were those born in the test aquarium. For each salinity studied three replicates were made with three specimens for each one. The alevins were maintained in salinities of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35? during a month for adaptation. Gills were extracted in appropriate buffer for isolation of plasma membrane and used for specific dosage of the total enzymatic activity of Na+ K+ - ATPase and Mg++ - ATPase. The relation of alevins to their adaptation towards the salinity variation was also studied. The activity of the two enzymes showed a different result. The major expression of Na+ K+ - ATPase was observed in 20? (35 µmoles Pi.mg protein.h-1, the best salinity to cultivate P. vivipara.

  12. Use of the Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor to assess behavioral changes of Poecilia reticulata (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae) and Macrobrachium lanchesteri (Decapoda: Palaemonidae) in response to acid mine drainage: laboratory exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohti, Azmah; Shuhaimi-Othman, Mohammad; Gerhardt, Almut

    2012-09-01

    The behavioral responses of guppy Poecilia reticulata (Poeciliidae) and prawn Macrobrachium lanchesteri (Palaemonidae) individuals exposed to acid mine drainage (AMD) were monitored online in the laboratory with a Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor™ (MFB). These responses were compared to those to reference water acidified to the respective pH values (ACID). Test animals in the juvenile stage were used for both species and were exposed to AMD and ACID for 24 hours. The stress behaviors of both test animals consisted mainly of decreased activity in AMD and increased activity in ACID, indicating that the metals in the AMD played a role as a stress factor in addition to pH. The locomotor activity levels of guppies and prawns for the ACID treatment were higher than the locomotor activity levels for the AMD treatment with increasing pH value. For guppies, significant differences were observed when specimens were exposed to AMD and ACID at pH 5.0 and 6.0; the percentage activities were only 16% and 12%, respectively, for AMD treatment, whereas for ACID treatment, the percentage activities were 35% and 40%, respectively, similar to the value of 36% for the controls. Similar trends were also observed for prawns, for which the percentage activities were only 6% and 4%, respectively, for AMD treatment, whereas for ACID treatment, the percentage activities were 31% and 38%, respectively, compared to 44% in the controls. This study showed that both species are suitable for use as indicators for ecotoxicity testing with the MFB.

  13. The impact of parasites on the life history evolution of guppies (Poecilia reticulata): the effects of host size on parasite virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, J; van Oosterhout, C

    2007-11-01

    There is large spatial and temporal variation in the Gyrodactylus parasite fauna across natural guppy (Poecilia reticulata) populations in Trinidad. The life history evolution of these fish could be affected differently in the various habitats depending on the local parasite selection pressure. Here, we experimentally infected three guppy populations with three gyrodactylid strains in the laboratory and monitored the infection by recording the number of parasites and host mortality in a full factorial design. The origin of the guppy population and parasite strain, and the size of the hosts explained significant variation in the survival of hosts. Larger fish carried the highest parasite loads and experienced the highest mortality rates, which suggests that parasite-mediated selection may favour smaller phenotypes, possibly counter-balancing selection pressures by gape-limited predators, mate choice and female fecundity. We observed significant variation in virulence between parasite strains with the captive-bred experimental strain (Gt3) causing the highest mortality of hosts whilst reaching only relatively low maximum burdens. This suggests that adaptations to the captive environment and/or inbreeding depression may alter the virulence of such captive-bred parasites. There were significant differences in survival rate between guppy populations, with infected guppies from the large population of the Lower Aripo River showing a higher survival rate than the fish from the small and genetically less diverse Upper Aripo River population.

  14. Disruptions in aromatase expression in the brain, reproductive behavior, and secondary sexual characteristics in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) induced by tributyltin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hua; Wu, Peng; Wang, Wei; Ru, Shaoguo

    2015-05-01

    Although bioaccumulation of tributyltin (TBT) in fish has been confirmed, information on possible effects of TBT on reproductive system of fish is still relatively scarce, particularly at environmentally relevant levels. To evaluate the adverse effects and intrinsic toxicological properties of TBT in male fish, we studied aromatase gene expression in the brain, sex steroid contents, primary and secondary sexual characteristics, and reproductive behavior in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) exposed to tributyltin chloride at the nominal concentrations of 5, 50, and 500 ng/L for 28 days in a semi-static exposure system. Radioimmunoassay demonstrated that treatment with 50 ng/L TBT caused an increase in systemic levels of testosterone of male guppies. Gonopodial index, which showed a positive correlation with testosterone levels, was elevated in the 5 ng/L and 50 ng/L TBT treated groups. Real-time PCR revealed that TBT exposure had inhibiting effects on expression of two isoforms of guppy aromatase in the brain, and these changes at the molecular levels were associated with a disturbance of reproductive behavior of the individuals, as measured by decreases in frequencies of posturing, sigmoid display, and chase activities when males were paired with females. This study provides the first evidence that TBT can cause abnormalities of secondary sexual characteristics in teleosts and that suppression of reproductive behavior in teleosts by TBT is due to its endocrine-disrupting action as an aromatase inhibitor targeting the nervous system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Balancing selection, random genetic drift, and genetic variation at the major histocompatibility complex in two wild populations of guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oosterhout, Cock; Joyce, Domino A; Cummings, Stephen M; Blais, Jonatan; Barson, Nicola J; Ramnarine, Indar W; Mohammed, Ryan S; Persad, Nadia; Cable, Joanne

    2006-12-01

    Our understanding of the evolution of genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is rapidly increasing, but there are still enigmatic questions remaining, particularly regarding the maintenance of high levels of MHC polymorphisms in small, isolated populations. Here, we analyze the genetic variation at eight microsatellite loci and sequence variation at exon 2 of the MHC class IIB (DAB) genes in two wild populations of the Trinidadian guppy, Poecilia reticulata. We compare the genetic variation of a small (Ne, 100) and relatively isolated upland population to that of its much larger (Ne approximately 2400) downstream counterpart. As predicted, microsatellite diversity in the upland population is significantly lower and highly differentiated from the population further downstream. Surprisingly, however, these guppy populations are not differentiated by MHC genetic variation and show very similar levels of allelic richness. Computer simulations indicate that the observed level of genetic variation can be maintained with overdominant selection acting at three DAB loci. The selection coefficients differ dramatically between the upland (s > or = 0.2) and lowland (s guppies in the upland habitat, which has resulted in high levels of MHC diversity being maintained in this population despite considerable genetic drift.

  16. Population genetic analysis of microsatellite variation of guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in Trinidad and Tobago: evidence for a dynamic source-sink metapopulation structure, founder events and population bottlenecks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barson, N J; Cable, J; Van Oosterhout, C

    2009-03-01

    Riverine fish populations are traditionally considered to be highly structured and subject to strong genetic drift. Here, we use microsatellites to analyse the population structure of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), focussing on the headwater floodplain area of the Caroni drainage in Trinidad. We also analyse the population genetics of guppies in the Northern Drainage in Trinidad, a habitat characterized by rivers flowing directly into the sea, and a small isolated population in Tobago. Upland Caroni populations are highly differentiated and display low levels of genetic diversity. However, we found no evidence to suggest that these upland populations experienced recent population crashes and the populations appear to approach mutation-drift equilibrium. Dominant downstream migration over both short- and long-time frames has a strong impact on the population genetics of lowland Caroni populations. This drainage system could be considered a source-sink metapopulation, with the tributary furthest downstream representing a 'super sink', receiving immigrants from rivers upstream in the drainage. Moreover, the effective population size in the lowlands is surprisingly low in comparison with the apparently large census population sizes.

  17. Exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during sexual development causes the feminization/demasculinization of the reproductive traits and a reduction in the reproductive success of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hua; Li, Yun; Wang, Wei; Wu, Peng; Ru, Shaoguo

    2012-09-01

    Monocrotophos is a highly toxic organophosphorus pesticide that has been confirmed to be an endocrine-disrupting chemical. To evaluate the influence of this pollutant on the reproductive system of male fish, we studied the sex steroid levels, reproductive traits, sex ratio, and reproductive success in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) exposed to 40% monocrotophos pesticide at the nominal concentrations of 0.01, 0.10, and 1.00 mg/L for 90 days from birth to adulthood in a semi-static exposure system. Radioimmunoassay and western blot analyses demonstrated that the long-term exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during the sexual development of male guppies caused a significant increase in 17β-estradiol levels and consequently induced vitellogenin synthesis, suggesting the feminization of the males. Monocrotophos pesticide also caused a significant decrease in testosterone levels, which consequently inhibited testis growth and reduced the sperm count and the area and intensity of their sexually attractive orange spots, which collectively indicated the significant demasculinization of the male sexual characteristics. Furthermore, these changes in the sexual characteristics at the cellular and organ levels translated into ecologically important effects on the reproductive success at the individual level, as measured by a decrease in offspring production and survival rate. The present study provides the first evidence that monocrotophos pesticide can cause severe reproductive abnormalities in fish due to its endocrine-disrupting action. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Large emissions from floodplain trees close the Amazon methane budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangala, Sunitha R.; Enrich-Prast, Alex; Basso, Luana S.; Peixoto, Roberta Bittencourt; Bastviken, David; Hornibrook, Edward R. C.; Gatti, Luciana V.; Marotta, Humberto; Calazans, Luana Silva Braucks; Sakuragui, Cassia Mônica; Bastos, Wanderley Rodrigues; Malm, Olaf; Gloor, Emanuel; Miller, John Bharat; Gauci, Vincent

    2017-12-01

    Wetlands are the largest global source of atmospheric methane (CH4), a potent greenhouse gas. However, methane emission inventories from the Amazon floodplain, the largest natural geographic source of CH4 in the tropics, consistently underestimate the atmospheric burden of CH4 determined via remote sensing and inversion modelling, pointing to a major gap in our understanding of the contribution of these ecosystems to CH4 emissions. Here we report CH4 fluxes from the stems of 2,357 individual Amazonian floodplain trees from 13 locations across the central Amazon basin. We find that escape of soil gas through wetland trees is the dominant source of regional CH4 emissions. Methane fluxes from Amazon tree stems were up to 200 times larger than emissions reported for temperate wet forests and tropical peat swamp forests, representing the largest non-ebullitive wetland fluxes observed. Emissions from trees had an average stable carbon isotope value (δ13C) of -66.2 ± 6.4 per mil, consistent with a soil biogenic origin. We estimate that floodplain trees emit 15.1 ± 1.8 to 21.2 ± 2.5 teragrams of CH4 a year, in addition to the 20.5 ± 5.3 teragrams a year emitted regionally from other sources. Furthermore, we provide a ‘top-down’ regional estimate of CH4 emissions of 42.7 ± 5.6 teragrams of CH4 a year for the Amazon basin, based on regular vertical lower-troposphere CH4 profiles covering the period 2010-2013. We find close agreement between our ‘top-down’ and combined ‘bottom-up’ estimates, indicating that large CH4 emissions from trees adapted to permanent or seasonal inundation can account for the emission source that is required to close the Amazon CH4 budget. Our findings demonstrate the importance of tree stem surfaces in mediating approximately half of all wetland CH4 emissions in the Amazon floodplain, a region that represents up to one-third of the global wetland CH4 source when trees are combined with other emission sources.

  19. Shared and unique patterns of embryo development in extremophile poeciliids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüdiger Riesch

    Full Text Available Closely related lineages of livebearing fishes have independently adapted to two extreme environmental factors: toxic hydrogen sulphide (H(2S and perpetual darkness. Previous work has demonstrated in adult specimens that fish from these extreme habitats convergently evolved drastically increased head and offspring size, while cave fish are further characterized by reduced pigmentation and eye size. Here, we traced the development of these (and other divergent traits in embryos of Poecilia mexicana from benign surface habitats ("surface mollies" and a sulphidic cave ("cave mollies", as well as in embryos of the sister taxon, Poecilia sulphuraria from a sulphidic surface spring ("sulphur mollies". We asked at which points during development changes in the timing of the involved processes (i.e., heterochrony would be detectible.Data were extracted from digital photographs taken of representative embryos for each stage of development and each type of molly. Embryo mass decreased in convergent fashion, but we found patterns of embryonic fat content and ovum/embryo diameter to be divergent among all three types of mollies. The intensity of yellow colouration of the yolk (a proxy for carotenoid content was significantly lower in cave mollies throughout development. Moreover, while relative head size decreased through development in surface mollies, it increased in both types of extremophile mollies, and eye growth was arrested in mid-stage embryos of cave mollies but not in surface or sulphur mollies.Our results clearly demonstrate that even among sister taxa convergence in phenotypic traits is not always achieved by the same processes during embryo development. Furthermore, teleost development is crucially dependent on sufficient carotenoid stores in the yolk, and so we discuss how the apparent ability of cave mollies to overcome this carotenoid-dependency may represent another potential mechanism explaining the lack of gene flow between surface and

  20. Shared and unique patterns of embryo development in extremophile poeciliids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesch, Rüdiger; Schlupp, Ingo; Langerhans, R Brian; Plath, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Closely related lineages of livebearing fishes have independently adapted to two extreme environmental factors: toxic hydrogen sulphide (H(2)S) and perpetual darkness. Previous work has demonstrated in adult specimens that fish from these extreme habitats convergently evolved drastically increased head and offspring size, while cave fish are further characterized by reduced pigmentation and eye size. Here, we traced the development of these (and other) divergent traits in embryos of Poecilia mexicana from benign surface habitats ("surface mollies") and a sulphidic cave ("cave mollies"), as well as in embryos of the sister taxon, Poecilia sulphuraria from a sulphidic surface spring ("sulphur mollies"). We asked at which points during development changes in the timing of the involved processes (i.e., heterochrony) would be detectible. Data were extracted from digital photographs taken of representative embryos for each stage of development and each type of molly. Embryo mass decreased in convergent fashion, but we found patterns of embryonic fat content and ovum/embryo diameter to be divergent among all three types of mollies. The intensity of yellow colouration of the yolk (a proxy for carotenoid content) was significantly lower in cave mollies throughout development. Moreover, while relative head size decreased through development in surface mollies, it increased in both types of extremophile mollies, and eye growth was arrested in mid-stage embryos of cave mollies but not in surface or sulphur mollies. Our results clearly demonstrate that even among sister taxa convergence in phenotypic traits is not always achieved by the same processes during embryo development. Furthermore, teleost development is crucially dependent on sufficient carotenoid stores in the yolk, and so we discuss how the apparent ability of cave mollies to overcome this carotenoid-dependency may represent another potential mechanism explaining the lack of gene flow between surface and cave

  1. LBA-ECO LC-07 Amazon Floodplain Lake Chlorophyll from MODIS, Para, Brazil: 2002-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains chlorophyll concentration maps of the Amazon River floodplain region from Parintins (Amazonas) to Almeirim (Para). These chlorophyll fraction...

  2. LBA-ECO LC-07 Amazon Floodplain Lake Chlorophyll from MODIS, Para, Brazil: 2002-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains chlorophyll concentration maps of the Amazon River floodplain region from Parintins (Amazonas) to Almeirim (Para). These chlorophyll...

  3. The molecular basis of color vision in colorful fish: Four Long Wave-Sensitive (LWS opsins in guppies (Poecilia reticulata are defined by amino acid substitutions at key functional sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Pam R

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparisons of functionally important changes at the molecular level in model systems have identified key adaptations driving isolation and speciation. In cichlids, for example, long wavelength-sensitive (LWS opsins appear to play a role in mate choice and male color variation within and among species. To test the hypothesis that the evolution of elaborate coloration in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata is also associated with opsin gene diversity, we sequenced long wavelength-sensitive (LWS opsin genes in six species of the family Poeciliidae. Results Sequences of four LWS opsin genes were amplified from the guppy genome and from mRNA isolated from adult guppy eyes. Variation in expression was quantified using qPCR. Three of the four genes encode opsins predicted to be most sensitive to different wavelengths of light because they vary at key amino acid positions. This family of LWS opsin genes was produced by a diversity of duplication events. One, an intronless gene, was produced prior to the divergence of families Fundulidae and Poeciliidae. Between-gene PCR and DNA sequencing show that two of the guppy LWS opsins are linked in an inverted orientation. This inverted tandem duplication event occurred near the base of the poeciliid tree in the common ancestor of Poecilia and Xiphophorus. The fourth sequence has been uncovered only in the genus Poecilia. In the guppies surveyed here, this sequence is a hybrid, with the 5' end most similar to one of the tandem duplicates and the 3' end identical to the other. Conclusion Enhanced wavelength discrimination, a possible consequence of opsin gene duplication and divergence, might have been an evolutionary prerequisite for color-based sexual selection and have led to the extraordinary coloration now observed in male guppies and in many other poeciliids.

  4. The molecular basis of color vision in colorful fish: four long wave-sensitive (LWS) opsins in guppies (Poecilia reticulata) are defined by amino acid substitutions at key functional sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Matthew N; Churcher, Allison M; Dick, Kevin J; Laver, Chris R J; Owens, Greg L; Polack, Megan D; Ward, Pam R; Breden, Felix; Taylor, John S

    2008-07-18

    Comparisons of functionally important changes at the molecular level in model systems have identified key adaptations driving isolation and speciation. In cichlids, for example, long wavelength-sensitive (LWS) opsins appear to play a role in mate choice and male color variation within and among species. To test the hypothesis that the evolution of elaborate coloration in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) is also associated with opsin gene diversity, we sequenced long wavelength-sensitive (LWS) opsin genes in six species of the family Poeciliidae. Sequences of four LWS opsin genes were amplified from the guppy genome and from mRNA isolated from adult guppy eyes. Variation in expression was quantified using qPCR. Three of the four genes encode opsins predicted to be most sensitive to different wavelengths of light because they vary at key amino acid positions. This family of LWS opsin genes was produced by a diversity of duplication events. One, an intronless gene, was produced prior to the divergence of families Fundulidae and Poeciliidae. Between-gene PCR and DNA sequencing show that two of the guppy LWS opsins are linked in an inverted orientation. This inverted tandem duplication event occurred near the base of the poeciliid tree in the common ancestor of Poecilia and Xiphophorus. The fourth sequence has been uncovered only in the genus Poecilia. In the guppies surveyed here, this sequence is a hybrid, with the 5' end most similar to one of the tandem duplicates and the 3' end identical to the other. Enhanced wavelength discrimination, a possible consequence of opsin gene duplication and divergence, might have been an evolutionary prerequisite for color-based sexual selection and have led to the extraordinary coloration now observed in male guppies and in many other poeciliids.

  5. Analisis E-Bisnis Terhadap Amazon dan Aquarelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evawaty Tanuar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The internet and digital world is one thing that needs to be taken into account by the Company. Business through Internet, known as e-business, is another way to increase the relation between company and customers or prospective customers. Analysis from the view point of customers and the integration of technologies was conducted on 2 examples sites that well known in doing online business but have different history on how it started the e-commerce. They are Amazon and Aquarelle. By comparing the two sites, the characteristics of e-commerce sites could be studied. As a result, there are striking differences between these two sites, where Amazon is more oriented to sales, while Aquarelle more on customer-oriented impact to the design and implementation of their e-business. 

  6. Remote tropical and sub-tropical responses to Amazon deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badger, Andrew M.; Dirmeyer, Paul A.

    2016-05-01

    Replacing natural vegetation with realistic tropical crops over the Amazon region in a global Earth system model impacts vertical transport of heat and moisture, modifying the interaction between the atmospheric boundary layer and the free atmosphere. Vertical velocity is decreased over a majority of the Amazon region, shifting the ascending branch and modifying the seasonality of the Hadley circulation over the Atlantic and eastern Pacific oceans. Using a simple model that relates circulation changes to heating anomalies and generalizing the upper-atmosphere temperature response to deforestation, agreement is found between the response in the fully-coupled model and the simple solution. These changes to the large-scale dynamics significantly impact precipitation in several remote regions, namely sub-Saharan Africa, Mexico, the southwestern United States and extratropical South America, suggesting non-local climate repercussions for large-scale land use changes in the tropics are possible.

  7. Tree ring reconstructed rainfall over the southern Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Lidio; Stahle, David; Villalba, Ricardo; Torbenson, Max; Feng, Song; Cook, Edward

    2017-07-01

    Moisture sensitive tree ring chronologies of Centrolobium microchaete have been developed from seasonally dry forests in the southern Amazon Basin and used to reconstruct wet season rainfall totals from 1799 to 2012, adding over 150 years of rainfall estimates to the short instrumental record for the region. The reconstruction is correlated with the same atmospheric variables that influence the instrumental measurements of wet season rainfall. Anticyclonic circulation over midlatitude South America promotes equatorward surges of cold and relatively dry extratropical air that converge with warm moist air to form deep convection and heavy rainfall over this sector of the southern Amazon Basin. Interesting droughts and pluvials are reconstructed during the preinstrumental nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, but the tree ring reconstruction suggests that the strong multidecadal variability in instrumental and reconstructed wet season rainfall after 1950 may have been unmatched since 1799.

  8. Database of the Amazon aromatic plants and their essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Guilherme S. Maia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aromatic flora of the Amazon has been inventoried for 30 years. In this sense, were made over 500 field trips to collect over 2500 plants and to obtain more than 2000 essential oils and aroma concentrates, all of them submitted to GC and GC-MS. This work led to the creation of a database for the aromatic plants of the Amazon, which catalogs general information about 1250 specimens. The database has allowed the publication of the chemical composition of the oils and aromas of more than 350 species, associated with a larger number of chemical types. The essential oils of many species offer optimum conditions for economic exploitation and use in national and international market of fragrances, cosmetics, agricultural and household pesticides.

  9. Land inequality and deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Albuquerque Sant'Anna, André

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the relationship between land inequality and deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Therefore, it is developed an occupational choice model where an individual decides whether to become a farmer in an already established place or to move in search of economic opportunities and land to clear at the agricultural frontier. This model provides theoretical predictions that are tested empirically. Based on data from 515 municipalities, this paper estimates a ...

  10. DETERMINATION OF CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF WOODS FROM SOUTHERN AMAZON

    OpenAIRE

    A. P. S. Almeida; D. A. Rodrigues; P. A. R. Castelo

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to make conventional analyzes to determine the chemical composition of five wooden species found on the Southern Amazon area, which are: Peltogyne lecointei, Erisma uncinatum, Hymenaea courbaril, Hymenolobium petraeum and Trattinnickia burseraefolia. First of all, the samples was collected based on the availability and and primarily in the commercial interest of the wood. It was taken discs along the stem (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of the commercial height) fro...

  11. Response of the Amazon rainforest to late Pleistocene climate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häggi, Christoph; Chiessi, Cristiano M.; Merkel, Ute; Mulitza, Stefan; Prange, Matthias; Schulz, Michael; Schefuß, Enno

    2017-12-01

    Variations in Amazonian hydrology and forest cover have major consequences for the global carbon and hydrological cycles as well as for biodiversity. Yet, the climate and vegetation history of the lowland Amazon basin and its effect on biogeography remain debated due to the scarcity of suitable high-resolution paleoclimate records. Here, we use the isotopic composition (δD and δ13C) of plant-waxes from a high-resolution marine sediment core collected offshore the Amazon River to reconstruct the climate and vegetation history of the integrated lowland Amazon basin for the period from 50,000 to 12,800 yr before present. Our results show that δD values from the Last Glacial Maximum were more enriched than those from Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3 and the present-day. We interpret this trend to reflect long-term changes in precipitation and atmospheric circulation, with overall drier conditions during the Last Glacial Maximum. Our results thus suggest a dominant glacial forcing of the climate in lowland Amazonia. In addition to previously suggested thermodynamic mechanisms of precipitation change, which are directly related to temperature, we conclude that changes in atmospheric circulation are crucial to explain the temporal evolution of Amazonian rainfall variations, as demonstrated in climate model experiments. Our vegetation reconstruction based on δ13C values shows that the Amazon rainforest was affected by intrusions of savannah or more open vegetation types in its northern sector during Heinrich Stadials, while it was resilient to glacial drying. This suggests that biogeographic patterns in tropical South America were affected by Heinrich Stadials in addition to glacial-interglacial climate variability.

  12. Brazilian policies that encourage deforestation in the Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Binswanger, H.P.

    1991-01-01

    Metadata only record This paper shows that general tax policies, special tax incentives, the rules of land allocation, and the agricultural credit system all accelerate deforestation in the Amazon (region of Brazil). These policies increase the size of land holdings and reduce the chances of the poor to become farmers. The key provisions include: the virtual exemption of agricultural income from income taxation; rules of public land allocation that provide incentives for deforestation beca...

  13. Ongoing River Capture in the Amazon via Secondary Channel Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, S. L.; Stokes, M.; Perron, J. T.

    2017-12-01

    The Rio Casiquiare in South America is a secondary channel that originates as a distributary of the Rio Orinoco and flows into the Rio Negro as a tributary to form a perennial connection between the Amazon and Orinoco basins, the largest and fourth-largest rivers on Earth by discharge. This unusual configuration is the result of an incomplete and ongoing river capture in which the Rio Negro is actively capturing the upper Rio Orinoco. This rarely observed intermediate stage of capture illuminates important mechanisms that drive river capture in lowland settings, both in the Amazon basin and elsewhere. In particular, we show that the capture of the Rio Orinoco by the Rio Casiquiare is driven by a combination of headward incision of a rapidly eroding tributary of the Rio Negro, sedimentation in the Rio Orinoco downstream of the bifurcation, and seasonal inundation of a low-relief divide. The initiation of the bifurcation by headward erosion caused an increase in discharge to the Rio Casiquiare while the corresponding loss of discharge to the downstream Rio Orinoco has led to observable sedimentation within the main channel. Unlike most ephemeral secondary channels, the Rio Casiquiare appears to be growing, suggesting that the present bifurcation is an unstable feature that will eventually lead to the complete capture of the upper Rio Orinoco by the Rio Casiquiare. This capture is the latest major event in the late Cenozoic drainage evolution of South America in response to Andean tectonism, and is an example of the lateral expansion of the Amazon basin through river capture following integration and entrenchment of the transcontinental Amazon River. The Rio Casiquiare provides a snapshot of an intermediate, transient state of bifurcation and inter-basin flow via a secondary channel during lowland river capture.

  14. Reserves protect against deforestation fires in the Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Marion Adeney

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Reserves are the principal means to conserve forests and biodiversity, but the question of whether reserves work is still debated. In the Amazon, fires are closely linked to deforestation, and thus can be used as a proxy for reserve effectiveness in protecting forest cover. We ask whether reserves in the Brazilian Amazon provide effective protection against deforestation and consequently fires, whether that protection is because of their location or their legal status, and whether some reserve types are more effective than others. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Previous work has shown that most Amazonian fires occur close to roads and are more frequent in El Niño years. We quantified these relationships for reserves and unprotected areas by examining satellite-detected hot pixels regressed against road distance across the entire Brazilian Amazon and for a decade with 2 El Niño-related droughts. Deforestation fires, as measured by hot pixels, declined exponentially with increasing distance from roads in all areas. Fewer deforestation fires occurred within protected areas than outside and the difference between protected and unprotected areas was greatest near roads. Thus, reserves were especially effective at preventing these fires where they are known to be most likely to burn; but they did not provide absolute protection. Even within reserves, at a given distance from roads, there were more deforestation fires in regions with high human impact than in those with low impact. The effect of El Niño on deforestation fires was greatest outside of reserves and near roads. Indigenous reserves, limited-use reserves, and fully protected reserves all had fewer fires than outside areas and did not appear to differ in their effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taking time, regional factors, and climate into account, our results show that reserves are an effective tool for curbing destructive burning in the Amazon.

  15. Microspatial gene expression patterns in the Amazon River Plume

    OpenAIRE

    Satinsky, Brandon M.; Crump, Byron C.; Smith, Christa B.; Sharma, Shalabh; Zielinski, Brian L.; Doherty, Mary; Meng, Jun; Sun, Shulei; Medeiros, Patricia M.; Paul, John H.; Coles, Victoria J.; Yager, Patricia L.; Moran, Mary Ann

    2014-01-01

    The microbial community of the Amazon River Plume determines the fate of the world’s largest input of terrestrial carbon and nutrients to the ocean. By benchmarking with internal standards during sample collection, we determined that each liter of plume seawater contains 1 trillion genes and 50 billion transcripts from thousands of bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic taxa. Gene regulation by taxa inhabiting distinct microenvironments provides insights into micron-scale patterns of transformat...

  16. Deforestation, floodplain dynamics, and carbon biogeochemistry in the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, M. L.; Dunne, T.; Richey, J.; Melack, J.; Simonett, D. S.; Woodwell, G.

    1984-01-01

    Three aspects of the physical geographic environment of the Amazon Basin are considered: (1) deforestation and reforestation, (2) floodplain dynamics, and (3) fluvial geomorphology. Three independent projects are coupled in this experiment to improve the in-place research and to ensure that the Shuttle Imaging Radar-B (SIR-B) experiment stands on a secure base of ongoing work. Major benefits to be obtained center on: (1) areal and locational information, (2) data from various depression angles, and (3) digital radar signatures. Analysis will be conducted for selected sites to define how well SIR-B data can be used for: (1) definition of extent and location of deforestation in a tropical moist forest, (2) definition and quantification of the nature of the vegetation and edaphic conditions on the (floodplain) of the Amazon River, and (3) quantification of the accuracy with which the geometry and channel shifting of the Amazon River may be mapped using SIR-B imagery in conjunction with other remote sensing data.

  17. Suspended sediments of the modern Amazon and Orinoco rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, R.H.

    1994-01-01

    The Amazon and Orinoco Rivers are massive transcontinental conveyance systems for suspended sediment. They derive about 90% of their sediment from the Andes that support their western headwaters, transport it for thousands of kilometers across the breadth of the continent and deposit it in the coastal zones of the Atlantic. At their points of maximum suspended-sediment discharge, the Amazon transports an average of 1100-1300 ?? 106 tons per year and the Orinoco transports about 150 ?? 106 tons per year. Relations of sediment discharge to water discharge are complicated by unusual patterns of seasonal storage and remobilization, increased storage and reduced transport of sediment in the middle Orinoco during periods of peak water discharge, and storage of suspended sediment in the lower Amazon during rising discharge and resuspension during falling discharge. Spatial distributions of suspended sediment in cross-sections of both rivers are typically heterogeneous, not only in the vertical sense but also in the lateral. The cross-channel mixing of tributary inputs into the mainstem waters is a slow process that requires several hundred kilometers of downriver transport to complete. Considerable fine-grained sediment is exchanged between rivers and floodplains by the combination of overbank deposition and bank erosion. ?? 1994.

  18. An extensive reef system at the Amazon River mouth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Rodrigo L; Amado-Filho, Gilberto M; Moraes, Fernando C; Brasileiro, Poliana S; Salomon, Paulo S; Mahiques, Michel M; Bastos, Alex C; Almeida, Marcelo G; Silva, Jomar M; Araujo, Beatriz F; Brito, Frederico P; Rangel, Thiago P; Oliveira, Braulio C V; Bahia, Ricardo G; Paranhos, Rodolfo P; Dias, Rodolfo J S; Siegle, Eduardo; Figueiredo, Alberto G; Pereira, Renato C; Leal, Camille V; Hajdu, Eduardo; Asp, Nils E; Gregoracci, Gustavo B; Neumann-Leitão, Sigrid; Yager, Patricia L; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B; Fróes, Adriana; Campeão, Mariana; Silva, Bruno S; Moreira, Ana P B; Oliveira, Louisi; Soares, Ana C; Araujo, Lais; Oliveira, Nara L; Teixeira, João B; Valle, Rogerio A B; Thompson, Cristiane C; Rezende, Carlos E; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2016-04-01

    Large rivers create major gaps in reef distribution along tropical shelves. The Amazon River represents 20% of the global riverine discharge to the ocean, generating up to a 1.3 × 10(6)-km(2) plume, and extensive muddy bottoms in the equatorial margin of South America. As a result, a wide area of the tropical North Atlantic is heavily affected in terms of salinity, pH, light penetration, and sedimentation. Such unfavorable conditions were thought to imprint a major gap in Western Atlantic reefs. We present an extensive carbonate system off the Amazon mouth, underneath the river plume. Significant carbonate sedimentation occurred during lowstand sea level, and still occurs in the outer shelf, resulting in complex hard-bottom topography. A permanent near-bottom wedge of ocean water, together with the seasonal nature of the plume's eastward retroflection, conditions the existence of this extensive (~9500 km(2)) hard-bottom mosaic. The Amazon reefs transition from accretive to erosional structures and encompass extensive rhodolith beds. Carbonate structures function as a connectivity corridor for wide depth-ranging reef-associated species, being heavily colonized by large sponges and other structure-forming filter feeders that dwell under low light and high levels of particulates. The oxycline between the plume and subplume is associated with chemoautotrophic and anaerobic microbial metabolisms. The system described here provides several insights about the responses of tropical reefs to suboptimal and marginal reef-building conditions, which are accelerating worldwide due to global changes.

  19. Artisanal fisheries of the Xingu River basin in Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, V J; Almeida, M C; Cruz, R E A; Nunes, L G

    2015-08-01

    The present study characterises the commercial fisheries of the basin of the Xingu River, a major tributary of the Amazon River, between the towns of Gurupá (at the mouth of the Amazon) and São Félix do Xingu. Between April, 2012, and March, 2014, a total of 23,939 fishing trips were recorded, yielding a total production of 1,484 tons of fish, harvested by almost three thousand fishers. The analysis of the catches emphasizes the small-scale and artisanal nature of the region's fisheries, with emphasis on the contribution of the motorised canoes powered by "long-tail" outboard motors. Larger motorboats operate only at the mouth of the Xingu and on the Amazon. Peacock bass (Cichla spp.), croakers (Plagioscion spp.), pacu (a group containing numerous serrasalmid species), aracu (various anostomids), and curimatã (Prochilodus nigricans) together contributed more than 60% of the total catch. Mean catch per unit effort was 18 kg/fisher-1.day-1, which varied among fishing methods (type of vessel and fishing equipment used), river sections, and time of the year. In most cases, yields varied little between years (2012 and 2013). The technical database provided by this study constitutes an important resource for the regulation of the region's fisheries, as well as for the evaluation of future changes resulting from the construction of the Belo Monte dam on the Xingu River.

  20. New products made with lignocellulosic nanofibers from Brazilian amazon forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bufalino, L; Mendes, L M; Tonoli, G H D; Fonseca, A; Rodrigues, A; Cunha, P I; Marconcini, J M

    2014-01-01

    The biodiversity of the Amazon forest is undoubtedly rich; hence there is considerable variety of plant fibers regarding their morphological, chemical and structural properties. The legal exploration of the Brazilian Amazon is based on sustainable management techniques, but the generation of a relevant amount of plant wastes still cant be avoided. The correct destination of such materials is a challenge that Brazilian companies have to face. In this context, the National Council of Science and Technology (CNPq) promoted the creation of investigation nets on sustainability of Brazilian agribusiness. The Brazilian Net on Lignocellulosic Composites and Nanocomposites was then created, with partnership between several national and international research institutions. Until the moment, the results showed that Amazon plant fibers that are discarded as residues have great potential to nanofiber production. Nanopapers with considerable high mechanical and physical strength, proper opacity and great crystalline index were produced by using a clean and simple mechanical method. Those materials are candidates to several uses such as packaging, substrates transparent conductive films, gas barrier films, solar cells and e-papers

  1. Rural electrification of the Brazilian Amazon - Achievements and lessons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, Maria F.; Silveira, Semida

    2010-01-01

    The Brazilian government has the ambition to provide complete electricity coverage for all citizens as a means to promote development and reduce inequalities. Full coverage implies the provision of electricity to 15 million people in the country by the end of 2010 through the program Luz para Todos (LPT - light for all) launched in 2003. So far, 11 million people have benefited, 2 million of which live in the Amazon. In this paper, we analyze the linkages between development and rural electrification through the Human Development Index (HDI) and within the context of the Amazon. We examine the suitability of the HDI as a planning and monitoring tool for improving energy access and development. We show that the recognition of electricity access as a driver for development has led to concrete goals for electrification, actual action and welfare improvement. Our study serves to highlight the role of LPT in the development of the Amazon region, and the specific features and achievements of the Brazilian policy for universal electrification. We conclude that some challenges related to the electrification of isolated areas still lie ahead. We finalize with a discussion on the relevance of the Brazilian experience to other developing countries.

  2. Estimation of the evapotranspiration in the Amazon Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villa Nova, N.A.; Salati, E.; Matsui, E.

    1976-01-01

    The establishment of a water balance for the Amazon Basin constitutes a problem of difficult solution, not only on the account of its extension and characteristics, but also for lack of sufficient meteorological and hydrological data. In an attempt to estimate the magnitude of the main components of the water balance, a study was made with data from the Brazilian Amazon Region and from some observation stations in other countries. An energy balance was made and based on this balance the water balance of the region was established, having the Penman method been adapted to forest conditions. The data obtained indicate that 90% of the evaportranspiration is due to the energy balance. The evaportranspiration in this area should be very close to the potential evaportranspiration, and the average found was of the order of 4mm/day, i.e., 1460mm/year. As a first approximation it was found that the Amazon Basin system receives 14,4X10 12 m 3 water/year through precipitation, this total being balanced by a surface discharge of 5,5 x10 12 m 3 /year and an evaportranspiration of 8,9x10 12 m 3 /year. Since transpiration by plants represents 61,8% of the water balance, all seems to indicate that intensive deforestation shall bring about alterations of the hydrological cycle [pt

  3. Mining drives extensive deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonter, Laura J; Herrera, Diego; Barrett, Damian J; Galford, Gillian L; Moran, Chris J; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S

    2017-10-18

    Mining poses significant and potentially underestimated risks to tropical forests worldwide. In Brazil's Amazon, mining drives deforestation far beyond operational lease boundaries, yet the full extent of these impacts is unknown and thus neglected in environmental licensing. Here we quantify mining-induced deforestation and investigate the aspects of mining operations, which most likely contribute. We find mining significantly increased Amazon forest loss up to 70 km beyond mining lease boundaries, causing 11,670 km 2 of deforestation between 2005 and 2015. This extent represents 9% of all Amazon forest loss during this time and 12 times more deforestation than occurred within mining leases alone. Pathways leading to such impacts include mining infrastructure establishment, urban expansion to support a growing workforce, and development of mineral commodity supply chains. Mining-induced deforestation is not unique to Brazil; to mitigate adverse impacts of mining and conserve tropical forests globally, environmental assessments and licensing must considered both on- and off-lease sources of deforestation.

  4. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-living Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from central Amazon, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, P S; Albuquerque, G R; da Silva, V M F; Martin, A R; Marvulo, M F V; Souza, S L P; Ragozo, A M A; Nascimento, C C; Gennari, S M; Dubey, J P; Silva, J C R

    2011-12-29

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important pathogen in aquatic mammals and its presence in these animals may indicate the water contamination of aquatic environment by oocysts. Serum samples from 95 free-living Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from the Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve (RDSM), Tefé, Amazonas, Central Amazon, Brazil were tested for T. gondii antibodies using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies (MAT ≥ 25) to T. gondii were found in 82 (86.3%) dolphins with titers of 1:25 in 24, 1:50 in 56, and 1:500 in 2. Results suggest a high level contamination of the aquatic environment of the home range of these animals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Quantifying How Climate Affects Vegetation in the Amazon Rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, K.; Kodali, A.; Szubert, M.; Ganguly, S.; Bongard, J.

    2016-12-01

    Amazon droughts in 2005 and 2010 have raised serious concern about the future of the rainforest. Amazon forests are crucial because of their role as the largest carbon sink in the world which would effect the global warming phenomena with decreased photosynthesis activity. Especially, after a decline in plant growth in 1.68 million km2 forest area during the once-in-a-century severe drought in 2010, it is of primary importance to understand the relationship between different climatic variables and vegetation. In an earlier study, we have shown that non-linear models are better at capturing the relation dynamics of vegetation and climate variables such as temperature and precipitation, compared to linear models. In this research, we learn precise models between vegetation and climatic variables (temperature, precipitation) for normal conditions in the Amazon region using genetic programming based symbolic regression. This is done by removing high elevation and drought affected areas and also considering the slope of the region as one of the important factors while building the model. The model learned reveals new and interesting ways historical and current climate variables affect the vegetation at any location. MAIAC data has been used as a vegetation surrogate in our study. For temperature and precipitation, we have used TRMM and MODIS Land Surface Temperature data sets while learning the non-linear regression model. However, to generalize the model to make it independent of the data source, we perform transfer learning where we regress a regularized least squares to learn the parameters of the non-linear model using other data sources such as the precipitation and temperature from the Climatic Research Center (CRU). This new model is very similar in structure and performance compared to the original learned model and verifies the same claims about the nature of dependency between these climate variables and the vegetation in the Amazon region. As a result of this

  6. Molecular characterization of an earliest cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) collection from Peruvian Amazon using microsatllite DNA markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is indigenous to the Amazon region of South America. The Peruvian Amazon harbors a large number of diverse cacao populations. Since the 1930s, several numbers of populations have been collected from the Peruvian Amazon and maintained as ex situ germplasm repositories in ...

  7. Assessing species boundaries using multilocus species delimitation in a morphologically conserved group of neotropical freshwater fishes, the Poecilia sphenops species complex (Poeciliidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin C Bagley

    Full Text Available Accurately delimiting species is fundamentally important for understanding species diversity and distributions and devising effective strategies to conserve biodiversity. However, species delimitation is problematic in many taxa, including 'non-adaptive radiations' containing morphologically cryptic lineages. Fortunately, coalescent-based species delimitation methods hold promise for objectively estimating species limits in such radiations, using multilocus genetic data. Using coalescent-based approaches, we delimit species and infer evolutionary relationships in a morphologically conserved group of Central American freshwater fishes, the Poecilia sphenops species complex. Phylogenetic analyses of multiple genetic markers (sequences of two mitochondrial DNA genes and five nuclear loci from 10/15 species and genetic lineages recognized in the group support the P. sphenops species complex as monophyletic with respect to outgroups, with eight mitochondrial 'major-lineages' diverged by ≥2% pairwise genetic distances. From general mixed Yule-coalescent models, we discovered (conservatively 10 species within our concatenated mitochondrial DNA dataset, 9 of which were strongly supported by subsequent multilocus Bayesian species delimitation and species tree analyses. Results suggested species-level diversity is underestimated or overestimated by at least ~15% in different lineages in the complex. Nonparametric statistics and coalescent simulations indicate genealogical discordance among our gene tree results has mainly derived from interspecific hybridization in the nuclear genome. However, mitochondrial DNA show little evidence for introgression, and our species delimitation results appear robust to effects of this process. Overall, our findings support the utility of combining multiple lines of genetic evidence and broad phylogeographical sampling to discover and validate species using coalescent-based methods. Our study also highlights the

  8. Exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during sexual development causes the feminization/demasculinization of the reproductive traits and a reduction in the reproductive success of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Hua; Li, Yun; Wang, Wei; Wu, Peng; Ru, Shaoguo, E-mail: rusg@ouc.edu.cn

    2012-09-01

    Monocrotophos is a highly toxic organophosphorus pesticide that has been confirmed to be an endocrine‐disrupting chemical. To evaluate the influence of this pollutant on the reproductive system of male fish, we studied the sex steroid levels, reproductive traits, sex ratio, and reproductive success in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) exposed to 40% monocrotophos pesticide at the nominal concentrations of 0.01, 0.10, and 1.00 mg/L for 90 days from birth to adulthood in a semi‐static exposure system. Radioimmunoassay and western blot analyses demonstrated that the long‐term exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during the sexual development of male guppies caused a significant increase in 17β‐estradiol levels and consequently induced vitellogenin synthesis, suggesting the feminization of the males. Monocrotophos pesticide also caused a significant decrease in testosterone levels, which consequently inhibited testis growth and reduced the sperm count and the area and intensity of their sexually attractive orange spots, which collectively indicated the significant demasculinization of the male sexual characteristics. Furthermore, these changes in the sexual characteristics at the cellular and organ levels translated into ecologically important effects on the reproductive success at the individual level, as measured by a decrease in offspring production and survival rate. The present study provides the first evidence that monocrotophos pesticide can cause severe reproductive abnormalities in fish due to its endocrine‐disrupting action. -- Highlights: ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused an increase in 17β‐estradiol levels of male guppies. ► Monocrotophos pesticide induced vitellogenin synthesis of male guppies. ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused a decrease in testosterone levels of male guppies. ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused demasculinization of male sexual characteristics. ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused a reduction in reproductive success of male

  9. Exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during sexual development causes the feminization/demasculinization of the reproductive traits and a reduction in the reproductive success of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Hua; Li, Yun; Wang, Wei; Wu, Peng; Ru, Shaoguo

    2012-01-01

    Monocrotophos is a highly toxic organophosphorus pesticide that has been confirmed to be an endocrine‐disrupting chemical. To evaluate the influence of this pollutant on the reproductive system of male fish, we studied the sex steroid levels, reproductive traits, sex ratio, and reproductive success in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) exposed to 40% monocrotophos pesticide at the nominal concentrations of 0.01, 0.10, and 1.00 mg/L for 90 days from birth to adulthood in a semi‐static exposure system. Radioimmunoassay and western blot analyses demonstrated that the long‐term exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during the sexual development of male guppies caused a significant increase in 17β‐estradiol levels and consequently induced vitellogenin synthesis, suggesting the feminization of the males. Monocrotophos pesticide also caused a significant decrease in testosterone levels, which consequently inhibited testis growth and reduced the sperm count and the area and intensity of their sexually attractive orange spots, which collectively indicated the significant demasculinization of the male sexual characteristics. Furthermore, these changes in the sexual characteristics at the cellular and organ levels translated into ecologically important effects on the reproductive success at the individual level, as measured by a decrease in offspring production and survival rate. The present study provides the first evidence that monocrotophos pesticide can cause severe reproductive abnormalities in fish due to its endocrine‐disrupting action. -- Highlights: ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused an increase in 17β‐estradiol levels of male guppies. ► Monocrotophos pesticide induced vitellogenin synthesis of male guppies. ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused a decrease in testosterone levels of male guppies. ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused demasculinization of male sexual characteristics. ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused a reduction in reproductive success of male

  10. Effects of light environment during growth on the expression of cone opsin genes and behavioral spectral sensitivities in guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Yusuke; Ohtsuki, Hajime; Kasagi, Satoshi; Kawamura, Shoji; Kawata, Masakado

    2016-05-18

    The visual system is important for animals for mate choice, food acquisition, and predator avoidance. Animals possessing a visual system can sense particular wavelengths of light emanating from objects and their surroundings and perceive their environments by processing information contained in these visual perceptions of light. Visual perception in individuals varies with the absorption spectra of visual pigments and the expression levels of opsin genes, which may be altered according to the light environments. However, which light environments and the mechanism by which they change opsin expression profiles and whether these changes in opsin gene expression can affect light sensitivities are largely unknown. This study determined whether the light environment during growth induced plastic changes in opsin gene expression and behavioral sensitivity to particular wavelengths of light in guppies (Poecilia reticulata). Individuals grown under orange light exhibited a higher expression of long wavelength-sensitive (LWS) opsin genes and a higher sensitivity to 600-nm light than those grown under green light. In addition, we confirmed that variations in the expression levels of LWS opsin genes were related to the behavioral sensitivities to long wavelengths of light. The light environment during the growth stage alters the expression levels of LWS opsin genes and behavioral sensitivities to long wavelengths of light in guppies. The plastically enhanced sensitivity to background light due to changes in opsin gene expression can enhance the detection and visibility of predators and foods, thereby affecting survival. Moreover, changes in sensitivities to orange light may lead to changes in the discrimination of orange/red colors of male guppies and might alter female preferences for male color patterns.

  11. Brain circuit imprints of developmental 17α-Ethinylestradiol exposure in guppies (Poecilia reticulata): persistent effects on anxiety but not on reproductive behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, Kristina; Reyhanian, Nasim; Kot-Wasik, Agata; Olsén, Håkan; Porsch-Hällström, Inger; Hallgren, Stefan

    2012-09-01

    The effects of endocrine disruptors may vary with the timing of exposure. The physiological implications of adult exposure are present during and shortly after exposure while embryonic exposure can imprint changes manifested in adulthood. In this study, guppy (Poecilia reticulata) embryos were exposed to 2 and 20 ng/L of 17α-ethinylestradiol during development via the mother and reared in clean water from gestation until 6 months of age. As adults, fish exposed to 20 ng/L during development showed significantly altered behaviour in the Novel Tank test, where anxiety is determined as the tendency to remain at the bottom upon introduction into an unfamiliar tank. 17α-ethinylestradiol treatment increased the latency time before swimming to the upper half of the tank and decreased the number of transitions to the upper half. In control females the basal stress behaviour responses were significantly higher than in males, as indicated by longer latency period and fewer and shorter visits to the upper half, supporting the importance of gonadal hormones for the behaviour. The anxiety increased, however, with treatment in both sexes, suggesting that the observed response is not entirely due to feminisation of the males. Shoaling behaviour, analysed as tendency to leave a shoal of littermates, was neither sex-differentiated nor changed by treatment. Also male reproductive behaviour, brain aromatase activity and testes histology, previously shown to respond to oestrogen exposure in adult guppy, were unaffected by the developmental treatment. This suggests that the stress system in the guppy is very sensitive to 17α-ethinylestradiol, which possibly causes an early organisational imprint on the brain circuit that regulates stress reactions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Biosynthesis, mosquitocidal and antibacterial properties of Toddalia asiatica-synthesized silver nanoparticles: do they impact predation of guppy Poecilia reticulata against the filariasis mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Venus, Joseph Selvaraj Eugine; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Bedini, Stefano; Conti, Barbara; Nicoletti, Marcello; Sarkar, Santosh Kumar; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Dinesh, Devakumar; Suresh, Udaiyan; Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-11-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases represent a deadly threat for millions of people worldwide. Furthermore, pathogens and parasites polluting water also constitute a severe plague for populations of developing countries. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgN) were biosynthesized a cheap aqueous extract of T. asiatica leaves as reducing and stabilizing agent. The formation of nanoparticle was confirmed by surface Plasmon resonance band illustrated in UV-vis spectrophotometer. AgN were characterized by FTIR, SEM, EDX, and XRD analyses. AgN were mostly spherical in shape, crystalline in nature, with face-centered cubic geometry, and their mean size was 25-30 nm. T. asiatica aqueous extract and green-synthesized AgN showed excellent larvicidal and pupicidal toxicity against the filariasis vector Culex quinqufasciatus, both in laboratory and field experiments. AgN LC50 ranged from 16.48 (I instar larvae) to 31.83 ppm (pupae). T. asiatica-synthesized were also highly effective in inhibiting growth of Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Salmonella typhi using the agar disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration protocol. Lastly, we evaluated if sublethal doses of nanoparticles affect predation rates of fishes, Poecilia reticulata, against C. quinquefasciatus. In AgN-contaminated environment, predation of guppies against mosquito larvae was slightly higher over normal laboratory conditions. Overall, this study highlighted that T. asiatica-synthesized AgN are easy to produce, stable over time, and may be employed at low dosages to reduce populations of filariasis vectors, without detrimental effects on predation rates of mosquito natural enemies.

  13. Muscle growth and myosin isoform transitions during development of a small teleost fish, Poecilia reticulata (Peters) (Atheriniformes, Poeciliidae): a histochemical, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural and morphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veggetti, A; Mascarello, F; Scapolo, P A; Rowlerson, A; Carnevali, C

    1993-04-01

    The myosin composition of lateral muscle in Poecilia reticulata from birth to adult was studied by ATPase histochemistry and immunostaining with myosin isoform-specific antibodies. At birth the muscle consists of two layers containing developmental isoforms of myosin. In deep layer fibres the developmental myosin is replaced by the adult fast-white isoform soon after birth. In the epaxial and hypaxial monolayer fibres the myosin composition present at birth (J1) is replaced within 3 days by another (J2). In some fibres, this J2 composition is retained in the adult, but in others it is slowly replaced by the adult slow-red muscle isoform. Close to the lateral line, all monolayer fibres are already in transition between the J2 myosin and the adult slow-red form at birth, and rapidly complete the transition to slow-red form. These fibres, together with others generated de novo in an underlying hyperplastic zone, form the red muscle layer of the adult. The pink muscle develops during the first month after birth, and by 31 days it consists of an outer, middle and inner layer. A few middle layer fibres are already present at birth, while the outer layer fibres first appear 3 days after birth. The thin inner layer is probably a transitional form between the middle pink and adult white types, and appears at about 31 days. A morphometric analysis showed that growth of the white muscle occurs principally by hypertrophy. Even at the magnification level of the electron microscope, no satellite cells or myoblasts which could give rise to new fibres were found in the white muscle, except in the far epaxial and hypaxial regions and only in the first 10 days. A zone of hyperplastic growth was also found lying just under the superficial monolayer close to the lateral line, and this presumably contributes fibres to the red and pink muscle layers.

  14. A Slippery Slope: Children's Perceptions of Their Role in Environmental Preservation in the Peruvian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Despite international attention and attempts to preserve the environmental diversity of the Amazon, it is an accepted fact that those who inhabit the forest must be the ones who preserve it. This article presents an analysis of how children in small rural riverine communities along the Amazon understand the importance of environmental preservation…

  15. East of the Andes: The genetic profile of the Peruvian Amazon populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Corcia, T; Sanchez Mellado, C; Davila Francia, T J; Ferri, G; Sarno, S; Luiselli, D; Rickards, O

    2017-06-01

    Assuming that the differences between the Andes and the Amazon rainforest at environmental and historical levels have influenced the distribution patterns of genes, languages, and cultures, the maternal and paternal genetic reconstruction of the Peruvian Amazon populations was used to test the relationships within and between these two extreme environments. We analyzed four Peruvian Amazon communities (Ashaninka, Huambisa, Cashibo, and Shipibo) for both Y chromosome (17 STRs and 8 SNPs) and mtDNA data (control region sequences, two diagnostic sites of the coding region, and one INDEL), and we studied their variability against the rest of South America. We detected a high degree of genetic diversity in the Peruvian Amazon people, both for mtDNA than for Y chromosome, excepting for Cashibo people, who seem to have had no exchanges with their neighbors, in contrast with the others communities. The genetic structure follows the divide between the Andes and the Amazon, but we found a certain degree of gene flow between these two environments, as particularly emerged with the Y chromosome descent cluster's (DCs) analysis. The Peruvian Amazon is home to an array of populations with differential rates of genetic exchanges with their neighbors and with the Andean people, depending on their peculiar demographic histories. We highlighted some successful Y chromosome lineages expansions originated in Peru during the pre-Columbian history which involved both Andeans and Amazon Arawak people, showing that at least a part of the Amazon rainforest did not remain isolated from those exchanges. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Transforming Data: An Ethnography of Scientific Data from the Brazilian Amazon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walford, Antonia Caitlin

    This thesis is an ethnography of scientific data produced by a Brazil-led scientific project in the Brazilian Amazon. It describes how the researchers and technicians make data about the Amazon forest, and how this data in turn generates different scientific communities, scientific subjectivities...

  17. Amazon Forest Structure from IKONOS Satellite Data and the Automated Characterization of Forest Canopy Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Palace; Michael Keller; Gregory P. Asner; Stephen Hagen; Bobby . Braswell

    2008-01-01

    We developed an automated tree crown analysis algorithm using 1-m panchromatic IKONOS satellite images to examine forest canopy structure in the Brazilian Amazon. The algorithm was calibrated on the landscape level with tree geometry and forest stand data at the Fazenda Cauaxi (3.75◦ S, 48.37◦ W) in the eastern Amazon, and then compared with forest...

  18. Desmidias (zygnemaphyceae) of a small tributary of the Amazons River in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez Avellaneda, Marcela; Duque, Santiago

    2000-01-01

    This is a contribution to the knowledge of the freshwater algae of the Colombian Amazon region. Two of the 13 taxa are reported for the first time from Colombia and 10 are new records for the Colombian Amazon. Ecological characteristics are given for these desmids

  19. Hypoxia adaptation in fish of the Amazon: a never-ending task | Val ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition to seasonal long-term changes in dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide, water bodies of the Amazon present periodic short-term episodes of hypoxia and even anoxia. To preserve gas exchange and acid base balance, fish of the Amazon have developed multiple adaptive solutions which occur at all biological ...

  20. Election-driven weakening of deforestation control in the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues-Filho, S.; Verburg, R.W.; Lindoso, D.; Debortoli, N.; Bursztyn, M.; Vilhena, A.M.G.

    2015-01-01

    Commodity prices, exchange rate, infrastructural projects and migration patterns are known and important drivers of Amazon deforestation, but cannot solely explain the high rates observed in 1995 and 2003–2004 in six Brazilian Amazon states. Deforestation predictions using those widely applied

  1. Election-driven weakening of deforestation control in the Brazilian Amazon.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues-Filho, S; Verburg, R.W.; Bursztyn, M; Lindoso, D; Debortoli, N

    2015-01-01

    Commodity prices, exchange rate, infrastructural projects and migration patterns are known and important drivers of Amazon deforestation, but cannot solely explain the high rates observed in 1995 and 2003–2004 in six Brazilian Amazon states. Deforestation predictions using those widely applied

  2. Localised Voices in the globalised Amazon: challenges of civil society building in Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brian Wallis (Brian)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractCivil society building efforts in Ecuador have provided the Achuar and Kichwas of the Amazon with a voice. This is particularly relevant given the global significance of the Amazon, which makes it essential that local voices are empowered to have a say in the future of their local space.

  3. Net Heterotrophy in the Amazon Continental Shelf Changes Rapidly to a Sink of CO2 in the Outer Amazon Plume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Lefèvre

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon continental shelf and adjacent oceanic area were sampled for inorganic and organic carbon parameters in order to improve data coverage and understanding of carbon cycling dynamics within this important region. Seasonal coverage of the Amazon plume on the French Guiana continental shelf further north, was provided by CO2 monitoring using a merchant ship sailing from France to French Guiana (2006–2016. Salinity ranged from 1 to 36 (transects in April 2013, and May 2014. At salinity below 10, strong outgassing was observed with fugacity of CO2 (fCO2 over 2,000 μatm. This region displayed net heterotrophy, fueled by organic matter with terrestrial origin, as shown by δ13C and δ15N values of suspended particles. A δ13C cross shelf average of −31% was measured during May 2014, contrasting with oceanic values in excess of −20%. The reactivity of this terrestrial material resulted in the local production of dissolved inorganic and organic carbon as well as fluorescent humic compounds. Further offshore, the dilution of freshwater by ocean waters created a sink for CO2, enhanced by biological activity. The strongest CO2 drawdowns, associated with high chlorophyll a concentrations, were observed on the French Guiana continental shelf in the outer Amazon plume, with fCO2 values below 150 μatm. Here, a CO2 sink was present almost throughout the year, with a seasonal maximum of −9.2 mmol CO2 m−2d−1 observed in June 2015. However, both the CO2 and salinity distributions could vary significantly within a few days, confirming the presence of many eddies in this region. The Amazon continental shelf hence behaved as a transition zone between an inshore source of CO2 to the atmosphere and an offshore sink. Some marine phytoplankton production was detected but occurred mainly close to the French Guiana shelf. A mean net CO2 outgassing of 44 ± 43.6 mmol m−2d−1 was estimated for the area. Quantifying the CO2 flux for the entire Amazon

  4. Dampak Peningkatan Kepuasan Pelanggan dalam Proses Bisnis E-Commerce pada Perusahaan Amazon.Com

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Made Karmawan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Purpose of writing is to describe the impact of increased customer satisfaction in the business process of e-commerce at Amazon.com and analyzed e-commerce strategies used in the company.The Benefits are to get an overview of the strategies in the Amazon.com for improving customer satisfaction and the impact of increased satisfaction. The method of writing is conducting reviews of existing sources to gain an overview strategy and business processes e-commerce at Amazon.com. The paper results are gaining knowledge of thenumber of visitors and Sales that accurred at Amazon.com. The Conclusions is about the impact of increasing customer Satisfaction in the business process e-commerce in the Amazone.com.

  5. Cloud characteristics, thermodynamic controls and radiative impacts during the Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giangrande, Scott; Feng, Zhe; Jensen, Michael; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Johnson, Karen; Toto, Tami; Wang, Meng; Burleyson, Casey D.; Bharadwaj, Nitin; Mei, Fan; Machado, Luiz; Manzi, Antonio; Xie, Shaocheng; Tang, Shuaiqi; Silva Dias, Maria Assuncao F.; de Souza, Rodrigo A.; Schumacher, Courtney; Martin, Scot T.

    2017-01-01

    Routine cloud, precipitation and thermodynamic observations collected by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF) and Aerial Facility (AAF) during the 2-year US Department of Energy (DOE) ARM Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) campaign are summarized. These observations quantify the diurnal to large-scale thermodynamic regime controls on the clouds and precipitation over the undersampled, climatically important Amazon basin region. The extended ground deployment of cloud-profiling instrumentation enabled a unique look at multiple cloud regimes at high temporal and vertical resolution. This longer-term ground deployment, coupled with two short-term aircraft intensive observing periods, allowed new opportunities to better characterize cloud and thermodynamic observational constraints as well as cloud radiative impacts for modeling efforts within typical Amazon wet and dry seasons.

  6. Andean contributions to the biogeochemistry of the amazon river system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available LA CONTRIBUTION ANDINE A LA BIOGEOCHIMIE DE L’AMAZONE. Les fleuves andins ont vraisemblablement un rôle déterminant sur la biogéochimie de l’Amazone au Brésil. Les données disponibles sur le C organique, le NO3- et le PO43- des fleuves andins montrent des concentrations très variables et ne révèlent aucune relation avec leur altitude ou leur position dans le bassin. En général, les concentrations des fleuves andins sont semblables à celles du chenal principal et de ses principaux affluents. L’explication des phénomènes d’altération du matériel provenant des Andes ne peut être que spéculative. Cependant, l’atténuation du signal andin est liée à la décomposition et à l’ajout de matériel en aval des Andes. Les analyses de 13C sur la matière organique particulaire ou soluble du chenal principal de l’Amazone mettent en évidence qu’une fraction andine persiste dans le système fluvial qui se jette dans l’océan Atlantique. En 1994, un nouveau programme international de recherche a commencé pour mieux caractériser la biogéochimie des fleuves andins. CONTRIBUCIÓN ANDINA A LA BIOGEOQUÍMICA DEL RÍO AMAZONAS. Los ríos andinos podrían ejercer una influencia significativa sobre la biogeoquímica del Río Amazonas. Las concentraciones en C orgánico, NO3- y PO43- de los ríos andinos son altamente variables y no presentan claros patrones geográficos o altitudinos. En general, las concentraciones presentan valores similares a aquéllos observados en el Río Amazonas. Actualmente sólo existen explicaciones especulativas de los procesos que modifican el material de origen andino sin embargo, la atenuación de la señal andina es una consecuencia del proceso de descomposición y de la añadidura de materiales provenientes de las planicies bajas. El contenido de 13C en el material orgánico del Río Amazonas constituye una evidencia concreta de que cierta fracción del material andino persiste y es transportado hacia el

  7. The Amazon River reversal explained by tectonic and surface processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacek, V.

    2014-12-01

    The drainage pattern in Amazonia was expressively modified during the mountain building of central and northern Andes. In Early Miocene, the fluvial systems in western Amazonia flowed to the foreland basins and northward to the Caribbean. By Late Miocene the drainage reversal occurred and formed the transcontinental Amazon River, connecting the Andes and the equatorial Atlantic margin. This event is recorded in the stratigraphic evolution of the Foz do Amazonas Basin by the onset of Andean-derived sedimentation. Additionally, an abrupt increase in sedimentation rate after the reversal occurred in the Foz do Amazonas Basin. Based on three-dimensional numerical models that couple surface processes, flexural isostasy and crustal thickening due to orogeny, I concluded that the Miocene drainage reversal can be explained by the flexural and surface processes response to the Andes formation with no need to invoke dynamic topography induced by mantle convection, as previously proposed. I observed that the instant of drainage reversal is directly linked to the rate of crustal thickening in the orogeny, the rate of erosion and, mainly, the efficiency of sediment transport. Moreover, the numerical experiments were able to predict the increase in sedimentation rate in the Amazon fan after the drainage reversal of the Amazon River as observed in the Late Miocene-Pliocene sedimentary record. However, the present numerical model fails to fully reproduce the evolution of the Pebas system, a megawetland in western Amazonia that preceded the drainage reversal. Therefore, further investigation is necessary to evaluate the mechanisms that generated and sustained the Pebas system.

  8. Are severe droughts in western Amazon here to stay?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, K.; Goddard, L.; Baethgen, W.; Pinedo-Vasquez, M.

    2012-12-01

    Droughts do not immediately come to mind when one thinks of climate extremes that impact western Amazon (WA), where luscious green rainforest predominates. However, droughts in recent years have made the news due to their large socio-economic impacts, such as increased occurrence of fires, respiratory problems related to smoke and reduced fisheries and fluvial transportation due to low river levels. The two most recent notorious droughts in the region were those of 2005 and 2010, both referred to as a "100-year drought". Whether the severity of recent droughts is related to low frequency natural climate variability and/or climate change is not clear. To assess the relative importance of different modes of temporal variability on WA precipitation we calculate the dry season months (JAS) Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) from two gridded precipitation datasets over a period of 76 years and statistically decompose them into interannual, inter-decadal and trend components. The same analysis is done for the Negro River standardized minimum water level, a major Amazon tributary for which nearly 100 years of data can be obtained. As we will show, the majority of the total variance of SPI from both precipitation datasets and minimum river water level is explained by internannual variability, and the least by trend. Additionally, the dry season precipitation variability in this region is shown to respond to anomalous North Tropical Atlantic (NTA) sea surface temperature (SST), especially over the last 15 years. To explore whether the different time scales of JAS SPI show similar relationship over the longer time period available (76 yrs), the partitioned time series are correlated to averaged April through September tropical SST. We find the strongest relationship to be with the north-south tropical Atlantic SST gradient (not the NTA alone) in both interannual and inter-decadal time scales, whereas the variability of tropical Pacific SST, know to affects eastern Amazon

  9. Socioeconomic drivers of deforestation in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, Carlos F; Bilsborrow, Richard E; McClain, Michael E

    2006-06-01

    Investigations of land use/land cover (LULC) change and forest management are limited by a lack of understanding of how socioeconomic factors affect land use. This lack also constrains the predictions of future deforestation, which is especially important in the Amazon basin, where large tracts of natural forest are being converted to managed uses. Research presented in this article was conducted to address this lack of understanding. Its objectives are (a) to quantify deforestation in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon (NEA) during the periods 1986-1996 and 1996-2002; and (b) to determine the significance and magnitude of the effects of socioeconomic factors on deforestation rates at both the parroquia (parish) and finca (farm) levels. Annual deforestation rates were quantified via satellite image processing and geographic information systems. Linear spatial lag regression analyses were then used to explore relationships between socioeconomic factors and deforestation. Socioeconomic factors were obtained, at the finca level, from a detailed household survey carried out in 1990 and 1999, and at the parroquia level from data in the 1990 and 2001 Ecuadorian censuses of population. We found that the average annual deforestation rate was 2.5% and 1.8%/year for 1986-1996 and 1996-2002, respectively. At the parroquia level, variables representing demographic factors (i.e., population density) and accessibility factors (i.e., road density), among others, were found to be significantly related to deforestation. At the farm level, the factors related to deforestation were household size, distance by road to main cities, education, and hired labor. The findings of this research demonstrate both the severity of deforestation in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon and the array of factors affecting deforestation in the tropics.

  10. Consistency of vegetation index seasonality across the Amazon rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Eduardo Eiji; Moura, Yhasmin Mendes; Wagner, Fabien; Hilker, Thomas; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Wang, Yujie; Chave, Jérôme; Mõttus, Matti; Aragão, Luiz E. O. C.; Shimabukuro, Yosio

    2016-10-01

    Vegetation indices (VIs) calculated from remotely sensed reflectance are widely used tools for characterizing the extent and status of vegetated areas. Recently, however, their capability to monitor the Amazon forest phenology has been intensely scrutinized. In this study, we analyze the consistency of VIs seasonal patterns obtained from two MODIS products: the Collection 5 BRDF product (MCD43) and the Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction algorithm (MAIAC). The spatio-temporal patterns of the VIs were also compared with field measured leaf litterfall, gross ecosystem productivity and active microwave data. Our results show that significant seasonal patterns are observed in all VIs after the removal of view-illumination effects and cloud contamination. However, we demonstrate inconsistencies in the characteristics of seasonal patterns between different VIs and MODIS products. We demonstrate that differences in the original reflectance band values form a major source of discrepancy between MODIS VI products. The MAIAC atmospheric correction algorithm significantly reduces noise signals in the red and blue bands. Another important source of discrepancy is caused by differences in the availability of clear-sky data, as the MAIAC product allows increased availability of valid pixels in the equatorial Amazon. Finally, differences in VIs seasonal patterns were also caused by MODIS collection 5 calibration degradation. The correlation of remote sensing and field data also varied spatially, leading to different temporal offsets between VIs, active microwave and field measured data. We conclude that recent improvements in the MAIAC product have led to changes in the characteristics of spatio-temporal patterns of VIs seasonality across the Amazon forest, when compared to the MCD43 product. Nevertheless, despite improved quality and reduced uncertainties in the MAIAC product, a robust biophysical interpretation of VIs seasonality is still missing.

  11. Bacterial Biogeography across the Amazon River-Ocean Continuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doherty, Mary; Yager, Patricia L.; Moran, Mary Ann; Coles, Victoria J.; Fortunato, Caroline S.; Krusche, Alex V.; Medeiros, Patricia M.; Payet, Jérôme P.; Richey, Jeffrey E.; Satinsky, Brandon M.; Sawakuchi, Henrique O.; Ward, Nicholas D.; Crump, Byron C.

    2017-05-23

    Spatial and temporal patterns in microbial biodiversity across the Amazon river-ocean continuum were investigated along ~675 km of the lower Amazon River mainstem, in the Tapajos River tributary, and in the plume and coastal ocean during low and high river discharge using amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA genes in whole water and size-fractionated samples (0.2-2.0 μm and >2.0 μm). River communities varied among tributaries, but mainstem communities were spatially homogeneous and tracked seasonal changes in river discharge and co-varying factors. Co-occurrence network analysis identified strongly interconnected river assemblages during high (May) and low (December) discharge periods, and weakly interconnected transitional assemblages in September, suggesting that this system supports two seasonal microbial communities linked to river discharge. In contrast, plume communities showed little seasonal differences and instead varied spatially tracking salinity. However, salinity explained only a small fraction of community variability, and plume communities in blooms of diatom-diazotroph assemblages were strikingly different than those in other high salinity plume samples. This suggests that while salinity physically structures plumes through buoyancy and mixing, the composition of plume-specific communities is controlled by other factors including nutrients, phytoplankton community composition, and dissolved organic matter chemistry. Co-occurrence networks identified interconnected assemblages associated with the highly productive low salinity nearshore region, diatom-diazotroph blooms, and the plume edge region, and weakly interconnected assemblages in high salinity regions. This suggests that the plume supports a transitional community influenced by immigration of ocean bacteria from the plume edge, and by species sorting as these communities adapt to local environmental conditions. Few studies have explored patterns of microbial diversity in tropical rivers and

  12. Consistency of Vegetation Index Seasonality Across the Amazon Rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Eduardo Eiji; Moura, Yhasmin Mendes; Wagner, Fabien; Hilker, Thomas; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Wang, Yujie; Chave, Jerome; Mottus, Matti; Aragao, Luiz E.O.C.; Shimabukuro, Yosio

    2016-01-01

    Vegetation indices (VIs) calculated from remotely sensed reflectance are widely used tools for characterizing the extent and status of vegetated areas. Recently, however, their capability to monitor the Amazon forest phenology has been intensely scrutinized. In this study, we analyze the consistency of VIs seasonal patterns obtained from two MODIS products: the Collection 5 BRDF product (MCD43) and the Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction algorithm (MAIAC). The spatio-temporal patterns of the VIs were also compared with field measured leaf litterfall, gross ecosystem productivity and active microwave data. Our results show that significant seasonal patterns are observed in all VIs after the removal of view-illumination effects and cloud contamination. However, we demonstrate inconsistencies in the characteristics of seasonal patterns between different VIs and MODIS products. We demonstrate that differences in the original reflectance band values form a major source of discrepancy between MODIS VI products. The MAIAC atmospheric correction algorithm significantly reduces noise signals in the red and blue bands. Another important source of discrepancy is caused by differences in the availability of clear-sky data, as the MAIAC product allows increased availability of valid pixels in the equatorial Amazon. Finally, differences in VIs seasonal patterns were also caused by MODIS collection 5 calibration degradation. The correlation of remote sensing and field data also varied spatially, leading to different temporal offsets between VIs, active microwave and field measured data. We conclude that recent improvements in the MAIAC product have led to changes in the characteristics of spatio-temporal patterns of VIs seasonality across the Amazon forest, when compared to the MCD43 product. Nevertheless, despite improved quality and reduced uncertainties in the MAIAC product, a robust biophysical interpretation of VIs seasonality is still missing.

  13. Assessing Mammal Exposure to Climate Change in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Bruno R.; Sales, Lilian P.; De Marco, Paulo; Loyola, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Human-induced climate change is considered a conspicuous threat to biodiversity in the 21st century. Species’ response to climate change depends on their exposition, sensitivity and ability to adapt to novel climates. Exposure to climate change is however uneven within species’ range, so that some populations may be more at risk than others. Identifying the regions most exposed to climate change is therefore a first and pivotal step on determining species’ vulnerability across their geographic ranges. Here, we aimed at quantifying mammal local exposure to climate change across species’ ranges. We identified areas in the Brazilian Amazon where mammals will be critically exposed to non-analogue climates in the future with different variables predicted by 15 global circulation climate forecasts. We also built a null model to assess the effectiveness of the Amazon protected areas in buffering the effects of climate change on mammals, using an innovative and more realistic approach. We found that 85% of species are likely to be exposed to non-analogue climatic conditions in more than 80% of their ranges by 2070. That percentage is even higher for endemic mammals; almost all endemic species are predicted to be exposed in more than 80% of their range. Exposure patterns also varied with different climatic variables and seem to be geographically structured. Western and northern Amazon species are more likely to experience temperature anomalies while northeastern species will be more affected by rainfall abnormality. We also observed an increase in the number of critically-exposed species from 2050 to 2070. Overall, our results indicate that mammals might face high exposure to climate change and that protected areas will probably not be efficient enough to avert those impacts. PMID:27829036

  14. Assessing Mammal Exposure to Climate Change in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Bruno R; Sales, Lilian P; De Marco, Paulo; Loyola, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Human-induced climate change is considered a conspicuous threat to biodiversity in the 21st century. Species' response to climate change depends on their exposition, sensitivity and ability to adapt to novel climates. Exposure to climate change is however uneven within species' range, so that some populations may be more at risk than others. Identifying the regions most exposed to climate change is therefore a first and pivotal step on determining species' vulnerability across their geographic ranges. Here, we aimed at quantifying mammal local exposure to climate change across species' ranges. We identified areas in the Brazilian Amazon where mammals will be critically exposed to non-analogue climates in the future with different variables predicted by 15 global circulation climate forecasts. We also built a null model to assess the effectiveness of the Amazon protected areas in buffering the effects of climate change on mammals, using an innovative and more realistic approach. We found that 85% of species are likely to be exposed to non-analogue climatic conditions in more than 80% of their ranges by 2070. That percentage is even higher for endemic mammals; almost all endemic species are predicted to be exposed in more than 80% of their range. Exposure patterns also varied with different climatic variables and seem to be geographically structured. Western and northern Amazon species are more likely to experience temperature anomalies while northeastern species will be more affected by rainfall abnormality. We also observed an increase in the number of critically-exposed species from 2050 to 2070. Overall, our results indicate that mammals might face high exposure to climate change and that protected areas will probably not be efficient enough to avert those impacts.

  15. New Cernotina caddisflies from the Ecuadorian Amazon (Trichoptera: Polycentropodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas M. Camargos

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of the caddisfly genus Cernotina Ross, 1938 (Polycentropodidae are described from the lowland Amazon basin of Ecuador, Cernotina tiputini, new species, and Cernotina waorani, new species. These represent the first new species described from this region. We also record from Ecuador for the first time Cernotina hastilis Flint, previously known from Tobago, and present new Ecuadorian locality records for C. cygnea Flint, and C. lobisomem Santos & Nessimian. The homology of the intermediate appendage of the male genitalia of this genus is established. The region surveyed is under severe environmental threat from logging, mining, and crude oil extraction, making the description of the biodiversity of the region imperative.

  16. Oil Extraction and Indigenous Livelihoods in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozigar, Matthew; Gray, Clark L; Bilsborrow, Richard E

    2016-02-01

    Globally, the extraction of minerals and fossil fuels is increasingly penetrating into isolated regions inhabited by indigenous peoples, potentially undermining their livelihoods and well-being. To provide new insight to this issue, we draw on a unique longitudinal dataset collected in the Ecuadorian Amazon over an 11-year period from 484 indigenous households with varying degrees of exposure to oil extraction. Fixed and random effects regression models of the consequences of oil activities for livelihood outcomes reveal mixed and multidimensional effects. These results challenge common assumptions about these processes and are only partly consistent with hypotheses drawn from the Dutch disease literature.

  17. Roads Investments, Spatial Intensification and Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Alexander; Robalino, Juan; Walker, Robert; Aldrich, Steven; Caldas, Marcellus; Reis, Eustaquio; Perz, Stephen; Bohrer, Claudio; Arima, Eugenio; Laurance, William; hide

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the impact of road investments on deforestation is part of a complete evaluation of the expansion of infrastructure for development. We find evidence of spatial spillovers from roads in the Brazilian Amazon: deforestation rises in the census tracts that lack roads but are in the same county as and within 100 km of a tract with a new paved or unpaved road. At greater distances from the new roads the evidence is mixed, including negative coefficients of inconsistent significance between 100 and 300 km, and if anything, higher neighbor deforestation at distances over 300 km.

  18. Cloacolith in a blue-fronted amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufrère, Hugues; Nevarez, Javier; Tully, Thomas N

    2010-06-01

    A 4-year-old blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva) was admitted for vocalization secondary to constipation. Saline infusion cloacoscopy revealed the presence of a 2-cm-diameter cloacolith within the coprodeum that was obstructing the rectal opening. The cloacolith was fragmented with a pair of biopsy forceps and the pieces removed. The cloacolith was subsequently analyzed and was composed of 100% uric acid salts. The bird improved completely and was able to defecate normally after the procedure. Cloacoliths are relative uncommon cloacal conditions, and this case documents cloacoscopic findings, rectal obstruction, and confirmation of its uric acid composition by urolith analysis.

  19. Effect of fatty Amazon fish consumption on lipid metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Francisca das Chagas do Amaral; Garcia, Nadja Pinto; Sales, Rejane Souza de Aquino; Aguiar, Jaime Paiva Lopes; Duncan, Wallice Luiz Paxiúba; Carvalho, Rosany Piccolotto

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of feeding diets enriched with fatty fish from the Amazon basin on lipid metabolism. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control group treated with commercial chow; Mapará group was fed diet enriched with Hypophthalmus edentatus; Matrinxã group was fed diet enriched with Brycon spp.; and, Tambaqui group was fed diet enriched with Colossoma macropomum. Rats with approximately 240g±0.60 of body weight were fed ad ...

  20. Observations about chemical composition of aerosols in the Brazilian Amazon region - Case study: Biomass burning in the subequatorial Amazon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioda, A.; Monteiro, I. L.; Almeida, A. C.; Hacon, S. S.; Dallacort, R.; Ignotti, E.; Godoy, J. M.; Loureiro, A. L.; Morais, F.; Artaxo, P.

    2012-04-01

    The study was carried out in two cities in the Brazilian Amazon region, Tangará da Serra (14 ° 37'10 "S, 57 ° 29'09" W, 427 m asl), located in a transition area between the Amazon biome and the Cerrado and has the characteristics of urban area in Amazon region; and Alta Floresta (9 ° 52 '32 "S, 56 ° 5' 10" W, 283 m asl) situated in the extreme north of the state of Mato Grosso (MT), both in the subequatorial Amazon region. Tangara da Serra has the largest production of sugar cane in the subequatorial Amazon region. They are located 800 km from each other. These two regions are inserted in a region with typical cycles of drought and rain that alter air pollution levels, and lies in the dispersion path of the pollution plume resulting from burnings in the Brazilian Amazon and pollution emanating from neighboring countries. Both cities have wet tropical climate with two well defined seasons: rainy summer (November to May) and dry winter (June to October). During the dry winter, biomass burnings are frequent in these regions. In 2008, the Department of the Environment has banned fires in the period from July 15 to September 15 throughout the State. In this study chemical characterization was performed for approximately 100 aerosol samples collected in each site during 2008. Fine and coarse aerosol samples collected in SFUs were analyzed by ion chromatography for determination of cations (Na+, K+, NH3+, Ca2+ and Mg2+), anions (SO42-, Cl- and NO3-) and organic acids (acetate and formiate) and also measures of black carbon (BC) (Aethalometer). The results showed that for both sites the average concentrations were quite similar for PM2.5 (16 µg/m3), PM10 (11 and 13 µg/m3) and black carbon (1.4 µg/m3 for PM2.5 and 1.6 µg/m3 for PM10). Sulfate was the predominant species in fine (45%) and coarse (26%) particles in both sites. The sulfate concentrations ranged from 0.01-1.92 µg/m3 in PM2.5 and 0.01-1.66 µg/m3 in PM10 in Tangará da Serra and 0.01-2.93 µg/m3 in PM2

  1. Amazon rainforest responses to elevated CO2: Deriving model-based hypotheses for the AmazonFACE experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammig, A.; Fleischer, K.; Lapola, D.; Holm, J.; Hoosbeek, M.

    2017-12-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration is assumed to have a stimulating effect ("CO2 fertilization effect") on forest growth and resilience. Empirical evidence, however, for the existence and strength of such a tropical CO2 fertilization effect is scarce and thus a major impediment for constraining the uncertainties in Earth System Model projections. The implications of the tropical CO2 effect are far-reaching, as it strongly influences the global carbon and water cycle, and hence future global climate. In the scope of the Amazon Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiment, we addressed these uncertainties by assessing the CO2 fertilization effect at ecosystem scale. AmazonFACE is the first FACE experiment in an old-growth, highly diverse tropical rainforest. Here, we present a priori model-based hypotheses for the experiment derived from a set of 12 ecosystem models. Model simulations identified key uncertainties in our understanding of limiting processes and derived model-based hypotheses of expected ecosystem responses to elevated CO2 that can directly be tested during the experiment. Ambient model simulations compared satisfactorily with in-situ measurements of ecosystem carbon fluxes, as well as carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus stocks. Models consistently predicted an increase in photosynthesis with elevated CO2, which declined over time due to developing limitations. The conversion of enhanced photosynthesis into biomass, and hence ecosystem carbon sequestration, varied strongly among the models due to different assumptions on nutrient limitation. Models with flexible allocation schemes consistently predicted an increased investment in belowground structures to alleviate nutrient limitation, in turn accelerating turnover rates of soil organic matter. The models diverged on the prediction for carbon accumulation after 10 years of elevated CO2, mainly due to contrasting assumptions in their phosphorus cycle representation. These differences define the expected

  2. Integrating Ecosystem Management, Protected Areas, and Mammal Conservation in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Azevedo-Ramos

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon forest has been converted to a matrix of pristine and modified habitats. Landscape-scale biodiversity conservation requires an understanding of species' distributions over this matrix to guarantee both effective protection and use for present and future generations. In this study, we evaluated how much of the existing and future planned protected areas (PAs would be contributing to the conservation of Brazilian Amazon mammals (N = 399, including threatened species (N = 51. Currently, almost 37% of Brazilian Amazon is protected and that may increase to 46% if planned PAs are implemented. In the current PA system, 22% are indigenous land and 11% are sustainable use units, e.g., production forests. Only one-fifth of the whole range of mammal species occurring in Brazilian Amazon is actually protected by Brazilian PAs. However, considering only the part of the ranges within the Brazilian Amazon, and therefore under the scope of Brazilian actions, Brazilian PAs assume an important role in the protection of 39% of mammal distribution ranges, particularly the threatened species (39%. These results suggest that an integrated network of protected areas among Amazon countries would be necessary to increase their efficiency in mammal conservation. The need for strengthening of the forest sector and good management practices in Brazil appears critical for the maintenance of large extents of forest and species conservation. Under such a scenario, the contribution of developed nations and international agencies must assume an important role for the maintenance and enlargement of the protected area network in Amazon region.

  3. Environmental conservation and social conflict in the Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Augusto Pereira Brandão

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes results of research carried out with the traditional riverside communities in the municipality of Oriximiná, in the western section of the state of Pará. We aim to understand the relationship between traditional populations and environmental agencies in environmental conservation units located in non-specially protected areas protected in the Amazon. We develop research in quilombola communities that occupy forest areas on the Trombetas River, located in protected areas of the Federal Government (Trombetas River Biological Reserve and National Saracá-Taquera Forest and lowland communities located on the river Nhamundá, which are not specially protected areas. The former endure constant conflicts with environmental agencies, while the latter has developed an important process of collective organization and cooperation with governmental agencies for joint inspection of its resource units. We discuss how the conceptualization of protection units can foster conflict and accentuate vulnerability to typical forms of social reproduction amongst traditional populations of the Brazilian Amazon.

  4. Neogene sharks and rays from the Brazilian 'Blue Amazon'.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orangel Aguilera

    Full Text Available The lower Miocene Pirabas Formation in the North of Brazil was deposited under influence of the proto-Amazon River and is characterized by large changes in the ecological niches from the early Miocene onwards. To evaluate these ecological changes, the elasmobranch fauna of the fully marine, carbonate-rich beds was investigated. A diverse fauna with 24 taxa of sharks and rays was identified with the dominant groups being carcharhiniforms and myliobatiforms. This faunal composition is similar to other early Miocene assemblages from the proto-Carribbean bioprovince. However, the Pirabas Formation has unique features compared to the other localities; being the only Neogene fossil fish assemblage described from the Atlantic coast of Tropical Americas. Phosphate oxygen isotope composition of elasmobranch teeth served as proxies for paleotemperatures and paleoecology. The data are compatible with a predominantly tropical marine setting with recognized inshore and offshore habitats with some probable depth preferences (e.g., Aetomylaeus groups. Paleohabitat of taxa particularly found in the Neogene of the Americas (†Carcharhinus ackermannii, †Aetomylaeus cubensis are estimated to have been principally coastal and shallow waters. Larger variation among the few analyzed modern selachians reflects a larger range for the isotopic composition of recent seawater compared to the early Miocene. This probably links to an increased influence of the Amazon River in the coastal regions during the Holocene.

  5. Foliicolous lichenized fungi of lowland Amazon forests in Pando, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flakus Adam

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Foliicolous lichens are an important component of lowland tropical forests and are useful bioindicators of vegetation continuity or forest health. This study of these fungi in lowland Bolivian Amazon forests of Pando Department revealed the presence of 180 species, 101 of which are reported as new for Bolivia. The following 15 species are mentioned for the first time from South America: Anisomeridium guttuliferum Lücking, Byssolecania pluriseptata Breuss, Caprettia confusa Lücking & Sipman, Chroodiscus submuralis Lücking, Coenogonium barbatum Lücking, Aptroot & L. Umaña-Tenorio, Echinoplaca tetrapla (Zahlbr. Lücking, Gyalectidium laciniatum Lücking, G. pallidum Herrera-Campos & Lücking, Mazosia conica Sérus., Phylloblastia excavata P. M. McCarthy, Porina conica R. Sant., Porina subnucula Lücking & Vězda, Porina aff. subpallescens Vězda, Strigula minuta Lücking and Trichothelium intermedium Lücking. The up-to-date list of foliicolous lichens of Bolivia now numbers 218 species, 52% more than known previously. The foliicolous lichen biota of Pando, a substantial part of the Bolivian Amazon, has clear affinities to neighboring countries due to the significant proportion of species typical for lowland and submontane humid forests in the Neotropics. Analyses of the lichen diversity in the area suggest that its species composition is positively correlated with the presence of specific forest types.

  6. Web quality control for lectures: Supercourse and Amazon.com.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkov, Faina; LaPorte, Ronald; Lovalekar, Mita; Dodani, Sunita

    2005-12-01

    Peer review has been at the corner stone of quality control of the biomedical journals in the past 300 years. With the emergency of the Internet, new models of quality control and peer review are emerging. However, such models are poorly investigated. We would argue that the popular system of quality control used in Amazon.com offers a way to ensure continuous quality improvement in the area of research communications on the Internet. Such system is providing an interesting alternative to the traditional peer review approaches used in the biomedical journals and challenges the traditional paradigms of scientific publishing. This idea is being explored in the context of Supercourse, a library of 2,350 prevention lectures, shared for free by faculty members from over 150 countries. Supercourse is successfully utilizing quality control approaches that are similar to Amazon.com model. Clearly, the existing approaches and emerging alternatives for quality control in scientific communications needs to be assessed scientifically. Rapid explosion of internet technologies could be leveraged to produce better, more cost effective systems for quality control in the biomedical publications and across all sciences.

  7. GENETIC PARAMETERS FOR Hymenaea courbaril L. CONSERVATION IN SOUTHWESTERN AMAZON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Maria Melo Silva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509813326The loss of diversity in tropical regions has been focus on several governmental and non-governmentaldiscussions, focusing mainly on the fragmentation and destruction of natural ecosystems. However,decisions about the conservation of genetic resources must be guided by population genetic parameters,especially for species with economic interests that are subject to greater human interference. This studyaimed to define and evaluate genetic parameters for the conservation of populations of Hymenaea courbarilin southwestern Amazon. This species is one of the most valuable and intensively exploited wood species inthe Brazilian Amazon. We studied three forest areas prepared for logging in the background of sustainablemanagement. It was calculated with eight microsatellite loci, genetic diversity, intra-population conservationestimators and genetic divergence among populations. Genetic diversity and fixation index were higher inthe low density populations (< 0.08 ind.ha-1. The most density population (0.25 ind.ha-1 showed the lowestgenetic diversity and no inbreeding. The Minimum Viable Area for species conservation was consistent with the reality of the studied areas, with a proviso for one of the populations where there is a need for amuch larger area than the other to conserve populations. The genetic divergence was high (G’ST = 0.344 andthe populations were considered Independent Management Units.

  8. Sensitivity of Regional Climate to Deforestation in the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.; Bras, Rafael L.

    1994-01-01

    The deforestation results in several adverse effect on the natural environment. The focus of this paper is on the effects of deforestation on land-surface processes and regional climate of the Amazon basin. In general, the effect of deforestation on climate are likely to depend on the scale of the defrosted area. In this study, we are interested in the effects due to deforestation of areas with a scale of about 250 km. Hence, a meso-scale climate model is used in performing numerical experiments on the sensitivity of regional climate to deforestation of areas with that size. It is found that deforestation results in less net surface radiation, less evaporation, less rainfall, and warmer surface temperature. The magnitude of the of the change in temperature is of the order 0.5 C, the magnitudes of the changes in the other variables are of the order of IO%. In order to verify some of he results of the numerical experiments, the model simulations of net surface radiation are compared to recent observations of net radiation over cleared and undisturbed forest in the Amazon. The results of the model and the observations agree in the following conclusion: the difference in net surface radiation between cleared and undisturbed forest is, almost, equally partioned between net solar radiation and net long-wave radiation. This finding contributes to our understanding of the basic physics in the deforestation problem.

  9. Cloudiness over the Amazon rainforest: Meteorology and thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collow, Allison B. Marquardt; Miller, Mark A.; Trabachino, Lynne C.

    2016-07-01

    Comprehensive meteorological observations collected during GOAmazon2014/15 using the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Mobile Facility no. 1 and assimilated observations from the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 are used to document the seasonal cycle of cloudiness, thermodynamics, and precipitation above the Amazon rainforest. The reversal of synoptic-scale vertical motions modulates the transition between the wet and dry seasons. Ascending moist air during the wet season originates near the surface of the Atlantic Ocean and is advected into the Amazon rainforest, where it experiences convergence and, ultimately, precipitates. The dry season is characterized by weaker winds and synoptic-scale subsidence with little or no moisture convergence accompanying moisture advection. This combination results in the drying of the midtroposphere during June through October as indicated by a decrease in liquid water path, integrated water, and the vertical profile of water vapor mixing ratio. The vertical profile of cloud fraction exhibits a relatively consistent decline in cloud fraction from the lifting condensation level (LCL) to the freezing level where a minimum is observed, unlike many other tropical regions. Coefficients of determination between the LCL and cloud fractional coverage suggest a relatively robust relationship between the LCL and cloudiness beneath 5 km during the dry season (R2 = 0.42) but a weak relationship during the wet season (0.12).

  10. Water stress detection in the Amazon using radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Emmerik, Tim; Steele-Dunne, Susan; Paget, Aaron; Oliveira, Rafael S.; Bittencourt, Paulo R. L.; Barros, Fernanda de V.; van de Giesen, Nick

    2017-07-01

    The Amazon rainforest plays an important role in the global water and carbon cycle, and though it is predicted to continue drying in the future, the effect of drought remains uncertain. Developments in remote sensing missions now facilitate large-scale observations. The RapidScat scatterometer (Ku band) mounted on the International Space Station observes the Earth in a non-Sun-synchronous orbit, which allows for studying changes in the diurnal cycle of radar backscatter over the Amazon. Diurnal cycles in backscatter are significantly affected by the state of the canopy, especially during periods of increased water stress. We use RapidScat backscatter time series and water deficit measurements from dendrometers in 20 trees during a 9 month period to relate variations in backscatter to increased tree water deficit. Morning radar bacskcatter dropped significantly with increased tree water deficit measured with dendrometers. This provides unique observational evidence that demonstrates the sensitivity of radar backscatter to vegetation water stress, highlighting the potential of drought detection and monitoring using radar.

  11. Methane emissions to the troposphere from the Amazon floodplain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devol, Allan H.; Richey, Jeffrey E.; Clark, Wayne A.; King, Stagg L.; Martinelli, Luiz A.

    1988-02-01

    Methane emissions to the troposphere from the Amazon River floodplain have been determined. In total, 94 individual flux measurements were made along a 1,700-km stretch of the river during the early falling water period of the flood cycle (July-August 1985). The overall average rate of CH4 emission from wetlands was 390 mg CH4 m-2 d-1. Water surfaces covered by aquatic macrophytes had the highest emissions, 590 mg CH4 m-2 d-1, while emissions from flooded forests were 110 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 and open lake areas averaged 120 mg CH4 m-2 d-1. Ebullition was the dominant mechanism of emission, accounting for 85% of the total. Surface water dissolved oxygen was always undersaturated, while dissolved CO2 concentrations were significantly supersaturated with respect to atmospheric equilibrium. Surface water CH4 concentrations were highly supersaturated, averaging 6.4 μM. The δ13C of the CH4 varied from -42‰ to -73‰ with an apparent trend toward heavier values downstream. Extrapolation to the entire Amazon floodplain results in estimated annual emissions in the troposphere of 10 Tg yr-1 and indicates the importance of the area in the global atmospheric CH4 cycle.

  12. Methane emissions from northern Amazon savanna wetlands and Balbina Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemenes, A.; Belger, L.; Forsberg, B.; Melack, J. M.

    2006-12-01

    To improve estimates of methane emission for the Amazon basin requires information from aquatic environments not represented in the central basin near the Solimoes River, where most of the current data were obtained. We have combined intensive, year-long measurements of methane emission and water levels made in interfluvial wetlands located in the upper Negro basin with calculations of inundation based on a time series of Radarsat synthetic aperature radar images. These grass-dominated savannas emitted methane at an average rate of 18 mg C per m squared per day, a low rate compared to the habitats with floating grasses the occur in the Solimoes floodplains. Reservoirs constructed in the Amazon typically flood forested landscapes and lead to conditions conducive for methane production. The methane is released to the atmosphere from the reservoir and as the water exits the turbines and from the downstream river. Balbina Reservoir near Manaus covers about 2400 km squared along the Uatuma River. Annual averages of measurements of methane emission from the various habitats in the reservoir range from 23 to 64 mg C per m squared per day. Total annual emission from the reservoir is about 58 Gg C. In addition, about 39 Gg C per year are released below the dam, about 50 percent of which is released as the water passes through the turbines. On an annual areal basis, Balbina Reservoir emits 40 Mg C km squared, in contrast to 30 Mg km squared for the Solimoes mainstem floodplain

  13. Microspatial gene expression patterns in the Amazon River Plume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satinsky, Brandon M; Crump, Byron C; Smith, Christa B; Sharma, Shalabh; Zielinski, Brian L; Doherty, Mary; Meng, Jun; Sun, Shulei; Medeiros, Patricia M; Paul, John H; Coles, Victoria J; Yager, Patricia L; Moran, Mary Ann

    2014-07-29

    We investigated expression of genes mediating elemental cycling at the microspatial scale in the ocean's largest river plume using, to our knowledge, the first fully quantitative inventory of genes and transcripts. The bacterial and archaeal communities associated with a phytoplankton bloom in Amazon River Plume waters at the outer continental shelf in June 2010 harbored ∼ 1.0 × 10(13) genes and 4.7 × 10(11) transcripts per liter that mapped to several thousand microbial genomes. Genomes from free-living cells were more abundant than those from particle-associated cells, and they generated more transcripts per liter for carbon fixation, heterotrophy, nitrogen and phosphorus uptake, and iron acquisition, although they had lower expression ratios (transcripts ⋅ gene(-1)) overall. Genomes from particle-associated cells contributed more transcripts for sulfur cycling, aromatic compound degradation, and the synthesis of biologically essential vitamins, with an overall twofold up-regulation of expression compared with free-living cells. Quantitatively, gene regulation differences were more important than genome abundance differences in explaining why microenvironment transcriptomes differed. Taxa contributing genomes to both free-living and particle-associated communities had up to 65% of their expressed genes regulated differently between the two, quantifying the extent of transcriptional plasticity in marine microbes in situ. In response to patchiness in carbon, nutrients, and light at the micrometer scale, Amazon Plume microbes regulated the expression of genes relevant to biogeochemical processes at the ecosystem scale.

  14. Preliminary data on atmospheric aerosol of the Amazon basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orsini, C.M.Q.; Artaxo Netto, P.E.; Tabacniks, M.H.

    1981-10-01

    Preliminary distributions of the trace-elements Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V and Fe in the atmospheric aerosol of the Amazon Basin have been determined through samples collected from August 23 to September 2 of 1980, at a remote place located in the Amazon Forest, about 30 km NE of the city of Manaus. In all, 10 complete cascade impactors of 6-stage, Battelle model, have been exposed but only with 8 success, thus generating 48 samples. From these, 33 samples have been succesfully analyzed by the PIXE method (Particle Induced X-Ray Emission), using particle beam of the Pelletron Accelerator of the University of Sao Paulo, and the results revealed that the trace-elements S and K have a noticeable predominance, mainly as fine particle size, relative to the others. The high correlation factor found between the fine particle concentrations of S and K (0,96) support the assumption of their common airbone transport on the same particulates, originated from the gas-to-particle conversion of gases exuded by the trees of the forest, their only existing sources. Coarse airborne particles, of a probable soil origin, are also present but in unusually small amounts, as it was revelead by the Al, Si, Ca, Ti and Fe size distribution curves. (Author) [pt

  15. Transfer of trace elements in the Amazon basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraz, E.S.B.; Tuon, R.L.; Fernandes, E.A.N.

    1991-01-01

    The Amazon basin is the world's largest system both in terms of drainage area, 7x10 6 km 2 , and sediment discharge, about 1.3x10 9 tons of solid suspended material each year. It is located at northern South America in the equatorial zone, extending through nine countries, Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, Surinam, French Guyana, and Brazil, where is the majority (70%) of the total area. The Amazon basin is geologically limited in the west by the Andes Cordillera, in the south by the Brazilian altiplain, in the north by the Guyana mountains and in the east by the Atlantic Ocean. It is the most fabulous natural ecosystem of the world, remaining in a perfect state of equilibrium, not yet deeply studied. The development of mathematic models describing its dynamics is very important for its comprehension and preservation. Trace elements, in special the rare earth elements, can be useful to elaborate such models. Several processes in rivers and estuaries have been investigated through the use of REEs as tracers, addressing the riverine input of elements to the oceans from continents. Trace elements were also used to elaborate a model for chemical exchange from the water to the sediments and the subsequent release from the sediments into the water. (5 refs., 6 figs.)

  16. Vegetation Dynamics and Rainfall Sensitivity of the Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilker, Thomas; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Tucker, Compton J.; Hall, Forrest G.; Myneni, Ranga B.; Wang, Yujie; Bi, Jian; Mendes de Moura, Yhasmin; Sellers, Piers J.

    2014-01-01

    We show that the vegetation canopy of the Amazon rainforest is highly sensitive to changes in precipitation patterns and that reduction in rainfall since 2000 has diminished vegetation greenness across large parts of Amazonia. Large-scale directional declines in vegetation greenness may indicate decreases in carbon uptake and substantial changes in the energy balance of the Amazon. We use improved estimates of surface reflectance from satellite data to show a close link between reductions in annual precipitation, El Nino southern oscillation events, and photosynthetic activity across tropical and subtropical Amazonia. We report that, since the year 2000, precipitation has declined across 69% of the tropical evergreen forest (5.4 million sq km) and across 80% of the subtropical grasslands (3.3 million sq km). These reductions, which coincided with a decline in terrestrial water storage, account for about 55% of a satellite-observed widespread decline in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). During El Nino events, NDVI was reduced about 16.6% across an area of up to 1.6 million sq km compared with average conditions. Several global circulation models suggest that a rise in equatorial sea surface temperature and related displacement of the intertropical convergence zone could lead to considerable drying of tropical forests in the 21st century. Our results provide evidence that persistent drying could degrade Amazonian forest canopies, which would have cascading effects on global carbon and climate dynamics.

  17. Simulating hydrologic and hydraulic processes throughout the Amazon River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beighley, R.E.; Eggert, K.G.; Dunne, T.; He, Y.; Gummadi, V.; Verdin, K.L.

    2009-01-01

    Presented here is a model framework based on a land surface topography that can be represented with various degrees of resolution and capable of providing representative channel/floodplain hydraulic characteristics on a daily to hourly scale. The framework integrates two models: (1) a water balance model (WBM) for the vertical fluxes and stores of water in and through the canopy and soil layers based on the conservation of mass and energy, and (2) a routing model for the horizontal routing of surface and subsurface runoff and channel and floodplain waters based on kinematic and diffusion wave methodologies. The WBM is driven by satellite-derived precipitation (TRMM_3B42) and air temperature (MOD08_M3). The model's use of an irregular computational grid is intended to facilitate parallel processing for applications to continental and global scales. Results are presented for the Amazon Basin over the period Jan 2001 through Dec 2005. The model is shown to capture annual runoff totals, annual peaks, seasonal patterns, and daily fluctuations over a range of spatial scales (>1, 000 to Amazon vary by approximately + /− 5 to 10 cm, and the fractional components accounting for these changes are: root zone soil moisture (20%), subsurface water being routed laterally to channels (40%) and channel/floodplain discharge (40%). Annual variability in monthly water storage changes by + /− 2·5 cm is likely due to 0·5 to 1 month variability in the arrival of significant rainfall periods throughout the basin.

  18. Pharmacokinetics of nebulized terbinafine in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Lee C; Cox, Sherry K; Souza, Marcy J

    2012-09-01

    Aspergillosis is one of the most difficult diseases to treat successfully in avian species. Terbinafine hydrochloride offers numerous potential benefits over traditionally used antifungals for treatment of this disease. Adding nebulized antifungals to treatment strategies is thought to improve clinical outcomes in lung diseases. To determine plasma concentrations of terbinafine after nebulization, 6 adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots were randomly divided into 2 groups of 3. Each bird was nebulized for 15 minutes with 1 of 2 terbinafine solutions, one made with a crushed tablet and the second with raw drug powder. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at multiple time points up to 720 minutes after completing nebulization. Plasma and nebulization solutions were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The terbinafine concentration of the solution made with a crushed tablet (0.87 +/- 0.05 mg/mL) was significantly lower than was that made with raw powder (1.02 +/- 0.09 mg/mL). Plasma concentrations of terbinafine did not differ significantly between birds in the 2 groups. Plasma terbinafine concentrations in birds were maintained above in vitro minimum inhibitory concentrations for approximately 1 hour in birds nebulized with the crushed tablet solution and 4 hours in birds nebulized with the raw powder solution. Higher concentrations of solution, longer nebulization periods, or more frequent administration are likely needed to reach therapeutic plasma concentrations of terbinafine for clinically relevant periods in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots.

  19. Modelling basin-wide variations in Amazon forest photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Lina; Lloyd, Jon; Domingues, Tomas; Fyllas, Nikolaos; Patino, Sandra; Dolman, Han; Sitch, Stephen

    2010-05-01

    Given the importance of Amazon rainforest in the global carbon and hydrological cycles, there is a need to use parameterized and validated ecosystem gas exchange and vegetation models for this region in order to adequately simulate present and future carbon and water balances. Recent research has found major differences in above-ground net primary productivity (ANPP), above ground biomass and tree dynamics across Amazonia. West Amazonia is more dynamic, with younger trees, higher stem growth rates and lower biomass than central and eastern Amazon (Baker et al. 2004; Malhi et al. 2004; Phillips et al. 2004). A factor of three variation in above-ground net primary productivity has been estimated across Amazonia by Malhi et al. (2004). Different hypotheses have been proposed to explain the observed spatial variability in ANPP (Malhi et al. 2004). First, due to the proximity to the Andes, sites from western Amazonia tend to have richer soils than central and eastern Amazon and therefore soil fertility could possibly be highly related to the high wood productivity found in western sites. Second, if GPP does not vary across the Amazon basin then different patterns of carbon allocation to respiration could also explain the observed ANPP gradient. However since plant growth depends on the interaction between photosynthesis, transport of assimilates, plant respiration, water relations and mineral nutrition, variations in plant gross photosynthesis (GPP) could also explain the observed variations in ANPP. In this study we investigate whether Amazon GPP can explain variations of observed ANPP. We use a sun and shade canopy gas exchange model that has been calibrated and evaluated at five rainforest sites (Mercado et al. 2009) to simulate gross primary productivity of 50 sites across the Amazon basin during the period 1980-2001. Such simulation differs from the ones performed with global vegetation models (Cox et al. 1998; Sitch et al. 2003) where i) single plant functional

  20. Weather forecasting for Eastern Amazon with OLAM model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Ramos da Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The OLAM model has as its characteristics the advantage to represent simultaneously the global and regional meteorological phenomena using the application of a grid refinement scheme. During the REMAM project the model was applied for a few case studies to evaluate its performance on numerical weather prediction for the eastern Amazon region. Case studies were performed for the twelve months of the year of 2009. The model results for those numerical experiments were compared with the observed data for the region of study. Precipitation data analysis showed that OLAM is able to represent the average mean accumulated precipitation and the seasonal features of the events occurrence, but can't predict the local total amount of precipitation. However, individual evaluation for a few cases had shown that OLAM was able to represent the dynamics and forecast a few days in advance the development of coastal meteorological systems such as the squall lines that are one of the most important precipitating systems of the Amazon.

  1. Understanding the Amazon Hydrology for Sustainable Hydropower Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Y. N.; Chaudhari, S. N.

    2017-12-01

    Construction of 147 new hydropower dams, many of which are large, has been proposed in the Amazon river basin, despite the continuous stacking of negative impacts from the existing ones. These dams are continued to be built in a way that disrupts river ecology, causes large-scale deforestation, and negatively affects both the food systems nearby and downstream communities. In this study, we explore the impacts of the existing and proposed hydropower dams on the hydrological fluxes across the Amazonian Basin by incorporating human impact modules in an extensively validated regional hydrological model called LEAF-Hydro-Flood (LHF). We conduct two simulations, one in offline mode, forced by observed meteorological data for the historical period of 2000-2016 and the other in a coupled mode using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) regional climate model. We mainly analyze terrestrial water storage and streamflow changes during the period of dam operations with and without human impacts. It is certain that the Amazon will undergo some major hydrological changes such as decrease in streamflow downstream in the coming decades caused due to these proposed dams. This study helps us understand and represent processes in a predictable manner, and provides the ability to evaluate future scenarios with dams and other major human influences while considering climate change in the basin. It also provides important insights on how to redesign the hydropower systems to make them truly renewable in terms of energy production, hydrology and ecology.

  2. Crecimiento, Abundancia Y Biomasa De Poecilia reticulata En El Lago Urbano Del Parque Tezozomoc De La Ciudad De México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Elías-Fernández

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Los lagos urbanos tienen importancia estética, recreativa, cultural y biológica por albergar organismos generalmente alóctonos, como aves, reptiles, insectos y peces, en particular poecilidos, los cuales son muy tolerantes y se reproducen con facilidad. Por lo anterior, el objetivo de este trabajo fue: determinar la variación en la abundancia y biomasa de Poecilia reticulata en el lago del parque Tezozomoc, así como obtener la ecuación de crecimiento. Se realizaron muestreos mensuales de julio del año 2000 a junio del 2001. Se establecieron tres estaciones donde se registraron las siguientes variables físicas y químicas; transparencia, alcalinidad, dureza, pH, conductividad, temperatura y turbiedad por métodos convencionales. Los peces se capturaron con una red de cuchara de marco rectangular de 100 x 50 cm (área barrida de 0.5 m2, con luz de malla de 0.5 cm. Los organismos se fijaron con formalina al 10 %. Se registraron las siguientes variables morfométricas de los organismos; peso (gr y longitud patrón (mm. Se calculó la abundancia y biomasa, así como la ecuación de crecimiento de acuerdo al modelo de Von Bertalanffy. Se encontró que el agua del sistema es templada, turbia, alcalina, dura y somera. La mayor abundancia (6,148 organismos y biomasa (677.28 g se presentó en la estación I, caracterizada por la mayor presencia de visitantes al lago que arroja desperdicios alimenticios al sistema. Los meses con mayor abundancia fueron julio (1,483 org y agosto (1,252 org y los de mayor biomasa agosto (145.12 gr y marzo (138.63 gr. La longitud máxima obtenida de 61.55 mm y la tasa de crecimiento de 0.2987 son valores similares a los obtenidos en sistemas naturales.

  3. Salinity-dependent copper accumulation in the guppy Poecilia vivipara is associated with CTR1 and ATP7B transcriptional regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Evelise Sampaio; Abril, Sandra Isabel Moreno; Zanette, Juliano; Bianchini, Adalto

    2014-07-01

    Copper (Cu) accumulation and regulation of key-genes involved in Cu homeostasis were evaluated in freshwater- and saltwater-acclimated guppies Poecilia vivipara. Fish were exposed (96h) to environmentally relevant concentrations of dissolved Cu (0, 5.0, 9.0 and 20.0μg/L). In freshwater guppies, gill and liver Cu accumulation was dependent on Cu concentration in the exposure medium. In saltwater guppies, this dependence was observed only in the gut. These findings indicate that Cu accumulation was salinity- and tissue-dependent. Key genes involved in Cu metabolism were sequenced for the first time in P. vivipara. Transcripts coding for the high-affinity copper transporter (CTR1) and copper-transporting ATPase (ATP7B) were identified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and gene sequencing. The full-length CTR1 open reading frame (1560bp) and a partial ATP7B (690bp) were discovered. Predicted amino acid sequences shared high identities with the CTR1 of Fundulus heteroclitus (81%) and the ATP7B of Sparus aurata (87%). Basal transcriptional levels addressed by RT-qPCR in control fish indicate that CTR1 and ATP7B was highly transcribed in liver of freshwater guppies while CTR1 was highly transcribed in gut of saltwater guppies. This could explain the higher Cu accumulation observed in liver of freshwater guppies and in gut of saltwater guppies, because CTR1 is involved in Cu uptake. Reduced gill mRNA expression of CTR1 was observed in freshwater guppies exposed to 20.0μg/L Cu and in saltwater guppies exposed to 5.0μg/L Cu. In turn, reduced mRNA expression of gut ATP7B was observed in freshwater and salt water guppies exposed to 9.0 and 20.0μg/L Cu. Liver CTR1 and ATP7B transcription were not affected by Cu exposure. These findings suggest that gill CTR1 and gut ATP7B are down-regulated to limit Cu absorption after exposure to dissolved Cu, while liver CTR1 and ATP7B levels are maintained to allow Cu storage and detoxification. In conclusion, findings reported here

  4. Dampak Peningkatan Kepuasan Pelanggan dalam Proses Bisnis E-Commerce pada Perusahaan Amazon.Com

    OpenAIRE

    Karmawan, I Gusti Made

    2014-01-01

    The Purpose of writing is to describe the impact of increased customer satisfaction in the business process of e-commerce at Amazon.com and analyzed e-commerce strategies used in the company.The Benefits are to get an overview of the strategies in the Amazon.com for improving customer satisfaction and the impact of increased satisfaction. The method of writing is conducting reviews of existing sources to gain an overview strategy and business processes e-commerce at Amazon.com. The paper resu...

  5. Surveillance, health promotion and control of Chagas disease in the Amazon Region--Medical attention in the Brazilian Amazon Region: a proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coura, José Rodrigues; Junqueira, Angela C V

    2015-11-01

    We refer to Oswaldo Cruz's reports dating from 1913 about the necessities of a healthcare system for the Brazilian Amazon Region and about the journey of Carlos Chagas to 27 locations in this region and the measures that would need to be adopted. We discuss the risks of endemicity of Chagas disease in the Amazon Region. We recommend that epidemiological surveillance of Chagas disease in the Brazilian Amazon Region and Pan-Amazon region should be implemented through continuous monitoring of the human population that lives in the area, their housing, the environment and the presence of triatomines. The monitoring should be performed with periodic seroepidemiological surveys, semi-annual visits to homes by health agents and the training of malaria microscopists and healthcare technicians to identify Trypanosoma cruzi from patients' samples and T. cruzi infection rates among the triatomines caught. We recommend health promotion and control of Chagas disease through public health policies, especially through sanitary education regarding the risk factors for Chagas disease. Finally, we propose a healthcare system through base hospitals, intermediate-level units in the areas of the Brazilian Amazon Region and air transportation, considering the distances to be covered for medical care.

  6. Black carbon over the Amazon during SAMBBA: it gets everywhere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, W.; Allan, J. D.; Flynn, M.; Darbyshire, E.; Liu, D.; Szpek, K.; Langridge, J.; Johnson, B. T.; Haywood, J.; Longo, K.; Artaxo, P.; Coe, H.

    2014-12-01

    Biomass burning represents a major source of Black Carbon (BC) aerosol to the atmosphere, which can result in major perturbations to weather, climate and ecosystem development. Large uncertainties in these impacts prevail, particularly on regional scales. One such region is the Amazon Basin, where large, intense and frequent burning occurs on an annual basis during the dry season. Absorption by atmospheric aerosols is underestimated by models over South America, which points to significant uncertainties relating to BC aerosol properties. Results from the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment, which took place during September and October 2012 over Brazil on-board the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft, are presented here. Aerosol chemical composition was measured by a DMT Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) and an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS). The physical, chemical and optical properties of BC-containing particles across the region will be characterised, with particular emphasis on the vertical distribution. BC was ubiquitous across the region, with measurements extending from heavily deforested regions in the Western Amazon Basin, through to agricultural fires in the Cerrado (Savannah-like) region and more pristine areas over the Amazon Rainforest. Measurements in the vicinity of Manaus (a city located deep into the jungle) were also conducted. BC concentrations peaked within the boundary layer at a height of around 1.5km. BC-containing particles were found to be rapidly coated in the near-field, with little evidence for additional coating upon advection and dilution. Biomass burning layers within the free troposphere were routinely observed. BC-containing particles within such layers were typically associated with less coating than those within the boundary layer, suggestive of wet removal of more coated BC particles. The importance of such properties in relation to the

  7. Monitoring vegetation dynamics in the Amazon with RapidScat

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Emmerik, Tim; Steele-Dunne, Susan; Paget, Aaron C.; van de Giesen, Nick

    2017-04-01

    Several studies affiliated diurnal variations in radar backscatter over the Amazon [1,2] with vegetation water stress. Recent studies on tree and corn canopies [3,4] have demonstrated that during periods of low soil moisture availability, the total radar backscatter is primarily sensitive to changes in leaf water content, highlighting the potential of radar for water stress detection. The RapidScat mission (Ku-band, 13.4GHz), mounted on the International Space Station, observes the Earth in a non-sun-synchronous orbit [5]. This unique orbit allows for reconstructing diurnal cycles of radar backscatter. We hypothesize that the state of the canopy is a significant portion of the diurnal variations observed in the radar backscatter. Recent, yet inconclusive, analyses support the theory of the impact of vegetation water content on diurnal variation in RapidScat radar backscatter over the Amazon and Congo. Linking ground measurements of canopy dynamics to radar backscatter will allow further exploration of the possibilities for monitoring vegetation dynamics. Our presentation focuses of two parts. First, we reconstruct diurnal cycles of RapidScat backscatter over the Amazon, and study its variation over time. Second, we analyze the pre-dawn backscatter over time. The water content at this time of day is a measure of water stress, and might therefore be visible in the backscatter time series. References [1] Frolking, S., et al.: "Tropical forest backscatter anomaly evident in SeaWinds scatterometer morning overpass data during 2005 drought in Amazonia", Remote Sensing of Environment, 2011. [2] Jaruwatanadilok, S., and B. Stiles: "Trends and variation in Ku-band backscatter of natural targets on land observed in QuikSCAT data", IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing , 2014. [3] Steele-Dunne, S., et al.: "Using diurnal variation in backscatter to detect vegetation water stress", IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 2012. [4] van Emmerik, T., et

  8. Bacterial Biogeography across the Amazon River-Ocean Continuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Doherty

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Spatial and temporal patterns in microbial biodiversity across the Amazon river-ocean continuum were investigated along ∼675 km of the lower Amazon River mainstem, in the Tapajós River tributary, and in the plume and coastal ocean during low and high river discharge using amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA genes in whole water and size-fractionated samples (0.2–2.0 μm and >2.0 μm. River communities varied among tributaries, but mainstem communities were spatially homogeneous and tracked seasonal changes in river discharge and co-varying factors. Co-occurrence network analysis identified strongly interconnected river assemblages during high (May and low (December discharge periods, and weakly interconnected transitional assemblages in September, suggesting that this system supports two seasonal microbial communities linked to river discharge. In contrast, plume communities showed little seasonal differences and instead varied spatially tracking salinity. However, salinity explained only a small fraction of community variability, and plume communities in blooms of diatom-diazotroph assemblages were strikingly different than those in other high salinity plume samples. This suggests that while salinity physically structures plumes through buoyancy and mixing, the composition of plume-specific communities is controlled by other factors including nutrients, phytoplankton community composition, and dissolved organic matter chemistry. Co-occurrence networks identified interconnected assemblages associated with the highly productive low salinity near-shore region, diatom-diazotroph blooms, and the plume edge region, and weakly interconnected assemblages in high salinity regions. This suggests that the plume supports a transitional community influenced by immigration of ocean bacteria from the plume edge, and by species sorting as these communities adapt to local environmental conditions. Few studies have explored patterns of microbial diversity in

  9. Bacterial Biogeography across the Amazon River-Ocean Continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Mary; Yager, Patricia L; Moran, Mary Ann; Coles, Victoria J; Fortunato, Caroline S; Krusche, Alex V; Medeiros, Patricia M; Payet, Jérôme P; Richey, Jeffrey E; Satinsky, Brandon M; Sawakuchi, Henrique O; Ward, Nicholas D; Crump, Byron C

    2017-01-01

    Spatial and temporal patterns in microbial biodiversity across the Amazon river-ocean continuum were investigated along ∼675 km of the lower Amazon River mainstem, in the Tapajós River tributary, and in the plume and coastal ocean during low and high river discharge using amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA genes in whole water and size-fractionated samples (0.2-2.0 μm and >2.0 μm). River communities varied among tributaries, but mainstem communities were spatially homogeneous and tracked seasonal changes in river discharge and co-varying factors. Co-occurrence network analysis identified strongly interconnected river assemblages during high (May) and low (December) discharge periods, and weakly interconnected transitional assemblages in September, suggesting that this system supports two seasonal microbial communities linked to river discharge. In contrast, plume communities showed little seasonal differences and instead varied spatially tracking salinity. However, salinity explained only a small fraction of community variability, and plume communities in blooms of diatom-diazotroph assemblages were strikingly different than those in other high salinity plume samples. This suggests that while salinity physically structures plumes through buoyancy and mixing, the composition of plume-specific communities is controlled by other factors including nutrients, phytoplankton community composition, and dissolved organic matter chemistry. Co-occurrence networks identified interconnected assemblages associated with the highly productive low salinity near-shore region, diatom-diazotroph blooms, and the plume edge region, and weakly interconnected assemblages in high salinity regions. This suggests that the plume supports a transitional community influenced by immigration of ocean bacteria from the plume edge, and by species sorting as these communities adapt to local environmental conditions. Few studies have explored patterns of microbial diversity in tropical rivers and

  10. Efeito de poluentes químicos cumulativos e mutagênicos durante o desenvolvimento ontogenético de Poecilia vivípara (Cyprinodontiformes, Poeciliidae Effect of cumulative chemical and mutagenic pollutants during ontogenic development of Poecilia vivipara (Cyprinodontiformes, Poeciliidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Maria Teixeira de Sabóia-Morais

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Viver em sociedade é uma característica do Homo sapiens, e esta vantagem permitiu-lhe ocupar tantos biomas. Aumento populacional e desenvolvimento tecnológico trouxeram paralelamente acréscimo ao volume de dejetos eliminados nos mananciais de água. Conhecer modelos biológicos que permitam averiguar níveis de contaminação destes mananciais é o propósito desta pesquisa. Células do epitélio branquial do guaru (Poecilia vivípara modificam o seu comportamento em face de variações ambientais, mantendo a homeostasia em condições adversas. Nosso propósito foi conhecer a origem e diferenciação dos tipos celulares no desenvolvimento das brânquias, procurando detectar variações do epitélio branquial em embriões de fêmeas prenhes expostas ao chumbo (poluente cumulativo e mutagênico. Formaram-se dois grupos, o controle e o experimental, que foi exposto à solução de acetato de chumbo a 1 ppm. Observaram-se os embriões nos estágios 24, 30 e 36 (Vernier, 1969, analisados sob microscopia de luz e eletrônica de varredura. Foram quantificados e mensurados os embriões por fêmea. Notou-se a formação dos arcos, filamentos, rastelo e lamelas branquiais. No epitélio, células do cloro se diferenciam primeiro, e no estágio 36 surgem as células mucosas no rastelo branquial. Não houve diferenças morfológicas de células epiteliais das br��nquias entre os grupos. A viviparidade pode ser o fato de explicaçãoLiving in society is a feature of Homo sapiens and this fact gives him the advantage of occupying many biomes. Population increase and technological development brought a growth in the volume of dejects thrown into water sources. Knowledge of biological models that evaluates contamination levels of these sources is the aim of this research. Cells of the branchial epithelium of Poecilia vivipara, popularly known as guaru, modify their behavior in the presence of environmental variations and keep the homeostasis in adverse

  11. Índice mitótico em células epiteliais da brânquia de Guaru (Poecilia vivipara tratados com frações da casca do caule e da folha de pequi (Caryocar brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. S. Motter

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Many wild plants of the Cerrado bioma are used as medicinal plants. The pequi (Caryocar brasiliensis is representative of those equipped with molluscicidal action against schistosomiasis. This paper sets out to verify the toxic action of pequi fractions in other aquatic animals before they are used in rivers or lakes. Analysis were made of the alterations to the mitotic index of epithelia cells in the gills of guppy (Poecilia vivipara exposed to ethyl-acetate fraction of leaf pequi and bark. Animals exposed to ethyl-acetate fraction (leaf, no significant change was observed in the mitotic index when compared with the control group, whereas in fish exposed to ethyl-acetate fraction (bark we detected an increase in mitotic index of the epithelia cells in two regions of the branchial filaments. Thus, ethyl-acetate fractions (leaf could be used against schistosomiasis, given their high efficacy and low action as piscicide.

  12. Biogeografia evolutiva: a seleção sexual e o índice de predação como fatores evolutivos do Lebistes (Poecilia reticulata) em comunidades íctias

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, Adriano Bortolin [UNESP

    2013-01-01

    Este trabalho apresenta um caso de evolução em tempo real através do estudo do Lebistes (Poecilia reticulata). Este peixe tem sido objeto de investigação científica em várias disciplinas pelos padrões de cores que apresentam e a corte incessante das fêmeas pelos machos. Estas características têm sido o foco de estudos sobre seleção sexua, e o fator de predação na seleção natural, constituindo-se objeto deste trabalho This assignment presents a case of evolution in real time through the stu...

  13. Evaluating sustainability options in an agricultural frontier of the Amazon using multi-criteria analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, R.W.; Rodrigues Filho, S.; Debortoli, N.; Lindoso, D.; Nesheim, I.; Bursztyn, M.

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural expansion and deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon are driven by a complex interaction between economic and demographic drivers and institutional constraints. Land use policies such as Conservation Units and the Forest Code law should conserve biodiversity and other environmental

  14. The Amazon River’s Ecosystem: Where Land Meets the Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Nicholas; Sawakuchi, Henrique; Richey, Jeffrey

    2018-01-18

    What happens to plant matter on its journey down the Amazon River to the Atlantic Ocean? One research group investigated the region where river and ocean meet to fill in this part of the story.

  15. LBA-ECO LC-15 Aerodynamic Roughness Maps of Vegetation Canopies, Amazon Basin: 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides physical roughness maps of vegetation canopies in the Amazon Basin. The images are estimates of aerodynamic roughness length (Z0)...

  16. LBA-ECO LC-07 Validation Overflight for Amazon Mosaics, Raster, 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes high-resolution geocoded mosaics derived from the Validation Overflight for Amazon Mosaics (VOAM) aerial video surveys as part of the...

  17. LBA-ECO LC-07 Validation Overflight for Amazon Mosaics, Video, 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set presents georeferenced digital video files from Validation Overflight for Amazon Mosaics (VOAM) aerial video surveys as part of the Large-Scale...

  18. LBA-ECO LC-15 Amazon Basin Aboveground Live Biomass Distribution Map: 1990-2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides a single raster image containing the spatial distribution of aboveground live forest biomass of the Amazon basin. This product was derived...

  19. LBA-ECO CD-34 Hyperion 30-m Surface Reflectance, Amazon Basin: 2002-2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains 20 multispectral surface reflectance images collected by the EO-1 satellite Hyperion sensor at 30-m resolution and covering the entire Amazon...

  20. Pre-LBA Carbon in the Amazon River Experiment (CAMREX) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of CAMREX (Carbon in the Amazon River Experiment) project which was conducted from 1982 through 1991, was been to define by mass balances and direct...

  1. LBA-ECO LC-03 SAR Images, Land Cover, and Biomass, Four Areas across Brazilian Amazon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides three related land cover products for four study areas across the Brazilian Amazon: Manaus, Amazonas; Tapajos National Forest, Para...

  2. Pre-LBA Carbon in the Amazon River Experiment (CAMREX) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The objective of CAMREX (Carbon in the Amazon River Experiment) project which was conducted from 1982 through 1991, was been to define by mass balances and...

  3. From space and from the ground: determining forest dynamics in settlement projects in the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diniz, F.H.; Kok, K.; Hott, H.C.; Hoogstra-Klein, M.A.; Arts, B.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon has been partially attributed to the establishment of settlement projects. Acknowledging the difficulties in quantifying the rate and patterns of deforestation, the objective of this paper is to determine forest dynamics (deforestation and reforestation) in

  4. LBA-ECO LC-15 Aerodynamic Roughness Maps of Vegetation Canopies, Amazon Basin: 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set, LBA-ECO LC-15 Aerodynamic Roughness Maps of Vegetation Canopies, Amazon Basin: 2000, provides physical roughness maps of vegetation canopies in the...

  5. LBA-ECO LC-10 Orthorectified Landsat ETM+ Data for Legal Amazon: 1999-2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes orthorectified Landsat ETM+ scenes across the Legal Amazon region. At least one scene is provided for each spatial tile, representing the most...

  6. LBA-ECO LC-24 Historical Roads of the Legal Amazon: 1968-1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains ESRI shapefiles of historical roads (basin-wide federal and state roads) in nine Brazilian states for the Legal Amazon: Amazonas, Para, Acre,...

  7. LBA-ECO LC-03 Hypsography, Rivers, Roads, and DEM, Four Areas across Brazilian Amazon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides four related spatial data products for four study areas across the Brazilian Amazon: Manaus, Amazonas; Tapajos National Forest, Para...

  8. LBA-ECO LC-14 Modeled Soil and Plant Water Balance, Amazon Basin, 1995-2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: A simple GIS soil-water balance model for the Amazon Basin, called RisQue (Risco de Queimadasa -- Fire Risk), was used to conduct an analysis of spatial...

  9. From conflict to cooperation : international policies to protect the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.

    1998-01-01

    When environmental degradation in a particular country has international consequences, a dilemma arises: how to find effective policies which address the causes and take domestic sensitivities into account? This article analyzes the Brazilian Amazon, where international concern over deforestation

  10. LBA-ECO LC-10 Landsat TM Data for Legal Amazon: 1986-1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set includes Landsat TM scenes from across the Legal Amazon region. A single image is provided for each spatial tile, representing the most...

  11. LBA-ECO LC-15 NDVI Composite Images of the Amazon Basin: 1999-2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) composite images of the Amazon Basin for the years 1999-2000 at approximately1-km spatial...

  12. LBA-ECO LC-14 Modeled Deforestation Scenarios, Amazon Basin: 2002-2050

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides the results of the two modeled scenarios for future patterns of deforestation across the Amazon Basin from 2002 to 2050. This larger defined...

  13. LBA-ECO LC-14 Modeled Deforestation Scenarios, Amazon Basin: 2002-2050

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides the results of the two modeled scenarios for future patterns of deforestation across the Amazon Basin from 2002 to 2050. This larger...

  14. LBA Regional Boundary for the Legal Amazon of Brazil, 8-km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The Legal Amazon of Brazil is defined by law to include the states of Acre, Amapa, Amazonas, Para, Rondonia, Roraima, Mato Grosso, Maranhao, and Tocantins...

  15. LBA-ECO LC-01 Hydrography, Morphology, Edaphology Maps, Northern Ecuadorian Amazon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides map images of hydrographic, morphologic, and edaphic features for the northern Amazon Basin in eastern Ecuador. The hydrographic data are...

  16. LBA-ECO LC-01 Topographic Data for Intensive Study Areas, Northern Ecuadorian Amazon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains topographic/geomorphological data associated with the four Intensive Study Areas (ISAs) in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon (northern...

  17. LBA-ECO LC-01 SRTM 90-Meter Digital Elevation Model, Northern Ecuadorian Amazon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set, LBA-ECO LC-01 SRTM 90-Meter Digital Elevation Model, Northern Ecuadorian Amazon, provides 90-meter resolution Digital Elevation Model data used in the...

  18. LBA-ECO LC-01 City, Community, and Road Maps, Northern Ecuadorian Amazon: 1990-2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains the boundaries of the four major cities in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon, the locations of primary communities in the colonist settlement...

  19. LBA-ECO LC-01 Topographic Data for Intensive Study Areas, Northern Ecuadorian Amazon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains topographic/geomorphological data associated with the four Intensive Study Areas (ISAs) in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon (northern Oriente)...

  20. LBA-ECO LC-01 City, Community, and Road Maps, Northern Ecuadorian Amazon: 1990-2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains the boundaries of the four major cities in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon, the locations of primary communities in the colonist...